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Sample records for bell canyon test

  1. Bell Canyon test summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, C.L.; Peterson, E.W.

    1981-04-01

    The Bell Canyon Test was an in situ evaluation of the ability of a cement grout plug to seal boreholes. It consisted of a 2-m-long, 20-cm-diameter grout plug in an anhydrite formation at a depth of 1370 m, directly above an aquifer that provided a 12.4 MPa (1800 psi) differential pressure. The aquifer had a production capability of 38,000 l/day (240 bbl/day, 10 4 gal/day). The observed leakage after plug installation was 0.6 l/day, which is equivalent to a 50 microdarcy flow path assuming all flow occurred through the plug cross-sectional area. Laboratory results and analysis of field data indicate that the bulk of the flow occurred through a microstructure at the interface between the plug and the host rock. The Bell Canyon Test demonstrated that a plug could be formulated, emplaced, and tested under actual conditions and provide acceptable performance. When these results are related to the WIPP performance assessment models, they provide additional confidence that borehole plugging can be accomplished satisfactorily. The Bell Canyon results can also be used as basis for future activities in the generic repository sealing program for similar emplacements and performance assessment evaluations. If the observed leakage rates are not acceptable at other sites, the BCT results would indicate that the first step in improving such emplacements should deal with improved bonding of the plug to the rock at these sites. The results obtained from the BCT, when coupled with results from long-term durability assessments, form a plug performance data basis for repository designers at other proposed waste repository sites

  2. Bell Canyon Test (BCT): cement development report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulick, C.W.; Boa, J.A. Jr.; Buck, A.D.

    1980-05-01

    The Borehole Plugging (BHP) materials development program which has been underway at WES under Sandia sponsorship for about five years is reviewed. Development testing data for candidate grout mixtures for the BCT plug are presented. Field batching, mixing, and placement operations are discussed. Data from field samples molded during the two plug placements include strength, expansion, compressional wave velocity, dynamic modulus, density, and porosity. Microstructure and composition are compared for grout samples at ages of a few weeks and one year

  3. Development of Freshwater Grout Subsequent to the Bell Canyon Tests (BCT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    specimens of those grouts cured and studied in the SL, to three-years age. Selected data from earlier tests of related fresh-water grouts are...specimens were either coated with a strippable plastic momn;rane, or sealed in plastic cylinders with tightly fitting lids. Sealed in plastiC habs in...for expansion prisms, the strippable coating applied to SPDV specimens did not prevent water loss. Lower strength gain may be attributable to partial

  4. Testing Bell's inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspect, A.; Ecole Normale Superieure, 75 - Paris

    1991-01-01

    Testing Bell's inequalities described in the paper 'On the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox' the conclusions were extremely clear and completely convincing, but there was something special about this paper: it led to two contradictory conclusions. The first part showed that EPR correlations predicted by quantum mechanics are so strong that one can hardly avoid the conclusion that quantum mechanics should be completed by some supplementary parameters (the so-called 'hidden-variables'). But the second part demonstrated that the hidden-variables description in fact contradicts some predictions of quantum mechanics, which is to say both theories predict different results. At the end of the sixties, there was no experimental result to answer the question. The contradiction discovered by John Bell is so subtle that it was necessary to design and build specific experiments. The problems of such experiments are discussed. (R.P.) 7 refs., 4 figs

  5. Experimental tests of Bell's inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspect, A.

    1984-01-01

    The author discusses the experiments related to Bell's inequalities. After first introducing Bell's theorem, the author presents a brief review of the experiments carried out between 1970 and 1976. Finally, some details on experiments that are in progress in the Institut d'Optique d'Orsay are given. (Auth.)

  6. Testing locality at colliders via Bell's inequality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abel, S.A.; Dreiner, H.; Dittmar, M.

    1992-01-01

    We consider a measurement of correlated spins at LEP and show that it does not constitute a general test of local-realistic theories via Bell's inequality. The central point of the argument is that such tests, where the spins of two particles are inferred from a scattering distribution, can be described by a local hidden variable theory. We conclude that with present experimental techniques it is not possible to test locality via Bell's inequality at a collider experiment. Finally we suggest an improved fixed-target experiment as a viable test of Bell's inequality. (orig.)

  7. Experimental test of Bell`s inequalities using angular correlation of compton-scattered annihilation photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osuch, S.; Popkiewicz, M.; Szeflinski, Z.; Wilhelmi, Z. [Warsaw Univ., Inst. of Experimental Physics, Warsaw (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    The Bell`s inequality has been experimentally tested using angular correlation of Compton-scattered photons from annihilation of positrons emitted from {sup 22}Na source. The result shows a better agreement with the quantum mechanics predictions rather than with the Bell`s inequality. 7 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab.

  8. NMR analog of Bell's inequalities violation test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, A M; Oliveira, I S; Sarthour, R S; Magalhaes, A; Teles, J; Azevedo, E R de; Bonagamba, T J

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present an analog of Bell's inequalities violation test for N qubits to be performed in a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) quantum computer. This can be used to simulate or predict the results for different Bell's inequality tests, with distinct configurations and a larger number of qubits. To demonstrate our scheme, we implemented a simulation of the violation of the Clauser, Horne, Shimony and Holt (CHSH) inequality using a two-qubit NMR system and compared the results to those of a photon experiment. The experimental results are well described by the quantum mechanics theory and a local realistic hidden variables model (LRHVM) that was specifically developed for NMR. That is why we refer to this experiment as a simulation of Bell's inequality violation. Our result shows explicitly how the two theories can be compatible with each other due to the detection loophole. In the last part of this work, we discuss the possibility of testing some fundamental features of quantum mechanics using NMR with highly polarized spins, where a strong discrepancy between quantum mechanics and hidden variables models can be expected

  9. Generating optimal states for a homodyne Bell test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daffer, S.; Knight, P.L.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: We present a protocol that produces a conditionally prepared state that can be used for a Bell test based on homodyne detection. Based on the results of Munro, the state is near-optimal for Bell inequality violations based on quadrature-phase homodyne measurements that use correlated photon-number states. The scheme utilizes the Gaussian entanglement distillation protocol of Eisert et. al. and uses only beam splitters and photodetection to conditionally prepare a non-Gaussian state from a source of two-mode squeezed states with low squeezing parameter, permitting a loophole-free test of Bell inequalities. (author)

  10. The strong Bell inequalities: A proposed experimental test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Edward S.

