Vakharia, Kavita; Vakharia, Kalpesh
2016-02-01
Bell's palsy is unilateral, acute onset facial paralysis that is a common condition. One in every 65 people experiences Bell's palsy in the course of their lifetime. The majority of patients afflicted with this idiopathic disorder recover facial function. Initial treatment involves oral corticosteroids, possible antiviral drugs, and protection of the eye from desiccation. A small subset of patients may be left with incomplete recovery, synkinesis, facial contracture, or hemifacial spasm. A combination of medical and surgical treatment options exist to treat the long-term sequelae of Bell's palsy. PMID:26611696
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Khrennikov, Andrei
2016-01-01
We analyze foundational consequences of recently announced loophole free tests of violation of Bell's inequality. We consider two interpretations of these remarkable experiments. By the conventional one "Einstein was wrong and Bohr was right, there is spooky action at a distance, quantum realism is incompatible with locality." However, we show that it is still possible to treat quantum mechanics without appealing to nonlocality or denying realism. We hope that this note will attract attention of the experts in quantum foundations and convince them to come with their own comments on the final Bell's test.
2013-01-22
... COMMISSION PPL Bell Bend, LLC; Combined License Application for Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0... Approvals for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This reactor is to be identified as Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant... (RCOL) application for UniStar's Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 3 (CCNPP3). The NRC...
2011-12-29
... COMMISSION PPL Bell Bend, LLC; Combined License Application for Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0..., Certifications, and Approvals for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This reactor is to be identified as Bell Bend Nuclear... application is based upon the U.S. EPR reference COL (RCOL) application for UniStar's Calvert Cliffs...
CERN. Geneva
2004-01-01
2s-1, 10 times as much as we obtain now. This presentation describes Belle's efficient computing operations, struggles to manage large amount of raw and physics data, and plans for Belle computing for Super KEKB/Belle.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A probability is defined for an event in which m neutrons exist at time t sub(f) in core I of a coupled-core system, originating from a neutron injected into the core I at an earlier time t; we call it P sub(I,I,m)(t sub(f)/t). Similarly, P sub(I,II,m)(t sub(f)/t) is defined as the probability for m neutrons to exist in core II of the system at time t sub(f), originating from a neutron injected into the core I at time t. Then a system of coupled equations are derived for the generating functions G sub(Ij)(z, t sub(f)/t) = μP sub(Ijm)(t sub(f)/t).z sup(m), where j = I, II. By similar procedures equations are derived for the generating functions associated with joint probability of the following events: a given combination of numbers of neutrons are detected during given series of detection time intervals by a detector inserted in one of the cores. The above two kinds of systems of equations can be regarded as a two-point version of Pal-Bell's equations. As the application of these formulations, analyzing formula for correlation measurements, namely (1) Feynman-alpha experiment and (2) Rossi-alpha experiment of Orndoff-type, are derived, and their feasibility is verified by experiments carried out at KUCA. (author)
Anti-Bell - Refutation of Bell's theorem
Barukčić, Ilija
2012-12-01
In general, Albert Einstein as one of "the founding fathers of quantum mechanics" had some problems to accept especially the Copenhagen dominated interpretation of quantum mechanics. Einstein's dissatisfaction with Copenhagen's interpretation of quantum mechanics, the absence of locality and causality within the Copenhagen dominated quantum mechanics lead to the well known Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen thought experiment. According to Einstein et al., the Copenhagen dominated quantum mechanics cannot be regarded as a complete physical theory. The Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen thought experiment was the origin of J. S. Bell's publication in 1964; known as Bell's theorem. Meanwhile, some dramatic violations of Bell's inequality (by so called Bell test experiments) have been reported which is taken as an empirical evidence against local realism and causality at quantum level and as positive evidence in favor of the Copenhagen dominated quantum mechanics. Thus far, Quantum mechanics is still regarded as a "strictly" non-local theory. The purpose of this publication is to refute Bell's original theorem. Thus far, if we accept Bell's theorem as correct, we must accept that +0> = +1. We can derive a logical contradiction out of Bell's theorem, Bell's theorem is refuted.
Miyake, Hideki; Grzymkowski, Rafal; Ludacka, Radek; Schram, Malachi
2015-12-01
The Belle II experiment will record a similar quantity of data to LHC experiments and will acquire it at similar rates. This requires considerable computing, storage and network resources to handle not only data created by the experiment but also considerable amounts of simulated data. Consequently Belle II employs a distributed computing system to provide the resources coordinated by the the DIRAC interware. DIRAC is a general software framework that provides a unified interface among heterogeneous computing resources. In addition to the well proven DIRAC software stack, Belle II is developing its own extension called BelleDIRAC. BelleDIRAC provides a transparent user experience for the Belle II analysis framework (basf2) on various environments and gives access to file information managed by LFC and AMGA metadata catalog. By unifying DIRAC and BelleDIRAC functionalities, Belle II plans to operate an automated mass data processing framework named a “production system”. The Belle II production system enables large-scale raw data transfer from experimental site to raw data centers, followed by massive data processing, and smart data delivery to each remote site. The production system is also utilized for simulated data production and data analysis. Although development of the production system is still on-going, recently Belle II has prepared prototype version and evaluated it with a large scale simulated data production. In this presentation we will report the evaluation of the prototype system and future development plans.
The two Bell's theorems of John Bell
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Many of the heated arguments about the meaning of ‘Bell's theorem’ arise because this phrase can refer to two different theorems that John Bell proved, the first in 1964 and the second in 1976. His 1964 theorem is the incompatibility of quantum phenomena with the dual assumptions of locality and determinism. His 1976 theorem is the incompatibility of quantum phenomena with the unitary property of local causality. This is contrary to Bell's own later assertions, that his 1964 theorem began with that single, and indivisible, assumption of local causality (even if not by that name). While there are other forms of Bell's theorems—which I present to explain the relation between Jarrett-completeness, ‘fragile locality’, and EPR-completeness—I maintain that Bell's two versions are the essential ones. Although the two Bell's theorems are logically equivalent, their assumptions are not, and the different versions of the theorem suggest quite different conclusions, which are embraced by different communities. For realists, the notion of local causality, ruled out by Bell's 1976 theorem, is motivated implicitly by Reichenbach's principle of common cause and explicitly by the principle of relativistic causality, and it is the latter which must be forgone. Operationalists pay no heed to Reichenbach's principle, but wish to keep the principle of relativistic causality, which, bolstered by an implicit ‘principle of agent-causation’, implies their notion of locality. Thus for operationalists, Bell's theorem is the 1964 one, and implies that it is determinism that must be forgone. I discuss why the two ‘camps’ are drawn to these different conclusions, and what can be done to increase mutual understanding. (review article)
Particle Identification with BELLE
Satpathy, A
1999-01-01
The working principle and performance of the BELLE particle identification device (PID), based on a hybrid system consisting of an array of high precision scintillator Time of Flight and silica Aerogel Counters, is discussed. The performances achieved in the beam tests are satisfactory and Monte Carlo tests of meeting physics objectives of BELLE are promising. Prior to the real experiment which is expected to commence in spring 1999, the BELLE PID is taking cosmic ray data for calibration and fine tuning.
Percival, Ian C.
2000-01-01
Experiments over three decades have been unable to demonstrate weak nonlocality in the sense of Bell unambiguously, without loopholes. The last important loophole remaining is the detection loophole, which is being tackled by at least three experimental groups. This letter counters five common beliefs about Bell experiments, and presents alternative scenarios for future developments.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Kazuo Abe
2003-02-01
The Belle experiment continues to explore the origin of CP violation and test all aspects of standard model in meson decays. Recent results on CP violating paramter sin 21 and other measurements are presented.
Concrete incompleteness & Bell's theorem
Geurdes, Han
2014-01-01
For a subset of 2 dimensional unit parameter vectors, Bell's correlation formula with local hidden variables reproduces the quantum correlation. This is unexpected considering a general no-go LHV claim derived from the same function.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
孔雪伟
2004-01-01
A tiny, two-year-old blonde, recovering from surgical removal (外科切除) of her cancerous left eye, discovers in her mailbox a brightly colored package with a big sticker of hugging bears under a rainbow. Tearing open the box, Belle cries "Mama, look, it's teddy bears! " The bears (and the goodie package of gifts) bring about something that hadn't happened in quite a while: Belle smiles!
Chaves, Rafael
2016-01-01
It is a recent realization that many of the concepts and tools of causal discovery in machine learning are highly relevant to problems in quantum information, in particular quantum nonlocality. The crucial ingredient in the connection between both fields is the mathematical theory of causality, allowing for the representation of arbitrary causal structures and providing a rigorous tool to reason about probabilistic causation. Indeed, Bell's theorem concerns a very particular kind of causal structure and Bell inequalities are a special case of linear constraints following from such models. It is thus natural to look for generalizations involving more complex Bell scenarios. The problem, however, relies on the fact that such generalized scenarios are characterized by polynomial Bell inequalities and no current method is available to derive them beyond very simple cases. In this work, we make a significant step in that direction, providing a new, general, and conceptually clear method for the derivation of polynomial Bell inequalities in a wide class of scenarios. We also show how our construction can be used to allow for relaxations of causal constraints and naturally gives rise to a notion of nonsignaling in generalized Bell networks.
Paramati, Manjula; Tirumkudulu, Mahesh S.
2016-03-01
A smooth circular moving liquid sheet is formed by the head-on impingement of two equal laminar water jets. We subject such a liquid sheet to uniform laminar air flow from one side such that the direction of air velocity is perpendicular to the liquid sheet. The pressure of the moving air deforms the liquid sheet giving rise to an open water bell. The water bell is symmetric suggesting that the gas flow around the bell is also symmetric and that the gravitational force is negligible. We have captured the shape of the water bells for varying air flow rates and for varying Weber numbers, and compared the measurements with theoretical predictions obtained from a force balance involving liquid inertia, surface tension, and pressure difference across the sheet. The pressure exerted by the gas phase on the front and the rear surface of the deformed liquid sheet is obtained from known results of flow past flat circular discs. The predicted steady state shapes match well with the measurements at low Weber numbers but differences are observed at high Weber numbers, where the sheet flaps and is no longer smooth. Interestingly, the shape predicted by assuming a constant pressure difference equal to the stagnation pressure over the whole of the front face of the sheet and free stream value over the whole of the rear face yields nearly identical results suggesting that an open water bell is similar to a closed water bell in that, to a good approximation, the pressure on either sides of the water bell is homogeneous.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The 'Bell' of the title refers to bipartite Bell states, and their extensions to, for example, tripartite systems. The 'Group' of the title is the Braid Group in its various representations; while 'Tangle' refers to the property of entanglement which is present in both of these scenarios. The objective of this note is to explore the relation between Quantum Entanglement and Topological Links, and to show that the use of the language of entanglement in both cases is more than one of linguistic analogy.
Expectation Value in Bell's Theorem
Wang, Zheng-Chuan
2006-01-01
We will demonstrate in this paper that Bell's theorem (Bell's inequality) does not really conflict with quantum mechanics, the controversy between them originates from the different definitions for the expectation value using the probability distribution in Bell's inequality and the expectation value in quantum mechanics. We can not use quantum mechanical expectation value measured in experiments to show the violation of Bell's inequality and then further deny the local hidden-variables theor...
Software Development at Belle II
Kuhr, Thomas; Hauth, Thomas
2015-12-01
Belle II is a next generation B-factory experiment that will collect 50 times more data than its predecessor Belle. This requires not only a major upgrade of the detector hardware, but also of the simulation, reconstruction, and analysis software. The challenges of the software development at Belle II and the tools and procedures to address them are reviewed in this article.
The Bell Inequality and Entanglement
Munro, W J; Nemoto, K.; White, A. G.
2001-01-01
Entanglement is a critical resource used in many current quantum information schemes. As such entanglement has been extensively studied in two qubit systems and its entanglement nature has been exhibited by violations of the Bell inequality. Can the amount of violation of the Bell inequality be used to quantify the degree of entanglement. What do Bell inequalities indicate about the nature of entanglement?
Bell's Universe: A Personal Recollection
Bertlmann, Reinhold A
2016-01-01
My collaboration and friendship with John Bell is recollected. I will explain his outstanding contributions in particle physics, in accelerator physics, and his joint work with Mary Bell. Mary's work in accelerator physics is also summarized. I recall our quantum debates, mention some personal reminiscences, and give my personal view on Bell's fundamental work on quantum theory, in particular, on the concept of contextuality and nonlocality of quantum physics. Finally, I describe the huge influence Bell had on my own work, in particular on entanglement and Bell inequalities in particle physics and their experimental verification, and on mathematical physics, where some geometric aspects of the quantum states are illustrated.
Teleportation, Bell's inequalities and inseparability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Relations between teleportation, Bell's inequalities and inseparability are investigated. It is shown that any mixed two spin-1/2 state which violates the Bell-CHSH inequality is useful for teleportation. The result is extended to any Bell's inequalities constructed from the expectation values of products of spin operators. It is also shown that there exist inseparable states which are not useful for teleportation within the standard scheme. (orig.)
Bell's Universe: A Personal Recollection
Bertlmann, Reinhold A.
2016-01-01
My collaboration and friendship with John Bell is recollected. I will explain his outstanding contributions in particle physics, in accelerator physics, and his joint work with Mary Bell. Mary's work in accelerator physics is also summarized. I recall our quantum debates, mention some personal reminiscences, and give my personal view on Bell's fundamental work on quantum theory, in particular, on the concept of contextuality and nonlocality of quantum physics. Finally, I describe the huge inf...
Rossing, Thomas D.
2001-05-01
The art of casting bronze bells developed to a high level of sophistication in China during the Shang dynasty (1766-1123 BC). Many chimes of two-tone bells remain from the Western and Eastern Zhou dynasties (1122-249 BC). With the spread of Buddhism from the third century, large round temple bells developed in China and later in Korea, Japan, and other Asian countries. Vibrational modes of some of these bells have been studied by means of holographic interferometry and experimental modal testing. Their musical as well as acoustical properties are discussed.
Simplest proof of Bell's inequality
Maccone, Lorenzo
2013-01-01
Bell's theorem is a fundamental result in quantum mechanics: it discriminates between quantum mechanics and all theories where probabilities in measurement results arise from the ignorance of pre-existing local properties. We give an extremely simple proof of Bell's inequality: a single figure suffices. This simplicity may be useful in the unending debate of what exactly the Bell inequality means, since the hypothesis at the basis of the proof become extremely transparent. It is also a useful didactic tool, as the Bell inequality can be explained in a single intuitive lecture.
Bell on Bell's theorem: The changing face of nonlocality
Brown, Harvey R
2015-01-01
Between 1964 and 1990, the notion of nonlocality in Bell's papers underwent a profound change as his nonlocality theorem gradually became detached from quantum mechanics, and referred to wider probabilistic theories involving correlations between separated beables. The proposition that standard quantum mechanics is itself nonlocal (more precisely, that it violates `local causality') became divorced from the Bell theorem per se from 1976 on, although this important point is widely overlooked in the literature. In 1990, the year of his death, Bell would express serious misgivings about the mathematical form of the local causality condition, and leave ill-defined the issue of the consistency between special relativity and violation of the Bell-type inequality. In our view, the significance of the Bell theorem, both in its deterministic and stochastic forms, can only be fully understood by taking into account the fact that a fully Lorentz-covariant version of quantum theory, free of action-at-a-distance, can be a...
Electron Identification in Belle
Hanagaki, K; Ikeda, H; Iijima, T; Tsukamoto, T
2002-01-01
We report on electron identification methods and their performance in the Belle experiment at the KEK-B asymmetric B-Factory $e^{+} e^{-}$ storage ring. Electrons are selected using a likelihood approach that takes information from the electromagnetic calorimeter, the central drift chamber, and the silica aerogel Cherenkov counters as input. We achieve an electron identification efficiency of $(92.4 \\pm 0.4)%$ with a $\\pi^{\\pm}$ fake rate of $(0.25 \\pm 0.02)%$ for the momentum range between 1.0 GeV/$c$ and 3.0 GeV/$c$ in laboratory frame.
Bell's palsy before Bell : Cornelis Stalpart van der Wiel's observation of Bell's palsy in 1683
van de Graaf, RC; Nicolai, JPA
2005-01-01
Bell's palsy is named after Sir Charles Bell (1774-1842), who has long been considered to be the first to describe idiopathic facial paralysis in the early 19th century. However, it was discovered that Nicolaus Anton Friedreich (1761-1836) and James Douglas (1675-1742) preceded him in the 18th centu
Bellac, Michel Le
2014-11-01
The final form of quantum physics, in the particular case of wave mechanics, was established in the years 1925-1927 by Heisenberg, Schrödinger, Born and others, but the synthesis was the work of Bohr who gave an epistemological interpretation of all the technicalities built up over those years; this interpretation will be examined briefly in Chapter 10. Although Einstein acknowledged the success of quantum mechanics in atomic, molecular and solid state physics, he disagreed deeply with Bohr's interpretation. For many years, he tried to find flaws in the formulation of quantum theory as it had been more or less accepted by a large majority of physicists, but his objections were brushed away by Bohr. However, in an article published in 1935 with Podolsky and Rosen, universally known under the acronym EPR, Einstein thought he had identified a difficulty in the by then standard interpretation. Bohr's obscure, and in part beyond the point, answer showed that Einstein had hit a sensitive target. Nevertheless, until 1964, the so-called Bohr-Einstein debate stayed uniquely on a philosophical level, and it was actually forgotten by most physicists, as the few of them aware of it thought it had no practical implication. In 1964, the Northern Irish physicist John Bell realized that the assumptions contained in the EPR article could be tested experimentally. These assumptions led to inequalities, the Bell inequalities, which were in contradiction with quantum mechanical predictions: as we shall see later on, it is extremely likely that the assumptions of the EPR article are not consistent with experiment, which, on the contrary, vindicates the predictions of quantum physics. In Section 3.2, the origin of Bell's inequalities will be explained with an intuitive example, then they will be compared with the predictions of quantum theory in Section 3.3, and finally their experimental status will be reviewed in Section 3.4. The debate between Bohr and Einstein goes much beyond a
Electroweak physics from Belle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We report a study of τ- to π- π+ π- ν, τ- to K- π+ π- ν, τ- to K- K+ π- ν and τ- to K- K+ K- ν decays using a 666 fb-1 data sample collected with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e+ e- collider. We present the branching fractions as well as the unfolded mass spectra of the total hadronic system for these four decay modes. We also report the result of a search for a second class current (SCC) via τ to π η' ν decays. Sensitivity at the 10-5 level can be achieved, while the branching fraction for a SCC is predicted to be at the 10-6 - 10-5 level in several phenomenological models. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
On the 50th anniversary of Bell’s monumental 1964 paper, there is still widespread misunderstanding about exactly what Bell proved. This misunderstanding derives in turn from a failure to appreciate the earlier argument of Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen. I retrace the history and logical structure of these arguments in order to clarify the proper conclusion, namely that any world that displays violations of Bell’s inequality for experiments done far from one another must be non-local. Since the world we happen to live in displays such violations, actual physics is non-local. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell’s theorem’. (paper)
Peres, A
1999-01-01
Bell inequalities are derived for any number of observers, any number of alternative setups for each one of them, and any number of distinct outcomes for each experiment. It is shown that if a physical system consists of several distant subsystems, and if the results of tests performed on the latter are determined by local variables with objective values, then the joint probabilities for triggering any given set of distant detectors are convex combinations of a finite number of Boolean arrays, whose components are either 0 or 1 according to a simple rule. This convexity property is both necessary and sufficient for the existence of local objective variables. It leads to a simple graphical method which produces a large number of generalized Clauser-Horne inequalities corresponding to the faces of a convex polytope. It is plausible that quantum systems whose density matrix has a positive partial transposition satisfy all these inequalities, and therefore are compatible with local objective variables, even if th...
Bansal, Vikas
2015-01-01
The Belle II experiment at the SuperKEKB collider in Tsukuba, Japan, will start physics data taking in 2018 and will accumulate 50 ab$^{-1}$ of e$^{+}$e$^{-}$ collision data, about 50 times larger than the data set of the earlier Belle experiment. The computing requirements of Belle II are comparable to those of a run I high-p$_T$ LHC experiment. Computing will make full use of such grids in North America, Asia, Europe, and Australia, and high speed networking. Results of an initial MC simulation campaign with 3 ab$^{-1}$ equivalent luminosity will be described
Belle II Technical Design Report
Abe, T; Adamczyk, K; Ahn, S; Aihara, H; Akai, K; Aloi, M; Andricek, L; Aoki, K; Arai, Y; Arefiev, A; Arinstein, K; Arita, Y; Asner, D M; Aulchenko, V; Aushev, T; Aziz, T; Bakich, A M; Balagura, V; Ban, Y; Barberio, E; Barvich, T; Belous, K; Bergauer, T; Bhardwaj, V; Bhuyan, B; Blyth, S; Bondar, A; Bonvicini, G; Bozek, A; Bracko, M; Brodzicka, J; Brovchenko, O; Browder, T E; Cao, G; Chang, M -C; Chang, P; Chao, Y; Chekelian, V; Chen, A; Chen, K -F; Chen, P; Cheon, B G; Chiang, C -C; Chistov, R; Cho, K; Choi, S -K; Chung, K; Comerma, A; Cooney, M; Cowley, D E; Critchlow, T; Dalseno, J; Danilov, M; Dieguez, A; Dierlamm, A; Dillon, M; Dingfelder, J; Dolenec, R; Dolezal, Z; Drasal, Z; Drutskoy, A; Dungel, W; Dutta, D; Eidelman, S; Enomoto, A; Epifanov, D; Esen, S; Fast, J E; Feindt, M; Garcia, M Fernandez; Fifield, T; Fischer, P; Flanagan, J; Fourletov, S; Fourletova, J; Freixas, L; Frey, A; Friedl, M; Fruehwirth, R; Fujii, H; Fujikawa, M; Fukuma, Y; Funakoshi, Y; Furukawa, K; Fuster, J; Gabyshev, N; Cueto, A Gaspar de Valenzuela; Garmash, A; Garrido, L; Geisler, Ch; Gfall, I; Goh, Y M; Golob, B; Gorton, I; Grzymkowski, R; Guo, H; Ha, H; Haba, J; Hara, K; Hara, T; Haruyama, T; Hayasaka, K; Hayashi, K; Hayashii, H; Heck, M; Heindl, S; Heller, C; Hemperek, T; Higuchi, T; Horii, Y; Hou, W -S; Hsiung, Y B; Huang, C -H; Hwang, S; Hyun, H J; Igarashi, Y; Iglesias, C; Iida, Y; Iijima, T; Imamura, M; Inami, K; Irmler, C; Ishizuka, M; Itagaki, K; Itoh, R; Iwabuchi, M; Iwai, G; Iwai, M; Iwasaki, M; Iwasaki, M; Iwasaki, Y; Iwashita, T; Iwata, S; Jang, H; Ji, X; Jinno, T; Jones, M; Julius, T; Kageyama, T; Kah, D H; Kakuno, H; Kamitani, T; Kanazawa, K; Kapusta, P; Kataoka, S U; Katayama, N; Kawai, M; Kawai, Y; Kawasaki, T; Kennedy, J; Kichimi, H; Kikuchi, M; Kiesling, C; Kim, B K; Kim, G N; Kim, H J; Kim, H O; Kim, J -B; Kim, J H; Kim, M J; Kim, S K; Kim, K T; Kim, T Y; Kinoshita, K; Kishi, K; Kisielewski, B; van Dam, K Kleese; Knopf, J; Ko, B R; Koch, M; Kodys, P; Koffmane, C; Koga, Y; Kohriki, T; Koike, S; Koiso, H; Kondo, Y; Korpar, S; Kouzes, R T; Kreidl, Ch; Kreps, M; Krizan, P; Krokovny, P; Krueger, H; Kruth, A; Kuhn, W; Kuhr, T; Kumar, R; Kumita, T; Kupper, S; Kuzmin, A; Kvasnicka, P; Kwon, Y -J; Lacasta, C; Lange, J S; Lee, I -S; Lee, M J; Lee, M W; Lee, S -H; Lemarenko, M; Li, J; Li, W D; Li, Y; Libby, J; Limosani, A; Liu, C; Liu, H; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Liventsev, D; Virto, A Lopez; Makida, Y; Mao, Z P; Marinas, C; Masuzawa, M; Matvienko, D; Mitaroff, W; Miyabayashi, K; Miyata, H; Miyazaki, Y; Miyoshi, T; Mizuk, R; Mohanty, G B; Mohapatra, D; Moll, A; Mori, T; Morita, A; Morita, Y; Moser, H -G; Martin, D Moya; Mueller, T; Muenchow, D; Murakami, J; Myung, S S; Nagamine, T; Nakamura, I; Nakamura, T T; Nakano, E; Nakano, H; Nakao, M; Nakazawa, H; Nam, S -H; Natkaniec, Z; Nedelkovska, E; Negishi, K; Neubauer, S; Ng, C; Ninkovic, J; Nishida, S; Nishimura, K; Novikov, E; Nozaki, T; Ogawa, S; Ohmi, K; Ohnishi, Y; Ohshima, T; Ohuchi, N; Oide, K; Olsen, S L; Ono, M; Ono, Y; Onuki, Y; Ostrowicz, W; Ozaki, H; Pakhlov, P; Pakhlova, G; Palka, H; Park, H; Park, H K; Peak, L S; Peng, T; Peric, I; Pernicka, M; Pestotnik, R; Petric, M; Piilonen, L E; Poluektov, A; Prim, M; Prothmann, K; Regimbal, K; Reisert, B; Richter, R H; Riera-Babures, J; Ritter, A; Ritter, A; Ritter, M; Roehrken, M; Rorie, J; Rosen, M; Rozanska, M; Ruckman, L; Rummel, S; Rusinov, V; Russell, R M; Ryu, S; Sahoo, H; Sakai, K; Sakai, Y; Santelj, L; Sasaki, T; Sato, N; Sato, Y; Scheirich, J; Schieck, J; Schwanda, C; Schwartz, A J; Schwenker, B; Seljak, A; Senyo, K; Seon, O -S; Sevior, M E; Shapkin, M; Shebalin, V; Shen, C P; Shibuya, H; Shiizuka, S; Shiu, J -G; Shwartz, B; Simon, F; Simonis, H J; Singh, J B; Sinha, R; Sitarz, M; Smerkol, P; Sokolov, A; Solovieva, E; Stanic, S; Staric, M; Stypula, J; Suetsugu, Y; Sugihara, S; Sugimura, T; Sumisawa, K; Sumiyoshi, T; Suzuki, K; Suzuki, S Y; Takagaki, H; Takasaki, F; Takeichi, H; Takubo, Y; Tanaka, M; Tanaka, S; Taniguchi, N; Tarkovsky, E; Tatishvili, G; Tawada, M; Taylor, G N; Teramoto, Y; Tikhomirov, I; Trabelsi, K; Tsuboyama, T; Tsunada, K; Tu, Y -C; Uchida, T; Uehara, S; Ueno, K; Uglov, T; Unno, Y; Uno, S; Urquijo, P; Ushiroda, Y; Usov, Y; Vahsen, S; Valentan, M; Vanhoefer, P; Varner, G; Varvell, K E; Vazquez, P; Vila, I; Vilella, E; Vinokurova, A; Visniakov, J; Vos, M; Wang, C H; Wang, J; Wang, M -Z; Wang, P; Wassatch, A; Watanabe, M; Watase, Y; Weiler, T; Wermes, N; Wescott, R E; White, E; Wicht, J; Widhalm, L; Williams, K M; Won, E; Xu, H; Yabsley, B D; Yamamoto, H; Yamaoka, H; Yamaoka, Y; Yamauchi, M; Yin, Y; Yoon, H; Yu, J; Yuan, C Z; Yusa, Y; Zander, D; Zdybal, M; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhao, L; Zhao, Z; Zhilich, V; Zhou, P; Zhulanov, V; Zivko, T; Zupanc, A; Zyukova, O
2010-01-01
The Belle detector at the KEKB electron-positron collider has collected almost 1 billion Y(4S) events in its decade of operation. Super-KEKB, an upgrade of KEKB is under construction, to increase the luminosity by two orders of magnitude during a three-year shutdown, with an ultimate goal of 8E35 /cm^2 /s luminosity. To exploit the increased luminosity, an upgrade of the Belle detector has been proposed. A new international collaboration Belle-II, is being formed. The Technical Design Report presents physics motivation, basic methods of the accelerator upgrade, as well as key improvements of the detector.
Causarum Investigatio and the Two Bell's Theorems of John Bell
Wiseman, Howard M
2015-01-01
"Bell's theorem" can refer to two different theorems that John Bell proved, the first in 1964 and the second in 1976. His 1964 theorem is the incompatibility of quantum phenomena with the joint assumptions of Locality and Predetermination. His 1976 theorem is their incompatibility with the single property of Local Causality. This is contrary to Bell's own later assertions, that his 1964 theorem began with the assumption of Local Causality, even if not by that name. Although the two Bell's theorems are logically equivalent, their assumptions are not. Hence, the earlier and later theorems suggest quite different conclusions, embraced by operationalists and realists, respectively. The key issue is whether Locality or Local Causality is the appropriate notion emanating from Relativistic Causality, and this rests on one's basic notion of causation. For operationalists the appropriate notion is what is here called the Principle of Agent-Causation, while for realists it is Reichenbach's Principle of common cause. By...
Clusters of Bell's palsy "Surtos" da paralisia de Bell
Thiago D. Gonçalves-Coêlho; Carlos Newton D. Pinheiro; Ezon V.A.P. Ferraz; José Luiz Alonso-Nieto
1997-01-01
The idiopathic facial paralysis or Bell's palsy installs abruptly or within a few hours, without any apparent cause. It corresponds to approximately 75% of all peripheral facial palsies. Three theories try to explain its pathogenecity: vascular-ischemic, viral and auto-immune. We reviewed the records of the EMG Sector, Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual (São Paulo, Brazil), from 1985 to 1995 and found 239 cases of Bell's palsy. Data were analysed according to age, gender, seasonal distribu...
Bell's Palsy (Beyond the Basics)
... changes caused by Bell's palsy will affect the appearance of your face, including how you smile. These ... are comfortable with some medical jargon. Patient information: Genital herpes (Beyond the Basics) Patient information: Shingles (Beyond ...
Bell Numbers, Determinants and Series
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
P K Saikia; Deepak Subedi
2013-05-01
In this article, we study Bell numbers and Uppuluri Carpenter numbers. We obtain various expressions and relations between them. These include polynomial recurrences and expressions as determinants of certain matrices of binomial coefficients.
Bell inequalities for arbitrary situations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a simple way based on the joint global probability distribution to derive CHSH inequalities. Inspired by this derivation we develop a simple method that gives a set of conditions which are necessary for a model to be a local variable theory. This method generates candidate Bell inequalities for models of arbitrary situations in which there are an arbitrary number of particles, measurements and outcomes. With the help of a type of distribution it will be clear that all necessary conditions are Bell inequalities. This work gives a unified way to write Bell inequalities for arbitrary situations. - Highlights: • Constructing CHSH inequalities based on joint global probability distribution. • Constructing conditions which are necessary for a model to be local and realistic. • Bell inequalities for general situations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
John Bell, with whom I had a fruitful collaboration and warm friendship, is best known for his seminal work on the foundations of quantum physics, but he also made outstanding contributions to particle physics and accelerator physics
Francesco Poppi
2010-01-01
During the Nobel prize-winning UA1 experiment, scientists in the control room used to ring a bell if a particularly interesting event had occurred. Today, the “CMS Exotica hotline” routine produces a daily report that lists the exotic events that were recorded the day before. Display of an event selected by the Exotica routine. Take just a very small fraction of the available data (max. 5%); define the events that you want to keep and set the parameters accordingly; run the Exotica routine and only look at the very few images that the system has selected for you. This is the recipe that a small team of CMS researchers has developed to identify the signals coming from possible new physics processes. “This approach does not replace the accurate data analysis on the whole set of data. However, it is a very fast and effective way to focus on just a few events that are potentially very interesting”, explains Maurizio Pierini (CERN), who developed the...
Choudhury, Sayantan; Singh, Rajeev
2016-01-01
In this work, we have studied the possibility of setting up Bell's inequality violating experiment in the context of cosmology, based on the basic principles of quantum mechanics. First we start with the physical motivation of implementing the Bell's inequality violation in the context of cosmology. Then to set up the cosmological Bell violating test experiment we introduce a model independent theoretical framework using which we have studied the creation of new massive particles by implementing the WKB approximation method for the scalar fluctuations in presence of additional time dependent mass contribution. Next using the background scalar fluctuation in presence of new time dependent mass contribution, we explicitly compute the expression for the one point and two point correlation functions. Furthermore, using the results for one point function we introduce a new theoretical cosmological parameter which can be expressed in terms of the other known inflationary observables and can also be treated as a fut...
Bell's theorem, accountability and nonlocality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bell's theorem is a fundamental theorem in physics concerning the incompatibility between some correlations predicted by quantum theory and a large class of physical theories. In this paper, we introduce the hypothesis of accountability, which demands that it is possible to explain the correlations of the data collected in many runs of a Bell experiment in terms of what happens in each single run. Under this assumption, and making use of a recent result by Colbeck and Renner (2011 Nature Commun. 2 411), we then show that any nontrivial account of these correlations in the form of an extension of quantum theory must violate parameter independence. Moreover, we analyze the violation of outcome independence of quantum mechanics and show that it is also a manifestation of nonlocality. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell's theorem’. (paper)
Bipartite Bell Inequality and Maximal Violation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present new bell inequalities for arbitrary dimensional bipartite quantum systems. The maximal violation of the inequalities is computed. The Bell inequality is capable of detecting quantum entanglement of both pure and mixed quantum states more effectively. (general)
Optical Bell Measurement by Fock Filtering
Paris, M G A; Jonathan, D; Bose, S; D'Ariano, G M; Paris, MGA
2000-01-01
We describe a nonlinear interferometric setup to perform a complete optical Bell measurement, i.e. to unambigously discriminate the four polarization entangled EPR-Bell photon pairs. The scheme is robust against detector inefficiency.
John Bell and the Identical Twins
1984-01-01
A biographical profile of John S.Bell is presented based on extensive interviews the author had with Bell. Bell’s vierws on the quantum theory are presented along with a simple explanation of his idenity.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cinabro, David [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States)
2016-01-01
The major goals of our work on Belle II were to complete our contributions, a 64 channel PIN diode based radiation monitor, to the precursor detector called Beast II and the electronics for the endcap K-Long/Muon (E-KLM) detector. This was done by Professor Cinabro, Technician Gutierrez, and undergraduate labor supported by US-Japan funds. Professor Bonvicini through US-Japan funds led the development and installation of a beamstrahlung monitor system in the Belle II interaction region. Graduate students Farhat and DiCarlo worked on this. We also worked on charm physics analysis.
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bell Mountain. 9.55... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Bell Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Bell Mountain viticultural area...
2010-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Belle River. 117.424 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.424 Belle River. The draw of the S70 bridge, mile 23.8 (Landside Route) near Belle River, shall open on signal; except that, from 10 p.m. to 6...
Houston, Paul
1996-01-01
Selfishness has spawned a new breed of racism, driven by fear, fed by scarcity, and manifested through economic imperatives. California's Proposition 187 and Herrnstein and Murray's book "The Bell Curve" are built on racist foundations. Our current obsession with race is driven by an economy and an elitist social system that is dismantling the…
Clusters of Bell's palsy "Surtos" da paralisia de Bell
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thiago D. Gonçalves-Coêlho
1997-01-01
Full Text Available The idiopathic facial paralysis or Bell's palsy installs abruptly or within a few hours, without any apparent cause. It corresponds to approximately 75% of all peripheral facial palsies. Three theories try to explain its pathogenecity: vascular-ischemic, viral and auto-immune. We reviewed the records of the EMG Sector, Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual (São Paulo, Brazil, from 1985 to 1995 and found 239 cases of Bell's palsy. Data were analysed according to age, gender, seasonal distribution of cases. There was a predominance of cases in the 31 - 60 age bracket (40.59 %. The female gender was responsible to 70.71 % of cases. There was a predominance of cases in winter (31.38 % and autumn (30.13 %, which was statiscally significant. These findings let us to suppose that Bell's palsy predominates in females, in 41-60 years age bracket, and occurs predominantly in cold months. There are groups of clusters throughout temporal distribution of cases and cases are dependent on one each other or on factors affecting them all, which reinforces the infectious hypothesis (there is a rise in the incidence of viral upper respiratory tract infection during cold months.A paralisia facial idiopática ou paralisia de Bell se instala abruptamente ou em algumas horas, sem causa aparente. Corresponde a aproximadamente 75% de todos os casos de paralisia facial. Três teorias tentam explicar sua patogenia: vásculo-isquêmica, autoimune e viral. Nós revisamos os arquivos do Setor de Eletromiografia do Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual (São Paulo de 1985 a 1995, encontrando 239 casos de paralisia de Bell. Dados foram analisados quanto a idade, sexo, distribuição sazonal. Houve predominância dos casos na faixa etária de 31 a 60 anos (40,59 %. O sexo feminino foi responsável por 70,71 % dos casos. Houve predominância de casos no inverno (31,38 % e outono (30,13 %, estatisticamente sigmficante. Estes achados levam-nos a supor que a paralisia de Bell
One brazilian poet - Lindolf Bell One brazilian poet - Lindolf Bell
Richard Zenith
2008-01-01
By his talents and intense activity, Lindolf Bell became the recognized leader of the Poetic Catechesis movement. Founded in 1964 in a defunct Sao Paulo nightclub, it quickly established itself as a major artistic current in Brazil. The movement is concerned not so much with the poem's form as with its role and diffusion in society. To fulfill the movement's original proposal to "take the poem to the people," poets declaimed their works in auditoriums, parks, streets, and other public places....
Bell Palsy and Acupuncture Treatment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Betul Battaloglu Inanc
2013-08-01
A 22-year-old female patient, a midwifery student, had treatment with corticosteroid and antiviral agents as soon as Bell Palsy (BP was diagnosed (House-Breckman stage 6. Six weeks later, patient didn’t recover, while in House-Breckman stage 3, acupuncture was perfomed and local and distal acupoints were used with ears, body and face. Ear acupuncture point was used two times with detection. In the course of six sessions body and face points were stimulated by electroacupuncture. After ten acupuncture treatments, the subjective symptoms and the facial motion on the affected side improved. There was an spotting ecchymosis the ST2 points on. The symmetry of the face is a determinant of facial charm and influences interpersonal attraction for adults, children and pregnant women. Medical options for the sequelae of BP are limited. Acupuncture’s effectively in Bell palsy patients’ should be shown with more clinical and electrophysiological studies.
Time-Continuous Bell Measurements
Hofer, Sebastian G; Aspelmeyer, Markus; Hammerer, Klemens
2013-01-01
We combine the concept of Bell measurements, in which two systems are projected into maximally entangled states, with the concept of continuous measurements, which concerns the evolution of a continuously monitored quantum system. For time continuous Bell measurements based on homodyne detection of light we derive the corresponding stochastic Schr\\"odinger equations, as well as the unconditional feedback master equations. Our results cover in particular the two scenarios of time-continuous quantum teleportation and entanglement swapping. We apply our results to show that (i) two two-level systems can be deterministically entangled via homodyne detection of light, even including photon loss approaching the fundamental limit of 50%, and (ii) a quantum state of light can be continuously teleported to a mechanical oscillator. This time-continuous remote quantum state preparation works under the same conditions as are required for optomechanical ground state cooling.
Belle II Silicon Vertex Detector
Mohanty, Gagan B
2015-01-01
The Belle II experiment at the SuperKEKB collider in Japan is designed to indirectly probe new physics using approximately 50 times the data recorded by its predecessor. An accurate determination of the decay-point position of subatomic particles such as beauty and charm hadrons as well as a precise measurement of low-momentum charged particles will play a key role in this pursuit. These will be accomplished by a vertex detector, which comprises two layers of pixelated silicon detector and four layers of silicon vertex detector. We describe herein the design, prototyping and construction efforts of the Belle-II silicon vertex detector that is aimed to be commissioned towards the middle of 2017.
Bell's Theorem from Moore's Theorem
Fields, Chris
2012-01-01
It is shown that the restrictions of what can be inferred from classically-recorded observational outcomes that are imposed by the no-cloning theorem, the Kochen-Specker theorem and Bell's theorem also follow from restrictions on inferences from observations formulated within classical automata theory. Similarities between the assumptions underlying classical automata theory and those underlying universally-unitary quantum theory are discussed.
Bell inequality and complementarity loophole
Czachor, Marek
1997-01-01
A simple classical, deterministic, local situation violating the Bell inequality is described. The detectors used in the experiment are ideal and the observers who decide which pair of measuring devices to choose for a given pair of particles have free will. The construction uses random variables which are not jointly measurable in a single run of an experiment and the hidden variables have a nonsymmetric probability density. Such random variables are complementary but still fully classical. ...
Bell inequalities and incompatible measurements
Morgan, Peter
2003-01-01
Bell inequalities are a consequence of measurement incompatibility (not, as generally thought, of nonlocality). In classical terms, this is equivalent to contextuality -- measurement devices do have a significant effect. Contextual models are reasonable in classical physics, which always took the view that we ignore measurement devices whenever possible, but if that isn't good enough then we do have to model measurement devices. It is also argued that quantum theory should only be taken with ...
Common questions about Bell palsy.
Albers, Janet R; Tamang, Stephen
2014-02-01
Bell palsy is an acute affliction of the facial nerve, resulting in sudden paralysis or weakness of the muscles on one side of the face. Testing patients with unilateral facial paralysis for diabetes mellitus or Lyme disease is not routinely recommended. Patients with Lyme disease typically present with additional manifestations, such as arthritis, rash, or facial swelling. Diabetes may be a comorbidity of Bell palsy, but testing is not needed in the absence of other indications, such as hypertension. In patients with atypical symptoms, magnetic resonance imaging with contrast enhancement can be used to rule out cranial mass effect and to add prognostic value. Steroids improve resolution of symptoms in patients with Bell palsy and remain the preferred treatment. Antiviral agents have a limited role, and may improve outcomes when combined with steroids in patients with severe symptoms. When facial paralysis is prolonged, surgery may be indicated to prevent ocular desiccation secondary to incomplete eyelid closure. Facial nerve decompression is rarely indicated or performed. Physical therapy modalities, including electrostimulation, exercise, and massage, are neither beneficial nor harmful. PMID:24506123
Speakable and unspeakable after John Bell
Percival, I C
2000-01-01
`Philosophy' was speakable for John Bell but is not for many physicists. The border between philosophy and physics is here illustrated through Brownian motion and Bell experiments. `Measurement', however, was unspeakable for Bell. His insistence that the physics of quantum measurement should not be confined to the laboratory and that physics is concerned with the big world outside leads us to examples from zoology, meteorology and cosmology.
A simple proof of Bell's inequality
Maccone, Lorenzo
2013-11-01
Bell's theorem is a fundamental result in quantum mechanics: it discriminates between quantum mechanics and all theories where probabilities in measurement results arise from the ignorance of pre-existing local properties. We give an extremely simple proof of Bell's inequality; a single figure suffices. This simplicity may be useful in the unending debate over what exactly the Bell inequality means, because the hypotheses underlying the proof become transparent. It is also a useful didactic tool, as the Bell inequality can be explained in a single intuitive lecture.
Bell Canyon test summary report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Bell Canyon Test was an in situ evaluation of the ability of a cement grout plug to seal boreholes. It consisted of a 2-m-long, 20-cm-diameter grout plug in an anhydrite formation at a depth of 1370 m, directly above an aquifer that provided a 12.4 MPa (1800 psi) differential pressure. The aquifer had a production capability of 38,000 l/day (240 bbl/day, 104 gal/day). The observed leakage after plug installation was 0.6 l/day, which is equivalent to a 50 microdarcy flow path assuming all flow occurred through the plug cross-sectional area. Laboratory results and analysis of field data indicate that the bulk of the flow occurred through a microstructure at the interface between the plug and the host rock. The Bell Canyon Test demonstrated that a plug could be formulated, emplaced, and tested under actual conditions and provide acceptable performance. When these results are related to the WIPP performance assessment models, they provide additional confidence that borehole plugging can be accomplished satisfactorily. The Bell Canyon results can also be used as basis for future activities in the generic repository sealing program for similar emplacements and performance assessment evaluations. If the observed leakage rates are not acceptable at other sites, the BCT results would indicate that the first step in improving such emplacements should deal with improved bonding of the plug to the rock at these sites. The results obtained from the BCT, when coupled with results from long-term durability assessments, form a plug performance data basis for repository designers at other proposed waste repository sites
Belle II and Hadron spectroscopy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Križan, Peter, E-mail: peter.krizan@ijs.si [J. Stefan Institute and University of Ljubljana (Slovenia)
2015-08-15
Asymmetric B factories, PEP-II with BaBar and KEKB with Belle, made a decisive contribution to flavour physics. In addition, they also observed a long list of new hadrons, some of which do not fit into the standard meson and baryon schemes. The next generation of B factories, the so called Super B factory will search for departures from the Standard model. For this task, a 50 times larger data sample is needed, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 50 ab{sup −1}. With such a large data sample there are many more topics to explore, including searches for new and exotic hadrons, and investigation of their properties.
