Chaves, Rafael
2016-01-01
It is a recent realization that many of the concepts and tools of causal discovery in machine learning are highly relevant to problems in quantum information, in particular quantum nonlocality. The crucial ingredient in the connection between both fields is the mathematical theory of causality, allowing for the representation of arbitrary causal structures and providing a rigorous tool to reason about probabilistic causation. Indeed, Bell's theorem concerns a very particular kind of causal structure and Bell inequalities are a special case of linear constraints following from such models. It is thus natural to look for generalizations involving more complex Bell scenarios. The problem, however, relies on the fact that such generalized scenarios are characterized by polynomial Bell inequalities and no current method is available to derive them beyond very simple cases. In this work, we make a significant step in that direction, providing a new, general, and conceptually clear method for the derivation of polynomial Bell inequalities in a wide class of scenarios. We also show how our construction can be used to allow for relaxations of causal constraints and naturally gives rise to a notion of nonsignaling in generalized Bell networks.
The Bell Inequality and Entanglement
Munro, W J; Nemoto, K.; White, A. G.
2001-01-01
Entanglement is a critical resource used in many current quantum information schemes. As such entanglement has been extensively studied in two qubit systems and its entanglement nature has been exhibited by violations of the Bell inequality. Can the amount of violation of the Bell inequality be used to quantify the degree of entanglement. What do Bell inequalities indicate about the nature of entanglement?
Peres, A
1999-01-01
Bell inequalities are derived for any number of observers, any number of alternative setups for each one of them, and any number of distinct outcomes for each experiment. It is shown that if a physical system consists of several distant subsystems, and if the results of tests performed on the latter are determined by local variables with objective values, then the joint probabilities for triggering any given set of distant detectors are convex combinations of a finite number of Boolean arrays, whose components are either 0 or 1 according to a simple rule. This convexity property is both necessary and sufficient for the existence of local objective variables. It leads to a simple graphical method which produces a large number of generalized Clauser-Horne inequalities corresponding to the faces of a convex polytope. It is plausible that quantum systems whose density matrix has a positive partial transposition satisfy all these inequalities, and therefore are compatible with local objective variables, even if th...
Teleportation, Bell's inequalities and inseparability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Relations between teleportation, Bell's inequalities and inseparability are investigated. It is shown that any mixed two spin-1/2 state which violates the Bell-CHSH inequality is useful for teleportation. The result is extended to any Bell's inequalities constructed from the expectation values of products of spin operators. It is also shown that there exist inseparable states which are not useful for teleportation within the standard scheme. (orig.)
Simplest proof of Bell's inequality
Maccone, Lorenzo
2013-01-01
Bell's theorem is a fundamental result in quantum mechanics: it discriminates between quantum mechanics and all theories where probabilities in measurement results arise from the ignorance of pre-existing local properties. We give an extremely simple proof of Bell's inequality: a single figure suffices. This simplicity may be useful in the unending debate of what exactly the Bell inequality means, since the hypothesis at the basis of the proof become extremely transparent. It is also a useful didactic tool, as the Bell inequality can be explained in a single intuitive lecture.
Bell inequalities for arbitrary situations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a simple way based on the joint global probability distribution to derive CHSH inequalities. Inspired by this derivation we develop a simple method that gives a set of conditions which are necessary for a model to be a local variable theory. This method generates candidate Bell inequalities for models of arbitrary situations in which there are an arbitrary number of particles, measurements and outcomes. With the help of a type of distribution it will be clear that all necessary conditions are Bell inequalities. This work gives a unified way to write Bell inequalities for arbitrary situations. - Highlights: • Constructing CHSH inequalities based on joint global probability distribution. • Constructing conditions which are necessary for a model to be local and realistic. • Bell inequalities for general situations
Bipartite Bell Inequality and Maximal Violation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present new bell inequalities for arbitrary dimensional bipartite quantum systems. The maximal violation of the inequalities is computed. The Bell inequality is capable of detecting quantum entanglement of both pure and mixed quantum states more effectively. (general)
Bell inequality and complementarity loophole
Czachor, Marek
1997-01-01
A simple classical, deterministic, local situation violating the Bell inequality is described. The detectors used in the experiment are ideal and the observers who decide which pair of measuring devices to choose for a given pair of particles have free will. The construction uses random variables which are not jointly measurable in a single run of an experiment and the hidden variables have a nonsymmetric probability density. Such random variables are complementary but still fully classical. ...
Bell inequalities and incompatible measurements
Morgan, Peter
2003-01-01
Bell inequalities are a consequence of measurement incompatibility (not, as generally thought, of nonlocality). In classical terms, this is equivalent to contextuality -- measurement devices do have a significant effect. Contextual models are reasonable in classical physics, which always took the view that we ignore measurement devices whenever possible, but if that isn't good enough then we do have to model measurement devices. It is also argued that quantum theory should only be taken with ...
George Boole and the Bell inequalities
Rosinger, E E
2004-01-01
As shown by Pitowsky, the Bell inequalities are related to certain classes of probabilistic inequalities dealt with by George Boole, back in the 1850s. Here a short presentation of this relationship is given. Consequently, the Bell inequalities can be obtained without any assumptions of physical nature, and merely through mathematical argument.
A model with cosmological Bell inequalities
Maldacena, Juan
2015-01-01
We discuss the possibility of devising cosmological observables which violate Bell's inequalities. Such observables could be used to argue that cosmic scale features were produced by quantum mechanical effects in the very early universe. As a proof of principle, we propose a somewhat elaborate inflationary model where a Bell inequality violating observable can be constructed.
A simple proof of Bell's inequality
Maccone, Lorenzo
2013-11-01
Bell's theorem is a fundamental result in quantum mechanics: it discriminates between quantum mechanics and all theories where probabilities in measurement results arise from the ignorance of pre-existing local properties. We give an extremely simple proof of Bell's inequality; a single figure suffices. This simplicity may be useful in the unending debate over what exactly the Bell inequality means, because the hypotheses underlying the proof become transparent. It is also a useful didactic tool, as the Bell inequality can be explained in a single intuitive lecture.
Nonlinear Bell Inequalities Tailored for Quantum Networks
Rosset, Denis; Branciard, Cyril; Barnea, Tomer Jack; Pütz, Gilles; Brunner, Nicolas; Gisin, Nicolas
2016-01-01
In a quantum network, distant observers sharing physical resources emitted by independent sources can establish strong correlations, which defy any classical explanation in terms of local variables. We discuss the characterization of nonlocal correlations in such a situation, when compared to those that can be generated in networks distributing independent local variables. We present an iterative procedure for constructing Bell inequalities tailored for networks: starting from a given network, and a corresponding Bell inequality, our technique provides new Bell inequalities for a more complex network, involving one additional source and one additional observer. We illustrate the relevance of our method on a variety of networks, demonstrating significant quantum violations, which could not have been detected using standard Bell inequalities.
Violating a Bell inequality with classical states
Liu, Qin; Lamas-Linares, Antía; Skaar, Johannes; Makarov, Vadim; Kurtsiefer, Christian
2011-01-01
A strong probe for limits of classical physics is the Bell inequality between measurements of separated particles. Its violation can be used to secure a shared secret between two parties, but a fair-sampling assumption has to be made for limited detection efficiencies. Here, we present an experimental violation of a Bell inequality by classical states, exploiting imperfections in common photodetectors. We also propose measurements to obtain violations exceeding those allowed by quantum physics for ideal Bell tests. This exploit demonstrates that device-independent quantum cryptography requires the detection loophole be closed.
Bell's inequality violation with spins in silicon.
Dehollain, Juan P; Simmons, Stephanie; Muhonen, Juha T; Kalra, Rachpon; Laucht, Arne; Hudson, Fay; Itoh, Kohei M; Jamieson, David N; McCallum, Jeffrey C; Dzurak, Andrew S; Morello, Andrea
2016-03-01
Bell's theorem proves the existence of entangled quantum states with no classical counterpart. An experimental violation of Bell's inequality demands simultaneously high fidelities in the preparation, manipulation and measurement of multipartite quantum entangled states, and provides a single-number benchmark for the performance of devices that use such states for quantum computing. We demonstrate a Bell/ Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality violation with Bell signals up to 2.70(9), using the electron and the nuclear spins of a single phosphorus atom embedded in a silicon nanoelectronic device. Two-qubit state tomography reveals that our prepared states match the target maximally entangled Bell states with >96% fidelity. These experiments demonstrate complete control of the two-qubit Hilbert space of a phosphorus atom and highlight the important function of the nuclear qubit to expand the computational basis and maximize the readout fidelity. PMID:26571006
Are Bell inequalities also violated for neutral kaons?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: The first part of the poster analyzes a Bell inequality similar to the famous photon system. Unfortunately, due to the given constants in this system this Bell inequality cannot be violated. The second part of the poster analyzes a Bell inequality which has no similarities to the photon case. This inequality is violated by the CP-violating parameter. (author)
Bell inequalities for quantum optical fields
Żukowski, Marek; Wieśniak, Marcin; Laskowski, Wiesław
2016-08-01
The commonly used "practical" Bell inequalities for quantum optical fields, which use intensities as the observables, are derivable only if specific additional assumptions hold. This limits the range of local hidden variable theories, which are invalidated by their violation. We present alternative Bell inequalities, which do not suffer from any (theoretical) loophole. The inequalities are for correlations of averaged products of local rates. By rates we mean ratios of the measured intensity in the given local output channel to the total local measured intensity, in the given run of the experiment. Bell inequalities of this type detect entanglement in situations in which the "practical" ones fail. Thus, we have full consistency with Bell's theorem, and better device-independent entanglement indicators. Strongly driven type-II parametric down conversion (bright squeezed vacuum) is our working example. The approach can be used to modify many types of standard Bell inequalities, to the case of undefined particle numbers. The rule is to replace the usual probabilities by rates.
Violation of Bell's inequalities in quantum optics
Reid, M. D.; Walls, D. F.
1984-01-01
An optical field produced by intracavity four-wave mixing is shown to exhibit the following nonclassical features: photon antibunching, squeezing, and violation of Cauchy-Schwarz and Bell's inequalities. These intrinsic quantum mechanical effects are shown to be associated with the nonexistence of a positive normalizable Glauber-Sudarshan P function.
Bell-inequality violation with "thermal" radiation
Filip, Radim; Dusek, Miloslav; Fiurasek, Jaromir; Mista, Ladislav
2001-01-01
The model of a quantum-optical device for a conditional preparation of entangled states from input mixed states is presented. It is demonstrated that even thermal or pseudo-thermal radiation can be entangled in such a way, that Bell-inequalities are violated.
Relations between entanglement witnesses and Bell inequalities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bell inequalities, considered within quantum mechanics, can be regarded as nonoptimal witness operators. We discuss the relationship between such Bell witnesses and general entanglement witnesses in detail for the Bell inequality derived by Clauser, Horne, Shimony, and Holt (CHSH) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 880 (1969)]. We derive bounds on how much an optimal witness has to be shifted by adding the identity operator to make it positive on all states admitting a local hidden variable model. In the opposite direction, we obtain tight bounds for the maximal proportion of the identity operator that can be subtracted from such a CHSH witness, while preserving the witness properties. Finally, we investigate the structure of CHSH witnesses directly by relating their diagonalized form to optimal witnesses of two different classes
Quantum cloning, Bell's inequality and teleportation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We analyse the possibility of using the two-qubit output state from the Buzek-Hillery quantum copying machine (not necessarily a universal quantum cloning machine) as a teleportation channel. We show that there is a range of values of the machine parameter ξ for which the two-qubit output state is entangled and violates the Bell-CHSH inequality and for a different range it remains entangled but does not violate the Bell-CHSH inequality. Further, we observe that for certain values of the machine parameter the two-qubit mixed state can be used as a teleportation channel. The use of the output state from the Buzek-Hillery cloning machine as a teleportation channel provides an additional appeal to the cloning machine and motivation for our present work
Bell's inequalities definitely proved
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
According to quantum physics, two bonded particles instantly adopt the same behaviour when we measure them, whatever be the distance between them. For Einstein, this phenomenon could only be explained by the existence of hidden parameters which were not taken by quantum physics into account. Since the 1970's, experiments have been testing these ideas, based on the Bell's inequalities theorem which states that Einstein's assumptions are true within specific limits. The article more particularly presents and comments a recent experiment performed in Orsay which demonstrates that these hidden variables do not exist and prove the validity of Bell's inequalities. The researchers explain why previous experiments did not reach these results: they displayed detection and localisation defects
Bell's Inequalities, Superquantum Correlations, and String Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lay Nam Chang
2011-01-01
We argue that string theory, viewed as a quantum theory with two deformation parameters, the string tension α ' , and the string coupling constant g s , is such a superquantum theory that transgresses the usual quantum violations of Bell's inequalities. We also discuss the ℏ → ∞ limit of quantum mechanics in this context. As a superquantum theory, string theory should display distinct experimentally observable supercorrelations of entangled stringy states.
Partial list of bipartite Bell inequalities with four binary settings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brunner, Nicolas [Group of Applied Physics, University of Geneva (Switzerland)], E-mail: nicolas.brunner@physics.unige.ch; Gisin, Nicolas [Group of Applied Physics, University of Geneva (Switzerland)
2008-04-28
We give a partial list of 26 tight Bell inequalities for the case where Alice and Bob choose among four two-outcome measurements. All tight Bell inequalities with less settings are reviewed as well. For each inequality we compute numerically the maximal quantum violation, the resistance to noise and the minimal detection efficiency required for closing the detection loophole. Surprisingly, most of these inequalities are outperformed by the CHSH inequality.
Generalized Bell-inequality experiments and computation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We consider general settings of Bell inequality experiments with many parties, where each party chooses from a finite number of measurement settings each with a finite number of outcomes. We investigate the constraints that Bell inequalities place upon the correlations possible in local hidden variable theories using a geometrical picture of correlations. We show that local hidden variable theories can be characterized in terms of limited computational expressiveness, which allows us to characterize families of Bell inequalities. The limited computational expressiveness for many settings (each with many outcomes) generalizes previous results about the many-party situation each with a choice of two possible measurements (each with two outcomes). Using this computational picture we present generalizations of the Popescu-Rohrlich nonlocal box for many parties and nonbinary inputs and outputs at each site. Finally, we comment on the effect of preprocessing on measurement data in our generalized setting and show that it becomes problematic outside of the binary setting, in that it allows local hidden variable theories to simulate maximally nonlocal correlations such as those of these generalized Popescu-Rohrlich nonlocal boxes.
Bell inequalities for continuous-variable measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tests of local hidden-variable theories using measurements with continuous-variable (CV) outcomes are developed, and a comparison of different methods is presented. As examples, we focus on multipartite entangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and cluster states. We suggest a physical process that produces the states proposed here, and investigate experiments both with and without binning of the continuous variable. In the former case, the Mermin-Klyshko inequalities can be used directly. For unbinned outcomes, the moment-based Cavalcanti-Foster-Reid-Drummond inequalities are extended to functional inequalities by consideration of arbitrary functions of the measurements at each site. By optimizing these functions, we obtain more robust violations of local hidden-variable theories than with either binning or moments. Recent inequalities based on the algebra of quaternions and octonions are compared with these methods. Since the prime advantage of CV experiments is to provide a route to highly efficient detection via homodyne measurements, we analyze the effect of noise and detection losses in both binned and unbinned cases. The CV moment inequalities with an optimal function have greater robustness to both loss and noise. This could permit a loophole-free test of Bell inequalities.
Qubits from Number States and Bell Inequalities for Number Measurements
Larsson, Jan-Ake
2002-01-01
Bell inequalities for number measurements are derived via the observation that the bits of the number indexing a number state are proper qubits. Violations of these inequalities are obtained from the output state of the nondegenerate optical parametric amplifier.
Bell Inequalities, Experimental Protocols and Contextuality
Kupczynski, Marian
2014-01-01
The violation of Bell, CHSH and CH inequalities indicates only that the assumption of "conterfactual definiteness" and/or the probabilistic models used in proofs were incorrect. In this paper we discuss in detail an intimate relation between experimental protocols and probabilistic models. In particular we show that local realistic and stochastic hidden variable models are inconsistent with the experimental protocols used in spin polarization correlation experiments. In particular these models neglect a contextual character of quantum theory (QT) and do not describe properly quantum measurements. We argue that the violation of various inequalities gives arguments against the irreducible randomness of act of the measurement. Therefore quantum probabilities are reducible what means that QT is emergent. In this case one could expect to discover in time series of data some unpredicted fine structures proving that QT is not predictably complete what would be a major discovery.
Bell Inequalities Classifying Bi-separable Three-qubit States
Sun, B Z; Sun, Bao-Zhi; Fei, Shao-Ming
2006-01-01
We present a set of Bell inequalities that gives rise to a finer classification of the entanglement for tripartite systems. These inequalities distinguish three possible bi-separable entanglements for three-qubit states. The three Bell operators we employed constitute an external sphere of the separable cube.
Bell inequalities classifying biseparable three-qubit states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a set of Bell inequalities that gives rise to a finer classification of the entanglement for tripartite systems. These inequalities distinguish three possible biseparable entanglements for three-qubit states. The three Bell operators we employed constitute an external sphere of the separable cube
Violation of Bell's inequality in electronic Mach-Zehnder interferometers
Kang, Kicheon; Lee, Kahng Ho
2007-01-01
We propose a possible setup of testing the Bell's inequality in mesoscopic conductors. The particular implementation uses two coupled electronic Mach-Zehnder interferometers in which electrons are injected into the conductors in the quantum Hall regime. It is shown that the Bell's inequality is violated for an arbitrary coupling strength between the two interferometers.
Bell inequality for pairs of superselection rule restricted states
Heaney, Libby; Jaksch, Dieter
2010-01-01
Proposals for Bell inequality tests on systems restricted by superselection rules often require operations that are difficult to implement in practice. In this paper, we derive a new Bell inequality, where pairs of states are used to by-pass the superselection rule. In particular, we focus on mode entanglement of an arbitrary number of massive particles and show that our Bell inequality detects the entanglement in the pair when other inequalities fail. However, as the number of particles in the system increases, the violation of our Bell inequality decreases due to the restriction in the measurement space caused by the superselection rule. This Bell test can be implemented using techniques that are routinely used in current experiments.
Experimental Bell inequality violation without the postselection loophole
Lima, G.; Vallone, G.; Chiuri, A.; Cabello, A.; Mataloni, P.
2009-01-01
We report on an experimental violation of the Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (Bell-CHSH) inequality using energy-time entangled photons. The experiment is not free of the locality and detection loopholes, but is the first violation of the Bell-CHSH inequality using energy-time entangled photons which is free of the postselection loophole described by Aerts et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2872 (1999)].
Two-setting Bell inequalities for many qubits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a family of Bell inequalities involving only two measurement settings of each party for N>2 qubits. Our inequalities include all the standard ones with fewer than N qubits and thus give a natural generalization. It is shown that all the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states violate the inequalities maximally, with an amount that grows exponentially as 2(N-2)/2. The inequalities are also violated by some states that do satisfy all the standard Bell inequalities. Remarkably, our results yield in an efficient and simple way an implementation of nonlocality tests of many qubits favorably within reach of the well-established technology of linear optics
Violating Bell inequalities maximally for two d-dimensional systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We show the maximal violation of Bell inequalities for two d-dimensional systems by using the method of the Bell operator. The maximal violation corresponds to the maximal eigenvalue of the Bell operator matrix. The eigenvectors corresponding to these eigenvalues are described by asymmetric entangled states. We estimate the maximum value of the eigenvalue for large dimension. A family of elegant entangled states |Ψ>app that violate Bell inequality more strongly than the maximally entangled state but are somewhat close to these eigenvectors is presented. These approximate states can potentially be useful for quantum cryptography as well as many other important fields of quantum information
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Chang-Yong; GAO Ke-Lin
2005-01-01
A state-dependent proof of Bell's theorem without inequalities using the product state of any two maximally entangled states (Bell states) of two qubits for two observers in an ideal condition, each of which possesses two qubits,is proposed. It is different from the other proofs in which there exists a fundamental requirement that certain specific suitable Bell states have been chosen. Moreover, in any non-ideal situation, a common Bell inequality independent of the choices of the 16-product states is derived, which is used to test the contradiction between quantum mechanics and local reality theory in the reach of current experimental technology.
Structural Investigation on Bell Inequalities of High Dimensions
Lee, S W; Lee, J; Cheong, Yong Wook; Lee, Jinhyoung; Lee, Seung-Woo
2005-01-01
We present the generalized Bell inequality for high-dimensional systems and reformulate it in order to compare with Collins-Gisin-Linden-Massar-Popescu (CGLMP) inequality. It is shown that the maximal entanglement leads to the maximal violation of our Bell inequality, whereas a non-maximally entangled state maximally violates CGLMP inequality. In addition, it is shown that both types have the equivalent structure with respect to the joint probabilities, but they have the different correlation weights of measurement outcomes. We remark that the correlation weights plays a crucial role in determining the violation conditions and tightness conditions.
A note on the geometric interpretation of Bell's inequalities
Pra, Paolo Dai; Pavon, Michele; Sahasrabudhe, Neeraja
2013-01-01
Using results of Pitowsky and Gupta, we show in a direct, elementary fashion that, in the case of three spins, Bell's inequalities indeed provide a representation of the tetrahedron of all spin correlation matrices as intersection of half-spaces.
Bell-type inequalities for arbitrary noncyclic networks
Tavakoli, Armin
2016-03-01
Bell inequalities bound the strength of classical correlations between observers measuring on a shared physical system. However, studies of physical correlations can be considered beyond the standard Bell scenario by networks of observers sharing some configuration of many independent physical systems. Here, we show how to construct Bell-type inequalities for correlations arising in any tree-structured network, i.e., networks without cycles. This is achieved by an iteration procedure that in each step allows one to add a branch to the tree-structured network and construct a corresponding Bell-type inequality. We explore our inequalities in several examples, in all of which we demonstrate strong violations from quantum theory.
A Zoology of Bell inequalities resistant to detector inefficiency
Massar, S; Roland, J; Gisin, B V; Massar, Serge; Pironio, Stefano; Roland, Jeremie; Gisin, Bernard
2002-01-01
We derive both numerically and analytically Bell inequalities and quantum measurements that present enhanced resistance to detector inefficiency. In particular we describe several Bell inequalities which appear to be optimal with respect to inefficient detectors for small dimensionality d=2,3,4 and 2 or more measurement settings at each side. We also generalize the family of Bell inequalities described in Collins et all (Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 040404) to take into account the inefficiency of detectors. In addition we consider the possibility for pairs of entangled particles to be produced with probability less than one. We show that when the pair production probability is small, one must in general use different Bell inequalities than when the pair production probability is one.
All entangled pure states violate a single Bell's inequality.
Yu, Sixia; Chen, Qing; Zhang, Chengjie; Lai, C H; Oh, C H
2012-09-21
We show that a single Bell's inequality with two dichotomic observables for each observer, which originates from Hardy's nonlocality proof without inequalities, is violated by all entangled pure states of a given number of particles, each of which may have a different number of energy levels. Thus Gisin's theorem is proved in its most general form from which it follows that for pure states Bell's nonlocality and quantum entanglement are equivalent. PMID:23005926
Bell-type inequalities for cold heteronuclear molecules
Milman, Perola; Keller, Arne; Charron, Eric; Atabek, Osman
2006-01-01
We introduce Bell-type inequalities allowing for non-locality and entanglement tests with two cold heteronuclear molecules. The proposed inequalities are based on correlations between each molecule spatial orientation, an observable which can be experimentally measured with present day technology. Orientation measurements are performed on each subsystem at diferent times. These times play the role of the polarizer angles in Bell tests realized with photons. We discuss the experimental impleme...
Bell Inequality Tests with Macroscopic Entangled States of Light
Stobińska, M.; Sekatski, Pavel; Buraczewski, A.; Gisin, Nicolas; Leuchs, G.
2011-01-01
Quantum correlations may violate the Bell inequalities. Most of the experimental schemes confirming this prediction have been realized in all-optical Bell tests suffering from the detection loophole. Experiment which closes this loophole and the locality loophole simultaneously is highly desirable and remains challenging. A novel approach to a loophole-free Bell tests is based on amplification of the entangled photons, i.e.\\@ on macroscopic entanglement, which optical signal should be easy to...
Bell's inequalities; 3, Logical loophole in their formulation
Kracklauer, A F
2000-01-01
In a remarkably insightful pair of papers recently, Sica demonstrated that: dichotomic data that violates Bell's inequalities ``cannot represent any data streams that could possibly exist or be imagined'' if it is to be consistent with the derivation of the inequalities. The present writer maintains, however, that because of quirks in the formulation of Bell's analysis, this statement is, strictly speaking, not correct although the thrust of Sica's analysis remains fundamentally true. Moreover, it is argued that the resolution proposed by Sica for the conflict arising from the fact that real data does violate Bell inequalities, namely that the the functional form of the correlations considered by Bell must be amended, is on physical grounds, untenable. Finally, an alternate resolution is proposed.
Constructing quantum games from a system of Bell's inequalities
Iqbal, Azhar
2009-01-01
We report constructing quantum games directly from a system of Bell's inequalities using Arthur Fine's analysis published in early 1980s. This analysis showed that such a system of inequalities forms a set of both necessary and sufficient conditions required to find a joint distribution function compatible with a given set of joint probabilities, in terms of which the system of Bell's inequalities is usually expressed. Using the setting of a quantum correlation experiment for playing a quantum game, and considering the examples of Prisoners' Dilemma and Matching Pennies, we argue that this approach towards constructing quantum games addresses well known criticism of quantum games.
Constructing quantum games from a system of Bell's inequalities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We report constructing quantum games directly from a system of Bell's inequalities using Arthur Fine's analysis published in early 1980s. This analysis showed that such a system of inequalities forms a set of both necessary and sufficient conditions required to find a joint distribution function compatible with a given set of joint probabilities, in terms of which the system of Bell's inequalities is usually expressed. Using the setting of a quantum correlation experiment for playing a quantum game, and considering the examples of Prisoners' Dilemma and Matching Pennies, we argue that this approach towards constructing quantum games addresses some of their well-known criticisms.
Bell's inequality and the coincidence-time loophole
Larssons, JA; Gill, RD Richard
2003-01-01
This paper analyzes effects of time-dependence in the Bell inequality. A generalized inequality is derived for the case when coincidence and non-coincidence [and hence whether or not a pair contributes to the actual data] is controlled by timing that depends on the detector settings. Needless to say, this inequality is violated by quantum mechanics and could be violated by experimental data provided that the loss of measurement pairs through failure of coincidence is small enough, but the qua...
Bell's Inequality, Random Sequence, and Quantum Key Distribution
Hwang, W Y
2005-01-01
At first glance Ekert 91 quantum key distribution protocol can be secure even if legitimate users adopt whatever devices for the protocol as long as the devices give a result that violates Bell's inequality. However, it is not the case if they ignore non-detection events because Eve can make use of detection-loophole, as Larrson showed. What we show is that even when the legitimate users take into account non-detection events Eve can successfully eavesdrop if the manufacturer design the QKD system appropriately. A loophole utilized here is that of `free-choice' (or `real randomness'). We show how (local) quantum key distribution devices with pseudo-random sequence generator installed in them can apparently violate Bell's inequality. We briefly discuss a debate on Bell's inequality violation that is involved with a question on randomness.
Experimental violation of Bell inequalities for multi-dimensional systems
Lo, Hsin-Pin; Yabushita, Atsushi; Chen, Yueh-Nan; Luo, Chih-Wei; Kobayashi, Takayoshi
2016-01-01
Quantum correlations between spatially separated parts of a $d$-dimensional bipartite system ($d\\geq 2$) have no classical analog. Such correlations, also called entanglements, are not only conceptually important, but also have a profound impact on information science. In theory the violation of Bell inequalities based on local realistic theories for $d$-dimensional systems provides evidence of quantum nonlocality. Experimental verification is required to confirm whether a quantum system of extremely large dimension can possess this feature, however it has never been performed for large dimension (e.g., $d\\geq 1000$). Here, we report that Bell inequalities are experimentally violated for bipartite quantum systems of extremely high dimensionality with the usual ensembles of polarization-entangled photon pairs. Our entanglement source violates Bell inequalities for extremely high dimensionality of $d>4000$. The designed scenario offers a possible new method to investigate the entanglement of multipartite system...
Quantum Communication Complexity Advantage Implies Violation of a Bell Inequality
Buhrman, Harry; Czekaj, Lukasz; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Michal; Horodecki, Pawel; Markiewicz, Marcin; Speelman, Florian; Strelchuk, Sergii
2016-01-01
We obtain a general connection between a large quantum advantage in communication complexity and Bell non-locality. We show that given any protocol offering a sufficiently large quantum advantage in communication complexity, there exists a way of obtaining measurement statistics which violate some Bell inequality. Our main tool is port-based teleportation. If the gap between quantum and classical communication complexity can grow arbitrarily large, the ratio of the quantum value to the classi...
Bell's inequalities II: logical loophole in their interpretation
Sica, Louis
2001-01-01
Assumed data streams from a delayed choice gedanken experiment must satisfy a Bell's identity independently of locality assumptions. The violation of Bell's inequality by assumed correlations of identical form among these data streams implies that they cannot all result from statistically equivalent variables of a homogeneous process. This is consistent with both the requirements of arithmetic and distinctions between commuting and noncommuting observables in quantum mechanics. Neglect of the...
Quantum communication complexity advantage implies violation of a Bell inequality
Buhrman, Harry; Czekaj, Łukasz; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Michał; Horodecki, Paweł; Markiewicz, Marcin; Speelman, Florian; Strelchuk, Sergii
2016-03-01
We obtain a general connection between a large quantum advantage in communication complexity and Bell nonlocality. We show that given any protocol offering a sufficiently large quantum advantage in communication complexity, there exists a way of obtaining measurement statistics that violate some Bell inequality. Our main tool is port-based teleportation. If the gap between quantum and classical communication complexity can grow arbitrarily large, the ratio of the quantum value to the classical value of the Bell quantity becomes unbounded with the increase in the number of inputs and outputs.
From Bell's inequalities to quantum information: a new quantum revolution
CERN. Geneva
2015-01-01
In 1964, John Stuart Bell discovered that it is possible to settle the debate experimentally, by testing the famous "Bell's inequalities", and to show directly that the revolutionary concept of entanglement is indeed a reality. A long series of experiments closer and closer to the ideal scheme presented by Bell has confirmed that entanglement is indeed "a great quantum mystery", to use the words of Feynman. Based on that concept, a new field of research has emerged, quantum information, where one uses quantum bits, the so-called “qubits”, to encode the information and process it. Entanglement ...
Quantum Communication between N partners and Bell's inequalities
Scarani, Valerio; Gisin, Nicolas
2001-01-01
We consider a family of quantum communication protocols involving $N$ partners. We demonstrate the existence of a link between the security of these protocols against individual attacks by the eavesdropper, and the violation of some Bell's inequalities, generalizing the link that was noticed some years ago for two-partners quantum cryptography. The arguments are independent of the local hidden variable debate.
Bell inequality and the locality loophole: Active versus passive switches
Gisin, N.; Zbinden, H.
1999-01-01
All experimental tests of the violation of Bell's inequality suffer from some loopholes. We show that the locality loophole is not independent of the detection loophole: in experiments using low efficient detectors, the locality loophole can be closed equivalently using active or passive switches.
Testing Bell inequalities with circuit QEDs by joint spectral measurements
Yuan, Hao; Huang, J S; Wang, X H; Vedral, Vlatko
2011-01-01
We propose a feasible approach to test Bell's inequality with the experimentally-demonstrated circuit QED system, consisting of two well-separated superconducting charge qubits (SCQs) dispersively coupled to a common one-dimensional transmission line resonator (TLR). Our proposal is based on the joint spectral measurements of the two SCQs, i.e., their quantum states in the computational basis $\\{|kl>,\\,k,l=0,1\\}$ can be measured by detecting the transmission spectra of the driven TLR: each peak marks one of the computational basis and its relative height corresponds to the probability superposed. With these joint spectral measurements, the generated Bell states of the two SCQs can be robustly confirmed without the standard tomographic technique. Furthermore, the statistical nonlocal-correlations between these two distant qubits can be directly read out by the joint spectral measurements, and consequently the Bell's inequality can be tested by sequentially measuring the relevant correlations related to the sui...
Two-party Bell inequalities derived from combinatorics via triangular elimination
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We establish a relation between the two-party Bell inequalities for two-valued measurements and a high-dimensional convex polytope called the cut polytope in polyhedral combinatorics. Using this relation, we propose a method, triangular elimination, to derive tight Bell inequalities from facets of the cut polytope. This method gives two hundred million inequivalent tight Bell inequalities from currently known results on the cut polytope. In addition, this method gives general formulae which represent families of infinitely many Bell inequalities. These results can be used to examine general properties of Bell inequalities
Bell Inequality Tests with Macroscopic Entangled States of Light
Stobińska, Magdalena; Buraczewski, Adam; Gisin, Nicolas; Leuchs, Gerd; 10.1103/PhysRevA.84.034104
2011-01-01
Quantum correlations may violate the Bell inequalities. Most of the experimental schemes confirming this prediction have been realized in all-optical Bell tests suffering from the detection loophole. Experiment which closes this loophole and the locality loophole simultaneously is highly desirable and remains challenging. A novel approach to a loophole-free Bell tests is based on amplification of the entangled photons, i.e.\\@ on macroscopic entanglement, which optical signal should be easy to detect. However, the macroscopic states are partially indistinguishable by the classical detectors. An interesting idea to overcome these limitations is to replace the postselection by an appropriate preselection immediately after the amplification. This is in the spirit of state preprocessing revealing hidden nonlocality. Here, we examine one of possible preselections, but the presented tools can be used for analysis of other schemes. Filtering methods making the macroscopic entanglement useful for Bell test and quantum...
Bell-inequality tests with macroscopic entangled states of light
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stobinska, M. [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Erlangen (Germany); Institute for Theoretical Physics II, Erlangen-Nuernberg University, Erlangen (Germany); Sekatski, P.; Gisin, N. [Group of Applied Physics, University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Buraczewski, A. [Faculty of Electronics and Information Technology, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Leuchs, G. [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Erlangen (Germany); Institute for Optics, Information and Photonics, Erlangen-Nuernberg University, Erlangen (Germany)
2011-09-15
Quantum correlations may violate the Bell inequalities. Most experimental schemes confirming this prediction have been realized in all-optical Bell tests suffering from the detection loophole. Experiments which simultaneously close this loophole and the locality loophole are highly desirable and remain challenging. An approach to loophole-free Bell tests is based on amplification of the entangled photons (i.e., on macroscopic entanglement), for which an optical signal should be easy to detect. However, the macroscopic states are partially indistinguishable by classical detectors. An interesting idea to overcome these limitations is to replace the postselection by an appropriate preselection immediately after the amplification. This is in the spirit of state preprocessing revealing hidden nonlocality. Here, we examine one of the possible preselections, but the presented tools can be used for analysis of other schemes. Filtering methods making the macroscopic entanglement useful for Bell tests and quantum protocols are the subject of an intensive study in the field nowadays.
Loopholes in Bell inequality tests of local realism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bell inequalities are intended to show that local realist theories cannot describe the world. A local realist theory is one where physical properties are defined prior to and independent of measurement, and no physical influence can propagate faster than the speed of light. Quantum-mechanical predictions for certain experiments violate the Bell inequality while a local realist theory cannot, and this shows that a local realist theory cannot give those quantum-mechanical predictions. However, because of unexpected circumstances or ‘loopholes’ in available experiment tests, local realist theories can reproduce the data from these experiments. This paper reviews such loopholes, what effect they have on Bell inequality tests, and how to avoid them in experiment. Avoiding all these simultaneously in one experiment, usually called a ‘loophole-free’ or ‘definitive’ Bell test, remains an open task, but is very important for technological tasks such as device-independent security of quantum cryptography, and ultimately for our understanding of the world. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell’s theorem’. (review article)
Quantum nonlocality, Bell inequalities, and the memory loophole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the analysis of experiments designed to reveal violation of Bell-type inequalities, it is usually assumed that any hidden variables associated with the nth particle pair would be independent of measurement choices and outcomes for the first (n-1) pairs. Models which violate this assumption exploit what we call the memory loophole. We focus on the strongest type of violation, which uses the two-sided memory loophole, in which the hidden variables for pair n can depend on the previous measurement choices and outcomes in both wings of the experiment. We show that the two-sided memory loophole allows a systematic violation of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality when the data are analyzed in the standard way, but cannot produce a violation if a CHSH expression depending linearly on the data is used. In the first case, the maximal CHSH violation becomes small as the number of particle pairs tested becomes large. Hence, although in principle the memory loophole implies a slight flaw in the existing analyses of Bell experiments, the data still strongly confirm quantum mechanics against local hidden variables. We consider also a related loophole, the simultaneous measurement loophole, which applies if all measurements on each side are carried out simultaneously. We show that this can increase the probability of violating the linearized CHSH inequality as well as other Bell-type inequalities
NMR analog of Bell's inequalities violation test
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Souza, A M; Oliveira, I S; Sarthour, R S [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas FIsicas, Rua Dr Xavier Sigaud 150, Rio de Janeiro 22290-180, RJ (Brazil); Magalhaes, A; Teles, J; Azevedo, E R de; Bonagamba, T J [Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, PO Box 369, Sao Carlos 13560-970, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: amsouza@cbpf.br
2008-03-15
In this paper, we present an analog of Bell's inequalities violation test for N qubits to be performed in a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) quantum computer. This can be used to simulate or predict the results for different Bell's inequality tests, with distinct configurations and a larger number of qubits. To demonstrate our scheme, we implemented a simulation of the violation of the Clauser, Horne, Shimony and Holt (CHSH) inequality using a two-qubit NMR system and compared the results to those of a photon experiment. The experimental results are well described by the quantum mechanics theory and a local realistic hidden variables model (LRHVM) that was specifically developed for NMR. That is why we refer to this experiment as a simulation of Bell's inequality violation. Our result shows explicitly how the two theories can be compatible with each other due to the detection loophole. In the last part of this work, we discuss the possibility of testing some fundamental features of quantum mechanics using NMR with highly polarized spins, where a strong discrepancy between quantum mechanics and hidden variables models can be expected.
Violations of multisetting quaternion and octonion Bell inequalities
Kiesewetter, S.; Drummond, P. D.; Reid, M. D.
2015-09-01
We examine the N -partite quaternion and octonion dichotomic Bell inequalities derived by Vogel and Shchukin utilizing the square identities of Euler and Degen, which apply to experiments with M settings at each spatially separated site. We reveal these inequalities to be violated by the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state, for N ≥3 and 2 ≤M ≤8 . Violations are robust with respect to loss, the threshold detection efficiency being η >22/N -1 for all M , implying violations for efficiencies as low as η ˜50 % at each site, as N →∞ .
Electron entanglement near a superconductor and Bell inequalities
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Thierry Martin; Chantal Lovarco
2002-08-01
Near the interface between a normal metal and a superconductor, Cooper pairs penetrate into the normal side, giving rise to the proximity effect. The two electrons of these pairs have entangled spin and orbital degrees of freedom. Nonlocal features of quantum mechanics can be probed by separating these two electrons. This is achieved with a fork geometry with two normal leads containing either spin- or energy-selective ﬁlters. A signature of entanglement can be detected by measuring the positive noise cross-correlations in this fork. In the case of energy ﬁlters, Bell-inequality checks constitute a deﬁnite probe of entanglement. We formulate Bell-type inequalities in terms of current–current cross-correlations associated with contacts with varying magnetization orientations. We ﬁnd maximal violation (as in photons) when a superconductor is the particle source.