    1994-01-01

    All previous experimental tests of Bell inequalities have required additional assumptions. The strong Bell inequalities (i.e. those requiring no additional assumptions) have never been tested. An experiment has been designed that can, for the first time, provide a definitive test of the strong Bell inequalities. Not only will the detector efficiency loophole be closed; but the locality condition will also be rigorously enforced. The experiment involves producing two Hg-199 atoms by a resonant Raman dissociation of a mercury dimer ((199)Hg2) that is in an electronic and nuclear spin singlet state. Bell inequalities can be tested by measuring angular momentum correlations between the spin one-half nuclei of the two Hg-199 atoms. The method used to make these latter measurements will be described.

  11. Bell-inequality tests with macroscopic entangled states of light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stobinska, M. [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Erlangen (Germany); Institute for Theoretical Physics II, Erlangen-Nuernberg University, Erlangen (Germany); Sekatski, P.; Gisin, N. [Group of Applied Physics, University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Buraczewski, A. [Faculty of Electronics and Information Technology, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Leuchs, G. [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Erlangen (Germany); Institute for Optics, Information and Photonics, Erlangen-Nuernberg University, Erlangen (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    Quantum correlations may violate the Bell inequalities. Most experimental schemes confirming this prediction have been realized in all-optical Bell tests suffering from the detection loophole. Experiments which simultaneously close this loophole and the locality loophole are highly desirable and remain challenging. An approach to loophole-free Bell tests is based on amplification of the entangled photons (i.e., on macroscopic entanglement), for which an optical signal should be easy to detect. However, the macroscopic states are partially indistinguishable by classical detectors. An interesting idea to overcome these limitations is to replace the postselection by an appropriate preselection immediately after the amplification. This is in the spirit of state preprocessing revealing hidden nonlocality. Here, we examine one of the possible preselections, but the presented tools can be used for analysis of other schemes. Filtering methods making the macroscopic entanglement useful for Bell tests and quantum protocols are the subject of an intensive study in the field nowadays.

  12. Towards Loophole-Free Optical Bell Test of CHSH Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yong-gang; Li, Hong-wei

    2016-09-01

    Bell test had been suggested to end the long-standing debate on the EPR paradox, while the imperfections of experimental devices induce some loopholes in Bell test experiments and hence the assumption of local reality by EPR cannot be excluded with current experimental results. In optical Bell test experiments, the locality loophole can be closed easily, while the attempt of closing detection loophole requires very high efficiency of single photon detectors. Previous studies showed that the violation of Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality with maximally entangled states requires the detection efficiency to be higher than 82.8 %. In this paper, we raise a modified CHSH inequality that covers all measurement events including the efficient and inefficient detections in the Bell test and prove that all local hidden models can be excluded when the inequality is violated. We find that, when non-maximally entangled states are applied to the Bell test, the lowest detection efficiency for violation of the present inequality is 66.7 %. This makes it feasible to close the detection loophole and the locality loophole simultaneously in optical Bell test of CHSH inequality.

  13. Maneuver Acoustic Flight Test of the Bell 430 Helicopter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Michael E.; Snider, Royce; Greenwood, Eric; Baden, Joel

    2012-01-01

    A cooperative flight test by NASA, Bell Helicopter and the U.S. Army to characterize the steady state acoustics and measure the maneuver noise of a Bell Helicopter 430 aircraft was accomplished. The test occurred during June/July, 2011 at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida. This test gathered a total of 410 data points over 10 test days and compiled an extensive data base of dynamic maneuver measurements. Three microphone configurations with up to 31 microphones in each configuration were used to acquire acoustic data. Aircraft data included DGPS, aircraft state and rotor state information. This paper provides an overview of the test.

  14. Verifying atom entanglement schemes by testing Bell's inequality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelakis, D.G.; Knight, P.L.; Tregenna, B.; Munro, W.J.

    2001-01-01

    Recent experiments to test Bell's inequality using entangled photons and ions aimed at tests of basic quantum mechanical principles. Interesting results have been obtained and many loopholes could be closed. In this paper we want to point out that tests of Bell's inequality also play an important role in verifying atom entanglement schemes. We describe as an example a scheme to prepare arbitrary entangled states of N two-level atoms using a leaky optical cavity and a scheme to entangle atoms inside a photonic crystal. During the state preparation no photons are emitted, and observing a violation of Bell's inequality is the only way to test whether a scheme works with a high precision or not. (orig.)

  15. Self-testing protocols based on the chained Bell inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Šupić, I; Augusiak, R; Salavrakos, A; Acín, A

    2016-01-01

    Self-testing is a device-independent technique based on non-local correlations whose aim is to certify the effective uniqueness of the quantum state and measurements needed to produce these correlations. It is known that the maximal violation of some Bell inequalities suffices for this purpose. However, most of the existing self-testing protocols for two devices exploit the well-known Clauser–Horne–Shimony–Holt Bell inequality or modifications of it, and always with two measurements per party. Here, we generalize the previous results by demonstrating that one can construct self-testing protocols based on the chained Bell inequalities, defined for two devices implementing an arbitrary number of two-output measurements. On the one hand, this proves that the quantum state and measurements leading to the maximal violation of the chained Bell inequality are unique. On the other hand, in the limit of a large number of measurements, our approach allows one to self-test the entire plane of measurements spanned by the Pauli matrices X and Z. Our results also imply that the chained Bell inequalities can be used to certify two bits of perfect randomness. (paper)

  16. Cosmic Bell Test: Measurement Settings from Milky Way Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handsteiner, Johannes; Friedman, Andrew S.; Rauch, Dominik; Gallicchio, Jason; Liu, Bo; Hosp, Hannes; Kofler, Johannes; Bricher, David; Fink, Matthias; Leung, Calvin; Mark, Anthony; Nguyen, Hien T.; Sanders, Isabella; Steinlechner, Fabian; Ursin, Rupert; Wengerowsky, Sören; Guth, Alan H.; Kaiser, David I.; Scheidl, Thomas; Zeilinger, Anton

    2017-02-01

    Bell's theorem states that some predictions of quantum mechanics cannot be reproduced by a local-realist theory. That conflict is expressed by Bell's inequality, which is usually derived under the assumption that there are no statistical correlations between the choices of measurement settings and anything else that can causally affect the measurement outcomes. In previous experiments, this "freedom of choice" was addressed by ensuring that selection of measurement settings via conventional "quantum random number generators" was spacelike separated from the entangled particle creation. This, however, left open the possibility that an unknown cause affected both the setting choices and measurement outcomes as recently as mere microseconds before each experimental trial. Here we report on a new experimental test of Bell's inequality that, for the first time, uses distant astronomical sources as "cosmic setting generators." In our tests with polarization-entangled photons, measurement settings were chosen using real-time observations of Milky Way stars while simultaneously ensuring locality. Assuming fair sampling for all detected photons, and that each stellar photon's color was set at emission, we observe statistically significant ≳7.31 σ and ≳11.93 σ violations of Bell's inequality with estimated p values of ≲1.8 ×10-13 and ≲4.0 ×10-33, respectively, thereby pushing back by ˜600 years the most recent time by which any local-realist influences could have engineered the observed Bell violation.

