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Sample records for bellflower root anaphylaxis

  1. Anaphylaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Training Grants & Awards Program Directors Practice Resources ASTHMA IQ Consultation and Referral Guidelines Practice Financial Survey Practice ... with others. Join us on Facebook and Twitter . Test your knowledge about anaphylaxis . » Anaphylaxis Symptoms & Diagnosis Symptoms ...

  2. Anaphylaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... life-threatening. How do you know if a person is having an anaphylactic reaction? Anaphylaxis is likely ... in anaphylaxis; identify molecular events that cause and characterize anaphylactic reactions to understand their triggers; and discover ...

  3. Anaphylaxis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muraro, A; Roberts, G; Worm, M;

    2014-01-01

    evidence-based recommendations for the recognition, risk factor assessment, and the management of patients who are at risk of, are experiencing, or have experienced anaphylaxis. While the primary audience is allergists, these guidelines are also relevant to all other healthcare professionals. The...... adrenaline. Discharge arrangements should involve an assessment of the risk of further reactions, a management plan with an anaphylaxis emergency action plan, and, where appropriate, prescribing an adrenaline auto-injector. If an adrenaline auto-injector is prescribed, education on when and how to use the...... device should be provided. Specialist follow-up is essential to investigate possible triggers, to perform a comprehensive risk assessment, and to prevent future episodes by developing personalized risk reduction strategies including, where possible, commencing allergen immunotherapy. Training for the...

  4. The growth and saponin production of Platycodon grandiflorum (Jacq. A. DC. (Chinese bellflower hairy roots cultures maintained in shake flasks and mist bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Urbańska

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The growth and saponin accumulation were measured in two lines of transgenic hairy roots of Platycodon grandiflorum, Pl 6 and Pl 17, cultured for 8 weeks in 250-ml shake flasks containing 50 ml of hormone-free woody plant medium supplemented with 40 g/l sucrose and in the Pl 17 line cultured for 12 weeks in a 5-l mist bioreactor containing 1.5 l of the same medium. With both methods, the growth of transgenic hairy roots was assessed as both fresh and dry weight and the biomass growth was correlated with the conductivity and sucrose uptake. The accumulation of saponins was measured and compared with that in roots derived from the field cultivation. The saponin concentrations were significantly higher in the two hairy root lines cultured in shake flasks [6.92 g/100 g d.w. (g% and 5.82 g% in Pl 6 and Pl 17, respectively] and the line cultured in the bioreactor (5.93 g% than in the roots derived from the field cultivation (4.02 g%. The results suggest that cultures of P. grandiflorum hairy roots may be a valuable source for obtaining saponins.

  5. Idiopathic anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberger, Paul A

    2007-05-01

    Idiopathic anaphylaxis is a prednisone-responsive condition without external cause, but it can coexist with food-, medication-, or exercise-induced anaphylaxis. Mast cell activation may occur at night or after foods that have been eaten with impunity many times previously. Idiopathic anaphylaxis can be classified into frequent (if there are six or more episodes per year or two episodes in the last 2 months) or infrequent (if episodes occur less often). Idiopathic anaphylaxis-generalized consists of urticaria or angioedema associated with severe respiratory distress, syncope or hypotension, and gastrointestinal symptoms. Idiopathic anaphylaxis-angioedema consists of massive tongue enlargement or severe pharyngeal or laryngeal swelling with urticaria or peripheral angioedema. The differential diagnosis of idiopathic anaphylaxis is reviewed, and treatment approaches are presented. PMID:17493503

  6. Perioperative anaphylaxis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mertes, P M

    2010-07-01

    The incidence of immune-mediated anaphylaxis during anesthesia ranges from 1 in 10,000 to 1 in 20,000. Neuromuscular blocking agents are most frequently incriminated, followed by latex and antibiotics, although any drug or substance used may be a culprit. Diagnosis relies on tryptase measurements at the time of the reaction and skin tests, specific immunoglobulin E, or basophil activation assays. Treatment consists of rapid volume expansion and epinephrine administration titrated to symptom severity.

  7. Pollination, biogeography and phylogeny of oceanic island bellflowers (Campanulaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jens Mogens; Alarcón, M.; Ehlers, Bodil;

    2012-01-01

    the species, and at least C. jacobaea had both insect- and self-pollination. Several morphological traits were interpreted as adaptations to bird and lizard pollination, e.g. all had a robust flower morphology and, in addition, bird-pollinated species were scentless, whereas lizard-pollinated species...... of these species and their relatives were gathered from atpB, matK, rbcL and trnL-F regions, building the most complete phylogeny of Campanulaceae to date. Six of the island bellflower species were bird-pollinated and two (A. vidalii and M. aurea) were lizard-pollinated. Insects also visited some of...

  8. Complete genome sequence of bellflower vein chlorosis virus, a novel putative member of the genus Waikavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jang-Kyun; Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Lee, Ye-ji; Kim, Jaedeok; Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Kim, Chang-Seok; Choi, Hong-Soo

    2015-12-01

    The complete genome sequence of a new virus isolated from a bellflower (Campanula takesimana) plant was determined. The genome of this virus is composed of monopartite single-stranded RNA of 11,649 nucleotides in length. BLAST searches of protein databases showed that the encoded polyprotein has a maximum amino acid sequence identity of 42% (with 99% coverage) to the polyprotein of the isolate Orissa of rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV; genus Waikavirus). Phylogenetic analysis strongly supports that the identified virus is a member of a new species of the genus Waikavirus. The name bellflower vein chlorosis virus (BVCV) is proposed for this new virus. PMID:26370789

  9. A Case of Anaphylaxis After the Ingestion of Yacon

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, Eun Young; Kim, Hyun Sik; Kim, You Eun; Kang, Min Kyu; Ma, Jeong Eun; Lee, Gi Dong; Cho, Yu Ji; Kim, Ho Cheol; Lee, Jong Deok; Hwang, Young Sil; Jeong, Yi Yeong

    2010-01-01

    Anaphylaxis is a potentially life-threatening systemic allergic reaction, often with an explosive onset; the symptoms range from mild flushing to upper respiratory obstruction, with or without vascular collapse. Foods are common offending allergens and remain the leading cause of outpatient anaphylaxis in most surveys. Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) is a plant native to the Andes region, where its root is cultivated and consumed mainly as food. Unlike most edible roots, yacon contains large...

  10. Anaphylaxis-Like Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be "primed" by previous exposure to cause anaphylaxis, anaphylactoid reactions can occur with no previous exposure at all. ... an X-ray. Although the mechanism of an anaphylactoid reaction is different, the treatment is the same as ...

  11. Management of anaphylaxis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhami, S; Panesar, S S; Roberts, G;

    2014-01-01

    To establish the effectiveness of interventions for the acute and long-term management of anaphylaxis, seven databases were searched for systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, quasi-randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, controlled before-after studies and interrupted...... time series and - only in relation to adrenaline - case series investigating the effectiveness of interventions in managing anaphylaxis. Fifty-five studies satisfied the inclusion criteria. We found no robust studies investigating the effectiveness of adrenaline (epinephrine), H1-antihistamines......, systemic glucocorticosteroids or methylxanthines to manage anaphylaxis. There was evidence regarding the optimum route, site and dose of administration of adrenaline from trials studying people with a history of anaphylaxis. This suggested that administration of intramuscular adrenaline into the middle...

  12. Anaphylaxis: diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Simon G A; Mullins, Raymond J; Gold, Michael S

    2006-09-01

    Anaphylaxis is a serious, rapid-onset, allergic reaction that may cause death. Severe anaphylaxis is characterised by life-threatening upper airway obstruction, bronchospasm and/or hypotension. Anaphylaxis in children is most often caused by food. Bronchospasm is a common symptom, and there is usually a background of atopy and asthma. Venom- and drug-induced anaphylaxis are more common in adults, in whom hypotension is more likely to occur. Diagnosis can be difficult, with skin features being absent in up to 20% of people. Anaphylaxis must be considered as a differential diagnosis for any acute-onset respiratory distress, bronchospasm, hypotension or cardiac arrest. The cornerstones of initial management are putting the patient in the supine position, administering intramuscular adrenaline into the lateral thigh, resuscitation with intravenous fluid, support of the airway and ventilation, and giving supplementary oxygen. If the response to initial management is inadequate, intravenous infusion of adrenaline should be commenced. Use of vasopressors should be considered if hypotension persists. The patient should be observed for at least 4 hours after symptom resolution and referred to an allergist to assist with diagnosis, allergen avoidance measures, risk assessment, preparation of an action plan and education on the use of self-injectable adrenaline. Provision of a MedicAlert bracelet should also be arranged. PMID:16948628

  13. Marking nut anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fok, Jie Shen; Kral, Anita Christine; Hayball, John; Smith, William B

    2016-07-01

    Marking nut Semecarpus anacardium, so-called because it contains a pigment that has been used in the past to mark fabrics, is a known cause of contact hypersensitivity. It may be ingested as an ingredient of some traditional Hindi foods. We describe the first reported case of anaphylaxis to marking nut. PMID:27489793

  14. Anti-histamine effect of Rubia tibetica, used to treat anaphylaxis caused by tick bites in the Pamir Mountains, Afghanistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Anne S.; Kristiansen, Uffe; Soelberg, Jens;

    2012-01-01

    The roots of Rubia tibetica are chewed as an antidote to anaphylaxis caused by bites of the tick Ornithodoros lahorensis by the Wakhi people in Afghanistan.......The roots of Rubia tibetica are chewed as an antidote to anaphylaxis caused by bites of the tick Ornithodoros lahorensis by the Wakhi people in Afghanistan....

  15. A case of anaphylaxis after the ingestion of yacon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Eun Young; Kim, Hyun Sik; Kim, You Eun; Kang, Min Kyu; Ma, Jeong Eun; Lee, Gi Dong; Cho, Yu Ji; Kim, Ho Cheol; Lee, Jong Deok; Hwang, Young Sil; Jeong, Yi Yeong

    2010-04-01

    Anaphylaxis is a potentially life-threatening systemic allergic reaction, often with an explosive onset; the symptoms range from mild flushing to upper respiratory obstruction, with or without vascular collapse. Foods are common offending allergens and remain the leading cause of outpatient anaphylaxis in most surveys. Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) is a plant native to the Andes region, where its root is cultivated and consumed mainly as food. Unlike most edible roots, yacon contains large amounts of ructooligosaccharides. Traditionally, yacon tubers have been used as a source of natural sweetener and syrup for people suffering from various disorders. We report the case of a 55-year-old woman who developed syncope and generalized urticaria after ingesting yacon roots. The patient had positive skin prick and intradermal tests to yacon extract. An open food challenge test was performed to confirm food anaphylaxis and was positive 10 minutes after the consumption of yacon roots. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of anaphylaxis after the ingestion of yacon roots. PMID:20358031

  16. Autoimmune Progesterone Anaphylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Bemanian

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Progesterone induced dermatitis is a rare disorder. It typically occurs in females due to anautoimmune phenomenon to endogenous progesterone production, but can also be caused byexogenous intake of a synthetic progestin. Here in, we present a case of autoimmune progesterone anaphylaxis (AIPA observed in an adolescent female.The patient is an 18-year-old Caucasian female with no significant past medical history and noprior exogenous hormone use, who presented to her primary care physician complaining of cyclic skin eruptions with dyspnea, cough and respiratory distress. She noted that her symptoms occurred monthly, just prior to her menses. An intradermal skin test using 0.1 cml of progesterone was performed. The patient developed a 15mm wheal after 15 minutes, confirming the diagnosis of AIPA.The patient was started on a continuous regimen of an oral conjugated estrogen (0.625mg. The skin eruptions and respiratory symptoms have not returned since the initiation of this therapy.Autoimmune progesterone dermatitis manifests via the occurrence of cyclic skin eruptions.Women with the disorder commonly present with dermatologic lesions in the luteal phase of themenstrual cycle, if there are any other organ involvement in addition to skin (e.g. lung, GI thereaction should be called as autoimmune progesterone anaphylaxis. Diagnosis of AIPA is confirmed by performing a skin allergen test using progesterone.

  17. A pharmacologic review of anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunker, Nancy S; Wagner, Bradley J

    2014-01-01

    Anaphylaxis occurs in the surgical population and may have devastating consequences. Anaphylaxis and anaphylactoid reactions are immediate hypersensitivity reactions that are most commonly precipitated by medications, insect stings, and foods. In the surgical population, 47.4% of immediate hypersensitivity reactions were precipitated by neuromuscular blocking agents, followed by latex and antibiotics in 20% and 18.1% of cases, respectively. Initial treatment consists of removing the precipitating trigger, administering epinephrine, and correct patient positioning. Secondary prevention measures should be instituted to prevent future occurrences. All health care professionals should have an understanding of the clinical presentation and medical management of anaphylaxis to improve patient outcomes. PMID:25461639

  18. Navigating the Updated Anaphylaxis Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemp Stephen F

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Anaphylaxis, an acute and potentially lethal multi-system clinical syndrome resulting from the sudden, systemic degranulation of mast cells and basophils, occurs in a variety of clinical scenarios and is almost unavoidable inmedical practice. Healthcare professionalsmust be able to recognize its features, treat an episode promptly and appropriately, and be able to provide recommendations to prevent future episodes. Epinephrine, administered immediately, is the drug of choice for acute anaphylaxis. The discussion provides an overview of one set of evidence-based and consensus parameters for the diagnosis and management of anaphylaxis.

  19. Severe anaphylaxis: the secret ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buergi, Andreas; Jung, Barbara; Padevit, Christian; John, Hubert; Ganter, Michael T

    2014-02-01

    In this case report, we describe a healthy urological patient who suffered severe intraoperative anaphylaxis to chlorhexidine, an ingredient contained in frequently used lubricants (Instillagel, Endosgel). Chlorhexidine is a well-known skin disinfectant and antiseptic component in mouthwash or other over the counter antiseptic pharmaceuticals. There is little awareness that commonly used lubricants may contain hidden chlorhexidine. After severe intraoperative anaphylaxis, it is important to investigate all potential (including hidden) agents that might have caused this life-threatening reaction. PMID:25611155

  20. The abiotic and biotic drivers of rapid diversification in Andean bellflowers (Campanulaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagomarsino, Laura P; Condamine, Fabien L; Antonelli, Alexandre; Mulch, Andreas; Davis, Charles C

    2016-06-01

    The tropical Andes of South America, the world's richest biodiversity hotspot, are home to many rapid radiations. While geological, climatic, and ecological processes collectively explain such radiations, their relative contributions are seldom examined within a single clade. We explore the contribution of these factors by applying a series of diversification models that incorporate mountain building, climate change, and trait evolution to the first dated phylogeny of Andean bellflowers (Campanulaceae: Lobelioideae). Our framework is novel for its direct incorporation of geological data on Andean uplift into a macroevolutionary model. We show that speciation and extinction are differentially influenced by abiotic factors: speciation rates rose concurrently with Andean elevation, while extinction rates decreased during global cooling. Pollination syndrome and fruit type, both biotic traits known to facilitate mutualisms, played an additional role in driving diversification. These abiotic and biotic factors resulted in one of the fastest radiations reported to date: the centropogonids, whose 550 species arose in the last 5 million yr. Our study represents a significant advance in our understanding of plant evolution in Andean cloud forests. It further highlights the power of combining phylogenetic and Earth science models to explore the interplay of geology, climate, and ecology in generating the world's biodiversity. PMID:26990796

  1. The mechanisms, causes, and treatment of anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanaro, Anthony; Bardana, Emil J

    2002-01-01

    Anaphylaxis is a severe life-threatening systemic reaction that offers many challenges to the clinician. The incidence of anaphylaxis is significant in the general population and an important cause of morbidity and mortality. While the most common causes of anaphylaxis include drugs, foods, and venoms, other important etiologies must be considered. The etiology of anaphylaxis is classically based on IgE mediated hypersensitivity but multiple mechanisms may be involved. The clinical presentation of anaphylaxis may be extremely variable with a broad differential diagnosis which will be outlined. Although the diagnosis of anaphylaxis can many times be based on a careful history and physical examination, there are laboratory and skin tests which may be helpful in establishing a diagnosis in some cases. The cornerstone of treatment of anaphylaxis remains epinephrine. Other supportive therapies will be discussed. PMID:12109526

  2. A Case of Anaphylaxis to Oral Minocycline

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Ji Woong; Bae, Yun-Jeong; Kim, Yong Giun; Jin, Young-Joo; Park, Kyung Sun; Cho, You Sook; Moon, Hee-Bom; Kim, Tae-Bum

    2010-01-01

    Minocycline is a semisynthetic tetracycline derivative that is often used in the treatment of acne vulgaris. To date, there has been only one case report of anaphylaxis to minocycline. We report here a case of anaphylaxis to oral minocycline. A 56-yr-old woman visited our hospital after three episodes of recurrent anaphylaxis. We performed an oral challenge test, the standard method for diagnosing drug allergies, with minocycline, one of the drugs she had taken previously. She developed urtic...

  3. Exercise-induced anaphylaxis and antileukotriene montelukast

    OpenAIRE

    Sapna Gajbhiye; Rajendra Prasad Agrawal; Shubham Atal; Vikalp Tiwari; Pradeep Phadnis

    2015-01-01

    We report a rare case of exercise-induced anaphylaxis (EIA), occurring exclusively with exercise, without any other associated trigger, detected in the prodromal phase, and prevented from additional anaphylaxis episodes by treatment with cetirizine and 10 mg daily of antileukotriene montelukast to date. EIA is a syndrome in which patients experience a spectrum of the symptoms of anaphylaxis ranging from mild cutaneous signs to severe systemic manifestations such as hypotension, syncope, and e...

  4. Anaphylaxis and cardiovascular disease: therapeutic dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, P; Simons, F E R

    2015-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) increases the risk of severe or fatal anaphylaxis, and some medications for CVD treatment can exacerbate anaphylaxis. The aim of this article is to review the effect of anaphylaxis on the heart, the potential impact of medications for CVD on anaphylaxis and anaphylaxis treatment, and the cardiovascular effects of epinephrine. The therapeutic dilemmas arising from these issues are also discussed and management strategies proposed. PubMed searches were performed for the years 1990-2014 inclusive, using terms such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, adrenaline, allergic myocardial infarction, anaphylaxis, angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs), beta-adrenergic blockers, epinephrine, and Kounis syndrome. Literature analysis indicated that: cardiac mast cells are key constituents of atherosclerotic plaques; mast cell mediators play an important role in acute coronary syndrome (ACS); patients with CVD are at increased risk of developing severe or fatal anaphylaxis; and medications for CVD treatment, including beta-adrenergic blockers and ACE inhibitors, potentially exacerbate anaphylaxis or make it more difficult to treat. Epinephrine increases myocardial contractility, decreases the duration of systole relative to diastole, and enhances coronary blood flow. Its transient adverse effects include pallor, tremor, anxiety, and palpitations. Serious adverse effects (including ventricular arrhythmias and hypertension) are rare, and are significantly more likely after intravenous injection than after intramuscular injection. Epinephrine is life-saving in anaphylaxis; second-line medications (including antihistamines and glucocorticoids) are not. In CVD patients (especially those with ACS), the decision to administer epinephrine for anaphylaxis can be difficult, and its benefits and potential harms need to be carefully considered. Concerns about potential adverse effects need to be weighed against concerns about possible death from

  5. The epidemiology of anaphylaxis in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panesar, S S; Javad, S; de Silva, D;

    2013-01-01

    anaphylaxis. This systematic review aimed to (1) understand and describe the epidemiology of anaphylaxis and (2) describe how these characteristics vary by person, place, and time. METHODS: Using a highly sensitive search strategy, we identified systematic reviews of epidemiological studies, descriptive and...... all-cause anaphylaxis ranged from 1.5 to 7.9 per 100,000 person-years. These data indicated that an estimated 0.3% (95% CI 0.1-0.5) of the population experience anaphylaxis at some point in their lives. Food, drugs, stinging insects, and latex were the most commonly identified triggers. CONCLUSIONS...

  6. Anaphylaxis related to fentanyl citrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Singh Tomar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaphylaxis is a fulminant, unexpected, immunoglobulin E-mediated allergic reaction that can be triggered by multiple agents. Common causative agents include neuromuscular blocking drugs, latex, antibiotics, colloids, hypnotics, and opioids. Fentanyl citrate, however, is an extremely unusual cause of anaphylaxis. Pulmonary edema, although uncommon in anaphylaxis, can be a prominent feature, as was in one of the patient. An adverse drug reaction is a noxious or unintended reaction to a drug that is administered in standard doses by the proper route for the purpose of prophylaxis, diagnosis, or treatment. Reactions are classified into two major subtypes: type A, which are dose dependent and predictable; and type B, which are not dose dependent and unpredictable. Unpredictable reactions include immune (allergic or no immune drug hypersensitivity reactions and are related to genetic susceptibilities or undefined mechanisms (formally called idiosyncratic and intolerance reactions. A drug allergy is always associated with an immune mechanism for which evidence of drug-specific antibodies or activated T lymphocytes can be shown. In the last few years, many novel drugs have entered clinical practice (i.e., biologic agents generating novel patterns of drug hypersensitivity reactions. As old drugs continue to be used, new clinical and biologic techniques enable improvement in the diagnosis of these reactions.

  7. Anaphylaxis and Anaphylactoid Reactions: Diagnosis and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luskin, Allan T.; Luskin, Susan S.

    1996-07-01

    Anaphylaxis is an acute fatal or potentially fatal hypersensitivity reaction. Anaphylaxis represent a clinical diagnosis based on history and physical examination and includes symptoms of airway obstruction, generalized skin reactions, particularly flushing, itching, urticaria, angioedema cardiovascular symptoms including hypotension and gastrointestinal symptoms. These symptoms result from the action of mast cell mediators, especially histamine and lipid mediators such as leukotrienes and platelet activating factor on shock tissue. The shock tissue includes blood vessels, mucous glands, smooth muscle, and nerve endings. Anaphylaxis follows the typical immediate hypersensitivity time course, with a reaction beginning within minutes of antigen exposure. A late-phase reaction hours after the initial reaction may occur. Mast cell mediator release can be triggered by both IgE and non--IgE-mediated factors. Therefore, anaphylaxis may be termed anaphylaxis (IgE mediated) or anaphylactoid (non--IgE mediated). The most common IgE-mediated triggers are drugs, typically penicillin or other beta-lactam antibiotics, foods, most commonly nuts, peanuts, fish and shellfish, or hymenoptera stings. Non-IgE-mediated causes include factors causing marked complement activation such as plasma proteins or compounds which act directly on the mast cell membrane, such as vancomycin, quinolone antibiotics, or radiographic contrast media. The pathophysiology of some trigger factors, such as aspirin, remains unclear. Therapy of anaphylaxis revolves around patient education, avoidance, desensitization or pharmacologic pretreatment when agents causing anaphylaxis need to be readministered, and early recognition and prompt therapy of reactions should they occur. PMID:11862283

  8. Anaphylaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... serious allergic reactions should wear a medical ID tag. If you have a history of serious allergic ... to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www.hon.ch). The information provided herein ...

  9. Anaphylaxis to hyperallergenic functional foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameratunga Rohan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food allergy can cause life threatening reactions. Currently, patients with severe food allergy are advised to avoid foods which provoke allergic reactions. This has become increasingly difficult as food proteins are being added to a broader range of consumer products. Patients and methods Here we describe our investigations into the allergenicity of a new drink when two cow's milk allergic children suffered anaphylaxis after consuming Wh2ole®. Results Our studies have shown that in comparison with cow's milk, Wh2ole® contains at least three times the concentration of β-lactoglobulin. β-lactoglobulin is one of the dominant allergens in bovine milk. Conclusions These studies have shown that modern technology allows the creation of "hyperallergenic" foods. These products have the potential to cause severe reactions in milk allergic persons. Avoiding inadvertent exposure is the shared responsibility of allergic consumers, regulatory authorities and the food industry.

  10. The management of anaphylaxis in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muraro, A; Roberts, G; Clark, A;

    2007-01-01

    such as volume support, nebulized bronchodilators, antihistamines or corticosteroids are supplementary to adrenaline. There are no absolute contraindications to administering adrenaline in children. Allergy assessment is mandatory in all children with a history of anaphylaxis because it is essential to...

  11. Knowledge of anaphylaxis among Emergency Department staff

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Irwani; Chew, Bao Li; Zaw, Wai Wai; Van Bever, Hugo P

    2014-01-01

    Background Anaphylaxis is an emergency condition that requires immediate, accurate diagnosis and appropriate management. However, little is known about the level of knowledge of doctors and nurses treating these patients in the Emergency Department. Objective To determine the knowledge of doctors and nurses in the Emergency Department on the recent definition and treatment recommendations of anaphylaxis. Methods We surveyed doctors and nurses of all grades in a tertiary Hospital Emergency Dep...

  12. Anaphylaxis due to thiopental sodium anesthesia.

    OpenAIRE

    Dolovich, J; Evans, S.; Rosenbloom, D; Goodacre, R; Rafajac, F O

    1980-01-01

    Anaphylaxis due to an anesthetic is one type of cardiovascular emergency that can occur during general anesthesia. Anaphylactic reactions to muscle relaxants have been documented. Barbiturates, used as sedatives, are well known to produce cutaneous reactions, but anaphylaxis after their ingestion seems to be rare. Generalized allergic reactions to thiopental sodium during anesthesia are mentioned in the product monograph for Penthothal sodium, and rare case reports of anaphylactic reactions t...

  13. A case of anaphylaxis to peppermint

    OpenAIRE

    Bayat, Roian; Borici-Mazi, Rozita

    2014-01-01

    Background Anaphylaxis, a form of IgE mediated hypersensitivity, arises when mast cells and possibly basophils are provoked to secrete mediators with potent vasoactive and smooth muscle contractile activities that evoke a systemic response. We report a case of IgE mediated anaphylaxis to peppermint (Mentha piperita) in a male shortly after sucking on a candy. Case presentation A 69 year old male developed sudden onset of lip and tongue swelling, throat tightness and shortness of breath within...

  14. THE RARE CAUSE OF THE ANAPHYLAXIS: EXERCISE

    OpenAIRE

    Sami OZTURK; Caliskaner, Zafer; KARAAYVAZ, Mehmet; Gulec, Mustafa

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: Exercise-induced anaphylaxis (EIA) is a rare syndrome. We described two patients experienced anaphylaxis after exercise. Case 1: A 24 -year-old male patient, recruited to army as a private 6 months ago. The medical history was suggestive of an anaphylactic reaction which was developed about 30 minute after a vigorous exercise. Case 2: A 42-year old female, was referred to our clinic because of the recurrent episodes of generalized pruritus, nausea, vomiting, swelling on extremit...

  15. [Approach and Registry of Anaphylaxis in Portugal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Inês; Pereira, Ana Margarida; Pereira, Celso; Tomaz, Elza; Ferreira, Manuel Branco; Sabino, Filipa; Coelho, Anabela; Santos, Anabela; Martins, Henrique; Morais-Almeida, Mário

    2015-01-01

    Anaphylaxis has a growing incidence, especially in children. It represents a medical emergency and its successful therapy depends on early and proper intervention. Intramuscular epinephrine, with dose adjustment according to weight and age, is the drug of choice for anaphylaxis treatment. After resolution of the acute reaction, the patient should be kept under clinical surveillance for 6 to 24 hours, due to possible biphasic reactions. Prescription of an epinephrine auto injectable device should be considered in all patients with diagnosed or suspected anaphylaxis; additionally these patients should always be referred to an Immunoallergy consultation, to perform adequate investigation and management in order to reduce future risk. All anaphylaxis episodes must be recorded in The Portuguese Catalogue of Allergies and other Adverse Reactions (Catálogo Português de Alergias e outras Reações Adversas, CPARA), which represents a fundamental tool to share clinical information within the Health System. The present manuscript intends to disclose the most recent Portuguese guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of anaphylaxis, making its clinical approach more effective and homogeneous, and to promote the use of The Portuguese Catalogue of Allergies and other Adverse Reactions as an essential tool to register and share information on anaphylaxis in Portugal. PMID:26849768

  16. Exercise–induced Anaphylaxis: the Role of Cofactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zogaj, Dukagjin; Ibranji, Alkerta; Hoxha, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Anaphylaxis is a dramatic clinical emergency. It is a very severe, life-threatening generalized or systemic hypersensitivity reaction. Based on immunologic mechanism the anaphylaxis is divided in IgE, IgG, complement, or immune complexes-mediated vs non allergic anaphylaxis. There are a lot of etiologic factors of anaphylaxis, but the three principal immunologic triggers are drugs, insect stings, and foods. Regarding the clinical severity there are several proposed grading systems. The diagnosis of anaphylaxis is mainly clinical. Discussion: The anaphylaxis markers measured in clinical laboratories are total tryptase and histamine. There are some conditions that modulate the onset of anaphylaxis, acting as co- or augmentation factors, which significantly lower the allergen dose necessary for triggering anaphylaxis. The well-documented cofactors of anaphylaxis are physical exercise, alcohol consumption, some foods, co-administration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), and concomitant infectious diseases. Development of anaphylaxis depends on the sensitization pattern, the proportion of the involved immunoglobulin classes, characteristics of the allergen, the proportion of the involved immunoglobulin classes, the avidity and affinity of immunoglobulins to bind an allergen, the route of allergen application, and, last but not least, the presence of cofactors of anaphylaxis. Conclusion: Anaphylaxis remains a continuous challenge for the diagnosis and treatment. The adequate management of anaphylaxis requires rapid diagnosis, implementation of primary and secondary prevention measures, and immediate administration of subcutaneous epinephrine. PMID:25685088

  17. Exercise–induced Anaphylaxis: the Role of Cofactors

    OpenAIRE

    Zogaj, Dukagjin; Ibranji, Alkerta; Hoxha, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Anaphylaxis is a dramatic clinical emergency. It is a very severe, life-threatening generalized or systemic hypersensitivity reaction. Based on immunologic mechanism the anaphylaxis is divided in IgE, IgG, complement, or immune complexes-mediated vs non allergic anaphylaxis. There are a lot of etiologic factors of anaphylaxis, but the three principal immunologic triggers are drugs, insect stings, and foods. Regarding the clinical severity there are several proposed grading syste...

  18. Exercise-induced anaphylaxis and antileukotriene montelukast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajbhiye, Sapna; Agrawal, Rajendra Prasad; Atal, Shubham; Tiwari, Vikalp; Phadnis, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    We report a rare case of exercise-induced anaphylaxis (EIA), occurring exclusively with exercise, without any other associated trigger, detected in the prodromal phase, and prevented from additional anaphylaxis episodes by treatment with cetirizine and 10 mg daily of antileukotriene montelukast to date. EIA is a syndrome in which patients experience a spectrum of the symptoms of anaphylaxis ranging from mild cutaneous signs to severe systemic manifestations such as hypotension, syncope, and even death after increased physical activity. Many people have triggers, such as, a variety of foods, various medications, alcohol, cold weather, humidity, and seasonal and hormonal changes along with exercise that cause the symptoms. Typically, either exercise or the specific trigger alone will rarely cause symptoms. It is differentiated from cholinergic urticaria by the absence of response to passive body warming and emotional stress. PMID:26312002

  19. Exercise-induced anaphylaxis and antileukotriene montelukast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapna Gajbhiye

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of exercise-induced anaphylaxis (EIA, occurring exclusively with exercise, without any other associated trigger, detected in the prodromal phase, and prevented from additional anaphylaxis episodes by treatment with cetirizine and 10 mg daily of antileukotriene montelukast to date. EIA is a syndrome in which patients experience a spectrum of the symptoms of anaphylaxis ranging from mild cutaneous signs to severe systemic manifestations such as hypotension, syncope, and even death after increased physical activity. Many people have triggers, such as, a variety of foods, various medications, alcohol, cold weather, humidity, and seasonal and hormonal changes along with exercise that cause the symptoms. Typically, either exercise or the specific trigger alone will rarely cause symptoms. It is differentiated from cholinergic urticaria by the absence of response to passive body warming and emotional stress.

  20. Management of anaphylaxis : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhami, S.; Panesar, S. S.; Roberts, G.; Muraro, A.; Worm, M.; Bilo, M. B.; Cardona, V.; Dubois, A. E. J.; DunnGalvin, A.; Eigenmann, P.; Fernandez-Rivas, M.; Halken, S.; Lack, G.; Niggemann, B.; Rueff, F.; Santos, A. F.; Vlieg-Boerstra, B.; Zolkipli, Z. Q.; Sheikh, A.

    2014-01-01

    To establish the effectiveness of interventions for the acute and long-term management of anaphylaxis, seven databases were searched for systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, quasi-randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, controlled before-after studies and interrupted t

  1. Anaphylaxis related to avocado ingestion: a case and review

    OpenAIRE

    Abrams Elissa M; Becker Allan B; Gerstner Thomas V

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Anaphylaxis to avocado, independent of latex sensitization, has been rarely reported in the literature. This case report describes a 15 year old male who experienced anaphylaxis within half an hour after eating avocado-containing food. Avocado consumption is common in both North America and South America. It is important to consider avocado as a cause of anaphylaxis, even in patients not sensitized to latex.

  2. Anaphylaxis after accidental ingestion of kiwi fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Gawrońska-Ukleja, Ewa; Różalska, Anna; Ukleja-Sokołowska, Natalia; Żbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew

    2013-01-01

    Numerous cases of anaphylaxis after ingestion of kiwi fruit, after the skin tests and during oral immunotherapy were described. The article describes the case of severe anaphylactic reaction that occurred in a 55-year-old patient after accidental ingestion of kiwi. Allergy to kiwi fruit was confirmed by a native test with fresh kiwi fruit. After the test, the patient experienced generalized organ response in the form of headache, general weakness and rashes on the neck and breast, and dyspnea...

  3. Allergen-Specific Immunotherapy in Food Anaphylaxis

    OpenAIRE

    Kerzl, Regina; Mempel, Martin; Ring, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    Specific immunotherapy (SIT) protocols for nutritional allergens have only recently been established with a focus on oral allergy syndrome because of pollen cross-reacting antibodies. For these patients, a substantial number of studies have been published suggesting benefits from SIT. The situation in true anaphylaxis to food allergens such as peanut allergy is more complex, and therapeutic strategies are based on individual protocols rather than controlled studies. However, in defined cases,...

  4. THE RARE CAUSE OF THE ANAPHYLAXIS: EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami OZTURK

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exercise-induced anaphylaxis (EIA is a rare syndrome. We described two patients experienced anaphylaxis after exercise. Case 1: A 24 -year-old male patient, recruited to army as a private 6 months ago. The medical history was suggestive of an anaphylactic reaction which was developed about 30 minute after a vigorous exercise. Case 2: A 42-year old female, was referred to our clinic because of the recurrent episodes of generalized pruritus, nausea, vomiting, swelling on extremities and breathing difficultly. She was experienced with symptoms after moderate exercises which were performed to losing weight. Evaluation: The complete diagnostic procedures including skin tests with foods and inhalant allergens were performed. In Case 2, positive skin test results were detected in food allergens (apricot, tomato, vanilla and inhalant allergens (house-dust mites and cockroach. Management: In Case 1, he was first experienced EIA symptoms with the military training. For this reason, he exempted from vigorous exercises during his remaining compulsory military service and self-injectable epinephrine kit and antihistamine were prescribed him. In Case 2, she advised to avoid from vigorous exercises. Conclusion: EIA should be considered in cases of anaphylaxis with uncertain etiology. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(1.000: 46-49

  5. Exercise-induced anaphylaxis: A clinical view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Povesi Dascola Carlotta

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Exercise-induced anaphylaxis (EIA is a distinct form of physical allergy. The development of anaphylaxis during exertion often requires the concomitant exposure to triggering factors such as intake of foods (food dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis or drugs prior to exercise, extreme environmental conditions. EIA is a rare, but serious disorder, which is often undetected or inadequately treated. This article summarizes current evidences on pathophysiology, diagnosis and management. We reviewed recent advances in factors triggering the release of mediators from mast cells which seems to play a pathogenetic role. A correct diagnosis is essential to avoid unnecessary restricted diet, to allow physical activity in subjects with EIA dependent from triggering factors such as food, and to manage attacks. An algorithm for diagnosing EIA based on medical history, IgE tests and exercise challenge test has been provided. In the long-term management of EIA, there is a need for educating patients and care-givers to avoid exposure to precipitating factors and to recognize and treat episodes. Future researches on existing questions are discussed.

  6. Implementation of anaphylaxis management guidelines: a register-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linus Grabenhenrich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anaphylaxis management guidelines recommend the use of intramuscular adrenaline in severe reactions, complemented by antihistamines and corticoids; secondary prevention includes allergen avoidance and provision of self-applicable first aid drugs. Gaps between recommendations and their implementation have been reported, but only in confined settings. Hence, we analysed nation-wide data on the management of anaphylaxis, evaluating the implementation of guidelines. METHODS: Within the anaphylaxis registry, allergy referral centres across Germany, Austria and Switzerland provided data on severe anaphylaxis cases. Based on patient records, details on reaction circumstances, diagnostic workup and treatment were collected via online questionnaire. Report of anaphylaxis through emergency physicians allowed for validation of registry data. RESULTS: 2114 severe anaphylaxis patients from 58 centres were included. 8% received adrenaline intravenously, 4% intramuscularly; 50% antihistamines, and 51% corticoids. Validation data indicated moderate underreporting of first aid drugs in the Registry. 20% received specific instructions at the time of the reaction; 81% were provided with prophylactic first aid drugs at any time. CONCLUSION: There is a distinct discrepancy between current anaphylaxis management guidelines and their implementation. To improve patient care, a revised approach for medical education and training on the management of severe anaphylaxis is warranted.

  7. Patient's perspective and public policy regarding anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Furlong, Anne

    2004-01-01

    It is estimated that dose to 7 million Americans have food allergy. The incidence of food allergy, particularly peanut allergy, is believed to be on the rise. Several studies have shown that in spite of a patient's best efforts to avoid ingesting the allergy-causing food, reactions will occur. These reactions occur from incorrect ingredient information in food service or restaurant settings, incorrect product labels, or mistakes in label reading. In the hospital setting, patients are sometimes treated for an anaphylactic reaction in the emergency room but are not given instructions to see a specialist to determine the cause of their reaction, nor are they given a prescription for epinephrine to arm them to treat future allergic emergencies. Two studies of fatal and near fatal allergic reactions concluded that a delay in administration of epinephrine could have been a factor in the fatal outcomes. However, schools often do not have written emergency action plans in place for children with documented food allergy, and patients and caregivers often report not knowing when to use the epinephrine kit or how to use it. Until there is a cure for food allergy and anaphylaxis, avoidance of the allergen is key. There is much work to be done in education and public policy regarding anaphylaxis. PMID:15025404

  8. A 4-month-old baby boy presenting with anaphylaxis to a banana: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    O’Keefe, Andrew W; Ben-Shoshan, Moshe

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Food allergy is the most common cause of anaphylaxis in children and recent studies suggest increased prevalence of both food allergy and anaphylaxis. Among foods, fruits are rarely implicated as the cause of anaphylaxis. Furthermore, anaphylaxis to fruit in the first months of life is rare. Although banana allergy has been well described in adults, there are only two case reports of anaphylaxis to banana in children. Case presentation A 4-month-old Hispanic baby boy with a histo...

  9. Anaphylaxis cases presenting to primary care paramedics in Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimchi, Nofar; Clarke, Ann; Moisan, Jocelyn; Lachaine, Colette; La Vieille, Sebastien; Asai, Yuka; Joseph, Lawrence; Mill, Chris; Ben-Shoshan, Moshe

    2015-12-01

    Data on anaphylaxis cases in pre-hospital settings is limited. As part of the Cross Canada Anaphylaxis Registry (C-CARE), we assessed anaphylaxis cases managed by paramedics in Outaouais, Quebec. A software program was developed to prospectively record demographic and clinical characteristics as well as management of cases meeting the definition of the anaphylaxis. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were compared to assess factors associated with severity of reactions and epinephrine use. Among 33,788 ambulance calls of which 23,486 required transport, 104 anaphylaxis cases were identified (anaphylaxis rate of 0.31% [95%CI, 0.25%, 0.37%] among all ambulance calls and 0.44% [95%CI, 0.36%, 0.54%] among those requiring transport). The median age was 46.8 years and 41.3% were males. The common triggers included food (32.7% [95%CI, 24.0%, 42.7%]), drugs (24.0% [16.4%, 33.6%]), and venom (17.3% [10.8%, 26.2%]). Among all reactions, 37.5% (95%CI, 28.4%, 47.6%) were severe. Epinephrine was not administered in 35.6% (95%CI, 26.6%, 45.6%) of all cases. Males were more likely to have severe reactions (Odds ratio [OR]: 2.50 [95%CI, 1.03, 6.01]). Venom-induced reactions and severe anaphylaxis were more likely to be managed with epinephrine (OR: 6.9 [95%CI, 1.3, 35.3] and 4.2 [95%CI, 1.5, 12.0], respectively). This is the first prospective study evaluating anaphylaxis managed by paramedics. Anaphylaxis accounts for a substantial proportion of the cases managed by paramedics in Outaouais, Quebec and exceeds prior reports of the proportion of Quebec emergency room visits attributed to anaphylaxis. Although guidelines recommend prompt use of epinephrine for all cases of anaphylaxis, more than a third of cases did not receive epinephrine. It is crucial to develop educational programs targeting paramedics to promote the use of epinephrine in all cases of anaphylaxis regardless of the specific trigger. PMID:26734462

  10. EAACI Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muraro, A; Werfel, T; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K;

    2014-01-01

    previous EAACI position papers on adverse reaction to foods and three recent systematic reviews on the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of food allergy, and provide evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis and management of food allergy. While the primary audience is allergists, this......Food allergy can result in considerable morbidity, impact negatively on quality of life, and prove costly in terms of medical care. These guidelines have been prepared by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology's (EAACI) Guidelines for Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Group, building on...... document is relevant for all other healthcare professionals, including primary care physicians, and pediatric and adult specialists, dieticians, pharmacists and paramedics. Our current understanding of the manifestations of food allergy, the role of diagnostic tests, and the effective management of...

  11. Clinical observation of anaphylaxis after treated with Sweet BV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Rok Kwon

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : Sweet bee venom(SBV is pure melittin, the main component of bee venom, made by removing another components through gel filtration chromatography and propionic acid/urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In the using SBV, 2 patients were experienced anaphylaxis by SBV. So, we reported the process of anaphylaxis and consider these situation. Methods : We observed 2 patients suffered from anaphylaxis after treated with SBV in the Korean Medical Hospital, Sangji University. Results : Though SBV was removed allergen from bee venom, it is not possible to complete prevention of anaphylactic shock in the clinics. So, Korean medical doctor using BV or SBV must be prepare the system consider a countermeasure by anaphylaxis.

  12. Anaphylaxis to Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, LR; Subedi, A; Shah, BK

    2014-01-01

    Liposomal doxorubicin is used for the treatment of various cancers like epithelial ovarian cancers, multiple myeloma and sarcomas. We report the first case of anaphylaxis to pegylated liposomal doxorubicin. PMID:25429486

  13. Anaphylaxis to Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, LR; A. Subedi; Shah, BK

    2014-01-01

    Liposomal doxorubicin is used for the treatment of various cancers like epithelial ovarian cancers, multiple myeloma and sarcomas. We report the first case of anaphylaxis to pegylated liposomal doxorubicin.

  14. Recent advances in mast cell clonality and anaphylaxis

    OpenAIRE

    Akin, Cem

    2009-01-01

    Clonal expansion of mast cells carrying the D816V c-kit mutation results in mastocytosis. Recent studies identified the presence of clonal mast cells carrying this mutation in patients with anaphylaxis without classic diagnostic findings of systemic mastocytosis.

  15. Elevated exhaled nitric oxide in anaphylaxis with respiratory symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoichi Nakamura

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: Elevation of FeNO was related to respiratory symptoms observed in anaphylactic patients without asthma. Although the mechanism of increased FeNO level is unclear, its usefulness for diagnosis of anaphylaxis must be examined in prospective studies.

  16. Human heart as a shock organ in anaphylaxis

    OpenAIRE

    Marone, Gianni; Genovese, Arturo; Varricchi, Gilda; Granata, Francescopaolo

    2014-01-01

    Summary Anaphylaxis is a potentially fatal, immediate hypersensitivity reaction. Mast cells and basophils, by elaborating vasoactive mediators and cytokines, are the main primary effector cells of anaphylaxis. Mast cells have been identified in human heart between myocardial fibers, perivascularly, in the adventitia, and in the arterial intima. Mast cells isolated from human heart tissue (HHMC) of patients undergoing cardiac transplantation express high affinity immunglobulin E (IgE) receptor...

  17. Omalizumab: Practical considerations regarding the risk of anaphylaxis

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Harold L; Leigh Richard; Becker Allan

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Omalizumab has demonstrated efficacy among patients with moderate to severe persistent allergic asthma, whose symptoms are inadequately controlled with other controller agents. This therapy is generally well tolerated, but there are some safety considerations, the most important of which is the rare, but potentially life-threatening, occurrence of omalizumab-associated anaphylaxis. In Canada, data from the manufacturer of omalizumab indicate that the frequency of anaphylaxis attribut...

  18. CLINICAL FACTORS FOR DEVELOPING SHOCK IN RADIOCONTRAST MEDIA INDUCED ANAPHYLAXIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Min; Ko, Byuk Sung; Kim, Ji Yeon; Ha, Sang Ook; Ahn, Shin; Sohn, Chang Hwan; Seo, Dong Woo; Kim, Tae-Bum; Kim, Won Young

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the time interval between radiocontrast media (RCM) administration and the development of anaphylactic shock, and risk factors associated with RCM-induced anaphylactic shock. We reviewed the medical records of 154 patients with RCM-induced anaphylaxis presenting to the emergency department of a tertiary care hospital between January 2005 and December 2014. Clinical features of RCM-induced anaphylaxis were analyzed, and patients were categorized into shock and non-shock groups to identify associated factors in affected patients. Of the 154 cases of RCM-induced anaphylaxis, 101 (65.9%) patients experienced shock. The median time between RCM exposure and the onset of shock was 11 min (interquartile range, 7.0-18.8). In patients with RCM-induced anaphylaxis accompanying shock, the median time from RCM to the first symptom onset was 6 min (interquartile range, 5.0-10.0). In the multivariate analysis, age, neurological manifestations, and allergy history except RCM were associated with the development of shock. RCM-induced anaphylaxis was commonly accompanied with shock, and the time interval between RCM exposure and the onset of shock was short. Physicians should pay attention to the development of potential cardiovascular collapse in anaphylaxis patients of old age and with neurologic manifestations. PMID:26506069

  19. Paediatric anaphylaxis in a Singaporean children cohort: changing food allergy triggers over time

    OpenAIRE

    Liew, Woei Kang; Chiang, Wen Chin; Goh, Anne EN; Lim, Hwee Hoon; Chay, Oh Moh; Chang, Serena; Tan, Jessica HY; Shih, E'Ching; Kidon, Mona

    2013-01-01

    Background We have noticed changes in paediatric anaphylaxis triggers locally in Singapore. Objective We aimed to describe the demographic characteristics, clinical features, causative agents and management of children presenting with anaphylaxis. Methods This is a retrospective study of Singaporean children presenting with anaphylaxis between January 2005 and December 2009 to a tertiary paediatric hospital. Results One hundred and eight cases of anaphylaxis in 98 children were included. Food...

  20. A regional approach to unmet needs in anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minale, P; Bignardi, D; Troise, C; Voltolini, S; Dignetti, P

    2016-05-01

    Allergic diseases are under-diagnosed and undertreated despite their wide prevalence, and particularly anaphylaxis is often under-estimated. Evidence-based anaphylaxis guidelines developed by principal allergy organizations agree on increased prevalence of anaphylaxis, especially in patients younger than 18 years (18-27,30): this trend highlights the need for actions on anaphylaxis management and prevention (3,4). Lack of prompt connection between emergency department and allergy unit after discharge, and of a dedicated ICD-9th identification code (18-26), can delay diagnosis and treatment of anaphylaxis (28,29). Also in the experience of our Allergy Unit, patients reach the allergist office after several attacks treated in ED (17), without a previous evaluation and risk assessment. Keeping in mind unmet needs in anaphylaxis (4), we focused on regional approaches to health care delivery. The key point of our project was to establish an active collaboration between allergist clinicians and their counterparts in emergency medicine, with a system of quick filing report of patients discharged from ED with the suspect of anaphylactic reaction, directed to a central allergy unit, acting in a hub and spoke model with the Ligurian allergy network (31). Aim of the project was to improve epidemiological data collection via direct connection among ED and allergy network; moreover, we tried to provide a quick and proper evaluation of all reported patients, identifying, when possible, the agent responsible for anaphylaxis, to provide instructions on how to minimize future exposure; as all individuals at risk for anaphylaxis should carry and know how to self-administer epinephrine, we managed to provide auto injector and proper training when appropriate. A follow up on readmissions was carried out during the study and four months later. In a 20 months observation period (2013/2014), 205 patients were reported: it was possible to reach a diagnosis and risk assessment in 64

  1. Anaphylaxis Caused By Hydatid Cyst in Asthmatic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahanur Cekic

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There are many reasons for developing anaphylaxis under anesthesia. This risk increase in patients with hydatid cyst surgery. Hydatid cyst is a parasitic disease that is caused by Echinecocus granulosus. It is usually observed between the ages of 35-50. High antigenic hydatid cyst fluid spreads as a result of surgical manipulation or post-traumatic rupture. Hydatid cyst fluid causes anaphylactic reactions (urticarial, rash, shock, and cardiovascular collapse and progress mortal. Diagnosis and treatment of anaphylaxis or anaphylactoid reaction may become more difficult for the anesthetist, especially in patients with concomitant diseases such as cardiopulmonary disorders. In this case report, we presented early detection, rapid intervention and treatment of anaphylaxis on patient with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (asthma and bronchiectasis.

  2. Fatal and near-fatal anaphylaxis: factors that can worsen or contribute to fatal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberger, Paul A

    2015-05-01

    Anaphylaxis implies a risk of death even in patients whose prior episodes have been considered mild and managed easily. Anaphylaxis occurs in all age groups, from infants to the elderly, but most deaths occur in adults. Factors or circumstances associated with near-fatal or fatal anaphylaxis are reviewed from the following 10 perspectives: accidents and mishaps, adulterated products, age, allergens, atopy, comorbidities, Munchausen syndrome or contrived anaphylaxis, patient factors, route of administration, and treatment-related issues. There are no absolute contraindications to self-injectable epinephrine, and epinephrine can be administered for anaphylaxis to elderly patients or to those patients receiving beta-adrenergic blockers. PMID:25841558

  3. Munchausen stridor-a strong false alarm of anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahna, Sami L; Oldham, Jennifer L

    2014-11-01

    The diagnosis of anaphylaxis is often based on reported symptoms which may not be accurate and lead to major psychosocial and financial impacts. We describe two adult patients who were diagnosed as having recurrent anaphylaxis witnessed by multiple physicians based on recurrent laryngeal symptoms. The claimed cause was foods in one and drugs in the other. We questioned the diagnosis because of absent documentation of objective findings to support anaphylaxis, and the symptoms occurred during skin testing though the test sites were not reactive. Our initial skin testing with placebos reproduced the symptoms without objective findings. Subsequent skin tests with the suspected allergens were negative yet reproduced the symptoms without objective findings. Disclosing the test results markedly displeased one patient but reassured the other who subsequently tolerated the suspected allergen. In conclusion, these 2 patients' symptoms and evaluation were not supportive of their initial diagnosis of recurrent anaphylaxis. The compatible diagnosis was Munchausen stridor which requires psychiatric evaluation and behavior modification, but often rejected by patients. PMID:25374759

  4. Omalizumab: Practical considerations regarding the risk of anaphylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Harold L

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Omalizumab has demonstrated efficacy among patients with moderate to severe persistent allergic asthma, whose symptoms are inadequately controlled with other controller agents. This therapy is generally well tolerated, but there are some safety considerations, the most important of which is the rare, but potentially life-threatening, occurrence of omalizumab-associated anaphylaxis. In Canada, data from the manufacturer of omalizumab indicate that the frequency of anaphylaxis attributed to Xolair in post-marketing use is approximately 0.2%. Other researchers, including the American Omalizumab Joint Task Force (OJTF, have suggested a lower overall frequency of 0.09%. This paper provides a summary of the epidemiologic research carried out to date and presents a concise, practical set of recommendations for the prevention, monitoring and management of omalizumab-associated anaphylaxis. Prevention tips include advice on patient education measures, concomitant medications and optimal administration. For the first three injections, the recommendation is to monitor in clinic for two hours after the omalizumab injection; for subsequent injections, the monitoring period should be 30 minutes or an appropriate time agreed upon by the individual patient and healthcare professional. In the event that a patient does experience omalizumab-associated anaphylaxis, the paper provides recommendations for handling the situation in-clinic and recommendations on how to counsel patients to recognize the potential signs and symptoms in the community and react appropriately.

  5. Exercise-induced anaphylaxis related to specific foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilles, S; Schocket, A; Milgrom, H

    1995-10-01

    We describe the case, documented by challenge results, of a 16-year-old girl with exercise-induced anaphylaxis associated with eating pizza and a cheese sandwich. Patients in whom a specific coprecipitating food has been identified should avoid it for at least 12 hours before exercise. All patients should be instructed to avoid eating 6 to 8 hours before exercise, discontinue exercise at the first sign of symptoms, and exercise only with a companion prepared to administer epinephrine. PMID:7562280

  6. Anaphylaxis Caused By Hydatid Cyst in Asthmatic Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Bahanur Cekic

    2015-01-01

    There are many reasons for developing anaphylaxis under anesthesia. This risk increase in patients with hydatid cyst surgery. Hydatid cyst is a parasitic disease that is caused by Echinecocus granulosus. It is usually observed between the ages of 35-50. High antigenic hydatid cyst fluid spreads as a result of surgical manipulation or post-traumatic rupture. Hydatid cyst fluid causes anaphylactic reactions (urticarial, rash), shock, and cardiovascular collapse and progress mortal. Diagnosis an...