Contemporary management of Bell palsy.
Jowett, Nate; Hadlock, Tessa A
2015-04-01
Bell palsy (BP) is the most common diagnosis in acute and chronic facial palsy. Although most patients fully recover, more than one-quarter will have residual dysfunction. Of these, nearly half will demonstrate severe limitations in facial expression. Though significant attention has been paid to acute management and prognosis, a paucity of literature exists addressing management of the long-term sequelae of BP. This article describes contemporary use of physical therapy, injectables, and static and dynamic surgical procedures in facial reanimation of acute and chronic BP. PMID:25958893
Minimax discrimination of quasi-Bell states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kato, Kentaro [Quantum ICT Research Institute, Tamagawa University, 6-1-1 Tamagawa-gakuen, Machida, Tokyo 194-8610 (Japan)
2014-12-04
An optimal quantum measurement is considered for the so-called quasi-Bell states under the quantum minimax criterion. It is shown that the minimax-optimal POVM for the quasi-Bell states is given by its square-root measurement and is applicable to the teleportation of a superposition of two coherent states.
George Boole and the Bell inequalities
Rosinger, E E
2004-01-01
As shown by Pitowsky, the Bell inequalities are related to certain classes of probabilistic inequalities dealt with by George Boole, back in the 1850s. Here a short presentation of this relationship is given. Consequently, the Bell inequalities can be obtained without any assumptions of physical nature, and merely through mathematical argument.
Belle-II Experiment Network Requirements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Asner, David; Bell, Greg; Carlson, Tim; Cowley, David; Dart, Eli; Erwin, Brock; Godang, Romulus; Hara, Takanori; Johnson, Jerry; Johnson, Ron; Johnston, Bill; Dam, Kerstin Kleese-van; Kaneko, Toshiaki; Kubota, Yoshihiro; Kuhr, Thomas; McCoy, John; Miyake, Hideki; Monga, Inder; Nakamura, Motonori; Piilonen, Leo; Pordes, Ruth; Ray, Douglas; Russell, Richard; Schram, Malachi; Schroeder, Jim; Sevior, Martin; Singh, Surya; Suzuki, Soh; Sasaki, Takashi; Williams, Jim
2013-05-28
The Belle experiment, part of a broad-based search for new physics, is a collaboration of ~400 physicists from 55 institutions across four continents. The Belle detector is located at the KEKB accelerator in Tsukuba, Japan. The Belle detector was operated at the asymmetric electron-positron collider KEKB from 1999-2010. The detector accumulated more than 1 ab-1 of integrated luminosity, corresponding to more than 2 PB of data near 10 GeV center-of-mass energy. Recently, KEK has initiated a $400 million accelerator upgrade to be called SuperKEKB, designed to produce instantaneous and integrated luminosity two orders of magnitude greater than KEKB. The new international collaboration at SuperKEKB is called Belle II. The first data from Belle II/SuperKEKB is expected in 2015. In October 2012, senior members of the Belle-II collaboration gathered at PNNL to discuss the computing and neworking requirements of the Belle-II experiment with ESnet staff and other computing and networking experts. The day-and-a-half-long workshop characterized the instruments and facilities used in the experiment, the process of science for Belle-II, and the computing and networking equipment and configuration requirements to realize the full scientific potential of the collaboration's work.
A model with cosmological Bell inequalities
Maldacena, Juan
2015-01-01
We discuss the possibility of devising cosmological observables which violate Bell's inequalities. Such observables could be used to argue that cosmic scale features were produced by quantum mechanical effects in the very early universe. As a proof of principle, we propose a somewhat elaborate inflationary model where a Bell inequality violating observable can be constructed.
Physics Achievements from the Belle Experiment
Brodzicka, Jolanta; Chang, Paoti; Eidelman, Simon; Golob, Bostjan; Hayasaka, Kiyoshi; Hayashii, Hisaki; Iijima, Toru; Inami, Kenji; Kinoshita, Kay; Kwon, Youngjoon; Miyabayashi, Kenkichi; Mohanty, Gagan; Nakao, Mikihiko; Nakazawa, Hideyuki; Olsen, Stephen; Sakai, Yoshihide; Schwanda, Christoph; Schwartz, Alan; Trabelsi, Karim; Uehara, Sadaharu; Uno, Shoji; Watanabe, Yasushi; Zupanc, Anze
2012-01-01
The Belle experiment, running at the KEKB e+e- asymmetric energy collider during the first decade of the century, achieved its original objective of measuring precisely differences between particles and anti-particles in the B system. After collecting 1000 fb-1 of data at various Upsilon resonances, Belle also obtained the many other physics results described in this article.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Purpose: To provide a spray cooling structure wherein the steam phase in a bwr reactor vessel can sufficiently be cooled and the upper cap and flanges in the vessel can be cooled rapidly which kept from direct contaction with cold water. Constitution: An apertured shielding is provided in parallel spaced apart from the inner wall surface at the upper portion of a reactor vessel equipped with a spray nozzle, and the lower end of the shielding and the inner wall of the vessel are closed to each other so as to store the cooling water. Upon spray cooling, cooling water jetting out from the nozzle cools the vapor phase in the vessel and then hits against the shielding. Then the cooling water mostly falls as it is, while partially enters through the apertures to the back of the shielding plate, abuts against stoppers and falls down. The stoppers are formed in an inverted L shape so that the spray water may not in direct contaction with the inner wall of the vessel. (Horiuchi, T.)
Bell's inequality violation with spins in silicon.
Dehollain, Juan P; Simmons, Stephanie; Muhonen, Juha T; Kalra, Rachpon; Laucht, Arne; Hudson, Fay; Itoh, Kohei M; Jamieson, David N; McCallum, Jeffrey C; Dzurak, Andrew S; Morello, Andrea
2016-03-01
Bell's theorem proves the existence of entangled quantum states with no classical counterpart. An experimental violation of Bell's inequality demands simultaneously high fidelities in the preparation, manipulation and measurement of multipartite quantum entangled states, and provides a single-number benchmark for the performance of devices that use such states for quantum computing. We demonstrate a Bell/ Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality violation with Bell signals up to 2.70(9), using the electron and the nuclear spins of a single phosphorus atom embedded in a silicon nanoelectronic device. Two-qubit state tomography reveals that our prepared states match the target maximally entangled Bell states with >96% fidelity. These experiments demonstrate complete control of the two-qubit Hilbert space of a phosphorus atom and highlight the important function of the nuclear qubit to expand the computational basis and maximize the readout fidelity. PMID:26571006
Quantum correlations in connected multipartite Bell experiments
Tavakoli, Armin
2016-04-01
Bell experiments measure correlations between outcomes of a number of observers measuring on a shared physical state emitted from a single source. Quantum correlations arising in such Bell experiments have been intensively studied over the last decades. Much less is known about the nature of quantum correlations arising in network structures beyond Bell experiments. Such networks can involve many independent sources emitting states to observers in accordance with the network configuration. Here, we will study classical and quantum correlations in a family of networks which can be regarded as compositions of several independent multipartite Bell experiments connected together through a central node. For such networks we present tight Bell-type inequalities which are satisfied by all classical correlations. We study properties of the violations of our inequalities by probability distributions arising in quantum theory.
The design of bells with harmonic overtones.
McLachlan, Neil; Nigjeh, Behzad Keramati; Hasell, Anton
2003-07-01
Musical bells have had limited application due to the presence of inharmonic partials in the lower part of their acoustic spectra. A series of bells has been designed that contains up to seven partial frequencies in the harmonic series beginning at the fundamental frequency. This was achieved by choosing geometries for finite-element analysis models in which as many purely circumferential bending modes as possible occurred at frequencies below any mode with an axial ring node. The bell models were then fine tuned using gradient projection method shape optimization and the resulting profiles were cast in silicon bronze. A range of bell geometries and timbres is analyzed using psycho-acoustic models and is discussed in relation to European carillon bells. PMID:12880061
Quantum correlations in connected multipartite Bell experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bell experiments measure correlations between outcomes of a number of observers measuring on a shared physical state emitted from a single source. Quantum correlations arising in such Bell experiments have been intensively studied over the last decades. Much less is known about the nature of quantum correlations arising in network structures beyond Bell experiments. Such networks can involve many independent sources emitting states to observers in accordance with the network configuration. Here, we will study classical and quantum correlations in a family of networks which can be regarded as compositions of several independent multipartite Bell experiments connected together through a central node. For such networks we present tight Bell-type inequalities which are satisfied by all classical correlations. We study properties of the violations of our inequalities by probability distributions arising in quantum theory. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
According to Maudlin, Bell showed that it is the World which is non-lcoal, and not just some particular theories of it. I argue that this conclusion is arrived at by taking for granted all assumptions of realism or ‘classicality’. If these are taken into account the resulting conclusion that ‘a classical world which allows for Bell inequality violations must be non-local’ is in good agreement with the mainstream perception of Bell's theorem(s). This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell’s theorem’. (comment)
Violating a Bell inequality with classical states
Liu, Qin; Lamas-Linares, Antía; Skaar, Johannes; Makarov, Vadim; Kurtsiefer, Christian
2011-01-01
A strong probe for limits of classical physics is the Bell inequality between measurements of separated particles. Its violation can be used to secure a shared secret between two parties, but a fair-sampling assumption has to be made for limited detection efficiencies. Here, we present an experimental violation of a Bell inequality by classical states, exploiting imperfections in common photodetectors. We also propose measurements to obtain violations exceeding those allowed by quantum physics for ideal Bell tests. This exploit demonstrates that device-independent quantum cryptography requires the detection loophole be closed.
Herpes Simplex Virus-1 and Bell's Palsy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J Gordon Millichap
2008-05-01
Full Text Available The association between herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1 infection and Bell palsy was determined in 47 children studied at Children's Hospital at Montefiore, Bronx, NY. Swabs of saliva and conjunctiva were taken for PCR testing.
Nonlinear Bell Inequalities Tailored for Quantum Networks
Rosset, Denis; Branciard, Cyril; Barnea, Tomer Jack; Pütz, Gilles; Brunner, Nicolas; Gisin, Nicolas
2016-01-01
In a quantum network, distant observers sharing physical resources emitted by independent sources can establish strong correlations, which defy any classical explanation in terms of local variables. We discuss the characterization of nonlocal correlations in such a situation, when compared to those that can be generated in networks distributing independent local variables. We present an iterative procedure for constructing Bell inequalities tailored for networks: starting from a given network, and a corresponding Bell inequality, our technique provides new Bell inequalities for a more complex network, involving one additional source and one additional observer. We illustrate the relevance of our method on a variety of networks, demonstrating significant quantum violations, which could not have been detected using standard Bell inequalities.
Helicopter attempts tow of Liberty Bell 7
1961-01-01
Marine helicopter appears to have Liberty Bell 7 in tow after Virgil I. Grissom's successful flight of 305 miles down the Atlantic Missile Range. Minutes after 'Gus' Grissom got out of the spacecraft, it sank.
On the failure of Bell's theorem
Bene, Gyula
1997-01-01
Using a new approach to quantum mechanics we revisit Hardy's proof for Bell's theorem and point out a loophole in it. We also demonstrate on this example that quantum mechanics is a local realistic theory.
Software and Physics Simulation at Belle II
Fulsom, Bryan; Belle Collaboration, II
2016-03-01
The Belle II experiment at the SuperKEKB collider in Tsukuba, Japan, will start taking physics data in 2018 and will accumulate 50 ab-1 of e+e-collision data, about 50 times larger than the data set of the earlier Belle experiment. The new detector will use GEANT4 for Monte Carlo simulation and an entirely new software and reconstruction system based on modern computing tools. Examples of physics simulation including beam background overlays will be described.
BELLE progress report. 1995 April - 1996 March
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The scientific goals of the BELLE experiment continue to be of great interest. The large number of papers during the past year that identify measurements that can be done with BELLE reflects the considerable interest in the theoretical community in these physics issues. This is also demonstrated by the approval during the past year of two major B physics projects: the BaBar experiment at SLAC and the HERAB experiment at DESY. Both projects have schedules that put them into direct competition with BELLE for the important goal of testing the KM predictions for CP violations in B meson decays. Other projects addressing this physics are planned for the Tevatron collider and have been proposed both for the LHC and RHIC. The BELLE collaboration remains committed to its goal of being the first group to provide conclusive evidence either confirming or refuting the KM model. The year 1995 was an exciting time for the BELLE experiment. All of the major technology choices were finalized and a final detector configuration has been established. Continued R and D has resulted in improved performance expectations for a number of detector subsystems. The procurement of materials for major subsystems is underway and construction of long leadtime items has started. A construction schedule has been established and an integration strategy is being developed. This report describes the status of BELLE with an emphasis on progress since the last LCPAC meeting in January 1995. (J.P.N.). 90 refs
van de Graaf, R. C.; IJpma, F. F. A.; Nicolai, J-P A.; Werker, P. M. N.
2009-01-01
Bell's palsy is the eponym for idiopathic peripheral facial paralysis. It is named after Sir Charles Bell (1774-1842), who, in the first half of the nineteenth century, discovered the function of the facial nerve and attracted the attention of the medical world to facial paralysis. Our knowledge of
Bell tests with optimal local hidden variable models
Wang, Fuming
2014-01-01
An alternative method for detection-loophole-free Bell test is proposed using local hidden variable (LHV) models with optimal detection efficiencies. A framework for constructing such optimal LHV models is presented. Optimal LHV models for maximally and non-maximally entangled twopartite states are constructed and compared with Bell inequalities. The equivalence between Bell tests based on Bell inequalities and on optimal models is demonstrated. Testable LHV models with detection efficiencies lower than that of the Bell inequalities are demonstrated for the first time. Applications in Bell tests and in device-independent quantum information processing are discussed.
Bell inequalities for quantum optical fields
Żukowski, Marek; Wieśniak, Marcin; Laskowski, Wiesław
2016-08-01
The commonly used "practical" Bell inequalities for quantum optical fields, which use intensities as the observables, are derivable only if specific additional assumptions hold. This limits the range of local hidden variable theories, which are invalidated by their violation. We present alternative Bell inequalities, which do not suffer from any (theoretical) loophole. The inequalities are for correlations of averaged products of local rates. By rates we mean ratios of the measured intensity in the given local output channel to the total local measured intensity, in the given run of the experiment. Bell inequalities of this type detect entanglement in situations in which the "practical" ones fail. Thus, we have full consistency with Bell's theorem, and better device-independent entanglement indicators. Strongly driven type-II parametric down conversion (bright squeezed vacuum) is our working example. The approach can be used to modify many types of standard Bell inequalities, to the case of undefined particle numbers. The rule is to replace the usual probabilities by rates.
Belle II Silicon Vertex Detector: Mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: The Belle experiment at KEK in Tsukuba, Japan and its precision measurements have led to the justification of the Nobel Prize earned by Kobayashi and Maskawa in 2008. In June 2010, the machine was brought to a halt for a promising future, namely an upgrade to Belle II which will be completed until 2015. By this time all important components are to be exchanged for an unprecedented performance boost of the accelerator (KEKB) and the Belle Detector. With this upgrade, KEKB will become SuperKEKB and beat its own luminosity world record (2.11 x 1034 cm-1s-1) by a factor of 40. The core of the Belle II Experiment is composed of a DEPFET Pixel Detector, which is surrounded by the Silicon Vertex Detector (SVD). The SVD is located close to the beam pipe to allow high precision vertex reconstruction. The proximity to the beam pipe and the high beam currents result in a very high level of background radiation for the SVD that both, the electronics and the mechanics have to cope with. The Origami sensor design was developed to provide a fast readout system at a very good signal to noise ratio. This design comes with a great performance increase that is able to fulfill with the new Belle II requirements. Nevertheless it is important to implement a light and yet stable mechanical construction that can withstand the radiation and temperature conditions without compromising the detector capabilities. (author)
Relations between entanglement witnesses and Bell inequalities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bell inequalities, considered within quantum mechanics, can be regarded as nonoptimal witness operators. We discuss the relationship between such Bell witnesses and general entanglement witnesses in detail for the Bell inequality derived by Clauser, Horne, Shimony, and Holt (CHSH) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 880 (1969)]. We derive bounds on how much an optimal witness has to be shifted by adding the identity operator to make it positive on all states admitting a local hidden variable model. In the opposite direction, we obtain tight bounds for the maximal proportion of the identity operator that can be subtracted from such a CHSH witness, while preserving the witness properties. Finally, we investigate the structure of CHSH witnesses directly by relating their diagonalized form to optimal witnesses of two different classes
Belle/KEKB status and performance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The BELLE detector has been in operation at the KEKB asymmetric B-factory for about one year. At present the luminosity of the collider reached the value about 2x1033 cm-2s-1. All systems of the BELLE detector demonstrate their good performance and parameters which are close to the original design specifications. This provides a possibility to collect large data sample and to perform various analyses of B-mesons decays as well as to study other kind of processes
Clinical Practice Guideline of Acupuncture for Bell's Palsy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xi Wu
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Backgroud: Acupuncture is common used for Bell's palsy in clinic, however, recent systematic reviews all shows that there is no sufficient evidence to support the effectiveness of acupuncture for Bell's palsy because ofthe poor quality and heterogeneity. It's urgently necessary to develop a guideline of acupuncture for Bell's palsy based on principles of evidence-based medicine to optimize acupuncture treating, standardize outcomes evaluating and to improve the quality of acupuncture for patients with Bell's palsy under general circumstances.
John Bell and the Nature of the Quantum World
Bertlmann, Reinhold A
2014-01-01
I present my encounter with John Bell at CERN, our collaboration and joint work in particle physics. I also will recall our quantum debates and give my personal view on Bell's fundamental work on quantum theory, in particular, on contextuality and nonlocality of quantum physics. Some mathematical and geometric aspects of entanglement are discussed as influence of Bell's Theorem. Finally, I make some historical comments on the experimental side of Bell inequalities.
The Real "Toll" of A. G. Bell: Lessons about Eugenics
Greenwald, Brian H.
2009-01-01
Historian Brian Greenwald offers a revisionist interpretation of Bell. He reviews Bell's role and influence within the American eugenics movement and shows that Bell had the respect of the most prominent American eugenicists. His intimate knowledge of deafness, from personal experience with his mother and wife and from his studies of deaf people…
Are Bell inequalities also violated for neutral kaons?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: The first part of the poster analyzes a Bell inequality similar to the famous photon system. Unfortunately, due to the given constants in this system this Bell inequality cannot be violated. The second part of the poster analyzes a Bell inequality which has no similarities to the photon case. This inequality is violated by the CP-violating parameter. (author)
Rath, Barbara; Linder, Thomas; Cornblath, David; Hudson, Michael; Fernandopulle, Rohini; Hartmann, Katharina; Heininger, Ulrich; Izurieta, Hector; Killion, Leslie; Kokotis, Pangiotis; Oleske, James; Vajdy, Michael; Wong, Virginia
2007-01-01
Bell's palsy has been reported as an adverse event following immunization (AEFI). Review of the published literature reveals that several characteristics have been used to describe Bell's palsy, which differ significantly from author to author. Evidently, the definition of "Bell's palsy" remains con
Generalized Bell States and Quantum Teleportation
Fujii, Kazuyuki
2001-01-01
We make a brief comment on measurement of quantum operators with degenerate eigenstates and apply to quantum teleportation. We also try extending the quantum teleportation by Bennett et al [5] to more general situation by making use of generalized Bell states.
Peripheral nerve involvement in Bell's palsy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. A. Bueri
1984-12-01
Full Text Available A group of patients with Bell's palsy were studied in order to disclose the presence of subclinical peripheral nerve involvement. 20 patients, 8 male and 12 female, with recent Bell's palsy as their unique disease were examined, in all cases other causes of polyneuropathy were ruled out. Patients were investigated with CSF examination, facial nerve latencies in the affected and in the sound sides, and maximal motor nerve conduction velocities, as well as motor terminal latencies from the right median and peroneal nerves. CSF laboratory examination was normal in all cases. Facial nerve latencies were abnormal in all patients in the affected side, and they differed significantly from those of control group in the clinically sound side. Half of the patients showed abnormal values in the maximal motor nerve conduction velocities and motor terminal latencies of the right median and peroneal nerves. These results agree with previous reports which have pointed out that other cranial nerves may be affected in Bell's palsy. However, we have found a higher frequency of peripheral nerve involvement in this entity. These findings, support the hypothesis that in some patients Bell's palsy is the component of a more widespread disease, affecting other cranial and peripheral nerves.
Faulkner's Southern belle - myth or reality?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nataša Intihar Klančar
2011-12-01
Full Text Available The article deals with heroines of William Faulkner's novels Light in August, Absalom, Absalom!, The Sound and the Fury, The Unvanquished, The Town and his short story "A Rose for Emily". The Southern belle features as a recurring character in Faulkner's fiction, her fragility, modesty, weakness yet strength, beauty, sincerity, generous nature, status and her fall from innocence comprise her central characteristics. Confronted with various expectations of Southern society and with the hardships of war, the belle is faced with many obstacles and challenges. Faulkner's heroines face a wide array of problems that prevent them from being and/or remaining a Southern belle. Let us name a few: Lena's inappropriate social status, Joanna's wrong roots, Mrs. Hightower's inability to fulfill her duties as the minister's wife, Ellen's miserable marriage, Judith's sad love life, Rosa's feelings of inferiority and humiliation, Mrs. Compson's failure as a mother, Caddy's weak rebellion against male convention, Drusilla's male characteristics, Linda's unrequited love and Emily's dark secret, to name a few. Through these characters and their destinies Faulkner shows a decaying South whose position has changed considerably over the years. Can the Southern belle save it? Can she save herself?
Communication cost of simulating Bell correlations.
Toner, B F; Bacon, D
2003-10-31
What classical resources are required to simulate quantum correlations? For the simplest and most important case of local projective measurements on an entangled Bell pair state, we show that exact simulation is possible using local hidden variables augmented by just one bit of classical communication. Certain quantum teleportation experiments, which teleport a single qubit, therefore admit a local hidden variables model. PMID:14611317
Mouthpiece and Bell Effects on Trombone Resonance
LoPresto, Michael C.
2014-01-01
The effects of the mouthpiece and bell on the frequencies of the vibrating air column in a trombone can be demonstrated quite readily by first calculating the expected resonant frequencies of a piece of PVC pipe that is the same length as a trombone, then replacing portions of the PVC pipe of the same length with first a cup-shaped mouthpiece and…
Baby Bell Libraries?--An Update.
Kessler, Jack
1993-01-01
Discusses the emerging three-tiered structure (i.e., the "Baby Bells," network nodes, and information marketers) that will assume responsibility for implementing a new national information network and getting networked information to the public. The role of libraries related to networked information is also considered. (EA)
Violation of Bell's inequalities in quantum optics
Reid, M. D.; Walls, D. F.
1984-01-01
An optical field produced by intracavity four-wave mixing is shown to exhibit the following nonclassical features: photon antibunching, squeezing, and violation of Cauchy-Schwarz and Bell's inequalities. These intrinsic quantum mechanical effects are shown to be associated with the nonexistence of a positive normalizable Glauber-Sudarshan P function.
MIDAS™ DEMONSTRATION PLOTS IN BELL PEPPER
A demonstration trial comparing MIDAS™ (methyl iodide:chloropicrin 50:50) to methyl bromide:chloropicrin (67:33) was conducted in Saint Lucie County, FL on a commercial bell pepper production farm. Methyl bromide:chloropicrin was shank injected into performed beds at 392 kg/ha using three 25 cm dee...
Campbell, Patricia Shehan
1995-01-01
Presents an interview with Bell Yung, a scholar of Chinese music and ethnomusicology. Maintains that world music (music from many nations and cultures) should be taught as early as possible in the schools and at home. Includes two lesson plans for teaching about Chinese music. (CFR)
Engineering professor Amy Bell honored by IEEE
Crumbley, Liz
2006-01-01
Amy Bell, an associate professor in the Virginia Tech College of Engineering's Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, has received a 2006 Outstanding Student Branch Advisor Award from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. (IEEE), the world's largest professional organization for electrical and computer engineers.
Delayed facial nerve decompression for Bell's palsy.
Kim, Sang Hoon; Jung, Junyang; Lee, Jong Ha; Byun, Jae Yong; Park, Moon Suh; Yeo, Seung Geun
2016-07-01
Incomplete recovery of facial motor function continues to be long-term sequelae in some patients with Bell's palsy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of transmastoid facial nerve decompression after steroid and antiviral treatment in patients with late stage Bell's palsy. Twelve patients underwent surgical decompression for Bell's palsy 21-70 days after onset, whereas 22 patients were followed up after steroid and antiviral therapy without decompression. Surgical criteria included greater than 90 % degeneration on electroneuronography and no voluntary electromyography potentials. This study was a retrospective study of electrodiagnostic data and medical chart review between 2006 and 2013. Recovery from facial palsy was assessed using the House-Brackmann grading system. Final recovery rate did not differ significantly in the two groups; however, all patients in the decompression group recovered to at least House-Brackmann grade III at final follow-up. Although postoperative hearing threshold was increased in both groups, there was no significant between group difference in hearing threshold. Transmastoid decompression of the facial nerve in patients with severe late stage Bell's palsy at risk for a poor facial nerve outcome reduced severe complications of facial palsy with minimal morbidity. PMID:26319412
Astronaut Virgil Grissom Entering Liberty Bell 7
1961-01-01
Assisted by Astronaut John Glenn, Astronaut Virgil Grissom enters the Mercury capsule, Liberty Bell 7, for the MR-4 mission on July 21, 1961. Boosted by the Mercury-Redstone vehicle, the MR-4 mission was the second manned suborbital flight.
Detection loophole in asymmetric Bell experiments
Brunner, Nicolas; Gisin, Nicolas; Scarani, Valerio; Simon, Christoph
2007-01-01
The problem of closing the detection loophole with asymmetric systems, such as entangled atom-photon pairs, is addressed. We show that, for the Bell inequality I_3322, a minimal detection efficiency of 43% can be tolerated for one of the particles, if the other one is always detected. We also study the influence of noise and discuss the prospects of experimental implementation.
Bell-inequality violation with "thermal" radiation
Filip, Radim; Dusek, Miloslav; Fiurasek, Jaromir; Mista, Ladislav
2001-01-01
The model of a quantum-optical device for a conditional preparation of entangled states from input mixed states is presented. It is demonstrated that even thermal or pseudo-thermal radiation can be entangled in such a way, that Bell-inequalities are violated.
Global track finder for Belle II experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present an implementation of a method based on the Legendre transformation for reconstruction charged particle tracks in the central drift chamber of the Belle II experiment. The method is designed for fast track finding and restoring circular patterns of track hits in transverse plane. It is done by searching for common tangents to drift circles of hits in the conformal space. With known transverse trajectories longitudinal momentum estimation performed by assigning stereo hits followed by determination of the track parameters. The method includes algorithms responsible for track quality estimation and reduction of rate of fakes. The work is targeting at increasing the efficiency and reducing the execution time because the computing power available to the experiment is limited. The algorithm is developed within the Belle II software environment with using Monte-Carlo simulation for probing its efficiency.
Quantum cloning, Bell's inequality and teleportation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We analyse the possibility of using the two-qubit output state from the Buzek-Hillery quantum copying machine (not necessarily a universal quantum cloning machine) as a teleportation channel. We show that there is a range of values of the machine parameter ξ for which the two-qubit output state is entangled and violates the Bell-CHSH inequality and for a different range it remains entangled but does not violate the Bell-CHSH inequality. Further, we observe that for certain values of the machine parameter the two-qubit mixed state can be used as a teleportation channel. The use of the output state from the Buzek-Hillery cloning machine as a teleportation channel provides an additional appeal to the cloning machine and motivation for our present work
Bell's inequalities definitely proved
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
According to quantum physics, two bonded particles instantly adopt the same behaviour when we measure them, whatever be the distance between them. For Einstein, this phenomenon could only be explained by the existence of hidden parameters which were not taken by quantum physics into account. Since the 1970's, experiments have been testing these ideas, based on the Bell's inequalities theorem which states that Einstein's assumptions are true within specific limits. The article more particularly presents and comments a recent experiment performed in Orsay which demonstrates that these hidden variables do not exist and prove the validity of Bell's inequalities. The researchers explain why previous experiments did not reach these results: they displayed detection and localisation defects
CP symmetry and the BELLE experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: The violation of CP symmetry was first observed in the K0 meson system more than 30 years ago. A new generation of experiments now seeks to observe this symmetry violation in the system of neutral B mesons and various experiments are scheduled to take data in the near future. BELLE is one such experiment being constructed at KEK in Japan. It will be fully commissioned early 1999 and the Australian Experimental High Energy Physics Consortium is actively participating in this exciting venture. This review will cover the significance of CP violation to particle physics and describe the special features of the BELLE experiment, highlighting the special contributions that are being made by the Australian group
Computing System for the Belle Experiment
Adachi, I; Katayama, N; Tsukamoto, T; Hibino, T; Yokoyama, M; Hinz, L; Ronga, F
2003-01-01
We describe the offline computing system of the Belle experiment, consisting of a computing farm with one thousand IA-32 CPUs. Up to now, the Belle experiment has accumulated more than 120 fb$^{-1}$ of data, which is the world largest $Bbar{B}$ sample at the $Upsilon(4S)$ energy. The data have to be processed with a single version of reconstruction software and calibration constants to perform precise measurements of $B$ meson decays. In addition, Monte Carlo samples three times larger than the real beam data are generated. To fullfill our computing needs, we have constructed the computing system with 90(300) quad(dual) CPU PC servers from multiple vendors as a central processing system. The details of this computing system and performance of data processing with the current model are presented.
A Modest View of Bell's Theorem
Boughn, Stephen
2016-01-01
In the 80 years since the seminal Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen (EPR) paper, physicists and philosophers have mused about the `spooky action at a distance' aspect of quantum mechanics that so bothered Einstein. In his formal analysis of EPR-type entangled quantum states, Bell (1964) concluded that any hidden variable theory designed to reproduce the predictions of quantum mechanics must necessarily be nonlocal and allow superluminal interactions. This doesn't immediately imply that nonlocality is a characteristic feature of quantum mechanics let alone a fundamental property of nature; however, many physicists and philosophers of science do harbor this belief. Experts in the field often use the term `nonlocality' to designate particular non-classical aspects of quantum entanglement and do not confuse the term with superluminal interactions. However, many physicists seem to take the term more literally. I endeavor to disabuse the latter of this notion by emphasizing that the correlations of Bell-type entangleme...
A quantum loophole to Bell nonlocality
Romero-Rochin, Victor
2015-01-01
We argue that the conclusion of Bell theorem, namely, that there must be spatial non-local correlations in certain experimental situations, does not apply to typical individual measurements performed on entangled EPR pairs. Our claim is based on three points, (i) on the notion of quantum {\\it complete measurements}; (ii) on Bell results on local yet distant measurements; and (iii) on the fact that perfect simultaneity is banned by the quantum mechanics. We show that quantum mechanics indicates that, while the measurements of the pair members are indeed space-like separated, the pair measurement is actually a sequence of two complete measurements, the first one terminating the entanglement and, therefore, the second one becoming unrelated to the initial preparation of the entangled pair. The outstanding feature of these measurements is that neither of them violates the principle of locality. We discuss that the present measurement viewpoint appears to run contrary to the usual interpretation of "superposition"...
The Belle II VXD production database
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The construction and commissioning of the Belle II Vertex Detector (VXD) is a huge endeavor involving a large number of valuable components. Both subsystems PXD (Pixel Detector) and SVD (Silicon Vertex Detector) deploy a large number of sensors, readout electronic parts and mechanical elements. These items are scattered around the world at many institutes, where they are built, measured and assembled. One has to keep track of measurement configurations and results, know at any time the location of the sensors, their processing state, quality, where they end up in an assembly, and who is responsible. These requirements call for a flexible and extensive database which is able to reflect the processes in the laboratories and the logistics between the institutes. This talk introduces the database requirements of a physics experiment using the PXD construction workflow as a showcase, and presents an overview of the database ''HephyDb'', which is used by the groups constructing the Belle II VXD.
Double dumb-bell calculus in childhood
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joshi Prashant
2009-01-01
Full Text Available An eight-year old male was admitted with complaints of right scrotal swelling, dysuria and intermittent retention of urine for 10 days. On per-rectal examination, a hard mass was palpable in the posterior urethra. An X-ray (KUB of the abdomen revealed a double dumb-bell calculus at the base of bladder, extending into the posterior urethra. A cystolithotomy via the suprapubic approach was successfully curative.
EPR and Bell's theorem: A critical review
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The argument of Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen is reviewed with attention to logical structure and character of assumptions. Bohr's reply is discussed. Bell's contribution is formulated without use of hidden variables, and efforts to equate hidden variables to realism are critically examined. An alternative derivation of nonlocality that makes no use of hidden variables, microrealism, counterfactual definiteness, or any other assumption alien to orthodox quantum thinking is described in detail, with particular attention to the quartet or broken-square question
Bell's Inequalities, Superquantum Correlations, and String Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lay Nam Chang
2011-01-01
We argue that string theory, viewed as a quantum theory with two deformation parameters, the string tension α ' , and the string coupling constant g s , is such a superquantum theory that transgresses the usual quantum violations of Bell's inequalities. We also discuss the ℏ → ∞ limit of quantum mechanics in this context. As a superquantum theory, string theory should display distinct experimentally observable supercorrelations of entangled stringy states.
Bell Experiments with Random Destination Sources
Sciarrino, F.; Vallone, G.; Cabello, A.; Mataloni, P.
2010-01-01
It is generally assumed that sources sending randomly two particles to one or two different observers, named here random destination sources (RDS), cannot by used for genuine quantum nonlocality tests because of the postselection loophole. We demonstrate that Bell experiments not affected by the postselection loophole may be performed with: (i) RDS and local postselection using perfect detectors, (ii) RDS, local postselection, and fair sampling assumption with any detection efficiency, and (i...
Perfect bell nozzle parametric and optimization curves
Tuttle, J. L.; Blount, D. H.
1983-01-01
Nozzle contour data for untruncated Bell nozzles with expansion area ratios to 6100 and a specific heat ratio of 1.2 are provided. Curves for optimization of nozzles for maximum thrust coefficient within a given length, surface area, or area ratio are included. The nozzles are two dimensional axisymmetric and calculations were performed using the method of characteristics. Drag due to wall friction was included in the final thrust coefficient.
Generalized Bell-inequality experiments and computation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We consider general settings of Bell inequality experiments with many parties, where each party chooses from a finite number of measurement settings each with a finite number of outcomes. We investigate the constraints that Bell inequalities place upon the correlations possible in local hidden variable theories using a geometrical picture of correlations. We show that local hidden variable theories can be characterized in terms of limited computational expressiveness, which allows us to characterize families of Bell inequalities. The limited computational expressiveness for many settings (each with many outcomes) generalizes previous results about the many-party situation each with a choice of two possible measurements (each with two outcomes). Using this computational picture we present generalizations of the Popescu-Rohrlich nonlocal box for many parties and nonbinary inputs and outputs at each site. Finally, we comment on the effect of preprocessing on measurement data in our generalized setting and show that it becomes problematic outside of the binary setting, in that it allows local hidden variable theories to simulate maximally nonlocal correlations such as those of these generalized Popescu-Rohrlich nonlocal boxes.
The Belle II DEPFET pixel detector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Japanese flavour factory (KEKB) accumulated a total integrated luminosity of 1000 fb-1 over more than a decade of operation. Despite this great success, an upgrade of the existing machine is under construction, and is foreseen for commissioning by the end of 2015. This new electron-positron machine (SuperKEKB) will deliver an instantaneous luminosity 40 times higher than the world record set by KEKB. To fully exploit the huge number of events and measure precisely the decay vertex of the B mesons in a large background environment, the SuperKEKB partner, the Belle detector, will be also upgraded. In the Belle II project, a highly granular silicon vertex detector (PXD) based on the DEPFET pixel technology, will be the innermost subsystem, operated very close to the interaction point. The new pixel detector has to have an excellent single point resolution (10 μm) and a fast readout (20 μs), while keeping the material budget under very low levels (0.2% X0). This talk summarizes the Belle II pixel detector concept, from the DEPFET sensor to the laboratory tests results, all the way up the electronics chain, the DAQ system and the cooling concept.
Bell's palsy: A Case Report and Literature Review
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tashika Kushraj
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Bell's palsy is considered as a disease of exclusion. It is a form of lower motor neuron paralysis affecting the facial muscles. Rapid onset of paralysis causes panic to the patients. For speedy recovery, correct diagnosis and early treatment are crucial. Here a case of Bell's palsy is reported and the literature on Bell's palsy is reviewed. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(3.000: 581-588
The Non-Signalling theorem in generalizations of Bell's theorem
Walleczek, Jan; Groessing, Gerhard
2014-01-01
Does "epistemic non-signalling" ensure the peaceful coexistence of special relativity and quantum nonlocality? The possibility of an affirmative answer is of great importance to deterministic approaches to quantum mechanics given recent developments towards generalizations of Bell's theorem. By generalizations of Bell's theorem we here mean efforts that seek to demonstrate the impossibility of any deterministic theories to obey the predictions of Bell's theorem, including even nonlocal hidden...
Experimental Bell inequality violation without the postselection loophole
Lima, G.; Vallone, G.; Chiuri, A.; Cabello, A.; Mataloni, P.
2009-01-01
We report on an experimental violation of the Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (Bell-CHSH) inequality using energy-time entangled photons. The experiment is not free of the locality and detection loopholes, but is the first violation of the Bell-CHSH inequality using energy-time entangled photons which is free of the postselection loophole described by Aerts et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2872 (1999)].
Closing the Detection Loophole in Bell Experiments Using Qudits
Vértesi, Tamás; Pironio, Stefano; Brunner, Nicolas
2010-01-01
We show that the detection efficiencies required for closing the detection loophole in Bell tests can be significantly lowered using quantum systems of dimension larger than two. We introduce a series of asymmetric Bell tests for which an efficiency arbitrarily close to 1/N can be tolerated using N-dimensional systems, and a symmetric Bell test for which the efficiency can be lowered down to 61.8% using four-dimensional systems. Experimental perspectives for our schemes look promising conside...
Bell Inequality Tests with Macroscopic Entangled States of Light
Stobińska, M.; Sekatski, Pavel; Buraczewski, A.; Gisin, Nicolas; Leuchs, G.
2011-01-01
Quantum correlations may violate the Bell inequalities. Most of the experimental schemes confirming this prediction have been realized in all-optical Bell tests suffering from the detection loophole. Experiment which closes this loophole and the locality loophole simultaneously is highly desirable and remains challenging. A novel approach to a loophole-free Bell tests is based on amplification of the entangled photons, i.e.\\@ on macroscopic entanglement, which optical signal should be easy to...
Violating Bell inequalities maximally for two d-dimensional systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We show the maximal violation of Bell inequalities for two d-dimensional systems by using the method of the Bell operator. The maximal violation corresponds to the maximal eigenvalue of the Bell operator matrix. The eigenvectors corresponding to these eigenvalues are described by asymmetric entangled states. We estimate the maximum value of the eigenvalue for large dimension. A family of elegant entangled states |Ψ>app that violate Bell inequality more strongly than the maximally entangled state but are somewhat close to these eigenvectors is presented. These approximate states can potentially be useful for quantum cryptography as well as many other important fields of quantum information
Emile Galle ja legendaarne Belle Epoque / Kärt Kross
Kross, Kärt
2008-01-01
1811. aastal rajatud Perrier-Jouet shampanjamajast ja shampanjast Belle Epoque, mille lillemotiividega pudeli disainis prantsuse klaasikunstnik Emile Galle (1846-1904). Kunstniku eluloolisi andmeid, loomingust
John Bell and the nature of the quantum world
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
I present my encounter with John Bell at CERN, our collaboration and joint work in particle physics. I also recall our quantum debates and give my personal view on Bell's fundamental work on quantum theory, in particular, on contextuality and nonlocality of quantum physics. Some mathematical and geometric aspects of entanglement are discussed as influence of Bell's theorem. Finally, I make some historical comments on the experimental side of Bell inequalities. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell’s theorem’. (paper)
John Bell and the nature of the quantum world
Bertlmann, Reinhold A.
2014-10-01
I present my encounter with John Bell at CERN, our collaboration and joint work in particle physics. I also recall our quantum debates and give my personal view on Bell's fundamental work on quantum theory, in particular, on contextuality and nonlocality of quantum physics. Some mathematical and geometric aspects of entanglement are discussed as influence of Bell's theorem. Finally, I make some historical comments on the experimental side of Bell inequalities. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell’s theorem’.
An Asymptotic Formula for r-Bell Numbers with Real Arguments
Corcino, Cristina B.; Corcino, Roberto B.
2013-01-01
The r-Bell numbers are generalized using the concept of the Hankel contour. Some properties parallel to those of the ordinary Bell numbers are established. Moreover, an asymptotic approximation for r-Bell numbers with real arguments is obtained.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Chang-Yong; GAO Ke-Lin
2005-01-01
A state-dependent proof of Bell's theorem without inequalities using the product state of any two maximally entangled states (Bell states) of two qubits for two observers in an ideal condition, each of which possesses two qubits,is proposed. It is different from the other proofs in which there exists a fundamental requirement that certain specific suitable Bell states have been chosen. Moreover, in any non-ideal situation, a common Bell inequality independent of the choices of the 16-product states is derived, which is used to test the contradiction between quantum mechanics and local reality theory in the reach of current experimental technology.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, C. Barker
History of nerves, Bell's Idea, Bell-Magendie law, Bell-Magendie controversy, Charles Bell, Francois Magendie, P.W. Lund, D.F. Eschricht, Herbert Mayo, Johannes Müller, Claude Bernard, spinal nerve roots, cranial nerves, recurrent sensitivity......History of nerves, Bell's Idea, Bell-Magendie law, Bell-Magendie controversy, Charles Bell, Francois Magendie, P.W. Lund, D.F. Eschricht, Herbert Mayo, Johannes Müller, Claude Bernard, spinal nerve roots, cranial nerves, recurrent sensitivity...
78 FR 34286 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited (Bell) Helicopters
2013-06-07
... same type design. Related Service Information Bell has issued ASB 407-05-67, which contains procedures for installing a placard on the instrument panel below the main rotor RPM (Nr)/power turbine RPM (Np... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in...
78 FR 34280 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited (Bell) Helicopters
2013-06-07
... likely to exist or develop on other products of the same type design. Related Service Information Bell... the instrument panel below the main rotor RPM (Nr)/power turbine RPM (N2) dual tachometer and for... FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska to the extent that...
78 FR 34282 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited (Bell) Helicopters
2013-06-07
... same type design. Related Service Information Bell has issued ASB No. 206L-05-134, Revision A, dated... main rotor RPM (Nr)/power turbine RPM (N2) dual tachometer and for inserting the RFM changes into the... ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3....
The Belle II Silicon Vertex Detector
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Friedl, M., E-mail: markus.friedl@oeaw.ac.at [HEPHY – Institute of High Energy Physics, Nikolsdorfer Gasse 18, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Ackermann, K. [MPI Munich, Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Aihara, H. [University of Tokyo, Department of Physics, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Aziz, T. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Experimental High Energy Physics Group, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Bergauer, T. [HEPHY – Institute of High Energy Physics, Nikolsdorfer Gasse 18, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Bozek, A. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Division of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31 342 Krakow (Poland); Campbell, A. [DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Dingfelder, J. [University of Bonn, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Drasal, Z. [Charles University, Institute of Particle and Nuclear Physics, Ke Karlovu 3, 121 16 Praha 2 (Czech Republic); Frankenberger, A. [HEPHY – Institute of High Energy Physics, Nikolsdorfer Gasse 18, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Gadow, K. [DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Gfall, I. [HEPHY – Institute of High Energy Physics, Nikolsdorfer Gasse 18, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Haba, J.; Hara, K.; Hara, T. [KEK, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Higuchi, T. [University of Tokyo, Kavli Institute for Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Himori, S. [Tohoku University, Department of Physics, Aoba Aramaki Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Irmler, C. [HEPHY – Institute of High Energy Physics, Nikolsdorfer Gasse 18, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Ishikawa, A. [Tohoku University, Department of Physics, Aoba Aramaki Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Joo, C. [Seoul National University, High Energy Physics Laboratory, 25-107 Shinlim-dong, Kwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); and others
2013-12-21
The KEKB machine and the Belle experiment in Tsukuba (Japan) are now undergoing an upgrade, leading to an ultimate luminosity of 8×10{sup 35}cm{sup −2}s{sup −1} in order to measure rare decays in the B system with high statistics. The previous vertex detector cannot cope with this 40-fold increase of luminosity and thus needs to be replaced. Belle II will be equipped with a two-layer Pixel Detector surrounding the beam pipe, and four layers of double-sided silicon strip sensors at higher radii than the old detector. The Silicon Vertex Detector (SVD) will have a total sensitive area of 1.13m{sup 2} and 223,744 channels—twice as many as its predecessor. All silicon sensors will be made from 150 mm wafers in order to maximize their size and thus to reduce the relative contribution of the support structure. The forward part has slanted sensors of trapezoidal shape to improve the measurement precision and to minimize the amount of material as seen by particles from the vertex. Fast-shaping front-end amplifiers will be used in conjunction with an online hit time reconstruction algorithm in order to reduce the occupancy to the level of a few percent at most. A novel “Origami” chip-on-sensor scheme is used to minimize both the distance between strips and amplifier (thus reducing the electronic noise) as well as the overall material budget. This report gives an overview on the status of the Belle II SVD and its components, including sensors, front-end detector ladders, mechanics, cooling and the readout electronics.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sandra Fischer
2000-11-01
Full Text Available This article presents a study of the film Belle de jour, by Luis Buñuel, based on the text “Sobre a poética da carnaval ização em Luis Buñuel” by Eduardo Peñuela Cañizal, on Mikhail Bakhtin’s theoretical conception about carnival, on Gaston Bachelard’s ideas about the oneiric, on Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalysis and on the notion of the frame structure sustained by Groupe p.