Relativistic Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlation and Bell's inequality
Terashima, H; Terashima, Hiroaki; Ueda, Masahito
2003-01-01
We formulate the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) gedankenexperiment within the framework of relativistic quantum theory to analyze a situation in which measurements are performed by moving observers. We point out that under certain conditions the perfect anti-correlation of an EPR pair of spins in the same direction is deteriorated in the moving observers' frame due to the Wigner rotation, and show that the degree of the violation of Bell's inequality prima facie decreases with increasing the velocity of the observers if the directions of the measurement are fixed. However, this does not imply a breakdown of non-local correlation since the perfect anti-correlation is maintained in appropriately chosen different directions. We must take account of this relativistic effect in utilizing in moving frames the EPR correlation and the violation of Bell's inequality for quantum communication.
The various versions of Bell's inequality: an alternative proof
Fakhri, H.; Taqavi, M.
2005-06-01
By considering uncommon factors as spacetime events that influence the spin orientations in the EPRB thought experiment, it is intended to show that one can still introduce the correlation functions. These uncommon factors are positioned inside the common lightcone of two particles. Then, Bell inequalities are proved with the preassumptions of local realism and spin conservation law in the context of a new scenario of hidden variables.
The various versions of Bell's inequality: an alternative proof
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
By considering uncommon factors as spacetime events that influence the spin orientations in the EPRB thought experiment, it is intended to show that one can still introduce the correlation functions. These uncommon factors are positioned inside the common lightcone of two particles. Then, Bell inequalities are proved with the preassumptions of local realism and spin conservation law in the context of a new scenario of hidden variables
Bell's Inequalities and Methods of Quantifying Measures of Entanglement Correlations
Bracken, Paul
2014-08-01
Bell inequalities provide a specific setting for investigating the physics of entanglement in quantum mechanics. They give a basis for providing an experimental realization of these kinds of quantum phenomena and exhibit some of its more unusual consequences. Some useful ways to look at entanglement quantitatively are presented. It is intended that the presentation and results will provide insights which make effective experimental observation easier.
Near-Optimal and Explicit Bell Inequality Violations
Buhrman, Harry; Scarpa, Giannicola; de Wolf, Ronald
2010-01-01
Bell inequality violations correspond to behavior of entangled quantum systems that cannot be simulated classically. We give two new two-player games with Bell inequality violations that are stronger, fully explicit, and arguably simpler than earlier work. The first game is based on the Hidden Matching problem of quantum communication complexity, introduced by Bar-Yossef, Jayram, and Kerenidis. This game can be won with probability~1 by a quantum strategy using a maximally entangled state with local dimension $n$ (e.g., $\\log n$ EPR-pairs), while we show that the winning probability of any classical strategy differs from 1/2 by at most $O(\\log n/\\sqrt{n})$. The second game is based on the integrality gap for Unique Games by Khot and Vishnoi and the quantum rounding procedure of Kempe, Regev, and Toner. Here $n$-dimensional entanglement allows to win the game with probability $1/(\\log n)^2$, while the best winning probability without entanglement is $1/n$. This near-linear ratio ("Bell inequality violation") i...
Experimental violation of Bell inequalities for multi-dimensional systems.
Lo, Hsin-Pin; Li, Che-Ming; Yabushita, Atsushi; Chen, Yueh-Nan; Luo, Chih-Wei; Kobayashi, Takayoshi
2016-01-01
Quantum correlations between spatially separated parts of a d-dimensional bipartite system (d ≥ 2) have no classical analog. Such correlations, also called entanglements, are not only conceptually important, but also have a profound impact on information science. In theory the violation of Bell inequalities based on local realistic theories for d-dimensional systems provides evidence of quantum nonlocality. Experimental verification is required to confirm whether a quantum system of extremely large dimension can possess this feature, however it has never been performed for large dimension. Here, we report that Bell inequalities are experimentally violated for bipartite quantum systems of dimensionality d = 16 with the usual ensembles of polarization-entangled photon pairs. We also estimate that our entanglement source violates Bell inequalities for extremely high dimensionality of d > 4000. The designed scenario offers a possible new method to investigate the entanglement of multipartite systems of large dimensionality and their application in quantum information processing. PMID:26917246
Proposal to Test Bell's Inequality in Electromechanics
Hofer, Sebastian G.; Lehnert, Konrad W.; Hammerer, Klemens
2016-02-01
Optomechanical and electromechanical systems offer an effective platform to test quantum theory and its predictions at macroscopic scales. To date, all experiments presuppose the validity of quantum mechanics, but could in principle be described by a hypothetical local statistical theory. Here we suggest a Bell test using the electromechanical Einstein-Podolski-Rosen entangled state recently generated by Palomaki et al., Science 342, 710 (2013), which would rule out any local and realistic explanation of the measured data without assuming the validity of quantum mechanics at macroscopic scales. It additionally provides a device-independent way to verify electromechanical entanglement. The parameter regime required for our scheme has been demonstrated or is within reach of current experiments.
Proposal to Test Bell's Inequality in Electromechanics.
Hofer, Sebastian G; Lehnert, Konrad W; Hammerer, Klemens
2016-02-19
Optomechanical and electromechanical systems offer an effective platform to test quantum theory and its predictions at macroscopic scales. To date, all experiments presuppose the validity of quantum mechanics, but could in principle be described by a hypothetical local statistical theory. Here we suggest a Bell test using the electromechanical Einstein-Podolski-Rosen entangled state recently generated by Palomaki et al., Science 342, 710 (2013), which would rule out any local and realistic explanation of the measured data without assuming the validity of quantum mechanics at macroscopic scales. It additionally provides a device-independent way to verify electromechanical entanglement. The parameter regime required for our scheme has been demonstrated or is within reach of current experiments. PMID:26943516
Is the contextuality loophole fatal for the derivation of Bell Inequalities?
Nieuwenhuizen, T.M.
2011-01-01
It is explained on a physical basis how absence of contextuality allows Bell inequalities to be violated, without bringing an implication on locality or realism. Hereto we connect first to the local realistic theory Stochastic Electrodynamics, and then put the argument more broadly. Thus even if Bell Inequality Violation is demonstrated beyond reasonable doubt, it will have no say on local realism, because absence of contextuality prevents the Bell inequalities to be derived from local realis...
Testing Quantum Mechanics and Bell's Inequality with Astronomical Observations
Friedman, Andrew S.; Kaiser, David I.; Gallicchio, Jason; Team 1: University of Vienna, Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information; Team 2: UC San Diego Cosmology Group; Team 3: NASA/JPL/Caltech
2016-06-01
We report on an in progress "Cosmic Bell" experiment that will leverage cosmology to test quantum mechanics and Bell's inequality using astronomical observations. Different iterations of our experiment will send polarization-entangled photons through the open air to detectors ~1-100 kilometers apart, whose settings would be rapidly chosen using real-time telescopic observations of Milky Way stars, and eventually distant, causally disconnected, cosmological sources - such as pairs of quasars or patches of the cosmic microwave background - all while the entangled pair is still in flight. This would, for the first time, attempt to fully close the so-called "setting independence" or "free will" loophole in experimental tests of Bell's inequality, whereby an alternative theory could mimic the quantum predictions if the experimental settings choices shared even a small correlation with unknown, local, causal influences a mere few milliseconds prior to the experiment. A full Cosmic Bell test would push any such influence all the way back to the hot big bang, since the end of any period of inflation, 13.8 billion years ago, an improvement of 20 orders of magnitude compared to the best previous experiments. Redshift z > 3.65 quasars observed at optical wavelengths are the optimal candidate source pairs using present technology. Our experiment is partially funded by the NSF INSPIRE program, in collaboration with MIT, UC San Diego, Harvey Mudd College, NASA/JPL/Caltech, and the University of Vienna. Such an experiment has implications for our understanding of nature at the deepest level. By testing quantum mechanics in a regime never before explored, we would at the very least extend our confidence in quantum theory, while at the same time severely constraining large classes of alternative theories. If the experiment were to uncover discrepancies from the quantum predictions, there could be crucial implications for early-universe cosmology, the security of quantum encryption
Quantum nonlocality, Bell inequalities and the memory loophole
Barrett, Jonathan; Collins, Daniel; Hardy, Lucien; Kent, Adrian; Popescu, Sandu
2002-01-01
In the analysis of experiments designed to reveal violation of Bell-type inequalities, it is usually assumed that any hidden variables associated with the nth particle pair would be independent of measurement choices and outcomes for the first $(n-1)$ pairs. Models which violate this assumption exploit what we call the {\\it memory loophole}. We focus on the strongest type of violation, which uses the {\\it 2-sided} memory loophole, in which the hidden variables for pair $n$ can depend on the p...
All Pure Entangled States of Three-Qubit System Violate a Bell Inequality For Probabilities
Chen, J L; Kwek, L C; Oh, C H; Chen, Jing-Ling; Wu, Chun-Feng
2003-01-01
We present a Theorem that all generalized GHZ states of three-qubit system violation a Bell inequality in terms of probabilities. We also show that all pure entangled states of three-qubit system violate a Bell inequality for probabilities.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Bell's inequality has been experimentally tested using angular correlation of Compton-scattered photons from annihilation of positrons emitted from 22Na source. The result shows a better agreement with the quantum mechanics predictions rather than with the Bell's inequality
Bell inequality and common causal explanation in algebraic quantum field theory
Hofer-Szabó, Gábor
2012-01-01
Bell inequalities, understood as constraints between classical conditional probabilities, can be derived from a set of assumptions representing a common causal explanation of classical correlations. A similar derivation, however, is not known for Bell inequalities in algebraic quantum field theories establishing constraints for the expectation of specific linear combinations of projections in a quantum state. In the paper we address the question as to whether a 'common causal justification' of these non-classical Bell inequalities is possible. We will show that although the classical notion of common causal explanation can readily be generalized for the non-classical case, the Bell inequalities used in quantum theories cannot be derived from these non-classical common causes. Just the opposite is true: for a set of correlations there can be given a non-classical common causal explanation even if they violate the Bell inequalities. This shows that the range of common causal explanations in the non-classical ca...
Relaxed Bell inequalities and Kochen-Specker theorems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hall, Michael J. W. [Theoretical Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)
2011-08-15
The combination of various physically plausible properties, such as no signaling, determinism, and experimental free will, is known to be incompatible with quantum correlations. Hence, these properties must be individually or jointly relaxed in any model of such correlations. The necessary degrees of relaxation are quantified here via natural distance and information-theoretic measures. This allows quantitative comparisons between different models in terms of the resources, such as the number of bits of randomness, communication, and/or correlation, that they require. For example, measurement dependence is a relatively strong resource for modeling singlet-state correlations, with only 1/15 of one bit of correlation required between measurement settings and the underlying variable. It is shown how various ''relaxed'' Bell inequalities may be obtained, which precisely specify the complementary degrees of relaxation required to model any given violation of a standard Bell inequality. The robustness of a class of Kochen-Specker theorems, to relaxation of measurement independence, is also investigated. It is shown that a theorem of Mermin remains valid unless measurement independence is relaxed by 1/3. The Conway-Kochen ''free will'' theorem and a result of Hardy are less robust, failing if measurement independence is relaxed by only 6.5% and 4.5%, respectively. An appendix shows that existence of an outcome-independent model is equivalent to existence of a deterministic model.
Some properties of the functions satisfying Bell's inequalities in relation to quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Having recalled the 1935 debate between A. Einstein and N. Bohr about quantum mechanics (Q.M.) the thought-experiment of D. Bohm is described and a new derivation of the Bell's inequalities is established to test the class of theories based on the hypothesis of hidden-parameters in the common past. It is shown that Q.M. violates these inequalities almost everywhere. The general properties of functions satisfying Bell's inequalities are studied in order to compare them to Q.M. predictions as regards derivatives, integrals, values, intervals, amplitudes and finally the overall behaviour: a few of the Bell's functions chosen to approach somehow Q.M. are given. Altogether, in the comparison between Q.M. and functions satisfying Bell's inequalities, an incompatibility is revealed that is stronger then that resulting from consideration of just the inequalities
Test of high-dimensional Bell inequalities by reconstructing quasiprobability distribution functions
Lee, Seung-Woo
2010-01-01
We propose a scheme for testing high-dimensional Bell inequalities by reconstructing quasiprobability distribution functions. Two types of high-dimensional Bell inequalities proposed by Collins et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 040404 (2002)] and Son et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 060406 (2006)] are recast into the form in complex variable representation, where the correlation function can be obtained by reconstructing quasiprobability distribution functions. Based on this scheme we test two types of high-dimensional Bell inequalities with different numbers of outcomes for two mode squeezed vacuum states. For some cases of more than two level outcomes the type proposed by Collins et al. exhibits stronger violations than the CHSH inequality, while the violation strength of the type proposed by Son et al. tends to decrease as increasing the number of outcomes. It is also shown that high-dimensional Bell tests can be more robust to detection noise than the test of CHSH inequality.
Large violation of Bell inequalities using both particle andwave measurements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cavalcanti, Daniel [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Brunner, Nicolas; Skrzypczyk, Paul [H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Salles, Alejo [Niels Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Scarani, Valerio [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore)
2011-08-15
When separated measurements on entangled quantum systems are performed, the theory predicts correlations that cannot be explained by any classical mechanism: communication is excluded because the signal should travel faster than light; preestablished agreement is excluded because Bell inequalities are violated. All optical demonstrations of such violations have involved discrete degrees of freedom and are plagued by the detection-efficiency loophole. A promising alternative is to use continuous variables combined with highly efficient homodyne measurements. However, all the schemes proposed so far use states or measurements that are extremely difficult to achieve, or they produce very weak violations. We present a simple method to generate large violations for feasible states using both photon counting and homodyne detections. The present scheme can also be used to obtain nonlocality from easy-to-prepare Gaussian states (e.g., two-mode squeezed state).
Can experimental tests of Bell inequalities performed with pseudoscalar mesons be definitive?
Genovese, M.; Novero, C.; Predazzi, E.
2001-01-01
We discuss if experimental tests of Bell inequalities performed with pseudoscalar mesons (K or B) can be definitive. Our conclusion is that this is not the case, for the efficiency loophole cannot be eliminated.
Bell Inequality for Generalized Parity Measurement and its Violation for Continuous Variable Systems
Chen, J L; Kwek, L C; Oh, C H; Chen, Jing-Ling; Wu, Chun-Feng
2003-01-01
We generalize the concept of the usual parity measurement. Due to the generalized parity measurement, we obtain multi-component correlation functions. Bell inequality for the multi-component correlation function is proposed. The violation of the Bell inequality for continuous variable systems is investigated. The violation of the the original Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen states can exceed the Cirel'son bound, the maximal violation is 2.96981.
First experimental test of Bell inequalities performed using a non-maximally entangled state
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
M Genovese; G Brida; C Novero; E Predazzi
2001-02-01
We describe the realisation of a new test of Bell inequalities using a new scheme obtained by the superposition of type I parametric down conversion produced in two different non-linear crystals pumped by the same laser, but with different polarisations. This experiment is the ﬁrst test of Bell inequalities using a non-maximally entangled state and thus represents an important step in the direction of eliminating the detection loophole.
Xiang, Yang; Xiong, Shi-Jie
2010-01-01
On the basis of local realism theory, nonlocal information is necessary for violation of Bell's inequality. From a theoretical point of view, nonlocal information is essentially the mutual information on distant outcome and measurement setting. In this work we prove that if the measurement is free and unbiased, the mutual information about the distant outcome and setting is both necessary for the violation of Bell's inequality in the case with unbiased marginal probabilities. In the case with...
Maximal Violation of Bell Inequality for Any Given Two-Qubit Pure State
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XIANG Yang
2010-01-01
@@ In the case of bipartite two-qubit systems,we derive an analytical expression of bound Bell operator for any given pure state.Our result not only manifests some properties of Bell inequality,for example,which may be violated by any pure entangled state and only be maximally violated for a maximally entangled state,but also gives the explicit values of maximal violation for any pure state.Finally we point out that any mixed states which can produce maximal violation of Bell inequality must have a maximal concurrence value.
Maximal non-classicality in multi-setting Bell inequalities
Tavakoli, Armin; Zohren, Stefan; Pawlowski, Marcin
2016-04-01
The discrepancy between maximally entangled states and maximally non-classical quantum correlations is well-known but still not well understood. We aim to investigate the relation between quantum correlations and entanglement in a family of Bell inequalities with N-settings and d outcomes. Using analytical as well as numerical techniques, we derive both maximal quantum violations and violations obtained from maximally entangled states. Furthermore, we study the most non-classical quantum states in terms of their entanglement entropy for large values of d and many measurement settings. Interestingly, we find that the entanglement entropy behaves very differently depending on whether N = 2 or N\\gt 2: when N = 2 the entanglement entropy is a monotone function of d and the most non-classical state is far from maximally entangled, whereas when N\\gt 2 the entanglement entropy is a non-monotone function of d and converges to that of the maximally entangled state in the limit of large d.
Testing Quantum Mechanics and Bell's Inequality with Astronomical Observations
Friedman, Andrew S.; Gallicchio, Jason; Kaiser, David I.; Guth, Alan H.
2015-01-01
We propose an experiment which would leverage cosmology to test quantum mechanics using astronomical observations. Our experiment would send entangled photons to detectors over 100 kilometers apart, whose settings would be rapidly chosen using real-time telescopic observations of distant, causally disconnected, cosmic sources - such as pairs of quasars or patches of the Cosmic Microwave Background - all while the entangled pair is still in flight. This would, for the first time, close close the so-called "setting independence" or "free will" loophole in experimental tests of Bell's inequality, whereby an alternative theory could mimic the quantum predictions if the experimental settings choices shared even a small correlation with some local "hidden variables" due to unknown causal influences a mere few milliseconds prior to the experiment. Our "Cosmic Bell" experiment would push any such hidden variable conspiracy all the way back to the hot big bang, since the end of any period of inflation, 13.8 Gyr ago, an improvement of 20 orders of magnitude. We demonstrate the real world feasibility of our experimental setup. While causally disjoint patches of the cosmic microwave background radiation at redshift z ~ 1090 could be used to set the detectors, z > 3.65 quasars observed at optical wavelengths are arguably the optimal candidate source pairs using present technology. Our proposal is supported by some of the world's leading quantum experimentalists, who have begun to collaborate with us to conduct the experiment in the next 2-3 years using some of the instrumentation they have already built and used at two astronomical observatories in the Canary Islands. Such an experiment has implications for our understanding of nature at the deepest level. By testing quantum mechanics in a regime never before explored, we would at the very least extend our confidence in quantum theory, while at the same time severely constraining large classes of alternative theories. If the
Intrinsic asymmetry with respect to adversary: a new feature of Bell inequalities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is known that the local bound of a Bell inequality is sensitive to the knowledge of the external observer about the settings statistics. Here we ask how that sensitivity depends on the structure of that knowledge. It turns out that in some cases it may happen that the local bound is much more sensitive to the adversary's knowledge about the settings of one party than the other. Remarkably, there are Bell inequalities which are highly asymmetric with respect to the adversary's knowledge about local settings. This property may be viewed as a hidden intrinsic asymmetry of Bell inequalities. Potential implications of the revealed asymmetry effect are also discussed. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell’s theorem’. (paper)
Violation of a temporal Bell inequality for single spins in solid by over 50 standard deviations
Waldherr, G; Huelga, S F; Jelezko, F; Wrachtrup, J
2011-01-01
Quantum non-locality has been experimentally investigated by testing different forms of Bell's inequality, yet a loophole-free realization has not been achieved up to now. Much less explored are temporal Bell inequalities, which are not subject to the locality assumption, but impose a constrain on the system's time-correlations. In this paper, we report on the experimental violation of a temporal Bell's inequality using a nitrogen vacancy defect (NV) in diamond and provide a novel quantitative test of quantum coherence. We therefore present a new technique to initialize the electronic state of the NV with high fidelity, a necessary requirement for reliable quantum information processing and/or the implementation of protocols for quantum metrology.
Bell's inequality and extremal non-local box from Hardy's test for non-locality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bell showed 50 years ago that quantum theory is non-local via his celebrated inequalities, turning the issue of quantum non-locality from a matter of taste into a matter of test. Years later, Hardy proposed a test for non-locality without inequality, which is a kind of ‘something-versus-nothing’ argument. Hardy's test for n particles induces an n-partite Bell's inequality with two dichotomic local measurements for each observer, which has been shown to be violated by all entangled pure states. Our first result is to show that the Bell–Hardy inequality arising form Hardy's non-locality test is tight for an arbitrary number of parties, i.e., it defines a facet of the Bell polytope in the given scenario. On the other hand quantum theory is not that non-local since it forbids signaling and even not as non-local as allowed by non-signaling conditions, i.e., quantum mechanical predictions form a strict subset of the so called non-signaling polytope. In the scenario of each observer measuring two dichotomic observables, Fritz established a duality between the Bell polytope and the non-signaling polytope: tight Bell's inequalities, the facets of the Bell polytope, are in a one-to-one correspondence with extremal non-signaling boxes, the vertices of the non-signaling polytope. Our second result is to provide an alternative and more direct formula for this duality. As an example, the tight Bell–Hardy inequality gives rise to an extremal non-signaling box that serves as a natural multipartite generalization of Popescu–Rohrlich box. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell’s theorem’. (paper)
Entangled-state generation and Bell inequality violations in nanomechanical resonators
Johansson, J. Robert; Lambert, Neill; Mahboob, Imran; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Nori, Franco
2014-11-01
We investigate theoretically the conditions under which a multimode nanomechanical resonator, operated as a purely mechanical parametric oscillator, can be driven into highly nonclassical states. We find that when the device can be cooled to near its ground state, and certain mode matching conditions are satisfied, it is possible to prepare distinct resonator modes in quantum entangled states that violate Bell inequalities with homodyne quadrature measurements. We analyze the parameter regimes for such Bell inequality violations, and while experimentally challenging, we believe that the realization of such states lies within reach. This is a re-imagining of a quintessential quantum optics experiment by using phonons that represent tangible mechanical vibrations.
Multicomponent Bell inequality and its violation for continuous-variable systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Multicomponent correlation functions are developed by utilizing d-outcome measurements. Based on multicomponent correlation functions, we propose a Bell inequality for bipartite d-dimensional systems. Violation of the Bell inequality for continuous-variable (CV) systems is investigated. The violation of maximally entangled states can exceed the Cirel'son bound; the maximal violation is 2.969 81. For finite values of the squeezing parameter, the violation strength of CV states increases with dimension d. Numerical results show that the violation strength of CV states with finite squeezing parameters is stronger than that of maximally entangled states
Kiess, Thomas E.; Shih, Yan-Hua; Sergienko, A. V.; Alley, Carroll O.
1994-01-01
We report a new two-photon polarization correlation experiment for realizing the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm (EPRB) state and for testing Bell-type inequalities. We use the pair of orthogonally-polarized light quanta generated in Type 2 parametric down conversion. Using 1 nm interference filters in front of our detectors, we observe from the output of a 0.5mm beta - BaB2O4 (BBO) crystal the EPRB correlations in coincidence counts, and measure an associated Bell inequality violation of 22 standard deviations. The quantum state of the photon pair is a polarization analog of the spin-1/2 singlet state.
White, Theodore C.
Quantum mechanics makes many predictions, such as superposition, projective measurement, and entanglement, which defy classical intuition. For many years it remained unclear if these predictions were real physical phenomena, or the result of an incomplete understanding of hidden classical variables. For quantum entanglement, the Bell inequality provided the first experimental bound on such hidden variable theories by considering correlated measurements between spatially separated photons. Following a similar logic, the Leggett-Garg inequality provides an experimental test of projective measurement by correlating sequential measurements of the same object. More recently, these inequalities have become important benchmarks for the "quantumness'' of novel systems, measurement techniques, or methods of generating entanglement. In this work we describe a continuous and controlled exchange of extracted state information and two-qubit entanglement collapse, demonstrated using the hybrid Bell-Leggett-Garg inequality. This effect is quantified by correlating weak measurement results with subsequent projective readout to collect all the statistics of a Bell inequality experiment in a single quantum circuit. This result was made possible by technological advances in superconducting quantum processors which allow precise control and measurement in multi-qubit systems. Additionally we discuss the central role of superconducting Josephson parametric amplifiers, which are a requirement for high fidelity single shot qubit readout. We demonstrate the ability to measure average Bell state information with minimal entanglement collapse, by violating this hybrid Bell-Leggett-Garg inequality at the weakest measurement strengths. This result indicates that it is possible to learn about the dynamics of large entangled systems without significantly affecting their evolution.
Characterizing entanglement of an artificial atom and a cavity cat state with Bell's inequality.
Vlastakis, Brian; Petrenko, Andrei; Ofek, Nissim; Sun, Luyan; Leghtas, Zaki; Sliwa, Katrina; Liu, Yehan; Hatridge, Michael; Blumoff, Jacob; Frunzio, Luigi; Mirrahimi, Mazyar; Jiang, Liang; Devoret, M H; Schoelkopf, R J
2015-01-01
The Schrodinger's cat thought experiment highlights the counterintuitive concept of entanglement in macroscopically distinguishable systems. The hallmark of entanglement is the detection of strong correlations between systems, most starkly demonstrated by the violation of a Bell inequality. No violation of a Bell inequality has been observed for a system entangled with a superposition of coherent states, known as a cat state. Here we use the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt formulation of a Bell test to characterize entanglement between an artificial atom and a cat state, or a Bell-cat. Using superconducting circuits with high-fidelity measurements and real-time feedback, we detect correlations that surpass the classical maximum of the Bell inequality. We investigate the influence of decoherence with states up to 16 photons in size and characterize the system by introducing joint Wigner tomography. Such techniques demonstrate that information stored in superpositions of coherent states can be extracted efficiently, a crucial requirement for quantum computing with resonators. PMID:26611724
Bell Theorem without Inequality for Some Generalized GHZ and W States
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
REN Chang-Liang; SHI Ming-Jun; DU Jiang-Feng
2007-01-01
Bell's theorem without inequalities is applied for some general Greenberger-Horn-Zeilinger (GHZ) states and W states and a wide range of such states can exhibit all-versus-nothing conflict between local realism and quantum theory. The case of standard GHZ state is contained in our proposal. For some generalized GHZ states more intensive violation on local realism is manifested.
A logical loophole in the derivation of the CHSH Bell-type inequality
Coddens, G.
2013-01-01
We point out a loophole in the derivation of the Bell inequalities in the form proposed by Clauser, Horne, Shimony and Holt (CHSH). In this derivation it is assumed that statistical independence is a necessary consequence of locality, but this is not a logical necessity.
The relevance of random choice in tests of Bell inequalities with atomic qubits
Santos Corchero, Emilio
2009-01-01
It is pointed out that a loophole may exist in experimental tests of Bell inequalities using atomic qubits, due to possible errors in the angles defining the observables whose correlation is measured. A sufficient condition is derived for closing the loophole.
Testing Bell's Inequality with Cosmic Photons: Closing the Settings-Independence Loophole
Gallicchio, Jason; Kaiser, David I
2013-01-01
We propose a practical scheme to use photons from causally disconnected cosmic sources to set the detectors in an experimental test of Bell's inequality. In current experiments, detector settings are determined by local quantum random number generators. In such experiments, only a small amount of correlation between detector settings and some local hidden variables, established less than a millisecond before each experimental run, would suffice to mimic the predictions of quantum mechanics. By setting the detectors using cosmic sources instead, observed violations of Bell's inequality in our proposed "Cosmic Bell" experiment would require any such coordination to have been in place for billions of years rather than milliseconds -- an improvement of 20 orders of magnitude. Quasar pairs can be used as real-time triggers to establish detector settings using existing technology. For quasars on opposite sides of the sky with redshifts z > 3.65, there is no event after the hot big bang 13.8 billion years ago (follo...
Violation of fair sampling for Bell inequalities with high-dimensional systems
Dada, Adetunmise C
2011-01-01
The fair sampling or detection loophole for Bell inequalities is often understood as mainly relating to the overall efficiency of the detectors used in an experiment. For certain kinds of postselection, the fair sampling condition may however be violated in much more intricate ways. We argue that this is especially relevant for experimental Bell tests in high dimensions, including experimental tests using the orbital angular momentum of light. Here, the fair sampling assumption may be violated even if the measurements have perfect efficiency within the tested subspaces. An experiment will measure count rates rather than probabilities for outcomes to occur, and if the different measurement settings on a subsystem are not correctly chosen, this may lead to apparent violation of Bell inequalities for separable states, and violation of Tsirelson's bound for entangled states.
Ion-Photon Entanglement and Bell Inequality Violation with 138Ba+
Auchter, Carolyn; Noel, Thomas W; Blinov, Boris B
2013-01-01
We report on the demonstration of ion-photon entanglement and Bell inequality violation in a system of trapped 138Ba+ ions. Entanglement between the Zeeman sublevels of the ground state of a single 138Ba+ ion and the polarization state of a single 493 nm photon emitted by the ion with a fidelity of $0.84\\pm0.01$ was achieved, along with a Bell signal of 2.3, exceeding the classical limit of 2 by over eight standard deviations. This system is a promising candidate for a loophole-free Bell inequality violation test as the wavelengths of the transitions of 138Ba+ are in the visible region and thus suitable for long range transmission over fiber optic cable.
Large violation of Bell inequalities using both particle and wave measurements
Cavalcanti, Daniel; Skrzypczyk, Paul; Salles, Alejo; Scarani, Valerio
2010-01-01
When separated measurements on entangled quantum systems are performed, the theory pre- dicts correlations that cannot be explained by any classical mechanism: communication is excluded because the signal should travel faster than light; pre-established agreement is excluded because Bell inequalities are violated. All optical demonstrations of such violations have involved discrete degrees of freedom and are plagued by the detection-efficiency loophole. A promising alternative is to use continuous variables combined with highly efficient homodyne measurements. However, all the schemes proposed so far use states or measurements that are extremely difficult to achieve, or produce very weak violations. In this paper we show that large violations for feasible states can be achieved if both photon counting and homodyne detections are used. Our scheme may lead to the first violation of Bell inequalities using continuous-variable measurements and pave the way for a loophole-free Bell test.
Bell-Boole Inequality: Nonlocality or Probabilistic Incompatibility of Random Variables?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrei Khrennikov
2008-03-01
Full Text Available The main aim of this report is to inform the quantum information community about investigations on the problem of probabilistic compatibility of a family of random variables: a possibility to realize such a family on the basis of a single probability measure (to construct a single Kolmogorov probability space. These investigations were started hundred of years ago by J. Boole (who invented Boolean algebras. The complete solution of the problem was obtained by Soviet mathematician Vorobjev in 60th. Surprisingly probabilists and statisticians obtained inequalities for probabilities and correlations among which one can find the famous BellÃ¢Â€Â™s inequality and its generalizations. Such inequalities appeared simply as constraints for probabilistic compatibility. In this framework one can not see a priori any link to such problems as nonlocality and Ã¢Â€Âœdeath of realityÃ¢Â€Â which are typically linked to BellÃ¢Â€Â™s type inequalities in physical literature. We analyze the difference between positions of mathematicians and quantum physicists. In particular, we found that one of the most reasonable explanations of probabilistic incompatibility is mixing in BellÃ¢Â€Â™s type inequalities statistical data from a number of experiments performed under different experimental contexts.
Geometrical Bell inequalities for arbitrarily many qudits with different outcome strategies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger (GHZ) states are intuitively known to be the most nonclassical ones. They lead to the most radically nonclassical behavior of three or more entangled quantum subsystems. In the case of two-dimensional systems, it has been shown that GHZ states lead to an exponentially higher robustness of Bell nonclassicality against the white noise for geometrical inequalities than in the case of Weinfurter–Werner–Wolf–Żukowski–Brukner ones. We introduce geometrical Bell inequalities for collections of arbitrarily many systems of any dimensionality. We show that the violation factor of these inequalities grows exponentially with the number of parties and study their behavior in terms of dimensionality of subsystems and number of local measurements. We also investigate various strategies of assigning mathematical objects to events in the experiment, each leading to different violation ratios. (paper)
Geometrical Bell inequalities for arbitrarily many qudits with different outcome strategies
Wieśniak, Marcin; Dutta, Arijit; Ryu, Junghee
2016-01-01
Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states are intuitively known to be the most nonclassical ones. They lead to the most radically nonclassical behavior of three or more entangled quantum subsystems. In the case of two-dimensional systems, it has been shown that GHZ states lead to an exponentially higher robustness of Bell nonclassicality against the white noise for geometrical inequalities than in the case of Weinfurter-Werner-Wolf-Żukowski-Brukner ones. We introduce geometrical Bell inequalities for collections of arbitrarily many systems of any dimensionality. We show that the violation factor of these inequalities grows exponentially with the number of parties and study their behavior in terms of dimensionality of subsystems and number of local measurements. We also investigate various strategies of assigning mathematical objects to events in the experiment, each leading to different violation ratios.
Experimental investigation of the information entropic Bell inequality
Cao, Lian-Zhen; Zhao, Jia-Qiang; Liu, Xia; Yang, Yang; Li, Ying-De; Wang, Xiao-Qin; Chen, Zeng-Bing; Lu, Huai-Xin
2016-04-01
Inequalities of information entropic play a fundamental role in information theory and have been employed effectively in finding bounds on optimal rates of various information-processing tasks. In this paper, we perform the first experimental demonstration of the information-theoretic spin-1/2 inequality using the high-fidelity entangled state. Furthermore, we study the evolution of information difference of entropy when photons passing through different noisy channels and give the experimental rules of the information difference degradation. Our work provides an new essential tool for quantum information processing and measurement, and offers new insights into the dynamics of quantum correlation in open systems.
Experimental violation of multiple-measurement time-domain bell's inequalities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the original time-domain Bell's inequalities (Leggett-Garg-type inequalities), the physical objective is measured at three time points. When more time points are chosen, several methods can be used to extend these inequalities. We experimentally demonstrate the violation of these extended inequalities using single photons from a self-assembled quantum dot. In general, for each extension, the quantity by which the quantum-mechanics value exceeds the classical limit becomes larger as the number of measurement time points increases. This quantity has a maximum value for the extensions that have the same number of measurement time points. Furthermore, we evaluate the noise tolerance for these extensions with a quantity that is related to the number of standard deviations by which the experimental result surpasses the classical limit. (authors)
Experimental Violation of Multiple-Measurement Time-Domain Bell's Inequalities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the original time-domain Bell's inequalities (Leggett-Garg-type inequalities), the physical objective is measured at three time points. When more time points are chosen, several methods can be used to extend these inequalities. We experimentally demonstrate the violation of these extended inequalities using single photons from a self-assembled quantum dot. In general, for each extension, the quantity by which the quantum-mechanics value exceeds the classical limit becomes larger as the number of measurement time points increases. This quantity has a maximum value for the extensions that have the same number of measurement time points. Furthermore, we evaluate the noise tolerance for these extensions with a quantity that is related to the number of standard deviations by which the experimental result surpasses the classical limit. (general)
Experimental Violation of Multiple-Measurement Time-Domain Bell's Inequalities
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
TANG Jian-Shun; LI Yu-Long; LI Chuan-Feng; XU Jin-Shi; CHEN Geng; ZOU Yang; ZHOU Zong-Quan; GUO Guang-Can
2011-01-01
In the original time-domain Bell's inequalities (Leggett-Garg-type inequalities), the physical objective is measured at three time points. When more time points are chosen, several methods can be used to extend these inequalities. We experimentally demonstrate the violation of these extended inequalities using single photons from a self-assembled quantum dot. In general, for each extension, the quantity by which the quantum-mechanics value exceeds the classical limit becomes larger as the number of measurement time points increases. This quantity has a maximum vaJue for the extensions that have the same number of measurement time points. Furthermore, we evaluate the noise tolerance for these extensions with a quantity that is related to the number of standard deviations by which the experimental result surpasses the classical limit.%@@ In the original time-domain Bell's inequalities (Leggett-Garg-type inequalities), the physical objective is measured at three time points.When more time points are chosen, several methods can be used to extend these inequalities.We experimentally demonstrate the violation of these extended inequalities using single photons from a self- assembled quantum dot.In general, for each extension, the quantity by which the quantum-mechanics value exceeds the classical limit becomes larger as the number of measurement time points increases.This quantity has a maximum value for the extensions that have the same number of measurement time points.Furthermore, we evaluate the noise tolerance for these extensions with a quantity that is related to the number of standard deviations by which the experimental result surpasses the classical limit.
Bell's Inequalities for Continuous-Variable Systems in Generic Squeezed States
Martin, Jerome
2016-01-01
Bell's inequality for continuous-variable bipartite systems is studied. The inequality is expressed in terms of pseudo-spin operators and quantum expectation values are calculated for generic two-mode squeezed states characterized by a squeezing parameter $r$ and a squeezing angle $\\varphi$. Allowing for generic values of the squeezing angle is especially relevant when $\\varphi$ is not under experimental control, such as in cosmic inflation, where small quantum fluctuations in the early Universe are responsible for structures formation. Compared to previous studies restricted to $\\varphi=0$ and to a fixed orientation of the pseudo-spin operators, allowing for $\\varphi\
The various versions of Bell's inequality: an alternative proof
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fakhri, H [Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics (IPM), PO Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Taqavi, M [Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics (IPM), PO Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2005-06-17
By considering uncommon factors as spacetime events that influence the spin orientations in the EPRB thought experiment, it is intended to show that one can still introduce the correlation functions. These uncommon factors are positioned inside the common lightcone of two particles. Then, Bell inequalities are proved with the preassumptions of local realism and spin conservation law in the context of a new scenario of hidden variables.
Bell-inequality violation with entangled photons, free of the coincidence-time loophole
Larsson, Jan-Åke; Giustina, Marissa; Kofler, Johannes; Wittmann, Bernhard; Ursin, Rupert; Ramelow, Sven
2014-01-01
In a local realist model, physical properties are defined prior to and independent of measurement and no physical influence can propagate faster than the speed of light. Proper experimental violation of a Bell inequality would show that the world cannot be described with such a model. Experiments intended to demonstrate a violation usually require additional assumptions that make them vulnerable to a number of "loopholes." In both pulsed and continuously pumped photonic experiments, an experi...
Hwang, Won-Young
2012-01-01
Recently, Pawlowski [Phys. Rev. A 82, 032313 (2010)] claimed to have proven the security of a quantum key distribution by using only the monogamy of Bell's inequality violations. In the proof, however, he tacitly assumed that the eavesdropper's outcome is binary. The assumption cannot be justified because Eve's (eavesdropper's) power can only be limited by natural principle. We provide a counter-example for a step of the proof.
Quantum Simpsons Paradox and High Order Bell-Tsirelson Inequalities
Shi, Yaoyun
2012-01-01
The well-known Simpson's Paradox, or Yule-Simpson Effect, in statistics is often illustrated by the following thought experiment: A drug may be found in a trial to increase the survival rate for both men and women, but decrease the rate for all the subjects as a whole. This paradoxical reversal effect has been found in numerous datasets across many disciplines, and is now included in most introductory statistics textbooks. In the language of the drug trial, the effect is impossible, however, if both treatment groups' survival rates are higher than both control groups'. Here we show that for quantum probabilities, such a reversal remains possible. In particular, a "quantum drug", so to speak, could be life-saving for both men and women yet deadly for the whole population. We further identify a simple inequality on conditional probabilities that must hold classically but is violated by our quantum scenarios, and completely characterize the maximum quantum violation. As polynomial inequalities on entries of the ...