  7. Anaphylaxis to husband's seminal plasma and treatment by local desensitization

    OpenAIRE

    Park Chul; Huh Jung-Sik; Chung Young-Bae; Kim Miok; Kim Sohyung; Lee Jaechun; Lee Keun; Kim Jeong

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Hypersensitivity to human seminal fluid is rare but can be life threatening. We report a case of IgE-mediated anaphylaxis to seminal plasma that was diagnosed by skin prick tests and successfully treated by local desensitization. A 32-year-old woman suffering from angioedema and hypotension after exposure to semen was treated with epinephrine upon admission. Skin prick tests and immunoblotting for IgE binding components showed that she was sensitized to her husband's seminal plasma. ...

  8. Anaphylaxis at image-guided epidural pain block secondary to corticosteroid compound.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moran, Deirdre E

    2012-09-01

    Anaphylaxis during image-guided interventional procedures is a rare but potentially fatal event. Anaphylaxis to iodinated contrast is an established and well-recognized adverse effect. However, anaphylaxis to some of the other frequently administered medications given during interventional procedures, such as corticosteroids, is not common knowledge. During caudal epidural injection, iodinated contrast is used to confirm needle placement in the epidural space at the level of the sacral hiatus. A combination of corticosteroid, local anesthetic, and saline is subsequently injected. We describe a very rare case of anaphylaxis to a component of the steroid medication instilled in the caudal epidural space.

  9. Cow’s Milk Anaphylaxis in Children First Report of Iranian Food Allergy Registry

    OpenAIRE

    Pegah Teymourpour; Zahra Pourpak; Mohammad Reza Fazlollahi; Saeideh Barzegar; Raheleh Shokouhi; Rosita Akramian; Masoud Movahedi; Mahboobeh Mansouri; Bahram Mirsaeedghazi; Mostafa Moin

    2012-01-01

    Cow’s  milk  anaphylaxis is  the  most  common  food-induced  anaphylaxis in  Iranian children. The clinical and laboratory findings of cow’s milk anaphylaxis are evaluated in this study. All children who had experienced cow’s  milk anaphylaxis and had been referred to Immunology, asthma and allergy research center during a 5-year period were considered. After fulfilling a questionnaire, patients underwent measurement of total IgE and cow’s milk- specific IgE by Immunocap test and Skin prick ...

  10. Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis: is wheat unique?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Gabriel K; Krishna, Mamidipudi T

    2013-12-01

    This review draws comparisons between wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA) and other food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIAs) and discusses the importance of co-factors in its pathophysiology. FDEIA remains an enigmatic condition since it was first described 30 years ago. The sporadic and unpredictable nature of its reactions has puzzled clinicians and scientists for decades, but recent studies on WDEIA have enlightened us about the pathophysiology of this condition. The identification of defined allergic epitopes such as Tri a 19, α-gliadin, β-gliadin and γ-gliadin in WDEIA enables it to become the perfect model for studying FDEIA, but WDEIA is by no means a unique condition. On a larger scale, FDEIA represents a crucial link between IgE-mediated and anaphylactoid reactions and provides supportive evidence for the concept of 'summation anaphylaxis' and the need to overcome the 'allergen threshold'. Future work should focus on identifying more of the FDEIA epitopes and understanding their distinct molecular properties. The development of a biomarker in order to identify patients susceptible to co-factor influences would be invaluable. PMID:24127054

  11. Why Do People Die of Anaphylaxis?—A Clinical Review

    OpenAIRE

    Arvind Kumar; Teuber, Suzanne S.; M. Eric Gershwin

    2005-01-01

    Anaphylaxis is a source of anxiety for patients and healthcare providers. It is a medical emergency that presents with a broad array of symptoms and signs, many of which can be deceptively similar to other diseases such as myocardial infarction, asthma, or panic attacks. In addition to these diagnostic challenges, anaphylaxis presents management difficulties due to rapid onset and progression, lack of appropriate ...

  12. Anaphylaxis : Guidelines from the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muraro, A.; Roberts, G.; Worm, M.; Bilo, M. B.; Brockow, K.; Fernandez Rivas, M.; Santos, A. F.; Zolkipli, Z. Q.; Bellou, A.; Beyer, K.; Bindslev-Jensen, C.; Cardona, V.; Clark, A. T.; Demoly, P.; Dubois, A. E. J.; DunnGalvin, A.; Eigenmann, P.; Halken, S.; Harada, L.; Lack, G.; Jutel, M.; Niggemann, B.; Rueff, F.; Timmermans, F.; Vlieg-Boerstra, B. J.; Werfel, T.; Dhami, S.; Panesar, S.; Akdis, C. A.; Sheikh, A.

    2014-01-01

    Anaphylaxis is a clinical emergency, and all healthcare professionals should be familiar with its recognition and acute and ongoing management. These guidelines have been prepared by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) Taskforce on Anaphylaxis. They aim to provide evidenc

  13. Anaphylaxis to honey in pollinosis to mugwort: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuiano, N; Incorvaia, C; Riario-Sforza, G G; Casino, G

    2006-12-01

    A case of anaphylaxis to honey in a 19 year old female sensitized to Compositae pollen is described. The patient suffered from summer rhinoconjunctivitis since seven years; in January 2006, ten minutes after eating bread and honey she developed angioedema of the lips and tongue, runny nose, cough, dyspnoea, and collapse, requiring hospitalization and treatment with high dose corticosteroids and anti-histamines. After two weeks, skin prick tests (SPT) with a standard panel of inhalant allergens and prick + prick with a number of kinds of honey were performed. SPTs were positive to mugwort, ragweed, dandelion, and goldenrod. Concerning honey, the prick + prick was positive to "Millefiori" (obtained from bees foraging on Compositae) and also to sunflower, limetree, and gum tree honey, while was negative for other kinds of honey, including the frequently used chestnut honey and acacia honey. The allergenic component responsible of anaphylaxis in this case seems to be a molecule occurring in Compositae pollens, as previously reported for other three reports, but also in pollen from plants of different families. Honey contains a large number of components derived from bees, such as gland secretions and wax, as well as from substances related to their foraging activity, such flower nectar and pollens (1, 2). Honey as a food has been associated to allergic reactions and particularly to anaphylaxis (3-6). Among the pollens, the role of Compositae is somewhat controversial, since its responsibility is clear in some studies (3, 5, 6) but considered negligible in others (7). Here we present the case of a patient sensitized to Compositae pollen who had an anaphylactic reaction to the ingestion of honey obtained from bees foraging on Compositae flowers and was tested with a number of different varieties of honey. PMID:17274522

  14. Chloramine-induced anaphylaxis while showering: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Alò Simona

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Sodium-N-chlorine-p-toluene sulfonamide, commonly known as chloramine-T, is a derivative of chlorine which is widely used as a disinfectant. For many years, chloramine-T has been described as a cause of immediate-type hypersensitivity, especially with regard to asthma and rhinitis, and as a cause of occupational dermatoses in cleaning personnel in hospitals, although no anaphylactic reaction has yet been reported. Hence, to the best of our knowledge we present the first case of anaphylaxis to chloramine-T with evidence of specific immunoglobulin E antibodies. Case presentation We describe the case of a 25-year-old Caucasian woman who was in good health and with a negative history for atopy, including no respiratory symptoms of rhinitis or asthma, and with no professional exposure to chloramine-T. She, while showering, applied a chloramine-T solution to a skin area with folliculitis on her leg, and within a few minutes developed generalized urticaria and angioedema, followed by vomiting and collapse with loss of consciousness. A skin prick test with a chloramine-T solution at 10mg/mL concentration was positive, and specific immunoglobulin E to chloramine-T was quantified at a value of 2.9 optical density as measured by the enzyme allergosorbent test technique. Conclusion The strict cause-effect relationship and the results of the skin test and the in vitro test make certain the causative role of chloramine-T in this case of anaphylaxis. This suggests that chloramine-T, based on its wide use as a disinfectant, should be considered a possible cause in anaphylaxis of unknown origin.

  15. Anaphylaxis to husband's seminal plasma and treatment by local desensitization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Chul

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hypersensitivity to human seminal fluid is rare but can be life threatening. We report a case of IgE-mediated anaphylaxis to seminal plasma that was diagnosed by skin prick tests and successfully treated by local desensitization. A 32-year-old woman suffering from angioedema and hypotension after exposure to semen was treated with epinephrine upon admission. Skin prick tests and immunoblotting for IgE binding components showed that she was sensitized to her husband's seminal plasma. Local desensitization, which persisted for six months, was achieved by intravaginal administration of serial dilutions of her husband's seminal plasma.

  16. Why Do People Die of Anaphylaxis?—A Clinical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Kumar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaphylaxis is a source of anxiety for patients and healthcare providers. It is a medical emergency that presents with a broad array of symptoms and signs, many of which can be deceptively similar to other diseases such as myocardial infarction, asthma, or panic attacks. In addition to these diagnostic challenges, anaphylaxis presents management difficulties due to rapid onset and progression, lack of appropriate self-treatment education and implementation by patients, severity of the allergic response, exacerbating medications or concurrent disease, and unpredictability. The most common causes of anaphylaxis are food allergies, stinging insects and immunotherapy (allergy shots but idiopathic anaphylaxis, latex allergy and drug hypersensitive all contribute to the epidemiology. Reactions to IVP and other dyes are coined anaphylactoid reactions but have identical pathophysiology and treatment, once the mast cell has been degranulated. As many antigens can be the trigger for fatal anaphylaxis, it is useful to examine the features of each etiology individually, highlighting factors common to all fatal anaphylaxis and some specific to certain etiologies. Generally what distinguishes a fatal from non fatal reaction is often just the rapidity to apply correct therapy. Prevention is clearly the key and should identify high-risk patients in an attempt to minimize the likely of a severe reaction. Although fatal anaphylaxis is rare, it is likely underreported.

  17. Why Do People Die of Anaphylaxis?—A Clinical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arvind; Teuber, Suzanne S.; Gershwin, M. Eric

    2005-01-01

    Anaphylaxis is a source of anxiety for patients and healthcare providers. It is a medical emergency that presents with a broad array of symptoms and signs, many of which can be deceptively similar to other diseases such as myocardial infarction, asthma, or panic attacks. In addition to these diagnostic challenges, anaphylaxis presents management difficulties due to rapid onset and progression, lack of appropriate self-treatment education and implementation by patients, severity of the allergic response, exacerbating medications or concurrent disease, and unpredictability. The most common causes of anaphylaxis are food allergies, stinging insects and immunotherapy (allergy shots) but idiopathic anaphylaxis, latex allergy and drug hypersensitive all contribute to the epidemiology. Reactions to IVP and other dyes are coined anaphylactoid reactions but have identical pathophysiology and treatment, once the mast cell has been degranulated. As many antigens can be the trigger for fatal anaphylaxis, it is useful to examine the features of each etiology individually, highlighting factors common to all fatal anaphylaxis and some specific to certain etiologies. Generally what distinguishes a fatal from non fatal reaction is often just the rapidity to apply correct therapy. Prevention is clearly the key and should identify high-risk patients in an attempt to minimize the likely of a severe reaction. Although fatal anaphylaxis is rare, it is likely underreported. PMID:16584114

  18. Use of alpha-agonists for management of anaphylaxis occurring under anaesthesia: case studies and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heytman, M; Rainbird, A

    2004-12-01

    Anaphylaxis is an uncommon but serious complication of anaesthesia. Most current guidelines for the management of anaphylaxis list only epinephrine as a vasopressor to use in the event of cardiovascular collapse. We present two cases of anaphylaxis under anaesthesia where return of spontaneous circulation was refractory to epinephrine, but occurred following the administration of the alpha-agonist metaraminol. Potential advantages and disadvantages of using epinephrine in this setting, the role of alpha-agonists and some potential mechanisms accounting for their role in successful management are reviewed. PMID:15549981

  19. Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis due to wheat in a young woman.

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Ahanchian; Reza Farid; Elham Ansari; Hamid Reza Kianifar; Farahzad Jabbari Azad; Seyed Ali Jafari; Reza Purreza; Shadi Noorizadeh

    2013-01-01

    Food Dependent Exercise-Induced Allergy is a rare condition. However, the occurrence of anaphylaxis is increasing especially in young people. The diagnosis of anaphylaxis is based on clinical criteria and can be supported  by laboratory tests such as serum tryptase and positive skin test  results  for  specific IgE  to  potential  triggering allergens. Anaphylaxis prevention needs strict avoidance of confirmed relevant allergen.  Food-exercise challenge test  may be  an acceptable method  for...

  20. A case of taurine-containing drink induced anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Eun; Lee, Suh-Young; Jo, Eun-Jung; Kim, Mi-Young; Yang, Min-Suk; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Kim, Sae-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Taurine is one of most abundant free amino acids in mammalian tissue. It has been used for various health functional foods as a main ingredient in food industry. A 33-year-old female patient repeatedly experienced generalized itching, urticaria, dyspnea and dizziness after drinking taurine-containing drinks. The patient showed positive response to oral challenge tests with taurine-containing drinks. The patient also showed positive response with synthetic taurine but not with natural taurine. Skin prick test and basophil activation test with the synthetic taurine were negative. To our knowledge, there has been no report of taurine-induced hypersensitivity reactions. We herein report the first case of taurine-containing drink induced anaphylaxis, especially by synthetic taurine. PMID:23404176

  1. Treatment with Epinephrine (Adrenaline) in Suspected Anaphylaxis during Anesthesia in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garvey, Lene H; Belhage, Bo; Krøigaard, Mogens; Husum, Bent; Malling, Hans-Jørgen; Mosbech, Holger

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: Literature on the use of epinephrine in the treatment of anaphylaxis during anesthesia is very limited. The objective of this study was to investigate how often epinephrine is used in the treatment of suspected anaphylaxis during anesthesia in Denmark and whether timing of treatment is...... important. METHODS:: A retrospective study of 270 patients investigated at the Danish Anaesthesia Allergy Centre after referral due to suspected anaphylaxis during anesthesia was performed. Reactions had been graded by severity: C1, mild reactions; C2, moderate reactions; C3, anaphylactic shock with......, infusion was needed in 12 of 60 patients (20%) treated early versus 12 of 35 patients (34%) treated late (odds ratio, 2.09) (95% confidence interval, 0.81-5.35). CONCLUSION:: Anaphylaxis may be difficult to diagnose during anesthesia, and treatment with epinephrine can be delayed as a consequence...

  2. Increased regional vascular albumin permeation in the rat during anaphylaxis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The changes in vascular albumin permeation induced by systemic anaphylaxis were studied simultaneously in 21 different tissues of the same animal. Before Ag challenge sensitized rats were injected i.v. with 125I-albumin (test tracer), 51Cr-RBC (vascular space marker) and 57Co-EDTA (extravascular space marker). The index of vascular permeation used was the tissue to blood isotope ratio (tbir), which was obtained by dividing the ratio of 125I/51Cr counts in each tissue by the ratio of the same isotopes in the arterial blood sample. After Ag challenge, the increase in the tbir varied considerably among the different tissues. The most pronounced increase was noted in the lymph node (ninefold) followed by the aorta and mesentery (six- to sevenfold) and the various parts of the gastrointestinal tract (four- to sixfold). In the skin less than skeletal muscle less than lung less than liver and eye two- to fourfold increases occurred. Relatively minor increases in albumin permeation (less than twofold) were observed in the brain less than kidney less than heart and less than spleen. The testis was the only organ in which no significant change occurred. For some of the tissues there was also an increase in the tbir for 57Co/51Cr (an index of the extracellular fluid space) suggesting edema formation. The highest increase was noted in the aorta (fourfold). Minor increases occurred in the atrium of the heart, stomach, duodenum, and lymph nodes. There was also a 36% increase in hematocrit. Therefore, systemic anaphylaxis caused extensive extravasation of albumin and hemoconcentration

  3. Anaphylaxis to muscle relaxants: rational for skin tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moneret-Vautrin, D A; Kanny, G

    2002-09-01

    IgE-dependent allergy to muscle relaxants (MR) has an estimated prevalence of 1 out of 6500 General Anesthesias (GA). 62% of anaphylaxis during surgery are due to MR anaphylaxis. All the molecules are divalent, carrying two NH4+ epitopes (quaternary ammonium ions), either structurally or after rapid in vivo protonization (vecuronium). The excellent overall performance of skin test makes them the golden standard for the diagnosis of anaphylactoid reactions. Techniques include intradermal tests and prick-tests. The current localizations are the forearm and the back. Positivity criteria are 3 mm for prick-tests. For IDTs, the criterium is the doubling of the size of the injection papula, when 0.02 to 0.04 ml is injected: 8 mm. The recommended concentrations are not falsely negative. Commercial concentrations can be tested by prick tests, except for mivacurium and atracurium tested of 1:10 dilution. A scale of concentrations is advised for IDT starting with 1:10,000, up to a normally non reactive concentration that is: 100 micrograms/ml (succinylcholine), 200 micrograms/ml (gallamine), 10 micrograms/ml (atracurium), 2 micrograms/ml (mivacurium), 200 micrograms/ml (pancuronium), 400 micrograms/ml (vecuronium), 1,000 micrograms/ml (rocuronium), 200 micrograms/ml (cis atracurium). The specificity and sensitivity of the skin tests to MRs are greater than 95%. The reproducibility over years is 88%. The overall concordance of PT and IDR is 97%. Both types of tests can be used for the diagnosis. IDT have to be carried out for the search of the cross sensitization. 84% of patients do have cross sensitization to MRs but only 16% react to all MRs. The further use of MRs selected by negative IDTs has been proved to be safe. PMID:12389445

  4. [Bupivacaine-induced Anaphylaxis in a Parturient Undergoing Cesarean Section].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Mitsuo; Tachibana, Kazuya; Mitsuda, Nobuaki; Kinouchi, Keiko

    2015-02-01

    We describe a case of anaphylaxis that occurred in a 33-year-old gravida 1, para 1 term woman scheduled for cesarean delivery for breech presentation. Her past history was unremarkable except for orciprenaline allergy. Spinal anesthesia was performed at L3-4 using 2.5 ml of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine and 0.1 mg morphine. Seven minutes after spinal anesthesia, she complained of hoarseness and difficulty in breathing and 3 minutes later, blood pressure decreased to 76/51 mmHg, and oxygen saturation to 87% with supplemental oxygen. Skin flushing was noted in the face and trunk of the body and anaphylaxis was diagnosed. She was treated with a rapid intravenous infusion and iv administration of phenylephrine (total dose 0.4 mg), ephedrine (total dose 25 mg), hydrocortisone and famotidine. Cesarean section was started 23 minutes after spinal anesthesia when blood pressure and oxygen saturation recovered. A male infant was delivered (18 minutes after the onset of anaphylactic event) with Apgar scores of 2 and 5 at 1 and 5 min, respectively and resuscitated with mask ventilation. Umbilical artery blood gas analysis revealed pH 6.85, base excess -20.3 mmol x l (-1) and lactate 109 mg x dl (-1). The mother was discharged from the hospital on the 6th postoperative day. The baby's electroencephalogram, however, demonstrated a pattern consistent with mild hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Lymphocyte stimulation test revealed that she was allergic to bupivacaine. If maternal hypotension persists, i.m. or i.v. adrenaline should be administered immediately because maternal hypotension and hypoxemia may cause significant fetal morbidity and mortality and prompt cesarean section should be considered. PMID:26121818

  5. The Severe Adverse Reaction to Vitamin K1 Injection Is Anaphylactoid Reaction but Not Anaphylaxis

    OpenAIRE

    Mi, Yan-Ni; Ping, Na-Na; Xiao, Xue; Zhu, Yan-Bing; Liu, Jing; Cao, Yong-xiao

    2014-01-01

    The severe adverse reaction to vitamin K1 injection is always remarkable and is thought to result from anaphylaxis. Paradoxically, however, some patients administered vitamin K1 injection for the first time have adverse reactions. Using beagle dogs, the present study tested the hypothesis that the response to vitamin K1 is an anaphylactoid reaction. The results showed that serious anaphylaxis-like symptoms appeared in beagle dogs after the administration of vitamin K1 injection for the first ...

  6. Anaphylaxis to Iodinated Contrast Media: Clinical Characteristics Related with Development of Anaphylactic Shock

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Min-Hye; Lee, Suh-Young; Lee, Seung-Eun; Yang, Min-Suk; Jung, Jae-Woo; Park, Chang Min; Lee, Whal; Cho, Sang-Heon; Kang, Hye-Ryun

    2014-01-01

    Objective Anaphylaxis is the most severe form of radiocontrast media (RCM) induced hypersensitivity and can be life-threatening if profound hypotension is combined. With increased use of iodine based RCM, related hypersensitivity is rapidly growing. However, the clinical characteristics and risk factors of RCM induced anaphylaxis accompanied by hypotension (anaphylactic shock) are not clearly defined. This study was performed to investigate the risk factors of RCM induced anaphylactic shock a...

  7. Regulatory CD4+Foxp3+ T cells control the severity of anaphylaxis.

    OpenAIRE

    Reem Kanjarawi; Michel Dy; Emilie Bardel; Tim Sparwasser; Bertrand Dubois; Salah Mecheri; Dominique Kaiserlian

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Anaphylaxis is a life-threatening outcome of immediate-type hypersensitivity to allergen, consecutive to mast cell degranulation by allergen-specific IgE. Regulatory T cells (Treg) can control allergic sensitization and mast cell degranulation, yet their clinical benefit on anaphylactic symptoms is poorly documented. Here we investigated whether Treg action during the effector arm of the allergic response alleviates anaphylaxis. METHODS: We used a validated model of IgE-mediated pa...

  8. Acute and preventive management of anaphylaxis in German primary school and kindergarten children

    OpenAIRE

    Kilger, Magdalena; Range, Ursula; Vogelberg, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Background Anaphylaxis is a severe, life-threatening situation. However, little is known about real-life anaphylactic management in children, especially in kindergarten and school settings, where a large number of anaphylaxes take place. Methods Parents, school teachers and child-care providers of 86 primary schools and kindergartens in the city of Dresden, Germany, received questionnaires to report their experience with anaphylaxis in children. The main foci of interest were symptoms, allerg...

  9. Beware of the caterpillar: Anaphylaxis to the spotted tussock moth caterpillar, Lophocampa maculata

    OpenAIRE

    DuGar, Brandon; Sterbank, Julie; Tcheurekdjian, Haig; Hostoffer, Robert

    2014-01-01

    We present a case report of a 5-year-old boy with presumed anaphylaxis to the caterpillar, Lophocampa maculata, manifesting as the acute development of diffuse urticaria and progressive dyspnea. This reaction required prompt treatment with antihistamines and a bronchodilator. Allergen scratch testing with a homogenized caterpillar extract suggests that immunoglobulin E–mediated type I hypersensitivity as the pathophysiological mechanism responsible for the boy's anaphylaxis. This case report ...

  10. A Case of Anaphylaxis Induced by Contact with Young Radish (Raphanus sativus L)

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yung-Hee; Lee, Jae-Hyoung; Kang, Hye-Ran; Ha, Jung-Hoon; Lee, Byoung-Hoon; Kim, Sang-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Young radish (Raphanus sativus L), a member of the mustard family (Cruciferae), is a common ingredient of Kimchi. Although few reports have described anaphylaxis to cruciferous vegetables, we report the case of anaphylaxis induced by contact with young radish. A 46-year-old female with a history of contact allergy to metal presented to our emergency room (ER) with dizziness, generalized eruption and gastrointestinal upset. Her symptoms developed after re-exposure to young radish while choppin...

  11. Anaphylaxis following intravenous ranitidine: A rare adverse reaction of a common drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Chopra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ranitidine hydrochloride is a widely used drug that is generally well-tolerated. Anaphylaxis is rarely observed with ranitidine. We report a case who developed severe anaphylaxis following single dose of intravenous ranitidine. The article highlights the importance of recognition of this serious adverse event and re-emphasizes the need for cautious use of drugs, especially in those with known history of allergy.

  12. Anaphylaxis: guidelines from the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraro, A; Roberts, G; Worm, M; Bilò, M B; Brockow, K; Fernández Rivas, M; Santos, A F; Zolkipli, Z Q; Bellou, A; Beyer, K; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Cardona, V; Clark, A T; Demoly, P; Dubois, A E J; DunnGalvin, A; Eigenmann, P; Halken, S; Harada, L; Lack, G; Jutel, M; Niggemann, B; Ruëff, F; Timmermans, F; Vlieg-Boerstra, B J; Werfel, T; Dhami, S; Panesar, S; Akdis, C A; Sheikh, A

    2014-08-01

    Anaphylaxis is a clinical emergency, and all healthcare professionals should be familiar with its recognition and acute and ongoing management. These guidelines have been prepared by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) Taskforce on Anaphylaxis. They aim to provide evidence-based recommendations for the recognition, risk factor assessment, and the management of patients who are at risk of, are experiencing, or have experienced anaphylaxis. While the primary audience is allergists, these guidelines are also relevant to all other healthcare professionals. The development of these guidelines has been underpinned by two systematic reviews of the literature, both on the epidemiology and on clinical management of anaphylaxis. Anaphylaxis is a potentially life-threatening condition whose clinical diagnosis is based on recognition of a constellation of presenting features. First-line treatment for anaphylaxis is intramuscular adrenaline. Useful second-line interventions may include removing the trigger where possible, calling for help, correct positioning of the patient, high-flow oxygen, intravenous fluids, inhaled short-acting bronchodilators, and nebulized adrenaline. Discharge arrangements should involve an assessment of the risk of further reactions, a management plan with an anaphylaxis emergency action plan, and, where appropriate, prescribing an adrenaline auto-injector. If an adrenaline auto-injector is prescribed, education on when and how to use the device should be provided. Specialist follow-up is essential to investigate possible triggers, to perform a comprehensive risk assessment, and to prevent future episodes by developing personalized risk reduction strategies including, where possible, commencing allergen immunotherapy. Training for the patient and all caregivers is essential. There are still many gaps in the evidence base for anaphylaxis. PMID:24909803

  13. Incidence of fatal food anaphylaxis in people with food allergy: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Umasunthar, T; Leonardi-Bee, J; Hodes, M; Turner, P J; Gore, C.; Habibi, P; Warner, J. O.; Boyle, R. J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Food allergy is a common cause of anaphylaxis, but the incidence of fatal food anaphylaxis is not known. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of fatal food anaphylaxis for people with food allergy and relate this to other mortality risks in the general population. Methods We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis, using the generic inverse variance method. Two authors selected studies by consensus, independently extracted data and assessed the quality of inc...

  14. Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis due to wheat in a young woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahanchian, Hamid; Farid, Reza; Ansari, Elham; Kianifar, Hamid Reza; Jabbari Azad, Farahzad; Jafari, Seyed Ali; Purreza, Reza; Noorizadeh, Shadi

    2013-03-01

    Food Dependent Exercise-Induced Allergy is a rare condition. However, the occurrence of anaphylaxis is increasing especially in young people. The diagnosis of anaphylaxis is based on clinical criteria and can be supported by laboratory tests such as serum tryptase and positive skin test results for specific IgE to potential triggering allergens. Anaphylaxis prevention needs strict avoidance of confirmed relevant allergen. Food-exercise challenge test may be an acceptable method for diagnosis of Food Dependent Exercise-Induced Allergy and dietary elimination of food is recommended to manage it. In this study, a 32 year-old woman visited the allergy clinic with a history of several episodes of hives since 11 years ago and 3 life-threatening attacks of anaphylaxis during the previous 6 months. The onsets of majority of these attacks were due to physical activity after breakfast. On Blood RAST test, the panel of common food Allergens was used and she had positive test only to wheat flour. On skin prick tests for common food allergens she showed a 6 millimeter wheal with 14 mm flare to Wheat Extract. The rest of allergens were negative.The patient was diagnosed as wheat-dependent exercise-induced, and all foods containing wheat were omitted from her diet. In this report we emphasized on the importance of careful history taking in anaphylaxis diagnosis. PMID:23454785

  15. Level of knowledge about anaphylaxis and its management among health care providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H S Drupad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was conducted to assess the level of knowledge of health care providers regarding anaphylaxis and its management at a tertiary care teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: A pretested structured questionnaire was administered to interns, MBBS Phase II students, and nursing students. The subjects were asked to answer the questionnaire, which included questions regarding anaphylaxis and its management. Results: Of 265 subjects, 151 (56.9% of subjects answered correctly that adrenaline is the first line of drug for the treatment of anaphylaxis. Among 151 subjects, 40 (26.4% answered the correct dose of adrenaline, of which 25 (16.5% subjects selected intramuscular injection as the most appropriate route of administration. Medical students′ performance was better than interns and nursing students on questions regarding dose, route, and site of adrenaline administration. Conclusion: Knowledge regarding the management of anaphylaxis was inadequate in almost all the health care providers who were included in the study. Improved education and training of health care providers are necessary for better management of anaphylaxis.

  16. Pathophysiological mechanisms of exercise-induced anaphylaxis: an EAACI position statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansley, L; Bonini, M; Delgado, L; Del Giacco, S; Du Toit, G; Khaitov, M; Kurowski, M; Hull, J H; Moreira, A; Robson-Ansley, P J

    2015-10-01

    This document is the result of a consensus on the mechanisms of exercise-induced anaphylaxis (EIAn), an unpredictable and potentially fatal syndrome. A multidisciplinary panel of experts including exercise physiologists, allergists, lung physicians, paediatricians and a biostatistician reached the given consensus. Exercise-induced anaphylaxis (EIAn) describes a rare and potentially fatal syndrome in which anaphylaxis occurs in conjunction with exercise. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying EIAn have not yet been elucidated although a number of hypotheses have been proposed. This review evaluates the validity of each of the popular theories in relation to exercise physiology and immunology. On the basis of this evidence, it is concluded that proposed mechanisms lack validity, and it is recommended that a global research network is developed with a common approach to the diagnosis and treatment of EIAn in order to gain sufficient power for scientific evaluation. PMID:26100553

  17. Differences in hospital attendance for anaphylaxis between immigrants and non-immigrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørredam, Marie Louise; Sheikh, Aziz; Dynnes Svendsen, Kira;

    2016-01-01

    -born individuals (n=740,600). Personal identification numbers were cross-linked to the Danish National Patient Registry identifying all first-time hospital attendances for anaphylaxis from January 1,1994 and December 31, 2010. Incidence rate ratios were estimated stratified for sex and region of birth, adjusting...... showed a decreased risk (RR=0.65; 95%CI: 0.34;1.25). Compared to Danish-born, non-Western immigrants who obtained residence permission as children had a decreased risk of hospital attendance for anaphylaxis (RR=0.48; 95%CI: 0.25;0.91). CONCLUSION: This Danish register-based study using nationwide data...... revealed fewer hospital attendances for anaphylaxis among non-Western immigrants compared to Danish-born; however this protection was lost over time....

  18. Differences in hospital attendance for anaphylaxis between immigrants and non-immigrants: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørredam, Marie Louise; Sheikh, Aziz; Dynnes Svendsen, Kira;

    2016-01-01

    -born individuals (n=740,600). Personal identification numbers were cross-linked to the Danish National Patient Registry identifying all first-time hospital attendances for anaphylaxis from January 1,1994 and December 31, 2010. Incidence rate ratios were estimated stratified for sex and region of birth, adjusting...... showed a decreased risk (RR=0.65; 95%CI: 0.34;1.25). Compared to Danish-born, non-Western immigrants who obtained residence permission as children had a decreased risk of hospital attendance for anaphylaxis (RR=0.48; 95%CI: 0.25;0.91). CONCLUSION: This Danish register-based study using nationwide data...... revealed fewer hospital attendances for anaphylaxis among non-Western immigrants compared to Danish-born; however this protection was lost over time....

  19. Regulatory CD4+Foxp3+ T cells control the severity of anaphylaxis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem Kanjarawi

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Anaphylaxis is a life-threatening outcome of immediate-type hypersensitivity to allergen, consecutive to mast cell degranulation by allergen-specific IgE. Regulatory T cells (Treg can control allergic sensitization and mast cell degranulation, yet their clinical benefit on anaphylactic symptoms is poorly documented. Here we investigated whether Treg action during the effector arm of the allergic response alleviates anaphylaxis. METHODS: We used a validated model of IgE-mediated passive systemic anaphylaxis, induced by intravenous challenge with DNP-HSA in mice passively sensitized with DNP-specific IgE. Anaphylaxis was monitored by the drop in body temperature as well as plasma histamine and serum mMCP1 levels. The role of Treg was analyzed using MHC class II-deficient (Aβ(°/° mice, treatment with anti-CD25 or anti-CD4 mAbs and conditional ablation of Foxp3(+ Treg in DEREG mice. Therapeutic efficacy of Treg was also evaluated by transfer experiments using FoxP3-eGFP knock-in mice. RESULTS: Anaphylaxis did not occur in mast cell-deficient W/W(v mutant mice and was only moderate and transient in mice deficient for histamine receptor-1. Defects in constitutive Treg, either genetic or induced by antibody or toxin treatment resulted in a more severe and/or sustained hypothermia, associated with a rise in serum mMCP1, but not histamine. Adoptive transfer of Foxp3(+ Treg from either naïve or DNP-sensitized donors similarly alleviated body temperature loss in Treg-deficient DEREG mice. CONCLUSION: Constitutive Foxp3(+ Treg can control the symptomatic phase of mast cell and IgE-dependent anaphylaxis in mice. This might open up new therapeutic avenues using constitutive rather than Ag-specific Treg for inducing tolerance in allergic patients.

  20. Risk of solid cancer, cardiovascular disease, anaphylaxis, osteoporosis and fractures in patients with systemic mastocytosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broesby-Olsen, Sigurd; Farkas, Dóra Körmendiné; Vestergaard, Hanne;

    2016-01-01

    In patients with systemic mastocytosis (SM), several aspects of morbidity remain poorly understood. We assessed the risk of solid cancers, cardiovascular disease, anaphylaxis, osteoporosis, and fractures in SM patients. Using Danish medical registries, we conducted a nationwide population.......2 (95% CI 0.9-1.6) and the 10-year AR was 5.9% (95% CI 3.9-8.4). SM patients are at increased risk of solid cancers - especially melanoma and NMSC-and cardiovascular disease. The risk of anaphylaxis and osteoporosis is clearly increased in SM, though absolute risk was low in this population-based study...

  1. Serious Shortcomings in the Management of Children with Anaphylaxis in Scottish Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Rankin, Kirsty E; Sheikh, Aziz

    2006-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background. Anaphylaxis is a severe allergic reaction that can cause a drop in blood pressure and swelling of the body tissues (swelling of the neck and throat and narrowing of the airways can make it hard to breathe). The reaction can be triggered by foods, such as peanuts or eggs, or by bee stings, natural latex (rubber), and certain drugs such as penicillin. Foods are the most common trigger in children. In the United Kingdom, thousands of people develop anaphylaxis each y...

  2. Allergy/Anaphylaxis Management in the School Setting. Position Statement. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharski, Susan; DeSisto, Marie; Pontius, Deborah; Sheets, Jodi; Richesin, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that the safe and effective management of allergies and anaphylaxis in schools requires a collaborative, multidisciplinary team approach. The registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as the school nurse), is the leader in a comprehensive management approach…

  3. Spontaneous Intraperitoneal Rupture of a Hepatic Hydatid Cyst with Subsequent Anaphylaxis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Tinsley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid cyst rupture into the abdomen is a serious complication of cystic hydatid disease of the liver (Cystic Echinococcosis with an incidence of up to 16% in some series and can result in anaphylaxis or anaphylactoid reactions in up to 12.5% of cases. At presentation, 36–40% of hydatid cysts have ruptured or become secondarily infected. Rupture can be microscopic or macroscopic and can be fatal without surgery. Hydatid disease of the liver is primarily caused by the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus and occurs worldwide, with incidence of up to 200 per 100,000 in endemic areas. Our case describes a 24-year-old Bulgarian woman presenting with epigastric pain and evidence of anaphylaxis. Abdominal CT demonstrated a ruptured hydatid cyst in the left lobe of the liver. A partial left lobe hepatectomy, cholecystectomy, and peritoneal washout was performed with good effect. She was treated for anaphylaxis and received antihelminthic treatment with Albendazole and Praziquantel. She made a good recovery following surgery and medical treatment and was well on follow-up. Intraperitoneal rupture with anaphylaxis is a rare occurrence, and there do not seem to be any reported cases from UK centres prior to this.

  4. Spontaneous intraperitoneal rupture of a hepatic hydatid cyst with subsequent anaphylaxis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinsley, Benjamin; Abbara, Aula; Kadaba, Raghunandan; Sheth, Hemant; Sandhu, Gurjinder

    2013-01-01

    Hydatid cyst rupture into the abdomen is a serious complication of cystic hydatid disease of the liver (Cystic Echinococcosis) with an incidence of up to 16% in some series and can result in anaphylaxis or anaphylactoid reactions in up to 12.5% of cases. At presentation, 36-40% of hydatid cysts have ruptured or become secondarily infected. Rupture can be microscopic or macroscopic and can be fatal without surgery. Hydatid disease of the liver is primarily caused by the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus and occurs worldwide, with incidence of up to 200 per 100,000 in endemic areas. Our case describes a 24-year-old Bulgarian woman presenting with epigastric pain and evidence of anaphylaxis. Abdominal CT demonstrated a ruptured hydatid cyst in the left lobe of the liver. A partial left lobe hepatectomy, cholecystectomy, and peritoneal washout was performed with good effect. She was treated for anaphylaxis and received antihelminthic treatment with Albendazole and Praziquantel. She made a good recovery following surgery and medical treatment and was well on follow-up. Intraperitoneal rupture with anaphylaxis is a rare occurrence, and there do not seem to be any reported cases from UK centres prior to this. PMID:25431702

  5. Comparison of School Food Allergy Emergency Plans to the Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network's Standard Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Jill; Bergren, Martha Dewey; Finnegan, Lorna

    2007-01-01

    Eighty-four percent of children with food allergies have a reaction in school, and 25% of first food reactions occur in schools. An evaluation was conducted comparing food allergy emergency plans to the Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network's (FAAN) Food Allergy Action Plan. Of the 94 respondents, 60 provided food allergy emergency plans for…

  6. EAACI Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Guidelines : Food allergy health-related quality of life measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muraro, A.; Dubois, Anthony; DunnGalvin, A.; Hourihane, J. O'B.; de Jong, N. W.; Meyer, R.; Panesar, S. S.; Roberts, G.; Salvilla, S.; Sheikh, A.; Worth, A.; Flokstra-de Blok, B. M. J.

    2014-01-01

    Instruments have been developed and validated for the measurement of health-related quality of life in patients with food allergy. This guideline has been prepared by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology's (EAACI) Guidelines for Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Group. It draws on a sy

  7. Nitric oxide decreases intestinal haemorrhagic lesions in rat anaphylaxis independently of mast cell activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Carvalho Tavares

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to assess the role of nitric oxide (NO in the intestinal lesions of passive anaphylaxis, since this experimental model resembles necrotizing enterocolitis. Sprague-Dawley rats were sensitized with IgE anti-dinitrophenol monoclonal antibody. Extravasation of protein-rich plasma and haemorrhagia were measured in the small intestine. Plasma histamine was measured to assess mast cell activation. The effect of exogenous NO on the lesions was assessed by using two structurally unrelated NO-donors: sodium nitroprusside and S-nitroso-Nacetyl-penicillamine (SNAP. An increased basal production of NO was observed in cells taken after anaphylaxis, associated with a reduced response to platelet-activating factor, interleukin 1beta, and IgE/DNP-bovine serum albumin complexes. The response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide and dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP was enhanced 24 h after challenge, but at earlier times was not significantly different from that observed in controls. Treatment with either sodium nitroprusside or SNAP produced a significant reduction of the haemorrhagic lesions, which are a hallmark of rat anaphylaxis. The extravasation of protein-rich plasma was not influenced by NO-donors. The increase of plasma histamine elicited by the anaphylactic challenge was not influenced by SNAP treatment. NO-donors protect intestinal haemorrhagic lesions of rat anaphylaxis by a mechanism apparently independent of mast cell histamine release.

  8. Delayed Anaphylaxis to the flu vaccine unrelated to known non-viral components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, J; Horbal, J; Tcheurekdjian, H; Sher, T H; Hostoffer, R

    2015-09-01

    On February 4, 2010 the CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices voted for universal flu vaccination to expand protection against the flu throughout the United States. In addition to this administration expansion, six new influenza vaccines have been introduced into the market possibly introducing new allergenic potentials. We report two cases of delayed anaphylaxis to the flu vaccine. PMID:26357001

  9. Transfusion-associated anaphylaxis during anaesthesia and surgery--a retrospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindsted, G; Larsen, R; Krøigaard, M;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Transfusion-associated anaphylaxis (TAA) is a severe adverse reaction reported to occur in 1:9000-90 000 transfusions. According to the Danish Registration of Transfusion Risks (DART), the frequency is 1:300 000 transfusions, which suggests insufficient reporting of TAA...

  10. Anaphylaxis Imaging: Non-Invasive Measurement of Surface Body Temperature and Physical Activity in Small Animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisztina Manzano-Szalai

    Full Text Available In highly sensitized patients, the encounter with a specific allergen from food, insect stings or medications may rapidly induce systemic anaphylaxis with potentially lethal symptoms. Countless animal models of anaphylaxis, most often in BALB/c mice, were established to understand the pathophysiology and to prove the safety of different treatments. The most common symptoms during anaphylactic shock are drop of body temperature and reduced physical activity. To refine, improve and objectify the currently applied manual monitoring methods, we developed an imaging method for the automated, non-invasive measurement of the whole-body surface temperature and, at the same time, of the horizontal and vertical movement activity of small animals. We tested the anaphylaxis imaging in three in vivo allergy mouse models for i milk allergy, ii peanut allergy and iii egg allergy. These proof-of-principle experiments suggest that the imaging technology represents a reliable non-invasive method for the objective monitoring of small animals during anaphylaxis over time. We propose that the method will be useful for monitoring diseases associated with both, changes in body temperature and in physical behaviour.

  11. The danger of chlorhexidine in lignocaine gel: A case report of anaphylaxis during urinary catheterisation

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Michael; Lenaghan, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a case of anaphylaxis secondary to chlorhexidine during urethral catheterisation. Despite little evidence for the use of antiseptic lubricants in preventing catheter-associated urinary tract infections, the distribution and use of such products continues to be widespread. Chlorhexidine-free lubricating gel is widely available and should be used for urological procedures wherever possible.

  12. Two episodes of anaphylaxis following exposure to hydroxypropyl methylcellulose during cataract surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Sofie J; Heegaard, Steffen; Mosbech, Holger;

    2013-01-01

    UNLABELLED: We report a case of immediate severe anaphylaxis to hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) on 2 separate occasions during cataract surgery in a 71-year-old patient. Skin prick tests were positive for HPMC, a constituent of Ocucoat and Xylocaine gel, which were administered intraocularly...

  13. Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis due to wheat in a young woman.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Ahanchian

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Food Dependent Exercise-Induced Allergy is a rare condition. However, the occurrence of anaphylaxis is increasing especially in young people. The diagnosis of anaphylaxis is based on clinical criteria and can be supported  by laboratory tests such as serum tryptase and positive skin test  results  for  specific IgE  to  potential  triggering allergens. Anaphylaxis prevention needs strict avoidance of confirmed relevant allergen.  Food-exercise challenge test  may be  an acceptable method  for  diagnosis of  Food  ependent  Exercise-Induced Allergy and dietary elimination of food is recommended to manage it.In this study, a 32 year-old woman visited the allergy clinic with a history of several episodes of hives since 11 years ago and 3 life-threatening attacks of anaphylaxis during the previous 6 months. The onsets of majority of these attacks were due to physical activity after breakfast. On Blood RAST test, the panel of common food Allergens was used and she had positive test only to wheat flour. On skin prick tests for common food allergens she showed a 6 millimeter wheal with 14 mm flare to Wheat Extract. The rest of allergens were negative.The patient was diagnosed as wheat-dependent exercise-induced, and all foods containing wheat were omitted from her diet.In this report we emphasized on the importance of careful history taking in anaphylaxis diagnosis.

  14. Roots Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Barnabas

    1998-01-01

    Offers historical information about square roots. Presents three different methods--Hero's method, visual method, and remainder method--which can be used to teach the finding of square roots and one method for determining cube roots. (ASK)

  15. Cow’s Milk Anaphylaxis in Children First Report of Iranian Food Allergy Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegah Teymourpour

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Cow’s  milk  anaphylaxis is  the  most  common  food-induced  anaphylaxis in  Iranian children. The clinical and laboratory findings of cow’s milk anaphylaxis are evaluated in this study. All children who had experienced cow’s  milk anaphylaxis and had been referred to Immunology, asthma and allergy research center during a 5-year period were considered. After fulfilling a questionnaire, patients underwent measurement of total IgE and cow’s milk- specific IgE by Immunocap test and Skin prick test (SPT with cow’s milk extract. Patients with a convincing history and one positive cow’s milk-specific IgE test (SPT or Immunocap test and patients with both positive tests were enrolled, in this study.Out of 49 patients, 59.2% were male. Patients’ mean age was 5 years old and their mean age at the  time of  first attack was 5.7 months  (SD =  4.3. Most  of  the  patients  have experienced more than one episode of anaphylaxis (79.5% and in 85.7% of all cases, first attack occurred during the first year of life. Severity grading 1-5 were 2%, 6.1%, 18.4%,69.4%, 4.1% respectively. Most common manifestations were cutaneous 98%, Respiratory91.8%, Gastrointestinal  55.1%, Cardiovascular 46.9% and  neurologic  46.9%  signs  and symptoms  respectively. Twenty four  patients showed positive SPT. Mean total IgE  was 239.6±3.3  (IU/mL  and  mean  cow’s  milk-specific IgE  was 19.28±27.2  (IU/mL.  Most patients showed reactions only after ingestion of cow’s milk or after dairy foods (81.6%.It  is concluded  that  cow’s milk anaphylaxis may happen  early in life. Regarding the severity of attacks and remarkable number of patients with several attacks, poor knowledge about this disorder is evident.

  16. Should adrenaline be used in patients with hemodynamically stable anaphylaxis? Incident case control study nested within a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Byuk Sung; Kim, Ji Yeon; Seo, Dong-Woo; Kim, Won Young; Lee, Jae Ho; Sheikh, Aziz; Bates, David W

    2016-01-01

    Although adrenaline (epinephrine) is a cornerstone of initial anaphylaxis treatment, it is not often used. We sought to assess whether use of adrenaline in hemodynamically stable patients with anaphylaxis could prevent the development of hypotension. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 761 adult patients with anaphylaxis presenting to the emergency department (ED) of a tertiary care hospital over a 10-year period. We divided the patients into two groups according to the occurrence of hypotension and compared demographic characteristics, clinical features, treatments and outcomes. Of the 340 patients with anaphylaxis who were normotensive at first presentation, 40 patients experienced hypotension during their ED stay. The ED stay of the hypotension group was significantly longer than that of patients who did not experience hypotension (496 min vs 253 min, P = 0.000). Adrenaline use in hemodynamically stable anaphylaxis patient was independently associated with a lower risk of developing in-hospital occurrence of hypotension: OR, 0.254 [95% CI, 0.091-0.706]. Adrenaline use in hemodynamically stable anaphylaxis patients was associated with a reduced risk of developing in-hospital occurrence of hypotension. Adverse events induced by adrenaline were rare when the intramuscular route was used. PMID:26837822

  17. Scandinavian Clinical Practice Guidelines on the diagnosis, management and follow-up of anaphylaxis during anaesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroigaard, M; Garvey, L H; Gillberg, L;

    2007-01-01

    The present approach to the diagnosis, management and follow-up of anaphylaxis during anaesthesia varies in the Scandinavian countries. The main purpose of these Scandinavian Clinical Practice Guidelines is to increase the awareness about anaphylaxis during anaesthesia amongst anaesthesiologists....... It is hoped that increased focus on the subject will lead to prompt diagnosis, rapid and correct treatment, and standardised management of patients with anaphylactic reactions during anaesthesia across Scandinavia. The recommendations are based on the best available evidence in the literature, which...... incremental titration of adrenaline (epinephrine) and fluid therapy as first-line treatment. Recommendations for primary and secondary follow-up are given, bearing in mind that there are variations in geography and resources in the different countries. A list of National Centres from which anaesthesiologists...

  18. Perceived history of anaphylaxis and parental overprotection, autonomy, anxiety, and depression in food allergic young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Linda J; Dahlquist, Lynnda M

    2008-12-01

    This study examined autonomy, anxiety, depression, and perceptions of parental behavior in 86 food allergic young adults and 344 healthy young adults between the ages of 18 and 22. Participants completed an online survey measuring self-reported autonomy, anxiety, depression, and perceptions of parental behavior. Results indicated that, as a group, food allergic young adults did not differ from healthy peers. However, food allergic young adults who reported having experienced an anaphylactic reaction described their disease as more severe, reported more worry about their disease, and rated their parents as more overprotective than food allergic young adults who reported never having experienced anaphylaxis. The experience of anaphylaxis may be a reliable indicator of food allergic individuals who are at risk for psychological distress. PMID:19104982

  19. Severe anaphylaxis to Propofol: first case of evidence of sensitization to soy oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, C; Beaudouin, E; Moneret-Vautrin, D A; Kohler, C; Nguyen-Grosjean, V M; Jacquenet, S

    2016-05-01

    The growing worldwide prevalence of food allergies is drawing attention to the risk of allergenic proteins found in intravenous medicinal products, particularly anaesthetics. Propofol induced anaphylaxis has been described. The presence of soybean oil and egg lecithins in the lipid emulsion highlights their suspected responsibility in certain cases. We report a case of anaphylaxis to propofol in an adult patient without food allergy to soy, but with a latent sensitization to soy. An IgE-dependent allergy to propofol was established by a basophil activation test. Here, we document for the first time the existence of specific IgEs to a 65kDa protein, found in soybean oil and soy flour. In the absence of data on the reactogenic threshold for allergenic food proteins injected intravenously, a risk appears to be established and leads us to recommend a systematic detection for proteins in the refined soybean oil used in the pharmaceutical industry for intravenous products. PMID:27152608

  20. HYDATID CYST LIVER EXCISION: THE TWIN PROBLEMS OF ANAPHYLAXIS AND HYPERNATREMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Rampure Vittal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid cyst infestation is most commonly encountered in liver. Though several procedures have been described in the treatment of hepatic echinococcal cysts ranging from simple puncture to liver resection , radical surgery ( T otal pericystectomy or partial hepatectomy is indicated for liver cyst. Prevention of spillage into the peritoneal cavity and wound edges by injecting a scolicidal agent into the unopened cyst and walling off the operative field with sponges soaked in a scolicidal agent are the two most commonly employed measures. 20% hypertonic saline is one of the recommended scolicidal agent , but can be associated with hypernatremia. Anaphylaxis during hydatid cyst resection is one of the rare occurrences. We hereby de scribe the twin problem of Anaphylaxis intraoperatively and hypernatremia postoperatively and its management.

  1. Anaphylaxis to scorpion antivenin and its management following envenomation by Indian red scorpion, Mesobuthus tamulus

    OpenAIRE

    Rahul Ramesh Bhoite; Girija Ramesh Bhoite; Dayanand N Bagdure; Himmatrao S Bawaskar

    2015-01-01

    Mesobuthus tamulus is an Indian red scorpion that is responsible for numerous cases of scorpion stings in the Indian subcontinent. Antivenin, vasodilators, and benzodiazepines are medications of choice in the treatment of scorpion bites. Adverse reactions such as anaphylaxis to antivenin have been infrequently described in the literature. We, herein, present a case of a 42-year-old man stung by Indian red scorpion while gardening at home in India, who presented with extreme pain at the sting ...

  2. Inhibitory effects of guarana seed extract on passive cutaneous anaphylaxis and mast cell degranulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jippo, Tomoko; Kobayashi, Yuko; Sato, Harumi; Hattori, Atsushi; Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Sugimoto, Keiichiro; Shigekawa, Munekazu

    2009-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of guarana seed extract (GSE) on an anti-allergic mechanism. GSE orally administered inhibited the anti-dinitrophenol IgE-induced passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction in mice. Furthermore, it inhibited the degranulation of rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells. It had no cytotoxicity on RBL-2H3 cells. These results show that GSE is a candidate for effective therapeutic material for allergic diseases. PMID:19734657

  3. Spontaneous Intraperitoneal Rupture of a Hepatic Hydatid Cyst with Subsequent Anaphylaxis: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Tinsley; Aula Abbara; Raghunandan Kadaba; Hemant Sheth; Gurjinder Sandhu

    2013-01-01

    Hydatid cyst rupture into the abdomen is a serious complication of cystic hydatid disease of the liver (Cystic Echinococcosis) with an incidence of up to 16% in some series and can result in anaphylaxis or anaphylactoid reactions in up to 12.5% of cases. At presentation, 36–40% of hydatid cysts have ruptured or become secondarily infected. Rupture can be microscopic or macroscopic and can be fatal without surgery. Hydatid disease of the liver is primarily caused by the tapeworm Echinococcu...

  4. An Allergic Reaction (Anaphylaxis) Observed Before Open Heart Surgery in the Operating Room

    OpenAIRE

    Altın, Fırat; Aydın, Selim; Eygi, Börteçin; Güneş, Tevfik; Erkoç, Kamuran; Kutas, Barış

    2012-01-01

    Anaphylaxis and anaphylactoid reactions under general anesthesia are serious events and are often regarded as life threatening situations. A 57-year-old woman was admitted to cardiothora-cic surgery clinic for coronary artery by-pass grafting procedure with a diagnosis of coronary artery disease following a diagnostic coronary artery angiography. Upon arrival to the operating room, after necessary monitoring, general anesthesia was administered. Sterile placement of a central venous catheter ...

  5. Anaphylaxis Triggered by Benzyl Benzoate in a Preparation of Depot Testosterone Undecanoate

    OpenAIRE

    Ong, Gregory S. Y.; Somerville, Colin P.; Jones, Timothy W; Walsh, John P.

    2012-01-01

    We report the first case of an anaphylactic reaction to Reandron 1000 (depot testosterone undecanoate with a castor oil and benzyl benzoate vehicle). While considered to have a favourable safety profile, serious complications such as oil embolism and anaphylaxis can occur. In our patient, skin testing identified benzyl benzoate to be the trigger, with no reaction to castor oil or testosterone undecanoate components. As benzyl benzoate exists in multiple pharmaceuticals, foods, and cosmetics, ...