Optimal randomness generation from optical Bell experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Genuine randomness can be certified from Bell tests without any detailed assumptions on the working of the devices with which the test is implemented. An important class of experiments for implementing such tests is optical setups based on polarization measurements of entangled photons distributed from a spontaneous parametric down conversion source. Here we compute the maximal amount of randomness which can be certified in such setups under realistic conditions. We provide relevant yet unexpected numerical values for the physical parameters and achieve four times more randomness than previous methods. (fast track communication)
Reconciling local realism and quantum physics: a critique to Bell
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A Metatheoretical Generalized Principle (MGP) is stated that formalizes an operational non-standard way of looking at the laws of physics. In Quantum Physics MGP leads to the invalidation of Bell's Inequality without renouncing to a minimal form of realism or to locality. Therefore the violation of Bell's Inequality predicted by Quantum Physics does not appear paradoxial if MGP is accepted
Eugenics Past and Present: Remembering Buck v. Bell.
Berson, Michael J.; Cruz, Barbara
2001-01-01
Provides background information about the eugenics movement. Focuses on eugenics in the United States detailing the case, Buck v. Bell, and eugenics in Germany. Explores the present eugenic movement, focusing on "The Bell Curve," China's one child policy, and the use of eugenic sterilizations in the United States and Canada. Includes strategies…
Bell Inequalities Classifying Bi-separable Three-qubit States
Sun, B Z; Sun, Bao-Zhi; Fei, Shao-Ming
2006-01-01
We present a set of Bell inequalities that gives rise to a finer classification of the entanglement for tripartite systems. These inequalities distinguish three possible bi-separable entanglements for three-qubit states. The three Bell operators we employed constitute an external sphere of the separable cube.
Bell inequalities classifying biseparable three-qubit states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a set of Bell inequalities that gives rise to a finer classification of the entanglement for tripartite systems. These inequalities distinguish three possible biseparable entanglements for three-qubit states. The three Bell operators we employed constitute an external sphere of the separable cube
Bell clapper impact dynamics and the voicing of a carillon
Fletcher, N. H.; McGee, W. T.; Tarnopolsky, A. Z.
2002-03-01
The periodic re-voicing of the bell clappers of the Australian National Carillon in Canberra provided an opportunity for the study of the acoustic effects of this operation. After prolonged playing, the impact of the pear-shaped clapper on a bell produces a significant flat area on both the clapper and the inside surface of the bell. This deformation significantly decreases the duration of the impact event and has the effect of increasing the relative amplitude of higher modes in the bell sound, making it ``brighter'' or even ``clangy.'' This effect is studied by comparing the spectral envelope of the sounds of several bells before and after voicing. Theoretical analysis shows that the clapper actually strikes the bell and remains in contact with the bell surface until it is ejected by a displacement pulse that has traveled around the complete circumference of the bell. The contact time, typically about 1 ms, is therefore much longer than the effective impact time, which is only a few tenths of a millisecond. Both the impact time and the contact time are reduced by the presence of a flat on the clapper.
Indistinguishability of orthogonal time-separated bell states
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Tan Yong-Gang; Cai Qing-Yu; Shi Ting-Yun
2008-01-01
This paper proves that it is impossible to identify orthogonally time-separated Bell states.If two qubits of a Bell state interact with the measurement apparatus at different time,any attempt to identify this state will disturb it.
Violation of Bell's inequality in electronic Mach-Zehnder interferometers
Kang, Kicheon; Lee, Kahng Ho
2007-01-01
We propose a possible setup of testing the Bell's inequality in mesoscopic conductors. The particular implementation uses two coupled electronic Mach-Zehnder interferometers in which electrons are injected into the conductors in the quantum Hall regime. It is shown that the Bell's inequality is violated for an arbitrary coupling strength between the two interferometers.
John Stewart Bell and twentieth century physics vision and integrity
Whitaker, Andrew
2016-01-01
John Stewart Bell (1928-1990) was one of the most important figures in twentieth-century physics, famous for his work on the fundamental aspects of the century's most important theory, quantum mechanics. While the debate over quantum theory between the supremely famous physicists, Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr, appeared to have become sterile in the 1930s, Bell was able to revive it and to make crucial advances - Bell's Theorem or Bell's Inequalities. He was able to demonstrate a contradiction between quantum theory and essential elements of pre-quantum theory - locality and causality. The book gives a non-mathematical account of Bell's relatively impoverished upbringing in Belfast and his education. It describes his major contributions to quantum theory, but also his important work in the physics of accelerators, and nuclear and elementary particle physics.
Bell inequality for pairs of superselection rule restricted states
Heaney, Libby; Jaksch, Dieter
2010-01-01
Proposals for Bell inequality tests on systems restricted by superselection rules often require operations that are difficult to implement in practice. In this paper, we derive a new Bell inequality, where pairs of states are used to by-pass the superselection rule. In particular, we focus on mode entanglement of an arbitrary number of massive particles and show that our Bell inequality detects the entanglement in the pair when other inequalities fail. However, as the number of particles in the system increases, the violation of our Bell inequality decreases due to the restriction in the measurement space caused by the superselection rule. This Bell test can be implemented using techniques that are routinely used in current experiments.
The Belle II experiment: fundamental physics at the flavor frontier
de la Cruz, Ivan Heredia
2016-01-01
After the major success of B-factories to establish the CKM mechanism and its proven potential to search for new physics, the Belle II experiment will continue exploring the physics at the flavor frontier over the next years. Belle II will collect 50 times more data than its predecessor, Belle, and allow for various precision measurements and searches of rare decays and particles. This paper introduces the B-factory concept and the flavor frontier approach to search for new physics. It then describes the SuperKEKB accelerator and the Belle II detector, as well as some of the physics that will be analyzed in Belle II, concluding with the experiment status and schedule.
The Trieste Lecture of John Stewart Bell
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Delivered at Trieste on the occasion of the 25th Anniversary of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics, 2 November 1989. The video of this lecture is available here. Please see the PDF for the transcript of the lecture. General remarks by Angelo Bassi and GianCarlo Ghirardi During the autumn of 1989 the International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, celebrated the 25th anniversary of its creation. Among the many prestigious speakers, who delivered extremely interesting lectures on that occasion, was the late John Stewart Bell. All lectures have been recorded on tape. We succeeded in getting a copy of John's lecture. In the lecture, many of the arguments that John had lucidly stressed in his writings appear once more, but there are also extremely interesting new remarks which, to our knowledge, have not been presented elsewhere. In particular he decided, as pointed out by the very choice of the title of his lecture, to call attention to the fact that the theory presents two types of difficulties, which Dirac classified as first and second class. The former are those connected with the so-called macro-objectification problem, the latter with the divergences characterizing relativistic quantum field theories. Bell describes the precise position of Dirac on these problems and he stresses appropriately how, contrary to Dirac's hopes, the steps which have led to a partial overcoming of the second class difficulties have not helped in any way whatsoever to overcome those of the first class. He then proceeds to analyse the origin and development of the Dynamical Reduction Program and draws attention to the problems that still affect it, in particular that of a consistent relativistic generalization. When the two meetings Are there quantum jumps? and On the present status of Quantum Mechanics were organized in Trieste and Losinj (Croatia), on 5-10 September 2005, it occurred to us that this lecture, which has never been published, might represent an
The Trieste Lecture of John Stewart Bell
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bassi, Angelo; Ghirardi, GianCarlo
2007-03-23
Delivered at Trieste on the occasion of the 25th Anniversary of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics, 2 November 1989. The video of this lecture is available here. Please see the PDF for the transcript of the lecture. General remarks by Angelo Bassi and GianCarlo Ghirardi During the autumn of 1989 the International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, celebrated the 25th anniversary of its creation. Among the many prestigious speakers, who delivered extremely interesting lectures on that occasion, was the late John Stewart Bell. All lectures have been recorded on tape. We succeeded in getting a copy of John's lecture. In the lecture, many of the arguments that John had lucidly stressed in his writings appear once more, but there are also extremely interesting new remarks which, to our knowledge, have not been presented elsewhere. In particular he decided, as pointed out by the very choice of the title of his lecture, to call attention to the fact that the theory presents two types of difficulties, which Dirac classified as first and second class. The former are those connected with the so-called macro-objectification problem, the latter with the divergences characterizing relativistic quantum field theories. Bell describes the precise position of Dirac on these problems and he stresses appropriately how, contrary to Dirac's hopes, the steps which have led to a partial overcoming of the second class difficulties have not helped in any way whatsoever to overcome those of the first class. He then proceeds to analyse the origin and development of the Dynamical Reduction Program and draws attention to the problems that still affect it, in particular that of a consistent relativistic generalization. When the two meetings Are there quantum jumps? and On the present status of Quantum Mechanics were organized in Trieste and Losinj (Croatia), on 5-10 September 2005, it occurred to us that this lecture, which has never been published, might represent
Random numbers certified by Bell's theorem.
Pironio, S; Acín, A; Massar, S; de la Giroday, A Boyer; Matsukevich, D N; Maunz, P; Olmschenk, S; Hayes, D; Luo, L; Manning, T A; Monroe, C
2010-04-15
Randomness is a fundamental feature of nature and a valuable resource for applications ranging from cryptography and gambling to numerical simulation of physical and biological systems. Random numbers, however, are difficult to characterize mathematically, and their generation must rely on an unpredictable physical process. Inaccuracies in the theoretical modelling of such processes or failures of the devices, possibly due to adversarial attacks, limit the reliability of random number generators in ways that are difficult to control and detect. Here, inspired by earlier work on non-locality-based and device-independent quantum information processing, we show that the non-local correlations of entangled quantum particles can be used to certify the presence of genuine randomness. It is thereby possible to design a cryptographically secure random number generator that does not require any assumption about the internal working of the device. Such a strong form of randomness generation is impossible classically and possible in quantum systems only if certified by a Bell inequality violation. We carry out a proof-of-concept demonstration of this proposal in a system of two entangled atoms separated by approximately one metre. The observed Bell inequality violation, featuring near perfect detection efficiency, guarantees that 42 new random numbers are generated with 99 per cent confidence. Our results lay the groundwork for future device-independent quantum information experiments and for addressing fundamental issues raised by the intrinsic randomness of quantum theory. PMID:20393558
The Trieste Lecture of John Stewart Bell
Bassi, Angelo; Carlo Ghirardi, Gian
2007-03-01
Delivered at Trieste on the occasion of the 25th Anniversary of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics, 2 November 1989 The video of this lecture is available here. Please see the PDF for the transcript of the lecture. General remarks by Angelo Bassi and GianCarlo Ghirardi During the autumn of 1989 the International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, celebrated the 25th anniversary of its creation. Among the many prestigious speakers, who delivered extremely interesting lectures on that occasion, was the late John Stewart Bell. All lectures have been recorded on tape. We succeeded in getting a copy of John's lecture. In the lecture, many of the arguments that John had lucidly stressed in his writings appear once more, but there are also extremely interesting new remarks which, to our knowledge, have not been presented elsewhere. In particular he decided, as pointed out by the very choice of the title of his lecture, to call attention to the fact that the theory presents two types of difficulties, which Dirac classified as first and second class. The former are those connected with the so-called macro-objectification problem, the latter with the divergences characterizing relativistic quantum field theories. Bell describes the precise position of Dirac on these problems and he stresses appropriately how, contrary to Dirac's hopes, the steps which have led to a partial overcoming of the second class difficulties have not helped in any way whatsoever to overcome those of the first class. He then proceeds to analyse the origin and development of the Dynamical Reduction Program and draws attention to the problems that still affect it, in particular that of a consistent relativistic generalization. When the two meetings Are there quantum jumps? and On the present status of Quantum Mechanics were organized in Trieste and Losinj (Croatia), on 5 10 September 2005, it occurred to us that this lecture, which has never been published, might represent an
Bell-Curve Based Evolutionary Optimization Algorithm
Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, J.; Laba, K.; Kincaid, R.
1998-01-01
The paper presents an optimization algorithm that falls in the category of genetic, or evolutionary algorithms. While the bit exchange is the basis of most of the Genetic Algorithms (GA) in research and applications in America, some alternatives, also in the category of evolutionary algorithms, but use a direct, geometrical approach have gained popularity in Europe and Asia. The Bell-Curve Based Evolutionary Algorithm (BCB) is in this alternative category and is distinguished by the use of a combination of n-dimensional geometry and the normal distribution, the bell-curve, in the generation of the offspring. The tool for creating a child is a geometrical construct comprising a line connecting two parents and a weighted point on that line. The point that defines the child deviates from the weighted point in two directions: parallel and orthogonal to the connecting line, the deviation in each direction obeying a probabilistic distribution. Tests showed satisfactory performance of BCB. The principal advantage of BCB is its controllability via the normal distribution parameters and the geometrical construct variables.
Performing CPR on a commercial diver inside the diving bell
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sourabh Bhutani
2015-01-01
Full Text Available CPR in a diving bell is difficult. It is taught by diving companies and training institutes but has not been subjected to the tenets of evidence based medicine. The diving bell lacks space as well as a flat hard surface to lay the patient on and therefore conventional methods of administering CPR are not possible. The diver is hung from a pulley tied to the diver's harness, and the bell flooded with water to reduce pooling of blood. Airway is established using a cervical collar to hyperextend the neck and inserting an appropriate oropharyngeal airway. Cardiac compressions are administered by the bellman using his head or the knee while holding the patient with his arms from behind. The bell can be recovered to surface only when spontaneous breathing and circulation have started. Diving bell offers a unique environment for management of unconscious casualties. Even though the method is at variance with the conventional method of administering CPR, it is the only method possible inside the bell. It is important that the method be scrutinized and refined so as to be more effective and efficacious inside the bell.
Proposal to Test Bell's Inequality in Electromechanics
Hofer, Sebastian G.; Lehnert, Konrad W.; Hammerer, Klemens
2016-02-01
Optomechanical and electromechanical systems offer an effective platform to test quantum theory and its predictions at macroscopic scales. To date, all experiments presuppose the validity of quantum mechanics, but could in principle be described by a hypothetical local statistical theory. Here we suggest a Bell test using the electromechanical Einstein-Podolski-Rosen entangled state recently generated by Palomaki et al., Science 342, 710 (2013), which would rule out any local and realistic explanation of the measured data without assuming the validity of quantum mechanics at macroscopic scales. It additionally provides a device-independent way to verify electromechanical entanglement. The parameter regime required for our scheme has been demonstrated or is within reach of current experiments.
Bell Inequalities, Experimental Protocols and Contextuality
Kupczynski, Marian
2014-01-01
The violation of Bell, CHSH and CH inequalities indicates only that the assumption of "conterfactual definiteness" and/or the probabilistic models used in proofs were incorrect. In this paper we discuss in detail an intimate relation between experimental protocols and probabilistic models. In particular we show that local realistic and stochastic hidden variable models are inconsistent with the experimental protocols used in spin polarization correlation experiments. In particular these models neglect a contextual character of quantum theory (QT) and do not describe properly quantum measurements. We argue that the violation of various inequalities gives arguments against the irreducible randomness of act of the measurement. Therefore quantum probabilities are reducible what means that QT is emergent. In this case one could expect to discover in time series of data some unpredicted fine structures proving that QT is not predictably complete what would be a major discovery.
Proposal to Test Bell's Inequality in Electromechanics.
Hofer, Sebastian G; Lehnert, Konrad W; Hammerer, Klemens
2016-02-19
Optomechanical and electromechanical systems offer an effective platform to test quantum theory and its predictions at macroscopic scales. To date, all experiments presuppose the validity of quantum mechanics, but could in principle be described by a hypothetical local statistical theory. Here we suggest a Bell test using the electromechanical Einstein-Podolski-Rosen entangled state recently generated by Palomaki et al., Science 342, 710 (2013), which would rule out any local and realistic explanation of the measured data without assuming the validity of quantum mechanics at macroscopic scales. It additionally provides a device-independent way to verify electromechanical entanglement. The parameter regime required for our scheme has been demonstrated or is within reach of current experiments. PMID:26943516
Progress of Belle II – detector and performance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The progress on the detector and accelerator in the Belle II experiment is presented. The B factories have successfully accumulated the experimental data at ϒ(4S) and achieved the world highest sensitivity on the search for lepton flavor violating tau decays and other new physics searches. The Belle II experiment will obtain 50 times larger data samples compared to the Belle experiment and improve the detector sensitivity. The construction of the detector and accelerator is in progress. The commissioning will start in 2014 and the expected integrated luminosity is 50ab−1 by 2022
Quantum communication complexity advantage implies violation of a Bell inequality
Buhrman, Harry; Czekaj, Łukasz; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Michał; Horodecki, Paweł; Markiewicz, Marcin; Speelman, Florian; Strelchuk, Sergii
2016-03-01
We obtain a general connection between a large quantum advantage in communication complexity and Bell nonlocality. We show that given any protocol offering a sufficiently large quantum advantage in communication complexity, there exists a way of obtaining measurement statistics that violate some Bell inequality. Our main tool is port-based teleportation. If the gap between quantum and classical communication complexity can grow arbitrarily large, the ratio of the quantum value to the classical value of the Bell quantity becomes unbounded with the increase in the number of inputs and outputs.
From Bell's inequalities to quantum information: a new quantum revolution
CERN. Geneva
2015-01-01
In 1964, John Stuart Bell discovered that it is possible to settle the debate experimentally, by testing the famous "Bell's inequalities", and to show directly that the revolutionary concept of entanglement is indeed a reality. A long series of experiments closer and closer to the ideal scheme presented by Bell has confirmed that entanglement is indeed "a great quantum mystery", to use the words of Feynman. Based on that concept, a new field of research has emerged, quantum information, where one uses quantum bits, the so-called “qubits”, to encode the information and process it. Entanglement ...
Searches for New Physics at the Belle II Experiment
Wang, Boqun
2015-01-01
The Belle II experiment at the SuperKEKB collider is an upgrade of the Belle / KEKB experiment. It will start physics data taking from 2018 and with $40$ times luminosity, its goal is to accumulate 50 $ab^{-1}$ of $e^+e^-$ collision data. The physics programs have a wide range of areas for new physics, such as more constraints on CKM Unitarity Triangle, searching for charged Higgs, direct CPV, Lepton Flavour Violation and dark matter.In this monograph, we will review the current status of Belle II and SuperKEKB construction and introduce the main physics opportunities at this facility.
Reluctant genius Alexander Graham Bell and the passion for invention
Gray, Charlotte
2011-01-01
The popular image of Alexander Graham Bell is that of an elderly American patriarch, memorable only for his paunch, his Santa Claus beard, and the invention of the telephone. In this magisterial reassessment based on thorough new research, acclaimed biographer Charlotte Gray reveals Bell's wide-ranging passion for invention and delves into the private life that supported his genius. The child of a speech therapist and a deaf mother, and possessed of superbly acute hearing, Bell developed an early interest in sound. His understanding of how sound waves might relate to electrical waves enabled h
Qubits from Number States and Bell Inequalities for Number Measurements
Larsson, Jan-Ake
2002-01-01
Bell inequalities for number measurements are derived via the observation that the bits of the number indexing a number state are proper qubits. Violations of these inequalities are obtained from the output state of the nondegenerate optical parametric amplifier.
Iris Murdoch’s The Bell: Tragedy, Love, and Religion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kenneth Masong
2008-06-01
Full Text Available The novel begins as follows:"Dora Greenfield left her husband because she was afraid of him. She decided six months later to return to him for the same reason. The absent Paul, haunting her with letters and telephone bells and imagined footsteps on the stairs had begun to be the greater torment. Dora suffered from guilt, and with guilt came fear. She decided at last that the persecution of his presence was to be preferred to the persecution of his absence."Murdoch's novel The Bell is about Imber Court. It is a small Anglican religious community of lay people whose lives were transformed, not just by the arrival of a couple of dissimilar visitors, not just by the arrival of a new bell to be installed at Imber Abbey located beyond the lake, but more significantly by the discovery of a centuries-old bell the story of which is engulfed in a terrible legend.
Help Desk Answers: Do corticosteroids relieve Bell's palsy?
Soch, Kathy; Purtle, David; Ara, Mary; Dabbs, Kimberly
2016-03-01
Yes, but not severe disease. Corticosteroids likely improve facial motor function in adults with mild to moderate Bell's palsy. Corticosteroids are probably ineffective in treating cosmetically disabling or severe disease. PMID:27158696
Classical probabilistic realization of "Random Numbers Certified by Bell's Theorem"
Khrennikov, Andrei
2015-01-01
We question the commonly accepted statement that random numbers certified by Bell's theorem carry some special sort of randomness, so to say, quantum randomness or intrinsic randomness. We show that such numbers can be easily generated by classical random generators.
The silicon strip vertex detector of the Belle II experiment
Onuki, Yoshiyuki
2014-11-01
The Belle II upgrade of the Belle experiment will extend the search for physics beyond the standard model. The upgrade is currently under construction, and foreseen to complete in time for the physics run scheduled for 2016. The vertex detector of the Belle II comprises two types of silicon detectors: the pixel detector (PXD) and the strip detector (SVD) using double-sided silicon strip detector (DSSD). One of the most characteristic features of the SVD is a unique chip-on-sensor scheme which enabling good signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio while reducing the material budget. This paper describes the implementation of the scheme, status and future prospects of the Belle II SVD.
Position-momentum Bell nonlocality with entangled photon pairs
Schneeloch, James; Knarr, Samuel H.; Lum, Daniel J.; Howell, John C.
2016-01-01
Witnessing continuous-variable Bell nonlocality is a challenging endeavor, but Bell himself showed how one might demonstrate this nonlocality. Although Bell nearly showed a violation using the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality with sign-binned position-momentum statistics of entangled pairs of particles measured at different times, his demonstration is subject to approximations not realizable in a laboratory setting. Moreover, he does not give a quantitative estimation of the maximum achievable violation for the wave function he considers. In this article, we show how his strategy can be reimagined using the transverse positions and momenta of entangled photon pairs measured at different propagation distances, and we find that the maximum achievable violation for the state he considers is actually very small relative to the upper limit of 2 √{2 } . Although Bell's wave function does not produce a large violation of the CHSH inequality, other states may yet do so.
Bell correlations in a Bose-Einstein condensate.
Schmied, Roman; Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Allard, Baptiste; Fadel, Matteo; Scarani, Valerio; Treutlein, Philipp; Sangouard, Nicolas
2016-04-22
Characterizing many-body systems through the quantum correlations between their constituent particles is a major goal of quantum physics. Although entanglement is routinely observed in many systems, we report here the detection of stronger correlations--Bell correlations--between the spins of about 480 atoms in a Bose-Einstein condensate. We derive a Bell correlation witness from a many-particle Bell inequality involving only one- and two-body correlation functions. Our measurement on a spin-squeezed state exceeds the threshold for Bell correlations by 3.8 standard deviations. Our work shows that the strongest possible nonclassical correlations are experimentally accessible in many-body systems and that they can be revealed by collective measurements. PMID:27102479
NOAA Ship Bell M. Shimada Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Bell M. Shimada Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...
A note on the geometric interpretation of Bell's inequalities
Pra, Paolo Dai; Pavon, Michele; Sahasrabudhe, Neeraja
2013-01-01
Using results of Pitowsky and Gupta, we show in a direct, elementary fashion that, in the case of three spins, Bell's inequalities indeed provide a representation of the tetrahedron of all spin correlation matrices as intersection of half-spaces.
Bell's inequalities; 3, Logical loophole in their formulation
Kracklauer, A F
2000-01-01
In a remarkably insightful pair of papers recently, Sica demonstrated that: dichotomic data that violates Bell's inequalities ``cannot represent any data streams that could possibly exist or be imagined'' if it is to be consistent with the derivation of the inequalities. The present writer maintains, however, that because of quirks in the formulation of Bell's analysis, this statement is, strictly speaking, not correct although the thrust of Sica's analysis remains fundamentally true. Moreover, it is argued that the resolution proposed by Sica for the conflict arising from the fact that real data does violate Bell inequalities, namely that the the functional form of the correlations considered by Bell must be amended, is on physical grounds, untenable. Finally, an alternate resolution is proposed.
Bell-type inequalities for arbitrary noncyclic networks
Tavakoli, Armin
2016-03-01
Bell inequalities bound the strength of classical correlations between observers measuring on a shared physical system. However, studies of physical correlations can be considered beyond the standard Bell scenario by networks of observers sharing some configuration of many independent physical systems. Here, we show how to construct Bell-type inequalities for correlations arising in any tree-structured network, i.e., networks without cycles. This is achieved by an iteration procedure that in each step allows one to add a branch to the tree-structured network and construct a corresponding Bell-type inequality. We explore our inequalities in several examples, in all of which we demonstrate strong violations from quantum theory.
The Software Framework of the Belle II Experiment
Moll, Andreas
2011-12-01
The future of CP-Violation experiments is to begin in 2014 with the launch of the SuperKEKB collider in Tsukuba, Japan. As a part of this process the BELLE experiment will undergo an upgrade, giving rise to the BELLE II experiment. The BELLE II detector will include improvements and redesigns of various subdetectors, as well as the addition of an entire new subdetector for precise vertexing. In order to reflect these changes in the existing BELLE software framework, major modifications of nearly all parts of the software would have been necessary. As a result the decision was made to completely rewrite the software framework. In this article the main concepts of the new framework and the applied technologies are presented.
A Zoology of Bell inequalities resistant to detector inefficiency
Massar, S; Roland, J; Gisin, B V; Massar, Serge; Pironio, Stefano; Roland, Jeremie; Gisin, Bernard
2002-01-01
We derive both numerically and analytically Bell inequalities and quantum measurements that present enhanced resistance to detector inefficiency. In particular we describe several Bell inequalities which appear to be optimal with respect to inefficient detectors for small dimensionality d=2,3,4 and 2 or more measurement settings at each side. We also generalize the family of Bell inequalities described in Collins et all (Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 040404) to take into account the inefficiency of detectors. In addition we consider the possibility for pairs of entangled particles to be produced with probability less than one. We show that when the pair production probability is small, one must in general use different Bell inequalities than when the pair production probability is one.
Bell Inequality Tests with Macroscopic Entangled States of Light
Stobińska, Magdalena; Buraczewski, Adam; Gisin, Nicolas; Leuchs, Gerd; 10.1103/PhysRevA.84.034104
2011-01-01
Quantum correlations may violate the Bell inequalities. Most of the experimental schemes confirming this prediction have been realized in all-optical Bell tests suffering from the detection loophole. Experiment which closes this loophole and the locality loophole simultaneously is highly desirable and remains challenging. A novel approach to a loophole-free Bell tests is based on amplification of the entangled photons, i.e.\\@ on macroscopic entanglement, which optical signal should be easy to detect. However, the macroscopic states are partially indistinguishable by the classical detectors. An interesting idea to overcome these limitations is to replace the postselection by an appropriate preselection immediately after the amplification. This is in the spirit of state preprocessing revealing hidden nonlocality. Here, we examine one of possible preselections, but the presented tools can be used for analysis of other schemes. Filtering methods making the macroscopic entanglement useful for Bell test and quantum...
Bell-inequality tests with macroscopic entangled states of light
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stobinska, M. [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Erlangen (Germany); Institute for Theoretical Physics II, Erlangen-Nuernberg University, Erlangen (Germany); Sekatski, P.; Gisin, N. [Group of Applied Physics, University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Buraczewski, A. [Faculty of Electronics and Information Technology, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Leuchs, G. [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Erlangen (Germany); Institute for Optics, Information and Photonics, Erlangen-Nuernberg University, Erlangen (Germany)
2011-09-15
Quantum correlations may violate the Bell inequalities. Most experimental schemes confirming this prediction have been realized in all-optical Bell tests suffering from the detection loophole. Experiments which simultaneously close this loophole and the locality loophole are highly desirable and remain challenging. An approach to loophole-free Bell tests is based on amplification of the entangled photons (i.e., on macroscopic entanglement), for which an optical signal should be easy to detect. However, the macroscopic states are partially indistinguishable by classical detectors. An interesting idea to overcome these limitations is to replace the postselection by an appropriate preselection immediately after the amplification. This is in the spirit of state preprocessing revealing hidden nonlocality. Here, we examine one of the possible preselections, but the presented tools can be used for analysis of other schemes. Filtering methods making the macroscopic entanglement useful for Bell tests and quantum protocols are the subject of an intensive study in the field nowadays.
Characterization of the Bell-Shaped Vibratory Angular Rate Gyro
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Junfang Fan
2013-08-01
Full Text Available The bell-shaped vibratory angular rate gyro (abbreviated as BVG is a novel shell vibratory gyroscope, which is inspired by the Chinese traditional bell. It sensitizes angular velocity through the standing wave precession effect. The bell-shaped resonator is a core component of the BVG and looks like the millimeter-grade Chinese traditional bell, such as QianLong Bell and Yongle Bell. It is made of Ni43CrTi, which is a constant modulus alloy. The exciting element, control element and detection element are uniformly distributed and attached to the resonator, respectively. This work presents the design, analysis and experimentation on the BVG. It is most important to analyze the vibratory character of the bell-shaped resonator. The strain equation, internal force and the resonator's equilibrium differential equation are derived in the orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system. When the input angular velocity is existent on the sensitive axis, an analysis of the vibratory character is performed using the theory of thin shells. On this basis, the mode shape function and the simplified second order normal vibration mode dynamical equation are obtained. The coriolis coupling relationship about the primary mode and secondary mode is established. The methods of the signal processing and control loop are presented. Analyzing the impact resistance property of the bell-shaped resonator, which is compared with other shell resonators using the Finite Element Method, demonstrates that BVG has the advantage of a better impact resistance property. A reasonable means of installation and a prototypal gyro are designed. The gyroscopic effect of the BVG is characterized through experiments. Experimental results show that the BVG has not only the advantages of low cost, low power, long work life, high sensitivity, and so on, but, also, of a simple structure and a better impact resistance property for low and medium angular velocity measurements.
Extending Bell's Theorem: Ruling out Paramater Independent Hidden Variable Theories
Leegwater, G. J.
2016-03-01
Bell's Theorem may well be the best known result in the foundations of quantum mechanics. Here, it is presented as stating that for any hidden variable theory the combination of the conditions Parameter Independence, Outcome Independence, Source Independence and Compatibility with Quantum Theory leads to a contradiction. Based on work by Roger Colbeck and Renato Renner, an extension of Bell's Theorem is considered. In this extension the theorem is strengthened by replacing Outcome Independence by a strictly weaker condition.
All entangled pure states violate a single Bell's inequality.
Yu, Sixia; Chen, Qing; Zhang, Chengjie; Lai, C H; Oh, C H
2012-09-21
We show that a single Bell's inequality with two dichotomic observables for each observer, which originates from Hardy's nonlocality proof without inequalities, is violated by all entangled pure states of a given number of particles, each of which may have a different number of energy levels. Thus Gisin's theorem is proved in its most general form from which it follows that for pure states Bell's nonlocality and quantum entanglement are equivalent. PMID:23005926
Bell-type inequalities for cold heteronuclear molecules
Milman, Perola; Keller, Arne; Charron, Eric; Atabek, Osman
2006-01-01
We introduce Bell-type inequalities allowing for non-locality and entanglement tests with two cold heteronuclear molecules. The proposed inequalities are based on correlations between each molecule spatial orientation, an observable which can be experimentally measured with present day technology. Orientation measurements are performed on each subsystem at diferent times. These times play the role of the polarizer angles in Bell tests realized with photons. We discuss the experimental impleme...
Three-dimensional Quantum Polarization Tomography of Macroscopic Bell States
Kanseri, Bhaskar; Agafonov, Ivan; Chekhova, Maria; Leuchs, Gerd
2011-01-01
The polarization properties of macroscopic Bell states are characterized using three-dimensional quantum polarization tomography. This method utilizes three-dimensional inverse Radon transform to reconstruct the polarization quasiprobability distribution function of a state from the probability distributions measured for various Stokes observables. The reconstructed 3D distributions obtained for the macroscopic Bell states are compared with those obtained for a coherent state with the same mean photon number. The results demonstrate squeezing in one or more Stokes observables.
Statistical practice at the Belle experiment, and some questions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Belle collaboration operates a general-purpose detector at the KEKB asymmetric energy e+e- collider, performing a wide range of measurements in beauty, charm, tau and 2-photon physics. In this paper, the treatment of statistical problems in past and present Belle measurements is reviewed. Some open questions, such as the preferred method for quoting rare decay results, and the statistical treatment of the new B0/B-bar0→π+π- analysis, are discussed. (author)
Quantum Communication Complexity Advantage Implies Violation of a Bell Inequality
Buhrman, Harry; Czekaj, Lukasz; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Michal; Horodecki, Pawel; Markiewicz, Marcin; Speelman, Florian; Strelchuk, Sergii
2016-01-01
We obtain a general connection between a large quantum advantage in communication complexity and Bell non-locality. We show that given any protocol offering a sufficiently large quantum advantage in communication complexity, there exists a way of obtaining measurement statistics which violate some Bell inequality. Our main tool is port-based teleportation. If the gap between quantum and classical communication complexity can grow arbitrarily large, the ratio of the quantum value to the classi...
Partial list of bipartite Bell inequalities with four binary settings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brunner, Nicolas [Group of Applied Physics, University of Geneva (Switzerland)], E-mail: nicolas.brunner@physics.unige.ch; Gisin, Nicolas [Group of Applied Physics, University of Geneva (Switzerland)
2008-04-28
We give a partial list of 26 tight Bell inequalities for the case where Alice and Bob choose among four two-outcome measurements. All tight Bell inequalities with less settings are reviewed as well. For each inequality we compute numerically the maximal quantum violation, the resistance to noise and the minimal detection efficiency required for closing the detection loophole. Surprisingly, most of these inequalities are outperformed by the CHSH inequality.
Bell tests with arbitrarily low photodetection efficiency and homodyne measurements
Araújo, Mateus; Cavalcanti, Daniel; Santos, Marcelo França; Cabello, Adán; Cunha, Marcelo Terra
2011-01-01
We show that hybrid local measurements combining homodyne measurements and photodetection provide violations of a Bell inequality with arbitrarily low photodetection efficiency. This is shown in two different scenarios: when one part receives an atom entangled to the field mode to be measured by the other part and when both parts make similar photonic measurements. Our findings definitely put the hybrid measurement scenario as a strong candidate for the implementation of a loophole-free Bell test.
Bell's inequalities II: logical loophole in their interpretation
Sica, Louis
2001-01-01
Assumed data streams from a delayed choice gedanken experiment must satisfy a Bell's identity independently of locality assumptions. The violation of Bell's inequality by assumed correlations of identical form among these data streams implies that they cannot all result from statistically equivalent variables of a homogeneous process. This is consistent with both the requirements of arithmetic and distinctions between commuting and noncommuting observables in quantum mechanics. Neglect of the...
Quantum Teleportation with a Complete Bell State Measurement
Kim, Yoon-Ho; Kulik, Sergei P.; Shih, Yanhua
2000-01-01
We report a quantum teleportation experiment in which nonlinear interactions are used for the Bell state measurements. The experimental results demonstrate the working principle of irreversibly teleporting an unknown arbitrary quantum state from one system to another distant system by disassembling into and then later reconstructing from purely classical information and nonclassical EPR correlations. The distinct feature of this experiment is that \\emph{all} four Bell states can be distinguis...
Two-step complete polarization logic Bell-state analysis.
Sheng, Yu-Bo; Zhou, Lan
2015-01-01
The Bell state plays a significant role in the fundamental tests of quantum mechanics, such as the nonlocality of the quantum world. The Bell-state analysis is of vice importance in quantum communication. Existing Bell-state analysis protocols usually focus on the Bell-state encoding in the physical qubit directly. In this paper, we will describe an alternative approach to realize the near complete logic Bell-state analysis for the polarized concatenated Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (C-GHZ) state with two logic qubits. We show that the logic Bell-state can be distinguished in two steps with the help of the parity-check measurement (PCM) constructed by the cross-Kerr nonlinearity. This approach can be also used to distinguish arbitrary C-GHZ state with N logic qubits. As both the recent theoretical and experiment work showed that the C-GHZ state has its robust feature in practical noisy environment, this protocol may be useful in future long-distance quantum communication based on the logic-qubit entanglement. PMID:26307327
Effects of Bell Speed and Flow Rate on Evaporation of Water Spray from a Rotary Bell Atomizer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rajan Ray
2015-05-01
Full Text Available A phase doppler anemometer (PDA was used to determine the effects of evaporation on water spray for three rotary bell atomizer operational variable parameters: shaping air, bell speed and liquid flow. Shaping air was set at either 200 standard liters per minute (L/min or 300 L/min, bell speed was set to 30, 40 or 50 thousand rotations per minute (krpm and water flow rate was varied between 100, 200 or 300 cubic centimeters per minute (cm3/min. The total evaporation between 22.5 and 37.5 cm from the atomizer (cm3/s was calculated for all the combinations of those variables. Evaporation rate increased with higher flow rate and bell speed but no statistically significant effects were obtained for variable shaping air on interactions between parameters.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a novel quantum secret sharing scheme of secure direct communication and analyze its security. This scheme takes Einstein—Podolsky—Rosen (EPR) pairs in Bell states as quantum resources. In order to obtain the direct communication message, all agents only need to perform Bell measurements, not to perform any local unitary operation. The total efficiency in this scheme approaches 100% as the classical information exchanged is unnecessary except for the eavesdropping checks. (general)
Inclusive radiative B meson decays at Belle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Improved measurement of inclusive radiative B meson decays We report a fully inclusive measurement of the flavor changing neutral current decay B → Xs γ in the energy range 1.7 GeV ≤ Ecms γ ≤ 2.8 GeV, covering 97 % of the total spectrum, where c.m.s. is the center of mass system. Using 605 fb-1 of data we obtain measurements of the partial branching fraction and first and second moments of the photon energy spectrum for lower energy thresholds including and above 1.7 GeV. Improved Measurement of the Electroweak Penguin Process B → Xsl+l-. We present a measurement of the branching fraction for the electroweak penguin process B → Xsl+l-, where l is an electron or a muon and Xs is a hadronic system containing an s-quark. The Xs hadronic system is reconstructed with one K± or K0s and up to four pions, where at most one pion can be neutral. The measurement is based on a data sample four times larger than used in the previous analysis, accumulated at the Υ(4S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB e+e- asymmetric-energy collider. (author)
Bell inequalities for continuous-variable measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tests of local hidden-variable theories using measurements with continuous-variable (CV) outcomes are developed, and a comparison of different methods is presented. As examples, we focus on multipartite entangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and cluster states. We suggest a physical process that produces the states proposed here, and investigate experiments both with and without binning of the continuous variable. In the former case, the Mermin-Klyshko inequalities can be used directly. For unbinned outcomes, the moment-based Cavalcanti-Foster-Reid-Drummond inequalities are extended to functional inequalities by consideration of arbitrary functions of the measurements at each site. By optimizing these functions, we obtain more robust violations of local hidden-variable theories than with either binning or moments. Recent inequalities based on the algebra of quaternions and octonions are compared with these methods. Since the prime advantage of CV experiments is to provide a route to highly efficient detection via homodyne measurements, we analyze the effect of noise and detection losses in both binned and unbinned cases. The CV moment inequalities with an optimal function have greater robustness to both loss and noise. This could permit a loophole-free test of Bell inequalities.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hogerton, John
1964-01-01
This pamphlet describes how reactors work; discusses reactor design; describes research, teaching, and materials testing reactors; production reactors; reactors for electric power generation; reactors for supply heat; reactors for propulsion; reactors for space; reactor safety; and reactors of tomorrow. The appendix discusses characteristics of U.S. civilian power reactor concepts and lists some of the U.S. reactor power projects, with location, type, capacity, owner, and startup date.
Bell Helicopter Advanced Rotocraft Transmission (ART) program
Henry, Zachary S.
1995-06-01
Future rotorcraft transmissions require key emerging material and component technologies using advanced and innovative design practices in order to meet the requirements for a reduced weight to power ratio, a decreased noise level, and a substantially increased reliability. The specific goals for the future rotorcraft transmission when compared with a current state-of-the-art transmission (SOAT) are: (1) a 25 percent weight reduction; (2) a 10 dB reduction in the transmitted noise level; and (3) a system reliability of 5000 hours mean-time-between-removal (MTBR) for the transmission. This report summarizes the work conducted by Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc. to achieve these goals under the Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program from 1988 to 1995. The reference aircraft selected by BHTI for the ART program was the Tactical Tiltrotor which is a 17,000 lb gross weight aircraft. A tradeoff study was conducted comparing the ART with a Selected SOAT. The results showed the ART to be 29 percent lighter and up to 13 dB quieter with a calculated MTBR in excess of 5000 hours. The results of the following high risk component and material tests are also presented: (1) sequential meshing high contact ratio planetary with cantilevered support posts; (2) thin dense chrome plated M50 NiL double row spherical roller planetary bearings; (3) reduced kinematic error and increased bending strength spiral bevel gears; (4) high temperature WE43 magnesium housing evaluation and coupon corrosion tests; (5) flexure fatigue tests of precision forged coupons simulating precision forged gear teeth; and (6) flexure fatigue tests of plasma carburized coupons simulating plasma carburized gear teeth.
Charm CP violation and mixing at Belle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present charm CP violation and mixing measurements at Belle. They are the first observation of D0 − D-bar 0 mixing in e+e− collisions from D0 → K+π− decays, the most precise mixing and indirect CP violation parameters from D0 → K0Sπ+π− decays, and the timeintegrated CP asymmetries in D0 → π0π0 and D0 → K0Sπ0 decays. Our mixing measurement in D0 → K+π− decays excludes the no-mixing hypothesis at the 5.1 standard deviation level. The mixing parameters x = (0.56 ± 0.19+0.03+0.06−0.09−0.09)%, y = (0.30 ± 0.15+0.04+0.03−0.05−0.06)% and indirect CP violation parameters |q/p| = (0.90+0.16+0.05+0.06−0.15−0.04−0.05)%, arg(q/p) = (−6 ± 11 ± 3+3−4)° measured from D0 → K0Sπ+π− decays, and the time-integrated CP asymmetries AD0→π0π0CP = (−0.03 ± 0.64 ± 0.10)% and AD0→K0Sπ0CP = (−0.21 ± 0.16 ± 0.07)% are the most precisemeasurements to date. Our measurements here are consistent with predictions of the standard model
Authentication of bell peppers using boron and strontium isotope compositions
Rosner, Martin; Pritzkow, Wolfgang; Vogl, Jochen; Voerkelius, Susanne
2010-05-01
The wrong declaration of food in terms of geographical origin and production method is a major problem for the individual consumer and public regulatory authorities. The authentication of food matrices using H-C-N-O-S isotopic compositions is already well established. However, specific questions require additional isotopic systems, which are more diagonstic for the source reservoires involved or production methods used. Here we present B and Sr isotopic compositions of bell peppers from Europe (Germany, Austria, Netherlands, Spain) and Israel to verfiy their origin. The bell peppers' B isotopic compositions between different locations are highly variable (d11BNISTSRM951 -8 to +35 ‰), whereas the 87Sr/86Sr ratios are all close to modern seawater Sr isotopic composition of about 0.7092 (0.7078 to 0.7107), but still can reliably be distinguished. Distinct isotopically heavy and light B isotopic fingerprints are obtained for bell peppers from Israel and the Netherlands. Samples from Germany, Austria, and Spain display overlapping d11B values between 0 and +12 ‰. Bell peppers from Israel show high d11B values (+28 to +35 ‰) combined with 87Sr/86Sr ratios slightly more unradiogenic than modern seawater (ca 0.7079). Bell peppers from the Netherlands, however, show low d11B values (-8 ‰) combinded with 87Sr/86Sr ratios of modern seawater (approx. 0.7085). Mainly based on diagnostic B isotopic compositions bell peppers from Israel and the Netherlands can be related to a specific geographical growing environment (Israel) or production method (Netherlands). The isotope fingerprints of bell peppers from the Netherlands are consistent with growing conditions in greenhouses typical for the Netherlands vegetable farming. Using optimized production methods crops in greenhouses were supplied with nutritients by liquid fertilizers on artificial substrates. As most fertilizers derive from non-marine salt deposits, fertilization typically imprints invariant d11B values close
Generating Bell states in invariant stratification spin networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, we study the generation of Bell states between distant vertices in a permanently coupled quantum spin network, interacting via invariant stratification graphs. To begin with we establish a class of upper bounds over the achievable entanglement between the reference site and various vertices. We observe that the maximum of these upper bounds is one e-bit. We conclude that the reference site can generate a Bell state with a vertex if the corresponding upper bound of the vertex is one e-bit. Thus for generation of a Bell state this upper bound must be saturated. Taking this into account, we obtain the characteristic constraint of the proper graphs. We introduce a special class of antipodal invariant stratification graphs, which is called reflective, whereas the antipode vertex obeys the characteristic constraint. We also show that the antipodal association scheme graphs are reflective so Bell states can be generated between the antipodal vertices. Moreover, we observe that in such graphs the proper Hamiltonian that enables the creation of a Bell state is the Heisenberg interaction between vertex pairs
Correlates of degree of nerve involvement in early Bell's palsy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hsieh Ru-Lan
2009-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to evaluate the still unknown factors correlating with the degree of nerve involvement in early Bell's palsy. Methods This retrospective chart review study of newly diagnosed cases of Bell's palsy was conducted over a three-year period. Information on age, sex, day of onset, comorbidities, corticosteroid use, and electroneurographic test results were collected. The electroneurographic quotient (amplitude of compound muscle action potential on the affected side divided by that on the healthy side and expressed in percent was used as an index of nerve involvement, with lower quotient indicating more severe disease. Results Data were collected on 563 patients. The mean electroneurographic quotient varied inversely with age (p vs. 40.3%; p = 0.002. There was no correlation between the degree of nerve involvement and sex, season of onset, hypertension, or diabetes. Conclusion The degree of nerve involvement in early Bell's palsy correlates positively with age and negatively with corticosteroid use.
