Sample records for bellflower root anaphylaxis

  1. Anaphylaxis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aziz Sheikh; Samantha Walker


    @@ A 60 year old man attends to discuss his recent allergic reaction to an insect sting. He presents you with the casualty letter which reads: "Treated for anaphylaxis after bee sting-see GP for follow-up."

  2. Anaphylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Harold


    Full Text Available Abstract Anaphylaxis is an acute, potentially fatal systemic reaction with varied mechanisms and clinical presentations. Although prompt recognition and treatment of anaphylaxis are imperative, both patients and healthcare professionals often fail to recognize and diagnose early signs and symptoms of the condition. Clinical manifestations vary widely, however, the most common signs are cutaneous symptoms, including angioedema, urticaria, erythema and pruritus. Immediate intramuscular administration of epinephrine into the lateral thigh is first-line therapy, even if the diagnosis is uncertain. The mainstays of long-term management include specialist assessment, avoidance measures, and the provision of an epinephrine auto-injector and an individualized anaphylaxis action plan. This article provides an overview of the causes, clinical features, diagnosis and acute and long-term management of this serious allergic reaction.

  3. Anaphylaxis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muraro, A; Roberts, G; Worm, M


    features. First-line treatment for anaphylaxis is intramuscular adrenaline. Useful second-line interventions may include removing the trigger where possible, calling for help, correct positioning of the patient, high-flow oxygen, intravenous fluids, inhaled short-acting bronchodilators, and nebulized...... adrenaline. Discharge arrangements should involve an assessment of the risk of further reactions, a management plan with an anaphylaxis emergency action plan, and, where appropriate, prescribing an adrenaline auto-injector. If an adrenaline auto-injector is prescribed, education on when and how to use...

  4. Anaphylaxis. (United States)

    Hernandez, Lorenzo; Papalia, Sarah; Pujalte, George G A


    Anaphylaxis is an acute, systemic reaction mediated by immunoglobulin E hypersensitivity. Release of bioactive factors causes vasodilation and bronchiole constriction that can lead to hypotensive shock and asphyxiation. Differential diagnosis includes acute asthma, localized angioedema, syncope, and anxiety/panic attacks. Diagnostic tests lack specificity. Clinical diagnosis is based on demonstration of specific airway or cardiovascular compromise within proximity of allergen exposure. Treatment includes epinephrine, antihistamines, fluid resuscitation, and airway management. Prevention focuses on awareness/avoidance of triggers, implementation of personalized action plans, as well as immune modulation by desensitization in a closely controlled setting where available.

  5. The growth and saponin production of Platycodon grandiflorum (Jacq. A. DC. (Chinese bellflower hairy roots cultures maintained in shake flasks and mist bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Urbańska


    Full Text Available The growth and saponin accumulation were measured in two lines of transgenic hairy roots of Platycodon grandiflorum, Pl 6 and Pl 17, cultured for 8 weeks in 250-ml shake flasks containing 50 ml of hormone-free woody plant medium supplemented with 40 g/l sucrose and in the Pl 17 line cultured for 12 weeks in a 5-l mist bioreactor containing 1.5 l of the same medium. With both methods, the growth of transgenic hairy roots was assessed as both fresh and dry weight and the biomass growth was correlated with the conductivity and sucrose uptake. The accumulation of saponins was measured and compared with that in roots derived from the field cultivation. The saponin concentrations were significantly higher in the two hairy root lines cultured in shake flasks [6.92 g/100 g d.w. (g% and 5.82 g% in Pl 6 and Pl 17, respectively] and the line cultured in the bioreactor (5.93 g% than in the roots derived from the field cultivation (4.02 g%. The results suggest that cultures of P. grandiflorum hairy roots may be a valuable source for obtaining saponins.

  6. Perioperative anaphylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Inés Berrío Valencia


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Anaphylaxis remains one of the potential causes of perioperative death, being generally unanticipated and quickly progress to a life threatening situation. A narrative review of perioperative anaphylaxis is performed.CONTENT: The diagnostic tests are primarily to avoid further major events. The mainstays of treatment are adrenaline and intravenous fluids.CONCLUSION: The anesthesiologist should be familiar with the proper diagnosis, management and monitoring of perioperative anaphylaxis.

  7. Pollination, biogeography and phylogeny of oceanic island bellflowers (Campanulaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jens Mogens; Alarcón, M.; Ehlers, Bodil


    of these species and their relatives were gathered from atpB, matK, rbcL and trnL-F regions, building the most complete phylogeny of Campanulaceae to date. Six of the island bellflower species were bird-pollinated and two (A. vidalii and M. aurea) were lizard-pollinated. Insects also visited some of the species...

  8. Perioperative anaphylaxis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mertes, P M


    The incidence of immune-mediated anaphylaxis during anesthesia ranges from 1 in 10,000 to 1 in 20,000. Neuromuscular blocking agents are most frequently incriminated, followed by latex and antibiotics, although any drug or substance used may be a culprit. Diagnosis relies on tryptase measurements at the time of the reaction and skin tests, specific immunoglobulin E, or basophil activation assays. Treatment consists of rapid volume expansion and epinephrine administration titrated to symptom severity.

  9. Anafilaxia Anaphylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rubio


    Full Text Available La anafilaxia es un cuadro clínico potencialmente mortal, infradiagnosticado. Los agentes desencadenantes más frecuentes son los fármacos y los alimentos. El tratamiento inmediato correcto con adrenalina, aunque se sabe que está claramente indicado, no se realiza con la frecuencia deseada debido fundamentalmente al elevado número de casos de anafilaxia que no se diagnostican como tales. En los pacientes que ya han sufrido un primer episodio de anafilaxia, el diagnóstico etiológico posterior es crucial para evitar la aparición de nuevos episodios. La única situación de anafilaxia en la que hay que valorar inmunoterapia con el alergeno, es aquella en la que el agente causal es el veneno de himenópteros.Anaphlaxis is a potentially mortal, underdiagnosed clinical picture. The most frequent triggering agents are drugs and foodstuffs. The first therapeutic option, adrenaline, although clearly indicated, is not carried out with the desired frequency due basically to the high number of cases of anaphylaxis that are not diagnosed as such. In patients with a first episode of anaphylaxis, posterior aetiological diagnosis is crucial to avoid the appearance of new episodes. The only case of anaphylaxis in which immunotherapy with the allergen must be evaluated, is that in which the causal agent is the poison of hymenopters.

  10. Anaphylaxis and urticaria. (United States)

    Williams, Kelli W; Sharma, Hemant P


    Anaphylaxis and urticaria are common presenting allergic complaints. Affecting up to 2% of the population, anaphylaxis is a serious, life-threatening allergic reaction. Although not life-threatening, urticaria is a rash of transient, erythematous, pruritic wheals that can be bothersome and affects up to 25% of the population. All cases of anaphylaxis warrant thorough clinical evaluation by the allergist-immunologist, although most cases of urticaria are self-limited and do not require specialist referral. This article offers an overview of our current knowledge on the epidemiology, pathogenesis, triggers, diagnosis, and treatment of anaphylaxis and urticaria.

  11. Management of anaphylaxis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhami, S; Panesar, S S; Roberts, G


    time series and - only in relation to adrenaline - case series investigating the effectiveness of interventions in managing anaphylaxis. Fifty-five studies satisfied the inclusion criteria. We found no robust studies investigating the effectiveness of adrenaline (epinephrine), H1-antihistamines......, systemic glucocorticosteroids or methylxanthines to manage anaphylaxis. There was evidence regarding the optimum route, site and dose of administration of adrenaline from trials studying people with a history of anaphylaxis. This suggested that administration of intramuscular adrenaline into the middle...... of vastus lateralis muscle is the optimum treatment. Furthermore, fatality register studies have suggested that a failure or delay in administration of adrenaline may increase the risk of death. The main long-term management interventions studied were anaphylaxis management plans and allergen...

  12. Fatal asthma or anaphylaxis?


    Rainbow, J; Browne, G


    The incidence of anaphylaxis is under-reported. Children with asthma are frequently atopic and prone to allergic reactions. Parents and clinicians may attribute wheeze of rapid onset to acute severe asthma, rather than recognising an anaphylactic event. Two cases of fatal anaphylaxis are reported who were initially diagnosed as acute severe asthma, and responded poorly to bronchodilator treatment. Survivors of "acute asphyxic asthma" should be screened for reactions to common allergens that p...

  13. Identification for Spotted Bellflower%紫斑风铃草的鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓明; 林丽; 潘雪


    目的:对紫斑风铃草进行鉴定和质量评价.方法:对紫斑风铃草进行包括原植物、药材性状、显微鉴定及质量检查(总灰分、酸不溶性灰分、水分测定)等的鉴定.结果:紫斑风铃草为桔梗科风铃草属植物,其组织及粉末中含有乳汁管、菊糖等桔梗科共性特征,还有方晶、气孔、导管、花粉粒、腺毛、非腺毛等一般组织.测得总灰分9.870%,酸不溶性灰分3.141%,水分含量7.981%.纸色谱中得到深蓝褐色斑点的Rf值为0.5.结论:初步建立了紫斑风铃草的鉴别方法,为进一步建立该药材的质量标准及开发利用奠定了基础.%Objective: To provide identification and quality evaluation for spotted bellflower (campanula punc-tata). Method: Original plant, property, microscope and quality (total ash, acid-insoluble ash, water content) of spotted bellflower were identified. Result: Spotted bellflower was of campanulaceae plants and contained the common features of campanulaceae including: laticiferous tube, synanthrin and others in tissue and powder, also normal tissues: prismatic crystal, stoma, vessels, pollen grains, glandular hairs, non-glandular hairs and others. The results showed that total ash accounted for 9.870%, acid-insoluble ash 3.141% and water content 7.981%. Rf value of deep blue brown spot was 0.5 obtained in paper chromatography. Conclusion:Establishing identification method of spotted bellflower initially could lay foundation for quality standard, development and utilization of the drug.

  14. Anti-histamine effect of Rubia tibetica, used to treat anaphylaxis caused by tick bites in the Pamir Mountains, Afghanistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Anne S.; Kristiansen, Uffe; Soelberg, Jens;


    The roots of Rubia tibetica are chewed as an antidote to anaphylaxis caused by bites of the tick Ornithodoros lahorensis by the Wakhi people in Afghanistan.......The roots of Rubia tibetica are chewed as an antidote to anaphylaxis caused by bites of the tick Ornithodoros lahorensis by the Wakhi people in Afghanistan....

  15. Autoimmune Progesterone Anaphylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Bemanian


    Full Text Available Progesterone induced dermatitis is a rare disorder. It typically occurs in females due to anautoimmune phenomenon to endogenous progesterone production, but can also be caused byexogenous intake of a synthetic progestin. Here in, we present a case of autoimmune progesterone anaphylaxis (AIPA observed in an adolescent female.The patient is an 18-year-old Caucasian female with no significant past medical history and noprior exogenous hormone use, who presented to her primary care physician complaining of cyclic skin eruptions with dyspnea, cough and respiratory distress. She noted that her symptoms occurred monthly, just prior to her menses. An intradermal skin test using 0.1 cml of progesterone was performed. The patient developed a 15mm wheal after 15 minutes, confirming the diagnosis of AIPA.The patient was started on a continuous regimen of an oral conjugated estrogen (0.625mg. The skin eruptions and respiratory symptoms have not returned since the initiation of this therapy.Autoimmune progesterone dermatitis manifests via the occurrence of cyclic skin eruptions.Women with the disorder commonly present with dermatologic lesions in the luteal phase of themenstrual cycle, if there are any other organ involvement in addition to skin (e.g. lung, GI thereaction should be called as autoimmune progesterone anaphylaxis. Diagnosis of AIPA is confirmed by performing a skin allergen test using progesterone.

  16. Navigating the Updated Anaphylaxis Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemp Stephen F


    Full Text Available Anaphylaxis, an acute and potentially lethal multi-system clinical syndrome resulting from the sudden, systemic degranulation of mast cells and basophils, occurs in a variety of clinical scenarios and is almost unavoidable inmedical practice. Healthcare professionalsmust be able to recognize its features, treat an episode promptly and appropriately, and be able to provide recommendations to prevent future episodes. Epinephrine, administered immediately, is the drug of choice for acute anaphylaxis. The discussion provides an overview of one set of evidence-based and consensus parameters for the diagnosis and management of anaphylaxis.

  17. Anaphylaxis Due to Head Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruner, Heather C.


    Full Text Available Both anaphylaxis and head injury are often seen in the emergency department, but they are rarely seen in combination. We present a case of a 30-year-old woman who presented with anaphylaxis with urticaria and angioedema following a minor head injury. The patient responded well to intramuscular epinephrine without further complications or airway compromise. Prior case reports have reported angioedema from hereditary angioedema during dental procedures and maxillofacial surgery, but there have not been any cases of first-time angioedema or anaphylaxis due to head injury. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(3:435–437.

  18. Optimal treatment of anaphylaxis: antihistamines versus epinephrine. (United States)

    Fineman, Stanley M


    Anaphylaxis is a rapid, systemic, often unanticipated, and potentially life-threatening immune reaction occurring after exposure to certain foreign substances. The main immunologic triggers include food, insect venom, and medications. Multiple immunologic pathways underlie anaphylaxis, but most involve immune activation and release of immunomodulators. Anaphylaxis can be difficult to recognize clinically, making differential diagnosis key. The incidence of anaphylaxis has at least doubled during the past few decades, and in the United States alone, an estimated 1500 fatalities are attributed to anaphylaxis annually. The increasing incidence and potentially life-threatening nature of anaphylaxis coupled with diagnostic challenges make appropriate and timely treatment critical. Epinephrine is universally recommended as the first-line therapy for anaphylaxis, and early treatment is critical to prevent a potentially fatal outcome. Despite the evidence and guideline recommendations supporting its use for anaphylaxis, epinephrine remains underused. Data indicate that antihistamines are more commonly used to treat patients with anaphylaxis. Although histamine is involved in anaphylaxis, treatment with antihistamines does not relieve or prevent all of the pathophysiological symptoms of anaphylaxis, including the more serious complications such as airway obstruction, hypotension, and shock. Additionally, antihistamines do not act as rapidly as epinephrine; maximal plasma concentrations are reached between 1 and 3 hours for antihistamines compared with < 10 minutes for intramuscular epinephrine injection. This demonstrates the need for improved approaches to educate physicians and patients regarding the appropriate treatment of anaphylaxis.

  19. The abiotic and biotic drivers of rapid diversification in Andean bellflowers (Campanulaceae). (United States)

    Lagomarsino, Laura P; Condamine, Fabien L; Antonelli, Alexandre; Mulch, Andreas; Davis, Charles C


    The tropical Andes of South America, the world's richest biodiversity hotspot, are home to many rapid radiations. While geological, climatic, and ecological processes collectively explain such radiations, their relative contributions are seldom examined within a single clade. We explore the contribution of these factors by applying a series of diversification models that incorporate mountain building, climate change, and trait evolution to the first dated phylogeny of Andean bellflowers (Campanulaceae: Lobelioideae). Our framework is novel for its direct incorporation of geological data on Andean uplift into a macroevolutionary model. We show that speciation and extinction are differentially influenced by abiotic factors: speciation rates rose concurrently with Andean elevation, while extinction rates decreased during global cooling. Pollination syndrome and fruit type, both biotic traits known to facilitate mutualisms, played an additional role in driving diversification. These abiotic and biotic factors resulted in one of the fastest radiations reported to date: the centropogonids, whose 550 species arose in the last 5 million yr. Our study represents a significant advance in our understanding of plant evolution in Andean cloud forests. It further highlights the power of combining phylogenetic and Earth science models to explore the interplay of geology, climate, and ecology in generating the world's biodiversity.

  20. Anaphylaxis to Insect Venom Allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ollert, Markus; Blank, Simon


    Anaphylaxis due to Hymenoptera stings is one of the most severe consequences of IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions. Although allergic reactions to Hymenoptera stings are often considered as a general model for the underlying principles of allergic disease, diagnostic tests are still hampered......, and to contribute to the understanding of the immunological mechanisms elicited by insect venoms....

  1. Anaphylaxis related to fentanyl citrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Singh Tomar


    Full Text Available Anaphylaxis is a fulminant, unexpected, immunoglobulin E-mediated allergic reaction that can be triggered by multiple agents. Common causative agents include neuromuscular blocking drugs, latex, antibiotics, colloids, hypnotics, and opioids. Fentanyl citrate, however, is an extremely unusual cause of anaphylaxis. Pulmonary edema, although uncommon in anaphylaxis, can be a prominent feature, as was in one of the patient. An adverse drug reaction is a noxious or unintended reaction to a drug that is administered in standard doses by the proper route for the purpose of prophylaxis, diagnosis, or treatment. Reactions are classified into two major subtypes: type A, which are dose dependent and predictable; and type B, which are not dose dependent and unpredictable. Unpredictable reactions include immune (allergic or no immune drug hypersensitivity reactions and are related to genetic susceptibilities or undefined mechanisms (formally called idiosyncratic and intolerance reactions. A drug allergy is always associated with an immune mechanism for which evidence of drug-specific antibodies or activated T lymphocytes can be shown. In the last few years, many novel drugs have entered clinical practice (i.e., biologic agents generating novel patterns of drug hypersensitivity reactions. As old drugs continue to be used, new clinical and biologic techniques enable improvement in the diagnosis of these reactions.

  2. The management of anaphylaxis in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muraro, A; Roberts, G; Clark, A


    to provide practical guidelines for managing anaphylaxis in childhood based on the limited evidence available. Intramuscular adrenaline is the acknowledged first-line therapy for anaphylaxis, in hospital and in the community, and should be given as soon as the condition is recognized. Additional therapies...... such as volume support, nebulized bronchodilators, antihistamines or corticosteroids are supplementary to adrenaline. There are no absolute contraindications to administering adrenaline in children. Allergy assessment is mandatory in all children with a history of anaphylaxis because it is essential to identify......, involving school staff, healthcare professionals and patients' organizations. Absolute indications for prescribing self-injectable adrenaline are prior cardiorespiratory reactions, exercise-induced anaphylaxis, idiopathic anaphylaxis and persistent asthma with food allergy. Relative indications include...

  3. Triphase interface synthesis of plasmonic gold bellflowers as near-infrared light mediated acoustic and thermal theranostics. (United States)

    Huang, Peng; Rong, Pengfei; Lin, Jing; Li, Wanwan; Yan, Xuefeng; Zhang, Molly Gu; Nie, Liming; Niu, Gang; Lu, Jie; Wang, Wei; Chen, Xiaoyuan


    We present a novel gold bellflower (GBF) platform with multiple-branched petals, prepared by a liquid-liquid-gas triphase interface system, for photoacoustic imaging (PAI)-guided photothermal therapy (PTT). Upon near-infrared (NIR) laser irradiation, the GBFs, with strong NIR absorption, showed very strong PA response and an ultrahigh photothermal conversion efficiency (η, ∼74%) among the reported photothermal conversion agents. The excellent performance in PAI and PTT is mainly attributed to the unique features of the GBFs: (i) multiple-branched petals with an enhanced local electromagnetic field, (ii) long narrow gaps between adjacent petals that induce a strong plasmonic coupling effect, and (iii) a bell-shaped nanostructure that can effectively amplify the acoustic signals during the acoustic propagation. Besides the notable PTT and an excellent PAI effect, the NIR-absorbing GBFs may also find applications in NIR light-triggered drug delivery, catalysis, surface enhanced Raman scattering, stealth, antireflection, IR sensors, telecommunications, and the like.

  4. Human IgE-independent systemic anaphylaxis. (United States)

    Finkelman, Fred D; Khodoun, Marat V; Strait, Richard


    Anaphylaxis is a rapidly developing, life-threatening, generalized or systemic allergic reaction that is classically elicited by antigen crosslinking of antigen-specific IgE bound to the high-affinity IgE receptor FcεRI on mast cells and basophils. This initiates signals that induce cellular degranulation with release and secretion of vasoactive mediators, enzymes, and cytokines. However, IgE-independent mechanisms of anaphylaxis have been clearly demonstrated in experimental animals. These include IgG-dependent anaphylaxis, which involves the triggering of mediator release by IgG/antigen complex crosslinking of FcγRs on macrophages, basophils, and neutrophils; anaphylaxis mediated by binding of the complement-derived peptides C3a and C5a to their receptors on mast cells, basophils, and other myeloid cells; and direct activation of mast cells by drugs that interact with receptors on these cells. Here we review the mechanisms involved in these IgE-independent forms of anaphylaxis and the clinical evidence for their human relevance. We conclude that this evidence supports the existence of all 3 IgE-independent mechanisms as important causes of human disease, although practical and ethical considerations preclude their demonstration to the degree of certainty possible with animal models. Furthermore, we cite evidence that different clinical situations can suggest different mechanisms as having a primal role in anaphylaxis and that IgE-dependent and distinct IgE-independent mechanisms can act together to increase anaphylaxis severity. As specific agents become available that can interfere with mechanisms involved in the different types of anaphylaxis, recognition of specific types of anaphylaxis is likely to become important for optimal prophylaxis and therapy.

  5. Anaphylaxis (United States)

    ... Education Center Fellows-in-Training Grants & Awards Program Directors Practice Resources ASTHMA IQ Consultation and Referral Guidelines Practice Financial Survey Practice Tools Running a Practice Statements and Practice Parameters About AAAAI Advocacy Allergist / Immunologists: ...

  6. Anaphylaxis to hyperallergenic functional foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameratunga Rohan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food allergy can cause life threatening reactions. Currently, patients with severe food allergy are advised to avoid foods which provoke allergic reactions. This has become increasingly difficult as food proteins are being added to a broader range of consumer products. Patients and methods Here we describe our investigations into the allergenicity of a new drink when two cow's milk allergic children suffered anaphylaxis after consuming Wh2ole®. Results Our studies have shown that in comparison with cow's milk, Wh2ole® contains at least three times the concentration of β-lactoglobulin. β-lactoglobulin is one of the dominant allergens in bovine milk. Conclusions These studies have shown that modern technology allows the creation of "hyperallergenic" foods. These products have the potential to cause severe reactions in milk allergic persons. Avoiding inadvertent exposure is the shared responsibility of allergic consumers, regulatory authorities and the food industry.

  7. Prevention of anaphylaxis in healthcare settings. (United States)

    Worth, Allison; Sheikh, Aziz


    In this paper, we review recent evidence on preventing anaphylaxis in healthcare settings and contexts where the risk of developing anaphylaxis is known to be increased. These include investigation units in which patients are undergoing challenge testing, outpatient clinics undertaking immunotherapy and vaccination, inpatient settings in which patients receive antibiotics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, opiates and biological agents and operating theatres in which patients receive general anesthetics. Anaphylaxis may however develop unpredictably in any patient exposed to a wide range of drugs, food and other triggers (e.g., latex, iodinated contrast media and exercise), so it is important that all healthcare professionals and systems have effective, well-rehearsed protocols for risk assessment and management of this allergic emergency. Where available, we consider evidence for the effectiveness of interventions aiming to reduce the risk of developing anaphylaxis.

  8. [Approach and Registry of Anaphylaxis in Portugal]. (United States)

    Mota, Inês; Pereira, Ana Margarida; Pereira, Celso; Tomaz, Elza; Ferreira, Manuel Branco; Sabino, Filipa; Coelho, Anabela; Santos, Anabela; Martins, Henrique; Morais-Almeida, Mário


    Anaphylaxis has a growing incidence, especially in children. It represents a medical emergency and its successful therapy depends on early and proper intervention. Intramuscular epinephrine, with dose adjustment according to weight and age, is the drug of choice for anaphylaxis treatment. After resolution of the acute reaction, the patient should be kept under clinical surveillance for 6 to 24 hours, due to possible biphasic reactions. Prescription of an epinephrine auto injectable device should be considered in all patients with diagnosed or suspected anaphylaxis; additionally these patients should always be referred to an Immunoallergy consultation, to perform adequate investigation and management in order to reduce future risk. All anaphylaxis episodes must be recorded in The Portuguese Catalogue of Allergies and other Adverse Reactions (Catálogo Português de Alergias e outras Reações Adversas, CPARA), which represents a fundamental tool to share clinical information within the Health System. The present manuscript intends to disclose the most recent Portuguese guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of anaphylaxis, making its clinical approach more effective and homogeneous, and to promote the use of The Portuguese Catalogue of Allergies and other Adverse Reactions as an essential tool to register and share information on anaphylaxis in Portugal.

  9. [Anaphylaxis caused by royal jelly]. (United States)

    Roger, A; Rubira, N; Nogueiras, C; Guspi, R; Baltasar, M; Cadahia, A


    Royal jelly is the food on which are fed and which causes them to develop into queen bees. It is claimed to have rejuvenating virtues for human beings. This report describes a 15-year-old atopic woman who presented, 15 minutes after the intake of royal jelly, local angioedema, generalised urticaria, dysphonia and bronchospasm. She was given antihistaminics and corticoesteroids and responded well. The ingested product contains royal jelly, lactose and potassium sorbate. No anaphylactic reactions to lactose and sorbates have been described previously. Prick test to common food allergens hymenoptera venoms and pollens were negative. RAST to meletin was also negative. Blood eosinophils were 600 and total IgE 465. Non-commercial prepared specific IgE to royal jelly was positive (0.8 KU/l). Prick by prick was positive to 1/10 dilution, being negative in controls (undiluted). No oral provocation test was performed due to the risk of anaphylaxis. No reported cases of royal jelly allergy were founded in a review of the medical literature. Concluding, it is the first described case of IgE anaphylactic reaction due to royal jelly.

  10. Vaccination and anaphylaxis: a forensic perspective (United States)

    Palmiere, Cristian; Tettamanti, Camilla; Scarpelli, Maria Pia


    Aim To review the available literature pertaining to fatalities following vaccine administration and, in particular, cases of vaccine-related fatal anaphylaxis. Method The MEDLINE database was systematically searched up to March 2016 to identify all relevant articles pertaining to fatal cases of anaphylaxis following vaccine administration. Results Six papers pertaining to fatal anaphylaxis following vaccination were found relevant. Mast cell tryptase and total IgE concentration was assessed exclusively in one case. Laryngeal edema was not detected in any of these cases, whereas eosinophil or mast cell infiltration was observed in lymphoid organs. In one case, immunohistochemical investigations using anti-tryptase antibodies allowed pulmonary mast cells and degranulating mast cells with tryptase-positive material outside to be identified. Conclusion In any suspected IgE-mediated fatal anaphylactic cases, biochemical investigations should be systematically performed for forensic purposes. Splenic tissue should be routinely sampled for immunohistochemical investigations in all suspected anaphylaxis-related deaths and mast cell/eosinophil infiltrations should be systematically sought out in the spleen, myocardium, and coronary artery wall. The hypothesis of fatal anaphylaxis following vaccination should be formulated exclusively when circumstantial data, available medical records, laboratory investigations, and autopsy or histology findings converge in a consistent pattern. The reasonable exclusion of alternative causes of death after all postmortem investigations is also imperative in order to establish or rule out a cause-and-effect relationship between vaccine administration and any presumptive temporarily-related death. PMID:28252871

  11. Endurance exercise after orange ingestion anaphylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manu Gupta


    Full Text Available Endurance exercise after orange ingestion cause anaphylaxis which is food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA which is a form of exercise-induced anaphylaxis. In this article, an individual develops symptoms such as flushing, itching, urticaria, angioedema, and wheezing after eating a food allergen and proceeds to exercise. Neither the food alone nor exercise alone is sufficient to induce a reaction. This case report describes a 36-year-old asthmatic male athlete who experienced nausea, vomiting, flushing, urticaria, and facial swelling while exercising in a gymnasium after eating oranges. Neither oranges alone nor exercise alone induced the reaction. Total avoidance of suspected food allergens would be ideal. Persons with FDEIA should keep at hand an emergency kit with antihistamines, injectable rapid action corticoids, and adrenaline.

  12. Anaphylaxis Conundrum: A Trojan Horse Phenomenon. (United States)

    Esquivel, Ann; Busse, William W


    Anaphylaxis is a serious and potentially life-threatening allergic reaction that may follow the ingestion of foods. Although these reactions usually follow a common clinical pattern and often demonstrate IgE sensitization to the antigen in question, both the clinical presentation and causative allergen may be atypical, surprising, and difficult to identify. Failure to identify the actual cause of the reaction can compromise treatment and complicate long-term care. Here, we present a patient who had symptoms of anaphylaxis after eating salmon, but confirmation of the causative allergen was not readily apparent. This particular case serves as an insightful lesson for patients undergoing evaluation for anaphylaxis and also provides a framework for navigating through a case involving identification of an underlying allergen.

  13. Jackfruit anaphylaxis in a latex allergic patient. (United States)

    Wongrakpanich, Supakanya; Klaewsongkram, Jettanong; Chantaphakul, Hiroshi; Ruxrungtham, Kiat


    Several fruits have been reported to crossreact with latex antigen in latex allergy patients but little is known regarding tropical fruits in particular. Here we report the case of a 34-year old nurse who developed anaphylaxis following the ingestion of dried jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus). The patient had a history of chronic eczema on both hands resulting from a regular wear of latex gloves. She and her family also had a history of atopy (allergic rhinitis and/or atopic dermatitis). The results of skin prick tests were positive for jackfruit, latex glove, kiwi and papaya, but the test was negative for banana. While we are reporting the first case of jackfruit anaphylaxis, further research needs to be conducted to identify the mechanisms underlying it. In particular, in-vitro studies need to be designed to understand if the anaphylaxis we describe is due to a cross reactivity between latex and jackfruit or a coincidence of allergy to these 2 antigens.

  14. Mast cell activation syndromes presenting as anaphylaxis. (United States)

    Akin, Cem


    Anaphylaxis results from severe systemic mast cell activation. In addition to IgE-mediated and physical triggers, it may occur with a clonal mast cell disease and in an idiopathic fashion without clear provoking factors. Disorders of mast cell activation are classified into primary (clonal), secondary, and idiopathic. Mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS) is a multisystem disorder characterized by objective documentation of elevated mast cell mediators during attacks and a favorable response to antimediator therapy. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with recurrent anaphylaxis without a clear cause. This article discusses the diagnosis of MCAS.

  15. [Anaphylaxis caused by human seminal fluid]. (United States)

    Rubira, N; Roger, A; Nogueiras, C; Server, T; Guspi, R; Cadahia, A


    Anaphylaxis to human seminal fluid (HSF) is rare. We present an atopic woman with postcoital cutaneous and respiratory symptoms. Prick by prick to HSF was positive. CAP to FSH was also positive (4 KU/l). The clinical findings, differential diagnosis and different treatments are discussed.

  16. Anaphylaxis related to avocado ingestion: a case and review (United States)


    Anaphylaxis to avocado, independent of latex sensitization, has been rarely reported in the literature. This case report describes a 15 year old male who experienced anaphylaxis within half an hour after eating avocado-containing food. Avocado consumption is common in both North America and South America. It is important to consider avocado as a cause of anaphylaxis, even in patients not sensitized to latex. PMID:21663642

  17. Anaphylaxis related to avocado ingestion: a case and review


    Abrams Elissa M; Becker Allan B; Gerstner Thomas V


    Abstract Anaphylaxis to avocado, independent of latex sensitization, has been rarely reported in the literature. This case report describes a 15 year old male who experienced anaphylaxis within half an hour after eating avocado-containing food. Avocado consumption is common in both North America and South America. It is important to consider avocado as a cause of anaphylaxis, even in patients not sensitized to latex.

  18. Anaphylaxis caused by honey: a case report (United States)

    Duarte, Fátima Cabral; Mendes, Ana; Bartolomé, Borja; Barbosa, Manuel Pereira


    Honey allergy is a very rare, but serious health condition. In this study, we presented 1 patient who had anaphylaxis after the honey allergological investigation with skin prick-prick test with honey. Honey as a food has been associated to allergic reactions and as the increased consumption of honey in health food may increase the incidence of honey-related allergic reactions. PMID:28154806


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    Sami OZTURK


    Full Text Available Introduction: Exercise-induced anaphylaxis (EIA is a rare syndrome. We described two patients experienced anaphylaxis after exercise. Case 1: A 24 -year-old male patient, recruited to army as a private 6 months ago. The medical history was suggestive of an anaphylactic reaction which was developed about 30 minute after a vigorous exercise. Case 2: A 42-year old female, was referred to our clinic because of the recurrent episodes of generalized pruritus, nausea, vomiting, swelling on extremities and breathing difficultly. She was experienced with symptoms after moderate exercises which were performed to losing weight. Evaluation: The complete diagnostic procedures including skin tests with foods and inhalant allergens were performed. In Case 2, positive skin test results were detected in food allergens (apricot, tomato, vanilla and inhalant allergens (house-dust mites and cockroach. Management: In Case 1, he was first experienced EIA symptoms with the military training. For this reason, he exempted from vigorous exercises during his remaining compulsory military service and self-injectable epinephrine kit and antihistamine were prescribed him. In Case 2, she advised to avoid from vigorous exercises. Conclusion: EIA should be considered in cases of anaphylaxis with uncertain etiology. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(1.000: 46-49

  20. Implementation of anaphylaxis management guidelines: a register-based study.

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    Linus Grabenhenrich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anaphylaxis management guidelines recommend the use of intramuscular adrenaline in severe reactions, complemented by antihistamines and corticoids; secondary prevention includes allergen avoidance and provision of self-applicable first aid drugs. Gaps between recommendations and their implementation have been reported, but only in confined settings. Hence, we analysed nation-wide data on the management of anaphylaxis, evaluating the implementation of guidelines. METHODS: Within the anaphylaxis registry, allergy referral centres across Germany, Austria and Switzerland provided data on severe anaphylaxis cases. Based on patient records, details on reaction circumstances, diagnostic workup and treatment were collected via online questionnaire. Report of anaphylaxis through emergency physicians allowed for validation of registry data. RESULTS: 2114 severe anaphylaxis patients from 58 centres were included. 8% received adrenaline intravenously, 4% intramuscularly; 50% antihistamines, and 51% corticoids. Validation data indicated moderate underreporting of first aid drugs in the Registry. 20% received specific instructions at the time of the reaction; 81% were provided with prophylactic first aid drugs at any time. CONCLUSION: There is a distinct discrepancy between current anaphylaxis management guidelines and their implementation. To improve patient care, a revised approach for medical education and training on the management of severe anaphylaxis is warranted.

  1. The epidemiology of anaphylaxis in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panesar, S S; Javad, S; de Silva, D;


    BACKGROUND: Anaphylaxis is an acute, potentially fatal, multi-organ system, allergic reaction caused by the release of chemical mediators from mast cells and basophils. Uncertainty exists around epidemiological measures of incidence and prevalence, risk factors, risk of recurrence, and death due...... and analytical epidemiological investigations, and studies involving analysis of routine data. RESULTS: Our searches identified a total of 5,843 potentially eligible studies, of which 49 satisfied our inclusion criteria. Of these, three were suitable for pooled estimates of prevalence. The incidence rates...

  2. Anaphylaxis after accidental ingestion of kiwi fruit. (United States)

    Gawrońska-Ukleja, Ewa; Różalska, Anna; Ukleja-Sokołowska, Natalia; Zbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew


    Numerous cases of anaphylaxis after ingestion of kiwi fruit, after the skin tests and during oral immunotherapy were described. The article describes the case of severe anaphylactic reaction that occurred in a 55-year-old patient after accidental ingestion of kiwi. Allergy to kiwi fruit was confirmed by a native test with fresh kiwi fruit. After the test, the patient experienced generalized organ response in the form of headache, general weakness and rashes on the neck and breast, and dyspnea. The patient had significantly elevated levels of total IgE and IgE specific to kiwi fruit.

  3. Anaphylaxis from atracurium without skin manifestation

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    Souvik Maitra


    Full Text Available Anaphylaxis is an acute, potentially fatal allergic reaction involving multi organ system that is triggered by a wide range of antigens with a subsequent release of chemical mediators from mast cells and basophils. Diagnosis is primarily clinical though laboratory studies are helpful in further confirmation. Anaphylactic reactions during anesthesia are rare, but can be fatal if not promptly recognized and treated. Among all drugs commonly used in anesthesia, muscle relaxants are the most notorious to trigger anaphylactic reactions and benzylisoquinolinium group of drugs are known to be less common an offender than the steroidal compounds. We report severe anaphylactic reaction after administration of atracurium that was promptly diagnosed and managed without any further morbidity.

  4. EAACI Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muraro, A; Werfel, T; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K


    Food allergy can result in considerable morbidity, impact negatively on quality of life, and prove costly in terms of medical care. These guidelines have been prepared by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology's (EAACI) Guidelines for Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Group, building...... on previous EAACI position papers on adverse reaction to foods and three recent systematic reviews on the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of food allergy, and provide evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis and management of food allergy. While the primary audience is allergists......, this document is relevant for all other healthcare professionals, including primary care physicians, and pediatric and adult specialists, dieticians, pharmacists and paramedics. Our current understanding of the manifestations of food allergy, the role of diagnostic tests, and the effective management...

  5. Elevated exhaled nitric oxide in anaphylaxis with respiratory symptoms

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    Yoichi Nakamura


    Conclusions: Elevation of FeNO was related to respiratory symptoms observed in anaphylactic patients without asthma. Although the mechanism of increased FeNO level is unclear, its usefulness for diagnosis of anaphylaxis must be examined in prospective studies.

  6. Anaphylaxis across two Canadian pediatric centers: evaluating management disparities (United States)

    Lee, Alison YM; Enarson, Paul; Clarke, Ann E; La Vieille, Sébastien; Eisman, Harley; Chan, Edmond S; Mill, Christopher; Joseph, Lawrence; Ben-Shoshan, Moshe


    Background There are no data on the percentage of visits due to anaphylaxis in the emergency department (ED), triggers, and management of anaphylaxis across different provinces in Canada. Objective To compare the percentage of anaphylaxis cases among all ED visits, as well as the triggers and management of anaphylaxis between two Canadian pediatric EDs (PEDs). Methods As part of the Cross-Canada Anaphylaxis Registry (C-CARE), children presenting to the British Columbia Children’s Hospital (BCCH) and Montreal Children’s Hospital (MCH) EDs with anaphylaxis were recruited. Characteristics, triggers, and management of anaphylaxis were documented using a standardized data entry form. Differences in demographics, triggers, and management were determined by comparing the difference of proportions and 95% confidence interval. Results Between June 2014 and June 2016, there were 346 visits due to anaphylaxis among 93,730 PED visits at the BCCH ED and 631 anaphylaxis visits among 164,669 pediatric visits at the MCH ED. In both centers, the majority of cases were triggered by food (BCCH 91.3% [88.7, 94.0], MCH 82.4% [79.7, 85.3]), of which peanuts were the most common culprit (24.7% [20.9, 29.9] and 19.0% [15.8, 22.7], respectively). Pre-hospital administration of epinephrine (BCCH 27.7% [23.2, 32.8], MCH 33.1% [29.5, 37.0]) and antihistamines (BCCH 50.6% [45.2, 56.0], MCH 47.1% [43.1, 51.0]) was similar. In-hospital management differed in terms of increased epinephrine, antihistamine, and steroid use at the BCCH (59.2% [53.9, 64.4], 59.8% [54.4, 65.0], and 60.1% [54.7, 65.3], respectively) compared to the MCH (42.2% [38.3, 46.2], 36.2% [32.5, 40.1], and 11.9% [9.5, 14.8], respectively). Despite differences in management, percentage of cases admitted to the intensive care unit was similar between the two centers. Conclusion Compared to previous European and North American reports, there is a high percentage of anaphylaxis cases in two PEDs across Canada with substantial

  7. Atracurium-induced anaphylaxis and angioedema: a case report

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    Jyoti Sharma


    Full Text Available Drug-induced anaphylaxis has increased in frequency with the more widespread use of pharmaceutical agents. Neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs are one of the most common causes of anaphylaxis during general anesthesia. However, the incidence of anaphylaxis due to atracurium is very rare (<1/10,000 according to UK Summary of Product Characteristics. NMBAs can induce two types of reactions: one is immune mediated - immunoglobulin E dependent and the second one is associated with non-specific stimulation of mast cells. Systemic manifestations of anaphylaxis can be in the form of hypotension, difficulty in breathing. Rarely, it can be associated with cutaneous manifestations such as urticaria, angioedema, and flushing. If it is not promptly diagnosed and treated, it can be fatal. In the present case, the patient was posted for submandibular gland surgery. She was well-stabilized after general anesthesia and within the seconds of giving injection atracurium; she had difficulty in breathing and marked decrease in blood pressure that was soon followed by periorbital swelling and swelling of lips. The patient was diagnosed with anaphylaxis with angioedema due to atracurium and was promptly managed in operation theater. She was kept under observation for 2 days. Anaphylaxis along with angioedema with atracurium is a very rare event, and hence it is being reported here. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(4.000: 802-804

  8. Anaphylaxis in Israel: experience with 92 hospitalized children. (United States)

    Hoffer, V; Scheuerman, O; Marcus, N; Levy, Y; Segal, N; Lagovsky, I; Monselise, Y; Garty, B Z


    Little is known about the courses, causes, and clinical features of anaphylaxis in children outside the USA and Europe. Our objective was to evaluate the events of anaphylaxis in children admitted to the Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, a major tertiary facility, over a 12-year period. Ninety-two children with anaphylaxis (50 boys, 42 girls) aged 14 days to 18 yr (mean, 7.4 yr) were hospitalized during the study period. The event occurred at home in 52 children (56%), in a medical institution in 24 (26%), outdoors in 13 (15%), at school in 2 (2%), and in an unspecified location in 1 (1%). The main causes were foods (43%), mainly milk and nuts, medications (22%), and hymenoptera venom (11%); in five children, anaphylaxis occurred during general anesthesia, and in 5, the causative agent could not be determined. Food-induced anaphylaxis tended to occur in younger children. Forty-eight children (52%) had a history of atopy (mainly asthma). Hospital treatment consisted of corticosteroids (85%), antihistamines (75%), epinephrine (72%), and β2 agonists (42%). Seven patients were admitted to intensive care units. There were no fatalities. EpiPen was used by only one of the 16 patients with more than one episode of anaphylaxis, indicating that patient and parent education in the application of the EpiPen needs to be improved.

  9. Anaphylaxis across two Canadian pediatric centers: evaluating management disparities

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    Lee AYM


    Full Text Available Alison YM Lee,1 Paul Enarson,2 Ann E Clarke,3 Sébastien La Vieille,4 Harley Eisman,5,6 Edmond S Chan,7 Christopher Mill,7 Lawrence Joseph,8 Moshe Ben-Shoshan9 1Pediatric Residency Program, Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, BC Children’s Hospital, 2Division of Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, 3Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, 4Food Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON, 5Emergency Department, 6Department of Pediatrics, Montreal Children’s Hospital, Montreal, QC, 7Division of Allergy and Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, BC Children’s Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, 8Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McGill University, 9Division of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, Montreal Children’s Hospital, Montreal, QC, Canada Background: There are no data on the percentage of visits due to anaphylaxis in the emergency department (ED, triggers, and management of anaphylaxis across different provinces in Canada. Objective: To compare the percentage of anaphylaxis cases among all ED visits, as well as the triggers and management of anaphylaxis between two Canadian pediatric EDs (PEDs. Methods: As part of the Cross-Canada Anaphylaxis Registry (C-CARE, children presenting to the British Columbia Children’s Hospital (BCCH and Montreal Children’s Hospital (MCH EDs with anaphylaxis were recruited. Characteristics, triggers, and management of anaphylaxis were documented using a standardized data entry form. Differences in demographics, triggers, and management were determined by comparing the difference of proportions and 95% confidence interval. Results: Between June 2014 and June 2016, there were 346 visits due to anaphylaxis among 93,730 PED visits at the BCCH ED and 631 anaphylaxis visits among 164,669 pediatric visits at

  10. Acute symptoms of drug hypersensitivity (urticaria, angioedema, anaphylaxis, anaphylactic shock). (United States)

    Limsuwan, Ticha; Demoly, Pascal


    Drug hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) are the adverse effects of drugs which, when taken at doses generally tolerated by normal subjects, clinically resemble allergy. Immediate-reaction of drug HSRs are those that occur less than 1 hour after the last drug intake, usually in the form of urticaria, angioedema, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, bronchospasm, and anaphylaxis or anaphylactic shock. Acute urticarial and angioedema reactions are common clinical problems frequently encountered by internists and general practitioners. They are not specific to drug allergic reaction, and can be caused by various pathogenic mechanisms. Despite the benign course of urticaria and angioedema, a mucocutaneous swelling of the upper respiratory tract could be life-threatening by itself or a feature of anaphylaxis. This article reviews acute symptoms of drug HSR-related urticaria, angioedema, anaphylaxis, and anaphylactic shock, and how clinicians should approach these problems.

  11. Perioperative Anaphylaxis to Chlorhexidine during Surgery and Septoplasty (United States)

    Teixeira de Abreu, Ana Paula; Ribeiro de Oliveira, Leonardo Ramos; Teixeira de Abreu, Ana Flavia; Ribeiro de Oliveira, Evandro; Santos de Melo Ireno, Michele; Aarestrup, Matheus Fonseca; Aarestrup, Paula Fonseca


    Chlorhexidine is an antiseptic and disinfectant used in surgical and clinical practice since 1954 and is available in aqueous or alcoholic solutions 0.5%–4.0% and has a broad-spectrum activity. Despite their widespread use, allergic reactions with chlorhexidine are rarely reported. We describe a case of anaphylaxis with chlorhexidine during a septoplasty, turbinectomy, and maxillary sinusectomy. The patient presented with periorbital edema, hives, hypotension, and wheezing. Immediately after the diagnosis of anaphylaxis promethazine, hydrocortisone, and epinephrine were administered with immediate clinical improvement. This case highlights the importance of assessing whether there is a previous clinical history of hypersensitivity to chlorhexidine in patients who will undergo surgical procedures.

  12. Omalizumab: Practical considerations regarding the risk of anaphylaxis

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    Kim Harold L


    Full Text Available Abstract Omalizumab has demonstrated efficacy among patients with moderate to severe persistent allergic asthma, whose symptoms are inadequately controlled with other controller agents. This therapy is generally well tolerated, but there are some safety considerations, the most important of which is the rare, but potentially life-threatening, occurrence of omalizumab-associated anaphylaxis. In Canada, data from the manufacturer of omalizumab indicate that the frequency of anaphylaxis attributed to Xolair in post-marketing use is approximately 0.2%. Other researchers, including the American Omalizumab Joint Task Force (OJTF, have suggested a lower overall frequency of 0.09%. This paper provides a summary of the epidemiologic research carried out to date and presents a concise, practical set of recommendations for the prevention, monitoring and management of omalizumab-associated anaphylaxis. Prevention tips include advice on patient education measures, concomitant medications and optimal administration. For the first three injections, the recommendation is to monitor in clinic for two hours after the omalizumab injection; for subsequent injections, the monitoring period should be 30 minutes or an appropriate time agreed upon by the individual patient and healthcare professional. In the event that a patient does experience omalizumab-associated anaphylaxis, the paper provides recommendations for handling the situation in-clinic and recommendations on how to counsel patients to recognize the potential signs and symptoms in the community and react appropriately.

  13. Anaphylaxis challenges on the front line: perspectives from community medicine. (United States)

    Bennett, John R; Fromer, Leonard; Hayden, Mary Lou


    This report reflects a discussion from the multidisciplinary Partnership for Anaphylaxis Round Table meeting, held in November 2012, in Dallas, Texas. Community medicine participants included John R. Bennett, MD, an internist who practiced in Cumming, Georgia, and whose patients were adults; Leonard Fromer, MD, a family practitioner in Los Angeles, California, who was the medical director of a network of 600 medical groups, including pediatricians, internists, and family physicians, and who in his previous practice treated children and adults, many of them with severe allergies; and Mary Lou Hayden, MS, RN, FNP-BC, AE-C, a nurse practitioner who treated adults in a university employee health clinic and in an allergy clinic in Charlottesville, Virginia, and whose prior practice focused on allergy and immunology in children and adults. This discussion was moderated by Dr Bennett. Participants provided their perspectives as primary care providers (PCPs) concerning anaphylaxis, which has become a major public health concern. The rising prevalence of severe allergies and incidence of anaphylaxis and other severe allergic reactions among children and adults is shifting more care to PCPs. This discussion provides insights into challenges faced by PCPs in treating patients at risk for anaphylaxis in the community setting and provides potential solutions to those challenges.

  14. Autoinjectors Preferred for Intramuscular Epinephrine in Anaphylaxis and Allergic Reactions

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    Ronna L. Campbell


    Full Text Available Introduction: Epinephrine is the treatment of choice for anaphylaxis. We surveyed emergency department (ED healthcare providers regarding two methods of intramuscular (IM epinephrine administration (autoinjector and manual injection for the management of anaphylaxis and allergic reactions and identified provider perceptions and preferred method of medication delivery. Methods: This observational study adhered to survey reporting guidelines. It was performed through a Web-based survey completed by healthcare providers at an academic ED. The primary outcomes were assessment of provider perceptions and identification of the preferred IM epinephrine administration method by ED healthcare providers. Results: Of 217 ED healthcare providers invited to participate, 172 (79% completed the survey. Overall, 82% of respondents preferred the autoinjector method of epinephrine administration. Providers rated the autoinjector method more favorably for time required for training, ease of use, convenience, satisfaction with weight-based dosing, risk of dosing errors, and speed of administration (p<0.001 for all comparisons. However, manual injection use was rated more favorably for risk of provider self-injury and patient cost (p<0.001 for both comparisons. Three participants (2% reported a finger stick injury from an epinephrine autoinjector. Conclusion: ED healthcare providers preferred the autoinjector method of IM epinephrine administration for the management of anaphylaxis or allergic reactions. Epinephrine autoinjector use may reduce barriers to epinephrine administration for the management of anaphylaxis in the ED.

  15. Levodropropizine-Induced Anaphylaxis: Case Series and Literature Review. (United States)

    Song, Jae Won; Jang, Young Sook; Jung, Moon Chan; Kim, Joo Hee; Choi, Jeong Hee; Park, Sunghoon; Hwang, Yong Il; Jang, Seung Hun; Jung, Ki Suck


    Levodropropizine is commonly used as an antitussive drug for acute and chronic cough. It is a non-opioid agent with peripheral antitussive action via the modulation of sensory neuropeptide levels in the airways. Thus, levodropropizine has a more tolerable profile than opioid antitussives. However, we experienced 3 cases of levodropropizine-induced anaphylaxis. Three patients commonly presented with generalized urticaria, dyspnea, and collapse after taking cold medication including levodropropizine. To find out the culprit drug, we performed skin tests, oral provocation tests (OPTs), and basophil activation tests (BATs). Two patients were confirmed as having levodropropizine-induced anaphylaxis by OPTs, and one of them showed positive to skin prick tests (SPTs). The other patient was confirmed by skin tests and BATs. When we analyzed pharmacovigilance data related to levodropropizine collected for 5 years, most cases (78.9%) had allergic reactions, such as rash, urticaria, angioedema, and anaphylaxis. Therefore, physicians should consider that levodropropizine can be a culprit drug, when anaphylaxis occurs after taking anti-cough or common cold medication.

  16. Gynecomastia induced by H1-antihistamine (ebastine) in a patient with idiopathic anaphylaxis


    Jung, Hwa Sik; Park, Chan-Ho; Park, Young Tae; Bae, Mi Ae; Lee, Youn Im; Kang, Byung Ju; Jegal, Yangjin; Ahn, Jong Joon; Lee, Taehoon


    H1-antihistamine is generally a well-tolerated and safe drug. However, in resemblance with all other drugs, H1-antihistamines can also prompt adverse drug reactions (ADRs). We recently encountered the very unusual ADR of H1-antihistamine-induced gynecomastia. A 21-year-old man with idiopathic anaphylaxis was treated with ebastine (Ebastel), a second-generation H1-antihistamine, for the prevention of anaphylaxis. Three months later, the patient remained well without anaphylaxis, but had newly ...

  17. Methylene blue for clinical anaphylaxis treatment: a case report

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    Janine Moreira Rodrigues

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Nitric oxide has a pathophysiological role in modulating systemic changes associated with anaphylaxis. Nitric oxide synthase inhibitors may exacerbate bronchospasm in anaphylaxis and worsen clinical conditions, with limited roles in anaphylactic shock treatment. The aim here was to report an anaphylaxis case (not anaphylactic shock, reversed by methylene blue (MB, a guanylyl cyclase inhibitor. CASE REPORT: A 23-year-old female suddenly presented urticaria and pruritus, initially on her face and arms, then over her whole body. Oral antihistamine was administered initially, but without improvement in symptoms and signs until intravenous methylprednisolone 500 mg. Recurrence occurred after two hours, plus vomiting. Associated upper respiratory distress, pulmonary sibilance, laryngeal stridor and facial angioedema (including erythema and lip edema marked the evolution. At sites with severe pruritus, petechial lesions were observed. The clinical situation worsened, with dyspnea, tachypnea, peroral cyanosis, laryngeal edema with severe expiratory dyspnea and deepening unconsciousness. Conventional treatment was ineffective. Intubation and ventilatory support were then considered, because of severe hypoventilation. But, before doing that, based on our previous experience, 1.5 mg/kg (120 mg bolus of 4% MB was infused, followed by one hour of continuous infusion of another 120 mg diluted in dextrose 5% in water. Following the initial intravenous MB dose, the clinical situation reversed completely in less than 20 minutes, thereby avoiding tracheal intubation. CONCLUSION: Although the nitric oxide hypothesis for MB effectiveness discussed here remains unproven, our intention was to share our accumulated cohort experience, which strongly suggests MB is a lifesaving treatment for anaphylactic shock and/or anaphylaxis and other vasoplegic conditions.

  18. A case of severe anaphylaxis following coronary angiography

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    Anil Kumar


    Full Text Available Anaphylaxis reactions are not uncommon in routine practice and involve multiple systems usually. Cardiovascular collapse is the severest form of reaction. We present a case of severe anaphylactic reaction with cardiovascular collapse without other systems involvement which had to treat with intravenous adrenaline for a prolonged duration (successfully. The case is presented because of the rarity of presentation (single system involvement and requirement of prolonged use of adrenaline for more than 24 h.

  19. Anaphylaxis from intravascular rupture of Hydatid disease following liver trauma

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    Paul J Marriott


    Full Text Available Cystic Echinococcosis also known as cystic hydatid disease is a parasitic infection endemic in many parts of the world. Humans are accidental intermediate hosts with cysts most commonly developing in the liver. This case describes a rare presentation of hydatid disease following trauma to the liver. Intraparenchymal cyst rupture led to haemodynamic instability with release of the parasites protoscolices into hepatic venules producing severe life threatening anaphylaxis.

  20. Anaphylaxis at image-guided epidural pain block secondary to corticosteroid compound.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moran, Deirdre E


    Anaphylaxis during image-guided interventional procedures is a rare but potentially fatal event. Anaphylaxis to iodinated contrast is an established and well-recognized adverse effect. However, anaphylaxis to some of the other frequently administered medications given during interventional procedures, such as corticosteroids, is not common knowledge. During caudal epidural injection, iodinated contrast is used to confirm needle placement in the epidural space at the level of the sacral hiatus. A combination of corticosteroid, local anesthetic, and saline is subsequently injected. We describe a very rare case of anaphylaxis to a component of the steroid medication instilled in the caudal epidural space.

  1. Glafenine-associated anaphylaxis as a cause of hospital admission in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno); R. de Groot (Ronald); J.H.P. Wilson (Paul)


    markdownabstractSummary. In 1981 generalized anaphylaxis was registered on 166 occasions in Dutch general and academic hospitals. Clinical details of 120 of those patients revealed that in 107 anaphylaxis was either probable (n=90) or possible (n = 17), whereas in 13 cases some other reaction tha

  2. Treatment with Epinephrine (Adrenaline) in Suspected Anaphylaxis during Anesthesia in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garvey, Lene H; Belhage, Bo; Krøigaard, Mogens


    BACKGROUND:: Literature on the use of epinephrine in the treatment of anaphylaxis during anesthesia is very limited. The objective of this study was to investigate how often epinephrine is used in the treatment of suspected anaphylaxis during anesthesia in Denmark and whether timing of treatment ...

  3. Anaphylaxis Preparedness among Preschool Staff before and after an Educational Intervention

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    Ashley A. Foster


    Full Text Available Introduction. Children with severe food allergies may spend many hours in the preschool setting. Little is known about anaphylaxis recognition and management preparedness among preschool staff. The objective of this study was to assess anaphylaxis preparedness among preschool staff. Methods. Anonymous questionnaires were administered before and after a 40-minute educational seminar on anaphylaxis recognition and management. Results. In total, 181 individuals participated in the preintervention survey and 171 participated in the postintervention survey. The comfort level with recognizing anaphylaxis and administering an epinephrine autoinjector significantly increased after the intervention (P<.001 for both. Of the 5 steps needed to administer an epinephrine autoinjector, staff named a mean (SD of 3 (1.3 steps in the correct order compared with 4.2 (1.1 steps after the educational intervention (P<.001. Conclusion. This study shows that a brief education intervention can significantly increase caregiver comfort regarding identifying anaphylaxis and administering an epinephrine autoinjector.

  4. Chloramine-induced anaphylaxis while showering: a case report

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    D’Alò Simona


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Sodium-N-chlorine-p-toluene sulfonamide, commonly known as chloramine-T, is a derivative of chlorine which is widely used as a disinfectant. For many years, chloramine-T has been described as a cause of immediate-type hypersensitivity, especially with regard to asthma and rhinitis, and as a cause of occupational dermatoses in cleaning personnel in hospitals, although no anaphylactic reaction has yet been reported. Hence, to the best of our knowledge we present the first case of anaphylaxis to chloramine-T with evidence of specific immunoglobulin E antibodies. Case presentation We describe the case of a 25-year-old Caucasian woman who was in good health and with a negative history for atopy, including no respiratory symptoms of rhinitis or asthma, and with no professional exposure to chloramine-T. She, while showering, applied a chloramine-T solution to a skin area with folliculitis on her leg, and within a few minutes developed generalized urticaria and angioedema, followed by vomiting and collapse with loss of consciousness. A skin prick test with a chloramine-T solution at 10mg/mL concentration was positive, and specific immunoglobulin E to chloramine-T was quantified at a value of 2.9 optical density as measured by the enzyme allergosorbent test technique. Conclusion The strict cause-effect relationship and the results of the skin test and the in vitro test make certain the causative role of chloramine-T in this case of anaphylaxis. This suggests that chloramine-T, based on its wide use as a disinfectant, should be considered a possible cause in anaphylaxis of unknown origin.

  5. Anaphylaxis induced by pine nuts in two young girls. (United States)

    Ibáñez, M Dolores; Lombardero, Manuel; San Ireneo, Mercedes Martinez; Muñoz, M Carmen


    Pine nuts are the seeds of Pinus pinea. There are few reported cases of allergy to pine nut. We describe two young girls with anaphylaxis caused by small amounts of pine nuts. Specific IgE to pine nut was demonstrated by skin prick tests and RAST but no IgE to other nuts and pine pollen was detected. The patients had IgE against a pine nut protein band with apparent molecular weights of approximately 17 kDa that could be considered as the main allergen. Our patients were monosensitized to pine nut and the 17-kDa protein could be correlated with the severe clinical symptoms.

  6. Managing nut-induced anaphylaxis: challenges and solutions

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    Lomas JM


    Full Text Available Jeanne M Lomas, Kirsi M Järvinen Division of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY, USA Abstract: The prevalence of peanut and tree nut allergy in the USA has increased, especially in the pediatric population. Nut allergy remains the leading cause of fatal anaphylactic reactions. Management of anaphylaxis includes not only treatment of symptoms during a reaction, but strict dietary avoidance and education on potential situations, which may place the patient at high risk for accidental exposure. Cross-reactivity between various nuts along with various cross-contamination sources should be discussed with all nut-allergic individuals. Exciting research continues to emerge on other potential treatments for patients allergic to nuts, including allergen immunotherapy. Results of such interventions have been encouraging, though further studies are needed regarding safety and long-term outcomes before these can be applied to clinical practice. Keywords: peanut, tree nut, anaphylaxis, cross-reactivity, avoidance, immunotherapy

  7. Bee sting anaphylaxis in an urban population of South Australia. (United States)

    Roberts-Thomson, P J; Harvey, P; Sperber, S; Kupa, A; Heddle, R J


    The clinical manifestations and circumstances of bee sting anaphylaxis have been studied retrospectively in 98 subjects. Most reactions occurred in children but the most severe reactions were seen in adult males, of whom 7 lost consciousness and 2 required cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Most stings causing anaphylaxis occurred on the unprotected feet whilst the subject was on lawn in the afternoons in December, January and February when the maximum daily temperature was between 20 and 30 degrees C. This is the temperature range when bees are particularly active in gathering pollen. However, a significantly greater frequency of anaphylactic reactions occurred at higher temperatures when bees are less active, suggesting that high environmental temperature may predispose the individual to greater exposure to bees or possibly to anaphylactic reactions per se. The presence of atopy did not appear to predispose subjects to bee venom hypersensitivity. Considerable anxiety and lifestyle alteration were identified in some subjects. The alleviation of this anxiety is considered an appropriate indication for bee venom immunotherapy.