Device-independent state estimation based on Bell's inequalities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The only information available about an alleged source of entangled quantum states is the amount S by which the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality is violated: nothing is known about the nature of the system or the measurements that are performed. We discuss how the quality of the source can be assessed in this black-box scenario, as compared to an ideal source that would produce maximally entangled states (more precisely, any state for which S=2√(2)). To this end, we present several inequivalent notions of fidelity, each one related to the use one can make of the source after having assessed it, and we derive quantitative bounds for each of them in terms of the violation S. We also derive a lower bound on the entanglement of the source as a function of S only.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We have performed three experimental tests of Bell's inequalities by measuring the linear-polarization correlation of photons emitted by pairs in the 4p21S0 → 4s4p 1P1 → 4s21S0 radiative cascade of calcium. The first part of this dissertation reminds the theoretical background (Bell's theorem), and the experimental situation (previous experiments). We then describe our apparatus: the source (calcium atomic beam selectively excited by two-photon absorption), the optics, the photon coincidence-counting system. Our first experiment, analogous to previous ones (but more precise) involves one-channel polarizers. Our second experiment, based on a conceptually simpler scheme, uses two-channel polarizers. The third experiment involves acousto-optical switches followed by two linear polarizers: these devices act as time-varying polarizers, the orientation of which is changed during the time of flight of photons. In the three experiments, the results are in good agreement with the Quantum mechanical predictions, and they distinctly violate the relevant Bell's inequalities
Reality or Locality? - Proposed test to decide \\textit{how} Nature breaks Bell's inequality
Hansson, Johan
2011-01-01
Bell's theorem, and its experimental tests, has shown that the two premises for Bell's inequality - locality and objective reality - cannot both hold in nature, as Bell's inequality is broken. A simple test is proposed, which for the first time may decide which alternative nature actually prefers on the fundamental, quantum level. If each microscopic event is truly random (e.g. as assumed in orthodox quantum mechanics) objective reality is not valid, whereas if each event is described by an unknown but deterministic mechanism ("hidden variables") locality is not valid. This may be analyzed and decided by the well-known reconstruction method of Ruelle and Takens; in the former case no structure should be discerned, in the latter a reconstructed structure should be visible. This could in principle be tested by comparing individual "hits" in a double slit experiment, but in practice a single fluorescent atom, and its (seemingly random) temporal switching between active/inactive states would possibly be better/mo...
Analytic quantification of the singlet nonlocality for the first Bell inequality
Parisio, Fernando
2016-03-01
Recently an alternative way to quantifying the Bell nonlocality has been proposed [E. A. Fonseca and F. Parisio, Phys. Rev. A 92, 030101(R) (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevA.92.030101]. In this work we further develop this concept, the volume of violation, and analytically calculate its value for the spin-singlet state with respect to the settings of the first Bell inequality. These settings correspond to three directions in space, or three arbitrary points on the unit sphere. It is shown that the triples of directions that lead to violations in local causality correspond to 1 /3 of all possible configurations. From the perspective of quantum communication, this means that two distant parties that were able to align their measurements in one direction only (the remaining direction in each site being random) have a probability of about 33.3 % to certify their entanglement.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The I3322 inequality is the simplest bipartite two-outcome Bell inequality beyond the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality, consisting of three two-outcome measurements per party. In the case of the CHSH inequality the maximal quantum violation can already be attained with local two-dimensional quantum systems; however, there is no such evidence for the I3322 inequality. In this paper a family of measurement operators and states is given which enables us to attain the maximum quantum value in an infinite-dimensional Hilbert space. Further, it is conjectured that our construction is optimal in the sense that measuring finite-dimensional quantum systems is not enough to achieve the true quantum maximum. We also describe an efficient iterative algorithm for computing quantum maximum of an arbitrary two-outcome Bell inequality in any given Hilbert space dimension. This algorithm played a key role in obtaining our results for the I3322 inequality, and we also applied it to improve on our previous results concerning the maximum quantum violation of several bipartite two-outcome Bell inequalities with up to five settings per party.
Computing the maximum violation of a Bell inequality is an NP-problem
Batle, J.; Ooi, C. H. Raymond; Abdalla, S.; Bagdasaryan, Armen
2016-06-01
The number of steps required in order to maximize a Bell inequality for arbitrary number of qubits is shown to grow exponentially with the number of parties involved. The proof that the optimization of such correlation measure is an NP-problem based on an operational perspective involving a Turing machine, which follows a general algorithm. The implications for the computability of the so-called nonlocality for any number of qubits is similar to recent results involving entanglement or similar quantum correlation-based measures.
Some properties of the functions satisfying Bell's inequalities in relation to quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A detailed comparison of Bell's inequalities (B.I.) and quantum mechanics (Q.M.) in an E.P.R.B. situation is given. It is first shown that Q.M. violates the original (3 directions) or generalized (4 directions) B.I. almost everywhere. The properties of functions satisfying the original B.I. are then derived and compared to Q.M. predictions. Finally, the behaviour of functions which satisfy B.I. and attempt to fit Q.M. is described. Altogether, an incompatibility is shown to be stronger than that resulting from just the usual examination
Using macroscopic entanglement to close the detection loophole in Bell inequality
Lim, Youngrong; Lee, Jinhyoung; Kang, Minsu; Jeong, Hyunseok
2011-01-01
We consider a Bell-like inequality performed using various instances of multi-photon entangled states to demonstrate that losses occurring after the unitary transformations used in the nonlocality test can be counteracted by enhancing the "size" of such entangled states. In turn, this feature can be used to overcome detection inefficiencies affecting the test itself: a slight increase in the size of such states, pushing them towards a more "macroscopic" form of entanglement, significantly improves the state robustness against detection inefficiency, thus easing the closing of the detection loophole. Differently, losses before the unitary transformations cause decoherence effects that cannot be compensated using macroscroscopic entanglement.
Bell's inequality and 'ghost-like action-at-a-distance' in quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The phenomenon of non-locality in quantum mechanics is one of its most fundamental features and is most strikingly exemplified in the discussion of the EPR type of experiment. The generality of Bell's inequality and the results of experiments done up to now show that local hidden-variable theories are ruled out as a means to resolve the famous EPR paradox. What remains for further consideration are the non-local and the Einstein-separable hidden-variable models. Finally, an alternative and possible successful approach in trying to 'explain' non-locality might involve ideas of backward causation. (author)
Hybrid quantum logic and a test of Bell's inequality using two different atomic species
Ballance, C J; Home, J P; Szwer, D J; Webster, S C; Allcock, D T C; Linke, N M; Harty, T P; Craik, D P L Aude; Stacey, D N; Steane, A M; Lucas, D M
2015-01-01
Entanglement is one of the most fundamental properties of quantum mechanics, and is the key resource for quantum information processing. Bipartite entangled states of identical particles have been generated and studied in several experiments, and post-selected entangled states involving pairs of photons, or single photons and single atoms, have also been produced. Here, we deterministically generate a "hybrid" entangled state of two different species of trapped-ion qubit, perform full tomography of the state produced, and make the first test of Bell's inequality with non-identical atoms. We use a laser-driven two-qubit quantum logic gate, whose mechanism is insensitive to the qubits' energy splittings, to produce a maximally-entangled state of one Ca40 qubit and one Ca43 qubit, held in the same ion trap, with 99.8(5)% fidelity. We make a test of Bell's inequality for this novel entangled state, and find that it is violated by 15 sigma. Mixed-species quantum logic is an essential technique for the construction...
Reality or Locality? Proposed Test to Decide How Nature Breaks Bell's Inequality
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Johan Hansson
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Bell's theorem, and its experimental tests, has shown that the two premises for Bell's inequality—locality and objective reality—cannot both hold in nature, as Bell's inequality is broken. A simple test is proposed, which for the first time may decide which alternative nature actually prefers on the fundamental, quantum level. If each microscopic event is truly random (e.g., as assumed in orthodox quantum mechanics objective reality is not valid whereas if each event is described by an unknown but deterministic mechanism (“hidden variables” locality is not valid. This may be analyzed and decided by the well-known reconstruction method of Ruelle and Takens; in the former case no structure should be discerned, in the latter a reconstructed structure should be visible. This could in principle be tested by comparing individual “hits” in a double-slit experiment, but in practice a single fluorescent atom, and its (seemingly random temporal switching between active/inactive states would possibly be better/more practical, easier to set up, observe, and analyze. However, only imagination limits the list of possible experimental setups.
Cabello, Adan; Larsson, Jan-Ake; Rodriguez, David
2009-01-01
The chained Bell inequalities of Braunstein and Caves involving N settings per observer have some interesting applications. Here we obtain the minimum detection efficiency required for a loophole-free violation of the Braunstein-Caves inequalities for any N > 2. We discuss both the case in which both particles are detected with the same efficiency and the case in which the particles are detected with different efficiencies.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A radically new class of Bell inequalities in Wigner’s form was obtained on the basis of Kolmorov’s axiomatization of probability theory and the hypothesis of locality. These inequalities take explicitly into account the dependence on time (time-dependent Bell inequalities in Wigner’s form). By using these inequalities, one can propose a means for experimentally testing Bohr’ complementarity principle in the relativistic region. The inequalities in question open broad possibilities for studying correlations of nonrelativistic and relativistic quantum systems in external fields. The violation of the time-dependent inequalities in quantum mechanics was studied by considering the behavior of a pair of anticorrelated spins in a constant external magnetic field and oscillations of neutral pseudoscalar mesons. The decay of a pseudoscalar particle to a fermion–antifermion pair is considered within quantum field theory. In order to test experimentally the inequalities proposed in the present study, it is not necessary to perform dedicated noninvasive measurements required in the Leggett–Garg approach, for example
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nikitin, N. V., E-mail: nnikit@mail.cern.ch; Sotnikov, V.P., E-mail: sotnikov@physics.msu.ru [Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics (Russian Federation); Toms, K. S., E-mail: ktoms@mail.cern.ch [The University of New Mexico, Department of Physics and Astronomy (United States)
2015-10-15
A radically new class of Bell inequalities in Wigner’s form was obtained on the basis of Kolmorov’s axiomatization of probability theory and the hypothesis of locality. These inequalities take explicitly into account the dependence on time (time-dependent Bell inequalities in Wigner’s form). By using these inequalities, one can propose a means for experimentally testing Bohr’ complementarity principle in the relativistic region. The inequalities in question open broad possibilities for studying correlations of nonrelativistic and relativistic quantum systems in external fields. The violation of the time-dependent inequalities in quantum mechanics was studied by considering the behavior of a pair of anticorrelated spins in a constant external magnetic field and oscillations of neutral pseudoscalar mesons. The decay of a pseudoscalar particle to a fermion–antifermion pair is considered within quantum field theory. In order to test experimentally the inequalities proposed in the present study, it is not necessary to perform dedicated noninvasive measurements required in the Leggett–Garg approach, for example.
2016-01-01
In this book, leading theorists present new contributions and reviews addressing longstanding challenges and ongoing progress in spacetime physics. In the anniversary year of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, developed 100 years ago, this collection reflects the subsequent and continuing fruitful development of spacetime theories. The volume is published in honour of Carl Brans on the occasion of his 80th birthday. Carl H. Brans, who also contributes personally, is a creative and independent researcher and one of the founders of the scalar-tensor theory, also known as Jordan-Brans-Dicke theory. In the present book, much space is devoted to scalar-tensor theories. Since the beginning of the 1990s, Brans has worked on new models of spacetime, collectively known as exotic smoothness, a field largely established by him. In this Festschrift, one finds an outstanding and unique collection of articles about exotic smoothness. Also featured are Bell's inequality and Mach's principle. Personal memories and hist...
A new conception experimental test of Bell inequalities using non-maximally entangled states
Brida, G; Novero, C; Predazzi, Enrico
2000-01-01
We report on a test of Bell inequalities using a non-maximally entangled state, which represents an important step in the direction of eliminating the detection loophole. The experiment is based on the creation of a polarisation entangled state via the superposition, by use of an appropriate optics, of the spontaneous fluorescence emitted by two non-linear crystals driven by the same pumping laser. The alignment has profitably taken advantage from the use of an optical amplifier scheme, where a solid state laser is injected into the crystals together with the pumping laser. In principle a very high total quantum efficiency can be reached using this configuration and thus the final version of this experiment can lead to a resolution of the detection loophole, we carefully discuss the conditions which must be satisfied for reaching this result.
Event-by-event simulation of experiments to create entanglement and violate Bell inequalities
Michielsen, K
2013-01-01
We discuss a discrete-event, particle-based simulation approach which reproduces the statistical distributions of Maxwell's theory and quantum theory by generating detection events one-by-one. This event-based approach gives a unified cause-and-effect description of quantum optics experiments such as single-photon Mach-Zehnder interferometer, Wheeler's delayed choice, quantum eraser, double-slit, Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm and Hanbury Brown-Twiss experiments, and various neutron interferometry experiments at a level of detail which is not covered by conventional quantum theoretical descriptions. We illustrate the approach by application to single-photon Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiments and single-neutron interferometry experiments that violate a Bell inequality.
Paradoxes of measures of quantum entanglement and Bell's inequality violation in two-qubit systems
Miranowicz, Adam; Koper, Andrzej
2010-01-01
We review some counterintuitive properties of standard measures describing quantum entanglement and violation of Bell's inequality (often referred to as "nonlocality") in two-qubit systems. By comparing the nonlocality, negativity, concurrence, and relative entropy of entanglement, we show: (i) ambiguity in ordering states with the entanglement measures, (ii) ambiguity of robustness of entanglement in lossy systems and (iii) existence of two-qubit mixed states more entangled than pure states having the same negativity or nonlocality. To support our conclusions, we performed a Monte Carlo simulation of $10^6$ two-qubit states and calculated all the entanglement measures for them. Our demonstration of the relativity of entanglement measures implies also how desirable is to properly use an operationally-defined entanglement measure rather than to apply formally-defined standard measures. In fact, the problem of estimating the degree of entanglement of a bipartite system cannot be analyzed separately from the mea...
Hybrid quantum logic and a test of Bell's inequality using two different atomic isotopes.
Ballance, C J; Schäfer, V M; Home, J P; Szwer, D J; Webster, S C; Allcock, D T C; Linke, N M; Harty, T P; Aude Craik, D P L; Stacey, D N; Steane, A M; Lucas, D M
2015-12-17
Entanglement is one of the most fundamental properties of quantum mechanics, and is the key resource for quantum information processing (QIP). Bipartite entangled states of identical particles have been generated and studied in several experiments, and post-selected or heralded entangled states involving pairs of photons, single photons and single atoms, or different nuclei in the solid state, have also been produced. Here we use a deterministic quantum logic gate to generate a 'hybrid' entangled state of two trapped-ion qubits held in different isotopes of calcium, perform full tomography of the state produced, and make a test of Bell's inequality with non-identical atoms. We use a laser-driven two-qubit gate, whose mechanism is insensitive to the qubits' energy splittings, to produce a maximally entangled state of one (40)Ca(+) qubit and one (43)Ca(+) qubit, held 3.5 micrometres apart in the same ion trap, with 99.8 ± 0.6 per cent fidelity. We test the CHSH (Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt) version of Bell's inequality for this novel entangled state and find that it is violated by 15 standard deviations; in this test, we close the detection loophole but not the locality loophole. Mixed-species quantum logic is a powerful technique for the construction of a quantum computer based on trapped ions, as it allows protection of memory qubits while other qubits undergo logic operations or are used as photonic interfaces to other processing units. The entangling gate mechanism used here can also be applied to qubits stored in different atomic elements; this would allow both memory and logic gate errors caused by photon scattering to be reduced below the levels required for fault-tolerant quantum error correction, which is an essential prerequisite for general-purpose quantum computing. PMID:26672554
A new look at Bell's inequalities and Nelson's theorem
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schulz, B.
2009-04-15
In 1985, Edward Nelson, who formulated the theory of stochastic mechanics, made an interesting remark about Bell's theorem. Nelson analysed the latter in the light of classical fields that behave randomly. He found that if a stochastic hidden variable theory fulfils certain conditions, the inequality of Bell can be violated. Moreover, Nelson was able to prove that this may happen without any instantaneous communication between the two spatially separated measurement stations. Since Nelson's article got almost overlooked by physicists, we try to review his comments on the theorem. We argue that a modification of stochastic mechanics published recently by Fritsche and Haugk can be extended to a theory which fulfils the requirements of Nelson's analysis. The article proceeds to derive the quantum mechanical formalism of spinning particles and the Pauli equation from this version of stochastic mechanics. Then, we investigate Bohm's version of the EPR experiment. Additionally, other setups, like entanglement swapping or time and position correlations, are shortly explained from the viewpoint of our local hidden-variable model. Finally, we mention that this theory could perhaps be relativistically extended and useful for the formulation of quantum mechanics in curved space-times. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)
Rother, Tom
2016-07-01
In this paper I propose a classical optics experiment that results in a maximum violation of a Bell-like inequality. The first part is concerned with the Bell-like inequality (the so-called CHSH-inequality) itself. Its importance and its maximum violation in Quantum Mechanics (QM) are discussed in detail by employing an abstract probability state concept in a 4-dim. but classical event space. A T-matrix that represents the integral part of a corresponding Green's function as well as a statistical operator that contains a negative quasi-probability can be related to the corresponding quantum mechanical experiment. It is demonstrated that the derivation and usage of the T-matrix and the Green's function is equivalent to what is known from classical scattering theory. It is shown moreover that the negative quasi-probability of the statistical operator may be interpreted as a sink of probabilities related to two single events of the considered 4-dim. event space. A necessary condition for the violation of the CHSH-inequality is derived and discussed afterwards. In the second part of this paper I discuss a modification of the 4-dim. event space considered in the first part. It is shown that a combination of conventional Rayleigh scattering with a Mach-Zehnder setup would be able to put this modification into practice. Thus it becomes possible to achieve a maximum violation of the CHSH-inequality, if formulated in terms of intensities, on a pure classical way. The combination of classical light scattering with correlation experiments such as proposed in this paper may open new ways to study and to use the violation of Bell-like inequalities in modern optics.
Etesse, Jean; Blandino, Rémi; Kanseri, Bhaskar; Tualle-Brouri, Rosa
2013-01-01
We demonstrate that different kind of mesoscopic quantum states of light can be efficiently generated from a simple iterative scheme using homodyne heralding. These states exhibit strong non-classical features, and are of great interest for many applications such as quantum error-correcting codes or fundamental testings. On this basis we propose a protocol allowing a large loophole-free violation of a CHSH-type Bell inequality with a remarkable robustness to line losses.
A Practical Trojan Horse for Bell-inequality-based Quantum Cryptography
Larsson, J A
2002-01-01
Quantum Cryptography, or more accurately, Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) is based on using an unconditionally secure ``quantum channel'' to share a secret key among two users. A manufacturer of QKD devices could, intentionally or not, use a (semi-)classical channel instead of the quantum channel, which would remove the supposedly unconditional security. One example is the BB84 protocol, where the quantum channel can be implemented in polarization of single photons. Here, use of several photons instead of one to encode each bit of the key provides a similar but insecure system. For protocols based on violation of a Bell inequality (e.g., the Ekert protocol), such a modification is generally thought to be impossible. However, a counterexample will be given here using an identical physical setup as is used in photon-polarization Ekert QKD. Since the physical implementation is identical, a manufacturer may include this modification as a Trojan Horse in manufactured systems, to be activated at will by an eavesdrop...
From Boole to Leggett-Garg: Epistemology of Bell-type Inequalities
Hess, Karl; De Raedt, Hans; Michielsen, Kristel
2016-01-01
In 1862, George Boole derived an inequality for variables, now known as Boolean variables, that in his opinion represents a demarcation line between possible and impossible experience. This inequality forms an important milestone in the epistemology of probability theory and probability measures. In 1985 Leggett and Garg derived a physics related inequality, mathematically identical to Boole's, that according to them represents a demarcation between macroscopic realism and quantum mechanics. ...
Expectation Value in Bell's Theorem
Wang, Zheng-Chuan
2006-01-01
We will demonstrate in this paper that Bell's theorem (Bell's inequality) does not really conflict with quantum mechanics, the controversy between them originates from the different definitions for the expectation value using the probability distribution in Bell's inequality and the expectation value in quantum mechanics. We can not use quantum mechanical expectation value measured in experiments to show the violation of Bell's inequality and then further deny the local hidden-variables theor...
A Bell theorem for two particles with no inequalities and inefficient detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: By the process of 'entanglement swapping', the experimentalists have created an amazing new state - two particles that have never met and which share no previous history and yet are completely entangled. It is very hard for a classically realistic, deterministic theory to explain such a state, and in fact we show that it cannot. However, one can go further and show that such a theory cannot even explain the results of certain types of experiments which use very inefficient detectors, thus closing an important loophole in Bell-type experiments. (The proof also does not use any 'random sampling' hypothesis, thus closing another important loophole.) (author)
Khrennikov, Andrei
2016-01-01
We analyze foundational consequences of recently announced loophole free tests of violation of Bell's inequality. We consider two interpretations of these remarkable experiments. By the conventional one "Einstein was wrong and Bohr was right, there is spooky action at a distance, quantum realism is incompatible with locality." However, we show that it is still possible to treat quantum mechanics without appealing to nonlocality or denying realism. We hope that this note will attract attention of the experts in quantum foundations and convince them to come with their own comments on the final Bell's test.
Hirota, O; Sohma, M; Li Ming Wei; Tang, Z L; Liao, C C
2002-01-01
In this report, we simulate practical feature of Yuen-Kim protocol for quantum key distribution with unconditional secure. In order to demonstrate them experimentally by intensity modulation/direct detection(IMDD) optical fiber communication system, we use simplified encoding scheme to guarantee security for key information(1 or 0). That is, pairwise M-ary intensity modulation scheme is employed. Furthermore, we give an experimental implementation of YK protocol based on IMDD. A proof of Bell's theorem without inequalities for two maximally entangled particles is proposed using the technique of quantum teleportation. It follows Hardy's arguments for a non-maximally entangled state with the help of two auxiliary particles without correlation. The present proof can be tested by measurements with 100% probability.
Anti-Bell - Refutation of Bell's theorem
Barukčić, Ilija
2012-12-01
In general, Albert Einstein as one of "the founding fathers of quantum mechanics" had some problems to accept especially the Copenhagen dominated interpretation of quantum mechanics. Einstein's dissatisfaction with Copenhagen's interpretation of quantum mechanics, the absence of locality and causality within the Copenhagen dominated quantum mechanics lead to the well known Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen thought experiment. According to Einstein et al., the Copenhagen dominated quantum mechanics cannot be regarded as a complete physical theory. The Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen thought experiment was the origin of J. S. Bell's publication in 1964; known as Bell's theorem. Meanwhile, some dramatic violations of Bell's inequality (by so called Bell test experiments) have been reported which is taken as an empirical evidence against local realism and causality at quantum level and as positive evidence in favor of the Copenhagen dominated quantum mechanics. Thus far, Quantum mechanics is still regarded as a "strictly" non-local theory. The purpose of this publication is to refute Bell's original theorem. Thus far, if we accept Bell's theorem as correct, we must accept that +0> = +1. We can derive a logical contradiction out of Bell's theorem, Bell's theorem is refuted.
Bell's Universe: A Personal Recollection
Bertlmann, Reinhold A
2016-01-01
My collaboration and friendship with John Bell is recollected. I will explain his outstanding contributions in particle physics, in accelerator physics, and his joint work with Mary Bell. Mary's work in accelerator physics is also summarized. I recall our quantum debates, mention some personal reminiscences, and give my personal view on Bell's fundamental work on quantum theory, in particular, on the concept of contextuality and nonlocality of quantum physics. Finally, I describe the huge influence Bell had on my own work, in particular on entanglement and Bell inequalities in particle physics and their experimental verification, and on mathematical physics, where some geometric aspects of the quantum states are illustrated.
Bell tests with optimal local hidden variable models
Wang, Fuming
2014-01-01
An alternative method for detection-loophole-free Bell test is proposed using local hidden variable (LHV) models with optimal detection efficiencies. A framework for constructing such optimal LHV models is presented. Optimal LHV models for maximally and non-maximally entangled twopartite states are constructed and compared with Bell inequalities. The equivalence between Bell tests based on Bell inequalities and on optimal models is demonstrated. Testable LHV models with detection efficiencies lower than that of the Bell inequalities are demonstrated for the first time. Applications in Bell tests and in device-independent quantum information processing are discussed.
Bell on Bell's theorem: The changing face of nonlocality
Brown, Harvey R
2015-01-01
Between 1964 and 1990, the notion of nonlocality in Bell's papers underwent a profound change as his nonlocality theorem gradually became detached from quantum mechanics, and referred to wider probabilistic theories involving correlations between separated beables. The proposition that standard quantum mechanics is itself nonlocal (more precisely, that it violates `local causality') became divorced from the Bell theorem per se from 1976 on, although this important point is widely overlooked in the literature. In 1990, the year of his death, Bell would express serious misgivings about the mathematical form of the local causality condition, and leave ill-defined the issue of the consistency between special relativity and violation of the Bell-type inequality. In our view, the significance of the Bell theorem, both in its deterministic and stochastic forms, can only be fully understood by taking into account the fact that a fully Lorentz-covariant version of quantum theory, free of action-at-a-distance, can be a...
Reconciling local realism and quantum physics: a critique to Bell
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A Metatheoretical Generalized Principle (MGP) is stated that formalizes an operational non-standard way of looking at the laws of physics. In Quantum Physics MGP leads to the invalidation of Bell's Inequality without renouncing to a minimal form of realism or to locality. Therefore the violation of Bell's Inequality predicted by Quantum Physics does not appear paradoxial if MGP is accepted
Choudhury, Sayantan; Singh, Rajeev
2016-01-01
In this work, we have studied the possibility of setting up Bell's inequality violating experiment in the context of cosmology, based on the basic principles of quantum mechanics. First we start with the physical motivation of implementing the Bell's inequality violation in the context of cosmology. Then to set up the cosmological Bell violating test experiment we introduce a model independent theoretical framework using which we have studied the creation of new massive particles by implementing the WKB approximation method for the scalar fluctuations in presence of additional time dependent mass contribution. Next using the background scalar fluctuation in presence of new time dependent mass contribution, we explicitly compute the expression for the one point and two point correlation functions. Furthermore, using the results for one point function we introduce a new theoretical cosmological parameter which can be expressed in terms of the other known inflationary observables and can also be treated as a fut...
John Bell and the Nature of the Quantum World
Bertlmann, Reinhold A
2014-01-01
I present my encounter with John Bell at CERN, our collaboration and joint work in particle physics. I also will recall our quantum debates and give my personal view on Bell's fundamental work on quantum theory, in particular, on contextuality and nonlocality of quantum physics. Some mathematical and geometric aspects of entanglement are discussed as influence of Bell's Theorem. Finally, I make some historical comments on the experimental side of Bell inequalities.
Quantum correlations in connected multipartite Bell experiments
Tavakoli, Armin
2016-04-01
Bell experiments measure correlations between outcomes of a number of observers measuring on a shared physical state emitted from a single source. Quantum correlations arising in such Bell experiments have been intensively studied over the last decades. Much less is known about the nature of quantum correlations arising in network structures beyond Bell experiments. Such networks can involve many independent sources emitting states to observers in accordance with the network configuration. Here, we will study classical and quantum correlations in a family of networks which can be regarded as compositions of several independent multipartite Bell experiments connected together through a central node. For such networks we present tight Bell-type inequalities which are satisfied by all classical correlations. We study properties of the violations of our inequalities by probability distributions arising in quantum theory.
Quantum correlations in connected multipartite Bell experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bell experiments measure correlations between outcomes of a number of observers measuring on a shared physical state emitted from a single source. Quantum correlations arising in such Bell experiments have been intensively studied over the last decades. Much less is known about the nature of quantum correlations arising in network structures beyond Bell experiments. Such networks can involve many independent sources emitting states to observers in accordance with the network configuration. Here, we will study classical and quantum correlations in a family of networks which can be regarded as compositions of several independent multipartite Bell experiments connected together through a central node. For such networks we present tight Bell-type inequalities which are satisfied by all classical correlations. We study properties of the violations of our inequalities by probability distributions arising in quantum theory. (paper)
Vakharia, Kavita; Vakharia, Kalpesh
2016-02-01
Bell's palsy is unilateral, acute onset facial paralysis that is a common condition. One in every 65 people experiences Bell's palsy in the course of their lifetime. The majority of patients afflicted with this idiopathic disorder recover facial function. Initial treatment involves oral corticosteroids, possible antiviral drugs, and protection of the eye from desiccation. A small subset of patients may be left with incomplete recovery, synkinesis, facial contracture, or hemifacial spasm. A combination of medical and surgical treatment options exist to treat the long-term sequelae of Bell's palsy. PMID:26611696
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International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
According to Maudlin, Bell showed that it is the World which is non-lcoal, and not just some particular theories of it. I argue that this conclusion is arrived at by taking for granted all assumptions of realism or ‘classicality’. If these are taken into account the resulting conclusion that ‘a classical world which allows for Bell inequality violations must be non-local’ is in good agreement with the mainstream perception of Bell's theorem(s). This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell’s theorem’. (comment)
Bellac, Michel Le
2014-11-01
The final form of quantum physics, in the particular case of wave mechanics, was established in the years 1925-1927 by Heisenberg, Schrödinger, Born and others, but the synthesis was the work of Bohr who gave an epistemological interpretation of all the technicalities built up over those years; this interpretation will be examined briefly in Chapter 10. Although Einstein acknowledged the success of quantum mechanics in atomic, molecular and solid state physics, he disagreed deeply with Bohr's interpretation. For many years, he tried to find flaws in the formulation of quantum theory as it had been more or less accepted by a large majority of physicists, but his objections were brushed away by Bohr. However, in an article published in 1935 with Podolsky and Rosen, universally known under the acronym EPR, Einstein thought he had identified a difficulty in the by then standard interpretation. Bohr's obscure, and in part beyond the point, answer showed that Einstein had hit a sensitive target. Nevertheless, until 1964, the so-called Bohr-Einstein debate stayed uniquely on a philosophical level, and it was actually forgotten by most physicists, as the few of them aware of it thought it had no practical implication. In 1964, the Northern Irish physicist John Bell realized that the assumptions contained in the EPR article could be tested experimentally. These assumptions led to inequalities, the Bell inequalities, which were in contradiction with quantum mechanical predictions: as we shall see later on, it is extremely likely that the assumptions of the EPR article are not consistent with experiment, which, on the contrary, vindicates the predictions of quantum physics. In Section 3.2, the origin of Bell's inequalities will be explained with an intuitive example, then they will be compared with the predictions of quantum theory in Section 3.3, and finally their experimental status will be reviewed in Section 3.4. The debate between Bohr and Einstein goes much beyond a
Entanglement versus Bell violations and their behaviour under local filtering operations
Verstraete, F; Verstraete, Frank; Wolf, Michael M.
2002-01-01
We discuss the relations between the violation of the CHSH Bell inequality for systems of two qubits on the one side and entanglement of formation, local filtering operations, and the entropy and purity on the other. We calculate the extremal Bell violations for a given amount of entanglement of formation and characterize the respective states, which turn out to have extremal properties also with respect to the entropy, purity and several entanglement monotones. The optimal local filtering operations leading to the maximal Bell violation for a given state are provided and the special role of the resulting Bell diagonal states in the context of Bell inequalities is discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
On the 50th anniversary of Bell’s monumental 1964 paper, there is still widespread misunderstanding about exactly what Bell proved. This misunderstanding derives in turn from a failure to appreciate the earlier argument of Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen. I retrace the history and logical structure of these arguments in order to clarify the proper conclusion, namely that any world that displays violations of Bell’s inequality for experiments done far from one another must be non-local. Since the world we happen to live in displays such violations, actual physics is non-local. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell’s theorem’. (paper)
Detection loophole in asymmetric Bell experiments
Brunner, Nicolas; Gisin, Nicolas; Scarani, Valerio; Simon, Christoph
2007-01-01
The problem of closing the detection loophole with asymmetric systems, such as entangled atom-photon pairs, is addressed. We show that, for the Bell inequality I_3322, a minimal detection efficiency of 43% can be tolerated for one of the particles, if the other one is always detected. We also study the influence of noise and discuss the prospects of experimental implementation.
CERN. Geneva
2004-01-01
2s-1, 10 times as much as we obtain now. This presentation describes Belle's efficient computing operations, struggles to manage large amount of raw and physics data, and plans for Belle computing for Super KEKB/Belle.
Bell's Nonlocality Can be Tested through Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Steering
Chen, Jing-Ling; Ye, Xiang-Jun
2015-01-01
Quantum nonlocality has recently been classified into three distinct types: quantum entanglement, Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering, and Bell's nonlocality. Experimentally Bell's nonlocality is usually tested by quantum violation of the Clause-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality in the two-qubit system. Bell's nonlocality is the strongest type of nonlocality, also due this reason Bell-test experiments have encountered both the locality loophole and the detection loophole for a very long...
John Bell and the nature of the quantum world
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
I present my encounter with John Bell at CERN, our collaboration and joint work in particle physics. I also recall our quantum debates and give my personal view on Bell's fundamental work on quantum theory, in particular, on contextuality and nonlocality of quantum physics. Some mathematical and geometric aspects of entanglement are discussed as influence of Bell's theorem. Finally, I make some historical comments on the experimental side of Bell inequalities. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell’s theorem’. (paper)
John Bell and the nature of the quantum world
Bertlmann, Reinhold A.
2014-10-01
I present my encounter with John Bell at CERN, our collaboration and joint work in particle physics. I also recall our quantum debates and give my personal view on Bell's fundamental work on quantum theory, in particular, on contextuality and nonlocality of quantum physics. Some mathematical and geometric aspects of entanglement are discussed as influence of Bell's theorem. Finally, I make some historical comments on the experimental side of Bell inequalities. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell’s theorem’.
Two-player conflicting interest Bayesian games and Bell nonlocality
Situ, Haozhen
2016-01-01
Nonlocality, one of the most remarkable aspects of quantum mechanics, is closely related to Bayesian game theory. Quantum mechanics can offer advantages to some Bayesian games, if the payoff functions are related to Bell inequalities in some way, most of these Bayesian games that have been discussed are common interest games. Recently, the first conflicting interest Bayesian game is proposed in Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 020401 (2015). In the present paper, we present three new conflicting interest Bayesian games where quantum mechanics offers advantages. The first game is linked with Cereceda inequalities, the second game is linked with a generalized Bell inequality with three possible measurement outcomes, and the third game is linked with a generalized Bell inequality with three possible measurement settings.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dynamics of disentanglement as measured by the tripartite negativity and Bell nonlocality as measured by the extent of violation of the multipartite Bell-type inequalities are investigated in this work. It is shown definitively that for the initial three-qubit Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger (GHZ) or W class state preparation, the Bell nonlocality suffers sudden death under the influence of thermal reservoirs. Moreover, all the Bell-nonlocal states are useful for nonclassical teleportation, while there are entangled states that do not violate any Bell-type inequalities, but still yield nonclassical teleportation fidelity. - Highlights: ► Comparison of different aspects of quantum correlations. ► Robustness of the initial tripartite GHZ and W class states against decoherence. ► Bell-nonlocality sudden death under the influence of thermal reservoir. ► A nonzero minimum tripartite negativity is needed for nonclassical teleportation. ► All the Bell-nonlocal states yield nonclassical teleportation fidelity.
Bell's inequality from the contextual probabilistic viewpoint
Khrennikov, Andrei
2010-01-01
Quantum information science is about the processing of information by the exploitation of some distinguishing features of quantum systems, such as electrons, photons, ions. In recent years a lot has been promised in the domain of quantum information. In quantum computing it was promised that NP-problems would be solved in polynomial time. In quantum cryptography there were claims that protocols would have practically 100% security. At the moment it is too early to say anything definitive regarding the final results of this great project.
Position-momentum Bell nonlocality with entangled photon pairs
Schneeloch, James; Knarr, Samuel H.; Lum, Daniel J.; Howell, John C.
2016-01-01
Witnessing continuous-variable Bell nonlocality is a challenging endeavor, but Bell himself showed how one might demonstrate this nonlocality. Although Bell nearly showed a violation using the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality with sign-binned position-momentum statistics of entangled pairs of particles measured at different times, his demonstration is subject to approximations not realizable in a laboratory setting. Moreover, he does not give a quantitative estimation of the maximum achievable violation for the wave function he considers. In this article, we show how his strategy can be reimagined using the transverse positions and momenta of entangled photon pairs measured at different propagation distances, and we find that the maximum achievable violation for the state he considers is actually very small relative to the upper limit of 2 √{2 } . Although Bell's wave function does not produce a large violation of the CHSH inequality, other states may yet do so.
Revealing Bell's Nonlocality for Unstable Systems in High Energy Physics
Hiesmayr, Beatrix C; Curceanu, Catalina; Gabriel, Andreas; Huber, Marcus; Larsson, Jan-Ake; Moskal, Pawel
2011-01-01
Entanglement and its consequences - in particular the violation of Bell inequalities, which defies our concepts of realism and locality - have been proven to play key roles in Nature by many experiments for various quantum systems. Entanglement can also be found in systems not consisting of ordinary matter and light, i.e. in massive meson--antimeson systems. Bell inequalities have been discussed for these systems, but up to date no direct experimental test to conclusively exclude local realism was found. This mainly stems from the fact that one only has access to a restricted class of observables and that these systems are also decaying. In this Letter we put forward a Bell inequality for unstable systems which can be tested at accelerator facilities with current technology. Herewith, the long awaited proof that such systems at different energy scales can reveal the sophisticated "dynamical" nonlocal feature of Nature in a direct experiment gets feasible. Moreover, the role of entanglement and CP violation, a...
Bell tests with arbitrarily low photodetection efficiency and homodyne measurements
Araújo, Mateus; Cavalcanti, Daniel; Santos, Marcelo França; Cabello, Adán; Cunha, Marcelo Terra
2011-01-01
We show that hybrid local measurements combining homodyne measurements and photodetection provide violations of a Bell inequality with arbitrarily low photodetection efficiency. This is shown in two different scenarios: when one part receives an atom entangled to the field mode to be measured by the other part and when both parts make similar photonic measurements. Our findings definitely put the hybrid measurement scenario as a strong candidate for the implementation of a loophole-free Bell test.
Bell’s inequalities and Kolmogorov’s axioms
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
David Atkinson
2001-02-01
After recalling proofs of the Bell inequality based on the assumptions of separability and of noncontextuality, the most general noncontextual contrapositive conditional probabilities consistent with the Aspect experiment are constructed. In general these probabilities are not all positive.
Operator space approach to steering inequality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In Junge and Palazuelos (2011 Commun. Math. Phys. 306 695–746) and Junge et al (2010 Commun. Math. Phys. 300 715–39) the operator space theory was applied to study bipartite Bell inequalities. The aim of the paper is to follow this line of research and use the operator space technique to analyze the steering scenario. We obtain a bipartite steering functional with unbounded largest violation of steering inequality, as well as constructing all ingredients explicitly. It turns out that the unbounded largest violation is obtained by a non maximally entangled state. Moreover, we focus on the bipartite dichotomic case where we construct a steering functional with unbounded largest violation of steering inequality. This phenomenon is different to the Bell scenario where only the bounded largest violation can be obtained by any bipartite dichotomic Bell functional. (paper)
John Stewart Bell and twentieth century physics vision and integrity
Whitaker, Andrew
2016-01-01
John Stewart Bell (1928-1990) was one of the most important figures in twentieth-century physics, famous for his work on the fundamental aspects of the century's most important theory, quantum mechanics. While the debate over quantum theory between the supremely famous physicists, Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr, appeared to have become sterile in the 1930s, Bell was able to revive it and to make crucial advances - Bell's Theorem or Bell's Inequalities. He was able to demonstrate a contradiction between quantum theory and essential elements of pre-quantum theory - locality and causality. The book gives a non-mathematical account of Bell's relatively impoverished upbringing in Belfast and his education. It describes his major contributions to quantum theory, but also his important work in the physics of accelerators, and nuclear and elementary particle physics.