Bell's Inequality, Random Sequence, and Quantum Key Distribution
Hwang, W Y
2005-01-01
At first glance Ekert 91 quantum key distribution protocol can be secure even if legitimate users adopt whatever devices for the protocol as long as the devices give a result that violates Bell's inequality. However, it is not the case if they ignore non-detection events because Eve can make use of detection-loophole, as Larrson showed. What we show is that even when the legitimate users take into account non-detection events Eve can successfully eavesdrop if the manufacturer design the QKD system appropriately. A loophole utilized here is that of `free-choice' (or `real randomness'). We show how (local) quantum key distribution devices with pseudo-random sequence generator installed in them can apparently violate Bell's inequality. We briefly discuss a debate on Bell's inequality violation that is involved with a question on randomness.
Experimental violation of Bell inequalities for multi-dimensional systems
Lo, Hsin-Pin; Yabushita, Atsushi; Chen, Yueh-Nan; Luo, Chih-Wei; Kobayashi, Takayoshi
2016-01-01
Quantum correlations between spatially separated parts of a $d$-dimensional bipartite system ($d\\geq 2$) have no classical analog. Such correlations, also called entanglements, are not only conceptually important, but also have a profound impact on information science. In theory the violation of Bell inequalities based on local realistic theories for $d$-dimensional systems provides evidence of quantum nonlocality. Experimental verification is required to confirm whether a quantum system of extremely large dimension can possess this feature, however it has never been performed for large dimension (e.g., $d\\geq 1000$). Here, we report that Bell inequalities are experimentally violated for bipartite quantum systems of extremely high dimensionality with the usual ensembles of polarization-entangled photon pairs. Our entanglement source violates Bell inequalities for extremely high dimensionality of $d>4000$. The designed scenario offers a possible new method to investigate the entanglement of multipartite system...
Testing Bell inequalities with circuit QEDs by joint spectral measurements
Yuan, Hao; Huang, J S; Wang, X H; Vedral, Vlatko
2011-01-01
We propose a feasible approach to test Bell's inequality with the experimentally-demonstrated circuit QED system, consisting of two well-separated superconducting charge qubits (SCQs) dispersively coupled to a common one-dimensional transmission line resonator (TLR). Our proposal is based on the joint spectral measurements of the two SCQs, i.e., their quantum states in the computational basis $\\{|kl>,\\,k,l=0,1\\}$ can be measured by detecting the transmission spectra of the driven TLR: each peak marks one of the computational basis and its relative height corresponds to the probability superposed. With these joint spectral measurements, the generated Bell states of the two SCQs can be robustly confirmed without the standard tomographic technique. Furthermore, the statistical nonlocal-correlations between these two distant qubits can be directly read out by the joint spectral measurements, and consequently the Bell's inequality can be tested by sequentially measuring the relevant correlations related to the sui...
MCP-PMT development for Belle-II TOP counter
Inami, K.
We have developed a multiple-anode square-shape MCP-PMT for the Belle-II Time-Of-Propagation (TOP) counter. This detector is a hybrid cherenkov ring imaging and timing detector for particle identification in the barrel region of the upgraded detector. The Belle-II experiment will operate at high event rates and needs to withstand the correspondingly high background environment. MCP-PMT's have demonstrated excellent single photon timing resolution. However, the lifetime of photocathode is a known issue. Recently, we successfully improved the lifetime of a square-shape MCP-PMT by a factor of about 10, which is adequate for estimates of the nominal Belle-II background rates in the TOP counter. We have also developed a new MCP-PMT with Hamamatsu photonics, that adopts a super bialkali photocathode. Currently a peak quantum effciency of 28% for 400 nm photons has been achieved.
Two-player conflicting interest Bayesian games and Bell nonlocality
Situ, Haozhen
2016-01-01
Nonlocality, one of the most remarkable aspects of quantum mechanics, is closely related to Bayesian game theory. Quantum mechanics can offer advantages to some Bayesian games, if the payoff functions are related to Bell inequalities in some way, most of these Bayesian games that have been discussed are common interest games. Recently, the first conflicting interest Bayesian game is proposed in Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 020401 (2015). In the present paper, we present three new conflicting interest Bayesian games where quantum mechanics offers advantages. The first game is linked with Cereceda inequalities, the second game is linked with a generalized Bell inequality with three possible measurement outcomes, and the third game is linked with a generalized Bell inequality with three possible measurement settings.
Belle II early physics program of bottomonium spectroscopy
Ye, Hua
2016-01-01
The Belle II experiment at the SuperKEKB collider is a major upgrade of the KEK "$B$ factory" facility in Tsukuba, Japan. Phase 1 commissioning of the main ring of SuperKEKB has started in February 2016 and first physics data will be recorded in 2017 during the so-called Phase 2 commissioning, when the partial Belle II detector will be operated still without its vertex detector. In 2018, the full Belle II detector will be rolled in and physics run will start. In this proceeding, a possible physics program for this early data run at different center-of-mass energies is described, in particular at the $\\Upsilon(3S)$ and $\\Upsilon(6S)$ resonances, amongst other energy points.
On the Debossing, Annealing and Mounting of Bells
PERRIN, R.; SWALLOWE, G. M.; CHARNLEY, T.; MARSHALL, C.
1999-10-01
Changes in the frequencies of the musical partials of various types of bells following debossing dismounting/mounting and annealing/quench annealing are reported. Debossing, dismounting and quench annealing lead to frequency drops, while mounting gives rises. Annealing can lead to frequency increases or decreases depending upon the maximum temperature employed and the initial residual stress. Qualitative explanations of these phenomena are given in terms of changes in crown stiffness, internal stress and alloy phase structure. These are supported by the results of X-ray diffraction measurements. Although the effects are all small they can be large enough to be detected by a reasonably musical car. This, together with the fact that the effects cannot be controlled, gives a plausible explanation of why modern bellfounders use vertical lathes for tuning, even with small carillon bells, and do not anneal bells when trying to control warble.
Belle II SVD ladder assembly procedure and electrical qualification
Adamczyk, K.; Aihara, H.; Angelini, C.; Aziz, T.; Babu, Varghese; Bacher, S.; Bahinipati, S.; Barberio, E.; Baroncelli, T.; Basith, A. K.; Batignani, G.; Bauer, A.; Behera, P. K.; Bergauer, T.; Bettarini, S.; Bhuyan, B.; Bilka, T.; Bosi, F.; Bosisio, L.; Bozek, A.; Buchsteiner, F.; Casarosa, G.; Ceccanti, M.; Červenkov, D.; Chendvankar, S. R.; Dash, N.; Divekar, S. T.; Doležal, Z.; Dutta, D.; Forti, F.; Friedl, M.; Hara, K.; Higuchi, T.; Horiguchi, T.; Irmler, C.; Ishikawa, A.; Jeon, H. B.; Joo, C.; Kandra, J.; Kang, K. H.; Kato, E.; Kawasaki, T.; Kodyš, P.; Kohriki, T.; Koike, S.; Kolwalkar, M. M.; Kvasnička, P.; Lanceri, L.; Lettenbicher, J.; Mammini, P.; Mayekar, S. N.; Mohanty, G. B.; Mohanty, S.; Morii, T.; Nakamura, K. R.; Natkaniec, Z.; Negishi, K.; Nisar, N. K.; Onuki, Y.; Ostrowicz, W.; Paladino, A.; Paoloni, E.; Park, H.; Pilo, F.; Profeti, A.; Rao, K. K.; Rashevskaya, I.; Rizzo, G.; Rozanska, M.; Sandilya, S.; Sasaki, J.; Sato, N.; Schultschik, S.; Schwanda, C.; Seino, Y.; Shimizu, N.; Stypula, J.; Tanaka, S.; Tanida, K.; Taylor, G. N.; Thalmeier, R.; Thomas, R.; Tsuboyama, T.; Uozumi, S.; Urquijo, P.; Vitale, L.; Volpi, M.; Watanuki, S.; Watson, I. J.; Webb, J.; Wiechczynski, J.; Williams, S.; Würkner, B.; Yamamoto, H.; Yin, H.; Yoshinobu, T.
2016-07-01
The Belle II experiment at the SuperKEKB asymmetric e+e- collider in Japan will operate at a luminosity approximately 50 times larger than its predecessor (Belle). At its heart lies a six-layer vertex detector comprising two layers of pixelated silicon detectors (PXD) and four layers of double-sided silicon microstrip detectors (SVD). One of the key measurements for Belle II is time-dependent CP violation asymmetry, which hinges on a precise charged-track vertex determination. Towards this goal, a proper assembly of the SVD components with precise alignment ought to be performed and the geometrical tolerances should be checked to fall within the design limits. We present an overview of the assembly procedure that is being followed, which includes the precision gluing of the SVD module components, wire-bonding of the various electrical components, and precision three dimensional coordinate measurements of the jigs used in assembly as well as of the final SVD modules.
Feasible logic Bell-state analysis with linear optics.
Zhou, Lan; Sheng, Yu-Bo
2016-01-01
We describe a feasible logic Bell-state analysis protocol by employing the logic entanglement to be the robust concatenated Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (C-GHZ) state. This protocol only uses polarization beam splitters and half-wave plates, which are available in current experimental technology. We can conveniently identify two of the logic Bell states. This protocol can be easily generalized to the arbitrary C-GHZ state analysis. We can also distinguish two N-logic-qubit C-GHZ states. As the previous theory and experiment both showed that the C-GHZ state has the robustness feature, this logic Bell-state analysis and C-GHZ state analysis may be essential for linear-optical quantum computation protocols whose building blocks are logic-qubit entangled state. PMID:26877208
Revealing Bell's Nonlocality for Unstable Systems in High Energy Physics
Hiesmayr, Beatrix C; Curceanu, Catalina; Gabriel, Andreas; Huber, Marcus; Larsson, Jan-Ake; Moskal, Pawel
2011-01-01
Entanglement and its consequences - in particular the violation of Bell inequalities, which defies our concepts of realism and locality - have been proven to play key roles in Nature by many experiments for various quantum systems. Entanglement can also be found in systems not consisting of ordinary matter and light, i.e. in massive meson--antimeson systems. Bell inequalities have been discussed for these systems, but up to date no direct experimental test to conclusively exclude local realism was found. This mainly stems from the fact that one only has access to a restricted class of observables and that these systems are also decaying. In this Letter we put forward a Bell inequality for unstable systems which can be tested at accelerator facilities with current technology. Herewith, the long awaited proof that such systems at different energy scales can reveal the sophisticated "dynamical" nonlocal feature of Nature in a direct experiment gets feasible. Moreover, the role of entanglement and CP violation, a...
The Belle II Experiment and SuperKEKB Upgrade
,
2015-01-01
The Belle II / SuperKEKB experiment is an $e^+e^-$ collider running at the $\\Upsilon(4S)$ resonance energy to produce B meson pairs. As an upgrade of the Belle / KEKB experiment, it will start physics data taking from 2018 and with $\\sim 40$ times luminosity, its goal is to accumulate 50 $ab^{-1}$ of $e^+e^-$ collision data. Now the upgrade of the sub-detector systems is on going in KEK. The physics programs have a wide range of areas, including searches for direct CPV, Lepton Flavour Violation and dark matter. In this proceedings, we will review the current upgrade status of Belle II and SuperKEKB and introduce some physics opportunities at this facility.
Numerical analysis of an axial-flow pump with different bell mouths
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Based on the FVM (Finite Volume Method), standard turbulent model used to close the RANS (Reynolds Average Navier- Stokes Equations) equations and scalable wall function, was adopted to treat the flow near wall, and the flow pattern in the bell mouth of a certain axial-flow pump was simulated. The results show that there were some vortexes and spiral flows in the bell mouth if we used a traditional bell mouth which was also used in mixed-flow pump. By optimizing the structure of the bell mouth, the simulated results showed that the flow pattern in the bell mouth was better than a traditional bell mouth, there were no vortexes or spiral flows in the bell mouth, and the performance of the pump was also better than before. Based on the numerical simulation, the new structure of the bell mouth was proposed to be used practical engineering
Hadronic b {yields} c decays at Belle
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Joshi, Nikhil Jayant [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research - TIFR, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India)
2010-07-01
We present a measurement of the unitarity triangle angle {phi}{sub 3} using Dalitz plot analysis of three-body neutral D decays from the B{sup +} {yields} D{sup (*)}K{sup (*)+} process. The results are based on a large sample of B anti-B pairs recorded at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB e{sup +}e{sup -} collider. The decay B {yields} D{sup (*)} K{sup (*)} (D = D{sup 0} or anti-D{sup 0}) includes the b {yields} u transition and plays a crucial role in the measurement of the CP-violating angle {phi}{sub 3}. We present the result of a study of the decay B {yields} D{sup (*)} K{sup (*)} where the D meson is reconstructed from K{sup +} {pi}{sup -}. We also report improved measurements of the branching fractions for the decays B{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup (*)+} {pi}{sup -} and anti-B{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup (*)+} K{sup -}. Based on these results, we determine the ratio between the amplitudes of the doubly Cabibbo suppressed decay B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup (*)+} {pi}{sup -} and the Cabibbo favored decay B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup (*)-} {pi}{sup +}. We studied the three-body baryonic B{sup +} decays, B{sup +} {yields} p anti-{lambda} D{sup (*)0}. The branching fractions as well as the differential branching fractions as a function of the mass of the p anti-{lambda} system are presented. These results are compared with theoretical predictions based on the generalized factorization approach. We present a study of the exclusive decays B{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup -} K{sup 0}{sub S} {pi}{sup +} and B{sup -} to D{sub s}{sup +} K{sup -}K{sup -}. We use the D{sub s}{sup -} {yields} {phi} {pi}{sup -}, anti-K{sup *}(892)0 K{sup -} and K{sup 0}{sub S} K{sup -} decay modes for D{sub s} reconstruction. (author)
Unambiguous atomic Bell measurement assisted by multiphoton states
Torres, Juan Mauricio; Bernád, József Zsolt; Alber, Gernot
2016-05-01
We propose and theoretically investigate an unambiguous Bell measurement of atomic qubits assisted by multiphoton states. The atoms interact resonantly with the electromagnetic field inside two spatially separated optical cavities in a Ramsey-type interaction sequence. The qubit states are postselected by measuring the photonic states inside the resonators. We show that if one is able to project the photonic field onto two coherent states on opposite sites of phase space, an unambiguous Bell measurement can be implemented. Thus, our proposal may provide a core element for future components of quantum information technology such as a quantum repeater based on coherent multiphoton states, atomic qubits and matter-field interaction.
Two-setting Bell inequalities for many qubits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a family of Bell inequalities involving only two measurement settings of each party for N>2 qubits. Our inequalities include all the standard ones with fewer than N qubits and thus give a natural generalization. It is shown that all the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states violate the inequalities maximally, with an amount that grows exponentially as 2(N-2)/2. The inequalities are also violated by some states that do satisfy all the standard Bell inequalities. Remarkably, our results yield in an efficient and simple way an implementation of nonlocality tests of many qubits favorably within reach of the well-established technology of linear optics
Constructing quantum games from a system of Bell's inequalities
Iqbal, Azhar
2009-01-01
We report constructing quantum games directly from a system of Bell's inequalities using Arthur Fine's analysis published in early 1980s. This analysis showed that such a system of inequalities forms a set of both necessary and sufficient conditions required to find a joint distribution function compatible with a given set of joint probabilities, in terms of which the system of Bell's inequalities is usually expressed. Using the setting of a quantum correlation experiment for playing a quantum game, and considering the examples of Prisoners' Dilemma and Matching Pennies, we argue that this approach towards constructing quantum games addresses well known criticism of quantum games.
Treasures inside the bell hidden order in chance
Puente, Carlos E
2003-01-01
Generalized versions of the central limit theorem that lead to Gaussian distributions over one and higher dimensions, via arbitrary iterations of simple mappings, have recently been discovered by the author of this publication and his collaborators. Treasures Inside the Bell: Hidden Order in Chance reveals how these new constructions result in infinite exotic kaleidoscopic decompositions of two-dimensional circular bells in terms of beautiful deterministic patterns possessing arbitrary n-fold symmetries. These are patterns that, while reminding us of the infinite structure previously found in
Constructing quantum games from a system of Bell's inequalities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We report constructing quantum games directly from a system of Bell's inequalities using Arthur Fine's analysis published in early 1980s. This analysis showed that such a system of inequalities forms a set of both necessary and sufficient conditions required to find a joint distribution function compatible with a given set of joint probabilities, in terms of which the system of Bell's inequalities is usually expressed. Using the setting of a quantum correlation experiment for playing a quantum game, and considering the examples of Prisoners' Dilemma and Matching Pennies, we argue that this approach towards constructing quantum games addresses some of their well-known criticisms.
Structural Investigation on Bell Inequalities of High Dimensions
Lee, S W; Lee, J; Cheong, Yong Wook; Lee, Jinhyoung; Lee, Seung-Woo
2005-01-01
We present the generalized Bell inequality for high-dimensional systems and reformulate it in order to compare with Collins-Gisin-Linden-Massar-Popescu (CGLMP) inequality. It is shown that the maximal entanglement leads to the maximal violation of our Bell inequality, whereas a non-maximally entangled state maximally violates CGLMP inequality. In addition, it is shown that both types have the equivalent structure with respect to the joint probabilities, but they have the different correlation weights of measurement outcomes. We remark that the correlation weights plays a crucial role in determining the violation conditions and tightness conditions.
Detection efficiency for loophole-free Bell experiments with postselection
Sciarrino, F; Cabello, A; Mataloni, P
2010-01-01
It is generally assumed that the violation of a Bell inequality by postselected events cannot be used for loophole-free tests of quantum nonlocality. We show that this is not the case if the postselection is performed locally and without communication between the observers. This permits the adoption of certain setups of locally selected entanglement, which are simpler and more efficient, for long-distance free-space Bell tests. For these setups, we investigate which is the minimum detection efficiency for loophole-free experiments.
Cost of exactly simulating a Bell pair using classical communication
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The paper G. Brassard, R. Cleve, and A. Tapp, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1874 (1999) begins thus: 'Bell's celebrated theorem shows that certain scenarios involving bipartite quantum measurements result in correlations that are impossible to simulate with a classical system if the measurement events are spacelike separated. If the measurement events are timelike separated, then classical simulation is possible, at the expense of some communication. Our goal is to quantify the required amount of communication.' In this note we tighten the bounds on the amount of communication required to simulate a von Neumann measurement on a Bell pair
A paradigm of fragile Earth in Priestley's bell jar
Martin, Daniel; Thompson, Andrew; Stewart, Iain; Gilbert,Edward; Hope, Katrina; Kawai, Grace; Griffiths, Alistair
2012-01-01
Background Photosynthesis maintains aerobic life on Earth, and Joseph Priestly first demonstrated this in his eighteenth-century bell jar experiments using mice and mint plants. In order to demonstrate the fragility of life on Earth, Priestley's experiment was recreated using a human subject placed within a modern-day bell jar. Methods A single male subject was placed within a sealed, oxygen-depleted enclosure (12.4% oxygen), which contained 274 C3 and C4 plants for a total of 48 h. A combina...
Bell's Nonlocality Can be Tested through Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Steering
Chen, Jing-Ling; Ye, Xiang-Jun
2015-01-01
Quantum nonlocality has recently been classified into three distinct types: quantum entanglement, Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering, and Bell's nonlocality. Experimentally Bell's nonlocality is usually tested by quantum violation of the Clause-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality in the two-qubit system. Bell's nonlocality is the strongest type of nonlocality, also due this reason Bell-test experiments have encountered both the locality loophole and the detection loophole for a very long...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mônica Alcantara de Oliveira Santos
2010-06-01
Full Text Available Embora a paralisia de Bell seja o tipo mais frequente de paralisia facial periférica,sua causa ainda é objeto de inúmeros questionamentos. A reativação do vírus varicela zoster tem sido considerada uma das principais causas da paralisia de Bell, porém, os poucos trabalhos que estudam a prevalência do VVZ como agente etiológico da PB são japoneses, o que determina características geográficas e populacionais bastante díspares de nossa população. OBJETIVOS: Verificar a frequência do vírus varicela zoster em saliva de indivíduos com PB, pela técnica de PCR. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Estudo prospectivo com 171 pacientes com PFP, sendo 120 pacientes portadores de paralisia de Bell, com até uma semana de evolução, sem uso prévio de drogas antivirais. O grupo controle foi composto de 20 adultos sadios. Nestes indivíduos foram coletadas três amostras de saliva em semanas consecutivas, para pesquisa de DNA viral pela técnica de PCR. RESULTADOS: O vírus varicela zoster foi encontrado em amostras de saliva de dois pacientes com paralisia de Bell (1,7%. Nenhum vírus foi identificado no grupo controle. CONCLUSÃO: Foi verificada frequência de 1,7% para vírus varicela zoster em amostras de saliva de pacientes com paralisia de Bell, pela técnica de PCR.Although Bell's palsy is the major cause of acute peripheral facial palsy, its pathogenesis remains unknown. Reactivation of the varicella zoster virus has been implicated as one of the main causes of Bell's palsy, however, studies which investigate the varicella zoster virus reactivation in Bell's palsy patients are mostly Japanese and, therefore, personal and geographic characteristics are quite different from our population. AIMS: To determine varicella zoster virus frequency in saliva samples from patients with Bell's palsy, using PCR. MATERIAL AND METHOD: One hundred seventy one patients with acute peripheral facial palsy were prospectively enrolled in this study. One hundred twenty
Experimental possibilities of IGR reactor for the researches on the nuclear reactor safety
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The IGR reactor (National nuclear centre of the Republic of Kazakstan, Kurchatov) with high technical and neutron-physical properties has wide experimental possibilities for the dynamic studies. On this reactor possible curried out two general types of regimes. First regime is a 'flare', non-regular neutron impulse of power of bell form. In this regime the maximum flux density of thermal neutrons. Second regime is a 'impulse', regulated on the given regime (law) power impulse. Profile of power change in this regime has sections of linear ascent and fall, sections of stationary power. IGR reactor has pneumatic hydraulic stand, provided accumulation in the ramps of high pressure. Experimental volume of the reactor are composites central and lateral channels, which are passed through active zone of height equal to 1400 mm. The above mentioned possibilities of IGR reactor are provided unique conditions for studies in the field of nuclear reactor safety
The Effect of Hominis Placenta Herbal Acupuncture on Bell's palsy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yun Jeong-hun
2000-07-01
Full Text Available This report was done to observe the effect of Hominis placenta herbal acupuncture on Bell's palsy. The study group comprised 16 patients who arrived at Woo-suk university oriental hospital from January, 1999 till January, 2000 for Bell's palsy. All patients were divided into two group. One was herbal acupunture group, and the other was control group. Acupunture group was done herbal acupuncture therapy on the facial acupuncture points. Followings are achievement and a term of each group. In herbal acupuncture group, 100% motor recovery was 7 case, 75% was 1 case, and 25% motor recovery term was 7.38±5.21 days, 50% was 11.00±6.16 days, 75% was 15.13±9.55 days, 100% was 23.14±7.97 days. In control group, 100% motor recovery was 4 case, 75% was 2 case, 25% below was 2 case and 25% motor recovery term was 11.17±4.96days, 50% was 18.17±6.82 days, 75% was 29.50±6.95 days, 100% was 44.00±11.49 days. The above results indicate that Hominis placenta herbal acupuncture is a useful effect on Bell's palsy. thus, continuous herbal acupunture study will be needed for more clinical application on Bell' palsy.
Scheme for deterministic Bell-state-measurement-free quantum teleportation
Yang, Ming; Cao, Zhuo-Liang
2004-01-01
A deterministic teleportation scheme for unknown atomic states is proposed in cavity QED. The Bell state measurement is not needed in the teleportation process, and the success probability can reach 1.0. In addition, the current scheme is insensitive to the cavity decay and thermal field.
Local permutations of products of Bell states and entanglement distillation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present different algorithms for mixed-state multicopy entanglement distillation for pairs of qubits. Our algorithms perform significantly better than the best-known algorithms. Better algorithms can be derived that are tuned for specific initial states. These algorithms are based on a characterization of the group of all locally realizable permutations of the 4n possible tensor products of n Bell states
FPGA based algorithms for data reduction at Belle II
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Muenchow, David; Gessler, Thomas; Kuehn, Wolfgang; Lange, Jens Soeren; Liu, Ming; Spruck, Bjoern [II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Giessen (Germany)
2011-07-01
Belle II, the upgrade of the existing Belle experiment at Super-KEKB in Tsukuba, Japan, is an asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} collider with a design luminosity of 8.10{sup 35}cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. At Belle II the estimated event rate is {<=}30 kHz. The resulting data rate at the Pixel Detector (PXD) will be {<=}7.2 GB/s. This data rate needs to be reduced to be able to process and store the data. A region of interest (ROI) selection is based upon two mechanisms. a.) a tracklet finder using the silicon strip detector and b.) the HLT using all other Belle II subdetectors. These ROIs and the pixel data are forwarded to an FPGA based Compute Node for processing. Here a VHDL based algorithm on FPGA with the benefit of pipelining and parallelisation will be implemented. For a fast data handling we developed a dedicated memory management system for buffering and storing the data. The status of the implementation and performance tests of the memory manager and data reduction algorithm is presented.
Philosophical motivations of Bell's theorem and the experimenter's problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The question suggested by the Bell theorem of whether natural phenomena or systems possess intrinsic properties independent of their observers is considered, that is, whether objective systems, objects, exist. It is assumed that they do and the consequences are examined and possible tests of this assumption are examined
"The Bell Curve" and Carrie Buck: Eugenics Revisited.
Smith, J. David
1995-01-01
The 1994 publication of "The Bell Curve" by R. Herrnstein and C. Murray is compared to other examples of eugenic principles, including the sterilization of "feebleminded" Carrie Buck, family degeneracy studies focusing on lower class Caucasian families, and other works that view the poorest and least educated members of society as problems for…
FPGA based algorithms for data reduction at Belle II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Belle II, the upgrade of the existing Belle experiment at Super-KEKB in Tsukuba, Japan, is an asymmetric e+e- collider with a design luminosity of 8.1035cm-2s-1. At Belle II the estimated event rate is ≤30 kHz. The resulting data rate at the Pixel Detector (PXD) will be ≤7.2 GB/s. This data rate needs to be reduced to be able to process and store the data. A region of interest (ROI) selection is based upon two mechanisms. a.) a tracklet finder using the silicon strip detector and b.) the HLT using all other Belle II subdetectors. These ROIs and the pixel data are forwarded to an FPGA based Compute Node for processing. Here a VHDL based algorithm on FPGA with the benefit of pipelining and parallelisation will be implemented. For a fast data handling we developed a dedicated memory management system for buffering and storing the data. The status of the implementation and performance tests of the memory manager and data reduction algorithm is presented.
On superselection rules in Bohm-Bell theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The meaning of superselection rules in Bohm-Bell theories (i.e., quantum theories with particle trajectories) is different from that in orthodox quantum theory. More precisely, there are two concepts of superselection rule, a weak and a strong one. Weak superselection rules exist both in orthodox quantum theory and in Bohm-Bell theories and represent the conventional understanding of superselection rules. We introduce the concept of strong superselection rule, which does not exist in orthodox quantum theory. It relies on the clear ontology of Bohm-Bell theories and is a sharper and, in the Bohm-Bell context, more fundamental notion. A strong superselection rule for the observable G asserts that one can replace every state vector by a suitable statistical mixture of eigenvectors of G without changing the particle trajectories or their probabilities. A weak superselection rule asserts that every state vector is empirically indistinguishable from a suitable statistical mixture of eigenvectors of G. We establish conditions on G for both kinds of superselection. For comparison, we also consider both kinds of superselection in theories of spontaneous wavefunction collapse
Belle II public and private cloud management in VMDIRAC system.
Grzymkowski, Rafa; Hara, Takanori; Belle computing Group, II
2015-12-01
The role of cloud computing technology in the distributed computing for HEP experiments grows rapidly. Some experiments (Atlas, BES-III, LHCb) already exploit private and public cloud resources for the data processing. Future experiments such as Belle II or upgraded LHC experiments will largely rely on the availability of cloud resources and therefore their computing models have to be adjusted to the specific features of cloud environment, in particular to the on-demand computing paradigm. Belle II experiment at SuperKEKB will start physics run in 2017. Belle II computing requirements are challenging. The data size at the level of hundred PB is expected after several years of operation, around 2020. The baseline solution selected for distributed processing is the DIRAC system. DIRAC can handle variety of computing resources including Grids, Clouds and independent clusters. Cloud resources can be connected by VMDIRAC module through public interfaces. In particular the mechanism of dynamic activation of new virtual machines with reserved job slots for new tasks in case of an increasing demand for computing resources is introduced. This work is focused on VMDIRAC interaction with public (Amazon EC2) and private (CC1) cloud. The solution applied by Belle II experiment and the experience from Monte Carlo production campaigns will be presented. Updated computation costs for different use cases will be shown.
History of Belle and some of its lesser known highlights
Olsen, Stephen Lars
2016-01-01
I report on the early history of Belle, which was almost entirely focused on testing the Kobayashi Maskawa mechanism for $CP$ violation that predicted large matter-antimatter asymmetries in certain $B$ meson decay modes. Results reported by both BaBar and Belle in the summer of 2001 verified the Kobayashi Maskawa idea and led to their Nobel prizes in 2008. In addition to studies of CP violation, Belle (and BaBar) reported a large number of important results on a wide variety of other subjects, many of which that had nothing to do with B mesons. In this talk I cover three (of many) subjects where Belle measurements have had a significant impact on specific sub-fields of hadron physics but are not generally well know. These include: the discovery of an anomalously large cross sections for double charmonium production in continuum e+e- annihilation; sensitive probes of the structure of the low-mass scalar mesons; and first measurements of the Collins spin fragmentation function.
Correspondence Between Bell Bases and Oriented Links in Knot Theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
QIAN ShangWu; GU ZhiYu
2002-01-01
From the comparison of correlation tensor in the theory of quantum network, the Alexander relation matrix in the theory of knot crystals and the identical inversion relations under the action of Pauli matrices, we show that there is a one to one correspondence between four Bell bases and four oriented links of the linkage 41 in knot theory.
A Measurement of "g" Using Alexander's Diving Bell
Quiroga, M.; Martinez, S.; Otranto, S.
2010-01-01
This paper describes a very simple exercise using an inverted test tube pushed straight down into a column of water to determine the free-fall acceleration "g". The exercise employs the ideal gas law and only involves the measurement of the displacement of the bottom of the "diving bell" and the water level inside the tube with respect to the…
Bell Beaker Culture lithic industry workshop in Moravia
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Šebela, Lubomír; Škrdla, Petr
Bratislava: Univerzita Komenského v Bratislave, 2014. s. 12-12. ISBN N. [Archéologie et Gobelets /16./. 01.05.2014-03.05.2014, Bratislava - Vienna] Institutional support: RVO:68081758 Keywords : Moravia * Eneolithic * Bell Beaker culture * workshop * Stránská skála Hill Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology
Quantum Communication between N partners and Bell's inequalities
Scarani, Valerio; Gisin, Nicolas
2001-01-01
We consider a family of quantum communication protocols involving $N$ partners. We demonstrate the existence of a link between the security of these protocols against individual attacks by the eavesdropper, and the violation of some Bell's inequalities, generalizing the link that was noticed some years ago for two-partners quantum cryptography. The arguments are independent of the local hidden variable debate.
Hidden assumptions in the derivation of the theorem of Bell
Hess, Karl; De Raedt, Hans; Michielsen, Kristel
2012-01-01
John Bell's inequalities have already been considered by Boole in 1862. Boole established a one-to-one correspondence between experimental outcomes and mathematical abstractions of his probability theory. His abstractions are two-valued functions that permit the logical operations AND, OR and NOT an
Rehabilitation of Bells' palsy from a multi-team perspective.
Hultcrantz, Malou
2016-04-01
Conclusions Defectively healed facial paralysis causes difficulties to talk and eat, involuntary spasms (synkinesis), and cosmetic deformities which can give rise both to severe psychological and physical trauma. A team consisting of Ear-Nose-Throat specialists, Plastic surgeons and Physiotherapists can offer better care, treatment and outcome for patients suffering from Bells' palsy. Objectives Patients suffering from Bells' palsy from all ENT hospitals in Sweden and the University Hospital in Helsinki has been included. Methods Results have been drawn and statistically processed for different outcomes from a prospective, double blind cross over study. Results from a pilot surgical study and therapeutic results from physiotherapy studies have been included. Ideas concerning different kinds of surgery will be reviewed and the role of physiotherapy discussed. Results According to common results, treatment with Prednisolone enhances the recovery rate and should, if possible, be used early in the course. Sunnybrook grading at 1 month after onset most accurately predicts non-recovery at 12 months in Bells' palsy and a risk factor curve will be presented in order to predict outcome and selection of patients for undergoing facial surgery. This report is focusing on how to handle patients with Bells' palsy from a multi-rehabilitation team point of view, and what will be recommended to provide these patients with the best clinical and surgical help. PMID:26634395
Bell inequality and the locality loophole: Active versus passive switches
Gisin, N.; Zbinden, H.
1999-01-01
All experimental tests of the violation of Bell's inequality suffer from some loopholes. We show that the locality loophole is not independent of the detection loophole: in experiments using low efficient detectors, the locality loophole can be closed equivalently using active or passive switches.
Loopholes in Bell inequality tests of local realism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bell inequalities are intended to show that local realist theories cannot describe the world. A local realist theory is one where physical properties are defined prior to and independent of measurement, and no physical influence can propagate faster than the speed of light. Quantum-mechanical predictions for certain experiments violate the Bell inequality while a local realist theory cannot, and this shows that a local realist theory cannot give those quantum-mechanical predictions. However, because of unexpected circumstances or ‘loopholes’ in available experiment tests, local realist theories can reproduce the data from these experiments. This paper reviews such loopholes, what effect they have on Bell inequality tests, and how to avoid them in experiment. Avoiding all these simultaneously in one experiment, usually called a ‘loophole-free’ or ‘definitive’ Bell test, remains an open task, but is very important for technological tasks such as device-independent security of quantum cryptography, and ultimately for our understanding of the world. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell’s theorem’. (review article)
Education as a Practice of Freedom: Reflections on bell hooks
Specia, Akello; Osman, Ahmed A.
2015-01-01
This paper critically analyses the conceptions of bell hooks on education. It focuses on the relevance of hook's ideas to the classroom. It is a theoretical paper based on secondary data that seeks to contribute to the growing body of knowledge in education. The paper is a reflection of hook's reaction to education as a practice of freedom, the…
Fault-tolerant authenticated quantum dialogue using logical Bell states
Ye, Tian-Yu
2015-09-01
Two fault-tolerant authenticated quantum dialogue protocols are proposed in this paper by employing logical Bell states as the quantum resource, which combat the collective-dephasing noise and the collective-rotation noise, respectively. The two proposed protocols each can accomplish the mutual identity authentication and the dialogue between two participants simultaneously and securely over one kind of collective noise channels. In each of two proposed protocols, the information transmitted through the classical channel is assumed to be eavesdroppable and modifiable. The key for choosing the measurement bases of sample logical qubits is pre-shared privately between two participants. The Bell state measurements rather than the four-qubit joint measurements are adopted for decoding. The two participants share the initial states of message logical Bell states with resort to the direct transmission of auxiliary logical Bell states so that the information leakage problem is avoided. The impersonation attack, the man-in-the-middle attack, the modification attack and the Trojan horse attacks from Eve all are detectable.
Belle II Detector: status and proposed US contributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Conference proceedings for the 2012 American Physical Society, Division of Particles and Fields (DPF2012) conference. Paper is on the US contibutions to the Belle II detector upgrade. High precision flavor physics measurements are an essential complement to the direct searches for new physics at the LHC. Such measurements will be performed using the upgraded Belle II detector and upgraded KEKB accelerator. The status of the Belle II detector and proposed role of the US Belle II collaborators are presented in this article. The B factory experiments, Belle at the KEKB collider at KEK and BaBar at the PEP II collider at SLAC, were built to measure the large mixing-induced CP violation in the B0 system predicted by the theory of Kobayashi and Maskawa. The successful confirmation of the prediction led to the Nobel Prize for both theorists. The B factories were built to answer the question Is the CKM description in the Standard Model correct? Most B factory results are in good agreement with the expectations from the Standard Model (SM) and confirm the CKM structure of quark mixing and CP violation, but some measurements show tensions with the SM prediction. The Super B factories will address the question In what way is the Standard Model wrong? Much larger datasets are needed for high-precision measurements to search for significant deviations from the SM which are expected to exist. The SuperKEKB and Belle II detector are being constructed to perform these high precision studies with a dataset 50ab-1. The SuperKEKB accelerator will operate at an instantaneous luminosity of 8 x 1035cm-2s-1, a factor of 40 times higher than the luminosity of the KEKB accelerator at the end of the Belle physics program. The increased luminosity will derive primarily from shrinking the beam size at the interaction point (nano beams) utilizing new final focus quadrapole magnets in combination with a factor of 2 increase in beam currents. To counteract the increase in the beam-beam parameter
CROWtm FIELD DEMONSTRATION WITH BELL LUMBER AND POLE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lyle A. Johnson, Jr.; L. John Fahy
2002-03-01
In 1990, efforts were initiated to implement an in-situ remediation project for the contaminated aquifer at the Bell Lumber and Pole Company (Bell Pole) site in New Brighton, Minnesota. The remediation project involves the application of the Contained Recovery of Oily Waste (CROW{trademark}) process, which consists of hot-water injection to displace and recover nonaqueous phase liquids. While reviewing the site evaluation information, it became apparent that better site characterization would enhance the outcome of the project. Additional coring indicated that the areal extent of the contaminated soils was approximately eight times greater than initially believed. Because of the uncertainties, in 1993, a pilot test was conducted that provided containment and organic recovery information that assisted in the design of the full-scale CROW process demonstration. After reviewing the cost ramifications of implementing the full-scale CROW field demonstration, Bell Pole approached Western Research Institute (WRI) with a request for a staged, sequential site remediation. Bell Pole's request for the change in the project scope was prompted by budgetary constraints. Bell Pole felt that although a longer project might be more costly, by extending the length of the project, the yearly cost burden would be more manageable. After considering several options, WRI recommended implementing a phased approach to remediate the contaminated area. Phase 1 involves a CROW process demonstration to remediate the upgradient one-third of the contaminated area, which contains the largest amount of free organic material. The Bell Pole Phase 1 CROW demonstration began in mid-1995 and was operated until January 2001. The operation of the demonstration was satisfactory, although at less than the design conditions. During the demonstration, 25,502,902 gal of hot water was injected and 83,155 gal of organics was transferred to the storage tank. During operations more than 65% of the produced
Two-party Bell inequalities derived from combinatorics via triangular elimination
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We establish a relation between the two-party Bell inequalities for two-valued measurements and a high-dimensional convex polytope called the cut polytope in polyhedral combinatorics. Using this relation, we propose a method, triangular elimination, to derive tight Bell inequalities from facets of the cut polytope. This method gives two hundred million inequivalent tight Bell inequalities from currently known results on the cut polytope. In addition, this method gives general formulae which represent families of infinitely many Bell inequalities. These results can be used to examine general properties of Bell inequalities
Entanglement versus Bell violations and their behaviour under local filtering operations
Verstraete, F; Verstraete, Frank; Wolf, Michael M.
2002-01-01
We discuss the relations between the violation of the CHSH Bell inequality for systems of two qubits on the one side and entanglement of formation, local filtering operations, and the entropy and purity on the other. We calculate the extremal Bell violations for a given amount of entanglement of formation and characterize the respective states, which turn out to have extremal properties also with respect to the entropy, purity and several entanglement monotones. The optimal local filtering operations leading to the maximal Bell violation for a given state are provided and the special role of the resulting Bell diagonal states in the context of Bell inequalities is discussed.
2011-11-04
... same type designs, this AD supersedes AD 2010-03-03 (75 FR 5681, February 4, 2010), retaining the same... airworthiness directive (AD) for Bell Model 205B and 212 helicopters with certain main rotor blade (blade... of the helicopter. Since issuing AD 2010-03-03 (75 FR 5681, February 4, 2010), we have...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dynamics of disentanglement as measured by the tripartite negativity and Bell nonlocality as measured by the extent of violation of the multipartite Bell-type inequalities are investigated in this work. It is shown definitively that for the initial three-qubit Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger (GHZ) or W class state preparation, the Bell nonlocality suffers sudden death under the influence of thermal reservoirs. Moreover, all the Bell-nonlocal states are useful for nonclassical teleportation, while there are entangled states that do not violate any Bell-type inequalities, but still yield nonclassical teleportation fidelity. - Highlights: ► Comparison of different aspects of quantum correlations. ► Robustness of the initial tripartite GHZ and W class states against decoherence. ► Bell-nonlocality sudden death under the influence of thermal reservoir. ► A nonzero minimum tripartite negativity is needed for nonclassical teleportation. ► All the Bell-nonlocal states yield nonclassical teleportation fidelity.
Intelligence, genes, and success scientists respond to the bell curve
Fienberg, Stephen; Resnick, Daniel; Roeder, Kathryn
1997-01-01
This is author-approved bcc. If it is too long, delete the last sentence in each of the biographies. THE BELL CURVE by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, a best selling book published in 1994, set off a hailstorm of controversy about the relationships among IQ, genetics, and various social outcomes, including welfare dependency, crime, and earnings. Much of the public reaction to the book was polemical and did not focus on the details of the science and in particular on the validity of the statistical arguments that underlie the books's conclusions. A detailed understanding of the arguments in THE BELL CURVE requires knowledge about (i) statistical models for genetic heritability, (ii) factor analysis, especially as it has been applied to the analysis of IQ tests, (iii) logistic regression and multiple regression analyses,and (iv) causal modelling and alternative statistical frameworks for making inference from longitudinal data. In this volume a group of statisticians and social scientists have assembled...
Sylvia Plath's The Bell Jar: a Mirror of American Fifties
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ghandeharion A.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available With its portrayal of a talented yet frustrated young American woman in the 1950s, Sylvia Plath's The Bell Jar (1963 depicts the experiences of a nineteen-year-old girl before her mental breakdown. Benefitting from a Friedanian second wave feminism, this paper aims to trace the root of disappointment and identity crisis in Plath's heroine, Esther Greenwood. It is understood that besides being a personal issue, her frustration is the outcome of sociocultural factors. The lack of role models and the contradictory messages sent by the media lead to her anxiety, disillusionment, and uncertainty. The Bell Jar proposes a solution: it is indeed possible for a woman to hold a fulfilling career and at the same time be a caring wife and a loving mother. And this is the answer Esther tries to figure out at a time when the boundaries between the domestic sphere and the outside world are clearly defined for women.