  8. Why Do People Die of Anaphylaxis?—A Clinical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Eric Gershwin


    Full Text Available Anaphylaxis is a source of anxiety for patients and healthcare providers. It is a medical emergency that presents with a broad array of symptoms and signs, many of which can be deceptively similar to other diseases such as myocardial infarction, asthma, or panic attacks. In addition to these diagnostic challenges, anaphylaxis presents management difficulties due to rapid onset and progression, lack of appropriate self-treatment education and implementation by patients, severity of the allergic response, exacerbating medications or concurrent disease, and unpredictability. The most common causes of anaphylaxis are food allergies, stinging insects and immunotherapy (allergy shots but idiopathic anaphylaxis, latex allergy and drug hypersensitive all contribute to the epidemiology. Reactions to IVP and other dyes are coined anaphylactoid reactions but have identical pathophysiology and treatment, once the mast cell has been degranulated. As many antigens can be the trigger for fatal anaphylaxis, it is useful to examine the features of each etiology individually, highlighting factors common to all fatal anaphylaxis and some specific to certain etiologies. Generally what distinguishes a fatal from non fatal reaction is often just the rapidity to apply correct therapy. Prevention is clearly the key and should identify high-risk patients in an attempt to minimize the likely of a severe reaction. Although fatal anaphylaxis is rare, it is likely underreported.

  9. A Multicenter Retrospective Case Study of Anaphylaxis Triggers by Age in Korean Children (United States)

    Lee, So-Yeon; Ahn, Kangmo; Kim, Jihyun; Jang, Gwang Cheon; Min, Taek Ki; Yang, Hyeon-Jong; Pyun, Bok Yang; Kwon, Ji-Won; Sohn, Myung Hyun; Kim, Kyung Won; Kim, Kyu-Earn; Yu, Jinho; Hong, Soo-Jong; Kwon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Sung-Won; Song, Tae Won; Kim, Woo Kyung; Kim, Hyung Young; Jeon, You Hoon; Lee, Yong Ju; Lee, Hae Ran; Kim, Hye-Young; Ahn, Youngmin; Yum, Hye Yung; Suh, Dong In; Kim, Hyun Hee; Kim, Jin-Tack; Kim, Jeong Hee; Park, Yong Mean


    Purpose Although anaphylaxis is recognized as an important, life-threatening condition, data are limited regarding its triggers in different age groups. We aimed to identify anaphylaxis triggers by age in Korean children. Methods We performed a retrospective review of medical records for children diagnosed with anaphylaxis between 2009 and 2013 in 23 secondary or tertiary hospitals in South Korea. Results A total of 991 cases (mean age=5.89±5.24) were reported, with 63.9% involving patients younger than 6 years of age and 66% involving male children. Food was the most common anaphylaxis trigger (74.7%), followed by drugs and radiocontrast media (10.7%), idiopathic factors (9.2%), and exercise (3.6%). The most common food allergen was milk (28.4%), followed by egg white (13.6%), walnut (8.0%), wheat (7.2%), buckwheat (6.5%), and peanut (6.2%). Milk and seafood were the most common anaphylaxis triggers in young and older children, respectively. Drug-triggered anaphylaxis was observed more frequently with increasing age, with antibiotics (34.9%) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (17.9%) being the most common causes. Conclusions The most common anaphylaxis trigger in Korean children was food. Data on these triggers show that their relative frequency may vary by age. PMID:27582405

  10. Anaphylaxis with Latrodectus antivenin resulting in cardiac arrest. (United States)

    Murphy, Christine M; Hong, Jeannie J; Beuhler, Michael C


    Latrodectus mactans antivenin is a safe and effective therapy for severe black widow spider envenomations when given to most patients. We report a case of a 37-year-old male with a history of asthma that was given L. mactans antivenin for symptoms related to a black widow envenomation and developed a severe anaphylactic reaction resulting in cardiac arrest. When traditional therapies failed, the patient was given methylene blue for anaphylactic shock resulting in a 30-h period of hemodynamic stability. Despite initial resuscitation, the patient ultimately died 40 h after presentation. Under the right circumstances, L. mactans antivenin remains a safe and effective therapy for severe black widow envenomations. However, anaphylaxis is a risk for those receiving this therapy, even when the antivenin is diluted and given as an infusion. We report the first death related to diluted L. mactans antivenin given as an infusion.

  11. A case of taurine-containing drink induced anaphylaxis. (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Eun; Lee, Suh-Young; Jo, Eun-Jung; Kim, Mi-Young; Yang, Min-Suk; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Kim, Sae-Hoon


    Taurine is one of most abundant free amino acids in mammalian tissue. It has been used for various health functional foods as a main ingredient in food industry. A 33-year-old female patient repeatedly experienced generalized itching, urticaria, dyspnea and dizziness after drinking taurine-containing drinks. The patient showed positive response to oral challenge tests with taurine-containing drinks. The patient also showed positive response with synthetic taurine but not with natural taurine. Skin prick test and basophil activation test with the synthetic taurine were negative. To our knowledge, there has been no report of taurine-induced hypersensitivity reactions. We herein report the first case of taurine-containing drink induced anaphylaxis, especially by synthetic taurine.

  12. Anaphylaxis to muscle relaxants: rational for skin tests. (United States)

    Moneret-Vautrin, D A; Kanny, G


    IgE-dependent allergy to muscle relaxants (MR) has an estimated prevalence of 1 out of 6500 General Anesthesias (GA). 62% of anaphylaxis during surgery are due to MR anaphylaxis. All the molecules are divalent, carrying two NH4+ epitopes (quaternary ammonium ions), either structurally or after rapid in vivo protonization (vecuronium). The excellent overall performance of skin test makes them the golden standard for the diagnosis of anaphylactoid reactions. Techniques include intradermal tests and prick-tests. The current localizations are the forearm and the back. Positivity criteria are 3 mm for prick-tests. For IDTs, the criterium is the doubling of the size of the injection papula, when 0.02 to 0.04 ml is injected: 8 mm. The recommended concentrations are not falsely negative. Commercial concentrations can be tested by prick tests, except for mivacurium and atracurium tested of 1:10 dilution. A scale of concentrations is advised for IDT starting with 1:10,000, up to a normally non reactive concentration that is: 100 micrograms/ml (succinylcholine), 200 micrograms/ml (gallamine), 10 micrograms/ml (atracurium), 2 micrograms/ml (mivacurium), 200 micrograms/ml (pancuronium), 400 micrograms/ml (vecuronium), 1,000 micrograms/ml (rocuronium), 200 micrograms/ml (cis atracurium). The specificity and sensitivity of the skin tests to MRs are greater than 95%. The reproducibility over years is 88%. The overall concordance of PT and IDR is 97%. Both types of tests can be used for the diagnosis. IDT have to be carried out for the search of the cross sensitization. 84% of patients do have cross sensitization to MRs but only 16% react to all MRs. The further use of MRs selected by negative IDTs has been proved to be safe.

  13. Differences in hospital attendance for anaphylaxis between immigrants and non-immigrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norredam, M; Sheikh, A; Svendsen, K Dynnes;


    BACKGROUND: The impact of migration on the risk of anaphylaxis is unknown. We hypothesized that non-Western immigrants have a lower incidence of anaphylaxis compared to Danish-born. We investigated variations in hospital attendance for anaphylaxis between immigrants and Danish-born including time......- and age- trends. METHODS: A register-based, historical prospective cohort design. Refugees or family reunified immigrants (n=127,250) who, between January 1,1994 and December 31, 2010, obtained residency permits in Denmark were included and matched in a 1:6 ratio on age and sex with Danish...... for age using a Cox regression model including the influence of duration of residence and age when residence was obtained. RESULTS: In total 1,053 hospital attendances for anaphylaxis were identified: 89 among non-Western immigrants, 9 among Western immigrants and 955 among Danish-born patients. Both male...

  14. Gynecomastia induced by H1-antihistamine (ebastine) in a patient with idiopathic anaphylaxis. (United States)

    Jung, Hwa Sik; Park, Chan-Ho; Park, Young Tae; Bae, Mi Ae; Lee, Youn Im; Kang, Byung Ju; Jegal, Yangjin; Ahn, Jong Joon; Lee, Taehoon


    H1-antihistamine is generally a well-tolerated and safe drug. However, in resemblance with all other drugs, H1-antihistamines can also prompt adverse drug reactions (ADRs). We recently encountered the very unusual ADR of H1-antihistamine-induced gynecomastia. A 21-year-old man with idiopathic anaphylaxis was treated with ebastine (Ebastel), a second-generation H1-antihistamine, for the prevention of anaphylaxis. Three months later, the patient remained well without anaphylaxis, but had newly developed gynecomastia. Because anaphylaxis recurred after the cessation of H1-antihistamine, the preventive medication was changed to omalizumab. A few months later, his gynecomastia had entirely disappeared. Physicians should be aware of this exceptional ADR of H1-antihistamine.

  15. Antiasthmatic activity of Ricinus communis L. roots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dnyaneshwar J Taur; RavindraY Patil


    Objective: To evaluate the antiasthmatic activity of Ricinus communis (R. communis) Linn (Euphorbiaceae) to validate its traditional use. Methods: The antiasthmatic activity of ethanol extract of R. communis (ERCR) root was evaluated on milk induced leucocytosis and eosinophilia in mice, mast cell degranulations in mice and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in rats at (100-150 mg/kg). Results: The ERCR significantly decreases milk induced leucocytosis and eosinophilia and protect degranulations of mast cells in mice. At the same dose ERCR inhibited passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in rats. Phytochemical study revealed the presence of steroids, saponin, alkaloids, flavonoids, and glycosides. Conclusions: The flavonoids and saponins are reported to possess mast cell stabilizing and antianaphylactic activity. Hence ERCR shows antiasthmatic activity may be due to presence of flavonoids and/or saponins.

  16. Pharmacists’ response to anaphylaxis in the community (PRAC): a randomised, simulated patient study of pharmacist practice (United States)

    Salter, Sandra M; Delfante, Brock; de Klerk, Sarah; Sanfilippo, Frank M; Clifford, Rhonda M


    Objective To evaluate how community pharmacists manage patients with anaphylaxis. Design A randomised, cross-sectional, simulated patient study of community pharmacist practice. Setting 300 metropolitan pharmacies located in Perth Australia, randomised to three groups of 100 pharmacies. Each group corresponded to a different epinephrine autoinjector: original EpiPen, new-look EpiPen or Anapen. Participants 300 pharmacies were visited with 271 simulated patient visits included in the final analysis (88=original EpiPen, 92=new-look EpiPen, 91=Anapen). Outcome measures Primary anaphylaxis preparedness (readiness to treat acute anaphylaxis). Secondary anaphylaxis engagement (willingness to engage the patient in a discussion about their anaphylaxis). Methods Simulated patients approached pharmacists, using a standardised scenario, for assistance with epinephrine autoinjector use and advice about the use of antihistamines in anaphylaxis. Scores for each outcome were obtained based on the number of predefined statements addressed by the pharmacist during the consultation (maximum score=5 for preparedness and 8 for engagement). Results The mean anaphylaxis preparedness score was 2.39 points (SD 1.17). Scores for new-look EpiPen were significantly higher than for original EpiPen and Anapen (2.75 vs 2.38 points, p=0.027; 2.75 vs 2.03 points, pEpiPen were similar to original EpiPen and Anapen (3.11 vs 3.32 points; 3.11 vs 2.90 points, both p=0.42). Engagement was associated with preparedness. For each additional engagement point, preparedness increased by 7% (0.357 points; 95% CI 0.291 to 0.424; p<0.001). Conclusions Pharmacists demonstrated reasonable knowledge of anaphylaxis symptoms and emergency care, but had poor epinephrine autoinjector technique and rarely discussed anaphylaxis action plans. Pharmacists who had a more comprehensive discussion about anaphylaxis with patients, were more prepared for anaphylaxis emergencies. Future research should evaluate the nature and

  17. LPS promotes Th2 dependent sensitisation leading to anaphylaxis in a Pru p 3 mouse model


    Rodriguez, Maria J.; Aranda, Ana; Fernandez, Tahia D.; Cubells-Baeza, Nuria; Torres, Maria J.; Gomez, Francisca; Palomares, Francisca; Perkins, James R; Rojo, Javier; Diaz-Perales, Araceli; Mayorga, Cristobalina


    Pru p 3 is the major peach allergen in the Mediterranean area. It frequently elicits severe reactions, limiting its study in humans, raising the need for animal models to investigate the immunological mechanisms involved. However, no anaphylaxis model exists for Pru p 3. We aimed to develop a model of peach anaphylaxis by sensitising mice with Pru p 3 in combination with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as an adjuvant. Four groups of mice were sensitised intranasally: untreated; treated with Pru p 3;...

  18. LPS promotes Th2 dependent sensitisation leading to anaphylaxis in a Pru p 3 mouse model


    Rodríguez, María J.; Aranda, Ana; Fernández, Tahia; Cubells-Baeza, Nuria; Torres, María José; Gómez, Francisca; Palomares, Francisca; Perkins, James R; Rojo, Javier; Díaz-Perales, Araceli; Mayorga, Cristobalina


    Pru p 3 is the major peach allergen in the Mediterranean area. It frequently elicits severe reactions, limiting its study in humans, raising the need for animal models to investigate the immunological mechanisms involved. However, no anaphylaxis model exists for Pru p 3. We aimed to develop a model of peach anaphylaxis by sensitising mice with Pru p 3 in combination with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as an adjuvant. Four groups of mice were sensitised intranasally: untreated; treated w...

  19. Anaphylaxis in referred pediatric patients: demographic and clinical features, triggers, and therapeutic approach. (United States)

    De Swert, Liliane F A; Bullens, Dominique; Raes, Marc; Dermaux, Anna-Maria


    Anaphylaxis remains under-diagnosed and under-treated. A better knowledge of patterns and triggers of anaphylaxis might contribute to a better management. In this study we evaluated the demographic and clinical features of anaphylaxis in pediatric patients, as well as its triggers and therapeutic approach. From May 1st 2004 until April 30th 2006 we prospectively collected data on all patients referred for investigation of anaphylaxis to the pediatric department of the University Hospital Gasthuisberg Leuven and to two private pediatric practices. Data were stored in a MYSQL database by use of an online encrypted web form. Sixty-four cases of anaphylaxis occurred in 48 children, aged 6 months to 14.8 years. Twenty-seven episodes (42.2%) occurred at home. The symptoms were dermatologic in 62 (96.9%) episodes, respiratory in 57 (89.1%), gastrointestinal in 19 (29.7%), cardiovascular in 14 (21.8%), and neurological or behavioural in 19 (29.7%). Antihistamines were administered in 41/57 (71.9%) cases, corticosteroids in 26/57 (45.6%), beta-2-mimetics in 14/57 (24.6%), and adrenaline in 11/57 (19.3%). Out of nine cases where Epipen was available at the moment of anaphylaxis, it was administered in one case only. Food was the cause of anaphylaxis in 42/55 (76.4%) cases with identified trigger, while medication, insect stings, latex, and birch pollen triggered 5 (9.1%), 4 (7.3%), 3 (5.5%), and 1 (1.8%) case(s), respectively. Allergy to the trigger was known prior to anaphylaxis in 19/55 (34.5%) cases. In conclusion, anaphylaxis in pediatric patients generally presents with dermatologic and respiratory symptoms, while in 1/5 episodes cardiovascular symptoms occur. Food is by far the most frequent trigger. Allergy to the trigger is known in 1/3 cases only. Anaphylaxis is under-treated, even when appropriate medication is available.

  20. Anaphylaxis and generalized urticaria from eating Chinese bayberry fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-ying WANG; Zhong-shan GAO; Zhao-wei YANG; Jing-xin SHAO; Xiu-zhen ZHAO; Yu DAI; Ronald VAN REE


    Chinese bayberry Myrica rubra is a very popular fruit in southeastern China.In spite of its wide consumption,no allergies to this fruit have been reported previously.Here we report on a 40-year-old woman suffering from anaphylaxis to Chinese bayberry fruit.Prick-prick skin tests revealed strong reactions to fresh Chinese bayberry fruits as well as to peach,and weaker reactions to some other fruits including apple,melon,and banana.ImmunoCAP analysis revealed identical titers of specific IgE (4.3 kUA/L) to peach extract and its lipid transfer protein (LTP,rPru p 3),which was confirmed by detection of a 9 kD band following immunoblotting.Immunoblot analysis with Chinese bayberry extract gave bands of 22,45,and 90 kD,but no 9 kD band was recognized.There was also no evidence of LTP recognition for Ioquat (36 kD) or melon (24 kD).This first report of a severe allergic reaction to Chinese bayberry fruit in a patient with LTP-mediated peach allergy indicates that other as yet unidentified non-pollen related fruit allergens are involved in this new severe fruit allergy.

  1. Palonosetron-Induced Anaphylaxis During General Anesthesia: A Case Report (United States)

    Park, Hyungjun; Oh, Kyunghwan; Lee, Hoonhee; Lee, Ji-Hyang; Kang, Sun-myoung; Park, So-Young; Kwon, Hyouk-Soo; Cho, You Sook; Moon, Hee-Bom


    Palonosetron is a 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT-3) receptor antagonist used for preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting. Compared with ondansetron and granisetron, it is a better drug because of prolonged action and minimal side effects. Some adverse effects of palonosetron have been reported. In this report, we describe a 37-year-old male who developed severe hypersensitivity reactions to palonosetron during surgery for kidney donation. His medical history was unremarkable, except for inguinal hernia with herniorrhaphy 8 years ago. The surgery was uneventful until 2 hours 20 minutes. After palonosetron injection, his blood pressure dropped to 80/50 mm Hg, and facial edema, rash, conjunctival swelling, and wheezing developed. The patient was resuscitated by administration of ephedrine, hydrocortisone, and peniramine. Following the surgery, the patient was monitored for 3 days, and there were no subsequent anaphylactic reactions or other complications. The skin test on postoperative day 54 was positive for hypersensitivity to palonosetron. Although palonosetron is known for its safety, other hypersensitivity events have been reported. Ondansetron is another widely used 5-HT-3 antagonist, which has been reported to cause anaphylaxis. Therefore, clinicians should be aware of the possibility of patients experiencing severe adverse reactions to palonosetron. PMID:27826967

  2. Anaphylaxis to pine nut: cross-reactivity to Artemisia vulgaris? (United States)

    Rodrigues-Alves, R; Pregal, A; Pereira-Santos, M C; Branco-Ferreira, M; Lundberg, M; Oman, H; Pereira-Barbosa, M


    The use of pine nuts, the seeds of Pinus pinea, is on the increasing in the modern Mediterranean diet. Little more than 20 cases of allergy to this tree nut have been published, and cross-reactivity with pine pollen, peanut and almond has already been reported. We describe the case of a young boy with several episodes of anaphylaxis after pine nut ingestion. Specific IgE to pine nut and Artemisia vulgaris was demonstrated by skin prick tests and in vitro determination of specific IgE, although no IgE to pine pollen or other nuts was detected. Immunoblotting of Artemisia vulgaris and pine nut revealed two matching diffuse bands, just below 14 kDa and 30 kDa. The ImmunoCAP inhibition assays showed complete inhibition of pine nut specific IgE after serum incubation with Artemisia vulgaris extract. As far as we know, this is the first reported case of documented cross-reactivity between pine nut and Artemisia vulgaris.

  3. Level of knowledge about anaphylaxis and its management among health care providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H S Drupad


    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was conducted to assess the level of knowledge of health care providers regarding anaphylaxis and its management at a tertiary care teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: A pretested structured questionnaire was administered to interns, MBBS Phase II students, and nursing students. The subjects were asked to answer the questionnaire, which included questions regarding anaphylaxis and its management. Results: Of 265 subjects, 151 (56.9% of subjects answered correctly that adrenaline is the first line of drug for the treatment of anaphylaxis. Among 151 subjects, 40 (26.4% answered the correct dose of adrenaline, of which 25 (16.5% subjects selected intramuscular injection as the most appropriate route of administration. Medical students′ performance was better than interns and nursing students on questions regarding dose, route, and site of adrenaline administration. Conclusion: Knowledge regarding the management of anaphylaxis was inadequate in almost all the health care providers who were included in the study. Improved education and training of health care providers are necessary for better management of anaphylaxis.

  4. [Anaphylaxis secondary to prick-to-prick tests to foods and its risk factors]. (United States)

    Galindo-Pacheco, Lucy Vania; O'Farrill-Romanillos, Patricia María; Amaya-Mejía, Adela Sisy; Almeraya-García, Priscilla; López-Rocha, Eunice


    The diagnosis of food allergy requires a proper anamnesis and diagnostic testing with skin prick tests with fresh foods and/or standardized allergen, or specific IgE tests. The risk of systemic reactions is of 15-23 per 100,000 skin tests performed by prick method, specifically anaphylaxis at 0.02%. This paper reports the case of four patients, who while performing prick to prick test with fresh food presented anaphylactic reaction. Implicated foods were fruits of the Rosaceae, Anacardiaceae and Caricaceae families. The severity of anaphylaxis was: two patients with grade 4, one patient grade 2 and one grade 3, all with appropriate response to drug treatment. The risk factors identified were: female sex, personal history of atopy, previous systemic reaction to Hymenoptera venom, prior anaphylaxis to prick tests to aeroallergens. We found that a history of positive skin test for Betulla v, can be a risk factor for anaphylaxis in patients with oral syndrome. During testing prick to prick with food anaphylaxis can occur, so it should be made with aerial red team on hand. The history of positivity Betulla v is an additional risk factor in these patients.

  5. Late Onset Anaphylaxis in a Hydatid Cyst Case Presenting with Chronic Urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insu Yilmaz


    Full Text Available Hydatid cyst is still endemic in various regions of the world. It is the most frequent cause of liver cysts worldwide. Urticaria is sometimes the first manifestation of the disease. However anaphylactic reaction and urticaria have been very rarely reported in the literature. Traditionally, surgery has been the only accepted mode of treatment; however, percutaneous treatment has recently been proposed as an alternative. Cases of anaphylaxis have been reported after percutaneous drainage of hydatid cyst. However, anaphylaxis usually develops within a few hours. Herein, we describe the case of a patient who presented with hydatid cyst causing chronic urticaria and late anaphylactic reaction following percutaneous aspiration of a liver hydatid cyst. We emphasize that physicians should be aware of hydatid cyst as a possible etiology for seemingly chronic spontaneous urticaria, especially in endemic regions. Patients should be kept under observation for at least one day due to the risk of early and late anaphylaxis after percutaneous aspiration treatment.

  6. Serious shortcomings in the management of children with anaphylaxis in Scottish schools.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsty E Rankin


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The United Kingdom incidence of anaphylaxis has increased very sharply over the last decade, with the highest rates of hospital admissions occurring in school-aged children. This raises concerns about the extent to which schools are aware of approaches to the prevention and treatment of anaphylaxis. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We undertook a national postal survey of 250 Scottish schools enquiring about approaches to managing children considered to be at risk of anaphylaxis. We obtained responses from 148 (60% schools, 90 (61% of which reported having at least one at risk child. Most (80% schools with children considered to be at risk reported having personalised care plans and invariably reported having at least one member of staff trained in the emergency treatment of anaphylaxis. Access to adrenaline was available on-site in 97% of these schools. However, significantly fewer schools without children considered to be at risk reported having a trained member of staff (48%, p < 0.001, with access to adrenaline being very poor (12%, p < 0.001. Overall, 59% of respondents did not feel confident in their school's ability to respond in an emergency situation. CONCLUSIONS: Most schools with children considered to be at risk of anaphylaxis report using personal care plans and having a member of staff trained in the use of, and with access to, adrenaline. The picture is, however, less encouraging in schools without known at risk children, both in relation to staff training and access to adrenaline. The majority of schools with at risk children have poorly developed strategies for preventing food-triggered anaphylaxis reactions. There is a need for detailed national guidelines for all schools, which the Scottish Executive must now ensure are developed and implemented.

  7. [Anaphylaxis after injection of corticosteroid preparations--carboxymethylcellulose as a hidden allergen]. (United States)

    Oppliger, Roland; Hauser, Conrad


    Two patients developed anaphylaxis after injection of a corticosteroid preparation containing carboxymethylcellulose (E466). In both cases skin tests yielded positive immediate type reactions to pure carboxymethylcellulose. This hydrophilic derivative of cellulose has found wide application in the pharmaceutical, cosmetics and food industry. The diagnosis is based on skin testing as 9% of the normal population was found to have serum IgE antibodies to this compound. In case of anaphylaxis after injection of corticosteroids, carboxymethylcellulose in addition to corticosteroids should be included for skin testing.

  8. Spontaneous Intraperitoneal Rupture of a Hepatic Hydatid Cyst with Subsequent Anaphylaxis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Tinsley


    Full Text Available Hydatid cyst rupture into the abdomen is a serious complication of cystic hydatid disease of the liver (Cystic Echinococcosis with an incidence of up to 16% in some series and can result in anaphylaxis or anaphylactoid reactions in up to 12.5% of cases. At presentation, 36–40% of hydatid cysts have ruptured or become secondarily infected. Rupture can be microscopic or macroscopic and can be fatal without surgery. Hydatid disease of the liver is primarily caused by the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus and occurs worldwide, with incidence of up to 200 per 100,000 in endemic areas. Our case describes a 24-year-old Bulgarian woman presenting with epigastric pain and evidence of anaphylaxis. Abdominal CT demonstrated a ruptured hydatid cyst in the left lobe of the liver. A partial left lobe hepatectomy, cholecystectomy, and peritoneal washout was performed with good effect. She was treated for anaphylaxis and received antihelminthic treatment with Albendazole and Praziquantel. She made a good recovery following surgery and medical treatment and was well on follow-up. Intraperitoneal rupture with anaphylaxis is a rare occurrence, and there do not seem to be any reported cases from UK centres prior to this.

  9. Allergy/Anaphylaxis Management in the School Setting. Position Statement. Revised (United States)

    Zacharski, Susan; DeSisto, Marie; Pontius, Deborah; Sheets, Jodi; Richesin, Cynthia


    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that the safe and effective management of allergies and anaphylaxis in schools requires a collaborative, multidisciplinary team approach. The registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as the school nurse), is the leader in a comprehensive management approach…

  10. Plasma contact system activation drives anaphylaxis in severe mast cell-mediated allergic reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sala-Cunill, Anna; Björkqvist, Jenny; Senter, Riccardo; Guilarte, Mar; Cardona, Victoria; Labrador, Moises; Nickel, Katrin F; Butler, Lynn; Luengo, Olga; Kumar, Parvin; Labberton, Linda; Long, Andy; Di Gennaro, Antonio; Kenne, Ellinor; Jämsä, Anne; Krieger, Thorsten; Schlüter, Hartmut; Fuchs, Tobias; Flohr, Stefanie; Hassiepen, Ulrich; Cumin, Frederic; McCrae, Keith; Maas, Coen; Stavrou, Evi; Renné, Thomas


    BACKGROUND: Anaphylaxis is an acute, potentially lethal, multisystem syndrome resulting from the sudden release of mast cell-derived mediators into the circulation. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: We report here that a plasma protease cascade, the factor XII-driven contact system, critically contributes to

  11. Anaphylaxis Imaging: Non-Invasive Measurement of Surface Body Temperature and Physical Activity in Small Animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisztina Manzano-Szalai

    Full Text Available In highly sensitized patients, the encounter with a specific allergen from food, insect stings or medications may rapidly induce systemic anaphylaxis with potentially lethal symptoms. Countless animal models of anaphylaxis, most often in BALB/c mice, were established to understand the pathophysiology and to prove the safety of different treatments. The most common symptoms during anaphylactic shock are drop of body temperature and reduced physical activity. To refine, improve and objectify the currently applied manual monitoring methods, we developed an imaging method for the automated, non-invasive measurement of the whole-body surface temperature and, at the same time, of the horizontal and vertical movement activity of small animals. We tested the anaphylaxis imaging in three in vivo allergy mouse models for i milk allergy, ii peanut allergy and iii egg allergy. These proof-of-principle experiments suggest that the imaging technology represents a reliable non-invasive method for the objective monitoring of small animals during anaphylaxis over time. We propose that the method will be useful for monitoring diseases associated with both, changes in body temperature and in physical behaviour.

  12. Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis: a case related to chickpea ingestion and review. (United States)

    Wong, Chet G; Mace, Sean R


    : Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA) is recognized as a distinct category of exercise-induced anaphylaxis (EIA) but is very likely underdiagnosed. This report describes a 41-year-old Indian woman who experienced two separate episodes of anaphylaxis while dancing after she had eaten chickpea-containing foods. The chickpea, a small legume, is a staple ingredient in culinary traditions from around the world, especially in India, the Middle East, and North Africa. Chickpea-containing dishes are also becoming more widespread in the Western world with the growing popularity of South Asian, Middle Eastern, and African cuisines. It is important to consider FDEIA in cases of unexplained anaphylaxis as reactions can occur several hours after ingesting the culprit food(s). Furthermore, no reaction occurs if a sensitized individual eats the culprit food(s) without exercising afterward; therefore, triggering foods can easily be overlooked. Current ideas on the pathophysiology, predisposing factors, workup, and treatment of FDEIA are also summarized here.

  13. Food-Dependent Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis: A Case Related to Chickpea Ingestion and Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Chet G


    Full Text Available Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA is recognized as a distinct category of exercise-induced anaphylaxis (EIA but is very likely underdiagnosed. This report describes a 41-year-old Indian woman who experienced two separate episodes of anaphylaxis while dancing after she had eaten chickpea-containing foods. The chickpea, a small legume, is a staple ingredient in culinary traditions from around the world, especially in India, the Middle East, and North Africa. Chickpea-containing dishes are also becoming more widespread in the Western world with the growing popularity of South Asian, Middle Eastern, and African cuisines. It is important to consider FDEIA in cases of unexplained anaphylaxis as reactions can occur several hours after ingesting the culprit food(s. Furthermore, no reaction occurs if a sensitized individual eats the culprit food(s without exercising afterward; therefore, triggering foods can easily be overlooked. Current ideas on the pathophysiology, predisposing factors, workup, and treatment of FDEIA are also summarized here.

  14. First case report of anaphylaxis caused by Rajgira seed flour (Amaranthus paniculatus) from India: a clinico-immunologic evaluation. (United States)

    Kasera, Ramkrashan; Niphadkar, P V; Saran, Aditya; Mathur, Chandni; Singh, A B


    The prevalence of food allergy is reported to be 3-4% in adults and about 6% in children. However food allergy across different countries accounts for 35-50 % all cases of anaphylaxis to foods. In the present study, we have reported a case of anaphylaxis to Amaranth grain (Amaranthus paniculatus) commonly known as Rajgira (Ramdana) in India. A 60 year old female suffered anaphylaxis after consuming Rajgira seed flour generally consumed during fasting. Food allergy to Amaranth seeds is not reported so far. The patient reported to hospital with complaints of itching in mouth, choking throat, redness and swelling of face and burning abdomen within 5 min of consuming Rajgira flour. Clinical and immunological investigations revealed SPT and oral challenge positivity beside high allergen specific IgE in the serum of the patient. Three IgE binding protein fractions were detected in roasted Rajgira seed flour extract which could be considered to be allergenically important for triggering anaphylaxis.

  15. Cow’s Milk Anaphylaxis in Children First Report of Iranian Food Allergy Registry

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    Pegah Teymourpour


    Full Text Available Cow’s  milk  anaphylaxis is  the  most  common  food-induced  anaphylaxis in  Iranian children. The clinical and laboratory findings of cow’s milk anaphylaxis are evaluated in this study. All children who had experienced cow’s  milk anaphylaxis and had been referred to Immunology, asthma and allergy research center during a 5-year period were considered. After fulfilling a questionnaire, patients underwent measurement of total IgE and cow’s milk- specific IgE by Immunocap test and Skin prick test (SPT with cow’s milk extract. Patients with a convincing history and one positive cow’s milk-specific IgE test (SPT or Immunocap test and patients with both positive tests were enrolled, in this study.Out of 49 patients, 59.2% were male. Patients’ mean age was 5 years old and their mean age at the  time of  first attack was 5.7 months  (SD =  4.3. Most  of  the  patients  have experienced more than one episode of anaphylaxis (79.5% and in 85.7% of all cases, first attack occurred during the first year of life. Severity grading 1-5 were 2%, 6.1%, 18.4%,69.4%, 4.1% respectively. Most common manifestations were cutaneous 98%, Respiratory91.8%, Gastrointestinal  55.1%, Cardiovascular 46.9% and  neurologic  46.9%  signs  and symptoms  respectively. Twenty four  patients showed positive SPT. Mean total IgE  was 239.6±3.3  (IU/mL  and  mean  cow’s  milk-specific IgE  was 19.28±27.2  (IU/mL.  Most patients showed reactions only after ingestion of cow’s milk or after dairy foods (81.6%.It  is concluded  that  cow’s milk anaphylaxis may happen  early in life. Regarding the severity of attacks and remarkable number of patients with several attacks, poor knowledge about this disorder is evident.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Rampure Vittal


    Full Text Available Hydatid cyst infestation is most commonly encountered in liver. Though several procedures have been described in the treatment of hepatic echinococcal cysts ranging from simple puncture to liver resection , radical surgery ( T otal pericystectomy or partial hepatectomy is indicated for liver cyst. Prevention of spillage into the peritoneal cavity and wound edges by injecting a scolicidal agent into the unopened cyst and walling off the operative field with sponges soaked in a scolicidal agent are the two most commonly employed measures. 20% hypertonic saline is one of the recommended scolicidal agent , but can be associated with hypernatremia. Anaphylaxis during hydatid cyst resection is one of the rare occurrences. We hereby de scribe the twin problem of Anaphylaxis intraoperatively and hypernatremia postoperatively and its management.

  17. Risk of solid cancer, cardiovascular disease, anaphylaxis, osteoporosis and fractures in patients with systemic mastocytosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broesby-Olsen, Sigurd; Farkas, Dóra Körmendiné; Vestergaard, Hanne


    In patients with systemic mastocytosis (SM), several aspects of morbidity remain poorly understood. We assessed the risk of solid cancers, cardiovascular disease, anaphylaxis, osteoporosis, and fractures in SM patients. Using Danish medical registries, we conducted a nationwide population......-based cohort study including 687 adult (≥15 years) SM patients diagnosed during 1997-2012. A comparison cohort of 68,700 subjects from the general Danish population who were alive and without SM at the given SM subject's diagnosis were age- and gender-matched. Outcomes were a new diagnosis of solid cancer......, venous thromboembolism (VTE), myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, anaphylaxis, osteoporosis, or fracture. For solid cancers the hazard ratio (HR) was 2.4 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.9-2.8) with a 10-year absolute risk (AR) in the SM-cohort of 12.6% (95% CI 9.4-16.3). Specifically, we found a HR of 7...

  18. Doxycycline exerts multiple anti-allergy effects to attenuate murine allergic conjunctivitis and systemic anaphylaxis. (United States)

    Su, Wenru; Wan, Qian; Han, Longhui; Huang, Jingwen; Chen, Xiaoqing; Chen, Guihua; Zheng, Song Guo; Liang, Dan


    Allergic diseases, which affect up to 20-30% of the world population, are still therapeutic challenge for allergists. Tetracyclines, which belong to an antibiotic drug family that possesses a striking variety of non-antibiotic properties, have been successfully applied to a wide range of diseases. However, their roles in allergic conjunctivitis and anaphylaxis and their underlying anti-allergy mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we reported that treatment with doxycycline significantly reduced IgE release from mouse B cells and the degranulation and inflammatory cytokines production of mouse mast cells (MCs) activated by IgE-dependent way. Furthermore, doxycycline treatment significantly inhibited histamine-induced vascular hyperpermeability in vitro. Mechanistically, the doxycycline-mediated inhibition of B cells, MCs and histamine may occur via modulation of the PI3K/Akt pathway. In vivo, our results demonstrated that treatment with doxycycline significantly attenuated clinical symptoms of mouse models of experimental allergic conjunctivitis (EAC) with a significant decrease in inflammatory cell frequency, IgE production, histamine release, and a decrease in TNF-α and IL-4 production. Using mouse models of MCs-dependent passive systemic anaphylaxis (PSA), we further confirmed anti-allergy effects of doxycycline and doxycycline-mediated inhibitory effects on MCs. Furthermore, our results showed that doxycycline significantly attenuate histamine-induced systemic anaphylaxis-like reaction (HISA) with a significantly downregulation of PI3K/Akt/eNOS/VE-cadherin pathway. The doxycycline-mediated anti-allergy effects during EAC, PSA and HISA were abrogated when an Akt activator, SC79, was administered. These findings suggest that doxycycline inhibits B cell, MC and histamine function and attenuates experimental allergic conjunctivitis and systemic anaphylaxis by possible modulating the PI3K/Akt pathway.

  19. Successful treatment of acute systemic anaphylaxis in a western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). (United States)

    Hayman, David T S; King, Tony; Cameron, Kenneth


    This brief communication describes the successful treatment of acute systemic anaphylaxis in a wild-born but captive infant western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) in the Republic of Congo. The infant demonstrated signs of acute respiratory distress, lingual swelling, and reaction to intradermal tuberculin, given 55 hr earlier. Details of the treatment with steroids, anesthetic induction, and i.v. epinephrine are all reported, and potential antigens that may have initiated the anaphylactic shock are discussed.

  20. Galactose-α-1,3-galactose and Delayed Anaphylaxis, Angioedema, and Urticaria in Children (United States)

    Kennedy, Joshua L.; Stallings, Amy P.; Platts-Mills, Thomas A.E.; Oliveira, Walter M.; Workman, Lisa; James, Haley R.; Tripathi, Anubha; Lane, Charles J.; Matos, Luis; Heymann, Peter W.


    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Despite a thorough history and comprehensive testing, many children who present with recurrent symptoms consistent with allergic reactions elude diagnosis. Recent research has identified a novel cause for “idiopathic” allergic reactions; immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody specific for the carbohydrate galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-Gal) has been associated with delayed urticaria and anaphylaxis that occurs 3 to 6 hours after eating beef, pork, or lamb. We sought to determine whether IgE antibody to α-Gal was present in sera of pediatric patients who reported idiopathic anaphylaxis or urticaria. METHODS: Patients aged 4 to 17 were enrolled in an institutional review board–approved protocol at the University of Virginia and private practice allergy offices in Lynchburg, VA. Sera was obtained and analyzed by ImmunoCAP for total IgE and specific IgE to α-Gal, beef, pork, cat epithelium and dander, Fel d 1, dog dander, and milk. RESULTS: Forty-five pediatric patients were identified who had both clinical histories supporting delayed anaphylaxis or urticaria to mammalian meat and IgE antibody specific for α-Gal. In addition, most of these cases had a history of tick bites within the past year, which itched and persisted. CONCLUSIONS: A novel form of anaphylaxis and urticaria that occurs 3 to 6 hours after eating mammalian meat is not uncommon among children in our area. Identification of these cases may not be straightforward and diagnosis is best confirmed by specific testing, which should certainly be considered for children living in the area where the Lone Star tick is common. PMID:23569097

  1. Inhibitory effects on passive cutaneous anaphylaxis of gamma-irradiated natural herbal extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Bo Ram; Gwon, Hui Jeong; Kim, Yong Soo; Lim, Youn Mook; Nho, Young Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)


    The allergenicity of natural herbal extracts (NHE) was evaluated by a passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) test. Compound 48/80 has been used as a convenient reagent to study a mast cell-mediated non-specific anaphylactic reaction. The NHE treated group has significantly lower Evans blue dye concentration than the control group. These results suggest that the NHE may be useful for the prevention and treatment of allergy-related disease.

  2. Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis in Infants and Preschool-Age Children


    Gaspar-Marques, J; Carreiro-Martins, P.; Papoila, AL; Caires, I; Pedro, C; Araújo-Martins, J; Virella, D; Rosado-Pinto, J.; Leiria-Pinto, P; Neuparth, N.


    Food allergy (FA) prevalence data in infants and preschool-age children are sparse, and proposed risk factors lack confirmation. In this study, 19 children’s day care centers (DCC) from 2 main Portuguese cities were selected after stratification and cluster analysis. An ISAAC’s (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood) derived health questionnaire was applied to a sample of children attending DCCs. Outcomes were FA parental report and anaphylaxis. Logistic regression wa...

  3. Anaphylaxis to scorpion antivenin and its management following envenomation by Indian red scorpion, Mesobuthus tamulus


    Rahul Ramesh Bhoite; Girija Ramesh Bhoite; Dayanand N Bagdure; Himmatrao S Bawaskar


    Mesobuthus tamulus is an Indian red scorpion that is responsible for numerous cases of scorpion stings in the Indian subcontinent. Antivenin, vasodilators, and benzodiazepines are medications of choice in the treatment of scorpion bites. Adverse reactions such as anaphylaxis to antivenin have been infrequently described in the literature. We, herein, present a case of a 42-year-old man stung by Indian red scorpion while gardening at home in India, who presented with extreme pain at the sting ...

  4. Anaphylaxis and food allergy: the result of an intervention in the community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Ferreira


    caring for children with anaphylaxis could not properly recognize or treat an anaphylactic reaction. The educational workshop was apparently effective in the awareness of this condition. In spite of the study limitations (the size of the sample, our results point out the effectiveness of this kind of intervention to disseminate knowledge on a potentially fatal condition, as well as the need of a regular educational program in the community.

  5. A Model of Intestinal Anaphylaxis in Whey Sensitized Balb/c Mice


    Kheroua Omar; Kaddouri Hanane; Negaoui Hanane; Saidi Djamel


    Problem statement: Cow’s Milk Allergy (CMA) is a common disease in childhood. Pathophysiological mechanisms involved in gastrointestinal symptoms are relatively poorly understood. Approach: Therefore, an experimental model of intestinal anaphylaxis was needed to approach the problem. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the parenteral sensitization to whey proteins through immune response and local intestine inflammation using a murine m...

  6. Distinct transcriptome profiles differentiate NSAID-dependent from NSAID-independent food anaphylaxis (United States)

    Muñoz-Cano, Rosa; Pascal, Mariona; Bartra, Joan; Picado, Cesar; Valero, Antonio; Kim, Do-Kyun; Brooks, Stephen; Ombrello, Michael; Metcalfe, Dean D.; Rivera, Juan; Olivera, Ana


    Background Lipid transfer protein (LTP), an abundant protein in fruits, vegetables and nuts, is a common food allergen in Mediterranean areas causing diverse allergic reactions. Approximately 40% of food anaphylaxis induced by LTP require non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) as a triggering cofactor. Objective To better understand the determinants of NSAID-dependent (NSAID-LTP-A) and NSAID-independent LTP-anaphylaxis (LTP-A) Methods Selection of patients was based on a proven clinical history of NSAID-dependent or -independent anaphylaxis to LTP, positive skin prick test to LTP and serum LTP-IgE. Whole transcriptome (RNA-Seq) analysis of blood cells from 14 individuals with NSAID-LTP-A, 7 with LTP-A and 13 healthy controls was performed to identify distinct gene expression signatures. Results Expression of genes regulating gastrointestinal epithelium renewal was altered in both patient sets, particularly in LTP-A, who also presented gene expression profiles characteristic of an inflammatory syndrome. These included altered B cell pathways, increased neutrophil activation markers and elevated levels of reactive oxygen species. Increased expression of the IgG receptor (CD64) in LTP-A patients was mirrored by the presence of LTP-specific IgG1 and 3. Conversely, NSAID-LTP-A patients were characterized by reduced expression of IFN-γ-regulated genes and IFN-γ levels as well as up-regulated adenosine receptor 3 (ADORA3) expression and genes related to adenosine metabolism. Conclusions Gene ontology analysis suggests disturbances in gut epithelium homeostasis in both LTP-related anaphylaxis groups with potential integrity breaches in LTP-A that may explain their distinct inflammatory signature. Differential regulation in LTP-A and NSAID-LTP-A of the IFN-γ pathway, IgG receptors and ADORA3 may provide the pathogenic basis of their distinct responses. PMID:26194548

  7. Epinephrine (adrenaline) in the first-aid, out-of-hospital treatment of anaphylaxis. (United States)

    Simons, F Estelle R


    Epinephrine (adrenaline), the initial treatment of choice for systemic anaphylaxis, is an alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist with bidirectional, cyclic adenosine monophosphate-mediated pharmacological effects on target organs, and a narrow therapeutic index. In a recent study, 0.95% of a geographically-defined population was found to have had epinephrine dispensed for out-of-hospital use; dispensing rates within this population varied from 1.44% for individuals under age 17 years to 0.32% for those older than 65 years. Although epinephrine is widely available in the community, it is not necessarily given in a timely manner when anaphylaxis occurs. Individuals with anaphylaxis may fail to respond to first-aid treatment with epinephrine for a variety of reasons. These include: (1) delay in treatment (in an animal model, epinephrine injection at the nadir of shock fails to provide sustained haemodynamic recovery); (2) administration of epinephrine by sub-optimal routes such as subcutaneous injection or inhalation from a pressurized metered-dose inhaler instead of intramuscular injection; (3) administration of an inappropriately low epinephrine dose due to the limitations currently imposed by the availability of only two fixed-dose auto-injectors: EpiPen Jr 0.15 mg or EpiPen 0.3 mg; and (4) injection of 'outdated' epinephrine, with inadvertent administration of an inadequate dose. Additional fixed-dose formulations of epinephrine are needed to facilitate optimal first-aid dosing in patients of all ages and sizes.

  8. Anaphylaxis Complicated by Acute Respiratory Distress and Fatal Outcome in A Nigerian Family (United States)

    Agelebe, Efeturi; Musa, Tawakalit Lily; Ajayi, Idowu Adebowale


    Reports on hypersensitivity diseases in Nigerians are rare. We report the incidence of anaphylaxis in three siblings following fatal outcome in their mother. Urticarial rashes were noticed in three siblings’ resident in a South Western Nigerian town, one week before presentation at our facility. All the three siblings developed respiratory distress four days after the rash was noticed. Onset of respiratory distress made the family seek care at a private hospital, where they were admitted and treated with intravenous aminophylline and ceftriaxone. The mother of the children had experienced the same symptoms earlier also. She took treatment and died in the same private hospital, where her children received care. Death of the mother and worsening respiratory distress in the children made the father effect transfer of the children to the paediatric emergency unit of Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, Osogbo. The three children made a slow but uneventful recovery after instituting appropriate management for anaphylaxis and acute respiratory distress syndrome. The cases are discussed with a view to create awareness amongst health practitioners about the occurrence of anaphylaxis in our society. The need for prompt recognition and appropriate management, when confronted with this disease is also underscored.

  9. Anaphylaxis to Polyethylene Glycol (Colyte®) in a Patient with Diverticulitis. (United States)

    Lee, So Hee; Hwang, Sun Hyuk; Park, Jin Soo; Park, Hae Sim; Shin, Yoo Seob


    Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are believed to be chemically inert agents, but larger PEG polymers could have immunogenicity. A 39-year-old man was referred to emergency room for loss of consciousness and dyspnea after taking of PEG-3350 (Colyte®). In laboratory findings, the initial serum tryptase level was increased to 91.9 mg/L (normal range: 0.00-11.40 mg/L) without any other laboratory abnormalities. The intradermal test with 10 mg/mL Colyte® showed a 5 × 5 mm wheal, but basophil activation and histamine releasability tests were negative. PEG-3350 is widely used as an osmotic laxative due to its lack of absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. However, the loss of mucosal integrity at gastrointestinal membrane such as diverticulitis may be a predisposing factor for anaphylaxis to Colyte®. We report a case of anaphylaxis induced by the ingestion of PEG-3350 in a patient with diverticulitis which might be a risk factor of anaphylaxis.

  10. Immunoglobulin E anaphylaxis in rabbits: mechanisms of pulmonary resistance and compliance changes. (United States)

    Habib, M P; Dunn, A M; Sobonya, R E; Baumgartener, C C; Newell, J D; Halonen, M


    Factors causing changes in pulmonary resistance and dynamic compliance with immunoglobulin (Ig) E anaphylaxis in spontaneously breathing rabbits were assessed in ventilated rabbits using tantalum bronchography and wet-to-dry wt ratios. Ventilated rabbits demonstrated changes in resistance and compliance similar to spontaneously breathing rabbits. Chlorpheniramine pretreatment prevented increases in resistance but not decreases in compliance. Anaphylaxis constricted small (less than 1 mm) airways 20.9 +/- 16.0% (mean +/- SD) and intermediate (between 1 and 3 mm) airways 21.8 +/- 19.8%. Chlorpheniramine (10 mg/kg) prevented small airway changes and attenuated those in intermediate airways. Chlorpheniramine prevented histamine-induced constriction of small (23.6 +/- 15.7%) and intermediate (17.6 +/- 15.0%) airways. Lung wet-to-dry wt ratios were unchanged. Changes in resistance and compliance during rabbit IgE anaphylaxis are not due to changes in tidal volume or frequency. Histamine, via H1 receptors, is the principal mediator of pulmonary resistance increases but not dynamic compliance reductions. Chlorpheniramine-sensitive increases in resistance are caused by constrictions of intermediate and small airways, whereas the chlorpheniramine-resistant decrease in compliance is not caused directly by constriction of the smallest measurable airways (0.25 mm) or changes in lung water.

  11. Inhibitory Action of Ethanolic Extract of Seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam. On Systemic and Local Anaphylaxis. (United States)

    Mahajan, Shailaja G; Mehta, Anita A


    The current study characterizes the mechanism by which the seed extract of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) decreases the mast cell-mediated immediate type hypersensitivity reaction. The immediate type hypersensitivity reaction is involved in many allergic diseases such as asthma and allergic rhinitis. Moringa oleifera, a shrub widely used in the traditional medicine in India, has been reported to possess anti-cancer, hypotensive, anti-arthritic, and anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study, the effects of the ethanolic extract of seeds of Moringa oleifera (MOEE-herbal remedy) on systemic and local anaphylaxis were investigated. The potential anti-anaphylactic effect of MOEE was studied in a mouse model of Compound 48/80-induced systemic anaphylactic shock. Passive cutaneous anaphylaxis activated by anti IgE-antibody was also used to assess the effect of MOEE. In addition, rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMC) were used to investigate the effect of MOEE on histamine release induced by compound 48/80. When administered 1 hr before 48/80 injection, MOEE at doses of 0.001-1.000 g/kg completely inhibited the inducible induced anaphylactic shock. MOEE significantly inhibited passive cutaneous anaphylaxis activated by anti-IgE antibody at a dose of 1 g/kg. When MOEE extract was given as pretreatment at concentrations ranging 0.1-100 mg/ml, the histamine release from the mast cells that was induced by the 48/80 was reduced in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest a potential role for MOEE as a source of anti-anaphylactic agents for use in allergic disorders.

  12. Food-Dependent Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis - Kasuistik med hydrolyseret valleprotein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junker Christensen, Morten


    Formål / Introduktion: Patienter med Food-Dependent Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis (FDEIA) eller løbershock kan udvikle livstruende allergiske reaktioner (anafylaksi), når de kombinere fysisk anstrengelse med samtidig indtagelse af et normalt tolereret fødeemne - oftest hvede. Hydrolysering af prot...... proteiner bruges i industrien til at ændre de fødevarekemiske egenskaber, men dette kan også ændre allergeniciteten, hvilket er rapporteret både for hvede og soja hydrolysater. Protein bestanddelen i komælk udgøres overvejende af casein 80% samt 20% valle-proteiner (β-lactoglobulin, α...

  13. The pholcodine Case. Cough Medicines, IgE-Sensitization, and Anaphylaxis: A Devious Connection


    Florvaag, E.; Johansson, SGO


    The Scandinavian data on pholcodine (PHO) strongly indicates that there is a biological chain from PHO exposure through IgE-sensitization to IgE-mediated anaphylaxis to neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBA). PHO is probably one of the strongest inducer of an IgE antibody response known. Of individuals taking PHO in cough medicines, over-the-counter accessibility to large populations, as many as 20 to 25% may become IgE sensitized. Once sensitized, PHO re-exposure will booster IgE antibody leve...

  14. Specific Oral Tolerance Induction Using IFN-Gamma in 2 Cases of Food-Dependent Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geunwoong Noh


    Full Text Available Anaphylaxis induced by exercise after the intake of certain foods is referred to as food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA. Only the preventive medication such as oral sodium cromoglycate and oral combined cetirizine-montelukast was tried in FDEIA. Specific oral tolerance induction (SOTI using IFN-gamma was tried in 2 cases of FDEIA for wheat. Merely, exercise accompanied every treatment just after the intake of allergenic foods during treatment. Patients acquired tolerance for wheat in both cases successfully. After treatment, two patients take wheat in their food living freely. Conclusively, SOTI using IFN-gamma was effective as the causative treatment for allergenic foods in FDEIA.

  15. Wheat-Dependent Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis Sensitized with Hydrolyzed Wheat Protein in Soap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Chinuki


    Full Text Available Wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA is a specific form of wheat allergy typically induced by exercise after ingestion of wheat products. Wheat ω-5 gliadin is a major allergen associated with conventional WDEIA, and detection of serum immunoglobulin E (IgE specific to recombinant ω-5 gliadin is a reliable method for its diagnosis. Recently, an increased incidence of a new subtype of WDEIA, which is likely to be sensitized via a percutaneous and/or rhinoconjunctival route to hydrolyzed wheat protein (HWP, has been observed. All of the patients with this new subtype had used the same brand of soap, which contained HWP. Approximately half of these patients developed contact allergy several months later and subsequently developed WDEIA. In each of these patients, contact allergy with soap exposure preceded food ingestion-induced reactions. Other patients directly developed generalized symptoms upon ingestion of wheat products. The predominant observed symptom of the new WDEIA subtype was angioedema of the eyelids; a number of patients developed anaphylaxis. This new subtype of WDEIA has little serum ω-5 gliadin-specific serum IgE.

  16. Management of levofloxacin induced anaphylaxis and acute delirium in a palliative care setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunangshu Ghoshal


    Full Text Available Levofloxacin is a commonly prescribed antibiotic for managing chest and urinary tract infections in a palliative care setting. Incidence of Levofloxacin-associated anaphylaxis is rare and delirium secondary to Levofloxacin is a seldom occurrence with only few published case reports. It is an extremely rare occurrence to see this phenomenon in combination. Early identification and prompt intervention reduces both mortality and morbidity. A 17-year-old male with synovial sarcoma of right thigh with chest wall and lung metastasis and with no prior psychiatric morbidity presented to palliative medicine outpatient department with community-acquired pneumonia. He was initiated on intravenous (IV Ceftriaxone and IV Levofloxacin. Post IV Levofloxacin patient developed anaphylaxis and acute delirium necessitating IV Hydrocortisone, IV Chlorpheneramine, Oxygen and IV Haloperidol. Early detection and prompt intervention helped in complete recovery. Patient was discharged to hospice for respite after 2 days of hospitalization and then discharged home. Acute palliative care approach facilitated management of two life-threatening medical complications in a palliative care setting improving both quality and length of life.

  17. Sensitization from chestnuts and bananas in patients with urticaria and anaphylaxis from contact with latex. (United States)

    Fernández de Corres, L; Moneo, I; Muñoz, D; Bernaola, G; Fernández, E; Audicana, M; Urrutia, I


    We present eight patients allergic to latex and fruit (chestnut and banana), seven of whom are women, and aged 17 to 42 years (mean 25 years). Four had family and five personal atopic histories. The total IgE varied from 41 to 520 Ku/L (mean 263). The symptoms followed ingestion of fruit (anaphylaxis) in four patients and contact with rubber (contact urticaria and anaphylaxis) in the other four. Skin prick test (SPT) with latex and radioallergosorbent test to latex were positive in all the patients. Histamine release (HR) to latex was carried out on six patients and was positive in three. In the six patients with symptoms after having eaten chestnuts the SPT was positive and specific IgE was detected in five of them. Histamine release to chestnuts was positive in three of the six patients tested and one of them (-SPT and + IgE) tolerated the fruit. Two out of five patients with symptomatic banana allergy had negative SPT with banana while the test was positive in one patient who tolerated this fruit, this being the only case with specific IgE to banana. Histamine release with banana was only positive in one case. The important correlation between SPT, RAST, and HR results to latex and chestnut together with the total inhibition of the chestnut RAST with a serum pool by preincubation with latex suggests cross-reactivity among these allergens.

  18. Wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis sensitized with hydrolyzed wheat protein in soap. (United States)

    Chinuki, Yuko; Morita, Eishin


    Wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA) is a specific form of wheat allergy typically induced by exercise after ingestion of wheat products. Wheat ω-5 gliadin is a major allergen associated with conventional WDEIA, and detection of serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) specific to recombinant ω-5 gliadin is a reliable method for its diagnosis. Recently, an increased incidence of a new subtype of WDEIA, which is likely to be sensitized via a percutaneous and/or rhinoconjunctival route to hydrolyzed wheat protein (HWP), has been observed. All of the patients with this new subtype had used the same brand of soap, which contained HWP. Approximately half of these patients developed contact allergy several months later and subsequently developed WDEIA. In each of these patients, contact allergy with soap exposure preceded food ingestion-induced reactions. Other patients directly developed generalized symptoms upon ingestion of wheat products. The predominant observed symptom of the new WDEIA subtype was angioedema of the eyelids; a number of patients developed anaphylaxis. This new subtype of WDEIA has little serum ω-5 gliadin-specific serum IgE.

  19. Fullerene carbon-70 derivatives dampen anaphylaxis and allergic asthma pathogenesis in mice (United States)

    Norton, Sarah Brooke

    Fullerenes are carbon nanospheres that can be solublized by the addition of polar chemical groups to the carbon cage, forming fullerene derivatives. One specifically derivatized fullerene compound, termed C 70-Tetragylocolate (C70-TGA), has been shown to stabilize mast cell responses in vitro thus we hypothesized it may have an effect on mast cell-driven diseases such as asthma and systemic anaphylaxis. To observe the effects of C70-TGA on systemic anaphylaxis, mice were subjected to a model of passive systemic anaphylaxis. In this model, mice were injected with DNP-specific IgE 16 hours prior to challenge, then treated with C 70-TGA. Immediately prior to DNP challenge, mice were subjected to a second injection of C70-TGA. Following DNP challenge, body temperature was recorded and blood was collected for quantitation of histamine levels. Treatment with C70-TGA significantly reduced body temperature drop associated with systemic anaphylaxis and serum histamine levels. To observe the effects of C70-TGA on chronic features of asthma in vivo, we utilized a heavily MC influenced model of asthma pathogenesis. Mice were sensitized by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of ovalbumin (OVA) in saline, challenged intranasally (i.n.) with OVA, and one of two treatment strategies was pursued. In one, C70-TGA was given i.n. throughout disease development. In the other, C70-TGA was given following an initial set of challenges to allow disease to develop prior to treatment; mice were then re-challenged with OVA to assess the effect on established disease. We found that C70-TGA treatment significantly reduced airway inflammation and eosinophilia and dramatically reduced bronchoconstriction in either model. Cytokines IL-4 and IL-5 and serum IgE levels are significantly reduced in C70-TGA treated animals. Interestingly, we also saw an increase in the anti-inflammatory eicosanoid 11, 12-epoxyeicosatreinoic acid (11,12-EET) in the BAL fluid, suggesting the involvement of this mediator in

  20. Higher mast cell load decreases the risk of Hymenoptera venom-induced anaphylaxis in patients with mastocytosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Anrooij, Bjorn; van der Veer, Eveline; de Monchy, Jan G. R.; van der Heide, Sicco; Kluin-Nelemans, Johanna C.; van Voorst Vader, Pieter C.; van Doormaal, Jasper J.; Oude Elberink, Joanne N. G.