Proposal for a loophole-free Bell test with electron spins of donors
Hong, Fang-Yu; Xiong, Shi-Jie
2008-01-01
So far, all experimental tests of Bell inequalities which must be satisfied by all local realistic hidden-variable theories and are violated by quantum mechanical predictions have left at least one loophole open. We propose a feasible setup allowing for a loophole-free test of the Bell inequalities. Two electron spin qubits of phosphorus donors in semiconductors in different cavities 300 m apart are entangled through a bright coherent light and postselections using homodyne measurements. The ...
Bell violation with entangled photons, free of the coincidence-time loophole
Larsson, Jan-Åke; Giustina, Marissa; Kofler, Johannes; Wittmann, Bernhard; Ursin, Rupert; Ramelow, Sven
2013-01-01
In a local realist world view, physical properties are defined prior to and independent of measurement, and no physical influence can propagate faster than the speed of light. Proper experimental violation of a Bell inequality would show that the world cannot be described within local realism. Such experiments usually require additional assumptions that make them vulnerable to a number of "loopholes." A recent experiment [Giustina et al, Nature, 2013] violated a Bell inequality without being ...
Violation of Locality Beyond Bell's Theorem for Multiparticle Perfect Correlations
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHENG Li; ZHENG Tai-Yu; WU Zhao-Yan; WAN Fan
2005-01-01
We present the analogous inequalities of Bell's inequality for N-qubit system predicted respectively by realistic theory, quantum mechanics, local theory, local realistic theory, and local quantum theory on the same Belltype joint experiment. It is shown that quantum mechanics can be interpreted by hidden-variable theories while being incompatible to any local theory. A necessary condition for the separability of N-qubit system is derived.
Glaeser, Edward L; Matthew G. Resseger; Kristina Tobio
2008-01-01
What impact does inequality have on metropolitan areas? Crime rates are higher in places with more inequality, and people in unequal cities are more likely to say that they are unhappy. There is also a negative association between local inequality and the growth of both income and population, once we control for the initial distribution of skills. What determines the degree of inequality across metropolitan areas? Twenty years ago, metropolitan inequality was strongly associated with poverty,...
Miyake, Hideki; Grzymkowski, Rafal; Ludacka, Radek; Schram, Malachi
2015-12-01
The Belle II experiment will record a similar quantity of data to LHC experiments and will acquire it at similar rates. This requires considerable computing, storage and network resources to handle not only data created by the experiment but also considerable amounts of simulated data. Consequently Belle II employs a distributed computing system to provide the resources coordinated by the the DIRAC interware. DIRAC is a general software framework that provides a unified interface among heterogeneous computing resources. In addition to the well proven DIRAC software stack, Belle II is developing its own extension called BelleDIRAC. BelleDIRAC provides a transparent user experience for the Belle II analysis framework (basf2) on various environments and gives access to file information managed by LFC and AMGA metadata catalog. By unifying DIRAC and BelleDIRAC functionalities, Belle II plans to operate an automated mass data processing framework named a “production system”. The Belle II production system enables large-scale raw data transfer from experimental site to raw data centers, followed by massive data processing, and smart data delivery to each remote site. The production system is also utilized for simulated data production and data analysis. Although development of the production system is still on-going, recently Belle II has prepared prototype version and evaluated it with a large scale simulated data production. In this presentation we will report the evaluation of the prototype system and future development plans.
The two Bell's theorems of John Bell
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Many of the heated arguments about the meaning of ‘Bell's theorem’ arise because this phrase can refer to two different theorems that John Bell proved, the first in 1964 and the second in 1976. His 1964 theorem is the incompatibility of quantum phenomena with the dual assumptions of locality and determinism. His 1976 theorem is the incompatibility of quantum phenomena with the unitary property of local causality. This is contrary to Bell's own later assertions, that his 1964 theorem began with that single, and indivisible, assumption of local causality (even if not by that name). While there are other forms of Bell's theorems—which I present to explain the relation between Jarrett-completeness, ‘fragile locality’, and EPR-completeness—I maintain that Bell's two versions are the essential ones. Although the two Bell's theorems are logically equivalent, their assumptions are not, and the different versions of the theorem suggest quite different conclusions, which are embraced by different communities. For realists, the notion of local causality, ruled out by Bell's 1976 theorem, is motivated implicitly by Reichenbach's principle of common cause and explicitly by the principle of relativistic causality, and it is the latter which must be forgone. Operationalists pay no heed to Reichenbach's principle, but wish to keep the principle of relativistic causality, which, bolstered by an implicit ‘principle of agent-causation’, implies their notion of locality. Thus for operationalists, Bell's theorem is the 1964 one, and implies that it is determinism that must be forgone. I discuss why the two ‘camps’ are drawn to these different conclusions, and what can be done to increase mutual understanding. (review article)
Bell Correlated and EPR States in the Framework of Jordan Algebras
Hamhalter, Jan; Sobotíková, Veronika
2016-03-01
We study Bell inequalities and EPR states in the context of Jordan algebras. We show that the set of states violating Bell inequalities across two operator commuting nonmodular Jordan Banach algebras is norm dense in the global state space. It generalizes hitherto known results in quantum field theory in several directions. We propose new Jordan quantity for incommensurable observables in a given state, introduce the concept of EPR state for Jordan structures, and study relationship between EPR states and Bell correlated states. Our analysis shows crucial role of spin factors and Pauli spin matrices for studying noncommutative properties of states and observables.
Hidden assumptions in the derivation of the theorem of Bell
Hess, Karl; De Raedt, Hans; Michielsen, Kristel
2012-01-01
John Bell's inequalities have already been considered by Boole in 1862. Boole established a one-to-one correspondence between experimental outcomes and mathematical abstractions of his probability theory. His abstractions are two-valued functions that permit the logical operations AND, OR and NOT an
Violation of Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality for states resulting from entanglement swapping
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We consider violation of CHSH inequality for states before and after entanglement swapping. We present a pair of initial states which do not violate CHSH inequality however the final state violates CHSH inequality for some results of Bell measurement performed in order to swap entanglement.
Violation of the Leggett-Garg Inequality in Neutrino Oscillations
Formaggio, J A; Murskyj, M M; Weiss, T E
2016-01-01
The Leggett-Garg inequality, an analogue of Bell's inequality involving correlations of measurements on a system at different times, stands as one of the hallmark tests of quantum mechanics against classical predictions. Neutrinos, and in particular the phenomenon of neutrino oscillations, should adhere to quantum-mechanical predictions and provide an observable violation of the Leggett-Garg inequality. We demonstrate how oscillation phenomena can be used to test for violations of the classical bound. A study of the MINOS experiment's data shows a greater than 6{\\sigma} violation over a distance of 735 km, representing the longest distance over which either the Leggett-Garg inequality or Bell's inequality has been tested. By exploiting stationarity and the prepared-ensemble condition, rather than weak measurements, our results provide strong evidence against "hidden-variable theories," which are deterministic alternatives to quantum mechanics. Several alternative tests of the Leggett-Garg inequality with neut...
Particle Identification with BELLE
Satpathy, A
1999-01-01
The working principle and performance of the BELLE particle identification device (PID), based on a hybrid system consisting of an array of high precision scintillator Time of Flight and silica Aerogel Counters, is discussed. The performances achieved in the beam tests are satisfactory and Monte Carlo tests of meeting physics objectives of BELLE are promising. Prior to the real experiment which is expected to commence in spring 1999, the BELLE PID is taking cosmic ray data for calibration and fine tuning.
Bell correlations in a Bose-Einstein condensate.
Schmied, Roman; Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Allard, Baptiste; Fadel, Matteo; Scarani, Valerio; Treutlein, Philipp; Sangouard, Nicolas
2016-04-22
Characterizing many-body systems through the quantum correlations between their constituent particles is a major goal of quantum physics. Although entanglement is routinely observed in many systems, we report here the detection of stronger correlations--Bell correlations--between the spins of about 480 atoms in a Bose-Einstein condensate. We derive a Bell correlation witness from a many-particle Bell inequality involving only one- and two-body correlation functions. Our measurement on a spin-squeezed state exceeds the threshold for Bell correlations by 3.8 standard deviations. Our work shows that the strongest possible nonclassical correlations are experimentally accessible in many-body systems and that they can be revealed by collective measurements. PMID:27102479
Percival, Ian C.
2000-01-01
Experiments over three decades have been unable to demonstrate weak nonlocality in the sense of Bell unambiguously, without loopholes. The last important loophole remaining is the detection loophole, which is being tackled by at least three experimental groups. This letter counters five common beliefs about Bell experiments, and presents alternative scenarios for future developments.
Cavalcanti, D
2010-01-01
The inequalities proposed in [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 170404 (2010)] are not Bell's inequalities in the usual sense: there are local classical models that violate these inequalities. Thus, their violation demonstrates nonlocality only under assumptions about the physical implementation and moreover they cannot be used as a device-independent test of nonlocality.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Roope, Laurence; Tarp, Finn
2016-01-01
This paper measures trends in global interpersonal inequality during 1975–2010 using data from the most recent version of the World Income Inequality Database (WIID). The picture that emerges using ‘absolute,’ and even ‘centrist’ measures of inequality, is very different from the results obtained...... by centrist measures such as the Krtscha, could return to 1975 levels, at today's domestic and global per capita income levels, but this would require quite dramatic structural reforms to reduce domestic inequality levels in most countries.......This paper measures trends in global interpersonal inequality during 1975–2010 using data from the most recent version of the World Income Inequality Database (WIID). The picture that emerges using ‘absolute,’ and even ‘centrist’ measures of inequality, is very different from the results obtained...... using standard ‘relative’ inequality measures such as the Gini coefficient or Coefficient of Variation. Relative global inequality has declined substantially over the decades. In contrast, ‘absolute’ inequality, as captured by the Standard Deviation and Absolute Gini, has increased considerably and...
Detection efficiency for loophole-free Bell experiments with postselection
Sciarrino, F; Cabello, A; Mataloni, P
2010-01-01
It is generally assumed that the violation of a Bell inequality by postselected events cannot be used for loophole-free tests of quantum nonlocality. We show that this is not the case if the postselection is performed locally and without communication between the observers. This permits the adoption of certain setups of locally selected entanglement, which are simpler and more efficient, for long-distance free-space Bell tests. For these setups, we investigate which is the minimum detection efficiency for loophole-free experiments.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Kazuo Abe
2003-02-01
The Belle experiment continues to explore the origin of CP violation and test all aspects of standard model in meson decays. Recent results on CP violating paramter sin 21 and other measurements are presented.
Concrete incompleteness & Bell's theorem
Geurdes, Han
2014-01-01
For a subset of 2 dimensional unit parameter vectors, Bell's correlation formula with local hidden variables reproduces the quantum correlation. This is unexpected considering a general no-go LHV claim derived from the same function.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
孔雪伟
2004-01-01
A tiny, two-year-old blonde, recovering from surgical removal (外科切除) of her cancerous left eye, discovers in her mailbox a brightly colored package with a big sticker of hugging bears under a rainbow. Tearing open the box, Belle cries "Mama, look, it's teddy bears! " The bears (and the goodie package of gifts) bring about something that hadn't happened in quite a while: Belle smiles!
Random numbers certified by Bell's theorem.
Pironio, S; Acín, A; Massar, S; de la Giroday, A Boyer; Matsukevich, D N; Maunz, P; Olmschenk, S; Hayes, D; Luo, L; Manning, T A; Monroe, C
2010-04-15
Randomness is a fundamental feature of nature and a valuable resource for applications ranging from cryptography and gambling to numerical simulation of physical and biological systems. Random numbers, however, are difficult to characterize mathematically, and their generation must rely on an unpredictable physical process. Inaccuracies in the theoretical modelling of such processes or failures of the devices, possibly due to adversarial attacks, limit the reliability of random number generators in ways that are difficult to control and detect. Here, inspired by earlier work on non-locality-based and device-independent quantum information processing, we show that the non-local correlations of entangled quantum particles can be used to certify the presence of genuine randomness. It is thereby possible to design a cryptographically secure random number generator that does not require any assumption about the internal working of the device. Such a strong form of randomness generation is impossible classically and possible in quantum systems only if certified by a Bell inequality violation. We carry out a proof-of-concept demonstration of this proposal in a system of two entangled atoms separated by approximately one metre. The observed Bell inequality violation, featuring near perfect detection efficiency, guarantees that 42 new random numbers are generated with 99 per cent confidence. Our results lay the groundwork for future device-independent quantum information experiments and for addressing fundamental issues raised by the intrinsic randomness of quantum theory. PMID:20393558
Significant-Loophole-Free Test of Bell's Theorem with Entangled Photons.
Giustina, Marissa; Versteegh, Marijn A M; Wengerowsky, Sören; Handsteiner, Johannes; Hochrainer, Armin; Phelan, Kevin; Steinlechner, Fabian; Kofler, Johannes; Larsson, Jan-Åke; Abellán, Carlos; Amaya, Waldimar; Pruneri, Valerio; Mitchell, Morgan W; Beyer, Jörn; Gerrits, Thomas; Lita, Adriana E; Shalm, Lynden K; Nam, Sae Woo; Scheidl, Thomas; Ursin, Rupert; Wittmann, Bernhard; Zeilinger, Anton
2015-12-18
Local realism is the worldview in which physical properties of objects exist independently of measurement and where physical influences cannot travel faster than the speed of light. Bell's theorem states that this worldview is incompatible with the predictions of quantum mechanics, as is expressed in Bell's inequalities. Previous experiments convincingly supported the quantum predictions. Yet, every experiment requires assumptions that provide loopholes for a local realist explanation. Here, we report a Bell test that closes the most significant of these loopholes simultaneously. Using a well-optimized source of entangled photons, rapid setting generation, and highly efficient superconducting detectors, we observe a violation of a Bell inequality with high statistical significance. The purely statistical probability of our results to occur under local realism does not exceed 3.74×10^{-31}, corresponding to an 11.5 standard deviation effect. PMID:26722905
Postselection-Loophole-Free Bell Test Over an Installed Optical Fiber Network.
Carvacho, Gonzalo; Cariñe, Jaime; Saavedra, Gabriel; Cuevas, Álvaro; Fuenzalida, Jorge; Toledo, Felipe; Figueroa, Miguel; Cabello, Adán; Larsson, Jan-Åke; Mataloni, Paolo; Lima, Gustavo; Xavier, Guilherme B
2015-07-17
Device-independent quantum communication will require a loophole-free violation of Bell inequalities. In typical scenarios where line of sight between the communicating parties is not available, it is convenient to use energy-time entangled photons due to intrinsic robustness while propagating over optical fibers. Here we show an energy-time Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt Bell inequality violation with two parties separated by 3.7 km over the deployed optical fiber network belonging to the University of Concepción in Chile. Remarkably, this is the first Bell violation with spatially separated parties that is free of the postselection loophole, which affected all previous in-field long-distance energy-time experiments. Our work takes a further step towards a fiber-based loophole-free Bell test, which is highly desired for secure quantum communication due to the widespread existing telecommunication infrastructure. PMID:26230776
Paramati, Manjula; Tirumkudulu, Mahesh S.
2016-03-01
A smooth circular moving liquid sheet is formed by the head-on impingement of two equal laminar water jets. We subject such a liquid sheet to uniform laminar air flow from one side such that the direction of air velocity is perpendicular to the liquid sheet. The pressure of the moving air deforms the liquid sheet giving rise to an open water bell. The water bell is symmetric suggesting that the gas flow around the bell is also symmetric and that the gravitational force is negligible. We have captured the shape of the water bells for varying air flow rates and for varying Weber numbers, and compared the measurements with theoretical predictions obtained from a force balance involving liquid inertia, surface tension, and pressure difference across the sheet. The pressure exerted by the gas phase on the front and the rear surface of the deformed liquid sheet is obtained from known results of flow past flat circular discs. The predicted steady state shapes match well with the measurements at low Weber numbers but differences are observed at high Weber numbers, where the sheet flaps and is no longer smooth. Interestingly, the shape predicted by assuming a constant pressure difference equal to the stagnation pressure over the whole of the front face of the sheet and free stream value over the whole of the rear face yields nearly identical results suggesting that an open water bell is similar to a closed water bell in that, to a good approximation, the pressure on either sides of the water bell is homogeneous.
Entanglement versus Bell violations and their behaviour under local filtering operations
Verstraete, Frank; Wolf, Michael M.
2001-01-01
We discuss the relations between the violation of the CHSH Bell inequality for systems of two qubits on the one side and entanglement of formation, local filtering operations, and the entropy and purity on the other. We calculate the extremal Bell violations for a given amount of entanglement of formation and characterize the respective states, which turn out to have extremal properties also with respect to the entropy, purity and several entanglement monotones. The optimal local filtering op...
Luo, Cheng-Li; Liao, Chang-Geng; Chen, Zi-Hong
2010-08-01
We investigate the nonlocality dynamics of two initially entangled macroscopic fields each interacting with a resonant two-level atom. The nonlocality of macroscopic field is characterized by the extent to which the Bell Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH)'s inequality for continuous-variable states is violated. We show that the collapse and revival of the Bell-nonlocality are similar to the collapse and revival of the atomic population inversion of the Jaynes-Cummings model (JCM).
Song, Xinbing; Sun, Yifan; Li, Pengyun; Qin, Hongwei; Zhang, Xiangdong
2015-01-01
We perform Bell's measurement for the non-separable correlation between polarization and orbital angular momentum from the same classical vortex beam. The violation of Bell's inequality for such a non-separable classical correlation has been demonstrated experimentally. Based on the classical vortex beam and non-quantum entanglement between the polarization and the orbital angular momentum, the Hadamard gates and conditional phase gates have been designed. Furthermore, a quantum Fourier transform has been implemented experimentally. PMID:26369424
Song, Xinbing; Qin, Hongwei; Li, Pengyun; Zhang, Xiangdong
2015-01-01
We perform Bell's measurement and perform quantum Fourier transform with the classical vortex beam. The violation of Bell's inequality for such a non-separable classical correlation has been demonstrated experimentally. Based on the classical vortex beam and nonquantum entanglement between the polarization and orbital angular momentum, the Hadamard gates and conditional phase gates have been designed. Furthermore, a quantum Fourier transform has been implemented experimentally, which is the crucial final step in Shor's algorithm
Durham, Ian T.
2011-01-01
We demonstrate that both Wigner's form of Bell's inequalities as well as a form of the second law of thermodynamics, as manifest in Carath\\'{e}odory's principle, can be derived from the same simple experimental and statistical mechanical assumptions combined with the trivial behavior of integers. This suggests that Bell's theorem is merely a well-disguised statement of the second law. It also suggests that entanglement is necessary for quantum theory to be in full accord with the second law a...
Detection efficiency for loophole-free Bell tests with entangled states affected by colored noise
Canas G.; Barra J.F.; Gomez E.S.; Lima G; Sciarrino F.; Cabello A.
2013-01-01
Loophole-free Bell tests for quantum nonlocality and long-distance secure communication require photodetection efficiencies beyond a threshold eta_{crit} that depends on the Bell inequality and the noise affecting the entangled state received by the distant parties. Most calculations of eta_{crit} assume that the noise is random and can be modeled as white noise. However, most sources suffer from colored noise. Indeed, since entangled states are usually created as a superposition of two possi...
Loophole-free Bell test based on local precertification of photon's presence
Cabello A.; Sciarrino F.
2012-01-01
A loophole-free violation of Bell inequalities is of fundamental importance for demonstrating quantum nonlocality and long-distance device-independent secure communication. However, transmission losses represent a fundamental limitation for photonic loophole-free Bell tests. A local precertification of the presence of the photons immediately before the local measurements may solve this problem. We show that local precertification is feasible by integrating three current technologies: (i) enha...
Loophole-free Bell test for one atom and less than one photon
Sangouard, N; Gisin, N; Rosenfeld, W; Sekatski, P; Weber, M; Weinfurter, H
2011-01-01
We consider the entanglement between two internal states of a single atom and two photon number states describing either the vaccum or a single photon and thus containing, on average, less than one photon. We show that this intriguing entanglement can be characterized through substantial violations of a Bell inequality by performing homodyne detections on the optical mode. We present the experimental challenges that need to be overcome to pave the way towards a loophole-free Bell test in this setup.
Loophole-free Bell test with one atom and less than one photon on average
Sangouard N.; Bancal J.-D.; Gisin N.; Rosenfeld W.; Sekatski P.; Weber M.; Weinfurter H.
2011-01-01
We consider the entanglement between two internal states of a single atom and two photon number states describing either the vaccum or a single photon and thus containing, on average, less than one photon. We show that this intriguing entanglement can be characterized through substantial violations of a Bell inequality by performing homodyne detections on the optical mode. We present the experimental challenges that need to be overcome to pave the way towards a loophole-free Bell test in this...
Loophole-free Bell test with one atom and less than one photon on average
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sangouard, N.; Bancal, J.-D.; Gisin, N.; Sekatski, P. [Group of Applied Physics, University of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Rosenfeld, W.; Weber, M.; Weinfurter, H. [Fakultat fur Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitat Munchen, DE-80799 Munchen (Germany)
2011-11-15
We consider the entanglement between two internal states of a single atom and two photon number states describing either the vacuum or a single photon and thus containing, on average, less than one photon. We show that this intriguing entanglement can be characterized through substantial violations of a Bell inequality by performing homodyne detections on the optical mode. We present the experimental challenges that need to be overcome to pave the way toward a loophole-free Bell test.
Quantum Mechanics: Bell and Quantum Entropy for the Classroom
Pluch, Philipp
2014-01-01
In this article we are willing to give some first steps to quantum mechanics and a motivation of quantum mechanics and its interpretation for undergraduate students not from physics. After a short historical review in the development we discuss philosophical, physical and mathematical interpretation. We define local realism, locality and hidden variable theory which ends up in the EPR paradox, a place where questions on completeness and reality comes into play. The fundamental result of the last century was maybe Bell's that states that local realism is false if quantum mechanics is true. From this fact we can obtain the so called Bell inequalities. After a didactic example of the fact what these inequalities means we describe the key concept of quantum entanglement motivated here by quantum information theory. Also classical entropy and von Neuman entropy is discussed.
Anomalous Postselection in the Hensen et al. Bell Test
Graft, Donald A.
2016-01-01
It is shown that the data of the Hensen et al. Bell test experiment exhibits anomalous postselection that can fully account for the apparent violation of the CHSH inequality. A simulation of a local realist model implementing similar postselection is presented. The model produces an apparent violation of CHSH indistinguishable from that of the experiment. The experimental data also appears to violate no-signaling, and it is shown how postselection can produce an artifactual violation of no-si...
Postselection-Loophole-Free Bell Test Over an Installed Optical Fiber Network
Carvacho, Gonzalo; Carine, Jaime; Saavedra, Gabriel; Cuevas, Alvaro; Fuenzalida, Jorge; Toledo, Felipe; Figueroa, Miguel; Cabello, Adan; Larsson, Jan-Åke; Mataloni, Paolo; Lima, Gustavo; Xavier, Guilherme B.
2015-01-01
Device-independent (DI) quantum communication will require a loophole-free violation of Bell inequalities. In typical scenarios where line-of-sight between the communicating parties is not available, it is convenient to use energy-time entangled photons due to intrinsic robustness while propagating over optical fibers. Here we show an energy-time Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt Bell inequality violation with two parties separated by 3.7 km over the deployed optical fiber network belonging to the U...
Revealing Bell's nonlocality for unstable systems in high energy physics
Hiesmayr, Beatrix C.; Di Domenico, Antonio; Curceanu, Catalina; Gabriel, Andreas; Huber, Marcus; Larsson, Jan-Åke; Moskal, Pawel
2012-01-01
Entanglement and its consequences—in particular the violation of Bell inequalities, which defies our concepts of realism and locality—have been proven to play key roles in Nature by many experiments for various quantum systems. Entanglement can also be found in systems not consisting of ordinary matter and light, i.e. in massive meson-antimeson systems. Bell inequalities have been discussed for these systems, but up to date no direct experimental test to conclusively exclude local realism was found. This mainly stems from the fact that one only has access to a restricted class of observables and that these systems are also decaying. In this Letter we put forward a Bell inequality for unstable systems which can be tested at accelerator facilities with current technology. Herewith, the long awaited proof that such systems at different energy scales can reveal the sophisticated " dynamical" nonlocal feature of Nature in a direct experiment gets feasible. Moreover, the role of entanglement and mathcal{CP} violation, an asymmetry between matter and antimatter, is explored, a special feature offered only by these meson-antimeson systems.
Experimenter's freedom in Bell's theorem and quantum cryptography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bell's theorem states that no local realistic explanation of quantum mechanical predictions is possible, in which the experimenter has a freedom to choose between different measurement settings. Within a local realistic picture the violation of Bell's inequalities can only be understood if this freedom is denied. We determine the minimal degree to which the experimenter's freedom has to be abandoned, if one wants to keep such a picture and be in agreement with the experiment. Furthermore, the freedom in choosing experimental arrangements may be considered as a resource, since its lacking can be used by an eavesdropper to harm the security of quantum communication. We analyze the security of quantum key distribution as a function of the (partial) knowledge the eavesdropper has about the future choices of measurement settings which are made by the authorized parties (e.g., on the basis of some quasi-random generator). We show that the equivalence between the violation of Bell's inequality and the efficient extraction of a secure key -which exists for the case of complete freedom (no setting knowledge) - is lost unless one adapts the bound of the inequality according to this lack of freedom
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The 'Bell' of the title refers to bipartite Bell states, and their extensions to, for example, tripartite systems. The 'Group' of the title is the Braid Group in its various representations; while 'Tangle' refers to the property of entanglement which is present in both of these scenarios. The objective of this note is to explore the relation between Quantum Entanglement and Topological Links, and to show that the use of the language of entanglement in both cases is more than one of linguistic analogy.
Detection Loophole in Bell experiments: How post-selected local correlations can look non-local
Branciard, Cyril
2010-01-01
A common problem in Bell type experiments is the well-known detection loophole: if the detection efficiencies are not perfect and if one simply post-selects the conclusive events, one might observe a violation of a Bell inequality, even though a local model could have explained the experimental results. In this paper, we analyze the set of all post-selected correlations that can be explained by a local model, and show that it forms a polytope, larger than the Bell local polytope. We character...
Minimum detection efficiency for a loophole-free atom-photon Bell experiment
Cabello, Adan; Larsson, Jan-Ake
2007-01-01
In Bell experiments, one problem is to achieve high enough photodetection to ensure that there is no possibility of describing the results via a local hidden-variable model. Using the Clauser-Horne inequality and a two-photon non-maximally entangled state, a photodetection efficiency higher than 0.67 is necessary. Here we discuss atom-photon Bell experiments. We show that, assuming perfect detection efficiency of the atom, it is possible to perform a loophole-free atom-photon Bell experiment ...
Azuma, Yoshiaki; Herschel I. Grossman
2001-01-01
This paper develops a theoretical model of the inequality in wages and salaries associated with differences in years of schooling (educational inequality, for short). Our model assumes that in the long run individual decisions to become more educated equalize the lifetime earnings of more educated workers and comparable less educated workers. Given this assumption our model implies that innovations that increase the relative demand for more educated labor, and which cause short-run increases ...
Bell's theorem tells us NOT what quantum mechanics IS, but what quantum mechanics IS NOT
Zukowski, Marek
2015-01-01
Non-locality, or quantum-non-locality, are buzzwords in the community of quantum foundation and information scientists, which purportedly describe the implications of Bell's theorem. When such phrases are treated seriously, that is it is claimed that Bell's theorem reveals non-locality as an inherent trait of the quantum description of the micro-world, this leads to logical contradictions, which will be discussed here. In fact, Bell's theorem, understood as violation of Bell inequalities by quantum predictions, is consistent with Bohr's notion of complementarity. Thus, if it points to anything, then it is rather the significance of the principle of Bohr, but even this is not a clear implication. Non-locality is a necessary consequence of Bell's theorem only if we reject complementarity by adopting some form of realism, be it additional hidden variables, additional hidden causes, etc., or counterfactual definiteness. The essay contains two largely independent parts. The first one is addressed to any reader int...
Software Development at Belle II
Kuhr, Thomas; Hauth, Thomas
2015-12-01
Belle II is a next generation B-factory experiment that will collect 50 times more data than its predecessor Belle. This requires not only a major upgrade of the detector hardware, but also of the simulation, reconstruction, and analysis software. The challenges of the software development at Belle II and the tools and procedures to address them are reviewed in this article.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hu, Ming-Liang, E-mail: mingliang0301@163.com
2012-09-15
Dynamics of disentanglement as measured by the tripartite negativity and Bell nonlocality as measured by the extent of violation of the multipartite Bell-type inequalities are investigated in this work. It is shown definitively that for the initial three-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) or W class state preparation, the Bell nonlocality suffers sudden death under the influence of thermal reservoirs. Moreover, all the Bell-nonlocal states are useful for nonclassical teleportation, while there are entangled states that do not violate any Bell-type inequalities, but still yield nonclassical teleportation fidelity. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison of different aspects of quantum correlations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Robustness of the initial tripartite GHZ and W class states against decoherence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bell-nonlocality sudden death under the influence of thermal reservoir. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A nonzero minimum tripartite negativity is needed for nonclassical teleportation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer All the Bell-nonlocal states yield nonclassical teleportation fidelity.
Loophole-free Bell test for continuous variables via wave and particle correlations
Ji, Se-Wan; Kim, Jaewan; Lee, Hai-Woong; Zubairy, M. S.; Nha, Hyunchul
2010-01-01
We derive two classes of multi-mode Bell inequalities under local realistic assumptions, which are violated only by the entangled states negative under partial transposition in accordance with the Peres conjecture. Remarkably, the failure of local realism can be manifested by exploiting wave and particle correlations of readily accessible continuous-variable states, with very large violation of inequalities insensitive to detector-efficiency, which makes a strong case for a loophole-free test.
Concentration inequalities and martingale inequalities: a survey
Chung, Fan; Lu, Linyuan
2006-01-01
We examine a number of generalized and extended versions of concentration inequalities and martingale inequalities. These inequalities are effective for analyzing processes with quite general conditions as illustrated in an example for an infinite Polya process and web graphs.
Leggett-Garg inequalities and the geometry of the cut polytope
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Bell and Leggett-Garg tests offer operational ways to demonstrate that nonclassical behavior manifests itself in quantum systems, and experimentalists have implemented these protocols to show that classical worldviews such as local realism and macrorealism are false, respectively. Previous theoretical research has exposed important connections between more general Bell inequalities and polyhedral combinatorics. We show here that general Leggett-Garg inequalities are closely related to the cut polytope of the complete graph, a geometric object well-studied in combinatorics. Building on that connection, we offer a family of Leggett-Garg inequalities that are not trivial combinations of the most basic Leggett-Garg inequalities. We then show that violations of macrorealism can occur in surprising ways, by giving an example of a quantum system that violates the 'pentagon' Leggett-Garg inequality but does not violate any of the basic 'triangle' Leggett-Garg inequalities.
Minimum Detection Efficiencies for a Loophole-Free Bell-type Test
Garbarino, G.
2009-01-01
We discuss the problem of finding the most favorable conditions for closing the detection loophole in a test of local realism with a Bell inequality. For a generic non-maximally entangled two-qubit state and two alternative measurement bases we apply Hardy's proof of non-locality without inequality and derive an Eberhard-like inequality. For an infinity of non-maximally entangled states we find that it is possible to refute local realism by requiring perfect detection efficiency for only one ...
Post-Selection Loophole-Free Bell Test over an Installed Optical Fiber Network
Carvacho, Gonzalo; Saavedra, Gabriel; Cuevas, Álvaro; Fuenzalida, Jorge; Toledo, Felipe; Figueroa, Miguel; Cabello, Adán; Larsson, Jan-Åke; Mataloni, Paolo; Lima, Gustavo; Xavier, Guilherme B
2015-01-01
Device-independent (DI) quantum communication will require a loophole-free violation of Bell inequalities. In typical scenarios where line-of-sight between the communicating parties is not available, it is convenient to use energy-time entangled photons due to intrinsic robustness while propagating over optical fibers. Here we show an energy-time Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt Bell inequality violation with two parties separated by 3.7 km over the deployed optical fiber network belonging to the University of Concepci\\'on in Chile. Remarkably, this violation is free of the post-selection loophole affecting all previous in-field long-distance energy-time experiments. Our work takes a further step towards a fiber-based loophole-free Bell test, which is highly desired for secure quantum communication due to the widespread existing telecommunication infrastructure.
Bell's Universe: A Personal Recollection
Bertlmann, Reinhold A.
2016-01-01
My collaboration and friendship with John Bell is recollected. I will explain his outstanding contributions in particle physics, in accelerator physics, and his joint work with Mary Bell. Mary's work in accelerator physics is also summarized. I recall our quantum debates, mention some personal reminiscences, and give my personal view on Bell's fundamental work on quantum theory, in particular, on the concept of contextuality and nonlocality of quantum physics. Finally, I describe the huge inf...
Rossing, Thomas D.
2001-05-01
The art of casting bronze bells developed to a high level of sophistication in China during the Shang dynasty (1766-1123 BC). Many chimes of two-tone bells remain from the Western and Eastern Zhou dynasties (1122-249 BC). With the spread of Buddhism from the third century, large round temple bells developed in China and later in Korea, Japan, and other Asian countries. Vibrational modes of some of these bells have been studied by means of holographic interferometry and experimental modal testing. Their musical as well as acoustical properties are discussed.
Realistic loophole-free Bell test with atom-photon entanglement
Teo, Colin; Quintino, Marco Túlio; Minář, Jiří; Cavalcanti, Daniel; Scarani, Valerio; Cunha, Marcelo Terra; Santos, Marcelo França
2012-01-01
The establishment of nonlocal correlations, obtained through the violation of a Bell inequality, is not only important from a fundamental point of view, but constitutes the basis for device-independent quantum information technologies. Although several nonlocality tests have been performed so far, all of them suffered from either the locality or the detection loopholes. Recent studies have suggested that the use of atom-photon entanglement can lead to Bell inequality violations with moderate transmission and detection efficiencies. In this paper we propose an experimental setup realizing a simple atom-photon entangled state that, under realistic experimental parameters available to date, achieves a significant violation of the Clauser-Horn-Shimony-Holt inequality. Most importantly, the violation remains when considering typical detection efficiencies and losses due to required propagation distances.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mandersheid, Katharina; Richardson, Tim
2011-01-01
While traces and techniques of power and contestation around the understanding and production of spaces are clearly recognized in the sociological and planning research literature, there has been little rigorous attention to how socio-spatial inequality is put at stake in strategic mobilization...... around particular spatial imaginaries. In an analysis of the German Spatial Planning Report, the paper examines how inequalities are represented in relation to space and movement in spatial strategy. The analysis shows how, in the report, the spatial dimension of the social is represented as a...... represented as something outside and fluid which is meant to be channelled into the territorial containers by means of regional development and spatial planning. These representations of the social suggest a territorialized culturally integrated society as the unquestioned frame of reference which has lost...
Electron Identification in Belle
Hanagaki, K; Ikeda, H; Iijima, T; Tsukamoto, T
2002-01-01
We report on electron identification methods and their performance in the Belle experiment at the KEK-B asymmetric B-Factory $e^{+} e^{-}$ storage ring. Electrons are selected using a likelihood approach that takes information from the electromagnetic calorimeter, the central drift chamber, and the silica aerogel Cherenkov counters as input. We achieve an electron identification efficiency of $(92.4 \\pm 0.4)%$ with a $\\pi^{\\pm}$ fake rate of $(0.25 \\pm 0.02)%$ for the momentum range between 1.0 GeV/$c$ and 3.0 GeV/$c$ in laboratory frame.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Raquel Sosa Elízaga
2012-07-01
Full Text Available The global sociology currently faces one of its greatest challenges: to contribute to the debate about the most serious problem which all societies have faced in recent years. The rising inequality has led to many initiatives for reflection, discussion and evaluation of public policies in order to combat poverty. Particularly, the fact that the Millennium Goals are supposed to accomplish their significance by 2015 provides the International Sociological Association (ISA the unique opportunity to contribute to those goals through their own analyses and proposals. Over many years, the ISA has promoted the integrated debate of its members on issues related to inequalities: from different perspectives such as education, health, social movements, public policies, gender problems and violence, among others. The overlapping and accumulation of inequalities has been, so to speak, the natural environment from which the ISA can take part in this international debate. This article identifies the work lines approved in the Association Program Committee Meeting held in Mexico in 2011, in the process of theAssociation’s Congress in Yokohama in 2014.
Security and Composability of Randomness Expansion from Bell Inequalities
Fehr, Serge; Schaffner, Christian
2011-01-01
The nonlocal behavior of quantum mechanics enables to generate guaranteed fresh randomness from an untrusted device that consists of two nonsignalling components. Since the generation process requires some initial fresh randomness to act as a catalyst, one also speaks of randomness expansion. Previous works showed the freshness of the generated randomness only for an adversary that holds no quantum side information, or, equivalently, has measured all quantum side information before the randomness is generated by the device. Thus, until now it was unclear if and how much fresh randomness can be generated by an untrusted device in the presence of an adversary that maintains a quantum state. In this work, we show that security against quantum side information comes "for free". Specifically, we show that with the same procedure, the very same amount of randomness can be generated in the presence of quantum side information as can be generated without any (quantum or classical) side information. Our result on the ...
The assumption in Bell's inequalities and entanglement problem
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Lokajíček, Miloš V.
2012-01-01
Roč. 9, MAR (2012), 2018-2020. ISSN 1546-1955 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : EPR experiment * quantum physics * hidden variables Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 0.673, year: 2012
Violation of Bell inequalities through the coincidence-time loophole
Morgan, Peter
2008-01-01
The coincidence-time loophole was identified by Larsson & Gill (Europhys. Lett. 67, 707 (2004)); a concrete model that exploits this loophole has recently been described by De Raedt et al. (Found. Phys., to appear). It is emphasized here that De Raedt et al.'s model is experimentally testable. De Raedt et al.'s model also introduces contextuality in a novel and classically more natural way than the use of contextual particle properties, by introducing a probabilistic model of a limited set of...
Bell's palsy before Bell : Cornelis Stalpart van der Wiel's observation of Bell's palsy in 1683
van de Graaf, RC; Nicolai, JPA
2005-01-01
Bell's palsy is named after Sir Charles Bell (1774-1842), who has long been considered to be the first to describe idiopathic facial paralysis in the early 19th century. However, it was discovered that Nicolaus Anton Friedreich (1761-1836) and James Douglas (1675-1742) preceded him in the 18th centu
Electroweak physics from Belle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We report a study of τ- to π- π+ π- ν, τ- to K- π+ π- ν, τ- to K- K+ π- ν and τ- to K- K+ K- ν decays using a 666 fb-1 data sample collected with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e+ e- collider. We present the branching fractions as well as the unfolded mass spectra of the total hadronic system for these four decay modes. We also report the result of a search for a second class current (SCC) via τ to π η' ν decays. Sensitivity at the 10-5 level can be achieved, while the branching fraction for a SCC is predicted to be at the 10-6 - 10-5 level in several phenomenological models. (author)
Has Consumption Inequality Mirrored Income Inequality?