Whiteheadian approach to quantum theory and the generalized bell's theorem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The model of the world proposed by Whitehead provides a natural theoretical framework in which to imbed quantum theory. This model accords with the ontological ideas of Heisenberg, and also with Einstein's view that physical theories should refer nominally to the objective physical situation, rather than our knowledge of that system. Whitehead imposed on his model the relativistic requirement that what happens in any given spacetime region be determined only by what has happened in its absolute past, i.e., in the backward light-cone drawn from that region. This requirement must be modified, for it is inconsistent with the implications of quantum theory expressed by a generalized version of Bell's theorem. Revamping the causal spacetime structure of the Whitehead-Heisenberg ontology to bring it into accord with the generalized Bell's theorem creates the possibility of a nonlocal causal covariant theory that accords with the statistical prediction of quantum theory
Transformation rule for covariance matrices under Bell-like detections
Spedalieri, Gaetana; Pirandola, Stefano
2013-01-01
Starting from the transformation rule of a covariance matrix under homodyne detections, we can easily derive a formula for the transformation of a covariance matrix of (n+2) bosonic modes under Bell-like detections, where the last two modes are combined in an arbitrary beam splitter (i.e., with arbitrary transmissivity) and then homodyned. This formula can be specialized to describe the standard Bell detection and the heterodyne measurement, which are exploited in many contexts, including protocols of quantum teleportation, entanglement swapping and quantum cryptography. Our general formula can be adopted to study these protocols in the presence of experimental imperfections or asymmetric setups, e.g., deriving from the use of unbalanced beam splitters.
Annealing of drawing grade steel coils at bell type furnaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Low carbon steel sheets are produced up to 0.5 mm thickness at Pakistan Steel. These sheets are used for different forming operations to produce auto parts, household appliances, car bodies etc. For such application the metal must have high ductility, good forming properties and low yield strength. Hot band from 2-3 mm thickness is cold reduced up to 0.5 mm thickness at reversible cold rolling mill. Then annealed in bell type furnaces with inner height of 4.7 meters, where coils are heated up to lower critical line in controlled atmosphere of nitrogen and hydrogen. The material may fail during subsequent forming operation if the annealing regime at the bell type furnaces is not optimum. Objective of the work undertaken is to produce sheet of good shape up to 0.3 mm thickness and evaluate annealing regime to have intended forming properties. (author)
Aerogel RICH for the Belle II forward PID
Nishida, S.; Adachi, I.; Hamada, N.; Hara, K.; Iijima, T.; Iwata, S.; Kakuno, H.; Kawai, H.; Korpar, S.; Kriz^an, P.; Ogawa, S.; Pestotnik, R.; Ŝantelj, L.; Seljak, A.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Tabata, M.; Tahirovic, E.; Yoshida, K.; Yusa, Y.
2014-12-01
The Belle II spectrometer, a follow up of the very successful Belle experiment, is under construction at the SuperKEKB electron-positron collider at KEK in Japan. For the PID system in the forward region of the spectrometer, a proximity focusing ring-imaging Cherenkov (RICH) counter with an aerogel radiator is being developed. The counter will provide a 4σ separation of pions and kaons up to momenta of 4 GeV/c. For the position sensitive photon sensor, a 144-channel Hybrid Avalanche Photo-Detector (HAPD) has been developed with Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. The readout electronics is based on the custom developed ASIC. The design of the components is currently being finalized and part of their mass production have already started. Herein, we report the final design of the counter and a prototype test conducted with test beams at DESY.
Bell's palsy: data from a study of 70 cases.
Cirpaciu, D; Goanta, C M
2014-01-01
Bell's palsy is a condition that affects the facial nerve, which is one of the twelve cranial nerves. Its main function is to control all the muscles of the facial expression. It is a unilateral, acute, partial or complete paralysis of the facial nerve. Bell's palsy remains the most common cause of facial nerve paralysis, more often encountered in females aged 17 to 30 years, recurrent in many cases and with poor associations with other pathologic conditions. In modern literature, the suspected etiology could be due to the reactivation of the latent herpes viral infections in the geniculate ganglia, and their subsequent migration to the facial nerve but, favorable outcome by using vasodilators, neurotrophic and corticosteroid therapy was recorded. PMID:25870668
Stabilizing a Bell state by engineering collective photon decay
Lin, Jie; Shen, Li-Tuo; Wu, Huai-Zhi; Yang, Zhen-Biao
2016-01-01
We propose a dissipation-engineering method for generation and stabilization of a Bell state for two superconducting qubits in coupled circuit quantum electrodynamics architecture. In the scheme, the large dispersive qubit-resonator interaction and resonant photon hopping between resonators jointly induce asymmetric energy gaps in the dressed state subspaces for the qubits and the collective resonator photon modes. The target steady state is reached and protected by applying each qubit with two microwave drives, that perturbatively induce the specific dressed state transition, while simultaneously by employing the decay of the collective photon modes. Numerical simulation verifies that high-fidelity and long-lived two-qubit Bell state can be obtained (based on the recently available experimental parameters) and is robust against the potential fluctuation of the system parameters.
Quantum Mechanics: Bell and Quantum Entropy for the Classroom
Pluch, Philipp
2014-01-01
In this article we are willing to give some first steps to quantum mechanics and a motivation of quantum mechanics and its interpretation for undergraduate students not from physics. After a short historical review in the development we discuss philosophical, physical and mathematical interpretation. We define local realism, locality and hidden variable theory which ends up in the EPR paradox, a place where questions on completeness and reality comes into play. The fundamental result of the last century was maybe Bell's that states that local realism is false if quantum mechanics is true. From this fact we can obtain the so called Bell inequalities. After a didactic example of the fact what these inequalities means we describe the key concept of quantum entanglement motivated here by quantum information theory. Also classical entropy and von Neuman entropy is discussed.
Electron entanglement near a superconductor and Bell inequalities
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Thierry Martin; Chantal Lovarco
2002-08-01
Near the interface between a normal metal and a superconductor, Cooper pairs penetrate into the normal side, giving rise to the proximity effect. The two electrons of these pairs have entangled spin and orbital degrees of freedom. Nonlocal features of quantum mechanics can be probed by separating these two electrons. This is achieved with a fork geometry with two normal leads containing either spin- or energy-selective ﬁlters. A signature of entanglement can be detected by measuring the positive noise cross-correlations in this fork. In the case of energy ﬁlters, Bell-inequality checks constitute a deﬁnite probe of entanglement. We formulate Bell-type inequalities in terms of current–current cross-correlations associated with contacts with varying magnetization orientations. We ﬁnd maximal violation (as in photons) when a superconductor is the particle source.
Bell states and entanglement dynamics on two coupled quantum molecules
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oliveira, P.A.; Sanz, L., E-mail: lsanz@infis.ufu.br
2015-05-15
This work provides a complete description of entanglement properties between electrons inside coupled quantum molecules, nanoestructures which consist of two quantum dots. Each electron can tunnel between the two quantum dots inside the molecule, being also coupled by Coulomb interaction. First, it is shown that Bell states act as a natural basis for the description of this physical system, defining the characteristics of the energy spectrum and the eigenstates. Then, the entanglement properties of the eigenstates are discussed, shedding light on the roles of each physical parameters on experimental setup. Finally, a detailed analysis of the dynamics shows the path to generate states with a high degree of entanglement, as well as physical conditions associated with coherent oscillations between separable and Bell states.
Relativistic Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlation and Bell's inequality
Terashima, H; Terashima, Hiroaki; Ueda, Masahito
2003-01-01
We formulate the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) gedankenexperiment within the framework of relativistic quantum theory to analyze a situation in which measurements are performed by moving observers. We point out that under certain conditions the perfect anti-correlation of an EPR pair of spins in the same direction is deteriorated in the moving observers' frame due to the Wigner rotation, and show that the degree of the violation of Bell's inequality prima facie decreases with increasing the velocity of the observers if the directions of the measurement are fixed. However, this does not imply a breakdown of non-local correlation since the perfect anti-correlation is maintained in appropriately chosen different directions. We must take account of this relativistic effect in utilizing in moving frames the EPR correlation and the violation of Bell's inequality for quantum communication.
Bell states and entanglement dynamics on two coupled quantum molecules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This work provides a complete description of entanglement properties between electrons inside coupled quantum molecules, nanoestructures which consist of two quantum dots. Each electron can tunnel between the two quantum dots inside the molecule, being also coupled by Coulomb interaction. First, it is shown that Bell states act as a natural basis for the description of this physical system, defining the characteristics of the energy spectrum and the eigenstates. Then, the entanglement properties of the eigenstates are discussed, shedding light on the roles of each physical parameters on experimental setup. Finally, a detailed analysis of the dynamics shows the path to generate states with a high degree of entanglement, as well as physical conditions associated with coherent oscillations between separable and Bell states
The various versions of Bell's inequality: an alternative proof
Fakhri, H.; Taqavi, M.
2005-06-01
By considering uncommon factors as spacetime events that influence the spin orientations in the EPRB thought experiment, it is intended to show that one can still introduce the correlation functions. These uncommon factors are positioned inside the common lightcone of two particles. Then, Bell inequalities are proved with the preassumptions of local realism and spin conservation law in the context of a new scenario of hidden variables.
The various versions of Bell's inequality: an alternative proof
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
By considering uncommon factors as spacetime events that influence the spin orientations in the EPRB thought experiment, it is intended to show that one can still introduce the correlation functions. These uncommon factors are positioned inside the common lightcone of two particles. Then, Bell inequalities are proved with the preassumptions of local realism and spin conservation law in the context of a new scenario of hidden variables
Teleportation of entangled states without Bell-state measurement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In a recent paper [Phys. Rev. A 70, 025803 (2004)] we presented a scheme to teleport an entanglement of zero- and one-photon states from a bimodal cavity to another one, with 100% success probability. Here, inspired by recent results in the literature, we have modified our previous proposal to teleport the same entangled state without using Bell-state measurements. For comparison, the time spent, the fidelity, and the success probability for this teleportation are considered
Kinks and bell-type solitons in microtubules.
Zdravković, Slobodan; Gligorić, Goran
2016-06-01
In the present paper, we study the nonlinear dynamics of microtubules relying on the known u-model. As a mathematical procedure, we use the simplest equation method. We recover some solutions obtained earlier using less general methods. These are kink solitons. In addition, we show that the solution of the crucial differential equation, describing nonlinear dynamics of microtubules, can be a bell-type soliton. The discovery of this new solution is supported by numerical analysis. PMID:27368766
Violation of Locality Beyond Bell's Theorem for Multiparticle Perfect Correlations
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHENG Li; ZHENG Tai-Yu; WU Zhao-Yan; WAN Fan
2005-01-01
We present the analogous inequalities of Bell's inequality for N-qubit system predicted respectively by realistic theory, quantum mechanics, local theory, local realistic theory, and local quantum theory on the same Belltype joint experiment. It is shown that quantum mechanics can be interpreted by hidden-variable theories while being incompatible to any local theory. A necessary condition for the separability of N-qubit system is derived.
Data scanner system of the BELLE silicon vertex detector
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fukunaga, C. [Tokyo Metropolitan Univ. (Japan); Korhonen, T. [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland). Research Inst. of High Energy Physics; Tanaka, M.; Ikeda, H. [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Dept. of Physics
1996-02-01
A data scanner system, which is a part of the front-end data acquisition system of the BELLE silicon vertex detector, makes an analog-to-digital conversion of preamplified signals from the detector and stores digitized data into local memory. The sequence control and buffer managing are performed by a software process of an on-board CPU. With this data scanner system, the authors can achieve data taking with less than 10% dead time up to 800 Hz trigger rate.
Quantum Private Comparison Protocol Based on Bell Entangled States
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, a quantum private comparison protocol is proposed based on bell entangled states. In our protocol, two parties can compare the equality of their information with the help of a semi-honest third party. The correctness and security of our protocol are discussed. One party cannot learn the other's private information and the third party also cannot learn any information about the private information. (general)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2011-01-01
冲破大风雪，我们坐在雪橇上， 奔驰过田野，一路上欢笑。 那铃声响叮当，令人心情多欢畅。%Dashing through the snow in a one-horse open sleigh. O＇er the fields we go, laughing allthe way. Bells on bobtailring, making spirits bright.
Breakthroughs in telephone technology from Bell to smartphones
Curley, Robert
2012-01-01
In an age where near-instantaneous communication is available through all manners of portable and pocket-sized devices, it is easy to overlook the genesis of telecommunication instrumentation-the telephone. Since Alexander Graham Bell patented the first phone in the 1800s, the telephone has undergone numerous changes to its look and functionality. This detailed volume examines the development of the telephone and related technologies, including everything from the transistor to fax machines, smart phones, and VoIP technology.
Bell's Inequalities and Methods of Quantifying Measures of Entanglement Correlations
Bracken, Paul
2014-08-01
Bell inequalities provide a specific setting for investigating the physics of entanglement in quantum mechanics. They give a basis for providing an experimental realization of these kinds of quantum phenomena and exhibit some of its more unusual consequences. Some useful ways to look at entanglement quantitatively are presented. It is intended that the presentation and results will provide insights which make effective experimental observation easier.
High-Fidelity Entangled Bell States via Shortcuts to Adiabaticity
Paul, Koushik
2016-01-01
We present a couple of protocols based on shortcut to adiabaticity techniques for rapid generation of robust entangled Bell states in a system of two two-state systems. Our protocols rely on the so-called transitionless quantum driving (TQD) algorithm and Lewis-Riesenfeld invariant (LRI) method. Both TQD and LRI methods result in high fidelity in population transfer.Our study shows that it is possible to prepare an entangled state in infinitely short time without losing robustness and efficiency.
Testing Quantum Mechanics and Bell's Inequality with Astronomical Observations
Friedman, Andrew S.; Kaiser, David I.; Gallicchio, Jason; Team 1: University of Vienna, Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information; Team 2: UC San Diego Cosmology Group; Team 3: NASA/JPL/Caltech
2016-06-01
We report on an in progress "Cosmic Bell" experiment that will leverage cosmology to test quantum mechanics and Bell's inequality using astronomical observations. Different iterations of our experiment will send polarization-entangled photons through the open air to detectors ~1-100 kilometers apart, whose settings would be rapidly chosen using real-time telescopic observations of Milky Way stars, and eventually distant, causally disconnected, cosmological sources - such as pairs of quasars or patches of the cosmic microwave background - all while the entangled pair is still in flight. This would, for the first time, attempt to fully close the so-called "setting independence" or "free will" loophole in experimental tests of Bell's inequality, whereby an alternative theory could mimic the quantum predictions if the experimental settings choices shared even a small correlation with unknown, local, causal influences a mere few milliseconds prior to the experiment. A full Cosmic Bell test would push any such influence all the way back to the hot big bang, since the end of any period of inflation, 13.8 billion years ago, an improvement of 20 orders of magnitude compared to the best previous experiments. Redshift z > 3.65 quasars observed at optical wavelengths are the optimal candidate source pairs using present technology. Our experiment is partially funded by the NSF INSPIRE program, in collaboration with MIT, UC San Diego, Harvey Mudd College, NASA/JPL/Caltech, and the University of Vienna. Such an experiment has implications for our understanding of nature at the deepest level. By testing quantum mechanics in a regime never before explored, we would at the very least extend our confidence in quantum theory, while at the same time severely constraining large classes of alternative theories. If the experiment were to uncover discrepancies from the quantum predictions, there could be crucial implications for early-universe cosmology, the security of quantum encryption
Race, Children's Cognitive Achievement and The Bell Curve
Janet Currie; Duncan Thomas
1995-01-01
In The Bell Curve, Herrnstein and Murray demonstrate that a mother's score on the Armed Forces Qualification Test is a powerful predictor of her child's score on a cognitive achievement test. We replicate this finding. However, even after controlling for maternal scores, there are significant gaps in the scores of black and white children which suggests that maternal scores are not all that matter. In fact, both maternal education and income are important determinants of child test scores, co...
Bell's Phenomenon during Screening Examination for Retinopathy of Prematurity
Lee, Ji Eun; Park, Jun Mo; Choi, Hee Young; Oum, Boo Sup
2012-01-01
Purpose Bell's phenomenon (BP), which may disturb screening examinations for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), is known to present infrequently in premature babies. Stress associated with the examinations can influence expression of BP. The authors of the present study evaluated BP during examinations for ROP. Methods The present study included 102 eyes of 51 premature babies. Expression of BP was assessed at 3 steps of the examination in the following order: after insertion of a speculum, af...
Kinks and bell-type solitons in microtubules
Zdravković, Slobodan; Gligorić, Goran
2016-06-01
In the present paper, we study the nonlinear dynamics of microtubules relying on the known u-model. As a mathematical procedure, we use the simplest equation method. We recover some solutions obtained earlier using less general methods. These are kink solitons. In addition, we show that the solution of the crucial differential equation, describing nonlinear dynamics of microtubules, can be a bell-type soliton. The discovery of this new solution is supported by numerical analysis.
Charmless $B_s^0$ decays at Belle
Pal, Bilas
2016-01-01
We report on recent results on charmless hadronic and radiative rare $B_s^0$ decays, based on the data collected by the Belle experiment at the KEKB $e^+e^-$ collider. These include the studies of $B_s^0\\rightarrow K^0\\bar{K^0}$, $B_s^0\\rightarrow\\phi\\gamma$ and $B_s^0\\rightarrow\\gamma\\gamma$.
Special matrices of mathematical physics stochastic, circulant and Bell matrices
Aldrovandi, R
2001-01-01
This book expounds three special kinds of matrices that are of physical interest, centering on physical examples. Stochastic matrices describe dynamical systems of many different types, involving (or not) phenomena like transience, dissipation, ergodicity, nonequilibrium, and hypersensitivity to initial conditions. The main characteristic is growth by agglomeration, as in glass formation. Circulants are the building blocks of elementary Fourier analysis and provide a natural gateway to quantum mechanics and noncommutative geometry. Bell polynomials offer closed expressions for many formulas co
Anomalous Postselection in the Hensen et al. Bell Test
Graft, Donald A.
2016-01-01
It is shown that the data of the Hensen et al. Bell test experiment exhibits anomalous postselection that can fully account for the apparent violation of the CHSH inequality. A simulation of a local realist model implementing similar postselection is presented. The model produces an apparent violation of CHSH indistinguishable from that of the experiment. The experimental data also appears to violate no-signaling, and it is shown how postselection can produce an artifactual violation of no-si...
Disproof of Bell's Theorem by Clifford Algebra Valued Local Variables
Christian, Joy
2007-01-01
It is shown that Bell's theorem fails for the Clifford algebra valued local realistic variables. This is made evident by exactly reproducing quantum mechanical expectation value for the EPR-Bohm type spin correlations observable by means of a local, deterministic, Clifford algebra valued variable, without necessitating either remote contextuality or backward causation. Since Clifford product of multivector variables is non-commutative in general, the spin correlations derived within our local...
Bell's inequality and the coincidence-time loophole
Larssons, JA; Gill, RD Richard
2003-01-01
This paper analyzes effects of time-dependence in the Bell inequality. A generalized inequality is derived for the case when coincidence and non-coincidence [and hence whether or not a pair contributes to the actual data] is controlled by timing that depends on the detector settings. Needless to say, this inequality is violated by quantum mechanics and could be violated by experimental data provided that the loss of measurement pairs through failure of coincidence is small enough, but the qua...
The Pal-Mogilner-Zolotukhin-Bell-Babala (PMZBB) profile
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Important recent investigation by Routti, Szeless and Ruby allow a vast and systematic study to be performed on the nature of the Mogilner-Zolotukhin-Bell-Babal (PMZBB) profile. The calculation of the n-th order derivative of a composite function and, in particular, the probability distribution profile from the PMZBB generating function are examined. An extensive set of numerical results is given in a specifically detailed form
Preparations for tracking with the Belle II detector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The current b-factories do not exhaust the possibilities to learn from the decay of B mesons, as many studies are still limited by statistics. To remedy this situation the KEKB ring will be upgraded to hundredfold its luminosity. Together with the new detector, this increase in luminosity requires new reconstruction software, especially a new charged particle tracking. In this talk we present the first studies of the tracking effort of the Belle II collaboration.
Remote atomic information concentration without Bell-state measurement
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wu Zhen-Zhen; Fang Mao-Fa
2006-01-01
This paper proposes a scheme for information concentration of two remote two-level atoms in cavity QED. This scheme does not involve the Bell-state measurement. During the interaction between atom and cavity, the cavity frequency is large-detuned from the atomic transition frequency, thus the scheme is insensitive to both the cavity decay and the thermal field. This idea can directly be generalized in the case of multi-atom information concentration.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In order to avoid the risk of information leakage during the information mutual transmission between two authorized participants, i.e. Alice and Bob, a quantum dialogue protocol based on the entanglement swapping between any two Bell states and the shared secret Bell state is proposed. The proposed protocol integrates the ideas of block transmission, two-step transmission and unitary operation encoding together using the Bell states as the information carriers. Besides the entanglement swapping between any two Bell states, a shared secret Bell state is also used to overcome the information leakage problem, which not only makes Bob aware of the prepared initial state but also is used for Bob's encoding and entanglement swapping. Security analysis shows that the proposed protocol can resist the general active attacks from an outside eavesdropper Eve. Moreover, the relation between the maximal amount of information Eve can gain and the detection probability is derived. (paper)
Silicon micro-vertex detector for Belle II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Belle experiment at the KEK B-factory is Japan provided the landmark experimental confirmation of CP violation mechanism within the standard model that led to the physics Nobel prize in 2008. In its second phase, called Belle II, it would seek for the holy-grail of new physics using rare decays of B and D mesons and tau leptons as a probe, in complimentary to the direct searches carried out with the LHC experiments. An important component of this upgrade is to replace the innermost subdetector, namely the silicon micro-vertex detector (SVD). The new SVD will, like the old one, consist of four layers of double-sided silicon strip detector, but made from 6âĂİ wafers and located at higher radii as a novel, two-layer DEPFET pixel detector will be inserted very dose to the beam- pipe. Starting with the physics motivation, we discuss the design concept, fabrication and the Indian contributions toward the Belle II SVD. (author)
Aerogel RICH for the Belle II forward PID
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nishida, S., E-mail: shohei.nishida@kek.jp [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Adachi, I. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Hamada, N. [Toho University, Funabashi (Japan); Hara, K. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Iijima, T. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Iwata, S.; Kakuno, H. [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji (Japan); Kawai, H. [Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Korpar, S.; Krizan, P. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Ogawa, S. [Toho University, Funabashi (Japan); Pestotnik, R.; Ŝantelj, L.; Seljak, A. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Sumiyoshi, T. [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji (Japan); Tabata, M. [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Sagamihara (Japan); Tahirovic, E. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Yoshida, K. [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji (Japan); Yusa, Y. [Niigata University, Niigata (Japan)
2014-12-01
The Belle II spectrometer, a follow up of the very successful Belle experiment, is under construction at the SuperKEKB electron–positron collider at KEK in Japan. For the PID system in the forward region of the spectrometer, a proximity focusing ring-imaging Cherenkov (RICH) counter with an aerogel radiator is being developed. The counter will provide a 4σ separation of pions and kaons up to momenta of 4 GeV/c. For the position sensitive photon sensor, a 144-channel Hybrid Avalanche Photo-Detector (HAPD) has been developed with Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. The readout electronics is based on the custom developed ASIC. The design of the components is currently being finalized and part of their mass production have already started. Herein, we report the final design of the counter and a prototype test conducted with test beams at DESY. - Highlights: • We are constructing a RICH counter with aerogel radiator for Belle II. • Beam test for the prototype Aerogel RICH shows its good performance. • The effect of the neutron irradiation of the photodetector is examined.
Bell states within the linewidth of SPDC and applications
Genovese, M.; Brida, G.; Caricato, V.; Chekhova, M. V.; Gramegna, M.; Krivitsky, L.; Meda, A.; Predazzi, E.; Traina, P.
2007-09-01
In this paper we review our recent works on the generation of different Bell states within the lineshape of parametric down-conversion (SPDC) and their possible applications. Indeed, for polarization-entangled two-photon states produced via SPDC, the frequency-angular lineshape allowed by phase matching is considered. It is shown that there are always different Bell states generated for different mismatch values within the natural bandwidth. Consideration is made for two different methods of polarization entanglement preparation, based on type-II SPDC and on SPDC in two type-I crystals producing orthogonally polarized photon pairs. Different Bell states can be filtered out by either frequency selection or angular selection, or both. Our theoretical calculations are confirmed by a series of experiments, performed for the two above-mentioned ways of producing polarization-entangled photon pairs and with two kinds of measurements: frequency-selective and angular-selective. Finally, we mention possible application to quantum communication with fibers.
Laser Phototherapy As Modality of Clinical Treatment in Bell's Palsy
Marques, A. M. C.; Soares, L. G. P.; Marques, R. C.; Pinheiro, A. L. B.; Dent, M.
2011-08-01
Bell's palsy is defined as a peripheral facial nerve palsy, idiophatic, and sudden onset and is considered the most common cause of this pathology. It is caused by damage to cranial nerves VII, resulting in complete or partial paralysis of the facial mimic. May be associated with taste disturbances, salivation, tearing and hyperacusis. It is diagnosed after ruling out all possible etiologies, because its cause is not fully understood.Some researches shows that herpes virus may cause this type of palsy due to reactivation of the virus or by imunnomediated post-viral nerve demielinization. Physical therapy, corticosteroids and antiviral therapy have become the most widely accepted treatments for Bell's palsy. Therapy with low-level laser (LLLT) may induce the metabolism of injured nerve tissue for the production of proteins associated with its growth and to improve nerve regeneration. The success of the treatment of Bell's palsy by using laser phototherapy isolated or in association with other therapeutic approach has been reported on the literature. In most cases, the recovery occurs without uneventfully (complications), the acute illness is not associated with serious disorders. We will present a clinical approach for treating this condition.
Near-Optimal and Explicit Bell Inequality Violations
Buhrman, Harry; Scarpa, Giannicola; de Wolf, Ronald
2010-01-01
Bell inequality violations correspond to behavior of entangled quantum systems that cannot be simulated classically. We give two new two-player games with Bell inequality violations that are stronger, fully explicit, and arguably simpler than earlier work. The first game is based on the Hidden Matching problem of quantum communication complexity, introduced by Bar-Yossef, Jayram, and Kerenidis. This game can be won with probability~1 by a quantum strategy using a maximally entangled state with local dimension $n$ (e.g., $\\log n$ EPR-pairs), while we show that the winning probability of any classical strategy differs from 1/2 by at most $O(\\log n/\\sqrt{n})$. The second game is based on the integrality gap for Unique Games by Khot and Vishnoi and the quantum rounding procedure of Kempe, Regev, and Toner. Here $n$-dimensional entanglement allows to win the game with probability $1/(\\log n)^2$, while the best winning probability without entanglement is $1/n$. This near-linear ratio ("Bell inequality violation") i...
A $z$-Vertex Trigger for Belle II
Skambraks, Sebastian; Chen, Yang; Feindt, Michael; Frühwirth, Rudolf; Heck, Martin; Kiesling, Christian; Knoll, Alois; Neuhaus, Sara; Paul, Stephan; Schieck, Jochen
2014-01-01
The Belle II experiment will go into operation at the upgraded SuperKEKB collider in 2016. SuperKEKB is designed to deliver an instantaneous luminosity $\\mathcal{L}=8\\times10^{35}\\,\\mathrm{cm}^{-2}\\,\\mathrm{s}^{-1}$. The experiment will therefore have to cope with a much larger machine background than its predecessor Belle, in particular from events outside of the interaction region. We present the concept of a track trigger, based on a neural network approach, that is able to suppress a large fraction of this background by reconstructing the $z$ (longitudinal) position of the event vertex within the latency of the first level trigger. The trigger uses the hit information from the Central Drift Chamber (CDC) of Belle II within narrow cones in polar and azimuthal angle as well as in transverse momentum ("sectors"), and estimates the $z$-vertex without explicit track reconstruction. The preprocessing for the track trigger is based on the track information provided by the standard CDC trigger. It takes input fro...
Error Model and Compensation of Bell-Shaped Vibratory Gyro
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhong Su
2015-09-01
Full Text Available A bell-shaped vibratory angular velocity gyro (BVG, inspired by the Chinese traditional bell, is a type of axisymmetric shell resonator gyroscope. This paper focuses on development of an error model and compensation of the BVG. A dynamic equation is firstly established, based on a study of the BVG working mechanism. This equation is then used to evaluate the relationship between the angular rate output signal and bell-shaped resonator character, analyze the influence of the main error sources and set up an error model for the BVG. The error sources are classified from the error propagation characteristics, and the compensation method is presented based on the error model. Finally, using the error model and compensation method, the BVG is calibrated experimentally including rough compensation, temperature and bias compensation, scale factor compensation and noise filter. The experimentally obtained bias instability is from 20.5°/h to 4.7°/h, the random walk is from 2.8°/h1/2 to 0.7°/h1/2 and the nonlinearity is from 0.2% to 0.03%. Based on the error compensation, it is shown that there is a good linear relationship between the sensing signal and the angular velocity, suggesting that the BVG is a good candidate for the field of low and medium rotational speed measurement.
Experimental violation of Bell inequalities for multi-dimensional systems.
Lo, Hsin-Pin; Li, Che-Ming; Yabushita, Atsushi; Chen, Yueh-Nan; Luo, Chih-Wei; Kobayashi, Takayoshi
2016-01-01
Quantum correlations between spatially separated parts of a d-dimensional bipartite system (d ≥ 2) have no classical analog. Such correlations, also called entanglements, are not only conceptually important, but also have a profound impact on information science. In theory the violation of Bell inequalities based on local realistic theories for d-dimensional systems provides evidence of quantum nonlocality. Experimental verification is required to confirm whether a quantum system of extremely large dimension can possess this feature, however it has never been performed for large dimension. Here, we report that Bell inequalities are experimentally violated for bipartite quantum systems of dimensionality d = 16 with the usual ensembles of polarization-entangled photon pairs. We also estimate that our entanglement source violates Bell inequalities for extremely high dimensionality of d > 4000. The designed scenario offers a possible new method to investigate the entanglement of multipartite systems of large dimensionality and their application in quantum information processing. PMID:26917246
Quantum nonlocality, Bell inequalities, and the memory loophole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the analysis of experiments designed to reveal violation of Bell-type inequalities, it is usually assumed that any hidden variables associated with the nth particle pair would be independent of measurement choices and outcomes for the first (n-1) pairs. Models which violate this assumption exploit what we call the memory loophole. We focus on the strongest type of violation, which uses the two-sided memory loophole, in which the hidden variables for pair n can depend on the previous measurement choices and outcomes in both wings of the experiment. We show that the two-sided memory loophole allows a systematic violation of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality when the data are analyzed in the standard way, but cannot produce a violation if a CHSH expression depending linearly on the data is used. In the first case, the maximal CHSH violation becomes small as the number of particle pairs tested becomes large. Hence, although in principle the memory loophole implies a slight flaw in the existing analyses of Bell experiments, the data still strongly confirm quantum mechanics against local hidden variables. We consider also a related loophole, the simultaneous measurement loophole, which applies if all measurements on each side are carried out simultaneously. We show that this can increase the probability of violating the linearized CHSH inequality as well as other Bell-type inequalities
NMR analog of Bell's inequalities violation test
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Souza, A M; Oliveira, I S; Sarthour, R S [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas FIsicas, Rua Dr Xavier Sigaud 150, Rio de Janeiro 22290-180, RJ (Brazil); Magalhaes, A; Teles, J; Azevedo, E R de; Bonagamba, T J [Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, PO Box 369, Sao Carlos 13560-970, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: amsouza@cbpf.br
2008-03-15
In this paper, we present an analog of Bell's inequalities violation test for N qubits to be performed in a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) quantum computer. This can be used to simulate or predict the results for different Bell's inequality tests, with distinct configurations and a larger number of qubits. To demonstrate our scheme, we implemented a simulation of the violation of the Clauser, Horne, Shimony and Holt (CHSH) inequality using a two-qubit NMR system and compared the results to those of a photon experiment. The experimental results are well described by the quantum mechanics theory and a local realistic hidden variables model (LRHVM) that was specifically developed for NMR. That is why we refer to this experiment as a simulation of Bell's inequality violation. Our result shows explicitly how the two theories can be compatible with each other due to the detection loophole. In the last part of this work, we discuss the possibility of testing some fundamental features of quantum mechanics using NMR with highly polarized spins, where a strong discrepancy between quantum mechanics and hidden variables models can be expected.
Revealing Bell's nonlocality for unstable systems in high energy physics
Hiesmayr, Beatrix C.; Di Domenico, Antonio; Curceanu, Catalina; Gabriel, Andreas; Huber, Marcus; Larsson, Jan-Åke; Moskal, Pawel
2012-01-01
Entanglement and its consequences—in particular the violation of Bell inequalities, which defies our concepts of realism and locality—have been proven to play key roles in Nature by many experiments for various quantum systems. Entanglement can also be found in systems not consisting of ordinary matter and light, i.e. in massive meson-antimeson systems. Bell inequalities have been discussed for these systems, but up to date no direct experimental test to conclusively exclude local realism was found. This mainly stems from the fact that one only has access to a restricted class of observables and that these systems are also decaying. In this Letter we put forward a Bell inequality for unstable systems which can be tested at accelerator facilities with current technology. Herewith, the long awaited proof that such systems at different energy scales can reveal the sophisticated " dynamical" nonlocal feature of Nature in a direct experiment gets feasible. Moreover, the role of entanglement and mathcal{CP} violation, an asymmetry between matter and antimatter, is explored, a special feature offered only by these meson-antimeson systems.
Aerogel RICH for the Belle II forward PID
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Belle II spectrometer, a follow up of the very successful Belle experiment, is under construction at the SuperKEKB electron–positron collider at KEK in Japan. For the PID system in the forward region of the spectrometer, a proximity focusing ring-imaging Cherenkov (RICH) counter with an aerogel radiator is being developed. The counter will provide a 4σ separation of pions and kaons up to momenta of 4 GeV/c. For the position sensitive photon sensor, a 144-channel Hybrid Avalanche Photo-Detector (HAPD) has been developed with Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. The readout electronics is based on the custom developed ASIC. The design of the components is currently being finalized and part of their mass production have already started. Herein, we report the final design of the counter and a prototype test conducted with test beams at DESY. - Highlights: • We are constructing a RICH counter with aerogel radiator for Belle II. • Beam test for the prototype Aerogel RICH shows its good performance. • The effect of the neutron irradiation of the photodetector is examined
Experimenter's freedom in Bell's theorem and quantum cryptography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bell's theorem states that no local realistic explanation of quantum mechanical predictions is possible, in which the experimenter has a freedom to choose between different measurement settings. Within a local realistic picture the violation of Bell's inequalities can only be understood if this freedom is denied. We determine the minimal degree to which the experimenter's freedom has to be abandoned, if one wants to keep such a picture and be in agreement with the experiment. Furthermore, the freedom in choosing experimental arrangements may be considered as a resource, since its lacking can be used by an eavesdropper to harm the security of quantum communication. We analyze the security of quantum key distribution as a function of the (partial) knowledge the eavesdropper has about the future choices of measurement settings which are made by the authorized parties (e.g., on the basis of some quasi-random generator). We show that the equivalence between the violation of Bell's inequality and the efficient extraction of a secure key -which exists for the case of complete freedom (no setting knowledge) - is lost unless one adapts the bound of the inequality according to this lack of freedom
Detection of Electrophysiology in Patients with Bell's Palsy%Bell's麻痹患者的电生理检测
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陶细姣; 古美华; 丁丽
2003-01-01
目的:探讨Bell's麻痹患者进行瞬目反射(BR)、面神经电图(ENG)、面肌肌电图(EMG)检测的意义.方法:60例Bell's麻痹患者进行BR检测,同时进行ENG、EMG测定.结果:患侧R1、R2及R2'缺如者35例,其余25例患侧较健侧R1、R2及R2'波潜伏期延长,异常率100%.患侧面神经运动传导潜伏期延长、波幅降低,与健侧比较差异有显著性(P<0.05),早期异常率为25%.根据R1/M潜伏期比值测定结果提示,37例表现为近段(茎乳孔内段)损害,4例为远段(茎乳孔外段)损害,19例为较大范围损害.结论:BR测定是诊断Bell's麻痹的敏感指标,采用BR、ENG及EMG综合检测Bell's麻痹患者,可全面、客观地评价面神经损害的程度及部位,对临床治疗及预后估计有一定的帮助.
On the Analysis of Bell's 1964 Paper by Wiseman, Cavalcanti, and Rieffel
Gillis, Edward J
2015-01-01
In a recent series of papers Wiseman, Cavalcanti, and Rieffel have outlined and contrasted the operationalist and realist views about what we now call Bell's theorem. They also assert that Bell presented these two different versions at different times. A careful examination of the historic 1964 paper and of the writings of Bell and others that preceded it shows clearly that their interpretation of that paper is incorrect.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HaoZhongwei
2004-01-01
At the invitation of the Council of French MidPyrénées Region and the Institute of the European Bell Art(IEBA), CPAFFC President Chen Haosu led a delegation to visit Toulouse City, capital of Mid-Pyrénées Region from July 8 to 10, and attended the inauguration of the Chinese Bell Art Exhibition and the unveiling ceremony of the ChinaFrance Friendship Bell.
Is the contextuality loophole fatal for the derivation of Bell Inequalities?
Nieuwenhuizen, T.M.
2011-01-01
It is explained on a physical basis how absence of contextuality allows Bell inequalities to be violated, without bringing an implication on locality or realism. Hereto we connect first to the local realistic theory Stochastic Electrodynamics, and then put the argument more broadly. Thus even if Bell Inequality Violation is demonstrated beyond reasonable doubt, it will have no say on local realism, because absence of contextuality prevents the Bell inequalities to be derived from local realis...
Readout ASIC and electronics for the 144ch HAPD for Aerogel RICH at Belle II
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kakuno, H., E-mail: kakuno@phys.se.tmu.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji (Japan); Adachi, I. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Ikeda, H. [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Sagamihara (Japan); Ikeno, M. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Iwata, S. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji (Japan); Korpar, S.; Križan, P. [Experimental High Energy Physics Department, Joseph Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Nishida, S. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Pestotnik, R.; Seljak, A. [Experimental High Energy Physics Department, Joseph Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Shoji, M. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Sumiyoshi, T. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji (Japan); Tanaka, M.; Uchida, T. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Yoshida, K. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji (Japan)
2014-12-01
At the Belle II experiment, Aerogel RICH is used as the particle identification device that covers the forward end-cap part of the Belle II detector. We develop the readout system of Hybrid Avalanche Photo Detectors that are used as the photon sensors of the Aerogel RICH. We present overview of the readout system, and report the status of the mass production toward the Belle II experiment.
Generation of Bell states in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhang Guo-Feng; Yin Wen; Liang Jiu-Qing; Yan Qi-Wei
2004-01-01
We examine analytically the generation of Bell state in Bose condensates of two interacting species trapped in a double well configuration. The density of probability for finding the entangled Bell state is given. The effect of the tunnelling rate and the interspecies interaction strength on the generation of Bell state is discussed. We find that the oscillation amplitude of the density of probability for finding the entangled Bell state becomes greater as the tunnelling rate Ω increases, and the self-interaction strength of the component A(B) has no effect on it.
Aita-Holmes, Cynthia; Liacouras, Peter; Wilson, William O; Grant, Gerald T
2015-08-01
An extraoral device was fabricated to assist a clarinet player with Bell's palsy. The device was fabricated by using stereophotogrammetry, digital design, and additive manufacturing technologies. PMID:25985740
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The last of Hanfordqaodmasdkwaspemas7ajkqlsmdqpakldnzsdflss nine plutonium production reactors to be built was the N Reactor.This reactor was called a dual purpose...
Geometric decompositions of Bell polytopes with practical applications
Bierhorst, Peter
2016-05-01
In the well-studied (2,2,2) Bell experiment consisting of two parties, two measurement settings per party, and two possible outcomes per setting, it is known that if the experiment obeys no-signaling constraints, then the set of admissible experimental probability distributions is fully characterized as the convex hull of 24 distributions: eight Popescu–Rohrlich (PR) boxes and 16 local deterministic distributions. Furthermore, it turns out that in the (2,2,2) case, any nonlocal nonsignaling distribution can always be uniquely expressed as a convex combination of exactly one PR box and (up to) eight local deterministic distributions. In this representation each PR box will always occur only with a fixed set of eight local deterministic distributions with which it is affiliated. In this paper, we derive multiple practical applications of this result: we demonstrate an analytical proof that the minimum detection efficiency for which nonlocality can be observed is η \\gt 2/3 even for theories constrained only by the no-signaling principle, and we develop new algorithms that speed the calculation of important statistical functions of Bell test data. Finally, we enumerate the vertices of the no-signaling polytope for the (2,n,2) ‘chained Bell’ scenario and find that similar decomposition results are possible in this general case. Here, our results allow us to prove the optimality of a bound, derived in Barrett et al (2006 Phys. Rev. Lett. 97 170409), on the proportion of local theories in a local/nonlocal mixture that can be inferred from the experimental violation of a chained Bell inequality.
The data acquisition system of the Belle II Pixel Detector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
At the future Belle II experiment the DEPFET (DEPleted Field Effect Transistor) pixel detector will consist of about 8 million channels and is placed as the innermost detector. Because of its small distance to the interaction region and the high luminosity in Belle II, for a trigger rate of about 30 kHz with an estimated occupancy of about 3 % a data rate of about 22 GB/s is expected. Due to the high data rate, a data reduction factor higher than 30 is needed in order to stay inside the specifications of the event builder. The main hardware to reduce the data rate is a xTCA based Compute Node (CN) developed in cooperation between IHEP Beijing and University Giessen. Each node has as main component a Xilinx Virtex-5 FX70T FPGA and is equipped with 2 × 2 GB RAM , GBit Ethernet and 4 × 6.25 Gb/s optical links. An ATCA carrier board is able to hold up to four CN and supplies high bandwidth connections between the four CNs and to the ATCA backplane. To achieve the required data reduction on the CNs, regions of interest (ROI) are used. These regions are calculated in two independent systems by projecting tracks back to the pixel detector. One is the High Level Trigger (HLT) which uses data from the Silicon Vertex Detector (SVD), a silicon strip detector, and outer detectors. The other is the Data Concentrator (DATCON) which calculates ROIs based on SVD data only, in order to get low momentum tracks. With this information, only PXD data inside these ROIs will be forwarded to the event builder, while data outside of these regions will be discarded. First results of the test beam time in January 2014 at DESY with a Belle II vertex detector prototype and full DAQ chain will be presented
Perspectives on Industrial Innovation from Agilent, HP, and Bell Labs
Hollenhorst, James
2014-03-01
Innovation is the life blood of technology companies. I will give perspectives gleaned from a career in research and development at Bell Labs, HP Labs, and Agilent Labs, from the point of view of an individual contributor and a manager. Physicists bring a unique set of skills to the corporate environment, including a desire to understand the fundamentals, a solid foundation in physical principles, expertise in applied mathematics, and most importantly, an attitude: namely, that hard problems can be solved by breaking them into manageable pieces. In my experience, hiring managers in industry seldom explicitly search for physicists, but they want people with those skills.
A secure quantum group signature scheme based on Bell states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, we propose a new secure quantum group signature with Bell states, which may have applications in e-payment system, e-government, e-business, etc. Compared with the recent quantum group signature protocols, our scheme is focused on the most general situation in practice, i.e. only the arbitrator is trusted and no intermediate information needs to be stored in the signing phase to ensure the security. Furthermore, our scheme has achieved all the characteristics of group signature—anonymity, verifiability, traceability, unforgetability and undeniability, by using some current developed quantum and classical technologies. Finally, a feasible security analysis model for quantum group signature is presented. (paper)
John S. Bell on the foundations of quantum mechanics
Bell, John S; Gottfried, Kurt; Veltman, Martinus J G
2001-01-01
This book is the most complete collection of John S Bell's research papers, review articles and lecture notes on the foundations of quantum mechanics. Some of this material has hitherto been difficult to access. The book also appears in a paperback edition, aimed at students and young researchers. This volume will be very useful to researchers in the foundations and applications of quantum mechanics. Contents: (1) On the Problem of Hidden Variables in Quantum Mechanics; (2) On the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Paradox; (3) The Moral Aspect of Quantum Mechanics; (4) Introduction to the Hidden-Variabl
Holographic study of a vibrating bell: An undergraduate laboratory experiment
Menou, Kristen; Audit, Benjamin; Boutillon, Xavier; Vach, Holger
1998-05-01
An experiment combining holography and musical acoustics is described. Structures of vibration modes of a bell are visualized by time-average holography under either acoustical or mechanical excitation. The vibration amplitude as measured by an accelerometer shows very good quantitative agreement with that determined from our holograms by fringe counting. An effect of degenerate level separation is shown in the mechanical case. It is argued that this experiment is not only very inexpensive for a physics laboratory already equipped for holography, but that it also strongly stimulates students to deepen their insight into a variety of different topics in applied physics.