    Background: Increased basal serum tryptase (bsT) levels are a well-described risk factor for Hymenoptera venom-induced anaphylaxis (HVAn) in patients allergic to Hymenoptera venom. Increased bsT levels might also indicate the presence of mastocytosis. In this study we evaluated whether the risk of H

  1. Curcumin Ingestion Inhibits Mastocytosis and Suppresses Intestinal Anaphylaxis in a Murine Model of Food Allergy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon R M Kinney

    Full Text Available IgE antibodies and mast cells play critical roles in the establishment of allergic responses to food antigens. Curcumin, the active ingredient of the curry spice turmeric, has anti-inflammatory properties, and thus may have the capacity to regulate Th2 cells and mucosal mast cell function during allergic responses. We assessed whether curcumin ingestion during oral allergen exposure can modulate the development of food allergy using a murine model of ovalbumin (OVA-induced intestinal anaphylaxis. Herein, we demonstrate that frequent ingestion of curcumin during oral OVA exposure inhibits the development of mastocytosis and intestinal anaphylaxis in OVA-challenged allergic mice. Intragastric (i.g. exposure to OVA in sensitized BALB/c mice induced a robust IgE-mediated response accompanied by enhanced OVA-IgE levels, intestinal mastocytosis, elevated serum mMCP-1, and acute diarrhea. In contrast, mice exposed to oral curcumin throughout the experimental regimen appeared to be normal and did not exhibit intense allergic diarrhea or a significant enhancement of OVA-IgE and intestinal mast cell expansion and activation. Furthermore, allergic diarrhea, mast cell activation and expansion, and Th2 responses were also suppressed in mice exposed to curcumin during the OVA-challenge phase alone, despite the presence of elevated levels of OVA-IgE, suggesting that curcumin may have a direct suppressive effect on intestinal mast cell activation and reverse food allergy symptoms in allergen-sensitized individuals. This was confirmed by observations that curcumin attenuated the expansion of both adoptively transferred bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs, and inhibited their survival and activation during cell culture. Finally, the suppression of intestinal anaphylaxis by curcumin was directly linked with the inhibition of NF-κB activation in curcumin-treated allergic mice, and curcumin inhibited the phosphorylation of the p65 subunit of NF-κB in BMMCs. In

  2. Two Case Reports of Life-Threatening Ethanol-Induced Anaphylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L. Fernando


    Full Text Available Adverse reactions to alcoholic beverages are common and diverse in aetiology. Ethanol-induced anaphylaxis, however, is a rare but often life-threatening condition that warrants careful evaluation in suspected individuals. We present the cases of two patients who developed urticaria, angioedema and throat constriction within minutes of consuming white wine. Both individuals demonstrated no adverse reaction to double-blind placebo-controlled challenges to metabisulphite or sodium salicylate. However, an open challenge to white wine elicited urticaria in both subjects. This reaction was reproduced with a double-blind placebo-controlled challenge to ethanol and was accompanied by a rise in serum total tryptase levels. Positive skin test responses to 2% acetic acid, a breakdown product of ethanol, were elicited from both patients but not from three normal controls. These two cases demonstrate the need for a systematic approach for the evaluation of allergic reactions to alcohol.

  3. Aspirin-Exacerbated Diseases: Advances in Asthma with Nasal Polyposis, Urticaria, Angioedema, and Anaphylaxis. (United States)

    Stevens, Whitney; Buchheit, Kathleen; Cahill, Katherine N


    Aspirin-exacerbated diseases are important examples of drug hypersensitivities and include aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), aspirin- or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced urticaria/angioedema, and aspirin- or NSAID-induced anaphylaxis. While each disease subtype may be distinguished by unique clinical features, the underlying mechanisms that contribute to these phenotypes are not fully understood. However, the inhibition of the cyclooxygenase-1 enzyme is thought to play a significant role. Additionally, eosinophils, mast cells, and their products, prostaglandins and leukotrienes, have been identified in the pathogenesis of AERD. Current diagnostic and treatment strategies for aspirin-exacerbated diseases remain limited, and continued research focusing on each of the unique hypersensitivity reactions to aspirin is essential. This will not only advance the understanding of these disease processes, but also lead to the subsequent development of novel therapeutics that patients who suffer from aspirin-induced reactions desperately need.

  4. EAACI Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Guidelines. Food allergy health-related quality of life measures. (United States)

    Muraro, A; Dubois, A E J; DunnGalvin, A; Hourihane, J O'B; de Jong, N W; Meyer, R; Panesar, S S; Roberts, G; Salvilla, S; Sheikh, A; Worth, A; Flokstra-de Blok, B M J


    Instruments have been developed and validated for the measurement of health-related quality of life in patients with food allergy. This guideline has been prepared by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology's (EAACI) Guidelines for Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Group. It draws on a systematic review of the literature on quality of life instruments for food allergy and the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation (AGREE II) guideline development process. Guidance is provided on the use of such instruments in research, and the current limitations of their use in clinical practice are described. Gaps in current knowledge as well as areas of future interest are also discussed. This document is relevant to healthcare workers dealing with food-allergic patients, scientists engaging in food allergy research and policy makers involved in regulatory aspects concerning food allergy and safety.

  5. Anaphylaxis and other adverse reactions to blue dyes: a case series. (United States)

    Howard, J D; Moo, V; Sivalingam, P


    We report three cases of anaphylaxis during anaesthesia confirmed on intradermal testing to be related to patent blue V dye (Guerbet - Chemical Abstract Service 3536-49-0). All three cases were associated with moderate to severe hypotension. Two cases had delayed onset, and two were associated with a rash. None of the cases were associated with bronchospasm. In all three patients the interference with pulse oximetry readings contributed to difficulties in management. We recommend the use of a test dose of blue dye prior to surgery, as suggested in the manufacturer's product information. We also recommend high vigilance for possible allergic reactions when patent blue dyes are used for sentinel lymph node mapping, because the presentations may be atypical and the reduced pulse oximetry readings may be a distraction.

  6. EAACI food allergy and anaphylaxis guidelines. Primary prevention of food allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muraro, A; Halken, S; Arshad, S H


    by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology's (EAACI) Taskforce on Prevention and is part of the EAACI Guidelines for Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis. It aims to provide evidence-based recommendations for primary prevention of food allergy. A wide range of antenatal, perinatal, neonatal, and childhood......Food allergy can have significant effects on morbidity and quality of life and can be costly in terms of medical visits and treatments. There is therefore considerable interest in generating efficient approaches that may reduce the risk of developing food allergy. This guideline has been prepared...... strategies were identified and their effectiveness assessed and synthesized in a systematic review. Based on this evidence, families can be provided with evidence-based advice about preventing food allergy, particularly for infants at high risk for development of allergic disease. The advice for all mothers...

  7. Motor activity as an unbiased variable to assess anaphylaxis in allergic rats (United States)

    Abril-Gil, Mar; Garcia-Just, Alba; Cambras, Trinitat; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J; Castellote, Cristina; Franch, Àngels


    The release of mediators by mast cells triggers allergic symptoms involving various physiological systems and, in the most severe cases, the development of anaphylactic shock compromising mainly the nervous and cardiovascular systems. We aimed to establish variables to objectively study the anaphylactic response (AR) after an oral challenge in an allergy model. Brown Norway rats were immunized by intraperitoneal injection of ovalbumin with alum and toxin from Bordetella pertussis. Specific immunoglobulin (Ig) E antibodies were developed in immunized animals. Forty days after immunization, the rats were orally challenged with the allergen, and motor activity, body temperature and serum mast cell protease concentration were determined. The anaphylaxis induced a reduction in body temperature and a decrease in the number of animal movements, which was inversely correlated with serum mast cell protease release. In summary, motor activity is a reliable tool for assessing AR and also an unbiased method for screening new anti-allergic drugs. PMID:25716015

  8. The Pholcodine Case. Cough Medicines, IgE-Sensitization, and Anaphylaxis: A Devious Connection. (United States)

    Florvaag, E; Johansson, S G O


    : The Scandinavian data on pholcodine (PHO) strongly indicates that there is a biological chain from PHO exposure through IgE-sensitization to IgE-mediated anaphylaxis to neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBA). PHO is probably one of the strongest inducer of an IgE antibody response known. Of individuals taking PHO in cough medicines, over-the-counter accessibility to large populations, as many as 20 to 25% may become IgE sensitized. Once sensitized, PHO re-exposure will booster IgE antibody levels and IgE by around 100-fold. PHO is monovalent for 2 non-cross-reacting epitopes the quaternary ammonium ion (QAI), the main allergenic epitope of NMBA, and a non-QAI epitope. Thus, PHO most unlikely would initiate an allergic inflammatory response. Consequently, IgE sensitization is not revealed by obvious clinical signs, neither through tests based on IgE-sensitized effector cells. Therefore, it will escape detection if not assayed serologically. However, when subjected to general anesthesia, and thus the IgE-sensitized individual is administered a bivalent NMBA intravenously, the unrecognized presence of serum IgE antibodies to QAI may increase the risk of anaphylaxis 200- to 300-fold. Severe damages to patient's health can result, and mortality rates of 3 to 10% are reported. The Scandinavian experience indicates that the chain of events can efficiently be avoided by stopping PHO exposure: Within 1 year, the prevalence of IgE sensitization to PHO and QAI decreases significantly, and after 2 to 3 years, the numbers of reported anaphylactic reactions decreases equally so.

  9. A novel model of IgE-mediated passive pulmonary anaphylaxis in rats. (United States)

    Wex, Eva; Thaler, Eva; Blum, Sylvia; Lamb, David


    Mast cells are central effector cells in allergic asthma and are augmented in the airways of asthma patients. Attenuating mast cell degranulation and with it the early asthmatic response is an important intervention point to inhibit bronchoconstriction, plasma exudation and tissue oedema formation. To validate the efficacy of novel pharmacological interventions, appropriate and practicable in vivo models reflecting mast cell-dependent mechanisms in the lung, are missing. Thus, we developed a novel model of passive pulmonary anaphylaxis in rats. Rats were passively sensitized by concurrent intratracheal and intradermal (ear) application of an anti-DNP IgE antibody. Intravenous application of the antigen, DNP-BSA in combination with Evans blue dye, led to mast cell degranulation in both tissues. Quantification of mast cell degranulation in the lung was determined by (1) mediator release into bronchoalveolar lavage, (2) extravasation of Evans blue dye into tracheal and bronchial lung tissue and (3) invasive measurement of antigen-induced bronchoconstriction. Quantification of mast cell degranulation in the ear was determined by extravasation of Evans blue dye into ear tissue. We pharmacologically validated our model using the SYK inhibitor Fostamatinib, the H1-receptor antagonist Desloratadine, the mast cell stabilizer disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) and the β2-adrenergic receptor agonist Formoterol. Fostamatinib was equally efficacious in lung and ear. Desloratadine effectively inhibited bronchoconstriction and ear vascular leakage, but was less effective against pulmonary vascular leakage, perhaps reflecting the differing roles for histamine receptor sub-types. DSCG attenuated both vascular leakage in the lung and bronchoconstriction, but with a very short duration of action. As an inhaled approach, Formoterol was more effective in the lung than in the ear. This model of passive pulmonary anaphylaxis provides a tissue relevant readout of early mast cell activity and

  10. A novel model of IgE-mediated passive pulmonary anaphylaxis in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Wex

    Full Text Available Mast cells are central effector cells in allergic asthma and are augmented in the airways of asthma patients. Attenuating mast cell degranulation and with it the early asthmatic response is an important intervention point to inhibit bronchoconstriction, plasma exudation and tissue oedema formation. To validate the efficacy of novel pharmacological interventions, appropriate and practicable in vivo models reflecting mast cell-dependent mechanisms in the lung, are missing. Thus, we developed a novel model of passive pulmonary anaphylaxis in rats. Rats were passively sensitized by concurrent intratracheal and intradermal (ear application of an anti-DNP IgE antibody. Intravenous application of the antigen, DNP-BSA in combination with Evans blue dye, led to mast cell degranulation in both tissues. Quantification of mast cell degranulation in the lung was determined by (1 mediator release into bronchoalveolar lavage, (2 extravasation of Evans blue dye into tracheal and bronchial lung tissue and (3 invasive measurement of antigen-induced bronchoconstriction. Quantification of mast cell degranulation in the ear was determined by extravasation of Evans blue dye into ear tissue. We pharmacologically validated our model using the SYK inhibitor Fostamatinib, the H1-receptor antagonist Desloratadine, the mast cell stabilizer disodium cromoglycate (DSCG and the β2-adrenergic receptor agonist Formoterol. Fostamatinib was equally efficacious in lung and ear. Desloratadine effectively inhibited bronchoconstriction and ear vascular leakage, but was less effective against pulmonary vascular leakage, perhaps reflecting the differing roles for histamine receptor sub-types. DSCG attenuated both vascular leakage in the lung and bronchoconstriction, but with a very short duration of action. As an inhaled approach, Formoterol was more effective in the lung than in the ear. This model of passive pulmonary anaphylaxis provides a tissue relevant readout of early mast cell

  11. The Nobel Prize laureate - father of anaphylaxis Charles-Robert Richet (1850-1935) and his anticancerous serum. (United States)

    Androutsos, G; Karamanou, M; Stamboulis, E; Liappas, I; Lykouras, E; Papadimitriou, G N


    Professor of physiology Charles-Robert Richet, winner of the Nobel Prize in 1913, is best known for his work on anaphylaxis. However, with his collaborator Jules Héricourt studied the effects of antibody treatment and made the very first attempts to fight cancer with serotherapy. Being versatile, Richet contributed in neurology, psychology and was also a poet, playwrighter, pacifist and pioneer in aviation.

  12. A cautionary tale: anaphylaxis to isosulfan blue dye after 12 years and 3339 cases of lymphatic mapping. (United States)

    Kaufman, Gabriel; Guth, Amber A; Pachter, H Leon; Roses, Daniel F


    Sentinel node biopsy has become the standard method for lymphatic staging in early-stage breast cancer and melanomas. The most commonly used technique uses both a radioactive tracer as well as blue dye, usually isosulfan blue. In this report, we discuss two episodes of anaphylaxis to isosulfan blue during lymphatic mapping, occurring 12 years and 3339 lymphatic mapping cases after adoption of the technique, and discuss management issues raised by these events.

  13. Root resorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Inger


    Introduction: This paper summarizes the different conditions, which have a well-known influence on the resorption of tooth roots, exemplified by trauma and orthodontic treatment. The concept of the paper is to summarize and explain symptoms and signs of importance for avoiding resorption during...... orthodontic treatment. The Hypothesis: The hypothesis in this paper is that three different tissue layers covering the root in the so-called periroot sheet can explain signs and symptoms of importance for avoiding root resorption during orthodontic treatment. These different tissue layers are; outermost...... processes provoked by trauma and orthodontic pressure. Inflammatory reactions are followed by resorptive processes in the periroot sheet and along the root surface. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: Different morphologies in the dentition are signs of abnormal epithelium or an abnormal mesodermal layer. It has...

  14. [A case of anaphylaxis due to rose-flavored soft-serve ice cream with pollen food allergy syndrome]. (United States)

    Kitabayashi, Taeru; Sato, Sayuri; Adachi, Mitsuru


    We experienced a 10-year-old boy who had anaphylaxis after eating rose-flavored soft-serve ice cream. The patient felt a sense of discomfort in his throat when eating apple, peach, loquat, Japanese pear, and kiwi fruit. Therefore, we measured specific IgE antibodies to allergen components by ImmunoCAP ISAC. Consequently, the patient gave positive results for all PR-10 proteins from birch, alder, hazel, apple, peach, peanut, hazelnut, and soybean, so we diagnosed him with Pollen Food Allergy Syndrome (PFAS) induced by cross reactivity with pollens of birch family and fruits of rose family. When we conducted the skin prick test as is for red rose syrup because of the belief that anaphylaxis was caused by the rose ingredient contained in rose-flavored soft-serve ice cream, the patient gave a strong positive result. However, the results were negative for rose essence and Food Red No. 2 contained. Subsequently, it was found that red rose syrup contained apple juice. Therefore, we conducted the prick-prick test for apple, and the patient was confirmed to be strongly positive to apple. We thus identified apple as the cause of anaphylaxis. Since there is no legal obligation of labeling specific raw materials when directly selling manufactured and processed food products to general consumers, it is possible for general consumers to mistakenly take them in without knowing the containment of allergic substances. It is believed that the labeling method should be improved in the future.

  15. Anti-anaphylactic effects of Trichilia monadelpha (Thonn.) J. J. De Wilde extracts on rodent models of anaphylaxis (United States)

    Ben, Inemesit Okon; Woode, Eric; Koffuor, George Asumeng; Asiamah, Emmanuel Akomanin


    Effects of petroleum ether and ethanolic extracts of Trichilia monadelpha stem bark (PEE and EAE) on compound 48/80-induced systemic and passive anaphylaxis were determined. Survival rate, extravasation, degranulation of mast cells, and secretion of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured after pre-treatment with extracts (10-100 mg/kg) and disodium chromoglycate (2.5-250 μg/kg) and induction of anaphylaxis in C57BL/6 mice or Sprague-Dawley rats with compound 48/80. Histopathological assessments were made from skin biopsies of rats. Data was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier Survival Log-Rank Analysis, or One-way ANOVA and Holm-Sidak’s post hoc test. PEE and EAE inhibited (P ≤ 0.0001) tremors in systemic anaphylaxis passive cutaneous anaphylactic reactions and extravasation, stabilized or prevented (P ≤ 0.001-0.0001) mast cell degranulation, and inhibited (P ≤ 0.001-0.0001) TNF-α and IL-6 secretion. Per the findings, PEE and EAE of T. monadelpha have exhibited substantial anti-anaphylactic and anti-inflammatory property (with PEE performing better) which substantiates its use traditionally in management of allergies and other inflammatory disorders. PMID:27920822

  16. Inhibition of anaphylaxis-like reaction and mast cell activation by water extract from the fruiting body of Phellinus linteus. (United States)

    Choi, Yun Ho; Yan, Guang Hai; Chai, Ok Hee; Lim, Jung Min; Sung, So Young; Zhang, Xin; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Choi, Su Hwan; Lee, Moo Sam; Han, Eui-Hyeog; Kim, Hyoung Tae; Song, Chang Ho


    Mast cell-mediated anaphylactic reaction is involved in many allergic diseases such as asthma and allergic rhinitis. Phellinus linteus has been used as a traditional herb medicine in oriental countries and is known to have anti-tumor, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and anti-allergic activities. However, roles of Phellinus linteus in the mast cell-mediated anaphylactic reactions have not fully been examined. In the present study, we have investigated the effects of water extract from the fruiting body of Phellinus linteus (WEPL) on mast cell-mediated anaphylaxis-like reactions. Oral administration of WEPL inhibited the compound 48/80-induced systemic anaphylaxis-like reaction and ear swelling response. WEPL also inhibited the anti-dinitrophenyl (DNP) IgE-mediated passive systemic and cutaneous anaphylaxis. WEPL had no cytotoxicity on rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMC). WEPL dose-dependently reduced histamine release from RPMC activated by compound 48/80 or anti-DNP IgE. Moreover, WEPL decreased the compound 48/80-induced calcium uptake into RPMC. Furthermore, WEPL increased the level of intracellular cAMP and significantly inhibited the compound 48/80-induced cAMP reduction in RPMC. These results suggest that WEPL may serve as an effective therapeutic agent for allergic diseases.

  17. Anaphylaxis after hymenoptera sting: is it venom allergy, a clonal disorder, or both? (United States)

    Castells, Mariana C; Hornick, Jason L; Akin, Cem


    A 47-year-old man presented with loss of consciousness 5 minutes after being stung by a yellow jacket in his backyard. Epinephrine and fluids were required for resuscitation. Allergy evaluation revealed specific IgE to yellow jacket and honeybee, and the patient was started on venom immunotherapy. He had systemic reactions during buildup and a severe anaphylactic episode requiring 3 doses of intramuscular epinephrine at maintenance doses. Immunotherapy was discontinued. Serum tryptase level after 1 such episode was 29 ng/mL, with a baseline level of 25 ng/mL 4 weeks later. The physical examination was unremarkable including no skin lesions of cutaneous mastocytosis. Because of elevated baseline tryptase level, a bone marrow biopsy was performed, which revealed multifocal dense infiltrates of mast cells. A diagnosis of systemic mastocytosis was made. The patient was treated with omalizumab and was able to tolerate immunotherapy and is currently maintained on lifelong immunotherapy. He was restung in the field and has not had anaphylaxis.

  18. Imidacloprid inhibits IgE-mediated RBL-2H3 cell degranulation and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (United States)

    Shi, Linbo; Zou, Li; Gao, Jinyan; Xu, Huaing; Shi, Xiaoyun


    Background Imidacloprid has been commonly used as a pesticide for crop protection and acts as nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists. Little information about the relationship between imidacloprid and allergy is available. Objective This study aims to examine the effects of imidacoprid on IgE-mediated mast cell activation. Methods The rat basophilic leukemia cell line RBL-2H3 (RBL-2H3 cells) were treated with 10-3 – 10-12 mol/L imidacloprid, followed by measuring the mediator production, influx of Ca2+ in IgE-activated RBL-2H3 cells, and the possible effects of imidacoprid on anti-dinitrophenyl IgE-induced passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA). Results It was shown that imidacoprid suppressed the production of histamine, β-hexosaminidase, leukotriene C4, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and Ca2+ mobilization in IgE-activated RBL-2H3 cells and decreased vascular extravasation in IgE-induced PCA. Conclusion It is the first time to show that imidacloprid suppressed the activation of RBL-2H3 cells. PMID:27803884

  19. A Model of Intestinal Anaphylaxis in Whey Sensitized Balb/c Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kheroua Omar


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Cow’s Milk Allergy (CMA is a common disease in childhood. Pathophysiological mechanisms involved in gastrointestinal symptoms are relatively poorly understood. Approach: Therefore, an experimental model of intestinal anaphylaxis was needed to approach the problem. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the parenteral sensitization to whey proteins through immune response and local intestine inflammation using a murine model of allergy. Sensitization of Balb/c mice with ß-lactoglobulin (ß-Lg or whey was performed in presence of Alum Al (OH3. Mice were analyzed for ß-Lg or whey specific serum antibodies by ELISA. Local anaphylactic responses were performed in vitro in using chamber by intestine challenge with ß-Lg or whey. Histological study was used to assess gut inflammation. Results: The sensitization induced the production of anti- ß-Lg or anti whey IgG, IgG1, IgG2a and IgE with a high IgG1/IgG2a ratio translating Th2 type response. The addition of ß-Lg or whey to the serosal side of the mouse intestinal epithelium in using chamber produced electrogenic chloride secretion as shown by Isc stimulation. Histological findings were mild with villi atrophy and lymphocyte hyperplasia. Conclusion: After sensitization, the mice became prone to developing anaphylactic response and may be useful experimental model for mechanistic studies of CMA or for hydrolyzed formulae.

  20. Anaphylaxis to Spirulina confirmed by skin prick test with ingredients of Spirulina tablets. (United States)

    Le, Thuy-My; Knulst, André C; Röckmann, Heike


    Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis), blue-green microalgae, has high content in proteins, γ-linoleic acid and vitamins and therefore gained popularity as food supplement. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Spirulina is also an interesting alternative and sustainable protein source with the growing world population. We present a case of a 17-year-old male, who developed anaphylaxis the first time he ingested a Spirulina tablet. Skin prick test with diluted Spirulina tablet was positive. Further skin prick testing with separated ingredients (Spirulina platensis algae, silicon dioxide, inulin and magnesium stearate) was only positive for Spirulina platensis algae and negative in controls, confirming the allergy was caused by Spirulina and not by one of the additives. This case report shows that diagnosis of Spirulina allergy can safely be made by skin prick test with dilutions of the A. platensis or even more simple by skin prick test with the diluted tablet. Since Spirulina has gained popularity as food and nutritional supplement, it is important to realize the potential risk of this dietary supplement. Before Spirulina is produced and consumed on a wider scale, allergenicity risk assessment should be performed, including investigation of potential crossreactivity with well-known inhalant allergens and foods.

  1. Inhibition by drugs of passive cutaneous anaphylaxis-induced skin histamine decrease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA was produced in the rat with mouse IgE-rich antiserum. The effect of drugs on the PCA-induced skin histamine decrease and leakage of protein-bound dye was studied. Salbutamol (0.5 mg/kg i.v. or 1.0 mg/kg s.c. and cromoglycate (10 mg/kg i.v. significantly inhibited the skin histamine decrease. A combination of salbutamol (0.5 mg/kg i.v. or 1.0 mg/kg s.c. and aminophylline (25 mg/kg i.v. or 75 mg/kg s.c. had an additive or greater than additive effect on the histamine decrease. Salbutamol (1.0 mg/kg s.c. inhibited the dye leakage markedly, and aminophylline (75 mg/kg s.c. slightly. These results indicate that the decrease in the skin histamine content is useful as an index of the in vivo inhibitory effect of antiallergic drugs on the antigen-induced histamine release.

  2. Patients’ ability to treat anaphylaxis using adrenaline autoinjectors: a randomized controlled trial (United States)

    Umasunthar, T; Procktor, A; Hodes, M; Smith, J G; Gore, C; Cox, H E; Marrs, T; Hanna, H; Phillips, K; Pinto, C; Turner, P J; Warner, J O; Boyle, R J


    Background Previous work has shown patients commonly misuse adrenaline autoinjectors (AAI). It is unclear whether this is due to inadequate training, or poor device design. We undertook a prospective randomized controlled trial to evaluate ability to administer adrenaline using different AAI devices. Methods We allocated mothers of food-allergic children prescribed an AAI for the first time to Anapen or EpiPen using a computer-generated randomization list, with optimal training according to manufacturer's instructions. After one year, participants were randomly allocated a new device (EpiPen, Anapen, new EpiPen, JEXT or Auvi-Q), without device-specific training. We assessed ability to deliver adrenaline using their AAI in a simulated anaphylaxis scenario six weeks and one year after initial training, and following device switch. Primary outcome was successful adrenaline administration at six weeks, assessed by an independent expert. Secondary outcomes were success at one year, success after switching device, and adverse events. Results We randomized 158 participants. At six weeks, 30 of 71 (42%) participants allocated to Anapen and 31 of 73 (43%) participants allocated to EpiPen were successful – RR 1.00 (95% CI 0.68–1.46). Success rates at one year were also similar, but digital injection was more common at one year with EpiPen (8/59, 14%) than Anapen (0/51, 0%, P = 0.007). When switched to a new device without specific training, success rates were higher with Auvi-Q (26/28, 93%) than other devices (39/80, 49%; P < 0.001). Conclusions AAI device design is a major determinant of successful adrenaline administration. Success rates were low with several devices, but were high using the audio-prompt device Auvi-Q. PMID:25850463

  3. EAACI food allergy and anaphylaxis guidelines. Primary prevention of food allergy. (United States)

    Muraro, A; Halken, S; Arshad, S H; Beyer, K; Dubois, A E J; Du Toit, G; Eigenmann, P A; Grimshaw, K E C; Hoest, A; Lack, G; O'Mahony, L; Papadopoulos, N G; Panesar, S; Prescott, S; Roberts, G; de Silva, D; Venter, C; Verhasselt, V; Akdis, A C; Sheikh, A


    Food allergy can have significant effects on morbidity and quality of life and can be costly in terms of medical visits and treatments. There is therefore considerable interest in generating efficient approaches that may reduce the risk of developing food allergy. This guideline has been prepared by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology's (EAACI) Taskforce on Prevention and is part of the EAACI Guidelines for Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis. It aims to provide evidence-based recommendations for primary prevention of food allergy. A wide range of antenatal, perinatal, neonatal, and childhood strategies were identified and their effectiveness assessed and synthesized in a systematic review. Based on this evidence, families can be provided with evidence-based advice about preventing food allergy, particularly for infants at high risk for development of allergic disease. The advice for all mothers includes a normal diet without restrictions during pregnancy and lactation. For all infants, exclusive breastfeeding is recommended for at least first 4-6 months of life. If breastfeeding is insufficient or not possible, infants at high-risk can be recommended a hypoallergenic formula with a documented preventive effect for the first 4 months. There is no need to avoid introducing complementary foods beyond 4 months, and currently, the evidence does not justify recommendations about either withholding or encouraging exposure to potentially allergenic foods after 4 months once weaning has commenced, irrespective of atopic heredity. There is no evidence to support the use of prebiotics or probiotics for food allergy prevention.

  4. [Wheat dependent exercise induced anaphylaxis possibly sensitized by the hydrolyzed wheat proteins in a facial cleansing soap]. (United States)

    Kobayashi, Miwa; Okura, Risa; Yoshioka, Haruna; Hiromasa, Kana; Yoshioka, Manabu; Nakamura, Motonobu


    There are increasing cases of wheat dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA) with transcutaneous or transmucosal sensitization. Hydrolyzed wheat included in a certain brand of soap was identified as a cause of sensitization. The useful clues to detect this disorder consist of the patient's past usage of a soap containing hydrolyzed wheat, the appearance of cutaneous or mucosal symptoms after the intake of wheat or washing with this soap, and a high level of specific IgE for wheat gluten. Because hydrolyzed wheat is used as an additive in a wide variety of cosmetics, we should pay careful attention to the ingredients of cosmetics when observing WDEIA.

  5. [The discovery of anaphylaxis: 19 days after an anodyne account of toxicology, it is shown that immunity is perhaps pathogenic]. (United States)

    Richet, G


    While studying the toxicology of various coelenteres fishing filament poisons, Charles Richet and Paul Portier observed cases of rapid death which had no correlation with the injected doses. In dogs, death only occurred in those which, more than 15 days beforehand, had withstood well an injection more concentrated or identical to the later fatal one. The authors created the neologism 'anaphylaxis' which signifies 'non-protection'. Thus, it appeared that an immune response could be pathological. This discovery opened the subject area of immunopathology at a period of time when, in contrast, vaccination and serotherapy researches were prominent.

  6. Patients with anaphylaxis to pea can have peanut allergy caused by cross-reactive lgE to vicilin (Ara h 1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wensing, M.; Knulst, A.C.; Piersma, S.; O'Kane, F.; Knol, E.F.; Koppelman, S.J.


    Background: Serologic cross-reactivity among legumes has been described; however, it is rarely clinically significant. In this study 3 patients with a history of anaphylaxis to pea are described who subsequently had symptoms after ingestion of peanut. Objective: We investigated whether the peanut-re

  7. Patients with anaphylaxis to pea can have peanut allergy caused by cross-reactive IgE to vicilin (Ara h 1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wensing, M.; Knulst, A.C.; Piersma, S.R.; O'Kane, F.E.; Knol, E.F.; Koppelman, S.J.


    Background: Serologic cross-reactivity among legumes has been described; however, it is rarely clinically significant. In this study 3 patients with a history of anaphylaxis to pea are described who subsequently had symptoms after ingestion of peanut. Objective: We investigated whether the peanut-re

  8. Training and administration of epinephrine auto-injectors for anaphylaxis treatment in US schools: results from the EpiPen4Schools® pilot survey

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    Hogue SL


    Full Text Available Susan L Hogue,1 Diana Goss,1 Kelly Hollis,1 Suyapa Silvia,2 Martha V White3 1Health Solutions, RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC, 2Education and Workforce Development, RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC, 3Institute for Asthma and Allergy, Wheaton, MD, USA Background: Anaphylaxis is a serious, potentially life-threatening condition. Adequate preparation for anaphylaxis management is imperative for school personnel. This descriptive pilot study assessed preparedness of US schools to manage anaphylactic reactions. Methods: An exploratory, cross-sectional, web-based, pilot survey assessed the occurrence and characteristics of anaphylactic events, as well as training provided to school personnel for the recognition and treatment of anaphylaxis. Eligible US schools were participants in the EpiPen4Schools® program during the 2013–2014 school year. EpiPen4Schools provides EpiPen® (epinephrine injection Auto-Injectors and training materials to qualifying US schools. Survey data were parsed by US Census Bureau region and state and were evaluated using descriptive statistics. Results: Schools from all 50 states and the District of Columbia participated in the survey (N=6,019. Among schools that provided information on anaphylactic events, 11% (607/5,683 reported the occurrence of one or more events, with significant variability in incidence across census regions and among states. A total of 5,613 schools provided information regarding which staff members were trained to recognize the signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis. Thirty-six percent of schools (2,022/5,613 indicated that only the school nurse and select staff were trained in anaphylaxis recognition. The proportion of schools in which most or all school staff received such training differed by region/state (range, 13%–100%. A total of 5,578 schools provided information on which staff were permitted to administer epinephrine. The majority of schools (54%; 3

  9. Afrokoko Roots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Give us a little background information about Afrokoko Roots.How long have you been performing together?It's an international Afrobeat outfit that I founded in Beijing three years ago.I founded it in order to show Chinese people that Africa is beyond what they see and hear on TV.For the purpose of cultural exchange,I hope it can help the Chinese learn about African culture,music,fashion,history and much more.Our band features two dancers,two backup singers,two percussionists,four brass players,a keyboard player,a guitar player and a drummer- and me as the lead vocal,drummer and dancer,which makes for live performances that are equally exciting sonically as they are visually.We have been traveling around,and so far,we have toured and performed in many Chinese cities such as Dalian (Liaoning Province),Hohhot (Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region) and Haikou (Hainan Province).

  10. Treatment of food anaphylaxis with traditional Chinese herbal remedies – from mouse model to human clinical trials (United States)

    Wang, Julie


    Purpose of review To describe the development of a novel treatment for food allergy, named the food allergy herbal formula-2 (FAHF-2), that is based on Traditional Chinese Medicine. Recent findings FAHF-2 has proven to be safe and effective for the treatment of food allergies in murine models of peanut and multiple food allergies. These results are accompanied by evidence of favorable immune modulation, and the effects are persistent after discontinuation of treatment. Early clinical trials demonstrate the safety and tolerability of this formula in subjects with food allergies. An on-going Phase II clinical trial will evaluate the efficacy of FAHF-2 in protecting individuals from allergen-induced allergic reactions during oral food challenges. Summary FAHF-2 is an herbal formula that has a high safety profile and has shown to prevent anaphylaxis in murine models of food allergy. Similar findings in clinical trials could bring a novel treatment for food allergies. PMID:23799334

  11. Training and administration of epinephrine auto-injectors for anaphylaxis treatment in US schools: results from the EpiPen4Schools® pilot survey (United States)

    Hogue, Susan L; Goss, Diana; Hollis, Kelly; Silvia, Suyapa; White, Martha V


    Background Anaphylaxis is a serious, potentially life-threatening condition. Adequate preparation for anaphylaxis management is imperative for school personnel. This descriptive pilot study assessed preparedness of US schools to manage anaphylactic reactions. Methods An exploratory, cross-sectional, web-based, pilot survey assessed the occurrence and characteristics of anaphylactic events, as well as training provided to school personnel for the recognition and treatment of anaphylaxis. Eligible US schools were participants in the EpiPen4Schools® program during the 2013–2014 school year. EpiPen4Schools provides EpiPen® (epinephrine injection) Auto-Injectors and training materials to qualifying US schools. Survey data were parsed by US Census Bureau region and state and were evaluated using descriptive statistics. Results Schools from all 50 states and the District of Columbia participated in the survey (N=6,019). Among schools that provided information on anaphylactic events, 11% (607/5,683) reported the occurrence of one or more events, with significant variability in incidence across census regions and among states. A total of 5,613 schools provided information regarding which staff members were trained to recognize the signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis. Thirty-six percent of schools (2,022/5,613) indicated that only the school nurse and select staff were trained in anaphylaxis recognition. The proportion of schools in which most or all school staff received such training differed by region/state (range, 13%–100%). A total of 5,578 schools provided information on which staff were permitted to administer epinephrine. The majority of schools (54%; 3,024/5,578) permitted only the school nurse and select staff to administer epinephrine, although percentages varied by region/state (range, 4%–100%). Conclusion Schools differed substantially in their preparedness to manage anaphylaxis, with significant disparities in staff training and permission to treat. Given

  12. Animal-related fatalities--part II: characteristic autopsy findings and variable causes of death associated with envenomation, poisoning, anaphylaxis, asphyxiation, and sepsis. (United States)

    Bury, Danielle; Langlois, Neil; Byard, Roger W


    In addition to blunt and sharp trauma, animal-related fatalities may result from envenomation, poisoning, anaphylaxis, asphyxiation, and sepsis. Although the majority of envenomation deaths are caused by hornets, bees, and wasps, the mechanism of death is most often anaphylaxis. Envenomation resulting from the injection of a poison or toxin into a victim occurs with snakes, spiders, and scorpions on land. Marine animal envenomation may result from stings and bites from jellyfish, octopus, stonefish, cone fish, stingrays, and sea snakes. At autopsy, the findings may be extremely subtle, and so a history of exposure is required. Poisoning may also occur from ingesting certain fish, with three main forms of neurotoxin poisoning involving ciguatera, tetrodotoxin ingestion, and paralytic shellfish poisoning. Asphyxiation may follow upper airway occlusion or neck/chest compression by animals, and sepsis may follow bites. Autopsy analysis of cases requires extensive toxinological, toxicological, and biochemical analyses of body fluids.

  13. Effect of immunologic reactions on rat intestinal epithelium. Correlation of increased permeability to chromium 51-labeled ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and ovalbumin during acute inflammation and anaphylaxis

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    Ramage, J.K.; Stanisz, A.; Scicchitano, R.; Hunt, R.H.; Perdue, M.H.


    In these studies we compared jejunal permeability to two probes--chromium 51-labeled ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (51Cr-EDTA) (mol wt, 360) and ovalbumin (mol wt, 45,000)--under control conditions, during acute intestinal inflammation, and in response to systemic anaphylaxis. Acute inflammation was produced after infection with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis and rats were studied at day 0 (control), day 4 (early), day 10 (acute), and day 35 (postinfection). At the latter stage, immune rats were also studied during anaphylaxis induced by i.v. N. brasiliensis antigen. In each study, blood and urine were sampled over 5 h after the probes were simultaneously injected into ligated loops in anesthetized rats. In controls, small quantities (less than 0.04% and 0.002% of the administered dose for 51Cr-EDTA and ovalbumin, respectively) appeared in the circulation and plateaued at 1 h. During acute inflammation, the appearance of both probes continued to increase with time. Compared with controls, 5-h values for 51Cr-EDTA and ovalbumin were (a) significantly elevated at day 4 (p less than 0.005), (b) increased approximately 20-fold at day 10 (p less than 0.005 and less than 0.01, respectively), and (c) normal at day 35. Urinary recovery of 51Cr-EDTA followed the same pattern. During anaphylaxis, appearance of the probes in the circulation increased at 1 h to values approximately 10-fold those in controls (p less than 0.001 and less than 0.01, for 51Cr-EDTA and ovalbumin, respectively), and then declined. Urinary recovery of 51Cr-EDTA over 5 h was also significantly increased. We conclude that epithelial barrier function becomes impaired during both acute inflammation and anaphylaxis. In this rat model, gut permeability changes to 51Cr-EDTA reflect gut permeability changes to macromolecular antigens.

  14. Large particulate allergens can elicit mast cell-mediated anaphylaxis without exit from blood vessels as efficiently as do small soluble allergens. (United States)

    LiHua, Li; Yoshikawa, Soichiro; Ohta, Takuya; Horiguchi, Kayo; Kawano, Yohei; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Yamanishi, Yoshinori; Karasuyama, Hajime


    Anaphylaxis is a rapid-onset, life-threatening allergic reaction in that IgE, mast cells and histamine are commonly involved. It can be experimentally induced in IgE-sensitized animals by intravenous injection of corresponding allergens, and the sign of anaphylactic reaction can be detected within minutes after allergen challenge. However, it remains puzzling why the anaphylactic reaction can be initiated in vivo so quickly, considering that allergens are delivered into the blood circulation while mast cells reside within peripheral tissues but not in the blood circulation. To address this issue, we compared two different forms of the same allergen, small soluble and large particulate ones, in their ability to induce anaphylaxis in IgE-sensitized mice. In contrast to our expectation, particulate allergens could induce anaphylaxis as quickly and efficiently as did soluble allergens, even though they remained inside of blood vessels. In vivo imaging analysis suggested the direct interaction of intravascular particulate allergens and perivascular mast cells across the capillary wall. Taken together with previous report that perivascular mast cells can capture IgE in the blood circulation by extending cell processes across the vessel wall, our findings imply that blood-circulating allergens, regardless of their size, can stimulate mast cells without exit from blood vessels, by means of cross-linking IgE on mast cell processes inserted into the vessel lumen, and hence initiate anaphylactic reaction so quickly.

  15. Chinese herbal extracts of Rubia cordifolia and Dianthus superbus suppress IgE production and prevent peanut-induced anaphylaxis

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    Yang Nan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peanut allergy is characterized by increased levels of peanut-specific IgE in the serum of most patients. Thus, the most logical therapy would be to inhibit the IgE production by committed B-cells. This study aims to investigate the unreported anti-IgE effects of Chinese herbal extracts of Rubia cordifolia (Qiancao and Dianthus superbus (Qumai. Methods Seventy herbal extracts were tested for their ability to reduce IgE secretion by a human B-cell line. Those with the lowest inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50 values were tested in a mouse model of peanut-anaphylaxis. Anaphylactic scores, body temperature, plasma histamine and peanut-specific-immunoglobulins were determined. Results Rubia cordifolia and Dianthus superbus inhibited the in vitro IgE production by a human B-cell line in a dose-dependent manner and the in vivo IgE production in a murine model of peanut allergy without affecting peanut-specific-IgG1 levels. After challenge, all mice in the sham groups developed anaphylactic reactions and increased plasma histamine levels. The extract-treated mice demonstrated significantly reduced peanut-triggered anaphylactic reactions and plasma histamine levels. Conclusion The extracts of Rubia cordifolia and Dianthus superbus inhibited the IgE production in vivo and in vitro as well as reduced anaphylactic reactions in peanut-allergic mice, suggesting potentials for allergy treatments.

  16. Acute Onset of Vancomycin Anaphylaxis With Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation in an Orthopedic Patient Despite Prior Repeated Exposure. (United States)

    Adams, Brock; Roboubi, Babak; Henshaw, Robert


    Vancomycin is a glycopeptide antibiotic that exhibits bactericidal activity against gram-positive cocci. It is commonly recommended for surgical prophylaxis in cases of suspected bacterial resistance or penicillin allergy. There are 2 main types of hypersensitivity reactions associated with vancomycin. Red man syndrome is an anaphylactoid reaction caused by direct release of histamine. The second is an anaphylactic reaction, which is an immunoglobulin E-mediated response. We present the case of a 55-year-old woman with a history of metastatic giant cell tumor of the right proximal tibia. She had undergone multiple surgeries for this and other nonorthopedic conditions. The patient received vancomycin for the majority of these procedures and extended courses of vancomycin on 2 separate occasions. In the present case, the patient was taken to the operating room for a prosthetic infection, and vancomycin was given after cultures were taken. The patient immediately developed signs consistent with anaphylaxis and disseminated intravascular coagulation. This was treated acutely with hemodynamic resuscitation, replacement of blood components, steroids, and repeated boluses of epinephrine. She recovered and was taken back to the operating room during that same admission without incident. The patient has since been treated with systemic daptomycin and a tobramycin cement spacer without further incident.


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    I explore the origins of the unphysical predictions from rooted staggered fermion algorithms. Before rooting, the exact chiral symmetry of staggered fermions is a flavored symmetry among the four 'tastes.' The rooting procedure averages over tastes of different chiralities. This averaging forbids the appearance of the correct 't Hooft vertex for the target theory.

  18. The Root Canal Biofilm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der L.W.M.; Boutsioukis, C.; Jiang, L.M.; Macedo, R.; Verhaagen, B.; Versluis, M.; Chávez de Paz, E.; Sedgley, C.M.; Kishen, A.


    The aims of root canal irrigation are the chemical dissolution or disruption and the mechanical detachment of pulp tissue, dentin debris and smear layer (instrumentation products), microorganisms (planktonic or biofilm), and their products from the root canal wall, their removal out of the root cana

  19. Root canal irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. van der Sluis; C. Boutsioukis; L.M. Jiang; R. Macedo; B. Verhaagen; M. Versluis


    The aims of root canal irrigation are the chemical dissolution or disruption and the mechanical detachment of pulp tissue, dentin debris and smear layer (instrumentation products), microorganisms (planktonic or biofilm), and their products from the root canal wall, their removal out of the root cana

  20. Rooting gene trees without outgroups: EP rooting. (United States)

    Sinsheimer, Janet S; Little, Roderick J A; Lake, James A


    Gene sequences are routinely used to determine the topologies of unrooted phylogenetic trees, but many of the most important questions in evolution require knowing both the topologies and the roots of trees. However, general algorithms for calculating rooted trees from gene and genomic sequences in the absence of gene paralogs are few. Using the principles of evolutionary parsimony (EP) (Lake JA. 1987a. A rate-independent technique for analysis of nucleic acid sequences: evolutionary parsimony. Mol Biol Evol. 4:167-181) and its extensions (Cavender, J. 1989. Mechanized derivation of linear invariants. Mol Biol Evol. 6:301-316; Nguyen T, Speed TP. 1992. A derivation of all linear invariants for a nonbalanced transversion model. J Mol Evol. 35:60-76), we explicitly enumerate all linear invariants that solely contain rooting information and derive algorithms for rooting gene trees directly from gene and genomic sequences. These new EP linear rooting invariants allow one to determine rooted trees, even in the complete absence of outgroups and gene paralogs. EP rooting invariants are explicitly derived for three taxon trees, and rules for their extension to four or more taxa are provided. The method is demonstrated using 18S ribosomal DNA to illustrate how the new animal phylogeny (Aguinaldo AMA et al. 1997. Evidence for a clade of nematodes, arthropods, and other moulting animals. Nature 387:489-493; Lake JA. 1990. Origin of the metazoa. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87:763-766) may be rooted directly from sequences, even when they are short and paralogs are unavailable. These results are consistent with the current root (Philippe H et al. 2011. Acoelomorph flatworms are deuterostomes related to Xenoturbella. Nature 470:255-260).

  1. c-fos expression in specific rat brain nuclei after intestinal anaphylaxis: involvement of 5-HT3 receptors and vagal afferent fibers. (United States)

    Castex, N; Fioramonti, J; Fargeas, M J; Bueno, L


    The c-fos immediate-early gene is acutely induced in brain after various stimuli from the digestive tract. 5-HT3 receptors and vagal afferents have been found involved in intestinal motor disturbances induced by intestinal anaphylaxis. Our aim was to determine whether intestinal anaphylaxis activates brain structures, using c-fos expression, and to evaluate the modulation of c-fos induction by 5-HT3 receptors and vagal afferents. The effects of antigen challenge on intestinal motility were evaluated in ovalbumin-sensitized Hooded Lister rats chronically fitted with NiCr electrodes in the jejunal wall. Intestinal motility was assessed in conscious rats pretreated or not by perivagal capsaicin or a 5-HT3 antagonist (ondansetron). In sensitized rats, ovalbumin disrupted for 62.4 +/- 9.5 min the jejunal migrating motor complexes (MMC) and an important c-fos expression was detected in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPB) and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). Intraperitoneal administration of ondansetron or perivagal capsaicin treatment significantly reduced the duration of MMC disruption and attenuated markedly c-fos staining in the 3 brain sites. In contrast, intracerebroventricular administration of ondansetron significantly reduced jejunal motor alterations but did not diminish the c-fos expression, suggesting a role of central 5-HT3 receptors in the efferent control of the intestinal disturbances. Blockade of both c-fos expression and MMC disruption by systemic ondansetron and by perivagal capsaicin indicates that some brainstem nuclei are involved in digestive disturbances after intestinal anaphylaxis, and reflects an involvement of peripheral 5-HT3 receptors on vagal afferents. The reduction of c-fos staining in NTS as well as in LPB and PVN after perivagal capsaicin suggests that the NTS is the primary relay in the activation of the central nervous system during intestinal allergic challenge.

  2. Management of anaphylaxis in schools: Evaluation of an epinephrine auto-injector (EpiPen® use by school personnel and comparison of two approaches of soliciting participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Luu Nha


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been no large study characterizing selection bias in allergy and evaluating school personnel’s ability to use an epinephrine auto-injector (EpiPen®. Our objective was to determine if the consent process introduces selection bias by comparing 2 methods of soliciting participation of school personnel in a study evaluating their ability to demonstrate the EpiPen®. Methods School personnel from randomly selected schools in Quebec were approached using a 1 partial or 2 full disclosure approach and were assessed on their ability to use the EpiPen® and identify anaphylaxis. Results 343 school personnel participated. In the full disclosure group, the participation rate was lower: 21.9% (95%CI, 19.0%-25.2% versus 40.7% (95%CI, 36.1%-45.3%, but more participants achieved a perfect score: 26.3% (95%CI, 19.6%-33.9% versus 15.8% (95%CI, 10.8%-21.8%, and identified 3 signs of anaphylaxis: 71.8% (95%CI, 64.0%-78.7% versus 55.6% (95%CI, 48.2%-62.9%. Conclusions Selection bias is suspected as school personnel who were fully informed of the purpose of the assessment were less likely to participate; those who participated among the fully informed were more likely to earn perfect scores and identify anaphylaxis. As the process of consent can influence participation and bias outcomes, researchers and Ethics Boards need to consider conditions under which studies can proceed without full consent. Despite training, school personnel perform poorly when asked to demonstrate the EpiPen®.

  3. Polydatin (PD) inhibits IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in mice by stabilizing mast cells through modulating Ca{sup 2+} mobilization

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    Yuan, Meichun [Department of Pathophysiology, School of Medicine, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Department of Physiology, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan (China); Li, Jianjie [State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease for Allergy at Shengzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Lv, Jingzhang [Shenzhen Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau, Shenzhen 518045 (China); Mo, Xucheng; Yang, Chengbin [State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease for Allergy at Shengzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Chen, Xiangdong [Department of Pathophysiology, School of Medicine, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Liu, Zhigang [State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease for Allergy at Shengzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Liu, Jie, E-mail: [Department of Pathophysiology, School of Medicine, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China)


    Mast cells play a key role in the pathogenesis of asthma and are a promising target for therapeutic intervention in asthma. This study investigated the effects of polydatin (PD), a resveratrol glucoside, on mast cell degranulation upon cross-linking of the high-affinity IgE receptors (FcεRI), as well as the anti-allergic activity of PD in vivo. Herein, we demonstrated that PD treatment for 30 min suppressed FcεRI-mediated mast cell degranulation in a dose-dependent manner. Concomitantly, PD significantly decreased FcεRI-mediated Ca{sup 2+} increase in mast cells. The suppressive effects of PD on FcεRI-mediated Ca{sup 2+} increase were largely inhibited by using LaCl{sub 3} to block the Ca{sup 2+} release-activated Ca{sup 2+} channels (CRACs). Furthermore, PD significantly inhibited Ca{sup 2+} entry through CRACs evoked by thapsigargin (TG). Knocking down protein expression of Orai1, the pore-forming subunit of CRACs, significantly decreased PD suppression of FcεRI-induced intracellular Ca{sup 2+} influx and mast cell degranulation. In a mouse model of mast cell-dependent passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA), in vivo PD administration suppressed mast cell degranulation and inhibited anaphylaxis. Taken together, our data indicate that PD stabilizes mast cells by suppressing FcεRI-induced Ca{sup 2+} mobilization mainly through inhibiting Ca{sup 2+} entry via CRACs, thus exerting a protective effect against PCA. -- Highlights: ► Polydatin can prevent the pathogenesis of passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in mice. ► Polydatin stabilizes mast cells by decreasing FcεRI-mediated degranulation. ► Polydatin suppresses Ca{sup 2+} entry through CRAC channels in mast cells.

  4. IL-7Rα and L-selectin, but not CD103 or CD34, are required for murine peanut-induced anaphylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maltby Steven


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allergy to peanuts results in severe anaphylactic responses in affected individuals, and has dramatic effects on society and public policy. Despite the health impacts of peanut-induced anaphylaxis (PIA, relatively little is known about immune mechanisms underlying the disease. Using a mouse model of PIA, we evaluated mice with deletions in four distinct immune molecules (IL7Rα, L-selectin, CD34, CD103, for perturbed responses. Methods PIA was induced by intragastric sensitization with peanut antigen and cholera toxin adjuvant, followed by intraperitoneal challenge with crude peanut extract (CPE. Disease outcome was assessed by monitoring body temperature, clinical symptoms, and serum histamine levels. Resistant mice were evaluated for total and antigen specific serum IgE, as well as susceptibility to passive systemic anaphylaxis. Results PIA responses were dramatically reduced in IL7Rα−/− and L-selectin−/− mice, despite normal peanut-specific IgE production and susceptibility to passive systemic anaphylaxis. In contrast, CD34−/− and CD103−/− mice exhibited robust PIA responses, indistinguishable from wild type controls. Conclusions Loss of L-selectin or IL7Rα function is sufficient to impair PIA, while CD34 or CD103 ablation has no effect on disease severity. More broadly, our findings suggest that future food allergy interventions should focus on disrupting sensitization to food allergens and limiting antigen-specific late-phase responses. Conversely, therapies targeting immune cell migration following antigen challenge are unlikely to have significant benefits, particularly considering the rapid kinetics of PIA.

  5. Anti-cetuximab IgE ELISA for identification of patients at a high risk of cetuximab-induced anaphylaxis (United States)

    Mariotte, Delphine; Dupont, Benoît; Gervais, Radj; Galais, Marie-Pierre; Laroche, Dominique; Tranchant, Aurore; Comby, Elisabeth; Bouhier-Leporrier, Karine; Reimund, Jean-Marie


    Cetuximab, a chimeric mouse-human IgG1 monoclonal antibody against the epidermal growth factor receptor, has proven effective in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer and squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. However, a high incidence of immediate hypersensitivity reactions (HSR) to cetuximab after the first infusion has been observed. We have developed a test for identification of patients likely to show treatment-related HSR to cetuximab. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detecting anti-cetuximab IgEs was developed and tested on serum samples collected from cancer patients before start of cetuximab treatment, and from healthy blood donors. Similar levels of anti-cetuximab IgE were detected in pre-treatment patient sera (24/92, 26.1%) and sera from healthy blood donors (33/117, 28.2%). HSR were observed in 14 out of the 92 patients (15.2%), and 8 of these (57.1%) were grade 3–4. Anti-cetuximab IgEs were detected in 7/8 of the patients (87.5%) with severe HSRs as compared with 14/78 patients (17.9%) with no HSR (p = 0.0002). Predictive value of the anti-cetuximab IgE test for HSR events of grades 3–4 was calculated using Receiver Operating Characteristics analysis. With a cut-off value of 29 arbitrary units for the anti-cetuximab IgE, the ELISA test showed a sensitivity of 87.5%, specificity of 82.1%, positive predictive value of 33.3% and negative predictive value of 98.5%. Anti-cetuximab IgE ELISA detection could be a valuable tool to help the physician anticipate an anaphylaxis episode following cetuximab infusion and opt for a suitable alternative treatment. PMID:21654207

  6. Conjoined lumbosacral nerve roots

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    Atila Yılmaz


    Full Text Available Lumbosacral nerve root anomalies are a rare group ofcongenital anatomical anomalies. Various types of anomaliesof the lumbosacral nerve roots have been documentedin the available international literature. Ttheseanomalies may consist of a bifid, conjoined structure, ofa transverse course or of a characteristic anastomizedappearance. Firstly described as an incidental findingduring autopsies or surgical procedures performed forlumbar disk herniations and often asymptomatic, lumbosacralnerve root anomalies have been more frequentlydescribed in the last years due to the advances made inradiological diagnosis.

  7. Economic strategies of plant absorptive roots vary with root diameter (United States)

    Kong, D. L.; Wang, J. J.; Kardol, P.; Wu, H. F.; Zeng, H.; Deng, X. B.; Deng, Y.


    Plant roots typically vary along a dominant ecological axis, the root economics spectrum, depicting a tradeoff between resource acquisition and conservation. For absorptive roots, which are mainly responsible for resource acquisition, we hypothesized that root economic strategies differ with increasing root diameter. To test this hypothesis, we used seven plant species (a fern, a conifer, and five angiosperms from south China) for which we separated absorptive roots into two categories: thin roots (thickness of root cortex plus epidermis perspective on our understanding of the root economics spectrum.

  8. The effect of two cognitive aid designs on team functioning during intra-operative anaphylaxis emergencies: a multi-centre simulation study. (United States)

    Marshall, S D; Sanderson, P; McIntosh, C A; Kolawole, H


    This multi-centre repeated measures study was undertaken to determine how contrasting designs of cognitive aids affect team performance during simulated intra-operative anaphylaxis crises. A total of 24 teams consisting of a consultant anaesthetist, an anaesthetic trainee and anaesthetic assistant managed three simulated intra-operative anaphylaxis emergencies. Each team was assigned at random to a counterbalanced order of: no cognitive aid; a linear cognitive aid; and a branched cognitive aid, and scored for team functioning. Scores were significantly higher with a linear compared with either a branched version of the cognitive aid or no cognitive aid for 'Team Overall Behavioural Performance', difference between study groups (F-value) 5.8, p = 0.01. Aggregate scores were higher with the linear compared with the branched aid design (p = 0.03). Cognitive aids improve co-ordination of the team's activities and support team members to verbalise their actions. A linear design of cognitive aid improves team functioning more than a branched design.

  9. Limited influence of aspirin intake on mast cell activation in patients with food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis: comparison using skin prick and histamine release tests. (United States)

    Fukunaga, Atsushi; Shimizu, Hideki; Tanaka, Mami; Kikuzawa, Ayuko; Tsujimoto, Mariko; Sekimukai, Akiko; Yamashita, Junji; Horikawa, Tatsuya; Nishigori, Chikako


    Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA) is a severe systemic syndrome induced by physical exercise after ingesting causative food. Aspirin is a well-known trigger for anaphylaxis in patients with FDEIA. Possible mechanisms by which symptoms are aggravated by aspirin include enhanced antigen absorption and mast cell activation. The aim of this study was to determine whether aspirin intake has an influence on mast cell/basophil activation in patients with FDEIA. Provocation tests revealed that adding aspirin to the causative food challenge in 7 of 9 (77.8%) patients with FDEIA provoked symptoms. In most cases, pretreatment with aspirin did not enhance skin tests (71.4%) or histamine release tests (88.9%) with food allergen challenges. The study confirms that histamine release and skin prick tests can be adjunctive tools for diagnosing FDEIA. In addition, our results suggest that exacerbation of FDEIA symptoms by aspirin is not mediated by direct effects of aspirin on mast cell/basophil activation.

  10. Chromatic roots and hamiltonian paths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten


    We present a new connection between colorings and hamiltonian paths: If the chromatic polynomial of a graph has a noninteger root less than or equal to t(n) = 2/3 + 1/3 (3)root (26 + 6 root (33)) + 1/3 (3)root (26 - 6 root (33)) = 1.29559.... then the graph has no hamiltonian path. This result...

  11. Assessment of the allergenic potential of transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum) with reduced levels of omega-5 gliadins, the major sensitizing allergen in wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (United States)

    The omega-5 gliadins are the major sensitizing allergens in wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA). In this study, two-dimensional immunoblot analysis was used to assess the allergenic potential of two transgenic wheat lines in which omega-5 gliadin genes were silenced by RNA interfe...

  12. Genetic association among root morphology, root quality and root yield in ashwagandha (Withania somnifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Ramesh R.


    Full Text Available Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera is a dryland medicinal crop and roots are used as valuable drug in traditional systems of medicine. Morphological variants (morphotypes and the parental populations were evaluated for root - morphometric, quality and yield traits to study genetic association among them. Root morphometric traits (root length, root diameter, number of secondary roots/ plant and crude fiber content exhibited strong association among them and showed significant positive genotypic correlation with yield. Starch-fiber ratio (SFR, determinant of brittle root texture showed strong negative association with root yield. The total alkaloid content had positive genotypic correlation with root yield. So genetic upgradation should aim at optimum balance between two divergent groups of traits i.e. root yield traits (root morphometric traits and crude fiber content and root textural quality traits (starch content and SFR to develop superior genotypes with better yield and quality.

  13. Root lattices and quasicrystals (United States)

    Baake, M.; Joseph, D.; Kramer, P.; Schlottmann, M.


    It is shown that root lattices and their reciprocals might serve as the right pool for the construction of quasicrystalline structure models. All noncrystallographic symmetries observed so far are covered in minimal embedding with maximal symmetry.

  14. Modeling root reinforcement using root-failure Weibull survival function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schwarz


    Full Text Available Root networks contribute to slope stability through complicated interactions that include mechanical compression and tension. Due to the spatial heterogeneity of root distribution and the dynamic of root turnover, the quantification of root reinforcement on steep slope is challenging and consequently the calculation of slope stability as well. Although the considerable advances in root reinforcement modeling, some important aspect remain neglected. In this study we address in particular to the role of root strength variability on the mechanical behaviors of a root bundle. Many factors may contribute to the variability of root mechanical properties even considering a single class of diameter. This work presents a new approach for quantifying root reinforcement that considers the variability of mechanical properties of each root diameter class. Using the data of laboratory tensile tests and field pullout tests, we calibrate the parameters of the Weibull survival function to implement the variability of root strength in a numerical model for the calculation of root reinforcement (RBMw. The results show that, for both laboratory and field datasets, the parameters of the Weibull distribution may be considered constant with the exponent equal to 2 and the normalized failure displacement equal to 1. Moreover, the results show that the variability of root strength in each root diameter class has a major influence on the behavior of a root bundle with important implications when considering different approaches in slope stability calculation. Sensitivity analysis shows that the calibration of the tensile force and the elasticity of the roots are the most important equations, as well as the root distribution. The new model allows the characterization of root reinforcement in terms of maximum pullout force, stiffness, and energy. Moreover, it simplifies the implementation of root reinforcement in slope stability models. The realistic quantification of root

  15. Anaphylaxis: Tips to Remember (United States)

    ... Education Center Fellows-in-Training Grants & Awards Program Directors Practice Resources ASTHMA IQ Consultation and Referral Guidelines Practice Financial Survey Practice Tools Running a Practice Statements and Practice Parameters About AAAAI Advocacy Allergist / Immunologists: ...