  6. Exercise-induced anaphylaxis in a cardiopathic patient on chronic aspirin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micucci, C; Amico, D; Braconi, M; Pareo, C; Cimarelli, M E; Subiaco, S

    2014-03-01

    We report the case of a 73 year old man on chronic aspirin therapy who went in anaphylactic shock during his daily farm chores following a meal rich in wheat products. The serum specific IgE assay (ImmunoCAP) showed strong positive specific IgE responses to ω-5 gliadin. A two-year period avoiding wheat meals 3 hours prior to exercise, resulted in a lack of further anaphylaxis; this results aided us in making the diagnosis. PMID:24739129

  7. The acute and long-term management of anaphylaxis: protocol for a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Dhami, Sangeeta; Panesar, Sukhmeet S; Rader, Tamara; Muraro, Antonella; Roberts, Graham; Worm, Margitta; Sheikh, Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Background: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology is in the process of developing its Guideline for Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis, and this systematic review is one of seven inter-linked evidence syntheses that are being undertaken in order to provide a state-of-the-art synopsis of the current evidence base in relation to epidemiology, prevention, diagnosis and clinical management and impact on quality of life, which will be used to inform clinical recommendations.The aims...

  8. Infection with influenza a virus leads to flu antigen-induced cutaneous anaphylaxis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunewald, Susanne M; Hahn, Christian; Wohlleben, Gisela; Teufel, Martin; Major, Tamas; Moll, Heidrun; Bröcker, Eva-B; Erb, Klaus J

    2002-04-01

    It is well established, that viral infections may trigger urticaria or allergic asthma; however, as viral infections induce T helper 1 polarized responses, which lead to the inhibition of T helper 2 cell development, the opposite would be plausible. We wanted to investigate how viral infections may mediate allergic symptoms in a mouse model; therefore, we infected BALB/C mice with influenza A virus intranasally. Histologic analyses of lung sections and bronchoalveolar lavages were performed. In addition, cells from the mediastinal lymph nodes were restimulated in vitro to analyze which types of cytokines were induced by the flu infection. Furthermore, flu-specific antibody titers were determined and local anaphylaxis was measured after rechallenge with flu antigen. We found that airways inflammation consisted predominately of macrophages and lymphocytes, whereas only a few eosinophils were observed. interferon-gamma but no interleukin-4 and little interleukin-5 could be detected in the culture supernatants from in vitro restimulated T cells from the draining lymph nodes. The antibody response was characterized by high levels of virus-specific IgG2a, IgG2b, and IgG1 and, surprisingly, low levels of virus-specific IgE antibodies. Interestingly, flu-infected mice developed active and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis after rechallenge with flu-antigen. As the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction persisted over 48 h and was significantly lower after passive transfer of the serum, which was IgE depleted, local anaphylaxis seemed to be mediated predominately by specific IgE antibodies. Taken together, our results demonstrate that mice infected with flu virus develop virus-specific mast cell degranulation in the skin. Our results may also have implications for the pathogenesis of urticaria or other atopic disorders in humans. PMID:11918711

  9. Bee Pollen-Induced Anaphylaxis: A Case Report and Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jeong-Hee; Jang, Young-Sook; Oh, Jae-Won; Kim, Cheol-Hong; Hyun, In-Gyu

    2014-01-01

    Bee pollen is pollen granules packed by honey bees and is widely consumed as natural healthy supplements. Bee pollen-induced anaphylaxis has rarely been reported, and its allergenic components have never been studied. A 40-year-old male came to the emergency room with generalized urticaria, facial edema, dyspnea, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea 1 hour after ingesting one tablespoon of bee pollen. Oxygen saturation was 91%. His symptoms resolved after injection of epinephrine, c...

  10. Tick-induced allergies: mammalian meat allergy, tick anaphylaxis and their significance

    OpenAIRE

    van Nunen, Sheryl

    2015-01-01

    Serious tick-induced allergies comprise mammalian meat allergy following tick bites and tick anaphylaxis. Mammalian meat allergy is an emergent allergy, increasingly prevalent in tick-endemic areas of Australia and the United States, occurring worldwide where ticks are endemic. Sensitisation to galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-Gal) has been shown to be the mechanism of allergic reaction in mammalian meat allergy following tick bite. Whilst other carbohydrate allergens have been identified, this a...

  11. A case of anaphylaxis apparently induced by sugammadex and rocuronium in successive surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yuko; Yamamoto, Takuji; Tanabe, Kumiko; Fukuoka, Naokazu; Takenaka, Motoyasu; Iida, Hiroki

    2016-08-01

    Rocuronium is the agent most frequently involved in perioperative anaphylaxis, and sugammadex has also been known to induce anaphylactic reactions. We describe a case of successive anaphylactic episodes that seemed to be induced by clinical doses of rocuronium and sugammadex. The patient was a 19-year-old woman who had a medical history of asthma, but no history of surgery. She had been injured in a fall, and several surgeries were scheduled for multiple bone fractures. At the first surgery under general anesthesia, she developed anaphylaxis 5 min after sugammadex administration. A second general anesthesia for treatment of calcaneal fracture was induced uneventfully without neuromuscular blockade after 10 days. A third general anesthesia was scheduled to reinforce the spinal column 12 days after the first surgery. She developed anaphylaxis 8 min after rocuronium administration. The level of plasma histamine was elevated, but serum tryptase level remained normal. This surgery was canceled and rescheduled without use of a neuromuscular blockade. Skin tests were performed in a later investigation. The patient showed positive results on intradermal tests for sugammadex and rocuronium, supporting a diagnosis of allergic reactions to both drugs. Clinicians must be aware that anaphylactic reactions can be induced by both sugammadex and rocuronium. PMID:27290941

  12. Excess subcutaneous tissue may preclude intramuscular delivery when using adrenaline autoinjectors in patients with anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, J; Hobbins, S; Parekh, D; O'Hickey, S

    2015-06-01

    Intramuscular adrenaline is the gold standard treatment for anaphylaxis. Intramuscular injection provides more rapid and higher plasma concentrations than subcutaneous routes. Given the increasing epidemic of obesity patients are at increased risk of subcutaneous delivery, we therefore assessed the depth of subcutaneous tissue in a population of patients with anaphylaxis. Patients already prescribed adrenaline autoinjectors (AAIs) for anaphylaxis were examined with ultrasound, and measurements of skin-to-muscle depth (STMD) at anterolateral thigh and anterior thigh were performed. Twenty-eight patients (23 female, 5 male) with an age range of 18-75 took part in the study, and in 68%, the STMD was greater than AAI needle length (15.02 mm), using the anterolateral thigh as the recommended administration site. The key predictors for increased STMD were female gender (P=0.0003) and a BMI > 30 (P=0.04). AAIs require longer needles to ensure intramuscular administration, and ultrasound at point of prescription would aid needle length selection. PMID:25676800

  13. A Case of Anaphylaxis Induced by Contact with Young Radish (Raphanus sativus L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yung-Hee; Lee, Jae-Hyoung; Kang, Hye-Ran; Ha, Jung-Hoon; Lee, Byoung-Hoon; Kim, Sang-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Young radish (Raphanus sativus L), a member of the mustard family (Cruciferae), is a common ingredient of Kimchi. Although few reports have described anaphylaxis to cruciferous vegetables, we report the case of anaphylaxis induced by contact with young radish. A 46-year-old female with a history of contact allergy to metal presented to our emergency room (ER) with dizziness, generalized eruption and gastrointestinal upset. Her symptoms developed after re-exposure to young radish while chopping it. Hypotensive blood pressures were noted. Three days prior, the patient had experienced generalized urticaria with pruritus immediately after chopping the fresh young radish, which resolved spontaneously. In the ER, her symptoms improved by the administration of epinephrine (0.3 mL), antihistamine (chlorpheniramine) and isotonic saline hydration. A skin prick test with young radish extract showed positive reactivity. The same skin test was negative in five adult controls. IgE-mediated hypersensitivity could be an important immunologic mechanism in the development of young radish-induced anaphylaxis. PMID:25553270

  14. A Simple Allergist-Led Intervention Improves Resident Training in Anaphylaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongco, Artemio M.; Bina, Sheila; Sporter, Robert J.; Cavuoto Petrizzo, Marie A.; Kaplan, Blanka; Kline, Myriam; Schuval, Susan J.

    2016-01-01

    Physicians underrecognize and undertreat anaphylaxis. Effective interventions are needed to improve physician knowledge and competency regarding evidence-based anaphylaxis diagnosis and management (ADAM). We designed and evaluated an educational program to improve ADAM in pediatrics, internal medicine, and emergency medicine residents from two academic medical centers. Anonymous questionnaires queried participants' demographics, prior ADAM clinical experience, competency, and comfort. A pretest assessing baseline knowledge preceded a 45-minute allergist-led evidence-based presentation, including practice with epinephrine autoinjectors, immediately followed by a posttest. A follow-up test assessed long-term knowledge retention twelve weeks later. 159 residents participated in the pretest, 152 participated in the posttest, and 86 participated in the follow-up test. There were no significant differences by specialty or site. With a possible score of 10, the mean pretest score (7.31 ± 1.50) was lower than the posttest score (8.79 ± 1.29) and follow-up score (8.17 ± 1.72) (P < 0.001 for both). Although participants' perceived confidence in diagnosing or managing anaphylaxis improved from baseline to follow-up (P < 0.001 for both), participants' self-reported clinical experience with ADAM or autoinjector use was unchanged. Allergist-led face-to-face educational intervention improves residents' short-term knowledge and perceived confidence in ADAM. Limited clinical experience or reinforcement contributes to the observed decreased knowledge. PMID:26997960

  15. Severe reactions to iodinated contrast agents: is anaphylaxis responsible?; Reactions severes avec les produits de contraste iodes: l'anaphylaxie est-elle responsable?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewachter, P.; Mouton-Faivre, C. [Hopital Central, Service Anesthesie-Reanimation Chirurgicale, 54 - Nancy (France)

    2001-09-01

    The etiology of severe reactions following injection of iodinated contrast agent is the subject of controversy. No consensus has been established regarding the management of patients at risk, risk factors and pre-medication because in most cases published no diagnostic exploration has been carried out on patients who have experienced a severe reaction. Diagnosis of drug anaphylaxis is based on clinical history, proof of mediator release and drug specific IgE antibodies (when the technique is available) or cutaneous tests (when direct technique is not available). This approach has been adopted for etiologic diagnosis of 5 clinical cases of severe anaphylactoid reactions (including one death) following the injection of ionic and non ionic contrast agents. Clinical symptoms, biology and cutaneous tests are consistent with anaphylaxis. Any patient who has had a severe anaphylactoid reaction following injection of a contrast agent should undergo an allergology assessment to confirm the diagnosis and identify the culprit contrast agent. Indeed, no pre-medication has proved efficient for the prevention of subsequent allergic reactions. (author)

  16. Root fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jens Ove; Christensen, Søren Steno Ahrensburg; Tsilingaridis, Georgios

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze tooth loss after root fractures and to assess the influence of the type of healing and the location of the root fracture. Furthermore, the actual cause of tooth loss was analyzed.......The purpose of this study was to analyze tooth loss after root fractures and to assess the influence of the type of healing and the location of the root fracture. Furthermore, the actual cause of tooth loss was analyzed....

  17. Square Root +

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, John G.

    1969-01-01

    A rational presentation of the so-called long division method for extracting the square root of a number. Diagrams are used to show relationship of this technique to the binomial theorem. Presentation exposes student to many facets of mathematics in addition to the mechanics of funding square root and cube root. Geometry, algebraic statements,…

  18. Justified concern or exaggerated fear: the risk of anaphylaxis in percutaneous treatment of cystic echinococcosis-a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumayr, Andreas; Troia, Giuliana; de Bernardis, Chiara; Tamarozzi, Francesca; Goblirsch, Sam; Piccoli, Luca; Hatz, Christoph; Filice, Carlo; Brunetti, Enrico

    2011-06-01

    Percutaneous treatment (PT) emerged in the mid-1980s as an alternative to surgery for selected cases of abdominal cystic echinococcosis (CE). Despite its efficacy and widespread use, the puncture of echinococcal cysts is still far from being universally accepted. One of the main reasons for this reluctance is the perceived risk of anaphylaxis linked to PTs. To quantify the risk of anaphylactic reactions and lethal anaphylaxis with PT, we systematically searched MEDLINE for publications on PT of CE and reviewed the PT-related complications. After including 124 publications published between 1980 and 2010, we collected a total number of 5943 PT procedures on 5517 hepatic and non-hepatic echinococcal cysts. Overall, two cases of lethal anaphylaxis and 99 reversible anaphylactic reactions were reported. Lethal anaphylaxis occurred in 0.03% of PT procedures, corresponding to 0.04% of treated cysts, while reversible allergic reactions complicated 1.7% of PTs, corresponding to 1.8% of treated echinococcal cysts. Analysis of the literature shows that lethal anaphylaxis related to percutaneous treatment of CE is an extremely rare event and is observed no more frequently than drug-related anaphylactic side effects. PMID:21695106

  19. Justified concern or exaggerated fear: the risk of anaphylaxis in percutaneous treatment of cystic echinococcosis-a systematic literature review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Neumayr

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Percutaneous treatment (PT emerged in the mid-1980s as an alternative to surgery for selected cases of abdominal cystic echinococcosis (CE. Despite its efficacy and widespread use, the puncture of echinococcal cysts is still far from being universally accepted. One of the main reasons for this reluctance is the perceived risk of anaphylaxis linked to PTs. To quantify the risk of anaphylactic reactions and lethal anaphylaxis with PT, we systematically searched MEDLINE for publications on PT of CE and reviewed the PT-related complications. After including 124 publications published between 1980 and 2010, we collected a total number of 5943 PT procedures on 5517 hepatic and non-hepatic echinococcal cysts. Overall, two cases of lethal anaphylaxis and 99 reversible anaphylactic reactions were reported. Lethal anaphylaxis occurred in 0.03% of PT procedures, corresponding to 0.04% of treated cysts, while reversible allergic reactions complicated 1.7% of PTs, corresponding to 1.8% of treated echinococcal cysts. Analysis of the literature shows that lethal anaphylaxis related to percutaneous treatment of CE is an extremely rare event and is observed no more frequently than drug-related anaphylactic side effects.

  20. Justified Concern or Exaggerated Fear: The Risk of Anaphylaxis in Percutaneous Treatment of Cystic Echinococcosis—A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumayr, Andreas; Troia, Giuliana; de Bernardis, Chiara; Tamarozzi, Francesca; Goblirsch, Sam; Piccoli, Luca; Hatz, Christoph; Filice, Carlo; Brunetti, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    Percutaneous treatment (PT) emerged in the mid-1980s as an alternative to surgery for selected cases of abdominal cystic echinococcosis (CE). Despite its efficacy and widespread use, the puncture of echinococcal cysts is still far from being universally accepted. One of the main reasons for this reluctance is the perceived risk of anaphylaxis linked to PTs. To quantify the risk of anaphylactic reactions and lethal anaphylaxis with PT, we systematically searched MEDLINE for publications on PT of CE and reviewed the PT-related complications. After including 124 publications published between 1980 and 2010, we collected a total number of 5943 PT procedures on 5517 hepatic and non-hepatic echinococcal cysts. Overall, two cases of lethal anaphylaxis and 99 reversible anaphylactic reactions were reported. Lethal anaphylaxis occurred in 0.03% of PT procedures, corresponding to 0.04% of treated cysts, while reversible allergic reactions complicated 1.7% of PTs, corresponding to 1.8% of treated echinococcal cysts. Analysis of the literature shows that lethal anaphylaxis related to percutaneous treatment of CE is an extremely rare event and is observed no more frequently than drug-related anaphylactic side effects. PMID:21695106

  1. The tripeptide feG ameliorates systemic inflammatory responses to rat intestinal anaphylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davison Joseph S

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food allergies are generally associated with gastrointestinal upset, but in many patients systemic reactions occur. However, the systemic effects of food allergies are poorly understood in experimental animals, which also offer the opportunity to explore the actions of anti-allergic drugs. The tripeptide D-phenylalanine-D-glutamate-Glycine (feG, which potentially alleviates the symptoms of systemic anaphylactic reactions, was tested to determine if it also reduced systemic inflammatory responses provoked by a gastric allergic reaction. Results Optimal inhibition of intestinal anaphylaxis was obtained when 100 μg/kg of feG was given 20 min before the rats were challenged with antigen. The increase in total circulating neutrophils and accumulation of neutrophils in the heart, developing 3 h and 24 h, respectively, after antigen challenge were reduced by both feG and dexamethasone. Both anti-inflammatory agents reduced the increase in vascular permeability induced by antigen in the intestine and the peripheral skin (pinna, albeit with different time courses. Dexamethasone prevented increases in vascular permeability when given 12 h before antigen challenge, whereas feG was effective when given 20 min before ingestion of antigen. The tripeptide prevented the anaphylaxis induced up regulation of specific antibody binding of a cell adhesion molecule related to neutrophil activation, namely CD49d (α4 integrin. Conclusions Aside from showing that intestinal anaphylaxis produces significant systemic inflammatory responses in non-intestinal tissues, our results indicate that the tripeptide feG is a potent inhibitor of extra-gastrointestinal allergic reactions preventing both acute (30 min and chronic (3 h or greater inflammatory responses.

  2. The severe adverse reaction to vitamin k1 injection is anaphylactoid reaction but not anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Yan-Ni; Ping, Na-Na; Xiao, Xue; Zhu, Yan-Bing; Liu, Jing; Cao, Yong-Xiao

    2014-01-01

    The severe adverse reaction to vitamin K1 injection is always remarkable and is thought to result from anaphylaxis. Paradoxically, however, some patients administered vitamin K1 injection for the first time have adverse reactions. Using beagle dogs, the present study tested the hypothesis that the response to vitamin K1 is an anaphylactoid reaction. The results showed that serious anaphylaxis-like symptoms appeared in beagle dogs after the administration of vitamin K1 injection for the first time. The plasma histamine concentration increased, and blood pressure decreased sharply. After sensitization, dogs were challenged with vitamin K1 injection and displayed the same degree of symptoms as prior to sensitization. However, when the vitamin K1 injection-sensitized dogs were challenged with a vitamin K1-fat emulsion without solubilizers such asTween-80, the abnormal reactions did not occur. Furthermore, there was no significant change in the plasma immunoglobulin E concentration after vitamin K1 challenge. Following treatment with vitamin K1 injection, the release of histamine and β-hexosaminidase by rat basophilic leukemia-2H3 cells as well as the rate of apoptosis increased. The Tween-80 group displayed results similar to those observed following vitamin K1 injection in vivo. However, the dogs in the vitamin K1-fat emulsion group did not display any abnormal behavior or significant change in plasma histamine. Additionally, degranulation and apoptosis did not occur in rat basophilic leukemia-2H3 cells. Our results indicate that the adverse reaction induced by vitamin K1 injection is an anaphylactoid reaction, not anaphylaxis. Vitamin K1 injection induces the release of inflammatory factors via a non-IgE-mediated immune pathway, for which the trigger may be the solubilizer. PMID:24594861

  3. The severe adverse reaction to vitamin k1 injection is anaphylactoid reaction but not anaphylaxis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Ni Mi

    Full Text Available The severe adverse reaction to vitamin K1 injection is always remarkable and is thought to result from anaphylaxis. Paradoxically, however, some patients administered vitamin K1 injection for the first time have adverse reactions. Using beagle dogs, the present study tested the hypothesis that the response to vitamin K1 is an anaphylactoid reaction. The results showed that serious anaphylaxis-like symptoms appeared in beagle dogs after the administration of vitamin K1 injection for the first time. The plasma histamine concentration increased, and blood pressure decreased sharply. After sensitization, dogs were challenged with vitamin K1 injection and displayed the same degree of symptoms as prior to sensitization. However, when the vitamin K1 injection-sensitized dogs were challenged with a vitamin K1-fat emulsion without solubilizers such asTween-80, the abnormal reactions did not occur. Furthermore, there was no significant change in the plasma immunoglobulin E concentration after vitamin K1 challenge. Following treatment with vitamin K1 injection, the release of histamine and β-hexosaminidase by rat basophilic leukemia-2H3 cells as well as the rate of apoptosis increased. The Tween-80 group displayed results similar to those observed following vitamin K1 injection in vivo. However, the dogs in the vitamin K1-fat emulsion group did not display any abnormal behavior or significant change in plasma histamine. Additionally, degranulation and apoptosis did not occur in rat basophilic leukemia-2H3 cells. Our results indicate that the adverse reaction induced by vitamin K1 injection is an anaphylactoid reaction, not anaphylaxis. Vitamin K1 injection induces the release of inflammatory factors via a non-IgE-mediated immune pathway, for which the trigger may be the solubilizer.

  4. Advances in allergic skin disease, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects in 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicherer, Scott H; Leung, Donald Y M

    2010-01-01

    This review highlights some of the research advances in anaphylaxis and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects, as well as advances in allergic skin disease that were reported in the Journal in 2009. Among key epidemiologic observations, several westernized countries report that more than 1% of children have peanut allergy, and there is some evidence that environmental exposure to peanut is a risk factor. The role of regulatory T cells, complement, platelet-activating factor, and effector cells in the development and expression of food allergy were explored in several murine models and human studies. Delayed anaphylaxis to mammalian meats appears to be related to IgE binding to the carbohydrate moiety galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose, which also has implications for hypersensitivity to murine mAb therapeutics containing this oligosaccharide. Oral immunotherapy studies continue to show promise for the treatment of food allergy, but determining whether the treatment causes tolerance (cure) or temporary desensitization remains to be explored. Increased baseline serum tryptase levels might inform the risk of venom anaphylaxis and might indicate a risk for mast cell disorders in persons who have experienced such episodes. Reduced structural and immune barrier function contribute to local and systemic allergen sensitization in patients with atopic dermatitis, as well as increased propensity of skin infections in these patients. The use of increased doses of nonsedating antihistamines and potential usefulness of omalizumab for chronic urticaria was highlighted. These exciting advances reported in the Journal can improve patient care today and provide insights on how we can improve the diagnosis and treatment of these allergic diseases in the future. PMID:20109740

  5. Roots & Hollers

    OpenAIRE

    Kollman, Patrick L; Gorman, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    Roots & Hollers, 2011 A documentary by Thomas Gorman & Patrick Kollman Master’s Project Abstract: Roots & Hollers uncovers the wild American ginseng trade, revealing a unique intersection between Asia and rural America. Legendary in Asia for its healing powers, ginseng helps sustain the livelihoods of thousands in Appalachia. A single root can sell for thousands of dollars at auction. Shot on-location in the mountains of Kentucky and West Virginia, this student doc...

  6. The pholcodine Case. Cough Medicines, IgE-Sensitization, and Anaphylaxis: A Devious Connection

    OpenAIRE

    Florvaag, E.; Johansson, SGO

    2012-01-01

    The Scandinavian data on pholcodine (PHO) strongly indicates that there is a biological chain from PHO exposure through IgE-sensitization to IgE-mediated anaphylaxis to neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBA). PHO is probably one of the strongest inducer of an IgE antibody response known. Of individuals taking PHO in cough medicines, over-the-counter accessibility to large populations, as many as 20 to 25% may become IgE sensitized. Once sensitized, PHO re-exposure will booster IgE antibody leve...

  7. Anaphylaxis Triggered by Benzyl Benzoate in a Preparation of Depot Testosterone Undecanoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory S. Y. Ong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the first case of an anaphylactic reaction to Reandron 1000 (depot testosterone undecanoate with a castor oil and benzyl benzoate vehicle. While considered to have a favourable safety profile, serious complications such as oil embolism and anaphylaxis can occur. In our patient, skin testing identified benzyl benzoate to be the trigger, with no reaction to castor oil or testosterone undecanoate components. As benzyl benzoate exists in multiple pharmaceuticals, foods, and cosmetics, individual components of pharmaceuticals should be tested when investigating drug allergies. Doctors should be alert to the potential for serious reactions to any of the components of Reandron 1000.

  8. 422 A Rare Case of Food-induced Anaphylaxis to Pink Peppercorns

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, John; Minikes, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Background The incidence and prevalence of food allergies appear to be on the rise over the past 20 years. The most common foods to produce an IgE mediated hypersensitivity reaction in adults include peanut, tree nuts, and seafood. The increased use of spices in the U.S. has resulted in a growing number of patients presenting with hypersensitivity reactions. Methods We report a case of a 26 year-old-female who developed anaphylaxis after ingesting pink peppercorn seasoning. The patient was di...

  9. Signs and Symptoms of Food Allergy and Food-Induced Anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Hemant P; Bansil, Shweta; Uygungil, Burcin

    2015-12-01

    Food allergies are increasing in prevalence. In order for pediatric clinicians to appropriately diagnose and manage food allergies, the characteristic signs and symptoms of these potentially severe reactions must be recognized. Unlike nonimmunologic adverse food reactions (such as lactose intolerance and food poisoning), food allergies by definition are immune-mediated responses that occur reproducibly on food ingestion. The varying clinical presentations of food allergy include IgE-mediated disorders, mixed IgE- and cell-mediated disorders, and cell-mediated food allergies. This review describes the clinical manifestations of each of these categories of food allergy, with special emphasis on recognition of food-induced anaphylaxis. PMID:26456438

  10. Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis occurred only in a warm but not in a cold environment

    OpenAIRE

    Jo, Eun-Jung; Yang, Min-Suk; Kim, Yoon-Jeong; Kim, Hyun-Suk; Kim, Mi-Yeong; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Cho, Sang-Heon; Min, Kyung-Up; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2012-01-01

    Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA) is a type of exercise-induced anaphylaxis associated with postprandial exercise. We describe a 19-year-old man with FDEIA. Our patient complained of urticaria, angioedema, dizziness and hypotension associated with exercise after ingestion of walnut-containing foods in a warm environment. Skin prick test and prick to prick test were positive for walnut antigen. The attack didn't occur by free running outside for 10 min 2 h after taking walnut...

  11. Specific Oral Tolerance Induction Using IFN-Gamma in 2 Cases of Food-Dependent Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geunwoong Noh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaphylaxis induced by exercise after the intake of certain foods is referred to as food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA. Only the preventive medication such as oral sodium cromoglycate and oral combined cetirizine-montelukast was tried in FDEIA. Specific oral tolerance induction (SOTI using IFN-gamma was tried in 2 cases of FDEIA for wheat. Merely, exercise accompanied every treatment just after the intake of allergenic foods during treatment. Patients acquired tolerance for wheat in both cases successfully. After treatment, two patients take wheat in their food living freely. Conclusively, SOTI using IFN-gamma was effective as the causative treatment for allergenic foods in FDEIA.

  12. Management of levofloxacin induced anaphylaxis and acute delirium in a palliative care setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunangshu Ghoshal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Levofloxacin is a commonly prescribed antibiotic for managing chest and urinary tract infections in a palliative care setting. Incidence of Levofloxacin-associated anaphylaxis is rare and delirium secondary to Levofloxacin is a seldom occurrence with only few published case reports. It is an extremely rare occurrence to see this phenomenon in combination. Early identification and prompt intervention reduces both mortality and morbidity. A 17-year-old male with synovial sarcoma of right thigh with chest wall and lung metastasis and with no prior psychiatric morbidity presented to palliative medicine outpatient department with community-acquired pneumonia. He was initiated on intravenous (IV Ceftriaxone and IV Levofloxacin. Post IV Levofloxacin patient developed anaphylaxis and acute delirium necessitating IV Hydrocortisone, IV Chlorpheneramine, Oxygen and IV Haloperidol. Early detection and prompt intervention helped in complete recovery. Patient was discharged to hospice for respite after 2 days of hospitalization and then discharged home. Acute palliative care approach facilitated management of two life-threatening medical complications in a palliative care setting improving both quality and length of life.

  13. [Animal experimental studies on immunogenicity, humoral response and danger of anaphylaxis in parenteral administration of hyaluronidase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, H; Dellas, T; Bellmann, H

    1978-01-01

    The widespread intravenous application of hyaluronidase rises questions for its potential immunogenicity, formation of humoral antibodies, and danger of anaphylaxis. In experiments on 21 rabbits and 40 rats, the authors searched for precipitating antibodies after subcutaneous, intramuscular, and intravenous application of hyaluronidase in doses equivalent to the human. Intravenous and intramuscular shots of 150 to 75 000 IU of Hylase were applied in order to test anaphylaxis. By all proving procedures antibodies against Hylase were found. The formation of antibodies occurred earlier and in higher concentrations after subcutaneous and intramuscular application. The antibodies belonged to the IgG group. One third of the animals showed anaphylactic responses at doses which were 13 to 630 times as high. 26 per cent of human patients developed antibodies after application of Hylase. No anaphylactic reactions were observed in 17 patients with antibodies when intravenous application of hyaluronidase was continued. In the dosage used in the man anaphylactic response is obviously rare though it is possible. PMID:654375

  14. Skin testing with food, codeine, and histamine in exercise-induced anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, R Y; Barnard, M

    1993-06-01

    A 33-year-old Chinese woman with exercise-induced anaphylaxis after ingesting Chinese seafood noodle soup, was studied for skin test reactivity to food, histamine, and codeine. Prick skin tests were negative for shrimp, wheat, and chicken soup base, but were positive at 5 to 6 mm (wheal diameter) to the whole broth after it had been combined with the other ingredients. No significant (> 3 mm) wheals were observed in eight controls who were simultaneously tested with the broth. To assess the role of exercise, three series of skin tests were performed with histamine, codeine, and whole broth before and after aerobic exercise on two occasions. Codeine elicited consistent increases in wheal size after exercise compared with pre-exercise skin tests. Histamine and whole broth wheal sizes did not increase significantly. Three control subjects also had codeine and histamine skin tests before and after exercise, No exercise-associated increases were noted for codeine. Potential insights into mast cell abnormalities in exercise-induced anaphylaxis may be gained by skin testing patterns with codeine and other mast cell degranulating agents. PMID:8507042

  15. Fullerene carbon-70 derivatives dampen anaphylaxis and allergic asthma pathogenesis in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Sarah Brooke

    Fullerenes are carbon nanospheres that can be solublized by the addition of polar chemical groups to the carbon cage, forming fullerene derivatives. One specifically derivatized fullerene compound, termed C 70-Tetragylocolate (C70-TGA), has been shown to stabilize mast cell responses in vitro thus we hypothesized it may have an effect on mast cell-driven diseases such as asthma and systemic anaphylaxis. To observe the effects of C70-TGA on systemic anaphylaxis, mice were subjected to a model of passive systemic anaphylaxis. In this model, mice were injected with DNP-specific IgE 16 hours prior to challenge, then treated with C 70-TGA. Immediately prior to DNP challenge, mice were subjected to a second injection of C70-TGA. Following DNP challenge, body temperature was recorded and blood was collected for quantitation of histamine levels. Treatment with C70-TGA significantly reduced body temperature drop associated with systemic anaphylaxis and serum histamine levels. To observe the effects of C70-TGA on chronic features of asthma in vivo, we utilized a heavily MC influenced model of asthma pathogenesis. Mice were sensitized by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of ovalbumin (OVA) in saline, challenged intranasally (i.n.) with OVA, and one of two treatment strategies was pursued. In one, C70-TGA was given i.n. throughout disease development. In the other, C70-TGA was given following an initial set of challenges to allow disease to develop prior to treatment; mice were then re-challenged with OVA to assess the effect on established disease. We found that C70-TGA treatment significantly reduced airway inflammation and eosinophilia and dramatically reduced bronchoconstriction in either model. Cytokines IL-4 and IL-5 and serum IgE levels are significantly reduced in C70-TGA treated animals. Interestingly, we also saw an increase in the anti-inflammatory eicosanoid 11, 12-epoxyeicosatreinoic acid (11,12-EET) in the BAL fluid, suggesting the involvement of this mediator in

  16. Evaluation of IgE Antibodies to Omalizumab (Xolair®) and Their Potential Correlation to Anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Dana L; Nakamura, Gerald R; Lowman, Henry B; Fischer, Saloumeh Kadkhodayan

    2016-01-01

    Omalizumab (Xolair®) is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that selectively binds to human immunoglobulin E (IgE). Omalizumab is used to treat IgE-mediated diseases such as chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) and moderate to severe allergic asthma. In pre-marketing clinical trials in patients with asthma, anaphylaxis was reported in 3 of 3,507 (0.1%) patients. In post-marketing spontaneous reports, the frequency of anaphylaxis attributed to omalizumab use was estimated to be at least 0.2% of patients based on an estimated exposure of about 57,300 patients from June 2003 through December 2006. To better understand the risk of anaphylaxis in patients with allergic asthma receiving omalizumab, a post-marketing pharmacosurveillance study was initiated in 2009. As part of this study, an assay was developed to detect antibodies of IgE isotype to omalizumab. Serum samples from patients in the study were evaluated using this assay. Our results indicated that there was no observable correlation between either anaphylaxis or skin test reactivity and the presence of antibodies of IgE isotype to omalizumab. Here, we discuss the development of this assay as well as the results of the immunogenicity assessment. PMID:26340860

  17. Do epinephrine auto-injectors have an unsuitable needle length in children and adolescents at risk for anaphylaxis from food allergy?

    OpenAIRE

    Dreborg, Sten; Wen, Xia; Kim, Laura; Tsai, Gina; Nevis, Immaculate; Potts, Ryan; Chiu, Jack; Dominic, Arunmozhi; Kim, Harold

    2016-01-01

    Background Food allergy is the most common cause of anaphylaxis in children. Intramuscular delivery of epinephrine auto-injectors (EAI) is the standard of care for the treatment of anaphylaxis. We examined if children and adolescents at risk of anaphylaxis weighing 15–30 kg and >30 kg would receive epinephrine into the intramuscular space with the currently available EAI in North America and Europe. Methods The distance from skin to muscle (STMD) and skin to bone (STBD) on the mid third anter...

  18. Diagnostic utility of two case definitions for anaphylaxis: a comparison using a retrospective case notes analysis in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlewyn-Lajeunesse, Michel; Dymond, Sandra; Slade, Ingrid; Mansfield, Helen L; Fish, Rosie; Jones, Owen; Benger, Jonathan R

    2010-01-01

    Anaphylaxis is a clinical diagnosis with no gold-standard test. Recent case definitions have attempted to provide objective criteria for diagnosis. The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic concordance of the Brighton Collaboration case definition (the 'Brighton' case definition) to the consensus case definition from the Second Symposium on the Definition and Management of Anaphylaxis (the 'Symposium' definition). The study setting was a hospital-based emergency department in the UK. We identified cases of anaphylaxis by physicians' discharge diagnoses over a 2-year period from 2005 to 2006, and used randomly selected cases of allergic reaction, asthma and urticaria as a control group. Data was extracted by clinicians (who were unaware of the content of either case definition), and the two case definitions were applied by Boolean operators in a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. Concordance between the case definitions was measured using Cohen's kappa (kappa) statistic. We reviewed 128 sets of notes, with 47 cases of anaphylaxis. Brighton and Symposium definitions had sensitivities of 0.681 and 0.671, respectively, and specificities of 0.790 and 0.704, respectively. A discordant result was found in 36/128 cases (28.1%; kappa = 0.414 [95% CI 0.253, 0.574]), which represents a moderate level of agreement between case definitions. The Brighton case definition has a similar diagnostic concordance to the Symposium case definition. It does not seem to over- or underestimate cases and is sufficiently unique that the identification of an allergic trigger does not have to form part of the case definition. This will be important in the recognition of anaphylaxis resulting from the administration of drug and vaccines, where causality should be examined separately from case ascertainment. PMID:20000867

  19. Root resorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Inger

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This paper summarizes the different conditions, which have a well-known influence on the resorption of tooth roots, exemplified by trauma and orthodontic treatment. The concept of the paper is to summarize and explain symptoms and signs of importance for avoiding resorption during...... orthodontic treatment. The Hypothesis: The hypothesis in this paper is that three different tissue layers covering the root in the so-called periroot sheet can explain signs and symptoms of importance for avoiding root resorption during orthodontic treatment. These different tissue layers are; outermost......-an ectodermal tissue layer (Malassez′s epithelium), a middle layer-composed by the collagen-mesodermal tissue layer, and an innermost root-close innervation layer. Abnormalities in one of these tissue layers are thought to cause inflammatory processes in the periodontal membrane comparable to inflammatory...

  20. Curcumin Ingestion Inhibits Mastocytosis and Suppresses Intestinal Anaphylaxis in a Murine Model of Food Allergy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon R M Kinney

    Full Text Available IgE antibodies and mast cells play critical roles in the establishment of allergic responses to food antigens. Curcumin, the active ingredient of the curry spice turmeric, has anti-inflammatory properties, and thus may have the capacity to regulate Th2 cells and mucosal mast cell function during allergic responses. We assessed whether curcumin ingestion during oral allergen exposure can modulate the development of food allergy using a murine model of ovalbumin (OVA-induced intestinal anaphylaxis. Herein, we demonstrate that frequent ingestion of curcumin during oral OVA exposure inhibits the development of mastocytosis and intestinal anaphylaxis in OVA-challenged allergic mice. Intragastric (i.g. exposure to OVA in sensitized BALB/c mice induced a robust IgE-mediated response accompanied by enhanced OVA-IgE levels, intestinal mastocytosis, elevated serum mMCP-1, and acute diarrhea. In contrast, mice exposed to oral curcumin throughout the experimental regimen appeared to be normal and did not exhibit intense allergic diarrhea or a significant enhancement of OVA-IgE and intestinal mast cell expansion and activation. Furthermore, allergic diarrhea, mast cell activation and expansion, and Th2 responses were also suppressed in mice exposed to curcumin during the OVA-challenge phase alone, despite the presence of elevated levels of OVA-IgE, suggesting that curcumin may have a direct suppressive effect on intestinal mast cell activation and reverse food allergy symptoms in allergen-sensitized individuals. This was confirmed by observations that curcumin attenuated the expansion of both adoptively transferred bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs, and inhibited their survival and activation during cell culture. Finally, the suppression of intestinal anaphylaxis by curcumin was directly linked with the inhibition of NF-κB activation in curcumin-treated allergic mice, and curcumin inhibited the phosphorylation of the p65 subunit of NF-κB in BMMCs. In

  1. Anaphylaxis due to spontaneous rupture of primary isolated splenic hydatid cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Fuat; Yesilkaya, Yakup; Peker, Onur; Yuksel, Murvet

    2013-04-01

    Echinococcosis is a helminthic zoonosis mainly caused by Echinococcus granulosus and commonly encountered in endemic areas. The liver and lung are the most frequently involved organs. A primary isolated hydatid cyst of spleen is an extremely rare disease even in endemic areas. Anaphylactic reaction is a known complication of cystic hydatid disease, a parasitic infestation caused by the larval/cyst stage of E. granulosus that usually occurs after trauma or during interventions. To the best of our knowledge, anaphylaxis with spontaneous rupture of primary isolated splenic hydatidoses had not been reported previously. The main purpose of this report is to highlight life-threatening complications such as anaphylactic shock that should be considered due to primary isolated splenic cyst hydatid rupture in especially endemic regions. PMID:23961460

  2. EAACI food allergy and anaphylaxis guidelines. Primary prevention of food allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muraro, A; Halken, S; Arshad, S H;

    2014-01-01

    Food allergy can have significant effects on morbidity and quality of life and can be costly in terms of medical visits and treatments. There is therefore considerable interest in generating efficient approaches that may reduce the risk of developing food allergy. This guideline has been prepared...... by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology's (EAACI) Taskforce on Prevention and is part of the EAACI Guidelines for Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis. It aims to provide evidence-based recommendations for primary prevention of food allergy. A wide range of antenatal, perinatal, neonatal......, and childhood strategies were identified and their effectiveness assessed and synthesized in a systematic review. Based on this evidence, families can be provided with evidence-based advice about preventing food allergy, particularly for infants at high risk for development of allergic disease. The...

  3. Aspirin-Exacerbated Diseases: Advances in Asthma with Nasal Polyposis, Urticaria, Angioedema, and Anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Whitney; Buchheit, Kathleen; Cahill, Katherine N

    2015-12-01

    Aspirin-exacerbated diseases are important examples of drug hypersensitivities and include aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), aspirin- or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced urticaria/angioedema, and aspirin- or NSAID-induced anaphylaxis. While each disease subtype may be distinguished by unique clinical features, the underlying mechanisms that contribute to these phenotypes are not fully understood. However, the inhibition of the cyclooxygenase-1 enzyme is thought to play a significant role. Additionally, eosinophils, mast cells, and their products, prostaglandins and leukotrienes, have been identified in the pathogenesis of AERD. Current diagnostic and treatment strategies for aspirin-exacerbated diseases remain limited, and continued research focusing on each of the unique hypersensitivity reactions to aspirin is essential. This will not only advance the understanding of these disease processes, but also lead to the subsequent development of novel therapeutics that patients who suffer from aspirin-induced reactions desperately need. PMID:26475526

  4. The Pholcodine Case. Cough Medicines, IgE-Sensitization, and Anaphylaxis: A Devious Connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florvaag, E; Johansson, S G O

    2012-07-01

    : The Scandinavian data on pholcodine (PHO) strongly indicates that there is a biological chain from PHO exposure through IgE-sensitization to IgE-mediated anaphylaxis to neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBA). PHO is probably one of the strongest inducer of an IgE antibody response known. Of individuals taking PHO in cough medicines, over-the-counter accessibility to large populations, as many as 20 to 25% may become IgE sensitized. Once sensitized, PHO re-exposure will booster IgE antibody levels and IgE by around 100-fold. PHO is monovalent for 2 non-cross-reacting epitopes the quaternary ammonium ion (QAI), the main allergenic epitope of NMBA, and a non-QAI epitope. Thus, PHO most unlikely would initiate an allergic inflammatory response. Consequently, IgE sensitization is not revealed by obvious clinical signs, neither through tests based on IgE-sensitized effector cells. Therefore, it will escape detection if not assayed serologically. However, when subjected to general anesthesia, and thus the IgE-sensitized individual is administered a bivalent NMBA intravenously, the unrecognized presence of serum IgE antibodies to QAI may increase the risk of anaphylaxis 200- to 300-fold. Severe damages to patient's health can result, and mortality rates of 3 to 10% are reported. The Scandinavian experience indicates that the chain of events can efficiently be avoided by stopping PHO exposure: Within 1 year, the prevalence of IgE sensitization to PHO and QAI decreases significantly, and after 2 to 3 years, the numbers of reported anaphylactic reactions decreases equally so. PMID:23283141

  5. A novel model of IgE-mediated passive pulmonary anaphylaxis in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Wex

    Full Text Available Mast cells are central effector cells in allergic asthma and are augmented in the airways of asthma patients. Attenuating mast cell degranulation and with it the early asthmatic response is an important intervention point to inhibit bronchoconstriction, plasma exudation and tissue oedema formation. To validate the efficacy of novel pharmacological interventions, appropriate and practicable in vivo models reflecting mast cell-dependent mechanisms in the lung, are missing. Thus, we developed a novel model of passive pulmonary anaphylaxis in rats. Rats were passively sensitized by concurrent intratracheal and intradermal (ear application of an anti-DNP IgE antibody. Intravenous application of the antigen, DNP-BSA in combination with Evans blue dye, led to mast cell degranulation in both tissues. Quantification of mast cell degranulation in the lung was determined by (1 mediator release into bronchoalveolar lavage, (2 extravasation of Evans blue dye into tracheal and bronchial lung tissue and (3 invasive measurement of antigen-induced bronchoconstriction. Quantification of mast cell degranulation in the ear was determined by extravasation of Evans blue dye into ear tissue. We pharmacologically validated our model using the SYK inhibitor Fostamatinib, the H1-receptor antagonist Desloratadine, the mast cell stabilizer disodium cromoglycate (DSCG and the β2-adrenergic receptor agonist Formoterol. Fostamatinib was equally efficacious in lung and ear. Desloratadine effectively inhibited bronchoconstriction and ear vascular leakage, but was less effective against pulmonary vascular leakage, perhaps reflecting the differing roles for histamine receptor sub-types. DSCG attenuated both vascular leakage in the lung and bronchoconstriction, but with a very short duration of action. As an inhaled approach, Formoterol was more effective in the lung than in the ear. This model of passive pulmonary anaphylaxis provides a tissue relevant readout of early mast cell

  6. A novel model of IgE-mediated passive pulmonary anaphylaxis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wex, Eva; Thaler, Eva; Blum, Sylvia; Lamb, David

    2014-01-01

    Mast cells are central effector cells in allergic asthma and are augmented in the airways of asthma patients. Attenuating mast cell degranulation and with it the early asthmatic response is an important intervention point to inhibit bronchoconstriction, plasma exudation and tissue oedema formation. To validate the efficacy of novel pharmacological interventions, appropriate and practicable in vivo models reflecting mast cell-dependent mechanisms in the lung, are missing. Thus, we developed a novel model of passive pulmonary anaphylaxis in rats. Rats were passively sensitized by concurrent intratracheal and intradermal (ear) application of an anti-DNP IgE antibody. Intravenous application of the antigen, DNP-BSA in combination with Evans blue dye, led to mast cell degranulation in both tissues. Quantification of mast cell degranulation in the lung was determined by (1) mediator release into bronchoalveolar lavage, (2) extravasation of Evans blue dye into tracheal and bronchial lung tissue and (3) invasive measurement of antigen-induced bronchoconstriction. Quantification of mast cell degranulation in the ear was determined by extravasation of Evans blue dye into ear tissue. We pharmacologically validated our model using the SYK inhibitor Fostamatinib, the H1-receptor antagonist Desloratadine, the mast cell stabilizer disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) and the β2-adrenergic receptor agonist Formoterol. Fostamatinib was equally efficacious in lung and ear. Desloratadine effectively inhibited bronchoconstriction and ear vascular leakage, but was less effective against pulmonary vascular leakage, perhaps reflecting the differing roles for histamine receptor sub-types. DSCG attenuated both vascular leakage in the lung and bronchoconstriction, but with a very short duration of action. As an inhaled approach, Formoterol was more effective in the lung than in the ear. This model of passive pulmonary anaphylaxis provides a tissue relevant readout of early mast cell activity and

  7. Automated Root Tracking with "Root System Analyzer"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnepf, Andrea; Jin, Meina; Ockert, Charlotte; Bol, Roland; Leitner, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Crucial factors for plant development are water and nutrient availability in soils. Thus, root architecture is a main aspect of plant productivity and needs to be accurately considered when describing root processes. Images of root architecture contain a huge amount of information, and image analysis helps to recover parameters describing certain root architectural and morphological traits. The majority of imaging systems for root systems are designed for two-dimensional images, such as RootReader2, GiA Roots, SmartRoot, EZ-Rhizo, and Growscreen, but most of them are semi-automated and involve mouse-clicks in each root by the user. "Root System Analyzer" is a new, fully automated approach for recovering root architectural parameters from two-dimensional images of root systems. Individual roots can still be corrected manually in a user interface if required. The algorithm starts with a sequence of segmented two-dimensional images showing the dynamic development of a root system. For each image, morphological operators are used for skeletonization. Based on this, a graph representation of the root system is created. A dynamic root architecture model helps to determine which edges of the graph belong to an individual root. The algorithm elongates each root at the root tip and simulates growth confined within the already existing graph representation. The increment of root elongation is calculated assuming constant growth. For each root, the algorithm finds all possible paths and elongates the root in the direction of the optimal path. In this way, each edge of the graph is assigned to one or more coherent roots. Image sequences of root systems are handled in such a way that the previous image is used as a starting point for the current image. The algorithm is implemented in a set of Matlab m-files. Output of Root System Analyzer is a data structure that includes for each root an identification number, the branching order, the time of emergence, the parent

  8. Root canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endodontic therapy ... the root of a tooth. Generally, there is pain and swelling in the area. The infection can ... You may have some pain or soreness after the procedure. An over-the-counter anti-inflammatory drug, such as ibuprofen or naproxen, can help relieve ...

  9. Mesenchymal stromal stem cell therapy in advanced interstitial lung disease - Anaphylaxis and short-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangakunam, Balamugesh; Christopher, Devasahayam Jesudas; Mathews, Vikram; Srivastava, Alok

    2015-01-01

    There are limited treatment options for advanced interstitial lung disease (ILD). We describe a patient of ILD treated with mesenchymal stromal stem cell infusion. The index patient had end-stage ILD due to a combination of insults including treatment with radiotherapy and a tyrosine kinase inhibitor Erlotinib. He was oxygen-dependent and this was hampering his quality of life. He tolerated the first infusion stem cells without any problem. During the second infusion he developed anaphylactic shock, which was appropriately managed. At 6-months follow-up he had no improvement in oxygenation, pulmonary function or CT scan parameters. In view of anaphylaxis, further infusions of MSC were withheld. A longer follow-up may reveal long-term benefits or side effects, if any. However the occurrence of anaphylaxis is of concern suggesting that further trials should be conducted with intensive monitoring. PMID:26628765

  10. Mesenchymal stromal stem cell therapy in advanced interstitial lung disease - Anaphylaxis and short-term follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balamugesh Thangakunam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are limited treatment options for advanced interstitial lung disease (ILD. We describe a patient of ILD treated with mesenchymal stromal stem cell infusion. The index patient had end-stage ILD due to a combination of insults including treatment with radiotherapy and a tyrosine kinase inhibitor Erlotinib. He was oxygen-dependent and this was hampering his quality of life. He tolerated the first infusion stem cells without any problem. During the second infusion he developed anaphylactic shock, which was appropriately managed. At 6-months follow-up he had no improvement in oxygenation, pulmonary function or CT scan parameters. In view of anaphylaxis, further infusions of MSC were withheld. A longer follow-up may reveal long-term benefits or side effects, if any. However the occurrence of anaphylaxis is of concern suggesting that further trials should be conducted with intensive monitoring.

  11. A Case of Korean Ginseng-Induced Anaphylaxis Confirmed by Open Oral Challenge and Basophil Activation Test

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jae-Young; Jin, Hyun Jung; Park, Jung-Won; Jung, Soon Kwang; Jang, Jeng-Yun; Park, Hae-Sim

    2011-01-01

    Two case reports discussing Korean ginseng-induced allergic reactions have been published; both were inhalation-induced respiratory allergies in occupational settings. In this report we discuss the first case of anaphylaxis that developed after an oral intake of ginseng, confirmed by an open oral challenge, a skin prick test (SPT), and a basophil activation test (BAT). A 44-year-old man experienced rhinorrhea and nasal stiffness, followed by respiratory difficulty with wheeze and abdominal pa...

  12. Role of mast cell-derived mediators for leukocyte/endothelium-interactions and microvascular mechanisms in inflammation and in anaphylaxis.

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Yancai

    2003-01-01

    The overall objective of this thesis was to study the roles of mast cell-derived mediators for leukocyte/endothelium interactions and microvascular mechanisms in inflammation and in anaphylaxis, using mast cell-deficient Ws/Ws rats and their wild-type +/+ littermates. The efflux of endogenous histamine and edema formation evoked by subplantar injection of compound 48/80 in rat hindpaws was dose-dependent in +/+ rats, and was essentially lacking in Ws/Ws rats. These findings...

  13. Anti-anaphylactic and anti-inflammatory activities of a bioactive alkaloid from the root bark of Plumeria acutifolia Poir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A Vijayalakshmi; V Ravichandiran; Malarkodi Velraj; S Hemalatha; G Sudharani; S Jayakumari

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the anti-anaphylactic, anti-inflammatory and membrane stabilizing properties of plumerianine (compound 1) isolated from the root bark of Plumeria acutifolia Poir. Methods: The anti-anaphylactic activity of compound 1 (10, 25 and 50 mg/kg) was studied by using models such as passive cutaneous anaphylaxis, passive paw anaphylaxis and its anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenin induced paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma in albino rats was also investigated using ketotifen and indomethacin as reference drugs. Results: A dose-dependent beneficial effect was observed on leakage of evans blue dye in skin challenged with antigen and on paw anaphylaxis induced by antiserum. The compound 1 also exhibited significant (P<0.01) inhibition of rat paw edema and granuloma tissue formation, including significant protection of RBC against the haemolytic effect of hypotonic solution, an indication of membrane-stabilizing activity. Conclusions: Anti-anaphylactic activity of compound 1 may be possibly due to inhibition of the release of various inflammatory mediators. Anti-inflammatory activity of compound may be related to the inhibition of the early phase and late phase of inflammatory events.

  14. Locally Finite Root Supersystems

    OpenAIRE

    YOUSOFZADEH, Malihe

    2013-01-01

    We introduce the notion of locally finite root supersystems as a generalization of both locally finite root systems and generalized root systems. We classify irreducible locally finite root supersystems.