  17. Self-testing properties of Gisin's elegant Bell inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Ole; Badzi&aogo; g, Piotr; Bengtsson, Ingemar; Dumitru, Irina; Cabello, Adán

    2017-09-01

    An experiment in which the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality is maximally violated is self-testing (i.e., it certifies in a device-independent way both the state and the measurements). We prove that an experiment maximally violating Gisin's elegant Bell inequality is not similarly self-testing. The reason can be traced back to the problem of distinguishing an operator from its complex conjugate. We provide a complete and explicit characterization of all scenarios in which the elegant Bell inequality is maximally violated. This enables us to see exactly how the problem plays out.

  18. Testing the structure of multipartite entanglement with Bell inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Nicolas; Sharam, James; Vértesi, Tamás

    2012-03-16

    We show that the rich structure of multipartite entanglement can be tested following a device-independent approach. Specifically we present Bell inequalities for distinguishing between different types of multipartite entanglement, without placing any assumptions on the measurement devices used in the protocol, in contrast with usual entanglement witnesses. We first address the case of three qubits and present Bell inequalities that can be violated by W states but not by Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states, and vice versa. Next, we devise 'subcorrelation Bell inequalities' for any number of parties, which can provably not be violated by a broad class of multipartite entangled states (generalizations of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states), but for which violations can be obtained for W states. Our results give insight into the nonlocality of W states. The simplicity and robustness of our tests make them appealing for experiments.

  19. Proposed experimental test of Bell's inequality in nuclear beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skalsey, M.

    1986-01-01

    A β decay experiment is proposed for testing Bell's inequality, related to hidden-variables alternatives to quantum mechanics. The experiment uses Mott scattering for spin polarization analysis of internal conversion electrons. Beta-decay electrons, in cascade with the conversion electrons, are longitudinally polarized due to parity violation in the weak interaction. So simply detecting the β electron direction effectively measures the spin. A two-particle spin-spin correlation can thus be investigated and related, within certain assumptions, to Bell's inequality. The example of 203 Hg decay is used for a calculation of expected results. Specific problems related to nuclear structure and experimental inconsistencies are also discussed

  20. The necessity of randomness in tests of Bell inequalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bednorz, Adam; Zielinski, Jakub

    2003-08-11

    The possibility that detectors may affect the input quantum entangled state is pointed out. It is suggested that experiments testing Bell inequalities should be repeated with more randomly oriented polarizers to both close communication loophole and refute certain local variable theories with low efficiency bound.

  1. Test of Bell's inequality using the one-atom micromaser

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    However, the advantages of using two-level Rydberg atoms for test- ing Bell's inequalities are ... A couple of two-level. Rydberg atoms ... of decoherence on atomic statistics obtained through numerical analysis is presented inЬ4 where we also ...

  2. Game, cloud architecture and outreach for The BIG Bell Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abellan, Carlos; Tura, Jordi; Garcia, Marta; Beduini, Federica; Hirschmann, Alina; Pruneri, Valerio; Acin, Antonio; Marti, Maria; Mitchell, Morgan

    The BIG Bell test uses the input from the Bellsters, self-selected human participants introducing zeros and ones through an online videogame, to perform a suite of quantum physics experiments. In this talk, we will explore the videogame, the data infrastructure and the outreach efforts of the BIG Bell test collaboration. First, we will discuss how the game was designed so as to eliminate possible feedback mechanisms that could influence people's behavior. Second, we will discuss the cloud architecture design for scalability as well as explain how we sent each individual bit from the users to the labs. Also, and using all the bits collected via the BIG Bell test interface, we will show a data analysis on human randomness, e.g. are younger Bellsters more random than older Bellsters? Finally, we will talk about the outreach and communication efforts of the BIG Bell test collaboration, exploring both the social media campaigns as well as the close interaction with teachers and educators to bring the project into classrooms.

  3. Loopholes in Bell inequality tests of local realism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, Jan-Åke

    2014-01-01

    Bell inequalities are intended to show that local realist theories cannot describe the world. A local realist theory is one where physical properties are defined prior to and independent of measurement, and no physical influence can propagate faster than the speed of light. Quantum-mechanical predictions for certain experiments violate the Bell inequality while a local realist theory cannot, and this shows that a local realist theory cannot give those quantum-mechanical predictions. However, because of unexpected circumstances or ‘loopholes’ in available experiment tests, local realist theories can reproduce the data from these experiments. This paper reviews such loopholes, what effect they have on Bell inequality tests, and how to avoid them in experiment. Avoiding all these simultaneously in one experiment, usually called a ‘loophole-free’ or ‘definitive’ Bell test, remains an open task, but is very important for technological tasks such as device-independent security of quantum cryptography, and ultimately for our understanding of the world. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell’s theorem’. (review article)

  4. Recent approaches for bell pepper seed vigor testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Altomani Neves Dias

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Seed vigor is a major attribute in the determination of whether a seed lot can be commercialized. Different physiological tests are used to assess seed vigor and are generally based on different concepts, which could lead to variable interpretations, particularly when comparing lots presenting different vigor levels. This study was conducted to compare the different approaches used to evaluate bell pepper seed vigor and verify the applicability of the Seed Vigor Imaging System (SVIS for this purpose. The experiment was performed using four seed lots of bell pepper hybrids in two periods, and the evaluations involved germination, seedling emergence, seedling emergence speed index, saturated salt accelerated aging and image analysis. The use of seedling imaging analysis by SVISis a new approach for bell pepper seed vigor evaluation. Both the software and traditional tests provided sufficient information for seed vigor analysis, enabling the segregation of the analyzed seed lots. Thus, the new method fulfills the requirement for an efficient, rapid, cost-effective and standardized method that allows comparisons among laboratories and avoids human influence on the interpretation of the results. SVIS can be considered a feasible option to be included in quality assurance programs of the bell pepper seed industry.