  16. Anaphylaxis caused by banana. (United States)

    Savonius, B; Kanerva, L


    An anaphylactic reaction following ingestion of banana occurred in a 32-year-old female cook. The sensitization to banana occurred simultaneously with the development of occupational asthma caused by grain flour. The patient was sensitized to a wide range of airborne and ingestible proteins but not to rubber latex.

  17. The "Green" Root Beer Laboratory (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James


    No, your students will not be drinking green root beer for St. Patrick's Day--this "green" root beer laboratory promotes environmental awareness in the science classroom, and provides a venue for some very sound science content! While many science classrooms incorporate root beer-brewing activities, the root beer lab presented in this article has…

  18. Precision medicine in allergic disease-food allergy, drug allergy, and anaphylaxis-PRACTALL document of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology and the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology. (United States)

    Muraro, A; Lemanske, R F; Castells, M; Torres, M J; Khan, D; Simon, H-U; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Burks, W; Poulsen, L K; Sampson, H A; Worm, M; Nadeau, K C


    This consensus document summarizes the current knowledge on the potential for precision medicine in food allergy, drug allergy, and anaphylaxis under the auspices of the PRACTALL collaboration platform. PRACTALL is a joint effort of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology and the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, which aims to synchronize the European and American approaches to allergy care. Precision medicine is an emerging approach for disease treatment based on disease endotypes, which are phenotypic subclasses associated with specific mechanisms underlying the disease. Although significant progress has been made in defining endotypes for asthma, definitions of endotypes for food and drug allergy or for anaphylaxis lag behind. Progress has been made in discovery of biomarkers to guide a precision medicine approach to treatment of food and drug allergy, but further validation and quantification of these biomarkers are needed to allow their translation into practice in the clinical management of allergic disease.

  19. Precision Medicine in Allergic Disease - Food Allergy, Drug Allergy, and Anaphylaxis-PRACTALL document of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology and the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muraro, Antonella; Lemanske, Robert F; Castells, Mariana


    This consensus document summarizes the current knowledge on the potential for precision medicine in food allergy, drug allergy and anaphylaxis under the auspices of the PRACTALL collaboration platform. PRACTALL is a joint effort of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI...... underlying the disease. Although significant progress has been made in defining endotypes for asthma, definitions of endotypes for food and drug allergy or for anaphylaxis lag behind. Progress has been made in discovery of biomarkers to guide a precision medicine approach to treatment of food and drug......) and the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (AAAAI), which aims to synchronize the European and American approaches to allergy care. Precision medicine is an emerging approach for disease treatment based on disease endotypes, which are phenotypic subclasses associated with specific mechanisms...

  20. The Roots Of Alienation (United States)

    Bronfenbrenner, Urie


    Alienation in our society takes several forms--withdrawal, hostility, or efforts to reform. The author traces the roots of alienation to our neglect of many of the needs of children, particularly their need for interaction with adults. Among his many recommendations are: modified work schedules to permit more time with children and systems for…

  1. 血小板活化因子在药源性严重过敏反应中的研究现状%Advance of platelet activating factor in drug-induced anaphylaxis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马翔; 李潇潇; 刘维; 翟所迪


    药源性严重过敏反应有难以预测、发作突然和致命性等特点,从而成为困扰临床药物使用的重要安全性因素。由于目前尚无严格的随机对照试验支持抢救药物的推荐,医生常根据临床经验用肾上腺素、抗组胺药和/或糖皮质激素应对突发的药源性严重过敏反应。血小板活化因子( PAF)信号通路可为研究药源性严重过敏反应提供崭新的视角。本文将就药源性严重过敏反应的临床和流行病学特点、PAF通路、抗PAF通路的药物等进行概述。%The acute unpredictably life -threatening characteristic of drug-induced anaphylaxis hinders the safe use of clinical medication.In the absence of rigid randomized controlled trials supporting the recommen-dations for the treatment of immediate onset, doctors often treat drug-induced anaphylaxis with epinephrine, antihistamines and/or glucocorticoids.The researches in platelet activating factor signaling path-way could provide a novel perspective for drug-induced anaphylaxis.This review will briefly introduce the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of drug-induced anaphylaxis, platelet activating factor pathway and drugs targeting at this pathway.

  2. Hairy roots are more sensitive to auxin than normal roots


    Shen, Wen Hui; Petit, Annik; Guern, Jean; Tempé, Jacques


    Responses to auxin of Lotus corniculatus root tips or protoplasts transformed by Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains 15834 and 8196 were compared to those of their normal counterparts. Three different types of experiments were performed, involving long-term, medium-term, or short-term responses to a synthetic auxin, 1-naphthaleneacetic acid. Root tip elongation, proton excretion by root tips, and transmembrane electrical potential difference of root protoplasts were measured as a function of exo...

  3. Variation in root wood anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, D.F.


    Variability in the anatomy of root wood of selected specimens particularly Fraxinus excelsior L. and Acer pseudoplatanus L. in the Kew reference microscope slide collection is discussed in relation to generalised statements in the literature on root wood anatomy.

  4. Hairy roots are more sensitive to auxin than normal roots (United States)

    Shen, Wen Hui; Petit, Annik; Guern, Jean; Tempé, Jacques


    Responses to auxin of Lotus corniculatus root tips or protoplasts transformed by Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains 15834 and 8196 were compared to those of their normal counterparts. Three different types of experiments were performed, involving long-term, medium-term, or short-term responses to a synthetic auxin, 1-naphthaleneacetic acid. Root tip elongation, proton excretion by root tips, and transmembrane electrical potential difference of root protoplasts were measured as a function of exogenous auxin concentration. The sensitivity of hairy root tips or protoplasts to exogenous auxin was found to be 100-1000 times higher than that of untransformed material. PMID:16593928

  5. Metagenomics at Grass Roots

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sudeshna Mazumdar-Leighton; Vivek K Choudhary


    Metagenomics is a robust, interdisciplinary approach for studyingmicrobial community composition, function, and dynamics.It typically involves a core of molecular biology, microbiology,ecology, statistics, and computational biology. Excitingoutcomes anticipated from these studies include unravelingof complex interactions that characterize the ecologicalmilieu of microbial communities. Diverse habitats fromwhich metagenomes have been reported include human guts,caterpillar guts, thermal vents in oceans, ore deposits, polarcaps, and even soils that adhere to plant roots. Knowledgegenerated from metagenomic projects has tremendous potentialto benefit human health, agriculture, and ecosystemfunctions. This article provides a brief history of technicaladvances in metagenomics, including DNA sequencing methods,and some case studies. A specific example is providedof microbial metagenomes found at the roots of native grassspecies (family Poaceae) that can grow on degraded lands undergoingrevegetation.

  6. Negative phototropism of rice root

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@It is often believed that the stem of higher plants has characteristics of positive phototropism, and the root shows no phototropism or no sensitivity to light though the root of Arabdopsis was reported possessing characteristics of negative phototropism. In this study, a distinct negative phototropism of the root system of rice seedlings was observed.

  7. Rooting an Android Device (United States)


    tools that grant root privileges for both Windows and Linux . For the Linux system, open a shell window and use “cd” command to change the directory...defined as a process of gaining administrative commands and functions of an operating system (OS). In order to monitor live network traffic on any... Linux -based or, in this case, Android system, it is necessary to have administrative rights to gain access to any of the hardware devices, such as the

  8. Inhibitory effects of whisky congeners on IgE-mediated degranulation in rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction in mice. (United States)

    Itoh, Tomohiro; Tsukane, Mariko; Koike, Minako; Nakamura, Chizu; Ohguchi, Kenji; Ito, Masafumi; Akao, Yukihiro; Koshimizu, Seiichi; Nozawa, Yoshinori; Wakimoto, Toshiyuki; Nukaya, Haruo; Suwa, Yoshihide


    Whisky is matured in oak casks. Many nonvolatile substances (whisky congeners, WC) seep from the oak cask during the maturing process. In this study, three antiallergic agents (syringaldehyde, SA; lyoniresinol, Lyo; and ellagic acid, EA) were isolated from WC. Treatment with SA, Lyo, and EA reduced the elevation of intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) and intracellular ROS production caused by FcepsilonRI activation. The inhibitions of the elevation of [Ca(2+)]i and intracellular ROS production by SA and Lyo were mainly due to the suppression of the NADPH oxidase activity and scavenging of the produced radical, respectively. On the other hand, EA inactivated spleen tyrosine kinase and led to the inhibition of the elevation of [Ca(2+)]i and intracellular ROS production. Furthermore, it was found that WC strongly inhibited IgE binding to the FcepsilonRIalpha chain, whereas SA, Lyo, and EA did not indicate this inhibitory effect. These results suggest that WC inhibits allergic reactions through multiple mechanisms. To disclose the in vivo effects of WC, SA, Lyo, and EA, these compounds were administered to type I allergic model mice, and the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reaction was measured. These compounds remarkably suppressed the PCA reaction. Taken together, these findings suggest that WC seemed to be beneficial to ameliorate allergic reactions.

  9. Anaphylaxis, Intra-Abdominal Infections, Skin Lacerations, and Behavioral Emergencies: A Literature Review of Austere Analogs for a near Earth Asteroid Mission (United States)

    Chough, Natacha G.; Watkins, Sharmi; Menon, Anil S.


    As space exploration is directed towards destinations beyond low-Earth orbit, the consequent new set of medical risks will drive requirements for new capabilities and more resources to ensure crew health. The Space Medicine Exploration Medical Conditions List (SMEMCL), developed by the Exploration Medical Capability element of the Human Research Program, addresses the risk of "unacceptable health and mission outcomes due to limitations of in-flight medical capabilities". It itemizes 85 evidence-based clinical requirements for eight different mission profiles and identifies conditions warranting further research and technology development. Each condition is given a clinical priority for each mission profile. Four conditions -- intra-abdominal infections, skin lacerations, anaphylaxis, and behavioral emergencies -- were selected as a starting point for analysis. A systematic literature review was performed to understand how these conditions are treated in austere, limited-resource, space-analog environments (i.e., high-altitude and mountain environments, submarines, military deployments, Antarctica, isolated wilderness environments, in-flight environments, and remote, resource-poor, rural environments). These environments serve as analogs to spaceflight because of their shared characteristics (limited medical resources, delay in communication, confined living quarters, difficulty with resupply, variable time to evacuation). Treatment of these four medical conditions in austere environments provides insight into medical equipment and training requirements for exploration-class missions.

  10. OM-X®, Fermented Vegetables Extract Suppresses Antigen-Stimulated Degranulation in Rat Basophilic Leukemia RBL-2H3 Cells and Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis Reaction in Mice. (United States)

    Itoh, Tomohiro; Miyake, Yasuyoshi; Kasashima, Takuya; Shimomiya, Yoshie; Nakamura, Yuki; Ando, Masashi; Tsukamasa, Yasuyuki; Takahata, Muneaki


    OM-X® is a hand-made and naturally manufactured probiotic supplement. This fermented food product is made from vegetables, fruits, seaweeds and mushrooms, using 12 strains of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria. OM-X® is also known to have beneficial health properties, and some of its components show effects on antigen (Ag)-stimulated degranulation activity, indicating that OM-X® may be useful in the treatment of allergy responses and symptoms. In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of OM-X® on Ag-stimulated degranulation in rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells, clarified the underlying mechanisms, and determined the active compounds in OM-X® for suppression of degranulation. Treatment with OM-X® gradually suppressed Ag-stimulated degranulation throughout the maturation period. OM-X® also gradually produced melanoidins by lactic acid bacterial fermentation during the maturation process. There was a high correlation between the suppression levels of Ag-stimulated degranulation and the browning of OM-X®. Furthermore, the inhibition of Ag-stimulated degranulation by OM-X® was found to be partially due to the direct inactivation of NADPH oxidase. To elucidate the in vivo effects of OM- X®, type I allergy model mice were orally administered with OM-X®, and the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reaction was measured. OM-X® intake remarkably suppressed the PCA reaction. Taken together, our findings suggest that OMX® could be a beneficial food to ameliorate allergic reactions.

  11. Back to the roots!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woermann, Niklas


    This article argues that one can revive the critical edge that postmodernist theory has brought to marketing, thinking without subscribing to any particular school of (critical) theory by following the principle of methodological situationalism. The roots of postmodernist critique lie in careful...... of social order into account, hence fail to provide sensible insight. I propose the principle of methodological situationalism as a litmus test to the analytical strength of a theory or piece of research. The principle states that theoretically adequate accounts of social phenomena must be grounded...

  12. The Roots of Beowulf (United States)

    Fischer, James R.


    The first Beowulf Linux commodity cluster was constructed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in 1994 and its origins are a part of the folklore of high-end computing. In fact, the conditions within Goddard that brought the idea into being were shaped by rich historical roots, strategic pressures brought on by the ramp up of the Federal High-Performance Computing and Communications Program, growth of the open software movement, microprocessor performance trends, and the vision of key technologists. This multifaceted story is told here for the first time from the point of view of NASA project management.

  13. [Flexible root posts]. (United States)

    Vadachkoriia, N R; Mandzhavidze, N A; Gumberidze, N Sh


    The article discusses the current state of restoration techniques of root canal treatment. Nowadays, technical progress allows manufacturers to develop flexible fiberglass posts, aspiring not only to an excellent aesthetics and mechanical properties (first of all, in comparison with metal and cast posts), but also to maintenance of their radio density and a wide range of forms. Growth of fiberglass posts popularity testifies to their clinical efficiency that also is confirmed by results of long-term researches. Introduction of fiberglass posts in a dental practice has rendered huge influence on restoration techniques of root canal treatment. Convincing factors of fiberglass posts superiority provide restoration the appearance similar with the natural dentition; possess close to dentine elasticity; creation of monolithic structure with hard tooth tissues and composite cement, posts, in case of need, can be easily adjusted on length, adhesive linkage of posts gives them additional stability. Modern researches have confirmed that only elastic, namely carbon fiber and the fiberglass posts made of modern technologies possess similar physical properties, as tooth structure. They can create reliable biomimetic design; solve a complex of aesthetic and functional restoration problems.

  14. Multivariate ultrametric root counting

    CERN Document Server

    Avendano, Martin


    Let $K$ be a field, complete with respect to a discrete non-archimedian valuation and let $k$ be the residue field. Consider a system $F$ of $n$ polynomial equations in $K\\vars$. Our first result is a reformulation of the classical Hensel's Lemma in the language of tropical geometry: we show sufficient conditions (semiregularity at $w$) that guarantee that the first digit map $\\delta:(K^\\ast)^n\\to(k^\\ast)^n$ is a one to one correspondence between the solutions of $F$ in $(K^\\ast)^n$ with valuation $w$ and the solutions in $(k^\\ast)^n$ of the initial form system ${\\rm in}_w(F)$. Using this result, we provide an explicit formula for the number of solutions in $(K^\\ast)^n$ of a certain class of systems of polynomial equations (called regular), characterized by having finite tropical prevariety, by having initial forms consisting only of binomials, and by being semiregular at any point in the tropical prevariety. Finally, as a consequence of the root counting formula, we obtain the expected number of roots in $(K...

  15. Removal of root filling materials.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duncan, H.F. Chong, B.S.


    Safe, successful and effective removal of root filling materials is an integral component of non-surgical root canal re-treatment. Access to the root canal system must be achieved in order to negotiate to the canal terminus so that deficiencies in the original treatment can be rectified. Since a range of materials have been advocated for filling root canals, different techniques are required for their removal. The management of commonly encountered root filling materials during non-surgical re-treatment, including the clinical procedures necessary for removal and the associated risks, are reviewed. As gutta-percha is the most widely used and accepted root filling material, there is a greater emphasis on its removal in this review.

  16. ROOT Tutorial for Summer Students

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Piparo, Danilo


    ROOT is a "batteries-included" tool kit for data analysis, storage and visualization. It is widely used in High Energy Physics and other disciplines such as Biology, Finance and Astrophysics. This event is an introductory tutorial to ROOT and comprises a front lecture and hands on exercises. IMPORTANT NOTE: The tutorial is based on ROOT 6.04 and NOT on the ROOT5 series.  IMPORTANT NOTE: if you have ROOT 6.04 installed on your laptop, you will not need to install any virtual machine. The instructions showing how to install the virtual machine on which you can find ROOT 6.04 can be found under "Material" on this page.

  17. Comparing Leaf and Root Insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaco Geldenhuys


    Full Text Available We consider two ways of inserting a key into a binary search tree: leaf insertion which is the standard method, and root insertion which involves additional rotations. Although the respective cost of constructing leaf and root insertion binary search trees trees, in terms of comparisons, are the same in the average case, we show that in the worst case the construction of a root insertion binary search tree needs approximately 50% of the number of comparisons required by leaf insertion.

  18. Antigen-induced bronchial anaphylaxis in actively sensitized guinea-pigs: effect of long-term treatment with sodium cromoglycate and aminophylline. (United States)

    Andersson, P.; Bergstrand, H.


    1 The effects of long-term treatment with sodium cromoglycate (SCG) and aminophylline on antigen-induced bronchoconstriction have been studied in guinea-pigs actively sensitized according to two different regimens (one producing IgE- and IgG-like antibodies and the other producing exclusively IgG-like antibodies). 2 Treatment for three weeks with SCG (10 mg/kg) and aminophylline (10, 30 or 60 mg/kg) led to a decreased bronchial response capacity which persisted even three days after treatment ceased. In this respect SCG was effective only in guinea-pigs sensitized to produce at least partly IgE-like antibodies; aminophylline was effective in guinea-pigs sensitized to produce both IgE and/or IgG antibodies. 3 The results in vivo with SCG were reflected in vitro by a reduced capacity of chopped lung tissue to release histamine at antigen challenge; lungs from animals treated with aminophylline did not show reduced histamine releasing capacity. 4 Acute treatment with atropine was shown to reduce significantly the antigen-induced bronchial contraction in guinea-pigs sensitized to produce both IgE- and IgG-antibodies. No effect of atropine was seen on an IgG-mediated anaphylaxis. 5 Increased reactivity to methacholine but not to histamine was seen in guinea-pigs sensitized to produce both IgG- and IgE-antibodies. Long-term treatment with SCG did not affect this hyperreactivity to methacholine. 6 Decreased reactivity to isoprenaline was found in isolated tracheae taken from guinea-pigs sensitized to produce both IgE- and IgG-like antibodies compared to unsensitized guinea-pigs. Long-term treatment with SCG, but not with aminophylline, reversed this decreased reactivity. PMID:6170376

  19. Study on the Immunoreactivity of Triticum monococcum (Einkorn) Wheat in Patients with Wheat-Dependent Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis for the Production of Hypoallergenic Foods. (United States)

    Lombardo, Carla; Bolla, Michela; Chignola, Roberto; Senna, Gianenrico; Rossin, Giacomo; Caruso, Beatrice; Tomelleri, Carlo; Cecconi, Daniela; Brandolini, Andrea; Zoccatelli, Gianni


    Wheat [Triticum aestivum (T.a.)] ingestion can cause a specific allergic reaction, which is called wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA). The major allergen involved is ω-5 gliadin, a gluten protein coded by genes located on the B genome. Our aim was to study the immunoreactivity of proteins in Triticum monococcum (einkorn, T.m.), a diploid ancestral wheat lacking B chromosomes, for possible use in the production of hypoallergenic foods. A total of 14 patients with a clear history of WDEIA and specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) to ω-5 gliadin were enrolled. Skin prick test (SPT) with a commercial wheat extract and an in-house T.a. gluten diagnostic solution tested positive for 43 and 100% of the cases, respectively. No reactivity in patients tested with solutions prepared from four T.m. accessions was observed. The immunoblotting of T.m. gluten proteins performed with the sera of patients showed different IgE-binding profiles with respect to T.a., confirming the absence of ω-5 gliadin. A general lower immunoreactivity of T.m. gluten proteins with scarce cross-reactivity to ω-5 gliadin epitopes was assessed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Given the absence of reactivity by SPT and the limited cross-reactivity with ω-5 gliadin, T.m. might represent a potential candidate in the production of hypoallergenic bakery products for patients sensitized to ω-5 gliadin. Further analyses need to be carried out regarding its safety.

  20. Clinical Characteristics of Anaphylaxis Induced by Honeybee Venom%蜜蜂蜂毒致严重过敏反应临床特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关凯; 李丽莎; 王瑞琦; 尹佳


    目的:探讨蜜蜂蜂毒致严重过敏反应的临床特点。方法回顾性分析2010年至2016年在北京协和医院确诊为蜜蜂蜂毒致严重过敏反应的患者临床资料,根据蜇刺后各系统症状和体征分为Ⅰ~Ⅳ级严重过敏反应,分析患者生活地域、暴露类型等特点,初步探索变应原组分对鉴别蜜蜂蜂毒和胡蜂蜂毒交叉反应、双重过敏的临床意义。结果30例蜜蜂蜂毒致严重过敏反应患者的男女之比为12∶18(2∶3),平均年龄35(27,38)岁。70.0%(21/30)来自京津冀地区,23.3%(7/30)生活在市区,76.7%(23/30)生活在郊区。各级严重过敏反应构成:Ⅰ级20.0%(6/30),Ⅱ级26.7%(8/30),Ⅲ级40.0%(12/30),Ⅳ级13.3%(4/30)。蜜蜂蜂毒暴露类型:自然性6.7%(2/30),职业性86.7%(26/30),医源性6.7%(2/30),其中养蜂者高达86.7%。30例患者 i1(蜜蜂蜂毒) sIgE 检测结果为12.80(2.80,33.50) kUA/L,其中19例患者完成了蜜蜂蜂毒变应原组分i208(磷脂酶A2) sIgE检测;在8例i1和i3(胡蜂蜂毒) sIgE均为阳性的患者中,7例胡蜂蜂毒变应原组分 i209(抗原 V5) sIgE <0.10 kUA/L,仅1例 i209 sIgE 为8.03 kUA/L,证实为双重过敏。33%(10/30)的患者在首次蜜蜂蜇刺后表现为大局部反应,3个月至1年后再次蜜蜂蜇刺后出现严重过敏反应。结论职业性暴露是蜜蜂蜂毒致严重过敏反应最常见的暴露类型,使用变应原组分检测有助于确诊蜜蜂蜂毒和胡蜂蜂毒双重过敏。%Objective To investigate the clinical characteristics of honeybee venom induced anaphylaxis. Methods Cases of anaphylaxis induced by honeybee sting were collected and analyzed retrospectively since 2011 to 2016 in Peking Union Medical College Hospital.The severity was classified into GradesⅠtoⅣbased on the systemic manifestations after

  1. Determinants and Polynomial Root Structure (United States)

    De Pillis, L. G.


    A little known property of determinants is developed in a manner accessible to beginning undergraduates in linear algebra. Using the language of matrix theory, a classical result by Sylvester that describes when two polynomials have a common root is recaptured. Among results concerning the structure of polynomial roots, polynomials with pairs of…

  2. Properties of Estimated Characteristic Roots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bent; Nielsen, Heino Bohn

    Estimated characteristic roots in stationary autoregressions are shown to give rather noisy information about their population equivalents. This is remarkable given the central role of the characteristic roots in the theory of autoregressive processes. In the asymptotic analysis the problems appear...

  3. Searching for Roots / Pierre Gervasoni

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gervasoni, Pierre


    Uuest heliplaadist "Searching for Roots. Eduard Tubin: Symphonie no 11; Arvo Pärt: Nekrolog-Symphonie no 1; Erkki-Sven Tüür: Searching for Roots - Insula deserta - Zeitraum; Orchestre philharmonique royal de Stockholm, Paavo Järvi (direction)" Virgin Classics 5 45212 2 (distribue par EMI)

  4. Project Work on Plant Roots. (United States)

    Devonald, V. G.


    Methods of investigating plant root growth developed for research purposes can be adopted for student use. Investigations of the effect of water table level and of ethylene concentration are described, and techniques of measuring root growth are explained. (Author/ML)

  5. Cassava root membrane proteome reveals activities during storage root maturation. (United States)

    Naconsie, Maliwan; Lertpanyasampatha, Manassawe; Viboonjun, Unchera; Netrphan, Supatcharee; Kuwano, Masayoshi; Ogasawara, Naotake; Narangajavana, Jarunya


    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is one of the most important crops of Thailand. Its storage roots are used as food, feed, starch production, and be the important source for biofuel and biodegradable plastic production. Despite the importance of cassava storage roots, little is known about the mechanisms involved in their formation. This present study has focused on comparison of the expression profiles of cassava root proteome at various developmental stages using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and LC-MS/MS. Based on an anatomical study using Toluidine Blue, the secondary growth was confirmed to be essential during the development of cassava storage root. To investigate biochemical processes occurring during storage root maturation, soluble and membrane proteins were isolated from storage roots harvested from 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month-old cassava plants. The proteins with differential expression pattern were analysed and identified to be associated with 8 functional groups: protein folding and degradation, energy, metabolism, secondary metabolism, stress response, transport facilitation, cytoskeleton, and unclassified function. The expression profiling of membrane proteins revealed the proteins involved in protein folding and degradation, energy, and cell structure were highly expressed during early stages of development. Integration of these data along with the information available in genome and transcriptome databases is critical to expand knowledge obtained solely from the field of proteomics. Possible role of identified proteins were discussed in relation with the activities during storage root maturation in cassava.

  6. Medico-legal aspects of vertical root fractures in root filled teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosen, E; Tsesis, I; Tamse, A;


    To analyse the medico-legal aspects of vertical root fracture (VRF) following root canal treatment (RCT).......To analyse the medico-legal aspects of vertical root fracture (VRF) following root canal treatment (RCT)....

  7. Root development during soil genesis: effects of root-root interactions, mycorrhizae, and substrate (United States)

    Salinas, A.; Zaharescu, D. G.


    A major driver of soil formation is the colonization and transformation of rock by plants and associated microbiota. In turn, substrate chemical composition can also influence the capacity for plant colonization and development. In order to better define these relationships, a mesocosm study was set up to analyze the effect mycorrhizal fungi, plant density and rock have on root development, and to determine the effect of root morphology on weathering and soil formation. We hypothesized that plant-plant and plant-fungi interactions have a stronger influence on root architecture and rock weathering than the substrate composition alone. Buffalo grass (Bouteloua dactyloides) was grown in a controlled environment in columns filled with either granular granite, schist, rhyolite or basalt. Each substrate was given two different treatments, including grass-microbes and grass-microbes-mycorrhizae and incubated for 120, 240, and 480 days. Columns were then extracted and analyzed for root morphology, fine fraction, and pore water major element content. Preliminary results showed that plants produced more biomass in rhyolite, followed by schist, basalt, and granite, indicating that substrate composition is an important driver of root development. In support of our hypothesis, mycorrhizae was a strong driver of root development by stimulating length growth, biomass production, and branching. However, average root length and branching also appeared to decrease in response to high plant density, though this trend was only present among roots with mycorrhizal fungi. Interestingly, fine fraction production was negatively correlated with average root thickness and volume. There is also slight evidence indicating that fine fraction production is more related to substrate composition than root morphology, though this data needs to be further analyzed. Our hope is that the results of this study can one day be applied to agricultural research in order to promote the production of crops

  8. Diagnostic Significance of BAT in Anaphylaxis to Non-ionic Contrast Media%BAT在非离子型造影剂过敏反应中的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张皓月; 许素军; 唐笑先; 牛记军; 郭相杰; 高彩荣


    Objective To investigate the diagnostic significance of basophil activation test (B A T) in ana-phylaxis to non-ionic contrast media through testing the content of CD 63, m ast cell-carboxypeptidase A 3 (M C-CPA 3), and term inal com plem ent com plex SC5b-9 of the individuals by testing their levels in the norm al im m une group and the anaphylaxis groups to β-lactam drugs and non-ionic contrast media. Methods The CD 63 expression of basophilic granulocyte in blood w as detected by flow cytom etry. The levels of M C-CPA 3 in blood serum and SC5b-9 in blood plasm a w ere detected by ELISA . Results The CD 63 expression of basophilic granulocyte in blood, the levels of M C-CPA 3 and SC5b-9 of anaphylaxis to non-ionic contrast media and β-lactam drugs w ere significantly higher than that in norm al im m une group (P<0.05). Conclusion There is activation of basophilic granulocytes, m ast cells and com plem ent system in anaphylaxis to non-ionic contrast media. B A Tcan be used to diagnose the anaphylaxis to non-ionic contrast media.%目的:通过测定免疫正常人、β-内酰胺类药物过敏者以及非离子型造影剂过敏者血液中CD63、肥大细胞羧肽酶A3(MC-CPA3)、人末端补体复合物SC5b-9,探讨嗜碱性粒细胞活化试验(basophil activation test,BAT)在非离子型造影剂过敏反应中的诊断价值。方法采用流式细胞术测定全血中嗜碱性粒细胞CD63表达率。采用ELISA法测定血清中MC-CPA3、血浆中SC5b-9含量。结果非离子型造影剂和β-内酰胺类药物过敏者血液中嗜碱性粒细胞CD63表达率、MC-CPA3以及SC5b-9含量均较免疫正常人升高(P<0.05)。结论非离子型造影剂过敏者血液中嗜碱性粒细胞和肥大细胞发生活化,补体系统的激活也参与了非离子型造影剂过敏反应的发生。流式细胞术分析BAT可作为非离子型造影剂过敏反应的诊断方法。

  9. Plant root-microbe communication in shaping root microbiomes. (United States)

    Lareen, Andrew; Burton, Frances; Schäfer, Patrick


    A growing body of research is highlighting the impacts root-associated microbial communities can have on plant health and development. These impacts can include changes in yield quantity and quality, timing of key developmental stages and tolerance of biotic and abiotic stresses. With such a range of effects it is clear that understanding the factors that contribute to a plant-beneficial root microbiome may prove advantageous. Increasing demands for food by a growing human population increases the importance and urgency of understanding how microbiomes may be exploited to increase crop yields and reduce losses caused by disease. In addition, climate change effects may require novel approaches to overcoming abiotic stresses such as drought and salinity as well as new emerging diseases. This review discusses current knowledge on the formation and maintenance of root-associated microbial communities and plant-microbe interactions with a particular emphasis on the effect of microbe-microbe interactions on the shape of microbial communities at the root surface. Further, we discuss the potential for root microbiome modification to benefit agriculture and food production.

  10. Review on Mutation in Lateral Root of Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xia; ZHANG Da; HAO Zaibin


    Rice roots include seminal roots, adventitious roots, lateral roots and root hairs, At present, progresses in the research of rice roots have been achieved in many aspects, such as root morphology, root activity, root reaction to various environmental factors as a contribution of root growth and rice yield, the relationship between root growth and stems/leaves/flowers/rice, genetic laws of root characters, etc. However, there are very few researches on lateral root mutant. This paper reviewed progresses of the lateral root mutant of rice from the perspectives of phytomorphology to plant physiology and biochemistry to the gene mapping, consisting of mechanism of developing lateral root of rice, gene cloning and functional analysis of lateral root development, the relationship between auxin and lateral roots, agronomic traits of lateral roots mutant, structure and morphology of root hairs, gravity anomaly of root, redox metabolism and proteomics researches of the mutation in lateral root of rice.

  11. How Can Science Education Foster Students' Rooting? (United States)

    Østergaard, Edvin


    The question of how to foster rooting in science education points towards a double challenge; efforts to "prevent" (further) uprooting and efforts to "promote" rooting/re-rooting. Wolff-Michael Roth's paper discusses the uprooting/rooting pair of concepts, students' feeling of alienation and loss of fundamental sense of the…

  12. MES buffer affects Arabidopsis root apex zonation and root growth by suppressing superoxide generation in root apex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko eKagenishi


    Full Text Available In plants, growth of roots and root hairs is regulated by the fine cellular control of pH and reactive oxygen species. MES, 2-(N-morpholinoethanesulfonic acid as one of the Good’s buffers has broadly been used for buffering medium, and it is thought to suit for plant growth with the concentration at 0.1% (w/v because the buffer capacity of MES ranging pH 5.5-7.0 (for Arabidopsis, pH 5.8. However, many reports have shown that, in nature, roots require different pH values on the surface of specific root apex zones, namely meristem, transition zone and elongation zone. Despite the fact that roots always grow on a media containing buffer molecule, little is known about impact of MES on root growth. Here, we have checked the effects of different concentrations of MES buffer using growing roots of Arabidopsis thaliana. Our results show that 1% of MES significantly inhibited root growth, the number of root hairs and length of meristem, whereas 0.1% promoted root growth and root apex area (region spanning from the root tip up to the transition zone. Furthermore, superoxide generation in root apex disappeared at 1% of MES. These results suggest that MES disturbs normal root morphogenesis by changing the reactive oxygen species (ROS homeostasis in root apex.

  13. Magnetophoretic Induction of Root Curvature (United States)

    Hasenstein, Karl H.


    The last year of the grant period concerned the consolidation of previous experiments to ascertain that the theoretical premise apply not just to root but also to shoots. In addition, we verified that high gradient magnetic fields do not interfere with regular cellular activities. Previous results have established that: (1) intracellular magnetophoresis is possible; and (2) HGMF lead to root curvature. In order to investigate whether HGMF affect the assembly and/or organization of structural proteins, we examined the arrangement of microtubules in roots exposed to HGMF. The cytoskeletal investigations were performed with fomaldehyde-fixed, nonembedded tissue segments that were cut with a vibratome. Microtubules (MTs) were stained with rat anti-yeast tubulin (YOL 1/34) and DTAF-labeled antibody against rat IgG. Microfilaments (MFs) were visualized by incubation in rhodamine-labeled phalloidin. The distribution and arrangement of both components of the cytoskeleton were examined with a confocal microscope. Measurements of growth rates and graviresponse were done using a video-digitizer. Since HGMF repel diamagnetic substances including starch-filled amyloplasts and most The second aspect of the work includes studies of the effect of cytoskeletal inhibitors on MTs and MFs. The analysis of the effect of micotubular inhibitors on the auxin transport in roots showed that there is very little effect of MT-depolymerizing or stabilizing drugs on auxin transport. This is in line with observations that application of such drugs is not immediately affecting the graviresponsiveness of roots.

  14. Advances in experimental methods for root system architecture and root development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-bang Wang; Xiu-juan Zhang; Chu Wu


    Plant roots play important roles in acquisition of water and nutrients, storage, anchoring, transport, and symbiosis with soil microorganisms, thus quantitative researches on root developmental processes are essential to understand root functions and root turnover in ecosystems, and at the same time such researches are the most difficult because roots are hidden underground. Therefore, how to investigate efficiently root functions and root dynamics is the core aspect in underground ecology. In this article, we reviewed some experimental methods used in root resear-ches on root development and root system architecture, and summarized the advantages and shortages of these meth-ods. Based on the analyses, we proposed three new ways to more understand root processes: (1) new experimental materials for root development; (2) a new observatory system comprised of multiple components, including many observatory windows installed in field, analysis software, and automatic data transport devices; (3) new techniques used to analyze quantitatively functional roots.

  15. Coloration of the Chilean Bellflower, Nolana paradoxa, interpreted with a scattering and absorbing layer stack model


    Stavenga, Doekele G; van der Kooi, Casper J.


    Main conclusion An absorbing-layer-stack model allows quantitative analysis of the light flux in flowers and the resulting reflectance spectra. It provides insight in how plants can optimize their flower coloration for attracting pollinators. The coloration of flowers is due to the combined effect of pigments and light-scattering structures. To interpret flower coloration, we applied an optical model that considers a flower as a stack of layers, where each layer can be treated with the Kubelk...

  16. Capturing Arabidopsis Root Architecture Dynamics with root-fit Reveals Diversity in Responses to Salinity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Julkowska, M.M.; Hoefsloot, H.C.J.; Mol, S.; Feron, R.; de Boer, G.J.; Haring, M.A.; Testerink, C.


    The plant root is the first organ to encounter salinity stress, but the effect of salinity on root system architecture (RSA) remains elusive. Both the reduction in main root (MR) elongation and the redistribution of the root mass between MRs and lateral roots (LRs) are likely to play crucial roles i

  17. Adventitious Roots and Secondary Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hosakatte Niranjana Murthy; Eun Joo Hahn; Kee Yoeup Paek


    Plants are a rich source of valuable secondary metabolites and in the recent years plant cell, tissue and organ cultures have been developed as an important alternative sources for the production of these compounds. Adventitious roots have been successfully induced in many plant species and cultured for the production of high value secondary metabolites of pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and industrial importance. Adoption of elicitation methods have shown improved synthesis of secondary metabolites in adventitious root cultures. Development of large-scale culture methods using bioreactors has opened up feasibilities of production of secondary metabolites at the industrial levels. In the present review we summarize the progress made in recent past in the area of adventitious root cultures for the production of secondary metabolites.

  18. Retention of Root Canal Posts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahafi, A; Benetti, Ana Raquel; Flury, S;


    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the cement film thickness of a zinc phosphate or a resin cement on retention of untreated and pretreated root canal posts. Prefabricated zirconia posts (CosmoPost: 1.4 mm) and two types of luting cements (a zinc phosphate cement [DeTrey Zinc......] and a self-etch adhesive resin cement [Panavia F2.0]) were used. After removal of the crowns of 360 extracted premolars, canines, or incisors, the root canals were prepared with a parallel-sided drill system to three different final diameters. Half the posts did not receive any pretreatment. The other half...... received tribochemical silicate coating according to the manufacturer's instructions. Posts were then luted in the prepared root canals (n=30 per group). Following water storage at 37°C for seven days, retention of the posts was determined by the pull-out method. Irrespective of the luting cement...

  19. Descendant root volume varies as a function of root type: estimation of root biomass lost during uprooting in Pinus pinaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric eDanjon


    Full Text Available Root systems of woody plants generally display a strong relationship between the cross-sectional area (CSA or cross-sectional diameter (CSD of a root and the dry weight of biomass (DWd or root volume (Vd that has grown (i.e., is descendent from that point. Specification of this relationship allows one to quantify root architectural patterns and estimate the amount of material lost when root systems are extracted from the soil. However, specifications of this relationship generally do not account for the fact that root systems are comprised of multiple types of roots. We assessed whether the relationship between CSD and Vd varies as a function of root type. Additionally, we sought to identify a more accurate and time-efficient method for estimating missing root volume than is currently available.We used a database that described the 3D root architecture of Pinus pinaster root systems (5, 12, or 19 yr from a stand. We determined the relationship between CSD and Vd for 10,000 root segments from intact root branches. Models were specified that did and did not account for root type. The relationships were then applied to the diameters of 11,000 broken root ends to estimate the volume of missing roots.CSD was nearly linearly related to the square root of Vd, but the slope of the curve varied greatly as a function of root type. Sinkers and deep roots tapered rapidly, as they were limited by available soil depth. Distal shallow roots tapered gradually, as they were less limited spatially. We estimated that younger trees lost an average of 17% of root volume when excavated, while older trees lost 4%. Missing volumes were smallest in the central parts of root systems and largest in distal shallow roots.The slopes of the curves for each root type are synthetic parameters that account for differentiation due to genetics, soil properties, or mechanical stimuli. Accounting for this differentiation is critical to estimating root loss accurately.

  20. Grass Roots War on Poverty


    Amsden, Alice H


    Sub-Saharan Africa’s failure to slay the dragon of poverty is due to a logical flaw in its policies: the remedies to reduce poverty don’t address the causes. Poverty is caused by unemployment, owing to a scarcity of jobs that pay above bare subsistence, but grass-roots poverty alleviation measures are exclusively designed to make job-seekers more capable although no jobs are available. The ‘appropriate’ technologies of the grass roots movement that dominates anti-poverty policies are ...

  1. 被动皮肤过敏性评价中阳性对照的建立%Establishment of Positive Control in Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙鸽; 李炜宾; 岳娟; 尹晶晶; 安全


    Objective: To establish an accurate and repeatable method for positive control of passive cutaneous anaphylaxis(PCA) test.Methods:30 SD rats were randomly divided into 1 negative control group( sodium chloride injection plus Freund′s adjuvant incom-plete) and 4 positive treatment groups(the positive 1 group:ovalbumin, the positive 2 group:ovalbumin plus diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus vaccine, the positive 3 group: ovalbumin plus Freund′s adjuvant incomplete, the positive 4 group: ovalbumin plus Freund′s adjuvant complete and Freund′s adjuvant incomplete ) were set in the experiment.Firstly, antiserum was prepared with 5 subcutaneous injections.Secondly, passive sensitization was conducted by intradermal injection of antiserum.After 48h, the immuno-stimulation was fol-lowed by intravenous injection of equal amount of antigen.Finally,the result was evaluated by inspecting the amount and diameter of intra-dermal blue spots.Results:The blue spot was not found in the negative control group, the positive 1 group and the positive 2 group.While both the positive 3 group and the positive 4 group produced intradermal blue spots.The average diameter of blue spots of the 1∶2 and 1∶8 antiserum dilution injection was larger than 5 mm.Conclusion:In PCA test, by using different sensitive treatment, we found that sensi-tization with Freund′s adjuvant could carry out 100%positive results.It is an accurate and reliable method for establishment of positive control in PCA test.%目的:建立被动皮肤过敏性试验中准确且具可重复的阳性对照。方法:30只SD雄性大鼠随机分为1个阴性对照组(氯化钠注射液+弗氏不完全佐剂)和4个阳性处理组(阳性1组:卵白蛋白,阳性2组:卵白蛋白+百白破疫苗,阳性3组:卵白蛋白+弗氏不完全佐剂,阳性4组:卵白蛋白+弗氏完全佐剂及弗氏不完全佐剂),分别致敏5次制备抗血清,通过皮内注射被动致敏、48 h后激发,以

  2. Root growth, secondary root formation and root gravitropism in carotenoid-deficient seedlings of Zea mays L (United States)

    Ng, Y. K.; Moore, R.


    The effect of ABA on root growth, secondary-root formation and root gravitropism in seedlings of Zea mays was investigated by using Fluridone-treated seedlings and a viviparous mutant, both of which lack carotenoids and ABA. Primary roots of seedlings grown in the presence of Fluridone grew significantly slower than those of control (i.e. untreated) roots. Elongation of Fluridone-treated roots was inhibited significantly by the exogenous application of 1 mM ABA. Exogenous application of 1 micromole and 1 nmole ABA had either no effect or only a slight stimulatory effect on root elongation, depending on the method of application. The absence of ABA in Fluridone-treated plants was not an important factor in secondary-root formation in seedlings less than 9-10 d old. However, ABA may suppress secondary-root formation in older seedlings, since 11-d-old control seedlings had significantly fewer secondary roots than Fluridone-treated seedlings. Roots of Fluridone-treated and control seedlings were graviresponsive. Similar data were obtained for vp-9 mutants of Z. mays, which are phenotypically identical to Fluridone-treated seedlings. These results indicate that ABA is necessary for neither secondary-root formation nor for positive gravitropism by primary roots.

  3. Four cuspal maxillary second premolar with single root and three root canals: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Bansal


    Full Text Available Traditional configuration of maxillary second premolars has been described to have two cusps, one root and one or two root canals. The endodontic literature reports considerable anatomic aberrations in the root canal morphology of maxillary second premolar but the literature available on the variation in cuspal anatomy and its relationship to the root canal anatomy is sparse. The purpose of this clinical report was to describe the root and root canal configuration of a maxillary second premolar with four cusps.

  4. The Roots of School Leadership. (United States)

    Sergiovanni, Thomas J.


    The Pyramid, Railroad, and High Performance theories of leadership are inappropriate for school settings. At root, school leadership is about connecting people morally to each other and to their work. The work of leadership involves developing shared purposes, beliefs, values, and conceptions associated with teaching and learning,…

  5. Cutting the Roots of Violence. (United States)

    Koziey, Paul W.


    Violence is rooted in obedience to authority and in comparisons--foundations of our institutions of parenting and schooling. Obedience brings reward and punishment, comparison perpetuates a cycle of competition and conflict. Television violence is especially harmful because children easily understand visual images. The Reality Research approach to…

  6. Disease notes - Bacterial root rot (United States)

    Bacterial root rot initiated by lactic acid bacteria, particularly Leuconostoc, occurs every year in Idaho sugarbeet fields. Hot fall weather seems to make the problem worse. Although Leuconostoc initiates the rot, other bacteria and yeast frequently invade the tissue as well. The acetic acid bac...

  7. [Effects nutrients on the seedlings root hair development and root growth of Poncirus trifoliata under hydroponics condition]. (United States)

    Cao, Xiu; Xia, Ren-Xue; Zhang, De-Jian; Shu, Bo


    Ahydroponics experiment was conducted to study the effects of nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, and Mn) deficiency on the length of primary root, the number of lateral roots, and the root hair density, length, and diameter on the primary root and lateral roots of Poncirus trifoliata seedlings. Under the deficiency of each test nutrient, root hair could generate, but was mainly concentrated on the root base and fewer on the root tip. The root hair density on lateral roots was significantly larger than that on primary root, but the root hair length was in adverse. The deficiency of each test nutrient had greater effects on the growth and development of root hairs, with the root hair density on primary root varied from 55.0 to 174.3 mm(-2). As compared with the control, Ca deficiency induced the significant increase of root hair density and length on primary root, P deficiency promoted the root hair density and length on the base and middle part of primary root and on the lateral roots significantly, Fe deficiency increased the root hair density but decreased the root hair length on the tip of primary root significantly, K deficiency significantly decreased the root hair density, length, and diameter on primary root and lateral roots, whereas Mg deficiency increased the root hair length of primary root significantly. In all treatments of nutrient deficiency, the primary root had the similar growth rate, but, with the exceptions of N and Mg deficiency, the lateral roots exhibited shedding and regeneration.

  8. Characterizing pathways by which gravitropic effectors could move from the root cap to the root of primary roots of Zea mays (United States)

    Moore, R.; McClelen, C. E.


    Plasmodesmata linking the root cap and root in primary roots Zea mays are restricted to approx. 400 protodermal cells bordering approx. 110000 microns2 of the calyptrogen of the root cap. This area is less than 10% of the cross-sectional area of the root-tip at the cap junction. Therefore, gravitropic effectors moving from the root cap to the root can move symplastically only through a relatively small area in the centre of the root. Decapped roots are non-responsive to gravity. However, decapped roots whose caps are replaced immediately after decapping are strongly graviresponsive. Thus, gravicurvature occurs only when the root cap contacts the root, and symplastic continuity between the cap and root is not required for gravicurvature. Completely removing mucilage from the root tip renders the root non-responsive to gravity. Taken together, these data suggest that gravitropic effectors move apoplastically through mucilage from the cap to the root.

  9. Dynamics of heterorhizic root systems: protoxylem groups within the fine-root system of Chamaecyparis obtusa. (United States)

    Hishi, Takuo; Takeda, Hiroshi


    To understand the physiology of fine-root functions in relation to soil organic sources, the heterogeneity of individual root functions within a fine-root system requires investigation. Here the heterogeneous dynamics within fine-root systems are reported. The fine roots of Chamaecyparis obtusa were sampled using a sequential ingrowth core method over 2 yr. After color categorization, roots were classified into protoxylem groups from anatomical observations. The root lengths with diarch and triarch groups fluctuated seasonally, whereas the tetrarch root length increased. The percentage of secondary root mortality to total mortality increased with increasing amounts of protoxylem. The carbon : nitrogen ratio indicated that the decomposability of primary roots might be greater than that of secondary roots. The position of diarch roots was mostly apical, whereas tetrarch roots tended to be distributed in basal positions within the root architecture. We demonstrate the heterogeneous dynamics within a fine-root system of C. obtusa. Fine-root heterogeneity should affect soil C dynamics. This heterogeneity is determined by the branching position within the root architecture.

  10. Meromorphic iterative roots of linear fractional functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI YongGuo; CHEN Li


    Iterative root problem can be regarded as a weak version of the problem of embedding a homeomorphism into a flow. There are many results on iterative roots of monotone functions. However, this problem gets more difficult in non-monotone cases. Therefore, it is interesting to find iterative roots of linear fractional functions (abbreviated as LFFs), a class of non-monotone functions on R. In this paper, iterative roots of LFFs are studied on C. An equivalence between the iterative functional equation for non-constant LFFs and the matrix equation is given. By means of a method of finding matrix roots, general formulae of all meromorphic iterative roots of LFFs are obtained and the precise number of roots is also determined in various cases. As applications, we present all meromorphic iterative roots for functions z and 1/z.

  11. Single-rooted primary first mandibular molar


    Haridoss, SelvaKumar; Swaminathan, Kavitha; Rajendran, Vijayakumar; Rajendran, Bharathan


    Morphological variations like single-rooted molar in primary dentition are scarce. Understanding the root canal anatomy and variations is necessary for successful root canal therapy. The purpose of the present article is to report successful endodontic treatment of primary left mandibular first molar with an abnormal morphology of a single root. This case report highlights the importance of knowledge and its applications in the management of anomalous anatomic variants which play a crucial ro...

  12. The rhizosphere revisited: root microbiomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A.H.M. Bakker


    Full Text Available The rhizosphere was defined over 100 years ago as the zone around the root where microorganisms and processes important for plant growth and health are located. Recent studies show that the diversity of microorganisms associated with the root system is enormous. This rhizosphere microbiome extends the functional repertoire of the plant beyond imagination. The rhizosphere microbiome of Arabidopsis thaliana is currently being studied for the obvious reason that it allows the use of the extensive toolbox that comes with this model plant. Deciphering plant traits that drive selection and activities of the microbiome is now a major challenge in which Arabidopsis will undoubtedly be a major research object. Here we review recent microbiome studies and discuss future research directions and applicability of the generated knowledge

  13. Automatic Schema Evolution in Root

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ReneBrun; FonsRademakers


    ROOT version 3(spring 2001) supports automatic class schema evolution.In addition this version also produces files that are self-describing.This is achieved by storing in each file a record with the description of all the persistent classes in the file.Being self-describing guarantees that a file can always be read later,its structure browsed and objects inspected.also when the library with the compiled code of these classes is missing The schema evolution mechanism supports the frequent case when multiple data sets generated with many different class versions must be analyzed in the same session.ROOT supports the automatic generation of C++ code describing the data objects in a file.

  14. Doubling bialgebras of rooted trees (United States)

    Mohamed, Mohamed Belhaj; Manchon, Dominique


    The vector space spanned by rooted forests admits two graded bialgebra structures. The first is defined by Connes and Kreimer using admissible cuts, and the second is defined by Calaque, Ebrahimi-Fard and the second author using contraction of trees. In this article, we define the doubling of these two spaces. We construct two bialgebra structures on these spaces which are in interaction, as well as two related associative products obtained by dualization. We also show that these two bialgebras verify a commutative diagram similar to the diagram verified Calaque, Ebrahimi-Fard and the second author in the case of rooted trees Hopf algebra, and by the second author in the case of cycle-free oriented graphs.

  15. Rooting of microcuttings: Theory and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerk, de G.J.M.


    Poor adventitious root formation is a major obstacle in micropropagation and in conventional propagation. This paper reviews recent progress in the understanding of adventitious root formation as a developmental process focusing on the role of plant hormones and on the effect of rooting conditions o

  16. Counting Rooted Nearly 2-regular Planar Maps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝荣霞; 蔡俊亮


    The number of rooted nearly 2-regular maps with the valency of rootvertex, the number of non-rooted vertices and the valency of root-face as three parameters is obtained. Furthermore, the explicit expressions of the special cases including loopless nearly 2-regular maps and simple nearly 2-regular maps in terms of the above three parameters are derived.

  17. Facilitative root interactions in intercrops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, H.; Jensen, E.S.


    Facilitation takes place when plants ameliorate the environment of their neighbours, and increase their growth and survival. Facilitation occurs in natural ecosystems as well as in agroecosystems. We discuss examples of facilitative root interactions in intercropped agroecosystems; including...... intensified cropping systems using chemical and mechanical inputs also show that facilitative interactions definitely can be of significance. It is concluded that a better understanding of the mechanisms behind facilitative interactions may allow us to benefit more from these phenomena in agriculture...

  18. Archimedes' calculations of square roots

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, E B


    We reconsider Archimedes' evaluations of several square roots in 'Measurement of a Circle'. We show that several methods proposed over the last century or so for his evaluations fail one or more criteria of plausibility. We also provide internal evidence that he probably used an interpolation technique. The conclusions are relevant to the precise calculations by which he obtained upper and lower bounds on pi.

  19. Evaluation of bacterial leakage of four root- end filling materials: Gray Pro Root MTA, White Pro Root MTA, Root MTA and Portland Cement (type I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarabian M.


    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Today several materials have been used for root- end filling in endodontic surgery. Optimal properties of Pro Root MTA in in-vitro and in-vivo studies has been proven. On the other hand, based on some studies, Root MTA (Iranian Pro Root MTA and Portland cement are similar to Pro Root MTA in physical and biologic properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate bacterial leakage (amount and mean leakage time of four root- end filling materials. Materials and Methods: In this experimental in-vitro study, seventy six extracted single- rooted human teeth were randomly divided into six groups for root-end filling with gray Pro Root MTA, white Pro Root MTA, Root MTA (Iranian Pro Root MTA, Portland Cement (type I and positive and negative control groups. Root canals were instrumented using the step- back technique. Root- end filling materials were placed in 3mm ultra sonic retro preparations. Samples and microleakage model system were sterilized in autoclave. The apical 3-4 mm of the roots were immersed in phenol red with 3% lactose broth culture medium. The coronal access of each specimen was inoculated every 24h with a suspension of Streptococcus sanguis (ATCC 10556. Culture media were observed every 24h for colour change indicating bacterial contamination for 60 days. Statistical analysis was performed using log- rank test with P<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: At the end of study 50%, 56.25%, 56.25% and 50% of specimens filled with Gray Pro Root MTA, White Pro Root MTA. Root MTA and Portland Cement (type I had evidence of leakage respectively. The mean leakage time was 37.19±6.29, 36.44±5.81, 37.69±5.97 and 34.81±6.67 days respectively. Statistical analysis of data showed no significant difference among the leakage (amount and mean leakage time of the four tested root- end filling materials (P=0.9958. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, there were no significant differences in leakage among the four

  20. Printing Values In Interactive ROOT

    CERN Document Server

    Perovic, Boris


    This project report summarizes the work I have been performing during the past twelve weeks as a Summer Student intern working on ROOT project in the SFT group, PH department, under the supervision of Axel Naumann and Danilo Piparo. One of the widely requested features for ROOT was improved interactive shell experience as well as improved printing of object values. Solving this issue was the goal of this project. Primarily, we have enabled printing of the collections. Secondly, we have unified the printing interface, making it much more robust and extendible. Thirdly, we have implemented printing of nested collections in a flexible and user-friendly manner. Finally, we have added an interactive mode, allowing for paginated output. At the beginning of the report, ROOT is presented with examples of where it is used and how important it is. Then, the motivation behind the project is elaborated, by presenting the previous state of the software package and its potential for improvement. Further, the process in wh...

  1. ROOT Status and Future Developments

    CERN Document Server

    Brun, R; Canal, P; Rademakers, Fons; Goto, Masaharu; Canal, Philippe; Brun, Rene


    In this talk we will review the major additions and improvements made to the ROOT system in the last 18 months and present our plans for future developments. The additons and improvements range from modifications to the I/O sub-system to allow users to save and restore objects of classes that have not been instrumented by special ROOT macros, to the addition of a geometry package designed for building, browsing, tracking and visualizing detector geometries. Other improvements include enhancements to the quick analysis sub-system (TTree::Draw()), the addition of classes that allow inter-file object references (TRef, TRefArray), better support for templated and STL classes, amelioration of the Automatic Script Compiler and the incorporation of new fitting and mathematical tools. Efforts have also been made to increase the modularity of the ROOT system with the introduction of more abstract interfaces and the development of a plug-in manager. In the near future, we intend to continue the development of PROOF and...

  2. Phene synergism between root hair length and basal root growth angle for phosphorus acquisition. (United States)

    Miguel, Magalhaes Amade; Postma, Johannes Auke; Lynch, Jonathan Paul


    Shallow basal root growth angle (BRGA) increases phosphorus acquisition efficiency by enhancing topsoil foraging because in most soils, phosphorus is concentrated in the topsoil. Root hair length and density (RHL/D) increase phosphorus acquisition by expanding the soil volume subject to phosphorus depletion through diffusion. We hypothesized that shallow BRGA and large RHL/D are synergetic for phosphorus acquisition, meaning that their combined effect is greater than the sum of their individual effects. To evaluate this hypothesis, phosphorus acquisition in the field in Mozambique was compared among recombinant inbred lines of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) having four distinct root phenotypes: long root hairs and shallow basal roots, long root hairs and deep basal roots, short root hairs and shallow basal roots, and short root hairs and deep basal roots. The results revealed substantial synergism between BRGA and RHL/D. Compared with short-haired, deep-rooted phenotypes, long root hairs increased shoot biomass under phosphorus stress by 89%, while shallow roots increased shoot biomass by 58%. Genotypes with both long root hairs and shallow roots had 298% greater biomass accumulation than short-haired, deep-rooted phenotypes. Therefore, the utility of shallow basal roots and long root hairs for phosphorus acquisition in combination is twice as large as their additive effects. We conclude that the anatomical phene of long, dense root hairs and the architectural phene of shallower basal root growth are synergetic for phosphorus acquisition. Phene synergism may be common in plant biology and can have substantial importance for plant fitness, as shown here.

  3. The quality of root fillings remaining in mandibular incisors after root-end cavity preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, MK; de Schwartz, FBC; van der Sluis, LWM; Wesselink, PR


    Aim The aim of this study was to determine the quality of root fillings remaining in mandibular incisors after root-end resection and root-end cavity preparation. Methodology Roots of 40 mandibular incisors. 12 mm in length. were divided into two groups and instrumented using a balanced force techni

  4. Using coloured roots to study root interaction and competition in intercropped legumes and non-legumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosti, Giacomo; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian


    if a species with coloured roots can be used to examine the interaction in a legume-non-legume intercropping system; (ii) to verify the importance of initial root growth on the successive root development of mixture component plants; (iii) to test if the root interaction in the shallow layers has consequences...

  5. Clinical Case Study on Anaphylaxis Induced by Red Meat Ingestion%红肉诱发严重过敏反应的临床病例研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    利平; 周俊雄; 尹佳; 李宏; 孙毅; 孙劲旅; 王瑞琦


    pork,innards were performed,based on western blotting by using sera from case 1 and a healthy control to observe the features ofspecificbindingcharacteristics.Results Thetwocases(case1female/57yrs,case2male/44yrs)are both farmers who live in the suburb of Beijing,manifested with anaphylactic reactions three to six hours after red meat ingestion. Serum specific IgE and skin test results to multiple mammalian proteins were positive. Specific IgE to galactose-α-1 ,3-galactose were positive in the two patients (>100 kU/L in case 1 and 6. 00 kU/L in case 2 ).Case 1 reported a history of tick biting with large regional reactions 2-3 weeks before anaphylaxis. The ticks on her dog were captured and authenticated as hematophagous ixodidae. Case 2 did not report history of tick bites. The increased concentration of IgE reactive epitopes in mammalian organs wasconfirmedbyusingwesternblottingwithserumofcase1.Conclusions Ingestionofredmeatcan induce severe and sometimes life-threatening clinical manifestations,which might be induced by tick bite. This issue should arouse concerns both in public and doctors. Patients with red meat allergy should avoid intake of meat as well as innards of non-primate mammalian.

  6. Light as stress factor to plant roots - case of root halotropism. (United States)

    Yokawa, Ken; Fasano, Rossella; Kagenishi, Tomoko; Baluška, František


    Despite growing underground, largely in darkness, roots emerge to be very sensitive to light. Recently, several important papers have been published which reveal that plant roots not only express all known light receptors but also that their growth, physiology and adaptive stress responses are light-sensitive. In Arabidopsis, illumination of roots speeds-up root growth via reactive oxygen species-mediated and F-actin dependent process. On the other hand, keeping Arabidopsis roots in darkness alters F-actin distribution, polar localization of PIN proteins as well as polar transport of auxin. Several signaling components activated by phytohormones are overlapping with light-related signaling cascade. We demonstrated that the sensitivity of roots to salinity is altered in the light-grown Arabidopsis roots. Particularly, light-exposed roots are less effective in their salt-avoidance behavior known as root halotropism. Here we discuss these new aspects of light-mediated root behavior from cellular, physiological and evolutionary perspectives.

  7. Asteroidal Quadruples in non Rooted Path Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutierrez Marisa


    Full Text Available A directed path graph is the intersection graph of a family of directed subpaths of a directed tree. A rooted path graph is the intersection graph of a family of directed subpaths of a rooted tree. Rooted path graphs are directed path graphs. Several characterizations are known for directed path graphs: one by forbidden induced subgraphs and one by forbidden asteroids. It is an open problem to find such characterizations for rooted path graphs. For this purpose, we are studying in this paper directed path graphs that are non rooted path graphs. We prove that such graphs always contain an asteroidal quadruple.