Mark A. Aguiar; Mark Bils
2011-01-01
We revisit to what extent the increase in income inequality over the last 30 years has been mirrored by consumption inequality. We do so by constructing two alternative measures of consumption expenditure, using data from the Consumer Expenditure Survey (CE). We first use reports of active savings and after tax income to construct the measure of consumption implied by the budget constraint. We find that the consumption inequality implied by savings behavior largely tracks income inequality be...
Bansal, Vikas
2015-01-01
The Belle II experiment at the SuperKEKB collider in Tsukuba, Japan, will start physics data taking in 2018 and will accumulate 50 ab$^{-1}$ of e$^{+}$e$^{-}$ collision data, about 50 times larger than the data set of the earlier Belle experiment. The computing requirements of Belle II are comparable to those of a run I high-p$_T$ LHC experiment. Computing will make full use of such grids in North America, Asia, Europe, and Australia, and high speed networking. Results of an initial MC simulation campaign with 3 ab$^{-1}$ equivalent luminosity will be described
Belle II Technical Design Report
Abe, T; Adamczyk, K; Ahn, S; Aihara, H; Akai, K; Aloi, M; Andricek, L; Aoki, K; Arai, Y; Arefiev, A; Arinstein, K; Arita, Y; Asner, D M; Aulchenko, V; Aushev, T; Aziz, T; Bakich, A M; Balagura, V; Ban, Y; Barberio, E; Barvich, T; Belous, K; Bergauer, T; Bhardwaj, V; Bhuyan, B; Blyth, S; Bondar, A; Bonvicini, G; Bozek, A; Bracko, M; Brodzicka, J; Brovchenko, O; Browder, T E; Cao, G; Chang, M -C; Chang, P; Chao, Y; Chekelian, V; Chen, A; Chen, K -F; Chen, P; Cheon, B G; Chiang, C -C; Chistov, R; Cho, K; Choi, S -K; Chung, K; Comerma, A; Cooney, M; Cowley, D E; Critchlow, T; Dalseno, J; Danilov, M; Dieguez, A; Dierlamm, A; Dillon, M; Dingfelder, J; Dolenec, R; Dolezal, Z; Drasal, Z; Drutskoy, A; Dungel, W; Dutta, D; Eidelman, S; Enomoto, A; Epifanov, D; Esen, S; Fast, J E; Feindt, M; Garcia, M Fernandez; Fifield, T; Fischer, P; Flanagan, J; Fourletov, S; Fourletova, J; Freixas, L; Frey, A; Friedl, M; Fruehwirth, R; Fujii, H; Fujikawa, M; Fukuma, Y; Funakoshi, Y; Furukawa, K; Fuster, J; Gabyshev, N; Cueto, A Gaspar de Valenzuela; Garmash, A; Garrido, L; Geisler, Ch; Gfall, I; Goh, Y M; Golob, B; Gorton, I; Grzymkowski, R; Guo, H; Ha, H; Haba, J; Hara, K; Hara, T; Haruyama, T; Hayasaka, K; Hayashi, K; Hayashii, H; Heck, M; Heindl, S; Heller, C; Hemperek, T; Higuchi, T; Horii, Y; Hou, W -S; Hsiung, Y B; Huang, C -H; Hwang, S; Hyun, H J; Igarashi, Y; Iglesias, C; Iida, Y; Iijima, T; Imamura, M; Inami, K; Irmler, C; Ishizuka, M; Itagaki, K; Itoh, R; Iwabuchi, M; Iwai, G; Iwai, M; Iwasaki, M; Iwasaki, M; Iwasaki, Y; Iwashita, T; Iwata, S; Jang, H; Ji, X; Jinno, T; Jones, M; Julius, T; Kageyama, T; Kah, D H; Kakuno, H; Kamitani, T; Kanazawa, K; Kapusta, P; Kataoka, S U; Katayama, N; Kawai, M; Kawai, Y; Kawasaki, T; Kennedy, J; Kichimi, H; Kikuchi, M; Kiesling, C; Kim, B K; Kim, G N; Kim, H J; Kim, H O; Kim, J -B; Kim, J H; Kim, M J; Kim, S K; Kim, K T; Kim, T Y; Kinoshita, K; Kishi, K; Kisielewski, B; van Dam, K Kleese; Knopf, J; Ko, B R; Koch, M; Kodys, P; Koffmane, C; Koga, Y; Kohriki, T; Koike, S; Koiso, H; Kondo, Y; Korpar, S; Kouzes, R T; Kreidl, Ch; Kreps, M; Krizan, P; Krokovny, P; Krueger, H; Kruth, A; Kuhn, W; Kuhr, T; Kumar, R; Kumita, T; Kupper, S; Kuzmin, A; Kvasnicka, P; Kwon, Y -J; Lacasta, C; Lange, J S; Lee, I -S; Lee, M J; Lee, M W; Lee, S -H; Lemarenko, M; Li, J; Li, W D; Li, Y; Libby, J; Limosani, A; Liu, C; Liu, H; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Liventsev, D; Virto, A Lopez; Makida, Y; Mao, Z P; Marinas, C; Masuzawa, M; Matvienko, D; Mitaroff, W; Miyabayashi, K; Miyata, H; Miyazaki, Y; Miyoshi, T; Mizuk, R; Mohanty, G B; Mohapatra, D; Moll, A; Mori, T; Morita, A; Morita, Y; Moser, H -G; Martin, D Moya; Mueller, T; Muenchow, D; Murakami, J; Myung, S S; Nagamine, T; Nakamura, I; Nakamura, T T; Nakano, E; Nakano, H; Nakao, M; Nakazawa, H; Nam, S -H; Natkaniec, Z; Nedelkovska, E; Negishi, K; Neubauer, S; Ng, C; Ninkovic, J; Nishida, S; Nishimura, K; Novikov, E; Nozaki, T; Ogawa, S; Ohmi, K; Ohnishi, Y; Ohshima, T; Ohuchi, N; Oide, K; Olsen, S L; Ono, M; Ono, Y; Onuki, Y; Ostrowicz, W; Ozaki, H; Pakhlov, P; Pakhlova, G; Palka, H; Park, H; Park, H K; Peak, L S; Peng, T; Peric, I; Pernicka, M; Pestotnik, R; Petric, M; Piilonen, L E; Poluektov, A; Prim, M; Prothmann, K; Regimbal, K; Reisert, B; Richter, R H; Riera-Babures, J; Ritter, A; Ritter, A; Ritter, M; Roehrken, M; Rorie, J; Rosen, M; Rozanska, M; Ruckman, L; Rummel, S; Rusinov, V; Russell, R M; Ryu, S; Sahoo, H; Sakai, K; Sakai, Y; Santelj, L; Sasaki, T; Sato, N; Sato, Y; Scheirich, J; Schieck, J; Schwanda, C; Schwartz, A J; Schwenker, B; Seljak, A; Senyo, K; Seon, O -S; Sevior, M E; Shapkin, M; Shebalin, V; Shen, C P; Shibuya, H; Shiizuka, S; Shiu, J -G; Shwartz, B; Simon, F; Simonis, H J; Singh, J B; Sinha, R; Sitarz, M; Smerkol, P; Sokolov, A; Solovieva, E; Stanic, S; Staric, M; Stypula, J; Suetsugu, Y; Sugihara, S; Sugimura, T; Sumisawa, K; Sumiyoshi, T; Suzuki, K; Suzuki, S Y; Takagaki, H; Takasaki, F; Takeichi, H; Takubo, Y; Tanaka, M; Tanaka, S; Taniguchi, N; Tarkovsky, E; Tatishvili, G; Tawada, M; Taylor, G N; Teramoto, Y; Tikhomirov, I; Trabelsi, K; Tsuboyama, T; Tsunada, K; Tu, Y -C; Uchida, T; Uehara, S; Ueno, K; Uglov, T; Unno, Y; Uno, S; Urquijo, P; Ushiroda, Y; Usov, Y; Vahsen, S; Valentan, M; Vanhoefer, P; Varner, G; Varvell, K E; Vazquez, P; Vila, I; Vilella, E; Vinokurova, A; Visniakov, J; Vos, M; Wang, C H; Wang, J; Wang, M -Z; Wang, P; Wassatch, A; Watanabe, M; Watase, Y; Weiler, T; Wermes, N; Wescott, R E; White, E; Wicht, J; Widhalm, L; Williams, K M; Won, E; Xu, H; Yabsley, B D; Yamamoto, H; Yamaoka, H; Yamaoka, Y; Yamauchi, M; Yin, Y; Yoon, H; Yu, J; Yuan, C Z; Yusa, Y; Zander, D; Zdybal, M; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhao, L; Zhao, Z; Zhilich, V; Zhou, P; Zhulanov, V; Zivko, T; Zupanc, A; Zyukova, O
2010-01-01
The Belle detector at the KEKB electron-positron collider has collected almost 1 billion Y(4S) events in its decade of operation. Super-KEKB, an upgrade of KEKB is under construction, to increase the luminosity by two orders of magnitude during a three-year shutdown, with an ultimate goal of 8E35 /cm^2 /s luminosity. To exploit the increased luminosity, an upgrade of the Belle detector has been proposed. A new international collaboration Belle-II, is being formed. The Technical Design Report presents physics motivation, basic methods of the accelerator upgrade, as well as key improvements of the detector.
Causarum Investigatio and the Two Bell's Theorems of John Bell
Wiseman, Howard M
2015-01-01
"Bell's theorem" can refer to two different theorems that John Bell proved, the first in 1964 and the second in 1976. His 1964 theorem is the incompatibility of quantum phenomena with the joint assumptions of Locality and Predetermination. His 1976 theorem is their incompatibility with the single property of Local Causality. This is contrary to Bell's own later assertions, that his 1964 theorem began with the assumption of Local Causality, even if not by that name. Although the two Bell's theorems are logically equivalent, their assumptions are not. Hence, the earlier and later theorems suggest quite different conclusions, embraced by operationalists and realists, respectively. The key issue is whether Locality or Local Causality is the appropriate notion emanating from Relativistic Causality, and this rests on one's basic notion of causation. For operationalists the appropriate notion is what is here called the Principle of Agent-Causation, while for realists it is Reichenbach's Principle of common cause. By...
The Trieste Lecture of John Stewart Bell
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
included a picture (figure 1) shown by him, taking it from the tape image which is of rath er poor quality (we apologize for this) and three figures taken from his transparencies. Moreover, to help the reader in grasping the various points John Stewart Bell brilliantly raised in his talk we have divided the paper into six sections whose titles have been chosen by us to summarize the most crucial points of his argument. Presentation by the Chairman, Alain Aspect It is a great pleasure and an honour to introduce Professor Bell. When looking to my old papers I discovered that this 25th anniversary of the ICTP also coincides with the famous paper in which appeared, for the first time, inequalities that are now known as Bell's inequalities so it's a very good opportunity to have a talk by John Bell here. Many of us have been strongly influenced by this work of John Bell because he has shown us that quantum mechanics is much more difficult to understand that we thought it was. I am sure that today he will again raise some questions which are very embarrassing but that we have definitely to face
The Trieste Lecture of John Stewart Bell
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bassi, Angelo; Ghirardi, GianCarlo
2007-03-23
. We have included a picture (figure 1) shown by him, taking it from the tape image which is of rath er poor quality (we apologize for this) and three figures taken from his transparencies. Moreover, to help the reader in grasping the various points John Stewart Bell brilliantly raised in his talk we have divided the paper into six sections whose titles have been chosen by us to summarize the most crucial points of his argument. Presentation by the Chairman, Alain Aspect It is a great pleasure and an honour to introduce Professor Bell. When looking to my old papers I discovered that this 25th anniversary of the ICTP also coincides with the famous paper in which appeared, for the first time, inequalities that are now known as Bell's inequalities so it's a very good opportunity to have a talk by John Bell here. Many of us have been strongly influenced by this work of John Bell because he has shown us that quantum mechanics is much more difficult to understand that we thought it was. I am sure that today he will again raise some questions which are very embarrassing but that we have definitely to face.
The Trieste Lecture of John Stewart Bell
Bassi, Angelo; Carlo Ghirardi, Gian
2007-03-01
included a picture (figure 1) shown by him, taking it from the tape image which is of rather poor quality (we apologize for this) and three figures taken from his transparencies. Moreover, to help the reader in grasping the various points John Stewart Bell brilliantly raised in his talk we have divided the paper into six sections whose titles have been chosen by us to summarize the most crucial points of his argument. Presentation by the Chairman, Alain Aspect It is a great pleasure and an honour to introduce Professor Bell. When looking to my old papers I discovered that this 25th anniversary of the ICTP also coincides with the famous paper in which appeared, for the first time, inequalities that are now known as Bell's inequalities so it's a very good opportunity to have a talk by John Bell here. Many of us have been strongly influenced by this work of John Bell because he has shown us that quantum mechanics is much more difficult to understand that we thought it was. I am sure that today he will again raise some questions which are very embarrassing but that we have definitely to face.
Clusters of Bell's palsy "Surtos" da paralisia de Bell
Thiago D. Gonçalves-Coêlho; Carlos Newton D. Pinheiro; Ezon V.A.P. Ferraz; José Luiz Alonso-Nieto
1997-01-01
The idiopathic facial paralysis or Bell's palsy installs abruptly or within a few hours, without any apparent cause. It corresponds to approximately 75% of all peripheral facial palsies. Three theories try to explain its pathogenecity: vascular-ischemic, viral and auto-immune. We reviewed the records of the EMG Sector, Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual (São Paulo, Brazil), from 1985 to 1995 and found 239 cases of Bell's palsy. Data were analysed according to age, gender, seasonal distribu...
Bell's Palsy (Beyond the Basics)
... changes caused by Bell's palsy will affect the appearance of your face, including how you smile. These ... are comfortable with some medical jargon. Patient information: Genital herpes (Beyond the Basics) Patient information: Shingles (Beyond ...
Bell Numbers, Determinants and Series
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
P K Saikia; Deepak Subedi
2013-05-01
In this article, we study Bell numbers and Uppuluri Carpenter numbers. We obtain various expressions and relations between them. These include polynomial recurrences and expressions as determinants of certain matrices of binomial coefficients.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
John Bell, with whom I had a fruitful collaboration and warm friendship, is best known for his seminal work on the foundations of quantum physics, but he also made outstanding contributions to particle physics and accelerator physics
Global Inequality: An Introduction
Michelle Bata; Albert J. Bergesen
2015-01-01
Global inequality has been little analyzed by sociologists despite their claim to be the scienti?c experts most in charge of the study of human inequalities and social strati?cation. Most undergraduate courses on social inequalities study race, class and gender without ever acknowledging that the greatest inequalities are between those individuals and households that live in developed versus less developed societies. The amount of international inequality has vastly outweighed within country ...
Takahiro Akita; Alit Pirmansah
2011-01-01
According to an inequality decomposition analysis by urban and rural sectors in Indonesia, urban inequality's contribution to overall inequality in per capita household expenditure has been increasing steadily with widening urban inequality and urbanization proceeding following globalization and financial/trade liberalization. According to the Theil T index, the contribution rose from 54% to 63% during the 1996-2002 period. Urban inequality is expected to play a more important role in overall...
Francesco Poppi
2010-01-01
During the Nobel prize-winning UA1 experiment, scientists in the control room used to ring a bell if a particularly interesting event had occurred. Today, the “CMS Exotica hotline” routine produces a daily report that lists the exotic events that were recorded the day before. Display of an event selected by the Exotica routine. Take just a very small fraction of the available data (max. 5%); define the events that you want to keep and set the parameters accordingly; run the Exotica routine and only look at the very few images that the system has selected for you. This is the recipe that a small team of CMS researchers has developed to identify the signals coming from possible new physics processes. “This approach does not replace the accurate data analysis on the whole set of data. However, it is a very fast and effective way to focus on just a few events that are potentially very interesting”, explains Maurizio Pierini (CERN), who developed the...
Optimal quantum violation of Clauser–Horne–Shimony–Holt like steering inequality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study a recently proposed Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen steering inequality (Cavalcanti et al 2015 J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 32 A74–A81). Analogous to Clauser–Horne–Shimony–Holt (CHSH) inequality for Bell nonlocality, in the simplest scenario, i.e., two parties, two measurements per party and two outcomes per measurement, this newly proposed inequality has been proved to be necessary and sufficient for steering. In this article we find the optimal violation amount of this inequality in quantum theory. Interestingly, the optimal violation amount matches with optimal quantum violation of CHSH inequality, i.e., Cirel’son quantity. We further study the optimal violation of this inequality for different classes of 2-qubit quantum states. (paper)
Moment Inequality and Holder Inequality for BSDEs
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Sheng-jun Fan
2009-01-01
Under the Lipschitz and square integrable assumptions on the generator g of BSDEs,this paper proves that if g is positively homogeneous in(y,z)and is decreasing in y,then the Moment inequality for BSDEs with generator g holds in general,and if g is positively homogeneous and sub-additive in(y,z),then the Holder inequality and Minkowski inequality for BSDEs with generator g hold in general.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A common problem in Bell-type experiments is the well-known detection loophole: if the detection efficiencies are not perfect and if one simply postselects the conclusive events, one might observe a violation of a Bell inequality, even though a local model could have explained the experimental results. In this paper, we analyze the set of all postselected correlations that can be explained by a local model, and show that it forms a polytope, larger than the Bell local polytope. We characterize the facets of this postselected local polytope in the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt scenario, where two parties have binary inputs and outcomes. Our approach gives interesting insights on the detection loophole problem.
Detection Loophole in Bell experiments: How post-selected local correlations can look non-local
Branciard, Cyril
2010-01-01
A common problem in Bell type experiments is the well-known detection loophole: if the detection efficiencies are not perfect and if one simply post-selects the conclusive events, one might observe a violation of a Bell inequality, even though a local model could have explained the experimental results. In this paper, we analyze the set of all post-selected correlations that can be explained by a local model, and show that it forms a polytope, larger than the Bell local polytope. We characterize the facets of this post-selected local polytope in the CHSH scenario, where two parties have binary inputs and outcomes. Our approach gives new insights on the detection loophole problem.
Nonlocality, No-Signalling and Bell's Theorem investigated by Weyl's Conformal Differential Geometry
De Martini, Francesco; Santamato, Enrico
2014-01-01
The principles and methods of the Conformal Quantum Geometrodynamics (CQG) based on the Weyl's differential geometry are presented. The theory applied to the case of the relativistic single quantum spin 1/2 leads a novel and unconventional derivation of Dirac's equation. The further extension of the theory to the case of two spins 1/2 in EPR entangled state and to the related violation of Bell's inequalities leads, by an exact albeit non relativistic analysis, to an insightful resolution of a...
Bell's Conspiracy, Schr\\"odinger's Black Cat and Global Invariant Sets
Palmer, T. N.
2015-01-01
A locally causal hidden-variable theory of quantum physics need not be constrained by the Bell inequalities if this theory also partially violates the measurement independence condition. However, such violation can appear unphysical, implying implausible conspiratorial correlations between the hidden-variables of particles being measured and earlier determinants of instrumental settings. A novel physically plausible explanation for such correlations is proposed, based on the hypothesis that s...
Proposal for a loophole-free Bell test based on spin-photon interactions in cavities
Brunner, Nicolas; Young, Andrew B.; Hu, Chengyong; Rarity, John G.
2013-01-01
We present a scheme to demonstrate loophole-free Bell inequality violation where the entanglement between photon pairs is transferred to solid state (spin) qubits mediated by cavity QED interactions. As this transfer can be achieved in a heralded way, our scheme is basically insensitive to losses on the channel, and works also in the weak coupling regime. We consider potential experimental realizations using single atom, colour centre and quantum dot cavity systems. Finally our scheme appears...
Robust long-distance entanglement and a loophole-free Bell test with ions and photons
Simon, Christoph; Irvine, William T M
2003-01-01
Two trapped ions that are kilometers apart can be entangled by the joint detection of two photons, each coming from one of the ions, in a basis of entangled states. Such a detection is possible with linear optical elements. The use of two-photon interference allows entanglement distribution without interferometric sensitivity to the path length of the photons. The present method of creating entangled ions also opens up the possibility of a loophole-free test of Bell's inequalities.
Bell's theorem, accountability and nonlocality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bell's theorem is a fundamental theorem in physics concerning the incompatibility between some correlations predicted by quantum theory and a large class of physical theories. In this paper, we introduce the hypothesis of accountability, which demands that it is possible to explain the correlations of the data collected in many runs of a Bell experiment in terms of what happens in each single run. Under this assumption, and making use of a recent result by Colbeck and Renner (2011 Nature Commun. 2 411), we then show that any nontrivial account of these correlations in the form of an extension of quantum theory must violate parameter independence. Moreover, we analyze the violation of outcome independence of quantum mechanics and show that it is also a manifestation of nonlocality. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell's theorem’. (paper)
Optical Bell Measurement by Fock Filtering
Paris, M G A; Jonathan, D; Bose, S; D'Ariano, G M; Paris, MGA
2000-01-01
We describe a nonlinear interferometric setup to perform a complete optical Bell measurement, i.e. to unambigously discriminate the four polarization entangled EPR-Bell photon pairs. The scheme is robust against detector inefficiency.
John Bell and the Identical Twins
1984-01-01
A biographical profile of John S.Bell is presented based on extensive interviews the author had with Bell. Bell’s vierws on the quantum theory are presented along with a simple explanation of his idenity.
Revealing Bell's nonlocality for unstable systems in high energy physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hiesmayr, Beatrix C.; Gabriel, Andreas; Huber, Marcus [University of Vienna, Faculty of Physics, Vienna (Austria); Di Domenico, Antonio [Sapienza Universita di Roma (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Curceanu, Catalina [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Larsson, Jan-Aake [Linkoepings Universitet, Institionen foer Systemteknik, Linkoeping (Sweden); Moskal, Pawel [Jagiellonian University, Institute of Physics, Cracow (Poland)
2012-01-15
Entanglement and its consequences - in particular the violation of Bell inequalities, which defies our concepts of realism and locality - have been proven to play key roles in Nature by many experiments for various quantum systems. Entanglement can also be found in systems not consisting of ordinary matter and light, i.e. in massive meson-antimeson systems. Bell inequalities have been discussed for these systems, but up to date no direct experimental test to conclusively exclude local realism was found. This mainly stems from the fact that one only has access to a restricted class of observables and that these systems are also decaying. In this Letter we put forward a Bell inequality for unstable systems which can be tested at accelerator facilities with current technology. Herewith, the long awaited proof that such systems at different energy scales can reveal the sophisticated ''dynamical'' nonlocal feature of Nature in a direct experiment gets feasible. Moreover, the role of entanglement and CP violation, an asymmetry between matter and antimatter, is explored, a special feature offered only by these meson-antimeson systems. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cinabro, David [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States)
2016-01-01
The major goals of our work on Belle II were to complete our contributions, a 64 channel PIN diode based radiation monitor, to the precursor detector called Beast II and the electronics for the endcap K-Long/Muon (E-KLM) detector. This was done by Professor Cinabro, Technician Gutierrez, and undergraduate labor supported by US-Japan funds. Professor Bonvicini through US-Japan funds led the development and installation of a beamstrahlung monitor system in the Belle II interaction region. Graduate students Farhat and DiCarlo worked on this. We also worked on charm physics analysis.
Mills, Melinda
2009-01-01
Globalization is increasingly linked to inequality, but with often divergent and polarized findings. Some researchers show that globalization accentuates inequality both within and between countries. Others maintain that these claims are patently incorrect, arguing that globalization has disintegrat
Immigration and income inequality
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Deding, Mette; Hussain, Azhar; Jakobsen, Vibeke;
2010-01-01
During the last two decades most Western countries have experienced increased net immigration as well as increased income inequality. This article analyzes the effects on income inequality of an increased number of immigrants in Denmark and Germany for the 20- year period 1984-2003 and how the...... impact of the increased number of immigrants differs between the two countries. We find higher inequality for immigrants than natives in Denmark but vice versa for Germany. Over the period 1984-2003, this particular inequality gap has narrowed in both countries. At the same time, the contribution of...... immigrants to overall inequality has increased, primarily caused by increased between-group inequality. The share of immigrants in the population is more important for the change in overall inequality in Denmark than in Germany, while the opposite is the case for inequality among immigrants....
Dimensions of African inequality
Bigsten, Arne
2014-01-01
This paper discusses dimensions of inequality in sub-Saharan Africa and their causes. It starts with a review of the empirical evidence about inequality during the colonial period as well as the post-independence era. Then it discusses the forces that determine inequality change, focusing on factor accumulation and structural change. Next it considers the relationship between inequality and growth, the role of agriculture in the development process, the relationships between ethnicity and soc...
Economic inequality, an introduction.
Maurizio Franzini; Mario Pianta
2011-01-01
In this paper we offer an introductory exploration of inequality, considering how political economy has analysed economic inequality. Its roots in market processes and in the functional distribution of income are investigated, considering the role of human capital, technological change and globalisation, and the relevance of intergenerational inequalities. We then consider the impact that public policies can have on inequalities through taxation, welfare expenditures, the provision of public ...
Franzini, Maurizio; Pianta, Mario
2015-01-01
After much empirical documentation of patterns of inequality, we address in this paper the need for a convincing interpretation of the causes of inequality in advanced countries. We set the current debate in the context of the evolution of ideas on inequality, including the debate on Thomas Piketty's book. We argue that four 'engines of inequality' can be identified - the power of capital over labour, the rise of 'oligarchs capitalism', the individualisation of economic conditions, the retrea...
John Hassler; José Vicente Rodríguez Mora; Joseph Zeira
2003-01-01
We use a general equilibrium OLG model to analyse the relation between intergenerational social mobility and wage inequality. We show that the correlation between mobility and inequality depends on which factor caused the change in inequality. The model can thus help discriminate between different competing explanations of the recent rise in US wage inequality. Under reasonable assumptions, skill-biased technical change tends to increase upward mobility, thereby causing a positive correlation...
Rodriguez Mora, Sevi; Hassler, John; Zeira, Joseph
2007-01-01
We use a general equilibrium OLG model to analyse the relation between intergenerational social mobility and wage inequality. We show that the correlation between mobility and inequality depends on which factor caused the change in inequality. The model can thus help discriminate between different competing explanations of the recent rise in US wage inequality. Under reasonable assumptions, skill-biased technical change tends to increase upward mobility, thereby causing a positive correlation...
Charpentier, Arthur; Mussard, Stéphane
2010-01-01
The paper explores different applications of the Shapley value for either inequality or poverty measures. We first investigate the problem of source decomposition of inequality measures, the so-called additive income sources inequality games, baed on the Shapley Value, introduced by Chantreuil and Trannoy (1999) and Shorrocks (1999). We show that multiplicative income sources inequality games provide dual results compared with Chantreuil and Trannoy's ones. We also investigate the case of mul...
Inequality in historical perspective
Jolly, Richard
2006-01-01
Adam Smith, Tom Paine, John Stuart Mill and Karl Marx were all bold and outspoken about the injustices of extreme inequality, nationally and internationally. Yet by almost every standard, global inequality has grown substantially since they were writing, and national income inequality also over the last two or three decades. There is a case today for more outspokenness about the extremes of inequality, both about the causes and how these causes are linked to extreme injustices in the past.
Inequality Fragility Hypothesis
DRAGOE Sebastian-Ilie
2016-01-01
The last four decades have been marked by growing inequality. The inequality of income and wealth is one of the most important macroeconomic issues of our time. Inequality contributed to Global Savings Glut and Global Financial Crisis through riskiness channel and a greater propensity to borrow for poor people. This paper presents evidence that besides structural factors, monetary policy, high leverage and the development of new money substitutes are critical in explaining the inequality tren...
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bell Mountain. 9.55... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Bell Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Bell Mountain viticultural area...
2010-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Belle River. 117.424 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.424 Belle River. The draw of the S70 bridge, mile 23.8 (Landside Route) near Belle River, shall open on signal; except that, from 10 p.m. to 6...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. D. Handley
2000-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper we obtain a new inequality of Hilbert type for a finite number of nonnegative sequences of real numbers from which we can recover as a special case an inequality due to Pachpatte. We also obtain an integral variant of the inequality.
Houston, Paul
1996-01-01
Selfishness has spawned a new breed of racism, driven by fear, fed by scarcity, and manifested through economic imperatives. California's Proposition 187 and Herrnstein and Murray's book "The Bell Curve" are built on racist foundations. Our current obsession with race is driven by an economy and an elitist social system that is dismantling the…
Azizur R. Khan
2012-01-01
The purpose of this essay is to outline the evolution of inequality in the post-World War II period and the causes shaping that evolution. The starting proposition of the essay is that both inequality and the social tolerance of inequality have substantially increased almost everywhere over this period. The increase in inequality over this period, however, consists of divergent changes over two sub-periods: for the first three decades after the end of WWII inequality actually declined over m...
Inequality, Tolerance, and Growth
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bjørnskov, Christian
This paper argues for the importance of individuals' tolerance of inequality for economic growth. By using the political ideology of governments as a measure of revealed tolerance of inequality, the paper shows that controlling for ideology improves the accuracy with which the effects of inequality...... are measured. Results show that inequality reduces growth but more so in societies where people perceive it as being relatively unfair. Further results indicate that legal quality and social trust are likely transmission channels for the effects of inequality....
Inequality, Tolerance, and Growth
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bjørnskov, Christian
2004-01-01
This paper argues for the importance of individuals' tolerance of inequality for economic growth. By using the political ideology of governments as a measure of revealed tolerance of inequality, the paper shows that controlling for ideology improves the accuracy with which the effects of inequality...... are measured. Results show that inequality reduces growth but more so in societies where people perceive it as being relatively unfair. Further results indicate that legal quality and social trust are likely transmission channels for the effects of inequality....
Clusters of Bell's palsy "Surtos" da paralisia de Bell
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thiago D. Gonçalves-Coêlho
1997-01-01
Full Text Available The idiopathic facial paralysis or Bell's palsy installs abruptly or within a few hours, without any apparent cause. It corresponds to approximately 75% of all peripheral facial palsies. Three theories try to explain its pathogenecity: vascular-ischemic, viral and auto-immune. We reviewed the records of the EMG Sector, Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual (São Paulo, Brazil, from 1985 to 1995 and found 239 cases of Bell's palsy. Data were analysed according to age, gender, seasonal distribution of cases. There was a predominance of cases in the 31 - 60 age bracket (40.59 %. The female gender was responsible to 70.71 % of cases. There was a predominance of cases in winter (31.38 % and autumn (30.13 %, which was statiscally significant. These findings let us to suppose that Bell's palsy predominates in females, in 41-60 years age bracket, and occurs predominantly in cold months. There are groups of clusters throughout temporal distribution of cases and cases are dependent on one each other or on factors affecting them all, which reinforces the infectious hypothesis (there is a rise in the incidence of viral upper respiratory tract infection during cold months.A paralisia facial idiopática ou paralisia de Bell se instala abruptamente ou em algumas horas, sem causa aparente. Corresponde a aproximadamente 75% de todos os casos de paralisia facial. Três teorias tentam explicar sua patogenia: vásculo-isquêmica, autoimune e viral. Nós revisamos os arquivos do Setor de Eletromiografia do Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual (São Paulo de 1985 a 1995, encontrando 239 casos de paralisia de Bell. Dados foram analisados quanto a idade, sexo, distribuição sazonal. Houve predominância dos casos na faixa etária de 31 a 60 anos (40,59 %. O sexo feminino foi responsável por 70,71 % dos casos. Houve predominância de casos no inverno (31,38 % e outono (30,13 %, estatisticamente sigmficante. Estes achados levam-nos a supor que a paralisia de Bell
Minimum detection efficiencies for a loophole-free observable-asymmetric Bell-type test
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We discuss the problem of finding the most favorable conditions for closing the detection loophole in a test of local realism with a Bell inequality. For a generic nonmaximally entangled two-qubit state and two incompatible bases to be adopted for alternative measurements of two observables a and b on each party, we apply Hardy's proof of nonlocality without inequality and derive an Eberhard-like inequality. For an infinity of nonmaximally entangled states we find that it is possible to refute local realism by requiring perfect detection efficiency for only one of the two observables, say b, to be measured on each party: The test is free from the detection loophole for any value of the detection efficiency corresponding to the other observable a. The maximum tolerable noise in such a loophole-free observable-asymmetric test is also evaluated.
De Raedt, Hans; Hess, Karl
2016-01-01
John Bell is generally credited to have accomplished the remarkable "proof" that any theory of physics, which is both Einstein-local and "realistic" (counterfactually definite), results in a strong upper bound to the correlations that are measured in space and time. He thus predicts that Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen experiments cannot violate Bell- type inequalities. We present a counterexample to this claim, based on discrete-event computer simulations. Our model-results fully agree with the predictions of quantum theory for Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiments and are free of the detection- or a coincidence-loophole.
One brazilian poet - Lindolf Bell One brazilian poet - Lindolf Bell
Richard Zenith
2008-01-01
By his talents and intense activity, Lindolf Bell became the recognized leader of the Poetic Catechesis movement. Founded in 1964 in a defunct Sao Paulo nightclub, it quickly established itself as a major artistic current in Brazil. The movement is concerned not so much with the poem's form as with its role and diffusion in society. To fulfill the movement's original proposal to "take the poem to the people," poets declaimed their works in auditoriums, parks, streets, and other public places....
Educational Inequality and Income Inequality: An Empirical Study on China
Yang, Jun; Huang, Xiao; Li, Xiaoyu
2009-01-01
Based on the endogenous growth theory, this paper uses the Gini coefficient to measure educational inequality and studies the empirical relationship between educational inequality and income inequality through a simultaneous equation model. The results show that: (1) Income inequality leads to educational inequality while the reduction of…
Inequality in Health Versus Inequality in Lifestyles
Ovrum, Arnstein; Rickertsen, Kyrre
2011-01-01
This paper uses repeated cross section data from Norway to compare patterns of inequality in self assessed health and obesity with patterns of inequality in underlying lifestyles central to the production of good health, namely physical activity, non-smoking and diet quality, represented by fish and fruits and vegetables consumption. We estimate a multivariate probit model to study correlates of these lifestyle and health variables, while Gini and concentration indices are being decomposed to...
Integral inequalities similar to Gronwall inequality
Hassane Khellaf; Mohamed Denche
2007-01-01
In the present paper, we establish some nonlinear integral inequalities for functions of one variable, with a further generalization functions with n independent variables. We apply our results to a system of nonlinear differential equations for functions of one variable and to the nonlinear hyperbolic partial integrodifferential equation in $n$-independent variables. These results extend the Gronwall type inequalities obtained by Pachpatte [6] and Oguntuase [5].
Bell Palsy and Acupuncture Treatment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Betul Battaloglu Inanc
2013-08-01
A 22-year-old female patient, a midwifery student, had treatment with corticosteroid and antiviral agents as soon as Bell Palsy (BP was diagnosed (House-Breckman stage 6. Six weeks later, patient didn’t recover, while in House-Breckman stage 3, acupuncture was perfomed and local and distal acupoints were used with ears, body and face. Ear acupuncture point was used two times with detection. In the course of six sessions body and face points were stimulated by electroacupuncture. After ten acupuncture treatments, the subjective symptoms and the facial motion on the affected side improved. There was an spotting ecchymosis the ST2 points on. The symmetry of the face is a determinant of facial charm and influences interpersonal attraction for adults, children and pregnant women. Medical options for the sequelae of BP are limited. Acupuncture’s effectively in Bell palsy patients’ should be shown with more clinical and electrophysiological studies.
Time-Continuous Bell Measurements
Hofer, Sebastian G; Aspelmeyer, Markus; Hammerer, Klemens
2013-01-01
We combine the concept of Bell measurements, in which two systems are projected into maximally entangled states, with the concept of continuous measurements, which concerns the evolution of a continuously monitored quantum system. For time continuous Bell measurements based on homodyne detection of light we derive the corresponding stochastic Schr\\"odinger equations, as well as the unconditional feedback master equations. Our results cover in particular the two scenarios of time-continuous quantum teleportation and entanglement swapping. We apply our results to show that (i) two two-level systems can be deterministically entangled via homodyne detection of light, even including photon loss approaching the fundamental limit of 50%, and (ii) a quantum state of light can be continuously teleported to a mechanical oscillator. This time-continuous remote quantum state preparation works under the same conditions as are required for optomechanical ground state cooling.
Belle II Silicon Vertex Detector
Mohanty, Gagan B
2015-01-01
The Belle II experiment at the SuperKEKB collider in Japan is designed to indirectly probe new physics using approximately 50 times the data recorded by its predecessor. An accurate determination of the decay-point position of subatomic particles such as beauty and charm hadrons as well as a precise measurement of low-momentum charged particles will play a key role in this pursuit. These will be accomplished by a vertex detector, which comprises two layers of pixelated silicon detector and four layers of silicon vertex detector. We describe herein the design, prototyping and construction efforts of the Belle-II silicon vertex detector that is aimed to be commissioned towards the middle of 2017.
Bell's Theorem from Moore's Theorem
Fields, Chris
2012-01-01
It is shown that the restrictions of what can be inferred from classically-recorded observational outcomes that are imposed by the no-cloning theorem, the Kochen-Specker theorem and Bell's theorem also follow from restrictions on inferences from observations formulated within classical automata theory. Similarities between the assumptions underlying classical automata theory and those underlying universally-unitary quantum theory are discussed.
Common questions about Bell palsy.
Albers, Janet R; Tamang, Stephen
2014-02-01
Bell palsy is an acute affliction of the facial nerve, resulting in sudden paralysis or weakness of the muscles on one side of the face. Testing patients with unilateral facial paralysis for diabetes mellitus or Lyme disease is not routinely recommended. Patients with Lyme disease typically present with additional manifestations, such as arthritis, rash, or facial swelling. Diabetes may be a comorbidity of Bell palsy, but testing is not needed in the absence of other indications, such as hypertension. In patients with atypical symptoms, magnetic resonance imaging with contrast enhancement can be used to rule out cranial mass effect and to add prognostic value. Steroids improve resolution of symptoms in patients with Bell palsy and remain the preferred treatment. Antiviral agents have a limited role, and may improve outcomes when combined with steroids in patients with severe symptoms. When facial paralysis is prolonged, surgery may be indicated to prevent ocular desiccation secondary to incomplete eyelid closure. Facial nerve decompression is rarely indicated or performed. Physical therapy modalities, including electrostimulation, exercise, and massage, are neither beneficial nor harmful. PMID:24506123
Song, Jae; Price, David J.; Guvenen, Fatih; Bloom, Nick
2015-01-01
Earnings inequality in the United States has increased rapidly over the last three decades, but little is known about the role of firms in this trend. For example, how much of the rise in earnings inequality can be attributed to rising dispersion between firms in the average wages they pay, and how much is due to rising wage dispersion among workers within firms? Similarly, how did rising inequality affect the wage earnings of different types of workers working for the same employ...
Busse, Matthias; Spielmann, Christian
2005-01-01
The paper empirically explores the international linkages between gender inequality and trade flows of a sample of 92 developed and developing countries. The focus is on comparative advantage in labour-intensive manufactured goods. The results indicate that gender wage inequality is positively associated with comparative advantage in labour-intensive goods, that is, countries with a larger gender wage gap have higher exports of these goods. Also, gender inequality in labour force activity rat...