  5. Recent approaches for bell pepper seed vigor testing.

    OpenAIRE

    DIAS, M. A. N.; MONDO, V. H. V.; CICERO, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    Seed vigor is a major attribute in the determination of whether a seed lot can be commercialized. Different physiological tests are used to assess seed vigor and are generally based on different concepts, which could lead to variable interpretations, particularly when comparing lots presenting different vigor levels. This study was conducted to compare the different approaches used to evaluate bell pepper seed vigor and verify the applicability of the Seed Vigor Imaging System (SVIS) for this...

  6. Recent approaches for bell pepper seed vigor testing

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Marcos Altomani Neves; Mondo, Vitor Henrique Vaz; Cicero, Silvio Moure

    2014-01-01

    Seed vigor is a major attribute in the determination of whether a seed lot can be commercialized. Different physiological tests are used to assess seed vigor and are generally based on different concepts, which could lead to variable interpretations, particularly when comparing lots presenting different vigor levels. This study was conducted to compare the different approaches used to evaluate bell pepper seed vigor and verify the applicability of the Seed Vigor Imaging System (SVIS) for this...

  7. BellTest and CHSH experiments with more than two settings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basoalto, R M; Percival, I C [Department of Physics, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-04

    Strong nonlocality allows signals faster than light. Weak nonlocality is a statistical property of classical events for which there is no realistic local theory. This requires the violation of at least one general Bell inequality. The theory of ideal quantum measurements predicts weak nonlocality but not strong nonlocality. Bell experiment here refers to any experiment designed to demonstrate weak nonlocality. BellTest is a computer program generally available on the Web to help planning and analysis of such Bell experiments. In Mode 1 it obtains general Bell inequalities. In Mode 2 it tests for their violation. We describe its use, with some new results for illustration.

  8. Prototype system tests of the Belle II PXD DAQ system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleischer, Soeren; Gessler, Thomas; Kuehn, Wolfgang; Lange, Jens Soeren; Muenchow, David; Spruck, Bjoern [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen (Germany); Liu, Zhen' An; Xu, Hao; Zhao, Jingzhou [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Collaboration: II PXD Collaboration

    2012-07-01

    The data acquisition system for the Belle II DEPFET Pixel Vertex Detector (PXD) is designed to cope with a high input data rate of up to 21.6 GB/s. The main hardware component will be AdvancedTCA-based Compute Nodes (CN) equipped with Xilinx Virtex-5 FX70T FPGAs. The design for the third Compute Node generation was completed recently. The xTCA-compliant system features a carrier board and 4 AMC daughter boards. First test results of a prototype board will be presented, including tests of (a) The high-speed optical links used for data input, (b) The two 2 GB DDR2-chips on the board and (c) Output of data via ethernet, using UDP and TCP/IP with both hardware and software protocol stacks.

  9. Experimental test of Bell's inequalities using angular correlation of compton-scattered annihilation photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osuch, S.; Popkiewicz, M.; Szeflinski, Z.; Wilhelmi, Z.

    1995-01-01

    The Bell's inequality has been experimentally tested using angular correlation of Compton-scattered photons from annihilation of positrons emitted from 22 Na source. The result shows a better agreement with the quantum mechanics predictions rather than with the Bell's inequality

  10. Boundary scan test of Belle II pixel detector electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitl, Philipp [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Muenchen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    For the upgrade of the Vertex Detector at the Belle II experiment, DEPFET sensors will be used. These sensors need Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) for control, readout and data processing. Because of high demands for a low material budget in the sensitive area, there is only little space left for these ASICs. Using state-of-the-art technologies like Ball Grid Array (BGA) chips, which are flip-chip mounted, the requirement of 14 ASICs on each of the 40 half ladders can be fulfilled. However, this highly integrated on-sensor ASIC solution results in a lack of physical access to the electrical connections, which is a problem for traditional testing methods. To overcome these limitations, the JTAG standard IEEE 1149.1 is used to check if the circuit is in working condition. This method provides electrical access to the boundary scan cells implemented in the ASICs. Therefore it is possible to perform connectivity tests and verify if the production of the circuit was successful.

  11. Is Einsteinian no-signalling violated in Bell tests?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kupczynski Marian

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Relativistic invariance is a physical law verified in several domains of physics. The impossibility of faster than light influences is not questioned by quantum theory. In quantum electrodynamics, in quantum field theory and in the standard model relativistic invariance is incorporated by construction. Quantum mechanics predicts strong long range correlations between outcomes of spin projection measurements performed in distant laboratories. In spite of these strong correlations marginal probability distributions should not depend on what was measured in the other laboratory what is called shortly: non-signalling. In several experiments, performed to test various Bell-type inequalities, some unexplained dependence of empirical marginal probability distributions on distant settings was observed. In this paper we demonstrate how a particular identification and selection procedure of paired distant outcomes is the most probable cause for this apparent violation of no-signalling principle. Thus this unexpected setting dependence does not prove the existence of superluminal influences and Einsteinian no-signalling principle has to be tested differently in dedicated experiments. We propose a detailed protocol telling how such experiments should be designed in order to be conclusive. We also explain how magical quantum correlations may be explained in a locally causal way.

  12. Is Einsteinian no-signalling violated in Bell tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupczynski, Marian

    2017-11-01

    Relativistic invariance is a physical law verified in several domains of physics. The impossibility of faster than light influences is not questioned by quantum theory. In quantum electrodynamics, in quantum field theory and in the standard model relativistic invariance is incorporated by construction. Quantum mechanics predicts strong long range correlations between outcomes of spin projection measurements performed in distant laboratories. In spite of these strong correlations marginal probability distributions should not depend on what was measured in the other laboratory what is called shortly: non-signalling. In several experiments, performed to test various Bell-type inequalities, some unexplained dependence of empirical marginal probability distributions on distant settings was observed. In this paper we demonstrate how a particular identification and selection procedure of paired distant outcomes is the most probable cause for this apparent violation of no-signalling principle. Thus this unexpected setting dependence does not prove the existence of superluminal influences and Einsteinian no-signalling principle has to be tested differently in dedicated experiments. We propose a detailed protocol telling how such experiments should be designed in order to be conclusive. We also explain how magical quantum correlations may be explained in a locally causal way.