  8. Fate of HERS during Tooth Root Development


    HUANG, XIAOFENG; BRINGAS, PABLO; Slavkin, Harold C.; Chai, Yang


    Tooth root development begins after the completion of crown formation in mammals. Previous studies have shown that Hertwig's epithelial root sheath (HERS) plays an important role in root development, but the fate of HERS has remained unknown. In order to investigate the morphological fate and analyze the dynamic movement of HERS cells in vivo, we generated K14-Cre;R26R mice. HERS cells are detectable on the surface of the root throughout root formation and do not disappear. Most of the HERS c...

  9. Penis-root perception of Koro patients. (United States)

    Chowdhury, A N


    Koro is an acute anxiety reaction in which the perception of decreased penis length because of intra-abdominal traction is the main feature. This study attempts to explore the penis-root perception of the Koro patients by a graphomotor projective test--the Draw-a-penis Test (DAPT). This controlled DAPT investigation shows that Koro patients perceived the penis as a detached organ with root-boundary definiteness as evidenced from their close penis-root perception. They also displayed reduced volumetric perception of penis-root than the normal subjects. These perceptual deviations in penis-root image are discussed in relation to their Koro vulnerability.

  10. Optimal root arrangement of cereal crops (United States)

    Jung, Yeonsu; Park, Keunhwan; Kim, Ho-Young


    The plant root absorbs water from the soil and supplies it to the rest part of the plant. It consists of a number of root fibers, through whose surfaces water uptake occurs. There is an intriguing observation that for most of cereal crops such as maize and wheat, the volume density of root in the soil declines exponentially as a function of depth. To understand this empirical finding, we construct a theoretical model of root water uptake, where mass transfer into root surface is modeled just as heat flux around a fin. Agreement between the theoretically predicted optimal root distribution in vertical direction and biological data supports the hypothesis that the plant root has evolved to achieve the optimal water uptake in competition with neighbors. This study has practical implication in the agricultural industry as well as optimal design of water transport networks in both micro- and macroscales. Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.

  11. Effects of fine root length density and root biomass on soil preferential flow in forest ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghu Zhang


    Full Text Available Aim of study: The study was conducted to characterize the impacts of plant roots systems (e.g., root length density and root biomass on soil preferential flow in forest ecosystems. Area of study: The study was carried out in Jiufeng National Forest Park, Beijing, China. Material and methods: The flow patterns were measured by field dye tracing experiments. Different species (Sophora japonica Linn,Platycladus orientalis Franco, Quercus dentata Thunbwere quantified in two replicates, and 12 soil depth were applied. Plant roots were sampled in the sieving methods. Root length density and root biomass were measured by WinRHIZO. Dye coverage was implied in the image analysis, and maximum depth of dye infiltration by direct measurement. Main results: Root length density and root biomass decreased with the increasing distance from soil surface, and root length density was 81.6% higher in preferential pathways than in soil matrix, and 66.7% for root biomass with respect to all experimental plots. Plant roots were densely distributed in the upper soil layers. Dye coverage was almost 100% in the upper 5-10 cm, but then decreased rapidly with soil depth. Root length density and root biomass were different from species: Platycladus orientalis Franco > Quercus dentata Thunb > Sophora japonica Linn. Research highlights: The results indicated that fine roots systems had strong effects on soil preferential flow, particularly root channels enhancing nutrition transport across soil profiles in forest dynamics.

  12. Root cap removal increases root penetration resistance in maize (Zea mays L). (United States)

    Iijima, Morio; Higuchi, Toshifumi; Barlow, Peter W; Bengough, A Glyn


    The root cap assists the passage of the root through soil by means of its slimy mucilage secretion and by the sloughing of its outer cells. The root penetration resistance of decapped primary roots of maize (Zea mays L. cv. Mephisto) was compared with that of intact roots in loose (dry bulk density 1.0 g cm-3; penetration resistance 0.06 MPa) and compact soil (1.4 g cm-3; penetration resistance 1.0 MPa), to evaluate the contribution of the cap to decreasing the impedance to root growth. Root elongation rate and diameter were the same for decapped and intact roots when the plants were grown in loose soil. In compacted soil, however, the elongation rate of decapped roots was only about half that of intact roots, whilst the diameter was 30% larger. Root penetration resistances of intact and decapped seminal axis were 0.31 and 0.52 MPa, respectively, when the roots were grown in compacted soil. These results indicated that the presence of a root cap alleviates much of the mechanical impedance to root penetration, and enables roots to grow faster in compacted soils.

  13. Hydraulic responses of whole vines and individual roots of kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) following root severance. (United States)

    Black, Marykate Z; Patterson, Kevin J; Minchin, Peter E H; Gould, Kevin S; Clearwater, Michael J


    Whole vine (K(plant)) and individual root (K(root)) hydraulic conductances were measured in kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis Planch. var. chinensis 'Hort16A') vines to observe hydraulic responses following partial root system excision. Heat dissipation and compensation heat pulse techniques were used to measure sap flow in trunks and individual roots, respectively. Sap flux and measurements of xylem pressure potential (Ψ) were used to calculate K(plant) and K(root) in vines with zero and ∼80% of roots severed. Whole vine transpiration (E), Ψ and K(plant) were significantly reduced within 24 h of root pruning, and did not recover within 6 weeks. Sap flux in intact roots increased within 24 h of root pruning, driven by an increase in the pressure gradient between the soil and canopy and without any change in root hydraulic conductance. Photosynthesis (A) and stomatal conductance (g(s)) were reduced, without significant effects on leaf internal CO(2) concentration (c(i)). Shoot growth rates were maintained; fruit growth and dry matter content were increased following pruning. The woody roots of kiwifruit did not demonstrate a rapid dynamic response to root system damage as has been observed previously in monocot seedlings. Increased sap flux in intact roots with no change in K(root) and only a moderate decline in shoot A suggests that under normal growing conditions root hydraulic conductance greatly exceeds requirements for adequate shoot hydration.

  14. Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis: case report and review of literature%食物依赖运动诱发性过敏反应一例并文献复习

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆新林; 余洁; 高占成


    Objective Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA) is a kind of food allergic disorder induced by physical exercise. Some FDEIA patients presented severe symptoms which were threat to life. The aim of the article was to improve the recognition of FDEIA among physicians. Methods The clinical data of a patient with FDEIA in our hospital was collected and analyzed, and current related literatures were reviewed. Results An eighteen year-old male was admitted to our hospital because of repeated episodes of urticaria, dyspnea and loss of consciousness for eight months. Each episode was induced by exercise after ingestion of wheat-made food. Symptoms were relieved rapidly by treatment with adrenaline, antihistamines, and/or dexamethasone. Assay of food-specific IgE in serum of the patient showed positive result for shrimp and crab. However, no anaphylaxis was related to the suspected food. Wheat-exercise challenge test showed positive result in the patient, which confirmed the diagnosis of FDEIA. Since then, the patient had avoided wheat food for more than one year, during which period no episode of anaphylaxis was observed, until one day the patient exercised after a diet of wheat food. Conclusions The incidence of FDEIA was rare. Wheat is the common causative food. Food-exercise challenge test is a reliable method for diagnosis of FDEIA. Avoidance of exercise for 4h after eating causative food might be helpful to prevent the occurrence of symptoms in many FDEIA cases. Dietary elimination of causative food ingredients was a reliable method for prophylaxis of FDEIA.%目的 提高临床医师对食物依赖运动诱发性过敏反应(FDEIA)的认识.方法 2007年12月至2009年10月通过对1例FDEIA患者的诊断、治疗经过以及随访结果的分析,结合文献复习,详细阐述该病的病冈、临床表现、诊断方法、治疗及预防方法.结果 患者男,18岁,反复出现荨麻疹、呼吸困难及意识障碍8个月,每次发作均是在进

  15. Patterns in soil fertility and root herbivory interact to influence fine-root dynamics. (United States)

    Stevens, Glen N; Jones, Robert H


    Fine-scale soil nutrient enrichment typically stimulates root growth, but it may also increase root herbivory, resulting in trade-offs for plant species and potentially influencing carbon cycling patterns. We used root ingrowth cores to investigate the effects of microsite fertility and root herbivory on root biomass in an aggrading upland forest in the coastal plain of South Carolina, USA. Treatments were randomly assigned to cores from a factorial combination of fertilizer and insecticide. Soil, soil fauna, and roots were removed from the cores at the end of the experiment (8-9 mo), and roots were separated at harvest into three diameter classes. Each diameter class responded differently to fertilizer and insecticide treatments. The finest roots (root biomass, were the only ones to respond significantly to both treatments, increasing when fertilizer and when insecticide were added (each P root-feeding insects have a strong influence on root standing crop with stronger herbivore impacts on finer roots and within more fertile microsites. Thus, increased vulnerability to root herbivory is a potentially significant cost of root foraging in nutrient-rich patches.

  16. Inhibition of auxin movement from the shoot into the root inhibits lateral root development in Arabidopsis (United States)

    Reed, R. C.; Brady, S. R.; Muday, G. K.


    In roots two distinct polar movements of auxin have been reported that may control different developmental and growth events. To test the hypothesis that auxin derived from the shoot and transported toward the root controls lateral root development, the two polarities of auxin transport were uncoupled in Arabidopsis. Local application of the auxin-transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) at the root-shoot junction decreased the number and density of lateral roots and reduced the free indoleacetic acid (IAA) levels in the root and [3H]IAA transport into the root. Application of NPA to the basal half of or at several positions along the root only reduced lateral root density in regions that were in contact with NPA or in regions apical to the site of application. Lateral root development was restored by application of IAA apical to NPA application. Lateral root development in Arabidopsis roots was also inhibited by excision of the shoot or dark growth and this inhibition was reversible by IAA. Together, these results are consistent with auxin transport from the shoot into the root controlling lateral root development.

  17. A statistical approach to root system classification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gernot eBodner


    Full Text Available Plant root systems have a key role in ecology and agronomy. In spite of fast increase in root studies, still there is no classification that allows distinguishing among distinctive characteristics within the diversity of rooting strategies. Our hypothesis is that a multivariate approach for plant functional type identification in ecology can be applied to the classification of root systems. We demonstrate that combining principal component and cluster analysis yields a meaningful classification of rooting types based on morphological traits. The classification method presented is based on a data-defined statistical procedure without a priori decision on the classifiers. Biplot inspection is used to determine key traits and to ensure stability in cluster based grouping. The classification method is exemplified with simulated root architectures and morphological field data. Simulated root architectures showed that morphological attributes with spatial distribution parameters capture most distinctive features within root system diversity. While developmental type (tap vs. shoot-borne systems is a strong, but coarse classifier, topological traits provide the most detailed differentiation among distinctive groups. Adequacy of commonly available morphologic traits for classification is supported by field data. Three rooting types emerged from measured data, distinguished by diameter/weight, density and spatial distribution respectively. Similarity of root systems within distinctive groups was the joint result of phylogenetic relation and environmental as well as human selection pressure. We concluded that the data-define classification is appropriate for integration of knowledge obtained with different root measurement methods and at various scales. Currently root morphology is the most promising basis for classification due to widely used common measurement protocols. To capture details of root diversity efforts in architectural measurement

  18. A statistical approach to root system classification. (United States)

    Bodner, Gernot; Leitner, Daniel; Nakhforoosh, Alireza; Sobotik, Monika; Moder, Karl; Kaul, Hans-Peter


    Plant root systems have a key role in ecology and agronomy. In spite of fast increase in root studies, still there is no classification that allows distinguishing among distinctive characteristics within the diversity of rooting strategies. Our hypothesis is that a multivariate approach for "plant functional type" identification in ecology can be applied to the classification of root systems. The classification method presented is based on a data-defined statistical procedure without a priori decision on the classifiers. The study demonstrates that principal component based rooting types provide efficient and meaningful multi-trait classifiers. The classification method is exemplified with simulated root architectures and morphological field data. Simulated root architectures showed that morphological attributes with spatial distribution parameters capture most distinctive features within root system diversity. While developmental type (tap vs. shoot-borne systems) is a strong, but coarse classifier, topological traits provide the most detailed differentiation among distinctive groups. Adequacy of commonly available morphologic traits for classification is supported by field data. Rooting types emerging from measured data, mainly distinguished by diameter/weight and density dominated types. Similarity of root systems within distinctive groups was the joint result of phylogenetic relation and environmental as well as human selection pressure. We concluded that the data-define classification is appropriate for integration of knowledge obtained with different root measurement methods and at various scales. Currently root morphology is the most promising basis for classification due to widely used common measurement protocols. To capture details of root diversity efforts in architectural measurement techniques are essential.

  19. Towards understanding tree root profiles: simulating hydrologically optimal strategies for root distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. van Wijk


    Full Text Available In this modelling study differences in vertical root distributions measured in four contrasting forest locations in the Netherlands were investigated. Root distributions are seen as a reflection of the plant’s optimisation strategy, based on hydrological grounds. The 'optimal' root distribution is defined as the one that maximises the water uptake from the root zone over a period of ten years. The optimal root distributions of four forest locations with completely different soil physical characteristics are calculated using the soil hydrological model SWIF. Two different model configurations for root interactions were tested: the standard model configuration in which one single root profile was used (SWIF-NC, and a model configuration in which two root profiles compete for the same available water (SWIF-C. The root profiles were parameterised with genetic algorithms. The fitness of a certain root profile was defined as the amount of water uptake over a simulation period of ten years. The root profiles of SWIF-C were optimised using an evolutionary game. The results showed clear differences in optimal root distributions between the various sites and also between the two model configurations. Optimisation with SWIF-C resulted in root profiles that were easier to interpret in terms of feasible biological strategies. Preferential water uptake in wetter soil regions was an important factor for interpretation of the simulated root distributions. As the optimised root profiles still showed differences with measured profiles, this analysis is presented, not as the final solution for explaining differences in root profiles of vegetation but as a first step using an optimisation theory to increase understanding of the root profiles of trees. Keywords: forest hydrology, optimisation, roots

  20. Root canal treatment of bilateral three-rooted maxillary first premolars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavana Gandhi


    Full Text Available In endodontics, several anatomic variations occur in teeth, both externally and in the internal root morphology, which play a very significant role in the diagnosis and treatment outcome. A thorough knowledge of the root canal anatomy, careful interpretation of the angled radiographs, proper endodontic access cavity preparation, and exploration of the root canal are the prerequisites for endodontic success. In a maxillary first premolar, it is rare to find extra roots and canals, and the aim of the present article is to report a case about the successful diagnosis and clinical management of bilateral three-rooted maxillary first premolars, with three independent root canals.

  1. Winter Wheat Root Growth and Nitrogen Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Irene Skovby

    Root growth is an essential parameter regarding nitrogen (N) uptake efficiency, as more and deeper roots may improve the uptake from deeper soil layers and reduce nitrate leaching losses. During this PhD project, it was studied how different agronomic practices influence root growth and N relations...... in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L). Field experiments on the effect of sowing date, N fertilization and cultivars were conducted on a sandy loam soil in Taastrup, Denmark. The root studies were conducted by means of the minirhizotron method. Also, a field experiment on the effect of defoliation and N...... fertilization was conducted in Canberra, Australia. Here the root studies were done by means of the core-break method and root washing....

  2. Systems approaches to study root architecture dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candela eCuesta


    Full Text Available The plant root system is essential for providing anchorage to the soil, supplying minerals and water, and synthesizing metabolites. It is a dynamic organ modulated by external cues such as environmental signals, water and nutrients availability, salinity and others. Lateral roots are initiated from the primary root post-embryonically, after which they progress through discrete developmental stages which can be independently controlled, providing a high level of plasticity during root system formation.Within this review, main contributions are presented, from the classical forward genetic screens to the more recent high-throughput approaches, combined with computer model predictions, dissecting how lateral roots and thereby root system architecture is established and developed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Kruger


    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The “roots” of Industrial Engineering are certainly extensive, diverse and deep. Similarly, there are numerous historical “heroes” that made significant contributions to the development of the Industrial Engineering discipline. For the sake of argument, this article will assume that Industrial Engineering has at least two identifiable main roots, namely Determinism and Stochastism. The article attempts to trace the early history1 of the stochastic root which is very closely linked to the history of probability and statistics and hence games of chance, gambling and divinity. Therefore, the life and times, contributions and personalities of some of the heroes and villains, champions and sad cases of the stochastic world, will be briefly discussed in a somewhat light-hearted, but not necessarily flippant, manner.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die “wortel en tak” van Bedryfsingenieurswese is sekerlik van groot omvang, van diverse aard en diep gesetel. Verskeie historiese “helde” het betekenisvolle bydraes gemaak tot die ontwikkeling van die Bedryfsingenieurswesevakgebied. Ter wille van betoogvoering sal in hierdie artikel aanvaar word dat Bedryfsingenieurswese uit minstens twee identifiseerbare sub-vakgebiede bestaan naamlik : Die Determinisme en die Stogasme. ’n Poging word aangewend om die vroeë geskiedenis van die stogasme na te speur wat op sy beurt aaneengesnoer is met die geskiedenis van die waarskynlikheidsleer en statistiek en dus toevalspelle, dobbelary en wiggelary. Die lewenswyse, tydsgewrig, bydraes en persoonlikheidseienskappe van ’n aantal helde en skurke, kampioene en prulle van die stogastiese wêreld word kortliks bespreek, op ’n ietwat lighartige maar nie noodwendig ligsinnige wyse.

  4. Root phenology in a changing climate. (United States)

    Radville, Laura; McCormack, M Luke; Post, Eric; Eissenstat, David M


    Plant phenology is one of the strongest indicators of ecological responses to climate change, and altered phenology can have pronounced effects on net primary production, species composition in local communities, greenhouse gas fluxes, and ecosystem processes. Although many studies have shown that aboveground plant phenology advances with warmer temperatures, demonstration of a comparable association for belowground phenology has been lacking because the factors that influence root phenology are poorly understood. Because roots can constitute a large fraction of plant biomass, and root phenology may not respond to warming in the same way as shoots, this represents an important knowledge gap in our understanding of how climate change will influence phenology and plant performance. We review studies of root phenology and provide suggestions to direct future research. Only 29% of examined studies approached root phenology quantitatively, strongly limiting interpretation of results across studies. Therefore, we suggest that researchers emphasize quantitative analyses in future phenological studies. We suggest that root initiation, peak growth, and root cessation may be under different controls. Root initiation and cessation may be more constrained by soil temperature and the timing of carbon availability, whereas the timing of peak root growth may represent trade-offs among competing plant sinks. Roots probably do not experience winter dormancy in the same way as shoots: 89% of the studies that examined winter phenology found evidence of growth during winter months. More research is needed to observe root phenology, and future studies should be careful to capture winter and early season phenology. This should be done quantitatively, with direct observations of root growth utilizing rhizotrons or minirhizotrons.

  5. Rooting of carnation cuttings: The auxin signal


    Acosta, Manuel; Oliveros-Valenzuela, M Rocío; Nicolás, Carlos; Sánchez-Bravo, José


    The rooting of stem cuttings is a common vegetative propagation practice in many ornamental species. Among other signals, auxin polarly transported through the stem plays a key role in the formation and growth of adventitious roots. Unlike in other plant species, auxin from mature leaves plays a decisive role in the rooting of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus. L) cuttings. The gene DcAUX1, which codifies an auxin influx carrier involved in polar auxin transport, has now been cloned and charac...

  6. Designing new interfaces for ROOT data processing

    CERN Document Server

    Vuorinen, Kalle Elmer


    ROOT is a C++ framework for data analysis provided with a Python interface (PyRoot). ROOT is used in every Large Hadron Collider experiment. This project presents a way of reading ROOT TTree by using a new class called DataFrame, which allows the usage of cache and functional chains. Reading TTrees in Python has been quite slow compared to the C++ way of doing it and for this reason we also bring the possibility to read them with just-in-time (JIT) compiled C++ code, using another new Python class called TreeReader.

  7. Mandibular second premolar with four roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sefika Nur Akyuz


    Full Text Available Detection of normal and abnormal variation in tooth anatomy is essential for clinical success. It is generally well known that the mandibular second premolar teeth have a single root and canal. However, the mandibular second premolar teeth have sometimes more than one root and root canal. The endodontic treatment of a mandibular second premolar with four roots which separated at different levels along the middle third of the root is presented in this case report. Preoperative radiographs appeared radiolucency and different root anatomy in the region of the mandibular second premolar. The root canals were prepared using Mtwo rotary system (VDW, Munich, Germany and obturated laterally condensed gutta percha and AH plus (Dentsply De Trey, Konstanz, Germany. After the completion of root canal treatment, the tooth was restored with a posterior composite filling material. On follow-up, the tooth was clinically and radiographically asymptomatic for two years. Clinicians should be aware of the importance of careful clinical and radiographic examination of mandibular premolars during the endodontic treatment. Radiographs exposed at two different horizontal angles and their careful interpretation facilitates the search of additional root canals.

  8. Power Efficient Division and Square Root Unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wei; Nannarelli, Alberto


    shows that division and square root units based on the digit-recurrence algorithm offer the best tradeoff delay-area-power. Moreover, the two operations can be combined in a single unit. Here, we present a radix-16 combined division and square root unit obtained by overlapping two radix-4 stages......Although division and square root are not frequent operations, most processors implement them in hardware to not compromise the overall performance. Two classes of algorithms implement division or square root: digit-recurrence and multiplicative (e.g., Newton-Raphson) algorithms. Previous work...

  9. Mineral nutrition and adventitious rooting in microcuttings of Eucalyptus globulus. (United States)

    Schwambach, Joséli; Fadanelli, Cristina; Fett-Neto, Arthur G


    We characterized the adventitious rooting response of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. to various concentrations of calcium, nitrogen, phosphorus, iron, manganese, zinc, boron and copper. The parameters analyzed were percent rooting, root number, root length and mean rooting time. Root number and root length were significantly affected by mineral nutrition, whereas mean rooting time and rooting percentage seemed to be closely related to auxin availability. Root number was affected by calcium, nitrogen source and zinc, whereas root length was influenced by concentrations of phosphorus, iron and manganese, and by nitrogen source. Based on these results, we evaluated various combinations of several concentrations of these minerals in each rooting phase. Cuttings that were rooted in an optimized mineral nutrient medium and acclimatized to ex-vitro conditions for two months showed significantly higher survival after transplanting and drought stress than cuttings rooted in basal medium and treated in the same way.

  10. Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Transgenic Wheat (Triticum aestivum) with Reduced Levels of ω5-Gliadins, the Major Sensitizing Allergen in Wheat-Dependent Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis. (United States)

    Altenbach, Susan B; Tanaka, Charlene K; Pineau, Florence; Lupi, Roberta; Drouet, Martine; Beaudouin, Etienne; Morisset, Martine; Denery-Papini, Sandra


    The ω5-gliadins are the major sensitizing allergens in wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA). In this study, two-dimensional immunoblot analysis was used to assess the allergenic potential of two transgenic wheat lines in which ω5-gliadin genes were silenced by RNA interference. Sera from 7 of 11 WDEIA patients showed greatly reduced levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE) reactivity to ω5-gliadins in both transgenic lines. However, these sera also showed low levels of reactivity to other gluten proteins. Sera from three patients showed the greatest reactivity to proteins other than ω5-gliadins, either high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs), α-gliadins, or non-gluten proteins. The complexity of immunological responses among these patients suggests that flour from the transgenic lines would not be suitable for individuals already diagnosed with WDEIA. However, the introduction of wheat lacking ω5-gliadins could reduce the number of people sensitized to these proteins and thereby decrease the overall incidence of this serious food allergy.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Afonso Mazzei Moura de Assis Figueiredo


    Full Text Available gain reduction of wood biomass in trees has been assigned to root deformations even in the nursery phase. The objective of this work was the evaluation of the root system hydraulic conductivity, gas exchanges and photochemical efficiency of eucalypt clonal cuttings with and without root deformation inductions. The treatments were: 1 operational cuttings without root malformation inductions (grown according to the used methodology of Fibria Cellulose S.A.; 2 root deformation inductions. These inductions did not promote decrease in the root volume. However, the deformations brought reduction of the root system hydraulic conductivity. Lower photosynthetic rates were also observed along the day in the cuttings in the root deformed cuttings. This decreasing rate is connected to stomatal and non stomatal factors.

  12. Variations of fine root diameter with root order in Manchurian ash and Dahurian larch plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiangrong; WANG Zhengquan; HAN Youzhi; GU Jiacun; GUO Dali; MEI Li


    Fine root lifespan and turnover play an important role in carbon allocation and nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems.Fine roots are typically defined as less than 1 or 2mm in diameter.However,when categorizing roots by this diameter size,the position of an individual root on the complex lateral branching pattern has often been ignored,and our knowledge about relationships between branching order and root function thus remains limited.More recently,studies on root survivals found that longevity was remarkably different in the same branching level due to diameter variations.The objectives of this study were:(1) To examine variations of fine root diameter from the first-to fifth-orders in Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr and Larix gmelinii Rupr roots;and (2) To reveal how the season,soil nutrient,and water availability affect root diameter in different branch order in two species.This study was conducted at Maoershan Forest Research Station (45°21'-45°25'N,127°30'-127°34'E) owned by Northeast Forestry University in Harbin,northeast China.Both F.mandshurica and L.gmelinii were planted in 1986.In each plantation,fine roots of two species by sampling up to five fine root branch orders three times during the 2003 growing season from two soil depths (i.e.,0-10 and 10-20 cm)were obtained.The results showed that average diameters of fine roots were significantly different among the five branch orders.The first-order had the thinner roots and the fifth order had the thickest roots,the diameter increasing regularly with the ascending branch orders in both species.If the diameter of fine roots was defined as being smaller than 0.5 mm,the first three orders ofF.mandshurica roots and the first two orders of L.gmelinii roots would be included in the fine root population.The diameter ranges of the fine roots from first-order to fifth-order were 0.15-0.58,0.18-0.70,0.26-1.05,0.36-1.43,and 0.71-2.96 mm for F.mandshurica,and 0.17-0.76,0.23-1.02,0.26-1.10,0.38-1.77,and 0.84-2.80 mm for L

  13. Anatomical evaluation of the root canal diameter and root thickness on the apical third of mesial roots of molars. (United States)

    Martos, Josué; Tatsch, Gustavo Henrique; Tatsch, Augusto César; Silveira, Luiz Fernando Machado; Ferrer-Luque, Carmen María


    The purpose was to determine the diameter of the main root canal and wall thickness in the apical dentin in mesial roots of maxillary and mandibular molars. Forty mesiobuccal and mesial root specimens were sectioned horizontally at 1, 2 and 3 mm from the apex, and measured at each top surface by using optical microscopy to an accuracy of ×20 magnification. The anatomical parameters were established as the following points of reference: AB, two points connected by a line from the outer edge of the mesial wall to the outer edge of the distal one through the center of the root canal to measure the thickness of the root and mesiodistal diameter of the root canal (CD). A second line (EF) was designed to evaluate the diameter of the root canal in the buccolingual direction. All data were summarized, and values were assessed statistically by ANOVA and Bonferroni multiple comparisons. The buccolingual (BL) root canal diameters at 1, 2 and 3 mm in the mandibular and maxillary molars were greater than in the mesiodistal (MD), showing statistically significant differences (p maxillary molars were statistically significant (p maxillary molars was 1.741 mm. The BL diameters in maxillary and mandibular molars were higher than the MD diameter. The thickness (MD) of maxillary and mandibular molars decreased as a function of apical proximity.

  14. Piriformospora indica root colonization triggers local and systemic root responses and inhibits secondary colonization of distal roots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Pedrotti

    Full Text Available Piriformosporaindica is a basidiomycete fungus colonizing roots of a wide range of higher plants, including crop plants and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Previous studies have shown that P. indica improves growth, and enhances systemic pathogen resistance in leaves of host plants. To investigate systemic effects within the root system, we established a hydroponic split-root cultivation system for Arabidopsis. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we show that initial P. indica colonization triggers a local, transient response of several defense-related transcripts, of which some were also induced in shoots and in distal, non-colonized roots of the same plant. Systemic effects on distal roots included the inhibition of secondary P. indica colonization. Faster and stronger induction of defense-related transcripts during secondary inoculation revealed that a P. indica pretreatment triggers root-wide priming of defense responses, which could cause the observed reduction of secondary colonization levels. Secondary P. indica colonization also induced defense responses in distant, already colonized parts of the root. Endophytic fungi therefore trigger a spatially specific response in directly colonized and in systemic root tissues of host plants.

  15. GiA Roots: software for the high throughput analysis of plant root system architecture


    Galkovskyi Taras; Mileyko Yuriy; Bucksch Alexander; Moore Brad; Symonova Olga; Price Charles A; Topp Christopher N; Iyer-Pascuzzi Anjali S; Zurek Paul R; Fang Suqin; Harer John; Benfey Philip N; Weitz Joshua S


    Abstract Background Characterizing root system architecture (RSA) is essential to understanding the development and function of vascular plants. Identifying RSA-associated genes also represents an underexplored opportunity for crop improvement. Software tools are needed to accelerate the pace at which quantitative traits of RSA are estimated from images of root networks. Results We have developed GiA Roots (General Image Analysis of Roots), a semi-automated software tool designed specifically...

  16. Root selection methods in flood analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Parmentier


    Full Text Available In the 1970s, de Laine developed a root-matching procedure for estimating unit hydrograph ordinates from estimates of the fast component of the total runoff from multiple storms. Later, Turner produced a root selection method which required only data from one storm event and was based on recognising a pattern typical of unit hydrograph roots. Both methods required direct runoff data, i.e. prior separation of the slow response. This paper introduces a further refinement, called root separation, which allows the estimation of both the unit hydrograph ordinates and the effective precipitation from the full discharge hydrograph. It is based on recognising and separating the quicker component of the response from the much slower components due to interflow and/or baseflow. The method analyses the z-transform roots of carefully selected segments of the full hydrograph. The root patterns of these separate segments tend to be dominated by either the fast response or the slow response. This paper shows how their respective time-scales can be distinguished with an accuracy sufficient for practical purposes. As an illustration, theoretical equations are derived for a conceptual rainfall-runoff system with the input split between fast and slow reservoirs in parallel. These are solved analytically to identify the reservoir constants and the input splitting parameter. The proposed method, called 'root separation', avoids the subjective selection of rainfall roots in the Turner method as well as the subjective matching of roots in the original de Laine method. Keywords: unit hydrograph,identification methods, z-transform, polynomial roots, root separation, fast andslow response, Nash cascade

  17. Malformations of the tooth root in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Ulrich eLuder


    Full Text Available The most common root malformations in humans arise from either developmental disorders of the root alone or disorders of radicular development as part of a general tooth dysplasia. The aim of this review is to relate the characteristics of these root malformations to potentially disrupted processes involved in radicular morphogenesis. Radicular morphogenesis proceeds under the control of Hertwig's epithelial root sheath (HERS which determines the number, length, and shape of the root, induces the formation of radicular dentin, and participates in the development of root cementum. Formation of HERS at the transition from crown to root development appears to be very insensitive to adverse effects, with the result that rootless teeth are extremely rare. In contrast, shortened roots as a consequence of impaired or prematurely halted apical growth of HERS constitute the most prevalent radicular dysplasia which occurs due to trauma and unknown reasons as well as in association with dentin disorders. While odontoblast differentiation inevitably stops when growth of HERS is arrested, it seems to be unaffected even in cases of severe dentin dysplasias such as regional odontodysplasia and dentin dysplasia type I. As a result radicular dentin formation is at least initiated and progresses for a limited time. The only condition affecting cementogenesis is hypophosphatasia which disrupts the formation of acellular cementum through an inhibition of mineralization. A process particularly susceptible to adverse effects appears to be the formation of the furcation in multirooted teeth. Impairment or disruption of this process entails taurodontism, single-rooted posterior teeth, and misshapen furcations. Thus even though many characteristics of human root malformations can be related to disorders of specific processes involved in radicular morphogenesis, precise inferences as to the pathogenesis of these dysplasias are hampered by the still limited knowledge on

  18. Fine root production at drained peatland sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finer, L. [Finnish Forest Research Inst. (Finland). Joensuu Research Station; Laine, J. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology


    The preliminary results of the Finnish project `Carbon balance of peatlands and climate change` show that fine roots play an important role in carbon cycling on peat soils. After drainage the roots of mire species are gradually replaced by the roots of trees and other forest species. Pine fine root biomass reaches a maximum level by the time of crown closure, some 20 years after drainage on pine mire. The aim of this study is to compare the results of the sequential coring method and the ingrowth bag method used for estimating fine root production on three drained peatland sites of different fertility. The results are preliminary and continuation to the work done in the study Pine root production on drained peatlands, which is part of the Finnish project `Carbon cycling on peatlands and climate change`. In this study the fine root biomass was greater on the poor site than on the rich sites. Pine fine root production increased with the decrease in fertility. Root turnover and the production of field layer species were greater on the rich sites than on the poor site. The results suggested that the in growth bag method measured more root activity than the magnitude of production. More than two growing seasons would have been needed to balance the root dynamics in the in growth bags with the surrounding soil. That time would probably have been longer on the poor site than on the rich ones and longer for pine and field layer consisting of dwarf shrubs than for field layer consisting of sedge like species and birch. (11 refs.)

  19. Root-soil relationships and terroir (United States)

    Tomasi, Diego


    Soil features, along with climate, are among the most important determinants of a succesful grape production in a certain area. Most of the studies, so far, investigated the above-ground vine response to differente edaphic and climate condition, but it is clearly not sufficient to explain the vine whole behaviour. In fact, roots represent an important part of the terroir system (soil-plant-atmosphere-man), and their study can provide better comprehension of vine responses to different environments. The root density and distribution, the ability of deep-rooting and regenerating new roots are good indicators of root well-being, and represents the basis for an efficient physiological activity of the root system. Root deepening and distribution are strongly dependent and sensitive on soil type and soil properties, while root density is affected mostly by canopy size, rootstock and water availability. According to root well-being, soil management strategies should alleviate soil impediments, improving aeration and microbial activity. Moreover, agronomic practices can impact root system performance and influence the above-ground growth. It is well known, for example, that the root system size is largely diminished by high planting densities. Close vine spacings stimulate a more effective utilization of the available soil, water and nutrients, but if the competition for available soil becomes too high, it can repress vine growth, and compromise vineyard longevity, productivity and reaction to growing season weather. Development of resilient rootstocks, more efficient in terms of water and nutrient uptake and capable of dealing with climate and soil extremes (drought, high salinity) are primary goals fore future research. The use of these rootstocks will benefit a more sustainable use of the soil resources and the preservation and valorisation of the terroir.

  20. Assessment of the nonoperated root after apical surgery of the other root in mandibular molars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Riccardo D; von Arx, Thomas; Gfeller, David


    INTRODUCTION: If a surgical approach is chosen to treat a multirooted tooth affected by persistent periapical pathosis, usually only the affected roots are operated on. The present study assessed the periapical status of the nonoperated root 5 years after apical surgery of the other root in mandi...

  1. Changes of Root Length and Root-to-Crown Ratio after Apical Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Arx, Thomas; Jensen, Simon S; Bornstein, Michael M


    INTRODUCTION: Apical surgery is an important treatment option for teeth with post-treatment periodontitis. Although apical surgery involves root-end resection, no morphometric data are yet available about root-end resection and its impact on the root-to-crown ratio (RCR). The present study assess...

  2. X-ray computed tomography uncovers root-root interactions: quantifying spatial relationships between interacting root systems in three dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Martin Paya


    Full Text Available Research in the field of plant biology has recently demonstrated that inter- and intra-specific interactions belowground can dramatically alter root growth. Our aim was to answer questions related to the effect of inter- vs. intra-specific interactions on the growth and utilization of undisturbed space by fine roots within three dimensions (3D using micro X-ray computed tomography. To achieve this, Populus tremuloides (quaking aspen and Picea mariana (black spruce seedlings were planted into containers as either solitary individuals, or inter-/intra-specific pairs, allowed to grow for two months, and 3D metrics developed in order to quantify their use of belowground space. In both aspen and spruce, inter-specific root interactions produced a shift in the vertical distribution of the root system volume, and deepened the average position of root tips when compared to intra-specifically growing seedlings. Inter-specific interactions also increased the minimum distance between root tips belonging to the same root system. There was no effect of belowground interactions on the radial distribution of roots, or the directionality of lateral root growth for either species. In conclusion, we found that significant differences were observed more often when comparing controls (solitary individuals and paired seedlings (inter- or intra-specific, than when comparing inter- and intra-specifically growing seedlings. This would indicate that competition between neighboring seedlings was more responsible for shifting fine root growth in both species than was neighbor identity. However, significant inter- vs. intra-specific differences were observed, which further emphasizes the importance of biological interactions in competition studies.

  3. On König's root finding algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buff, Xavier; Henriksen, Christian


    In this paper, we first recall the definition of a family of root-finding algorithms known as König's algorithms. We establish some local and some global properties of those algorithms. We give a characterization of rational maps which arise as König's methods of polynomials with simple roots. We...

  4. Layers of root nouns in Germanic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bjarne Simmelkjær Sandgaard


    The root-noun declension became productive in early Germanic, containing (I) inherited root nouns, (IIa) original substrate or loan words, and transitions from other declensions in (IIb) Proto-Germanic and (III) North Germanic. As ablaut was abolished, the inherited type would display ablaut grad...

  5. A histochemical study of root nodule development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiel, van de C.C.M.


    In cooperation with soil bacteria of the genera Rhizobium , Bradyrhizobium or Azorhizobium , many members of the legume family are able to form specialized organs on their roots, called root nodules. The bacteria, wrapped up inside a plant membrane, are accomodated in large parenchymatic cells locat

  6. Graphing Powers and Roots of Complex Numbers. (United States)

    Embse, Charles Vonder


    Using De Moivre's theorem and a parametric graphing utility, examines powers and roots of complex numbers and allows students to establish connections between the visual and numerical representations of complex numbers. Provides a program to numerically verify the roots of complex numbers. (MDH)

  7. Cytological and ultrastructural studies on root tissues (United States)

    Slocum, R. D.; Gaynor, J. J.; Galston, A. W.


    The anatomy and fine structure of roots from oat and mung bean seedlings, grown under microgravity conditions for 8 days aboard the Space Shuttle, was examined and compared to that of roots from ground control plants grown under similar conditions. Roots from both sets of oat seedlings exhibited characteristic monocotyledonous tissue organization and normal ultrastructural features, except for cortex cell mitochondria, which exhibited a 'swollen' morphology. Various stages of cell division were observed in the meristematic tissues of oat roots. Ground control and flight-grown mung bean roots also showed normal tissue organization, but root cap cells in the flight-grown roots were collapsed and degraded in appearance, especially at the cap periphery. At the ultrastructural level, these cells exhibited a loss of organelle integrity and a highly-condensed cytoplasm. This latter observation perhaps suggests a differing tissue sensitivity for the two species to growth conditions employed in space flight. The basis for abnormal root cap cell development is not understood, but the loss of these putative gravity-sensing cells holds potential significance for long term plant growth orientation during space flight.

  8. Rapid phenotyping of alfalfa root system architecture (United States)

    Root system architecture (RSA) influences the capacity of an alfalfa plant for symbiotic nitrogen fixation, nutrient uptake and water use efficiency, resistance to frost heaving, winterhardiness, and some pest and pathogen resistance. However, we currently lack a basic understanding of root system d...

  9. Salt stress signals shape the plant root

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.S. Galvan-Ampudia; C. Testerink


    Plants use different strategies to deal with high soil salinity. One strategy is activation of pathways that allow the plant to export or compartmentalise salt. Relying on their phenotypic plasticity, plants can also adjust their root system architecture (RSA) and the direction of root growth to avo

  10. Tissue engineering in endodontics: root canal revascularization. (United States)

    Palit Madhu Chanda; Hegde, K Sundeep; Bhat, Sham S; Sargod, Sharan S; Mantha, Somasundar; Chattopadhyay, Sayan


    Root canal revascularization attempts to make necrotic tooth alive by the use of certain simple clinical protocols. Earlier apexification was the treatment of choice for treating and preserving immature permanent teeth that have lost pulp vitality. This procedure promoted the formation of apical barrier to seal the root canal of immature teeth and nonvital filling materials contained within root canal space. However with the success of root canal revascularization to regenerate the pulp dentin complex of necrotic immature tooth has made us to rethink if apexification is at the beginning of its end. The objective of this review is to discuss the new concepts of tissue engineering in endodontics and the clinical steps of root canal revascularization.

  11. Formation and separation of root border cells. (United States)

    Driouich, Azeddine; Durand, Caroline; Vicré-Gibouin, Maïté


    Plant roots release a large number of border cells into the rhizosphere, which are believed to play a key role in root development and health. The formation and loss of these cells from the root cap region is a developmentally regulated process that is also controlled by phytohormones and environmental factors. The separation of border cells involves the complete dissociation of individual cells from each other and from root tissue. This process requires the activity of cell wall-degrading enzymes that solubilize the cell wall connections between cells. We present and discuss the solubilization process with an emphasis on pectin-degrading enzymes as well as the recently discovered root border-like cells of Arabidopsis thaliana.

  12. Nutrition and adventitious rooting in woody plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Bortolanza Pereira


    Full Text Available Vegetative propagation success of commercial genotypes via cutting techniques is related to several factors, including nutritional status of mother trees and of propagation material. The nutritional status determines the carbohydrate quantities, auxins and other compounds of plant essential metabolism for root initiation and development. Each nutrient has specific functions in plant, acting on plant structure or on plant physiology. Although the importance of mineral nutrition for success of woody plants vegetative propagation and its relation with adventitious rooting is recognized, the role of some mineral nutrients is still unknown. Due to biochemical and physiological complexity of adventitious rooting process, there are few researches to determine de role of nutrients on development of adventitious roots. This review intends to explore de state of the art about the effect of mineral nutrition on adventitious rooting of woody plants.

  13. The Complexity of Rooted Phylogeny Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Bodirsky, Manuel


    Several computational problems in phylogenetic reconstruction can be formulated as restrictions of the following general problem: given a formula in conjunctive normal form where the literals are rooted triples, is there a rooted binary tree that satisfies the formula? If the formulas do not contain disjunctions, the problem becomes the famous rooted triple consistency problem, which can be solved in polynomial time by an algorithm of Aho, Sagiv, Szymanski, and Ullman. If the clauses in the formulas are restricted to disjunctions of negated triples, Ng, Steel, and Wormald showed that the problem remains NP-complete. We systematically study the computational complexity of the problem for all such restrictions of the clauses in the input formula. For certain restricted disjunctions of triples we present an algorithm that has sub-quadratic running time and is asymptotically as fast as the fastest known algorithm for the rooted triple consistency problem. We also show that any restriction of the general rooted ph...

  14. Clinical management of infected root canal dentin. (United States)

    Love, R M


    Several hundred different species of bacteria are present in the human intraoral environment. Bacterial penetration of root canal dentin occurs when bacteria invade the root canal system. These bacteria may constitute a reservoir from which root canal reinfection may occur during or after endodontic treatment. The learning objective of this article is to review endodontic microbiology, update readers on the role of bacteria in pulp and periapical disease, and discuss the principles of management of infected root canal dentin. Complete debridement, removal of microorganisms and affected dentin, and chemomechanical cleansing of the root canal are suggested as being the cornerstones of successful endodontic therapy, followed by intracanal medication to remove residual bacteria, when required.

  15. Effect of lead on root growth. (United States)

    Fahr, Mouna; Laplaze, Laurent; Bendaou, Najib; Hocher, Valerie; Mzibri, Mohamed El; Bogusz, Didier; Smouni, Abdelaziz


    Lead (Pb) is one of the most widespread heavy metal contaminant in soils. It is highly toxic to living organisms. Pb has no biological function but can cause morphological, physiological, and biochemical dysfunctions in plants. Plants have developed a wide range of tolerance mechanisms that are activated in response to Pb exposure. Pb affects plants primarily through their root systems. Plant roots rapidly respond either (i) by the synthesis and deposition of callose, creating a barrier that stops Pb entering (ii) through the uptake of large amounts of Pb and its sequestration in the vacuole accompanied by changes in root growth and branching pattern or (iii) by its translocation to the aboveground parts of plant in the case of hyperaccumulators plants. Here we review the interactions of roots with the presence of Pb in the rhizosphere and the effect of Pb on the physiological and biochemical mechanisms of root development.

  16. PHIV-RootCell: a supervised image analysis tool for rice root anatomical parameter quantification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc eLartaud


    Full Text Available We developed the PHIV-RootCell software to quantify anatomical traits of rice roots transverse section images. Combined with an efficient root sample processing method for image acquisition, this program permits supervised measurements of areas (those of whole root section, stele, cortex and central metaxylem vessels, number of cell layers and number of cells per cell layer. The PHIV-RootCell toolset runs under ImageJ, an independent operating system that has a license-free status. To demonstrate the usefulness of PHIV-RootCell, we conducted a genetic diversity study and an analysis of salt-stress responses of root anatomical parameters in rice (Oryza sativa L.. Using 16 cultivars, we showed that we could discriminate between some of the varieties even at the 6 day-old stage, and that tropical japonica varieties had larger root sections due to an increase in cell number. We observed, as described previously, that root sections become enlarged under salt stress. However, our results show an increase in cell number in ground tissues (endodermis and cortex but a decrease in external (peripheral tissues (sclerenchyma, exodermis and epidermis. Thus, the PHIV-RootCell program is a user-friendly tool that will be helpful for future genetic and physiological studies that investigate root anatomical trait variations.

  17. Root cap influences root colonisation by Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 on maize. (United States)

    Humphris, Sonia N; Bengough, A Glyn; Griffiths, Bryan S; Kilham, Ken; Rodger, Sheena; Stubbs, Vicky; Valentine, Tracy A; Young, Iain M


    We investigated the influence of root border cells on the colonisation of seedling Zea mays roots by Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 in sandy loam soil packed at two dry bulk densities. Numbers of colony forming units (CFU) were counted on sequential sections of root for intact and decapped inoculated roots grown in loose (1.0 mg m(-3)) and compacted (1.3 mg m(-3)) soil. After two days of root growth, the numbers of P. fluorescens (CFU cm(-1)) were highest on the section of root just below the seed with progressively fewer bacteria near the tip, irrespective of density. The decapped roots had significantly more colonies of P. fluorescens at the tip compared with the intact roots: approximately 100-fold more in the loose and 30-fold more in the compact soil. In addition, confocal images of the root tips grown in agar showed that P. fluorescens could only be detected on the tips of the decapped roots. These results indicated that border cells, and their associated mucilage, prevented complete colonization of the root tip by the biocontrol agent P. fluorescens, possibly by acting as a disposable surface or sheath around the cap.

  18. Aerenchyma Formed Under Phosphorus Deficiency Contributes to the Reduced Root Hydraulic Conductivity in Maize Roots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingshou Fan; Ruiqin Bai; Xuefeng Zhao; Jianhua Zhang


    Root hydraulic conductivity has been shown to decrease under phosphorus (P) deficiency. This study investigated how the formation of aerenchyma is related to this change. Root anatomy, as well as root hydraulic conductivity was studied in maize (Zea mays L.) roots under different phosphorus nutrition conditions. Plant roots under P stress showed enhanced degradation of cortical cells and the aerenchyma formation was associated with their reduced root hydraulic conductivity, supporting our hypothesis that air spaces that form in the cortex of phosphorusstressed roots impede the radial transport of water in a root cylinder. Further evidence came from the variation in aerenchyma formation due to genotypic differences. Five maize inbred lines with different porosity in their root cortex showed a significant negative correlation with their root hydraulic conductivity. Shoot relative water content was also found lower in P-deficient maize plants than that in P-sufficient ones when such treatment was prolonged enough, suggesting a limitation of water transport due to lowered root hydraulic conductivity of P-deficient piants.

  19. Resistance to compression of weakened roots subjected to different root reconstruction protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Villaça Zogheib


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated, in vitro, the fracture resistance of human non-vital teeth restored with different reconstruction protocols. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty human anterior roots of similar shape and dimensions were assigned to four groups (n=10, according to the root reconstruction protocol: Group I (control: non-weakened roots with glass fiber post; Group II: roots with composite resin by incremental technique and glass fiber post; Group III: roots with accessory glass fiber posts and glass fiber post; and Group IV: roots with anatomic glass fiber post technique. Following post cementation and core reconstruction, the roots were embedded in chemically activated acrylic resin and submitted to fracture resistance testing, with a compressive load at an angle of 45º in relation to the long axis of the root at a speed of 0.5 mm/min until fracture. All data were statistically analyzed with bilateral Dunnett's test (α=0.05. RESULTS: Group I presented higher mean values of fracture resistance when compared with the three experimental groups, which, in turn, presented similar resistance to fracture among each other. None of the techniques of root reconstruction with intraradicular posts improved root strength, and the incremental technique was suggested as being the most recommendable, since the type of fracture that occurred allowed the remaining dental structure to be repaired. CONCLUSION: The results of this in vitro study suggest that the healthy remaining radicular dentin is more important to increase fracture resistance than the root reconstruction protocol.

  20. RootGraph: a graphic optimization tool for automated image analysis of plant roots. (United States)

    Cai, Jinhai; Zeng, Zhanghui; Connor, Jason N; Huang, Chun Yuan; Melino, Vanessa; Kumar, Pankaj; Miklavcic, Stanley J


    This paper outlines a numerical scheme for accurate, detailed, and high-throughput image analysis of plant roots. In contrast to existing root image analysis tools that focus on root system-average traits, a novel, fully automated and robust approach for the detailed characterization of root traits, based on a graph optimization process is presented. The scheme, firstly, distinguishes primary roots from lateral roots and, secondly, quantifies a broad spectrum of root traits for each identified primary and lateral root. Thirdly, it associates lateral roots and their properties with the specific primary root from which the laterals emerge. The performance of this approach was evaluated through comparisons with other automated and semi-automated software solutions as well as against results based on manual measurements. The comparisons and subsequent application of the algorithm to an array of experimental data demonstrate that this method outperforms existing methods in terms of accuracy, robustness, and the ability to process root images under high-throughput conditions.

  1. Root phenology at Harvard Forest and beyond (United States)

    Abramoff, R. Z.; Finzi, A.


    Roots are hidden from view and heterogeneously distributed making them difficult to study in situ. As a result, the causes and timing of root production are not well understood. Researchers have long assumed that above and belowground phenology is synchronous; for example, most parameterizations of belowground carbon allocation in terrestrial biosphere models are based on allometry and represent a fixed fraction of net C uptake. However, using results from metaanalysis as well as empirical data from oak and hemlock stands at Harvard Forest, we show that synchronous root and shoot growth is the exception rather than the rule. We collected root and shoot phenology measurements from studies across four biomes (boreal, temperate, Mediterranean, and subtropical). General patterns of root phenology varied widely with 1-5 production peaks in a growing season. Surprisingly, in 9 out of the 15 studies, the first root production peak was not the largest peak. In the majority of cases maximum shoot production occurred before root production (Offset>0 in 32 out of 47 plant sample means). The number of days offset between maximum root and shoot growth was negatively correlated with median annual temperature and therefore differs significantly across biomes (ANOVA, F3,43=9.47, pGrowth form (woody or herbaceous) also influenced the relative timing of root and shoot growth. Woody plants had a larger range of days between root and shoot growth peaks as well as a greater number of growth peaks. To explore the range of phenological relationships within woody plants in the temperate biome, we focused on above and belowground phenology in two common northeastern tree species, Quercus rubra and Tsuga canadensis. Greenness index, rate of stem growth, root production and nonstructural carbohydrate content were measured beginning in April 2012 through August 2013 at the Harvard Forest in Petersham, MA, USA. Greenness and stem growth were highest in late May and early June with one clear

  2. Root distribution of rootstocks for 'Tahiti' lime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neves Carmen Silvia Vieira Janeiro


    Full Text Available Field studies on citrus roots are important for genetic selection of cultivars and for management practices such as localized irrigation and fertilization. To characterize root systems of six rootstocks, taking into consideration chemical and physical characteristics of a clayey Typic Hapludox of the Northern State of Paraná, this study was performed having as scion the 'IAC-5 Tahiti' lime [Citrus latifolia (Yu. Tanaka]. The rootstocks 'Rangpur' lime (C. limonia Osbeck, 'Africa Rough' lemon (C. jambhiri Lush., 'Sunki' mandarin [C. sunki (Hayata hort. ex Tan.], Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf., 'C13' citrange [C. sinensis (L. Osb. x P. trifoliata (L. Raf] and 'Catânia 2' Volkamer lemon (C. volkameriana Ten. & Pasq. were used applying the trench profile method and the SIARCS® 3.0 software to determine root distribution. 'C-13' citrange had the largest root system. 'Volkamer' lemon and 'Africa Rough' lemon presented the smallest amount of roots. The effective depth for 80 % of roots was 31-53 cm in rows and 67-68 cm in inter-rows. The effective distance of 80 % of roots measured from the tree trunk exceeded the tree canopy for P. trifoliata, 'Sunki' mandarin, and 'Volkamer' and 'Africa Rough' lemons.

  3. A thermodynamic formulation of root water uptake (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Anke; Kleidon, Axel; Bechmann, Marcel


    By extracting bound water from the soil and lifting it to the canopy, root systems of vegetation perform work. Here we describe how root water uptake can be evaluated thermodynamically and demonstrate that this evaluation provides additional insights into the factors that impede root water uptake. We derive an expression that relates the energy export at the base of the root system to a sum of terms that reflect all fluxes and storage changes along the flow path in thermodynamic terms. We illustrate this thermodynamic formulation using an idealized setup of scenarios with a simple model. In these scenarios, we demonstrate why heterogeneity in soil water distribution and rooting properties affect the impediment of water flow even though the mean soil water content and rooting properties are the same across the scenarios. The effects of heterogeneity can clearly be identified in the thermodynamics of the system in terms of differences in dissipative losses and hydraulic energy, resulting in an earlier start of water limitation in the drying cycle. We conclude that this thermodynamic evaluation of root water uptake conveniently provides insights into the impediments of different processes along the entire flow path, which goes beyond resistances and also accounts for the role of heterogeneity in soil water distribution.

  4. Spiralizations and tropisms in Arabidopsis roots. (United States)

    Migliaccio, F; Piconese, S


    When Arabidopsis seedlings are grown on a hard-agar plate, their primary roots show characteristic spiralling movements, apparent as waves, coils and torsions, together with a slanting toward the right-hand side. All these movements are believed to be the result of three different processes acting on the roots: circumnutation, positive gravitropism and negative thigmotropism. The basic movement of the roots is described as that of a growing right-handed helix, which, because of the root tip hitting the agar plate, is continuously switched from the right-hand to the left-hand of the growth direction, and vice versa. This movement also produces a slanting root-growth direction toward the right-hand because of the incomplete waves made by the right-handed root to the left-hand. By contrast, the torsions seen in the coils and waves are interpreted as artefacts that form as an adaptation of the three-dimensional root helix to the flat two-dimensional agar surface.

  5. Tractography of lumbar nerve roots: initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balbi, Vincent; Budzik, Jean-Francois; Thuc, Vianney le; Cotten, Anne [Hopital Roger Salengro, Service de Radiologie et d' Imagerie musculo-squelettique, Lille Cedex (France); Duhamel, Alain [Universite de Lille 2, UDSL, Lille (France); Bera-Louville, Anne [Service de Rhumatologie, Hopital Roger Salengro, Lille (France)


    The aims of this preliminary study were to demonstrate the feasibility of in vivo diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and fibre tracking (FT) of the lumbar nerve roots, and to assess potential differences in the DTI parameters of the lumbar nerves between healthy volunteers and patients suffering from disc herniation. Nineteen patients with unilateral sciatica related to posterolateral or foraminal disc herniation and 19 healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. DTI with tractography of the L5 or S1 nerves was performed. Mean fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) values were calculated from tractography images. FA and MD values could be obtained from DTI-FT images in all controls and patients. The mean FA value of the compressed lumbar nerve roots was significantly lower than the FA of the contralateral nerve roots (p=0.0001) and of the nerve roots of volunteers (p=0.0001). MD was significantly higher in compressed nerve roots than in the contralateral nerve root (p=0.0002) and in the nerve roots of volunteers (p=0.04). DTI with tractography of the lumbar nerves is possible. Significant changes in diffusion parameters were found in the compressed lumbar nerves. (orig.)

  6. Effects of acid deposition on tree roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, H. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Research


    Large forest regions in SW Sweden have been exposed to high levels of acid deposition for many decades, causing soil acidification in forest soils. Historically, SO{sub 2} has been the major acidification agent, but lately nitrogen compounds increasingly have become important. The amount and chemical form of nitrogen strongly affects the pH in the rhizosphere and rhizoplane. Many forest stands show a positive growth response to increased nitrogen input, even in heavily N-loaded areas. Nitrogen fertilization experiments suggest that part of the increased forest production is caused by a translocation of biomass production from below-ground to above-ground parts. At the same time fine-root growth dynamics are strongly affected by the high N supply. Deficiencies of various nutrients (Mg,Ca,K,Mn and Zn) obtained from needle analyses have been reported from different Picea abies stands. In areas with more extensive acidification and nutrient leaching, a decline in tree vitality has been observed. Although deficiency symptoms in forest trees may be reflected in nitrogen/cation ratios in fine roots, few attempts have been made to explain forest damage symptoms from fine-root chemistry. Root damage is often described as a decline in the amount of living fine roots, an increase in the amount of dead versus live fine roots (a lower live/dead ratio) and an increasing amount of dead medium and coarse roots. The primary objectives of the present presentation were to analyse available data on the effects of high nitrogen and sulphur deposition on mineral nutrient balance in tree fine roots and to evaluate the risk of Al interference with cation uptake by roots

  7. Root type matters: measurements of water uptake by seminal, crown and lateral roots of maize (United States)

    Ahmed, Mutez Ali; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Kaestner, Anders; Carminati, Andrea


    Roots play a key role in water acquisition and are a significant component of plant adaptation to different environmental conditions. Although maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the most important crops worldwide, there is limited information on the function of different root segments and types in extracting water from soils. Aim of this study was to investigate the location of root water uptake in mature maize. We used neutron radiography to image the spatial distribution of maize roots and trace the transport of injected deuterated water (D2O) in soil and roots. Maize plants were grown in aluminum containers filled with a sandy soil that was kept homogeneously wet throughout the experiment. When the plants were five weeks-old, we injected D2O into selected soil regions. The transport of D2O was simulated using a diffusion-convection numerical model. By fitting the observed D2O transport we quantified the diffusion coefficient and the water uptake of the different root segments. The model was initially developed and tested with two weeks-old maize (Ahmed et. al. 2015), for which we found that water was mainly taken up by lateral roots and the water uptake of the seminal roots was negligible. Here, we used this method to measure root water uptake in a mature maize root system. The root architecture of five weeks-old maize consisted of primary and seminal roots with long laterals and crown (nodal) roots that emerged from the above ground part of the plant two weeks after planting. The crown roots were thicker than the seminal roots and had fewer and shorter laterals. Surprisingly, we found that the water was mainly taken up by the crown roots and their laterals, while the lateral roots of seminal roots, which were the main location of water uptake of younger plants, stopped to take up water. Interestingly, we also found that in contrast to the seminal roots, the crown roots were able to take up water also from their distal segments. We conclude that for the two weeks

  8. Food Dependent Exercise-induced Anaphylaxis: 3 Cases Report and Literature Review%食物依赖运动诱发严重过敏3例并文献复习

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝戎飞; 黄南; 刘惠龙; 刘光辉


    目的:提高对食物依赖运动诱发严重过敏(FDEIA)的诊疗水平.方法:回顾分析3例食物依赖运动诱发过敏反应患者的临床特征及诊疗情况,并复习相关文献.结果:2例患者在进食小麦面食后,1例患者在进食海虾后由运动诱发全身荨麻疹、呼吸困难及意识障碍,发病时间均在进食食物后30min~2h,经肾上腺素、糖皮质激素及抗组胺药物治疗后缓解.3例患者致敏食物皮肤点刺试验和血清特异性IgE均为阳性.2例患者在禁食致敏食物1年,随访期间未发生过敏反应.结论:FDEIA临床罕见,患者可反复发生过敏性休克而导致死亡,临床进食某些食物过敏原和进食后运动2个因素同时存在时才会诱发FDEIA,治疗方法以抗组胺药物、肾上腺素和糖皮质激素等对症治疗为主,禁食致敏食物及进食致敏食物后4h内避免剧烈运动有可能避免本病的发生.%Objective: To improve the diagnosis and treatment of food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA). Methods: Clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of 3 patients with FDEIA were analyzed with literature review. Results: Three cases experienced exercise induced urticaria, breathing difficulties and impairment of consciousness in 30 minutes to 2 hours after taken allergic foods (2 cases for wheat and 1 case for shrimp). Patients symptoms were relieved after treated with anti-histamine, corticosteroids and adrenaline. The results of skin prick test and specific IgE to food were positive. Two cases had no anaphylaxis attack after avoiding causative food during 1 years follow-up. Conclusions: FDEIA are rare in clinic. Patients may die from repeated anaphylactic shock. Only simultaneous existence of taking allergenic food and subsequent exercise can induce FDEIA. Avoidance of exercise for 4 hours after eating causative food might be helpful to prevent the occurrence of symptoms in many FDEIA cases. Dietary avoidance of causative food ingredients

  9. Study on the best choice of adjuvant on passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in rats%大鼠被动皮肤过敏性实验中最佳佐剂的选择研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荆宝琴; 张金晓; 王磊; 段蕊; 张宗鹏


    目的:比较研究是否添加佐剂及加入不同佐剂对大鼠被动皮肤过敏性实验(PCA)的影响。方法以卵清白蛋白为致敏原,SD大鼠随机分为4组:以不加佐剂为空白组,3个不同佐剂(百日咳菌液0.25 mL/只、氢氧化铝0.5 mL/只、百白破联合疫苗0.25 mL/只)实验组,进行PCA实验,判断各组的过敏反应情况。结果各组均能引起不同程度的过敏反应,佐剂组过敏反应发生率和严重程度都明显高于空白组,过敏反应从大到小依次为百白破联合疫苗>百日咳菌液>氢氧化铝;雌性大鼠发生过敏反应的动物数目及反应程度均高于雄性大鼠。结论不同佐剂对大鼠被动皮肤过敏性实验的影响有差异,综合考虑不同因素,氢氧化铝可作为被动皮肤过敏性实验中佐剂的最佳选择。%Objective To get the best choice of adjuvant by researching the influence of the adjuvant whether it is added or not on passive cutane-ous anaphylaxis test and the distinction of different adjuvant which is used on passive cutaneous anaphylaxis ( PCA) test.Methods With ovalbu-min (OVA) as allergens, SD rats were injected three different adjuvant , pertussis bacteria liquid ( 0.25 mL per animal ) , aluminium hydroxide ( 0.5 mL per animal ) , diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus combined vaccine ( DPT) ( 0.25 mL per animal ) on PCA test.The skin allergic reaction was investigated.Result Each group can cause allergic reaction with different degrees.The incidence of allergic reaction in adjuvant group was obviously higher than blank group.According to the incidence and severity of allergic reaction , the result from large to small is DPT vac-cine , pertussis bacteria liquid , aluminium hydroxide.The number of ani-mals with allergic reaction in female rats is higher than the number in male rats.Conclusion Allergic reaction using different adjuvant on PCA test was different .Taking comprehensive consideration of different

  10. Pullout tests of root analogs and natural root bundles in soil: Experiments and modeling (United States)

    Schwarz, M.; Cohen, D.; Or, D.