Enhanced arbitrated quantum signature scheme using Bell states
Wang, Chao; Liu, Jian-Wei; Shang, Tao
2014-06-01
We investigate the existing arbitrated quantum signature schemes as well as their cryptanalysis, including intercept-resend attack and denial-of-service attack. By exploring the loopholes of these schemes, a malicious signatory may successfully disavow signed messages, or the receiver may actively negate the signature from the signatory without being detected. By modifying the existing schemes, we develop counter-measures to these attacks using Bell states. The newly proposed scheme puts forward the security of arbitrated quantum signature. Furthermore, several valuable topics are also presented for further research of the quantum signature scheme.
Job monitoring on DIRAC for Belle II distributed computing
Kato, Yuji; Hayasaka, Kiyoshi; Hara, Takanori; Miyake, Hideki; Ueda, Ikuo
2015-12-01
We developed a monitoring system for Belle II distributed computing, which consists of active and passive methods. In this paper we describe the passive monitoring system, where information stored in the DIRAC database is processed and visualized. We divide the DIRAC workload management flow into steps and store characteristic variables which indicate issues. These variables are chosen carefully based on our experiences, then visualized. As a result, we are able to effectively detect issues. Finally, we discuss the future development for automating log analysis, notification of issues, and disabling problematic sites.
Two photon couplings of the lightest isoscalars from BELLE data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ling-Yun Dai
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Amplitude Analysis of two photon production of ππ and K¯K, using S-matrix constraints and fitting all available data, including the latest precision results from Belle, yields a single partial wave solution up to 1.4 GeV. The two photon couplings of the σ/f0(500, f0(980 and f2(1270 are determined from the residues of the resonance poles. These amplitudes are a key input into the newly developed dispersive approach to calculating hadronic light-by-light scattering for (g−2 of the muon.
Radiation hardness studies for DEPFETs in Belle II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The study of CP violation requires dedicated detectors and accelerators. At KEK, the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization located in Tsukuba, Japan, an upgrade of the present accelerator KEKB and its detector is in progress. For this new Belle II detector, a new vertex system will be installed, consisting of a silicon strip detector (SVD) and a pixel detector (PXD). The PXD exhibits eight million pixels, each of them made of Depleted p-channel Field Effect Transistors (DEPFETs). During the operation of Belle II various machine- as well as luminosity-related background processes affect the device performance of the DEPFET through radiation damage. As a Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS) device, the DEPFET is affected by ionizing radiation damage as well as by damages to the silicon bulk itself. The major part of the radiation damage has its origin in the creation of electrons and positrons near the interaction point. Therefore, the hardness factor of electrons of relevant energy was investigated in this work. With this quantity the damage by electrons could be compared to the damage inflicted by neutrons. Neutron irradiations were performed with DEPFETs and related silicon material. The effects of leakage current increase and type inversion were studied. As the electron hardness investigation indicates, the bulk damage done to the DEPFET is small in comparison to the impact on the silicon dioxide layer of the device. Ionizing radiation results in a build-up of oxide charge, thus changing the device characteristics. Especially the threshold voltage of the DEPFET is shifted to more negative values. This shift has to be compensated during the operation of Belle II and is limited by device and system constraints, thus an overall small shift is desired. The changes in the device characteristics were investigated for the two gate electrodes of the DEPFET with respect to their biasing and production related issues. With an additional layer of silicon nitride and a
TOP counter for particle identification at the Belle II experiment
Inami, Kenji
2014-12-01
Ring imaging Cherenkov counter, named TOP counter, utilizing precise photon detection timing has been developed as a particle identification detector for the Belle II experiment. The real size prototype has been produced and tested with 2 GeV positrons at Spring-8 LEPS beam line. The quartz radiator production and assembling with microchannel plate photomultipliers was successfully carried out. The beam test data shows good agreement with full Monte-Carlo simulation results in the ring image and the distribution of number of detected photons and timing information.
Quantum nonlocality, Bell inequalities and the memory loophole
Barrett, Jonathan; Collins, Daniel; Hardy, Lucien; Kent, Adrian; Popescu, Sandu
2002-01-01
In the analysis of experiments designed to reveal violation of Bell-type inequalities, it is usually assumed that any hidden variables associated with the nth particle pair would be independent of measurement choices and outcomes for the first $(n-1)$ pairs. Models which violate this assumption exploit what we call the {\\it memory loophole}. We focus on the strongest type of violation, which uses the {\\it 2-sided} memory loophole, in which the hidden variables for pair $n$ can depend on the p...
Violations of multisetting quaternion and octonion Bell inequalities
Kiesewetter, S.; Drummond, P. D.; Reid, M. D.
2015-09-01
We examine the N -partite quaternion and octonion dichotomic Bell inequalities derived by Vogel and Shchukin utilizing the square identities of Euler and Degen, which apply to experiments with M settings at each spatially separated site. We reveal these inequalities to be violated by the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state, for N ≥3 and 2 ≤M ≤8 . Violations are robust with respect to loss, the threshold detection efficiency being η >22/N -1 for all M , implying violations for efficiencies as low as η ˜50 % at each site, as N →∞ .
Ye, Tian-Yu
2015-04-01
In this paper, using the quantum entanglement swapping technologies under the collective-dephasing noise and the collective-rotation noise, two robust quantum dialogue protocols are proposed, respectively. The logical Bell states are used as the traveling states to combat the collective noise. The auxiliary logical Bell state is shared privately between two participants through the manner of direct transmission first. After encoded with the receiver's secret messages, it swaps entanglement with its adjacent logical Bell state. In this way, the information leakage problem is avoided. Moreover, Eve's active attacks can be detected with the help of decoy photon technology. For decoding, the Bell state measurements rather than the four-qubit joint measurements are needed.
Advances in diagnosis and non-surgical treatment of Bell's palsy
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yang Zhao; Guodong Feng; Zhiqiang Gao
2015-01-01
Bell's palsy is a commonly seen cranial nerve disease and can result in compromised facial appearance and functions. Its etiology, prognosis and treatment are still being debated. This paper is a review of recent development in the understanding of etiology, diagnosis and non-surgical treatment of Bell's palsy.
78 FR 44928 - Approval of Subzone Status; Easton-Bell Sports, Inc.; Rantoul, Illinois
2013-07-25
... the facility of Easton-Bell Sports, Inc., located in Rantoul, Illinois, (FTZ Docket B-32-2013, docketed 4-16-2013); Whereas, notice inviting public comment has been given in the Federal Register (78 FR... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Approval of Subzone Status; Easton-Bell Sports, Inc.; Rantoul, Illinois...
Lorentz Contraction, Bell's Spaceships and Rigid Body Motion in Special Relativity
Franklin, Jerrold
2010-01-01
The meaning of Lorentz contraction in special relativity and its connection with Bell's spaceships parable is discussed. The motion of Bell's spaceships is then compared with the accelerated motion of a rigid body. We have tried to write this in a simple form that could be used to correct students' misconceptions due to conflicting earlier…
Bell's Theorem and Einstein's "Spooky Actions" from a Simple Thought Experiment
Kuttner, Fred; Rosenblum, Bruce
2010-01-01
In 1964 John Bell proved a theorem allowing the experimental test of whether what Einstein derided as "spooky actions at a distance" actually exist. We will see that they "do". Bell's theorem can be displayed with a simple, nonmathematical thought experiment suitable for a physics course at "any" level. And a simple, semi-classical derivation of…
The Legacy of Derrick Bell and Latino/a Education: A Critical Race Testimonio
Urrieta, Luis, Jr.; Villenas, Sofia A.
2013-01-01
In this article, we trace Bell's influence in our lives from graduate students to teacher educators and engaged scholars, and note how we have always read Bell alongside and inseparable from Latino/a Studies and Latina/Chicana feminist thought. We highlight the powerful and fruitful tensions of these interconnections in addressing our…
Bell's Palsy as a Possible Complication of Hepatitis B Vaccination in A Child
Alp, Handan; Tan, Hüseyin; Orbak, Zerrin
2009-01-01
Bell's Palsy is the sudden onset of unilateral temporary paralysis of facial muscles resulting from seventh cranial nerve dysfunction. Presented here is a two-year old female patient with right peripheral facial palsy following hepatitis B vaccination. Readers’ attention is drawn to an uncommon cause of Bell's Palsy, as a rare complication of hepatitis B vaccination.
All Pure Entangled States of Three-Qubit System Violate a Bell Inequality For Probabilities
Chen, J L; Kwek, L C; Oh, C H; Chen, Jing-Ling; Wu, Chun-Feng
2003-01-01
We present a Theorem that all generalized GHZ states of three-qubit system violation a Bell inequality in terms of probabilities. We also show that all pure entangled states of three-qubit system violate a Bell inequality for probabilities.
An Experimental Study on the Sound and Frequency of the Chinese Ancient Variable Bell
Chen, Dongsheng; Hu, Haining; Xing, Lirong; Liu, Yongsheng
2009-01-01
This paper describes an interesting sound phenomenon from a modern copy of the Chinese ancient variable bell which can emit distinctly different sounds at different temperatures. By means of audition--spectrum analyser software--and PC, the sound signals of the variable bell are collected and the fundamental spectra are shown on the PC. The…
Semileptonic $B_s$ decays at Belle, Babar, and D0
Urquijo, Phillip
2013-01-01
Studies of semileptonic $B_s$ decays by the Belle, Babar and D0 experiments are reported. In particular measurements of inclusive semileptonic $B_s$ decays by Belle and Babar and the exclusive excited charm mode $B_s \\to D_{s1} \\mu \
2012-10-18
... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel FIRE BELLE... and all documents entered into this docket is available on the World Wide Web at http://www... of the vessel FIRE BELLE is: 6 pack sightseeing charters. Intended Commercial Use of...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Bell's inequality has been experimentally tested using angular correlation of Compton-scattered photons from annihilation of positrons emitted from 22Na source. The result shows a better agreement with the quantum mechanics predictions rather than with the Bell's inequality
Bell's theorem tells us NOT what quantum mechanics IS, but what quantum mechanics IS NOT
Zukowski, Marek
2015-01-01
Non-locality, or quantum-non-locality, are buzzwords in the community of quantum foundation and information scientists, which purportedly describe the implications of Bell's theorem. When such phrases are treated seriously, that is it is claimed that Bell's theorem reveals non-locality as an inherent trait of the quantum description of the micro-world, this leads to logical contradictions, which will be discussed here. In fact, Bell's theorem, understood as violation of Bell inequalities by quantum predictions, is consistent with Bohr's notion of complementarity. Thus, if it points to anything, then it is rather the significance of the principle of Bohr, but even this is not a clear implication. Non-locality is a necessary consequence of Bell's theorem only if we reject complementarity by adopting some form of realism, be it additional hidden variables, additional hidden causes, etc., or counterfactual definiteness. The essay contains two largely independent parts. The first one is addressed to any reader int...
Bell inequality and common causal explanation in algebraic quantum field theory
Hofer-Szabó, Gábor
2012-01-01
Bell inequalities, understood as constraints between classical conditional probabilities, can be derived from a set of assumptions representing a common causal explanation of classical correlations. A similar derivation, however, is not known for Bell inequalities in algebraic quantum field theories establishing constraints for the expectation of specific linear combinations of projections in a quantum state. In the paper we address the question as to whether a 'common causal justification' of these non-classical Bell inequalities is possible. We will show that although the classical notion of common causal explanation can readily be generalized for the non-classical case, the Bell inequalities used in quantum theories cannot be derived from these non-classical common causes. Just the opposite is true: for a set of correlations there can be given a non-classical common causal explanation even if they violate the Bell inequalities. This shows that the range of common causal explanations in the non-classical ca...
13 Years of operating experience with bell-less top at Dofasco and new developments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fischer, A.J. (Dofasco Inc., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)); Lonardi, E. (Paul Wurth S.A., Luxembourg (Luxembourg)); Peters, J.L. (Paul Wurth Inc., Carnegie, PA (United States))
1994-09-01
Dofasco's No. 4 blast furnace was retrofitted with a bell-less top in 1980 after nine years of operation using a 2-bell top. During the 1986 rebuild, the bell-less top gearbox cooling was converted from gas to water. The furnace throat diameter was also increased from 7.3 to 8.2 meters. In this presentation, Dofasco's experience using the bell-less top over the last 13 years will be reviewed. Topics to be discussed will include burden distribution with 100% pellets at various levels of tuyere injectants and productivity levels, instrumentation used to optimize distribution, and modeling requirements, as well as maintenance requirements for the top. In addition, the latest developments of the bell-less top system, including the new compact design will be reviewed.
Bells Galore: Oscillations and circle-map dynamics from space-filling fractal functions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Puente, C.E.; Cortis, A.; Sivakumar, B.
2008-10-15
The construction of a host of interesting patterns over one and two dimensions, as transformations of multifractal measures via fractal interpolating functions related to simple affine mappings, is reviewed. It is illustrated that, while space-filling fractal functions most commonly yield limiting Gaussian distribution measures (bells), there are also situations (depending on the affine mappings parameters) in which there is no limit. Specifically, the one-dimensional case may result in oscillations between two bells, whereas the two-dimensional case may give rise to unexpected circle map dynamics of an arbitrary number of two-dimensional circular bells. It is also shown that, despite the multitude of bells over two dimensions, whose means dance making regular polygons or stars inscribed on a circle, the iteration of affine maps yields exotic kaleidoscopes that decompose such an oscillatory pattern in a way that is similar to the many cases that converge to a single bell.
Analysis of transition between different ringing schemes of the church bell
Brzeski, Piotr; Perlikowski, Przemyslaw
2015-01-01
In this paper we investigate dynamics of church bells, characterize their most common working regimes and investigate how to obtain them. To simulate the behavior of the yoke-bell-clapper system we use experimentally validated hybrid dynamical model developed basing on the detailed measurements of the biggest bell in the Cathedral Basilica of St Stanislaus Kostka, Lodz, Poland. We introduce two parameters that describes the yoke design and the propulsion mechanism and analyze their influence on the systems' dynamics. We develop two-parameter diagrams that allow to asses conditions that ensures proper and smooth operation of the bell. Similar charts can be calculated for any existing or non-existing bell and used when designing its mounting and propulsion. Moreover, we propose simple and universal launching procedure that allows to decrease the time that is needed to reach given attractor. Presented results are robust and indicate methods to increase the chance that the instrument will operate properly and rel...
A neural network z-vertex trigger for Belle II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the Belle II experiment the efficiency of the track trigger could be increased by reconstructing the z-coordinate of track vertices at the first trigger level and rejecting tracks not coming from the interaction region, which form a large part of the machine background. The presented method employs neural networks to estimate the z-vertex without explicit track reconstruction. Input data is taken from the central drift chamber, using both the wire coordinates and the drift times for each hit. Neural networks are general function approximators that can learn nonlinear dependencies from real data without the need of an explicit model. However, using a priori knowledge about the track in a meaningful way can help to train more efficient networks, in terms of both prediction quality and network size. Such input information is provided by the Belle II 2D track trigger and is used explicitly in the calculation of the input values for the neural network. The algorithms for the input representation are presented together with estimations for the trigger efficiency and the rejection capability.
Particle Production in Two-Photon Collisions at Belle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Experimental study of η η production in two-photon collisions: The differential cross section for the process γ γ → η η has been measured in the kinematic range above the η η threshold, 1.096 GeV -1 data sample collected with the Belle detector at the KEKB e+e- collider. In the W range 1.1-2.0 GeV/c2 we perform an analysis of resonance amplitudes for various partial waves; at higher energy we extract the contributions of χcJ charmonia and compare the energy and angular dependence of the cross section with the predictions of theoretical models. Observation of ηc(2S) in six-prong final states produced in two-photon collisions: We report the observation of ηc(2S), produced in two-photon collisions, and decaying to the six-prong final states 3(π+π-), K+ K- 2(π+ π-), and K0S K+ ππ+ π- (including the charge-conjugate state). This analysis is based on a large data sample accumulated by the Belle experiment at the KEKB asymmetric-energy electron-positron collider. This is the first observation of decay modes of the ηc(2S) other than K0S K+ π-. (author)
Relaxed Bell inequalities and Kochen-Specker theorems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hall, Michael J. W. [Theoretical Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)
2011-08-15
The combination of various physically plausible properties, such as no signaling, determinism, and experimental free will, is known to be incompatible with quantum correlations. Hence, these properties must be individually or jointly relaxed in any model of such correlations. The necessary degrees of relaxation are quantified here via natural distance and information-theoretic measures. This allows quantitative comparisons between different models in terms of the resources, such as the number of bits of randomness, communication, and/or correlation, that they require. For example, measurement dependence is a relatively strong resource for modeling singlet-state correlations, with only 1/15 of one bit of correlation required between measurement settings and the underlying variable. It is shown how various ''relaxed'' Bell inequalities may be obtained, which precisely specify the complementary degrees of relaxation required to model any given violation of a standard Bell inequality. The robustness of a class of Kochen-Specker theorems, to relaxation of measurement independence, is also investigated. It is shown that a theorem of Mermin remains valid unless measurement independence is relaxed by 1/3. The Conway-Kochen ''free will'' theorem and a result of Hardy are less robust, failing if measurement independence is relaxed by only 6.5% and 4.5%, respectively. An appendix shows that existence of an outcome-independent model is equivalent to existence of a deterministic model.
Estimation of diver survival time in a lost bell
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tipton, M.J.; Franks, C. [Surrey Univ., Guildford (United Kingdom); Meneilly, G.S. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Medicine; Mekjavic, I.B. [Simon Fraser University, Vancouver (Canada). Dept. of Kinesiology
1997-04-01
Mathematical models of the human thermoregulatory system have been used to make predictions of the likely survival of divers in a ``lost bell`` who can be exposed to very low ambient temperatures. The circumstances considered are not the most extreme but those where, partly by shivering, the individual can re-enter thermal balance. The ability accurately to predict the level and duration of metabolic heat production is critical for the estimation of survival time under these conditions. Limitations on the accuracy of current models arise from the lack of precision in modelling the intensity and duration of the metabolic (shivering) response. A different basis for predicting shivering endurance using the time to hypogylcaemia (blood glucose level less than 2.5 mmol/1) is proposed. This leads to predicted survival times ranging from 10 to over 24 hours for those individuals able to stabilise deep body temperature. This seems to be more consistent with the limited experimental data which exists than the 8-9 hours predicted by other models. In order to help maintain blood sugar levels, and hence metabolic heat production, it is recommended that emergency rations within bells should provide 500g of carbohydrate a day. (59 figures; 221 references). (UK)
Gadolinium Magnetic resonance with a diagnosis of Bell's facial palsy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The intratemporal pathway of the facial nerve has been prospectively studied by means of gadolinium MR in 12 patients with a diagnosis of Bell's facial palsy. All the cases presented total facial paralysis and were studied in the acute phase of the disease. With MR, the intratemporal pathway of the facial nerve has been viewed before and after the administration of a paramagnetic contrast medium, revealing uptake involving mainly the labyrinthine segment and the geniculate ganglion in every case. In no case did the MR findings influence the therapeutic approach, nor did they provide information of prognostic value. Therefore, this exploration is not considered necessary in the assessment of typical facial paralyses. The possible advantages of an MR study with contrast medium in facial paralysis specially apply to those cases with atypical clinical presentation, making it possible to establish a positive diagnosis, ruling out other lesions that may have a similar clinical presentantion. Thus, for the time being, a diagnosis of Bell's paralysis is not necessarily an exclusion diagnosis. (Author)
The silicon vertex detector of the Belle II experiment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Friedl, Markus, E-mail: friedl@hephy.a [Institute of High Energy Physics, Nikolsdorfergasse 18, A-1050 Vienna (Austria); Bergauer, Thomas; Gfall, Immanuel; Irmler, Christian; Valentan, Manfred [Institute of High Energy Physics, Nikolsdorfergasse 18, A-1050 Vienna (Austria)
2011-02-01
After 10 years of successful operation, the Belle experiment at KEK (Tsukuba, Japan) will be completed in 2010. Thereafter, a major upgrade of the KEK-B machine is foreseen until 2014, aiming at a final luminosity of 8x10{sup 35} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, which is about 40 times higher than the present peak value. Consequently, also the Belle experiment needs to be changed and the Silicon Vertex Detector (SVD) in particular will be completely replaced as it already operates close to its limits in the present system. The future SVD (a.k.a. SuperSVD) will consist of four layers of double-sided silicon strip detectors like the present one, but at larger radii, because it will be complemented by a two-layer pixel detector as the innermost sensing device. The SuperSVD will be entirely composed of silicon sensors made from 6 in. wafers read out by APV25 front-end chips that were originally developed for the CMS experiment at the LHC. Several years of R and D effort led to innovations such as the Origami chip-on-sensor concept and readout electronics with hit time finding which were successfully demonstrated on prototypes. These features will be included in the final system which is presently being designed. This paper will give an overview of the SuperSVD and present results from prototype tests ranging from detector modules to back-end electronics.
Examinations of samples of Bell Canyon Test 1-FF grout
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Portland cement grout identified as BCT-1-FF (Bell Canyon Test 1-FF) was used in borehole plugging experiments of the Bell Canyon Tests in Holl AEC-7 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site in New Mexico during September 1979 and February 1980. This grout was made with fresh water. A study of this grout was begun in August 1979 in the laboratory to evauate the possible effects of temperature, pressure, and storage in fresh water or simulated groundwater (brine) on its phase composition and compressive strength at early ages. Phase composition was determined by X-ray diffraction. Temperatures ranged up to about 1500F and included elevation at a few hours age after mixing; pressure was as high as 1500 psi; specimens were stored in simulated groundwater (brine) or in fresh water. Data from 1 to 90 days showed: (a) Higher temperature accelerated early strength gain. These differences essentially vanished by 90 days age. (b) Hydration products as identified by X-ray diffraction were normal; this indicated that a temperature range of 78 to 1530F was not significant. (c) Pressure did not affect composition. (d) Storage in simulated groundwater (brine) or fresh water had no detectable effect. (e) Since the BCT-1-FF grout mixture contained added sulfate, it formed more ettringite as judged by X-ray diffraction than comparable portland cement mixtures without added sulfate
Entanglement, Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlations, Bell nonlocality, and steering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In a recent work [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 140402 (2007)] we defined 'steering', a type of quantum nonlocality that is logically distinct from both nonseparability and Bell nonlocality. In the bipartite setting, it hinges on the question of whether Alice can affect Bob's state at a distance through her choice of measurement. More precisely and operationally, it hinges on the question of whether Alice, with classical communication, can convince Bob that they share an entangled state under the circumstances that Bob trusts nothing that Alice says. We argue that if she can, then this demonstrates the nonlocal effect first identified in the famous Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paper [Phys. Rev. 47, 777 (1935)] as a universal effect for pure entangled states. This ability of Alice to remotely prepare Bob's state was subsequently called steering by Schroedinger, whose terminology we adopt. The phenomenon of steering has been largely overlooked, and prior to our work had not even been given a rigorous definition that is applicable to mixed states as well as pure states. Armed with our rigorous definition, we proved that steerable states are a strict subset of the entangled states, and a strict superset of the states that can exhibit Bell nonlocality. In this work we expand on these results and provide further examples of steerable states. We also elaborate on the connection with the original EPR paradox
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis of reactor fuel. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are summarised
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
SCK-CEN's Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutron and gamma calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation and control, reactor code benchmarking and reactor safety calculations. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 materials testing reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2001 are summarised
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ait Abderrahim, A
2001-04-01
The Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis of reactor fuel. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are summarised.
Shaw, J
2013-01-01
Reactor Operation covers the theoretical aspects and design information of nuclear reactors. This book is composed of nine chapters that also consider their control, calibration, and experimentation.The opening chapters present the general problems of reactor operation and the principles of reactor control and operation. The succeeding chapters deal with the instrumentation, start-up, pre-commissioning, and physical experiments of nuclear reactors. The remaining chapters are devoted to the control rod calibrations and temperature coefficient measurements in the reactor. These chapters also exp
Russell, Charles R
2013-01-01
Reactor Safeguards provides information for all who are interested in the subject of reactor safeguards. Much of the material is descriptive although some sections are written for the engineer or physicist directly concerned with hazards analysis or site selection problems. The book opens with an introductory chapter on radiation hazards, the construction of nuclear reactors, safety issues, and the operation of nuclear reactors. This is followed by separate chapters that discuss radioactive materials, reactor kinetics, control and safety systems, containment, safety features for water reactor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hu, Ming-Liang, E-mail: mingliang0301@163.com
2012-09-15
Dynamics of disentanglement as measured by the tripartite negativity and Bell nonlocality as measured by the extent of violation of the multipartite Bell-type inequalities are investigated in this work. It is shown definitively that for the initial three-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) or W class state preparation, the Bell nonlocality suffers sudden death under the influence of thermal reservoirs. Moreover, all the Bell-nonlocal states are useful for nonclassical teleportation, while there are entangled states that do not violate any Bell-type inequalities, but still yield nonclassical teleportation fidelity. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison of different aspects of quantum correlations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Robustness of the initial tripartite GHZ and W class states against decoherence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bell-nonlocality sudden death under the influence of thermal reservoir. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A nonzero minimum tripartite negativity is needed for nonclassical teleportation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer All the Bell-nonlocal states yield nonclassical teleportation fidelity.
Bidirectional imperfect quantum teleportation with a single Bell state
Kiktenko, E. O.; Popov, A. A.; Fedorov, A. K.
2016-06-01
We present a bidirectional modification of the standard one-qubit teleportation protocol, where both Alice and Bob transfer noisy versions of their qubit states to each other by using single Bell state and auxiliary (trigger) qubits. Three schemes are considered: the first where the actions of parties are governed by two independent quantum random triggers, the second with single random trigger, and the third as a mixture of the first two. We calculate the fidelities of teleportation for all schemes and find a condition on correlation between trigger qubits in the mixed scheme which allows us to overcome the classical fidelity boundary of 2/3. We apply the Choi-Jamiolkowski isomorphism to the quantum channels obtained in order to investigate an interplay between their ability to transfer the information, entanglement-breaking property, and auxiliary classical communication needed to form correlations between trigger qubits. The suggested scheme for bidirectional teleportation can be realized by using current experimental tools.
Results from the Bell Canyon borehole plugging test
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Christensen, C. L.
1980-01-01
The BHP is an integrated program involving consequence assessment and plug performance calculations, materials evaluation, instrumentation development and field testing, and interfaces directly with other WIPP-related activities. This paper describes an in situ test conducted under the BHP Field Test Task. The Bell Canyon Test was conducted to evaluate candidate grout plugging mixes and plug emplacement techniques, and to assess plug performance under in-situ cure conditions. Laboratory testing of the brine-grout/rock combination revealed an adverse reaction between the brine-grout and the anhydrite. This discovery permitted a timely change to an additional laboratory compatibility testing program with an alternate fresh-water mix to permit maintenance of the test schedule with little delay. While cement emplacement technology is generally adequate to satisfy repository plugging requirements, plug compatibility with the host rock must be carefully assessed for each repository site. Generally accepted laboratory cement-testing techniques need to include flow characteristics and geochemical stability.
Ensemble interpretation of the EPR-Bell correlations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The EPR-Bell correlations between the spins of a pair of particles originally in a singlet state are discussed both on the basis of the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics and the ensemble interpretation. It is shown that the correlations predicted by the mathematical formalism are in agreement with those expected on the basis of the ensemble interpretation, if the electrons are treated as distinguishable particles after they separate and undergo observation. In this case, the correlations are only in partial agreement with a gedanken experiment of Mermin on the subject. It is pointed out, however, that agreement with Mermin's conclusions is possible if one treats the electrons as indistinguishable even when they are subjected to observation, though there is no obvious theoretical justification for doing so. (author). 8 refs
The silicon vertex detector of the Belle II experiment
Adamczyk, K.; Aihara, H.; Angelini, C.; Aziz, T.; Babu, V.; Bacher, S.; Bahinipati, S.; Barberio, E.; Baroncelli, T.; Basith, A. K.; Batignani, G.; Bauer, A.; Behera, P. K.; Bergauer, T.; Bettarini, S.; Bhuyan, B.; Bilka, T.; Bosi, F.; Bosisio, L.; Bozek, A.; Buchsteiner, F.; Casarosa, G.; Ceccanti, M.; Červenkov, D.; Chendvankar, S. R.; Dash, N.; Divekar, S. T.; Doležal, Z.; Dutta, D.; Forti, F.; Friedl, M.; Hara, K.; Higuchi, T.; Horiguchi, T.; Irmler, C.; Ishikawa, A.; Jeon, H. B.; Joo, C. W.; Kandra, J.; Kang, K. H.; Kato, E.; Kawasaki, T.; Kodyš, P.; Kohriki, T.; Koike, S.; Kolwalkar, M. M.; Kvasnička, P.; Lanceri, L.; Lettenbicher, J.; Mammini, P.; Mayekar, S. N.; Mohanty, G. B.; Mohanty, S.; Morii, T.; Nakamura, K. R.; Natkaniec, Z.; Negishi, K.; Nisar, N. K.; Onuki, Y.; Ostrowicz, W.; Paladino, A.; Paoloni, E.; Park, H.; Pilo, F.; Profeti, A.; Rao, K. K.; Rashevskaya, I.; Rizzo, G.; Rozanska, M.; Sandilya, S.; Sasaki, J.; Sato, N.; Schultschik, S.; Schwanda, C.; Seino, Y.; Shimizu, N.; Stypula, J.; Tanaka, S.; Tanida, K.; Taylor, G. N.; Thalmeier, R.; Thomas, R.; Tsuboyama, T.; Uozumi, S.; Urquijo, P.; Vitale, L.; Volpi, M.; Watanuki, S.; Watson, I. J.; Webb, J.; Wiechczynski, J.; Williams, S.; Würkner, B.; Yamamoto, H.; Yin, H.; Yoshinobu, T.
2016-07-01
The silicon vertex detector of the Belle II experiment, structured in a lantern shape, consists of four layers of ladders, fabricated from two to five silicon sensors. The APV25 readout ASIC chips are mounted on one side of the ladder to minimize the signal path for reducing the capacitive noise; signals from the sensor backside are transmitted to the chip by bent flexible fan-out circuits. The ladder is assembled using several dedicated jigs. Sensor motion on the jig is minimized by vacuum chucking. The gluing procedure provides such a rigid foundation that later leads to the desired wire bonding performance. The full ladder with electrically functional sensors is consistently completed with a fully developed assembly procedure, and its sensor offsets from the design values are found to be less than 200 μm. The potential functionality of the ladder is also demonstrated by the radioactive source test.
Hadronic B decays related to QCD at Belle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Using semi-inclusive method we measure B→XSη decays, for which the large branching fraction is observed for m(XS)>2GeV/c2. We also study the penguin dominated channel B0→ρ0K*0 along with associated decays. The first observation of B0→ρ0K+π- is made and respective branching fraction is calculated. Finally, exclusive B+ meson decays to the Ds(*)-K+π+ final state are analysed and respective branching fractions are measured. All analysis are based on the data sample of 657x106BB-bar pairs collected by the Belle detector at the KEK-B e+e- asymmetric collider, at the Y(4S) resonance.
Large violation of Bell inequalities using both particle andwave measurements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cavalcanti, Daniel [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Brunner, Nicolas; Skrzypczyk, Paul [H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Salles, Alejo [Niels Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Scarani, Valerio [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore)
2011-08-15
When separated measurements on entangled quantum systems are performed, the theory predicts correlations that cannot be explained by any classical mechanism: communication is excluded because the signal should travel faster than light; preestablished agreement is excluded because Bell inequalities are violated. All optical demonstrations of such violations have involved discrete degrees of freedom and are plagued by the detection-efficiency loophole. A promising alternative is to use continuous variables combined with highly efficient homodyne measurements. However, all the schemes proposed so far use states or measurements that are extremely difficult to achieve, or they produce very weak violations. We present a simple method to generate large violations for feasible states using both photon counting and homodyne detections. The present scheme can also be used to obtain nonlocality from easy-to-prepare Gaussian states (e.g., two-mode squeezed state).
Observation of B- to pbar Lambda D0 at Belle
Chen, P; Adachi, I; Aihara, H; Asner, D M; Aulchenko, V; Aushev, T; Bakich, A M; Barberio, E; Belous, K; Bhuyan, B; Bozek, A; Bračko, M; Browder, T E; Chang, M -C; Chang, P; Chao, Y; Chen, A; Cheon, B G; Cho, I -S; Cho, K; Choi, Y; Dalseno, J; Danilov, M; Doležal, Z; Drásal, Z; Eidelman, S; Fast, J E; Feindt, M; Gaur, V; Goh, Y M; Haba, J; Hara, T; Hayasaka, K; Hayashii, H; Hoshi, Y; Hou, W -S; Hsiung, Y B; Hyun, H J; Ishikawa, A; Itoh, R; Iwabuchi, M; Iwasaki, Y; Iwashita, T; Julius, T; Kang, J H; Kapusta, P; Katayama, N; Kawasaki, T; Kichimi, H; Kiesling, C; Kim, H O; Kim, J B; Kim, J H; Kim, K T; Kim, M J; Kim, Y J; Kinoshita, K; Ko, B R; Kobayashi, N; Koblitz, S; Križan, P; Kuhr, T; Kuzmin, A; Kwon, Y -J; Lange, J S; Lee, S -H; Li, J; Li, Y; Libby, J; Liu, C; Liu, Y; Liventsev, D; Louvot, R; Matvienko, D; McOnie, S; Miyata, H; Miyazaki, Y; Mohanty, G B; Nagasaka, Y; Nakano, E; Nakao, M; Natkaniec, Z; Neubauer, S; Nishida, S; Nitoh, O; Ogawa, S; Ohshima, T; Olsen, S L; Onuki, Y; Pakhlov, P; Pakhlova, G; Park, H; Park, H K; Pedlar, T K; Pestotnik, R; Peters, M; Petrič, M; Piilonen, L E; Ritter, M; Röhrken, M; Ryu, S; Sahoo, H; Sakai, Y; Sanuki, T; Schneider, O; Schwanda, C; Senyo, K; Sevior, M E; Shapkin, M; Shen, C P; Shibata, T -A; Shiu, J -G; Shwartz, B; Simon, F; Singh, J B; Smerkol, P; Sohn, Y -S; Solovieva, E; Stanič, S; Starič, M; Sumihama, M; Sumiyoshi, T; Tatishvili, G; Teramoto, Y; Uchida, M; Uehara, S; Unno, Y; Uno, S; Varner, G; Varvell, K E; Wang, C H; Wang, X L; Watanabe, Y; Williams, K M; Won, E; Yabsley, B D; Yamashita, Y; Yamauchi, M; Zhang, Z P
2011-01-01
We study B- meson decays to pbar Lambda D(*)0 final states using a sample of 657 * 10^6 B Bbar events collected at the Upsilon(4S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e+ e- collider. The observed branching fraction for B- to pbar Lambda D0 is (1.43^ +0.28_-0.25 +- 0.18)*10^-5. with a significance of 8.1 standard deviations, where the uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively. Most of the signal events have the pbarLambda mass peaking near threshold. No significant signal is observed for B- to pbar Lambda D*0 and the corresponding upper limit on the branching fraction is 4.8 * 10^-5 at the 90% confidence level.
The assembly of the Belle II TOP counter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A new type of ring-imaging Cherenkov counter, called TOP counter, has been developed for particle identification at the Belle II experiment to run at the SuperKEKB accelerator in KEK, Japan. The detector consists of 16 identical modules arranged azimuthally around the beam line. The assembly procedure for a TOP module is described. This procedure includes acceptance testing of the quartz mirror, prism, and quartz bar radiators. The acceptance tests include a chip search and measurements of bulk transmittance and total internal reflectance. The process for aligning and gluing the optical components together is described. - Highlights: • The fabrication process of the TOP counter has been established. • We did the acceptance tests for the first few optical components. • The qualities of the optical components satisfy our requirements. • The tests of the gluing procedure have been taking place
Functional Connectivity Modulation by Acupuncture in Patients with Bell's Palsy
He, Xiaoxuan; Hu, Sheng; Li, Chuanfu; Xu, Chunsheng; Kan, Hongxing; Xue, Qiuju; Qiu, Bensheng
2016-01-01
Bell's palsy (BP), an acute unilateral facial paralysis, is frequently treated with acupuncture in many countries. However, the mechanism of treatment is not clear so far. In order to explore the potential mechanism, 22 healthy volunteers and 17 BP patients with different clinical duration were recruited. The resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were conducted before and after acupuncture at LI4 (Hegu), respectively. By comparing BP-induced functional connectivity (FC) changes with acupuncture-induced FC changes in the patients, the abnormal increased FC that could be reduced by acupuncture was selected. The FC strength of the selected FC at various stages was analyzed subsequently. Our results show that FC modulation of acupuncture is specific and consistent with the tendency of recovery. Therefore, we propose that FC modulation by acupuncture may be beneficial to recovery from the disease. PMID:27293461
Bell-Curve Based Evolutionary Strategies for Structural Optimization
Kincaid, Rex K.
2001-01-01
Evolutionary methods are exceedingly popular with practitioners of many fields; more so than perhaps any optimization tool in existence. Historically Genetic Algorithms (GAs) led the way in practitioner popularity. However, in the last ten years Evolutionary Strategies (ESs) and Evolutionary Programs (EPS) have gained a significant foothold. One partial explanation for this shift is the interest in using GAs to solve continuous optimization problems. The typical GA relies upon a cumbersome binary representation of the design variables. An ES or EP, however, works directly with the real-valued design variables. For detailed references on evolutionary methods in general and ES or EP in specific see Back and Dasgupta and Michalesicz. We call our evolutionary algorithm BCB (bell curve based) since it is based upon two normal distributions.
Arbitrarily complete Bell-state measurement using only linear optical elements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grice, W. P. [Computational Sciences and Engineering Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee (United States)
2011-10-15
A complete Bell-state measurement is not possible using only linear-optic elements, and most schemes achieve a success rate of no more than 50%, distinguishing, for example, two of the four Bell states but returning degenerate results for the other two. It is shown here that the introduction of a pair of ancillary entangled photons improves the success rate to 75%. More generally, the addition of 2{sup N}-2 ancillary photons yields a linear-optic Bell-state measurement with a success rate of 1-1/2{sup N}.
Maximal Violation of Bell Inequality for Any Given Two-Qubit Pure State
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XIANG Yang
2010-01-01
@@ In the case of bipartite two-qubit systems,we derive an analytical expression of bound Bell operator for any given pure state.Our result not only manifests some properties of Bell inequality,for example,which may be violated by any pure entangled state and only be maximally violated for a maximally entangled state,but also gives the explicit values of maximal violation for any pure state.Finally we point out that any mixed states which can produce maximal violation of Bell inequality must have a maximal concurrence value.
Detection Loophole in Bell experiments: How post-selected local correlations can look non-local
Branciard, Cyril
2010-01-01
A common problem in Bell type experiments is the well-known detection loophole: if the detection efficiencies are not perfect and if one simply post-selects the conclusive events, one might observe a violation of a Bell inequality, even though a local model could have explained the experimental results. In this paper, we analyze the set of all post-selected correlations that can be explained by a local model, and show that it forms a polytope, larger than the Bell local polytope. We character...
Minimum detection efficiency for a loophole-free atom-photon Bell experiment
Cabello, Adan; Larsson, Jan-Ake
2007-01-01
In Bell experiments, one problem is to achieve high enough photodetection to ensure that there is no possibility of describing the results via a local hidden-variable model. Using the Clauser-Horne inequality and a two-photon non-maximally entangled state, a photodetection efficiency higher than 0.67 is necessary. Here we discuss atom-photon Bell experiments. We show that, assuming perfect detection efficiency of the atom, it is possible to perform a loophole-free atom-photon Bell experiment ...
Bell Correlated and EPR States in the Framework of Jordan Algebras
Hamhalter, Jan; Sobotíková, Veronika
2016-03-01
We study Bell inequalities and EPR states in the context of Jordan algebras. We show that the set of states violating Bell inequalities across two operator commuting nonmodular Jordan Banach algebras is norm dense in the global state space. It generalizes hitherto known results in quantum field theory in several directions. We propose new Jordan quantity for incommensurable observables in a given state, introduce the concept of EPR state for Jordan structures, and study relationship between EPR states and Bell correlated states. Our analysis shows crucial role of spin factors and Pauli spin matrices for studying noncommutative properties of states and observables.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martens, Frederick H. [Argonne National Laboratory; Jacobson, Norman H.
1968-09-01
This booklet discusses research reactors - reactors designed to provide a source of neutrons and/or gamma radiation for research, or to aid in the investigation of the effects of radiation on any type of material.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
At the meeting of the Kraftwerk Union A.G. a survey on the sipping equipment originally designed to detect fuel element failures of BWRs was presented. Possibilities to apply the device for tightness inspection of fuel cladding in WWER-440 type reactors by means of 1 or 8 fuel assemby sipping bells were pointed out. (V.N.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This article proposes an overview of research reactors, i.e. nuclear reactors of less than 100 MW. Generally, these reactors are used as neutron generators for basic research in matter sciences and for technological research as a support to power reactors. The author proposes an overview of the general design of research reactors in terms of core size, of number of fissions, of neutron flow, of neutron space distribution. He outlines that this design is a compromise between a compact enough core, a sufficient experiment volume, and high enough power densities without affecting neutron performance or its experimental use. The author evokes the safety framework (same regulations as for power reactors, more constraining measures after Fukushima, international bodies). He presents the main characteristics and operation of the two families which represent almost all research reactors; firstly, heavy water reactors (photos, drawings and figures illustrate different examples); and secondly light water moderated and cooled reactors with a distinction between open core pool reactors like Melusine and Triton, pool reactors with containment, experimental fast breeder reactors (Rapsodie, the Russian BOR 60, the Chinese CEFR). The author describes the main uses of research reactors: basic research, applied and technological research, safety tests, production of radio-isotopes for medicine and industry, analysis of elements present under the form of traces at very low concentrations, non destructive testing, doping of silicon mono-crystalline ingots. The author then discusses the relationship between research reactors and non proliferation, and finally evokes perspectives (decrease of the number of research reactors in the world, the Jules Horowitz project)
Reactor physics and reactor computations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mathematical methods and computer calculations for nuclear and thermonuclear reactor kinetics, reactor physics, neutron transport theory, core lattice parameters, waste treatment by transmutation, breeding, nuclear and thermonuclear fuels are the main interests of the conference
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
There are currently 284 research reactors in operation, and 12 under construction around the world. Of the operating reactors, nearly two-thirds are used exclusively for research, and the rest for a variety of purposes, including training, testing, and critical assembly. For more than 50 years, research reactor programs have contributed greatly to the scientific and educational communities. Today, six of the world's research reactors are being shut down, three of which are in the USA. With government budget constraints and the growing proliferation concerns surrounding the use of highly enriched uranium in some of these reactors, the future of nuclear research could be impacted
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Object: To provide a jet and missile protective wall of a configuration being inflated toward the center of a reactor container on the inside of a body of the reactor container disposed within a biological shield wall to thereby increase safety of the reactor container. Structure: A jet and missile protective wall comprised of curved surfaces internally formed with a plurality of arch inflations filled with concrete between inner and outer iron plates and shape steel beam is provided between a reactor container surrounded by a biological shield wall and a thermal shield wall surrounding the reactor pressure vessel, and an adiabatic heat insulating material is filled in space therebetween. (Yoshino, Y.)
Some properties of the functions satisfying Bell's inequalities in relation to quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Having recalled the 1935 debate between A. Einstein and N. Bohr about quantum mechanics (Q.M.) the thought-experiment of D. Bohm is described and a new derivation of the Bell's inequalities is established to test the class of theories based on the hypothesis of hidden-parameters in the common past. It is shown that Q.M. violates these inequalities almost everywhere. The general properties of functions satisfying Bell's inequalities are studied in order to compare them to Q.M. predictions as regards derivatives, integrals, values, intervals, amplitudes and finally the overall behaviour: a few of the Bell's functions chosen to approach somehow Q.M. are given. Altogether, in the comparison between Q.M. and functions satisfying Bell's inequalities, an incompatibility is revealed that is stronger then that resulting from consideration of just the inequalities
Bringing Bell's theorem back to the domain of Particle Physics & Cosmology
Hiesmayr, Beatrix C
2015-01-01
John St. Bell was a physicist working most of his time at CERN and contributing intensively and sustainably to the development of Particle Physics and Collider Physics. As a hobby he worked on so-called "foundations of quantum theory", that was that time very unpopular, even considered to be scientifically taboo. His 1964-theorem, showing that predictions of local realistic theories are different to those of quantum theory, initiated a new field in quantum physics: quantum information theory. The violation of Bell's theorem, for instance, is a necessary and sufficient criterion for generating a secure key for cryptography at two distant locations. This contribution shows how Bell's theorem can be brought to the realm of high energy physics and presents the first conclusive experimental feasible test for weakly decaying neutral mesons on the market. Strong experimental and theoretical limitations make a Bell test in weakly decaying systems such as mesons and hyperons very challenging, however, these systems sh...
NOAA Ship Bell M. Shimada Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Bell M. Shimada Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...