  15. [Clinical courses of 18 cases with food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, H; Juji, F; Shibuya, N; Narita, M; Naritaka, S; Suko, M; Morita, Y; Iwata, T

    2000-06-01

    Eighteen cases (7 males and 11 females) of food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis were observed for several years. The age of the patients at the first visit to our hospital ranged from 9 to 43 years (average 24.3 years). The offending foods were wheat in 9 cases, shrimp in 2 cases, shellfish in 1 case, fish in 1 case, and unknown foods in 5 cases. The inducing exercises were ball play games, running, riding a bicycle, swimming, kendo (Japanese fencing), walking, and so on. We advised these patients to avoid eating offending foods or taking exercises, or to take antiallergic medicine such as DSCG, and repirinast. We observed their clinical courses and laboratory data for 2 to 10 years. Only a few cases relapsed anaphylactoid reactions, but all cases have improved until now. In some cases, IgE RAST scores for wheat decreased. In other cases, the rate of histamine release on anti-IgE stimulation decreased after taking DSCG. PMID:10916885

  16. Anaphylaxis to Spirulina confirmed by skin prick test with ingredients of Spirulina tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thuy-My; Knulst, André C; Röckmann, Heike

    2014-12-01

    Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis), blue-green microalgae, has high content in proteins, γ-linoleic acid and vitamins and therefore gained popularity as food supplement. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Spirulina is also an interesting alternative and sustainable protein source with the growing world population. We present a case of a 17-year-old male, who developed anaphylaxis the first time he ingested a Spirulina tablet. Skin prick test with diluted Spirulina tablet was positive. Further skin prick testing with separated ingredients (Spirulina platensis algae, silicon dioxide, inulin and magnesium stearate) was only positive for Spirulina platensis algae and negative in controls, confirming the allergy was caused by Spirulina and not by one of the additives. This case report shows that diagnosis of Spirulina allergy can safely be made by skin prick test with dilutions of the A. platensis or even more simple by skin prick test with the diluted tablet. Since Spirulina has gained popularity as food and nutritional supplement, it is important to realize the potential risk of this dietary supplement. Before Spirulina is produced and consumed on a wider scale, allergenicity risk assessment should be performed, including investigation of potential crossreactivity with well-known inhalant allergens and foods. PMID:25445756

  17. Protective effect of relaxin in cardiac anaphylaxis: involvement of the nitric oxide pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masini, E; Zagli, G; Ndisang, J F; Solazzo, M; Mannaioni, P F; Bani, D

    2002-01-01

    Relaxin (RLX) is a multifunctional hormone best known for its role in pregnancy and parturition, that has been also shown to influence coronary perfusion and mast cell activation through the generation of endogenous nitric oxide (NO). In this study we report on the effects of RLX on the biochemical and mechanical changes of ex vivo perfused hearts isolated from ovalbumin-sensitized guinea-pigs induced by challenge with the specific antigen. The possible involvement of NO in the RLX action has been also investigated. A 30-min perfusion with RLX (30 ng ml−1) before ovalbumin challenge fully abated the positive chronotropic and inotropic effects evoked by anaphylactic reaction to the antigen. RLX also blunted the short-term coronary constriction following to antigen challenge. Conversely, perfusion with chemically inactivated RLX had no effect. The release of histamine in the perfusate and the accumulation of calcium in heart tissue induced by antigen challenge were significantly decreased by RLX, while the amounts of nitrites in the perfusate were significantly increased, as were NO synthase activity and expression and cGMP levels in heart tissue. These findings indicate that RLX has a protective effect in cardiac anaphylaxis which involves an up-regulation of the NO biosynthetic pathway. PMID:12237253

  18. [A case of food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis caused by ingestion of orange].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Rintaro; Motomura, Chikako; Takamatsu, Nobue; Kondo, Yasuto; Akamine, Yuko; Matsuzaki, Hiroshi; Murakami, Yoko; Amimoto, Yuko; Taba, Naohiko; Honjyo, Satoshi; Shibata, Rumiko; Odajima, Hiroshi

    2015-02-01

    The patient was a 10-year-old girl who presented with a history of anaphylactic episodes on three occasions, that developed in association with exercise after she ate citrus fruit. She underwent tolerance tests, as food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA) induced by citrus fruit was suspected. The result of the test for the combination of intake of oranges and exercise was negative. The patient presented with swollen eyelid and wheezing following combined intake of orange and aspirin, based on which she was diagnosed as having FDEIA. Many patients developing an allergic reaction to fruit are diagnosed as having oral allergy syndrome (OAS), and only few cases of FDEIA are reported. Immunoblot tests revealed antigens of 9 kDa, 39 kDa and 53 kDa in this patient, and an inhibition study with oranges revealed that the 39 kDa and 53 kDa antigens were probably antigen-specific allergens. Although the studied patient showed a strongly positive result for IgE antibodies specifically directed at cedar pollen, no common antigenicity with cedar pollen could be recognized. The final diagnosis was a type of FDEIA caused by 39 kDa and 53 kDa proteins, which are different from antigens previously identified in patients with citrus fruits allergy. It should be the first report of such a case. PMID:25924908

  19. FORMATION OF SLOW-REACTING SUBSTANCE OF ANAPHYLAXIS IN HUMAN LUNG TISSUE AND CELLS BEFORE RELEASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Robert A.; Wasserman, Stephen I.; Goetzl, Edward J.; Austen, K. Frank

    1974-01-01

    The capacity to extract slow-reacting substance of anaphylaxis (SRS-A) from human lung tissue or cells after immunologic activation, together with the measurement of SRS-A in both the extract and the surrounding fluid, permits study of total SRS-A generation. That the material extracted is SRS-A was established by both differential bioassay and purification. SRS-A accumulation was entirely intracellular after limited IgE-dependent direct or reversed anaphylactic activation. Intracellular accumulation also generally preceded release, with generation of SRS-A continuing well beyond a plateau in the cellular SRS-A level and the release of preformed mediators. The quantity of SRS-A generated after immunologic activation was modulated by the introduction of exogenous cyclic nucleotides, revealing a site of cyclic nucleotide action distinct from that on mediator release. The capacity to determine not only the release of preformed mediators but also the generation of a newly formed mediator, the sum of SRS-A in cells and supernate, adds an additional dimension to the analysis of the cellular events of immediate hypersensitivity. PMID:4378429

  20. Utility of rotational thromboelastometry for the diagnosis of asymptomatic hyperfibrinolysis secondary to anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koami, Hiroyuki; Sakamoto, Yuichiro; Furukawa, Takashi; Imahase, Hisashi; Iwamura, Takashi; Inoue, Satoshi

    2016-06-01

    We present a case of hyperfibrinolysis induced by oxaliplatin-derived anaphylactic shock, which was diagnosed with rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM). A 57-year-old male patient underwent a second course of oxaliplatin (126 mg/m/course)-based chemotherapy for stage IV metastatic rectal cancer. Two minutes after the infusion of oxaliplatin, the patient lost consciousness and developed generalized urticarial lesions, followed by hemodynamic instability and respiratory insufficiency. He was diagnosed anaphylactic shock and transported to emergency department (ED) after intramuscular injection of 0.2 mg of adrenaline, an intravenous injection of 100 mg of hydrocortisone, and 500 mg of methylprednisolone. After arriving in the ED, the patient remained in shock and early resuscitation with administration of 5 mg of D-chlorpheniramine maleate and 20 mg of famotidine was performed. He recovered from his state of shock 30 min after the resuscitation. ROTEM findings showed fulminant hyperfibrinolysis with minimal changes in standard coagulation tests (SCTs) and no remarkable coagulopathy. Seven hours after the attack, he became asymptomatic and follow-up ROTEM revealed values within normal limits with the exception of sustained slight abnormalities of SCTs. He was discharged the next day without any signs of spontaneous bleeding and has continued his outpatient chemotherapy uneventfully. A review of the literature on anaphylaxis-induced hyperfibrinolysis and a discussion of the mechanism between anaphylactic shock and hyperfibrinolysis were performed. Although administration of tissue-type plasminogen activator can play a vital role in anaphylactic shock-induced hyperfibrinolysis, early effective resuscitation is imperative to prevent severe hemorrhagic complications. Therefore, ROTEM is a useful tool that can detect these dynamic changes faster and more accurately than SCTs. PMID:26569513

  1. Bee Pollen-Induced Anaphylaxis: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong Hee; Jang, Young Sook; Oh, Jae Won; Kim, Cheol Hong; Hyun, In Gyu

    2015-09-01

    Bee pollen is pollen granules packed by honey bees and is widely consumed as natural healthy supplements. Bee pollen-induced anaphylaxis has rarely been reported, and its allergenic components have never been studied. A 40-year-old male came to the emergency room with generalized urticaria, facial edema, dyspnea, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea 1 hour after ingesting one tablespoon of bee pollen. Oxygen saturation was 91%. His symptoms resolved after injection of epinephrine, chlorpheniramine, and dexamethasone. He had seasonal allergic rhinitis in autumn. Microscopic examination of the bee pollen revealed Japanese hop, chrysanthemum, ragweed, and dandelion pollens. Skin-prick with bee pollen extracts showed positive reactions at 0.1 mg/mL (A/H ratio > 3+). Serum specific IgE to ragweed was 25.2, chrysanthemum 20.6, and dandelion 11.4 kU/L; however, Japanese hop, honey-bee venom and yellow-jacket venom were negative (UniCAP®, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Uppsala, Sweden). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) confirmed serum specific IgE to bee-pollen extracts, and an ELISA inhibition assay for evaluation of cross-allergenicity of bee pollen and other weed pollens showed more than 90% of inhibition with chrysanthemum and dandelion and ~40% inhibition with ragweed at a concentration of 1 μg/mL. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and IgE-immunoblot analysis revealed 9 protein bands (11, 14, 17, 28, 34, 45, 52, 72, and 90 kDa) and strong IgE binding at 28-34 kDa, 45 and 52 kDa. In conclusion, healthcare providers should be aware of the potential risk of severe allergic reactions upon ingestion of bee pollen, especially in patients with pollen allergy. PMID:25749764

  2. Afrokoko Roots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Give us a little background information about Afrokoko Roots.How long have you been performing together?It's an international Afrobeat outfit that I founded in Beijing three years ago.I founded it in order to show Chinese people that Africa is beyond what they see and hear on TV.For the purpose of cultural exchange,I hope it can help the Chinese learn about African culture,music,fashion,history and much more.Our band features two dancers,two backup singers,two percussionists,four brass players,a keyboard player,a guitar player and a drummer- and me as the lead vocal,drummer and dancer,which makes for live performances that are equally exciting sonically as they are visually.We have been traveling around,and so far,we have toured and performed in many Chinese cities such as Dalian (Liaoning Province),Hohhot (Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region) and Haikou (Hainan Province).

  3. PERI-ANESTHESIA ANAPHYLAXIS (PAA): WE STILL HAVE NOT STARTED POST-PAA TESTING FOR INCITING ANESTHESIA-RELATED ALLERGENS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshaeri, Taghreed; Gupta, Deepak; Nagabhushana, Ananthamurthy

    2016-02-01

    Anaphylaxis during anesthesia is uncommon. Diagnosis of peri-anesthesia anaphylaxis (PAA) requires anesthesia providers' vigilance for prompt diagnosis and treatment. In this case report, we present a challenging case with suspected PAA including its perioperative management, intensive care unit (ICU) course, and post-discharge follow-up. A 44-year-old female (body mass index = 26) presented for elective abdominal panniculectomy. Post-intubation, severe bronchospasm occurred that was non-responsive to nebulized albuterol and intravenous epinephrine. Continuous infusion of epinephrine was initiated. After aborting surgical procedure, the patient was transferred to ICU on continuous intravenous infusion of epinephrine. Venous blood sampling showed elevated troponin level. Echocardiography revealed ejection fraction of 25% suspicious of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (mid cavitary variant). Tracheal extubation was only possible after three days. Subsequently, patient was discharged home with a cardiology follow-up appointment and a referral to an allergy specialist. Unfortunately at our institution (an academic university hospital in United States) along with neighboring institutions in near-by areas, the only allergy skin tests available are for local anesthetics and antibiotics, while neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) cannot be tested (the suspected anaphylactic agent in our case was presumably rocuronium). In summary, PAA requires and responds to emergent diagnosis and immediate treatment; however there is still a long way to go to ensure post-PAA testing for inciting anesthesia-related allergens. PMID:27382817

  4. Root canal irrigants

    OpenAIRE

    Kandaswamy Deivanayagam; Venkateshbabu Nagendrababu

    2010-01-01

    Successful root canal therapy relies on the combination of proper instrumentation, irrigation, and obturation of the root canal. Of these three essential steps of root canal therapy, irrigation of the root canal is the most important determinant in the healing of the periapical tissues. The primary endodontic treatment goal must thus be to optimize root canal disinfection and to prevent reinfection. In this review of the literature, various irrigants and the interactions between irrigants are...

  5. Spontaneous rupture of a splenic hydatid cyst with anaphylaxis in a patient with multi-organ hydatid disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin, V; Popa, F; Socea, B; Carâp, A; Bălălău, C; Motofei, I; Banu, P; Costea, D

    2014-01-01

    Hidatid cysts of the spleen are a rare occurrence, the spleen being the third most common organ for the development of Echinococcus Granulosus. Splenic hydatid cysts are commonly part of multi-organ hydatid disease. Diagnosis is often established when investigating a splenomegaly or by chance during an unrelated consult. It can also be diagnosed after rupture, be it following trauma (the most common occurrence)or spontaneous. Splenic hydatid cyst rupture requires immediate action and is a life-threatening condition. It results, most often, in splenectomy. We present the case of a patient with multi-organ hydatid disease that presented with a ruptured splenic cyst and developed anaphylaxis. The case was resolved by splenectomy and recovered well. PMID:24956347

  6. Patterns of reproductive isolation in Nolana (Chilean bellflower).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, Cathleen; Papineau, Amy Douglas; Freyre, Rosanna; Moyle, Leonie C

    2012-08-01

    We examined reproductive isolating barriers at four postmating stages among 11 species from the morphologically diverse genus Nolana (Solanaceae). At least one stage was positively correlated with both genetic and geographic distance between species. Postzygotic isolation was generally stronger and faster evolving than postmating prezygotic isolation. In addition, there was no evidence for mechanical isolation, or for reproductive character displacement in floral traits that can influence pollinator isolation. In general, among the potential isolating stages examined here, postzygotic barriers appear to be more effective contributors to reducing gene flow, including between sympatric species. PMID:22834759

  7. Training and administration of epinephrine auto-injectors for anaphylaxis treatment in US schools: results from the EpiPen4Schools® pilot survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Susan L; Goss, Diana; Hollis, Kelly; Silvia, Suyapa; White, Martha V

    2016-01-01

    Background Anaphylaxis is a serious, potentially life-threatening condition. Adequate preparation for anaphylaxis management is imperative for school personnel. This descriptive pilot study assessed preparedness of US schools to manage anaphylactic reactions. Methods An exploratory, cross-sectional, web-based, pilot survey assessed the occurrence and characteristics of anaphylactic events, as well as training provided to school personnel for the recognition and treatment of anaphylaxis. Eligible US schools were participants in the EpiPen4Schools® program during the 2013–2014 school year. EpiPen4Schools provides EpiPen® (epinephrine injection) Auto-Injectors and training materials to qualifying US schools. Survey data were parsed by US Census Bureau region and state and were evaluated using descriptive statistics. Results Schools from all 50 states and the District of Columbia participated in the survey (N=6,019). Among schools that provided information on anaphylactic events, 11% (607/5,683) reported the occurrence of one or more events, with significant variability in incidence across census regions and among states. A total of 5,613 schools provided information regarding which staff members were trained to recognize the signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis. Thirty-six percent of schools (2,022/5,613) indicated that only the school nurse and select staff were trained in anaphylaxis recognition. The proportion of schools in which most or all school staff received such training differed by region/state (range, 13%–100%). A total of 5,578 schools provided information on which staff were permitted to administer epinephrine. The majority of schools (54%; 3,024/5,578) permitted only the school nurse and select staff to administer epinephrine, although percentages varied by region/state (range, 4%–100%). Conclusion Schools differed substantially in their preparedness to manage anaphylaxis, with significant disparities in staff training and permission to treat. Given

  8. Using Square Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, William Wynne

    1976-01-01

    This article describes techniques which enable the user of a comparatively simple calculator to perform calculations of cube roots, nth roots, trigonometric, and inverse trigonometric functions, logarithms, and exponentials. (DT)

  9. WHY ROOTING FAILS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CREUTZ,M.

    2007-07-30

    I explore the origins of the unphysical predictions from rooted staggered fermion algorithms. Before rooting, the exact chiral symmetry of staggered fermions is a flavored symmetry among the four 'tastes.' The rooting procedure averages over tastes of different chiralities. This averaging forbids the appearance of the correct 't Hooft vertex for the target theory.

  10. Root canal irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. van der Sluis; C. Boutsioukis; L.M. Jiang; R. Macedo; B. Verhaagen; M. Versluis

    2015-01-01

    The aims of root canal irrigation are the chemical dissolution or disruption and the mechanical detachment of pulp tissue, dentin debris and smear layer (instrumentation products), microorganisms (planktonic or biofilm), and their products from the root canal wall, their removal out of the root cana

  11. The Root Canal Biofilm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der L.W.M.; Boutsioukis, C.; Jiang, L.M.; Macedo, R.; Verhaagen, B.; Versluis, M.; Chávez de Paz, E.; Sedgley, C.M.; Kishen, A.

    2015-01-01

    The aims of root canal irrigation are the chemical dissolution or disruption and the mechanical detachment of pulp tissue, dentin debris and smear layer (instrumentation products), microorganisms (planktonic or biofilm), and their products from the root canal wall, their removal out of the root cana

  12. 424 Wheat-dependent Exercise-induced Anaphylaxis Occurred in OAS Patient after Using Soap Containing Hydrolyzed Wheat Proteins: Effect of Soap on Keratinocyte Inflammasome

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Aya; Itoi, Saori; Terao, Mika; Matsui, Saki; Tani, Mamori; Hanafusa, Takaaki; Igawa, Ken; Murota, Hiroyuki; Katayama, Ichiro; Chinuki, Yuko; Morita, Eishin

    2012-01-01

    Background We present a case of Wheat-dependent Exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA) occurred in a patient previously suffering from atopic dermatitis (AD), pollen allergy and Oral allergy syndrome (OAS) after using face soap containing hydrolyzed wheat proteins (HWP) . Methods A 16-year old woman had contact urticaria after using face soap containing HWP and developed urticaria and dyspnea after ingestion of wheat products. We performed skin prick test, provocation test and serum IgE analysi...

  13. Giant Asian honeybee or Bambara stings causing myocardial infarction, bowel gangrene and fatal anaphylaxis in Sri Lanka:a case series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Budagoda BDSS; Kularatne SAM; Kodikara KAS; Kularatne WKS; Mudiyanse RM; Edussuriya DH; Edirisinghe JP; Karunaratne IP; Weerakoon KGAD; Medagedara SC

    2010-01-01

    The sting of Giant Asian honeybee (Apis dorsata) or Bambara in Sinhala and Karunge Kulavi in Tamil is a common environmental hazard in Sri Lanka known to cause immediate allergic reactions, which could be fatal in sensitized individuals. We reported myocardial infarction, bowel gangrene and fatal anaphylaxis in a prospectively proven case series and the association of these uncommon complications with delayed removal of stingers from the patients’ skin.

  14. Genetic association among root morphology, root quality and root yield in ashwagandha (Withania somnifera)

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar Ramesh R.; Reddy Anjaneya Prasanna L.; Subbaiah Chinna J.; Kumar Niranjana A.; Prasad Nagendra H.N.; Bhukya Balakishan

    2011-01-01

    Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) is a dryland medicinal crop and roots are used as valuable drug in traditional systems of medicine. Morphological variants (morphotypes) and the parental populations were evaluated for root - morphometric, quality and yield traits to study genetic association among them. Root morphometric traits (root length, root diameter, number of secondary roots/ plant) and crude fiber content exhibited strong association among them and ...

  15. Root canal irrigants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandaswamy Deivanayagam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Successful root canal therapy relies on the combination of proper instrumentation, irrigation, and obturation of the root canal. Of these three essential steps of root canal therapy, irrigation of the root canal is the most important determinant in the healing of the periapical tissues. The primary endodontic treatment goal must thus be to optimize root canal disinfection and to prevent reinfection. In this review of the literature, various irrigants and the interactions between irrigants are discussed. We performed a Medline search for English-language papers published untill July 2010. The keywords used were ′root canal irrigants′ and ′endodontic irrigants.′ The reference lists of each article were manually checked for additional articles of relevance.

  16. Roots and routes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ann-Dorte; Jensen, Sune Qvotrup

    2011-01-01

    arguing that there is a dynamic interplay between roots and routes in people's lives. The empirical point of departure is narratives about roots and routes by ethnic minorities settled in Aalborg East, an underprivileged neighbourhood in northern Denmark. One of the main findings is a gap between the...... somewhat paradoxical finding is that it appears to be more difficult for transnational migrants to maintain their roots in the country of origin when they go back than it was to establish new roots in the host country...

  17. Roots of Dehn twists

    OpenAIRE

    McCullough, Darryl; Rajeevsarathy, Kashyap

    2009-01-01

    D. Margalit and S. Schleimer found examples of roots of the Dehn twist about a nonseparating curve in a closed orientable surface, that is, homeomorphisms whose nth power is isotopic to the Dehn twist. Our main theorem gives elementary number-theoretic conditions that describe the values of n for which an nth root exists, given the genus of the surface. Among its applications, we show that n must be odd, that the Margalit-Schleimer roots achieve the maximum value of n among the roots for a gi...

  18. Evaluation of anti-allergic properties of caffeic acid phenethyl ester in a murine model of systemic anaphylaxis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is an active component of honeybee propolis extracts. It has several positive effects, including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidation, anti-cancer, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anti-fungal, and immunomodulatory effects. In particular, the suppressive effect of NF-κB may disrupt a component of allergic induction. The principal objective of this experimental study was to evaluate the effects of CAPE on the active systemic anaphylaxis induced by ovalbumin (OVA) challenge in mice. Mice were intraperitoneally sensitized and intravenously challenged with OVA. Histopathological analysis, nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation, and the plasma levels of histamine and total IgE after allergen challenge were evaluated. After challenges, all of the sham-treated mice developed anaphylactic symptoms, increased plasma levels of histamine and OVA-specific IgE, marked vascular leakage, NF-κB activation, platelet-activating factor (PAF) production, and histological changes including pulmonary edema and hemorrhage in the renal medullae within 20 min. By way of contrast, a reduction in the plasma levels of histamine and OVA-specific IgE and an inhibition of NF-κB activation and PAF release were observed in the CAPE-treated mice. In addition, a significant prevention of hemoconcentration and OVA-induced pathological changes were noted. These results indicate that CAPE demonstrates an anti-allergic effect, which may be the result of its protective effects against IgE-mediated allergy

  19. Acute Onset of Vancomycin Anaphylaxis With Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation in an Orthopedic Patient Despite Prior Repeated Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Brock; Roboubi, Babak; Henshaw, Robert

    2015-12-01

    Vancomycin is a glycopeptide antibiotic that exhibits bactericidal activity against gram-positive cocci. It is commonly recommended for surgical prophylaxis in cases of suspected bacterial resistance or penicillin allergy. There are 2 main types of hypersensitivity reactions associated with vancomycin. Red man syndrome is an anaphylactoid reaction caused by direct release of histamine. The second is an anaphylactic reaction, which is an immunoglobulin E-mediated response. We present the case of a 55-year-old woman with a history of metastatic giant cell tumor of the right proximal tibia. She had undergone multiple surgeries for this and other nonorthopedic conditions. The patient received vancomycin for the majority of these procedures and extended courses of vancomycin on 2 separate occasions. In the present case, the patient was taken to the operating room for a prosthetic infection, and vancomycin was given after cultures were taken. The patient immediately developed signs consistent with anaphylaxis and disseminated intravascular coagulation. This was treated acutely with hemodynamic resuscitation, replacement of blood components, steroids, and repeated boluses of epinephrine. She recovered and was taken back to the operating room during that same admission without incident. The patient has since been treated with systemic daptomycin and a tobramycin cement spacer without further incident. PMID:26665256

  20. Chromatic roots and hamiltonian paths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten

    2000-01-01

    We present a new connection between colorings and hamiltonian paths: If the chromatic polynomial of a graph has a noninteger root less than or equal to t(n) = 2/3 + 1/3 (3)root (26 + 6 root (33)) + 1/3 (3)root (26 - 6 root (33)) = 1.29559.... then the graph has no hamiltonian path. This result is...

  1. Polydatin (PD) inhibits IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in mice by stabilizing mast cells through modulating Ca{sup 2+} mobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Meichun [Department of Pathophysiology, School of Medicine, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Department of Physiology, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan (China); Li, Jianjie [State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease for Allergy at Shengzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Lv, Jingzhang [Shenzhen Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau, Shenzhen 518045 (China); Mo, Xucheng; Yang, Chengbin [State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease for Allergy at Shengzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Chen, Xiangdong [Department of Pathophysiology, School of Medicine, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Liu, Zhigang [State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease for Allergy at Shengzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Liu, Jie, E-mail: ljljz@yahoo.com [Department of Pathophysiology, School of Medicine, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China)

    2012-11-01

    Mast cells play a key role in the pathogenesis of asthma and are a promising target for therapeutic intervention in asthma. This study investigated the effects of polydatin (PD), a resveratrol glucoside, on mast cell degranulation upon cross-linking of the high-affinity IgE receptors (FcεRI), as well as the anti-allergic activity of PD in vivo. Herein, we demonstrated that PD treatment for 30 min suppressed FcεRI-mediated mast cell degranulation in a dose-dependent manner. Concomitantly, PD significantly decreased FcεRI-mediated Ca{sup 2+} increase in mast cells. The suppressive effects of PD on FcεRI-mediated Ca{sup 2+} increase were largely inhibited by using LaCl{sub 3} to block the Ca{sup 2+} release-activated Ca{sup 2+} channels (CRACs). Furthermore, PD significantly inhibited Ca{sup 2+} entry through CRACs evoked by thapsigargin (TG). Knocking down protein expression of Orai1, the pore-forming subunit of CRACs, significantly decreased PD suppression of FcεRI-induced intracellular Ca{sup 2+} influx and mast cell degranulation. In a mouse model of mast cell-dependent passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA), in vivo PD administration suppressed mast cell degranulation and inhibited anaphylaxis. Taken together, our data indicate that PD stabilizes mast cells by suppressing FcεRI-induced Ca{sup 2+} mobilization mainly through inhibiting Ca{sup 2+} entry via CRACs, thus exerting a protective effect against PCA. -- Highlights: ► Polydatin can prevent the pathogenesis of passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in mice. ► Polydatin stabilizes mast cells by decreasing FcεRI-mediated degranulation. ► Polydatin suppresses Ca{sup 2+} entry through CRAC channels in mast cells.

  2. Management of anaphylaxis in schools: Evaluation of an epinephrine auto-injector (EpiPen® use by school personnel and comparison of two approaches of soliciting participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Luu Nha

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been no large study characterizing selection bias in allergy and evaluating school personnel’s ability to use an epinephrine auto-injector (EpiPen®. Our objective was to determine if the consent process introduces selection bias by comparing 2 methods of soliciting participation of school personnel in a study evaluating their ability to demonstrate the EpiPen®. Methods School personnel from randomly selected schools in Quebec were approached using a 1 partial or 2 full disclosure approach and were assessed on their ability to use the EpiPen® and identify anaphylaxis. Results 343 school personnel participated. In the full disclosure group, the participation rate was lower: 21.9% (95%CI, 19.0%-25.2% versus 40.7% (95%CI, 36.1%-45.3%, but more participants achieved a perfect score: 26.3% (95%CI, 19.6%-33.9% versus 15.8% (95%CI, 10.8%-21.8%, and identified 3 signs of anaphylaxis: 71.8% (95%CI, 64.0%-78.7% versus 55.6% (95%CI, 48.2%-62.9%. Conclusions Selection bias is suspected as school personnel who were fully informed of the purpose of the assessment were less likely to participate; those who participated among the fully informed were more likely to earn perfect scores and identify anaphylaxis. As the process of consent can influence participation and bias outcomes, researchers and Ethics Boards need to consider conditions under which studies can proceed without full consent. Despite training, school personnel perform poorly when asked to demonstrate the EpiPen®.

  3. ROOT User Workshop 2013

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Since almost two decades, ROOT has established itself as the framework for HENP data processing and analysis. The LHC upgrade program and the new experiments being designed at CERN and elsewhere will pose even more formidable challenges in terms of data complexity and size. The new parallel and heterogeneous computing architectures that are either announced or already available will call for a deep rethinking of the code and the data structures to be exploited efficiently. This workshop, following from a successful series of such events, will allow you to learn in detail about the new ROOT 6 and will help shape the future evolution of ROOT.

  4. Quantitative measurements of root water uptake and root hydraulic conductivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Javaux, Mathieu; Meunier, Felicien; Couvreur, Valentin; Carminati, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    How is root water uptake distributed along the root system and what root properties control this distribution? Here we present a method to: 1) measure root water uptake and 2) inversely estimate the root hydraulic conductivities. The experimental method consists in using neutron radiography to trace deuterated water (D2O) in soil and roots. The method was applied to lupines grown aluminium containers filled with a sandy soil. When the lupines were 4 weeks old, D2O was locally injected in a selected soil regions and its transport was monitored in soil and roots using time-series neutron radiography. By image processing, we quantified the concentration of D2O in soil and roots. We simulated the transport of D2O into roots using a diffusion-convection numerical model. The diffusivity of the roots tissue was inversely estimated by simulating the transport of D2O into the roots during night. The convective fluxes (i.e. root water uptake) were inversely estimating by fitting the experiments during day, when plants were transpiring, and assuming that root diffusivity did not change. The results showed that root water uptake was not uniform along the roots. Water uptake was higher at the proximal parts of the lateral roots and it decreased by a factor of 10 towards the distal parts. We used the data of water fluxes to inversely estimate the profile of hydraulic conductivities along the roots of transpiring plants growing in soil. The water fluxes in the lupine roots were simulated using the Hydraulic Tree Model by Doussan et al. (1998). The fitting parameters to be adjusted were the radial and axial hydraulic conductivities of the roots. The results showed that by using the root architectural model of Doussan et al. (1998) and detailed information of water fluxes into different root segments we could estimate the profile of hydraulic conductivities along the roots. We also found that: 1) in a tap-rooted plant like lupine water is mostly taken up by lateral roots; (2) water

  5. Genetic association among root morphology, root quality and root yield in ashwagandha (Withania somnifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Ramesh R.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera is a dryland medicinal crop and roots are used as valuable drug in traditional systems of medicine. Morphological variants (morphotypes and the parental populations were evaluated for root - morphometric, quality and yield traits to study genetic association among them. Root morphometric traits (root length, root diameter, number of secondary roots/ plant and crude fiber content exhibited strong association among them and showed significant positive genotypic correlation with yield. Starch-fiber ratio (SFR, determinant of brittle root texture showed strong negative association with root yield. The total alkaloid content had positive genotypic correlation with root yield. So genetic upgradation should aim at optimum balance between two divergent groups of traits i.e. root yield traits (root morphometric traits and crude fiber content and root textural quality traits (starch content and SFR to develop superior genotypes with better yield and quality.

  6. The "Green" Root Beer Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2010-01-01

    No, your students will not be drinking green root beer for St. Patrick's Day--this "green" root beer laboratory promotes environmental awareness in the science classroom, and provides a venue for some very sound science content! While many science classrooms incorporate root beer-brewing activities, the root beer lab presented in this article has…

  7. Root development under drought stress

    OpenAIRE

    Franco Leemhuis, José Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Serving as interfaces between plant and the soil, roots are much more exposed to drought stress than the upper plant parts. Therefore, the root system can be as affected, or even more affected, than the aerial parts of the plant for drought stress (Franco et al., 2011). Nevertheless, the influence of this stress on root activity and development has been much less studied. Undoubtedly, this is due to limitations on accessibility for root observations; being studies on root system dynamics espe...

  8. Complex Roots of Quaternion Polynomials

    OpenAIRE

    Dospra, Petroula; Poulakis, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    The polynomials with quaternion coefficients have two kind of roots: isolated and spherical. A spherical root generates a class of roots which contains only one complex number $z$ and its conjugate $\\bar{z}$, and this class can be determined by $z$. In this paper, we deal with the complex roots of quaternion polynomials. More precisely, using B\\'{e}zout matrices, we give necessary and sufficient conditions, for a quaternion polynomial to have a complex root, a spherical root, and a complex is...

  9. Root canal medicaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Nobuyuki; Wadachi, Reiko; Suda, Hideaki; Yeng, Thai; Parashos, Peter

    2009-02-01

    The ultimate goals of endodontic treatment are complete removal of bacteria, their byproducts and pulpal remnants from infected root canals and the complete seal of disinfected root canals. Intracanal medicaments have been thought an essential step in killing the bacteria in root canals; however, in modern endodontics, shaping and cleaning may be assuming greater importance than intracanal medicaments as a means of disinfecting root canals. Until recently, formocresol and its relatives were frequently used as intracanal medicaments, but it was pointed out that such bactericidal chemicals dressed in the canal distributed to the whole body from the root apex and so might induce various harmful effects including allergies. Furthermore, as these medicaments are potent carcinogenic agents, there is no indication for these chemicals in modern endodontic treatment. Today, biocompatibility and stability are essential properties for intracanal medicaments. The more modern meaning of intracanal dressing is for a blockade against coronal leakage from the gap between filling materials and cavity wall. Calcium hydroxide has been determined as suitable for use as an intracanal medicament as it is stable for long periods, harmless to the body, and bactericidal in a limited area. It also induces hard tissue formation and is effective for stopping inflammatory exudates. Single-visit endodontics, where intracanal medicaments are not used, is generally not now contraindicated and various reports have shown that the clinical outcomes between single- and multiple- visit endodontics are similar. There is no reason to counsel against single-visit endodontics: however, if multiple-visit endodontics is chosen, calcium hydroxide is recommended to be used as an intracanal medicament. PMID:19323305

  10. Hairy roots are more sensitive to auxin than normal roots

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Wen Hui; Petit, Annik; Guern, Jean; Tempé, Jacques

    1988-01-01

    Responses to auxin of Lotus corniculatus root tips or protoplasts transformed by Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains 15834 and 8196 were compared to those of their normal counterparts. Three different types of experiments were performed, involving long-term, medium-term, or short-term responses to a synthetic auxin, 1-naphthaleneacetic acid. Root tip elongation, proton excretion by root tips, and transmembrane electrical potential difference of root protoplasts were measured as a function of exo...

  11. Variation in root wood anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, D.F.

    1976-01-01

    Variability in the anatomy of root wood of selected specimens particularly Fraxinus excelsior L. and Acer pseudoplatanus L. in the Kew reference microscope slide collection is discussed in relation to generalised statements in the literature on root wood anatomy.

  12. The Physiology of Adventitious Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, Bianka; Rasmussen, Amanda

    2016-02-01

    Adventitious roots are plant roots that form from any nonroot tissue and are produced both during normal development (crown roots on cereals and nodal roots on strawberry [Fragaria spp.]) and in response to stress conditions, such as flooding, nutrient deprivation, and wounding. They are important economically (for cuttings and food production), ecologically (environmental stress response), and for human existence (food production). To improve sustainable food production under environmentally extreme conditions, it is important to understand the adventitious root development of crops both in normal and stressed conditions. Therefore, understanding the regulation and physiology of adventitious root formation is critical for breeding programs. Recent work shows that different adventitious root types are regulated differently, and here, we propose clear definitions of these classes. We use three case studies to summarize the physiology of adventitious root development in response to flooding (case study 1), nutrient deficiency (case study 2), and wounding (case study 3). PMID:26697895

  13. Serious Allergic Reactions (Anaphylaxis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or more of these body systems: skin digestive system respiratory system cardiovascular system For example, someone may feel tightness or closing in the throat (respiratory system) together with a fast heartbeat (cardiovascular system). Here ...

  14. Anaphylaxis: Tips to Remember

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nuts (such as walnut, cashew, Brazil nut), shellfish, fish, milk, eggs and preservatives. Stinging insects: Insect sting ... way to remain safe, but requires a great deal of education. Specific advice may include: • Food: how ...

  15. Anaphylaxis caused by banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savonius, B; Kanerva, L

    1993-04-01

    An anaphylactic reaction following ingestion of banana occurred in a 32-year-old female cook. The sensitization to banana occurred simultaneously with the development of occupational asthma caused by grain flour. The patient was sensitized to a wide range of airborne and ingestible proteins but not to rubber latex. PMID:8506993

  16. Root canal retained restorations: 3. Root-face attachments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dummer, P M; Edmunds, D H; Gidden, J R

    1990-10-01

    It has been common practice for many years to use retained roots to provide support and stability for partial or full dentures. The retention of such overdentures is greatly enhanced if the remaining roots are modified and restored with posts and root-face attachments. The final article in this series on root canal retained restorations classifies and describes some of the root-face attachments currently available, and also describes a number of prefabricated post systems with integral overdenture attachments. Guidelines for clinical and laboratory procedures are given. PMID:2097234

  17. Hairy roots are more sensitive to auxin than normal roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, W H; Petit, A; Guern, J; Tempé, J

    1988-05-01

    Responses to auxin of Lotus corniculatus root tips or protoplasts transformed by Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains 15834 and 8196 were compared to those of their normal counterparts. Three different types of experiments were performed, involving long-term, medium-term, or short-term responses to a synthetic auxin, 1-naphthaleneacetic acid. Root tip elongation, proton excretion by root tips, and transmembrane electrical potential difference of root protoplasts were measured as a function of exogenous auxin concentration. The sensitivity of hairy root tips or protoplasts to exogenous auxin was found to be 100-1000 times higher than that of untransformed material. PMID:16593928

  18. Negative phototropism of rice root

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@It is often believed that the stem of higher plants has characteristics of positive phototropism, and the root shows no phototropism or no sensitivity to light though the root of Arabdopsis was reported possessing characteristics of negative phototropism. In this study, a distinct negative phototropism of the root system of rice seedlings was observed.

  19. Effect of a cocoa-enriched diet on immune response and anaphylaxis in a food allergy model in Brown Norway rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abril-Gil, Mar; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J; Franch, Àngels; Castell, Margarida

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that cocoa intake decreased Th2 immune-related antibodies in rats. In consequence, we aimed to study in depth this cocoa action, particularly assessing its effect on a rat model of food allergy (FA) and also on an anaphylactic response. The involvement of the intestinal immune system was analyzed to allow the action mechanisms to be investigated. The role of cocoa flavonoids in the antiallergic properties of cocoa was also established. Brown Norway rats were fed either a reference diet or diets containing conventional cocoa (CC) or nonfermented cocoa (NFC). FA to ovalbumin (OVA) was induced and, later, an anaphylactic response was provoked. As expected, the synthesis of anti-OVA IgE and other Th2-related antibodies was inhibited by CC diet. In addition, the release of mast cell protease II after anaphylaxis was partially prevented by CC, although other variables were not modified. The CC diet also attenuated the increase of some Th2-related cytokines released from mesenteric lymph node and spleen cells, and modulated the intestinal gene expression of molecules involved in allergic response. These results demonstrated the local and systemic influence of CC diet. The effects of the NFC diet were weaker than those of CC, suggesting that cocoa components other than flavonoids play a role in cocoa's action. In conclusion, by acting on intestinal and systemic immune functions, a cocoa-enriched diet in rats exhibited a protective effect against FA and partially against anaphylaxis, making this a food of high interest to the fields of health and immunonutrition. PMID:26601599

  20. Diagravitropism in corn roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, A. C.; Wettlaufer, S. H.

    1988-01-01

    The diagravitropic behavior of Merit corn (Zea mays L.) roots grown in darkness provides an opportunity for comparison of two qualitatively different gravitropic systems. As with positive gravitropism, diagravitropism is shown to require the presence of the root cap, have a similar time course for the onset of curvature, and a similar presentation time. In contrast with positive gravitropism, diagravitropism appears to have a more limited requirement for calcium, for it is insensitive to the elution of calcium by EGTA and insensitive to the subsequent addition of a calcium/EGTA complex. These results are interpreted as indicating that whereas the same sensing system is shared by the two types of gravitropism, separate transductive systems are involved, one for diagravitropism, which is relatively independent of calcium, and one for positive gravitropism, which is markedly dependent on calcium.

  1. Mental Roots of Terror

    OpenAIRE

    Saruhan, Müfit Selim

    2004-01-01

    In this article, I deal with mental and terror relationship. Mental roots of terror are being examined. Religion has nothing to do with terrorism. Terrorist tries to misuse religion. Mental with prejudice and lack of knowledge occupies the personality of individual and his ability to judge. Purification of mind from any external and internal prejudices is the unique solution of terrorism. Only within extensive education we can overcome terrorism. Terrorism could not apply to a religion or a n...

  2. Rooted in Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The result of the synergy between four doctoral projects and an advanced MA-level course on Bronze Age Europe, this integrated assemblage of articles represents a variety of different subjects united by a single theme: movement. Ranging from theoretical discussion of the various responses to and ...... period of European prehistory. In so doing, the text not only addresses transmission and reception, but also the conceptualization of mobility within a world which was literally Rooted in Movement....

  3. Roots of Financial Literacy

    OpenAIRE

    Grohmann, Antonia; Kouwenberg, Roy; Menkhoff, Lukas

    2014-01-01

    Our study aims to uncover the roots of financial literacy. Better financial literacy predicts more informed savings and borrowing decisions in our sample, covering the urban middle-class in an emerging economy. We then test education at school, family background, parental teaching, and childhood experiences with money as potential determinants of financial literacy. In addition to risk tolerance and having basic numeracy skills, we find that family variables matter most, in particular better ...

  4. Do roots mind the gap?

    OpenAIRE

    A. Carminati; Vetterlein, D; Koebernick, N.; Blaser, S; Weller, U; Vogel, H.-J.

    2012-01-01

    Roots need to be in good contact with the soil to take up water and nutrients. However, when the soil dries and roots shrink, air-filled gaps form at the root-soil interface. Do gaps actually limit the root water uptake, or do they form after water flow in soil is already limiting?Four white lupins were grown in cylinders of 20 cm height and 8 cm diameter. The dynamics of root and soil structure were recorded using X-ray CT at regular intervals during one drying/wetting cycle. Tensiometers we...

  5. Environ: E00075 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00075 Platycodon ... root (JP16) Crude drug Platycodin A [CPD:C17443], Platycodin C [CPD:C17487], P ... 7-Stigmastenol, alpha-Spinasteryl-beta-D-glucoside Platycodon ... grandiflorum [TAX:94286] Same as: D06703 Campanula ... ceae (bellflower family) Platycodon ... root Major component: Platycodin [CPD:C17443 C1748 ...

  6. Philosophical Roots of Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanovic, M.

    2008-10-01

    We shall consider the philosophical roots of cosmology in the earlier Greek philosophy. Our goal is to answer the question: Are earlier Greek theories of pure philosophical-mythological character, as often philosophers cited it, or they have scientific character. On the bases of methodological criteria, we shall contend that the latter is the case. In order to answer the question about contemporary situation of the relation philosophy-cosmology, we shall consider the next question: Is contemporary cosmology completely independent of philosophical conjectures? The answer demands consideration of methodological character about scientific status of contemporary cosmology. We also consider some aspects of the relation contemporary philosophy-cosmology.

  7. ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF ROOT EXTRACT OF SOLANUM MELONGENA LINN ROOT

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava Ashish; Sanjay Yadav

    2011-01-01

    The present study was aimed at Pharmacognostic study and biological evaluation of analgesic activity of plants roots. The roots of plants were studies for Pharmacognostic characteristics namely, morphology, microscopy, physicochemical parameters, which can be of utilized in identification/authentication of the plant and/or its roots in crude drug form. The preliminary phytochemical screening of the dry residue was carried out by the chemical test and thin layer chromatographic method. The p...

  8. Anaphylaxis to IGIV in immunoglobulin-naïve common variable immunodeficiency patient in the absence of IgG anti-IgA antibodies: successful administration of low IgA-containing immunoglobulin

    OpenAIRE

    Gharib, Asal; Caperton, Caroline; Gupta, Sudhir

    2016-01-01

    Although severe reactions to immunoglobulin preparations have been frequently reported, IgE antibodies against IgA are usually not investigated; and occur predominantly in previously sensitized patients. The purpose is to report anaphylaxis to IGIV during initial infusion in a patient with common variable immunodeficiency with absent IgA without prior sensitization and in the absence of detectable IgG anti-IgA antibodies, and positive skin tests for immediate hypersensitivity to four differen...

  9. Perennial roots to immortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2014-10-01

    Maximum lifespan greatly varies among species, and it is not strictly determined; it can change with species evolution. Clonal growth is a major factor governing maximum lifespan. In the plant kingdom, the maximum lifespans described for clonal and nonclonal plants vary by an order of magnitude, with 43,600 and 5,062 years for Lomatia tasmanica and Pinus longaeva, respectively. Nonclonal perennial plants (those plants exclusively using sexual reproduction) also present a huge diversity in maximum lifespans (from a few to thousands of years) and even more interestingly, contrasting differences in aging patterns. Some plants show a clear physiological deterioration with aging, whereas others do not. Indeed, some plants can even improve their physiological performance as they age (a phenomenon called negative senescence). This diversity in aging patterns responds to species-specific life history traits and mechanisms evolved by each species to adapt to its habitat. Particularities of roots in perennial plants, such as meristem indeterminacy, modular growth, stress resistance, and patterns of senescence, are crucial in establishing perenniality and understanding adaptation of perennial plants to their habitats. Here, the key role of roots for perennial plant longevity will be discussed, taking into account current knowledge and highlighting additional aspects that still require investigation. PMID:24563283

  10. Removal of root filling materials.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duncan, H.F. Chong, B.S.

    2011-05-01

    Safe, successful and effective removal of root filling materials is an integral component of non-surgical root canal re-treatment. Access to the root canal system must be achieved in order to negotiate to the canal terminus so that deficiencies in the original treatment can be rectified. Since a range of materials have been advocated for filling root canals, different techniques are required for their removal. The management of commonly encountered root filling materials during non-surgical re-treatment, including the clinical procedures necessary for removal and the associated risks, are reviewed. As gutta-percha is the most widely used and accepted root filling material, there is a greater emphasis on its removal in this review.

  11. ROOT Tutorial for Summer Students

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Piparo, Danilo

    2015-01-01

    ROOT is a "batteries-included" tool kit for data analysis, storage and visualization. It is widely used in High Energy Physics and other disciplines such as Biology, Finance and Astrophysics. This event is an introductory tutorial to ROOT and comprises a front lecture and hands on exercises. IMPORTANT NOTE: The tutorial is based on ROOT 6.04 and NOT on the ROOT5 series.  IMPORTANT NOTE: if you have ROOT 6.04 installed on your laptop, you will not need to install any virtual machine. The instructions showing how to install the virtual machine on which you can find ROOT 6.04 can be found under "Material" on this page.

  12. Facilitative root interactions in intercrops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, H.; Jensen, E.S.

    2005-01-01

    Facilitation takes place when plants ameliorate the environment of their neighbours, and increase their growth and survival. Facilitation occurs in natural ecosystems as well as in agroecosystems. We discuss examples of facilitative root interactions in intercropped agroecosystems; including...... root architecture, exudation of growth stimulating substances, and biofumigation. Facilitative root interactions are most likely to be of importance in nutrient poor soils and in low-input agroecosystems due to critical interspecific competition for plant growth factors. However, studies from more...

  13. On roots of Dehn twists

    CERN Document Server

    Monden, Naoyuki

    2009-01-01

    Margalit and Schleimer constructed nontrivial roots of the Dehn twist about a nonseparating curve. We prove that the conjugacy classes of roots of the Dehn twist about a nonseparating curve correspond to the conjugacy classes of periodic maps with certain conditions. Futhermore, we give data set which determine the conjugacy class of a root. As a consequence, we can find the minimum degree and the maximum degree, and show that the degree must be odd. Also, we give Dehn twist expression of the root of degree 3.

  14. Root system in declining forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, F.H.

    1987-07-11

    Trees with obligate ectomycorrhiza are more sensitive to environmental stress than those without ectomycorrhiza or with facultative ectomycorrhiza. With spruce seedlings growing in humus material from a declining spruce forest an experimental proof was given, that reduction of the mineral nitrogen content by adding sawdust to the rooting substrate increases the share of root tips converted to ectomycorrhizas. A close correlation has been found between the mycorrhiza frequency and the number of root tips. This means, that the ramification of a root system is the more intense the better the conditions for mycorrhizal development are.

  15. Feynman Diagrams and Rooted Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Prunotto, A; Czerski, P

    2013-01-01

    The {\\em Rooted Maps Theory}, a branch of the Theory of Homology, is shown to be a powerful tool for investigating the topological properties of Feynman diagrams, related to the single particle propagator in the quantum many-body systems. The numerical correspondence between the number of this class of Feynman diagrams as a function of perturbative order and the number of rooted maps as a function of the number of edges is studied. A graphical procedure to associate Feynman diagrams and rooted maps is then stated. Finally, starting from rooted maps principles, an original definition of the {\\em genus of a Feynman diagram}, which totally differs from the usual one, is given.

  16. Root cause analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article provides some fundamental techniques of evaluating human performance and equipment related events which are in use in Krsko NPP. Before the large industrial accidents the human factor was considered as very reliable and was not accepted as a possible source of errors. Today it is evident that safety is a proper combination of factors associated with people, technology and organization. Determining the cause of equipment failures is a much more enjoyable, exercise than doing the same for human errors. People are emotional: they can be angry, scared, defensive, not trustful. Because of all that the determination of causes for human errors is much more difficult.In many cases the definition of human factors relates to operators as the source of the human errors. Such an approach restricts the search for the true root cause of an event. In reality the human factor is associated with operators as well as with managers, designers, instructors, maintenance people etc. Operating experience and in-depth analysis with the resulting lessons learnt are all evidence of the relevance of human errors for safety. The nuclear power plant industry has estimated the risk due to human errors closing to 70%. It is therefore obvious that sophisticated techniques are needed to focus on human errors. The root cause analysis in NPP Krsko is based on the following methods: Event and Causal Factor Charting, Change Analysis, Barrier Analysis, MORT (Management Oversight and Risk Tree Analysis) and Human Performance Evaluation. Event and casual Factor Charting is used for investigation of complex problems which need to be visualized in the form of a chart so as to provide a better understanding of the chronology of an event. Change Analysis is usually used for a particular problem with the equipment failure by using key questions: what?, when?, where?, who? and how? to find a final answer to the question WHY something happened. Barrier Analysis is used for procedural and

  17. Maximal rank root subsystems of hyperbolic root systems

    OpenAIRE

    Tumarkin, P.

    2003-01-01

    A Kac-Moody algebra is called hyperbolic if it corresponds to a generalized Cartan matrix of hyperbolic type. We study root subsystems of root systems of hyperbolic algebras. In this paper, we classify maximal rank regular hyperbolic subalgebras of hyperbolic Kac-Moody algebras.

  18. Radiographing roots and shoots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of seed orientation on germination time and on shoot and root growth patterns is studied. Neutron radiography is used to observe the development of 4 types of plants, maize, greenpea, soya bean and padi. These plants were grown in varying orientations; sand sizes, sand thicknesses, and level of water content. Radiography of the seeds and plants were obtained for time exposure ranging from 3-12 hours and at reactor thermal power level, ranging from 500-750 kilowatts. Results obtained showed that seeds planted in varying orientations need different length of time for shoot emergence. Neutron radiography is now developed to other areas of non-industrial applications in Malaysia. (A.J.)

  19. Compensatory Root Water Uptake of Overlapping Root Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agee, E.; Ivanov, V. Y.; He, L.; Bisht, G.; Shahbaz, P.; Fatichi, S.; Gough, C. M.; Couvreur, V.; Matheny, A. M.; Bohrer, G.

    2015-12-01

    Land-surface models use simplified representations of root water uptake based on biomass distributions and empirical functions that constrain water uptake during unfavorable soil moisture conditions. These models fail to capture the observed hydraulic plasticity that allows plants to regulate root hydraulic conductivity and zones of active uptake based on local gradients. Recent developments in root water uptake modeling have sought to increase its mechanistic representation by bridging the gap between physically based microscopic models and computationally feasible macroscopic approaches. It remains to be demonstrated whether bulk parameterization of microscale characteristics (e.g., root system morphology and root conductivity) can improve process representation at the ecosystem scale. We employ the Couvreur method of microscopic uptake to yield macroscopic representation in a coupled soil-root model. Using a modified version of the PFLOTRAN model, which represents the 3-D physics of variably saturated soil, we model a one-hectare temperate forest stand under natural and synthetic climatic forcing. Our results show that as shallow soil layers dry, uptake at the tree and stand level shift to deeper soil layers, allowing the transpiration stream demanded by the atmosphere. We assess the potential capacity of the model to capture compensatory root water uptake. Further, the hydraulic plasticity of the root system is demonstrated by the quick response of uptake to rainfall pulses. These initial results indicate a promising direction for land surface models in which significant three-dimensional information from large root systems can be feasibly integrated into the forest scale simulations of root water uptake.

  20. Properties of Estimated Characteristic Roots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bent; Nielsen, Heino Bohn

    Estimated characteristic roots in stationary autoregressions are shown to give rather noisy information about their population equivalents. This is remarkable given the central role of the characteristic roots in the theory of autoregressive processes. In the asymptotic analysis the problems appear...

  1. Medico-legal aspects of vertical root fractures in root filled teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosen, E; Tsesis, I; Tamse, A;

    2012-01-01

    To analyse the medico-legal aspects of vertical root fracture (VRF) following root canal treatment (RCT).......To analyse the medico-legal aspects of vertical root fracture (VRF) following root canal treatment (RCT)....

  2. A rare combination of undiagnosed hypertrophic cardiomyopathy revealed by intraoperative anaphylaxis resulting in acute left ventricular outflow obstruction and cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bradford B; Nickels, Andrew S; Sviggum, Hans P

    2016-06-01

    A 75-year-old female presented for left total hip reimplantation and suffered pulseless electrical activity arrest upon lateral positioning and administering vancomycin. Resuscitation was achieved according to Advanced Cardiac Life Support protocol. Post-event echocardiography showed hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with asymmetrical septal thickening, an under-filled left ventricle, dynamic left ventricular outflow obstruction, and severe mitral regurgitation related to systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve. Laboratory analysis showed a tryptase level of 209 ng/mL. After multispecialty evaluation, it was concluded that the patient's arrest was due to vancomycin anaphylaxis in the setting of previously undiagnosed hypertrophic cardiomyopathy leading to acute left ventricular outflow tract obstruction. After medical optimization of the patient's cardiomyopathy and an evaluation of potential intraoperative allergic triggers, the patient underwent a successful hip reimplantation without incident. This case presents a novel combination of events leading to intraoperative cardiac arrest. Rapid identification and an understanding of the cause(s) of cardiac arrest in this setting are critical for effective perioperative care. PMID:27185714

  3. Root anatomical phenes predict root penetration ability and biomechanical properties in maize (Zea Mays)

    OpenAIRE

    Chimungu, Joseph G.; Loades, Kenneth W.; Lynch, Jonathan P.

    2015-01-01

    The ability of roots to penetrate hard soil is important for crop productivity but specific root phenes contributing to this ability are poorly understood. Root penetrability and biomechanical properties are likely to vary in the root system dependent on anatomical structure. No information is available to date on the influence of root anatomical phenes on root penetrability and biomechanics. Root penetration ability was evaluated using a wax layer system. Root tensile and bending strength we...

  4. Root development during soil genesis: effects of root-root interactions, mycorrhizae, and substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, A.; Zaharescu, D. G.