    Root-soil mechanical interactions are key to soil stability on steep hillslopes. Motivated by new advances and applications of the Root Bundle Model (RBM), we conducted a series of experiments in the laboratory and in the field to study the mechanical response of pulled roots. We systematically quantified the influence of different factors such as root geometry and configuration, soil type, and soil water content considering individual roots and root bundles. We developed a novel pullout apparatus for strain-controlled field and laboratory tests of up to 13 parallel roots measured individually and as a bundle. Results highlight the importance of root tortuosity and root branching points for prediction of individual root pullout behavior. Results also confirm the critical role of root diameter distribution for realistic prediction of global pullout behavior of a root bundle. Friction between root and soil matrix varied with soil type and water content and affected the force-displacement behavior. Friction in sand varied from 1 to 17 kPa, with low values obtained in wet sand at a confining pressure of 2 kPa and high values obtained in dry sand with 4.5 kPa confining pressure. In a silty soil matrix, friction ranged between 3 kPa under wet and low confining pressure (2 kPa) and 6 kPa in dry and higher confining pressure (4.5 kPa). Displacement at maximum pullout force increased with increasing root diameter and with tortuosity. Laboratory experiments were used to calibrate the RBM that was later validated using six field measurements with natural root bundles of Norway spruce (Picea abies L.). These tests demonstrate the progressive nature of root bundle failure under strain-controlled pullout force and provide new insights regarding force-displacement behavior of root reinforcement, highlighting the importance of considering displacement in slope stability models. Results show that the magnitude of maximum root pullout forces (1-5 kPa) are important for slope

  11. A "square-root rule" for reinsurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Powers


    Full Text Available In previous work, the authors derived a mathematical expression for the optimal (or "saturation" number of reinsurers for a given number of primary insurers (see Powers and Shubik, 2001. In the current article, we show analytically that, for large numbers of primary insurers, this mathematical expression provides a "square-root rule"; i.e., the optimal number of reinsurers in a market is given asymptotically by the square root of the total number of primary insurers. We note further that an analogous "fourth-root rule" applies to markets for retrocession (the reinsurance of reinsurance.

  12. Clinical technique for invasive cervical root resorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Machado Silveira


    Full Text Available This clinical case report describes the diagnosis and treatment of an external invasive cervical resorption. A 17-year-old female patient had a confirmed diagnosis of invasive cervical resorption class 4 by cone beam computerized tomography. Although, there was no communication with the root canal, the invasive resorption process was extending into the cervical and middle third of the root. The treatment of the cervical resorption of the lateral incisor interrupted the resorptive process and restored the damaged root surface and the dental functions without any esthetic sequelae. Both the radiographic examination and computed tomography are imperative to reveal the extent of the defect in the differential diagnosis.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The present study is aimed to evaluate the in-vitro anti-arthritic activity of aqueous extract of Desmodium gangeticum root using inhibition of protein denaturation model and human red blood cell Membrane stabilization model. Diclofenac sodium was used as a standard drug. Results revealed that the aqueous extract of Desmodium gangeticum root at different concentrations possessed significant anti-arthritic activity as compared to standard drug used as Diclofenac sodium. The results obtained in the present investigation Indicate that aqueous extract of Desmodium gangeticum root showed anti-arthritic activity.

  14. BOREAS TE-2 Root Respiration Data (United States)

    Ryan, Michael G.; Lavigne, Michael; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Papagno, Andrea (Editor)


    The BOREAS TE-2 team collected several data sets in support of its efforts to characterize and interpret information on the respiration of the foliage, roots, and wood of boreal vegetation. This data set includes means of tree root respiration measurements on roots having diameters ranging from 0 to 2 mm conducted in the NSA during the growing season of 1994. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  15. THttpServer class in ROOT (United States)

    Adamczewski-Musch, Joern; Linev, Sergey


    The new THttpServer class in ROOT implements HTTP server for arbitrary ROOT applications. It is based on Civetweb embeddable HTTP server and provides direct access to all objects registered for the server. Objects data could be provided in different formats: binary, XML, GIF/PNG, and JSON. A generic user interface for THttpServer has been implemented with HTML/JavaScript based on JavaScript ROOT development. With any modern web browser one could list, display, and monitor objects available on the server. THttpServer is used in Go4 framework to provide HTTP interface to the online analysis.

  16. Negative phototropism of rice root and its influencing factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Zhong(王忠); MO; Yiwei(莫亿伟); QIAN; Shanqin(钱善勤); GU; Yunjie(顾蕴洁)


    Some characteristics of the rice (Oryza sativa L.) root were found in the experiment of unilaterally irradiating the roots which were planted in water: (ⅰ) All the seminal roots, adventitious roots and their branched roots bent away from light, and their curvatures ranged from 25° to 60°. The curvature of adventitious root of the higher node was often larger than that of the lower node, and even larger than that of the seminal root. (ⅱ) The negative phototropic bending of the rice root was mainly due to the larger growth increment of root-tip cells of the irradiated side compared with that of the shaded side. (ⅲ) Root cap was the site of light perception. If root cap was shaded while the root was irradiated the root showed no negative phototropism, and the root lost the characteristic of negative phototropism when root cap was divested. Rice root could resume the characteristic of negative phototropism when the new root cap grew up, if the original cells of root cap were well protected while root cap was divested. (ⅳ) The growth increment and curvature of rice root were both influenced by light intensity. Within the range of 0-100μmol@m-2@s-1, the increasing of light intensity resulted in the decreasing of the growth increment and the increasing of the curvature of rice root. (ⅴ) The growth increment and the curvature reached the maximum at 30℃ with the temperature treatment of 10-40℃. (ⅵ) Blue-violet light could prominently induce the negative phototropism of rice root, while red light had no such effect. (ⅶ) The auxin (IAA) in the solution, as a very prominent influencing factor, inhibited the growth, the negative phototropism and the gravitropism of rice root when the concentration of IAA increased. The response of negative phototropism of rice root disappeared when the concentration of IAA was above 10 mg@L-1.

  17. Arabidopsis: an adequate model for dicot root systems?


    Zobel, Richard W.


    The Arabidopsis root system is frequently considered to have only three classes of root: primary, lateral, and adventitious. Research with other plant species has suggested up to 8 different developmental/functional classes of root for a given plant root system. If Arabidopsis has only three classes of root, it may not be an adequate model for eudicot plant root systems. Recent research, however, can be interpreted to suggest that pre-flowering Arabidopsis does have at least five (5) of th...

  18. Arabidopsis: An Adequate Model for Dicot Root Systems?


    Zobel, Richard W.


    The Arabidopsis root system is frequently considered to have only three classes of root: primary, lateral, and adventitious. Research with other plant species has suggested up to eight different developmental/functional classes of root for a given plant root system. If Arabidopsis has only three classes of root, it may not be an adequate model for eudicot plant root systems. Recent research, however, can be interpreted to suggest that pre-flowering Arabidopsis does have at least five (5) of t...

  19. Phosphate Availability Alters Lateral Root Anatomy and Root Architecture of Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr. Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chu WU; Xing WEI; Hai-Long SUN; Zheng-Quan WANG


    Plants have evolved some mechanisms to maximize the efficiency of phosphorus acquisition.Changes in root architecture are one such mechanism. When Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr. seedlings were grown under conditions of low phosphorus availability, the length of cells in the meristem zone of the lateral roots was longer, but the length of cells in the elongation and mature zones of the lateral roots was shorter,compared with seedlings grown under conditions of high phosphorus availability. The elongation rates of primary roots increased as phosphorus availability increased, but the elongation rates of the branched zones of the primary roots decreased. The number of lateral root primordia and the length of the lateral roots decreased as phosphorus availability increased. The topological index (altitude slope) decreased as phosphorus availability increased, suggesting that root architecture tended to be herringbone-like when seedlings were grown under conditions of low phosphate availability. Herringbone-like root systems exploit nutrients more efficiently, but they have higher construction costs than root systems with a branching pattern.

  20. The Root Cap Determines Ethylene-Dependent Growth and Development in Maize Roots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Achim Hahn; Roman Zimmermann; Dierk Wanke; Klaus Harter; Hans G.Edelmann


    Besides providing protection against mechanical damage to the root tip,the root cap is involved in the perception and processing of diverse external and internal stimuli resulting in altered growth and development.The transduction of these stimuli includes hormonal signaling pathways such as those of auxin,ethylene and cytokinin.Here,we show that the root cap is essential for the ethylene-induced regulation of elongation growth and root hair formation in maize.Exogenously applied ethylene is no longer able to inhibit elongation growth when the root cap has been surgically removed prior to hormone treatment.Reconstitution of the cap positively correlates with the developing capacity of the roots to respond to ethylene again.In contrast,the removal of the root cap does not per se affect growth inhibition controlled by auxin and cytokinin.Furthermore,our semi-quantitative RT-PCR results support earlier findings that the maize root cap is a site of high gene expression activity with respect to sensing and responding to hormones such as ethylene.From these data,we propose a novel function of the root cap which is the establishment of competence to respond to ethylene in the distal zones of the root.

  1. 4-Chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline inhibits activation of Syk kinase to suppress mast cells in vitro and mast cell-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kui Lea [Center for Drug Development Assistance, National Institute of Food Drug Safety Evaluation (NIFDS), KFDA, Cheongwon-gun (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Na Young; Lee, Jun Ho; Kim, Do Kyun; Kim, Hyuk Soon; Kim, A-Ram; Her, Erk; Kim, Bokyung [Department of Immunology and physiology, College of Medicine, Konkuk University, Chungju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung Sik [College of Pharmacy, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Eun-Yi [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, College of Biological Science, Sejong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Mi [College of Pharmacy, Duksung Women' s University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hang-Rae, E-mail: [Department of Anatomy, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Wahn Soo, E-mail: [Department of Immunology and physiology, College of Medicine, Konkuk University, Chungju (Korea, Republic of)


    4-Chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline is a quinoxaline derivative. We aimed to study the effects of 4-chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline on activation of mast cells in vitro and in mice. 4-Chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline reversibly inhibited degranulation of mast cells in a dose-dependent manner, and also suppressed the expression and secretion of TNF-{alpha} and IL-4 in mast cells. Mechanistically, 4-chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline inhibited activating phosphorylation of Syk and LAT, which are crucial for early Fc{epsilon}RI-mediated signaling events, as well as Akt and MAP kinases, which play essential roles in the production of various pro-inflammatory cytokines in mast cells. Notably, although 4-chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline inhibited the activation of Fyn and Syk, minimal inhibition was observed in mast cells in the case of Lyn. Furthermore, consistent with its in vitro activity, 4-chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline significantly suppressed mast cell-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in mice. In summary, the results from this study demonstrate that 4-chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline shows an inhibitory effect on mast cells in vitro and in vivo, and that this is mediated by inhibiting the activation of Syk in mast cells. Therefore, 4-chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline could be useful in the treatment of mast cell-mediated allergic diseases. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 4-chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline is a quinoxaline derivative. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of 4-chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline on mast cells was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 4-chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline reversibly inhibited Syk activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 4-chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline could be useful for IgE-mediated allergy.

  2. Plant roots use a patterning mechanism to position lateral root branches toward available water. (United States)

    Bao, Yun; Aggarwal, Pooja; Robbins, Neil E; Sturrock, Craig J; Thompson, Mark C; Tan, Han Qi; Tham, Cliff; Duan, Lina; Rodriguez, Pedro L; Vernoux, Teva; Mooney, Sacha J; Bennett, Malcolm J; Dinneny, José R


    The architecture of the branched root system of plants is a major determinant of vigor. Water availability is known to impact root physiology and growth; however, the spatial scale at which this stimulus influences root architecture is poorly understood. Here we reveal that differences in the availability of water across the circumferential axis of the root create spatial cues that determine the position of lateral root branches. We show that roots of several plant species can distinguish between a wet surface and air environments and that this also impacts the patterning of root hairs, anthocyanins, and aerenchyma in a phenomenon we describe as hydropatterning. This environmental response is distinct from a touch response and requires available water to induce lateral roots along a contacted surface. X-ray microscale computed tomography and 3D reconstruction of soil-grown root systems demonstrate that such responses also occur under physiologically relevant conditions. Using early-stage lateral root markers, we show that hydropatterning acts before the initiation stage and likely determines the circumferential position at which lateral root founder cells are specified. Hydropatterning is independent of endogenous abscisic acid signaling, distinguishing it from a classic water-stress response. Higher water availability induces the biosynthesis and transport of the lateral root-inductive signal auxin through local regulation of tryptophan aminotransferase of Arabidopsis 1 and PIN-formed 3, both of which are necessary for normal hydropatterning. Our work suggests that water availability is sensed and interpreted at the suborgan level and locally patterns a wide variety of developmental processes in the root.

  3. 广州地区引起食物过敏性疾病的变应原谱分析∗%Analysis of food allergen spectrums in food anaphylaxis in Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈韵; 黄惠敏; 郑佩燕; 孙宝清


    Objective To analyse distribution of age and gender characteristics of specific IgG(sIgG)antibodies and specific IgE (sIgE)antibodies of 13 types of food allergens in patients with food anaphylaxis,and to explore the relationship between sIgG and sIgE in food anaphylaxis.Methods 314 cases of patients from 2009 to 2012 were selected as subjects,and divided into underage group(1 63 cases)and adult group(1 5 1 cases).Serum sIgG of 13 types of food allergens were detected by using enzyme linked immu-nosorbent assay,serum sIgE of these food allergens were detected by using immune capture.Results 80.25% of the patients were sIgG-positive,and no obvious gender differences were found;while the positive rates of sIgG in the underage group(94.48%)were higher than that in the adult group(64.90%),there were statistically significant differences(P < 0.05 ).34.39% of the patients were sIgE-positive.The positive rates of sIgE in male patients(40.68%)were higher than that in female patients(26.28%),and that in the underage group(55.21%)were also higher than that in the adults group(1 1.92%),there were statistically significant differences(P <0.05).Conclusion The total positive rates and its distribution characteristics of sIgG and sIgE of same food aller-gens were obviously different.Food anaphylaxis might be associated with age,gender,food types and individual diversity.%目的:分析食物过敏患者血清中13种相同食物变应原特异性 IgG(sIgG)和特异性 IgE(sIgE)在不同年龄和性别间的分布特征,探讨两者在食物过敏性疾病中的关系。方法以2009~2012年门诊314例患者为研究对象,并根据年龄分为未成年组(163例)与成年组(151例);通过酶联免疫吸附试验检测患者血清中13种食物变应原 sIgG,同时通过免疫捕获法检测患者血清中的 sIgE。结果80.25%的患者 sIgG 呈阳性反应,阳性率无明显性别差异,但未成年组(94.48%)高于成年组(64.90%),差异有统计学意义(P <0.05);34

  4. Rooting depths of plants relative to biological and environmental factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foxx, T S; Tierney, G D; Williams, J M


    In 1981 to 1982 an extensive bibliographic study was completed to document rooting depths of native plants in the United States. The data base presently contains 1034 citations with approximately 12,000 data elements. In this paper the data were analyzed for rooting depths as related to life form, soil type, geographical region, root type, family, root depth to shoot height ratios, and root depth to root lateral ratios. Average rooting depth and rooting frequencies were determined and related to present low-level waste site maintenance.

  5. Effect of two contemporary root canal sealers on root canal dentin microhardness (United States)


    Background Successful root canal treatment depends on proper cleaning, disinfecting and shaping of the root canal space. Pulpless teeth have lower dentin microhardness value compared to that of vital teeth. A material which can cause change in dentin composition may affect the microhardness. Thus the aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effect of two root canal sealers on dentin microhardness. Material and Methods Forty two single rooted teeth were selected and divided into 3 equal groups; Apexit, iRootSP and control groups (n=14) Each group was then divided into 2 subgroups according to the post evaluation period; 1 week and 2 months (n=7). Root canal procedure was done in the experimental groups and obturation was made using either; Apexit, iRootSP or left unprepared and unobturated in the control group. Roots were sectioned transversely into cervical, middle and apical segments. The three sections of each root were mounted in a plastic chuck with acrylic resin. The coronal dentin surfaces of the root segments werepolished. Microhardness of each section was measured at 500 µm and 1000 µm from the canal lumen. Results Four way-ANOVA revealed that different tested sealer materials, canal third, measuring distance from the pulp and time as independent variables had statistically non significant effect on mean microhardness values (VHN) at p≤0.001. Among iRootSP groups there was a statistically significant difference between iRoot SP at coronal root portion (87.79±17.83) and iRoot SP at apical root portion (76.26±9.33) groups where (p=0.01). IRoot SP at coronal canal third had higher statistically significant mean microhardness value (87.79±17.83) compared to Apexit at coronal third (73.61±13.47) where (p=0.01). Conclusions Root canal sealers do not affect dentin microhardness. Key words:Root canal, dentin, sealers, microhardness, bioceramic. PMID:28149466

  6. DMA thermal analysis of yacon tuberous roots (United States)

    Blahovec, J.; Lahodová, M.; Kindl, M.; Fernández, E. C.


    Specimens prepared from yacon roots in first two weeks after harvest were tested by dynamic mechanical analysis thermal analysis at temperatures between 30 and 90°C. No differences between different parts of roots were proved. There were indicated some differences in the test parameters that were caused by short time storage of the roots. One source of the differences was loss of water during the roots storage. The measured modulus increased during short time storage. Detailed study of changes of the modulus during the specimen dynamic mechanical analysis test provided information about different development of the storage and loss moduli during the specimen heating. The observed results can be caused by changes in cellular membranes observed earlier during vegetable heating, and by composition changes due to less stable components of yacon like inulin.

  7. Tree root systems and nutrient mobilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyle, Jim; Rob, Harrison; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten

    Roots mobilize nutrients via deep penetration and rhizosphere processes inducing weathering of primary minerals. These contribute to C transfer to soils and to tree nutrition. Assessments of these characteristics and processes of root systems are important for understanding long-term supplies...... some of the world’s most productive intensively managed forests, including Brazil and the Southeast and Pacifi c Northwest regions of the United States, have shown that root systems are often several meters in depth, and often extend deeper than soil is sampled. Large amounts of carbon are also...... sometimes stored at depth. Other recent studies on potential release of nutrients due to chemical weathering indicate the importance of root access to deep soil layers. Release profi les clearly indicate depletion in the top layers and a much higher potential in B and C horizons. Review of evaluations...

  8. BGP reflection functors in root categories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Jie; ZHANG Guanglian; ZHU Bin


    We define the BGP-reflection functors in the derived categories and the root categories. By Ringel's Hall algebra approach, the BGP-reflection functor is applicable to obtain the classical Weyl group action on the Lie algebra.

  9. Tooth mobility changes subsequent to root fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jens Ove; Christensen, Søren Steno Ahrensburg; Tsilingaridis, Georgios


    of pulp necrosis in the coronal fragment. Furthermore, the effect of age, location of the fracture on the root, and observation period on mobility values was analyzed. Mobility values were measured for 44 of 95 previous reported root-fractured permanent incisors. Mobility changes were measured......The purpose of this study was to analyze tooth mobility changes in root-fractured permanent teeth and relate this to type of interfragment healing (hard tissue healing (HT), interfragment healing with periodontal ligament (PDL) and nonhealing with interposition of granulation tissue (GT) because...... after 3 months and 1 year, and a normalization of mobility value was usually found after 5 and 10 years. In 17 cases of PDL healing, generally a higher mobility was found in comparison with root fractures healing with hard tissue, and a consistent decrease in mobility value was found in the course...

  10. Naine objektistab meest / Fideelia-Signe Roots

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roots, Fideelia-Signe, 1976-


    Fideelia-Signe Roots Eesti Kunstiakadeemias 2009. a. kevadsemestril enda poolt läbi viidud valikainekursusest "Kunstiteose anatoomiast mehe anatoomiani", mis lõppes näitusega "Tõuseb / ei tõuse" Eesti Tervishoiumuuseumis, avatud 31. maini

  11. Elements with Square Roots in Finite Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.S. Lucido; M.R. Pournaki


    In this paper, we study the probability that a randomly chosen element in a finite group has a square root, in particular the simple groups of Lie type of rank 1, the sporadic finite simple groups and the alternating groups.

  12. Dechlorodauricumine from cultured roots of Menispermum dauricum. (United States)

    Sugimoto, Yukihiro; Matsui, Miharu; Takikawa, Hirosato; Sasaki, Mitsuru; Kato, Masako


    Dechlorodauricumine, a possible organic substrate for biochlorination, was isolated from cultured roots of Menispermum dauricum, a rich source of chlorinated alkaloids. Its structure was established by spectroscopic and chemical methods.

  13. ROOT I/O in Javascript - Reading ROOT files in a browser

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva


    A JavaScript version of the ROOT I/O subsystem is being developed, in order to be able to browse (inspect) ROOT files in a platform independent way. This allows the content of ROOT files to be displayed in most web browsers, without having to install ROOT or any other software on the server or on the client. This gives a direct access to ROOT files from new (e.g. portable) devices in a light way. It will be possible to display simple graphical objects such as histograms and graphs (TH1, TH2, TH3, TProfile, TGraph, ...). The rendering will first be done with an external JavaScript graphic library, before investigating a way to produce graphics closer to what ROOT supports on other platforms (X11, Windows).

  14. Development of TRatioPlot in ROOT

    CERN Document Server

    Gessinger-Befurt, Paul


    The ROOT data analysis and visualization framework is a software package which is widely used in physics, especially in high energy physics. A common visualization which has so far been lacking a direct implementation is the ratio plot, as well as a few similar types of plots. The scope and goal of the summer student project at CERN was to implement a class in ROOT itself, that can take care of the most common types of calculations, and produces high quality visuals.

  15. Sparse DOA estimation with polynomial rooting


    Xenaki, Angeliki; Gerstoft, Peter; Fernandez Grande, Efren


    Direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation involves the localization of a few sources from a limited number of observations on an array of sensors. Thus, DOA estimation can be formulated as a sparse signal reconstruction problem and solved efficiently with compressive sensing (CS) to achieve highresolution imaging. Utilizing the dual optimal variables of the CS optimization problem, it is shown with Monte Carlo simulations that the DOAs are accurately reconstructed through polynomial rooting (Root...

  16. Rational Convolution Roots of Isobaric Polynomials


    Conci, Aura; Li, Huilan; MacHenry, Trueman


    In this paper, we exhibit two matrix representations of the rational roots of generalized Fibonacci polynomials (GFPs) under convolution product, in terms of determinants and permanents, respectively. The underlying root formulas for GFPs and for weighted isobaric polynomials (WIPs), which appeared in an earlier paper by MacHenry and Tudose, make use of two types of operators. These operators are derived from the generating functions for Stirling numbers of the first kind and second kind. Hen...

  17. Operating protocols of external root cervical resorption


    Luca Venuti


    Aim: Theme of this report is the external cervical root resorption and the sequence of clinical procedures to be implemented during the phases of treatment. The external cervical root resorption (ICR) presents particular pathological conditions such as to classify between resorption of inflammatory origin.1–3 It is generally presented as a complex clinical situation both in the diagnosis in a predictable prognosis.3–6 It's often associated with loss of calcified tissue: dentin, cementum, a...

  18. Development of Machine Learning Tools in ROOT (United States)

    Gleyzer, S. V.; Moneta, L.; Zapata, Omar A.


    ROOT is a framework for large-scale data analysis that provides basic and advanced statistical methods used by the LHC experiments. These include machine learning algorithms from the ROOT-integrated Toolkit for Multivariate Analysis (TMVA). We present several recent developments in TMVA, including a new modular design, new algorithms for variable importance and cross-validation, interfaces to other machine-learning software packages and integration of TMVA with Jupyter, making it accessible with a browser.

  19. Two root canals in maxillary central incisor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio de Almeida Gomes


    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: The success of endodontic treatment requires the knowledge of tooth morphology and its variations. Case report: This clinical article reports an unusual root canal configuration that was detected in a maxillary central incisor with two root canals, demonstrated by radiographic and computerized tomography exams. Conclusion: Knowledge of endodontic anatomy as well as the obtainment of both preoperative radiographs and tomography is important to detect abnormal tooth morphology.

  20. Relationships between root respiration rate and root morphology, chemistry and anatomy in Larix gmelinii and Fraxinus mandshurica. (United States)

    Jia, Shuxia; McLaughlin, Neil B; Gu, Jiacun; Li, Xingpeng; Wang, Zhengquan


    Tree roots are highly heterogeneous in form and function. Previous studies revealed that fine root respiration was related to root morphology, tissue nitrogen (N) concentration and temperature, and varied with both soil depth and season. The underlying mechanisms governing the relationship between root respiration and root morphology, chemistry and anatomy along the root branch order have not been addressed. Here, we examined these relationships of the first- to fifth-order roots for near surface roots (0-10 cm) of 22-year-old larch (Larix gmelinii L.) and ash (Fraxinus mandshurica L.) plantations. Root respiration rate at 18 °C was measured by gas phase O2 electrodes across the first five branching order roots (the distal roots numbered as first order) at three times of the year. Root parameters of root diameter, specific root length (SRL), tissue N concentration, total non-structural carbohydrates (starch and soluble sugar) concentration (TNC), cortical thickness and stele diameter were also measured concurrently. With increasing root order, root diameter, TNC and the ratio of root TNC to tissue N concentration increased, while the SRL, tissue N concentration and cortical proportion decreased. Root respiration rate also monotonically decreased with increasing root order in both species. Cortical tissue (including exodermis, cortical parenchyma and endodermis) was present in the first three order roots, and cross sections of the cortex for the first-order root accounted for 68% (larch) and 86% (ash) of the total cross section of the root. Root respiration was closely related to root traits such as diameter, SRL, tissue N concentration, root TNC : tissue N ratio and stele-to-root diameter proportion among the first five orders, which explained up to 81-94% of variation in the rate of root respiration for larch and up to 83-93% for ash. These results suggest that the systematic variations of root respiration rate within tree fine root system are possibly due to the

  1. Acid protease production in fungal root endophytes. (United States)

    Mayerhofer, Michael S; Fraser, Erica; Kernaghan, Gavin


    Fungal endophytes are ubiquitous in healthy root tissue, but little is known about their ecosystem functions, including their ability to utilize organic nutrient sources such as proteins. Root-associated fungi may secrete proteases to access the carbon and mineral nutrients within proteins in the soil or in the cells of their plant host. We compared the protein utilization patterns of multiple isolates of the root endophytes Phialocephala fortinii s.l., Meliniomyces variabilis and Umbelopsis isabellina with those of two ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, Hebeloma incarnatulum and Laccaria bicolor, and the wood-decay fungus Irpex lacteus at pH values of 2-9 on liquid BSA media. We also assessed protease activity using a fluorescently labeled casein assay and gelatin zymography and characterized proteases using specific protease inhibitors. I. lacteus and U. isabellina utilized protein efficiently, while the ECM fungi exhibited poor protein utilization. ECM fungi secreted metallo-proteases and had pH optima above 4, while other fungi produced aspartic proteases with lower pH optima. The ascomycetous root endophytes M. variabilis and P. fortinii exhibited intermediate levels of protein utilization and M. variabilis exhibited a very low pH optimum. Comparing proteolytic profiles between fungal root endophytes and fungi with well defined ecological roles provides insight into the ecology of these cryptic root associates.

  2. Extracellular DNA: the tip of root defenses? (United States)

    Hawes, Martha C; Curlango-Rivera, Gilberto; Wen, Fushi; White, Gerard J; Vanetten, Hans D; Xiong, Zhongguo


    This review discusses how extracellular DNA (exDNA) might function in plant defense, and at what level(s) of innate immunity this process might operate. A new role for extracellular factors in mammalian defense has been described in a series of studies. These studies reveal that cells including neutrophils, eosinophils, and mast cells produce 'extracellular traps' (ETs) consisting of histone-linked exDNA. When pathogens are attracted to such ETs, they are trapped and killed. When the exDNA component of ETs is degraded, trapping is impaired and resistance against invasion is reduced. Conversely, mutation of microbial genes encoding exDNases that degrade exDNA results in loss of virulence. This discovery that exDNases are virulence factors opens new avenues for disease control. In plants, exDNA is required for defense of the root tip. Innate immunity-related proteins are among a group of >100 proteins secreted from the root cap and root border cell populations. Direct tests revealed that exDNA also is rapidly synthesized and exported from the root tip. When this exDNA is degraded by the endonuclease DNase 1, root tip resistance to fungal infection is lost; when the polymeric structure is degraded more slowly, by the exonuclease BAL31, loss of resistance to fungal infection is delayed accordingly. The results suggest that root border cells may function in a manner analogous to that which occurs in mammalian cells.

  3. Tomato Root Response to Subsurface Drip Irrigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUGE Yu-Ping; ZHANG Xu-Dong; ZHANG Yu-Long; LI Jun; YANG Li-Juan; HUANG Yi; LIU Ming-Da


    Four depth treatments of subsurface drip irrigation pipes were designated as 1) at 20,2) 30 and 3) 40 cm depths all with a drip-proof flumes underneath,and 4) at 30 cm without a drip-proof flume to investigate the responses of a tomato root system to different technical parameters of subsurface drip irrigation in a glass greenhouse,to evaluate tomato growth as affected by subsurface drip irrigation,and to develop an integrated subsurface drip irrigation method for optimal tomato yield and water use in a glass greenhouse. Tomato seedlings were planted above the subsurface drip irrigation pipe. Most of the tomato roots in treatment 1 were found in the top 0-20 cm soil depth with weak root activity but with yield and water use efficiency (WUE) significantly less (P ---- 0.05) than treatment 2; root activity and tomato yield were significantly higher (P = 0.05) with treatment 3 compared to treatment 1; and with treatment 2 the tomato roots and shoots grew harmoniously with root activity,nutrient uptake,tomato yield and WUE significantly higher (P= 0.05) or as high as the other treatments. These findings suggested that subsurface drip irrigation with pipes at 30 cm depth with a drip-proof flume placed underneath was best for tomato production in greenhouses. In addition,the irrigation interval should be about 7-8 days and the irrigation rate should be set to 225 m3 ha-1 per event.

  4. Roots of Dehn twists about separating curves

    CERN Document Server

    Rajeevsarathy, Kashyap


    Let $C$ be a curve in a closed orientable surface $F$ of genus $g \\geq 2$ that separates $F$ into subsurfaces $\\widetilde {F_i}$ of genera $g_i$, for $i = 1,2$. We study the set of roots in $\\Mod(F)$ of the Dehn twist $t_C$ about $C$. All roots arise from pairs of $C_{n_i}$-actions on the $\\widetilde{F_i}$, where $n=\\lcm(n_1,n_2)$ is the degree of the root, that satisfy a certain compatibility condition. The $C_{n_i}$ actions are of a kind that we call nestled actions, and we classify them using tuples that we call data sets. The compatibility condition can be expressed by a simple formula, allowing a classification of all roots of $t_C$ by compatible pairs of data sets. We use these data set pairs to classify all roots for $g = 2$ and $g = 3$. We show that there is always a root of degree at least $2g^2+2g$, while $n \\leq 4g^2+2g$. We also give some additional applications.

  5. Gene expression regulation in roots under drought. (United States)

    Janiak, Agnieszka; Kwaśniewski, Mirosław; Szarejko, Iwona


    Stress signalling and regulatory networks controlling expression of target genes are the basis of plant response to drought. Roots are the first organs exposed to water deficiency in the soil and are the place of drought sensing. Signalling cascades transfer chemical signals toward the shoot and initiate molecular responses that lead to the biochemical and morphological changes that allow plants to be protected against water loss and to tolerate stress conditions. Here, we present an overview of signalling network and gene expression regulation pathways that are actively induced in roots under drought stress. In particular, the role of several transcription factor (TF) families, including DREB, AP2/ERF, NAC, bZIP, MYC, CAMTA, Alfin-like and Q-type ZFP, in the regulation of root response to drought are highlighted. The information provided includes available data on mutual interactions between these TFs together with their regulation by plant hormones and other signalling molecules. The most significant downstream target genes and molecular processes that are controlled by the regulatory factors are given. These data are also coupled with information about the influence of the described regulatory networks on root traits and root development which may translate to enhanced drought tolerance. This is the first literature survey demonstrating the gene expression regulatory machinery that is induced by drought stress, presented from the perspective of roots.

  6. Defining the core Arabidopsis thaliana root microbiome (United States)

    Gehring, Jase; Malfatti, Stephanie; Tremblay, Julien; Engelbrektson, Anna; Kunin, Victor; del Rio, Tijana Glavina; Edgar, Robert C.; Eickhorst, Thilo; Ley, Ruth E.; Hugenholtz, Philip; Tringe, Susannah Green; Dangl, Jeffery L.


    Land plants associate with a root microbiota distinct from the complex microbial community present in surrounding soil. The microbiota colonizing therhizosphere(immediately surroundingthe root) and the endophytic compartment (within the root) contribute to plant growth, productivity, carbon sequestration and phytoremediation1-3. Colonization of the root occurs despite a sophisticated plant immune system4,5, suggesting finely tuned discrimination of mutualists and commensals from pathogens. Genetic principles governing the derivation of host-specific endophyte communities from soil communities are poorly understood. Here we report the pyrosequencing of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene of more than 600 Arabidopsis thaliana plants to test the hypotheses that the root rhizosphere and endophytic compartment microbiota of plants grown under controlled conditions in natural soils are sufficiently dependent on the host to remain consistent across different soil types and developmental stages, and sufficiently dependent on host genotype to vary between inbred Arabidopsis accessions. We describe different bacterial communities in two geochemically distinct bulk soils and in rhizosphere and endophytic compartments prepared from roots grown in these soils. The communities in each compartment are strongly influenced by soil type. Endophytic compartments from both soils feature overlapping, low-complexity communities that are markedly enriched in Actinobacteria and specific families from other phyla, notably Proteobacteria. Some bacteria vary quantitatively between plants of different developmental stage and genotype. Our rigorous definition of an endophytic compartment microbiome should facilitate controlled dissection of plantmicrobe interactions derived from complex soil communities. PMID:22859206

  7. Short-term tissue response to potential root-end filling materials in infected root canals. (United States)

    Chong, B S; Pitt Ford, T R; Kariyawasam, S P


    The short-term tissue responses to two potential root-end filling materials, a light-cured glass ionomer cement (Vitrebond) and a reinforced zinc oxide-eugenol cement (Kalzinol), were compared with that to amalgam using a previously devised experimental model. In 24 premolar teeth of beagle dogs (47 roots), a collection of endodontic pathogenic bacteria was first inoculated into the root canals to induce periradicular lesions. On each root, an apicoectomy was performed and root-end cavities prepared to receive fillings of each material. The teeth and surrounding jaw were removed after 2 weeks (23 roots) and 1 week (24 roots); they were then prepared for histological examination. The tissue response to amalgam fillings after 2 weeks and 1 week was marked by moderate or severe inflammation on all roots, and extended to 0.5 mm in 15 out of 16 roots. In contrast, after 2 weeks, the majority of roots filled with Kalzinol showed little or moderate inflammation, while the tissue response to Vitrebond was the best of the three materials, and was also the least extensive. After 1 week, the overall best tissue response was with Vitrebond, followed by Kalzinol. The differences between materials for both time periods with either none or few inflammatory cells when compared with that with either moderate or severe inflammation were not statistically significant (P inflammation or inflammation extending inflammation extending > 0.2 mm ( 0.5 mm) were statistically significant (P inflammation adjacent to the root-end filling, even though there were intersample variations, there was little overall difference in the temporal and qualitative healing response to Vitrebond and Kalzinol. Both Vitrebond and Kalzinol have potential as root-end filling materials, as the tissue response was considerably more favourable than that to amalgam even in the short-term.

  8. New insights to lateral rooting: Differential responses to heterogeneous nitrogen availability among maize root types. (United States)

    Yu, Peng; White, Philip J; Li, Chunjian


    Historical domestication and the "Green revolution" have both contributed to the evolution of modern, high-performance crops. Together with increased irrigation and application of chemical fertilizers, these efforts have generated sufficient food for the growing global population. Root architecture, and in particular root branching, plays an important role in the acquisition of water and nutrients, plant performance, and crop yield. Better understanding of root growth and responses to the belowground environment could contribute to overcoming the challenges faced by agriculture today. Manipulating the abilities of crop root systems to explore and exploit the soil environment could enable plants to make the most of soil resources, increase stress tolerance and improve grain yields, while simultaneously reducing environmental degradation. In this article it is noted that the control of root branching, and the responses of root architecture to nitrate availability, differ between root types and between plant species. Since the control of root branching depends upon both plant species and root type, further work is urgently required to determine the appropriate genes to manipulate to improve resource acquisition by specific crops.

  9. Enhanced MRI in compressed lumbosacral nerve root; Alteration of vascular peameability in nerve root

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Tomofumi; Yoshizawa, Hidezo; Nakai, Sadaaki; Kobayashi, Shigeru; Hachiya, Hiromichi; Nakagawa, Masato; Nishimoto, Satoshi (Fujita Health Univ., Toyoake, Aichi (Japan). School of Medicine)


    The study was undertaken to assess how enhanced MRI reflects pathophysiology of the nerve root. In fundamental study, the seventh left lumbar nerve root was compressed by a clip for one hour in 10 mongrel dogs. Thirty min after removal of mechanical compression, gadolinium and Evans blue albumin (EBA) were iv injected. Then, the dogs were killed 10 min later. A mass of lumbosacral nerve root was removed for MR imaging. In addition, nerve root slices were prepared to examine changes in vascular permeability of EBA under microscopy. The compression area of nerve root was seen as hyperintensity on enhanced MRI, corresponding to extravascular leakage of EBA that resulted from the damaged blood-nerve barrier, i.e., edema within the root on microscope. In a clinical setting, 27 patients with lumbar disc herniation underwent MRI for the observation of the nerve root. In 8 of these 27 patients, the nerve root was seen as hyperintensity. This suggests that approximately one third of such patients may have edema within the nerve root. (N.K.).

  10. Capturing Arabidopsis root architecture dynamics with ROOT-FIT reveals diversity in responses to salinity. (United States)

    Julkowska, Magdalena M; Hoefsloot, Huub C J; Mol, Selena; Feron, Richard; de Boer, Gert-Jan; Haring, Michel A; Testerink, Christa


    The plant root is the first organ to encounter salinity stress, but the effect of salinity on root system architecture (RSA) remains elusive. Both the reduction in main root (MR) elongation and the redistribution of the root mass between MRs and lateral roots (LRs) are likely to play crucial roles in water extraction efficiency and ion exclusion. To establish which RSA parameters are responsive to salt stress, we performed a detailed time course experiment in which Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings were grown on agar plates under different salt stress conditions. We captured RSA dynamics with quadratic growth functions (root-fit) and summarized the salt-induced differences in RSA dynamics in three growth parameters: MR elongation, average LR elongation, and increase in number of LRs. In the ecotype Columbia-0 accession of Arabidopsis, salt stress affected MR elongation more severely than LR elongation and an increase in LRs, leading to a significantly altered RSA. By quantifying RSA dynamics of 31 different Arabidopsis accessions in control and mild salt stress conditions, different strategies for regulation of MR and LR meristems and root branching were revealed. Different RSA strategies partially correlated with natural variation in abscisic acid sensitivity and different Na(+)/K(+) ratios in shoots of seedlings grown under mild salt stress. Applying root-fit to describe the dynamics of RSA allowed us to uncover the natural diversity in root morphology and cluster it into four response types that otherwise would have been overlooked.

  11. Root caries, root surface restorations and lifestyle factors in adult Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Jensen, Allan Bardow; Ekstrand, Kim


    AIM: To investigate selected lifestyle factors in relation to active caries and restored root surface lesions in adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Based on clinical examinations and questionnaires, data on root caries, socioeconomic status, body mass index, dietary habits, alcohol consumption, tobacco...... dentures were significantly associated with presence of active root caries (p tobacco use and alcohol...... consumption, as well as wearing dentures, were significantly associated with the occurrence of untreated caries and restored root surface lesions, especially in persons over 45. Thus, such lifestyle factors should be taken into consideration, identifying persons with a need of preventive dental services...

  12. Root cortical senescence decreases root respiration, nutrient content, and radial water and nutrient transport in barley. (United States)

    Schneider, Hannah M; Wojciechowski, Tobias; Postma, Johannes A; Brown, Kathleen M; Lücke, Andreas; Zeisler, Viktoria; Schreiber, Lukas; Lynch, Jonathan P


    The functional implications of root cortical senescence (RCS) are poorly understood. We tested the hypotheses that RCS in barley: (1) reduces the respiration and nutrient content of root tissue; (2) decreases radial water and nutrient transport; (3) is accompanied by increased suberization to protect the stele. Genetic variation for RCS exists between modern germplasm and landraces. Nitrogen and phosphorus deficiency increased the rate of RCS. Maximal RCS, defined as the disappearance of the entire root cortex, reduced root nitrogen content by 66%, phosphorus content by 63%, and respiration by 87% compared to root segments with no RCS. Roots with maximal RCS had 90%, 92%, and 84% less radial water, nitrate, and phosphorus transport, respectively compared to segments with no RCS. The onset of RCS coincided with 30% greater aliphatic suberin in the endodermis. These results support the hypothesis that RCS reduces root carbon and nutrient costs and may therefore have adaptive significance for soil resource acquisition. By reducing root respiration and nutrient content, RCS could permit greater root growth, soil resource acquisition, and resource allocation to other plant processes. RCS merits investigation as a trait for improving the performance of barley, wheat, triticale, and rye under edaphic stress.

  13. Plant root tortuosity: an indicator of root path formation in soil with different composition and density (United States)

    Popova, Liyana; van Dusschoten, Dagmar; Nagel, Kerstin A.; Fiorani, Fabio; Mazzolai, Barbara


    Background and Aims Root soil penetration and path optimization are fundamental for root development in soil. We describe the influence of soil strength on root elongation rate and diameter, response to gravity, and root-structure tortuosity, estimated by average curvature of primary maize roots. Methods Soils with different densities (1·5, 1·6, 1·7 g cm−3), particle sizes (sandy loam; coarse sand mixed with sandy loam) and layering (monolayer, bilayer) were used. In total, five treatments were performed: Mix_low with mixed sand low density (three pots, 12 plants), Mix_medium - mixed sand medium density (three pots, 12 plants), Mix_high - mixed sand high density (three pots, ten plants), Loam_low sandy loam soil low density (four pots, 16 plants), and Bilayer with top layer of sandy loam and bottom layer mixed sand both of low density (four pots, 16 plants). We used non-invasive three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging to quantify effects of these treatments. Key Results Roots grew more slowly [root growth rate (mm h–1); decreased 50 %] with increased diameters [root diameter (mm); increased 15 %] in denser soils (1·7 vs. 1·5 g cm–3). Root response to gravity decreased 23 % with increased soil compaction, and tortuosity increased 10 % in mixed sand. Response to gravity increased 39 % and tortuosity decreased 3 % in sandy loam. After crossing a bilayered–soil interface, roots grew more slowly, similar to roots grown in soil with a bulk density of 1·64 g cm–3, whereas the actual experimental density was 1·48±0·02 g cm–3. Elongation rate and tortuosity were higher in Mix_low than in Loam_low. Conclusions The present study increases our existing knowledge of the influence of physical soil properties on root growth and presents new assays for studying root growth dynamics in non-transparent media. We found that root tortuosity is indicative of root path selection, because it could result from both mechanical deflection and

  14. A new Approach for Quantifying Root-Reinforcement of Streambanks: the RipRoot Model (United States)

    Pollen, N. L.; Simon, A.


    Riparian vegetation plays an important role in controlling geotechnical and fluvial processes acting along and within streambanks through the binding effects of roots. Quantification of this mechanical effect is therefore essential to accurately model streambank stability. Until now, most attempts to include the effects of root reinforcement by riparian vegetation have used root-cohesion values estimated using the Wu et al. (1979) equation, requiring the tensile strengths and diameters of the roots crossing the potential shear-plane. However, the Wu et al. equation is a static model that assumes that all roots break, and that they all break simultaneously. Field observations and laboratory experiments have shown that in reality the roots do not all break simultaneously, and that the breaking of roots during mass failure is in fact a dynamic process. Static models such as the Wu et al. equation are therefore likely to produce overestimations of cohesion due to roots. As a response to this concern, a dynamic root reinforcement model (RipRoot) was developed, based on the concepts of fiber bundle models (FBM's) used in materials science. Within the model the root-soil system is loaded incrementally resulting in progressive root breaking and redistribution of stresses from the broken roots to the remaining intact roots in the soil matrix. The redistribution and loading process continues until either all of the roots have broken, or equilibrium is reached where the root network supports the driving force imposed on the bank. The increase in bank cohesion using the static Wu et al. equation are 18% to 38% higher than RipRoot for riparian tree species, including Black Willow, Sandbar Willow, Cottonwood, River Birch and Eastern Sycamore, and 49% higher for Switch Grass. These variations in cohesion values can have a significant impact on streambank Factor of Safety (Fs) values calculated using the Simon et al. (2000) bank-stability model. For example, a 3m high silt

  15. Modelling water uptake efficiency of root systems (United States)

    Leitner, Daniel; Tron, Stefania; Schröder, Natalie; Bodner, Gernot; Javaux, Mathieu; Vanderborght, Jan; Vereecken, Harry; Schnepf, Andrea


    Water uptake is crucial for plant productivity. Trait based breeding for more water efficient crops will enable a sustainable agricultural management under specific pedoclimatic conditions, and can increase drought resistance of plants. Mathematical modelling can be used to find suitable root system traits for better water uptake efficiency defined as amount of water taken up per unit of root biomass. This approach requires large simulation times and large number of simulation runs, since we test different root systems under different pedoclimatic conditions. In this work, we model water movement by the 1-dimensional Richards equation with the soil hydraulic properties described according to the van Genuchten model. Climatic conditions serve as the upper boundary condition. The root system grows during the simulation period and water uptake is calculated via a sink term (after Tron et al. 2015). The goal of this work is to compare different free software tools based on different numerical schemes to solve the model. We compare implementations using DUMUX (based on finite volumes), Hydrus 1D (based on finite elements), and a Matlab implementation of Van Dam, J. C., & Feddes 2000 (based on finite differences). We analyse the methods for accuracy, speed and flexibility. Using this model case study, we can clearly show the impact of various root system traits on water uptake efficiency. Furthermore, we can quantify frequent simplifications that are introduced in the modelling step like considering a static root system instead of a growing one, or considering a sink term based on root density instead of considering the full root hydraulic model (Javaux et al. 2008). References Tron, S., Bodner, G., Laio, F., Ridolfi, L., & Leitner, D. (2015). Can diversity in root architecture explain plant water use efficiency? A modeling study. Ecological modelling, 312, 200-210. Van Dam, J. C., & Feddes, R. A. (2000). Numerical simulation of infiltration, evaporation and shallow

  16. D-Root: a system for cultivating plants with the roots in darkness or under different light conditions. (United States)

    Silva-Navas, Javier; Moreno-Risueno, Miguel A; Manzano, Concepción; Pallero-Baena, Mercedes; Navarro-Neila, Sara; Téllez-Robledo, Bárbara; Garcia-Mina, Jose M; Baigorri, Roberto; Gallego, Francisco Javier; del Pozo, Juan C


    In nature roots grow in the dark and away from light (negative phototropism). However, most current research in root biology has been carried out with the root system grown in the presence of light. Here, we have engineered a device, called Dark-Root (D-Root), to grow plants in vitro with the aerial part exposed to the normal light/dark photoperiod while the roots are in the dark or exposed to specific wavelengths or light intensities. D-Root provides an efficient system for cultivating a large number of seedlings and easily characterizing root architecture in the dark. At the morphological level, root illumination shortens root length and promotes early emergence of lateral roots, therefore inducing expansion of the root system. Surprisingly, root illumination also affects shoot development, including flowering time. Our analyses also show that root illumination alters the proper response to hormones or abiotic stress (e.g. salt or osmotic stress) and nutrient starvation, enhancing inhibition of root growth. In conclusion, D-Root provides a growing system closer to the natural one for assaying Arabidopsis plants, and therefore its use will contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in root development, hormonal signaling and stress responses.

  17. Tissue response to potential root-end filling materials in infected root canals. (United States)

    Chong, B S; Ford, T R; Kariyawasam, S P


    The tissue responses to two potential root-end filling materials, a light-cured glass ionomer cement (Vitrebond) and a reinforced zinc oxide-eugenol cement (Kalzinol) were compared with that to amalgam. In 27 premolar teeth of beagle dogs (54 roots), a collection of endodontic pathogenic bacteria was first inoculated into the root canals to induce periapical lesions. On each root, an apicectomy was performed and root-end cavities prepared to receive fillings of each material. The teeth and surrounding jaw were removed after 8 weeks (24 roots) and 4 weeks (30 roots); and they were prepared for histological examination. The tissue response to amalgam fillings after 4 and 8 weeks was marked by moderate or severe inflammation on all roots, and extended > 0.5 mm in 10 out of 18 roots. In contrast, after 8 weeks, the majority of roots filled with Kalzinol showed little or moderate inflammation while the tissue response to Vitrebond was the best of the three materials, and was also less extensive. After 4 weeks, the overall best tissue response was with Kalzinol, followed closely by Vitrebond. The differences between materials for both time periods with either none or few inflammatory cells when compared with that with either moderate or severe inflammation were statistically significant (P inflammation or inflammation extending inflammation extending > 0.2 mm ( 0.5 mm) were statistically significant (P < 0.01). Both Vitrebond and Kalzinol have potential as root-end filling materials as the tissue response was considerably more favourable than that to amalgam.

  18. Mercury content of sprouts and harvested roots from treated sweet potato mother roots. [Ipomoea batatas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huisingh, D.; Nielsen, L.W.


    Mercury containing fungicides have been used extensively for seed and root disease control, but data on the fate of the mercury (Hg) are scarce. Experiments were designed to see if Hg applied to propagative sweet potato roots increased the Hg-content of edible roots. Roots were treated with Semesan Bel(hydroxymercurinitrophenol + hydroxymercurichlorophenol), Mertect (Thiabendazole: 2-(4-Thiazolyl)-benzimidazole), or Botran (2,6-Dichloro-4-nitroanaline) at recommended rates or with water. Treated roots were bedded into sandy loam soil, and the plants were harvested at 2 and 3 months after bedding. Some sprouts transplanted at 2 months were grown to maturity, and the harvested roots were analyzed. Hg analyses were performed by flameless atomic absorption. Roots treated prior to planting with Semesan Bel, Mertect, Botran, and water contained 23.0, 0.05, 0.03 and 0.03 dry wt, respectively. At the 2-month harvest, the leaves and stems of the Semesan Bel-treated plants contained 5 times more Hg than those of the other treatments. By the 3-month harvest, the amount of Hg in plant leaves and stems from Hg-treated roots was 2 to 3 times that of the others. Fall harvested fleshy roots contained 0.03, 0.02, 0.03, and 0.03 dry wt Hg for the Semesan Bel, Mertect, Botran, and water treatments, respectively. This demonstrates that the Hg applied to the mother root was translocated to the new plant, but little if any was translocated to the new fleshy roots.

  19. How can science education foster students' rooting? (United States)

    Østergaard, Edvin


    The question of how to foster rooting in science education points towards a double challenge; efforts to prevent (further) uprooting and efforts to promote rooting/re-rooting. Wolff-Michael Roth's paper discusses the uprooting/rooting pair of concepts, students' feeling of alienation and loss of fundamental sense of the earth as ground, and potential consequences for teaching science in a rooted manner. However, the argumentation raises a number of questions which I try to answer. My argumentation rests on Husserl's critique of science and the "ontological reversal", an ontological position where abstract models from science are considered as more real than the everyday reality itself, where abstract, often mathematical, models are taken to be the real causes behind everyday experiences. In this paper, measures towards an "ontological re-reversal" are discussed by drawing on experiences from phenomenon-based science education. I argue that perhaps the most direct and productive way of promoting rooting in science class is by intentionally cultivating the competencies of sensing and aesthetic experience. An aesthetic experience is defined as a precognitive, sensuous experience, an experience that is opened up for through sensuous perception. Conditions for rooting in science education is discussed against three challenges: Restoring the value of aesthetic experience, allowing time for open inquiry and coping with curriculum. Finally, I raise the question whether dimensions like "reality" or "nature" are self-evident for students. In the era of constructivism, with its focus on cognition and knowledge building, the inquiry process itself has become more important than the object of inquiry. I argue that as educators of science teachers we have to emphasize more explicitly "the nature of nature" as a field of exploration.

  20. Cold temperature delays wound healing in postharvest sugarbeet roots (United States)

    Storage temperature affects the rate and extent of wound-healing in a number of root and tuber crops. The effect of storage temperature on wound-healing in sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) roots, however, is largely unknown. Wound-healing of sugarbeet roots was investigated using surface-abraded roots s...

  1. Root bacterial endophytes alter plant phenotype, but not physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henning, Jeremiah A.; Weston, David J.; Pelletier, Dale A.;


    (root:shoot, biomass production, root and leaf growth rates) and physiological traits (chlorophyll content, net photosynthesis, net photosynthesis at saturating light-Asat, and saturating CO2-Amax). Overall, we found that bacterial root endophyte infection increased root growth rate up to 184% and leaf...

  2. [Dimensional fractal of post-paddy wheat root architecture]. (United States)

    Chen, Xin-xin; Ding, Qi-shuo; Li, Yi-nian; Xue, Jin-lin; Lu, Ming-zhou; Qiu, Wei


    To evaluate whether crop rooting system was directionally dependent, a field digitizer was used to measure post-paddy wheat root architectures. The acquired data was transferred to Pro-E, in which virtual root architecture was reconstructed and projected to a series of planes each separated in 10° apart. Fractal dimension and fractal abundance of root projections in all the 18 planes were calculated, revealing a distinctive architectural distribution of wheat root in each direction. This strongly proved that post-paddy wheat root architecture was directionally dependent. From seedling to turning green stage, fractal dimension of the 18 projections fluctuated significantly, illustrating a dynamical root developing process in the period. At the jointing stage, however, fractal indices of wheat root architecture resumed its regularity in each dimension. This wheat root architecture recovered its dimensional distinctness. The proposed method was applicable for precision modeling field state root distribution in soil.

  3. Triterpene and Flavonoid Biosynthesis and Metabolic Profiling of Hairy Roots, Adventitious Roots, and Seedling Roots of Astragalus membranaceus. (United States)

    Park, Yun Ji; Thwe, Aye Aye; Li, Xiaohua; Kim, Yeon Jeong; Kim, Jae Kwang; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Park, Sang Un


    Astragalus membranaceus is an important traditional Chinese herb with various medical applications. Astragalosides (ASTs), calycosin, and calycosin-7-O-β-d-glucoside (CG) are the primary metabolic components in A. membranaceus roots. The dried roots of A. membranaceus have various medicinal properties. The present study aimed to investigate the expression levels of genes related to the biosynthetic pathways of ASTs, calycosin, and CG to investigate the differences between seedling roots (SRs), adventitious roots (ARs), and hairy roots (HRs) using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). qRT-PCR study revealed that the transcription level of genes involved in the AST biosynthetic pathway was lowest in ARs and showed similar patterns in HRs and SRs. Moreover, most genes involved in the synthesis of calycosin and CG exhibited the highest expression levels in SRs. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis indicated that the expression level of the genes correlated with the content of ASTs, calycosin, and CG in the three different types of roots. ASTs were the most abundant in SRs. CG accumulation was greater than calycosin accumulation in ARs and HRs, whereas the opposite was true in SRs. Additionally, 40 metabolites were identified using gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS). Principal component analysis (PCA) documented the differences among SRs, ARs, and HRs. PCA comparatively differentiated among the three samples. The results of PCA showed that HRs were distinct from ARs and SRs on the basis of the dominant amounts of sugars and clusters derived from closely similar biochemical pathways. Also, ARs had a higher concentration of phenylalanine, a precursor for the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway, as well as CG. TCA cycle intermediates levels including succinic acid and citric acid indicated a higher amount in SRs than in the others.

  4. Pea-root exudates and their effect upon root-nodule bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egeraat, van A.W.S.M.


    The main purpose of this investigation was to study the exudation (mechanism, sites) of various compounds by roots of pea seedlings in relation to the growth of Rhizobium leguminosarum.Chapter 1 gives a survey of the literature pertaining to plant-root exudates and their influence upon soil microorg

  5. Root system markup language: toward a unified root architecture description language. (United States)

    Lobet, Guillaume; Pound, Michael P; Diener, Julien; Pradal, Christophe; Draye, Xavier; Godin, Christophe; Javaux, Mathieu; Leitner, Daniel; Meunier, Félicien; Nacry, Philippe; Pridmore, Tony P; Schnepf, Andrea


    The number of image analysis tools supporting the extraction of architectural features of root systems has increased in recent years. These tools offer a handy set of complementary facilities, yet it is widely accepted that none of these software tools is able to extract in an efficient way the growing array of static and dynamic features for different types of images and species. We describe the Root System Markup Language (RSML), which has been designed to overcome two major challenges: (1) to enable portability of root architecture data between different software tools in an easy and interoperable manner, allowing seamless collaborative work; and (2) to provide a standard format upon which to base central repositories that will soon arise following the expanding worldwide root phenotyping effort. RSML follows the XML standard to store two- or three-dimensional image metadata, plant and root properties and geometries, continuous functions along individual root paths, and a suite of annotations at the image, plant, or root scale at one or several time points. Plant ontologies are used to describe botanical entities that are relevant at the scale of root system architecture. An XML schema describes the features and constraints of RSML, and open-source packages have been developed in several languages (R, Excel, Java, Python, and C#) to enable researchers to integrate RSML files into popular research workflow.