  13. Towards Experiments to Test Violation of the Original Bell Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrennikov, Andrei; Basieva, Irina

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this note is to attract attention of experimenters to the original Bell (OB) inequality which was shadowed by the common consideration of the CHSH inequality. There are two reasons to test the OB inequality and not the CHSH inequality. First of all, the OB inequality is a straightforward consequence to the EPR-argumentation. And only this inequality is related to the EPR-Bohr debate. However, the last statement can be objected by some experts working in quantum foundations. Therefore to convince experimenters to perform the OB-violation experiment, we prefer to concentrate on the second distinguishing feature of the OB inequality which was emphasized by I. Pitowsky. He pointed out that the OB inequality provides a higher degree of violations of classicality than the CHSH inequality. The main problem is that the OB inequality is derived under the assumption of perfect (anti-) correlations. However, the last years were characterized by the amazing development of quantum technologies. Nowadays, there exist sources producing with very high probability the pairs of photons in the singlet state. Moreover, the efficiency of photon detectors was improved tremendously. In any event one can start by proceeding with the fair sampling assumption. Another possibility is to use the scheme of Hensen et al. experiment for entangled electrons.

  14. Tests of the gated mode for Belle II pixel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prinker, Eduard [Max-Planck-Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany); Collaboration: Belle II-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    DEPFET pixel detectors offer intrinsic amplification and very high signal to noise ratio. They form an integral building block for the vertex detector system of the Belle II experiment, which will start data taking in the year 2017 at the SuperKEKB Collider in Japan. A special Test board (Hybrid4) is used, which contains a small version of the DEPFET sensor with a read-out (DCD) and a steering chip (Switcher) attached, both controlled by a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) as the central interface to the computer. In order to keep the luminosity of the collider constant over time, the particle bunch currents have to be topped off by injecting additional bunches at a rate of 50 Hz. The particles in the daughter bunches produce a high rate of background (noisy bunches) for a short period of time, saturating the occupancy of the sensor. Operating the DEPFET sensor in a Gated Mode allows preserving the signals from collisions of normal bunches while protecting the pixels from background signals of the passing noisy bunches. An overview of the Gated Mode and first results is presented.

  15. Towards Experiments to Test Violation of the Original Bell Inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Khrennikov

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to attract the attention of experimenters to the original Bell (OB inequality that was shadowed by the common consideration of the Clauser–Horne–Shimony–Holt (CHSH inequality. There are two reasons to test the OB inequality and not the CHSH inequality. First of all, the OB inequality is a straightforward consequence to the Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen (EPR argumentation. In addition, only this inequality is directly related to the EPR–Bohr debate. The second distinguishing feature of the OB inequality was emphasized by Itamar Pitowsky. He pointed out that the OB inequality provides a higher degree of violations of classicality than the CHSH inequality. For the CHSH inequality, the fraction of the quantum (Tsirelson bound Q CHSH = 2 2 to the classical bound C CHSH = 2 , i.e., F CHSH = Q CHSH C CHSH = 2 is less than the fraction of the quantum bound for the OB inequality Q OB = 3 2 to the classical bound C OB = 1 , i.e., F OB = Q OB C OB = 3 2 . Thus, by violating the OB inequality, it is possible to approach a higher degree of deviation from classicality. The main problem is that the OB inequality is derived under the assumption of perfect (anti- correlations. However, the last few years have been characterized by the amazing development of quantum technologies. Nowadays, there exist sources producing, with very high probability, the pairs of photons in the singlet state. Moreover, the efficiency of photon detectors was improved tremendously. In any event, one can start by proceeding with the fair sampling assumption. Another possibility is to use the scheme of the Hensen et al. experiment for entangled electrons. Here, the detection efficiency is very high.

  16. Testing bell inequality at experiments of high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Xiqing; Li Xueqian; Ke Hongwei; Ding Yibing; Shen Pengnian

    2010-01-01

    Besides using the laser beam, it is very tempting to directly testify the Bell inequality at high energy experiments where the spin correlation is exactly what the original Bell inequality investigations. In this work, we follow the proposal raised in literature and use the successive decays J/ψ →γηc →Λ(Λ-bar)→pπ - (p-bar)π + to testify the Bell inequality. Our goal is twofold, namely, we first make a Monte-Carlo simulation of the processes based on the quantum field theory (QFT). Since the underlying theory is QFT, it implies that we pre-admit the validity of quantum picture. Even though the QFT is true, we need to find how big the database should be, so that we can clearly show deviations of the correlation from the Bell inequality determined by the local hidden variable theory. There have been some critiques on the proposed method, so in the second part, we suggest some improvements which may help to remedy the ambiguities indicated by the critiques. It may be realized at an updated facility of high energy physics, such as BES III. (authors)

  17. Diablo Canyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bindon, F.J.L.

    1986-01-01

    The paper traces the history of Diablo Canyon nuclear power station, California, which took 18 years to reach full-power testing from the planning stage. The major delays during the construction are outlined, as well as the costs of Diablo Canyon. (UK)

  18. Postselection-Loophole-Free Bell Test Over an Installed Optical Fiber Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvacho, Gonzalo; Cariñe, Jaime; Saavedra, Gabriel; Cuevas, Álvaro; Fuenzalida, Jorge; Toledo, Felipe; Figueroa, Miguel; Cabello, Adán; Larsson, Jan-Åke; Mataloni, Paolo; Lima, Gustavo; Xavier, Guilherme B

    2015-07-17

    Device-independent quantum communication will require a loophole-free violation of Bell inequalities. In typical scenarios where line of sight between the communicating parties is not available, it is convenient to use energy-time entangled photons due to intrinsic robustness while propagating over optical fibers. Here we show an energy-time Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt Bell inequality violation with two parties separated by 3.7 km over the deployed optical fiber network belonging to the University of Concepción in Chile. Remarkably, this is the first Bell violation with spatially separated parties that is free of the postselection loophole, which affected all previous in-field long-distance energy-time experiments. Our work takes a further step towards a fiber-based loophole-free Bell test, which is highly desired for secure quantum communication due to the widespread existing telecommunication infrastructure.

  19. Significant-Loophole-Free Test of Bell's Theorem with Entangled Photons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giustina, Marissa; Versteegh, Marijn A M; Wengerowsky, Sören; Handsteiner, Johannes; Hochrainer, Armin; Phelan, Kevin; Steinlechner, Fabian; Kofler, Johannes; Larsson, Jan-Åke; Abellán, Carlos; Amaya, Waldimar; Pruneri, Valerio; Mitchell, Morgan W; Beyer, Jörn; Gerrits, Thomas; Lita, Adriana E; Shalm, Lynden K; Nam, Sae Woo; Scheidl, Thomas; Ursin, Rupert; Wittmann, Bernhard; Zeilinger, Anton

    2015-12-18

    Local realism is the worldview in which physical properties of objects exist independently of measurement and where physical influences cannot travel faster than the speed of light. Bell's theorem states that this worldview is incompatible with the predictions of quantum mechanics, as is expressed in Bell's inequalities. Previous experiments convincingly supported the quantum predictions. Yet, every experiment requires assumptions that provide loopholes for a local realist explanation. Here, we report a Bell test that closes the most significant of these loopholes simultaneously. Using a well-optimized source of entangled photons, rapid setting generation, and highly efficient superconducting detectors, we observe a violation of a Bell inequality with high statistical significance. The purely statistical probability of our results to occur under local realism does not exceed 3.74×10^{-31}, corresponding to an 11.5 standard deviation effect.