Vani S. Kulkarni; Manoj Pandey; Raghav Gaiha
2013-01-01
Abstract As the countdown to 2015 has begun, debates about the continuation of the MDGs and their reformulation have taken on greater urgency and significance. Our view is that there is a need to reformulate them to better reflect deprivations and inequities that are pervasive but not sufficiently emphasised in the present version. A case in point is gender inequality. While various dimensions of gender inequality are included in the MDGs, we argue that these reflect a somewhat narrow focus –...
Geometric decompositions of Bell polytopes with practical applications
Bierhorst, Peter
2016-05-01
In the well-studied (2,2,2) Bell experiment consisting of two parties, two measurement settings per party, and two possible outcomes per setting, it is known that if the experiment obeys no-signaling constraints, then the set of admissible experimental probability distributions is fully characterized as the convex hull of 24 distributions: eight Popescu–Rohrlich (PR) boxes and 16 local deterministic distributions. Furthermore, it turns out that in the (2,2,2) case, any nonlocal nonsignaling distribution can always be uniquely expressed as a convex combination of exactly one PR box and (up to) eight local deterministic distributions. In this representation each PR box will always occur only with a fixed set of eight local deterministic distributions with which it is affiliated. In this paper, we derive multiple practical applications of this result: we demonstrate an analytical proof that the minimum detection efficiency for which nonlocality can be observed is η \\gt 2/3 even for theories constrained only by the no-signaling principle, and we develop new algorithms that speed the calculation of important statistical functions of Bell test data. Finally, we enumerate the vertices of the no-signaling polytope for the (2,n,2) ‘chained Bell’ scenario and find that similar decomposition results are possible in this general case. Here, our results allow us to prove the optimality of a bound, derived in Barrett et al (2006 Phys. Rev. Lett. 97 170409), on the proportion of local theories in a local/nonlocal mixture that can be inferred from the experimental violation of a chained Bell inequality.
Speakable and unspeakable after John Bell
Percival, I C
2000-01-01
`Philosophy' was speakable for John Bell but is not for many physicists. The border between philosophy and physics is here illustrated through Brownian motion and Bell experiments. `Measurement', however, was unspeakable for Bell. His insistence that the physics of quantum measurement should not be confined to the laboratory and that physics is concerned with the big world outside leads us to examples from zoology, meteorology and cosmology.
On the Affine Isoperimetric Inequalities
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Wuyang Yu; Gangsong Leng
2011-11-01
We obtain an isoperimetric inequality which estimate the affine invariant -surface area measure on convex bodies. We also establish the reverse version of -Petty projection inequality and an affine isoperimetric inequality of $_{-p}K$.
Global Inequality: An Introduction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michelle Bata
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Global inequality has been little analyzed by sociologists despite their claim to be the scienti?c experts most in charge of the study of human inequalities and social strati?cation. Most undergraduate courses on social inequalities study race, class and gender without ever acknowledging that the greatest inequalities are between those individuals and households that live in developed versus less developed societies. The amount of international inequality has vastly outweighed within country inequalities since at least the 1870s when a wave of economic globalization under the Pax Britannica increased average wages in the core while leaving most of the periphery and the semiperiphery at subsistence levels. Increasing inequality was one of the most important consequences of nineteenth century globalization, and this fact is pregnant with importance for those who seek to understand what the consequences of twentieth century globalization may be. Resistance to global capitalism and attacks on symbols of power are likely to increase, just as they did in the decades following the great expansion of trade and investment in the last decades of the nineteenth century. Research into the causes of increasing inequalities is thus extremely important for social scientists, policy makers and global citizens who need to understand how the world-system works in order to change it.
Sloyer, Clifford W.
1975-01-01
The inequality involving the arithmetic and geometric means is a powerful tool in dealing with applications of mathematics. It is very important in geometric programming. The article discusses this inequality and demonstrates two real world applications accessible to secondary teachers and students. (Author/KM)
Bell Canyon test summary report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Bell Canyon Test was an in situ evaluation of the ability of a cement grout plug to seal boreholes. It consisted of a 2-m-long, 20-cm-diameter grout plug in an anhydrite formation at a depth of 1370 m, directly above an aquifer that provided a 12.4 MPa (1800 psi) differential pressure. The aquifer had a production capability of 38,000 l/day (240 bbl/day, 104 gal/day). The observed leakage after plug installation was 0.6 l/day, which is equivalent to a 50 microdarcy flow path assuming all flow occurred through the plug cross-sectional area. Laboratory results and analysis of field data indicate that the bulk of the flow occurred through a microstructure at the interface between the plug and the host rock. The Bell Canyon Test demonstrated that a plug could be formulated, emplaced, and tested under actual conditions and provide acceptable performance. When these results are related to the WIPP performance assessment models, they provide additional confidence that borehole plugging can be accomplished satisfactorily. The Bell Canyon results can also be used as basis for future activities in the generic repository sealing program for similar emplacements and performance assessment evaluations. If the observed leakage rates are not acceptable at other sites, the BCT results would indicate that the first step in improving such emplacements should deal with improved bonding of the plug to the rock at these sites. The results obtained from the BCT, when coupled with results from long-term durability assessments, form a plug performance data basis for repository designers at other proposed waste repository sites
Inequalities for inscribed simplexes
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YANG Shiguo
2004-01-01
The problem on the geometrc inequalities involving ann-dimensional simplex and its inscribed simplex is studied. An inequality is established, which reveals that the difference between the squared circumradius of then-dimensional simplex and the squared distance between its circumcenter and barycenter times the squared circumradius of its inscribed simplex is not less than the 2(n-1)th power ofnn times its squared inradius, and is equal to when the simplex is regular and its inscribed siplex is a tangent point one. Deduction from this inequality reaches a generalization ofn-dimensional Euler inequality indicating that the circumradius of the simplex is not less than then-fold inradius. Another inequality is derived to present the relationship between the circumradius of the n-dimensional simplex and the circumradius and inradius of its pedal simplex.
Loophole-free Bell's experiment and two-photon all-versus-nothing violation of local realism
Cabello, Adan
2005-01-01
We introduce an all-versus-nothing proof of impossibility of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen's local elements of reality for two photons entangled both in polarization and path degrees of freedom, which leads to a Bell's inequality where the classical bound is 8 and the quantum prediction is 16. A simple estimation of the detection efficiency required to close the detection loophole using this proof gives eta > 0.69. This efficiency is lower than that required for previous proposals.
Belle II and Hadron spectroscopy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Križan, Peter, E-mail: peter.krizan@ijs.si [J. Stefan Institute and University of Ljubljana (Slovenia)
2015-08-15
Asymmetric B factories, PEP-II with BaBar and KEKB with Belle, made a decisive contribution to flavour physics. In addition, they also observed a long list of new hadrons, some of which do not fit into the standard meson and baryon schemes. The next generation of B factories, the so called Super B factory will search for departures from the Standard model. For this task, a 50 times larger data sample is needed, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 50 ab{sup −1}. With such a large data sample there are many more topics to explore, including searches for new and exotic hadrons, and investigation of their properties.
Contemporary management of Bell palsy.
Jowett, Nate; Hadlock, Tessa A
2015-04-01
Bell palsy (BP) is the most common diagnosis in acute and chronic facial palsy. Although most patients fully recover, more than one-quarter will have residual dysfunction. Of these, nearly half will demonstrate severe limitations in facial expression. Though significant attention has been paid to acute management and prognosis, a paucity of literature exists addressing management of the long-term sequelae of BP. This article describes contemporary use of physical therapy, injectables, and static and dynamic surgical procedures in facial reanimation of acute and chronic BP. PMID:25958893
Minimax discrimination of quasi-Bell states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kato, Kentaro [Quantum ICT Research Institute, Tamagawa University, 6-1-1 Tamagawa-gakuen, Machida, Tokyo 194-8610 (Japan)
2014-12-04
An optimal quantum measurement is considered for the so-called quasi-Bell states under the quantum minimax criterion. It is shown that the minimax-optimal POVM for the quasi-Bell states is given by its square-root measurement and is applicable to the teleportation of a superposition of two coherent states.
Belle-II Experiment Network Requirements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Asner, David; Bell, Greg; Carlson, Tim; Cowley, David; Dart, Eli; Erwin, Brock; Godang, Romulus; Hara, Takanori; Johnson, Jerry; Johnson, Ron; Johnston, Bill; Dam, Kerstin Kleese-van; Kaneko, Toshiaki; Kubota, Yoshihiro; Kuhr, Thomas; McCoy, John; Miyake, Hideki; Monga, Inder; Nakamura, Motonori; Piilonen, Leo; Pordes, Ruth; Ray, Douglas; Russell, Richard; Schram, Malachi; Schroeder, Jim; Sevior, Martin; Singh, Surya; Suzuki, Soh; Sasaki, Takashi; Williams, Jim
2013-05-28
The Belle experiment, part of a broad-based search for new physics, is a collaboration of ~400 physicists from 55 institutions across four continents. The Belle detector is located at the KEKB accelerator in Tsukuba, Japan. The Belle detector was operated at the asymmetric electron-positron collider KEKB from 1999-2010. The detector accumulated more than 1 ab-1 of integrated luminosity, corresponding to more than 2 PB of data near 10 GeV center-of-mass energy. Recently, KEK has initiated a $400 million accelerator upgrade to be called SuperKEKB, designed to produce instantaneous and integrated luminosity two orders of magnitude greater than KEKB. The new international collaboration at SuperKEKB is called Belle II. The first data from Belle II/SuperKEKB is expected in 2015. In October 2012, senior members of the Belle-II collaboration gathered at PNNL to discuss the computing and neworking requirements of the Belle-II experiment with ESnet staff and other computing and networking experts. The day-and-a-half-long workshop characterized the instruments and facilities used in the experiment, the process of science for Belle-II, and the computing and networking equipment and configuration requirements to realize the full scientific potential of the collaboration's work.
Physics Achievements from the Belle Experiment
Brodzicka, Jolanta; Chang, Paoti; Eidelman, Simon; Golob, Bostjan; Hayasaka, Kiyoshi; Hayashii, Hisaki; Iijima, Toru; Inami, Kenji; Kinoshita, Kay; Kwon, Youngjoon; Miyabayashi, Kenkichi; Mohanty, Gagan; Nakao, Mikihiko; Nakazawa, Hideyuki; Olsen, Stephen; Sakai, Yoshihide; Schwanda, Christoph; Schwartz, Alan; Trabelsi, Karim; Uehara, Sadaharu; Uno, Shoji; Watanabe, Yasushi; Zupanc, Anze
2012-01-01
The Belle experiment, running at the KEKB e+e- asymmetric energy collider during the first decade of the century, achieved its original objective of measuring precisely differences between particles and anti-particles in the B system. After collecting 1000 fb-1 of data at various Upsilon resonances, Belle also obtained the many other physics results described in this article.
The design of bells with harmonic overtones.
McLachlan, Neil; Nigjeh, Behzad Keramati; Hasell, Anton
2003-07-01
Musical bells have had limited application due to the presence of inharmonic partials in the lower part of their acoustic spectra. A series of bells has been designed that contains up to seven partial frequencies in the harmonic series beginning at the fundamental frequency. This was achieved by choosing geometries for finite-element analysis models in which as many purely circumferential bending modes as possible occurred at frequencies below any mode with an axial ring node. The bell models were then fine tuned using gradient projection method shape optimization and the resulting profiles were cast in silicon bronze. A range of bell geometries and timbres is analyzed using psycho-acoustic models and is discussed in relation to European carillon bells. PMID:12880061
Legal Quality, Inequality, and Tolerance
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bjørnskov, Christian
Previous findings suggest that income inequality leads to lower legal quality. This paper argues that voters' tolerance of inequality exerts an additional influence. Empirical findings suggest that inequality leads to lower legal quality due to its effect on trust while the tolerance of inequality...
Legal Quality, Inequality, and Tolerance
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bjørnskov, Christian
2004-01-01
Previous findings suggest that income inequality leads to lower legal quality. This paper argues that voters' tolerance of inequality exerts an additional influence. Empirical findings suggest that inequality leads to lower legal quality due to its effect on trust while the tolerance of inequality...
Jae Song; Price, David J.; Fatih Guvenen; Nicholas Bloom; Till von Wachter
2015-01-01
Earnings inequality in the United States has increased rapidly over the last three decades, but little is known about the role of firms in this trend. For example, how much of the rise in earnings inequality can be attributed to rising dispersion between firms in the average wages they pay, and how much is due to rising wage dispersion among workers within firms? Similarly, how did rising inequality affect the wage earnings of different types of workers working for the same employer—men vs. w...
Morchio, Iacopo
2015-01-01
The last years have seen a surging interest in inequality in our society and in the world, with particular emphasis on economic inequality. Both long-run trends and the recent economic crisis have contributed to an increase in the gap between the rich and the poor, raising new questions on why this happened and on whether society should (or shouldn't) counteract these forces. The three main chapters of this dissertation aim at understanding the reasons behind inequality in the probability of ...
Undergraduate students’ conceptions of inequalities
Halmaghi, Elena Filofteia
2011-01-01
Inequalities are vital in the production of mathematics. They are employed as specialized tools in the study of functions, in proving equalities, and in approximation or optimization studies, to enumerate only a few areas of mathematics where inequalities are put at work. The concept of inequality, however, is problematic for high school and university students alike. Moreover, school curriculum seems disconnected from the role of inequalities in mathematics and mostly presents inequalities a...
Inequality of Opportunity in Egypt
Hassine, Nadia Belhaj
2012-01-01
The article evaluates the contribution of inequality of opportunity to earnings inequality in Egypt and analyzes its evolution across three time periods and different population groups. It provides parametric and nonparametric estimates of a lower bound for the degree of inequality of opportunity for wage and salary workers. On average, the contribution of opportunity-shaping circumstances to earnings inequality declined from 22 percent in 1988 to 15 percent in 2006. Levels of inequality of o...
Inequality in the danish society
Pedersen, Mathias Bo; Gluud, Mads; Petersen, Michael; Heiberg, Marcus; Oxbøll, Simon
2014-01-01
The basis of this paper has been the rising income inequality which has been highlighted by the media as well as in the new study Capital in the twenty-first century by Thomas Piketty. Through our work with this inequality we raise the following problem: How does income inequality effect the danish society?. Therborn attempts to describe the complexity and interconnected nature of inequality. We disassemble his definition in an attempt to examine the singular components of inequality. Through...
Nonlocality, no-signalling, and Bell's theorem investigated by Weyl conformal differential geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The principles and methods of conformal quantum geometrodynamics based on Weyl differential geometry are presented. The theory applied to the case of the relativistic single quantum spin-(1/2) leads to a novel and unconventional derivation of the Dirac equation. The further extension of the theory to the case of two-spins-(1/2) in the EPR entangled state and to the related violation of Bell inequalities leads, by an exact non-relativistic analysis, to an insightful resolution of all paradoxes implied by quantum nonlocality. (paper)
Variational Inequalities with Applications
Sofonea, Mircea
2009-01-01
Motivated by stimulating problems in contact mechanics, emphasizing antiplane frictional contact with linearly elastic and viscoelastic materials, this book focuses on the essentials with respect to the qualitative aspects of several classes of variational inequalities (VIs)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Carella
2013-09-01
Full Text Available A new unconditional inequality of the totient function is contributed to the literature. This result is associated with various unsolved problems about the distribution of prime numbers.
Social inequalities in 'sickness'
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wel, Kjetil A. van der; Dahl, Espen; Thielen, Karsten
2011-01-01
inequalities in health by studying the often overlooked ‘sickness’-dimension of health, namely employment behaviour among people with illnesses. We use European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) data from 2005 covering 26 European countries linked to country characteristics derived...... from Eurostat and OECD that include spending on active labour market policies, benefit generosity, income inequality, and employment protection. Using multilevel techniques we find that comprehensive welfare states have lower absolute and relative social inequalities in sickness, as well as more......The aim of this paper is to examine educational inequalities in the risk of non-employment among people with illnesses and how they vary between European countries with different welfare state characteristics. In doing so, the paper adds to the growing literature on welfare states and social...
Tackling Health Inequalities Locally
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Diderichsen, Finn; Scheele, Christian Elling; Little, Ingvild Gundersen
equality and growth (64). Health equity has been anexplicit political goal in Scandinavia for decades. Nevertheless, in the health domain, average improvement has not been followed by reduced inequality – at least not between socioeconomic groups. It has in other words turned out to be a challenge...... of translating small inequalities in wealth into small inequalities in health. Denmark, Norway and Sweden all have legislation that indifferent ways offers local governments key roles in public health. This is partly due to local governments’ responsibility for many policy areas of great relevance to health...... and health equity. National governments have thus largely made the WHO and EU recommendation of ‘Health in All Policies’a local responsibility. In his analysis for the Nordic Council of Ministers, former Swedish Minister of Health Bo Könberg identifies tackling health inequalities as one of 14 prioritised...
Generalized quasi variational inequalities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Noor, M.A. [King Saud Univ., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)
1996-12-31
In this paper, we establish the equivalence between the generalized quasi variational inequalities and the generalized implicit Wiener-Hopf equations using essentially the projection technique. This equivalence is used to suggest and analyze a number of new iterative algorithms for solving generalized quasi variational inequalities and the related complementarity problems. The convergence criteria is also considered. The results proved in this paper represent a significant improvement and refinement of the previously known results.
Multidimensional poverty and inequality
Rolf Aaberge; Andrea Brandolini
2014-01-01
This paper examines different approaches to the measurement of multidimensional inequality and poverty. First, it outlines three aspects preliminary to any multidimensional study: the selection of the relevant dimensions; the indicators used to measure them; and the procedures for their weighting. It then considers the counting approach and the axiomatic treatment in poverty measurement. Finally, it reviews the axiomatic approach to inequality analysis. The paper provides a selective review o...
Hisako, KAI; Shigeyuki, Hamori
2009-01-01
This paper examines the relationship microfinance and inequality by providing a cross-country empirical study of 61 developing countries. Microfinance plays an important role in the financial market in many developing countries. Although microfinance is expected to significantly affect macro variables, we lack enough empirical research on Impact Analysis at the macro level, such as the effect of microfinance on inequality. We expect microfinance to have an equalizing effect, and provide a fir...
Devashish Mitra; Vitor Trindade
2005-01-01
We incorporate demand-side considerations in trade in a systematic but straightforward way. We do so by focusing on the role of inequality in the determination of trade flows and patterns. With nonhomothetic preferences, when countries are similar in all respects but asset inequality, we find that trade is driven by specialization in consumption, not production. These assumptions allow us to generate some interesting international spillover effects of redistributive policies. We also look at ...
Fajnzylber, Pablo; Lederman, Daniel; Loayza, Norman
2002-01-01
We investigate the robustness and causality of the link between income inequality and violent crime across countries. First, we study the correlation between the Gini index and homicide and robbery rates within and between countries. Second, we examine the partial correlation by considering other crime determinants. Third, we control for the endogeneity of inequality by isolating its exogenous impact on these crime rates. Fourth, we control for measurement error in crime rates by modeling it ...
Eric M. Uslaner
2006-01-01
Economic inequality provides a fertile breeding ground for corruption and, in turn, leads to further inequalities. Most corruption models focus on the institutional determinants of government dishonesty. However, such accounts are problematic. Corruption is remarkably sticky over time. There is a very powerful correlation between crossnational measures corruption in 1980 and in 2004. In contrast, measures of democracy such as the Freedom House scores are not so strongly correlated over time, ...
Earnings Inequality in Germany
Katharine G. Abraham; Susan N. Houseman
1993-01-01
Recent studies have documented the growth of earnings inequality in the United States during the 1980s. In contrast to these studies' findings, our analysis of micro data for the former West Germany yields virtually no evidence of growth in earnings inequality over the same period. Between 1978 and 1988, a reduction in the dispersion of earnings among workers in the bottom half of the earnings distribution led to a narrowing of the overall dispersion of earnings in Germany. Earnings different...
Nasfi Fkili Wahiba
2013-01-01
This paper is intended to test the effect of trade openness on inequality of wage distribution in Tunisia. The study through econometric estimates showed that the impact of openness on inequality is remarkable in the period marked by an intensive integration into the global economy. However, investment in human capital can have a positive effect and leas to reduce wage disparities. Opening to the world economy is able to achieve positive economic performance, except that one of the challenges...
Carmichael, Sarah; Dilli, Selin; Rijpma, Auke
2014-01-01
Historically, gender inequalities in health status, socio-economic standing and political rights have been large. This chapter documents gender differences in life expectancy and birth rates (to cover health status); in average years of schooling, labour force participation, inheritance rights and marriage age (to cover socioeconomic status); and in parliamentary seats and suffrage (to cover political rights). A composite indicator shows strong progress in reducing gender inequality in the pa...
Kelly, Morgan
2000-01-01
This paper considers the relationship between inequality and crime using data from urban counties. The behavior of property and violent crime are quite different. Inequality has no effect on property crime but a strong and robust impact on violent crime, with an elasticity above 0.5. By contrast, poverty and police activity have significant effects on property crime, but little on violent crime. Property crime is well explained by the economic theory of crime, while violent crime is better ex...
Bell's Conspiracy, Schr\\"odinger's Black Cat and Global Invariant Sets
Palmer, T N
2015-01-01
A locally causal hidden-variable theory of quantum physics need not be constrained by the Bell inequalities if this theory also partially violates the measurement independence condition. However, such violation can appear unphysical, implying implausible conspiratorial correlations between the hidden-variables of particles being measured and earlier determinants of instrumental settings. A novel physically plausible explanation for such correlations is proposed, based on the hypothesis that states of physical reality lie precisely on a non-computational measure-zero dynamically invariant set in the state space of the universe: the Cosmological Invariant Set Postulate. To illustrate the relevance of the concept of a global invariant set, a simple analogy is considered where a massive object is propelled into a black hole depending on the decay of a radioactive atom. It is claimed that a locally causal hidden-variable theory constrained by the Cosmological Invariant Set Postulate can violate the CHSH inequality...
Test of Bell’s inequality using the one-atom micromaser
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A S Majumdar; N Nayak
2001-02-01
We examine a local realist bound in the case of a one-atom micromaser. It is shown that such a bound is violated using a simpliﬁed treatment of the micromaser. We consider the effect of dissipation in a proposed experiment with the real micromaser. It is seen that the magnitude of violation of a Bell-type inequality depends signiﬁcantly on the cavity parameters.
Herpes Simplex Virus-1 and Bell's Palsy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J Gordon Millichap
2008-05-01
Full Text Available The association between herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1 infection and Bell palsy was determined in 47 children studied at Children's Hospital at Montefiore, Bronx, NY. Swabs of saliva and conjunctiva were taken for PCR testing.
Helicopter attempts tow of Liberty Bell 7
1961-01-01
Marine helicopter appears to have Liberty Bell 7 in tow after Virgil I. Grissom's successful flight of 305 miles down the Atlantic Missile Range. Minutes after 'Gus' Grissom got out of the spacecraft, it sank.
On the failure of Bell's theorem
Bene, Gyula
1997-01-01
Using a new approach to quantum mechanics we revisit Hardy's proof for Bell's theorem and point out a loophole in it. We also demonstrate on this example that quantum mechanics is a local realistic theory.
Software and Physics Simulation at Belle II
Fulsom, Bryan; Belle Collaboration, II
2016-03-01
The Belle II experiment at the SuperKEKB collider in Tsukuba, Japan, will start taking physics data in 2018 and will accumulate 50 ab-1 of e+e-collision data, about 50 times larger than the data set of the earlier Belle experiment. The new detector will use GEANT4 for Monte Carlo simulation and an entirely new software and reconstruction system based on modern computing tools. Examples of physics simulation including beam background overlays will be described.
BELLE progress report. 1995 April - 1996 March
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The scientific goals of the BELLE experiment continue to be of great interest. The large number of papers during the past year that identify measurements that can be done with BELLE reflects the considerable interest in the theoretical community in these physics issues. This is also demonstrated by the approval during the past year of two major B physics projects: the BaBar experiment at SLAC and the HERAB experiment at DESY. Both projects have schedules that put them into direct competition with BELLE for the important goal of testing the KM predictions for CP violations in B meson decays. Other projects addressing this physics are planned for the Tevatron collider and have been proposed both for the LHC and RHIC. The BELLE collaboration remains committed to its goal of being the first group to provide conclusive evidence either confirming or refuting the KM model. The year 1995 was an exciting time for the BELLE experiment. All of the major technology choices were finalized and a final detector configuration has been established. Continued R and D has resulted in improved performance expectations for a number of detector subsystems. The procurement of materials for major subsystems is underway and construction of long leadtime items has started. A construction schedule has been established and an integration strategy is being developed. This report describes the status of BELLE with an emphasis on progress since the last LCPAC meeting in January 1995. (J.P.N.). 90 refs
Inequality in health versus inequality in lifestyle choices
Arnstein Øvrum; Kyrre Rickertsen
2015-01-01
Repeated Norwegian cross-sectional data for the period 2005 to 2011 are used to compare sources of inequality in health, as represented by self-assessed health and obesity, with sources of inequality in lifestyles that are central to the production of health, as represented by physical activity, cigarette smoking and dietary behavior. Sources of overall inequality and socioeconomic inequality in these lifestyle and health indicators are compared by estimating probit models, and by decomposing...
HEISENBERG'S INEQUALITY AND LOGARITHMIC HEISENBERG'S INEQUALITY FOR AMBIGUITY FUNCTION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Tian Guji
2000-01-01
In this article we discuss the relation between Heisenberg's inequality and logarithmic Heisenberg's (entropy) inequality for ambiguity function. After building up a Heisenberg's inequality, we obtain a connection of variance with entropy by variational method. Using classical Taylor's expansion, we prove that the equality in Heisenberg's inequality holds if and only if the entropy of 2k - 1 order is equal to (2k - 1)!.
The Relationship between Income Inequality and Inequality in Schooling
Mayer, Susan E.
2010-01-01
Children of affluent parents get more schooling than children of poor parents, which seems to imply that reducing income inequality would reduce inequality in schooling. Similarly, one of the best predictors of an individual's income is his educational attainment, which seems to imply that reducing inequality in schooling will reduce income…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Alt, James E.; Lassen, David Dreyer
High-quality data on state-level inequality and incomes, panel data on corruption convictions, and careful attention to the consequences of including or excluding fixed effects in the panel specification allow us to estimate the impact of income considerations on the decision to undertake corrupt...... acts. Following efficiency wage arguments, for a given institutional environment the corruptible employee's or official's decision to engage in corruption is affected by relative wages and expected tenure in the public sector, the probability of detection, the cost of fines and jail terms, and the...... degree of inequality, which indicate diminished prospects facing those convicted of corruption. In US states over 25 years we show that inequality and higher government relative wages significantly and robustly produce less corruption. This reverses other findings of a positive association between...
Measuring Inequality and Segregation
Roberto, Elizabeth
2015-01-01
In this paper, I introduce the Divergence Index, a conceptually intuitive and methodologically rigorous measure of inequality and segregation. The index measures the difference between a distribution of interest and another empirical, theoretical, or normative distribution. The Divergence Index provides flexibility in specifying a theoretically meaningful basis for evaluating inequality. It evaluates how surprising an empirical distribution is given a theoretical distribution that represents equality. I demonstrate the unique features of the new measure, as well as deriving its mathematical equivalence with Theil's Inequality Index and the Information Theory Index. I compare the dynamics of the measures using simulated data, and an empirical analysis of racial residential segregation in the Detroit, MI, metro area. The Information Theory Index has become the gold standard for decomposition analyses of segregation. I show that although the Information Theory Index can be decomposed for subareas, it is misleadi...
Continuous representation for spin 1/2, quantum probability theory and Bell paradox
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quantum mechanics of spin 1/2 is translated into a classical language namely into a continuous representation (''coherent state representation''). This permits us to compare the quantum probability theory with the classical one. The Bell paradox is analysed. It is shown that the quantum correlator of two spins 1/2 in the singlet state turns out to be equal 9 times a classical one, and therefore. It is illegitimate to put it in the Bell inequality. The true quantum inequality is absolutely unrestrictive. In the continuous representation, equations of motion take a classical form similar to the Liouville equation in classical mechanics. Their solutions can be expressed via characteristics, subjected to equations relative to the Hamiton ones. However quantum theory still differs from classical one in choice of probability densities and in construction of correlators, of other quantities, of an analog of the Markov property, etc. These quantities and relations can be converted into their classical form in the framework of the quantum mechanics as well, but only in terms of modified ''probability densities'', which cannot be possible definite
van de Graaf, R. C.; IJpma, F. F. A.; Nicolai, J-P A.; Werker, P. M. N.
2009-01-01
Bell's palsy is the eponym for idiopathic peripheral facial paralysis. It is named after Sir Charles Bell (1774-1842), who, in the first half of the nineteenth century, discovered the function of the facial nerve and attracted the attention of the medical world to facial paralysis. Our knowledge of
Education, Empowerment, and Gender Inequalities
Kanbur, Ravi
2002-01-01
This paper considers a seeming disconnect between the consensus in policy circles that reducing gender inequalities is to be prioritized in strategies for reducing inequality and poverty, and a view in mainstream economics (and in some policy circles) that gender inequalities are overemphasized. This latter view is not stated openly, it being politically incorrect to do so, but is nevertheless present. In specific terms, there is a sense that gender inequalities are not large relative to othe...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sonne-Schmidt, Christoffer Scavenius; Tarp, Finn; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave
2016-01-01
This paper introduces a concept of inequality comparisons with ordinal bivariate categorical data. In our model, one population is more unequal than another when they have common arithmetic median outcomes and the first can be obtained from the second by correlation-increasing switches and....../or median-preserving spreads. For the canonical 2 × 2 case (with two binary indicators), we derive a simple operational procedure for checking ordinal inequality relations in practice. As an illustration, we apply the model to childhood deprivation in Mozambique....
A loophole-free Bell test with spin quits in diamond
Dreau, Anais; Hensen, Bas; Bernien, Hannes; Reiserer, Andreas; Ruitenberg, Just; Blok, Machiel; Markham, Matthew; Twitchen, Daniel; Wehner, Stephanie; Hanson, Ronald; Element 6 Team
2015-03-01
One of the most intriguing phenomena in quantum physics is the entanglement of spatially separated objects. The benchmark to prove the fundamental non-locality of remote entanglement is provided by the famous Bell's theorem. Nevertheless, all its experimental implementations to date open the door to loopholes that restrict the practical validity of this theorem., we present our latest experimental results towards the realization of a Bell test, aimed to close the detection loophole and address the locality and free-will loopholes in a single experiment. Our qubits consist of the electronic spin associated with single NV center defects in diamond. An efficient remote entanglement protocol allows us to generate entangled qubit pairs between two labs separated by 1.3 km on the TU Delft campus. The moderate time (99%) qubit rotations and efficient (>97%) readout make our setup a good candidate to allow the experimental violation of Bell's inequalities between two space-like separated entangled spins without relying on the fair sampling assumption. FOM, NWO, ERC, Kavli Institute of Nanoscience Delft, QUTech, STW.
Trends in Global Gender Inequality
Dorius, Shawn F.; Firebaugh, Glenn
2010-01-01
This study investigates trends in gender inequality throughout the world. Using data encompassing a large majority of the world's population, we examine trends in recent decades for key indicators of gender inequality in education, mortality, political representation and economic activity. We find that gender inequality is declining in virtually…
Isoperimetric inequalities for minimal graphs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Based on Markvorsen and Palmer's work on mean time exit and isoperimetric inequalities we establish slightly better isoperimetric inequalities and mean time exit estimates for minimal graphs in N x R. We also prove isoperimetric inequalities for submanifolds of Hadamard spaces with tamed second fundamental form. (author)
Some remarks on Kato's inequality
Horiuchi Toshio
2001-01-01
Let and . Let be a domain of . In this article we shall establish Kato's inequalities for -harmonic operators . Here is defined as for , where is an admissible class. If for example, then we have . Then we shall prove that and in with . These inequalities are called Kato's inequalities provided that .
The Growth-Inequality Association:
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bjørnskov, Christian
2008-01-01
This note suggests that the association between income inequality and economic growth rates might arguably depend on the political ideology of incumbent governments. Estimates indicate that under leftwing governments, inequality is negatively associated with growth while the association is positive...... under rightwing governments. This may provide a qualification to recent studies of inequality....
Brendle's inequality on static manifolds
Wang, Xiaodong
2016-01-01
We generalize Brendle's geometric inequality considered in \\cite{B} to static manifolds. The inequality bounds the integral of inverse mean curvature of an embedded mean-convex hypersurface by geometric data of the horizon. As a consequence, we obtain a reverse Penrose inequality on static asymptotically locally hyperbolic manifolds in the spirit of Chru\\'{s}ciel and Simon \\cite{CS}.
Inequality in health versus inequality in lifestyle choices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arnstein Øvrum
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Repeated Norwegian cross-sectional data for the period 2005 to 2011 are used to compare sources of inequality in health, as represented by self-assessed health and obesity, with sources of inequality in lifestyles that are central to the production of health, as represented by physical activity, cigarette smoking and dietary behavior. Sources of overall inequality and socioeconomic inequality in these lifestyle and health indicators are compared by estimating probit models, and by decomposing the explained part of the associated Gini and concentration indices with respect to education and income. As potential sources of inequality, we consider education, income, occupation, age, gender, marital status, psychological traits and childhood circumstances. Our results suggest that sources of inequality in health are not necessarily representative of sources of inequality in underlying lifestyles. While education is generally an important source of overall inequality in both lifestyles and health, income is unimportant in all lifestyle indicators except physical activity. In several cases, education and income are clearly outranked by other factors in terms of explaining overall inequality, such as gender in eating fruits and vegetables and age in fish consumption. These results suggest that it is important to decompose both overall inequality and socioeconomic inequality in different lifestyle and health indicators. In indicators where other factors than education and income are clearly most important, policy makers should consider to target these factors to efficiently improve overall population health.
Melamed, David; North, Michael S.
2010-01-01
Recently an article in "Personality and Social Psychology Review" urged social psychologists to reacquire their "sociological imagination" and incorporate broader, structural factors in their work (Oishi, Kesebir, and Snyder 2009). Studies of social inequality in particular seem ripe for this kind of collaboration. Psychological investigations…
Analysis of income inequalities
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Federičová, Miroslava
2011-01-01
Roč. 9, 7-8 (2011), s. 13-15. ISSN 1214-1720 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA403/08/0109 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : inequalities * Europe * labour market Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography http://www.socioweb.cz/index.php?disp=teorie&shw=478&lst=117
Zha, Yuhan
2009-01-01
We give a mathematical structure on an arithmetic surface, that has algebraic meanings over finite places and can estimate the canonical norm for a relative differential form on the arithmetic surface. This will give a lower bound for the canonical norm for a relative differential form on an arithmetic surface, which proves a Height Inequality on the arithmetic surface.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sonne-Schmidt, Christoffer Scavenius; Tarp, Finn; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave
This paper introduces a concept of inequality comparisons with ordinal bivariate categorical data. In our model, one population is more unequal than another when they have common arithmetic median outcomes and the first can be obtained from the second by correlationincreasing switches and/or median...
Industrialization and inequality revisited
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Molitoris, Joseph; Dribe, Martin
2016-01-01
, relative differences between socioeconomic groups remained virtually constant. The results also show that child mortality continued to be sensitive to short-term fluctuations in wages and that there were no socioeconomic differences in this response. We argue that the persistent inequality in living...
Carmichael, Sarah; Dilli, Selin; Rijpma, Auke
2014-01-01
Historically, gender inequalities in health status, socio-economic standing and political rights have been large. This chapter documents gender differences in life expectancy and birth rates (to cover health status); in average years of schooling, labour force participation, inheritance rights and m
Cubic Diophantine Inequalities
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hong Ze LI
2001-01-01
Let λ1,λ2,…,λ7 be real numbers satisfying λi ≥ 1. In this paper, we prove there are integers x1…,x7 such that the inequalities │λ1x13+λ2x23+…λ7x37│＜1 and 0 ＜hold simultaneously.
Inequalities Representing Polyhedra
Bosse, H.; Grötschel, M.; Henk, M.
2005-01-01
Our main result is that every n-dimensional polytope can be described by at most 2n−1 polynomial inequalities and, moreover, these polynomials can explicitly be constructed. For an n-dimensional pointed polyhedral cone we prove the bound 2n−2 and for arbitrary polyhedra we get a construc
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bjørnskov, Christian; Dreher, Axel; Fischer, Justina A.V.;
2013-01-01
We argue that perceived fairness of the income generation process affects the association between income inequality and subjective well-being, and that there are systematic differences in this regard between countries that are characterized by a high or, respectively, low level of actual fairness...
Jacobs, Jerry A., Ed.
These 14 papers address many dimensions of gender inequality at work. The empirical studies include examinations of original surveys, secondary analyses of large data sets, and historical reports assaying the significance of personal, family, and structural factors with regard to gender in the workplace. An introduction (Jacobs) sketches how sex…
Belle II Silicon Vertex Detector: Mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: The Belle experiment at KEK in Tsukuba, Japan and its precision measurements have led to the justification of the Nobel Prize earned by Kobayashi and Maskawa in 2008. In June 2010, the machine was brought to a halt for a promising future, namely an upgrade to Belle II which will be completed until 2015. By this time all important components are to be exchanged for an unprecedented performance boost of the accelerator (KEKB) and the Belle Detector. With this upgrade, KEKB will become SuperKEKB and beat its own luminosity world record (2.11 x 1034 cm-1s-1) by a factor of 40. The core of the Belle II Experiment is composed of a DEPFET Pixel Detector, which is surrounded by the Silicon Vertex Detector (SVD). The SVD is located close to the beam pipe to allow high precision vertex reconstruction. The proximity to the beam pipe and the high beam currents result in a very high level of background radiation for the SVD that both, the electronics and the mechanics have to cope with. The Origami sensor design was developed to provide a fast readout system at a very good signal to noise ratio. This design comes with a great performance increase that is able to fulfill with the new Belle II requirements. Nevertheless it is important to implement a light and yet stable mechanical construction that can withstand the radiation and temperature conditions without compromising the detector capabilities. (author)
Inequalities for quantum skew information
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Audenaert, Koenraad; Cai, Liang; Hansen, Frank
2008-01-01
We study quantum information inequalities and show that the basic inequality between the quantum variance and the metric adjusted skew information generates all the multi-operator matrix inequalities or Robertson type determinant inequalities studied by a number of authors. We introduce an order...... relation on the set of functions representing quantum Fisher information that renders the set into a lattice with an involution. This order structure generates new inequalities for the metric adjusted skew informations. In particular, the Wigner-Yanase skew information is the maximal skew information with...