A Mathematician's Viewpoint to Bell's theorem: In Memory of Walter Philipp
Khrennikov, Andrei
2006-01-01
In this paper dedicated to the memory of Walter Philipp, we formalize the rules of classical$\\to$ quantum correspondence and perform a rigorous mathematical analysis of the assumptions in Bell's NO-GO arguments.
A comparative study of the normal modes of various modern bells
Perrin, R.; Charnley, T.
1987-09-01
Finite element calculations of the normal modes of church, carillon, hand and fire-alarm bells have been made. Some of the results are presented and comparisons made which shed new light on mode classification.
Significant-Loophole-Free Test of Bell's Theorem with Entangled Photons.
Giustina, Marissa; Versteegh, Marijn A M; Wengerowsky, Sören; Handsteiner, Johannes; Hochrainer, Armin; Phelan, Kevin; Steinlechner, Fabian; Kofler, Johannes; Larsson, Jan-Åke; Abellán, Carlos; Amaya, Waldimar; Pruneri, Valerio; Mitchell, Morgan W; Beyer, Jörn; Gerrits, Thomas; Lita, Adriana E; Shalm, Lynden K; Nam, Sae Woo; Scheidl, Thomas; Ursin, Rupert; Wittmann, Bernhard; Zeilinger, Anton
2015-12-18
Local realism is the worldview in which physical properties of objects exist independently of measurement and where physical influences cannot travel faster than the speed of light. Bell's theorem states that this worldview is incompatible with the predictions of quantum mechanics, as is expressed in Bell's inequalities. Previous experiments convincingly supported the quantum predictions. Yet, every experiment requires assumptions that provide loopholes for a local realist explanation. Here, we report a Bell test that closes the most significant of these loopholes simultaneously. Using a well-optimized source of entangled photons, rapid setting generation, and highly efficient superconducting detectors, we observe a violation of a Bell inequality with high statistical significance. The purely statistical probability of our results to occur under local realism does not exceed 3.74×10^{-31}, corresponding to an 11.5 standard deviation effect. PMID:26722905
Postselection-Loophole-Free Bell Test Over an Installed Optical Fiber Network.
Carvacho, Gonzalo; Cariñe, Jaime; Saavedra, Gabriel; Cuevas, Álvaro; Fuenzalida, Jorge; Toledo, Felipe; Figueroa, Miguel; Cabello, Adán; Larsson, Jan-Åke; Mataloni, Paolo; Lima, Gustavo; Xavier, Guilherme B
2015-07-17
Device-independent quantum communication will require a loophole-free violation of Bell inequalities. In typical scenarios where line of sight between the communicating parties is not available, it is convenient to use energy-time entangled photons due to intrinsic robustness while propagating over optical fibers. Here we show an energy-time Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt Bell inequality violation with two parties separated by 3.7 km over the deployed optical fiber network belonging to the University of Concepción in Chile. Remarkably, this is the first Bell violation with spatially separated parties that is free of the postselection loophole, which affected all previous in-field long-distance energy-time experiments. Our work takes a further step towards a fiber-based loophole-free Bell test, which is highly desired for secure quantum communication due to the widespread existing telecommunication infrastructure. PMID:26230776
Test of high-dimensional Bell inequalities by reconstructing quasiprobability distribution functions
Lee, Seung-Woo
2010-01-01
We propose a scheme for testing high-dimensional Bell inequalities by reconstructing quasiprobability distribution functions. Two types of high-dimensional Bell inequalities proposed by Collins et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 040404 (2002)] and Son et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 060406 (2006)] are recast into the form in complex variable representation, where the correlation function can be obtained by reconstructing quasiprobability distribution functions. Based on this scheme we test two types of high-dimensional Bell inequalities with different numbers of outcomes for two mode squeezed vacuum states. For some cases of more than two level outcomes the type proposed by Collins et al. exhibits stronger violations than the CHSH inequality, while the violation strength of the type proposed by Son et al. tends to decrease as increasing the number of outcomes. It is also shown that high-dimensional Bell tests can be more robust to detection noise than the test of CHSH inequality.
Non-separability does not relieve the problem of Bell's theorem
Henson, Joe
2013-01-01
This paper addresses arguments that "separability" is an assumption of Bell's theorem, and that abandoning this assumption in our interpretation of quantum mechanics (a position sometimes referred to as "holism") will allow us to restore a satisfying locality principle. Separability here means that all events associated to the union of some set of disjoint regions are combinations of events associated to each region taken separately. In this article, it is shown that: (a) localised events can be consistently defined without implying separability; (b) the definition of Bell's locality condition does not rely on separability in any way; (c) the proof of Bell's theorem does not use separability as an assumption. If, inspired by considerations of non-separability, the assumptions of Bell's theorem are weakened, what remains no longer embodies the locality principle. Teller's argument for "relational holism" and Howard's arguments concerning separability are criticised in the light of these results. Howard's claim...
Can experimental tests of Bell inequalities performed with pseudoscalar mesons be definitive?
Genovese, M.; Novero, C.; Predazzi, E.
2001-01-01
We discuss if experimental tests of Bell inequalities performed with pseudoscalar mesons (K or B) can be definitive. Our conclusion is that this is not the case, for the efficiency loophole cannot be eliminated.
Cryptanalysis and Improvement of Quantum Private Comparison Protocol Based on Bell Entangled States
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Recently, Liu et al. [Commun. Theor. Phys. 57 (2012) 583] proposed a quantum private comparison protocol based on entanglement swapping of Bell states, which aims to securely compare the equality of two participants' information with the help of a semi-honest third party (TP). However, the present study points out there is a fatal loophole in Liu et al.'s protocol, and TP can make Bell-basis measurement to know all the participants' secret inputs without being detected. To fix the problem, a simple solution, which uses one-time eavesdropper checking with decoy photons instead of twice eavesdropper checking with Bell states, is demonstrated. Compared with the original protocol, it not only reduces the Bell states consumption but also simplifies the protocol steps. (general)
Bell's theorem and the measurement problem: reducing two mysteries to one?
Cavalcanti, Eric G
2016-01-01
In light of a recent reformulation of Bell's theorem from causal principles by Howard Wiseman and the author, I argue that the conflict between quantum theory and relativity brought up by Bell's work can be softened by a revision of our classical notions of causation. I review some recent proposals for a quantum theory of causation that make great strides towards that end, but highlight a property that is shared by all those theories that would not have satisfied Bell's realist inclinations. They require (implicitly or explicitly) agent-centric notions such as "controllables" and "uncontrollables", or "observed" and "unobserved". Thus they relieve the tensions around Bell's theorem by highlighting an issue more often associated with another deep conceptual issue in quantum theory: the measurement problem. Rather than rejecting those terms, however, I argue that we should understand why they seem to be, at least at face-value, needed in order to reach compatibility between quantum theory and relativity. This s...
Cryptanalysis and Improvement of Quantum Private Comparison Protocol Based on Bell Entangled States
Liu, Wen-Jie; Liu, Chao; Chen, Han-Wu; Li, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Zhi-Hao
2014-08-01
Recently, Liu et al. [Commun. Theor. Phys. 57 (2012) 583] proposed a quantum private comparison protocol based on entanglement swapping of Bell states, which aims to securely compare the equality of two participants' information with the help of a semi-honest third party (TP). However, the present study points out there is a fatal loophole in Liu et al.'s protocol, and TP can make Bell-basis measurement to know all the participants' secret inputs without being detected. To fix the problem, a simple solution, which uses one-time eavesdropper checking with decoy photons instead of twice eavesdropper checking with Bell states, is demonstrated. Compared with the original protocol, it not only reduces the Bell states consumption but also simplifies the protocol steps.
Belle monte-carlo production on the Amazon EC2 cloud
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Belle II experiment which aims to increase the Luminosity of the KEKB collider by a factor of 50 will search for physics beyond the Standard Model through precision measurements and the investigation of rare processes in Flavour physics. The expected data rate is comparable to a current era LHC experiment with commensurate computing needs. Incorporating commercial cloud computing, such as that provided by the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) into the Belle II computing model may provide a lower Total Cost of Ownership for the Belle II computing solution. To investigate this possibility, we have created a system to conduct the complete Belle Monte Carlo simulation chain on EC2 to benchmark the cost and performance of the service. This paper will describe how this was achieved in addition to the drawbacks and costs of large-scale Monte Carlo production on EC2.
Entanglement versus Bell violations and their behaviour under local filtering operations
Verstraete, Frank; Wolf, Michael M.
2001-01-01
We discuss the relations between the violation of the CHSH Bell inequality for systems of two qubits on the one side and entanglement of formation, local filtering operations, and the entropy and purity on the other. We calculate the extremal Bell violations for a given amount of entanglement of formation and characterize the respective states, which turn out to have extremal properties also with respect to the entropy, purity and several entanglement monotones. The optimal local filtering op...
Luo, Cheng-Li; Liao, Chang-Geng; Chen, Zi-Hong
2010-08-01
We investigate the nonlocality dynamics of two initially entangled macroscopic fields each interacting with a resonant two-level atom. The nonlocality of macroscopic field is characterized by the extent to which the Bell Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH)'s inequality for continuous-variable states is violated. We show that the collapse and revival of the Bell-nonlocality are similar to the collapse and revival of the atomic population inversion of the Jaynes-Cummings model (JCM).
Song, Xinbing; Sun, Yifan; Li, Pengyun; Qin, Hongwei; Zhang, Xiangdong
2015-01-01
We perform Bell's measurement for the non-separable correlation between polarization and orbital angular momentum from the same classical vortex beam. The violation of Bell's inequality for such a non-separable classical correlation has been demonstrated experimentally. Based on the classical vortex beam and non-quantum entanglement between the polarization and the orbital angular momentum, the Hadamard gates and conditional phase gates have been designed. Furthermore, a quantum Fourier transform has been implemented experimentally. PMID:26369424
Song, Xinbing; Qin, Hongwei; Li, Pengyun; Zhang, Xiangdong
2015-01-01
We perform Bell's measurement and perform quantum Fourier transform with the classical vortex beam. The violation of Bell's inequality for such a non-separable classical correlation has been demonstrated experimentally. Based on the classical vortex beam and nonquantum entanglement between the polarization and orbital angular momentum, the Hadamard gates and conditional phase gates have been designed. Furthermore, a quantum Fourier transform has been implemented experimentally, which is the crucial final step in Shor's algorithm
Bell ringers' bruises and broken bones: capers and crises in campanology.
Lamont, A C; London, N. J.
1990-01-01
OBJECTIVE--To determine the incidence, aeriology, and outcome of injuries due to bell ringing. DESIGN--Retrospective review of the last six years' issues of Ringing World, advertisement in Ringing World, and a postal questionnaire sent to 20 active ringing towers. SUBJECTS--Regular bell ringers. RESULTS--Seventy nine injuries were identified both from review and by advertisement in Ringing World. The incidence of injury among 221 ringers identified by postal questionnaire was 1.8% a year. CON...
Bell Inequality for Generalized Parity Measurement and its Violation for Continuous Variable Systems
Chen, J L; Kwek, L C; Oh, C H; Chen, Jing-Ling; Wu, Chun-Feng
2003-01-01
We generalize the concept of the usual parity measurement. Due to the generalized parity measurement, we obtain multi-component correlation functions. Bell inequality for the multi-component correlation function is proposed. The violation of the Bell inequality for continuous variable systems is investigated. The violation of the the original Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen states can exceed the Cirel'son bound, the maximal violation is 2.96981.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Bai Juan; Guo Qi; Cheng Liu-Yong; Shao Xiao-Qiang; Wang Hong-Fu; Zhang Shou; Yeon Kyu-Hwang
2011-01-01
We propose a protocol to implement the nonlocal Bell-state measurement,which is nearly determinate with the help of weak cross-Kerr nonlinearities and quantum non-destructive photon number resolving detection.Based on the nonlocal Bell-state measurement,we implement the quantum information transfer from one place to another.The process is different from conventional teleportation but can be regarded as a novel form of teleportation without entangled channel and classic communication.
Ironic Appropriation of Hemingway's For Whom the Bell Tolls in Bulosan's The Cry and the Dedication
Brown, Robert
2013-01-01
In his article "Ironic Appropriation of Hemingway's For Whom the Bell Tolls in Bulosan's The Cry and the Dedication" Robert Brown discusses Carlos Bulosan's The Cry and the Dedication and Ernest Hemingway's For Whom the Bell Tolls. Brown claims that Bulosan's appropriation of For Whom borders on plagiarism and that this in part defines The Cry as a postcolonial text. Brown maintains that E. San Juan Jr.'s otherwise comprehensive introduction to The Cry ignores Hemingway's text in favor of a F...
Characterisation of Fourteenth-Century Bell-Casting Pit in Old Town Hall Sibiu, Romania
Olariu, A; Olariu, Agata; Munteanu-Besliu, Petre
1999-01-01
In this work we have made an analytical investigation by neutron activation analysis and X-ray fluorescence of a number of pieces found on the two hearths and the slag layer discovered at the Old Town Hall from Sibiu, Romania and some bells from the surrounding region of Sibiu. The elemental analyses suggest the fact that the hearths preserve traces of an activity of alloying of copper with tin for casting bells.
Nutritional status of greenhouse cucumber and bell pepper in Isfahan province
F. Aghili; A. H. Khoshgoftarmanesh; M. Afyuni; M. Mobli; M. Pirzadeh; A. Sanaei Ostovar
2011-01-01
Despite of increasing request for greenhouse vegetables, there is quite limited information on their nutritional quality. This study was carried out to investigate nutritional status of macronutrients (Ca, Mg, P and K) and micronutrients (Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn) in greenhouse cucumber and bell pepper in Isfahan province. After selecting 25 greenhouses, the concentration of macronutrients and micronutrients was measured in soil and edible parts of cucumbers and bell peppers. The results showed that...
First experimental test of Bell inequalities performed using a non-maximally entangled state
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
M Genovese; G Brida; C Novero; E Predazzi
2001-02-01
We describe the realisation of a new test of Bell inequalities using a new scheme obtained by the superposition of type I parametric down conversion produced in two different non-linear crystals pumped by the same laser, but with different polarisations. This experiment is the ﬁrst test of Bell inequalities using a non-maximally entangled state and thus represents an important step in the direction of eliminating the detection loophole.
IMPROVEMENT OF SHELF LIFE QUALITY OF GREEN BELL PEPPERS USING EDIBLE COATING FORMULATIONS
Emilio Ochoa-Reyes; Gabriela Martínez-Vazquez; Saul Saucedo-Pompa; Julio Montañez; Romeo Rojas-Molina; Miguel A. de Leon-Zapata; Raúl Rodríguez-Herrera; Cristóbal N. Aguilar
2013-01-01
In Latin-America, there are countries with high production levels of green bell peppers, which requires of new strategies of conservation for their international trade. Traditional techniques of preservations do not guarantee to prolong the shelf life of these kinds of fruits, for this reason, in the present study, the Influence of different edible coating formulations on shelf-life quality of green bell peppers was studied. Three different biopolymers (pectin, arabic, and xanthan gums) were ...
Xiang, Yang; Xiong, Shi-Jie
2010-01-01
On the basis of local realism theory, nonlocal information is necessary for violation of Bell's inequality. From a theoretical point of view, nonlocal information is essentially the mutual information on distant outcome and measurement setting. In this work we prove that if the measurement is free and unbiased, the mutual information about the distant outcome and setting is both necessary for the violation of Bell's inequality in the case with unbiased marginal probabilities. In the case with...
The Bell Beaker culture in Eastern Central Europe and silicite (flint) axes
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Přichystal, A.; Šebela, Lubomír
Santiago de Compostela: Galician ArchaeoPots, 2013 - (Martínez, M.; Salanova, L.), s. 163-176 ISBN 978-84-941537-0-9. [International Bell Beaker Conference: From Atlantic to Ural /15./. Poio, Pontevedra (ES), 05.05.2011-09.05.2011] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA800010705 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80010507 Keywords : silicite (flint) axes * Bell Beaker culture * Bohemia * reutilization Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology
Durham, Ian T.
2011-01-01
We demonstrate that both Wigner's form of Bell's inequalities as well as a form of the second law of thermodynamics, as manifest in Carath\\'{e}odory's principle, can be derived from the same simple experimental and statistical mechanical assumptions combined with the trivial behavior of integers. This suggests that Bell's theorem is merely a well-disguised statement of the second law. It also suggests that entanglement is necessary for quantum theory to be in full accord with the second law a...
Detection efficiency for loophole-free Bell tests with entangled states affected by colored noise
Canas G.; Barra J.F.; Gomez E.S.; Lima G; Sciarrino F.; Cabello A.
2013-01-01
Loophole-free Bell tests for quantum nonlocality and long-distance secure communication require photodetection efficiencies beyond a threshold eta_{crit} that depends on the Bell inequality and the noise affecting the entangled state received by the distant parties. Most calculations of eta_{crit} assume that the noise is random and can be modeled as white noise. However, most sources suffer from colored noise. Indeed, since entangled states are usually created as a superposition of two possi...
Proposal for a loophole-free Bell test with electron spins of donors
Hong, Fang-Yu; Xiong, Shi-Jie
2008-01-01
So far, all experimental tests of Bell inequalities which must be satisfied by all local realistic hidden-variable theories and are violated by quantum mechanical predictions have left at least one loophole open. We propose a feasible setup allowing for a loophole-free test of the Bell inequalities. Two electron spin qubits of phosphorus donors in semiconductors in different cavities 300 m apart are entangled through a bright coherent light and postselections using homodyne measurements. The ...
Closing the detection loophole in multipartite Bell tests using GHZ states
Pál, Károly F; Vértesi, Tamás; Brunner, Nicolas
2012-01-01
We investigate the problem of closing the detection loophole in multipartite Bell tests, and show that the required detection efficiencies can be significantly lowered compared to the bipartite case. In particular, we present Bell tests based on n-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states, which can tolerate efficiencies as low as 38% for a reasonable number of parties and measurements. Even in the presence of a significant amount of noise, efficiencies below 50% can be tolerated, which is enc...
Loophole-free Bell test based on local precertification of photon's presence
Cabello A.; Sciarrino F.
2012-01-01
A loophole-free violation of Bell inequalities is of fundamental importance for demonstrating quantum nonlocality and long-distance device-independent secure communication. However, transmission losses represent a fundamental limitation for photonic loophole-free Bell tests. A local precertification of the presence of the photons immediately before the local measurements may solve this problem. We show that local precertification is feasible by integrating three current technologies: (i) enha...
Loophole-free Bell test for one atom and less than one photon
Sangouard, N; Gisin, N; Rosenfeld, W; Sekatski, P; Weber, M; Weinfurter, H
2011-01-01
We consider the entanglement between two internal states of a single atom and two photon number states describing either the vaccum or a single photon and thus containing, on average, less than one photon. We show that this intriguing entanglement can be characterized through substantial violations of a Bell inequality by performing homodyne detections on the optical mode. We present the experimental challenges that need to be overcome to pave the way towards a loophole-free Bell test in this setup.
A Larger Quantum Region of Bell Correlations with Loophole-free Post-selection
Hoban, Matty J
2011-01-01
We present a clear operational framework for the study of multi-party Bell experiments in the two measurements-two outcomes setting. From this framework we give a clear computational picture of how loopholes can emerge in Bell tests, especially with post-selection on measurement data. We present a method of post-selection that does not allow loopholes to emerge but can enhance the region of quantum correlations.
Loophole-free Bell test with one atom and less than one photon on average
Sangouard N.; Bancal J.-D.; Gisin N.; Rosenfeld W.; Sekatski P.; Weber M.; Weinfurter H.
2011-01-01
We consider the entanglement between two internal states of a single atom and two photon number states describing either the vaccum or a single photon and thus containing, on average, less than one photon. We show that this intriguing entanglement can be characterized through substantial violations of a Bell inequality by performing homodyne detections on the optical mode. We present the experimental challenges that need to be overcome to pave the way towards a loophole-free Bell test in this...
Loophole-free Bell test with one atom and less than one photon on average
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sangouard, N.; Bancal, J.-D.; Gisin, N.; Sekatski, P. [Group of Applied Physics, University of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Rosenfeld, W.; Weber, M.; Weinfurter, H. [Fakultat fur Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitat Munchen, DE-80799 Munchen (Germany)
2011-11-15
We consider the entanglement between two internal states of a single atom and two photon number states describing either the vacuum or a single photon and thus containing, on average, less than one photon. We show that this intriguing entanglement can be characterized through substantial violations of a Bell inequality by performing homodyne detections on the optical mode. We present the experimental challenges that need to be overcome to pave the way toward a loophole-free Bell test.
Bell violation with entangled photons, free of the coincidence-time loophole
Larsson, Jan-Åke; Giustina, Marissa; Kofler, Johannes; Wittmann, Bernhard; Ursin, Rupert; Ramelow, Sven
2013-01-01
In a local realist world view, physical properties are defined prior to and independent of measurement, and no physical influence can propagate faster than the speed of light. Proper experimental violation of a Bell inequality would show that the world cannot be described within local realism. Such experiments usually require additional assumptions that make them vulnerable to a number of "loopholes." A recent experiment [Giustina et al, Nature, 2013] violated a Bell inequality without being ...
Roy, Shantanu; Hellmann, Waldemar; Goedecker, Stefan
2007-01-01
The Bell-Evans-Polanyi principle that is valid for a chemical reaction that proceeds along the reaction coordinate over the transition state is extended to molecular dynamics trajectories that in general do not cross the dividing surface between the initial and the final local minima at the exact transition state. Our molecular dynamics Bell-Evans-Polanyi principle states that low energy molecular dynamics trajectories are more likely to lead into the basin of attraction of a low energy local...
Failed State: Political Corruption and the Collapse of Democracy in Bell, California
Hogen-Esch, Tom
2011-01-01
This article seeks to explain recent patterns of corruption in the city of Bell, California. After reviewing the literature on municipal corruption and reform and political participation in immigrant communities, the article examines the Bell case study. It argues that the city’s primary democratic institutions, voter participation, watchdog media, and community organization engagement collapsed prior to the scandal. In addition, elements of the council-manager form of government contributed ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cristiane A. Kasse
2002-10-01
Full Text Available Introdução: O núcleo do nervo facial e do núcleo olivar superior são conectados por fibras, desta forma uma lesão nesta conecção poderia interferir na função das células ciliadas externas, alterando o exame de emissão otoacústica por produtos de distorção (EOAPD. Objetivo: Observar a possibilidade da paralisia de Bell afetar a função das células ciliadas externas através da EOAPD. Forma do Estudo: Prospectivo clínico. Material e Método: Quarenta pacientes com paralisia de Bell foram comparados com 69 pacientes normais (grupo controle, usando EOAPD. Resultados: Os pacientes com paralisia de Bell e EOAPD alterados foram de 17,5% e no grupo controle de 7,2%, sem diferença estatística entre os valores. Não se observou também uma correlação entre o reflexo estapediano e o grau da paralisia facial com a EOAPD. Conclusão: Não observamos correlação entre EOAPD e a paralisia de Bell.Introduction: The facial nucleus and olivar nucleus are connected with fibers, then a lesion in this conection could interfer in the outer cell function changing the result of otoacoustic emission product distortion test (DPOE. Objective: To observe the possibility of Bell's palsy affect the function of outer hair cells, using the DPOE test. Study Design: Prospective clinical. Material and Method: Forty patients with Bell's palsy were compared with 69 patients without symptons (control group using DPOE. Results: The patients with Bell's palsy without DPOE response were 17.5% and in the control group, 7.2%, without statistical difference between them. We did not observe a correlation with stapedium reflex and degree of palsy and DPOE. Conclusion: There was no correlation with Bell's palsy and DPOE.
HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS IN SALIVA OF PATIENTS WITH BELL'S PALSY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.H. Harirchian
2008-04-01
Full Text Available Acute idiopathic peripheral facial paralysis (Bell's palsy is the most common disorder of the facial nerve. Most patients recover completely, although some have permanent disfiguring facial weakness. Many studies have attempted to identify an infectious etiology for this disease. Although the cause of Bell's palsy remains unknown, recent studies suggest a possible association with Herpes Simplex Virus-1(HSV-1 infection. In this case-control study we investigated the presence of DNA of HSV in the saliva of 26 patients with Bells palsy in first and second weeks of disorder compared to normal population who were matched in sex, age, as well as history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension and labial herpes. In the case group 3 and 7 patients had positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR for HSV in first and second weeks of disease respectively compared to 4 in controls. It means that there was not any relationship between Bell's palsy and HSV in saliva either in first or in second week. Two and 6 of positive results from the sample of first and second weeks were from patients with severe (grade 4-6 Bell's palsy. Although the positive results were more in second week in patient group and more in severe palsies, but a significant relationship between Bell's palsy or its severity and positive PCR for HSV was not detected (P >0.05.
Neutral long-living kaon and muon system of the Belle II detector
Uglov, Timofey
2013-01-01
The Belle detector operated at KEKb B-factory in 1999-2010 was one of the most remarkable experiments in the field of elementary particle physics of the last decades. The Belle successor, Belle II collaboration, is aimed to operate the Belle II detector at SuperKEKb factory at 40 times higher luminosity. Increased luminosity imposes new requirements on the detector elements: they have to survive at higher radiation levels, to operate at higher loads and at higher backgrounds. The Belle K_L and muon system based on the resistive plate chambers (RPC) technology worked well during all data taking period, however at Belle II environments its performance decreases to negligible level due to increasing load and high neutron background. To sustain detector operation it will be replaced by the new system based on the scintillation strips read-out by silicon photomultipliers. The latter technology allows not only to reach time resolution at level of 1 ns but also perform the amplitude measurements. Nowadays the produc...
Material estimation and low momentum tracking in Belle II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The measurement of the trajectories of charged particles is an important task in most particle physics experiments. Special components, called tracking detectors or trackers, supply the necessary information. Customized algorithms are used to estimate the optimal track and interaction vertex parameters from this information in the presence of many different sources of error. This thesis covers both the development of new methods to further improve the tracking in particle detectors, and the evaluation of modern tracking and vertexing algorithms in an important experiment now under construction. The first part presents two new methods to improve the reconstruction of particle tracks by explicit estimation of the amount of material passed by the tracks. One is based on a linearised least-squares estimator, the other on the combination of a forward and a backward Kalman filter. There are two main scenarios where this could be useful in track reconstruction: a) A detailed description of the materials in the detector is available, but the track reconstruction uses a simplified model. The material estimation method could improve such a model. b) There is is a device with unknown material budget in the particle path. The method is based on a forward and a backward Kalman filter. It was validated with beam test data and was shown to lead to improved track fit results. The second part presents the work done as member of the software and tracking group of the future Belle⁓II experiment, currently built as an upgrade of the Belle detector at the KEK accelerator research facility in Japan. The author took part in the development of a new software framework that will be used to analyse the data of Belle⁓II. While large parts of the track and vertex fit algorithms were already implemented in the form of detector independent software libraries, they had to be interfaced with the new framework, tested, evaluated, and improved. It is demonstrated that for some examples relevant
Testing Quantum Mechanics and Bell's Inequality with Astronomical Observations
Friedman, Andrew S.; Gallicchio, Jason; Kaiser, David I.; Guth, Alan H.
2015-01-01
We propose an experiment which would leverage cosmology to test quantum mechanics using astronomical observations. Our experiment would send entangled photons to detectors over 100 kilometers apart, whose settings would be rapidly chosen using real-time telescopic observations of distant, causally disconnected, cosmic sources - such as pairs of quasars or patches of the Cosmic Microwave Background - all while the entangled pair is still in flight. This would, for the first time, close close the so-called "setting independence" or "free will" loophole in experimental tests of Bell's inequality, whereby an alternative theory could mimic the quantum predictions if the experimental settings choices shared even a small correlation with some local "hidden variables" due to unknown causal influences a mere few milliseconds prior to the experiment. Our "Cosmic Bell" experiment would push any such hidden variable conspiracy all the way back to the hot big bang, since the end of any period of inflation, 13.8 Gyr ago, an improvement of 20 orders of magnitude. We demonstrate the real world feasibility of our experimental setup. While causally disjoint patches of the cosmic microwave background radiation at redshift z ~ 1090 could be used to set the detectors, z > 3.65 quasars observed at optical wavelengths are arguably the optimal candidate source pairs using present technology. Our proposal is supported by some of the world's leading quantum experimentalists, who have begun to collaborate with us to conduct the experiment in the next 2-3 years using some of the instrumentation they have already built and used at two astronomical observatories in the Canary Islands. Such an experiment has implications for our understanding of nature at the deepest level. By testing quantum mechanics in a regime never before explored, we would at the very least extend our confidence in quantum theory, while at the same time severely constraining large classes of alternative theories. If the
The Clinical Study on Bell's Palsy Patients with TCD Measurement
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lee Hyun
2003-06-01
Full Text Available Objective : This study was carried to make out the connection between cerebral artery blood flow velocity and ischemic theory that presumed the cause of Bell's palsy. Method : We measured cerebral artery blood flow velocity each external carotid artery, internal carotid artery, common carotid artery, siphon, superficial temporal artery by TCD to 20 patients who diagnosed as facial nerve palsy from march 2001 to July 2001 and all objectives devided two groups as palsy side. A group is right side facial nerve palsy and B group is left facial nerve palsy. Results : 1. There is no effective change of blood flow in external carotid artery either A, B group. 2. There is no effective change of blood flow in internal carotid artery either A, B group. 3. There is no effective change of blood flow in common carotid artery either A, B group. 4. There is no effective change of blood flow in siphon artery either A, B group. 5. There is no effective change of blood flow in superficial temporal artery either A, B group.
Data Concentrator for the BELLE II DEPFET pixel detector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The innermost two layers of the BELLE II detector located at the KEK facility in Tsukuba, Japan, will be covered by high granularity DEPFET pixel (PXD) sensors. This leads to a high data rate of around 60 Gbps, which has to be significantly reduced by the Data Acquisition System. To perform the data reduction the hit information of the surrounding silicon strip detector (SVD) is used to define so-called Regions of Interest (ROI) and only hits inside these ROIs are saved. The ROIs are computed by reconstructing track segments from SVD data. A data reduction of up to a factor of 10 can be achieved this way. All the necessary processing stages, the receiving and multiplexing of the data on many optical links from the SVD, the track reconstruction and the definition of the ROIs, are performed by the Data Concentrator. The planned hardware design is based on a distributed set of Advanced Mezzanine Cards (AMC) each equipped with a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) chip. In this talk, the firmware development of the algorithms and the hardware implementation of the Data Concentrator are discussed. In addition, preliminary studies of track reconstruction algorithms, that could be used for FPGA-based tracking, are presented.
Health Monitoring Survey of Bell 412EP Transmissions
Tucker, Brian E.; Dempsey, Paula J.
2016-01-01
Health and usage monitoring systems (HUMS) use vibration-based Condition Indicators (CI) to assess the health of helicopter powertrain components. A fault is detected when a CI exceeds its threshold value. The effectiveness of fault detection can be judged on the basis of assessing the condition of actual components from fleet aircraft. The Bell 412 HUMS-equipped helicopter is chosen for such an evaluation. A sample of 20 aircraft included 12 aircraft with confirmed transmission and gearbox faults (detected by CIs) and eight aircraft with no known faults. The associated CI data is classified into "healthy" and "faulted" populations based on actual condition and these populations are compared against their CI thresholds to quantify the probability of false alarm and the probability of missed detection. Receiver Operator Characteristic analysis is used to optimize thresholds. Based on the results of the analysis, shortcomings in the classification method are identified for slow-moving CI trends. Recommendations for improving classification using time-dependent receiver-operator characteristic methods are put forth. Finally, lessons learned regarding OEM-operator communication are presented.
The Belle II PXD data acquisition and reduction system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lange, Soeren; Gessler, Thomas; Kuehn, Wolfgang; Muenchow, David; Spruck, Bjoern [Giessen Univ. (Germany). 2. Physikalisches Inst.; Lin, Haichuan; Liu, Zhen-An; Xu, Hao; Zhao, Jingzhou [IHEP Beijing (China); Collaboration: Belle II Collaboration
2013-07-01
The Belle II DEPFET pixel detector (PXD) will deliver high data rates of up to 21.6 Gbytes/s for 3% detector occupancy. Data of this high rate must be buffered for 5 seconds, corresponding to the HLT (High Level Trigger) latency, and then a region-of-interest (ROI) filter is applied to reduce the data rate by a factor of ≥10 by charged track extrapolation from other detectors (SVD, CDC). The PXD readout system is based upon ATCA (Advanced Telecommunications Architecture). The 3rd PCB iteration uses a concept with a xTCA carrier board (with a Virtex-4 FX60 FPGA for ATCA backplane routing) and 4 AMC modules (each with a Xilinx Virtex-5 FX70T FPGA). The FPGA firmware implementation comprises a receiver core for the high speed optical links (≤6.25 Gbps), a buffer management with lookup of ≤270.000 pointers/s, DDR2 memory write (native port interface, ≥1.5 Gbytes/s), Gigabit ethernet (UDP stack in VHDL) and a parallelized ROI selection algorithm. Test results of all the components are presented.
DEPFET Active Pixel Sensors for the Belle II Experiment
Vazquez, P
2010-01-01
DEPleted Field Effect Transistor (DEPFET) active pixel detectors combine a first amplification stage with a fully depleted sensor in one single device, resulting in a very good signal-to-noise ratio even for thin sensors. DEPFET pixels are produced in MOS technology with two metal and two poly-silicon layers and have been developed for the use in Xray imaging and tracking in particle physics experiments. The sensor concept will be presented and all aspects of operation will be detailed with the focus on its application at the upgraded detector Belle II under preparation for the high-luminosity upgrade of the e+e- KEKB collider in Japan. The stringent requirements on excellent spatial resolution can be met by cell sizes as small as 25x25 um2 and minimal material budget. The readout ASICs attached to the sensors will be described as well as the module design and the thinning technology employed to reduced the active sensor thickness to as little as 50 um. DEPFET prototype performance at lab and beam tests will ...
CP violation and mixing in charm decays at Belle
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ko, Byeong Rok [Korea University (Korea, Republic of)
2010-07-01
We have searched for CP violation of charmed mesons in the decays D {yields} K{sup 0}{sub S} P, where D denotes D{sup 0}, D{sup +} and D{sub s}{sup +}, and P denotes the pseudo-scalar mesons {pi}{sup +}, K{sup +}, {pi}{sup 0}, {eta} and {eta}'. No evidence of CP violation in these decays is observed. We have measured the CP asymmetry difference between the Cabibbo suppressed decay D{sup +} {yields} {phi} {pi}{sup +} and the Cabibbo favored D{sub s}{sup +} {yields} {phi} {pi}{sup +} decays. The measured asymmetry is corrected for the residual asymmetry due to detector effects, and the contributions of both CP and forward-backward asymmetries are determined. We also present a measurement of D{sup 0}-anti-D{sup 0} mixing parameters in three-body D{sup 0} decays using a time-dependent Dalitz plot analysis. These results are obtained on a large data sample collected at and near the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance with the Belle detector operating at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e{sup +} e{sup -} collider. (author)
Boundary scan test of Belle II pixel detector electronics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
For the upgrade of the Vertex Detector at the Belle II experiment, DEPFET sensors will be used. These sensors need Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) for control, readout and data processing. Because of high demands for a low material budget in the sensitive area, there is only little space left for these ASICs. Using state-of-the-art technologies like Ball Grid Array (BGA) chips, which are flip-chip mounted, the requirement of 14 ASICs on each of the 40 half ladders can be fulfilled. However, this highly integrated on-sensor ASIC solution results in a lack of physical access to the electrical connections, which is a problem for traditional testing methods. To overcome these limitations, the JTAG standard IEEE 1149.1 is used to check if the circuit is in working condition. This method provides electrical access to the boundary scan cells implemented in the ASICs. Therefore it is possible to perform connectivity tests and verify if the production of the circuit was successful.
Influence of agricultural practices on fruit quality of bell pepper.
Abu-Zahra, T R
2011-09-15
An experiment was carried out under plastic house conditions to compare the effect of four fermented organic matter sources (cattle, poultry and sheep manure in addition to 1:1:1 mixture of the three organic matter sources) in which 4 kg organic matter m(-2) were used, with that of the conventional agriculture (chemical fertilizers) treatments on Marvello red pepper fruit quality, by using a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replicates. Pepper fruits characteristics cultivated in soil supplemented with manure were generally better than those from plants grown in soil only. Addition of animal manure increased bell pepper fruit content of soluble solids, ascorbic acid, total phenols, crude fibre and intensity of red color as compare with conventional agriculture that produced fruits with higher titratable acidity, water content, lycopene and bigger fruit size. In most cases of animal manure treatments, best results were obtained by the sheep manure treatment that produced the highest TSS, while the worst results were obtained by the poultry manure treatment that produced the smallest fruit and lowest fruit lycopene content. PMID:22518928
Triassic leech cocoon from Antarctica contains fossil bell animal
Bomfleur, Benjamin; Kerp, Hans; Taylor, Thomas N.; Moestrup, Øjvind; Taylor, Edith L.
2012-12-01
Our understanding of the evolution of life on Earth is limited by the imperfection of the fossil record. One reason for this imperfect record is that organisms without hard parts, such as bones, shells, and wood, have a very low potential to enter the fossil record. Occasionally, however, exceptional fossil deposits that preserve soft-bodied organisms provide a rare glimpse of the true biodiversity during past periods of Earth history. We here present an extraordinary find of a fossil ciliate that is encased inside the wall layer of a more than 200 Ma leech cocoon from Antarctica. The microfossil consists of a helically contractile stalk that attaches to a main body with a peristomial feeding apparatus and a large C-shaped macronucleus. It agrees in every aspect with the living bell animals, such as Vorticella. Vorticellids and similar peritrichs are vital constituents of aquatic ecosystems worldwide, but so far have lacked any fossil record. This discovery offers a glimpse of ancient soft-bodied protozoan biotas, and also highlights the potential of clitellate cocoons as microscopic "conservation traps" comparable to amber.
Maximal non-classicality in multi-setting Bell inequalities
Tavakoli, Armin; Zohren, Stefan; Pawlowski, Marcin
2016-04-01
The discrepancy between maximally entangled states and maximally non-classical quantum correlations is well-known but still not well understood. We aim to investigate the relation between quantum correlations and entanglement in a family of Bell inequalities with N-settings and d outcomes. Using analytical as well as numerical techniques, we derive both maximal quantum violations and violations obtained from maximally entangled states. Furthermore, we study the most non-classical quantum states in terms of their entanglement entropy for large values of d and many measurement settings. Interestingly, we find that the entanglement entropy behaves very differently depending on whether N = 2 or N\\gt 2: when N = 2 the entanglement entropy is a monotone function of d and the most non-classical state is far from maximally entangled, whereas when N\\gt 2 the entanglement entropy is a non-monotone function of d and converges to that of the maximally entangled state in the limit of large d.
Quantum Dialogue with Authentication Based on Bell States
Shen, Dongsu; Ma, Wenping; Yin, Xunru; Li, Xiaoping
2013-06-01
We propose an authenticated quantum dialogue protocol, which is based on a shared private quantum entangled channel. In this protocol, the EPR pairs are randomly prepared in one of the four Bell states for communication. By performing four Pauli operations on the shared EPR pairs to encode their shared authentication key and secret message, two legitimate users can implement mutual identity authentication and quantum dialogue without the help from the third party authenticator. Furthermore, due to the EPR pairs which are used for secure communication are utilized to implement authentication and the whole authentication process is included in the direct secure communication process, it does not require additional particles to realize authentication in this protocol. The updated authentication key provides the counterparts with a new authentication key for the next authentication and direct communication. Compared with other secure communication with authentication protocols, this one is more secure and efficient owing to the combination of authentication and direct communication. Security analysis shows that it is secure against the eavesdropping attack, the impersonation attack and the man-in-the-middle (MITM) attack.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The whole reactor building is accommodated in a shaft and is sealed level with the earth's surface by a building ceiling, which provides protection against penetration due to external effects. The building ceiling is supported on walls of the reactor building, which line the shaft and transfer the vertical components of forces to the foundations. The thickness of the walls is designed to withstand horizontal pressure waves in the floor. The building ceiling has an opening above the reactor, which must be closed by cover plates. Operating equipment for the reactor can be situated above the building ceiling. (orig./HP)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The microscopic study of a cell is meant for the determination of the infinite multiplication factor of the cell, which is given by the four factor formula: K(infinite) = n(epsilon)pf. The analysis of an homogeneous reactor is similar to that of an heterogeneous reactor, but each factor of the four factor formula can not be calculated by the formulas developed in the case of an homogeneous reactor. A great number of methods was developed for the calculation of heterogeneous reactors and some of them are discussed. (Author)
An Analysis of Psychological Healthy Status in Patients with Bell's Palsy%Bell's面瘫患者心理健康状况研究
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
魏佳军; 章军建; 黄朝云
2005-01-01
目的探讨Bell's面瘫患者的心理健康状况及其相应对策.方法采用症状自评量表(Symptom Checklist 90, SCL-90)对39例Bell's面瘫患者进行测试,与中提供的常模进行比较,并且将39例患者分不同性别、不同年龄组进行比较.结果 SCL-90测试显示Bell's面瘫患者在焦虑、人际关系、躯体化因子均分 (分别为1.54±0.28、1.81±0.32、1.48±0.32)皆高于国内常模(P45岁组(P<0.05).结论 Bell's面瘫患者存在心理健康问题,不同性别、年龄患者的心理健康状况严重程度不同,应采用心理干预、药物及康复等综合性治疗对策.
The Bell-LaPadula Formal Model for Secure Computer Systems%安全计算机系统的Bell-LaPadula形式化模型
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王贵林; 卿斯汉; 倪惜珍; 冯登国
2001-01-01
In this paper,the Bell-LaPadula formal model for secure computer systems is introduced,and the key theoretical results are proved. In addition, we also point out that the sufficient and necessary condition,given by reference[11], for secure information system is wrong. Exploiting a new concept,the correct sufficient and necessary condition is presented.
Molina Mansilla, Ricardo; Erra Serrabasa, Pilar; Bertrán Serra, Enric
2008-01-01
[EN] A plasma reactor that can operate in a wide pressure range, from vacuum and low pressures to atmospheric pressure and higher pressures. The plasma reactor is also able to regulate other important settings and can be used for processing a wide range of different samples, such as relatively large samples or samples with rough surfaces.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Progress in research on reactor physics in 1997 at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN is described. Activities in the following four domains are discussed: core physics, ex-core neutron transport, experiments in Materials Testing Reactors, international benchmarks
CP violation measurements in B mesons at Belle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present recent measurements of time-dependent CP asymmetries in two neutral B decay modes: B0 → η'K0 and B0 → ωK°S. The measured values of mixing-induced (sin 2φ1eff) and direct CP violation parameters are: Sη'Ko = +0.68 ± 0.07stat ± 0.03syst, Aη'K0 = +0.03 ± 0.05stat ± 0.04syst and SωK0S = +0.91 ± 0.32stat ± 0.05syst, AωK0S = -0.36 ± 0.19stat ± 0.05syst, respectively. These results are fully consistent with the current world average of sin 2φ1 measured in b → c c-bar s transitions, and represent the most accurate measurements in these modes up-to- date. In addition, we present a new preliminary update on branching ratio measurement in B0 → π0π0 decay mode, the result of which: B(B0 → π0π0) = (0.90 ± 0.12stat ± 0.10syst) × 10−6 represents an important ingredient in a ππSU(2) isospin analysis, used to experimentally extract φ2 angle from B → ππ measurements. To obtain CP violation parameters (B(B0 → π0π0)) the final data set of 772 × 106 (751.5 × 106) B B-bar pairs collected at the Υ(4S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric e+e− collider in Japan (3.5 × 8.0GeV) is used
Bell Canyon Test (BCT) cement grout development report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Development of the cement grout for the Bell Canyon Test was accomplished at the US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES), Vicksburg, Mississippi. Initial development work centered on a saltwater grout with Class H cement, fly ash, and an expansive additive. Testing of the saltwater grout showed suitable properties except for the interface between anhydrite rock and grout in small core samples. Higher than expected permeability occurred at the interface because of space between the grout and the anhydrite; the space was produced as a result of allowing the specimens to dry. A change to freshwater grout and proper care to prevent the specimens from drying alleviated this condition. The BCT-1FF freshwater grout mixture was used in both the plug ONE and ONEX field grouting operations. Testing of the development grout mixtures was also done at Dowell, Pennsylvania State University, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Results of the testing and evaluation by the four laboratories are included in the report. Field batching, mixing, and placement of the grout at the plug locations for both plug ONE and ONEX were satisfactory with adequate quality control. The freshwater grout mixture maintained adequate flow characteristics for pumpability for 3 1/2 h during each of the two field operations. Physical property and expansivity data for the field samples through 90 days' age are in general agreement with laboratory development data. A large number of samples were obtained for inclusion in the long-term durability studies and the geochemical programs. The high-density, low water-cement ratio expansive grout (BCT-1FF) is considered to be an excellent candidate for plugging boreholes at most locations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Robert J Ihry
Full Text Available Steroid hormones act, through their respective nuclear receptors, to regulate target gene expression. Despite their critical role in development, physiology, and disease, however, it is still unclear how these systemic cues are refined into tissue-specific responses. We identified a mutation in the evolutionarily conserved DEAD box RNA helicase belle/DDX3 that disrupts a subset of responses to the steroid hormone ecdysone during Drosophila melanogaster metamorphosis. We demonstrate that belle directly regulates translation of E74A, an ets transcription factor and critical component of the ecdysone-induced transcriptional cascade. Although E74A mRNA accumulates to abnormally high levels in belle mutant tissues, no E74A protein is detectable, resulting in misregulation of E74A-dependent ecdysone response genes. The accumulation of E74A mRNA in belle mutant salivary glands is a result of auto-regulation, fulfilling a prediction made by Ashburner nearly 40 years ago. In this model, Ashburner postulates that, in addition to regulating secondary response genes, protein products of primary response genes like E74A also inhibit their own ecdysone-induced transcription. Moreover, although ecdysone-triggered transcription of E74A appears to be ubiquitous during metamorphosis, belle-dependent translation of E74A mRNA is spatially restricted. These results demonstrate that translational control plays a critical, and previously unknown, role in refining transcriptional responses to the steroid hormone ecdysone.