  6. Deep rooting conferred by DEEPER ROOTING 1 enhances rice yield in paddy fields (United States)

    Arai-Sanoh, Yumiko; Takai, Toshiyuki; Yoshinaga, Satoshi; Nakano, Hiroshi; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Kondo, Motohiko; Uga, Yusaku


    To clarify the effect of deep rooting on grain yield in rice (Oryza sativa L.) in an irrigated paddy field with or without fertilizer, we used the shallow-rooting IR64 and the deep-rooting Dro1-NIL (a near-isogenic line homozygous for the Kinandang Patong allele of DEEPER ROOTING 1 (DRO1) in the IR64 genetic background). Although total root length was similar in both lines, more roots were distributed within the lower soil layer of the paddy field in Dro1-NIL than in IR64, irrespective of fertilizer treatment. At maturity, Dro1-NIL showed approximately 10% higher grain yield than IR64, irrespective of fertilizer treatment. Higher grain yield of Dro1-NIL was mainly due to the increased 1000-kernel weight and increased percentage of ripened grains, which resulted in a higher harvest index. After heading, the uptake of nitrogen from soil and leaf nitrogen concentration were higher in Dro1-NIL than in IR64. At the mid-grain-filling stage, Dro1-NIL maintained higher cytokinin fluxes from roots to shoots than IR64. These results suggest that deep rooting by DRO1 enhances nitrogen uptake and cytokinin fluxes at late stages, resulting in better grain filling in Dro1-NIL in a paddy field in this study. PMID:24988911

  7. Redirection of auxin flow in Arabidopsis thaliana roots after infection by root-knot nematodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kyndt, Tina; Goverse, Aska; Haegeman, Annelies; Warmerdam, Sonja; Wanjau, Cecilia; Jahani, Mona; Engler, Gilbert; Almeida Engler, De Janice; Gheysen, Godelieve


    Plant-parasitic root-knot nematodes induce the formation of giant cells within the plant root, and it has been recognized that auxin accumulates in these feeding sites. Here, we studied the role of the auxin transport system governed by AUX1/LAX3 influx proteins and different PIN efflux proteins dur

  8. Etiology of phomopsis root rot in soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cecília Ghissi


    Full Text Available In a survey of damages caused by soybean root rot to crops in the south of Brazil for several years, a root rot caused by Phomopsis sp has been found with increasing frequency. The primary symptoms are seen when the main root is cut longitudinally, including the death of the wood which shows white coloration and well-defined black lines that do not have a defined format. Thus, based on similarity, it has been called geographic root rot due to its aspect resembling irregular lines that separate regions on a map. In isolations, colonies and alpha spores of Phomopsis have prevailed. Pathogenicity test was done by means of inoculation in the crown of plants cultivated in a growth chamber. The geographic symptoms were reproduced in plants and the fungus Phomopsis sp. was reisolated. In soybean stems naturally infected with pod and stem blight, geographic symptoms caused by Phomopsis phaseoli are found. To the known symptoms on stems, pods and grains, that of root rot caused by P. phaseoli is now added.

  9. Chronic nerve root entrapment: compression and degeneration (United States)

    Vanhoestenberghe, A.


    Electrode mounts are being developed to improve electrical stimulation and recording. Some are tight-fitting, or even re-shape the nervous structure they interact with, for a more selective, fascicular, access. If these are to be successfully used chronically with human nerve roots, we need to know more about the possible damage caused by the long-term entrapment and possible compression of the roots following electrode implantation. As there are, to date, no such data published, this paper presents a review of the relevant literature on alternative causes of nerve root compression, and a discussion of the degeneration mechanisms observed. A chronic compression below 40 mmHg would not compromise the functionality of the root as far as electrical stimulation and recording applications are concerned. Additionally, any temporary increase in pressure, due for example to post-operative swelling, should be limited to 20 mmHg below the patient’s mean arterial pressure, with a maximum of 100 mmHg. Connective tissue growth may cause a slower, but sustained, pressure increase. Therefore, mounts large enough to accommodate the root initially without compressing it, or compliant, elastic, mounts, that may stretch to free a larger cross-sectional area in the weeks after implantation, are recommended.

  10. Computing Rooted and Unrooted Maximum Consistent Supertrees

    CERN Document Server

    van Iersel, Leo


    A chief problem in phylogenetics and database theory is the computation of a maximum consistent tree from a set of rooted or unrooted trees. A standard input are triplets, rooted binary trees on three leaves, or quartets, unrooted binary trees on four leaves. We give exact algorithms constructing rooted and unrooted maximum consistent supertrees in time O(2^n n^5 m^2 log(m)) for a set of m triplets (quartets), each one distinctly leaf-labeled by some subset of n labels. The algorithms extend to weighted triplets (quartets). We further present fast exact algorithms for constructing rooted and unrooted maximum consistent trees in polynomial space. Finally, for a set T of m rooted or unrooted trees with maximum degree D and distinctly leaf-labeled by some subset of a set L of n labels, we compute, in O(2^{mD} n^m m^5 n^6 log(m)) time, a tree distinctly leaf-labeled by a maximum-size subset X of L that all trees in T, when restricted to X, are consistent with.

  11. Protein synthesis in geostimulated root caps (United States)

    Feldman, L. J.


    A study is presented of the processes occurring in the root cap of corn which are requisite for the formation of root cap inhibitor and which can be triggered or modulated by both light and gravity. The results of this study indicate the importance of protein synthesis for light-induced gravitropic bending in roots. Root caps in which protein synthesis is prevented are unable to induce downward bending. This suggests that light acts by stimulating proteins which are necessary for the translation of the gravitropic stimulus into a growth response (downward bending). The turnover of protein with time was also examined in order to determine whether light acts by stimulating the synthesis of unique proteins required for downward growth. It is found that auxin in combination with light allows for the translation of the gravitropic stimulus into a growth response at least in part through the modification of protein synthesis. It is concluded that unique proteins are stimulated by light and are involved in promoting the downward growth in roots which are responding to gravity.

  12. Differences in U root-to-shoot translocation between plant species explained by U distribution in roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straczek, Anne; Duquene, Lise [Belgium Nuclear Research Centre (SCK.CEN), Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Wegrzynek, Dariusz [IAEA, Seibersdorf Laboratories, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Chinea-Cano, Ernesto [IAEA, Seibersdorf Laboratories, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Wannijn, Jean [Belgium Nuclear Research Centre (SCK.CEN), Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Navez, Jacques [Royal Museum of Africa, Department of Geology, Leuvensesteenweg 13, 3080 Tervuren (Belgium); Vandenhove, Hildegarde, E-mail: hvandenh@sckcen.b [Belgium Nuclear Research Centre (SCK.CEN), Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)


    Accumulation and distribution of uranium in roots and shoots of four plants species differing in their cation exchange capacity of roots (CECR) was investigated. After exposure in hydroponics for seven days to 100 mumol U L{sup -1}, distribution of uranium in roots was investigated through chemical extraction of roots. Higher U concentrations were measured in roots of dicots which showed a higher CECR than monocot species. Chemical extractions indicated that uranium is mostly located in the apoplasm of roots of monocots but that it is predominantly located in the symplasm of roots of dicots. Translocation of U to shoot was not significantly affected by the CECR or distribution of U between symplasm and apoplasm. Distribution of uranium in roots was investigated through chemical extraction of roots for all species. Additionally, longitudinal and radial distribution of U in roots of maize and Indian mustard, respectively showing the lowest and the highest translocation, was studied following X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis of specific root sections. Chemical analysis and XRF analysis of roots of maize and Indian mustard clearly indicated a higher longitudinal and radial transport of uranium in roots of Indian mustard than in roots of maize, where uranium mostly accumulated in root tips. These results showed that even if CECR could partly explain U accumulation in roots, other mechanisms like radial and longitudinal transport are implied in the translocation of U to the shoot.

  13. Root-soil air gap and resistance to water flow at the soil-root interface of Robinia pseudoacacia. (United States)

    Liu, X P; Zhang, W J; Wang, X Y; Cai, Y J; Chang, J G


    During periods of water deficit, growing roots may shrink, retaining only partial contact with the soil. In this study, known mathematical models were used to calculate the root-soil air gap and water flow resistance at the soil-root interface, respectively, of Robinia pseudoacacia L. under different water conditions. Using a digital camera, the root-soil air gap of R. pseudoacacia was investigated in a root growth chamber; this root-soil air gap and the model-inferred water flow resistance at the soil-root interface were compared with predictions based on a separate outdoor experiment. The results indicated progressively greater root shrinkage and loss of root-soil contact with decreasing soil water potential. The average widths of the root-soil air gap for R. pseudoacacia in open fields and in the root growth chamber were 0.24 and 0.39 mm, respectively. The resistance to water flow at the soil-root interface in both environments increased with decreasing soil water potential. Stepwise regression analysis demonstrated that soil water potential and soil temperature were the best predictors of variation in the root-soil air gap. A combination of soil water potential, soil temperature, root-air water potential difference and soil-root water potential difference best predicted the resistance to water flow at the soil-root interface.

  14. Evolution of Root Characters of Soybean Varieties Developed in Different Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiu-hong; WU Zong-pu; ZHANG Guo-dong


    It was studied that the evolution of root characteristics among 42 soybean varieties developed in Heilongjiang and Jilin Province in different years. The results showed that there were differences on the root characteristics among soybean varieties. From 1950s to 1990s, root fresh weight, root volume, root surface, root dry weight, lateral root length of main root characters tendedly increased with the variable development years. The root system of the varieties in 1990s was relatively well developed compared with that in the other years. The evolutionary trend of the root system of soybean varieties was increasing in root weight, root volume, root surface and length of lateral root.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi-Ming HE; Eldon GUNN


    In this paper, we study the stochastic root matrices of stochastic matrices. All stochastic roots of 2×2 stochastic matrices are found explicitly. A method based on characteristic polynomial of matrix is developed to find all real root matrices that are functions of the original 3×3 matrix, including all possible (function) stochastic root matrices. In addition, we comment on some numerical methods for computing stochastic root matrices of stochastic matrices.

  16. Untangling the effects of root age and tissue nitrogen on root respiration in Populus tremuloides at different nitrogen supply. (United States)

    Ceccon, Christian; Tagliavini, Massimo; Schmitt, Armin Otto; Eissenstat, David M


    Root respiration is a major contributor to terrestrial carbon flux. Many studies have shown root respiration to increase with an increase in root tissue nitrogen (N) concentration across species and study sites. Studies have also shown that both root respiration and root N concentration typically decrease with root age. The effects of added N may directly increase respiration of existing roots or may affect respiration by shifting the age structure of a root population by stimulating growth. To the best of our knowledge, no study has ever examined the effect of added N as a function of root age on root respiration. In this study, root respiration of 13-year-old Populus tremuloides Michx. trees grown in the field and 1-year-old P. tremuloides seedlings grown in containers was analyzed for the relative influence of root age and root N concentration independent of root age on root respiration. Field roots were first tracked using root windows and then sampled at known age. Nitrogen was either applied or not to small patches beneath the windows. In a pot experiment, each plant was grown with its root system split between two separate pots and N was applied at three different levels, either at the same or at different rates between pots. Root N concentration ranged between 1.4 and 1.7% in the field experiment and 1.8 and 2.6% in the seedling experiment. We found that addition of N increased root N concentration of only older roots in the field but of roots of all ages in the potted seedlings. In both experiments, the age-dependent decline in root respiration was largely consistent, and could be explained by a negative power function. Respiration decreased ∼50% by 3 weeks of age. Although root age was the dominant factor affecting respiration in both experiments, in the field experiment, root N also contributed to root respiration independent of root age. These results add further insight into respiratory responses of roots to N addition and mechanisms underlying the

  17. The role of root hairs in cadmium acquisition by barley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Ruilun; Li Huafen [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions of the Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Jiang Rongfeng, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions of the Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Roemheld, Volker [Institute of Plant Nutrition, University of Hohenheim, D-70593 Stuttgart (Germany); Zhang Fusuo [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions of the Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Zhao Fangjie [Soil Science Department, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom)


    The role of root hairs in Cd acquisition from soil was investigated in three pot experiments using a root hairless mutant (bald root barley, brb) and its wild-type (WT) cultivar of barley (Hordeum vulgare). brb had significantly lower concentrations and lower total amounts of Cd in shoots than WT. The Cd uptake efficiency based on total root length was 8-45% lower in brb than in WT. The difference between brb and WT increased with increasing extractable Cd in soil under the experimental conditions used. Additions of phosphate to soil decreased Cd extractability. Both soil and foliar additions of phosphate decreased root length, and root hair formation in WT. These effects resulted in decreased Cd uptake with increasing P supply. Cd uptake in WT correlated significantly with root length, root hair length and density, and soil extractable Cd. Root hairs contribute significantly to Cd uptake by barley. - Research highlights: The Cd uptake efficiency was significantly lower in brb than in WT. Additions of phosphate to soil decreased Cd extractability and Cd uptake. Both soil and foliar additions of phosphate decreased root length, and root hair formation in WT. Root hairs contribute significantly to Cd uptake by barley. - The Cd uptake efficiency based on total root length was 8-45% lower in a barley root hairless mutant than in its wild-type, indicating an important role of root hairs in Cd acquisition.

  18. Nitrogenase Activity Associated with Halodule wrightii Roots. (United States)

    Smith, G W; Hayasaka, S S


    Nitrogen fixation (acetylene reduction) associated with roots of the seagrass Halodule wrightii was measured offshore near Beaufort and Moorhead City, N.C. Rates of acetylene reduction were higher in aerobic than in anaerobic assays and were linear for up to 5 days. The temperature range for acetylene reduction was 15 to 35 degrees C with a maximum activity at 35 degrees C. Nitrogenase activity was shown to vary seasonally with highest activities occurring during warmer summer months (23 mug of N(2) fixed per m per day). At in situ temperature, nitrogenase activities associated with surface-sterilized and non-surface-sterilized roots were similar. One morphological bacterial type was isolated from surface-sterilized roots and identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae type 4B.

  19. Tree root systems and nutrient mobilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyle, Jim; Rob, Harrison; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten;

    Roots mobilize nutrients via deep penetration and rhizosphere processes inducing weathering of primary minerals. These contribute to C transfer to soils and to tree nutrition. Assessments of these characteristics and processes of root systems are important for understanding long-term supplies...... of nutrient elements essential for forest growth and resilience. Research and techniques have signifi cantly advanced since Olof Tamm’s 1934 base mineral index for Swedish forest soils, and basic nutrient budget estimates for whole-tree harvesting systems of the 1970s. Recent research in areas that include...... sometimes stored at depth. Other recent studies on potential release of nutrients due to chemical weathering indicate the importance of root access to deep soil layers. Release profi les clearly indicate depletion in the top layers and a much higher potential in B and C horizons. Review of evaluations...

  20. Aortic Root Enlargement or Sutureless Valve Implantation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos G. Baikoussis


    Full Text Available Aortic valve replacement (AVR in patients with a small aortic annulus is a challenging issue. The importance of prosthesis–patient mismatch (PPM post aortic valve replacement (AVR is controversial but has to be avoided. Many studies support the fact that PPM has a negative impact on short and long term survival. In order to avoid PPM, aortic root enlargement may be performed. Alternatively and keeping in mind that often some comorbidities are present in old patients with small aortic root, the Perceval S suturelles valve implantation could be a perfect solution. The Perceval sutureless bioprosthesis provides reasonable hemodynamic performance avoiding the PPM and providing the maximum of aortic orifice area. We would like to see in the near future the role of the aortic root enlargement techniques in the era of surgical implantation of the sutureless valve (SAVR and the transcatheter valve implantation (TAVI.

  1. Cryptographic Protocols Based on Root Extracting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koprowski, Maciej

    In this thesis we design new cryptographic protocols, whose security is based on the hardness of root extracting or more speci cally the RSA problem. First we study the problem of root extraction in nite Abelian groups, where the group order is unknown. This is a natural generalization of the...... construction based on root extracting. As an example of this, we modify Cramer-Shoup signature scheme such that it becomes a genericm algorithm. We discuss then implementing it in RSA groups without the original restriction that the modulus must be a product of safe primes. It can also be implemented in class......,  providing a currently acceptable level of security. This allows us to propose the rst practical blind signature scheme provably secure, without relying on heuristics called random oracle model (ROM). We obtain the protocol for issuing blind signatures by implementing our modi ed Fischlin's signing algorithm...

  2. Roots Air Management System with Integrated Expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stretch, Dale [Eaton Corporation, Menomonee Falls, WI (United States); Wright, Brad [Eaton Corporation, Menomonee Falls, WI (United States); Fortini, Matt [Eaton Corporation, Menomonee Falls, WI (United States); Fink, Neal [Ballard Power Systems, Burnaby, BC (Canada); Ramadan, Bassem [Kettering Univ., Flint, MI (United States); Eybergen, William [Eaton Corporation, Menomonee Falls, WI (United States)


    PEM fuel cells remain an emerging technology in the vehicle market with several cost and reliability challenges that must be overcome in order to increase market penetration and acceptance. The DOE has identified the lack of a cost effective, reliable, and efficient air supply system that meets the operational requirements of a pressurized PEM 80kW fuel cell as one of the major technological barriers that must be overcome. This project leveraged Roots positive displacement development advancements and demonstrated an efficient and low cost fuel cell air management system. Eaton built upon its P-Series Roots positive displacement design and shifted the peak efficiency making it ideal for use on an 80kW PEM stack. Advantages to this solution include: • Lower speed of the Roots device eliminates complex air bearings present on other systems. • Broad efficiency map of Roots based systems provides an overall higher drive cycle fuel economy. • Core Roots technology has been developed and validated for other transportation applications. Eaton modified their novel R340 Twin Vortices Series (TVS) Roots-type supercharger for this application. The TVS delivers more power and better fuel economy in a smaller package as compared to other supercharger technologies. By properly matching the helix angle with the rotor’s physical aspect ratio, the supercharger’s peak efficiency can be moved to the operating range where it is most beneficial for the application. The compressor was designed to meet the 90 g/s flow at a pressure ratio of 2.5, similar in design to the P-Series 340. A net shape plastic expander housing with integrated motor and compressor was developed to significantly reduce the cost of the system. This integrated design reduced part count by incorporating an overhung expander and motor rotors into the design such that only four bearings and two shafts were utilized.

  3. Root resorption during orthodontic tooth movements. (United States)

    Ramanathan, C; Hofman, Z


    The aim of the study was to compare the extent of maxillary incisor root resorption during different orthodontic tooth movements using three different techniques, namely the basal intrusion arch, the three component arch, and levelling of the upper dental arch with the straightwire appliance. The radiographs of 49 subjects (20 males and 29 females) with a mean age of 14.5 years were taken at two time points: in groups 1 and 2 after the levelling phase and in group 3 immediately after placement of the archwire (T1) and in all groups after a period of 6 months (T2). The amount of root resorption of the central incisors was determined at T2. The average incisor resorption was different in the three groups, with group 2 (three component arch) showing greater resorption (0.46 mm) than groups 1 (basal arch) and 3 (straightwire) of 0.26 and 0.25 mm, respectively. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) demonstrated that differences in root resorption in the three groups were not significant. Wilcoxon paired test showed that the root resorption occurring between T1 and T2 in the three groups was not significant. There was also no significant difference among the rates of resorption in the three groups. Grouping the subjects on the basis of the extent of root resorption and the biomechanics used showed differences in the percentage of subjects with the least (resorption between the three groups. This again showed that the technique of three component intrusion arch resulted in the greatest increase in root resorption.

  4. LC/MS profiling of flavonoid glycoconjugates isolated from hairy roots, suspension root cell cultures and seedling roots of Medicago truncatula


    Staszków, Anna; Swarcewicz, Barbara; Banasiak, Joanna; Muth, Dorota; Jasiński, Michał; Stobiecki, Maciej


    Hairy roots and suspension cell cultures are commonly used in deciphering different problems related to the biochemistry and physiology of plant secondary metabolites. Here, we address about the issue of possible differences in the profiles of flavonoid compounds and their glycoconjugates derived from various plant materials grown in a standard culture media. We compared profiles of flavonoids isolated from seedling roots, hairy roots, and suspension root cell cultures of a model legume plant...

  5. Effects of nutrition spatial heterogeneity on root traits and carbon usage by roots of Cercis chinensis seedlings in split root rooms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In natural ecosystems, nutrition available for plants shows great spatial heterogeneity. Much is known about plant root responses to the spatial heterogeneity of nutrition, but little is known about carbon usage in roots in nutrition-deficient patches and its effect on root longevity. In this study, split-room boxes were used for culture of Cercis chinensis seedlings, and the small rooms were supplied with different nutrition levels. The number of the first-order roots in the rooms with nutrition supply was significantly higher than that in the rooms with deficient nutrition. Specific root length (SRL) of the first-order roots in the rooms with deficient nutrition reached its peak at day 64 after nutrition treatment. There was no significant SRL differences between the two order roots during the experiment. Biomass of the first-order roots in the rooms without nutrition supply was significantly less than that of the first-order roots in the rooms with nutrition supply from day 64 to 96. The total biomass of the lateral roots in the rooms without nu-trition supply decreased from day 64 to 96. The activities of the enzymes in roots in the rooms without nutrition supply increased and the activities of alkaline invertases in roots in the two sides of split box did not change significantly. The activities of the enzymes in roots in the rooms without nutrition supply increased gradually. These results suggest that nutrition spatial heterogeneity induced the changes in root traits and plants actively controlled carbon usage in roots in nutrition-deficient patches by regulating the activities of invertases and sucrose synthases, resulting in the reduction in carbon usage in the roots in nutrition-deficient patches.

  6. Root approach for estimation of statistical distributions (United States)

    Bogdanov, Yu. I.; Bogdanova, N. A.


    Application of root density estimator to problems of statistical data analysis is demonstrated. Four sets of basis functions based on Chebyshev-Hermite, Laguerre, Kravchuk and Charlier polynomials are considered. The sets may be used for numerical analysis in problems of reconstructing statistical distributions by experimental data. Based on the root approach to reconstruction of statistical distributions and quantum states, we study a family of statistical distributions in which the probability density is the product of a Gaussian distribution and an even-degree polynomial. Examples of numerical modeling are given.

  7. Root approach for estimation of statistical distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Bogdanov, Yu I


    Application of root density estimator to problems of statistical data analysis is demonstrated. Four sets of basis functions based on Chebyshev-Hermite, Laguerre, Kravchuk and Charlier polynomials are considered. The sets may be used for numerical analysis in problems of reconstructing statistical distributions by experimental data. Based on the root approach to reconstruction of statistical distributions and quantum states, we study a family of statistical distributions in which the probability density is the product of a Gaussian distribution and an even-degree polynomial. Examples of numerical modeling are given. The results of present paper are of interest for the development of tomography of quantum states and processes.

  8. Tonoplast aquaporins facilitate lateral root emergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt, Hagen; Hachez, Charles; Bienert, Manuela Désirée


    that, in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the highly abundant tonoplast AQP isoforms AtTIP1;1, AtTIP1;2, and AtTIP2;1 facilitate the emergence of new lateral root primordia (LRPs). The number of lateral roots was strongly reduced in the triple tip mutant, whereas the single, double, and triple tip...... could be fully rescued by expressing AtTIP2;1 under its native promoter. We conclude that TIP isoforms allow the spatial and temporal fine-tuning of cellular water transport, which is critically required during the highly regulated process of LRP morphogenesis and emergence....

  9. Isolated root caps, border cells, and mucilage from host roots stimulate hyphal branching of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, Gigaspora gigantea. (United States)

    Nagahashi, Gerald; Douds, David D


    Unlike previous reports that have shown that water soluble and volatile compounds from roots or root exudates play an important role in precolonization events during arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus-host root interactions (Bécard & Piché 1989, Giovannetti et al. 1993), the results shown here deal with particulate and viscous fractions isolated from host roots. Root caps and a slow sedimenting particulate fraction (SSPF) were rapidly isolated and separated from Ri T-DNA transformed carrot roots (D. carota) grown in liquid culture. In addition, border cells (BC) and mucilage were isolated from aseptically grown corn seedlings (Zea mays). Root caps, SSPF (composed mainly of small root cap fragments and some BCs), BCs, and mucilage all had an associated AM fungus hyphal branching stimulator. Root caps stored for 5 d at 4 degrees C appeared to either synthesize or slowly release the branching stimulator. Also, isolated root caps from roots grown in the absence of P contained more branch stimulating activity than those isolated from roots grown in the presence of P. Although the branching stimulation activity in particulate fractions was low compared to that of the exudate, the particulate fractions can stick to the root surface at considerable distances from the root tip. This may be significant during the infection and colonization of host roots at sites far removed from the primary location of exudation.

  10. Tissue specific localization of root infection by fungal pathogens: role of root border cells. (United States)

    Gunawardena, Uvini; Hawes, Martha C


    When roots of pea seedlings were inoculated uniformly with spores of Nectria haematocca or other pea pathogenic fungi, more than 90% developed lesions in the region of elongation within 3 days. More mature regions of most roots as well as the tip showed no visible signs of infection. Yet, microscopic observation revealed that 'mantles,' comprised of fungal hyphae intermeshed with populations of border cells, covered the tips of most roots. After physical detachment of the mantle, the underlying tip of most roots was found to be free of infection. Mantle-covered root tips did not respond to invasion of their border cells by activation of known defense genes unless there was invasion of the tip itself, as revealed by the presence of a lesion. Concomitant with the activation of defense genes was the induction of a cell-wall degrading enzyme whose expression is a marker for renewed production of border cells. Mantle formation did not occur in response to nonpathogens. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that border cells serve as a host-specific 'decoy' that protects root meristems by inhibiting fungal infection of the root tip.

  11. Hairy Root Induction in Helicteres isora L. and Production of Diosgenin in Hairy Roots. (United States)

    Kumar, Vinay; Desai, Dnyanada; Shriram, Varsha


    Mature seeds of Helicteres isora L. were collected from seven geographical locations of Maharashtra and Goa (India) and evaluated for diosgenin (a bioactive steroidal sapogenin of prime importance) extraction and quantification. Chemotypic variations were evidenced with diosgenin quantity ranging from 33 μg g(-1) seeds (Osmanabad forests) to 138 μg g(-1) (Khopoli region). Nodal and leaf explants from in vitro-raised seedlings were used for callus and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, respectively. Compact, hard, whitish-green callus (2.65 g explant(-1)) was obtained on MS + 13.32 μM BAP + 2.32 μM Kin after 30 days of inoculation. Various parameters including types of explant and Agrobacterium strain, culture density, duration of infection and various medium compositions were optimized for hairy root production. A. rhizogenes strain ATCC-15834 successfully induced hairy roots from leaf explants (1 cm(2)) with 42 % efficiency. Transgenic status of the roots was confirmed by PCR using rolB and VirD specific primers. Hairy roots showed an ability to synthesize diosgenin. Diosgenin yield was increased ~8 times in hairy roots and ~5 times in callus than the seeds of wild plants. Enhanced diosgenin content was associated with proline accumulation in hairy roots. This is the first report on induction of hairy roots in H. isora.

  12. [Morphology of wheat roots under low-phosphorus stress]. (United States)

    Sun, Haiguo; Zhang, Fusuo


    The morphology of root systems of different wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes under low-phosphorus stress were studied to determine the effects of external factors on components of root system and the early morphological indicators related to phosphorus efficiency. The number of root axes and the length of lateral root of P-deficient plant were significantly lower than those of P-sufficient plant. The length of root axis and root system, and the number of lateral roots were sharply increased under low-P stress. The number and length of root axis were significantly different under different levels of phosphorus supply and among different wheat genotypes under same phosphorus supply. This implied that the two traits (number and length of root axis) were controlled by genotype and external factors. The difference in the characteristics of lateral root of the given wheat genotypes was significant only between different levels of P supply. It showed that the traits of lateral root mainly depended on external factors. The length and number of root axis, root length, and root angle were significantly different among 6 wheat genotypes. There exited significant linear relationships between relative grain yield and the interaction of the morphological traits, and it implied that the traits could be used as early indicators of selecting high P-efficiency wheat varieties.

  13. Mycorrhiza alters the profile of root hairs in trifoliate orange. (United States)

    Wu, Qiang-Sheng; Liu, Chun-Yan; Zhang, De-Jian; Zou, Ying-Ning; He, Xin-Hua; Wu, Qing-Hua


    Root hairs and arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) coexist in root systems for nutrient and water absorption, but the relation between AM and root hairs is poorly known. A pot study was performed to evaluate the effects of four different AM fungi (AMF), namely, Claroideoglomus etunicatum, Diversispora versiformis, Funneliformis mosseae, and Rhizophagus intraradices on root hair development in trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata) seedlings grown in sand. Mycorrhizal seedlings showed significantly higher root hair density than non-mycorrhizal seedlings, irrespective of AMF species. AMF inoculation generally significantly decreased root hair length in the first- and second-order lateral roots but increased it in the third- and fourth-order lateral roots. AMF colonization induced diverse responses in root hair diameter of different order lateral roots. Considerably greater concentrations of phosphorus (P), nitric oxide (NO), glucose, sucrose, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) were found in roots of AM seedlings than in non-AM seedlings. Levels of P, NO, carbohydrates, IAA, and MeJA in roots were correlated with AM formation and root hair development. These results suggest that AMF could alter the profile of root hairs in trifoliate orange through modulation of physiological activities. F. mosseae, which had the greatest positive effects, could represent an efficient AM fungus for increasing fruit yields or decreasing fertilizer inputs in citrus production.

  14. Adjustment of Forest Ecosystem Root Respiration as Temperature Warms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrew J. Burton; Jerry M. Melillo; Serita D. Frey


    Adjustment of ecosystem root respiration to warmer climatic conditions can alter the autotrophic portion of soil respiration and influence the amount of carbon available for biomass production. We examined 44 published values of annual forest root respiration and found an increase in ecosystem root respiration with increasing mean annual temperature (MAT),but the rate of this cross-ecosystem increase (Q10 = 1.6) is less than published values for short-term responses of root respiration to temperature within ecosystems (Q10 = 2-3). When specific root respiration rates and root biomass values were examined, there was a clear trend for decreasing root metabolic capacity (respiration rate at a standard temperature) with increasing MAT. There also were tradeoffs between root metabolic capacity and root system biomass, such that there were no instances of high growing season respiration rates and high root biomass occurring together. We also examined specific root respiration rates at three soil warming experiments at Harvard Forest, USA, and found decreases in metabolic capacity for roots from the heated plots. This decline could be due to either physiological acclimation or to the effects of co-occurring drier soils on the measurement date. Regardless of the cause, these findings clearly suggest that modeling efforts that allow root respiration to increase exponentially with temperature, with Qt0 values of 2 or more, may over-predict root contributions to ecosystem CO2 efflux for future climates and underestimate the amount of C available for other uses,including net primary productivity.

  15. Anchorage of mature conifers: resistive turning moment, root-soil plate geometry and root growth orientation. (United States)

    Lundström, Tor; Jonas, Tobias; Stöckli, Veronika; Ammann, Walter


    Eighty-four mature Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst), silver fir (Abies alba Mill) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees were winched over to determine the maximum resistive turning moment (M(a)) of the root-soil system, the root-soil plate geometry, the azimuthal orientation of root growth, and the occurrence of root rot. The calculation of M(a), based on digital image tracking of stem deflection, accounted not only for the force application and its changing geometry, but also for the weight of the overhanging tree, representing up to 42% of M(a). Root rot reduced M(a) significantly and was detected in 25% of the Norway spruce and 5% of the silver fir trees. Excluding trees with root rot, differences in M(a) between species were small and insignificant. About 75% of the variance in M(a) could be explained by one of the four variables--tree mass, stem mass, stem diameter at breast height squared times tree height, and stem diameter at breast height squared. Among the seven allometric variables assessed above ground, stem diameter at breast height best described the root-soil plate dimensions, but the correlations were weak and the differences between species were insignificant. The shape of the root-soil plate was well described by a depth-dependent taper model with an elliptical cross section. Roots displayed a preferred azimuthal orientation of growth in the axis of prevailing winds, and the direction of frequent weak winds matched the orientation of growth better than that of rare strong winds. The lack of difference in anchorage parameters among species probably reflects the similar belowground growth conditions of the mature trees.

  16. Cytokinin-induced promotion of root meristem size in the fern Azolla supports a shoot-like origin of euphyllophyte roots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Jan; Fischer, Angela Melanie; Roettger, Mayo; Rommel, Sophie; Schluepmann, Henriette; Bräutigam, Andrea; Carlsbecker, Annelie; Gould, Sven Bernhard


    The phytohormones cytokinin and auxin orchestrate the root meristem development in angiosperms by determining embryonic bipolarity. Ferns, having the most basal euphyllophyte root, form neither bipolar embryos nor permanent embryonic primary roots but rather an adventitious root system. This raises

  17. Rooting greenwood tip cuttings of several Populus clones hydroponically (hydroponic rooting of Populus cuttings)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phipps, H.M.; Hansen, E.A.; Tolsted, D.N.


    Greenwood cuttings of several Populus clones were successfully rooted with a relatively simple hydroponic method. Indolebutyric acid and naphthaleneacetic acid at concentrations of 500 to 5000 ppM applied as a quick dip to the cutting bases, a complete nutrient solution at 20 to 40% of full strength, and a solution temperature between 27 and 30/sup 0/C generally produced the best rooting performance of most clones. Cuttings propagated by the hydroponic procedure rooted faster and generally outgrew those produced by a standard method after being transplanted to pots and grown in the greenhouse.

  18. Reproducible hairy root transformation and spot-inoculation methods to study root symbioses of pea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemow Scott R


    Full Text Available Abstract Pea has lagged behind other model legumes in the molecular study of nodulation and mycorrhizae-formation because of the difficulty to transform its roots and its poor growth on agar plates. Here we describe for pea 1 a transformation technique which permits the complementation of two known non-nodulating pea mutants, 2 a rhizobial inoculation method which allows the study of early cellular events giving rise to nodule primordia, and 3 a targeted fungal inoculation method which allows us to study short segments of mycorrhizal roots assured to be infected. These tools are certain to advance our knowledge of pea root symbioses.

  19. Methane and Root Dynamics in Arctic Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Imperio, Ludovica

    on the global climate. We investigated two aspects of arctic ecosystem dynamics which are not well represented in climatic models: i) soil methane (CH4) oxidation in dry heath tundra and barren soils and ii) root dynamics in wetlands. Field measurements were carried out during the growing season in Disko Island...

  20. Aortic root replacement with a pulmonary autograft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.B. Hokken (Raymond)


    textabstractAortic valve disease in the pediatric age group is usually a consequence of congenital aortic stenosis, which may be isolated or may be a part of an anomaly of the left ventricular outflow tract or the aortic root. Management of these patients is difficult. Neonates and infants with seve

  1. The bifidogenic effect of Taraxacum officinale root. (United States)

    Trojanová, I; Rada, V; Kokoska, L; Vlková, E


    The infusion of dandelion root (Taraxacum officinale) stimulated in vitro the growth of 14 strains of bifidobacteria. The utilization of oligofructans, glucose, fructose and total saccharides was determined by enzymatic and phenol-sulfuric methods. Dandelion oligofructans were important source of carbon and energy for bifidobacteria tested.

  2. Parameterizing the soil - water - plant root system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feddes, R.A.; Raats, P.A.C.


    Root water uptake is described from the local scale, to the field scale and to the regional and global scales. The local macroscopic model can be incorporated in Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Continuum (SPAC) numerical models, like the SWAP, HYSWASOR, HYDRUS, ENVIRO-GRO and FUSSIM models. These SPAC models

  3. Alkaloids from the Roots of Saccopetalum prolificum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A new alkaloid, named prolifine (1), was isolated along with four known alkaloids, liriodenine (2), 6-hydroxyonychine (3), isooncodine (4) and discretamine (5) from the roots of Saccopetalum prolificum. The structure of 1 was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical methods.

  4. Phytochemical Investigations of Caesalpinia digyna Root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Srinivasan


    Full Text Available Phytochemical examination of petroleum ether extract of Caesalpinia digyna root resulted in the isolation of four compounds namely, friedelin, hexacosanoic acid, β-sitosterol and stigmasterol. These compounds have been characterized on basis of physical and spectral data. All the four compounds are being reported for the first time from this plant

  5. Hormone symphony during root growth and development. (United States)

    Garay-Arroyo, Adriana; De La Paz Sánchez, María; García-Ponce, Berenice; Azpeitia, Eugenio; Alvarez-Buylla, Elena R


    Hormones regulate plant growth and development in response to external environmental stimuli via complex signal transduction pathways, which in turn form complex networks of interaction. Several classes of hormones have been reported, and their activity depends on their biosynthesis, transport, conjugation, accumulation in the vacuole, and degradation. However, the activity of a given hormone is also dependent on its interaction with other hormones. Indeed, there is a complex crosstalk between hormones that regulates their biosynthesis, transport, and/or signaling functionality, although some hormones have overlapping or opposite functions. The plant root is a particularly useful system in which to study the complex role of plant hormones in the plastic control of plant development. Physiological, cellular, and molecular genetic approaches have been used to study the role of plant hormones in root meristem homeostasis. In this review, we discuss recent findings on the synthesis, signaling, transport of hormones and role during root development and examine the role of hormone crosstalk in maintaining homeostasis in the apical root meristem.

  6. Root resorption after orthodontic intrusion and extrusion:.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, G.; Huang, S.; Hoff, J.W. Von den; Zeng, X.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.


    The aim of this investigation was to compare root resorption in the same individual after application of continuous intrusive and extrusive forces. In nine patients (mean age 15.3 years), the maxillary first premolars were randomly intruded or extruded with a continuous force of 100 cN for eight wee

  7. Occurrence of root parsley pathogens inhabiting seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Nowicki


    Full Text Available The studies on root parsley pathogens inhabiting seeds were conducted during 1981-1988 and in 1993. Filter paper method with prefreezing and keeping under light was used. Each test sample comprised 500 seeds. Pathogenicity of collected fungal isolates was tested following two laboratory methods. 238 seed samples were studied. 18 fungal species were found but only 7 proved to be important pathogens of root parsley. The most common inhabitants of root parsley seeds were Alternaria spp. A.allernata occurred on 74,8% of seeds but only a few isolates showed to be slightly pathogenic while A.petroselini and A.radicina were higly pathogenic and inhabited 11,4 and 4,2% of seeds, respectively. The second group of important pathogens were species of Fusarium found on 3,9% of seeds. F.avenaceum dominated as it comprised 48% of Fusarium isolates, the next were as follow: F.culmorum - 20%, F.equiseti - 15%, F.solani - 8%, F.oxysporum - 7% and F.dimerum -2%. Some fungi like Botrytis cinerea, Septoria petroselini and Phoma spp. inhabited low number of seeds, respectively O,4; 0,5 and 0,8%, but they were highly pathogenic to root parsley. The fungi: Bipolaris sorokiniana, Drechslera biseptata, Stemphylium botryosum and Ulocludium consortiale showed slight pathogenicity. They were isolated from 3,8% of seeds.

  8. Pectate hydrolases of parsley (Petroselinum crispum) roots. (United States)

    Flodrová, Dana; Dzúrovä, Mária; Lisková, Desana; Mohand, Fairouz Ait; Mislovicová, Danica; Malovícová, Anna; Voburka, Zdenek; Omelková, Jirina; Stratilová, Eva


    The presence of various enzyme forms with terminal action pattern on pectate was evaluated in a protein mixture obtained from parsley roots. Enzymes found in the soluble fraction of roots (juice) were purified to homogeneity according to SDS-PAGE, partially separated by preparative isoelectric focusing and characterized. Three forms with pH optima 3.6, 4.2 and 4.6 clearly preferred substrates with a lower degree of polymerization (oligogalacturonates) while the form with pH optimum 5.2 was a typical exopolygalacturonase [EC 3. 2.1.67] with relatively fast cleavage of polymeric substrate. The forms with pH optima 3.6, 4.2 and 5.2 were released from the pulp, too. The form from the pulp with pH optimum 4.6 preferred higher oligogalacturonates and was not described in plants previously. The production of individual forms in roots was compared with that produced by root cells cultivated on solid medium and in liquid one.

  9. An antileishmanial chalcone from Chinese licorice roots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, S B; Ming, C; Andersen, L


    A bioassay guided fractionation of an extract of Chinese licorice roots led to the isolation of (E)-1-[2,4-dihydroxy-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)phenyl]-3-[4- hydroxy-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl]phenyl-2-propen-1-one, which in vitro showed potent antileishmanial activity. In addition, the novel chalcone (E)-...

  10. Tapping Ancient Roots: Plaited Paper Baskets (United States)

    Patrick, Jane


    With ancient roots, basket making has been practiced since the earliest civilizations, and according to textile experts, probably pre-dates pottery. This is partly conjecture since few baskets remain. It is through evidence found in clay impressions that the earliest baskets reveal themselves. Basically, basketry construction is like flat weaving.…

  11. Root canal cleaning through cavitation and microstreaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaagen, B.


    We have investigated the flow from a needle using Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations and high-speed imaging experiments on sub-millimeter fluidic channels. These have shown that the flow is not effective in delivering the bleach near the bacteria, due to the complex geometry of the root canal.

  12. Quantum Dilogarithm Identities at Root of Unity

    CERN Document Server

    Ip, Ivan Chi-Ho


    We study the root of unity degeneration of cluster algebras and quantum dilogarithm identities. We prove identities for the cyclic dilogarithm associated with a mutation sequence of a quiver, and as a consequence new identities for the non-compact quantum dilogarithm at $b=1$.

  13. FiT gets CLEAN local roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meehan, Chris


    Feed-in tariffs are starting to take root in the US. While there is little to no hope of a national FiT policy, a growing number of cities, like Los Angeles, Gainesville, and Sacramento and states including California and Vermont are creating their own FiTs. (orig.)

  14. Boston: Community Schools from the Grass Roots (United States)

    O'Neil, William F.


    In Boston, grass roots citizen pressure led to the formation of community schools to replace elementary schools. The community schools are operated by the Boston School Committee during the regular school day and by the Department of Public Facilities in the extended day and evening. (Author/DN)

  15. Dialectical roots for interest prohibition theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Bergstra


    It is argued that arguments for strict prohibition of interests must be based on the use of arguments from authority. This is carried out by first making a survey of so-called dialectical roots for interest prohibition and then demonstrating that for at least one important positive interest bearing

  16. Del Pezzo Moduli via Root Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colombo, E.; van Geemen, B.; Looijenga, E.J.N.


    Coble defined in his 1929 treatise invariants for cubic surfaces and quartic curves. We reinterpret these in terms of the root systems of type E6 and E7 that are naturally associated to these varieties, thereby giving some of his results a more intrinsic treatment. Our discussion is uniform for all

  17. Pharmacognostical Standardization of Tephrosia purpurea Pers Root. (United States)

    Sandhya, S; Ventaka, Ramana K; Vinod, K R


    Wild Indigo or Purple Tephrosia or fish poison occurs throughout the Indian subcontinent. It is widely used in the treatment of inflammation, diabetes, rheumatism, asthma, diarrhoea and many other ailments. But so far the pharmacognostic standardization has not been reported for its proper identification. Hence the present study is a pharmacognosy work carried out for the root part. This may help in the identification of the plant species. A thin transverse section, powder microscopy, measurement of the dimensions of cell structures, fluorescence analysis and physico chemical parameters were conducted for the root. From the TS, the secondary xylem fibres and vessels were found to be the tissues of diagnostic importance. The xylem vessels were of two types: narrow and long; broad and short. The important characters in the powdered microscopy were vessel elements, fibres and xylem parenchyma cells. The different fluorescent light shades were obtained under short and long UV light for both powder as well as the extracts of the root. The proximate analysis values were also obtained in a satisfactory way. Combining all these data a suitable root profile for plant can be constructed which may help in the identification of quality of the plant part.

  18. Proofs of certain properties of irrational roots


    Belbas, S. A.


    We give two elementary proofs, at a level understandable by students with only pre-calculus knowledge of Algebra, of the well known fact that an irreducible irrational n-th root of a positive rational number cannot be solution of a polynomial of degree less than n with rational coefficients. We also state and prove a few simple consequences.

  19. Quest for Continual Growth Takes Root (United States)

    Surdey, Mary M.; Hashey, Jane M.


    In this article, the authors describe how the quest for continual growth has taken its root at Vestal Central School district. Located at the heart of upstate New York, educators at Vestal Central School district have created a spirit of "kaizen," a Japanese word meaning the relentless quest for continual improvement and higher-quality…

  20. Bacterial proteins pinpoint a single eukaryotic root. (United States)

    Derelle, Romain; Torruella, Guifré; Klimeš, Vladimír; Brinkmann, Henner; Kim, Eunsoo; Vlček, Čestmír; Lang, B Franz; Eliáš, Marek


    The large phylogenetic distance separating eukaryotic genes and their archaeal orthologs has prevented identification of the position of the eukaryotic root in phylogenomic studies. Recently, an innovative approach has been proposed to circumvent this issue: the use as phylogenetic markers of proteins that have been transferred from bacterial donor sources to eukaryotes, after their emergence from Archaea. Using this approach, two recent independent studies have built phylogenomic datasets based on bacterial sequences, leading to different predictions of the eukaryotic root. Taking advantage of additional genome sequences from the jakobid Andalucia godoyi and the two known malawimonad species (Malawimonas jakobiformis and Malawimonas californiana), we reanalyzed these two phylogenomic datasets. We show that both datasets pinpoint the same phylogenetic position of the eukaryotic root that is between "Unikonta" and "Bikonta," with malawimonad and collodictyonid lineages on the Unikonta side of the root. Our results firmly indicate that (i) the supergroup Excavata is not monophyletic and (ii) the last common ancestor of eukaryotes was a biflagellate organism. Based on our results, we propose to rename the two major eukaryotic groups Unikonta and Bikonta as Opimoda and Diphoda, respectively.

  1. Bullying in nursing: roots, rationales, and remedies. (United States)

    Szutenbach, Mary Pat


    Bullying and incivility are sadly, far too common in today's healthcare workplaces. This article reviews early to current literature, identifies types of bullying, offers four root causes, and suggests responses to impact these causes using Gibbs' Reflective Cycle, biblical Scripture, and an allegory "How to Swim with Sharks."

  2. Plant Hormones: How They Affect Root Formation. (United States)

    Reinhard, Diana Hereda

    This science study aid, produced by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, includes a series of plant rooting activities for secondary science classes. The material in the pamphlet is written for students and includes background information on plant hormones, a vocabulary list, and five learning activities. Objectives, needed materials, and…

  3. Nodal distances for rooted phylogenetic trees. (United States)

    Cardona, Gabriel; Llabrés, Mercè; Rosselló, Francesc; Valiente, Gabriel


    Dissimilarity measures for (possibly weighted) phylogenetic trees based on the comparison of their vectors of path lengths between pairs of taxa, have been present in the systematics literature since the early seventies. For rooted phylogenetic trees, however, these vectors can only separate non-weighted binary trees, and therefore these dissimilarity measures are metrics only on this class of rooted phylogenetic trees. In this paper we overcome this problem, by splitting in a suitable way each path length between two taxa into two lengths. We prove that the resulting splitted path lengths matrices single out arbitrary rooted phylogenetic trees with nested taxa and arcs weighted in the set of positive real numbers. This allows the definition of metrics on this general class of rooted phylogenetic trees by comparing these matrices through metrics in spaces M(n)(R) of real-valued n x n matrices. We conclude this paper by establishing some basic facts about the metrics for non-weighted phylogenetic trees defined in this way using L(p) metrics on M(n)(R), with p [epsilon] R(>0).


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Renhong Wang; Jinming Wu


    In this paper,we propose an algorithm for isolating real roots of a given univariate spline function,which is based on the use of Descartes' rule of signs and de Casteljau algorithm.Numerical examples illustrate the flexibility and effectiveness of the algorithm.

  5. Damage to root dentin during retreatment procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shemesh, H.; Roeleveld, A.C.; Wesselink, P.R.; Wu, M.K.


    Introduction: The aim of this study was to explore the influence of retreatment procedures on the appearance of defects on the root canal walls. Methods: Two hundred mandibular premolars were divided into 4 groups. One group was left unprepared. The rest of the teeth were prepared with ProTaper file

  6. Seasonal changes of whole root system conductance by a drought-tolerant grape root system. (United States)

    Alsina, Maria Mar; Smart, David R; Bauerle, Taryn; de Herralde, Felicidad; Biel, Carme; Stockert, Christine; Negron, Claudia; Save, Robert


    The role of root systems in drought tolerance is a subject of very limited information compared with above-ground responses. Adjustments to the ability of roots to supply water relative to shoot transpiration demand is proposed as a major means for woody perennial plants to tolerate drought, and is often expressed as changes in the ratios of leaf to root area (A(L):A(R)). Seasonal root proliferation in a directed manner could increase the water supply function of roots independent of total root area (A(R)) and represents a mechanism whereby water supply to demand could be increased. To address this issue, seasonal root proliferation, stomatal conductance (g(s)) and whole root system hydraulic conductance (k(r)) were investigated for a drought-tolerant grape root system (Vitis berlandieri×V. rupestris cv. 1103P) and a non-drought-tolerant root system (Vitis riparia×V. rupestris cv. 101-14Mgt), upon which had been grafted the same drought-sensitive clone of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot. Leaf water potentials (ψ(L)) for Merlot grafted onto the 1103P root system (-0.91±0.02 MPa) were +0.15 MPa higher than Merlot on 101-14Mgt (-1.06±0.03 MPa) during spring, but dropped by approximately -0.4 MPa from spring to autumn, and were significantly lower by -0.15 MPa (-1.43±0.02 MPa) than for Merlot on 101-14Mgt (at -1.28±0.02 MPa). Surprisingly, g(s) of Merlot on the drought-tolerant root system (1103P) was less down-regulated and canopies maintained evaporative fluxes ranging from 35-20 mmol vine(-1) s(-1) during the diurnal peak from spring to autumn, respectively, three times greater than those measured for Merlot on the drought-sensitive rootstock 101-14Mgt. The drought-tolerant root system grew more roots at depth during the warm summer dry period, and the whole root system conductance (k(r)) increased from 0.004 to 0.009 kg MPa(-1) s(-1) during that same time period. The changes in k(r) could not be explained by xylem anatomy or conductivity changes of individual root

  7. Seasonal changes of whole root system conductance by a drought-tolerant grape root system (United States)

    Alsina, Maria Mar; Smart, David R.; Bauerle, Taryn; de Herralde, Felicidad; Biel, Carme; Stockert, Christine; Negron, Claudia; Save, Robert


    The role of root systems in drought tolerance is a subject of very limited information compared with above-ground responses. Adjustments to the ability of roots to supply water relative to shoot transpiration demand is proposed as a major means for woody perennial plants to tolerate drought, and is often expressed as changes in the ratios of leaf to root area (AL:AR). Seasonal root proliferation in a directed manner could increase the water supply function of roots independent of total root area (AR) and represents a mechanism whereby water supply to demand could be increased. To address this issue, seasonal root proliferation, stomatal conductance (gs) and whole root system hydraulic conductance (kr) were investigated for a drought-tolerant grape root system (Vitis berlandieri×V. rupestris cv. 1103P) and a non-drought-tolerant root system (Vitis riparia×V. rupestris cv. 101-14Mgt), upon which had been grafted the same drought-sensitive clone of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot. Leaf water potentials (ψL) for Merlot grafted onto the 1103P root system (–0.91±0.02 MPa) were +0.15 MPa higher than Merlot on 101-14Mgt (–1.06±0.03 MPa) during spring, but dropped by approximately –0.4 MPa from spring to autumn, and were significantly lower by –0.15 MPa (–1.43±0.02 MPa) than for Merlot on 101-14Mgt (at –1.28±0.02 MPa). Surprisingly, gs of Merlot on the drought-tolerant root system (1103P) was less down-regulated and canopies maintained evaporative fluxes ranging from 35–20 mmol vine−1 s−1 during the diurnal peak from spring to autumn, respectively, three times greater than those measured for Merlot on the drought-sensitive rootstock 101-14Mgt. The drought-tolerant root system grew more roots at depth during the warm summer dry period, and the whole root system conductance (kr) increased from 0.004 to 0.009 kg MPa−1 s−1 during that same time period. The changes in kr could not be explained by xylem anatomy or conductivity changes of individual root

  8. Electrical Imaging of Roots and Trunks (United States)

    Al Hagrey, S.; Werban, U.; Meissner, R.; Ismaeil, A.; Rabbel, W.


    We applied geoelectric and GPR techniques to analyze problems of botanical structures and even processes, e.g., mapping root zones, internal structure of trunks, and water uptake by roots. The dielectric nature of root zones and trunks is generally a consequence of relatively high moisture content. The electric method, applied to root zones, can discriminate between old, thick, isolated roots (high resistivity) and the network of young, active, and hydraulically conductive zones (low resistivity). Both types of roots show low radar velocity and a strong attenuation caused by the dominant effect of moisture (high dielectric constant) on the electromagnetic wave propagation. Single root branches could be observed in radargrams by their reflection and diffraction parabolas. We have perfected the inversion method for perfect and imperfect cylindrical objects, such as trunks, and developed a new multielectrodes (needle or gel) ring array for fast applications on living trees and discs. Using synthetic models we tested the technique successfully and analyzed it as a function of total electrode number and configuration. Measurements at a trunk show a well established inverse relationship between the imaged resistivity and the moisture content determined from cores. The central resistivity maximum of healthy trees strongly decreases toward the rim. This agrees with the moisture decrease to the outside where active sap flow processes take place. Branching, growth anomalies (new or old shoots) and meteorological effects (sunshine and wind direction) lead to deviations of the concentric electric structure. The strongest anomalies are related to infections causing wet, rotting spots or cavities. The heartwood resistivity is highest in olive and oak trunks, intermediate in young fruit trees and lowest in cork oak trunks that are considered to be anomalously wet. Compared to acoustic tomography our electric technique shows a better resolution in imaging internal ring structures

  9. On Integrable Roots in Split Lie Triple Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    We focus on the notion of an integrable root in the framework of split Lie triple systems T with a coherent 0-root space. As a main result, it is shown that if T has all its nonzero roots integrable, then its standard embedding is a split Lie algebra having all its nonzero roots integrable. As a consequence, a local finiteness theorem for split Lie triple systems, saying that whenever all nonzero roots of T are integrable then T is locally finite, is stated. Finally, a classification theorem for split simple Lie triple systems having all its nonzero roots integrable is given.

  10. External root resorption: Different etiologies explained from the composition of the human root-close periodontal membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inger Kjaer


    Full Text Available Introduction: This paper summarizes different conditions, which have a well-known influence on the resorption of tooth roots. It also highlights factors important for individual susceptibility to root resorption. Furthermore, the paper focuses on idiopathic root resorption where the provoking factor is not known. The Hypothesis: The several different disturbances causing root resorption can be either orthodontically provoked or acquired by trauma, virus or congenital diseases. It is presumed that all these conditions lead to inflammatory processes in the three main tissue layers, comprising the peri-root sheet. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: This paper explains how different etiologies behind root resorption and how different phenotypic traits in root resorption can be understood from immunohistochemical studies of the human periodontal membrane close to the root and thus, gain a new understanding of the phenomenon of root resorption.

  11. Root-soil friction: quantification provides evidence for measurable benefits for manipulation of root-tip traits. (United States)

    McKenzie, Blair M; Mullins, Christopher E; Tisdall, Judith M; Bengough, A Glyn


    To penetrate soil, a root requires pressure both to expand the cavity it is to occupy, σn , and to overcome root-soil friction, σf . Difficulties in estimating these two pressures independently have limited our ability to estimate the coefficient of soil-root friction, μsr . We used a rotated penetrometer probe, of similar dimensions to a root, and for the first time entering the soil at a similar rate to a root tip, to estimate σn . Separately we measured root penetration resistance (PR) Qr . Root PR was between two to four times σn . We estimated that the coefficient of root-soil friction (μsr ) was 0.21-0.26, based on the geometry of the root tip. This is slightly larger than the 0.05-0.15 characteristic of boundary lubricants. Scanning electron microscopy showed that turgid border cells lined the root channel, supporting our hypothesis that the lubricant consisted of mucilage sandwiched between border cells and the surface of the root cap and epidermis. This cell-cell lubrication greatly decreased the friction that would otherwise be experienced had the surface of the root proper slid directly past unlubricated soil particles. Because root-soil friction can be a substantial component of root PR, successful manipulation of friction represents a promising opportunity for improving plant performance.

  12. Root Induced Heterogeneity In Agricultural Soils (United States)

    Gomes, C.; Gabai, R.; Weisbrod, N.; Furman, A.


    In this study we investigate the role of plant induced heterogeneity on water dynamics in agricultural soils. We conducted three experiments in two sites (one still ongoing) in which a trench was excavated in the root zone of an orchard and the subsurface, to a depth of over 1 m, was instrumented in high resolution with water content, water potential and temperature sensors. High temporal resolution monitoring of soil state was carried for over a year, period that included natural (Mediterranean) climate boundary forcing. In addition, sprinkler, flood, and spray irrigation boundary conditions were forced for short time periods to explore the infiltration process under these conditions. One site was an Avocado orchard planted in red sandy soil while the other, still on-going, is in a grape vineyards irrigated by tap and treated wastewater, planted over alluvial clayey soil. In the vineyard, we are comparing soil irrigated with fresh water to soil irrigated with treated waste water for more than 10 years. Our preliminary results indicate several interesting phenomena. First, the role of plant roots is clearly seen as the major roots act as a conduit for water (and solute), providing a fast bypass of the upper soil. Further, we identified different regions of the subsurface that apparently were of the same texture, but in practice presented very different hydraulic properties. Second, the role of these roots depends on the boundary conditions. That is, the root bypass acts differently when soil is flooded than when flow is strictly unsaturated. As expected, simulation of the experimental results show good fit only if the domain heterogeneity of soil properties was incorporated. Results for the clayey soils were not available at time of abstract submission.

  13. Root canal filling using Resilon: a review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, D J


    Root canal treatment is achieved by chemo-mechanical debridement of the root canal system followed by filling. The filling material \\'entombs\\' residual bacteria and acts as a barrier which prevents the entrance of oral microorganisms and reinfection of the root canal system through microleakage. However, filling with contemporary root filling materials such as gutta-percha offers limited long-term resistance to microorganisms; as a result other materials such as Resilon have been investigated as alternatives. The aim of this review was to analyse the literature to consider whether Resilon is a suitable root canal filling material. A MEDLINE and Cochrane library search including various keyword searches identified several papers which investigated or discussed Resilon or RealSeal\\/Epiphany. Analysis of the literature demonstrated that the bulk of the literature is in vitro in nature, based largely on leakage-type studies, and demonstrates a wide variety of methodologies with conflicting findings; as a result meaningful conclusions are difficult. Within the limit of these in vitro studies Resilon appears to perform adequately in comparison to gutta-percha, however, as a result of the questionable merit of such studies, it cannot presently be considered an evidence-based alternative to the current gold standard gutta-percha. It is imperative that before Resilon is considered as a replacement material, a better understanding of the physical properties of the resin sealer and the reality of the adhesive \\'monoblock\\' are elucidated. The literature also demonstrates a paucity of quality long-term clinical outcome studies which will need to be addressed before firm conclusions can be reached.

  14. Root cap-dependent gravitropic U-turn of maize root requires light-induced auxin biosynthesis via the YUC pathway in the root apex (United States)

    Suzuki, Hiromi; Yokawa, Ken; Nakano, Sayuri; Yoshida, Yuriko; Fabrissin, Isabelle; Okamoto, Takashi; Baluška, František; Koshiba, Tomokazu


    Gravitropism refers to the growth or movement of plants that is influenced by gravity. Roots exhibit positive gravitropism, and the root cap is thought to be the gravity-sensing site. In some plants, the root cap requires light irradiation for positive gravitropic responses. However, the mechanisms regulating this phenomenon are unknown. We herein report that maize roots exposed to white light continuously for ≥1–2h show increased indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels in the root tips, especially in the transition zone (1–3mm from the tip). Treatment with IAA biosynthesis inhibitors yucasin and l-kynurenine prevented any increases in IAA content and root curvature under light conditions. Analyses of the incorporation of a stable isotope label from tryptophan into IAA revealed that some of the IAA in roots was synthesized in the root apex. Furthermore, Zmvt2 and Zmyuc gene transcripts were detected in the root apex. One of the Zmyuc genes (ZM2G141383) was up-regulated by light irradiation in the 0–1mm tip region. Our findings suggest that IAA accumulation in the transition zone is due to light-induced activation of Zmyuc gene expression in the 0–1mm root apex region. Light-induced changes in IAA levels and distributions mediate the maize root gravitropic U-turn. PMID:27307546

  15. The effect of root preparation technique and instrumentation length on the development of apical root cracks. (United States)

    Adorno, Carlos G; Yoshioka, Takatomo; Suda, Hideaki


    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of root canal preparation techniques and instrumentation length on the development of apical root cracks. Forty extracted mandibular premolars with straight roots were randomly selected and mounted on resin blocks with simulated periodontal ligaments, and the apex was exposed. The teeth were divided into four groups of 10 teeth each for different canal preparation techniques and instrumentation lengths: group A: step-back preparation (SB) with stainless steel files (SF) using root canal length (RCL) to guide instrumentation length; group B: SB using RCL - 1 mm; group C: crown-down preparation (CD) with Profile using RCL; and group D: CD with PF using RCL - 1 mm. Digital images of the instrumentation sequence were compared for each tooth. Statistical analysis revealed a significant effect of instrumentation length (p 0.05) on the development of apical cracks.