  20. Maneuver Acoustic Flight Test of the Bell 430 Helicopter Data Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Michael E.; Greenwood, Eric; Smith, Charles D.; Snider, Royce; Conner, David A.

    2014-01-01

    A cooperative ight test by NASA, Bell Helicopter and the U.S. Army to characterize the steady state acoustics and measure the maneuver noise of a Bell Helicopter 430 aircraft was accomplished. The test occurred during June/July 2011 at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida. This test gathered a total of 410 test points over 10 test days and compiled an extensive database of dynamic maneuver measurements. Three microphone arrays with up to 31 microphon. es in each were used to acquire acoustic data. Aircraft data included Differential Global Positioning System, aircraft state and rotor state information. This paper provides an overview of the test and documents the data acquired.

  1. Experimental tests of Bell's inequalities in atomic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspect, A.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter attempts to show that the formalism leading to Bell's Inequalities is very general and reasonable. Discusses supplementary parameters; the Einstein-Podolsky-Bohm Gedanken Experiment; the conflict with quantum mechanics; Gedanken experiment with variable analyzers (the locality condition as a consequence of Einstein's causality); production of pairs of photons correlated in polarization; general considerations for a real sensitive experiment; previous experiments; experiments with one channel polarizer; the Orsay experiments; coincidence counting; two-channel analyzers; and timing experiments. Concludes that supplementary parameters theories obeying Einstein's causality and compatible with the results are somewhat artificial, since the experimental results would have to change dramatically (disagreement with Quantum Mechanics) with certain technical improvements (such as an increase of the efficiencies of the photomultipliers)

  2. Specifications, tests, and installation of wires and cables for the Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dan, F.J.

    1977-01-01

    The process of selecting wires and cables for the Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Project is described. The criteria for the fire and environmental tests, the basis for the specifications, and the reasons for the final choice and acceptance are outlined. A short section is dedicated to the installation of cables in raceways with reference to separation and color coding. Also covered are the selection and testing of fire stops and the selection of seismic supports

  3. Cosmic ray test of the Belle II z-vertex trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhaus, Sara; Skambraks, Sebastian [Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Chen, Yang; Kiesling, Christian [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The z-vertex trigger is part of the first level track trigger in the Belle II experiment. Its task is the rejection of tracks not coming from the interaction region, suppressing a large part of the machine background. Therefore the z-vertex trigger allows to relax other track trigger conditions and thus strongly increases the efficiency for channels with low track multiplicity (e.g. tau pair production). The track trigger works in several steps, first combining hits to track segments, followed by a 2D track finding in the transverse plane and finally the 3D reconstruction. Our method employs neural networks to estimate the z-vertex without explicit track reconstruction. For the first real test with cosmic rays special neural networks have been prepared. Although the track shape in the cosmic test is different than in the Belle II experiment, the neural networks require only a retraining with an appropriate data set to adapt to the new geometry.

  4. Quantum random number generation for loophole-free Bell tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Morgan; Abellan, Carlos; Amaya, Waldimar

    2015-05-01

    We describe the generation of quantum random numbers at multi-Gbps rates, combined with real-time randomness extraction, to give very high purity random numbers based on quantum events at most tens of ns in the past. The system satisfies the stringent requirements of quantum non-locality tests that aim to close the timing loophole. We describe the generation mechanism using spontaneous-emission-driven phase diffusion in a semiconductor laser, digitization, and extraction by parity calculation using multi-GHz logic chips. We pay special attention to experimental proof of the quality of the random numbers and analysis of the randomness extraction. In contrast to widely-used models of randomness generators in the computer science literature, we argue that randomness generation by spontaneous emission can be extracted from a single source.

  5. Three experimental tests of Bell's inequalities by measurement of polarization correlation of photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspect, A.

    1983-02-01

    We have performed three experimental tests of Bell's inequalities by measuring the linear-polarization correlation of photons emitted by pairs in the 4p 2 1 S 0 → 4s4p 1 P 1 → 4s 2 1 S 0 radiative cascade of calcium. The first part of this dissertation reminds the theoretical background (Bell's theorem), and the experimental situation (previous experiments). We then describe our apparatus: the source (calcium atomic beam selectively excited by two-photon absorption), the optics, the photon coincidence-counting system. Our first experiment, analogous to previous ones (but more precise) involves one-channel polarizers. Our second experiment, based on a conceptually simpler scheme, uses two-channel polarizers. The third experiment involves acousto-optical switches followed by two linear polarizers: these devices act as time-varying polarizers, the orientation of which is changed during the time of flight of photons. In the three experiments, the results are in good agreement with the Quantum mechanical predictions, and they distinctly violate the relevant Bell's inequalities [fr

  6. Configuration of separability and tests for multipartite entanglement in bell-type experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Koji; Koashi, Masato; Imoto, Nobuyuki

    2002-12-23

    We derive tight quadratic inequalities for all kinds of hybrid separable-inseparable n-particle density operators on an arbitrary dimensional space. This methodology enables us to derive a tight quadratic inequality as tests for full n-partite entanglement in various Bell-type correlation experiments on the systems that may not be identified as a collection of qubits, e.g., those involving photons measured by incomplete detectors. It is also proved that when the two measured observables are assumed to precisely anticommute, a stronger quadratic inequality can be used as a witness of full n-partite entanglement.