    2015-12-01

    A major driver of soil formation is the colonization and transformation of rock by plants and associated microbiota. In turn, substrate chemical composition can also influence the capacity for plant colonization and development. In order to better define these relationships, a mesocosm study was set up to analyze the effect mycorrhizal fungi, plant density and rock have on root development, and to determine the effect of root morphology on weathering and soil formation. We hypothesized that plant-plant and plant-fungi interactions have a stronger influence on root architecture and rock weathering than the substrate composition alone. Buffalo grass (Bouteloua dactyloides) was grown in a controlled environment in columns filled with either granular granite, schist, rhyolite or basalt. Each substrate was given two different treatments, including grass-microbes and grass-microbes-mycorrhizae and incubated for 120, 240, and 480 days. Columns were then extracted and analyzed for root morphology, fine fraction, and pore water major element content. Preliminary results showed that plants produced more biomass in rhyolite, followed by schist, basalt, and granite, indicating that substrate composition is an important driver of root development. In support of our hypothesis, mycorrhizae was a strong driver of root development by stimulating length growth, biomass production, and branching. However, average root length and branching also appeared to decrease in response to high plant density, though this trend was only present among roots with mycorrhizal fungi. Interestingly, fine fraction production was negatively correlated with average root thickness and volume. There is also slight evidence indicating that fine fraction production is more related to substrate composition than root morphology, though this data needs to be further analyzed. Our hope is that the results of this study can one day be applied to agricultural research in order to promote the production of crops

  5. Nutritional regulation of root development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Herrera, León Francisco; Shane, Michael W; López-Bucio, José

    2015-01-01

    Mineral nutrients such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and iron (Fe) are essential for plant growth, development, and reproduction. Adequate provision of nutrients via the root system impacts greatly on shoot biomass and plant productivity and is therefore of crucial importance for agriculture. Nutrients are taken up at the root surface in ionic form, which is mediated by specific transport proteins. Noteworthy, root tips are able to sense the local and internal concentrations of nutrients to adjust growth and developmental processes, and ultimately, to increase or decrease the exploratory capacity of the root system. Recently, important progress has been achieved in identifying the mechanisms of nutrient sensing in wild- and cultivated species, including Arabidopsis, bean, maize, rice, lupin as well as in members of the Proteaceae and Cyperaceae families, which develop highly sophisticated root clusters as adaptations to survive in soils with very low fertility. Major findings include identification of transporter proteins and transcription factors regulating nutrient sensing, miRNAs as mobile signals and peptides as repressors of lateral root development under heterogeneous nutrient supply. Understanding the roles played by N, P, and Fe in gene expression and biochemical characterization of proteins involved in root developmental responses to homogeneous or heterogeneous N and P sources has gained additional interest due to its potential for improving fertilizer acquisition efficiency in crops. PMID:25760021

  6. Effect of parameter choice in root water uptake models – the arrangement of root hydraulic properties within the root architecture affects dynamics and efficiency of root water uptake

    OpenAIRE

    Bechmann, M.; Schneider, C; Carminati, A.; Vetterlein, D.; Attinger, S.; Hildebrandt, A

    2014-01-01

    Detailed three-dimensional models of root water uptake have become increasingly popular for investigating the process of root water uptake. However, they suffer from a lack of information on important parameters, particularly on the spatial distribution of root axial and radial conductivities, which vary greatly along a root system. In this paper we explore how the arrangement of those root hydraulic properties and branching within the root system affects modelled uptake dynamics, xylem water...

  7. Comprehensive analysis of Panax ginseng root transcriptomes

    OpenAIRE

    Jayakodi, Murukarthick; Lee, Sang-Choon; Lee, Yun Sun; Park, Hyun-Seung; Kim, Nam-Hoon; Jang, Woojong; Lee, Hyun Oh; Joh, Ho Jun; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Background Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) is a highly effective medicinal plant containing ginsenosides with various pharmacological activities, whose roots are produced commercially for crude drugs. Results Here, we used the Illumina platform to generate over 232 million RNA sequencing reads from four root samples, including whole roots from one-year-old plants and three types of root tissue from six-year-old plants (i.e., main root bodies, rhizomes, and lateral roots). Through de...

  8. INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING : ROOTING FOR ROOTS, HANKERING FOR HEROES

    OpenAIRE

    P.S. Kruger

    2012-01-01

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The “roots” of Industrial Engineering are certainly extensive, diverse and deep. Similarly, there are numerous historical “heroes” that made significant contributions to the development of the Industrial Engineering discipline. For the sake of argument, this article will assume that Industrial Engineering has at least two identifiable main roots, namely Determinism and Stochastism. The article attempts to trace the early history1 of the stochastic root which is very...

  9. Root pruning reduces root competition in living mulch cropping systems

    OpenAIRE

    Båth, B.; Kristensen, Hanne Lakkenborg; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    In intercropping systems with a cash crop and a living mulch intercrop, competition between the cash crop and the intercrop (the living mulch) often reduces the yield of the cash crop. This project investigated (1) the influence of root pruning of living mulches on aboveground biomass of white cabbage. Below-ground growth and competition were examined by measuring (2) root distribution in minirhizotrons and (3) uptake of 15N placed at different soil depths. Two field experiments were carried ...

  10. Plant root-microbe communication in shaping root microbiomes

    OpenAIRE

    Lareen, Andrew; Burton, Frances; Schäfer, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of research is highlighting the impacts root-associated microbial communities can have on plant health and development. These impacts can include changes in yield quantity and quality, timing of key developmental stages and tolerance of biotic and abiotic stresses. With such a range of effects it is clear that understanding the factors that contribute to a plant-beneficial root microbiome may prove advantageous. Increasing demands for food by a growing human population increase...

  11. Hypocotyl adventitious root organogenesis differs from lateral root development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge eVerstraeten

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Wound-induced adventitious root (AR formation is a requirement for plant survival upon root damage inflicted by pathogen attack, but also during the regeneration of plant stem cuttings for clonal propagation of elite plant varieties. Yet, adventitious rooting also takes place without wounding. This happens for example in etiolated Arabidopsis thaliana hypocotyls, in which AR initiate upon de-etiolation or in tomato seedlings, in which AR initiate upon flooding or high water availability. In the hypocotyl AR originate from a cell layer reminiscent to the pericycle in the primary root (PR and the initiated AR share histological and developmental characteristics with lateral roots (LR. In contrast to the PR however, the hypocotyl is a determinate structure with an established final number of cells. This points to differences between the induction of hypocotyl AR and LR on the PR, as the latter grows indeterminately. The induction of AR on the hypocotyl takes place in environmental conditions that differ from those that control LR formation. Hence, AR formation depends on differentially regulated gene products. Similarly to AR induction in stem cuttings, the capacity to induce hypocotyl AR is genotype-dependent and the plant growth regulator auxin is a key regulator controlling the rooting response. The hormones cytokinins, ethylene, jasmonic acid and strigolactones in general reduce the root-inducing capacity. The involvement of this many regulators indicates that a tight control and fine-tuning of the initiation and emergence of AR exists. Recently, several genetic factors, specific to hypocotyl adventitious rooting in Arabidopsis thaliana, have been uncovered. These factors reveal a dedicated signaling network that drives AR formation in the Arabidopsis hypocotyl. Here we provide an overview of the environmental and genetic factors controlling hypocotyl-born AR and we summarize how AR formation and the regulating factors of this organogenesis are

  12. IAA transport in corn roots includes the root cap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In earlier reports we concluded that auxin is the growth regulator that controls gravicurvature in roots and that the redistribution of auxin occurs within the root cap. Since other reports did not detect auxin in the root cap, we attempted to confirm the IAA does move through the cap. Agar blocks containing 3H-IAA were applied to the cut surface of 5 mm long apical segments of primary roots of corn (mo17xB73). After 30 to 120 min radioactivity (RA) of the cap and root tissue was determined. While segments suspended in water-saturated air accumulated very little RA in the cap, application of 0.5 μ1 of dist. water to the cap (=controls) increased RA of the cap dramatically. Application to the cap of 0.5 μ1 of sorbitol or the Ca2+ chelator EGTA reduced cap RA to 46% and 70% respectively compared to water, without affecting uptake. Control root segments gravireacted faster than non-treated or osmoticum or EGTA treated segments. The data indicate that both the degree of hydration and calcium control the amount of auxin moving through the cap

  13. Towards a multidimensional root trait framework: a tree root review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weemstra, Monique; Mommer, Liesje; Visser, Eric J W; van Ruijven, Jasper; Kuyper, Thomas W; Mohren, Godefridus M J; Sterck, Frank J

    2016-09-01

    Contents 1159 I. 1159 II. 1161 III. 1164 IV. 1166 1167 References 1167 SUMMARY: The search for a root economics spectrum (RES) has been sparked by recent interest in trait-based plant ecology. By analogy with the one-dimensional leaf economics spectrum (LES), fine-root traits are hypothesised to match leaf traits which are coordinated along one axis from resource acquisitive to conservative traits. However, our literature review and meta-level analysis reveal no consistent evidence of an RES mirroring an LES. Instead the RES appears to be multidimensional. We discuss three fundamental differences contributing to the discrepancy between these spectra. First, root traits are simultaneously constrained by various environmental drivers not necessarily related to resource uptake. Second, above- and belowground traits cannot be considered analogues, because they function differently and might not be related to resource uptake in a similar manner. Third, mycorrhizal interactions may offset selection for an RES. Understanding and explaining the belowground mechanisms and trade-offs that drive variation in root traits, resource acquisition and plant performance across species, thus requires a fundamentally different approach than applied aboveground. We therefore call for studies that can functionally incorporate the root traits involved in resource uptake, the complex soil environment and the various soil resource uptake mechanisms - particularly the mycorrhizal pathway - in a multidimensional root trait framework. PMID:27174359

  14. Root hairs improve root penetration, root-soil contact, and phosphorus acquisition in soils of different strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haling, Rebecca E; Brown, Lawrie K; Bengough, A Glyn; Young, Iain M; Hallett, Paul D; White, Philip J; George, Timothy S

    2013-09-01

    Root hairs are a key trait for improving the acquisition of phosphorus (P) by plants. However, it is not known whether root hairs provide significant advantage for plant growth under combined soil stresses, particularly under conditions that are known to restrict root hair initiation or elongation (e.g. compacted or high-strength soils). To investigate this, the root growth and P uptake of root hair genotypes of barley, Hordeum vulgare L. (i.e. genotypes with and without root hairs), were assessed under combinations of P deficiency and high soil strength. Genotypes with root hairs were found to have an advantage for root penetration into high-strength layers relative to root hairless genotypes. In P-deficient soils, despite a 20% reduction in root hair length under high-strength conditions, genotypes with root hairs were also found to have an advantage for P uptake. However, in fertilized soils, root hairs conferred an advantage for P uptake in low-strength soil but not in high-strength soil. Improved root-soil contact, coupled with an increased supply of P to the root, may decrease the value of root hairs for P acquisition in high-strength, high-P soils. Nevertheless, this work demonstrates that root hairs are a valuable trait for plant growth and nutrient acquisition under combined soil stresses. Selecting plants with superior root hair traits is important for improving P uptake efficiency and hence the sustainability of agricultural systems. PMID:23861547

  15. Roots of mappings from manifolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooks Robin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Assume that is a proper map of a connected -manifold into a Hausdorff, connected, locally path-connected, and semilocally simply connected space , and has a neighborhood homeomorphic to Euclidean -space. The proper Nielsen number of at and the absolute degree of at are defined in this setting. The proper Nielsen number is shown to a lower bound on the number of roots at among all maps properly homotopic to , and the absolute degree is shown to be a lower bound among maps properly homotopic to and transverse to . When , these bounds are shown to be sharp. An example of a map meeting these conditions is given in which, in contrast to what is true when is a manifold, Nielsen root classes of the map have different multiplicities and essentialities, and the root Reidemeister number is strictly greater than the Nielsen root number, even when the latter is nonzero.

  16. Ultrasonic cleaning of root canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaagen, Bram; Boutsioukis, Christos; Jiang, Lei-Meng; Macedo, Ricardo; van der Sluis, Luc; Versluis, Michel

    2011-11-01

    A crucial step during a dental root canal treatment is irrigation, where an antimicrobial fluid is injected into the root canal system to eradicate all bacteria. Agitation of the fluid using an ultrasonically vibrating miniature file has shown significant improvement in cleaning efficacy over conventional syringe irrigation. However, the physical mechanisms underlying the cleaning process, being acoustic streaming, cavitation or chemical activity, and combinations thereof, are not fully understood. High-speed imaging allows us to visualize the flow pattern and cavitation in a root canal model at microscopic scales, at timescales relevant to the cleaning processes (microseconds). MicroPIV measurements of the induced acoustic streaming are coupled to the oscillation characteristics of the file as simulated numerically and measured with a laser vibrometer. The results give new insight into the role of acoustic streaming and the importance of the confinement for the cleaning of root canals.

  17. Root Patterns in Heterogeneous Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dara, A.; Moradi, A. B.; Carminati, A.; Oswald, S. E.

    2010-12-01

    Heterogeneous water availability is a typical characteristic of soils in which plant roots grow. Despite the intrinsic heterogeneity of soil-plant water relations, we know little about the ways how plants respond to local environmental quality. Furthermore, increasing use of soil amendments as partial water reservoirs in agriculture calls for a better understanding of plant response to soil heterogeneity. Neutron radiography is a non-invasive imaging that is highly sensitive to water and root distribution and that has high capability for monitoring spatial and temporal soil-plant water relations in heterogeneous systems. Maize plants were grown in 25 x 30 x 1 cm aluminum slabs filled with sandy soil. On the right side of the compartments a commercial water absorbent (Geohumus) was mixed with the soil. Geohumus was distributed with two patterns: mixed homogeneously with the soil, and arranged as 1-cm diameter aggregates (Fig. 1). Two irrigation treatments were applied: sufficient water irrigation and moderate water stress. Neutron radiography started 10 days after planting and has been performed twice a day for one week. At the end of the experiment, the containers were opened, the root were removed and dry root weight in different soil segments were measured. Neutron radiography showed root growth tendency towards Geohumus treated parts and preferential water uptake from Geohumus aggregates. Number and length of fine lateral roots were lower in treated areas compared to the non-treated zone and to control soil. Although corn plants showed an overall high proliferation towards the soil water sources, they decreased production of branches and fine root when water was more available near the main root parts. However there was 50% higher C allocation in roots grown in Geohumus compartments, as derived by the relative dry weight of root. The preferential C allocation in treated regions was higher when plants grew under water stress. We conclude that in addition to the

  18. Root systems and generalized associahedra

    OpenAIRE

    Fomin, Sergey; Reading, Nathan

    2005-01-01

    These lecture notes for the IAS/Park City Graduate Summer School in Geometric Combinatorics (July 2004) provide an overview of root systems, generalized associahedra, and the combinatorics of clusters. Lectures 1-2 cover classical material: root systems, finite reflection groups, and the Cartan-Killing classification. Lectures 3-4 provide an introduction to cluster algebras from a combinatorial perspective. Lecture 5 is devoted to related topics in enumerative combinatorics.

  19. Roots of unity in orders

    OpenAIRE

    Lenstra Jr., H. W.; Silverberg, A.

    2015-01-01

    We give deterministic polynomial-time algorithms that, given an order, compute the primitive idempotents and determine a set of generators for the group of roots of unity in the order. Also, we show that the discrete logarithm problem in the group of roots of unity can be solved in polynomial time. As an auxiliary result, we solve the discrete logarithm problem for certain unit groups in finite rings. Our techniques, which are taken from commutative algebra, may have further potential in the ...

  20. Roots of Quaternion Standard Polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Chapman, Adam

    2011-01-01

    Here we present a reduction of any quaternion standard polynomial equation into an equation with two central variables and quaternion coefficients. If only pure imaginary roots are in demand, then the equation is with one central variable. As a result of this reduction we obtain formulas for the solutions of quadratic equations. Another result is a routine for analytically solving cubic quaternion equations assuming they have at least one pure imaginary root.

  1. Root hair mutants of barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley mutants without root hairs or with short or reduced root hairs were isolated among M2 seeds of 'Lux' barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) after acidified sodium azide mutagenesis. Root hair mutants are investigated intensively in Arabidopsis where about 40 genes are known. A few root hair mutants are known in maize, rice, barley and tomato. Many plants without root hairs grow quite well with good plant nutrition, and mutants have been used for investigations of uptake of strongly bound nutrients like phosphorus, iron, zinc and silicon. Seed of 'Lux' barley (Sejet Plant Breeding, Denmark) were soaked overnight, and then treated with 1.5-millimolarsodium azide in 0.1 molar sodium phosphate buffer, pH 3, for 2.5 hours according to the IAEA Manual on Mutation Breeding (2nd Ed.). After rinsing in tap water and air-drying, the M2 seeds were sown in the field the same day. Spikes, 4-6 per M1 plant, were harvested. The mutation frequency was similar to that obtained with other barley cultivars from which low-phytate mutants were isolated [5]. Seeds were germinated on black filter paper in tap water for 3 or 4 days before scoring for root hair mutants

  2. Environ: E00178 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00178 Platycodon ... fluidextract (JP16) Crude drug Polysaccharide [CPD:C00420], Polygalacin D [CPD ... 17410], Betulin [CPD:C08618], Inuline [CPD:C08659] Platycodon ... grandiflorum [TAX:94286] Same as: D06812 Campanula ... ceae (bellflower family) Platycodon ... root Major component: Platycodin [CPD:C17443 C1748 ...

  3. Drug: D06812 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06812 Crude, Drug Platycodon ... fluidextract (JP16) Polysaccharide [CPD:C00420], Polygalacin D [CP ... 17410], Betulin [CPD:C08618], Inuline [CPD:C08659] Platycodon ... grandiflorum [TAX:94286] Same as: E00178 Campanula ... ceae (bellflower family) Platycodon ... root Major component: Platycodin [CPD:C17443 C1748 ...

  4. Plant root-microbe communication in shaping root microbiomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lareen, Andrew; Burton, Frances; Schäfer, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    A growing body of research is highlighting the impacts root-associated microbial communities can have on plant health and development. These impacts can include changes in yield quantity and quality, timing of key developmental stages and tolerance of biotic and abiotic stresses. With such a range of effects it is clear that understanding the factors that contribute to a plant-beneficial root microbiome may prove advantageous. Increasing demands for food by a growing human population increases the importance and urgency of understanding how microbiomes may be exploited to increase crop yields and reduce losses caused by disease. In addition, climate change effects may require novel approaches to overcoming abiotic stresses such as drought and salinity as well as new emerging diseases. This review discusses current knowledge on the formation and maintenance of root-associated microbial communities and plant-microbe interactions with a particular emphasis on the effect of microbe-microbe interactions on the shape of microbial communities at the root surface. Further, we discuss the potential for root microbiome modification to benefit agriculture and food production. PMID:26729479

  5. Study on the Immunoreactivity of Triticum monococcum (Einkorn) Wheat in Patients with Wheat-Dependent Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis for the Production of Hypoallergenic Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Carla; Bolla, Michela; Chignola, Roberto; Senna, Gianenrico; Rossin, Giacomo; Caruso, Beatrice; Tomelleri, Carlo; Cecconi, Daniela; Brandolini, Andrea; Zoccatelli, Gianni

    2015-09-23

    Wheat [Triticum aestivum (T.a.)] ingestion can cause a specific allergic reaction, which is called wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA). The major allergen involved is ω-5 gliadin, a gluten protein coded by genes located on the B genome. Our aim was to study the immunoreactivity of proteins in Triticum monococcum (einkorn, T.m.), a diploid ancestral wheat lacking B chromosomes, for possible use in the production of hypoallergenic foods. A total of 14 patients with a clear history of WDEIA and specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) to ω-5 gliadin were enrolled. Skin prick test (SPT) with a commercial wheat extract and an in-house T.a. gluten diagnostic solution tested positive for 43 and 100% of the cases, respectively. No reactivity in patients tested with solutions prepared from four T.m. accessions was observed. The immunoblotting of T.m. gluten proteins performed with the sera of patients showed different IgE-binding profiles with respect to T.a., confirming the absence of ω-5 gliadin. A general lower immunoreactivity of T.m. gluten proteins with scarce cross-reactivity to ω-5 gliadin epitopes was assessed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Given the absence of reactivity by SPT and the limited cross-reactivity with ω-5 gliadin, T.m. might represent a potential candidate in the production of hypoallergenic bakery products for patients sensitized to ω-5 gliadin. Further analyses need to be carried out regarding its safety. PMID:26332577

  6. Descendant root volume varies as a function of root type: estimation of root biomass lost during uprooting in Pinus pinaster

    OpenAIRE

    Danjon, Frédéric; Caplan, Joshua S.; Fortin, Mathieu; Meredieu, Céline

    2013-01-01

    Root systems of woody plants generally display a strong relationship between the cross-sectional area or cross-sectional diameter (CSD) of a root and the dry weight of biomass (DWd) or root volume (Vd) that has grown (i.e., is descendent) from a point. Specification of this relationship allows one to quantify root architectural patterns and estimate the amount of material lost when root systems are extracted from the soil. However, specifications of this relationship generally do not account ...

  7. Minimal Nielsen Root Classes and Roots of Liftings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Colombo Fenille

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Given a continuous map f:K→M from a 2-dimensional CW complex into a closed surface, the Nielsen root number N(f and the minimal number of roots μ(f of f satisfy N(f≤μ(f. But, there is a number μC(f associated to each Nielsen root class of f, and an important problem is to know when μ(f=μC(fN(f. In addition to investigate this problem, we determine a relationship between μ(f and μ(f˜, when f˜ is a lifting of f through a covering space, and we find a connection between this problems, with which we answer several questions related to them when the range of the maps is the projective plane.

  8. Advances in experimental methods for root system architecture and root development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-bang Wang; Xiu-juan Zhang; Chu Wu

    2015-01-01

    Plant roots play important roles in acquisition of water and nutrients, storage, anchoring, transport, and symbiosis with soil microorganisms, thus quantitative researches on root developmental processes are essential to understand root functions and root turnover in ecosystems, and at the same time such researches are the most difficult because roots are hidden underground. Therefore, how to investigate efficiently root functions and root dynamics is the core aspect in underground ecology. In this article, we reviewed some experimental methods used in root resear-ches on root development and root system architecture, and summarized the advantages and shortages of these meth-ods. Based on the analyses, we proposed three new ways to more understand root processes: (1) new experimental materials for root development; (2) a new observatory system comprised of multiple components, including many observatory windows installed in field, analysis software, and automatic data transport devices; (3) new techniques used to analyze quantitatively functional roots.

  9. Root status and future developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this talk the authors review the major additions and improvements made to the ROOT system in the last 18 months and present their plans for future developments. The additions and improvements range from modifications to the I/O sub-system to allow users to save and restore objects of classes that have not been instrumented by special ROOT macros, to the addition of a geometry package designed for building, browsing, tracking and visualizing detector geometries. Other improvements include enhancements to the quick analysis sub-system (TTree::Draw()), the addition of classes that allow inter-file object references (TRef, TRefArray), better support for templates and STL classes, amelioration of the Automatic Script Compiler and the incorporation of new fitting and mathematical tools. Efforts have also been made to increase the modularity of the ROOT system with the introduction of more abstract interfaces and the development of a plug-in manager. In the near future, they intend to continue the development of PROOF and its interfacing with GRID environments. They plan on providing an interface between Geant3, Geant4 and Fluka and the new geometry package. The ROOT-GUI classes will finally be available on Windows and they plan to release a GUI inspector and builder. In the last year, ROOT has drawn the endorsement of additional experiments and institutions. It is now officially supported by CERN and used as key I/O component by the LCG project

  10. Radiopacity of root filling materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for measuring the radiopacity of root filling materials is described. Direct measurements were made of the optic density values of the materials in comparison with a standard curve relating optic density to the thickness of an aluminium step wedge exposed simultaneously. By proper selection of film and conditions for exposure and development, it was possible to obtain a near-linear standard curve which added to the safety and reproducibility of the method. The technique of radiographic assessment was modified from clinical procedures in evaluating the obturation in radiographs, and it was aimed at detecting slits or voids between the dental wall and the filling material. This radiographic assessment of potensial leakage was compared with actual in vitro lekage of dye (basic fuchsin) into the roots of filled teeth. The result of the investigation show that root filling materials display a very wide range of radiopacity, from less than 3 mm to more than 12 mm of aluminium. It also seem that tooth roots that appear to be well obturated by radiographic evaluation, stand a good chance of beeing resistant to leakage in vitro, and that the type of filling material rather than its radiographic appearance, determines the susceptibility of the filled tooth to leakage in vitro. As an appendix the report contains a survey of radiopaque additives in root filling materials

  11. Role of Cytokinin and Auxin in Shaping Root Architecture: Regulating Vascular Differentiation, Lateral Root Initiation, Root Apical Dominance and Root Gravitropism

    OpenAIRE

    Aloni, R; ALONI, E.; Langhans, M.; ULLRICH, C. I.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Development and architecture of plant roots are regulated by phytohormones. Cytokinin (CK), synthesized in the root cap, promotes cytokinesis, vascular cambium sensitivity, vascular differentiation and root apical dominance. Auxin (indole-3-acetic acid, IAA), produced in young shoot organs, promotes root development and induces vascular differentiation. Both IAA and CK regulate root gravitropism. The aims of this study were to analyse the hormonal mechanisms that induce ...

  12. Retention of Root Canal Posts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahafi, A; Benetti, Ana Raquel; Flury, S;

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the cement film thickness of a zinc phosphate or a resin cement on retention of untreated and pretreated root canal posts. Prefabricated zirconia posts (CosmoPost: 1.4 mm) and two types of luting cements (a zinc phosphate cement [DeTrey Zinc......] and a self-etch adhesive resin cement [Panavia F2.0]) were used. After removal of the crowns of 360 extracted premolars, canines, or incisors, the root canals were prepared with a parallel-sided drill system to three different final diameters. Half the posts did not receive any pretreatment. The other...... half received tribochemical silicate coating according to the manufacturer's instructions. Posts were then luted in the prepared root canals (n=30 per group). Following water storage at 37°C for seven days, retention of the posts was determined by the pull-out method. Irrespective of the luting cement...

  13. Adventitious Roots and Secondary Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hosakatte Niranjana Murthy; Eun Joo Hahn; Kee Yoeup Paek

    2008-01-01

    Plants are a rich source of valuable secondary metabolites and in the recent years plant cell, tissue and organ cultures have been developed as an important alternative sources for the production of these compounds. Adventitious roots have been successfully induced in many plant species and cultured for the production of high value secondary metabolites of pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and industrial importance. Adoption of elicitation methods have shown improved synthesis of secondary metabolites in adventitious root cultures. Development of large-scale culture methods using bioreactors has opened up feasibilities of production of secondary metabolites at the industrial levels. In the present review we summarize the progress made in recent past in the area of adventitious root cultures for the production of secondary metabolites.

  14. Efficient hydraulic properties of root systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechmann, Marcel; Schneider, Christoph; Carminati, Andrea; Hildebrandt, Anke

    2013-04-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of ecosystem root water uptake (RWU) is paramount for parameterizing hydrological models. With the increase in computational power it is possible to calculate RWU explicitly up to the single plant scale using physical models. However, application of these models for increasing our understanding of ecosystem root water uptake is hindered by the deficit in knowledge about the detailed hydraulic parameter distribution within root systems. However, those physical models may help us to identify efficient parameterizations and to describe the influence of these hydraulic parameters on RWU profiles. In this research, we investigated the combined influence of root hydraulic parameters and different root topologies on shaping efficient root water uptake. First, we use a conceptual model of simple branching structures to understand the influence of branching location and transitions in root hydraulic properties on the RWU patterns in typical sub root structures. Second, we apply a physical model called "aRoot" to test our conclusions on complex root system architectures of single plants. aRoot calculates the distribution of xylem potential within arbitrary root geometries to satisfy a given water demand depending on the available water in the soil. Redistribution of water within the bulk soil is calculated using the Richards equation. We analyzed results using a measure of uptake efficiency, which describes the effort necessary for transpiration. Simulations with the conceptual model showed that total transpiration in sub root structures is independent of root hydraulic properties over a wide range of hydraulic parameters. On the other hand efficiency of root water uptake depends crucially on distribution hydraulic parameters in line with root topology. At the same time, these parameters shape strongly the distribution of RWU along the roots, and its evolution in time, thus leading to variable individual root water uptake profiles. Calculating

  15. Sensitivity of the "Root Bundle Model" to root mechanical properties and root distribution: Implication for shallow landslide stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Massimiliano; Giadrossich, Filippo; Cohen, Denis

    2015-04-01

    Root reinforcement is recognized as an important factor for shallow landslides stability. Due to the complexity of root reinforcement mechanisms and the heterogeneity of the root-soil system, the estimation of parameters used in root reinforcement models is difficult, time consuming, and often highly uncertain. For practical applications, it is necessary to focus on the estimation of the most relevant parameters. The objective of the present contribution is to review the state of the art in the development of root reinforcement models and to discuss the sensitivity of the "Root Bundle Model" (RBM) when considering the variability of root mechanical properties and the heterogeneity of root distributions. The RBM is a strain-step loading fiber bundle model extended to include the mechanical and geometrical properties of roots. The model allows the calculation of the force-displacement behavior of a root bundle. In view of new results of field pullout tests performed on coarse roots of spruce (Picea abies) and considering a consistent dataset of root distribution of alpine tree species, we quantify the sensitivity of the RBM and the uncertainty associated with the most important input parameters. Preliminary results show that the extrapolation of force-diameter values from incomplete datasets (i.e., when only small roots are tested and values for coarse roots are extrapolated) may result in considerable errors. In particular, in the case of distributions with root diameters larger than 5 mm, root reinforcement tends to be dominated by coarse roots and their mechanical properties need to be quantified. In addition to the results of the model sensitivity, we present a possible best-practice method for the quantification of root reinforcement in view of its application to slope stability calculations and implementations in numerical models.

  16. Detrending bootstrap unit root tests

    OpenAIRE

    Smeekes, S.

    2009-01-01

    The role of detrending in bootstrap unit root tests is investigated. When bootstrapping, detrending must not only be done for the construction of the test statistic, but also in the first step of the bootstrap algorithm. It is argued that the two points should be treated separately. Asymptotic validity of sieve bootstrap ADF unit root tests is shown for test statistics based on full sample and recursive OLS and GLS detrending. It is also shown that the detrending method in the first step of t...

  17. New theories of root growth modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landl, Magdalena; Schnepf, Andrea; Vanderborght, Jan; Huber, Katrin; Javaux, Mathieu; Bengough, A. Glyn; Vereecken, Harry

    2016-04-01

    In dynamic root architecture models, root growth is represented by moving root tips whose line trajectory results in the creation of new root segments. Typically, the direction of root growth is calculated as the vector sum of various direction-affecting components. However, in our simulations this did not reproduce experimental observations of root growth in structured soil. We therefore developed a new approach to predict the root growth direction. In this approach we distinguish between, firstly, driving forces for root growth, i.e. the force exerted by the root which points in the direction of the previous root segment and gravitropism, and, secondly, the soil mechanical resistance to root growth or penetration resistance. The latter can be anisotropic, i.e. depending on the direction of growth, which leads to a difference between the direction of the driving force and the direction of the root tip movement. Anisotropy of penetration resistance can be caused either by microscale differences in soil structure or by macroscale features, including macropores. Anisotropy at the microscale is neglected in our model. To allow for this, we include a normally distributed random deflection angle α to the force which points in the direction of the previous root segment with zero mean and a standard deviation σ. The standard deviation σ is scaled, so that the deflection from the original root tip location does not depend on the spatial resolution of the root system model. Similarly to the water flow equation, the direction of the root tip movement corresponds to the water flux vector while the driving forces are related to the water potential gradient. The analogue of the hydraulic conductivity tensor is the root penetrability tensor. It is determined by the inverse of soil penetration resistance and describes the ease with which a root can penetrate the soil. By adapting the three dimensional soil and root water uptake model R-SWMS (Javaux et al., 2008) in this way

  18. Root growth, secondary root formation and root gravitropism in carotenoid-deficient seedlings of Zea mays L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Y. K.; Moore, R.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of ABA on root growth, secondary-root formation and root gravitropism in seedlings of Zea mays was investigated by using Fluridone-treated seedlings and a viviparous mutant, both of which lack carotenoids and ABA. Primary roots of seedlings grown in the presence of Fluridone grew significantly slower than those of control (i.e. untreated) roots. Elongation of Fluridone-treated roots was inhibited significantly by the exogenous application of 1 mM ABA. Exogenous application of 1 micromole and 1 nmole ABA had either no effect or only a slight stimulatory effect on root elongation, depending on the method of application. The absence of ABA in Fluridone-treated plants was not an important factor in secondary-root formation in seedlings less than 9-10 d old. However, ABA may suppress secondary-root formation in older seedlings, since 11-d-old control seedlings had significantly fewer secondary roots than Fluridone-treated seedlings. Roots of Fluridone-treated and control seedlings were graviresponsive. Similar data were obtained for vp-9 mutants of Z. mays, which are phenotypically identical to Fluridone-treated seedlings. These results indicate that ABA is necessary for neither secondary-root formation nor for positive gravitropism by primary roots.

  19. Comparative pharmacognostical variations in stem, true root and aerial root of Tinospora cordifolia willd

    OpenAIRE

    Rohit Ajith Gokarn; Supriya Gokarn; Galib; Harisha, C. R.; Biswajyoti Patgiri

    2014-01-01

    Context: Amrita (Tinospora cordifolia Willd.) an often used perennial climber used in different clinical conditions and various researches are useful in understanding its potential, but comparative pharmacognostical study of stem, true root and aerial root is not available till date. Root of Amrita is often used in folklore medicine. As true root is not abundantly available, aerial roots may be considered in the place of true root. Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate the sim...

  20. Four cuspal maxillary second premolar with single root and three root canals: Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Parul; Nikhil, Vineeta; Goyal, Ayush; Singh, Ritu

    2016-01-01

    Traditional configuration of maxillary second premolars has been described to have two cusps, one root and one or two root canals. The endodontic literature reports considerable anatomic aberrations in the root canal morphology of maxillary second premolar but the literature available on the variation in cuspal anatomy and its relationship to the root canal anatomy is sparse. The purpose of this clinical report was to describe the root and root canal configuration of a maxillary second premolar with four cusps. PMID:27563190

  1. Disease notes - Bacterial root rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial root rot initiated by lactic acid bacteria, particularly Leuconostoc, occurs every year in Idaho sugarbeet fields. Hot fall weather seems to make the problem worse. Although Leuconostoc initiates the rot, other bacteria and yeast frequently invade the tissue as well. The acetic acid bac...

  2. Contemporary root canal filling strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.T. Moinzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Currently, clinicians can choose from a wide range of root canal filling materials and techniques, some of which have been evaluated in this thesis. Methacrylate resin-based sealers suffer from polymerization shrinkage stresses. This limitation may partly be overcome by a two-step cementation proced

  3. [Root arthrosis of the thumb].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautefeuille, P; Duquesnoy, B

    1991-12-15

    Root arthrosis of the thumb results from a degenerative lesion of the trapezometacarpal joint. It is particularly frequent in menopausal women. The often prolonged pain it produces sometimes raises therapeutic problems. Treatment is always medical at first, but when it fails several surgical operations will ensure permanent painlessness. PMID:1808686

  4. Roots of mappings from manifolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Brooks

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Assume that f:X→Y is a proper map of a connected n-manifold X into a Hausdorff, connected, locally path-connected, and semilocally simply connected space Y, and y0∈Y has a neighborhood homeomorphic to Euclidean n-space. The proper Nielsen number of f at y0 and the absolute degree of f at y0 are defined in this setting. The proper Nielsen number is shown to a lower bound on the number of roots at y0 among all maps properly homotopic to f, and the absolute degree is shown to be a lower bound among maps properly homotopic to f and transverse to y0. When n>2, these bounds are shown to be sharp. An example of a map meeting these conditions is given in which, in contrast to what is true when Y is a manifold, Nielsen root classes of the map have different multiplicities and essentialities, and the root Reidemeister number is strictly greater than the Nielsen root number, even when the latter is nonzero.

  5. Rhizoctonia root rot of lentil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizoctonia root rot is a soilborne disease of lentil caused by the fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani, and is favored by cool (11-19 C or 52 - 66 F) and wet soil conditions. The disease starts as reddish or dark brown lesions on lentil plants near the soil line, and develops into sunken lesions an...

  6. Characterizing pathways by which gravitropic effectors could move from the root cap to the root of primary roots of Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.; McClelen, C. E.

    1989-01-01

    Plasmodesmata linking the root cap and root in primary roots Zea mays are restricted to approx. 400 protodermal cells bordering approx. 110000 microns2 of the calyptrogen of the root cap. This area is less than 10% of the cross-sectional area of the root-tip at the cap junction. Therefore, gravitropic effectors moving from the root cap to the root can move symplastically only through a relatively small area in the centre of the root. Decapped roots are non-responsive to gravity. However, decapped roots whose caps are replaced immediately after decapping are strongly graviresponsive. Thus, gravicurvature occurs only when the root cap contacts the root, and symplastic continuity between the cap and root is not required for gravicurvature. Completely removing mucilage from the root tip renders the root non-responsive to gravity. Taken together, these data suggest that gravitropic effectors move apoplastically through mucilage from the cap to the root.

  7. Investigation of VEGGIE Root Mat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbiah, Arun M.

    2013-01-01

    VEGGIE is a plant growth facility that utilizes the phenomenon of capillary action as its primary watering system. A cloth made of Meta Aramid fiber, known as Nomex is used to wick water up from a reservoir to the bottom of the plants roots. This root mat system is intended to be low maintenance with no moving parts and requires minimal crew interface time. Unfortunately, the water wicking rates are inconsistent throughout the plant life cycle, thus causing plants to die. Over-wicking of water occurs toward the beginning of the cycle, while under-wicking occurs toward the middle. This inconsistency of wicking has become a major issue, drastically inhibiting plant growth. The primary objective is to determine the root cause of the inconsistent wicking through experimental testing. Suspect causes for the capillary water column to break include: a vacuum effect due to a negative pressure gradient in the water reservoir, contamination of material due to minerals in water and back wash from plant fertilizer, induced air bubbles while using syringe refill method, and material limitations of Nomex's ability to absorb and retain water. Experimental testing will be conducted to systematically determine the cause of under and over-wicking. Pressure gages will be used to determine pressure drop during the course of the plant life cycle and during the water refill process. A debubbler device will be connected to a root mat in order to equalize pressure inside the reservoir. Moisture and evaporation tests will simultaneously be implemented to observe moisture content and wicking rates over the course of a plant cycle. Water retention tests will be performed using strips of Nomex to determine materials wicking rates, porosity, and absorptivity. Through these experimental tests, we will have a better understanding of material properties of Nomex, as well as determine the root cause of water column breakage. With consistent test results, a forward plan can be achieved to resolve

  8. Effects of Rooting Substrates on In Vitro Rooting of Anthurium andraeanum L. cv. Avanti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wararat KEATMETHA

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was made of the effects of rooting substrates on in vitro rooting of Anthurium andraeanum L. cv. Avanti, orange flower. Initiation of root was attempted in several rooting substrates with modified ½ MS medium supplemented with 30 g/l sucrose. The cut end of the shoot was dipped in 2.5 g/l indole-3-butyric acid (IBA before insertion in substrates. After 4 weeks of culture, it was found that roots were markedly induced in 8 and 12 g/l agar with 86.67 and 73.33% in root induction rate, 14.62 and 12.41 mm in root length, with 3.54 and 3.91 roots in root number respectively. However, 93.33% of root induction rate with 3.00 roots, and 11.66 mm in root length were produced on medium containing 1.5 g/l phytagel while peat moss and vermiculite could induce rooting at 46.67% with 7.86 and 6.66 mm in length, with 1.00 and 1.86 roots respectively. Root could not be induced in sphagnum moss. Anatomical study of root showed no abnormality in all rooting substrates. The roots formed in high concentrations of agar at 12 and 16 g/l, 2.0 and 2.5 g/l phytagel, and peat moss were thicker than those formed in other rooting substrates. Especially, root formed in peat moss had the largest vascular diameter. However, roots formed in phytagel, peat moss, and vermiculite had more root hairs than those formed in agar substrate. Plantlets, rooted in peat moss and vermiculite, survived at 100% after acclimation in a mixture of soil and coconut husk.

  9. ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF ROOT EXTRACT OF SOLANUM MELONGENA LINN ROOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava Ashish

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at Pharmacognostic study and biological evaluation of analgesic activity of plants roots. The roots of plants were studies for Pharmacognostic characteristics namely, morphology, microscopy, physicochemical parameters, which can be of utilized in identification/authentication of the plant and/or its roots in crude drug form. The preliminary phytochemical screening of the dry residue was carried out by the chemical test and thin layer chromatographic method. The preliminary phytochemical screening of dry residue showed the presence of Saponins, Alkaloids, Glycoside, and Flavonoids in various extracts. However most of the medicinally potential phytoconstituents were present in methanolic and aqueous extracts. The Hydroalcoholic extract was selected for Biological screening due to high alcoholic-soluble extractive value, high yield of successive alcoholic extract and TLC results. The analgesic screening was done using Hot plate method, Tail immersion methods and acetic acid induced in rats and mice. Hydroalcoholic extract was administered orally at the acute doses of 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg b.w. Several activities on these doses have already been reported. Both the doses showed significant (p<0.05 analgesic activity.

  10. Inhibition of strigolactones promotes adventitious root formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Amanda; Beveridge, Christine A; Geelen, Danny

    2012-06-01

    Roots that form from non-root tissues (adventitious roots) are crucial for cutting propagation in the forestry and horticulture industries. Strigolactone has been demonstrated to be an important regulator of these roots in both Arabidopsis and pea using strigolactone deficient mutants and exogenous hormone applications. Strigolactones are produced from a carotenoid precursor which can be blocked using the widely available but broad terpenoid biosynthesis blocker, fluridone. We demonstrate here that fluridone can be used to promote adventitious rooting in the model species Pisum sativum (pea). In addition, in the garden species Plumbago auriculata and Jasminium polyanthum fluridone was equally as successful at promoting roots as a commercial rooting compound containing NAA and IBA. Our findings demonstrate that inhibition of strigolactone signaling has the potential to be used to improve adventitious rooting in commercially relevant species. PMID:22580687

  11. Rhizosphere biophysics and root water uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carminati, Andrea; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Ahmed, Mutez A.; Passioura, John

    2016-04-01

    The flow of water into the roots and the (putative) presence of a large resistance at the root-soil interface have attracted the attention of plant and soil scientists for decades. Such resistance has been attributed to a partial contact between roots and soil, large gradients in soil matric potential around the roots, or accumulation of solutes at the root surface creating a negative osmotic potential. Our hypothesis is that roots are capable of altering the biophysical properties of the soil around the roots, the rhizosphere, facilitating root water uptake in dry soils. In particular, we expect that root hairs and mucilage optimally connect the roots to the soil maintaining the hydraulic continuity across the rhizosphere. Using a pressure chamber apparatus we measured the relation between transpiration rate and the water potential difference between soil and leaf xylem during drying cycles in barley mutants with and without root hairs. The samples were grown in well structured soils. At low soil moistures and high transpiration rates, large drops in water potential developed around the roots. These drops in water potential recovered very slowly, even after transpiration was severely decreased. The drops in water potential were much bigger in barley mutants without root hairs. These mutants failed to sustain high transpiration rates in dry conditions. To explain the nature of such drops in water potential across the rhizosphere we performed high resolution neutron tomography of the rhizosphere of the barleys with and without root hairs growing in the same soil described above. The tomograms suggested that the hydraulic contact between the soil structures was the highest resistance for the water flow in dry conditions. The tomograms also indicate that root hairs and mucilage improved the hydraulic contact between roots and soil structures. At high transpiration rates and low water contents, roots extracted water from the rhizosphere, while the bulk soil, due its

  12. Inhibition of strigolactones promotes adventitious root formation

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Amanda; Beveridge, Christine A.; Geelen, Danny

    2012-01-01

    Roots that form from non-root tissues (adventitious roots) are crucial for cutting propagation in the forestry and horticulture industries. Strigolactone has been demonstrated to be an important regulator of these roots in both Arabidopsis and pea using strigolactone deficient mutants and exogenous hormone applications. Strigolactones are produced from a carotenoid precursor which can be blocked using the widely available but broad terpenoid biosynthesis blocker, fluridone. We demonstrate her...

  13. Maxillary First Molar with Two Root Canals

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge regarding the anatomic morphology of maxillary molars is absolutely essential for the success of endodontic treatment. The morphology of the permanent maxillary first molar has been reviewed extensively; however, the presence of two canals in a two-rooted maxillary first molar has rarely been reported in studies describing tooth and root canal anatomies. This case report presents a patient with a maxillary first molar with two roots and two root canals, who was referred to the Depar...

  14. Automatic Schema Evolution in Root

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ReneBrun; FonsRademakers

    2001-01-01

    ROOT version 3(spring 2001) supports automatic class schema evolution.In addition this version also produces files that are self-describing.This is achieved by storing in each file a record with the description of all the persistent classes in the file.Being self-describing guarantees that a file can always be read later,its structure browsed and objects inspected.also when the library with the compiled code of these classes is missing The schema evolution mechanism supports the frequent case when multiple data sets generated with many different class versions must be analyzed in the same session.ROOT supports the automatic generation of C++ code describing the data objects in a file.

  15. Automatic schema evolution in Root

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ROOT version 3 (spring 2001) supports automatic class schema evolution. In addition this version also produces files that are self-describing. This is achieved by storing in each file a record with the description of all the persistent classes in the file. Being self-describing guarantees that a file can always be read later, its structure browsed and objects inspected, also when the library with the compiled code of these classes is missing. The schema evolution mechanism supports the frequent case when multiple data sets generated with many different class versions must be analyzed in the same session. ROOT supports the automatic generation of C++ code describing the data objects in a file

  16. Contemporary root canal filling strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Moinzadeh, A.T.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, clinicians can choose from a wide range of root canal filling materials and techniques, some of which have been evaluated in this thesis. Methacrylate resin-based sealers suffer from polymerization shrinkage stresses. This limitation may partly be overcome by a two-step cementation procedure. This alternative placement technique results in an increase and homogenization of the adhesion of the material to intraradicular dentin. Subsequent research should aim at developing sealers wi...

  17. Root finding with threshold circuits

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeřábek, Emil

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 462, Nov 30 (2012), s. 59-69. ISSN 0304-3975 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : root finding * threshold circuit * power series Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.489, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304397512008006#

  18. Archimedes' calculations of square roots

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, E B

    2011-01-01

    We reconsider Archimedes' evaluations of several square roots in 'Measurement of a Circle'. We show that several methods proposed over the last century or so for his evaluations fail one or more criteria of plausibility. We also provide internal evidence that he probably used an interpolation technique. The conclusions are relevant to the precise calculations by which he obtained upper and lower bounds on pi.

  19. Evaluation of bacterial leakage of four root- end filling materials: Gray Pro Root MTA, White Pro Root MTA, Root MTA and Portland Cement (type I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarabian M.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Today several materials have been used for root- end filling in endodontic surgery. Optimal properties of Pro Root MTA in in-vitro and in-vivo studies has been proven. On the other hand, based on some studies, Root MTA (Iranian Pro Root MTA and Portland cement are similar to Pro Root MTA in physical and biologic properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate bacterial leakage (amount and mean leakage time of four root- end filling materials. Materials and Methods: In this experimental in-vitro study, seventy six extracted single- rooted human teeth were randomly divided into six groups for root-end filling with gray Pro Root MTA, white Pro Root MTA, Root MTA (Iranian Pro Root MTA, Portland Cement (type I and positive and negative control groups. Root canals were instrumented using the step- back technique. Root- end filling materials were placed in 3mm ultra sonic retro preparations. Samples and microleakage model system were sterilized in autoclave. The apical 3-4 mm of the roots were immersed in phenol red with 3% lactose broth culture medium. The coronal access of each specimen was inoculated every 24h with a suspension of Streptococcus sanguis (ATCC 10556. Culture media were observed every 24h for colour change indicating bacterial contamination for 60 days. Statistical analysis was performed using log- rank test with P<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: At the end of study 50%, 56.25%, 56.25% and 50% of specimens filled with Gray Pro Root MTA, White Pro Root MTA. Root MTA and Portland Cement (type I had evidence of leakage respectively. The mean leakage time was 37.19±6.29, 36.44±5.81, 37.69±5.97 and 34.81±6.67 days respectively. Statistical analysis of data showed no significant difference among the leakage (amount and mean leakage time of the four tested root- end filling materials (P=0.9958. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, there were no significant differences in leakage among the four

  20. Comparative pharmacognostical variations in stem, true root and aerial root of Tinospora cordifolia willd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Ajith Gokarn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Amrita (Tinospora cordifolia Willd. an often used perennial climber used in different clinical conditions and various researches are useful in understanding its potential, but comparative pharmacognostical study of stem, true root and aerial root is not available till date. Root of Amrita is often used in folklore medicine. As true root is not abundantly available, aerial roots may be considered in the place of true root. Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate the similarities between stem, true root, aerial root and to substantiate the use of aerial root in place of true root. Materials and Methods: Macroscopic, microscopic and histochemical study of fresh samples of stem, aerial root and true root of Amrita was carried out. Results: The distinctive character of stem shows dominant pericyclic fibre and pith. True root is devoid of pith where as aerial root has condensed pith consisting of lignified parenchyma. Conclusion: Specific individual characters of stem and true root and similar characters of aerial root were evident.

  1. Application of glutathione to roots selectively inhibits cadmium transport from roots to shoots in oilseed rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shin-ichi

    2013-01-01

    Glutathione is a tripeptide involved in various aspects of plant metabolism. This study investigated the effects of the reduced form of glutathione (GSH) applied to specific organs (source leaves, sink leaves, and roots) on cadmium (Cd) distribution and behaviour in the roots of oilseed rape plants (Brassica napus) cultured hydroponically. The translocation ratio of Cd from roots to shoots was significantly lower in plants that had root treatment of GSH than in control plants. GSH applied to roots reduced the Cd concentration in the symplast sap of root cells and inhibited root-to-shoot Cd translocation via xylem vessels significantly. GSH applied to roots also activated Cd efflux from root cells to the hydroponic solution. Inhibition of root-to-shoot translocation of Cd was visualized, and the activation of Cd efflux from root cells was also shown by using a positron-emitting tracer imaging system (PETIS). This study investigated a similar inhibitory effect on root-to-shoot translocation of Cd by the oxidized form of glutathione, GSSG. Inhibition of Cd accumulation by GSH was abolished by a low-temperature treatment. Root cells of plants exposed to GSH in the root zone had less Cd available for xylem loading by actively excluding Cd from the roots. Consequently, root-to-shoot translocation of Cd was suppressed and Cd accumulation in the shoot decreased. PMID:23364937

  2. Printing Values In Interactive ROOT

    CERN Document Server

    Perovic, Boris

    2015-01-01

    This project report summarizes the work I have been performing during the past twelve weeks as a Summer Student intern working on ROOT project in the SFT group, PH department, under the supervision of Axel Naumann and Danilo Piparo. One of the widely requested features for ROOT was improved interactive shell experience as well as improved printing of object values. Solving this issue was the goal of this project. Primarily, we have enabled printing of the collections. Secondly, we have unified the printing interface, making it much more robust and extendible. Thirdly, we have implemented printing of nested collections in a flexible and user-friendly manner. Finally, we have added an interactive mode, allowing for paginated output. At the beginning of the report, ROOT is presented with examples of where it is used and how important it is. Then, the motivation behind the project is elaborated, by presenting the previous state of the software package and its potential for improvement. Further, the process in wh...

  3. ROOT Status and Future Developments

    CERN Document Server

    Brun, R; Canal, P; Rademakers, Fons; Goto, Masaharu; Canal, Philippe; Brun, Rene

    2003-01-01

    In this talk we will review the major additions and improvements made to the ROOT system in the last 18 months and present our plans for future developments. The additons and improvements range from modifications to the I/O sub-system to allow users to save and restore objects of classes that have not been instrumented by special ROOT macros, to the addition of a geometry package designed for building, browsing, tracking and visualizing detector geometries. Other improvements include enhancements to the quick analysis sub-system (TTree::Draw()), the addition of classes that allow inter-file object references (TRef, TRefArray), better support for templated and STL classes, amelioration of the Automatic Script Compiler and the incorporation of new fitting and mathematical tools. Efforts have also been made to increase the modularity of the ROOT system with the introduction of more abstract interfaces and the development of a plug-in manager. In the near future, we intend to continue the development of PROOF and...

  4. [Anaphylaxis due to peach with negative ImmunoCAP result to peach allergens, including rPru p 1, rPru p 3, AND rPru p 4: a report of two cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Nobuko; Inomata, Naoko; Morita, Akiko; Kirino, Mio; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Ikezawa, Zenro

    2009-02-01

    We report two cases of anaphylactic reactions to peach with negative result of ImmunoCAP to peach. Case 1 is a 35-year-old man, who felt an itch in his oral cavity immediately after ingesting a whole fresh peach. He rapidly developed generalized urticaria, dyspnea, vomiting, and loss of consciousness. He recovered after treatment at a local hospital, thereafter he was referred to our hospital because ImmunoCAP conducted for screening allergens revealed a negative test result to peach and the cause of anaphylaxis remained unclear. He had a history of pollinosis. He reported that he previously felt an itch on his oral cavity after ingesting melon, watermelon, apple, and strawberry. Serum total IgE was 436 IU/ml. CAP-RAST revealed negative results to peach, strawberry and kiwi. Skin prick tests (SPTs) with raw peach pulp, canned peach pulp, strawberry and kiwi were positive. Case 2 is a 30-year-old woman who felt an itch on her oral cavity accompanied by blepharedema, rhinorrhea, generalized urticaria, nausea, abdominal pain and diarrhea after eating peach. She had a history of pollinosis. She reported that she previously developed urticaria after ingesting an apple. Serum total IgE was 85 IU/ml. ImmunoCAP revealed negative results to peach and apple. SPTs with canned yellow peach, strawberry and apple were positive. Consequently, the two patients were diagnosed with anaphylaxis due to peach, and allergic symptoms have never recurred since they avoided ingesting peach. Furthermore, in two patients ImmunoCAP to rPru p 1, rPru p 3, and rPru p 4 were negative. However, in IgE-immunoblotting of peach, serum IgE antibodies of two patients were bound to approximately 10 kDa proteins. Meanwhile, the cross-reactivity between Rosaceae fruits, such as peach, apple, apricot, and plum, has been reported. These results suggest that in patients, who are suspected of having peach anaphylaxis and show a negative ImmunoCAP result to peach, the additional testing, such as SPT with

  5. Parametric modeling of root length density and root water uptake in unsaturated soil

    OpenAIRE

    BESHARAT, Sina; NAZEMI, Amir Hossein; SADRADDINI, Ali Ashraf

    2010-01-01

    The problem of water movement through the root zone has attracted increasing interest during the last few decades. In this research, the spatial and temporal pattern of root water uptake in wetted soil was studied in the root zone of a 6-year-old apple tree. An important part of the root water uptake model is root length density, which was measured by sampling soil cores in one quarter of the root zone. The exponential model better described the observed apple root distribution. The measured ...