  16. Research on the Slope Protection Mechanism of Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Wan


    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the slope protection mechanism of roots. In ecological slope protection, plant roots can fix soil and protect slop through biological and mechanical action. However, previous studies on the slope protection mechanism are still not deep enough and inadequate. By taking four kinds of typical plant roots along Wu-Shen Expressway as the research object, through the indoor tensile test and root morphology observation analysis, the tensile strength and ultimate tension were studied and the influence to the stability of the slope was discussed in this study. The results show that the mean ultimate tension of roots is 7.19~29.96 N. The mean tension of shrub roots is 2~4 times greater than that of herb roots. The ultimate tension of the same plant roots increases with the diameter significantly. To the range of improvement, Shrub roots exceed herb ones. It also indicates that the mean tensile strength of roots are 24.48~74.25 MPa. Compared with the steel HRB235, the tensile strength of herb roots is as great as 1/5~1/3, while Shrub roots is about 1/10~1/5. The slope stability coefficient with plant growing is a positive correlation with roots tension and root number through the sliding surface and is a negative correlation with plants weight. In addition, the slope stability coefficient is related to plant density and root morphology. The test results demonstrate that the roots tension with acute angle or right angle to the landslide surface and the roots shear stiffness with obtuse angle can improve the performance of slope’s anti-slide. Four kinds of plants can improve the stability coefficient of shallow soil. As for the slope protection effect, herbage is superior to shrub. In general, grass-shrub mixed community is the ideal system for slope protection.

  17. Root traits contributing to plant productivity under drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise eComas


    Full Text Available Geneticists and breeders are positioned to breed plants with root traits that improve productivity under drought. However, a better understanding of root functional traits and how traits are related to whole plant strategies to increase crop productivity under different drought conditions is needed. Root traits associated with maintaining plant productivity under drought include small fine root diameters, long specific root length (SRL, and considerable root length density, especially at depths in soil with available water. In environments with late season water deficits, small xylem diameters in targeted seminal roots save soil water deep in the soil profile for use during crop maturation and result in improved yields. Capacity for deep root growth and large xylem diameters in deep roots may also improve root acquisition of water when ample water at depth is available. Xylem pit anatomy that makes xylem less ‘leaky’ and prone to cavitation warrants further exploration holding promise that such traits may improve plant productivity in water-limited environments without negatively impacting yield under adequate water conditions. Rapid resumption of root growth following soil rewetting may improve plant productivity under episodic drought. Genetic control of many of these traits through breeding appears feasible. Several recent reviews have covered methods for screening root traits but an appreciation for the complexity of root systems (e.g. functional differences between fine and coarse roots needs to be paired with these methods to successfully identify relevant traits for crop improvement. Screening of root traits at early stages in plant development can proxy traits at mature stages but verification is needed on a case by case basis that traits are linked to increased crop productivity under drought. Examples in lesquerella (Physaria and rice (Oryza show approaches to phenotyping of root traits and current understanding of root trait

  18. Root traits contributing to plant productivity under drought. (United States)

    Comas, Louise H; Becker, Steven R; Cruz, Von Mark V; Byrne, Patrick F; Dierig, David A


    Geneticists and breeders are positioned to breed plants with root traits that improve productivity under drought. However, a better understanding of root functional traits and how traits are related to whole plant strategies to increase crop productivity under different drought conditions is needed. Root traits associated with maintaining plant productivity under drought include small fine root diameters, long specific root length, and considerable root length density, especially at depths in soil with available water. In environments with late season water deficits, small xylem diameters in targeted seminal roots save soil water deep in the soil profile for use during crop maturation and result in improved yields. Capacity for deep root growth and large xylem diameters in deep roots may also improve root acquisition of water when ample water at depth is available. Xylem pit anatomy that makes xylem less "leaky" and prone to cavitation warrants further exploration holding promise that such traits may improve plant productivity in water-limited environments without negatively impacting yield under adequate water conditions. Rapid resumption of root growth following soil rewetting may improve plant productivity under episodic drought. Genetic control of many of these traits through breeding appears feasible. Several recent reviews have covered methods for screening root traits but an appreciation for the complexity of root systems (e.g., functional differences between fine and coarse roots) needs to be paired with these methods to successfully identify relevant traits for crop improvement. Screening of root traits at early stages in plant development can proxy traits at mature stages but verification is needed on a case by case basis that traits are linked to increased crop productivity under drought. Examples in lesquerella (Physaria) and rice (Oryza) show approaches to phenotyping of root traits and current understanding of root trait genetics for breeding.

  19. Temperature variation on root surface with three root-end cavity preparation techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodrumlu Emre


    Full Text Available Introduction. Thermal changes can occur on the external root surface when root-end cavity preparation is performed, which may damage periodontal ligament cells and alveolar bone. Objective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the temperature changes during preparation of the root-end cavities at 1 and 3 mm to the sectioned apical root surfaces when either tungsten carbide round bur, diamond round bur or ultrasonic diamond tip was used. Methods. Root-end resection was performed at 90° to the long axis of the root, 3 mm from the apex. Specimens were randomly divided into three groups of 12 teeth each for three different root-end cavity preparation techniques to be used, i.e. tungsten carbide bur, diamond bur and ultrasonic diamond retro tip. Thermocouples were used to measure temperature changes at 1 mm (T1 and 3 mm (T2 to the cutting plane during the preparations. Results. For T1, the lowest and the highest mean temperature increases of 3.53°C and 4.34°C were recorded for the carbide and diamond burs, respectively. For T2, the lowest and the highest mean temperature increases of 2.62°C and 4.39°C where recorded for the carbide and diamond burs, respectively. The mean temperatures with the ultrasonic tip were 3.68 and 3.04 ºC at T1 and T2 region, respectively. For root-end preparation, the ultrasonic preparation technique took the shortest preparation time (10.25 sec and the diamond bur took the longest time (28.17 sec. Conclusion. Ultrasonic retro tips and burs caused temperature to rise from 2.62° to 4.39°C, and these rises were within safety levels.

  20. Amyloplast Distribution Directs a Root Gravitropic Reaction (United States)

    Kordyum, Elizabeth

    Immobile higher plants are oriented in the gravitational field due to gravitropim that is a physiological growth reaction and consists of three phases: reception of a gravitational signal by statocytes, its transduction to the elongation zone, and finally the organ bending. As it is known, roots are characterized with positive gravitropism, i. e. they grow in the direction of a gravitational vector, stems - with negative gravitropism, i. e. they grow in the direction opposite to a gravitational vector. According to the Nemec’s and Haberlandt’s starch-statolith hypothesis, amyloplasts in diameter of 1.5 - 3 μ in average, which appear to act as gravity sensors and fulfill a statolythic function in the specialized graviperceptive cells - statocytes, sediment in the direction of a gravitational vector in the distal part of a cell, while a nucleus is in the proximal one. There are reasonable data that confirm the amyloplasts-statoliths participation in gravity perception: 1) correlation between the statoliths localization and the site of gravity sensing, 2) significant redistribution (sedimentation) of amyloplasts in statocytes under gravistimulation in comparison with other cell organelles, 3) root decreased ability to react on gravity under starch removal from amyloplasts, 4) starchless Arabidopsis thaliana mutants are agravitropic, 5) amyloplasts-statoliths do not sediment in the absence of the gravitational vector and are in different parts or more concentrated in the center of statocytes. Plant tropisms have been intensively studied for many decades and continue to be investigated. Nevertheless, the mechanisms by which plants do so is still not clearly explained and many questions on gravisensing and graviresponse remain unanswered. Even accepted hypotheses are now being questioned and recent data are critically evaluated. Although the available data show the Ca2+ and cytoskeleton participation in graviperception and signal transduction, the clear evidence

  1. Assessment of the wetting behavior of three different root canal sealers on root canal dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muralidhar Tummala


    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of the present study was to evaluate and compare the wetting behavior of three different root canal sealers on the root canal dentin surface treated with irrigants and their combination. Materials and Methods: Decoronation and apical third resections of 27 extracted single-rooted human mandibular premolars were done. The roots were then split longitudinally into two halves, and randomly assigned into three treatment groups (n=18. The root dentin surfaces in Group1, Group 2 and Group 3 were treated with 17% ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA, 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl and combination of 17% EDTA and 3% NaOCl, respectively. Each group was subdivided into three subgroups of 6 specimens each, depending on the the sealer used, i.e. sub group A. zinc oxide (ZnOE, sub group B. AH plus, subgroup C. Guttaflow sealer, respectively. The contact angle was measured using First Ten Angstroms (FTA 200 dynamic contact angle analyzer. Results: The contact angle values for AH Plus sealer were significantly lower when compared to the other two sealer groups. Conclusion: The wettability of AH Plus sealer on the root surface dentin was found to be better than Gutta-Flow and ZnOE sealer.

  2. Conservation of root regeneration potential of cell aggregates from horseradish hairy roots used as artificial seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repunte, V.; Taya, M.; Tone, S. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering Science


    The effects of water content in agar gel used as a medium and oxygen level in the gas phase on the adventitious root regeneration of cell aggregates (CA) derived from horseradish hairy roots were investigated in cultures at 25{degree}C. The number of roots emerging from CA was highly dependent on water content of the agar gel and no root regeneration was observed at a gel water content of 66% during culture time of 20 days. CA root regeneration was suppressed when the CA were kept for 20 days in an atmosphere oxygen composition of 10%, but was restored upon transfer of the CA to normal atmosphere of 21% oxygen. On the basis of these findings, an artificial seed was proposed using the CA as a cell inclusion material encapsulated in alginate gels covered with coats. From the perspective of conserving the root regeneration potential of the CA by preventing the drying of alginate gel while keeping oxygen availability to the CA, different coating materials of ethylene vinyl acetate acrylic acid terpolymer, paraffin and polyorganosiloxane were tested. Paraffin was selected as a suitable coating material because of its efficient drying tolerance and adequate permeability to oxygen. A regeneration efficiency of 90% could be obtained from the CA, stored in alginate gel covered with a paraffin coating of 0.40 mm thickness at 25{degree}C for 60 days in air, when sucrose concentration in the gel was over 240 mol m{sup -3}. 25 refs., 8 figs.

  3. Flavonoids modify root growth and modulate expression of SHORT-ROOT and HD-ZIP III. (United States)

    Franco, Danilo Miralha; Silva, Eder Marques; Saldanha, Luiz Leonardo; Adachi, Sérgio Akira; Schley, Thayssa Rabelo; Rodrigues, Tatiane Maria; Dokkedal, Anne Ligia; Nogueira, Fabio Tebaldi Silveira; Rolim de Almeida, Luiz Fernando


    Flavonoids are a class of distinct compounds produced by plant secondary metabolism that inhibit or promote plant development and have a relationship with auxin transport. We showed that, in terms of root development, Copaifera langsdorffii leaf extracts has an inhibitory effect on most flavonoid components compared with the application of exogenous flavonoids (glycosides and aglycones). These compounds alter the pattern of expression of the SHORT-ROOT and HD-ZIP III transcription factor gene family and cause morpho-physiological alterations in sorghum roots. In addition, to examine the flavonoid auxin interaction in stress, we correlated the responses with the effects of exogenous application of auxin and an auxin transport inhibitor. The results show that exogenous flavonoids inhibit primary root growth and increase the development of lateral roots. Exogenous flavonoids also change the pattern of expression of specific genes associated with root tissue differentiation. These findings indicate that flavonoid glycosides can influence the polar transport of auxin, leading to stress responses that depend on auxin.

  4. Phototropism and gravitropism in lateral roots of Arabidopsis. (United States)

    Kiss, John Z; Miller, Kelley M; Ogden, Lisa A; Roth, Kelly K


    Gravitropism and, to a lesser extent, phototropism have been characterized in primary roots, but little is known about structural/functional aspects of these tropisms in lateral roots. Therefore, in this study, we report on tropistic responses in lateral roots of Arabidopsis thaliana. Lateral roots initially are plagiogravitropic, but when they reach a length of approximately 10 mm, these roots grow downward and exhibit positive orthogravitropism. Light and electron microscopic studies demonstrate a correlation between positive gravitropism and development of columella cells with large, sedimented amyloplasts in wild-type plants. Lateral roots display negative phototropism in response to white and blue light and positive phototropism in response to red light. As is the case with primary roots, the photoresponse is weak relative to the graviresponse, but phototropism is readily apparent in starchless mutant plants, which are impaired in gravitropism. To our knowledge, this is the first report of phototropism of lateral roots in any plant species.

  5. Nemesia root hair response to paper pulp substrate for micropropagation. (United States)

    Labrousse, Pascal; Delmail, David; Decou, Raphaël; Carlué, Michel; Lhernould, Sabine; Krausz, Pierre


    Agar substrates for in vitro culture are well adapted to plant micropropagation, but not to plant rooting and acclimatization. Conversely, paper-pulp-based substrates appear as potentially well adapted for in vitro culture and functional root production. To reinforce this hypothesis, this study compares in vitro development of nemesia on several substrates. Strong differences between nemesia roots growing in agar or in paper-pulp substrates were evidenced through scanning electron microscopy. Roots developed in agar have shorter hairs, larger rhizodermal cells, and less organized root caps than those growing on paper pulp. In conclusion, it should be noted that in this study, in vitro microporous substrates such as paper pulp lead to the production of similar root hairs to those found in greenhouse peat substrates. Consequently, if agar could be used for micropropagation, rooting, and plant acclimatization, enhancement could be achieved if rooting stage was performed on micro-porous substrates such as paper pulp.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RenHan; LiuYanpei


    In this article the rooted planar near-4-regular Eulerian trails are enumerated and an explicit formula for such maps is presented. Further, the rooted near-4-regular Eulerian maps on the torus are counted in an exact way.

  7. Bessel functions for root systems via the trigonometric setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsted, Bent; Said, S.B.


    In this paper, we study generalized Bessel functions related to root systems and give explicit formulas in several cases.......In this paper, we study generalized Bessel functions related to root systems and give explicit formulas in several cases....

  8. Role of calcium in gravity perception of plant roots (United States)

    Evans, Michael L.


    Calcium ions may play a key role in linking graviperception by the root cap to the asymmetric growth which occurs in the elongation zone of gravistimulated roots. Application of calcium-chelating agents to the root cap inhibits gravitropic curvature without affecting growth. Asymmetric application of calcium to one side of the root cap induces curvature toward the calcium source, and gravistimulation induces polar movement of applied (Ca-45)(2+) across the root cap toward the lower side. The action of calcium may be linked to auxin movement in roots since: (1) auxin transport inhibitors interfere both with gravitropic curvature and graviinduced polar calcium movement and (2) asymmetric application of calcium enhances auxin movement across the elongation zone of gravistimulated roots. Indirect evidence indicates that the calcium-modulated regulator protein, calmodulin, may be involved in either the transport or action of calcium in the gravitropic response mechanism of roots.

  9. Regeneration of roots from callus reveals stability of the developmental program for determinate root growth in Sonoran Desert Cactaceae. (United States)

    Shishkova, Svetlana; García-Mendoza, Edith; Castillo-Díaz, Vicente; Moreno, Norma E; Arellano, Jesús; Dubrovsky, Joseph G


    In some Sonoran Desert Cactaceae the primary root has a determinate root growth: the cells of the root apical meristem undergo only a few cell division cycles and then differentiate. The determinate growth of primary roots in Cactaceae was found in plants cultivated under various growth conditions, and could not be reverted by any treatment tested. The mechanisms involved in root meristem maintenance and determinate root growth in plants remain poorly understood. In this study, we have shown that roots regenerated from the callus of two Cactaceae species, Stenocereus gummosus and Ferocactus peninsulae, have a determinate growth pattern, similar to that of the primary root. To demonstrate this, a protocol for root regeneration from callus was established. The determinate growth pattern of roots regenerated from callus suggests that the program of root development is very stable in these species. These findings will permit future analysis of the role of certain Cactaceae genes in the determinate pattern of root growth via the regeneration of transgenic roots from transformed calli.

  10. Visualization of root water uptake: quantification of deuterated water transport in roots using neutron radiography and numerical modeling. (United States)

    Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Kroener, Eva; Kaestner, Anders; Carminati, Andrea


    Our understanding of soil and plant water relations is limited by the lack of experimental methods to measure water fluxes in soil and plants. Here, we describe a new method to noninvasively quantify water fluxes in roots. To this end, neutron radiography was used to trace the transport of deuterated water (D2O) into roots. The results showed that (1) the radial transport of D2O from soil to the roots depended similarly on diffusive and convective transport and (2) the axial transport of D2O along the root xylem was largely dominated by convection. To quantify the convective fluxes from the radiographs, we introduced a convection-diffusion model to simulate the D2O transport in roots. The model takes into account different pathways of water across the root tissue, the endodermis as a layer with distinct transport properties, and the axial transport of D2O in the xylem. The diffusion coefficients of the root tissues were inversely estimated by simulating the experiments at night under the assumption that the convective fluxes were negligible. Inverse modeling of the experiment at day gave the profile of water fluxes into the roots. For a 24-d-old lupine (Lupinus albus) grown in a soil with uniform water content, root water uptake was higher in the proximal parts of lateral roots and decreased toward the distal parts. The method allows the quantification of the root properties and the regions of root water uptake along the root systems.

  11. Anaphylaxis to chemotherapy and monoclonal antibodies. (United States)

    Castells, Mariana C


    Hypersensitivity reactions are increasingly prevalent, although underrecognized and underreported. Platins induce immunoglobulin E-mediated sensitization; taxenes and some monoclonal antibodies can induce reactions at first exposure. Severe hypersensitivity can preclude first-line therapy. Tryptase level at the time of a reaction is a useful diagnostic tool. Skin testing provides a specific diagnosis. Newer tests are promising diagnostic tools to help identify patients at risk before first exposure. Safe management includes rapid drug desensitization. This review provides information regarding the scope of hypersensitivity and anaphylactic reactions induced by chemotherapy and biological drugs, as well as diagnosis, management, and treatment options.

  12. [Correlation between pholcodine and perioperative anaphylaxis]. (United States)

    Dumancić, Jelena; Marković, Asja Stipić


    A large number of individuals experiencing anaphylactic reaction to neuromuscular blocking agents have not previously been in contact with them. The search for a substance inducing sensitization to muscle relaxants has led Norwegian and Swedish scientists to pholcodine, a cough suppressant, which is widely used in Europe and worldwide. Ammonium ion is an epitope common to pholcodine and neuromuscular blocking agents and it is the basis of their cross-reactivity. Based on the results of published studies that pointed to a connection of the use of pholcodine and perioperative anaphylactic reaction, pholcodine was withdrawn from the Norwegian market and subsequent research revealed a reduction of anaphylactic reactions in that country. In its latest report, the European Medicines Agency made a decision not to withdraw pholcodine mixtures from the market but it urged further research with the aim to clarify the cross-reactivity between pholcodine and neuromuscular blocking agents.

  13. Management of bee-sting anaphylaxis. (United States)

    Gupta, S; O'Donnell, J; Kupa, A; Heddle, R; Skowronski, G; Roberts-Thomson, P

    A retrospective case analysis of 101 adverse reactions to bee-stings and a prospective questionnaire analysis of the proposed management by local medical practitioners and resident hospital staff members of three hypothetical bee-sting reactions has revealed that understanding of the use of adrenaline in patients with reactions to bee envenomation is confused with regard to the indications for its use, dosage and route; that corticosteroid agents are used or are recommended too frequently, sometimes as the sole therapeutic agent; and that there is a lack of awareness of the need for volume replacement in hypotensive shocked patients. These conclusions highlight the urgent need for a greater understanding of the optimal forms of management for patients with acute anaphylactic reactions to bee envenomation.

  14. Internal root resorption in the maxillary central incisor



    Introduction: Internal root resorption is a chronic inflammatory process initiated within the pulp space with the loss of dentin. The clastic cells present in the pulp tissue trigger a progressive resorption phenomenon. Case report and conclusion: This paper reports a clinical case of an internal root resorption in the permanent central incisor, at the middle third of the root canal. Because it is asymptomatic,internal root resorption needs an early diagnosis in order to institute the endodon...

  15. Distribution of Primitive λ-Roots of Composite Moduli Ⅱ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiyong ZHENG; Todd COCHRANE


    We improve estimates for the distribution of primitive λ-roots of a composite modulus q yielding an asymptotic formula for the number of primitive λ-roots in any interval Ⅰ of length |I| (>>) q1/2+∈. Similar results are obtained for the distribution of ordered pairs (x, x-1) with x a primitive λ-root, and for the number of primitive λ-roots satisfying inequalities such as |x -x-1| ≤ B.

  16. How to study deep roots-and why it matters. (United States)

    Maeght, Jean-Luc; Rewald, Boris; Pierret, Alain


    The drivers underlying the development of deep root systems, whether genetic or environmental, are poorly understood but evidence has accumulated that deep rooting could be a more widespread and important trait among plants than commonly anticipated from their share of root biomass. Even though a distinct classification of "deep roots" is missing to date, deep roots provide important functions for individual plants such as nutrient and water uptake but can also shape plant communities by hydraulic lift (HL). Subterranean fauna and microbial communities are highly influenced by resources provided in the deep rhizosphere and deep roots can influence soil pedogenesis and carbon storage.Despite recent technological advances, the study of deep roots and their rhizosphere remains inherently time-consuming, technically demanding and costly, which explains why deep roots have yet to be given the attention they deserve. While state-of-the-art technologies are promising for laboratory studies involving relatively small soil volumes, they remain of limited use for the in situ observation of deep roots. Thus, basic techniques such as destructive sampling or observations at transparent interfaces with the soil (e.g., root windows) which have been known and used for decades to observe roots near the soil surface, must be adapted to the specific requirements of deep root observation. In this review, we successively address major physical, biogeochemical and ecological functions of deep roots to emphasize the significance of deep roots and to illustrate the yet limited knowledge. In the second part we describe the main methodological options to observe and measure deep roots, providing researchers interested in the field of deep root/rhizosphere studies with a comprehensive overview. Addressed methodologies are: excavations, trenches and soil coring approaches, minirhizotrons (MR), access shafts, caves and mines, and indirect approaches such as tracer-based techniques.



    Eduardo de los Ríos-Carrasco; José de Jesús Návar-Cháidez


    This research work aimed at the study of the root allometry in sub-tropical Tamaulipan thornscrub and pine forest communities of Nuevo Leon, Mexico. By excavating each individual root of each of 20 trees per plant community, we developed root allometric equations for biomass, volume, total length and diameter. Covariance analysis, ancova, was employed to determine the statistical difference of these variables between plant communities. Results indicate that pine plant trees have larger root v...

  18. Distribution of the residual roots in principal components analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Kshirsagar


    Full Text Available The latent of distribution of latent roots of the covariance martix of normal variables, when a hypothetical linear function of the variables is eliminated, is derived in this paper. The relation between original roots and the residual roots- after elimination of, is also derived by an analytical method. An exact test for the goodness of fit of a single nonisotropic hypothetical principal components, using the residual roots, is then obtained.

  19. Artificial Root Exudate System (ARES): a field approach to simulate tree root exudation in soils (United States)

    Lopez-Sangil, Luis; Estradera-Gumbau, Eduard; George, Charles; Sayer, Emma


    The exudation of labile solutes by fine roots represents an important strategy for plants to promote soil nutrient availability in terrestrial ecosystems. Compounds exuded by roots (mainly sugars, carboxylic and amino acids) provide energy to soil microbes, thus priming the mineralization of soil organic matter (SOM) and the consequent release of inorganic nutrients into the rhizosphere. Studies in several forest ecosystems suggest that tree root exudates represent 1 to 10% of the total photoassimilated C, with exudation rates increasing markedly under elevated CO2 scenarios. Despite their importance in ecosystem functioning, we know little about how tree root exudation affect soil carbon dynamics in situ. This is mainly because there has been no viable method to experimentally control inputs of root exudates at field scale. Here, I present a method to apply artificial root exudates below the soil surface in small field plots. The artificial root exudate system (ARES) consists of a water container with a mixture of labile carbon solutes (mimicking tree root exudate rates and composition), which feeds a system of drip-tips covering an area of 1 m2. The tips are evenly distributed every 20 cm and inserted 4-cm into the soil with minimal disturbance. The system is regulated by a mechanical timer, such that artificial root exudate solution can be applied at frequent, regular daily intervals. We tested ARES from April to September 2015 (growing season) within a leaf-litter manipulation experiment ongoing in temperate deciduous woodland in the UK. Soil respiration was measured monthly, and soil samples were taken at the end of the growing season for PLFA, enzymatic activity and nutrient analyses. First results show a very rapid mineralization of the root exudate compounds and, interestingly, long-term increases in SOM respiration, with negligible effects on soil moisture levels. Large positive priming effects (2.5-fold increase in soil respiration during the growing

  20. Root Ecological Niche Index and Root Distribution Characteristics of Artificial Phytocommunities in Rehabilitated Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Jianzhong; Zhen Jiali; Shen Jingyu


    In the implementation phase of the Conversion of Cropland to Forest and Grassland (CCFG) project in China,it is important,from a scientific point of view,to recognize phytocommunities' characteristics,species compatibility,and ecological function.The ecological niche that roots occupy,their abundance and distribution,and the factors that affect them must be acknowledged.Following the methodology of community ecology,the total root mass of a phytocommunity is measured as cubic volume.Root biomass,length,and the number of roots in every diameter class,for each soil layer and for each plant species,are regarded as observation variables.In the first instance therefore,a new method to calculate the root ecological niche index (REND is proposed,embracing the entire phytocommunity of plantations.Using the new method,the roots of pbytocommunities in Datong County,Qinghai Province (one of the counties selected for the national CCFG experiment),are dealt with in this paper.The results show that most of the vertical distributions of plant roots belong to the type wherein the roots are concentrated in the topsoil layer (0-20 cm),far more than those in the lower soil layers.The RENI of pbytocommunities is higher than that of pure stands or monocultures.The distribution of RENI by root diameter can be divided into four types:J-type,inverse J-type,recumbent S-type,and U-type.RENI is positively correlated with the wet biomass of aboveground level stems,branches,and plant leaves,and with the species richness of phytocommunities.Although the RENIs of plantations in rehabilitated fields are a little lower than those of natural forests,they are higher than those of cultivated crops.The RENIs of three community types (Picea crassifolia+Hippophae rhamnoides ssp.sinensis,H.rhamnoides ssp.sinensis,and P.crassifolia) in rehabilitated fields benefit greatly from the restoration project.The implementation of the CCFG project is important for the increase in RENI and the multiple functions of

  1. Anafilaxia associada à vacina contra sarampo, caxumba e rubéola Anafilaxia asociada a la vacuna contra sarampión, varicela y rubéola Anaphylaxis associated with the vaccine against measles, mumps and rubella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iolanda Maria Novadzki


    sensibilización por algún componente residual de la vacuna y posible reacción cruzada con el dextrano.A case-control study was carried out aiming to describe the cases and causes of anaphylaxis associated with the vaccine against measles, mumps and rubella. A total of 22 reported cases in children who showed mucocutaneous manifestations, during the Campanha Nacional de Vacinação (Brazilian Vaccination Campaign, conducted in the city of Curitiba, Southern Brazil, in 2004, were studied. In addition, 66 children, who were next to these cases and did not show a symptomatology after the vaccine was applied, were selected. Serum measurements of antibodies for vaccine antigens and total IgE, specific IgE antibody measurements for several allergens, and skin tests were performed. Vaccine response was adequate, specific IgE measurement and skin tests showed that potential allergens in vaccines and atopy were not associated with anaphylactic reactions. Skin tests with the vaccine and dextran were positive in the cases exclusively, suggesting sensitization to certain residual components of the vaccine and possible cross-reaction with dextran.

  2. A novel root based Arabic stemmer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed N. Al-Kabi


    Full Text Available Stemming algorithms are used in information retrieval systems, indexers, text mining, text classifiers etc., to extract stems or roots of different words, so that words derived from the same stem or root are grouped together. Many stemming algorithms were built in different natural languages. Khoja stemmer is one of the known and widely used Arabic stemmers. In this paper, we introduced a new light and heavy Arabic stemmer. This new stemmer is presented in this study and compared with two well-known Arabic stemmers. Results showed that accuracy of our stemmer is slightly better than the accuracy yielded by each one of those two well-known Arabic stemmers used for evaluation and comparison. Evaluation tests on our novel stemmer yield 75.03% accuracy, while the other two Arabic stemmers yield slightly lower accuracy.

  3. Parallelization of the ROOT Machine Learning Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Vakilipourtakalou, Pourya


    Today computation is an inseparable part of scientific research. Specially in Particle Physics when there is a classification problem like discrimination of Signals from Backgrounds originating from the collisions of particles. On the other hand, Monte Carlo simulations can be used in order to generate a known data set of Signals and Backgrounds based on theoretical physics. The aim of Machine Learning is to train some algorithms on known data set and then apply these trained algorithms to the unknown data sets. However, the most common framework for data analysis in Particle Physics is ROOT. In order to use Machine Learning methods, a Toolkit for Multivariate Data Analysis (TMVA) has been added to ROOT. The major consideration in this report is the parallelization of some TMVA methods, specially Cross-Validation and BDT.

  4. ROOT6: a Quest for Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Piparo, Danilo


    The sixth release cycle of ROOT is characterised by a radical modernisation in the core software technologies the too kit relies on: language standard, interpreter, hardware exploitation mechanisms. If on the one hand, the change offered the opportunity of consolidating the existing code base, in presence of such innovations, maintaining the balance between full backward compatibility and software performance was not easy. In this contribution we review the challenges and the solutions identified and implemented in the area of CPU and memory consumption as well as I/O capabilities in terms of patterns. Moreover, we present some of the new ROOT components which are offered to the users to improve the performance of third party applications.

  5. Character sums for primitive root densities

    CERN Document Server

    Lenstra, H W; Stevenhagen, P


    It follows from the work of Artin and Hooley that, under assumption of the generalized Riemann hypothesis, the density of the set of primes $q$ for which a given non-zero rational number $r$ is a primitive root modulo $q$ can be written as an infinite product $\\prod_p \\delta_p$ of local factors $\\delta_p$ reflecting the degree of the splitting field of $X^p-r$ at the primes $p$, multiplied by a somewhat complicated factor that corrects for the `entanglement' of these splitting fields. We show how the correction factors arising in Artin's original primitive root problem and some of its generalizations can be interpreted as character sums describing the nature of the entanglement. The resulting description in terms of local contributions is so transparent that it greatly facilitates explicit computations, and naturally leads to non-vanishing criteria for the correction factors.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Root rot (Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands is one of the most restrictive factors to avocado growing in main producing regions worldwide. In Brazil, scientific reports on the effectiveness of control methods are scarce. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of gypsum applications and dolomitic limestone to the soil and potassium phosphite sprays in controlling this disease in ‘Hass’ avocado, grown without irrigation. The application of dolomitic limestone or gypsum alone is not effective to recover plants affected by root rot. The application of potassium phosphite, combined or not with dolomitic lime or gypsum enables the partial recovery ‘Hass’ avocado plants affected by the disease.

  7. Effects of Root-Growing Space on Its Absorbing Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Hai-xing; LI Sheng-xiu


    Influences of root-growing space of maize upon root physiological characteristics, nutrient uptake and crop yields were studied under conditions with and without supply of water and N. Results showed that limitation of the root-growing space greatly affected root growth, decreased total root-absorbing area and TTC-reductive amounts. However, it obviously increased the root active-absorbing area, specific absorbing area (absorbing area per gram root weight) and specific active-absorbing area (actively absorbing area per gram root weight) in addition to promoting the TTC-reductive intensity. This clearly showed that plants were not passively tolerant to stress, but actively regulated their physiological metabolic processes, and strengthened their absorbing ability to increase water and nutrient uptake so that root injury by the environmental stress could be reduced. Supply of water and N stimulated root growth, increased root-absorbing area and activity, promoted nutrient uptake, and therefore increased crop yield and decreased the detrimental effects resulting from the limitation of roots-growing space.

  8. Phosphate-dependent root system architecture responses to salt stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kawa, D.; Julkowska, M.M.; Montero Sommerfeld, H.; ter Horst, A.; Haring, M.A.; Testerink, C.


    Nutrient availability and salinity of the soil affect growth and development of plant roots. Here, we describe how phosphate availability affects root system architecture (RSA) of Arabidopsis and how phosphate levels modulate responses of the root to salt stress. Phosphate (Pi) starvation reduced ma

  9. Root rot in sugar beet piles at harvest (United States)

    Sugar beet root rots are not only a concern because of reduced yields, but can also be associated with losses in storage. Our primary sugar beet root rot disease problem in the Amalgamated production area is Rhizoctonia root rot. However, this rot frequently only penetrates a short distance past t...

  10. Changes in Root Hydraulic Conductivity During Wheat Evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-Xing ZHAO; Xi-Ping DENG; Lun SHAN; Ernst STEUDLE; Sui-Qi ZHANG; Qing YE


    A better understanding of the mechanisms of water uptake by plant roots should be vital for improving drought resistance and water use efficiency (WUE). In the present study, we have demonstrated correlations between root system hydraulic conductivity and root characteristics during evolution using six wheat evolution genotypes (solution culture) with different ploidy chromosome sets (Triticum boeoticum Bioss., T. monococcum L.: 2n = 2x = 14; T. dicoccides Koern., T. dicoccon (Schrank) Schuebl.: 2n = 4x = 28;T. vulgare Vill., T. aestivum L. cv. Xiaoyan No. 6: 2n = 6x = 42). The experimental results showed that significant correlations were found between root system hydraulic conductivity and root characteristics of the materials with the increase in ploidy chromosomes (2x→6x) during wheat evolution. Hydraulic conductivity of the wheat root system at the whole-plant level was increased with chromosome ploidy during evolution, which was positively correlated with hydraulic conductivity of single roots, whole plant biomass,root average diameter, and root growth (length, area), whereas the root/shoot ratio had an inverse correlation with the hydraulic conductivity of root system with increasing chromosome ploidy during wheat evolution. Therefore, it is concluded that that the water uptake ability of wheat roots was strengthened from wild to modern cultivated species during evolution, which will provide scientific evidence for genetic breeding to improve the WUE of wheat by genetic engineering.

  11. Deciduous canine and permanent lateral incisor differential root resorption. (United States)

    Davies, K R; Schneider, G B; Southard, T E; Hillis, S L; Wertz, P W; Finkelstein, M; Hogan, M M


    When a permanent maxillary canine erupts apical to the permanent lateral incisor and the deciduous canine, resorption typically takes place only on the deciduous canine root. An understanding of this differential resorption could provide insight into the reasons for excessive iatrogenic root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement. The purpose of the present study was to examine the response of roots of permanent lateral incisors and deciduous canines to simulated resorption, and to acid and enzyme attack, reflecting the physiologic environment of an erupting permanent canine. Groups of maxillary permanent lateral incisor and deciduous canine roots were exposed to 5 combinations of Ten Cate demineralizing solution, Ten Cate demineralizing solution with EDTA, and a Type I collagenase solution. Sections of the roots were examined under a polarized light microscope. Analysis of variation of the resulting root lesions demonstrated that the lesion depths for deciduous canines were greater than those for permanent lateral incisors when averaged across 4 of the conditions (F(1,24) = 7.49, P =.0115). On average, deciduous canine roots demonstrated lesions 10% deeper than did permanent lateral incisor roots. We concluded that when deciduous canine and permanent lateral incisor roots are subjected to acid and enzyme attack, reflecting the physiologic environment of an erupting permanent canine, significantly deeper demineralized lesions are seen in the deciduous roots compared with the permanent roots. This finding may partially explain the differential root resorption during permanent tooth eruption.

  12. 21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section 872.3820 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a...

  13. 21 CFR 872.3810 - Root canal post. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Root canal post. 872.3810 Section 872.3810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3810 Root canal post. (a) Identification. A root canal post is a device made of austenitic alloys...

  14. Optimizing the chemical aspect of root canal irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.G. de Macedo


    Root canal treatment is aimed at the removal of inflamed and infected tissue present in the root canal system. It will prevent the entrance of new microorganisms or nutrients in order to maintain or create a healthy environment around the root. There is sufficient evidence that shows that traditiona

  15. Interactions between root canal irrigants, sealers and dentin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neelakantan, P.


    The objective of this thesis was to determine the interactions between root filling materials and root dentin and to investigate if root canal irrigating solutions had an impact on these interactions. The following outcomes were assessed in the studies encompassed in this thesis: (i) dislocation res

  16. Suppression of gravitropic response of primary roots by submergence. (United States)

    Hoson, T; Kamisaka, S; Masuda, Y


    Primary roots of six plant species were placed horizontally either in humid air or under water, and their growth and gravitropic responses were examined. In air, all the roots showed a normal gravitropic curvature. Under water without aeration, roots of rice (Oryza sativa L.), oat (Avena sativa L.), azuki bean (Vigna angularis Ohwi et Ohashi), and cress (Lepidium sativum L.) curved downward at almost same rate as in air, whereas the curvature of roots of maize (Zea mays L.) and pea (Pisum sativum L.) was strongly suppressed. Submergence did not cause a decrease in growth rate of these roots. When roots of maize and pea were placed horizontally under water without aeration and then rotated in three dimensions on a clinostat in air, they showed a significant curvature, suggesting that the step suppressed by submergence is not graviperception but the subsequent signal transmission or differential growth process. Constant bubbling of air through the water partly restored the gravitropic curvature of maize roots and completely restored that of pea roots. The curvature of pea roots was also partly restored by the addition of an inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis, aminooxyacetic acid. In air, ethylene suppressed the gravitropic curvature of roots of maize and pea. Furthermore, the level of ethylene in the intercellular space of the roots was increased by submergence. These results suggest that the accumulation of ethylene in the tissue is at least partly involved in suppression of transmission of the gravity signal or of differential growth in maize and pea roots under conditions of submergence.

  17. Thymol derivatives from hairy roots of Arnica montana. (United States)

    Weremczuk-Jezyna, I; Kisiel, W; Wysokińska, H


    Five known thymol derivatives were isolated from roots of Arnica montana transformed with Agrobacterium rhizogenes LBA 9402. The compounds were characterized by spectral methods. The pattern of thymol derivatives in light-grown hairy roots was slightly different from that in dark-grown ones. This is the first report on the presence of thymol derivatives in hairy roots of the plant.

  18. Mechanical properties of tree roots for soil reinforcement models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cofie, P.


    Evidence from forestry has shown that part of the forest floor bearing capacity is delivered by tree roots. The beneficial effect however varies and diminishes with increasing number of vehicle passes. Roots potential for reinforcing the soil is known to depend among others on root mechanical proper

  19. [Medicinal plant hairy roots generating and their applications]. (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Gao, Wei; Wang, Xiu-Juan


    As a kind of the plant tissue cultures, hairy root culture is characterized by rapid growth without exogenous hormones source and high yield of secondary metabolites, which attracted the attention of scholars in resent years. This work systematically summarized the research of medicinal plant hairy roots, including the mechanism, current situation of medicinal plant hairy roots, and their applications.

  20. Field Phenotyping of Soybean Roots for Drought Stress Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berhanu A. Fenta


    Full Text Available Root architecture was determined together with shoot parameters under well watered and drought conditions in the field in three soybean cultivars (A5409RG, Jackson and Prima 2000. Morphology parameters were used to classify the cultivars into different root phenotypes that could be important in conferring drought tolerance traits. A5409RG is a drought-sensitive cultivar with a shallow root phenotype and a root angle of <40°. In contrast, Jackson is a drought-escaping cultivar. It has a deep rooting phenotype with a root angle of >60°. Prima 2000 is an intermediate drought-tolerant cultivar with a root angle of 40°–60°. It has an intermediate root phenotype. Prima 2000 was the best performing cultivar under drought stress, having the greatest shoot biomass and grain yield under limited water availability. It had abundant root nodules even under drought conditions. A positive correlation was observed between nodule size, above-ground biomass and seed yield under well-watered and drought conditions. These findings demonstrate that root system phenotyping using markers that are easy-to-apply under field conditions can be used to determine genotypic differences in drought tolerance in soybean. The strong association between root and nodule parameters and whole plant productivity demonstrates the potential application of simple root phenotypic markers in screening for drought tolerance in soybean.

  1. Sulfur nutrient availability regulates root elongation by affecting root indole-3-acetic acid levels and the stem cell niche

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Zhao; Yu Wu; Lei Gao; Jun Ma; Chuan-You Li; Cheng-Bin Xiang


    Sulfur is an essential macronutrient for plants with numerous biological functions. However, the influence of sulfur nutrient availability on the regulation of root development remains largely unknown. Here, we report the response of Arabidopsis thaliana L. root development and growth to different levels of sulfate, demonstrating that low sulfate levels promote the primary root elongation. By using various reporter lines, we examined in vivo IAA level and distribution, cel division, and root meristem in response to different sulfate levels. Meanwhile the dynamic changes of in vivo cysteine, glutathione, and IAA levels were measured. Root cysteine, glutathione, and IAA levels are positively correlated with external sulfate levels in the physiological range, which eventual y affect root system architecture. Low sulfate levels also downregulate the genes involved in auxin biosynthesis and transport, and elevate the accumulation of PLT1 and PLT2. This study suggests that sulfate level affects the primary root elongation by regulating the endogenous auxin level and root stem cel niche maintenance.

  2. Polar secondary metabolites of Ferula persica roots. (United States)

    Iranshahi, Mehrdad; Mojarab, Mehdi; Sadeghian, Hamid; Hanafi-Bojd, Mohammad Yahya; Schneider, Bernd


    Phytochemical investigation of the methanolic extract of the dried roots of Ferula persica resulted in four sesquiterpene coumarin glycosides, persicaosides A-D, and two known phytosterol glucosides, sitosterol 3-O-beta-glucoside and stigmasterol 3-O-beta-glucoside. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods including 1D-((1)H and (13)C) and 2D NMR experiments (DQF-COSY, HSQC, HMBC, and ROESY) as well as ESIMS and TOFMS analyses.

  3. The roots of future rice harvests


    Ahmadi, Nourollah; Audebert, Alain; Bennett, Malcolm J; Bishopp, Anthony; Oliveira,Antonio Costa de; Courtois, Brigitte; Diedhiou, Abdala; Diévart, Anne; Gantet, Pascal; Ghesquière, Alain; Guiderdoni, Emmanuel; Henry, Amelia; Inukai, Yoshiaki; Kochian, Leon; Laplaze, Laurent


    Rice production faces the challenge to be enhanced by 50% by year 2030 to meet the growth of the population in rice-eating countries. Whereas yield of cereal crops tend to reach plateaus and a yield is likely to be deeply affected by climate instability and resource scarcity in the coming decades, building rice cultivars harboring root systems that can maintain performance by capturing water and nutrient resources unevenly distributed is a major breeding target. Taking advantage of gathering ...

  4. A Japanese Woman Takes Root in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    MORE than half a century ago, a 15 year-old Japanese girl chose to stay in China during the warridden years and has since rooted herself firmly in the land. She has devoted her life to the Chinese people and contributed greatly to strengthening friendship between the two countries. The girl is Ye Qi, now director of the Cardiology Department and Department for Foreign Nationals of the Sino-Japanese Friendship Hospital in

  5. Etiology and sequelae of root resorption. (United States)

    Vlaskalic, V; Boyd, R L; Baumrind, S


    This article reviews the current status of investigation into apical root resorption within the context of orthodontic treatment. Treatment and patient factors that have traditionally been investigated are discussed, along with the results of current research in this area. The need for rethinking traditional research strategies in the quest for identifying both control and causative mechanisms is explored. Finally, proposals for key areas of future interest are highlighted.

  6. Tonoplast Aquaporins Facilitate Lateral Root Emergence. (United States)

    Reinhardt, Hagen; Hachez, Charles; Bienert, Manuela Désirée; Beebo, Azeez; Swarup, Kamal; Voß, Ute; Bouhidel, Karim; Frigerio, Lorenzo; Schjoerring, Jan K; Bennett, Malcolm J; Chaumont, Francois


    Aquaporins (AQPs) are water channels allowing fast and passive diffusion of water across cell membranes. It was hypothesized that AQPs contribute to cell elongation processes by allowing water influx across the plasma membrane and the tonoplast to maintain adequate turgor pressure. Here, we report that, in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the highly abundant tonoplast AQP isoforms AtTIP1;1, AtTIP1;2, and AtTIP2;1 facilitate the emergence of new lateral root primordia (LRPs). The number of lateral roots was strongly reduced in the triple tip mutant, whereas the single, double, and triple tip mutants showed no or minor reduction in growth of the main root. This phenotype was due to the retardation of LRP emergence. Live cell imaging revealed that tight spatiotemporal control of TIP abundance in the tonoplast of the different LRP cells is pivotal to mediating this developmental process. While lateral root emergence is correlated to a reduction of AtTIP1;1 and AtTIP1;2 protein levels in LRPs, expression of AtTIP2;1 is specifically needed in a restricted cell population at the base, then later at the flanks, of developing LRPs. Interestingly, the LRP emergence phenotype of the triple tip mutants could be fully rescued by expressing AtTIP2;1 under its native promoter. We conclude that TIP isoforms allow the spatial and temporal fine-tuning of cellular water transport, which is critically required during the highly regulated process of LRP morphogenesis and emergence.

  7. Supersymmetry: Early Roots That Did Not Grow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Jarlskog


    Full Text Available This paper is about early roots of supersymmetry, as found in the literature from 1940s and early 1950s. There were models where the power of “partners” in alleviating divergences in quantum field theory was recognized. However, other currently known remarkable features of supersymmetry, such as its role in the extension of the Poincaré group, were not known. There were, of course, no supersymmetric nonabelian quantum field theories in those days.

  8. On Shanks' Algorithm for Modular Square Roots

    CERN Document Server

    Schlage-Puchta, Jan-Christoph


    Let $p$ be a prime number, $p=2^nq+1$, where $q$ is odd. D. Shanks described an algorithm to compute square roots $\\pmod{p}$ which needs $O(\\log q + n^2)$ modular multiplications. In this note we describe two modifications of this algorithm. The first needs only $O(\\log q + n^{3/2})$ modular multiplications, while the second is a parallel algorithm which needs $n$ processors and takes $O(\\log q+n)$ time.

  9. Acutudaurin from cultured roots of Menispermum dauricum. (United States)

    Furumoto, T; Sugimoto, Y


    A new alkaloid, acutudaurin, was isolated from cultured roots of Menispermum dauricum, a rich source of the chlorine-containing alkaloid acutumine and its dechlorinated analogue dechloroacutumine. The structure of acutudaurin was determined to be 2',3'-dihydro-5-hydroxy-4,6',7'-trimethoxy- 1'-methylspiro[3-cyclohexene-1,10'-[3a,7a]propano[1H]indole]-2,5'(4'H)-dione by spectroscopic methods.

  10. Radioprotective Effects of Hairy Roots of Ginseng

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Hyun Jung; Kim, Jin Kyu [Korea Atomic research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun Young; Yang, Deok Cho [Chungbuk National Univ., Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)


    Panax ginseng is an important medicinal plant in Korea, which has broad efficacious effects against hypertension, diabetes, nociception and cancer. And it improves weakness. The native ginseng is a slow growing plant taking 5-7 years from seed planting to mature root harvesting, during which time much care is needed since its growth is susceptible to many environmental factors such as soil, shade, climate, pathogens and pests. Nowadays, a wild ginseng has become extremely scarce and the ginseng supply depends almost exclusively on field cultivation, which is a time-consuming and labor-intensive process. To meet the demand for the plant in the international market, a bioreactor technology is a useful tool for production of root biomass on a large scale. Therefore, suspension culture of ginseng roots in bioreactors is viewed as a primary alternative method for large-scale production and recently our laboratory has developed a protocol for the in vitro culture of P. ginseng. About 60-70% of cellular DNA damage produced by ionizing radiation is caused by OH, formed from the radiolysis of water. Oxidative stress occurs when there is an excessive free radical production and/or low antioxidant defense, and results in the chemical alterations of biomolecules causing structural and functional modifications. The generation of the reactive oxygen metabolites plays an important role in the pathogenesis of the irradiation-induced tissue injury. An extensive literature review implicates cellular DNA as the primary target for the biological and lethal effects of ionizing radiation. Besides DNA, lipids and proteins are also attacked by free radicals. The purpose of this study, aimed at investigating the possible radioprotective effect of the hairy roots of P. ginseng on irradiation-induced damage by the comet assay.

  11. The divining root: moisture-driven responses of roots at the micro- and macro-scale. (United States)

    Robbins, Neil E; Dinneny, José R


    Water is fundamental to plant life, but the mechanisms by which plant roots sense and respond to variations in water availability in the soil are poorly understood. Many studies of responses to water deficit have focused on large-scale effects of this stress, but have overlooked responses at the sub-organ or cellular level that give rise to emergent whole-plant phenotypes. We have recently discovered hydropatterning, an adaptive environmental response in which roots position new lateral branches according to the spatial distribution of available water across the circumferential axis. This discovery illustrates that roots are capable of sensing and responding to water availability at spatial scales far lower than those normally studied for such processes. This review will explore how roots respond to water availability with an emphasis on what is currently known at different spatial scales. Beginning at the micro-scale, there is a discussion of water physiology at the cellular level and proposed sensory mechanisms cells use to detect osmotic status. The implications of these principles are then explored in the context of cell and organ growth under non-stress and water-deficit conditions. Following this, several adaptive responses employed by roots to tailor their functionality to the local moisture environment are discussed, including patterning of lateral root development and generation of hydraulic barriers to limit water loss. We speculate that these micro-scale responses are necessary for optimal functionality of the root system in a heterogeneous moisture environment, allowing for efficient water uptake with minimal water loss during periods of drought.

  12. Rooting for the root of elongation factor-like protein phylogeny. (United States)

    Kamikawa, Ryoma; Sakaguchi, Miako; Matsumoto, Takuya; Hashimoto, Tetsuo; Inagaki, Yuji


    Lateral gene transfer (LGT) may play a pivotal role in the evolution of elongation factor-like (EFL) genes in eukaryotes. To date, numbers of putative cases for lateral transfer of EFL genes have been postulated based on unrooted EFL phylogenies. Nevertheless, the root position in EFL phylogeny is important to validate lateral EFL gene transfer: for instance, a clade of two EFL homologs from distantly related organisms in an unrooted EFL tree does not necessarily confirm the LGT, since the possibility that the root may locate in this clade cannot be excluded. Cocquyt et al. (2009, p. 39) recently demonstrated that a putative case of lateral EFL gene transfer, which was originally proposed based on an unrooted phylogeny, could not be endorsed by the corresponding rooted analysis. Although rooting EFL phylogeny is indispensable to elucidate various aspects in EFL gene evolution, we suspected that the outgroup clade comprised of EF-1alpha and eukaryote-specific EF-1alpha paralogs erroneously attached to long EFL branches in Cocquyt et al. (2009) - a typical long branch attraction (LBA) artifact. Here, we systematically assessed the putative LBA artifact between the branch leading to the outgroup clade and long ingroup branches by analyzing the original dataset used in Cocquyt et al. (2009) with and without modifying ingroup-sequence sampling. A series of the rooted EFL analyses indicated that the root inference was highly susceptible to presence and absence of long-branched ingroup-sequences, suggesting that the rooted EFL phylogenies cannot be free from severe LBA artifact. We also discussed a new aspect in EFL gene evolution in stramenopiles identified in the course of the EFL analyses described above. Finally, the relative timing of the first emergence of EFL gene in eukaryotes was contemplated based on the current EF-1alpha/EFL distribution.

  13. Hyperforin production in Hypericum perforatum root cultures. (United States)

    Gaid, Mariam; Haas, Paul; Beuerle, Till; Scholl, Stephan; Beerhues, Ludger


    Extracts of the medicinal plant Hypericum perforatum are used to treat depression and skin irritation. A major API is hyperforin, characterized by sensitivity to light, oxygen and temperature. Total synthesis of hyperforin is challenging and its content in field-grown plants is variable. We have established in vitro cultures of auxin-induced roots, which are capable of producing hyperforin, as indicated by HPLC-DAD and ESI-MS analyses. The extraction yield and the productivity upon use of petroleum ether after solvent screening were ∼5 mg/g DW and ∼50 mg/L culture after six weeks of cultivation. The root cultures also contained secohyperforin and lupulones, which were not yet detected in intact plants. In contrast, they lacked another class of typical H. perforatum constituents, hypericins, as indicated by the analysis of methanolic extracts. Hyperforins and lupulones were stabilized and enriched as dicyclohexylammonium salts. Upon up-scaling of biomass production and downstream processing, H. perforatum root cultures may provide an alternative platform for the preparation of medicinal extracts and the isolation of APIs.

  14. Curcumin: getting back to the roots. (United States)

    Shishodia, Shishir; Sethi, Gautam; Aggarwal, Bharat B


    The use of turmeric, derived from the root of the plant Curcuma longa, for treatment of different inflammatory diseases has been described in Ayurveda and in traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years. The active component of turmeric responsible for this activity, curcumin, was identified almost two centuries ago. Modern science has revealed that curcumin mediates its effects by modulation of several important molecular targets, including transcription factors (e.g., NF-kappaB, AP-1, Egr-1, beta-catenin, and PPAR-gamma), enzymes (e.g., COX2, 5-LOX, iNOS, and hemeoxygenase-1), cell cycle proteins (e.g., cyclin D1 and p21), cytokines (e.g., TNF, IL-1, IL-6, and chemokines), receptors (e.g., EGFR and HER2), and cell surface adhesion molecules. Because it can modulate the expression of these targets, curcumin is now being used to treat cancer, arthritis, diabetes, Crohn's disease, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, Alzheimer's disease, psoriasis, and other pathologies. Interestingly, 6-gingerol, a natural analog of curcumin derived from the root of ginger (Zingiber officinalis), exhibits a biologic activity profile similar to that of curcumin. The efficacy, pharmacologic safety, and cost effectiveness of curcuminoids prompt us to "get back to our roots."

  15. Valve-sparing aortic root replacement and aortic valve repair in a patient with acromegaly and aortic root dilatation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Van Praet


    Full Text Available Aortic regurgitation and dilatation of the aortic root and ascending aorta are severe complications of acromegaly. The current trend for management of an aortic root aneurysm is valve-sparing root replacement as well as restoring the diameter of the aortic sinotubular junction (STJ and annulus. Our case report supports the recommendation that in patients with acromegaly, severe aortic root involvement may indicate the need for surgery.

  16. Hairy roots induced by Agrobacterium rhizogenes and production of regenerative plants in hairy root cultures in maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU; Hongwei; ZHOU; Xiaofu; LU; Jingmei; WANG; Junjie; WANG; Xingzhi


    Hairy roots of maize were induced by infecting 15-d calli with Agrobacterium rhizogenes. The hairy roots cultured in hormone-free media showed the vigorous growth and typical hairy root features. The regenerated plants were produced from hairy roots in MS media supplemented with 1.6 mg/L ZT and 0.4 mg/L NAA. The PCR-Southern hybridization demonstrated that T-DNA had been integrated into the chromosome of regenerated plants.

  17. Role of cytokinin in the regulation of root gravitropism. (United States)

    Aloni, Roni; Langhans, Markus; Aloni, Erez; Ullrich, Cornelia I


    The models explaining root gravitropism propose that the growth response of plants to gravity is regulated by asymmetric distribution of auxin (indole-3-acetic acid, IAA). Since cytokinin has a negative regulatory role in root growth, we suspected that it might function as an inhibitor of tropic root elongation during gravity response. Therefore, we examined the free-bioactive-cytokinin-dependent ARR5::GUS expression pattern in root tips of transformants of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh., visualized high cytokinin concentrations in the root cap with specific monoclonal antibodies, and complemented the analyses by external application of cytokinin. Our findings show that mainly the statocytes of the cap produce cytokinin, which may contribute to the regulation of root gravitropism. The homogenous symmetric expression of the cytokinin-responsive promoter in vertical root caps rapidly changed within less than 30 min of gravistimulation into an asymmetrical activation pattern, visualized as a lateral, distinctly stained, concentrated spot on the new lower root side of the cap cells. This asymmetric cytokinin distribution obviously caused initiation of a downward curvature near the root apex during the early rapid phase of gravity response, by inhibiting elongation at the lower side and promoting growth at the upper side of the distal elongation zone closely behind the root cap. Exogenous cytokinin applied to vertical roots induced root bending towards the application site, confirming the suspected inhibitory effect of cytokinin in root gravitropism. Our results suggest that the early root graviresponse is controlled by cytokinin. We conclude that both cytokinin and auxin are key hormones that regulate root gravitropism.

  18. Integration of root phenes for soil resource acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry Matthew York


    Full Text Available Suboptimal availability of water and nutrients is a primary limitation to plant growth in terrestrial ecosystems. The acquisition of soil resources by plant roots is therefore an important component of plant fitness and agricultural productivity. Plant root systems comprise a set of phenes, or traits, that interact. Phenes are the units of the plant phenotype, and phene states represent the variation in form and function a particular phene may take. Root phenes can be classified as affecting resource acquisition or utilization, influencing acquisition through exploration or exploitation, and in being metabolically influential or neutral. These classifications determine how one phene will interact with another phene, whether through foraging mechanisms or metabolic economics. Phenes that influence one another through foraging mechanisms are likely to operate within a phene module, a group of interacting phenes, that may be co-selected. Examples of root phene interactions discussed are: 1 root hair length × root hair density, 2 lateral branching × root cortical aerenchyma, 3 adventitious root number × adventitious root respiration and basal root growth angle, 4 nodal root number × root cortical aerenchyma, and 5 basal root growth angle × root hair length and density. Progress in the study of phenes and phene interactions will be facilitated by employing simulation modeling and near-isophenic lines that allow the study of specific phenes and phene combinations within a common phenotypic background. Developing a robust understanding of the phenome at the organismal level will require new lines of inquiry into how phenotypic integration influences plant function in diverse environments. A better understanding of how root phenes interact to affect soil resource acquisition will be an important tool in the breeding of crops with superior stress tolerance and reduced dependence on intensive use of inputs.

  19. Hyperaccumulation of cadmium by hairy roots of Thlaspi caerulescens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedelkoska, T.V.; Doran, P.M.


    Hairy roots were used to investigate cadmium uptake by Thlaspi caerulescens, a metal hyperaccumulator plant with potential applications in phytoremediation and phytomining. Experiments were carried out in nutrient media under conditions supporting root growth. Accumulation of Cd in short-term (9-h) experiments varied with initial medium pH and increased after treating the roots with H{sup +}-ATPase inhibitor. The highest equilibrium Cd content measured in T. caerulescens roots was 62,800 {micro}g g{sup {minus}1} dry weight, or 6.3% dry weight, at a liquid Cd concentration of 3,710 ppm. Cd levels in live T. caerulescens roots were 1.5- to 1.7-fold those in hairy roots of nonhyperaccumulator species exposed to the same Cd concentration, but similar to the Cd content of auto-claved T. caerulescens roots. The ability to grow at Cd concentrations of up to 100 ppm clearly distinguished T. caerulescens hairy roots from the nonhyperaccumulators. The specific growth rate of T. caerulescens roots was essentially unaffected by 20 to 50 ppm Cd in the culture medium; in contrast, N. tabacum roots turned dark brown at 20 ppm and growth was negligible. Up to 10,600 {micro}g g{sup {minus}1} dry weight Cd was accumulated by growing T. caerulescens hairy roots. Measurement of Cd levels in while roots and in the cell wall fraction revealed significant differences in the responses of T. caerulescens and N. tabacum roots to 20 ppm Cd. Most metal was transported directly into the symplasm of N. tabacum roots within 3 days of exposure; in contrast, T. caerulescens roots stored virtually all of their Cd in the wall fraction for the first 7 to 10 days. This delay in transmembrane uptake may represent an important defensive strategy against Cd poisoning in T. caerulescens, allowing time for activation of intracellular mechanisms for heavy metal detoxification.

  20. Spatial distribution of nematodes in three banana ( Musa AAA) root parts considering two root thickness in three farm management systems (United States)

    Araya, M.; De Waele, D.


    The spatial location of the banana ( Musa AAA) root parasitic nematodes within three root parts considering two root thickness was determined in three commercial farm management systems, which differ in weed and nematode management. Roots in each farm management system were classified in thick (>5 mm-d) and thin (1 ≤ 5 mm-d) roots. From each root type, the epidermis, the cortical parenchyma (CP) and the vascular cylinder (VC) were separated by fingernail, and nematodes were extracted by maceration of each root part. Independent of the farm management system, and for either root thickness, highest numbers of Radopholus similis per gram of root was found in the CP, followed by the epidermis and VC. The highest number of Helicotylencus spp., Pratylenchus spp. and the total nematode population per gram of root was found in the epidermis. Considering the number of nematodes per root part, the highest number of R. similis and total nematodes was located in the CP, while Helicotylenchus spp. and Pratylenchus spp. were concentrated in the epidermis. These patterns were approximately reproduced in the two root thickness and in the three farm management systems. This behavior suggests that injection of systemic nematicides into the plant pseudostem to replace the granular applications on surface soil might be promissory.