  7. After Bell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khrennikov, Andrei [International Center for Mathematical Modeling in Physics, Engineering, Economics, and Cognitive Science Linnaeus University, Vaexjoe (Sweden)

    2017-06-15

    We analyze foundational consequences of recently reported loophole free tests of violation of Bell's inequality. We consider two interpretations of these remarkable experiments. The conventional one is ''Einstein was wrong and Bohr was right, there is spooky action at a distance, quantum realism is incompatible with locality.'' However, in line with discussions in literature during last decade, we show that it is still possible to treat quantum mechanics without appealing to nonlocality or denying realism. We hope that this note will call the attention of experts in quantum foundations and convince them that the case is not closed, so that they should come with their own comments on the status of the final Bell test. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. After Bell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2017-01-01

    We analyze foundational consequences of recently reported loophole free tests of violation of Bell's inequality. We consider two interpretations of these remarkable experiments. The conventional one is ''Einstein was wrong and Bohr was right, there is spooky action at a distance, quantum realism is incompatible with locality.'' However, in line with discussions in literature during last decade, we show that it is still possible to treat quantum mechanics without appealing to nonlocality or denying realism. We hope that this note will call the attention of experts in quantum foundations and convince them that the case is not closed, so that they should come with their own comments on the status of the final Bell test. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Test of the HAPD light sensor for the Belle II Aerogel RICH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusa, Y.; Adachi, I.; Dolenec, R.; Hayata, K.; Iori, S.; Iwata, S.; Kakuno, H.; Kataura, R.; Kawai, H.; Kindo, H.; Kobayashi, T.; Korpar, S.; Krizan, P.; Kumita, T.; Mrvar, M.; Nishida, S.; Ogawa, K.; Pestotnik, R.; Santelj, L.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Tabata, M.; Yonenaga, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Aerogel Ring-Imaging Cherenkov detector (ARICH) is being installed in the endcap region of Belle II spectrometer to identify particles from B meson decays by detecting the Cherenkov ring image from aerogel radiators. To detect single photons, high-sensitive photon detector which has wide effective area (∼70 mm × 70 mm), a Hybrid Avalanche Photo Detector (HAPD), has been developed in a collaboration with Hamamatsu K.K. The HAPD consists of hybrid structure of a vacuum tube and an avalanche photodiode (APD). It can be operated in 1.5 T magnetic field of the spectrometer and withstands the radiation levels expected in the Belle II experiment. There are two steps of electric pulse amplification: acceleration of photo-electron in electric field in the vacuum tube part and electron avalanche in the APD part resulting in total gain of order 105. For the ARICH, we use 420 HAPDs in total. Before installing them, we performed quality assessment studies such as measurements of dark current, noise level, signal-to-noise ratio and two-dimensional scan with laser illumination. We also measured quantum efficiency of the photocathode. During the HAPD performance tests in the magnetic field, we observed very large signal pulses which cause long dead time of the readout electronics in some of the HAPDs. We have carried out a number of studies to understand this phenomenon, and have found a way to mitigate it and suppress the degradation of the ARICH performance. In this report, we will show a summary of the HAPD performance and quality assessment measurements including validation in the magnetic field for all of the HAPDs manufactured for the ARICH in the Belle II.

  10. Minimum detection efficiencies for a loophole-free observable-asymmetric Bell-type test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbarino, G.

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the problem of finding the most favorable conditions for closing the detection loophole in a test of local realism with a Bell inequality. For a generic nonmaximally entangled two-qubit state and two incompatible bases to be adopted for alternative measurements of two observables a and b on each party, we apply Hardy's proof of nonlocality without inequality and derive an Eberhard-like inequality. For an infinity of nonmaximally entangled states we find that it is possible to refute local realism by requiring perfect detection efficiency for only one of the two observables, say b, to be measured on each party: The test is free from the detection loophole for any value of the detection efficiency corresponding to the other observable a. The maximum tolerable noise in such a loophole-free observable-asymmetric test is also evaluated.

  11. Hybrid quantum logic and a test of Bell's inequality using two different atomic isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballance, C J; Schäfer, V M; Home, J P; Szwer, D J; Webster, S C; Allcock, D T C; Linke, N M; Harty, T P; Aude Craik, D P L; Stacey, D N; Steane, A M; Lucas, D M

    2015-12-17

    Entanglement is one of the most fundamental properties of quantum mechanics, and is the key resource for quantum information processing (QIP). Bipartite entangled states of identical particles have been generated and studied in several experiments, and post-selected or heralded entangled states involving pairs of photons, single photons and single atoms, or different nuclei in the solid state, have also been produced. Here we use a deterministic quantum logic gate to generate a 'hybrid' entangled state of two trapped-ion qubits held in different isotopes of calcium, perform full tomography of the state produced, and make a test of Bell's inequality with non-identical atoms. We use a laser-driven two-qubit gate, whose mechanism is insensitive to the qubits' energy splittings, to produce a maximally entangled state of one (40)Ca(+) qubit and one (43)Ca(+) qubit, held 3.5 micrometres apart in the same ion trap, with 99.8 ± 0.6 per cent fidelity. We test the CHSH (Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt) version of Bell's inequality for this novel entangled state and find that it is violated by 15 standard deviations; in this test, we close the detection loophole but not the locality loophole. Mixed-species quantum logic is a powerful technique for the construction of a quantum computer based on trapped ions, as it allows protection of memory qubits while other qubits undergo logic operations or are used as photonic interfaces to other processing units. The entangling gate mechanism used here can also be applied to qubits stored in different atomic elements; this would allow both memory and logic gate errors caused by photon scattering to be reduced below the levels required for fault-tolerant quantum error correction, which is an essential prerequisite for general-purpose quantum computing.

  12. Ion exchange media testing for processing recyclable and nonrecyclable liquids at Diablo Canyon Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, K.L.; Miller, C.C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on several ion exchange materials tested for processing nonrecyclable and recyclable liquid wastes at Diablo Canyon Power Plant. These ion exchange materials include inorganic Durasil media, natural and synthetic zeolites, and various organic resins. Additional tests were performed using a polyelectrolyte pretreatment technique to enhance processing of liquid wastes by ion exchange. A 9:1 ratio of cation to anion resin, consisting of IRN-77 and Sybron A-642 was effective in decontaminating cesium and cobalt radionuclides for low conductivity nonrecyclable liquids. A mixture of zeolite and Durasil media was most effective in removing cesium and cobalt from nonrecyclable high conductivity liquids. The experimental Dow resins achieved the best results in decontaminating recyclable liquids and minimized the effluent levels of chlorides, sulfates, and silica

  13. Bell's Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or paralysis. Bell's palsy is named for Sir Charles Bell, a 19th century Scottish surgeon who described ... confirm diagnosis of the disorder. Generally, a physician will examine the individual for upper and lower facial ...

  14. Bell's Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell's palsy is the most common cause of facial paralysis. It usually affects just one side of the ... become inflamed. You are most likely to get Bell's palsy if you are pregnant, diabetic or sick with ...