  6. Reconciling root plasticity and architectural ground rules in tree root growth models with voxel automata

    OpenAIRE

    Mulia, Rachmat; Dupraz, Christian; van Noordwijk, Meine

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic models of tree root growth and function have to reconcile the architectural rules for coarse root topology with the dynamics of fine root growth (and decay) in order to predict the strategic plus opportunistic behaviour of a tree root system in a heterogeneous soil. We present an algorithm for a 3D model based on both local (soil voxel level) and global (tree level) controls of root growth, with development of structural roots as a consequence of fine root function, rather than as dri...

  7. A New Anatomically Based Nomenclature for the Roots and Root Canals—Part 1: Maxillary Molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jojo Kottoor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous terminologies have been employed in the dental literature to describe the roots and root canal systems of maxillary molars. This multiplicity in naming of roots and canals makes the reader susceptible to misinterpretation and confusion. No consensus thus far has been arrived at for defining the names of roots and root canals in maxillary molars, including their various morphological aberrations. The anatomical relation of roots and their root canals were identified and were subsequently named based on definite sets of criteria. A new method for identification and naming of roots and root canal anatomy in maxillary molars, based on their root and canal relationship, was formulated and is presented in this paper. The nomenclature makes certain essential modifications to the traditional approach to accommodate naming of the various aberrations presented in the maxillary molars. A simple, yet extensive, nomenclature system has been proposed that appropriately names the internal and external morphology of maxillary molars.

  8. Five Roots Pattern of Median Nerve Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Natsis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available An unusual combination of median nerve’s variations has been encountered in a male cadaver during routine educational dissection. In particular, the median nerve was formed by five roots; three roots originated from the lateral cord of the brachial plexus joined individually the median nerve’s medial root. The latter (fourth root was united with the lateral (fifth root of the median nerve forming the median nerve distally in the upper arm and not the axilla as usually. In addition, the median nerve was situated medial to the brachial artery. We review comprehensively the relevant variants, their embryologic development and their potential clinical applications.

  9. Asteroidal Quadruples in non Rooted Path Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutierrez Marisa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A directed path graph is the intersection graph of a family of directed subpaths of a directed tree. A rooted path graph is the intersection graph of a family of directed subpaths of a rooted tree. Rooted path graphs are directed path graphs. Several characterizations are known for directed path graphs: one by forbidden induced subgraphs and one by forbidden asteroids. It is an open problem to find such characterizations for rooted path graphs. For this purpose, we are studying in this paper directed path graphs that are non rooted path graphs. We prove that such graphs always contain an asteroidal quadruple.

  10. Involvement of Arabidopsis thaliana phospholipase Dzeta2 in root hydrotropism through the suppression of root gravitropism.

    OpenAIRE

    Taniguchi, Yukimi Y; Taniguchi, Masatoshi; Tsuge, Tomohiko; Oka, Atsuhiro; Aoyama, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Root hydrotropism is the phenomenon of directional root growth toward moisture under water-deficient conditions. Although physiological and genetic studies have revealed the involvement of the root cap in the sensing of moisture gradients, and those of auxin and abscisic acid (ABA) in the signal transduction for asymmetric root elongation, the overall mechanism of root hydrotropism is still unclear. We found that the promoter activity of the Arabidopsis phospholipase Dzeta2 gene (PLDzeta2) wa...

  11. Fine-scale spatial structure of root-associated fungi within a single plant root system

    OpenAIRE

    Thoen, Ella

    2014-01-01

    Ectomycorrhiza (ECM) is an ancient and prevalent symbiosis between plants and fungi, and is crucial for growth and survival for a number of plants. Host plants can form ECM with multiple fungi, yet little is known about the fine-scale structure of root associated fungi within single root systems. The motivation for this study was to increase our knowledge about the richness, diversity and spatial distribution of fungal root symbionts within single root systems. An entire root system of the EC...

  12. Assessment of the wetting behavior of three different root canal sealers on root canal dentin

    OpenAIRE

    Muralidhar Tummala; Veeramachaneni Chandrasekhar; A Shashi Rashmi; Kundabala, M; Vasudev Ballal

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The objective of the present study was to evaluate and compare the wetting behavior of three different root canal sealers on the root canal dentin surface treated with irrigants and their combination. Materials and Methods: Decoronation and apical third resections of 27 extracted single-rooted human mandibular premolars were done. The roots were then split longitudinally into two halves, and randomly assigned into three treatment groups (n=18). The root dentin surfaces in Group1, Gro...

  13. Optimal root arrangement of cereal crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yeonsu; Park, Keunhwan; Kim, Ho-Young

    2015-11-01

    The plant root absorbs water from the soil and supplies it to the rest part of the plant. It consists of a number of root fibers, through whose surfaces water uptake occurs. There is an intriguing observation that for most of cereal crops such as maize and wheat, the volume density of root in the soil declines exponentially as a function of depth. To understand this empirical finding, we construct a theoretical model of root water uptake, where mass transfer into root surface is modeled just as heat flux around a fin. Agreement between the theoretically predicted optimal root distribution in vertical direction and biological data supports the hypothesis that the plant root has evolved to achieve the optimal water uptake in competition with neighbors. This study has practical implication in the agricultural industry as well as optimal design of water transport networks in both micro- and macroscales. Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.

  14. Effects of fine root length density and root biomass on soil preferential flow in forest ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghu Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The study was conducted to characterize the impacts of plant roots systems (e.g., root length density and root biomass on soil preferential flow in forest ecosystems. Area of study: The study was carried out in Jiufeng National Forest Park, Beijing, China. Material and methods: The flow patterns were measured by field dye tracing experiments. Different species (Sophora japonica Linn,Platycladus orientalis Franco, Quercus dentata Thunbwere quantified in two replicates, and 12 soil depth were applied. Plant roots were sampled in the sieving methods. Root length density and root biomass were measured by WinRHIZO. Dye coverage was implied in the image analysis, and maximum depth of dye infiltration by direct measurement. Main results: Root length density and root biomass decreased with the increasing distance from soil surface, and root length density was 81.6% higher in preferential pathways than in soil matrix, and 66.7% for root biomass with respect to all experimental plots. Plant roots were densely distributed in the upper soil layers. Dye coverage was almost 100% in the upper 5-10 cm, but then decreased rapidly with soil depth. Root length density and root biomass were different from species: Platycladus orientalis Franco > Quercus dentata Thunb > Sophora japonica Linn. Research highlights: The results indicated that fine roots systems had strong effects on soil preferential flow, particularly root channels enhancing nutrition transport across soil profiles in forest dynamics.

  15. Anaphylaxis to Insect Venom Allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ollert, Markus; Blank, Simon

    2015-01-01

    by a lack of specificity and venom immunotherapy by severe side effects and incomplete protection. In recent years, the knowledge about the molecular composition of Hymenoptera venoms has significantly increased and more and more recombinant venom allergens with advanced characteristics have become......, and to contribute to the understanding of the immunological mechanisms elicited by insect venoms....

  16. Xanthones from Garcinia propinqua Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meesakul, Pornphimol; Pansanit, Acharavadee; Maneerat, Wisanu; Sripisut, Tawanun; Ritthiwigrom, Thunwadee; Machana, Theeraphan; Cheenpracha, Sarot; Laphookhieo, Surat

    2016-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of Garcinia propinqua roots led to the isolation and identification of a new xanthone, doitunggarcinone D (1), together with 15 known compounds (2-16). Their structures were elucidated by intensive analysis of spectroscopic data. Compounds 3, 6, 7, 14, 15 and 16 exhibited strong antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis TISTR 088 with MIC values in the range of 1-4 µg/mL. Compounds 3, 7, 10 and 14 also showed good antibacterial activity against B. cereus TISTR 688 with MIC values ranging from 4-8 µg/mL. PMID:26996028

  17. Morphometric data of canine sacral nerve roots with reference to electrical sacral root stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijkhoff, N J; Koldewijn, E L; d'Hollosy, W; Debruyne, F M; Wijkstra, H

    1996-01-01

    Experiments to investigate restoration of lower urinary tract control by electrical stimulation of the sacral nerve roots are mostly performed on dogs, yet little morphometric data (such as canine root and fiber diameter distributions) are available. The aim of this study was to acquire morphometric data of the intradural canine sacral dorsal and ventral roots (S1-S3). Cross-sections of sacral roots of two beagle dogs were analyzed using a light microscope and image processing software. The cross-sectional area of each root was measured. The diameters of the fibers and the axons in the cross-sections of the S2 and S3 roots were measured and used to construct nerve fiber diameter frequency distribution histograms. The results show a unimodal diameter distribution for the dorsal roots and a bimodal distribution for the ventral roots. In addition the average ratio g of the axon diameter to fiber diameter was calculated for each root. PMID:8732990

  18. PATTERNS IN SOIL FERTILITY AND ROOT HERBIVORY INTERACT TO INFLUENCE FINE-ROOT DYNAMICS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, Glen, N.; Jones, Robert, H.

    2006-03-01

    Fine-scale soil nutrient enrichment typically stimulates root growth, but it may also increase root herbivory, resulting in trade-offs for plant species and potentially influencing carbon cycling patterns. We used root ingrowth cores to investigate the effects of microsite fertility and root herbivory on root biomass in an aggrading upland forest in the coastal plain of South Carolina, USA. Treatments were randomly assigned to cores from a factorial combination of fertilizer and insecticide. Soil, soil fauna, and roots were removed from the cores at the end of the experiment (8–9 mo), and roots were separated at harvest into three diameter classes. Each diameter class responded differently to fertilizer and insecticide treatments. The finest roots (,1.0 mm diameter), which comprised well over half of all root biomass, were the only ones to respond significantly to both treatments, increasing when fertilizer and when insecticide were added (each P , 0.0001), with maximum biomass found where the treatments were combined (interaction term significant, P , 0.001). These results suggest that root-feeding insects have a strong influence on root standing crop with stronger herbivore impacts on finer roots and within more fertile microsites. Thus, increased vulnerability to root herbivory is a potentially significant cost of root foraging in nutrient-rich patches.

  19. A statistical approach to root system classification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gernot eBodner

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Plant root systems have a key role in ecology and agronomy. In spite of fast increase in root studies, still there is no classification that allows distinguishing among distinctive characteristics within the diversity of rooting strategies. Our hypothesis is that a multivariate approach for plant functional type identification in ecology can be applied to the classification of root systems. We demonstrate that combining principal component and cluster analysis yields a meaningful classification of rooting types based on morphological traits. The classification method presented is based on a data-defined statistical procedure without a priori decision on the classifiers. Biplot inspection is used to determine key traits and to ensure stability in cluster based grouping. The classification method is exemplified with simulated root architectures and morphological field data. Simulated root architectures showed that morphological attributes with spatial distribution parameters capture most distinctive features within root system diversity. While developmental type (tap vs. shoot-borne systems is a strong, but coarse classifier, topological traits provide the most detailed differentiation among distinctive groups. Adequacy of commonly available morphologic traits for classification is supported by field data. Three rooting types emerged from measured data, distinguished by diameter/weight, density and spatial distribution respectively. Similarity of root systems within distinctive groups was the joint result of phylogenetic relation and environmental as well as human selection pressure. We concluded that the data-define classification is appropriate for integration of knowledge obtained with different root measurement methods and at various scales. Currently root morphology is the most promising basis for classification due to widely used common measurement protocols. To capture details of root diversity efforts in architectural measurement

  20. Towards understanding tree root profiles: simulating hydrologically optimal strategies for root distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. van Wijk

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this modelling study differences in vertical root distributions measured in four contrasting forest locations in the Netherlands were investigated. Root distributions are seen as a reflection of the plant’s optimisation strategy, based on hydrological grounds. The 'optimal' root distribution is defined as the one that maximises the water uptake from the root zone over a period of ten years. The optimal root distributions of four forest locations with completely different soil physical characteristics are calculated using the soil hydrological model SWIF. Two different model configurations for root interactions were tested: the standard model configuration in which one single root profile was used (SWIF-NC, and a model configuration in which two root profiles compete for the same available water (SWIF-C. The root profiles were parameterised with genetic algorithms. The fitness of a certain root profile was defined as the amount of water uptake over a simulation period of ten years. The root profiles of SWIF-C were optimised using an evolutionary game. The results showed clear differences in optimal root distributions between the various sites and also between the two model configurations. Optimisation with SWIF-C resulted in root profiles that were easier to interpret in terms of feasible biological strategies. Preferential water uptake in wetter soil regions was an important factor for interpretation of the simulated root distributions. As the optimised root profiles still showed differences with measured profiles, this analysis is presented, not as the final solution for explaining differences in root profiles of vegetation but as a first step using an optimisation theory to increase understanding of the root profiles of trees. Keywords: forest hydrology, optimisation, roots

  1. Roots at the percolation threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroener, Eva; Ahmed, Mutez Ali; Carminati, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    The rhizosphere is the layer of soil around the roots where complex and dynamic interactions between plants and soil affect the capacity of plants to take up water. The physical properties of the rhizosphere are affected by mucilage, a gel exuded by roots. Mucilage can absorb large volumes of water, but it becomes hydrophobic after drying. We use a percolation model to describe the rewetting of dry rhizosphere. We find that at a critical mucilage concentration the rhizosphere becomes impermeable. The critical mucilage concentration depends on the radius of the soil particle size. Capillary rise experiments with neutron radiography prove that for concentrations below the critical mucilage concentration water could easily cross the rhizosphere, while above the critical concentration water could no longer percolate through it. Our studies, together with former observations of water dynamics in the rhizosphere, suggest that the rhizosphere is near the percolation threshold, where small variations in mucilage concentration sensitively alter the soil hydraulic conductivity. Is mucilage exudation a plant mechanism to efficiently control the rhizosphere conductivity and the access to water?

  2. The Difference between the Micronutrients Content of Seeding's Root and Root Hair in Several Plant Species

    OpenAIRE

    Yamakawa, Takeo; Okuda, Naoko; Taira, Kenjiro

    2008-01-01

    It was reported in soybean that the content of Fe and Co microelements of the root hair invaded by rhizobium during the process of nodule formation was higher than that of the root. To confirm this point, a supplementary experiment was carried out using several applicable plants, soybeans, lupine, pea, corn and pumpkin. Root hair was separated in liquid nitrogen from the roots of those seedlings. The separated root hair of 20mg, or the residual root of 200mg was digested in a microwave wet...

  3. Seasonal changes of whole root system conductance by a drought-tolerant grape root system

    OpenAIRE

    Alsina, Maria Mar; Smart, David R.; Bauerle, Taryn; de Herralde, Felicidad; Biel, Carme; Stockert, Christine; Negron, Claudia; Save, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The role of root systems in drought tolerance is a subject of very limited information compared with above-ground responses. Adjustments to the ability of roots to supply water relative to shoot transpiration demand is proposed as a major means for woody perennial plants to tolerate drought, and is often expressed as changes in the ratios of leaf to root area (A L:A R). Seasonal root proliferation in a directed manner could increase the water supply function of roots independent of total root...

  4. Systems approaches to study root architecture dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candela eCuesta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The plant root system is essential for providing anchorage to the soil, supplying minerals and water, and synthesizing metabolites. It is a dynamic organ modulated by external cues such as environmental signals, water and nutrients availability, salinity and others. Lateral roots are initiated from the primary root post-embryonically, after which they progress through discrete developmental stages which can be independently controlled, providing a high level of plasticity during root system formation.Within this review, main contributions are presented, from the classical forward genetic screens to the more recent high-throughput approaches, combined with computer model predictions, dissecting how lateral roots and thereby root system architecture is established and developed.

  5. Unit roots, nonlinearities and structural breaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldrup, Niels; Kruse, Robinson; Teräsvirta, Timo;

    One of the most influential research fields in econometrics over the past decades concerns unit root testing in economic time series. In macro-economics much of the interest in the area originate from the fact that when unit roots are present, then shocks to the time series processes have a...... persistent effect with resulting policy implications. From a statistical perspective on the other hand, the presence of unit roots has dramatic implications for econometric model building, estimation, and inference in order to avoid the so-called spurious regression problem. The present paper provides a...... selective review of contributions to the field of unit root testing over the past three decades. We discuss the nature of stochastic and deterministic trend processes, including break processes, that are likely to affect unit root inference. A range of the most popular unit root tests are presented and...

  6. INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING : ROOTING FOR ROOTS, HANKERING FOR HEROES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Kruger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The “roots” of Industrial Engineering are certainly extensive, diverse and deep. Similarly, there are numerous historical “heroes” that made significant contributions to the development of the Industrial Engineering discipline. For the sake of argument, this article will assume that Industrial Engineering has at least two identifiable main roots, namely Determinism and Stochastism. The article attempts to trace the early history1 of the stochastic root which is very closely linked to the history of probability and statistics and hence games of chance, gambling and divinity. Therefore, the life and times, contributions and personalities of some of the heroes and villains, champions and sad cases of the stochastic world, will be briefly discussed in a somewhat light-hearted, but not necessarily flippant, manner.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die “wortel en tak” van Bedryfsingenieurswese is sekerlik van groot omvang, van diverse aard en diep gesetel. Verskeie historiese “helde” het betekenisvolle bydraes gemaak tot die ontwikkeling van die Bedryfsingenieurswesevakgebied. Ter wille van betoogvoering sal in hierdie artikel aanvaar word dat Bedryfsingenieurswese uit minstens twee identifiseerbare sub-vakgebiede bestaan naamlik : Die Determinisme en die Stogasme. ’n Poging word aangewend om die vroeë geskiedenis van die stogasme na te speur wat op sy beurt aaneengesnoer is met die geskiedenis van die waarskynlikheidsleer en statistiek en dus toevalspelle, dobbelary en wiggelary. Die lewenswyse, tydsgewrig, bydraes en persoonlikheidseienskappe van ’n aantal helde en skurke, kampioene en prulle van die stogastiese wêreld word kortliks bespreek, op ’n ietwat lighartige maar nie noodwendig ligsinnige wyse.

  7. Springback and diagravitropism in Merit corn roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, M. O.; Leopold, A. C.

    1992-01-01

    Dark-treated Merit corn (Zea mays L.) roots are diagravitropic and lose curvature upon withdrawal of the gravity stimulus (springback). Springback was not detected in a variety of corn that is orthogravitropic in the dark, nor in Merit roots in which tropistic response was enhanced either with red light or with abscisic acid. A possible interpretation is that springback may be associated with a weak growth response of diagravitropic roots.

  8. ROOT COVERAGE PROCEDURES IN GINGIVAL AESTHETICS

    OpenAIRE

    Yılmaz, Gülin; Fentoğlu, Özlem; Kırzıoğlu, Fatma Yeşim

    2011-01-01

    Treatments of gingival recessions which cause functional and aesthetic problems in patients take place among the important issues in periodontology. The goal of root coverage procedure is augmentation of the width and height of keratinized gingiva, as well as to obtain complete root coverage. For this purpose many mucogingival surgery techniques have been used. This review summarized the therapeutic approaches for gingival recession defects and achievements of root coverage. Keywords: Gin...

  9. Modelling root distribution and nitrogen uptake

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Anders; Thorup-kristensen, Kristian

    2004-01-01

    Plant soil and atmosphere models are commonly used to predict crop yield and environmental consequence. Such models often include complex modelling modules for water movement, soil organic matter turnover and, above ground plant growth. However, the root modelling in these models are often very simple, partly due to a limited access to experimental data. We present a two-dimensional model for root growth and proliferation. The model focuses on annual crops, and attempt to model root gro...

  10. Root doctors as providers of primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stitt, V J

    1983-07-01

    Physicians in primary care recognize that as many as 65 percent of the patients seen in their offices are there for psychological reasons. In any southern town with a moderate population of blacks, there are at least two "root doctors." These root doctors have mastered the power of autosuggestion and are treating these patients with various forms of medication and psychological counseling. This paper updates the practicing physician on root doctors who practice primary care. PMID:6887277

  11. Maxillary canine with two root canals

    OpenAIRE

    Nagesh Bolla; Sarath Raj Kavuri

    2011-01-01

    To report a rare case of maxillary canine with two root canals. The case describes the treatment of a maxillary canine with two root canals which was referred from department of prosthodontia for intentional root canal treatment for prosthetic rehabilitation. Clinical examination revealed a maxillary canine with carious lesion and responded within normal limits to electric pulp test. Radiographic examination revealed a distal carious lesion (close proximity to pulp) and also appeared to be an...

  12. New Algorithms on Rooted Triplet Consistency

    OpenAIRE

    Tazehkand, Soheil Jahangiri; Hashemi, Seyed Naser; Poormohammadi, Hadi

    2012-01-01

    An evolutionary tree (phylogenetic tree) is a binary, rooted, unordered tree that models the evolutionary history of currently living species in which leaves are labeled by species. In this paper, we investigate the problem of finding the maximum consensus evolutionary tree from a set of given rooted triplets. A rooted triplet is a phylogenetic tree on three leaves and shows the evolutionary relationship of the corresponding three species. The mentioned problem is known to be APX-hard. We pre...

  13. Root phenology in a changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radville, Laura; McCormack, M Luke; Post, Eric; Eissenstat, David M

    2016-06-01

    Plant phenology is one of the strongest indicators of ecological responses to climate change, and altered phenology can have pronounced effects on net primary production, species composition in local communities, greenhouse gas fluxes, and ecosystem processes. Although many studies have shown that aboveground plant phenology advances with warmer temperatures, demonstration of a comparable association for belowground phenology has been lacking because the factors that influence root phenology are poorly understood. Because roots can constitute a large fraction of plant biomass, and root phenology may not respond to warming in the same way as shoots, this represents an important knowledge gap in our understanding of how climate change will influence phenology and plant performance. We review studies of root phenology and provide suggestions to direct future research. Only 29% of examined studies approached root phenology quantitatively, strongly limiting interpretation of results across studies. Therefore, we suggest that researchers emphasize quantitative analyses in future phenological studies. We suggest that root initiation, peak growth, and root cessation may be under different controls. Root initiation and cessation may be more constrained by soil temperature and the timing of carbon availability, whereas the timing of peak root growth may represent trade-offs among competing plant sinks. Roots probably do not experience winter dormancy in the same way as shoots: 89% of the studies that examined winter phenology found evidence of growth during winter months. More research is needed to observe root phenology, and future studies should be careful to capture winter and early season phenology. This should be done quantitatively, with direct observations of root growth utilizing rhizotrons or minirhizotrons. PMID:26931171

  14. Characterization of Pearl Millet Root Architecture and Anatomy Reveals Three Types of Lateral Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passot, Sixtine; Gnacko, Fatoumata; Moukouanga, Daniel; Lucas, Mikaël; Guyomarc'h, Soazig; Ortega, Beatriz Moreno; Atkinson, Jonathan A; Belko, Marème N; Bennett, Malcolm J; Gantet, Pascal; Wells, Darren M; Guédon, Yann; Vigouroux, Yves; Verdeil, Jean-Luc; Muller, Bertrand; Laplaze, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Pearl millet plays an important role for food security in arid regions of Africa and India. Nevertheless, it is considered an orphan crop as it lags far behind other cereals in terms of genetic improvement efforts. Breeding pearl millet varieties with improved root traits promises to deliver benefits in water and nutrient acquisition. Here, we characterize early pearl millet root system development using several different root phenotyping approaches that include rhizotrons and microCT. We report that early stage pearl millet root system development is characterized by a fast growing primary root that quickly colonizes deeper soil horizons. We also describe root anatomical studies that revealed three distinct types of lateral roots that form on both primary roots and crown roots. Finally, we detected significant variation for two root architectural traits, primary root lenght and lateral root density, in pearl millet inbred lines. This study provides the basis for subsequent genetic experiments to identify loci associated with interesting early root development traits in this important cereal. PMID:27379124

  15. Measurements of water uptake of maize roots: the key function of lateral roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M. A.; Zarebanadkouki, M.; Kroener, E.; Kaestner, A.; Carminati, A.

    2014-12-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the most important crop worldwide. Despite its importance, there is limited information on the function of different root segments and root types of maize in extracting water from soils. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate locations of root water uptake in maize. We used neutron radiography to: 1) image the spatial distribution of maize roots in soil and 2) trace the transport of injected deuterated water (D2O) in soil and roots. Maizes were grown in aluminum containers (40×38×1 cm) filled with a sandy soil. When the plants were 16 days old, we injected D2O into selected soil regions containing primary, seminal and lateral roots. The experiments were performed during the day (transpiring plants) and night (not transpiring plants). The transport of D2O into roots was simulated using a new convection-diffusion numerical model of D2O transport into roots. By fitting the observed D2O transport we quantified the diffusional permeability and the water uptake of the different root segments. The maize root architecture consisted of a primary root, 4-5 seminal roots and many lateral roots connected to the primary and seminal roots. Laterals emerged from the proximal 15 cm of the primary and seminal roots. Water uptake occurred primarily in lateral roots. Lateral roots had the highest diffusional permeability (9.4×10-7), which was around six times higher that the diffusional permeability of the old seminal segments (1.4×10-7), and two times higher than the diffusional permeability of the young seminal segments (4.7×10-7). The radial flow of D2O into the lateral (6.7×10-5 ) was much higher than in the young seminal roots (1.1×10-12). The radial flow of D2O into the old seminal was negligible. We concluded that the function of the primary and seminal roots was to collect water from the lateral roots and transport it to the shoot. A maize root system with lateral roots branching from deep primary and seminal roots would be

  16. Designing new interfaces for ROOT data processing

    CERN Document Server

    Vuorinen, Kalle Elmer

    2016-01-01

    ROOT is a C++ framework for data analysis provided with a Python interface (PyRoot). ROOT is used in every Large Hadron Collider experiment. This project presents a way of reading ROOT TTree by using a new class called DataFrame, which allows the usage of cache and functional chains. Reading TTrees in Python has been quite slow compared to the C++ way of doing it and for this reason we also bring the possibility to read them with just-in-time (JIT) compiled C++ code, using another new Python class called TreeReader.

  17. Deriving the unit hydrograph by root selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, J. E.; Dooge, J. C. I.; Bree, T.

    1989-09-01

    De Laine's method of deriving the unit hydrograph from the common roots of polynomials corresponding to different storms is used as a basis for proposing a new procedure in which the unit hydrograph roots can be selected from among the polynomial roots for the runoff of a single storm. The selection is made on the basis that the complex unit hydrograph roots form a characteristic "skew circle" pattern when plotted on an Argand diagram. The application of the procedure to field data is illustrated for both a single-peaked and a double-peaked event.

  18. Power Efficient Division and Square Root Unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wei; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Although division and square root are not frequent operations, most processors implement them in hardware to not compromise the overall performance. Two classes of algorithms implement division or square root: digit-recurrence and multiplicative (e.g., Newton-Raphson) algorithms. Previous work...... shows that division and square root units based on the digit-recurrence algorithm offer the best tradeoff delay-area-power. Moreover, the two operations can be combined in a single unit. Here, we present a radix-16 combined division and square root unit obtained by overlapping two radix-4 stages. The...

  19. ROOT TEMPERATURE EFFECT ON ROOT HYDRAULIC RESISTANCE IN CUCUMBER (CUCUMIS SATIVUS L.) AND FIGLEAF GOURD (CUCURBITA FICIFOLIA B.) PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida, Satoshi; Eguchi, Hiromi

    1990-01-01

    The effect of root temperature on total root resistance (hydraulic resistance in a whole root system) was examined in detached whole root systems of cucumber and figleaf gourd plants by applying the suction of 80kPa in root temperature region of 8 to 32℃. The total root resistances in both species became higher at lower root temperatures. From the fact that radial root resistance is about 80% of total root resistance, it could be conceivable that the temperature effect on the total root resis...

  20. Increased symplasmic permeability in barley root epidermal cells correlates with defects in root hair development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzec, M; Muszynska, A; Melzer, M; Sas-Nowosielska, H; Kurczynska, E U

    2014-03-01

    It is well known that the process of plant cell differentiation depends on the symplasmic isolation of cells. Before starting the differentiation programme, the individual cell or group of cells should restrict symplasmic communication with neighbouring cells. We tested the symplasmic communication between epidermal cells in the different root zones of parental barley plants Hordeum vulgare L., cv. 'Karat' with normal root hair development, and two root hairless mutants (rhl1.a and rhl1.b). The results clearly show that symplasmic communication was limited during root hair differentiation in the parental variety, whereas in both root hairless mutants epidermal cells were still symplasmically connected in the corresponding root zone. This paper is the first report on the role of symplasmic isolation in barley root cell differentiation, and additionally shows that a disturbance in the restriction of symplasmic communication is present in root hairless mutants. PMID:23927737

  1. Variations of fine root diameter with root order in Manchurian ash and Dahurian larch plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiangrong; WANG Zhengquan; HAN Youzhi; GU Jiacun; GUO Dali; MEI Li

    2007-01-01

    Fine root lifespan and turnover play an important role in carbon allocation and nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems.Fine roots are typically defined as less than 1 or 2mm in diameter.However,when categorizing roots by this diameter size,the position of an individual root on the complex lateral branching pattern has often been ignored,and our knowledge about relationships between branching order and root function thus remains limited.More recently,studies on root survivals found that longevity was remarkably different in the same branching level due to diameter variations.The objectives of this study were:(1) To examine variations of fine root diameter from the first-to fifth-orders in Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr and Larix gmelinii Rupr roots;and (2) To reveal how the season,soil nutrient,and water availability affect root diameter in different branch order in two species.This study was conducted at Maoershan Forest Research Station (45°21'-45°25'N,127°30'-127°34'E) owned by Northeast Forestry University in Harbin,northeast China.Both F.mandshurica and L.gmelinii were planted in 1986.In each plantation,fine roots of two species by sampling up to five fine root branch orders three times during the 2003 growing season from two soil depths (i.e.,0-10 and 10-20 cm)were obtained.The results showed that average diameters of fine roots were significantly different among the five branch orders.The first-order had the thinner roots and the fifth order had the thickest roots,the diameter increasing regularly with the ascending branch orders in both species.If the diameter of fine roots was defined as being smaller than 0.5 mm,the first three orders ofF.mandshurica roots and the first two orders of L.gmelinii roots would be included in the fine root population.The diameter ranges of the fine roots from first-order to fifth-order were 0.15-0.58,0.18-0.70,0.26-1.05,0.36-1.43,and 0.71-2.96 mm for F.mandshurica,and 0.17-0.76,0.23-1.02,0.26-1.10,0.38-1.77,and 0.84-2.80 mm for L

  2. ROOT HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY AND PHOTOSYNTHETIC CAPACITY OF EUCALYPT CLONAL CUTTINGS WITH ROOT MALFORMATION INDUCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Afonso Mazzei Moura de Assis Figueiredo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509814566The gain reduction of wood biomass in trees has been assigned to root deformations even in the nursery phase. The objective of this work was the evaluation of the root system hydraulic conductivity, gas exchanges and photochemical efficiency of eucalypt clonal cuttings with and without root deformation inductions. The treatments were: 1 operational cuttings without root malformation inductions (grown according to the used methodology of Fibria Cellulose S.A.; 2 root deformation inductions. These inductions did not promote decrease in the root volume. However, the deformations brought reduction of the root system hydraulic conductivity. Lower photosynthetic rates were also observed along the day in the cuttings in the root deformed cuttings. This decreasing rate is connected to stomatal and non stomatal factors.

  3. Plant root research: the past, the present and the future

    OpenAIRE

    Lux, Alexander; Rost, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    This special issue is dedicated to root biologists past and present who have been exploring all aspects of root structure and function with an extensive publication record going over 100 years. The content of the Special Issue on Root Biology covers a wide scale of contributions, spanning interactions of roots with microorganisms in the rhizosphere, the anatomy of root cells and tissues, the subcellular components of root cells, and aspects of metal accumulation and stresses on root function ...

  4. Genetic ablation of root cap cells in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Tsugeki, Ryuji; Fedoroff, Nina V.

    1999-01-01

    The root cap is increasingly appreciated as a complex and dynamic plant organ. Root caps sense and transmit environmental signals, synthesize and secrete small molecules and macromolecules, and in some species shed metabolically active cells. However, it is not known whether root caps are essential for normal shoot and root development. We report the identification of a root cap-specific promoter and describe its use to genetically ablate root caps by directing root cap-specific expression of...

  5. Effect of Root Moisture Content and Diameter on Root Tensile Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Yuanjun Yang; Lihua Chen; Ning Li; Qiufen Zhang

    2016-01-01

    The stabilization of slopes by vegetation has been a topical issue for many years. Root mechanical characteristics significantly influence soil reinforcement; therefore it is necessary to research into the indicators of root tensile properties. In this study, we explored the influence of root moisture content on tensile resistance and strength with different root diameters and for different tree species. Betula platyphylla, Quercus mongolica, Pinus tabulaeformis, and Larix gmelinii, the most ...

  6. Root tip-dependent, active riboflavin secretion by Hyoscyamus albus hairy roots under iron deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Higa, Ataru; Miyamoto, Erika; Rahman, Laiq ur; Kitamura, Yoshie

    2008-01-01

    Hyoscyamus albus hairy roots with/without an exogenous gene (11 clones) were established by inoculation of Agrobacterium rhizogenes. All clones cultured under iron deficient condition secreted riboflavin from root tips into the culture medium and the productivity depended on the number and size of root tips among the clones, although the addition of sucrose was essential for riboflavin production. A decline of pH was observed before riboflavin production and root development using either a ro...

  7. Root reinforcement of soils under compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, M.; Rist, A.; Cohen, D.; Giadrossich, F.; Egorov, P.; Büttner, D.; Stolz, M.; Thormann, J.-J.

    2015-10-01

    It is well recognized that roots reinforce soils and that the distribution of roots within vegetated hillslopes strongly influences the spatial distribution of soil strength. Previous studies have focussed on the contribution of root reinforcement under conditions of tension or shear. However, no systematic investigation into the contribution of root reinforcement to soils experiencing compression, such as the passive Earth forces at the toe of a landslide, is found in the literature. An empirical-analytical model (CoRoS) for the quantification of root reinforcement in soils under compression is presented and tested against experimental data. The CoRoS model describes the force-displacement behavior of compressed, rooted soils and can be used to provide a framework for improving slope stability calculations. Laboratory results showed that the presence of 10 roots with diameters ranging from 6 to 28 mm in a rectangular soil profile 0.72 m by 0.25 m increased the compressive strength of the soil by about 40% (2.5 kN) at a displacement of 0.05 m, while the apparent stiffness of the rooted soil was 38% higher than for root-free soil. The CoRoS model yields good agreement with experimentally determined values of maximum reinforcement force and compression force as a function of displacement. These results indicate that root reinforcement under compression has a major influence on the mechanical behavior of soil and that the force-displacement behavior of roots should be included in analysis of the compressive regimes that commonly are present in the toe of landslides.

  8. Root-soil relationships and terroir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasi, Diego

    2015-04-01

    Soil features, along with climate, are among the most important determinants of a succesful grape production in a certain area. Most of the studies, so far, investigated the above-ground vine response to differente edaphic and climate condition, but it is clearly not sufficient to explain the vine whole behaviour. In fact, roots represent an important part of the terroir system (soil-plant-atmosphere-man), and their study can provide better comprehension of vine responses to different environments. The root density and distribution, the ability of deep-rooting and regenerating new roots are good indicators of root well-being, and represents the basis for an efficient physiological activity of the root system. Root deepening and distribution are strongly dependent and sensitive on soil type and soil properties, while root density is affected mostly by canopy size, rootstock and water availability. According to root well-being, soil management strategies should alleviate soil impediments, improving aeration and microbial activity. Moreover, agronomic practices can impact root system performance and influence the above-ground growth. It is well known, for example, that the root system size is largely diminished by high planting densities. Close vine spacings stimulate a more effective utilization of the available soil, water and nutrients, but if the competition for available soil becomes too high, it can repress vine growth, and compromise vineyard longevity, productivity and reaction to growing season weather. Development of resilient rootstocks, more efficient in terms of water and nutrient uptake and capable of dealing with climate and soil extremes (drought, high salinity) are primary goals fore future research. The use of these rootstocks will benefit a more sustainable use of the soil resources and the preservation and valorisation of the terroir.

  9. Fine root production at drained peatland sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finer, L. [Finnish Forest Research Inst. (Finland). Joensuu Research Station; Laine, J. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1996-12-31

    The preliminary results of the Finnish project `Carbon balance of peatlands and climate change` show that fine roots play an important role in carbon cycling on peat soils. After drainage the roots of mire species are gradually replaced by the roots of trees and other forest species. Pine fine root biomass reaches a maximum level by the time of crown closure, some 20 years after drainage on pine mire. The aim of this study is to compare the results of the sequential coring method and the ingrowth bag method used for estimating fine root production on three drained peatland sites of different fertility. The results are preliminary and continuation to the work done in the study Pine root production on drained peatlands, which is part of the Finnish project `Carbon cycling on peatlands and climate change`. In this study the fine root biomass was greater on the poor site than on the rich sites. Pine fine root production increased with the decrease in fertility. Root turnover and the production of field layer species were greater on the rich sites than on the poor site. The results suggested that the in growth bag method measured more root activity than the magnitude of production. More than two growing seasons would have been needed to balance the root dynamics in the in growth bags with the surrounding soil. That time would probably have been longer on the poor site than on the rich ones and longer for pine and field layer consisting of dwarf shrubs than for field layer consisting of sedge like species and birch. (11 refs.)

  10. Root susceptibility and inoculum production from roots of eastern oak species to Phytophthora ramorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known about root susceptibility of eastern tree species to Phytophthora ramorum. In this study, we examined root susceptibility and inoculum production from roots. Oak radicles of several eastern oak species were exposed to zoospore suspensions of 1, 10, 100, or 1000 zoospores per ml at ...

  11. Changes of Root Length and Root-to-Crown Ratio after Apical Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Arx, Thomas; Jensen, Simon S; Bornstein, Michael M

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Apical surgery is an important treatment option for teeth with post-treatment periodontitis. Although apical surgery involves root-end resection, no morphometric data are yet available about root-end resection and its impact on the root-to-crown ratio (RCR). The present study assess...

  12. Assessment of the nonoperated root after apical surgery of the other root in mandibular molars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Riccardo D; von Arx, Thomas; Gfeller, David;

    2015-01-01

    radiographs 5 years after surgery were examined. The following data were collected: tooth, operated root, type and quality of the coronal restoration, marginal bone level, length and homogeneity of the root canal filling, presence of a post/screw, periapical index (PAI) of each root, and radiographic healing...

  13. X-ray computed tomography uncovers root-root interactions: quantifying spatial relationships between interacting root systems in three dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Martin Paya

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Research in the field of plant biology has recently demonstrated that inter- and intra-specific interactions belowground can dramatically alter root growth. Our aim was to answer questions related to the effect of inter- vs. intra-specific interactions on the growth and utilization of undisturbed space by fine roots within three dimensions (3D using micro X-ray computed tomography. To achieve this, Populus tremuloides (quaking aspen and Picea mariana (black spruce seedlings were planted into containers as either solitary individuals, or inter-/intra-specific pairs, allowed to grow for two months, and 3D metrics developed in order to quantify their use of belowground space. In both aspen and spruce, inter-specific root interactions produced a shift in the vertical distribution of the root system volume, and deepened the average position of root tips when compared to intra-specifically growing seedlings. Inter-specific interactions also increased the minimum distance between root tips belonging to the same root system. There was no effect of belowground interactions on the radial distribution of roots, or the directionality of lateral root growth for either species. In conclusion, we found that significant differences were observed more often when comparing controls (solitary individuals and paired seedlings (inter- or intra-specific, than when comparing inter- and intra-specifically growing seedlings. This would indicate that competition between neighboring seedlings was more responsible for shifting fine root growth in both species than was neighbor identity. However, significant inter- vs. intra-specific differences were observed, which further emphasizes the importance of biological interactions in competition studies.

  14. The choice of auxin analogue for in vitro root induction influences post-induction root development in Eucalyptus grandis

    OpenAIRE

    NAKHOODA, Muhammad; WATT, Maria Paula; MYCOCK, David

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies on in vitro rooting for improved micropropagation of eucalypts indicated that root graviperception and post-acclimatisation architecture are determined by the relative exogenous auxin analogue and its stability, supplied during the pre-rooting culture stages. The specific roles of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) in the rooting medium on the in vitro root morphological processes were explored using a good-rooting clone. In vitro rooting percentage wa...

  15. Conjoined nerve root of the lumbar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There have been a number of reports on lumbosacral nerve root anomalies. Among the most common of these anomalies is the conjoined nerve root. However, it is difficult to diagnose this condition preoperatively. We review the records of 142 patients who underwent microendoscopic discectomy (MED) for herniation of the lumbar disc. All patients had undergone magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lumbar spine before surgery. For most patients, only sagittal and axial images were obtained; coronal images were obtained in only a minority of the patients. Postoperative coronal images were obtained in patients with conjoined nerve roots. A diagnosis of conjoined nerve roots was made intraoperatively in 4 patients; this diagnosis had not been possible preoperatively. After surgery, new coronal images were obtained for the 4 patients with conjoined nerve roots; however, there was no evidence of the condition on the new images. The surgical procedure employed was endoscopic decompression and herniotomy. The results were favorable, even though pediculotomy was not performed. It is difficult to diagnose nerve root anomalies preoperatively. However, the possibility of nerve root anomalies should always be considered during surgery to ensure a safe procedure, without intraoperative occurrence of nerve root injury. (author)

  16. Dehydration Accelerates Respiration in Postharvest Sugarbeet Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) roots lose water during storage and often become severely dehydrated after prolonged storage and at the outer regions of storage piles which have greater wind and sun exposure. Sucrose loss is known to be elevated in dehydrated roots, although the metabolic processes re...

  17. 33 CFR 117.1095 - Root River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Root River. 117.1095 Section 117.1095 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Wisconsin § 117.1095 Root River. (a) The draw of the Main...

  18. Sporulation on plant roots by Phytophthora ramorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora ramorum has been shown to infect the roots of many of the pathogen’s foliar hosts. Methods of detecting inoculum in runoff and of quantifying root colonization were tested using Viburnum tinus, Camellia oleifera, Quercus prinus, Umbellularia californica, and Epilobium ciliatum. Plants...

  19. Roots of crosscap slides and crosscap transpositions

    OpenAIRE

    Parlak, Anna; Stukow, Michał

    2016-01-01

    Let $N_{g}$ denote a closed nonorientable surface of genus $g$. For $g \\geq 2$ the mapping class group $\\mathcal{M}(N_{g})$ is generated by Dehn twists and one crosscap slide ($Y$-homeomorphism) or by Dehn twists and a crosscap transposition. Margalit and Schleimer observed that Dehn twists have nontrivial roots. We construct roots of crosscap slides and crosscap transpositions.

  20. Rapid phenotyping of alfalfa root system architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root system architecture (RSA) influences the capacity of an alfalfa plant for symbiotic nitrogen fixation, nutrient uptake and water use efficiency, resistance to frost heaving, winterhardiness, and some pest and pathogen resistance. However, we currently lack a basic understanding of root system d...

  1. Cultivable Anaerobic Microbiota of Infected Root Canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuichi Sato

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Periapical periodontitis is an infectious and inflammatory disease of the periapical tissues caused by oral bacteria invading the root canal. In the present study, profiling of the microbiota in infected root canals was performed using anaerobic culture and molecular biological techniques for bacterial identification. Methods. Informed consent was obtained from all subjects (age ranges, 34–71 years. Nine infected root canals with periapical lesions from 7 subjects were included. Samples from infected root canals were collected, followed by anaerobic culture on CDC blood agar plates. After 7 days, colony forming units (CFU were counted and isolated bacteria were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results. The mean bacterial count (CFU in root canals was (0.5±1.1×106 (range 8.0×101–3.1×106, and anaerobic bacteria were predominant (89.8%. The predominant isolates were Olsenella (25.4%, Mogibacterium (17.7%, Pseudoramibacter (17.7%, Propionibacterium (11.9% and Parvimonas (5.9%. Conclusion. The combination of anaerobic culture and molecular biological techniques makes it possible to analyze rapidly the microbiota in infected root canals. The overwhelming majority of the isolates from infected root canals were found to be anaerobic bacteria, suggesting that the environment in root canals is anaerobic and therefore support the growth of anaerobes.

  2. Method for Constructing Standardized Simulated Root Canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz-Bongert, Udo; Weine, Franklin S.

    1990-01-01

    The construction of visual and manipulative aids, clear resin blocks with root-canal-like spaces, for simulation of root canals is explained. Time, materials, and techniques are discussed. The method allows for comparison of canals, creation of any configuration of canals, and easy presentation during instruction. (MSE)

  3. A new approach to root formation

    OpenAIRE

    Vatanpour, Mehdi; Zarei, Mina; Javidi, Maryam; Shirazian, Shiva

    2008-01-01

    In endodontics, treatment of an open apex tooth with necrotic pulp is a problem. It seems that with promotion of remnants of Hertwig’s epithelial sheath or rest of malassez accompany with a good irrigation of root canal we can expect root formation. (Iranian Endodontic Journal 2008;3:42-43)

  4. Layers of root nouns in Germanic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bjarne Simmelkjær Sandgaard

    2015-01-01

    The root-noun declension became productive in early Germanic, containing (I) inherited root nouns, (IIa) original substrate or loan words, and transitions from other declensions in (IIb) Proto-Germanic and (III) North Germanic. As ablaut was abolished, the inherited type would display ablaut grades...

  5. The Complexity of Rooted Phylogeny Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Bodirsky, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Several computational problems in phylogenetic reconstruction can be formulated as restrictions of the following general problem: given a formula in conjunctive normal form where the literals are rooted triples, is there a rooted binary tree that satisfies the formula? If the formulas do not contain disjunctions, the problem becomes the famous rooted triple consistency problem, which can be solved in polynomial time by an algorithm of Aho, Sagiv, Szymanski, and Ullman. If the clauses in the formulas are restricted to disjunctions of negated triples, Ng, Steel, and Wormald showed that the problem remains NP-complete. We systematically study the computational complexity of the problem for all such restrictions of the clauses in the input formula. For certain restricted disjunctions of triples we present an algorithm that has sub-quadratic running time and is asymptotically as fast as the fastest known algorithm for the rooted triple consistency problem. We also show that any restriction of the general rooted ph...

  6. Adsorption and absorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to rice roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice roots and surrounding air, soil and water samples were collected for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) analysis. The rice roots were separated into lateral roots and nodal roots, and the PAH concentration in the former was found to be higher than that in the latter. In addition, root physiological characteristics including root biotic mass, root lipid content and specific surface area are also discussed. When normalizing the total, adsorption and absorption PAH fractions on a dry root weight basis to root biomass, root lipid, and surface area bases respectively, the differences between PAHs in the two types of roots diminished by 2 to 3 times on average. Results from sequential extraction indicated that PAHs were more easily absorbed by interior rice roots than adsorbed on the surface. In addition, more than 60% of total PAHs accumulated in root tissue for both lateral and nodal roots. However, the results were highly related to the solvent used, extraction time and methodology. Correlation analysis between bioconcentration factors (root over environment) and K OA, K OW showed water to be more significant for PAH adsorption in rice roots than other environmental media. - A sequential extraction method was applied to divide the PAHs accumulated on rice roots into PAHs in root exudates, PAHs adsorbed on root surfaces, and PAHs absorbed in root tissue

  7. Root Canal Treatment of a Maxillary Second Premolar with Two Palatal Root Canals: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golmohammadi, Maryam; Jafarzadeh, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of the root canal morphology and anatomy is essential for thorough shaping and cleaning of the entire root canal system and consequent successful treatment. This report describes a case of maxillary second premolar with two roots and three root canals (two mesial and distal palatal canals). The case report underlines the importance of complete knowledge about root canal morphology and possible variations, coupled with clinical and radiographic examination in order to increase the ability of clinicians to treat difficult cases. PMID:27471538

  8. Lateral root initiation in Marsilea quadrifolia. I. Origin and histogensis of lateral roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, B. L.; Raghavan, V.

    1991-01-01

    In Marsilea quadrifolia, lateral roots arise from modified single cells of the endodermis located opposite the protoxylem poles within the meristematic region of the parent root. The initial cell divides in four specific planes to establish a five-celled lateral root primordium, with a tetrahedral apical cell in the centre and the oldest merophytes and the root cap along the sides. The cells of the merophyte divide in a precise pattern to give rise to the cells of the cortex, endodermis, pericycle, and vascular tissues of the emerging lateral root. Although the construction of the parent root is more complicated than that of lateral roots, patterns of cell division and tissue formation are similar in both types of roots, with the various tissues being arranged in similar positions in relation to the central axis. Vascular connection between the lateral root primordium and the parent root is derived from the pericycle cells lying between the former and the protoxylem members of the latter. It is proposed that the central axis of the root is not only a geometric centre, but also a physiological centre which determines the fate of the different cell types.

  9. Getting to the roots of it: Genetic and hormonal control of root architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janelle Kang Hui Jung

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Root system architecture (RSA--the spatial configuration of a root system--is an important developmental and agronomic trait, with implications for overall plant architecture, growth rate and yield, abiotic stress resistance, nutrient uptake, and developmental plasticity in response to environmental changes. Root architecture is modulated by intrinsic, hormone-mediated pathways, intersecting with pathways that perceive and respond to external, environmental signals. The recent development of several non-invasive 2D and 3D root imaging systems has enhanced our ability to accurately observe and quantify architectural traits on complex whole-root systems. Coupled with the powerful marker-based genotyping and sequencing platforms currently available, these root phenotyping technologies lend themselves to large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS, and can speed the identification and characterization of the genes and pathways involved in root system development. This capability provides the foundation for examining the contribution of root architectural traits to the performance of crop varieties in diverse environments. This review focuses on our current understanding of the genes and pathways involved in determining root system architecture in response to both intrinsic and extrinsic (environmental response pathways, and provides a brief overview of the latest root system phenotyping technologies and their potential impact on elucidating the genetic control of root development in plants.

  10. Anatomic investigation of the lumbosacral nerve roots and dorsal root ganglia by MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The morphology of the lumbosacral nerve roots and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) was examined by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 11 healthy male volunteers aged 20-40 years. One hundred and twenty-three nerve roots (15 at the L1 level, 22 each at the L2-L5 levels, and 20 at the S1 level) were examined in terms of the position and angle of the bifurcation of the nerve roots, length of the nerve root, and the position and width of DRG. The nerve roots at the lower levels showed more cephalad position and smaller angle of bifurcation on MRI. The distance from the bifurcation of nerve roots to the cephalad edge of DRG was significantly longer in the upper root levels and was significantly shorter in the L5 roots than the S1 roots. The positions of DRG at the S1 level tended to become cephalad. DRG that was positioned toward more caudal direction was larger and more elliptic. MRI provided useful information concerning morphology and anatomical position of nerve roots and DRG, thereby allowing accurate diagnosis and the determination of surgical indications. (N.K.)

  11. Accessory roots and root canals in human anterior teeth: a review and clinical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, H M A; Hashem, A A

    2016-08-01

    Anterior teeth may have aberrant anatomical variations in the number of roots and root canals. A review of the literature was conducted using appropriate key words in major endodontic journals to identify the available reported cases as well as experimental and clinical investigations on accessory roots and root canals in anterior teeth. After retrieving the full text of related articles, cross-citations were identified, and the pooled data were then discussed. Results revealed a higher prevalence in accessory root/root canal variations in mandibular anterior teeth than in maxillary counterparts. However, maxillary incisor teeth revealed the highest tendency for accessory root/root canal aberrations caused by anomalies such as dens invaginatus and palato-gingival groove. Primary anterior teeth may also exhibit external and internal anatomical variations in the root, especially maxillary canines. Therefore, dental practitioners should thoroughly assess all teeth scheduled for root canal treatment to prevent the undesirable consequences caused by inadequate debridement of accessory configurations of the root canal system. PMID:26174943

  12. Resistance to compression of weakened roots subjected to different root reconstruction protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Villaça Zogheib

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated, in vitro, the fracture resistance of human non-vital teeth restored with different reconstruction protocols. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty human anterior roots of similar shape and dimensions were assigned to four groups (n=10, according to the root reconstruction protocol: Group I (control: non-weakened roots with glass fiber post; Group II: roots with composite resin by incremental technique and glass fiber post; Group III: roots with accessory glass fiber posts and glass fiber post; and Group IV: roots with anatomic glass fiber post technique. Following post cementation and core reconstruction, the roots were embedded in chemically activated acrylic resin and submitted to fracture resistance testing, with a compressive load at an angle of 45º in relation to the long axis of the root at a speed of 0.5 mm/min until fracture. All data were statistically analyzed with bilateral Dunnett's test (α=0.05. RESULTS: Group I presented higher mean values of fracture resistance when compared with the three experimental groups, which, in turn, presented similar resistance to fracture among each other. None of the techniques of root reconstruction with intraradicular posts improved root strength, and the incremental technique was suggested as being the most recommendable, since the type of fracture that occurred allowed the remaining dental structure to be repaired. CONCLUSION: The results of this in vitro study suggest that the healthy remaining radicular dentin is more important to increase fracture resistance than the root reconstruction protocol.

  13. Root caries, root surface restorations and lifestyle factors in adult Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Jensen, Allan Bardow; Ekstrand, Kim;

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate selected lifestyle factors in relation to active caries and restored root surface lesions in adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Based on clinical examinations and questionnaires, data on root caries, socioeconomic status, body mass index, dietary habits, alcohol consumption, tobacco...... restored root surface lesions, respectively. RESULTS: The prevalence of active root caries was 4%, while 26% displayed restored root surfaces. The sugar intake was not related to root caries. A multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that, in subjects aged 45 or over, smoking and wearing...... consumption, as well as wearing dentures, were significantly associated with the occurrence of untreated caries and restored root surface lesions, especially in persons over 45. Thus, such lifestyle factors should be taken into consideration, identifying persons with a need of preventive dental services. In...