Discrete Hilbert-Type Inequalities
Yang, Bicheng
2011-01-01
Discrete Hilbert-type inequalities including Hilbert's inequality are important in mathematical analysis and its applications. In 1998, the author presented an extension of Hilbert's integral inequality with an independent parameter. In 2004, some new extensions of Hilbert's inequality were presented by introducing two pairs of conjugate exponents and additional independent parameters. Since then, a number of new discrete Hilbert-type inequalities have arisen. In this book, the author explains how to use the way of weight coefficients and introduce specific parameters to build new discrete Hil
Jogenfors, Jonathan; Elhassan, Ashraf Mohamed; Ahrens, Johan; Bourennane, Mohamed; Larsson, Jan-Åke
2015-01-01
Photonic systems based on energy-time entanglement have been proposed to test local realism using the Bell inequality. A violation of this inequality normally also certifies security of device-independent quantum key distribution (QKD) so that an attacker cannot eavesdrop or control the system. We show how this security test can be circumvented in energy-time entangled systems when using standard avalanche photodetectors, allowing an attacker to compromise the system without leaving a trace. We reach Bell values up to 3.63 at 97.6% faked detector efficiency using tailored pulses of classical light, which exceeds even the quantum prediction. This is the first demonstration of a violation-faking source that gives both tunable violation and high faked detector efficiency. The implications are severe: the standard Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality cannot be used to show device-independent security for energy-time entanglement setups based on Franson’s configuration. However, device-independent security can be reestablished, and we conclude by listing a number of improved tests and experimental setups that would protect against all current and future attacks of this type. PMID:26824059
Jogenfors, Jonathan; Elhassan, Ashraf Mohamed; Ahrens, Johan; Bourennane, Mohamed; Larsson, Jan-Åke
2015-12-01
Photonic systems based on energy-time entanglement have been proposed to test local realism using the Bell inequality. A violation of this inequality normally also certifies security of device-independent quantum key distribution (QKD) so that an attacker cannot eavesdrop or control the system. We show how this security test can be circumvented in energy-time entangled systems when using standard avalanche photodetectors, allowing an attacker to compromise the system without leaving a trace. We reach Bell values up to 3.63 at 97.6% faked detector efficiency using tailored pulses of classical light, which exceeds even the quantum prediction. This is the first demonstration of a violation-faking source that gives both tunable violation and high faked detector efficiency. The implications are severe: the standard Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality cannot be used to show device-independent security for energy-time entanglement setups based on Franson's configuration. However, device-independent security can be reestablished, and we conclude by listing a number of improved tests and experimental setups that would protect against all current and future attacks of this type. PMID:26824059
Belle/KEKB status and performance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The BELLE detector has been in operation at the KEKB asymmetric B-factory for about one year. At present the luminosity of the collider reached the value about 2x1033 cm-2s-1. All systems of the BELLE detector demonstrate their good performance and parameters which are close to the original design specifications. This provides a possibility to collect large data sample and to perform various analyses of B-mesons decays as well as to study other kind of processes
Clinical Practice Guideline of Acupuncture for Bell's Palsy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xi Wu
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Backgroud: Acupuncture is common used for Bell's palsy in clinic, however, recent systematic reviews all shows that there is no sufficient evidence to support the effectiveness of acupuncture for Bell's palsy because ofthe poor quality and heterogeneity. It's urgently necessary to develop a guideline of acupuncture for Bell's palsy based on principles of evidence-based medicine to optimize acupuncture treating, standardize outcomes evaluating and to improve the quality of acupuncture for patients with Bell's palsy under general circumstances.
The Real "Toll" of A. G. Bell: Lessons about Eugenics
Greenwald, Brian H.
2009-01-01
Historian Brian Greenwald offers a revisionist interpretation of Bell. He reviews Bell's role and influence within the American eugenics movement and shows that Bell had the respect of the most prominent American eugenicists. His intimate knowledge of deafness, from personal experience with his mother and wife and from his studies of deaf people…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Holck, Lotte
2016-01-01
’s distinction between structure and agency informs the analysis of how minority agency not only reproduces but also challenges organizational opportunity structures. Findings: – The analysis demonstrates how substructures of inequality stabilize in spatial routines enacted in an ethnic zoning of the workplace....... Research limitations/implications: – The reliance on a single case study restricts the generalizability of the findings but highlights fruitful areas for future research. Practical implications: – The study sensitizes HRM practitioners to the situated quality of workplace diversity and to develop a broader......Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to apply a spatial approach to organizational inequality to explore why unequal opportunity structures persist in an organization despite its commitment to diversity and employing highly skilled ethnic minority employees. Design/methodology/approach: – The...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Blank, N; Diderichsen, Finn
1996-01-01
the study is to analyse the interaction between socio-economic and personal circumstances in explaining inequalities in health. It is based on a theoretical framework which presupposes that inequalities in health are likely to be explained by a complicated process involving a multitude of factors. At...... the same time, differential exposures and differential responses to risk factors between socio-economic classes for certain health outcomes are determined. The joint effect on general health status, seven years later, of being a manual worker and having reported psychosomatic symptoms is 113% greater...... than would have been expected on the assumption of additivity of the singular effects of these variables. It is suggested that it is necessary to highlight in further research the complex interactions and pathways between factors associated with health outcomes to improve our understanding of the...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gondan, Matthias; Heckel, A.
2008-01-01
responses for the single stimuli. It has been pointed out that fast guesses (e.g. anticipatory responses) interfere with this test, and a correction procedure ('kill-the-twin' procedure) has been suggested. In this note we formally derive this procedure and extend it to the case in which redundant stimuli......In speeded response tasks with redundant signals, parallel processing of the redundant signals is generally tested using the so-called race inequality. The race inequality states that the distribution of fast responses for a redundant stimulus never exceeds the summed distributions of fast...... are presented with onset asynchrony. We demonstrate how the kill-the-twin procedure is used in a statistical test of the race model prediction....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frederiksen, Anders; Poulsen, Odile
In recent decades most developed countries have experienced an increase in income inequality. In this paper, we use an equilibrium search framework to shed additional light on what is causing an income distribution to change. The major benefit of the model is that it can accommodate shocks to the...... shocks to the employees' relative productivity, i.e., skill-biased technological change, are unlikely to have caused the increase in income inequality....... skill composition in the market, employee bargaining power and productivity. Further, when our model is subjected to skill-upgrading and changes in employee bargaining power, it is capable of predicting the recent changes observed in the Danish income distribution. In addition, the model emphasizes that...
Bonfiglioli, Alessandra
2005-01-01
This paper studies the relationship between investor protection, the development of financial markets and income inequality. In the presence of market frictions, investor protection promotes financial development by raising confidence and reducing the costs of external financing. Developed financial systems spread risks among financiers and firms, allocating them to the agents bearing them the best. Therefore, financial development plays the twofold role of encouraging agents to undertake ris...
Sunstein, Cass Robert; Ullmann-Margalit, Edna
2002-01-01
Inequalities often persist because both the advantaged and the disadvantaged stand to lose from change. Despite the probability of loss, moral indignation can lead the disadvantaged to seek to alter the status quo, by encouraging them to sacrifice their material self-interest for the sake of equality. Experimental research shows that moral indignation, understood as a willingness to suffer in order to punish unfair treatment by others, is widespread. It also indicates that a propensity to app...
Nardi, Bonnie
2015-01-01
Many indicators demonstrate growing economic inequality. Figure 1 depicts increasing economic disparity between social classes. Despite increased productivity, waged workers are losing ground because owners of capital are accumulating the wealth generated by increased productivity (Figure 2). Since wealth accumulation is the goal of capitalism, this is not surprising. Many forms of digitally mediated labor are not even waged any more, though they generate economic value. Digitally mediated la...
Chartbook of economic inequality
Atkinson, Anthony B; Salvatore Morelli
2014-01-01
The purpose of this Chartbook is to present a summary of evidence about long-run changes in economic inequality – primarily income, earnings, and wealth – for 25 countries covering more than one hundred years. There is a range of countries and they account for more than a third of the world’s population: Argentina, Brazil, Australia, Canada, Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Malaysia, Mauritius, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Singapore, South Afri...
Infinitely many information inequalities
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Matúš, František
Nice : IEEE, 2007, s. 41-44. ISBN 978-1-4244-1397-3. [IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory 2007. Nice (FR), 24.06.2007-29.06.2007] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100750603; GA ČR GA201/04/0393 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : information inequality * entropy function * matroid * polymatroid * cones Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics
Prát, Šárka
2013-01-01
This thesis project has the aim of analysing the development of inequality in Mexico, income redistribution, and future possibilities of investment into the educational system. Human capital is one of the determinants of economic growth. Although human capital includes health, education, and social capital, the major focus of this diploma thesis is on education. Education becomes a suitability criterion for employment in all sectors of industry. Everyone is rewarded for exercising the knowled...
Loop inequalities and confinement
Tomboulis, E. T.
2002-01-01
We consider correlation inequalities that follow from the well-known loop equations of LGT, and their analogues in spin systems. They provide a way of bounding long range by short or intermediate range correlations. In several cases the method easily reproduces results that otherwise require considerable effort to obtain. In particular, in the case of the 2-dimensional O(N) spin model, where large N analytical results are available, the absence of a phase transition and the exponential decay ...
Liu, Cheng-cheng; Shi, Jia-dong; Ding, Zhi-yong; Ye, Liu
2016-08-01
In this paper, the effect of external magnet field g on the relationship among the quantum discord, Bell non-locality and quantum phase transition by employing quantum renormalization-group (QRG) method in the one-dimensional transverse Ising model is investigated. In our model, external magnet field g can influence the phase diagrams. The results have shown that both the two quantum correlation measures can develop two saturated values, which are associated with two distinct phases: long-ranged ordered Ising phase and the paramagnetic phase with the number of QRG iterations increasing. Additionally, quantum non-locality always existent in the long-ranged ordered Ising phase no matter whatever the value of g is and what times QRG steps are carried out and we conclude that the quantum non-locality always exists not only suitable for the two sites of block, but for nearest-neighbor blocks in the long-ranged ordered Ising phase. However, the block-block correlation in the paramagnetic phase is not strong enough to violate the Bell-CHSH inequality as the size of system becomes large. Furthermore, when the system violates the CHSH inequality, i.e., satisfies quantum non-locality, it needs to be entangled. On the other way, if the system obeys the CHSH inequality, it may be entangled or not. To gain further insight, the non-analytic and scaling behavior of QD and Bell non-locality have also been analyzed in detail and this phenomenon indicates that the behavior of the correlation can perfectly help one to observe the quantum critical properties of the model.
Some Nonlinear Dynamic Inequalities on Time Scales
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Wei Nian Li; Weihong Sheng
2007-11-01
The aim of this paper is to investigate some nonlinear dynamic inequalities on time scales, which provide explicit bounds on unknown functions. The inequalities given here unify and extend some inequalities in (B G Pachpatte, On some new inequalities related to a certain inequality arising in the theory of differential equation, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 251 (2000) 736--751).
Institutional Pathways to Equity : Addressing Inequality Traps
Bebbington, Anthony J; Anis A. Dani; de Haan, Arjan; Walton, Michael
2008-01-01
Inequalities and development: dysfunctions, traps, and transitions by Anthony J. Bebbington, Anis A. Dani, Arjan de Haan, and Michael Walton. Asset inequality and agricultural growth: how are patterns of asset inequality established and reproduced? By Rachel Sabates. Beneath the categories: power relations and inequalities in Uganda by Joy M. Moncrieffe. Inequalities within India's poorest...
Rath, Barbara; Linder, Thomas; Cornblath, David; Hudson, Michael; Fernandopulle, Rohini; Hartmann, Katharina; Heininger, Ulrich; Izurieta, Hector; Killion, Leslie; Kokotis, Pangiotis; Oleske, James; Vajdy, Michael; Wong, Virginia
2007-01-01
Bell's palsy has been reported as an adverse event following immunization (AEFI). Review of the published literature reveals that several characteristics have been used to describe Bell's palsy, which differ significantly from author to author. Evidently, the definition of "Bell's palsy" remains con
2013-01-22
... COMMISSION PPL Bell Bend, LLC; Combined License Application for Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0... Approvals for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This reactor is to be identified as Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant... (RCOL) application for UniStar's Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 3 (CCNPP3). The NRC...
2011-12-29
... COMMISSION PPL Bell Bend, LLC; Combined License Application for Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0..., Certifications, and Approvals for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This reactor is to be identified as Bell Bend Nuclear... application is based upon the U.S. EPR reference COL (RCOL) application for UniStar's Calvert Cliffs...
Generalized Bell States and Quantum Teleportation
Fujii, Kazuyuki
2001-01-01
We make a brief comment on measurement of quantum operators with degenerate eigenstates and apply to quantum teleportation. We also try extending the quantum teleportation by Bennett et al [5] to more general situation by making use of generalized Bell states.
Peripheral nerve involvement in Bell's palsy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. A. Bueri
1984-12-01
Full Text Available A group of patients with Bell's palsy were studied in order to disclose the presence of subclinical peripheral nerve involvement. 20 patients, 8 male and 12 female, with recent Bell's palsy as their unique disease were examined, in all cases other causes of polyneuropathy were ruled out. Patients were investigated with CSF examination, facial nerve latencies in the affected and in the sound sides, and maximal motor nerve conduction velocities, as well as motor terminal latencies from the right median and peroneal nerves. CSF laboratory examination was normal in all cases. Facial nerve latencies were abnormal in all patients in the affected side, and they differed significantly from those of control group in the clinically sound side. Half of the patients showed abnormal values in the maximal motor nerve conduction velocities and motor terminal latencies of the right median and peroneal nerves. These results agree with previous reports which have pointed out that other cranial nerves may be affected in Bell's palsy. However, we have found a higher frequency of peripheral nerve involvement in this entity. These findings, support the hypothesis that in some patients Bell's palsy is the component of a more widespread disease, affecting other cranial and peripheral nerves.
Faulkner's Southern belle - myth or reality?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nataša Intihar Klančar
2011-12-01
Full Text Available The article deals with heroines of William Faulkner's novels Light in August, Absalom, Absalom!, The Sound and the Fury, The Unvanquished, The Town and his short story "A Rose for Emily". The Southern belle features as a recurring character in Faulkner's fiction, her fragility, modesty, weakness yet strength, beauty, sincerity, generous nature, status and her fall from innocence comprise her central characteristics. Confronted with various expectations of Southern society and with the hardships of war, the belle is faced with many obstacles and challenges. Faulkner's heroines face a wide array of problems that prevent them from being and/or remaining a Southern belle. Let us name a few: Lena's inappropriate social status, Joanna's wrong roots, Mrs. Hightower's inability to fulfill her duties as the minister's wife, Ellen's miserable marriage, Judith's sad love life, Rosa's feelings of inferiority and humiliation, Mrs. Compson's failure as a mother, Caddy's weak rebellion against male convention, Drusilla's male characteristics, Linda's unrequited love and Emily's dark secret, to name a few. Through these characters and their destinies Faulkner shows a decaying South whose position has changed considerably over the years. Can the Southern belle save it? Can she save herself?
Communication cost of simulating Bell correlations.
Toner, B F; Bacon, D
2003-10-31
What classical resources are required to simulate quantum correlations? For the simplest and most important case of local projective measurements on an entangled Bell pair state, we show that exact simulation is possible using local hidden variables augmented by just one bit of classical communication. Certain quantum teleportation experiments, which teleport a single qubit, therefore admit a local hidden variables model. PMID:14611317
Mouthpiece and Bell Effects on Trombone Resonance
LoPresto, Michael C.
2014-01-01
The effects of the mouthpiece and bell on the frequencies of the vibrating air column in a trombone can be demonstrated quite readily by first calculating the expected resonant frequencies of a piece of PVC pipe that is the same length as a trombone, then replacing portions of the PVC pipe of the same length with first a cup-shaped mouthpiece and…
Baby Bell Libraries?--An Update.
Kessler, Jack
1993-01-01
Discusses the emerging three-tiered structure (i.e., the "Baby Bells," network nodes, and information marketers) that will assume responsibility for implementing a new national information network and getting networked information to the public. The role of libraries related to networked information is also considered. (EA)
MIDAS™ DEMONSTRATION PLOTS IN BELL PEPPER
A demonstration trial comparing MIDAS™ (methyl iodide:chloropicrin 50:50) to methyl bromide:chloropicrin (67:33) was conducted in Saint Lucie County, FL on a commercial bell pepper production farm. Methyl bromide:chloropicrin was shank injected into performed beds at 392 kg/ha using three 25 cm dee...
Campbell, Patricia Shehan
1995-01-01
Presents an interview with Bell Yung, a scholar of Chinese music and ethnomusicology. Maintains that world music (music from many nations and cultures) should be taught as early as possible in the schools and at home. Includes two lesson plans for teaching about Chinese music. (CFR)
Engineering professor Amy Bell honored by IEEE
Crumbley, Liz
2006-01-01
Amy Bell, an associate professor in the Virginia Tech College of Engineering's Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, has received a 2006 Outstanding Student Branch Advisor Award from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. (IEEE), the world's largest professional organization for electrical and computer engineers.
Delayed facial nerve decompression for Bell's palsy.
Kim, Sang Hoon; Jung, Junyang; Lee, Jong Ha; Byun, Jae Yong; Park, Moon Suh; Yeo, Seung Geun
2016-07-01
Incomplete recovery of facial motor function continues to be long-term sequelae in some patients with Bell's palsy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of transmastoid facial nerve decompression after steroid and antiviral treatment in patients with late stage Bell's palsy. Twelve patients underwent surgical decompression for Bell's palsy 21-70 days after onset, whereas 22 patients were followed up after steroid and antiviral therapy without decompression. Surgical criteria included greater than 90 % degeneration on electroneuronography and no voluntary electromyography potentials. This study was a retrospective study of electrodiagnostic data and medical chart review between 2006 and 2013. Recovery from facial palsy was assessed using the House-Brackmann grading system. Final recovery rate did not differ significantly in the two groups; however, all patients in the decompression group recovered to at least House-Brackmann grade III at final follow-up. Although postoperative hearing threshold was increased in both groups, there was no significant between group difference in hearing threshold. Transmastoid decompression of the facial nerve in patients with severe late stage Bell's palsy at risk for a poor facial nerve outcome reduced severe complications of facial palsy with minimal morbidity. PMID:26319412
Astronaut Virgil Grissom Entering Liberty Bell 7
1961-01-01
Assisted by Astronaut John Glenn, Astronaut Virgil Grissom enters the Mercury capsule, Liberty Bell 7, for the MR-4 mission on July 21, 1961. Boosted by the Mercury-Redstone vehicle, the MR-4 mission was the second manned suborbital flight.
Conference on Inequalities and Applications
Losonczi, László; Gilányi, Attila; Páles, Zsolt; Plum, Michael
2009-01-01
Inequalities continue to play an essential role in mathematics. Perhaps, they form the last field comprehended and used by mathematicians in all areas of the discipline. Since the seminal work Inequalities (1934) by Hardy, Littlewood and Pólya, mathematicians have laboured to extend and sharpen their classical inequalities. New inequalities are discovered every year, some for their intrinsic interest whilst others flow from results obtained in various branches of mathematics. The study of inequalities reflects the many and various aspects of mathematics. On one hand, there is the systematic search for the basic principles and the study of inequalities for their own sake. On the other hand, the subject is the source of ingenious ideas and methods that give rise to seemingly elementary but nevertheless serious and challenging problems. There are numerous applications in a wide variety of fields, from mathematical physics to biology and economics. This volume contains the contributions of the participants of th...
Educational Policies and Income Inequality
Checchi, Daniele; Werfhorst, Herman G. van de
2014-01-01
In this paper we study the associations between educational policies, distributions of educational attainments and income distributions. By matching inequality measures on test scores, years of education and labour earnings by country, birth cohorts and gender, we show that inequality in education (measured both at quality and quantity levels) affect earnings inequality. We then consider potential endogeneity of educational distributions and we resort to instrumental estimation using informat...
Geometric inequalities for black holes
Dain, Sergio
2014-01-01
It is well known that the three parameters that characterize the Kerr black hole (mass, angular momentum and horizon area) satisfy several important inequalities. Remarkably, some of these inequalities remain valid also for dynamical black holes. This kind of inequalities play an important role in the characterization of the gravitational collapse. They are closed related with the cosmic censorship conjecture. In this article recent results in this subject are reviewed.
Non-commutative Nash inequalities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kastoryano, Michael [NBIA, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Temme, Kristan [Institute for Quantum Information and Matter, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena California 91125 (United States)
2016-01-15
A set of functional inequalities—called Nash inequalities—are introduced and analyzed in the context of quantum Markov process mixing. The basic theory of Nash inequalities is extended to the setting of non-commutative L{sub p} spaces, where their relationship to Poincaré and log-Sobolev inequalities is fleshed out. We prove Nash inequalities for a number of unital reversible semigroups.
Inequality and Labor Market Institutions
Florence Jaumotte; Carolina Osorio
2015-01-01
The SDN examines the role of labor market institutions in the rise of income inequality in advanced economies, alongside other determinants. The evidence strongly indicates that de-unionization is associated with rising top earnersâ€™ income shares and less redistribution, while eroding minimum wages are related to increases in overall income inequality. The results, however, also suggest that a lack of representativeness of unions may be associated with higher inequality. These findings do n...
The multidimensional reverse Hardy inequalities
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Gogatishvili, Amiran; Mustafayev, Rza
2012-01-01
Roč. 15, č. 1 (2012), s. 1-14. ISSN 1331-4343 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/08/0383 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : multidimensional Hardy operator * Hardy inequality * reverse Hardy inequality Subject RIV: BA - General Math ematics Impact factor: 0.588, year: 2012 http://mia.ele- math .com/15-01/The-multidimensional-reverse-Hardy-inequalities
The Geography of Gender Inequality
Brendan Fisher; Robin Naidoo
2016-01-01
Reducing gender inequality is a major policy concern worldwide, and one of the Sustainable Development Goals. However, our understanding of the magnitude and spatial distribution of gender inequality results either from limited-scale case studies or from national-level statistics. Here, we produce the first high resolution map of gender inequality by analyzing over 689,000 households in 47 countries. Across these countries, we find that male-headed households have, on average, 13% more asset ...
CAN WE MEASURE GENDER INEQUALITIES?
LUCIA SZABOVÁ
2011-01-01
The aim of this paper is to examine the effort to standardize measurement ofgender inequality by way of creating an innovative new gender inequality index (GII).Most of the questions and explanations in this paper evaluate the ability of GIIindicator to capture the true picture of gender inequality. In order to provide acomprehensive view of gender-related issues faced by each country the paperunderlines the need of including other dimensions such as wage differences,occupational segregation,...
Rising Wage Inequality in Germany
Gernandt, Johannes; Pfeiffer, Friedhelm
2006-01-01
This paper investigates the evolution of wages and the recent tendency to rising wage inequality in Germany, based on the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) for 1984 to 2004. Between 1984 and 1994 the wage distribution was fairly stable. Wage inequality started to increase around 1994 in Germany for all workers and for prime age dependent male workers as well. Rising inequality is not the result of the recent rise in self-employment. In West Germany rising inequality occurred in the lower pa...
Geometric inequalities for black holes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dain, Sergio [Universidad Nacional de Cordoba (Argentina)
2013-07-01
Full text: A geometric inequality in General Relativity relates quantities that have both a physical interpretation and a geometrical definition. It is well known that the parameters that characterize the Kerr-Newman black hole satisfy several important geometric inequalities. Remarkably enough, some of these inequalities also hold for dynamical black holes. This kind of inequalities, which are valid in the dynamical and strong field regime, play an important role in the characterization of the gravitational collapse. They are closed related with the cosmic censorship conjecture. In this talk I will review recent results in this subject. (author)
HEISENBERG'S INEQUALITY IN SOBOLEV SPACES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2000-01-01
Using the correspondence between psedodifferential operator and its symbol,the authors obtain Heisenberg's inequality in Sobolev spaces and therefore a kind of quantitative representation of uncertainty principle.
Inequality and environmental policy
Somanathan, E.
2002-01-01
A positive theory of mitigation of environmental degradation is discussed in order to understand the formation of environmental policy. When an environmental problem is not mitigated, this is because those affected don't know it is happening, cannot locate the cause, don't have the resources to abate the problem if they are its producers, or don't have the political power to influence policy to stop the problem if they are not its producers. The last is related to inequalities in political po...
Intelligent comparisons analytic inequalities
Anastassiou, George A
2016-01-01
This monograph presents recent and original work of the author on inequalities in real, functional and fractional analysis. The chapters are self-contained and can be read independently, they include an extensive list of references per chapter. The book’s results are expected to find applications in many areas of applied and pure mathematics, especially in ordinary and partial differential equations and fractional differential equations. As such this monograph is suitable for researchers, graduate students, and seminars of the above subjects, as well as Science and Engineering University libraries. .
The Geography of Gender Inequality
Fisher, Brendan; Naidoo, Robin
2016-01-01
Reducing gender inequality is a major policy concern worldwide, and one of the Sustainable Development Goals. However, our understanding of the magnitude and spatial distribution of gender inequality results either from limited-scale case studies or from national-level statistics. Here, we produce the first high resolution map of gender inequality by analyzing over 689,000 households in 47 countries. Across these countries, we find that male-headed households have, on average, 13% more asset wealth and 303% more land for agriculture than do female-headed households. However, this aggregate global result masks a high degree of spatial heterogeneity, with bands of both high inequality and high equality apparent in countries and regions of the world. Further, areas where inequality is highest when measured by land ownership generally are not the same areas that have high inequality as measured by asset wealth. Our metrics of gender inequality in land and wealth are not strongly correlated with existing metrics of poverty, development, and income inequality, and therefore provide new information to increase the understanding of one critical dimension of poverty across the globe. PMID:26930356
The Geography of Gender Inequality.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Brendan Fisher
Full Text Available Reducing gender inequality is a major policy concern worldwide, and one of the Sustainable Development Goals. However, our understanding of the magnitude and spatial distribution of gender inequality results either from limited-scale case studies or from national-level statistics. Here, we produce the first high resolution map of gender inequality by analyzing over 689,000 households in 47 countries. Across these countries, we find that male-headed households have, on average, 13% more asset wealth and 303% more land for agriculture than do female-headed households. However, this aggregate global result masks a high degree of spatial heterogeneity, with bands of both high inequality and high equality apparent in countries and regions of the world. Further, areas where inequality is highest when measured by land ownership generally are not the same areas that have high inequality as measured by asset wealth. Our metrics of gender inequality in land and wealth are not strongly correlated with existing metrics of poverty, development, and income inequality, and therefore provide new information to increase the understanding of one critical dimension of poverty across the globe.
The Geography of Gender Inequality.
Fisher, Brendan; Naidoo, Robin
2016-01-01
Reducing gender inequality is a major policy concern worldwide, and one of the Sustainable Development Goals. However, our understanding of the magnitude and spatial distribution of gender inequality results either from limited-scale case studies or from national-level statistics. Here, we produce the first high resolution map of gender inequality by analyzing over 689,000 households in 47 countries. Across these countries, we find that male-headed households have, on average, 13% more asset wealth and 303% more land for agriculture than do female-headed households. However, this aggregate global result masks a high degree of spatial heterogeneity, with bands of both high inequality and high equality apparent in countries and regions of the world. Further, areas where inequality is highest when measured by land ownership generally are not the same areas that have high inequality as measured by asset wealth. Our metrics of gender inequality in land and wealth are not strongly correlated with existing metrics of poverty, development, and income inequality, and therefore provide new information to increase the understanding of one critical dimension of poverty across the globe. PMID:26930356
Conclusions: inequality, impacts, and policies
W. Salverda; B. Nolan; D. Checchi; I. Marx; A. McKnight; I.G. Tóth; H. van de Werfhorst
2014-01-01
Keeping economic inequality in check is an uphill battle, though countries differ. General drivers seem mediated, moderated, accelerated or perhaps even replaced by demographic, institutions or policy-making changes. Growing inequality is not found robustly linked to worsening social outcomes (healt
Adams inequalities on measure spaces
Fontana, Luigi
2009-01-01
In 1988 Adams obtained sharp Moser-Trudinger inequalities on bounded domains of R^n. The main step was a sharp exponential integral inequality for convolutions with the Riesz potential. In this paper we extend and improve Adams' results to functions defined on arbitrary measure spaces with finite measure. The Riesz fractional integral is replaced by general integral operators, whose kernels satisfy suitable and explicit growth conditions, given in terms of their distribution functions; natural conditions for sharpness are also given. Most of the known results about Moser-Trudinger inequalities can be easily adapted to our unified scheme. We give some new applications of our theorems, including: sharp higher order Moser-Trudinger trace inequalities, sharp Adams/Moser-Trudinger inequalities for general elliptic differential operators (scalar and vector-valued), for sums of weighted potentials, and for operators in the CR setting.
Health inequality - determinants and policies
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Diderichsen, Finn; Andersen, Ingelise; Manual, Celie; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Bach, Elsa; Baadsgaard, Mikkel; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Hansen, Finn Kenneth; Jeune, Bernard; Jørgensen, Torben; Søgaard, Jes
The review ”Health inequality – determinants and policies” identifies key-areas to be addressed with the aim to reduce the social inequality in health. The general life expectancy has steadily been increasing, but the data reveals marked social inequalities in health as well as life expectancy. The...... review seeks to identify the causes of this social inequality. The analysis finds 12 areas of great importance for the inequality in health. This is i.e. early child development, schooling and education, the health behavior of the population, and the role of the health system. Within each of the 12 areas......, key interventions are suggested to counteract the negative impact of the different determinants....
Florida, Richard; Mellander, Charlotta
2016-01-01
This paper examines the geographic variation in wage inequality and income inequality across US metros. The findings indicate that the two are quite different. Wage inequality is closely associated with skills, human capital, technology and metro size, in line with the literature, but these factors are only weakly associated with income inequality. Furthermore, wage inequality explains only 15% of income inequality across metros. Income inequality is more closely associated with unionization,...
Socioeconomic inequality and mortality
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ullits, Line R.; Ejlskov, Linda; Mortensen, Rikke N.; Hansen, Steen Møller; Kræmer, Stella R. J.; Vardinghus-Nielsen, Henrik; Fonager, Kirsten; Bøggild, Henrik; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Overgaard, Charlotte
BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic inequalities in mortality pose a serious impediment to enhance public health even in highly developed welfare states. This study aimed to improve the understanding of socioeconomic disparities in all-cause mortality by using a comprehensive approach including a range of......-up period, 395 died (4.5%). With adjustment for age and gender, the risk of all-cause mortality was significantly higher in the two least-educated levels (HR = 1.5, 95%, CI = 1.2-1.8 and HR = 3.7, 95%CI = 2.4-5.9, respectively) compared to the middle educational level. After adjustment for the effect of...... subjective and objective health, similar results were obtained (HR = 1.4, 95%CI = 1.1-1.7 and HR = 3.5, 95%CI = 2.0-6.3, respectively). Further adjustment for the effect of behavioural, psychological, material and social determinants also failed to eliminate inequalities found among groups, the risk...
Relational interpretation of the wave function and a possible way around Bell's theorem
Filk, T
2006-01-01
The famous ``spooky action at a distance'' in the EPR-szenario is shown to be a local interaction, once entanglement is interpreted as a kind of ``nearest neighbor'' relation among quantum systems. Furthermore, the wave function itself is interpreted as encoding the ``nearest neighbor'' relations between a quantum system and spatial points. This interpretation becomes natural, if we view space and distance in terms of relations among spatial points. Therefore, ``position'' becomes a purely relational concept. This relational picture leads to a new perspective onto the quantum mechanical formalism, where many of the ``weird'' aspects, like the particle-wave duality, the non-locality of entanglement, or the ``mystery'' of the double-slit experiment, disappear. Furthermore, this picture cirumvents the restrictions set by Bell's inequalities, i.e., a possible (realistic) hidden variable theory based on these concepts can be local and at the same time reproduce the results of quantum mechanics.
Global track finder for Belle II experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present an implementation of a method based on the Legendre transformation for reconstruction charged particle tracks in the central drift chamber of the Belle II experiment. The method is designed for fast track finding and restoring circular patterns of track hits in transverse plane. It is done by searching for common tangents to drift circles of hits in the conformal space. With known transverse trajectories longitudinal momentum estimation performed by assigning stereo hits followed by determination of the track parameters. The method includes algorithms responsible for track quality estimation and reduction of rate of fakes. The work is targeting at increasing the efficiency and reducing the execution time because the computing power available to the experiment is limited. The algorithm is developed within the Belle II software environment with using Monte-Carlo simulation for probing its efficiency.
CP symmetry and the BELLE experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: The violation of CP symmetry was first observed in the K0 meson system more than 30 years ago. A new generation of experiments now seeks to observe this symmetry violation in the system of neutral B mesons and various experiments are scheduled to take data in the near future. BELLE is one such experiment being constructed at KEK in Japan. It will be fully commissioned early 1999 and the Australian Experimental High Energy Physics Consortium is actively participating in this exciting venture. This review will cover the significance of CP violation to particle physics and describe the special features of the BELLE experiment, highlighting the special contributions that are being made by the Australian group
Computing System for the Belle Experiment
Adachi, I; Katayama, N; Tsukamoto, T; Hibino, T; Yokoyama, M; Hinz, L; Ronga, F
2003-01-01
We describe the offline computing system of the Belle experiment, consisting of a computing farm with one thousand IA-32 CPUs. Up to now, the Belle experiment has accumulated more than 120 fb$^{-1}$ of data, which is the world largest $Bbar{B}$ sample at the $Upsilon(4S)$ energy. The data have to be processed with a single version of reconstruction software and calibration constants to perform precise measurements of $B$ meson decays. In addition, Monte Carlo samples three times larger than the real beam data are generated. To fullfill our computing needs, we have constructed the computing system with 90(300) quad(dual) CPU PC servers from multiple vendors as a central processing system. The details of this computing system and performance of data processing with the current model are presented.
A Modest View of Bell's Theorem
Boughn, Stephen
2016-01-01
In the 80 years since the seminal Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen (EPR) paper, physicists and philosophers have mused about the `spooky action at a distance' aspect of quantum mechanics that so bothered Einstein. In his formal analysis of EPR-type entangled quantum states, Bell (1964) concluded that any hidden variable theory designed to reproduce the predictions of quantum mechanics must necessarily be nonlocal and allow superluminal interactions. This doesn't immediately imply that nonlocality is a characteristic feature of quantum mechanics let alone a fundamental property of nature; however, many physicists and philosophers of science do harbor this belief. Experts in the field often use the term `nonlocality' to designate particular non-classical aspects of quantum entanglement and do not confuse the term with superluminal interactions. However, many physicists seem to take the term more literally. I endeavor to disabuse the latter of this notion by emphasizing that the correlations of Bell-type entangleme...
A quantum loophole to Bell nonlocality
Romero-Rochin, Victor
2015-01-01
We argue that the conclusion of Bell theorem, namely, that there must be spatial non-local correlations in certain experimental situations, does not apply to typical individual measurements performed on entangled EPR pairs. Our claim is based on three points, (i) on the notion of quantum {\\it complete measurements}; (ii) on Bell results on local yet distant measurements; and (iii) on the fact that perfect simultaneity is banned by the quantum mechanics. We show that quantum mechanics indicates that, while the measurements of the pair members are indeed space-like separated, the pair measurement is actually a sequence of two complete measurements, the first one terminating the entanglement and, therefore, the second one becoming unrelated to the initial preparation of the entangled pair. The outstanding feature of these measurements is that neither of them violates the principle of locality. We discuss that the present measurement viewpoint appears to run contrary to the usual interpretation of "superposition"...
The Belle II VXD production database
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The construction and commissioning of the Belle II Vertex Detector (VXD) is a huge endeavor involving a large number of valuable components. Both subsystems PXD (Pixel Detector) and SVD (Silicon Vertex Detector) deploy a large number of sensors, readout electronic parts and mechanical elements. These items are scattered around the world at many institutes, where they are built, measured and assembled. One has to keep track of measurement configurations and results, know at any time the location of the sensors, their processing state, quality, where they end up in an assembly, and who is responsible. These requirements call for a flexible and extensive database which is able to reflect the processes in the laboratories and the logistics between the institutes. This talk introduces the database requirements of a physics experiment using the PXD construction workflow as a showcase, and presents an overview of the database ''HephyDb'', which is used by the groups constructing the Belle II VXD.
Double dumb-bell calculus in childhood
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joshi Prashant
2009-01-01
Full Text Available An eight-year old male was admitted with complaints of right scrotal swelling, dysuria and intermittent retention of urine for 10 days. On per-rectal examination, a hard mass was palpable in the posterior urethra. An X-ray (KUB of the abdomen revealed a double dumb-bell calculus at the base of bladder, extending into the posterior urethra. A cystolithotomy via the suprapubic approach was successfully curative.
EPR and Bell's theorem: A critical review
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The argument of Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen is reviewed with attention to logical structure and character of assumptions. Bohr's reply is discussed. Bell's contribution is formulated without use of hidden variables, and efforts to equate hidden variables to realism are critically examined. An alternative derivation of nonlocality that makes no use of hidden variables, microrealism, counterfactual definiteness, or any other assumption alien to orthodox quantum thinking is described in detail, with particular attention to the quartet or broken-square question
Bell Experiments with Random Destination Sources
Sciarrino, F.; Vallone, G.; Cabello, A.; Mataloni, P.
2010-01-01
It is generally assumed that sources sending randomly two particles to one or two different observers, named here random destination sources (RDS), cannot by used for genuine quantum nonlocality tests because of the postselection loophole. We demonstrate that Bell experiments not affected by the postselection loophole may be performed with: (i) RDS and local postselection using perfect detectors, (ii) RDS, local postselection, and fair sampling assumption with any detection efficiency, and (i...
Perfect bell nozzle parametric and optimization curves
Tuttle, J. L.; Blount, D. H.
1983-01-01
Nozzle contour data for untruncated Bell nozzles with expansion area ratios to 6100 and a specific heat ratio of 1.2 are provided. Curves for optimization of nozzles for maximum thrust coefficient within a given length, surface area, or area ratio are included. The nozzles are two dimensional axisymmetric and calculations were performed using the method of characteristics. Drag due to wall friction was included in the final thrust coefficient.
The Belle II DEPFET pixel detector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Japanese flavour factory (KEKB) accumulated a total integrated luminosity of 1000 fb-1 over more than a decade of operation. Despite this great success, an upgrade of the existing machine is under construction, and is foreseen for commissioning by the end of 2015. This new electron-positron machine (SuperKEKB) will deliver an instantaneous luminosity 40 times higher than the world record set by KEKB. To fully exploit the huge number of events and measure precisely the decay vertex of the B mesons in a large background environment, the SuperKEKB partner, the Belle detector, will be also upgraded. In the Belle II project, a highly granular silicon vertex detector (PXD) based on the DEPFET pixel technology, will be the innermost subsystem, operated very close to the interaction point. The new pixel detector has to have an excellent single point resolution (10 μm) and a fast readout (20 μs), while keeping the material budget under very low levels (0.2% X0). This talk summarizes the Belle II pixel detector concept, from the DEPFET sensor to the laboratory tests results, all the way up the electronics chain, the DAQ system and the cooling concept.
Ikuta, Takuya; Takesue, Hiroki
2016-02-01
High-dimensional quantum entanglement is drawing attention because it enables us to perform quantum information tasks that are robust against noises. To test the nonlocality of entangled qudits, the Collins-Gisin-Linden-Massar-Popescu (CGLMP) inequality has been proposed and demonstrated using qudits based on orbital angular momentum, time-energy uncertainty, and frequency bins. Here, we report the generation and observation of time-bin entangled ququarts. We implemented a measurement for the CGLMP inequality test using cascaded delay Mach-Zehnder interferometers fabricated by using planar light-wave circuit technology, with which we achieved a precise and stable measurement for time-bin-entangled ququarts. In addition, we generated an optimized entangled state by modulating the pump pulse intensities, with which we can observe the theoretical maximum violation for the CGLMP inequality test. As a result, we successfully observed a Bell-type parameter S4=2.774 ±0.025 violating the CGLMP inequality for the maximally entangled state and an enhanced Bell-type parameter S4=2.913 ±0.023 for the optimized entangled state.