Proposed Flight Research of a Dual-Bell Rocket Nozzle Using the NASA F-15 Airplane
Jones, Daniel S.; Bui, Trong T.; Ruf, Joseph H.
2013-01-01
For more than a half-century, several types of altitude-compensating rocket nozzles have been proposed and analyzed, but very few have been adequately tested in a relevant flight environment. One type of altitude-compensating nozzle is the dual-bell rocket nozzle, which was first introduced into literature in 1949. Despite the performance advantages that have been predicted, both analytically and through static test data, the dual-bell nozzle has still not been adequately tested in a relevant flight environment. This paper proposes a method for conducting testing and research with a dual-bell rocket nozzle in a flight environment. We propose to leverage the existing NASA F-15 airplane and Propulsion Flight Test Fixture as the flight testbed, with the dual-bell nozzle operating during captive-carried flights, and with the nozzle subjected to a local flow field similar to that of a launch vehicle. The primary objective of this effort is not only to advance the technology readiness level of the dual-bell nozzle, but also to gain a greater understanding of the nozzle mode transitional sensitivity to local flow-field effects, and to quantify the performance benefits with this technology. The predicted performance benefits are significant, and may result in reducing the cost of delivering payloads to low-Earth orbit.
Hagstrum, J.T.; Sawyer, D.A.
1989-01-01
Late Cretaceous ash flow volcanism in the Silver Bell Mountains of southern Arizona (32.3??N, 248.5??E) was associated with caldera formation and porphyry copper mineralization. Oriented samples from 34 sites in volcanic, volcaniclastic, and intrusive units related to this episode of igneous activity (73-69 Ma) yield a mean paleomagnetic direction of (I = 61.2??, D = 24.0??, ??95 = 7.6??. Previously determined paleomagnetic data for southeastern Arizona suggest that this apparent clockwise rotation in the Silver Bell Mountains is a local phenomenon. Although preliminary, the average paleomagnetic direction for Oligocene and lower Miocene rocks in the Silver Bell area (I = 43.8??, D = 357.3??, ??95 = 16.5??) is similar to that calculated for stable North America (I = 50.2??, D = 352.2??, ??95 = 3.9??), implying that the observed rotation in the Silver Bell Mountains occurred before 26 Ma and was most likely associated with dextral strike-slip movement along the Ragged Top and related WNW trending faults bounding the Silver Bell Mountain block. These data, in conjunction with plate reconstructions and other paleomagnetic data from southwestern North America, imply that WNW trending strike-slip faults may have played an important role during Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary deformation in southern Arizona. -Authors
Characterizing entanglement of an artificial atom and a cavity cat state with Bell's inequality.
Vlastakis, Brian; Petrenko, Andrei; Ofek, Nissim; Sun, Luyan; Leghtas, Zaki; Sliwa, Katrina; Liu, Yehan; Hatridge, Michael; Blumoff, Jacob; Frunzio, Luigi; Mirrahimi, Mazyar; Jiang, Liang; Devoret, M H; Schoelkopf, R J
2015-01-01
The Schrodinger's cat thought experiment highlights the counterintuitive concept of entanglement in macroscopically distinguishable systems. The hallmark of entanglement is the detection of strong correlations between systems, most starkly demonstrated by the violation of a Bell inequality. No violation of a Bell inequality has been observed for a system entangled with a superposition of coherent states, known as a cat state. Here we use the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt formulation of a Bell test to characterize entanglement between an artificial atom and a cat state, or a Bell-cat. Using superconducting circuits with high-fidelity measurements and real-time feedback, we detect correlations that surpass the classical maximum of the Bell inequality. We investigate the influence of decoherence with states up to 16 photons in size and characterize the system by introducing joint Wigner tomography. Such techniques demonstrate that information stored in superpositions of coherent states can be extracted efficiently, a crucial requirement for quantum computing with resonators. PMID:26611724
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weyl's Gauge Principle of 1929 has been used to establish Weyl's Quantum Principle (WQP) that requires that the Weyl scale factor should be unity. It has been shown that the WQP requires the following: quantum mechanics must be used to determine system states; the electrostatic potential must be non-singular and quantified; interactions between particles with different electric charges (i.e. electron and proton) do not obey Newton's Third Law at sub-nuclear separations, and nuclear particles may be much different than expected using the standard model. The above WQP requirements lead to a potential fusion reactor wherein deuterium nuclei are preferentially fused into helium nuclei. Because the deuterium nuclei are preferentially fused into helium nuclei at temperatures and energies lower than specified by the standard model there is no harmful radiation as a byproduct of this fusion process. Therefore, a reactor using this reaction does not need any shielding to contain such radiation. The energy released from each reaction and the absence of shielding makes the deuterium-plus-deuterium-to-helium (DDH) reactor very compact when compared to other reactors, both fission and fusion types. Moreover, the potential energy output per reactor weight and the absence of harmful radiation makes the DDH reactor an ideal candidate for space power. The logic is summarized by which the WQP requires the above conditions that make the prediction of DDH possible. The details of the DDH reaction will be presented along with the specifics of why the DDH reactor may be made to cause two deuterium nuclei to preferentially fuse to a helium nucleus. The presentation will also indicate the calculations needed to predict the reactor temperature as a function of fuel loading, reactor size, and desired output and will include the progress achieved to date
Reply to Gillis's "On the Analysis of Bell's 1964 Paper by Wiseman, Cavalcanti, and Rieffel"
Wiseman, Howard M; Cavalcanti, Eric G
2016-01-01
We address Gillis' recent criticism [arXiv:1506.05795] of a series of papers (by different combinations of the present authors) on formulations of Bell's theorem. Those papers intended to address an unfortunate gap of communication between two broad camps in the quantum foundations community that we identify as "operationalists" and "realists". Here, we once again urge the readers to approach the question from an unbiased standpoint, and explain that Gillis' criticism draws too heavily on the philosophical inclinations of one side of that debate -- the realist camp. As part of that explanation we discuss intuition versus proof, look again at Bell's formalizations of locality, and correct misstatements by Gillis of our views, and those of Bell and Einstein.
Characterization of 14th century bell-casting pit in the Old Town of Sibiu
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this work we have made an analytical investigation by neutron activation analysis and X-ray fluorescence of a number of pieces found on the two hearths for smelting copper-alloys discovered at the Old Town Hall in Sibiu and of material extracted from some bells in the surrounding region of Sibiu to find whether there is a relationship between the two hearths. The elemental analyses of this study suggest a relationship between the two hearths and revealed by the traces preserved that the hearths developed an activity of allowing copper with tin. It was found that the copper-tin alloy for casting bells has the same composition with the alloys used in the analyzed Transylvanian bells
Intrinsic asymmetry with respect to adversary: a new feature of Bell inequalities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is known that the local bound of a Bell inequality is sensitive to the knowledge of the external observer about the settings statistics. Here we ask how that sensitivity depends on the structure of that knowledge. It turns out that in some cases it may happen that the local bound is much more sensitive to the adversary's knowledge about the settings of one party than the other. Remarkably, there are Bell inequalities which are highly asymmetric with respect to the adversary's knowledge about local settings. This property may be viewed as a hidden intrinsic asymmetry of Bell inequalities. Potential implications of the revealed asymmetry effect are also discussed. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell’s theorem’. (paper)
Constrained Ordination Analysis with Enrichment of Bell-Shaped Response Functions.
Zhang, Yingjie; Thas, Olivier
2016-01-01
Constrained ordination methods aims at finding an environmental gradient along which the species abundances are maximally separated. The species response functions, which describe the expected abundance as a function of the environmental score, are according to the ecological fundamental niche theory only meaningful if they are bell-shaped. Many classical model-based ordination methods, however, use quadratic regression models without imposing the bell-shape and thus allowing for meaningless U-shaped response functions. The analysis output (e.g. a biplot) may therefore be potentially misleading and the conclusions are prone to errors. In this paper we present a log-likelihood ratio criterion with a penalisation term to enforce more bell-shaped response shapes. We report the results of a simulation study and apply our method to metagenomics data from microbial ecology. PMID:27100464
Testing Bell's Inequality with Cosmic Photons: Closing the Settings-Independence Loophole
Gallicchio, Jason; Kaiser, David I
2013-01-01
We propose a practical scheme to use photons from causally disconnected cosmic sources to set the detectors in an experimental test of Bell's inequality. In current experiments, detector settings are determined by local quantum random number generators. In such experiments, only a small amount of correlation between detector settings and some local hidden variables, established less than a millisecond before each experimental run, would suffice to mimic the predictions of quantum mechanics. By setting the detectors using cosmic sources instead, observed violations of Bell's inequality in our proposed "Cosmic Bell" experiment would require any such coordination to have been in place for billions of years rather than milliseconds -- an improvement of 20 orders of magnitude. Quasar pairs can be used as real-time triggers to establish detector settings using existing technology. For quasars on opposite sides of the sky with redshifts z > 3.65, there is no event after the hot big bang 13.8 billion years ago (follo...
Violation of fair sampling for Bell inequalities with high-dimensional systems
Dada, Adetunmise C
2011-01-01
The fair sampling or detection loophole for Bell inequalities is often understood as mainly relating to the overall efficiency of the detectors used in an experiment. For certain kinds of postselection, the fair sampling condition may however be violated in much more intricate ways. We argue that this is especially relevant for experimental Bell tests in high dimensions, including experimental tests using the orbital angular momentum of light. Here, the fair sampling assumption may be violated even if the measurements have perfect efficiency within the tested subspaces. An experiment will measure count rates rather than probabilities for outcomes to occur, and if the different measurement settings on a subsystem are not correctly chosen, this may lead to apparent violation of Bell inequalities for separable states, and violation of Tsirelson's bound for entangled states.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A common problem in Bell-type experiments is the well-known detection loophole: if the detection efficiencies are not perfect and if one simply postselects the conclusive events, one might observe a violation of a Bell inequality, even though a local model could have explained the experimental results. In this paper, we analyze the set of all postselected correlations that can be explained by a local model, and show that it forms a polytope, larger than the Bell local polytope. We characterize the facets of this postselected local polytope in the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt scenario, where two parties have binary inputs and outcomes. Our approach gives interesting insights on the detection loophole problem.
Detection Loophole in Bell experiments: How post-selected local correlations can look non-local
Branciard, Cyril
2010-01-01
A common problem in Bell type experiments is the well-known detection loophole: if the detection efficiencies are not perfect and if one simply post-selects the conclusive events, one might observe a violation of a Bell inequality, even though a local model could have explained the experimental results. In this paper, we analyze the set of all post-selected correlations that can be explained by a local model, and show that it forms a polytope, larger than the Bell local polytope. We characterize the facets of this post-selected local polytope in the CHSH scenario, where two parties have binary inputs and outcomes. Our approach gives new insights on the detection loophole problem.
Post-Selection Loophole-Free Bell Test over an Installed Optical Fiber Network
Carvacho, Gonzalo; Saavedra, Gabriel; Cuevas, Álvaro; Fuenzalida, Jorge; Toledo, Felipe; Figueroa, Miguel; Cabello, Adán; Larsson, Jan-Åke; Mataloni, Paolo; Lima, Gustavo; Xavier, Guilherme B
2015-01-01
Device-independent (DI) quantum communication will require a loophole-free violation of Bell inequalities. In typical scenarios where line-of-sight between the communicating parties is not available, it is convenient to use energy-time entangled photons due to intrinsic robustness while propagating over optical fibers. Here we show an energy-time Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt Bell inequality violation with two parties separated by 3.7 km over the deployed optical fiber network belonging to the University of Concepci\\'on in Chile. Remarkably, this violation is free of the post-selection loophole affecting all previous in-field long-distance energy-time experiments. Our work takes a further step towards a fiber-based loophole-free Bell test, which is highly desired for secure quantum communication due to the widespread existing telecommunication infrastructure.
Ion-Photon Entanglement and Bell Inequality Violation with 138Ba+
Auchter, Carolyn; Noel, Thomas W; Blinov, Boris B
2013-01-01
We report on the demonstration of ion-photon entanglement and Bell inequality violation in a system of trapped 138Ba+ ions. Entanglement between the Zeeman sublevels of the ground state of a single 138Ba+ ion and the polarization state of a single 493 nm photon emitted by the ion with a fidelity of $0.84\\pm0.01$ was achieved, along with a Bell signal of 2.3, exceeding the classical limit of 2 by over eight standard deviations. This system is a promising candidate for a loophole-free Bell inequality violation test as the wavelengths of the transitions of 138Ba+ are in the visible region and thus suitable for long range transmission over fiber optic cable.
Large violation of Bell inequalities using both particle and wave measurements
Cavalcanti, Daniel; Skrzypczyk, Paul; Salles, Alejo; Scarani, Valerio
2010-01-01
When separated measurements on entangled quantum systems are performed, the theory pre- dicts correlations that cannot be explained by any classical mechanism: communication is excluded because the signal should travel faster than light; pre-established agreement is excluded because Bell inequalities are violated. All optical demonstrations of such violations have involved discrete degrees of freedom and are plagued by the detection-efficiency loophole. A promising alternative is to use continuous variables combined with highly efficient homodyne measurements. However, all the schemes proposed so far use states or measurements that are extremely difficult to achieve, or produce very weak violations. In this paper we show that large violations for feasible states can be achieved if both photon counting and homodyne detections are used. Our scheme may lead to the first violation of Bell inequalities using continuous-variable measurements and pave the way for a loophole-free Bell test.
Violation of a temporal Bell inequality for single spins in solid by over 50 standard deviations
Waldherr, G; Huelga, S F; Jelezko, F; Wrachtrup, J
2011-01-01
Quantum non-locality has been experimentally investigated by testing different forms of Bell's inequality, yet a loophole-free realization has not been achieved up to now. Much less explored are temporal Bell inequalities, which are not subject to the locality assumption, but impose a constrain on the system's time-correlations. In this paper, we report on the experimental violation of a temporal Bell's inequality using a nitrogen vacancy defect (NV) in diamond and provide a novel quantitative test of quantum coherence. We therefore present a new technique to initialize the electronic state of the NV with high fidelity, a necessary requirement for reliable quantum information processing and/or the implementation of protocols for quantum metrology.
Constrained Ordination Analysis with Enrichment of Bell-Shaped Response Functions
Zhang, Yingjie; Thas, Olivier
2016-01-01
Constrained ordination methods aims at finding an environmental gradient along which the species abundances are maximally separated. The species response functions, which describe the expected abundance as a function of the environmental score, are according to the ecological fundamental niche theory only meaningful if they are bell-shaped. Many classical model-based ordination methods, however, use quadratic regression models without imposing the bell-shape and thus allowing for meaningless U-shaped response functions. The analysis output (e.g. a biplot) may therefore be potentially misleading and the conclusions are prone to errors. In this paper we present a log-likelihood ratio criterion with a penalisation term to enforce more bell-shaped response shapes. We report the results of a simulation study and apply our method to metagenomics data from microbial ecology. PMID:27100464
Bell's inequality and extremal non-local box from Hardy's test for non-locality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bell showed 50 years ago that quantum theory is non-local via his celebrated inequalities, turning the issue of quantum non-locality from a matter of taste into a matter of test. Years later, Hardy proposed a test for non-locality without inequality, which is a kind of ‘something-versus-nothing’ argument. Hardy's test for n particles induces an n-partite Bell's inequality with two dichotomic local measurements for each observer, which has been shown to be violated by all entangled pure states. Our first result is to show that the Bell–Hardy inequality arising form Hardy's non-locality test is tight for an arbitrary number of parties, i.e., it defines a facet of the Bell polytope in the given scenario. On the other hand quantum theory is not that non-local since it forbids signaling and even not as non-local as allowed by non-signaling conditions, i.e., quantum mechanical predictions form a strict subset of the so called non-signaling polytope. In the scenario of each observer measuring two dichotomic observables, Fritz established a duality between the Bell polytope and the non-signaling polytope: tight Bell's inequalities, the facets of the Bell polytope, are in a one-to-one correspondence with extremal non-signaling boxes, the vertices of the non-signaling polytope. Our second result is to provide an alternative and more direct formula for this duality. As an example, the tight Bell–Hardy inequality gives rise to an extremal non-signaling box that serves as a natural multipartite generalization of Popescu–Rohrlich box. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell’s theorem’. (paper)
2013-11-15
... FR 42930, 7-18-2013). The FTZ Board has determined that no further review of the activity is... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Subzone 114F, Authorization of Production Activity, Easton-Bell Sports, Inc., (Sports Equipment), Rantoul, Illinois On June 27, 2013, Easton-Bell Sports, Inc. submitted a...
Jones, Daniel S.; Ruf, Joseph H.; Bui, Trong T.; Martinez, Martel; St. John, Clinton W.
2014-01-01
The dual-bell rocket nozzle was first proposed in 1949, offering a potential improvement in rocket nozzle performance over the conventional-bell nozzle. Despite the performance advantages that have been predicted, both analytically and through static test data, the dual-bell nozzle has still not been adequately tested in a relevant flight environment. In 2013 a proposal was constructed that offered a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) F-15 airplane as the flight testbed, with the plan to operate a dual-bell rocket nozzle during captive-carried flight. If implemented, this capability will permit nozzle operation into an external flow field similar to that of a launch vehicle, and facilitate an improved understanding of dual-bell nozzle plume sensitivity to external flow-field effects. More importantly, this flight testbed can be utilized to help quantify the performance benefit with the dual-bell nozzle, as well as to advance its technology readiness level. Toward this ultimate goal, this report provides plans for future flights to quantify the external flow field of the airplane near the nozzle experiment, as well as details on the conceptual design for the dual-bell nozzle cold-flow propellant feed system integration within the NASA F-15 Propulsion Flight Test Fixture. The current study shows that this concept of flight research is feasible, and could result in valuable flight data for the dual-bell nozzle.
Radler, Gary A.; And Others
1982-01-01
Bell and pad intervention to treat enuresis in a 21-year-old mildly mentally retarded male is reported. Enuresis was not significantly reduced after 22 weeks of standard bell and pad treatment. Therapist involvement in the program was deemphasized to offset the possibility that therapist visits were reinforcing wet nights. (Author/SW)
2013-02-28
... Energy Regulatory Commission L.E. Bell Construction Company, Inc.; Notice of Termination of Exemption by.... Exemptee: L.E. Bell Construction Company, Inc. e. Name and Location of Project: The Tallapoosa River... Construction Company, Inc., 1226 County Road 11, Heflin, AL, 36264. h. FERC Contact: Krista Sakallaris...
Near-complete polarization Bell-state analysis based on symmetry-broken scheme with linear optics
Kong, Ling-Jun; Si, Yu; Liu, Rui; Tu, Chenghou; Wang, Hui-Tian
2015-01-01
Bell-state analysis is a considerable challenge and an essential requirement for reliable implementation of quantum communication proposals. An open question is the one for the maximal fraction of successful Bell measurements. It has been pointed out that no scheme using only linear elements can implement a Bell state analyzer. Some effort has paid attention to the complete polarization-entangled Bell-state analysis using linear optics, with the aid of auxiliary means. Here we present a symmetry-broken scheme with linear optics only, without any aid of other auxiliary means, for discriminating polarization-entangled Bell states. Although our scheme is unable of realizing complete Bell-state measurement for less photon-pairs situation, it can deterministically identify four Bell states with success probabilities beyond 99.2% provided that photon-pairs are not less than 8. Our scheme as a significant breakthrough is simpler and feasible with respect to the current technology for the near-complete Bell-state ana...
Leonardo, Zeus; Harris, Angela P.
2013-01-01
Derrick Bell's pronouncement and challenge that racism is likely permanent has captured the imagination of Critical Race Theorists in education. Equally important are his ideas about living with the concrete conditions of racism. This article focuses on a tension within Bell's work. On the one hand, his writings are characterized by a…
Anderson, H.L.
1960-09-20
A nuclear reactor is described comprising fissionable material dispersed in graphite blocks, helium filling the voids of the blocks and the spaces therebetween, and means other than the helium in thermal conductive contact with the graphite for removing heat.
Miller, H.I.; Smith, R.C.
1958-01-21
This patent relates to nuclear reactors of the type which use a liquid fuel, such as a solution of uranyl sulfate in ordinary water which acts as the moderator. The reactor is comprised of a spherical vessel having a diameter of about 12 inches substantially surrounded by a reflector of beryllium oxide. Conventionnl control rods and safety rods are operated in slots in the reflector outside the vessel to control the operation of the reactor. An additional means for increasing the safety factor of the reactor by raising the ratio of delayed neutrons to prompt neutrons, is provided and consists of a soluble sulfate salt of beryllium dissolved in the liquid fuel in the proper proportion to obtain the result desired.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This draft chart contains graphical symbols from which the type of (nuclear) reactor can be seen. They will serve as illustrations for graphical sketches. Important features of the individual reactor types are marked out graphically. The user can combine these symbols to characterize a specific reactor type. The basic graphical symbol is a square with a point in the centre. Functional groups can be depicted for closer specification. If two functional groups are not clearly separated, this is symbolized by a dotted line or a channel. Supply and discharge lines for coolant, moderator and fuel are specified in accordance with DIN 2481 and can be further specified by additional symbols if necessary. The examples in the paper show several different reactor types. (orig./AK)
Prednisolone and acupuncture in Bell's palsy: study protocol for a randomized, controlled trial
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wang Kangjun
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background There are a variety of treatment options for Bell's palsy. Evidence from randomized controlled trials indicates corticosteroids can be used as a proven therapy for Bell's palsy. Acupuncture is one of the most commonly used methods to treat Bell's palsy in China. Recent studies suggest that staging treatment is more suitable for Bell's palsy, according to different path-stages of this disease. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of prednisolone and staging acupuncture in the recovery of the affected facial nerve, and to verify whether prednisolone in combination with staging acupuncture is more effective than prednisolone alone for Bell's palsy in a large number of patients. Methods/Design In this article, we report the design and protocol of a large sample multi-center randomized controlled trial to treat Bell's palsy with prednisolone and/or acupuncture. In total, 1200 patients aged 18 to 75 years within 72 h of onset of acute, unilateral, peripheral facial palsy will be assessed. There are six treatment groups, with four treated according to different path-stages and two not. These patients are randomly assigned to be in one of the following six treatment groups, i.e. 1 placebo prednisolone group, 2 prednisolone group, 3 placebo prednisolone plus acute stage acupuncture group, 4 prednisolone plus acute stage acupuncture group, 5 placebo prednisolone plus resting stage acupuncture group, 6 prednisolone plus resting stage acupuncture group. The primary outcome is the time to complete recovery of facial function, assessed by Sunnybrook system and House-Brackmann scale. The secondary outcomes include the incidence of ipsilateral pain in the early stage of palsy (and the duration of this pain, the proportion of patients with severe pain, the occurrence of synkinesis, facial spasm or contracture, and the severity of residual facial symptoms during the study period. Discussion The result of this trial will assess the
Bell's palsy and choreiform movements during peginterferon α and ribavirin therapy
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Sener Barut; Hatice Karaer; Erol Oksuz; Asl Gündodu Eken; Ayse Nazl Basak
2009-01-01
Neuropsychiatric side effects of long-term recombinant interferon-α therapy consist of a large spectrum of symptoms. In the literature, cranial neuropathy, especially Bell's palsy, and movement disorders, have been reported much less often than other neurotoxic effects. We report a case of Bell's palsy in a patient with chronic hepatitis C during peginterferon-α and ribavirin therapy. The patient subsequently developed clinically inapparent facial nerve involvement on the contralateral side and showed an increase in choreic movements related to Huntington's disease during treatment.
Result of MHI 2-Cell Seamless Dumb-Bell Cavity Vertical Test
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Okihira, K. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd, Mihara, Hiroshima, 729-0393, Japan; Hara, H. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd, Mihara, Hiroshima, 729-0393, Japan; Ikeda, N. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd, Mihara, Hiroshima, 729-0393, Japan; Inoue, F. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd, Mihara, Hiroshima, 729-0393, Japan; Sennyu, K. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd, Mihara, Hiroshima, 729-0393, Japan; Geng, Rongli [JLAB; Rimmer, Robert A. [JLAB; Kako, E. [KEK
2014-12-01
MHI have supplied several 9-cell cavities for STF (R&D of ILC project at KEK) and have been considering production method for stable quality and cost reduction, seamless dumb-bell cavity was one of them. We had fabricated a 2 cell seamless dumb-bell cavity for cost reduction and measured RF performance in collaboration with JLab, KEK and MHI. Surface treatment recipe for ILC was applied for MHI 2-cell cavity and vertical test was performed at JLab. The cavity reached Eacc=32.4MV/m after BCP and EP. Details of the result are reported.
A 144-channel HAPD for the Aerogel RICH at Belle II
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Korpar, S., E-mail: samo.korpar@ijs.si [University of Maribor (Slovenia); Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Adachi, I. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Hamada, N. [Toho University (Japan); Higuchi, M. [Tokyo University of Science, Tokyo (Japan); Iijima, T. [Nagoya University (Japan); Iwata, S.; Kakuno, H. [Tokyo Metropolitan University (Japan); Kawai, H. [Chiba University (Japan); Križan, P. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Nishida, S. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Ogawa, S. [Toho University (Japan); Pestotnik, R.; Šantelj, L.; Stanovnik, A.; Seljak, A. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Sumiyoshi, T. [Tokyo University of Science, Tokyo (Japan); Tabata, M. [Chiba University (Japan); Tahirovič, E. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Yoshida, K. [Tokyo Metropolitan University (Japan); Yusa, Y. [Niigata University (Japan)
2014-12-01
A hybrid photo-detector (HAPD) has been developed for the aerogel RICH (ARICH) of the Belle II experiment. In the present contribution we report the performance tests in magnetic fields, results of the neutron and gamma irradiation studies, and of aging tests. We also review the production status and plans. - Highlights: • A novel 144-channel hybrid photo-detector (HAPD) has been developed and tested. • Th sensor will be employed in the aerogel RICH (ARICH) detector of the Belle II experiment. • The sensor shows excellent perfomance in beam tests and tests in magnetic fields. • The sensor shows good tolerance to neutron and gamma irradiation and light exposure.
Estudio acústico del Teatro de Cámara de City Bell
Basso, Gustavo Jorge; Farina, María Andrea; Jaureguiberry, Luis Federico; Cingolani, Juan Manuel; Szelagowski, Pablo E. M.
2010-01-01
El Teatro de Cámara de City Bell fue inaugurado en marzo de 2003. Diseñado por el Arq. Manuel Cortés junto a Sebastián Cortés, es una construcción de 300 m2 que se ubica en Diagonal Urquiza Nro. 347, City Bell, La Plata. El proyecto fue una iniciativa de Juan Carlos Carassale, quien junto a su familia decidió realizar este emprendimiento abierto a la comunidad que es administrado por la asociación sin fines de lucro "Lumen Artis" integrada por vecinos de la zona. La sala ha sido diseñada para...
Entangled-state generation and Bell inequality violations in nanomechanical resonators
Johansson, J. Robert; Lambert, Neill; Mahboob, Imran; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Nori, Franco
2014-11-01
We investigate theoretically the conditions under which a multimode nanomechanical resonator, operated as a purely mechanical parametric oscillator, can be driven into highly nonclassical states. We find that when the device can be cooled to near its ground state, and certain mode matching conditions are satisfied, it is possible to prepare distinct resonator modes in quantum entangled states that violate Bell inequalities with homodyne quadrature measurements. We analyze the parameter regimes for such Bell inequality violations, and while experimentally challenging, we believe that the realization of such states lies within reach. This is a re-imagining of a quintessential quantum optics experiment by using phonons that represent tangible mechanical vibrations.
Multicomponent Bell inequality and its violation for continuous-variable systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Multicomponent correlation functions are developed by utilizing d-outcome measurements. Based on multicomponent correlation functions, we propose a Bell inequality for bipartite d-dimensional systems. Violation of the Bell inequality for continuous-variable (CV) systems is investigated. The violation of maximally entangled states can exceed the Cirel'son bound; the maximal violation is 2.969 81. For finite values of the squeezing parameter, the violation strength of CV states increases with dimension d. Numerical results show that the violation strength of CV states with finite squeezing parameters is stronger than that of maximally entangled states
Approach to training the trainer at the Bell System Training Center
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The major activity of the Bell System Training Center is to develop and deliver technical training. Experts in various technical areas are selected as course developers or instructors, usually on rotational assignments. Through a series of workshops, described in this paper, combined with coaching, use of job aids and working with more experienced peers, they become competent developers or instructors. There may be similarities between the mission of the Bell System Training Center and other contexts where criticality of job performance and technical subject matter are training characteristics
Kiess, Thomas E.; Shih, Yan-Hua; Sergienko, A. V.; Alley, Carroll O.
1994-01-01
We report a new two-photon polarization correlation experiment for realizing the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm (EPRB) state and for testing Bell-type inequalities. We use the pair of orthogonally-polarized light quanta generated in Type 2 parametric down conversion. Using 1 nm interference filters in front of our detectors, we observe from the output of a 0.5mm beta - BaB2O4 (BBO) crystal the EPRB correlations in coincidence counts, and measure an associated Bell inequality violation of 22 standard deviations. The quantum state of the photon pair is a polarization analog of the spin-1/2 singlet state.
Proposal for a loophole-free Bell test using homodyne detection
Sanchez, R. Garcia-Patron; Fiurasek, J.; Cerf, N. J.; Wenger, Jérôme; Tualle-Brouri, Rosa; Grangier, Philippe
2004-01-01
We propose a feasible optical setup allowing for a loophole-free Bell test with efficient homodyne detection. A non-gaussian entangled state is generated from a two-mode squeezed vacuum by subtracting a single photon from each mode, using beamsplitters and standard low-efficiency single-photon detectors. A Bell violation exceeding 1% is achievable with 6-dB squeezed light and an homodyne efficiency around 95%. A detailed feasibility analysis, based upon the recent generation of single-mode no...
Postselection-Loophole-Free Bell Test Over an Installed Optical Fiber Network
Carvacho, Gonzalo; Carine, Jaime; Saavedra, Gabriel; Cuevas, Alvaro; Fuenzalida, Jorge; Toledo, Felipe; Figueroa, Miguel; Cabello, Adan; Larsson, Jan-Åke; Mataloni, Paolo; Lima, Gustavo; Xavier, Guilherme B.
2015-01-01
Device-independent (DI) quantum communication will require a loophole-free violation of Bell inequalities. In typical scenarios where line-of-sight between the communicating parties is not available, it is convenient to use energy-time entangled photons due to intrinsic robustness while propagating over optical fibers. Here we show an energy-time Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt Bell inequality violation with two parties separated by 3.7 km over the deployed optical fiber network belonging to the U...
Dense coding scheme using superpositions of Bell-states and its NMR implementation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG; Jingfu; XIE; Jingyi; DENG; Zhiwei; LU; Zhiheng
2005-01-01
Dense coding using superpositions of Bell-states is proposed. The generalized Grover's algorithm is used to prepare the initial entangled states, and the reverse process of the quantum algorithm is used to determine the entangled state in the decoding measurement. Compared with the previous schemes, the superpositions of two Bell-states are exploited. Our scheme is demonstrated using a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)quantum computer. The corresponding manipulations are obtained. Experimental results show a good agreement between theory and experiment. We also generalize the scheme to transmit eight messages by introducing an additional two-state system.
Maneuver Acoustic Flight Test of the Bell 430 Helicopter Data Report
Watts, Michael E.; Greenwood, Eric; Smith, Charles D.; Snider, Royce; Conner, David A.
2014-01-01
A cooperative ight test by NASA, Bell Helicopter and the U.S. Army to characterize the steady state acoustics and measure the maneuver noise of a Bell Helicopter 430 aircraft was accomplished. The test occurred during June/July 2011 at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida. This test gathered a total of 410 test points over 10 test days and compiled an extensive database of dynamic maneuver measurements. Three microphone arrays with up to 31 microphon. es in each were used to acquire acoustic data. Aircraft data included Differential Global Positioning System, aircraft state and rotor state information. This paper provides an overview of the test and documents the data acquired.
Westerterp, K.R.
1992-01-01
Multifunctional reactors are single pieces of equipment in which, besides the reaction, other functions are carried out simultaneously. The other functions can be a heat, mass or momentum transfer operation and even another reaction. Multifunctional reactors are not new, but they have received much emphasis in research in the last decade. A survey is given of modern developments and the first successful applications on a large scale. It is explained why their application in many instances is ...
Anderson, C.R.
1962-07-24
A fluidized bed nuclear reactor and a method of operating such a reactor are described. In the design means are provided for flowing a liquid moderator upwardly through the center of a bed of pellets of a nentron-fissionable material at such a rate as to obtain particulate fluidization while constraining the lower pontion of the bed into a conical shape. A smooth circulation of particles rising in the center and falling at the outside of the bed is thereby established. (AEC)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In order to reduce neutron embrittlement of the pressue vessel of an LWR, blanked off elements are fitted at the edge of the reactor core, with the same dimensions as the fuel elements. They are parallel to each other, and to the edge of the reactor taking the place of fuel rods, and are plates of neutron-absorbing material (stainless steel, boron steel, borated Al). (HP)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The reasons for the development of fast reactors are briefly reviewed (a propitious neutron balance oriented towards a maximum uranium burnup) and its special requirements (cooling, fissile material density and reprocessing) discussed. The three stages in the French program of fast reactor development are outlined with Rapsodie at Cadarache, Phenix at Marcoule, and Super Phenix at Creys-Malville. The more specific features of the program of research and development are emphasized: kinetics and the core, the fuel and the components
Research reactors - an overview
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
West, C.D.
1997-03-01
A broad overview of different types of research and type reactors is provided in this paper. Reactor designs and operating conditions are briefly described for four reactors. The reactor types described include swimming pool reactors, the High Flux Isotope Reactor, the Mark I TRIGA reactor, and the Advanced Neutron Source reactor. Emphasis in the descriptions is placed on safety-related features of the reactors. 7 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.
Semileptonic decays of strange beauty mesons at Belle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Semileptonic decays of b-flavoured mesons are an important tool for the determination of the CKM matrix element vertical stroke Vcb vertical stroke. In this thesis, measurements of semileptonic Bs meson decays are presented. They provide complementary information to the precision measurements of B meson decays and serve as a test of QCD-calculations predicting SU(3) flavour symmetry for the partial decay widths and form factors. The semi-inclusive and inclusive analyses of semileptonic Bs decays are based on the 121.4 fb-1 dataset collected by the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e+e- collider in Tsukuba, Japan. The sample recorded at a centre-of-mass energy √(s)=10.86 GeV, which corresponds to the Y(5S) resonance, contains (7.1±1.3) million Bs pair events. To measure the semi-inclusive Bs → DsXlν and Bs → Ds*Xlν branching fractions, Ds and Ds* candidates are reconstructed and are paired with an oppositely charged lepton, l+=e+,μ+. The yields of correctly reconstructed Ds and Ds* mesons are determined by fits to their respective invariant mass distributions. The signal yield and the yields of the remaining backgrounds are extracted using kinematic distributions of the reconstructed decay products and the constraint from the known initial state of the e+e- collision. The measured branching fractions are: B(Bs → DsXlν)=(8.2±0.2(stat)±0.6(syst)±1.4(ext)) % and B(Bs → Ds*lν)=(5.4±0.4(stat)±0.4(syst)±0.9 (ext)) %, where the first two uncertainties are the statistical and systematic uncertainties of the measurement and the last uncertainty is due to external parameters. Making an assumption about the Bs → DsXlν branching fraction, the measurement of the Bs → DsXlν yield is also used to obtain the current best estimate of the Bs pair production cross-section at a centre-of-mass energy √(s)=10.86 GeV: σ(e+e- → Bs pairs)=(57.1±1.5(stat)±4.3(syst)±4.2(ext)) pb. The semi-inclusive measurements are complemented by an analysis of
Acupuncture for sequelae of Bell's palsy: a randomized controlled trial protocol
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kim Yong-Suk
2011-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract Objective Incomplete recovery from facial palsy has a long-term impact on the quality of life, and medical options for the sequelae of Bell's palsy are limited. Invasive treatments and physiotherapy have been employed to relieve symptoms, but there is limited clinical evidence for their effectiveness. Acupuncture is widely used on Bell's palsy patients in East Asia, but there is insufficient evidence for its effectiveness on Bell's palsy sequelae. The objective is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of acupuncture in patients with sequelae of Bell's palsy. Method/Design This study consists of a randomized controlled trial with two parallel arms: an acupuncture group and a waitlist group. The acupuncture group will receive acupuncture treatment three times per week for a total of 24 sessions over 8 weeks. Participants in the waitlist group will not receive any acupuncture treatments during this 8 week period, but they will participate in the evaluations of symptoms at the start of the study, at 5 weeks and at 8 weeks after randomization, at which point the same treatment as the acupuncture group will be provided. The primary outcome will be analyzed by the change in the Facial Disability Index (FDI from baseline to week eight. The secondary outcome measures will include FDI from baseline to week five, House-Brackmann Grade, lip mobility, and stiffness scales. Trial registration Current Controlled-Trials ISRCTN43104115; registration date: 06 July 2010; the date of the first patient's randomization: 04 August 2010
A small effect of adding antiviral agents in treating patients with severe Bell palsy.
Veen, E.L. van der; Rovers, M.M.; Ru, J.A. de; Heijden, G.J. van der
2012-01-01
In this evidence-based case report, the authors studied the following clinical question: What is the effect of adding antiviral agents to corticosteroids in the treatment of patients with severe or complete Bell palsy? The search yielded 250 original research articles. The 6 randomized trials of the
The Clinical Study about Honilirls Placenta Herbal Acupuncture on Bell's Palsy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lee Chae-Woo
2005-12-01
Full Text Available Objectives : This study has been designed and performed to identify the effect on Bell's palsy according to the injection of herbal medicine induced from the Hominis Placenta. Methods : We measured the facial palsy changes of the patients who were admitted for Bell's palsy in the Oriental Medical hospital of Dongeui medical center from 03-01-2004 to 07-31-2004. Bell's palsy patients were divided into two groups. One group(A group was injected with Hominis Placenta herbal acupuncture. The other group(B group was injected with normal saline. Then effects of these treatment was evaluated by Yanagihara's unweighted grading system. Results : A group was marked more higher than B group in treatment outcome. we discovered that it is significant differences between two groups after 4 week. Conclusions : These results provided that A group is more effective than B group. For clearly proving the effect of Hominis Placenta herbal acupuncture on Bell's palsy, it is need more sample's number and more treatment's duration.
The growth, development, and nematode susceptibility of various rootstock genotypes grafted to a commercial bell pepper variety scion were evaluated in a series of greenhouse experiments. Nine rootstocks including ‘Caribbean Red Habanero’, ‘ PA-136’ , ‘Keystone Resistant Giant’, ‘Yolo Wonder’, ‘Car...
Bell's theorem and the measurement problem: reducing two mysteries to one?
Cavalcanti, Eric G.
2016-03-01
In light of a recent reformulation of Bell's theorem from causal principles by Wiseman and the author, I argue that the conflict between quantum theory and relativity brought up by Bell's work can be softened by a revision of our classical notions of causation. I review some recent proposals for a quantum theory of causation that make great strides towards that end, but highlight a property that is shared by all those theories that would not have satisfied Bell's realist inclinations. They require (implicitly or explicitly) agent-centric notions such as “controllables” and “uncontrollables”, or “observed” and “unobserved”. Thus they relieve the tensions around Bell's theorem by highlighting an issue more often associated with another deep conceptual issue in quantum theory: the measurement problem. Rather than rejecting those terms, however, I argue that we should understand why they seem to be, at least at face-value, needed in order to reach compatibility between quantum theory and relativity. This seems to suggest that causation, and thus causal structure, are emergent phenomena, and lends support to the idea that a resolution of the conflict between quantum theory and relativity necessitates a solution to the measurement problem.
IMPROVEMENT OF SHELF LIFE QUALITY OF GREEN BELL PEPPERS USING EDIBLE COATING FORMULATIONS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Emilio Ochoa-Reyes
2013-06-01
Full Text Available In Latin-America, there are countries with high production levels of green bell peppers, which requires of new strategies of conservation for their international trade. Traditional techniques of preservations do not guarantee to prolong the shelf life of these kinds of fruits, for this reason, in the present study, the Influence of different edible coating formulations on shelf-life quality of green bell peppers was studied. Three different biopolymers (pectin, arabic, and xanthan gums were evaluated in mixtures with candelilla wax as hydrophobic phase, jojoba oil as plasticizer and a crude extract of polyphenols as source of bioactive compounds. Green bell peppers were immersion-treated and then stored at room temperature. Response variables were: weight loss, color, appearance, pH, total soluble solids and firmness changes which were kinetically determined. All peppers treated with edible-coating showed a significant difference (Tukey, p≤0.05 in weight loss compared to control treatment (without edible coating, while a lower level of deterioration was observed in fruits treated with edible coating formulated with arabic gum, but appearance remained similar among fruits treated with different edible coatings. Use of mixtures of biopolymers, candelilla wax, jojoba oil and polyphenols to develop edible and functionalized coatings significantly extended shelf life of green bell pepper.
Two Tails Are Better Than One: The Logic of "The Bell Curve."
Connors, John B.
1995-01-01
Reviews controversies over intelligence and intelligence testing, focusing on impacts on Canadian society in the past century. Discusses eugenics movements and related immigration policies. Suggests that both "tails" of "The Bell Curve" (cognitive elite and underclass) are influenced by inaccurate methods, and that the middle of the curve must…
"The Bell Curve": Another Chapter in the Continuing Political Economy of Racism.
Newby, Robert G.; Newby, Diane E.
1995-01-01
Criticizes Charles Murray's "The Bell Curve" and attempts a more cogent analysis of the respective roles of blacks and the U.S. political economy. Utilizes a sociology of knowledge framework to discuss the evolving nature of blacks in the nation's workforce. Briefly discusses eugenics and the history of racist social theories. (MJP)
For Whom the Bell Curves: Old Texts, Mental Retardation, and the Persistent Argument.
Smith, J. David
1995-01-01
A review of secondary education and college biology textbooks published from 1900 through 1950 finds strong support for eugenics and Social Darwinism. These attitudes are related to effects of such recent books as "The Bell Curve" (by R. Herrnstein and C. Murray) for people with mental retardation. (DB)
"This Strange White World": Race and Place in Era Bell Thompson's "American Daughter"
Johnson, Michael K.
2004-01-01
Aboard a train heading out of Minneapolis toward frontier North Dakota, Era Bell Thompson in her autobiography "American Daughter" (1946) describes a landscape that grows steadily bleaker with each mile farther west: "Suddenly there was snow--miles and miles of dull, white snow, stretching out to meet the heavy, gray sky; deep banks of snow…
Teleportation of GHZ-States in QED-Cavities without the Explicit Bell-State Measurement
Cardoso, W. B.
2008-04-01
In this paper we show how to teleport N-entangled states of N-QED-cavities without Bell-state measurements. The method has potential application in teleportation schemes requiring multipartite entanglements. The success probability and fidelity of the teleportation are also considered.
Diversity and Mentoring in the Workplace: A Conversation with Belle Rose Ragins
Chandler, Dawn E.; Ellis, Rebecca
2011-01-01
Given projected increases in workplace diversity, an understanding of diversity's intersection with mentoring is a critical topic in the literature. This article involved an interview with Belle Rose Ragins, one of the world's leading thinkers on diversity and mentoring in the workplace. After providing an overview of Ragins' key achievements and…
Technocrats and Tortured Bodies: Simone de Beauvoir’s Les Belles Images
Quinan, Christine
2014-01-01
Through an analysis of Simone de Beauvoir’s final novel Les Belles Images (1966), this article examines how a 1960s French technocratic class dealt with individual and collective traumas, particularly how they placed their faith in an undying hope in the future while simultaneously ignoring the horr