  14. Exploration on the selection of positive materials in active systemic anaphylaxis in guinea pigs%豚鼠主动全身过敏试验两种阳性物质选择的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高梅; 曹冲; 马会; 朱春花

    2015-01-01

    目的:比较两种阳性物质人血白蛋白、卵白蛋白对豚鼠主动全身过敏作用,为过敏性试验提供较好的阳性对照。方法将豚鼠随机分为14组,以人血白蛋白、卵白蛋白(2、10、100 mg/只)、0.9%氯化钠注射液等受试物为对照,研究不同致敏剂量、激发剂量、激发时间等条件下,豚鼠全身主动过敏的反应情况。结果在2~100 mg/只剂量范围内,人血白蛋白、卵白蛋白豚鼠主动全身过敏反应的发生率为100%。在2~10 mg/只剂量范围内,过敏症状发生程度随致敏剂量、激发剂量的增加而增加,相同剂量的卵白蛋白较人血白蛋白反应程度更强。结论豚鼠主动全身过敏试验,阳性对照推荐使用卵白蛋白,剂量为2 mg/只。%ObjectiveTheaimofthisstudywastoprovideabetterpositivecontrolforallergictestbycomparing the allergic effect of two kinds of positive materials , human albumin and ovalbumin , on active systemic anaphylaxis in guinea pig.Methods Guinea pigs were randomly divided into 14 groups, and were given human albumin , ovalbumin (2, 10, 100 mg/animal), or 0.9%sodium chloride injection as test substances , to assess the symptoms and incidence of systemic allergic responses induced by different sensitizing substances in different challenge doses and different challenge intervals.Results In the range of 2 to 100 mg/animal, the guinea pigs showed a 100%incidence rate of positive allergic reaction to human albumin and ovalbumin , the severity of anaphylactic symptoms was increasing along with the increase of sensitizing doses and challenge doses , and the allergic reaction was more strong induced by the same dose of ovalbumin than human albumin .Conclusions Our findings indicate that in the active systemic anaphylaxis test in guinea pigs , we recommend ovalbumin as the positive control in a dose of 2 mg/animal.

  15. Root distribution of rootstocks for 'Tahiti' lime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neves Carmen Silvia Vieira Janeiro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Field studies on citrus roots are important for genetic selection of cultivars and for management practices such as localized irrigation and fertilization. To characterize root systems of six rootstocks, taking into consideration chemical and physical characteristics of a clayey Typic Hapludox of the Northern State of Paraná, this study was performed having as scion the 'IAC-5 Tahiti' lime [Citrus latifolia (Yu. Tanaka]. The rootstocks 'Rangpur' lime (C. limonia Osbeck, 'Africa Rough' lemon (C. jambhiri Lush., 'Sunki' mandarin [C. sunki (Hayata hort. ex Tan.], Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf., 'C13' citrange [C. sinensis (L. Osb. x P. trifoliata (L. Raf] and 'Catânia 2' Volkamer lemon (C. volkameriana Ten. & Pasq. were used applying the trench profile method and the SIARCS® 3.0 software to determine root distribution. 'C-13' citrange had the largest root system. 'Volkamer' lemon and 'Africa Rough' lemon presented the smallest amount of roots. The effective depth for 80 % of roots was 31-53 cm in rows and 67-68 cm in inter-rows. The effective distance of 80 % of roots measured from the tree trunk exceeded the tree canopy for P. trifoliata, 'Sunki' mandarin, and 'Volkamer' and 'Africa Rough' lemons.

  16. How to bond to root canal dentin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nica, Luminita; Todea, Carmen; Furtos, Gabriel; Baldea, Bogdan

    2014-01-01

    Bonding to root canal dentin may be difficult due to various factors: the structural characteristic of the root canal dentin, which is different from that of the coronal dentin; the presence of the organic tissue of the dental pulp inside the root canal, which has to be removed during the cleaning-shaping of the root canal system; the smear-layer resulted after mechanical instrumentation, which may interfere with the adhesion of the filling materials; the type of the irrigants used in the cleaning protocol; the type of the sealer and core material used in the obturation of the endodontic space; the type of the materials used for the restoration of the endodontically treated teeth. The influence of the cleaning protocol, of the root canal filling material, of the type of the adhesive system used in the restoration of the treated teeth and of the region of the root canal, on the adhesion of several filling and restorative materials to root canal dentin was evaluated in the push-out bond strength test on 1-mm thick slices of endodontically treated human teeth. The results showed that all these factors have a statistically significant influence on the push-out bond strength. Formation of resin tags between radicular dentin and the investigated materials was observed in some of the samples at SEM analysis.

  17. Tractography of lumbar nerve roots: initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balbi, Vincent; Budzik, Jean-Francois; Thuc, Vianney le; Cotten, Anne [Hopital Roger Salengro, Service de Radiologie et d' Imagerie musculo-squelettique, Lille Cedex (France); Duhamel, Alain [Universite de Lille 2, UDSL, Lille (France); Bera-Louville, Anne [Service de Rhumatologie, Hopital Roger Salengro, Lille (France)

    2011-06-15

    The aims of this preliminary study were to demonstrate the feasibility of in vivo diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and fibre tracking (FT) of the lumbar nerve roots, and to assess potential differences in the DTI parameters of the lumbar nerves between healthy volunteers and patients suffering from disc herniation. Nineteen patients with unilateral sciatica related to posterolateral or foraminal disc herniation and 19 healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. DTI with tractography of the L5 or S1 nerves was performed. Mean fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) values were calculated from tractography images. FA and MD values could be obtained from DTI-FT images in all controls and patients. The mean FA value of the compressed lumbar nerve roots was significantly lower than the FA of the contralateral nerve roots (p=0.0001) and of the nerve roots of volunteers (p=0.0001). MD was significantly higher in compressed nerve roots than in the contralateral nerve root (p=0.0002) and in the nerve roots of volunteers (p=0.04). DTI with tractography of the lumbar nerves is possible. Significant changes in diffusion parameters were found in the compressed lumbar nerves. (orig.)

  18. Effects of acid deposition on tree roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, H. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Research

    1995-12-31

    Large forest regions in SW Sweden have been exposed to high levels of acid deposition for many decades, causing soil acidification in forest soils. Historically, SO{sub 2} has been the major acidification agent, but lately nitrogen compounds increasingly have become important. The amount and chemical form of nitrogen strongly affects the pH in the rhizosphere and rhizoplane. Many forest stands show a positive growth response to increased nitrogen input, even in heavily N-loaded areas. Nitrogen fertilization experiments suggest that part of the increased forest production is caused by a translocation of biomass production from below-ground to above-ground parts. At the same time fine-root growth dynamics are strongly affected by the high N supply. Deficiencies of various nutrients (Mg,Ca,K,Mn and Zn) obtained from needle analyses have been reported from different Picea abies stands. In areas with more extensive acidification and nutrient leaching, a decline in tree vitality has been observed. Although deficiency symptoms in forest trees may be reflected in nitrogen/cation ratios in fine roots, few attempts have been made to explain forest damage symptoms from fine-root chemistry. Root damage is often described as a decline in the amount of living fine roots, an increase in the amount of dead versus live fine roots (a lower live/dead ratio) and an increasing amount of dead medium and coarse roots. The primary objectives of the present presentation were to analyse available data on the effects of high nitrogen and sulphur deposition on mineral nutrient balance in tree fine roots and to evaluate the risk of Al interference with cation uptake by roots

  19. A thermodynamic formulation of root water uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, A.; Kleidon, A.; Bechmann, M.

    2015-12-01

    By extracting bound water from the soil and lifting it to the canopy, root systems of vegetation perform work. Here we describe how the energetics involved in root water uptake can be quantified. The illustration is done using a simple, four-box model of the soil-root system to represent heterogeneity and a parameterization in which root water uptake is driven by the xylem potential of the plant with a fixed flux boundary condition. We use this approach to evaluate the effects of soil moisture heterogeneity and root system properties on the dissipative losses and export of energy involved in root water uptake. For this, we derive an expression that relates the energy export at the root collar to a sum of terms that reflect all fluxes and storage changes along the flow path in thermodynamic terms. We conclude that such a thermodynamic evaluation of root water uptake conveniently provides insights into the impediments of different processes along the entire flow path and explicitly accounting not only for the resistances along the flow path and those imposed by soil drying but especially the role of heterogenous soil water distribution. The results show that least energy needs to be exported and dissipative losses are minimized by a root system if it extracts water uniformly from the soil. This has implications for plant water relations in forests where canopies generate heterogenous input patterns. Our diagnostic in the energy domain should be useful in future model applications for quantifying how plants can evolve towards greater efficiency in their structure and function, particularly in heterogenous soil environments. Generally, this approach may help to better describe heterogeneous processes in the soil in a simple, yet physically-based way.

  20. Root type matters: measurements of water uptake by seminal, crown and lateral roots of maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mutez Ali; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Kaestner, Anders; Carminati, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Roots play a key role in water acquisition and are a significant component of plant adaptation to different environmental conditions. Although maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the most important crops worldwide, there is limited information on the function of different root segments and types in extracting water from soils. Aim of this study was to investigate the location of root water uptake in mature maize. We used neutron radiography to image the spatial distribution of maize roots and trace the transport of injected deuterated water (D2O) in soil and roots. Maize plants were grown in aluminum containers filled with a sandy soil that was kept homogeneously wet throughout the experiment. When the plants were five weeks-old, we injected D2O into selected soil regions. The transport of D2O was simulated using a diffusion-convection numerical model. By fitting the observed D2O transport we quantified the diffusion coefficient and the water uptake of the different root segments. The model was initially developed and tested with two weeks-old maize (Ahmed et. al. 2015), for which we found that water was mainly taken up by lateral roots and the water uptake of the seminal roots was negligible. Here, we used this method to measure root water uptake in a mature maize root system. The root architecture of five weeks-old maize consisted of primary and seminal roots with long laterals and crown (nodal) roots that emerged from the above ground part of the plant two weeks after planting. The crown roots were thicker than the seminal roots and had fewer and shorter laterals. Surprisingly, we found that the water was mainly taken up by the crown roots and their laterals, while the lateral roots of seminal roots, which were the main location of water uptake of younger plants, stopped to take up water. Interestingly, we also found that in contrast to the seminal roots, the crown roots were able to take up water also from their distal segments. We conclude that for the two weeks

  1. On rigidity of abstract root systems of Coxeter systems

    OpenAIRE

    Dyer, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    We introduce and study a combinatorially defined notion of root basis of a (real) root system of a possibly infinite Coxeter group. Known results on conjugacy up to sign of root bases of certain irreducible finite rank real root systems are extended to abstract root bases, to a larger class of real root systems, and, with a short list of (genuine) exceptions, to infinite rank irreducible Coxeter systems.

  2. Arabidopsis: An Adequate Model for Dicot Root Systems?

    OpenAIRE

    Zobel, Richard W.

    2016-01-01

    The Arabidopsis root system is frequently considered to have only three classes of root: primary, lateral, and adventitious. Research with other plant species has suggested up to eight different developmental/functional classes of root for a given plant root system. If Arabidopsis has only three classes of root, it may not be an adequate model for eudicot plant root systems. Recent research, however, can be interpreted to suggest that pre-flowering Arabidopsis does have at least five (5) of t...

  3. Modelling diverse root density dynamics and deep nitrogen uptake

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Anders; Zhang, Kefeng; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2009-01-01

    We present a 2-D model for simulation of root density and plant nitrogen (N) uptake for crops grown in agricultural systems, based on a modification of the root density equation originally proposed by Gerwitz and Page (1974). A root system form parameter was introduced to describe the distribution of root length vertically and horizontally in the soil profile. The form parameter can vary from 0 where root density is evenly distributed through the soil profile, to 8 where practically all roots...

  4. Negative phototropism of rice root and its influencing factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Zhong(王忠); MO; Yiwei(莫亿伟); QIAN; Shanqin(钱善勤); GU; Yunjie(顾蕴洁)

    2002-01-01

    Some characteristics of the rice (Oryza sativa L.) root were found in the experiment of unilaterally irradiating the roots which were planted in water: (ⅰ) All the seminal roots, adventitious roots and their branched roots bent away from light, and their curvatures ranged from 25° to 60°. The curvature of adventitious root of the higher node was often larger than that of the lower node, and even larger than that of the seminal root. (ⅱ) The negative phototropic bending of the rice root was mainly due to the larger growth increment of root-tip cells of the irradiated side compared with that of the shaded side. (ⅲ) Root cap was the site of light perception. If root cap was shaded while the root was irradiated the root showed no negative phototropism, and the root lost the characteristic of negative phototropism when root cap was divested. Rice root could resume the characteristic of negative phototropism when the new root cap grew up, if the original cells of root cap were well protected while root cap was divested. (ⅳ) The growth increment and curvature of rice root were both influenced by light intensity. Within the range of 0-100μmol@m-2@s-1, the increasing of light intensity resulted in the decreasing of the growth increment and the increasing of the curvature of rice root. (ⅴ) The growth increment and the curvature reached the maximum at 30℃ with the temperature treatment of 10-40℃. (ⅵ) Blue-violet light could prominently induce the negative phototropism of rice root, while red light had no such effect. (ⅶ) The auxin (IAA) in the solution, as a very prominent influencing factor, inhibited the growth, the negative phototropism and the gravitropism of rice root when the concentration of IAA increased. The response of negative phototropism of rice root disappeared when the concentration of IAA was above 10 mg@L-1.

  5. Root traits contributing to plant productivity under drought

    OpenAIRE

    Comas, Louise H.; Becker, Steven R.; Cruz, Von Mark V.; Byrne, Patrick F.; Dierig, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Geneticists and breeders are positioned to breed plants with root traits that improve productivity under drought. However, a better understanding of root functional traits and how traits are related to whole plant strategies to increase crop productivity under different drought conditions is needed. Root traits associated with maintaining plant productivity under drought include small fine root diameters, long specific root length, and considerable root length density, especially at depths in...

  6. Root cause analysis for wet waste generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since, typically, most utility radioactive waste is dry waste, volume reduction efforts should start with this. However, significant cost can still be saved with a modest reduction in the wet radioactive waste volume. Even though there may be several potential solutions to wet waste volume reduction, a Root Cause Analysis should be performed to identify the solution that will be the most effective for volume reduction. The method described here provides for a logical sequence of determining root causes. Finally, the solution adopted must be evaluated after implementation to determine its effectiveness and verify that the root cause was addressed

  7. THttpServer class in ROOT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczewski-Musch, Joern; Linev, Sergey

    2015-12-01

    The new THttpServer class in ROOT implements HTTP server for arbitrary ROOT applications. It is based on Civetweb embeddable HTTP server and provides direct access to all objects registered for the server. Objects data could be provided in different formats: binary, XML, GIF/PNG, and JSON. A generic user interface for THttpServer has been implemented with HTML/JavaScript based on JavaScript ROOT development. With any modern web browser one could list, display, and monitor objects available on the server. THttpServer is used in Go4 framework to provide HTTP interface to the online analysis.

  8. Root activity pattern of eucalyptus camaldulensis dehnhardt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The root activity pattern of a seven-year-old E. camaldulensis was studied by 32P capsule placement technique. The study revealed that nearly two-third of the roots of E. camaldulensis are confined to the top 60 cm of the soil layer. Laterally, one-third of the roots are confined within the 50 cm radial distance from the trunk of the tree and the remaining two-thirds are spread at a radial distance of 75 to 100 cm. (author)

  9. Complex root networks of Chinese characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Po-Han; Chen, Jia-Ling; Wang, Po-Cheng; Chi, Ting-Ting; Xiao, Zhi-Ren; Jhang, Zih-Jian; Yeh, Yeong-Nan; Chen, Yih-Yuh; Hu, Chin-Kun

    There are several sets of Chinese characters still available today, including Oracle Bone Inscriptions (OBI) in Shang Dynasty, Chu characters (CC) used in Chu of Warring State Period, Small Seal Script in dictionary Shuowen Jiezi (SJ) in Eastern Han Dynasty, and Kangxi Dictionary (KD) in Qing Dynasty. Such as Chinese characters were all constructed via combinations of meaningful patterns, called roots. Our studies for the complex networks of all roots indicate that the roots of the characters in OBI, CC, SJ and KD have characteristics of small world networks and scale-free networks.

  10. Sparse DOA estimation with polynomial rooting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xenaki, Angeliki; Gerstoft, Peter; Fernandez Grande, Efren

    2015-01-01

    Direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation involves the localization of a few sources from a limited number of observations on an array of sensors. Thus, DOA estimation can be formulated as a sparse signal reconstruction problem and solved efficiently with compressive sensing (CS) to achieve...... highresolution imaging. Utilizing the dual optimal variables of the CS optimization problem, it is shown with Monte Carlo simulations that the DOAs are accurately reconstructed through polynomial rooting (Root-CS). Polynomial rooting is known to improve the resolution in several other DOA estimation methods...

  11. ANTIARTHRITIC ACTIVITY OF DESMODIUM GANGETICUM ROOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedpal

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study is aimed to evaluate the in-vitro anti-arthritic activity of aqueous extract of Desmodium gangeticum root using inhibition of protein denaturation model and human red blood cell Membrane stabilization model. Diclofenac sodium was used as a standard drug. Results revealed that the aqueous extract of Desmodium gangeticum root at different concentrations possessed significant anti-arthritic activity as compared to standard drug used as Diclofenac sodium. The results obtained in the present investigation Indicate that aqueous extract of Desmodium gangeticum root showed anti-arthritic activity.

  12. The Root Cap Determines Ethylene-Dependent Growth and Development in Maize Roots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Achim Hahn; Roman Zimmermann; Dierk Wanke; Klaus Harter; Hans G.Edelmann

    2008-01-01

    Besides providing protection against mechanical damage to the root tip,the root cap is involved in the perception and processing of diverse external and internal stimuli resulting in altered growth and development.The transduction of these stimuli includes hormonal signaling pathways such as those of auxin,ethylene and cytokinin.Here,we show that the root cap is essential for the ethylene-induced regulation of elongation growth and root hair formation in maize.Exogenously applied ethylene is no longer able to inhibit elongation growth when the root cap has been surgically removed prior to hormone treatment.Reconstitution of the cap positively correlates with the developing capacity of the roots to respond to ethylene again.In contrast,the removal of the root cap does not per se affect growth inhibition controlled by auxin and cytokinin.Furthermore,our semi-quantitative RT-PCR results support earlier findings that the maize root cap is a site of high gene expression activity with respect to sensing and responding to hormones such as ethylene.From these data,we propose a novel function of the root cap which is the establishment of competence to respond to ethylene in the distal zones of the root.

  13. Allometry of root branching and its relationship to root morphological and functional traits in three range grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several studies have documented the existence of correlative mechanisms that control lateral root emergence in plants. To better understand root branching responses to nutrients, root growth in three range grasses [Whitmar cultivar of bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata (Pursh) Love), Hyc...

  14. Understanding plant root system influences on soil strength and stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengough, A. Glyn; Brown, Jennifer L.; Loades, Kenneth W.; Knappett, Jonathan A.; Meijer, Gertjan; Nicoll, Bruce

    2016-04-01

    Keywords: root growth, soil reinforcement, tensile strength Plant roots modify and reinforce the soil matrix, stabilising it against erosion and shallow landslides. Roots mechanically bind the soil particles together and modify the soil hydrology via water uptake, creation of biopores, and modification of the soil water-release characteristic. Key to understanding the mechanical reinforcement of soil by roots is the relation between root strength and root diameter measured for roots in any given soil horizon. Thin roots have frequently been measured to have a greater tensile strength than thick roots, but their strength is also often much more variable. We consider the factors influencing this strength-diameter relationship, considering relations between root tensile strength and root dry density, root water content, root age, and root turnover in several woody and non-woody species. The role of possible experimental artefacts and measurement techniques will be considered. Tensile strength increased generally with root age and decreased with thermal time after excision as a result of root decomposition. Single factors alone do not appear to explain the strength-diameter relationship, and both strength/stiffness and dry density may vary between different layers of tissue within a single root. Results will be discussed to consider how we can achieve a more comprehensive understanding of the variation in root biomechanical properties, and its consequences for soil reinforcement. Acknowledgements: The James Hutton Institute receives funding from the Scottish Government. AGB and JAK acknowledge part funding from EPSRC (EP/M020355/1).

  15. Rooting depths of plants relative to biological and environmental factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1981 to 1982 an extensive bibliographic study was completed to document rooting depths of native plants in the United States. The data base presently contains 1034 citations with approximately 12,000 data elements. In this paper the data were analyzed for rooting depths as related to life form, soil type, geographical region, root type, family, root depth to shoot height ratios, and root depth to root lateral ratios. Average rooting depth and rooting frequencies were determined and related to present low-level waste site maintenance

  16. Methane and Root Dynamics in Arctic Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Imperio, Ludovica

    the global climate. We investigated two aspects of arctic ecosystem dynamics which are not well represented in climatic models: i) soil methane (CH4) oxidation in dry heath tundra and barren soils and ii) root dynamics in wetlands. Field measurements were carried out during the growing season in Disko...... Island, West Greenland, and CH4 and root dynamics were assessed in response to experimentally increased winter snow precipitation, summer warming and their interaction to better understand their contribution to the C balance of the Arctic. Our results indicate that both the dry heath and barren soils...... CH4 emissions from wetlands in a future warmer climate. At the wet fen increased winter snow precipitation delayed the onset of the growing season of about a week and reduced the relative fine root production. The use of minirhizotrons improved our understanding of root growth and phenology. Total...

  17. Tooth mobility changes subsequent to root fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jens Ove; Christensen, Søren Steno Ahrensburg; Tsilingaridis, Georgios

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze tooth mobility changes in root-fractured permanent teeth and relate this to type of interfragment healing (hard tissue healing (HT), interfragment healing with periodontal ligament (PDL) and nonhealing with interposition of granulation tissue (GT) because of...... pulp necrosis in the coronal fragment. Furthermore, the effect of age, location of the fracture on the root, and observation period on mobility values was analyzed. Mobility values were measured for 44 of 95 previous reported root-fractured permanent incisors. Mobility changes were measured with a...... Mühlemanns periodontometer and noninjured incisors served as controls. The mobility values represented the labial-lingual excursion of the root measured in μm when the tooth received a frontal and a palatal impact of 100 g force. In 18 cases of hard tissue healing (HT), a slightly increased mobility was seen...

  18. DMA thermal analysis of yacon tuberous roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blahovec, J.; Lahodová, M.; Kindl, M.; Fernández, E. C.

    2013-12-01

    Specimens prepared from yacon roots in first two weeks after harvest were tested by dynamic mechanical analysis thermal analysis at temperatures between 30 and 90°C. No differences between different parts of roots were proved. There were indicated some differences in the test parameters that were caused by short time storage of the roots. One source of the differences was loss of water during the roots storage. The measured modulus increased during short time storage. Detailed study of changes of the modulus during the specimen dynamic mechanical analysis test provided information about different development of the storage and loss moduli during the specimen heating. The observed results can be caused by changes in cellular membranes observed earlier during vegetable heating, and by composition changes due to less stable components of yacon like inulin.

  19. Naine objektistab meest / Fideelia-Signe Roots

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roots, Fideelia-Signe, 1976-

    2009-01-01

    Fideelia-Signe Roots Eesti Kunstiakadeemias 2009. a. kevadsemestril enda poolt läbi viidud valikainekursusest "Kunstiteose anatoomiast mehe anatoomiani", mis lõppes näitusega "Tõuseb / ei tõuse" Eesti Tervishoiumuuseumis, avatud 31. maini

  20. An Improved Nonparametric Unit-Root Test

    OpenAIRE

    Jiti Gao; Maxwell King

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a simple and improved nonparametric unit-root test. An asymptotic distribution of the proposed test is established. Finite sample comparisons with an existing nonparametric test are discussed. Some issues about possible extensions are outlined.

  1. Root gravitropism in maize and Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Michael L.

    1993-01-01

    Research during the period 1 March 1992 to 30 November 1993 focused on improvements in a video digitizer system designed to automate the recording of surface extension in plants responding to gravistimulation. The improvements included modification of software to allow detailed analysis of localized extension patterns in roots of Arabidopsis. We used the system to analyze the role of the postmitotic isodiametric growth zone (a region between the meristem and the elongation zone) in the response of maize roots to auxin, calcium, touch and gravity. We also used the system to analyze short-term auxin and gravitropic responses in mutants of Arabidopsis with reduced auxin sensitivity. In a related project, we studied the relationship between growth rate and surface electrical currents in roots by examining the effects of gravity and thigmostimulation on surface potentials in maize roots.

  2. Elements with Square Roots in Finite Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.S. Lucido; M.R. Pournaki

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we study the probability that a randomly chosen element in a finite group has a square root, in particular the simple groups of Lie type of rank 1, the sporadic finite simple groups and the alternating groups.

  3. ROOT I/O in Javascript - Reading ROOT files in a browser

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    A JavaScript version of the ROOT I/O subsystem is being developed, in order to be able to browse (inspect) ROOT files in a platform independent way. This allows the content of ROOT files to be displayed in most web browsers, without having to install ROOT or any other software on the server or on the client. This gives a direct access to ROOT files from new (e.g. portable) devices in a light way. It will be possible to display simple graphical objects such as histograms and graphs (TH1, TH2, TH3, TProfile, TGraph, ...). The rendering will first be done with an external JavaScript graphic library, before investigating a way to produce graphics closer to what ROOT supports on other platforms (X11, Windows).

  4. Pure Imaginary Roots of Quaternion Standard Polynomials

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Adam

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new method for solving standard quaternion equations. Using this method we reobtain the known formulas for the solution of a quadratic quaternion equation, and provide an explicit solution for the cubic quaternion equation, as long as the equation has at least one pure imaginary root. We also discuss the number of essential pure imaginary roots of a two-sided quaternion polynomial.

  5. COMMODITY PRICES AND UNIT ROOT TESTS

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Dabin; Tomek, William G.

    2004-01-01

    Endogenous variables in structural models of agricultural commodity markets are typically treated as stationary. Yet, tests for unit roots have rather frequently implied that commodity prices are not stationary. This seeming inconsistency is investigated by focusing on alternative specifications of unit root tests. We apply various specifications to Illinois farm prices of corn, soybeans, barrows and gilts, and milk for the 1960 through 2002 time span. The preponderance of the evidence sugges...

  6. Immunology of root resorption: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Luciano

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Root resorption seems to be related to a complex combination of mechanical factors and biological activity, which comprehends the role of immunologic structures including specialized cells. The aim of this research was to explain the development of the process - from mineralization to the destruction of hard tissues - and the possible relationship between root resorption and immunology, along with discussing current concepts described in the literature.

  7. Heterobasidion root rot in Norway spruce

    OpenAIRE

    Thor, Magnus

    2005-01-01

    In spite of its biological and economic impact on Swedish forestry, root rot caused by Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref. sensu lato has received no or little attention in forest planning. This thesis summarizes and discusses two experiments involving prophylactic treatment of stumps, and three investigations on the modelling and simulation of root rot in coniferous stands with special emphasis on Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.). In 14 previously unthinned stands of Norway spruce, the...

  8. Nitrogen uptake and assimilation by corn roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The site of nitrogen uptake in the apical root zone of corn was experimentally investigated. Two experiments were performed. The one is to see the assimilation of nitrate and ammonium and the effects of low temperature on it. The 4-day-old roots were treated with 15N-labelled inorganic nitrogen of 20 ppm N in 5 x 10-4M CaSO4 solution at 30 deg. C and 0 deg. C. The other is to see the nitrogen uptake at apical root zone and the utilization of newly absorbed nitrogen at the root top. The 4-day-old roots were transferred into 5 x 10-4M CaSO4 solution containing 15N-labelled ammonium nitrate of 40 ppm N. As a result, the effect of low temperature on the nitrogen uptake appeared to be more drastic in the case of nitrate than ammonium. The 15N content of amino acids indicates that ammonium is assimilated into amino acids even at 0 deg. C, but nitrate is not. The ammonium nitrogen seemed to be absorbed at both cell dividing and elongating zones. On the other hand, nitrate nitrogen seemed to be strongly absorbed at cell elongating zone. The nitrogen in the apical part may be supplied not only by direct absorption but also by translocation from the basal part. The clear difference was found in the utilization of nitrate and ammonium nitrogen at the root top when the root was elongating. This may be due to the difference of assimilation products of inorganic nitrogen. Newly absorbed ammonium nitrogen is more utilizable for the growth of root top than nitrate nitrogen. (Iwakiri, K.)

  9. Pain associated with root canal treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Segura-Egea, Juan José; Cisneros Cabello, Rafael; Llamas Carreras, José María; Velasco Ortega, Eugenio

    2009-01-01

    Our purpose was to determine the pain experienced by patients during root canal treatment and to correlate with age and gender, pulpal diagnosis, previous periapical status, dental characteristics and length of treatment. One hundred and seventy-six patients (68 men and 108 women), with ages ranged from 6 to 83 years, were randomly recruited. Patients completed a 10-cm visual analogue scale (VAS) that ranked the level of pain experienced during root canal treatment. The mean pain level during...

  10. ANTIARTHRITIC ACTIVITY OF DESMODIUM GANGETICUM ROOT

    OpenAIRE

    Vedpal; Santosh Kumar Gupta; Gupta, A K; Dhirendra Pakash; Amit Gupta

    2013-01-01

    The present study is aimed to evaluate the in-vitro anti-arthritic activity of aqueous extract of Desmodium gangeticum root using inhibition of protein denaturation model and human red blood cell Membrane stabilization model. Diclofenac sodium was used as a standard drug. Results revealed that the aqueous extract of Desmodium gangeticum root at different concentrations possessed significant anti-arthritic activity as compared to standard drug used as Diclofenac sodium. The results obtained in...

  11. Phosphate Inhibits Acetotrophic Methanogenesis on Rice Roots

    OpenAIRE

    Conrad, Ralf; Klose, Melanie; Claus, Peter

    2000-01-01

    The contribution of acetate- and H2/CO2-dependent methanogenesis to total CH4 production was determined in excised washed rice roots by radiolabeling, methyl fluoride inhibition, and stable carbon isotope fractionation. Addition of ≥20 mM phosphate inhibited methanogenesis, which then was exclusively from H2/CO2. Otherwise, acetate contributed about 50 to 60% of the total methanogenesis, demonstrating that phosphate specifically inhibited acetotrophic methanogens on rice roots.

  12. Quadratic Interval Refinement for Real Roots

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, John

    2012-01-01

    We present a new algorithm for refining a real interval containing a single real root: the new method combines characteristics of the classical Bisection algorithm and Newton's Iteration. Our method exhibits quadratic convergence when refining isolating intervals of simple roots of polynomials (and other well-behaved functions). We assume the use of arbitrary precision rational arithmetic. Unlike Newton's Iteration our method does not need to evaluate the derivative.

  13. EFFECT OF ROOT TEMPERATURE ON SINK STRENGTH OF TUBEROUS ROOT IN SWEET POTATO PLANTS (IPOMOEA BATATAS LAM.)

    OpenAIRE

    Eguchi, Toshihiko; Kitano, Masaharu; Eguchi, Hiromi

    1994-01-01

    Eflect of root temperature on sink strength of tuberous root in sweet potato plants was examined at root temperatures of 20 to 32℃ under a constant air condition of 28℃ and 70% RH. Dry weight, volume and dry matter content of tuberous root became higher at root temperatures of 24 to 26℃. However, sink strength of tuberous root, which was estimated by its dry weight per unit leaf area, was highest at a root temperature of 24℃ possibly because of lower sink activities at lower root temperatures...

  14. Getting to the roots of it: Genetic and hormonal control of root architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Janelle Kang Hui Jung; Susan Rutherford McCouch

    2013-01-01

    Root system architecture (RSA)--the spatial configuration of a root system--is an important developmental and agronomic trait, with implications for overall plant architecture, growth rate and yield, abiotic stress resistance, nutrient uptake, and developmental plasticity in response to environmental changes. Root architecture is modulated by intrinsic, hormone-mediated pathways, intersecting with pathways that perceive and respond to external, environmental signals. The recent developmen...

  15. Increased symplasmic permeability in barley root epidermal cells correlates with defects in root hair development

    OpenAIRE

    Marzec, M; Muszynska, A. (Agata); Melzer, M.; Sas-Nowosielska, H; Kurczynska, E U; Wick, S.

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that the process of plant cell differentiation depends on the symplasmic isolation of cells. Before starting the differentiation programme, the individual cell or group of cells should restrict symplasmic communication with neighbouring cells. We tested the symplasmic communication between epidermal cells in the different root zones of parental barley plants Hordeum vulgare L., cv. ‘Karat’ with normal root hair development, and two root hairless mutants (rhl1.a and rhl1.b). T...

  16. [Apical root pins of high-karat gold alloys for resected roots].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handtmann, S; Lindemann, W; Sculte, W

    1989-02-01

    Following earlier studies on corrosion of silver pins in the root canal experience will be presented with the use of high-karat gold pins for apical closure of root amputations. The commercially available standardized Ackermann silver pins were replaced by high-karat gold pins of similar Vicker hardness and inserted in 218 patients with 264 root amputations since 1986. A clinical and radiological follow-up demonstrated a success rate of over 90%. PMID:2598876

  17. Evaluation of the anatomical alterations of lower molars mesial root?s apical third

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRÖNER Izabel Cristina

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The anatomical apex of the mesial root of the lower molars presents a morphological complexity related to the number and shape of the root canals as well as of the apical foramen and isthmus presence. The knowledge of the complexity of the endodontic system of the molar root area is essencial to select more carefully the best instrumentation and obturation technique, to obtain a more successful endodontic therapy.

  18. Tomato Root Response to Subsurface Drip Irrigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUGE Yu-Ping; ZHANG Xu-Dong; ZHANG Yu-Long; LI Jun; YANG Li-Juan; HUANG Yi; LIU Ming-Da

    2004-01-01

    Four depth treatments of subsurface drip irrigation pipes were designated as 1) at 20,2) 30 and 3) 40 cm depths all with a drip-proof flumes underneath,and 4) at 30 cm without a drip-proof flume to investigate the responses of a tomato root system to different technical parameters of subsurface drip irrigation in a glass greenhouse,to evaluate tomato growth as affected by subsurface drip irrigation,and to develop an integrated subsurface drip irrigation method for optimal tomato yield and water use in a glass greenhouse. Tomato seedlings were planted above the subsurface drip irrigation pipe. Most of the tomato roots in treatment 1 were found in the top 0-20 cm soil depth with weak root activity but with yield and water use efficiency (WUE) significantly less (P ---- 0.05) than treatment 2; root activity and tomato yield were significantly higher (P = 0.05) with treatment 3 compared to treatment 1; and with treatment 2 the tomato roots and shoots grew harmoniously with root activity,nutrient uptake,tomato yield and WUE significantly higher (P= 0.05) or as high as the other treatments. These findings suggested that subsurface drip irrigation with pipes at 30 cm depth with a drip-proof flume placed underneath was best for tomato production in greenhouses. In addition,the irrigation interval should be about 7-8 days and the irrigation rate should be set to 225 m3 ha-1 per event.

  19. Gene expression regulation in roots under drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiak, Agnieszka; Kwaśniewski, Mirosław; Szarejko, Iwona

    2016-02-01

    Stress signalling and regulatory networks controlling expression of target genes are the basis of plant response to drought. Roots are the first organs exposed to water deficiency in the soil and are the place of drought sensing. Signalling cascades transfer chemical signals toward the shoot and initiate molecular responses that lead to the biochemical and morphological changes that allow plants to be protected against water loss and to tolerate stress conditions. Here, we present an overview of signalling network and gene expression regulation pathways that are actively induced in roots under drought stress. In particular, the role of several transcription factor (TF) families, including DREB, AP2/ERF, NAC, bZIP, MYC, CAMTA, Alfin-like and Q-type ZFP, in the regulation of root response to drought are highlighted. The information provided includes available data on mutual interactions between these TFs together with their regulation by plant hormones and other signalling molecules. The most significant downstream target genes and molecular processes that are controlled by the regulatory factors are given. These data are also coupled with information about the influence of the described regulatory networks on root traits and root development which may translate to enhanced drought tolerance. This is the first literature survey demonstrating the gene expression regulatory machinery that is induced by drought stress, presented from the perspective of roots. PMID:26663562

  20. Roots of Dehn twists about separating curves

    CERN Document Server

    Rajeevsarathy, Kashyap

    2011-01-01

    Let $C$ be a curve in a closed orientable surface $F$ of genus $g \\geq 2$ that separates $F$ into subsurfaces $\\widetilde {F_i}$ of genera $g_i$, for $i = 1,2$. We study the set of roots in $\\Mod(F)$ of the Dehn twist $t_C$ about $C$. All roots arise from pairs of $C_{n_i}$-actions on the $\\widetilde{F_i}$, where $n=\\lcm(n_1,n_2)$ is the degree of the root, that satisfy a certain compatibility condition. The $C_{n_i}$ actions are of a kind that we call nestled actions, and we classify them using tuples that we call data sets. The compatibility condition can be expressed by a simple formula, allowing a classification of all roots of $t_C$ by compatible pairs of data sets. We use these data set pairs to classify all roots for $g = 2$ and $g = 3$. We show that there is always a root of degree at least $2g^2+2g$, while $n \\leq 4g^2+2g$. We also give some additional applications.

  1. A New Anatomically Based Nomenclature for the Roots and Root Canals—Part 2: Mandibular Molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denzil Valerian Albuquerque

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several terminologies have been employed in the dental literature to describe the roots and root canal systems of mandibular molars with no consensus being arrived at, thus far. The anatomical relation of roots and their root canals were identified and a naming system was formulated. The proposed nomenclature attempts to make certain essential modifications to the traditional approach to accommodate the naming of various aberrations presented in mandibular molars. A simple, yet extensive nomenclature system has been proposed that appropriately names the internal and external morphology of mandibular molars.

  2. Cambial domain pattern in the root and root collar of Plalanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Krawczyszyn

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The grain pattern in wood and the pattern of orientation of ray splitting and uniting were studied in roots and root collar of Platanus acerifolia. In roots the interlocked-grain wood was observed as in the stem. An analysis of changes in xylem rays indicates that the cambial domain pattern exists and migrates upward there. In the root collar the grain in wood was straight although cambial domains were noted too. The domain pattern is characterized by relatively wide variations of the domain length and by pulsation: expanding some domains and reducing others so that it does not become manifest in the grain.

  3. Using coloured roots to study root interaction and competition in intercropped legumes and non-legumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosti, Giacomo; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    Root interactions between neighbour plants represent a fundamental aspect of the competitive dynamics in pure stand and mixed cropping systems. The comprehension of such phenomena places big methodological challenges, and still needs clarification. The objectives of this work were (i) to test if ...... for deep root growth and (iv) to compare the effect of intraspecific and interspecific competition on root development and biomass growth.......Root interactions between neighbour plants represent a fundamental aspect of the competitive dynamics in pure stand and mixed cropping systems. The comprehension of such phenomena places big methodological challenges, and still needs clarification. The objectives of this work were (i) to test if a...

  4. Model Persamaan Massa Karbon Akar Pohon dan Root-Shoot Ratio Massa Karbon (Equation Models of Tree Root Carbon Mass and Root-Shoot Carbon Mass Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias .

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The case study was conducted in the area of Acacia mangium plantation at BKPH Parung Panjang, KPH Bogor. The objective of the study was to formulate equation models of tree root carbon mass and root to shoot carbon mass ratio of the plantation. It was found that carbon content in the parts of tree biomass (stems, branches, twigs, leaves, and roots was different, in which the highest and the lowest carbon content was in the main stem of the tree and in the leaves, respectively. The main stem and leaves of tree accounted for 70% of tree biomass. The root-shoot ratio of root biomass to tree biomass above the ground and the root-shoot ratio of root biomass to main stem biomass was 0.1443 and 0.25771, respectively, in which 75% of tree carbon mass was in the main stem and roots of tree. It was also found that the root-shoot ratio of root carbon mass to tree carbon mass above the ground and the root-shoot ratio of root carbon mass to tree main stem carbon mass was 0.1442 and 0.2034, respectively. All allometric equation models of tree root carbon mass of A. mangium have a high goodness-of-fit as indicated by its high adjusted R2.Keywords: Acacia mangium, allometric, root-shoot ratio, biomass, carbon mass

  5. Modelling water uptake efficiency of root systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Daniel; Tron, Stefania; Schröder, Natalie; Bodner, Gernot; Javaux, Mathieu; Vanderborght, Jan; Vereecken, Harry; Schnepf, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Water uptake is crucial for plant productivity. Trait based breeding for more water efficient crops will enable a sustainable agricultural management under specific pedoclimatic conditions, and can increase drought resistance of plants. Mathematical modelling can be used to find suitable root system traits for better water uptake efficiency defined as amount of water taken up per unit of root biomass. This approach requires large simulation times and large number of simulation runs, since we test different root systems under different pedoclimatic conditions. In this work, we model water movement by the 1-dimensional Richards equation with the soil hydraulic properties described according to the van Genuchten model. Climatic conditions serve as the upper boundary condition. The root system grows during the simulation period and water uptake is calculated via a sink term (after Tron et al. 2015). The goal of this work is to compare different free software tools based on different numerical schemes to solve the model. We compare implementations using DUMUX (based on finite volumes), Hydrus 1D (based on finite elements), and a Matlab implementation of Van Dam, J. C., & Feddes 2000 (based on finite differences). We analyse the methods for accuracy, speed and flexibility. Using this model case study, we can clearly show the impact of various root system traits on water uptake efficiency. Furthermore, we can quantify frequent simplifications that are introduced in the modelling step like considering a static root system instead of a growing one, or considering a sink term based on root density instead of considering the full root hydraulic model (Javaux et al. 2008). References Tron, S., Bodner, G., Laio, F., Ridolfi, L., & Leitner, D. (2015). Can diversity in root architecture explain plant water use efficiency? A modeling study. Ecological modelling, 312, 200-210. Van Dam, J. C., & Feddes, R. A. (2000). Numerical simulation of infiltration, evaporation and shallow

  6. Effects of nutrient heterogeneity and competition on root architecture of spruce seedlings: implications for an essential feature of root foraging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Nan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have limited understanding of root foraging responses when plants were simultaneously exposed to nutrient heterogeneity and competition, and our goal was to determine whether and how plants integrate information about nutrients and neighbors in root foraging processes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The experiment was conducted in split-containers, wherein half of the roots of spruce (Picea asperata seedlings were subjected to intraspecific root competition (the vegetated half, while the other half experienced no competition (the non-vegetated half. Experimental treatments included fertilization in the vegetated half (FV, the non-vegetated half (FNV, and both compartments (F, as well as no fertilization (NF. The root architecture indicators consisted of the number of root tips over the root surface (RTRS, the length percentage of diameter-based fine root subclasses to total fine root (SRLP, and the length percentage of each root order to total fine root (ROLP. The target plants used novel root foraging behaviors under different combinations of neighboring plant and localized fertilization. In addition, the significant increase in the RTRS of 0-0.2 mm fine roots after fertilization of the vegetated half alone and its significant decrease in fertilizer was applied throughout the plant clearly showed that plant root foraging behavior was regulated by local responses coupled with systemic control mechanisms. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We measured the root foraging ability for woody plants by means of root architecture indicators constructed by the roots possessing essential nutrient uptake ability (i.e., the first three root orders, and provided new evidence that plants integrate multiple forms of environmental information, such as nutrient status and neighboring competitors, in a non-additive manner during the root foraging process. The interplay between the responses of individual root modules (repetitive root units to localized

  7. In situ root studies using neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most studies of plant roots growing in soil involve destructive sampling or involve estimates of root growth only at a soil-viewing surface interface where growth conditions are different from those in bulk soil. This research tested the feasibility of using preferential attenuation of thermal neutrons by roots to overcome these two disadvantages of current methods. Radiographs were obtained of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] and corn (Zea mays L.) roots growing through bulk samples of unsaturated soil. Plants were grown at 22 C in loamy sand soil wetted to 9% volumetric water content. The soil was contained in either 2.5- or 5.0-cm thick aluminum boxes. At irregular intervals, the sample containers were transferred into a 60 diverging 0.04eV (thermal) energy neutron beam obtained from the Ames Laboratory Research Reactor, US Energy Research and Development Administration, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa. The samples were exposed to the neutron beam for 8 to 10 min. This exposure allowed about 5 x 109 neutrons/cm2 to strike an indium collector plate attached to the rear of the container. After the collector plate was removed from the neutron beam, photographic film was attached to the collector plate for 1 1/2 hours; then the film was processed. The preferential neutron scattering by the roots allowed elongation rates of soybean radicles or seminal roots of corn to be determined easily through either 2.5- or 5-cm thick soil samples. Small lateral roots of either species were less clearly distinguishable and resolution must be improved before elongation rates can be measured for laterals with a diameter smaller than 0.33 mm. Plants were not harmed visibly by the thermal neutron fluxes used in these experiments

  8. 21 CFR 872.3810 - Root canal post.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Root canal post. 872.3810 Section 872.3810 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3810 Root canal post. (a) Identification. A root canal... of the platinum group intended to be cemented into the root canal of a tooth to stabilize and...

  9. Rhizoctonia damping-off stem canker and root rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizoctonia solani has been reported to cause damping-off and root rot of rhododendrons and azaleas. Damping-off often includes groups of dying and dead seedlings. Decline of rooted plants in containers results from both root rot and stem necrosis below or above the soil line. Root rot is usually no...

  10. Cold temperature delays wound healing in postharvest sugarbeet roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storage temperature affects the rate and extent of wound-healing in a number of root and tuber crops. The effect of storage temperature on wound-healing in sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) roots, however, is largely unknown. Wound-healing of sugarbeet roots was investigated using surface-abraded roots s...

  11. Effect of root canal preparation, type of endodontic post and mechanical cycling on root fracture strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Pivetta RIPPE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the impact of the type of root canal preparation, intraradicular post and mechanical cycling on the fracture strength of roots. Material and Methods: eighty human single rooted teeth were divided into 8 groups according to the instruments used for root canal preparation (manual or rotary instruments, the type of intraradicular post (fiber posts- FRC and cast post and core- CPC and the use of mechanical cycling (MC as follows: Manual and FRC; Manual, FRC and MC; Manual and CPC; Manual, CPC and MC; Rotary and FRC; Rotary, FRC and MC; Rotary and CPC; Rotary, CPC and MC. The filling was performed by lateral compactation. All root canals were prepared for a post with a 10 mm length, using the custom #2 bur of the glass fiber post system. For mechanical cycling, the protocol was applied as follows: an angle of incidence of 45°, 37°C, 88 N, 4 Hz, 2 million pulses. All groups were submitted to fracture strength test in a 45° device with 1 mm/ min cross-head speed until failure occurred. Results: The 3-way ANOVA showed that the root canal preparation strategy (p<0.03 and post type (p<0.0001 affected the fracture strength results, while mechanical cycling (p=0.29 did not. Conclusion: The root canal preparation strategy only influenced the root fracture strength when restoring with a fiber post and mechanical cycling, so it does not seem to be an important factor in this scenario.

  12. Compensation in Root Water Uptake Models Combined with Three-Dimensional Root Length Density Distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinen, M.

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional root length density distribution function is introduced that made it possible to compare two empirical uptake models with a more mechanistic uptake model. Adding a compensation component to the more empirical model resulted in predictions of root water uptake distributions simila

  13. [Coronal repositioning of root fragment by root elongation with a titanium endodontic implant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bühler, H

    1990-12-01

    Teeth with deep transverse or oblique root fractures can nowadays be preserved by intra-alveolar transplantation. This method, however, has its limitation: The apical root fragment must not be too short in proportion to the crown length. This report describes a method to retain even very short roots. 14 roots have been carefully extracted. Then, the following treatment has been performed extraorally: Apectomy, lengthening of the root with a common titanium root screw and replantation of the root in an extruded position which allowed to carry out correct root filling and crown reconstruction. After an average observation period of 19 months 11 cases out of 14, i.e. 79%, were successful according to the criteria stated by Kristersson and Kvint. If the long-term results turn out as promising as the short-term findings, the concept might well be extended to other indications. One example is to stimulate the growth of a genuine periodontal "re-attachment" in intrabony pockets by extruding viable periodontal membrane areas to a more coronal level. PMID:2097808

  14. Redirection of auxin flow in Arabidopsis thaliana roots after infection by root-knot nematodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kyndt, Tina; Goverse, Aska; Haegeman, Annelies; Warmerdam, Sonja; Wanjau, Cecilia; Jahani, Mona; Engler, Gilbert; Almeida Engler, De Janice; Gheysen, Godelieve

    2016-01-01

    Plant-parasitic root-knot nematodes induce the formation of giant cells within the plant root, and it has been recognized that auxin accumulates in these feeding sites. Here, we studied the role of the auxin transport system governed by AUX1/LAX3 influx proteins and different PIN efflux proteins dur

  15. Rooting cuttings of yam (Dioscorea spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Eduardo Rocha e Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The culture of yams (Dioscorea spp. has great importance for the entire Brazilian population, mainly in the Northeast, either by its nutritional or commercial value. This work aimed to study a new method of seedling production of yams by stem cuttings collected from plants with age of 120 days. The experiment was carried out in the CECA/UFAL, in a green house with intermittent fogging, in a fully randomized block design with a factorial 3 × 2 × 2, 12 treatments and 4 replications. Three factors were evaluated: height of the cuttings collection in plant (top, center and bottom, position of the cuttings on the branch (proximal and distal and concentration of Indolebutyric acid (IBA applied (0 and 1 mg/L. The cuttings were planted in plastic trays of 32 cells, containing commercial Bioplant ® substrate. After 30 days, the presence, the number and length of roots was acessed. All variables were subjected to analysis of variance and averages were compared by Tukey test. The results obtained in this study showed that the use of IBA (1 g/L did not influence the rooting process. Cuttings collected in the basal third of the plants in the proximal part of the branches, independent of the concentration of IBA, presented the best results for the percentage of rooting, root number and length of roots per stake.

  16. Etiology of phomopsis root rot in soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cecília Ghissi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In a survey of damages caused by soybean root rot to crops in the south of Brazil for several years, a root rot caused by Phomopsis sp has been found with increasing frequency. The primary symptoms are seen when the main root is cut longitudinally, including the death of the wood which shows white coloration and well-defined black lines that do not have a defined format. Thus, based on similarity, it has been called geographic root rot due to its aspect resembling irregular lines that separate regions on a map. In isolations, colonies and alpha spores of Phomopsis have prevailed. Pathogenicity test was done by means of inoculation in the crown of plants cultivated in a growth chamber. The geographic symptoms were reproduced in plants and the fungus Phomopsis sp. was reisolated. In soybean stems naturally infected with pod and stem blight, geographic symptoms caused by Phomopsis phaseoli are found. To the known symptoms on stems, pods and grains, that of root rot caused by P. phaseoli is now added.

  17. Organochlorine (chlordecone) uptake by root vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florence, Clostre; Philippe, Letourmy; Magalie, Lesueur-Jannoyer

    2015-01-01

    Chlordecone, an organochlorine insecticide, continues to pollute soils in the French West Indies. The main source of human exposure to this pollutant is food. Root vegetables, which are staple foods in tropical regions, can be highly contaminated and are thus a very effective lever for action to reduce consumer exposure. We analyzed chlordecone contamination in three root vegetables, yam, dasheen and sweet potato, which are among the main sources of chlordecone exposure in food in the French West Indies. All soil types do not have the same potential for the contamination of root vegetables, allophanic andosols being two to ten times less contaminating than non-allophanic nitisols and ferralsols. This difference was only partially explained by the higher OC content in allophanic soils. Dasheen corms were shown to accumulate more chlordecone than yam and sweet potato tubers. The physiological nature of the root vegetable may explain this difference. Our results are in good agreement with the hypothesis that chlordecone uptake by root vegetables is based on passive and diffusive processes and limited by transport and dilution during growth. PMID:25043888

  18. Visualizing Rhizosphere Soil Structure Around Living Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, M.; Berli, M.; Ghezzehei, T. A.; Nico, P.; Young, M. H.; Tyler, S. W.

    2008-12-01

    The rhizosphere, a thin layer of soil (0 to 2 mm) surrounding a living root, is an important interface between bulk soil and plant root and plays a critical role in root water and nutrient uptake. In this study, we used X-ray Computerized Microtomography (microCT) to visualize soil structure around living roots non-destructively and with high spatial resolution. Four different plant species (Helianthus annuus, Lupinus hartwegii, Vigna radiata and Phaseolus lunatus), grown in four different porous materials (glass beads, medium and coarse sand, loam aggregates), were scanned with 10 ìm spatial resolution, using the microtomography beamline 8.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA. Sample cross section images clearly show contacts between roots and soil particles, connecting water films, air-water interfaces as well as some cellular features of the plants taproots. We found with a simulation experiment, inflating a cylindrical micro-balloon in a pack of air-dry loam aggregates, that soil fracturing rather than compaction might occur around a taproot growing in dry soil. Form these preliminary experiments, we concluded that microCT has potential as a tool for a more process-based understanding of the role of rhizosphere soil structure on soil fertility, plant growth and the water balance at the earth-atmosphere interface.

  19. Composite potato plants with transgenic roots on non-transgenic shoots: a model system for studying gene silencing in roots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Patricia; Santala, Johanna; Nielsen, Steen Lykke; Hühns, Maja; Broer, Inge; Valkonen, Jari P. T.

    2014-01-01

    induced phenotypically normal roots which, however, showed a reduced response to cytokinin as compared with non-transgenic roots. Nevertheless, both types of roots were infected to a similar high rate with the zoospores of Spongospora subterranea, a soilborne potato pathogen. The transgenic roots of...

  20. Partical replacement of the rooting procedure of Chrysanthenum merifolium cuttings by pre-rooting storage in the dark.

    OpenAIRE

    Pol, van der, J.P.

    1988-01-01

    Part of the rooting procedure of Chrysanthemum morifolium 'Pink Boston' and 'Refour' cuttings can be replaced by pre-rooting storage in the dark. Pre-rooting storage of 7 days at temperatures between 9° and 21°C was adequate. Longer periods of dark storage resulted in increase of root growth but also in severe senescence of the basal leaves.