Bell's palsy: A Case Report and Literature Review
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tashika Kushraj
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Bell's palsy is considered as a disease of exclusion. It is a form of lower motor neuron paralysis affecting the facial muscles. Rapid onset of paralysis causes panic to the patients. For speedy recovery, correct diagnosis and early treatment are crucial. Here a case of Bell's palsy is reported and the literature on Bell's palsy is reviewed. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(3.000: 581-588
The Non-Signalling theorem in generalizations of Bell's theorem
Walleczek, Jan; Groessing, Gerhard
2014-01-01
Does "epistemic non-signalling" ensure the peaceful coexistence of special relativity and quantum nonlocality? The possibility of an affirmative answer is of great importance to deterministic approaches to quantum mechanics given recent developments towards generalizations of Bell's theorem. By generalizations of Bell's theorem we here mean efforts that seek to demonstrate the impossibility of any deterministic theories to obey the predictions of Bell's theorem, including even nonlocal hidden...
Closing the Detection Loophole in Bell Experiments Using Qudits
Vértesi, Tamás; Pironio, Stefano; Brunner, Nicolas
2010-01-01
We show that the detection efficiencies required for closing the detection loophole in Bell tests can be significantly lowered using quantum systems of dimension larger than two. We introduce a series of asymmetric Bell tests for which an efficiency arbitrarily close to 1/N can be tolerated using N-dimensional systems, and a symmetric Bell test for which the efficiency can be lowered down to 61.8% using four-dimensional systems. Experimental perspectives for our schemes look promising conside...
The Oxford handbook of economic inequality
W. Salverda; B. Nolan; T.M. Smeeding
2009-01-01
The essential guide for students and researchers interested in economic inequality Contains 27 original research contributions from the top names in economic inequality. The Oxford Handbook of Economic Inequality presents a new and challenging analysis of economic inequality, focusing primarily on e
Jensen's operator inequality and its converses
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Frank; Pecaric, Josip; Peric, Ivan
2007-01-01
We give a general formulation of Jensen's operator inequality for unital fields of positive linear mappings, and we consider different types of converse inequalities......We give a general formulation of Jensen's operator inequality for unital fields of positive linear mappings, and we consider different types of converse inequalities...
Happiness Inequality: How Much Is Reasonable?
Gandelman, Nestor; Porzecanski, Rafael
2013-01-01
We compute the Gini indexes for income, happiness and various simulated utility levels. Due to decreasing marginal utility of income, happiness inequality should be lower than income inequality. We find that happiness inequality is about half that of income inequality. To compute the utility levels we need to assume values for a key parameter that…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dybbroe, Betina; Kappel, Nanna
The overall purpose of the research we want to present, is to discuss how social inequality in health can both be maintained and strengthened- and changed through the health system and health efforts. Our contribution provides a view of a special point of intersection in which the health system....... The health system has certain goals, rationalities and conditions for practice based on the medical paradigm, institutional logics, professional cultures and New Public. The health needs of the socially marginalised are, on the other hand, woven into complex social issues in which social and health...... aspects cannot be separated. Their conditions and needs are different and separate from the way the health system perceives of the “average” patient, and this is demonstrated in the encounter between this group of citizens and the health system. We will present short examples of how the health and welfare...
Generalized convexity and inequalities
Anderson, G. D.; Vamanamurthy, M. K.; Vuorinen, M.
2007-11-01
Let and let be the family of all mean values of two numbers in (some examples are the arithmetic, geometric, and harmonic means). Given , we say that a function is (m1,m2)-convex if f(m1(x,y))[less-than-or-equals, slant]m2(f(x),f(y)) for all . The usual convexity is the special case when both mean values are arithmetic means. We study the dependence of (m1,m2)-convexity on m1 and m2 and give sufficient conditions for (m1,m2)-convexity of functions defined by Maclaurin series. The criteria involve the Maclaurin coefficients. Our results yield a class of new inequalities for several special functions such as the Gaussian hypergeometric function and a generalized Bessel function.
Loop inequalities and confinement
Tomboulis, E T
2002-01-01
We consider correlation inequalities that follow from the well-known loop equations of LGT, and their analogues in spin systems. They provide a way of bounding long range by short or intermediate range correlations. In several cases the method easily reproduces results that otherwise require considerable effort to obtain. In particular, in the case of the 2-dimensional O(N) spin model, where large N analytical results are available, the absence of a phase transition and the exponential decay of correlations for all $\\beta$ is easily demonstrated. We report on the possible application of this technique to the analogous 4-dimensional problem of area law for the Wilson loop in LGT at large $\\beta$.
Emile Galle ja legendaarne Belle Epoque / Kärt Kross
Kross, Kärt
2008-01-01
1811. aastal rajatud Perrier-Jouet shampanjamajast ja shampanjast Belle Epoque, mille lillemotiividega pudeli disainis prantsuse klaasikunstnik Emile Galle (1846-1904). Kunstniku eluloolisi andmeid, loomingust
An Asymptotic Formula for r-Bell Numbers with Real Arguments
Corcino, Cristina B.; Corcino, Roberto B.
2013-01-01
The r-Bell numbers are generalized using the concept of the Hankel contour. Some properties parallel to those of the ordinary Bell numbers are established. Moreover, an asymptotic approximation for r-Bell numbers with real arguments is obtained.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, C. Barker
History of nerves, Bell's Idea, Bell-Magendie law, Bell-Magendie controversy, Charles Bell, Francois Magendie, P.W. Lund, D.F. Eschricht, Herbert Mayo, Johannes Müller, Claude Bernard, spinal nerve roots, cranial nerves, recurrent sensitivity......History of nerves, Bell's Idea, Bell-Magendie law, Bell-Magendie controversy, Charles Bell, Francois Magendie, P.W. Lund, D.F. Eschricht, Herbert Mayo, Johannes Müller, Claude Bernard, spinal nerve roots, cranial nerves, recurrent sensitivity...
78 FR 34286 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited (Bell) Helicopters
2013-06-07
... same type design. Related Service Information Bell has issued ASB 407-05-67, which contains procedures for installing a placard on the instrument panel below the main rotor RPM (Nr)/power turbine RPM (Np... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in...
78 FR 34280 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited (Bell) Helicopters
2013-06-07
... likely to exist or develop on other products of the same type design. Related Service Information Bell... the instrument panel below the main rotor RPM (Nr)/power turbine RPM (N2) dual tachometer and for... FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska to the extent that...
78 FR 34282 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited (Bell) Helicopters
2013-06-07
... same type design. Related Service Information Bell has issued ASB No. 206L-05-134, Revision A, dated... main rotor RPM (Nr)/power turbine RPM (N2) dual tachometer and for inserting the RFM changes into the... ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3....
Inequality Aversion and Risk Attitudes
Ramos Morilla, Xavier; Ferrer-i-Carbonell, Ada
2010-01-01
Using self reported measures of life satisfaction and risk attitudes, we empirically test whether there is a relationship between individuals inequality and risk aversion. The empirical analysis uses the German SOEP household panel for the years 1997 to 2007 to conclude that the negative effect of inequality measured by the sample gini coefficient by year and federal state is larger for those individuals who report to be less willing to take risks. Nevertheless, the empirical results suggest ...
Does inequality lead to conflict?
Dutta, Indranil; Mishra, Ajit
2005-01-01
This paper presents a simple model to show how distributional concerns can engender social conflict. We have a two period model, where the cost of conflict is endogenous in the sense that parties involved have full control over how much conflict they can create. We find that anticipated future inequality plays a crucial role in determining the level of conflict in the current period. The model also provides an explanation for why similar levels of inequality may exhibit drastically different ...
Earnings Inequality in Sri Lanka
Arun, Thankom G.; Borooah, Vani
2004-01-01
Since the 1990s, accelerating economic growth has regained its dominance in the anti poverty strategies. However, the rising tendency of income inequity at the global level and within the countries emphasizes the need to incorporate distributional factors to make the pro-poor growth strategies effective. This paper explores the sources of this surge in income inequality in a developing country context. The paper attempts to estimate an earnings function for Sri Lanka based on the household ex...
Inequality of opportunity in India
Singh, Ashish
2010-01-01
The paper associates inequality of opportunities with outcome differences that can be accounted by pre-determined circumstances which lie beyond the control of an individual, such as parental education, parental occupation, caste, religion and place of birth. The overall opportunity share estimates (parametric) of total consumption expenditure inequality due to a set of circumstances comprising of caste, religion, geographical region, parental education and parental occupation vary from 16% t...
Inequity version and team incentives
Rey-Biel, Pedro
2007-01-01
We study optimal contracts in a simple model where employees are averse to inequity as modelled by Fehr and Schmidt (1999). A "selfish" employer can profitably exploit such preferences among its employees by offering contracts which create inequity off-equilibrium and thus, they would leave employees feeling envy or guilt when they do not meet the employer's demands. Such contracts resemble team and relative performance contracts, and thus we derive conditions under which it may be beneficial...
The Belle II Silicon Vertex Detector
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Friedl, M., E-mail: markus.friedl@oeaw.ac.at [HEPHY – Institute of High Energy Physics, Nikolsdorfer Gasse 18, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Ackermann, K. [MPI Munich, Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Aihara, H. [University of Tokyo, Department of Physics, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Aziz, T. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Experimental High Energy Physics Group, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Bergauer, T. [HEPHY – Institute of High Energy Physics, Nikolsdorfer Gasse 18, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Bozek, A. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Division of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31 342 Krakow (Poland); Campbell, A. [DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Dingfelder, J. [University of Bonn, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Drasal, Z. [Charles University, Institute of Particle and Nuclear Physics, Ke Karlovu 3, 121 16 Praha 2 (Czech Republic); Frankenberger, A. [HEPHY – Institute of High Energy Physics, Nikolsdorfer Gasse 18, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Gadow, K. [DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Gfall, I. [HEPHY – Institute of High Energy Physics, Nikolsdorfer Gasse 18, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Haba, J.; Hara, K.; Hara, T. [KEK, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Higuchi, T. [University of Tokyo, Kavli Institute for Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Himori, S. [Tohoku University, Department of Physics, Aoba Aramaki Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Irmler, C. [HEPHY – Institute of High Energy Physics, Nikolsdorfer Gasse 18, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Ishikawa, A. [Tohoku University, Department of Physics, Aoba Aramaki Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Joo, C. [Seoul National University, High Energy Physics Laboratory, 25-107 Shinlim-dong, Kwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); and others
2013-12-21
The KEKB machine and the Belle experiment in Tsukuba (Japan) are now undergoing an upgrade, leading to an ultimate luminosity of 8×10{sup 35}cm{sup −2}s{sup −1} in order to measure rare decays in the B system with high statistics. The previous vertex detector cannot cope with this 40-fold increase of luminosity and thus needs to be replaced. Belle II will be equipped with a two-layer Pixel Detector surrounding the beam pipe, and four layers of double-sided silicon strip sensors at higher radii than the old detector. The Silicon Vertex Detector (SVD) will have a total sensitive area of 1.13m{sup 2} and 223,744 channels—twice as many as its predecessor. All silicon sensors will be made from 150 mm wafers in order to maximize their size and thus to reduce the relative contribution of the support structure. The forward part has slanted sensors of trapezoidal shape to improve the measurement precision and to minimize the amount of material as seen by particles from the vertex. Fast-shaping front-end amplifiers will be used in conjunction with an online hit time reconstruction algorithm in order to reduce the occupancy to the level of a few percent at most. A novel “Origami” chip-on-sensor scheme is used to minimize both the distance between strips and amplifier (thus reducing the electronic noise) as well as the overall material budget. This report gives an overview on the status of the Belle II SVD and its components, including sensors, front-end detector ladders, mechanics, cooling and the readout electronics.
Eigenvalues, inequalities and ergodic theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2000-01-01
This paper surveys the main results obtained during the period 1992-1999 on three aspects mentioned in the title. The first result is a new and general variational formula for the lower bound of spectral gap (i.e. the first non-trivial eigenvalue) of elliptic operators in Euclidean space, Laplacian on Riemannian manifolds or Markov chains (§1). Here, a probabilistic method -coupling method is adopted. The new formula is a dual of the classical variational formula. The last formula is actually equivalent to Poincaré inequality. To which, there are closely related logarithmic Sobolev inequality, Nash inequality, Liggett inequality and so on. These inequalities are treated in a unified way by using Cheeger's method which comes from Riemannian geometry. This consists of §2. The results on these two aspects are mainly completed by the author joint with F. Y. Wang. Furthermore, a diagram of the inequalities and the traditional three types of ergodicity is presented (§3). The diagram extends the ergodic theory of Markov processes. The details of the methods used in the paper will be explained in a subsequent paper under the same title.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sandra Fischer
2000-11-01
Full Text Available This article presents a study of the film Belle de jour, by Luis Buñuel, based on the text “Sobre a poética da carnaval ização em Luis Buñuel” by Eduardo Peñuela Cañizal, on Mikhail Bakhtin’s theoretical conception about carnival, on Gaston Bachelard’s ideas about the oneiric, on Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalysis and on the notion of the frame structure sustained by Groupe p.
Optimal randomness generation from optical Bell experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Genuine randomness can be certified from Bell tests without any detailed assumptions on the working of the devices with which the test is implemented. An important class of experiments for implementing such tests is optical setups based on polarization measurements of entangled photons distributed from a spontaneous parametric down conversion source. Here we compute the maximal amount of randomness which can be certified in such setups under realistic conditions. We provide relevant yet unexpected numerical values for the physical parameters and achieve four times more randomness than previous methods. (fast track communication)
Inequality of Opportunity and Inequality of Effort: a Canonical Growth Model
Gustavo A. Marrero; Juan G. Rodríguez
2013-01-01
Theoretical and empirical studies exploring the effects of income inequality upon growth reach a disappointing inconclusive result. Some recent empirical papers have emphasized that one reason for this ambiguity could be that income inequality is actually a composite measure of inequality of opportunity (IO) and inequality of effort (IE). These types of inequality would affect growth through opposite channels, so the relationship between inequality and growth would depend on which component i...
Assessing Brazilian educational inequalities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Benoit Lorel
2008-03-01
Full Text Available This paper provides an evaluation of schooling inequality in Brazil using different indicators such as the Education Gini coefficient, the Education Standard Deviation and the Average number of Years of Schooling. We draw up a statistical description of Brazilian human capital dispersion in time over the last half century, across regions and states. Our analysis suggests several conclusions: 1 Strong reduction of educational inequalities measured by Education Gini index. 2 A three parts picture of Brazil seems to emerge, reflecting initial conditions. 3 High increase of the Average number of Years of Schooling. 4 A significant link between Education Gini and the average education length. 5 Education Standard Deviation leads to inverted results compared to Education Gini. 6 Brazilian data are consistent with an Education Kuznets curve if we consider Education Standard Deviation.Esse trababalho busca avaliar o grau de desigualdade educacional no Brasil baseado-se em diferentes indicatores tais como: o índice de Gini educacional, os anos médios de escolaridade e no desvio padrão educacional. Tenta-se colocar uma descrição estatistica da distribuição do capital humano no Brasil, incluindo as diferenças estaduais e regionais observadas durante a ultima metade do século. As conclusões da nossa análise são as seguintes: 1 Forte reduç ão das desigualdades educativas calculadas com o Gini educacional. 2 Um retrato tripartido do Brasil parece se formar refletindo as condições iniciais. 3 Um forte aumento dos níveis de escolarização. 4 Uma relação significativa entre o Gini educacional e os anos médios de estudos. 5 O desvio padrão educacional leva aos resultados inversos do Gini educacional. 6 Os dados brasileiros admitem uma curva de Kuznets educacional se considerarmos o desvio padrão educacional.
Eugenics Past and Present: Remembering Buck v. Bell.
Berson, Michael J.; Cruz, Barbara
2001-01-01
Provides background information about the eugenics movement. Focuses on eugenics in the United States detailing the case, Buck v. Bell, and eugenics in Germany. Explores the present eugenic movement, focusing on "The Bell Curve," China's one child policy, and the use of eugenic sterilizations in the United States and Canada. Includes strategies…
Bell clapper impact dynamics and the voicing of a carillon
Fletcher, N. H.; McGee, W. T.; Tarnopolsky, A. Z.
2002-03-01
The periodic re-voicing of the bell clappers of the Australian National Carillon in Canberra provided an opportunity for the study of the acoustic effects of this operation. After prolonged playing, the impact of the pear-shaped clapper on a bell produces a significant flat area on both the clapper and the inside surface of the bell. This deformation significantly decreases the duration of the impact event and has the effect of increasing the relative amplitude of higher modes in the bell sound, making it ``brighter'' or even ``clangy.'' This effect is studied by comparing the spectral envelope of the sounds of several bells before and after voicing. Theoretical analysis shows that the clapper actually strikes the bell and remains in contact with the bell surface until it is ejected by a displacement pulse that has traveled around the complete circumference of the bell. The contact time, typically about 1 ms, is therefore much longer than the effective impact time, which is only a few tenths of a millisecond. Both the impact time and the contact time are reduced by the presence of a flat on the clapper.
Indistinguishability of orthogonal time-separated bell states
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Tan Yong-Gang; Cai Qing-Yu; Shi Ting-Yun
2008-01-01
This paper proves that it is impossible to identify orthogonally time-separated Bell states.If two qubits of a Bell state interact with the measurement apparatus at different time,any attempt to identify this state will disturb it.
Handbook of functional equations functional inequalities
2014-01-01
As Richard Bellman has so elegantly stated at the Second International Conference on General Inequalities (Oberwolfach, 1978), “There are three reasons for the study of inequalities: practical, theoretical, and aesthetic.” On the aesthetic aspects, he said, “As has been pointed out, beauty is in the eye of the beholder. However, it is generally agreed that certain pieces of music, art, or mathematics are beautiful. There is an elegance to inequalities that makes them very attractive.” The content of the Handbook focuses mainly on both old and recent developments on approximate homomorphisms, on a relation between the Hardy–Hilbert and the Gabriel inequality, generalized Hardy–Hilbert type inequalities on multiple weighted Orlicz spaces, half-discrete Hilbert-type inequalities, on affine mappings, on contractive operators, on multiplicative Ostrowski and trapezoid inequalities, Ostrowski type inequalities for the Riemann–Stieltjes integral, means and related functional inequalities, Weighted G...
Malnutrition: another health inequality?
Stratton, Rebecca J
2007-11-01
Malnutrition (undernutrition) is one of the many health inequalities facing governments in the 21st century. Malnutrition is a common condition affecting millions of individuals in the UK, particularly older adults, the sick and those cared for within the healthcare system. It costs the National Health Service > pound sterling 7.3 x 109 annually. New data highlight marked geographical differences in the prevalence of malnutrition across England and an inter-relationship between deprivation, malnutrition and poor outcome. As malnutrition is a largely treatable condition, prompt identification and effective prevention and treatment of this costly condition is imperative. Routine screening for malnutrition in high-risk groups (e.g. the elderly and those in areas with high deprivation) and within the healthcare system should be a priority, with screening linked to appropriate plans for the management of malnutrition. Use should be made of specialised interventions, including oral nutritional supplements and artificial nutrition, to aid recovery and improve outcome, with skilled health professionals, including dietitians, involved where possible. Equity of access to nutritional services and treatments for malnutrition needs to occur across the UK and, although complex and multi-factorial, the effects of deprivation and other relevant socio-economic and geographical factors should be addressed. Ultimately, as malnutrition is a public health problem, its identification and treatment must become a priority for governments, healthcare planners and professionals. PMID:17961273
Incorporating concepts of inequality and inequity into health benefits analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tuchmann Jessica L
2006-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although environmental policy decisions are often based in part on both risk assessment information and environmental justice concerns, formalized approaches for addressing inequality or inequity when estimating the health benefits of pollution control have been lacking. Inequality indicators that fulfill basic axioms and agree with relevant definitions and concepts in health benefits analysis and environmental justice analysis can allow for quantitative examination of efficiency-equality tradeoffs in pollution control policies. Methods To develop appropriate inequality indicators for health benefits analysis, we provide relevant definitions from the fields of risk assessment and environmental justice and consider the implications. We evaluate axioms proposed in past studies of inequality indicators and develop additional axioms relevant to this context. We survey the literature on previous applications of inequality indicators and evaluate five candidate indicators in reference to our proposed axioms. We present an illustrative pollution control example to determine whether our selected indicators provide interpretable information. Results and Conclusions We conclude that an inequality indicator for health benefits analysis should not decrease when risk is transferred from a low-risk to high-risk person, and that it should decrease when risk is transferred from a high-risk to low-risk person (Pigou-Dalton transfer principle, and that it should be able to have total inequality divided into its constituent parts (subgroup decomposability. We additionally propose that an ideal indicator should avoid value judgments about the relative importance of transfers at different percentiles of the risk distribution, incorporate health risk with evidence about differential susceptibility, include baseline distributions of risk, use appropriate geographic resolution and scope, and consider multiple competing policy alternatives. Given
The Belle II experiment: fundamental physics at the flavor frontier
de la Cruz, Ivan Heredia
2016-01-01
After the major success of B-factories to establish the CKM mechanism and its proven potential to search for new physics, the Belle II experiment will continue exploring the physics at the flavor frontier over the next years. Belle II will collect 50 times more data than its predecessor, Belle, and allow for various precision measurements and searches of rare decays and particles. This paper introduces the B-factory concept and the flavor frontier approach to search for new physics. It then describes the SuperKEKB accelerator and the Belle II detector, as well as some of the physics that will be analyzed in Belle II, concluding with the experiment status and schedule.
Bell-Curve Based Evolutionary Optimization Algorithm
Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, J.; Laba, K.; Kincaid, R.
1998-01-01
The paper presents an optimization algorithm that falls in the category of genetic, or evolutionary algorithms. While the bit exchange is the basis of most of the Genetic Algorithms (GA) in research and applications in America, some alternatives, also in the category of evolutionary algorithms, but use a direct, geometrical approach have gained popularity in Europe and Asia. The Bell-Curve Based Evolutionary Algorithm (BCB) is in this alternative category and is distinguished by the use of a combination of n-dimensional geometry and the normal distribution, the bell-curve, in the generation of the offspring. The tool for creating a child is a geometrical construct comprising a line connecting two parents and a weighted point on that line. The point that defines the child deviates from the weighted point in two directions: parallel and orthogonal to the connecting line, the deviation in each direction obeying a probabilistic distribution. Tests showed satisfactory performance of BCB. The principal advantage of BCB is its controllability via the normal distribution parameters and the geometrical construct variables.
Inequality, Poverty, Insecurity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ilona
2015-04-01
Full Text Available The article discusses the economic connections of globalization, the roots of this phenomenon and its implications for presence. In the 70´, the economic bases of developed countries started changing. Since then the economic power of transnational corporations has risen. The TNCs change the international division of labor and divide the production cycle in an unprecedented manner. The economic sovereignty of countries weakens. All these factors influence the position of labor and consequently phenomena like unemployment, poverty and uncertainty. Since the 70´s the wage share, one of the most important macroeconomic indicators, has started sinking in developed contries. This means that a higher proportion of output goes to capital, i.e. to profits. Unemployment in developed countries has also changed its form since the 70´s – it has become structural and long-term one. Forms of precarious labor increase significantly and in the developed countries (especially obviously in the US the phenomenon of working poverty appears. Hand in hand with these phenomena goes the increase in inequality, of all developed countries again mostly in the US. The implications are not only social, such as the preservation of elite, i.e. the tendency towards oligarchization and decrease in social mobility. These implications are also connected with the debt phenomenon, which serves as a factor of discipline and system preservation, or respectively the postponement of weakened purchasing power of the lower and middle income classes. The rise in insecurity and the impossibility to identify oneself with the job has its political implications as well. In the context of reflecting the problem itself it takes form of various social protests (such as Occupy Wall Street, but also can be shown in the rise of various xenophobe and extreme right movements that destabilize the whole political system, including doubting the regime of democracy as such.
Fujikawa, Kazuo
2013-01-01
Hidden-variables models are critically reassessed. It is first examined if the quantum discord is classically described by the hidden-variable model of Bell in the Hilbert space with $d=2$. The criterion of vanishing quantum discord is related to the notion of reduction and, surprisingly, the hidden-variable model in $d=2$, which has been believed to be consistent so far, is in fact inconsistent and excluded by the analysis of conditional measurement and reduction. The description of the full contents of quantum discord by the deterministic hidden-variables models is not possible. We also re-examine CHSH inequality. It is shown that the well-known prediction of CHSH inequality $|B|\\leq 2$ for the CHSH operator $B$ introduced by Cirel'son is not unique. This non-uniqueness arises from the failure of linearity condition in the non-contextual hidden-variables model in $d=4$ used by Bell and CHSH, in agreement with Gleason's theorem which excludes $d=4$ non-contextual hidden-variables models. If one imposes the l...
STRUCTURAL RACISM AND HEALTH INEQUITIES
Gee, Gilbert C.; Ford, Chandra L.
2014-01-01
Racial minorities bear a disproportionate burden of morbidity and mortality. These inequities might be explained by racism, given the fact that racism has restricted the lives of racial minorities and immigrants throughout history. Recent studies have documented that individuals who report experiencing racism have greater rates of illnesses. While this body of research has been invaluable in advancing knowledge on health inequities, it still locates the experiences of racism at the individual level. Yet, the health of social groups is likely most strongly affected by structural, rather than individual, phenomena. The structural forms of racism and their relationship to health inequities remain under-studied. This article reviews several ways of conceptualizing structural racism, with a focus on social segregation, immigration policy, and intergenerational effects. Studies of disparities should more seriously consider the multiple dimensions of structural racism as fundamental causes of health disparities. PMID:25632292
Variations on the theme of Marcinkiewicz' inequality
Matsaev, V.; Ostrovskii, I.; Sodin, M.
2000-01-01
We present a new approach to the Marcinkiewicz interpolation inequality for the distribution function of the Hilbert transform, and prove an "abstract" version of this inequality. The approach uses "logarithmic determinants" and new estimates of canonical products of genus one.
SYSTEM OF GENERALIZED VECTOR VARIATIONAL INEQUALITIES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Fang Yaping; Huang Nanjing
2005-01-01
In this paper, the authors introduce and study system of generalized vector variational inequalities. Under suitable conditions, the existence of solutions for system of generalized vector variational inequalities is presented by Kakutani-Fan-Glicksberg fixed point theorem.
The analysis and geometry of Hardy's inequality
Balinsky, Alexander A; Lewis, Roger T
2015-01-01
This volume presents advances that have been made over recent decades in areas of research featuring Hardy's inequality and related topics. The inequality and its extensions and refinements are not only of intrinsic interest but are indispensable tools in many areas of mathematics and mathematical physics. Hardy inequalities on domains have a substantial role and this necessitates a detailed investigation of significant geometric properties of a domain and its boundary. Other topics covered in this volume are Hardy- Sobolev-Maz’ya inequalities; inequalities of Hardy-type involving magnetic fields; Hardy, Sobolev and Cwikel-Lieb-Rosenbljum inequalities for Pauli operators; the Rellich inequality. The Analysis and Geometry of Hardy’s Inequality provides an up-to-date account of research in areas of contemporary interest and would be suitable for a graduate course in mathematics or physics. A good basic knowledge of real and complex analysis is a prerequisite.
More operator inequalities for positive linear maps
ZHANG, PINGPING
2015-01-01
Some operator inequalities for positive linear maps are presented. These inequalities improve and generalize the corresponding results due to Fu and He [Linear Multilinear Algebra, doi: 10.1080/03081087.2014.880432.].
Global interpersonal inequality: Trends and measurement
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Roope, Laurence; Tarp, Finn
This paper discusses different approaches to the measurement of global interpersonal in equality. Trends in global interpersonal inequality during 1975-2005 are measured using data from UNU-WIDER’s World Income Inequality Database. In order to better understand the trends, global interpersonal...... inequality is decomposed into within-country and between-country inequality. The paper illustrates that the relationship between global interpersonal inequality and these constituent components is a complex one. In particular, we demonstrate that the changes in China’s and India’s income distributions over...... the past 30 years have simultaneously caused inequality to rise domestically in those countries, while tending to reduce global inter-personal inequality. In light of these findings, we reflect on the meaning and policy relevance of global vis-à-vis domestic inequality measures...
Performing CPR on a commercial diver inside the diving bell
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sourabh Bhutani
2015-01-01
Full Text Available CPR in a diving bell is difficult. It is taught by diving companies and training institutes but has not been subjected to the tenets of evidence based medicine. The diving bell lacks space as well as a flat hard surface to lay the patient on and therefore conventional methods of administering CPR are not possible. The diver is hung from a pulley tied to the diver's harness, and the bell flooded with water to reduce pooling of blood. Airway is established using a cervical collar to hyperextend the neck and inserting an appropriate oropharyngeal airway. Cardiac compressions are administered by the bellman using his head or the knee while holding the patient with his arms from behind. The bell can be recovered to surface only when spontaneous breathing and circulation have started. Diving bell offers a unique environment for management of unconscious casualties. Even though the method is at variance with the conventional method of administering CPR, it is the only method possible inside the bell. It is important that the method be scrutinized and refined so as to be more effective and efficacious inside the bell.
Competitive Pressure on China : Income Inequality
Ten Raa, T.; Pan, H.
2001-01-01
In the preceding paper we have seen that the top types of labor are relatively scarce in China and this raises the issue of income inequality under competition.Our main finding is that inequality would multiply indeed. Subsidiary, the nature of inequality would shift from the rural-urban divide to differences between social classes.The existing negative relationship between development and inequality would be dissolved by competition.
Scalar Field Quantum Inequalities in Static Spacetimes
Pfenning, Michael J.; Ford, L. H.
1997-01-01
We discuss quantum inequalities for minimally coupled scalar fields in static spacetimes. These are inequalities which place limits on the magnitude and duration of negative energy densities. We derive a general expression for the quantum inequality for a static observer in terms of a Euclidean two-point function. In a short sampling time limit, the quantum inequality can be written as the flat space form plus subdominant correction terms dependent upon the geometric properties of the spaceti...
Coercive Inequalities on Metric Measure Spaces
Hebisch, W.; Zegarlinski, B.
2009-01-01
We study coercive inequalities on finite dimensional metric spaces with probability measures which do not have volume doubling property. This class of inequalities includes Poincar\\'e and Log-Sobolev inequality. Our main result is proof of Log-Sobolev inequality on Heisenberg group equipped with either heat kernel measure or "gaussian" density build from optimal control distance. As intermediate results we prove so called U-bounds.
Unexplained health inequality – is it unfair?
Asada, Yukiko; Hurley, Jeremiah; Norheim, Ole Frithjof; Johri, Mira
2015-01-01
Introduction Accurate measurement of health inequities is indispensable to track progress or to identify needs for health equity policy interventions. A key empirical task is to measure the extent to which observed inequality in health – a difference in health – is inequitable. Empirically operationalizing definitions of health inequity has generated an important question not considered in the conceptual literature on health inequity. Empirical analysis can explain only a portion of observed ...
Maximal inequalities for demimartingales and their applications
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
In this paper, we establish some maximal inequalities for demimartingales which generalize and improve the results of Christofides. The maximal inequalities for demimartingales are used as key inequalities to establish other results including Doob’s type maximal inequality for demimartingales, strong laws of large numbers and growth rate for demimartingales and associated random variables. At last, we give an equivalent condition of uniform integrability for demisubmartingales.
Maximal inequalities for demimartingales and their applications
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG XueJun; HU ShuHe
2009-01-01
In this paper,we establish some maximal inequalities for demimartingales which generalize and improve the results of Christofides.The maximal inequalities for demimartingales are used as key inequalities to establish other results including Doob's type maximal inequality for demimartingales,strong laws of large numbers and growth rate for demimartingales and associated random variables.At last,we give an equivalent condition of uniform integrability for demisubmartingales.
PAC-Bayesian Inequalities for Martingales
Seldin, Yevgeny; Cesa-Bianchi, Nicolò; Shawe-Taylor, John; Auer, Peter
2011-01-01
We present a set of high-probability inequalities that control the concentration of weighted averages of multiple (possibly uncountably many) simultaneously evolving and interdependent martingales. We also present a comparison inequality that bounds expectation of a convex function of martingale difference type variables by expectation of the same function of independent Bernoulli variables. This inequality is applied to derive a tighter analog of Hoeffding-Azuma inequality.
Finance and Inequality: The Case of India
James B. Ang
2010-01-01
Although theory emphasizes the role of financial market frictions in explaining income inequality, there is little empirical research exploring how financial development and financial sector reforms influence the evolution of income inequality. This paper examines how finance impacts on income inequality in India using annual time series data for over half a century. The results indicate that while financial development helps reduce income inequality, financial liberalization seems to have ex...
International inequality in well-being
Mark McGillivray; J. Ram Pillarisetti
2004-01-01
This paper examines inter-country inequality in indicators of human well-being. It is primarily concerned with inequality in two gender-related, composite indicators of development levels proposed: the Gender-related Development Index (GDI) and the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM). A number of inequality indices are calculated using data for the period 1992 to 1998. A special interest of the paper is whether the GDI and GEM tell different stories with respect to inequality than the Human Deve...
Modeling inequality and spread in multiple regression
Rolf Aaberge; Steinar Bjerve; Kjell Doksum
2006-01-01
We consider concepts and models for measuring inequality in the distribution of resources with a focus on how inequality varies as a function of covariates. Lorenz introduced a device for measuring inequality in the distribution of income that indicates how much the incomes below the u$^{th}$ quantile fall short of the egalitarian situation where everyone has the same income. Gini introduced a summary measure of inequality that is the average over u of the difference between the Lorenz curve ...
Agrarian Structures, Urbanization and Inequality
Cem Oyvat
2013-01-01
This study examines the impact of agrarian structures on income inequality over the long run. High land inequality increases income Gini coeﬃcients in the urban sector as well as the rural sector, not only by creating congestion in the urban subsistence sector, but also by feeding the growth of the urban reserve army of labor, which pulls down the wages in the urban capitalist sector. An econometric analysis shows that the impact of initial land ownership distribution on both national and urb...
Carbon emissions and income inequality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We find that the distribution of income matters to aggregate carbon dioxide emissions and hence global warming. Higher inequality, both between and within countries is associated with lower carbon emissions at given average incomes. We also confirm that economic growth generally comes with higher emissions. Thus our results suggest that trade-offs exist between climate control (on the one hand) and both social equity and economic growth (on the other). However, economic growth improves the trade off with equity, and lower inequality improves the trade off with growth. By combining growth with equity, more pro-poor growth processes yield better longer-term trajectories of carbon emissions. (Author)
Progress of Belle II – detector and performance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The progress on the detector and accelerator in the Belle II experiment is presented. The B factories have successfully accumulated the experimental data at ϒ(4S) and achieved the world highest sensitivity on the search for lepton flavor violating tau decays and other new physics searches. The Belle II experiment will obtain 50 times larger data samples compared to the Belle experiment and improve the detector sensitivity. The construction of the detector and accelerator is in progress. The commissioning will start in 2014 and the expected integrated luminosity is 50ab−1 by 2022
Searches for New Physics at the Belle II Experiment
Wang, Boqun
2015-01-01
The Belle II experiment at the SuperKEKB collider is an upgrade of the Belle / KEKB experiment. It will start physics data taking from 2018 and with $40$ times luminosity, its goal is to accumulate 50 $ab^{-1}$ of $e^+e^-$ collision data. The physics programs have a wide range of areas for new physics, such as more constraints on CKM Unitarity Triangle, searching for charged Higgs, direct CPV, Lepton Flavour Violation and dark matter.In this monograph, we will review the current status of Belle II and SuperKEKB construction and introduce the main physics opportunities at this facility.
Reluctant genius Alexander Graham Bell and the passion for invention
Gray, Charlotte
2011-01-01
The popular image of Alexander Graham Bell is that of an elderly American patriarch, memorable only for his paunch, his Santa Claus beard, and the invention of the telephone. In this magisterial reassessment based on thorough new research, acclaimed biographer Charlotte Gray reveals Bell's wide-ranging passion for invention and delves into the private life that supported his genius. The child of a speech therapist and a deaf mother, and possessed of superbly acute hearing, Bell developed an early interest in sound. His understanding of how sound waves might relate to electrical waves enabled h
A non-doubling Trudinger inequality
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Gogatishvili, Amiran; Koskela, P.
2005-01-01
Roč. 170, č. 2 (2005), s. 113-119. ISSN 0039-3223 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA201/01/0333 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Trudinger inequality * Poincaré inequality * Sobolev-type inequality Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.538, year: 2005
Competitive Pressure on China : Income Inequality
Ten Raa, T.; Pan, H.
2001-01-01
In the preceding paper we have seen that the top types of labor are relatively scarce in China and this raises the issue of income inequality under competition.Our main finding is that inequality would multiply indeed. Subsidiary, the nature of inequality would shift from the rural-urban divide to d
Generalized Levinson's inequality and exponential convexity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Josip Pečarić
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We give a probabilistic version of Levinson's inequality under Mercer's assumption of equal variances for the family of 3-convex functions at a point. We also show that this is the largest family of continuous functions for which the inequality holds. New families of exponentially convex functions and related results are derived from the obtained inequality.
Inequality and Economic Development in Brazil
World Bank
2004-01-01
This study addresses three questions : why do inequalities matter for Brazil's development? Why does Brazil occupy a position of very high inequality in the international community? And, What should public policy do about it? Excessive income inequality is unfair, and undesirable on ethical grounds, and can bring adverse effects on economic growth, health outcomes, social cohesion, and cri...
Concentration inequalities for random fields via coupling
Chazottes, J. R.; Collet, P.; Kuelske, C.; Redig, F.
2007-01-01
We present a new and simple approach to concentration inequalities in the context of dependent random processes and random fields. Our method is based on coupling and does not use information inequalities. In case one has a uniform control on the coupling, one obtains exponential concentration inequ
Some Inequalities for Simplices and Their Applications
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨世国
2005-01-01
Using theory of distance geometry and analytic method, the problem on relations about the volumes of some simplices is studied, and some new inequalities for the volumes of simplices are established. As special cases, an inequality for the volume of the pedal simplex of a simplex and other inequalities for simplices are gotten.
The Oxford handbook of economic inequality. - Paperback
W. Salverda; B. Nolan; T.M. Smeeding
2011-01-01
The Oxford Handbook of Economic Inequality presents a challenging analysis of economic inequality, focusing primarily on economic inequality in highly-developed countries. This comprehensive and authoritative volume contains twenty-seven original contributions on topics ranging from gender to happin
Research on Inequalities Exists in the Workplace
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
布乃鹏; 樊晶晶; 刘淑华
2013-01-01
The is ue of inequalities exists in the workplace has been widely debated in our community recently. And then this essay wil argue inequalities exist in the workplace, in terms of ethnic, gender, and disability. This es ay would of er four perspectives about the view inequalities exist in the workplace and discuss the response from the state, employers and unions.
Urban Inequality. NBER Working Paper No. 14419
Glaeser, Edward L.; Resseger, Matthew G.; Tobio, Kristina
2008-01-01
What impact does inequality have on metropolitan areas? Crime rates are higher in places with more inequality, and people in unequal cities are more likely to say that they are unhappy. There is also a negative association between local inequality and the growth of both income and population, once we control for the initial distribution of skills.…
Easier access to education reduces inequality between genders but increases inequality within gender
Koutmeridis, Theodore
2014-01-01
From Plato and Marx to Piketty’s recent ‘Capital in the 21st Century’, scholars have always been worried about growing inequality. Even though most studies focus on the vicious consequences of rising economic inequality, the recent experience is more perplexing, as inequality has not increased in all dimensions. In particular, over the past four decades increasing U.S. wage inequality within gender has coincided with narrowing inequality between genders, while at the same time access to highe...