  1. Methods for increasing the accuracy of approximate formulas for the roots of a cubic equation with complex conjugate roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approximate formulas for determining the frequency and Q-factor of the complex conjugate roots, as well as the frequency of the real root, of the cubic equation for the case where the frequency of the complex-conjugate roots is close to the frequency of the real root have been presented in this work

  2. Differences in U root-to-shoot translocation between plant species explained by U distribution in roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straczek, Anne; Duquene, Lise [Belgium Nuclear Research Centre (SCK.CEN), Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Wegrzynek, Dariusz [IAEA, Seibersdorf Laboratories, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Chinea-Cano, Ernesto [IAEA, Seibersdorf Laboratories, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Wannijn, Jean [Belgium Nuclear Research Centre (SCK.CEN), Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Navez, Jacques [Royal Museum of Africa, Department of Geology, Leuvensesteenweg 13, 3080 Tervuren (Belgium); Vandenhove, Hildegarde, E-mail: hvandenh@sckcen.b [Belgium Nuclear Research Centre (SCK.CEN), Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2010-03-15

    Accumulation and distribution of uranium in roots and shoots of four plants species differing in their cation exchange capacity of roots (CECR) was investigated. After exposure in hydroponics for seven days to 100 mumol U L{sup -1}, distribution of uranium in roots was investigated through chemical extraction of roots. Higher U concentrations were measured in roots of dicots which showed a higher CECR than monocot species. Chemical extractions indicated that uranium is mostly located in the apoplasm of roots of monocots but that it is predominantly located in the symplasm of roots of dicots. Translocation of U to shoot was not significantly affected by the CECR or distribution of U between symplasm and apoplasm. Distribution of uranium in roots was investigated through chemical extraction of roots for all species. Additionally, longitudinal and radial distribution of U in roots of maize and Indian mustard, respectively showing the lowest and the highest translocation, was studied following X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis of specific root sections. Chemical analysis and XRF analysis of roots of maize and Indian mustard clearly indicated a higher longitudinal and radial transport of uranium in roots of Indian mustard than in roots of maize, where uranium mostly accumulated in root tips. These results showed that even if CECR could partly explain U accumulation in roots, other mechanisms like radial and longitudinal transport are implied in the translocation of U to the shoot.

  3. Modulation of root branching by a coumarin derivative

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiang; Gao, Ming-Jun

    2011-01-01

    A healthy root system is crucial to plant growth and survival. To maintain efficiency of root function, plants have to dynamically modulate root system architecture through various adaptive mechanisms such as lateral root formation to respond to a changing and diversified soil environment. Exogenous application of a coumarin derivative, 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU), in Arabidopsis thaliana inhibits seed germination by mainly reducing primary root growth. UDP-glycosyltransferases play an integ...

  4. On Generalized m-th Root Finsler Metrics

    OpenAIRE

    Tayebi, A.; Peyghan, E.; M. Shahbazi

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we characterize locally dually flat generalized m-th root Finsler metrics. Then we find a condition under which a generalized m-th root metric is projectively related to a m-th root metric. Finally, we prove that if a generalized m-th root metric is conformal to a m-th root metric, then both of them reduce to Riemannian metrics.

  5. Development of root observation method by image analysis system

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Giyoung

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of plant roots is important for determining plant-soil relationships, managing soil effectively, studying nutrient and water extraction, and creating a soil quality index. Plant root research is limited by the large amount of time and labor required to wash the roots from the soil and measure the viable roots. A root measurement method based on image analysis was proposed to reduce the time and labor requirement. A thinning algorithm-based image analysis method was us...

  6. A NOTE ON THE STOCHASTIC ROOTS OF STOCHASTIC MATRICES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi-Ming HE; Eldon GUNN

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we study the stochastic root matrices of stochastic matrices. All stochastic roots of 2×2 stochastic matrices are found explicitly. A method based on characteristic polynomial of matrix is developed to find all real root matrices that are functions of the original 3×3 matrix, including all possible (function) stochastic root matrices. In addition, we comment on some numerical methods for computing stochastic root matrices of stochastic matrices.

  7. Interactions between root canal irrigants, sealers and dentin

    OpenAIRE

    Neelakantan, P.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to determine the interactions between root filling materials and root dentin and to investigate if root canal irrigating solutions had an impact on these interactions. The following outcomes were assessed in the studies encompassed in this thesis: (i) dislocation resistance of an epoxy resin based root canal sealer and tricalcium silicate based root canal sealers, (ii) the influence of irrigation protocols on the sealing ability and chemical interactions with ...

  8. Root tip-dependent, active riboflavin secretion by Hyoscyamus albus hairy roots under iron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa, Ataru; Miyamoto, Erika; ur Rahman, Laiq; Kitamura, Yoshie

    2008-04-01

    Hyoscyamus albus hairy roots with/without an exogenous gene (11 clones) were established by inoculation of Agrobacterium rhizogenes. All clones cultured under iron-deficient condition secreted riboflavin from the root tips into the culture medium and the productivity depended on the number and size of root tips among the clones. A decline of pH was observed before riboflavin production and root development. By studying effects of proton-pump inhibitors, medium acidification with external organic acid, and riboflavin addition upon pH change and riboflavin productivity, we indicate that riboflavin efflux is not directly connected to active pH reduction, and more significantly active riboflavin secretion occurs as a response to an internal requirement in H. albus hairy roots under iron deficiency. PMID:18367404

  9. The role of root hairs in cadmium acquisition by barley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Ruilun; Li Huafen [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions of the Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Jiang Rongfeng, E-mail: rfjiang@cau.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions of the Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Roemheld, Volker [Institute of Plant Nutrition, University of Hohenheim, D-70593 Stuttgart (Germany); Zhang Fusuo [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions of the Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Zhao Fangjie [Soil Science Department, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    The role of root hairs in Cd acquisition from soil was investigated in three pot experiments using a root hairless mutant (bald root barley, brb) and its wild-type (WT) cultivar of barley (Hordeum vulgare). brb had significantly lower concentrations and lower total amounts of Cd in shoots than WT. The Cd uptake efficiency based on total root length was 8-45% lower in brb than in WT. The difference between brb and WT increased with increasing extractable Cd in soil under the experimental conditions used. Additions of phosphate to soil decreased Cd extractability. Both soil and foliar additions of phosphate decreased root length, and root hair formation in WT. These effects resulted in decreased Cd uptake with increasing P supply. Cd uptake in WT correlated significantly with root length, root hair length and density, and soil extractable Cd. Root hairs contribute significantly to Cd uptake by barley. - Research highlights: The Cd uptake efficiency was significantly lower in brb than in WT. Additions of phosphate to soil decreased Cd extractability and Cd uptake. Both soil and foliar additions of phosphate decreased root length, and root hair formation in WT. Root hairs contribute significantly to Cd uptake by barley. - The Cd uptake efficiency based on total root length was 8-45% lower in a barley root hairless mutant than in its wild-type, indicating an important role of root hairs in Cd acquisition.

  10. The role of root hairs in cadmium acquisition by barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of root hairs in Cd acquisition from soil was investigated in three pot experiments using a root hairless mutant (bald root barley, brb) and its wild-type (WT) cultivar of barley (Hordeum vulgare). brb had significantly lower concentrations and lower total amounts of Cd in shoots than WT. The Cd uptake efficiency based on total root length was 8-45% lower in brb than in WT. The difference between brb and WT increased with increasing extractable Cd in soil under the experimental conditions used. Additions of phosphate to soil decreased Cd extractability. Both soil and foliar additions of phosphate decreased root length, and root hair formation in WT. These effects resulted in decreased Cd uptake with increasing P supply. Cd uptake in WT correlated significantly with root length, root hair length and density, and soil extractable Cd. Root hairs contribute significantly to Cd uptake by barley. - Research highlights: → The Cd uptake efficiency was significantly lower in brb than in WT. → Additions of phosphate to soil decreased Cd extractability and Cd uptake. → Both soil and foliar additions of phosphate decreased root length, and root hair formation in WT. → Root hairs contribute significantly to Cd uptake by barley. - The Cd uptake efficiency based on total root length was 8-45% lower in a barley root hairless mutant than in its wild-type, indicating an important role of root hairs in Cd acquisition.

  11. Tree root systems and nutrient mobilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyle, Jim; Rob, Harrison; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten;

    Roots mobilize nutrients via deep penetration and rhizosphere processes inducing weathering of primary minerals. These contribute to C transfer to soils and to tree nutrition. Assessments of these characteristics and processes of root systems are important for understanding long-term supplies of...... some of the world’s most productive intensively managed forests, including Brazil and the Southeast and Pacifi c Northwest regions of the United States, have shown that root systems are often several meters in depth, and often extend deeper than soil is sampled. Large amounts of carbon are also...... nutrient elements essential for forest growth and resilience. Research and techniques have signifi cantly advanced since Olof Tamm’s 1934 base mineral index for Swedish forest soils, and basic nutrient budget estimates for whole-tree harvesting systems of the 1970s. Recent research in areas that include...

  12. Effects of nutrition spatial heterogeneity on root traits and carbon usage by roots of Cercis chinensis seedlings in split root rooms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In natural ecosystems, nutrition available for plants shows great spatial heterogeneity. Much is known about plant root responses to the spatial heterogeneity of nutrition, but little is known about carbon usage in roots in nutrition-deficient patches and its effect on root longevity. In this study, split-room boxes were used for culture of Cercis chinensis seedlings, and the small rooms were supplied with different nutrition levels. The number of the first-order roots in the rooms with nutrition supply was significantly higher than that in the rooms with deficient nutrition. Specific root length (SRL) of the first-order roots in the rooms with deficient nutrition reached its peak at day 64 after nutrition treatment. There was no significant SRL differences between the two order roots during the experiment. Biomass of the first-order roots in the rooms without nutrition supply was significantly less than that of the first-order roots in the rooms with nutrition supply from day 64 to 96. The total biomass of the lateral roots in the rooms without nu-trition supply decreased from day 64 to 96. The activities of the enzymes in roots in the rooms without nutrition supply increased and the activities of alkaline invertases in roots in the two sides of split box did not change significantly. The activities of the enzymes in roots in the rooms without nutrition supply increased gradually. These results suggest that nutrition spatial heterogeneity induced the changes in root traits and plants actively controlled carbon usage in roots in nutrition-deficient patches by regulating the activities of invertases and sucrose synthases, resulting in the reduction in carbon usage in the roots in nutrition-deficient patches.

  13. RootAnalyzer: A Cross-Section Image Analysis Tool for Automated Characterization of Root Cells and Tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua Chopin; Hamid Laga; Chun Yuan Huang; Sigrid Heuer; Miklavcic, Stanley J.

    2015-01-01

    The morphology of plant root anatomical features is a key factor in effective water and nutrient uptake. Existing techniques for phenotyping root anatomical traits are often based on manual or semi-automatic segmentation and annotation of microscopic images of root cross sections. In this article, we propose a fully automated tool, hereinafter referred to as RootAnalyzer, for efficiently extracting and analyzing anatomical traits from root-cross section images. Using a range of image processi...

  14. Unleashing the potential of the root hair cell as a single plant cell type model in root systems biology

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenzhen eQiao; Marc eLibault

    2013-01-01

    Plant root is an organ composed of multiple cell types with different functions. This multicellular complexity limits our understanding of root biology because –omics studies performed at the level of the entire root reflect the average responses of all cells composing the organ. To overcome this difficulty and allow a more comprehensive understanding of root cell biology, an approach is needed that would focus on one single cell type in the plant root. Because of its biological functions (i....

  15. On König's root finding algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buff, Xavier; Henriksen, Christian

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we first recall the definition of a family of root-finding algorithms known as König's algorithms. We establish some local and some global properties of those algorithms. We give a characterization of rational maps which arise as König's methods of polynomials with simple roots. We...... then estimate the number of non-repelling cycles König's methods of polynomials may have. We finally study the geometry of the Julia sets of König's methods of polynomials and produce pictures of parameter spaces for König's methods of cubic polynomials....

  16. Analysis of root reinforcement of vegetated riprap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tron, Stefania; Raymond, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    Riprap is a traditional engineering solution used to protect riverbanks against erosion on developed riparian corridors. However, the traditional riprap does not provide adequate fish and wildlife habitat within the riparian zone, which is normally provided by naturally vegetated stream banks. An innovative approach, which mitigates this issue and at the same time provides stream bank erosion control, is the vegetated riprap technique. This solution, which combines rocks and native vegetation in the form of live cuttings, has been designed and implemented by Terra Erosion Control Ltd for the past 7 years. The aim of this work was to study the effect of the vegetation, in particular the root system, on the stability of the riprap. This analysis was carried out in the late spring of 2013 on the vegetated riprap installation located along the Columbia River riverbank, adjacent to the Teck Metals Ltd. smelter in Trail, British Columbia, Canada. An excavation perpendicular to the river was performed in order to investigate the root system development within the vegetated riprap structure. This excavation exposed one of the Salix bebbiana cuttings installed in 2006. The cutting was 2.3 m long and was set with an inclination of 35° with respect to the horizontal plane: the first 0.3 m was exposed, 1 m was buried within the riprap rocks (which had an average diameter of 30 cm) and the remaining 1.0 m was in the soil matrix below the rocks. The diameter of the roots growing along the cutting were measured in order to obtain the root density at various depths and tensile strength tests were carried out on the Salix bebbiana roots with diameters of up to 9 mm. The aim was to quantitatively estimate the additional cohesion given by the roots. The additional root cohesion was more effective in the deeper soil layer where the soil matrix predominates. In the upper soil layer, where the particle size is significantly higher, roots do not increase the cohesion but act as a

  17. An antileishmanial chalcone from Chinese licorice roots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, S B; Ming, C; Andersen, L;

    1994-01-01

    A bioassay guided fractionation of an extract of Chinese licorice roots led to the isolation of (E)-1-[2,4-dihydroxy-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)phenyl]-3-[4- hydroxy-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl]phenyl-2-propen-1-one, which in vitro showed potent antileishmanial activity. In addition, the novel chalcone (E)-1......-[2,4-dihydroxy-3-(3-methyl-2- butenyl)phenyl]-3-(2,2-dimethyl-8-hydroxy-2H-benzopyran-6-yl)-2-prope n-1-one was isolated from the roots. The latter compound only showed antileishmanial activity at high concentrations....

  18. Amyloplast Sedimentation Kinetics in Corn Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, A. C.; Sack, F.

    1985-01-01

    Knowledge of the parameters of amyloplast sedimentation is crucial for an evaluation of proposed mechanisms of root graviperception. Early estimates of the rate of root amyloplast sedimentation were as low as 1.2 micron/min which may be too slow for many amyloplasts to reach the vicinity of the new lower wall within the presentation time. On this basis, Haberlandt's classical statolith hypothesis involving amyloplast stimulation of a sensitive surface near the new lower wall was questioned. The aim was to determine the kinetics of amyloplast sedimentation with reference to the presentation time in living and fixed corn rootcap cells as compared with coleoptiles of the same variety.

  19. Unit root behavior in energy futures prices

    OpenAIRE

    Serletis, Apostolos

    1992-01-01

    This paper re-examines the empirical evidence for random walk type behavior in energy futures prices. In doing so, tests for unit roots in the univariate time-series representation of the daily crude oil, heating oil, and unleaded gasoline series are performed using recent state-of-the-art methodology. The results show that the unit root hypothesis can be rejected if allowance is made for the possibility of a one-time break in the intercept and the slope of the trend function at an unknown po...

  20. A unified view on roots of imperfection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kárný, Miroslav

    Prague : Institute of Information Theory and Automation, 2013 - (Guy, T.; Kárný, M.) ISBN 978-80-903834-8-7. [The 3rd International Workshop on Scalable Decision Making: Uncertainty, Imperfection, Deliberation held in conjunction with ECML/PKDD 2013. Prague (CZ), 23.09.2013-23.09.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-13502S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : unified view * roots of imperfection Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/AS/karny-a unified view on roots of imperfection.pdf

  1. Why Frequency Matters for Unit Root Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Boswijk, H.P.; Klaassen, F.J.G.M.

    2005-01-01

    It is generally believed that for the power of unit root tests, only the time span and not the observation frequency matters. In this paper we show that the observation frequency does matter when the high-frequency data display fat tails and volatility clustering, as is typically the case for financial time series such as exchange rate returns. Our claim builds on recent work on unit root and cointegration testing based non-Gaussian likelihood functions. The essential idea is that such method...

  2. Triple antibiotic paste in root canal therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangasamy Vijayaraghavan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The success of the endodontic treatment depends on the microbial suppression in the root canal and periapical region. Endodontic instrumentation alone cannot achieve a sterile condition. With the advent of non-instrumentation endodontic treatment and lesion sterilization and tissue repair, local application of antibiotics has been investigated. Triple antibiotic paste (TAP containing metronidazole, ciprofloxacin, and minocycline has been reported to be a successful regimen in controlling the root canal pathogen and in managing non-vital young permanent tooth. This paper reviews the existing literature on biocompatibility, efficiency, drawbacks of TAP in endodontic therapy and pulp revascularization.

  3. Inhibitory effects of an ellagic acid glucoside, okicamelliaside, on antigen-mediated degranulation in rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuba-Miyara, Megumi; Agarie, Kengo; Sakima, Rina; Imamura, Shihoko; Tsuha, Kazuyo; Yasumoto, Takeshi; Gima, Shinichi; Matsuzaki, Goro; Ikehara, Tsuyoshi

    2012-04-01

    Degranulation inhibitors in plants are widely used for prevention and treatment of immediate-type allergy. We previously isolated a new ellagic acid glucoside, okicamelliaside (OCS), from Camellia japonica leaves for use as a potent degranulation inhibitor. Crude extracts from leaves also suppressed allergic conjunctivitis in rats. In this study, we evaluated the in vivo effect of OCS using a pure sample and performed in vitro experiments to elucidate the mechanism underlying the extraordinary high potency of OCS and its aglycon. The IC(50) values for degranulation of rat basophilic leukemia cells (RBL-2H3) were 14 nM for OCS and 3 μM for aglycon, indicating that the two compounds were approximately 2 to 3 orders of magnitude more potent than the anti-allergic drugs ketotifen fumarate, DSCG, and tranilast (0.17, 3, and >0.3 mM, respectively). Antigen-induced calcium ion (Ca(2+)) elevation was significantly inhibited by OCS and aglycon at all concentrations tested (p<0.05). Upstream of the Ca(2+) elevation in the principle signaling pathway, phosphorylation of Syk (Tyr525/526) and PLCγ-1 (Tyr783 and Ser1248) were inhibited by OCS and aglycon. In DNA microarray-screening test, OCS inhibited expression of proinflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13], cytokine-producing signaling factors, and prostaglandin-endoperoxidase 2, indicating that OCS broadly inhibits allergic inflammation. During passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in mice, OCS significantly inhibited vascular hyperpermeability by two administration routes: a single intraperitoneal injection at 10 mg/kg and per os at 5 mg/kg for 7 days (p<0.05). These results suggest the potential for OCS to alleviate symptoms of immediate-type allergy. PMID:22330086

  4. 4-Chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline inhibits activation of Syk kinase to suppress mast cells in vitro and mast cell-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kui Lea [Center for Drug Development Assistance, National Institute of Food Drug Safety Evaluation (NIFDS), KFDA, Cheongwon-gun (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Na Young; Lee, Jun Ho; Kim, Do Kyun; Kim, Hyuk Soon; Kim, A-Ram; Her, Erk; Kim, Bokyung [Department of Immunology and physiology, College of Medicine, Konkuk University, Chungju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung Sik [College of Pharmacy, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Eun-Yi [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, College of Biological Science, Sejong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Mi [College of Pharmacy, Duksung Women' s University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hang-Rae, E-mail: hangrae2@snu.ac.kr [Department of Anatomy, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Wahn Soo, E-mail: wahnchoi@kku.ac.kr [Department of Immunology and physiology, College of Medicine, Konkuk University, Chungju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    4-Chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline is a quinoxaline derivative. We aimed to study the effects of 4-chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline on activation of mast cells in vitro and in mice. 4-Chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline reversibly inhibited degranulation of mast cells in a dose-dependent manner, and also suppressed the expression and secretion of TNF-{alpha} and IL-4 in mast cells. Mechanistically, 4-chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline inhibited activating phosphorylation of Syk and LAT, which are crucial for early Fc{epsilon}RI-mediated signaling events, as well as Akt and MAP kinases, which play essential roles in the production of various pro-inflammatory cytokines in mast cells. Notably, although 4-chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline inhibited the activation of Fyn and Syk, minimal inhibition was observed in mast cells in the case of Lyn. Furthermore, consistent with its in vitro activity, 4-chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline significantly suppressed mast cell-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in mice. In summary, the results from this study demonstrate that 4-chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline shows an inhibitory effect on mast cells in vitro and in vivo, and that this is mediated by inhibiting the activation of Syk in mast cells. Therefore, 4-chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline could be useful in the treatment of mast cell-mediated allergic diseases. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 4-chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline is a quinoxaline derivative. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of 4-chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline on mast cells was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 4-chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline reversibly inhibited Syk activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 4-chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline could be useful for IgE-mediated allergy.

  5. Hairy Root Induction in Helicteres isora L. and Production of Diosgenin in Hairy Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinay; Desai, Dnyanada; Shriram, Varsha

    2014-04-01

    Mature seeds of Helicteres isora L. were collected from seven geographical locations of Maharashtra and Goa (India) and evaluated for diosgenin (a bioactive steroidal sapogenin of prime importance) extraction and quantification. Chemotypic variations were evidenced with diosgenin quantity ranging from 33 μg g(-1) seeds (Osmanabad forests) to 138 μg g(-1) (Khopoli region). Nodal and leaf explants from in vitro-raised seedlings were used for callus and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, respectively. Compact, hard, whitish-green callus (2.65 g explant(-1)) was obtained on MS + 13.32 μM BAP + 2.32 μM Kin after 30 days of inoculation. Various parameters including types of explant and Agrobacterium strain, culture density, duration of infection and various medium compositions were optimized for hairy root production. A. rhizogenes strain ATCC-15834 successfully induced hairy roots from leaf explants (1 cm(2)) with 42 % efficiency. Transgenic status of the roots was confirmed by PCR using rolB and VirD specific primers. Hairy roots showed an ability to synthesize diosgenin. Diosgenin yield was increased ~8 times in hairy roots and ~5 times in callus than the seeds of wild plants. Enhanced diosgenin content was associated with proline accumulation in hairy roots. This is the first report on induction of hairy roots in H. isora. PMID:24859054

  6. ROOT.NET: Using ROOT from .NET languages like C and F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ROOT.NET provides an interface between Microsoft's Common Language Runtime (CLR) and .NET technology and the ubiquitous particle physics analysis tool, ROOT. ROOT.NET automatically generates a series of efficient wrappers around the ROOT API. Unlike pyROOT, these wrappers are statically typed and so are highly efficient as compared to the Python wrappers. The connection to .NET means that one gains access to the full series of languages developed for the CLR including functional languages like F (based on OCaml). Many features that make ROOT objects work well in the .NET world are added (properties, IEnumerable interface, LINQ compatibility, etc.). Dynamic languages based on the CLR can be used as well, of course (Python, for example). Additionally it is now possible to access ROOT objects that are unknown to the translation tool. This poster will describe the techniques used to effect this translation, along with performance comparisons, and examples. All described source code is posted on the open source site CodePlex.

  7. Rank-3 root systems induce root systems of rank 4 via a new Clifford spinor construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechant, Pierre-Philippe

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we show that via a novel construction every rank-3 root system induces a root system of rank 4. Via the Cartan-Dieudonné theorem, an even number of successive Coxeter reflections yields rotations that in a Clifford algebra framework are described by spinors. In three dimensions these spinors themselves have a natural four-dimensional Euclidean structure, and discrete spinor groups can therefore be interpreted as 4D polytopes. In fact, we show that these polytopes have to be root systems, thereby inducing Coxeter groups of rank 4, and that their automorphism groups include two factors of the respective discrete spinor groups trivially acting on the left and on the right by spinor multiplication. Special cases of this general theorem include the exceptional 4D groups D4, F4 and H4, which therefore opens up a new understanding of applications of these structures in terms of spinorial geometry. In particular, 4D groups are ubiquitous in high energy physics. For the corresponding case in two dimensions, the groups I2(n) are shown to be self-dual, whilst via a similar construction in terms of octonions each rank-3 root system induces a root system in dimension 8; this root system is in fact the direct sum of two copies of the corresponding induced 4D root system.

  8. Root Traits and Phenotyping Strategies for Plant Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paez-Garcia, Ana; Motes, Christy M.; Scheible, Wolf-Rüdiger; Chen, Rujin; Blancaflor, Elison B.; Monteros, Maria J.

    2015-01-01

    Roots are crucial for nutrient and water acquisition and can be targeted to enhance plant productivity under a broad range of growing conditions. A current challenge for plant breeding is the limited ability to phenotype and select for desirable root characteristics due to their underground location. Plant breeding efforts aimed at modifying root traits can result in novel, more stress-tolerant crops and increased yield by enhancing the capacity of the plant for soil exploration and, thus, water and nutrient acquisition. Available approaches for root phenotyping in laboratory, greenhouse and field encompass simple agar plates to labor-intensive root digging (i.e., shovelomics) and soil boring methods, the construction of underground root observation stations and sophisticated computer-assisted root imaging. Here, we summarize root architectural traits relevant to crop productivity, survey root phenotyping strategies and describe their advantages, limitations and practical value for crop and forage breeding programs. PMID:27135332

  9. Root Traits and Phenotyping Strategies for Plant Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paez-Garcia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Roots are crucial for nutrient and water acquisition and can be targeted to enhance plant productivity under a broad range of growing conditions. A current challenge for plant breeding is the limited ability to phenotype and select for desirable root characteristics due to their underground location. Plant breeding efforts aimed at modifying root traits can result in novel, more stress-tolerant crops and increased yield by enhancing the capacity of the plant for soil exploration and, thus, water and nutrient acquisition. Available approaches for root phenotyping in laboratory, greenhouse and field encompass simple agar plates to labor-intensive root digging (i.e., shovelomics and soil boring methods, the construction of underground root observation stations and sophisticated computer-assisted root imaging. Here, we summarize root architectural traits relevant to crop productivity, survey root phenotyping strategies and describe their advantages, limitations and practical value for crop and forage breeding programs.

  10. Regeneration of horseradish hairy roots incited by Agrobacterium rhizogenes infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, T; Tanaka, N; Mano, Y; Nabeshima, S; Ohkawa, H; Matsui, C

    1987-07-01

    Surface-sterilized leaf disks of horse-radish (Armoracia lapathifolia) were immersed in a suspension of Agrobacterium rhizogenes harboring the root-inducing plasmid (pRi) and cultured on a solid medium. Within about 10 days after inoculation, adventitious roots (hairy roots) emerged from the leaf disks. No roots emerged from the uninoculated leaf disks. The excised hairy roots grew vigorously in the dark and exhibited extensive lateral branches in the absence of phytohormones. When the hairy roots were moved into the light, numerous adventitious buds thrust out of the roots within about 10 days, and they developed into complete plants (R0 generation). R0 plants revealed leaf wrinkle. Root masses of cultured R0 plants were of two types. One had fibrous roots only and the other had both fibrous and tuberous roots Leaf disks of the R0 plants proliferated adventitious roots (R1 generation) on a solid medium after 1-2 weeks of culture. Phenotypical characters of the R1 roots were the same as those observed with the initial hairy roots. The T-DNA sequences of pRi were detected within DNA isolated from the hairy roots and their regenerants. PMID:24248760

  11. Mycorrhiza alters the profile of root hairs in trifoliate orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiang-Sheng; Liu, Chun-Yan; Zhang, De-Jian; Zou, Ying-Ning; He, Xin-Hua; Wu, Qing-Hua

    2016-04-01

    Root hairs and arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) coexist in root systems for nutrient and water absorption, but the relation between AM and root hairs is poorly known. A pot study was performed to evaluate the effects of four different AM fungi (AMF), namely, Claroideoglomus etunicatum, Diversispora versiformis, Funneliformis mosseae, and Rhizophagus intraradices on root hair development in trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata) seedlings grown in sand. Mycorrhizal seedlings showed significantly higher root hair density than non-mycorrhizal seedlings, irrespective of AMF species. AMF inoculation generally significantly decreased root hair length in the first- and second-order lateral roots but increased it in the third- and fourth-order lateral roots. AMF colonization induced diverse responses in root hair diameter of different order lateral roots. Considerably greater concentrations of phosphorus (P), nitric oxide (NO), glucose, sucrose, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) were found in roots of AM seedlings than in non-AM seedlings. Levels of P, NO, carbohydrates, IAA, and MeJA in roots were correlated with AM formation and root hair development. These results suggest that AMF could alter the profile of root hairs in trifoliate orange through modulation of physiological activities. F. mosseae, which had the greatest positive effects, could represent an efficient AM fungus for increasing fruit yields or decreasing fertilizer inputs in citrus production. PMID:26499883

  12. Adjustment of Forest Ecosystem Root Respiration as Temperature Warms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrew J. Burton; Jerry M. Melillo; Serita D. Frey

    2008-01-01

    Adjustment of ecosystem root respiration to warmer climatic conditions can alter the autotrophic portion of soil respiration and influence the amount of carbon available for biomass production. We examined 44 published values of annual forest root respiration and found an increase in ecosystem root respiration with increasing mean annual temperature (MAT),but the rate of this cross-ecosystem increase (Q10 = 1.6) is less than published values for short-term responses of root respiration to temperature within ecosystems (Q10 = 2-3). When specific root respiration rates and root biomass values were examined, there was a clear trend for decreasing root metabolic capacity (respiration rate at a standard temperature) with increasing MAT. There also were tradeoffs between root metabolic capacity and root system biomass, such that there were no instances of high growing season respiration rates and high root biomass occurring together. We also examined specific root respiration rates at three soil warming experiments at Harvard Forest, USA, and found decreases in metabolic capacity for roots from the heated plots. This decline could be due to either physiological acclimation or to the effects of co-occurring drier soils on the measurement date. Regardless of the cause, these findings clearly suggest that modeling efforts that allow root respiration to increase exponentially with temperature, with Qt0 values of 2 or more, may over-predict root contributions to ecosystem CO2 efflux for future climates and underestimate the amount of C available for other uses,including net primary productivity.

  13. Proofs of certain properties of irrational roots

    OpenAIRE

    Belbas, S. A.

    2009-01-01

    We give two elementary proofs, at a level understandable by students with only pre-calculus knowledge of Algebra, of the well known fact that an irreducible irrational n-th root of a positive rational number cannot be solution of a polynomial of degree less than n with rational coefficients. We also state and prove a few simple consequences.

  14. Occurrence of root parsley pathogens inhabiting seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Nowicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The studies on root parsley pathogens inhabiting seeds were conducted during 1981-1988 and in 1993. Filter paper method with prefreezing and keeping under light was used. Each test sample comprised 500 seeds. Pathogenicity of collected fungal isolates was tested following two laboratory methods. 238 seed samples were studied. 18 fungal species were found but only 7 proved to be important pathogens of root parsley. The most common inhabitants of root parsley seeds were Alternaria spp. A.allernata occurred on 74,8% of seeds but only a few isolates showed to be slightly pathogenic while A.petroselini and A.radicina were higly pathogenic and inhabited 11,4 and 4,2% of seeds, respectively. The second group of important pathogens were species of Fusarium found on 3,9% of seeds. F.avenaceum dominated as it comprised 48% of Fusarium isolates, the next were as follow: F.culmorum - 20%, F.equiseti - 15%, F.solani - 8%, F.oxysporum - 7% and F.dimerum -2%. Some fungi like Botrytis cinerea, Septoria petroselini and Phoma spp. inhabited low number of seeds, respectively O,4; 0,5 and 0,8%, but they were highly pathogenic to root parsley. The fungi: Bipolaris sorokiniana, Drechslera biseptata, Stemphylium botryosum and Ulocludium consortiale showed slight pathogenicity. They were isolated from 3,8% of seeds.

  15. Root diseases, climate change and biomass productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tree growth and yield in eastern boreal spruce fir forests are both greatly affected by root and butt rots. These pests are also prevalent in western coniferous species and boreal-sub-boreal forests. Infections are difficult to detect, but reduced growth, tree mortality, wind throw and scaled butt cull contribute to considerable forest gaps. Harvesting and stand tending practices in second growth stands are creating conditions for increased incidence. Tree stress is one of the major factors affecting the spread of root disease. It is expected that climate change will create abnormal stress conditions that will further compound the incidence of root disease. A comparison was made between natural and managed stands, including harvesting and stand practices such as commercial thinning. Studies of Douglas-fir forests in British Columbia were presented, with results indicating that managed forests contain one third to one half less carbon biomass than unmanaged forests. It was concluded that root diseases must be recognized and taken into account in order to refine and improve biomass estimates, prevent overestimation of wood supply models and avoid potential wood fibre losses. 40 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Winter Wheat Root Growth and Nitrogen Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Irene Skovby

    in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L). Field experiments on the effect of sowing date, N fertilization and cultivars were conducted on a sandy loam soil in Taastrup, Denmark. The root studies were conducted by means of the minirhizotron method. Also, a field experiment on the effect of defoliation...

  17. Endosomal Interactions during Root Hair Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Wangenheim, Daniel; Rosero, Amparo; Komis, George; Šamajová, Olga; Ovečka, Miroslav; Voigt, Boris; Šamaj, Jozef

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic localization of endosomal compartments labeled with targeted fluorescent protein tags is routinely followed by time lapse fluorescence microscopy approaches and single particle tracking algorithms. In this way trajectories of individual endosomes can be mapped and linked to physiological processes as cell growth. However, other aspects of dynamic behavior including endosomal interactions are difficult to follow in this manner. Therefore, we characterized the localization and dynamic properties of early and late endosomes throughout the entire course of root hair formation by means of spinning disc time lapse imaging and post-acquisition automated multitracking and quantitative analysis. Our results show differential motile behavior of early and late endosomes and interactions of late endosomes that may be specified to particular root hair domains. Detailed data analysis revealed a particular transient interaction between late endosomes-termed herein as dancing-endosomes-which is not concluding to vesicular fusion. Endosomes preferentially located in the root hair tip interacted as dancing-endosomes and traveled short distances during this interaction. Finally, sizes of early and late endosomes were addressed by means of super-resolution structured illumination microscopy (SIM) to corroborate measurements on the spinning disc. This is a first study providing quantitative microscopic data on dynamic spatio-temporal interactions of endosomes during root hair tip growth. PMID:26858728

  18. Plant Hormones: How They Affect Root Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhard, Diana Hereda

    This science study aid, produced by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, includes a series of plant rooting activities for secondary science classes. The material in the pamphlet is written for students and includes background information on plant hormones, a vocabulary list, and five learning activities. Objectives, needed materials, and…

  19. On the Complexity of Real Root Isolation

    CERN Document Server

    Sagraloff, Michael

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a new method to isolate the real roots of a square-free polynomial $F=\\sum_{i=0}^n A_i x^i$ with real coefficients $A_i$, where $|A_n|\\ge 1$ and $|A_i|\\le 2^{\\tau}$ for all $i$. It is assumed that each coefficient of $F$ can be approximated to any specified error bound. The presented method is exact, complete and deterministic. Due to its similarities to the Descartes method, we also consider it practical and easy to implement. Compared to previous approaches, our new method achieves a significantly better bit complexity. In particular, we show that the hardness of isolating the real roots of $F$ is essentially determined by the geometry of the roots and not by the complexity of the coefficients. More precisely, our new algorithm demands for $\\Otilde(n(\\Sigma(F)+n\\log\\Gamma+\\tau)(\\Sigma(F)+n\\log\\Gamma))$ bit operations, where $\\sigma_i$ denotes the separation of the $i$-th (complex) root of $F$, $\\Sigma(F):=\\sum_{i=1}^n\\log\\sigma_i^{-1}$, and $\\Gamma$ constitutes a bound on the modulus of all roo...

  20. Square root kalman filter with contaminated observations

    OpenAIRE

    Cipra, Tomas; Romera, Rosario; Rubio, A.

    1992-01-01

    The algorithm of square root Kalman filtering for the case of contaminated observations is described in the paper. This algorithm is suitable for the parallel computer implementation allowing to treat dynamic linear systems with large number of state variables in a robust recursive way.

  1. Pharmacognostic studies on Pergularia daemia roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, V H; Balakrishnan, N

    2010-04-01

    Pergularia daemia (Forsk.) Chiov. (Asclepiadaceae) is used traditionally as an anthelmintic, laxative, antipyretic, and expectorant, and also used to treat malarial intermittent fever. But the scientific parameters are not yet available to identify the true plant material. In the present investigation, various pharmacognostic standards for P. daemia have been established. Microscopically, thick root and thick taproot of P. daemia showed the presence of periderm, secondary phloem and secondary xylem. Abundant starch grains and calcium oxalate crystals are present in the cortical parenchyma masses included within the xylem. Powdered roots of the plant showed vessel elements, tracheids, fibers and xylem parenchyma. Total ash of the root of P. daemia was not more than 5% and water-soluble extractive value was two times higher than alcohol soluble extractive value. Phytochemically, the ethanol and aqueous extracts of the root of P. daemia showed maximum phytochemicals such as alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, flavonoids, saponin, tannin and phenolic compounds, terpenoids, carbohydrates, gums and mucilage. The results of this study should provide a standard for identification and preparation of monograph of this drug. PMID:20645722

  2. Quest for Continual Growth Takes Root

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surdey, Mary M.; Hashey, Jane M.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe how the quest for continual growth has taken its root at Vestal Central School district. Located at the heart of upstate New York, educators at Vestal Central School district have created a spirit of "kaizen," a Japanese word meaning the relentless quest for continual improvement and higher-quality…

  3. Mutation Breeding in Root and Tuber Crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proceeded by a few general considerations about problems and results of mutation breeding in vegetatively propagated plants a review is given of the results of mutation breeding programs up to new in the different (tropical) root and tuber crops (cassava, sweet potato, yam, potato and others). (author)

  4. Pectate hydrolases of parsley (Petroselinum crispum) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flodrová, Dana; Dzúrovä, Mária; Lisková, Desana; Mohand, Fairouz Ait; Mislovicová, Danica; Malovícová, Anna; Voburka, Zdenek; Omelková, Jirina; Stratilová, Eva

    2007-01-01

    The presence of various enzyme forms with terminal action pattern on pectate was evaluated in a protein mixture obtained from parsley roots. Enzymes found in the soluble fraction of roots (juice) were purified to homogeneity according to SDS-PAGE, partially separated by preparative isoelectric focusing and characterized. Three forms with pH optima 3.6, 4.2 and 4.6 clearly preferred substrates with a lower degree of polymerization (oligogalacturonates) while the form with pH optimum 5.2 was a typical exopolygalacturonase [EC 3. 2.1.67] with relatively fast cleavage of polymeric substrate. The forms with pH optima 3.6, 4.2 and 5.2 were released from the pulp, too. The form from the pulp with pH optimum 4.6 preferred higher oligogalacturonates and was not described in plants previously. The production of individual forms in roots was compared with that produced by root cells cultivated on solid medium and in liquid one. PMID:17708444

  5. Root canal treatment in necrotic primary molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, A D; Reina, E S

    1989-01-01

    Fifty-three patients (27 boys and 26 girls) with necrotic primary teeth received root canal treatments with a paste consisting of KRI-1 paste and pure calcium hydroxide powder with one drop of formocresol. All cases were followed clinically, radiographically and some histologically at 6, 12 and 17 to 24 months postoperatively. All cases were clinically and radiographically successful. PMID:2637358

  6. ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF ROOTS OF MEDICINAL PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    S. Sini; N S Malathy

    2005-01-01

    Antibacterial properties of hexane, chloroform and aqueous extracts of roots of Acorus calamus, Aristolochia indica, Cyperus rotundus, Desmodium gangeticum, Holostemma ada– kodien and Kaempferia galanga, used in the traditional medicine were studied on Bacillus pumilis and Eschericia coli by disc diffusion method.

  7. Rhizoctonia seed, seedling, and wet root rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wet root rot caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn can cause seed and seedling rot of both lentil and chickpea as well as many other agricultural crops worldwide. The pathogen is favored in cool, sandy soil with high organic matter under no-till or reduced-till soil management practices. Survival spor...

  8. REAL ROOT ISOLATION OF SPLINE FUNCTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Renhong Wang; Jinming Wu

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,we propose an algorithm for isolating real roots of a given univariate spline function,which is based on the use of Descartes' rule of signs and de Casteljau algorithm.Numerical examples illustrate the flexibility and effectiveness of the algorithm.

  9. Idiopathic Aortic Root to Right Atrial Fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campisi, Salvatore; Cluzel, Armand; Vola, Marco; Fuzellier, Jean Francois

    2016-06-01

    An aorta to right atrium fistula is rare. We report a case of idiopathic aortic root to right atrial fistula with right heart failure and review the literature. doi: 10.1111/jocs.12751 (J Card Surg 2016;31:373-375). PMID:27109166

  10. Anatomical response of olive roots to dry and irrigated soils

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Luque, José Enrique; Moreno Lucas, Félix; Martín Aranda, José; Rapoport, Hava F.

    1994-01-01

    Root development was examined in roots of young olive trees (Olea europaea L., cv. Manzanillo) grown under wet and dry water regimes. Cross sections at sequential positions were observed along tbe roots axis from the apex up to 18 cm from the root tip at intervals of 3 cm. An index was established to facilitate development comparisons. Complete transition to secondary growth was found closer to the apex in the roots grown in dry soil (at 9 cm) than in the roots grown in watered so...

  11. Root resorption following periodontally accelerated osteogenic orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald J Ferguson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Literature evidence suggests that root resorption, an adverse side effect of orthodontic therapy, may be decreased under conditions of alveolar osteopenia, a condition characterized by diminished bone density and created secondary to alveolar corticotomy (Cort surgery. Purpose: To compare root resorption of the maxillary central incisors following nonextraction orthodontic therapy with and without Cort surgery. Materials and Methods: The sample comprised two groups, with and without Cort and was matched by age and gender: Cort-facilitated nonextraction orthodontics with 27 subjects, 53 central incisors of mean age 24.8 ± 10.2 years, and conventional (Conv nonextraction orthodontics with 27 subjects, 54 incisors with mean age of 19.6 ± 8.8 years. All periapical radiographs were taken with the paralleling technique; total tooth lengths of the right and left central incisors were measured by projecting and enlarging the periapical radiographs exactly 8 times. Results: t-tests revealed a significant decrease in treatment time in the Cort group (6.3 ± 8.0 vs. 17.4 ± 20.2 months, P = 0.000. Pretreatment root lengths were not significantly different (P = 0.11, but Conv had significantly shorter roots at posttreatment when compared with Cort (P = 0.03. Significant root resorption (P < 0.01 occurred in both Cort (0.3 mm and Conv (0.7 mm, but the increment of change was significantly greater in Conv (P < 0.03. The variable SNA increased significantly in the Cort (P = 0.001 group and decreased significantly in the Conv group (P < 0.001. Conclusions: Based on the conditions of this study, it may be concluded that Cort-facilitated nonextraction orthodontic therapy results in less root resorption and enhanced alveolar support within a significantly reduced clinical service delivery time frame. Rapid orthodontic treatment and reduced apical root resorption are probably due to the transient osteopenia induced by the Cort surgery and inspired by

  12. Electrical Imaging of Roots and Trunks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Hagrey, S.; Werban, U.; Meissner, R.; Ismaeil, A.; Rabbel, W.

    2005-05-01

    We applied geoelectric and GPR techniques to analyze problems of botanical structures and even processes, e.g., mapping root zones, internal structure of trunks, and water uptake by roots. The dielectric nature of root zones and trunks is generally a consequence of relatively high moisture content. The electric method, applied to root zones, can discriminate between old, thick, isolated roots (high resistivity) and the network of young, active, and hydraulically conductive zones (low resistivity). Both types of roots show low radar velocity and a strong attenuation caused by the dominant effect of moisture (high dielectric constant) on the electromagnetic wave propagation. Single root branches could be observed in radargrams by their reflection and diffraction parabolas. We have perfected the inversion method for perfect and imperfect cylindrical objects, such as trunks, and developed a new multielectrodes (needle or gel) ring array for fast applications on living trees and discs. Using synthetic models we tested the technique successfully and analyzed it as a function of total electrode number and configuration. Measurements at a trunk show a well established inverse relationship between the imaged resistivity and the moisture content determined from cores. The central resistivity maximum of healthy trees strongly decreases toward the rim. This agrees with the moisture decrease to the outside where active sap flow processes take place. Branching, growth anomalies (new or old shoots) and meteorological effects (sunshine and wind direction) lead to deviations of the concentric electric structure. The strongest anomalies are related to infections causing wet, rotting spots or cavities. The heartwood resistivity is highest in olive and oak trunks, intermediate in young fruit trees and lowest in cork oak trunks that are considered to be anomalously wet. Compared to acoustic tomography our electric technique shows a better resolution in imaging internal ring structures

  13. External root resorption: Different etiologies explained from the composition of the human root-close periodontal membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inger Kjaer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This paper summarizes different conditions, which have a well-known influence on the resorption of tooth roots. It also highlights factors important for individual susceptibility to root resorption. Furthermore, the paper focuses on idiopathic root resorption where the provoking factor is not known. The Hypothesis: The several different disturbances causing root resorption can be either orthodontically provoked or acquired by trauma, virus or congenital diseases. It is presumed that all these conditions lead to inflammatory processes in the three main tissue layers, comprising the peri-root sheet. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: This paper explains how different etiologies behind root resorption and how different phenotypic traits in root resorption can be understood from immunohistochemical studies of the human periodontal membrane close to the root and thus, gain a new understanding of the phenomenon of root resorption.

  14. Studies on the functions of different unit-roots and the grouping of roots in winter wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristics and functions of different unit-roots and their effects on the yield components in wheat were studied by means of 15N tracing technique. The root grouping was made by cluster analysis according to the function of different unit roots. The results were as follows: The unit-roots characters (weight, length etc.) and 15N absorption decreased progressively downward. 15N absorbed by any unit roots could be transported from root to tiller and from tiller to tiller, but the transporting ratio was different. According to the function, the wheat roots could be divided into 3 groups: primary root group, lower seconddary root group and upper secondary root group. The ratio of 15N absorption to the total N absorption in each group was 26.7%, 31.4% and 41.9% respectively. The differences among the three groups were that the primary root group functioned throughout whole life of wheat, mainly promoting tillers and increasing root numbers before winter; the lower secondary root group played the major role in strenthening tillers and promoting ear development; the upper secondary root group had the main function in determining the floret number, kernel number and kernel weight

  15. Root cap-dependent gravitropic U-turn of maize root requires light-induced auxin biosynthesis via the YUC pathway in the root apex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hiromi; Yokawa, Ken; Nakano, Sayuri; Yoshida, Yuriko; Fabrissin, Isabelle; Okamoto, Takashi; Baluška, František; Koshiba, Tomokazu

    2016-08-01

    Gravitropism refers to the growth or movement of plants that is influenced by gravity. Roots exhibit positive gravitropism, and the root cap is thought to be the gravity-sensing site. In some plants, the root cap requires light irradiation for positive gravitropic responses. However, the mechanisms regulating this phenomenon are unknown. We herein report that maize roots exposed to white light continuously for ≥1-2h show increased indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels in the root tips, especially in the transition zone (1-3mm from the tip). Treatment with IAA biosynthesis inhibitors yucasin and l-kynurenine prevented any increases in IAA content and root curvature under light conditions. Analyses of the incorporation of a stable isotope label from tryptophan into IAA revealed that some of the IAA in roots was synthesized in the root apex. Furthermore, Zmvt2 and Zmyuc gene transcripts were detected in the root apex. One of the Zmyuc genes (ZM2G141383) was up-regulated by light irradiation in the 0-1mm tip region. Our findings suggest that IAA accumulation in the transition zone is due to light-induced activation of Zmyuc gene expression in the 0-1mm root apex region. Light-induced changes in IAA levels and distributions mediate the maize root gravitropic U-turn. PMID:27307546

  16. EPRI root cause advisory workstation 'ERCAWS'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EPRI and its contractor FPI International are developing Personal Computer (PC), Microsoft Windows based software to assist power plant engineers and maintenance personnel to diagnose and correct root causes of power plant equipment failures. The EPRI Root Cause Advisory Workstation (ERCAWS) is easy to use and able to handle knowledge bases and diagnostic tools for an unlimited number of equipment types. Knowledge base data is based on power industry experience and root cause analysis from many sources - Utilities, EPRI, US government, FPI, and International sources. The approach used in the knowledge base handling portion of the software is case-study oriented with the engineer selecting the equipment type and symptom identification using a combination of text, photographs, and animation, displaying dynamic physical phenomena involved. Root causes, means for confirmation, and corrective actions are then suggested in a simple, user friendly format. The first knowledge base being released with ERCAWS is the Valve Diagnostic Advisor module; covering six common valve types and some motor operator and air operator items. More modules are under development with Heat Exchanger, Bolt, and Piping modules currently in the beta testing stage. A wide variety of diagnostic tools are easily incorporated into ERCAWS and accessed through the main screen interface. ERCAWS is designed to fulfill the industry need for user-friendly tools to perform power plant equipment failure root cause analysis, and training for engineering, operations and maintenance personnel on how components can fail and how to reduce failure rates or prevent failure from occurring. In addition, ERCAWS serves as a vehicle to capture lessons learned from industry wide experience. (author)

  17. Root canal filling using Resilon: a review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, D J

    2011-07-01

    Root canal treatment is achieved by chemo-mechanical debridement of the root canal system followed by filling. The filling material \\'entombs\\' residual bacteria and acts as a barrier which prevents the entrance of oral microorganisms and reinfection of the root canal system through microleakage. However, filling with contemporary root filling materials such as gutta-percha offers limited long-term resistance to microorganisms; as a result other materials such as Resilon have been investigated as alternatives. The aim of this review was to analyse the literature to consider whether Resilon is a suitable root canal filling material. A MEDLINE and Cochrane library search including various keyword searches identified several papers which investigated or discussed Resilon or RealSeal\\/Epiphany. Analysis of the literature demonstrated that the bulk of the literature is in vitro in nature, based largely on leakage-type studies, and demonstrates a wide variety of methodologies with conflicting findings; as a result meaningful conclusions are difficult. Within the limit of these in vitro studies Resilon appears to perform adequately in comparison to gutta-percha, however, as a result of the questionable merit of such studies, it cannot presently be considered an evidence-based alternative to the current gold standard gutta-percha. It is imperative that before Resilon is considered as a replacement material, a better understanding of the physical properties of the resin sealer and the reality of the adhesive \\'monoblock\\' are elucidated. The literature also demonstrates a paucity of quality long-term clinical outcome studies which will need to be addressed before firm conclusions can be reached.

  18. Transition from ion root to electron root in NBI heated plasmas in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent Large Helical Device (LHD) experiments revealed that the transition from ion root to electron root occurred for the first in neutral beam heated discharges, where there is no non-thermal electrons exist. The measured values of the radial electric field were found to be in qualitative agreement with those estimated by neoclassical theory. For the configuration with a magnetic axis of 3.75m, where the ion transport loss was comparable to the neoclassical ion loss, a clear reduction of ion thermal diffusivity was observed after the mode transition from ion root to electron root as predicted by neoclassical theory. On the other hand, for the inward shifted configuration (Rax=3.6m), where the neoclassical ion loss is reduced below the anomalous loss, no change in the ion thermal diffusivity was observed. (author)

  19. Research on the Slope Protection Mechanism of Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Wan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the slope protection mechanism of roots. In ecological slope protection, plant roots can fix soil and protect slop through biological and mechanical action. However, previous studies on the slope protection mechanism are still not deep enough and inadequate. By taking four kinds of typical plant roots along Wu-Shen Expressway as the research object, through the indoor tensile test and root morphology observation analysis, the tensile strength and ultimate tension were studied and the influence to the stability of the slope was discussed in this study. The results show that the mean ultimate tension of roots is 7.19~29.96 N. The mean tension of shrub roots is 2~4 times greater than that of herb roots. The ultimate tension of the same plant roots increases with the diameter significantly. To the range of improvement, Shrub roots exceed herb ones. It also indicates that the mean tensile strength of roots are 24.48~74.25 MPa. Compared with the steel HRB235, the tensile strength of herb roots is as great as 1/5~1/3, while Shrub roots is about 1/10~1/5. The slope stability coefficient with plant growing is a positive correlation with roots tension and root number through the sliding surface and is a negative correlation with plants weight. In addition, the slope stability coefficient is related to plant density and root morphology. The test results demonstrate that the roots tension with acute angle or right angle to the landslide surface and the roots shear stiffness with obtuse angle can improve the performance of slope’s anti-slide. Four kinds of plants can improve the stability coefficient of shallow soil. As for the slope protection effect, herbage is superior to shrub. In general, grass-shrub mixed community is the ideal system for slope protection.

  20. Root traits contributing to plant productivity under drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise eComas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Geneticists and breeders are positioned to breed plants with root traits that improve productivity under drought. However, a better understanding of root functional traits and how traits are related to whole plant strategies to increase crop productivity under different drought conditions is needed. Root traits associated with maintaining plant productivity under drought include small fine root diameters, long specific root length (SRL, and considerable root length density, especially at depths in soil with available water. In environments with late season water deficits, small xylem diameters in targeted seminal roots save soil water deep in the soil profile for use during crop maturation and result in improved yields. Capacity for deep root growth and large xylem diameters in deep roots may also improve root acquisition of water when ample water at depth is available. Xylem pit anatomy that makes xylem less ‘leaky’ and prone to cavitation warrants further exploration holding promise that such traits may improve plant productivity in water-limited environments without negatively impacting yield under adequate water conditions. Rapid resumption of root growth following soil rewetting may improve plant productivity under episodic drought. Genetic control of many of these traits through breeding appears feasible. Several recent reviews have covered methods for screening root traits but an appreciation for the complexity of root systems (e.g. functional differences between fine and coarse roots needs to be paired with these methods to successfully identify relevant traits for crop improvement. Screening of root traits at early stages in plant development can proxy traits at mature stages but verification is needed on a case by case basis that traits are linked to increased crop productivity under drought. Examples in lesquerella (Physaria and rice (Oryza show approaches to phenotyping of root traits and current understanding of root trait