  15. Niépce–Bell or Turing: how to test odour reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Decades before the existence of anything resembling an artificial intelligence system, Alan Turing raised the question of how to test whether machines can think, or, in modern terminology, whether a computer claimed to exhibit intelligence indeed does so. This paper raises the analogous issue for olfaction: how to test the validity of a system claimed to reproduce arbitrary odours artificially, in a way recognizable to humans. Although odour reproduction systems are still far from being viable, the question of how to test candidates thereof is claimed to be interesting and non-trivial, and a novel method is proposed. Despite the similarity between the two questions and their surfacing long before the tested systems exist, the present question cannot be answered adequately by a Turing-like method. Instead, our test is very different: it is conditional, requiring from the artificial no more than is required from the original, and it employs a novel method of immersion that takes advantage of the availability of easily recognizable reproduction methods for sight and sound, a la Nicéphore Niépce and Alexander Graham Bell. PMID:28003527

  16. Niépce-Bell or Turing: how to test odour reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, David

    2016-12-01

    Decades before the existence of anything resembling an artificial intelligence system, Alan Turing raised the question of how to test whether machines can think, or, in modern terminology, whether a computer claimed to exhibit intelligence indeed does so. This paper raises the analogous issue for olfaction: how to test the validity of a system claimed to reproduce arbitrary odours artificially, in a way recognizable to humans. Although odour reproduction systems are still far from being viable, the question of how to test candidates thereof is claimed to be interesting and non-trivial, and a novel method is proposed. Despite the similarity between the two questions and their surfacing long before the tested systems exist, the present question cannot be answered adequately by a Turing-like method. Instead, our test is very different: it is conditional, requiring from the artificial no more than is required from the original, and it employs a novel method of immersion that takes advantage of the availability of easily recognizable reproduction methods for sight and sound, a la Nicéphore Niépce and Alexander Graham Bell. © 2016 The Authors.

  17. High-visibility time-bin entanglement for testing chained Bell inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasin, Marco; Mantoan, Elia; Jogenfors, Jonathan; Vallone, Giuseppe; Larsson, Jan-Åke; Villoresi, Paolo

    2017-03-01

    The violation of Bell's inequality requires a well-designed experiment to validate the result. In experiments using energy-time and time-bin entanglement, initially proposed by Franson in 1989, there is an intrinsic loophole due to the high postselection. To obtain a violation in this type of experiment, a chained Bell inequality must be used. However, the local realism bound requires a high visibility in excess of 94.63% in the time-bin entangled state. In this work, we show how such a high visibility can be reached in order to violate a chained Bell inequality with six, eight, and ten terms.

  18. Experiments tests of Bell's inequalities with pairs of low energy correlated photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspect, A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews the essence of Bell's reasoning, the purpose of which is to convince the reader that a very natural way of understanding the EPR correlations is to complete quantum mechanics in the way considered by Bell. It is noted that Bell's theorem states a conflict between local supplementary parameters theories and certain quantum mechanical predictions. It yields a quantitative criterion for this conflict, that allows one to design sensitive experiments. These experiments are presented in the paper. It is concluded that the predictions of quantum mechanics in EPR-type situations are vindicated by the experiments

  19. Bell's Palsy (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... palsy was named after a Scottish doctor, Sir Charles Bell, who studied the two facial nerves that ... who focuses on how the nervous system works — will do a test called electromyography (say: eh-lek- ...

  20. A significant-loophole-free test of Bell's theorem with entangled photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giustina, Marissa; Versteegh, Marijn A. M.; Wengerowsky, Sören; Handsteiner, Johannes; Hochrainer, Armin; Phelan, Kevin; Steinlechner, Fabian; Kofler, Johannes; Larsson, Jan-Åke; Abellán, Carlos; Amaya, Waldimar; Mitchell, Morgan W.; Beyer, Jörn; Gerrits, Thomas; Lita, Adriana E.; Shalm, Lynden K.; Nam, Sae Woo; Scheidl, Thomas; Ursin, Rupert; Wittmann, Bernhard; Zeilinger, Anton

    2017-10-01

    John Bell's theorem of 1964 states that local elements of physical reality, existing independent of measurement, are inconsistent with the predictions of quantum mechanics (Bell, J. S. (1964), Physics (College. Park. Md). Specifically, correlations between measurement results from distant entangled systems would be smaller than predicted by quantum physics. This is expressed in Bell's inequalities. Employing modifications of Bell's inequalities, many experiments have been performed that convincingly support the quantum predictions. Yet, all experiments rely on assumptions, which provide loopholes for a local realist explanation of the measurement. Here we report an experiment with polarization-entangled photons that simultaneously closes the most significant of these loopholes. We use a highly efficient source of entangled photons, distributed these over a distance of 58.5 meters, and implemented rapid random setting generation and high-efficiency detection to observe a violation of a Bell inequality with high statistical significance. The merely statistical probability of our results to occur under local realism is less than 3.74×10-31, corresponding to an 11.5 standard deviation effect.

  1. Bell Test over Extremely High-Loss Channels: Towards Distributing Entangled Photon Pairs between Earth and the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuan; Li, Yu-Huai; Zou, Wen-Jie; Li, Zheng-Ping; Shen, Qi; Liao, Sheng-Kai; Ren, Ji-Gang; Yin, Juan; Chen, Yu-Ao; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2018-04-01

    Quantum entanglement was termed "spooky action at a distance" in the well-known paper by Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen. Entanglement is expected to be distributed over longer and longer distances in both practical applications and fundamental research into the principles of nature. Here, we present a proposal for distributing entangled photon pairs between Earth and the Moon using a Lagrangian point at a distance of 1.28 light seconds. One of the most fascinating features in this long-distance distribution of entanglement is as follows. One can perform the Bell test with human supplying the random measurement settings and recording the results while still maintaining spacelike intervals. To realize a proof-of-principle experiment, we develop an entangled photon source with 1 GHz generation rate, about 2 orders of magnitude higher than previous results. Violation of Bell's inequality was observed under a total simulated loss of 103 dB with measurement settings chosen by two experimenters. This demonstrates the feasibility of such long-distance Bell test over extremely high-loss channels, paving the way for one of the ultimate tests of the foundations of quantum mechanics.

  2. EX1301: Ship Shakedown and Patch Test Exploration, NE Canyons and Seamounts on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer between 20130318 and 20130405

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Following annual ship shakedown and patch tests, EX1301 will complete the comprehensive mapping of the Northeast canyons and the adjacent continental shelf carried...

  3. Dissolution of Material and Test reactor Fuel in an H-Canyon Dissolver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, W. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Rudisill, T. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); O' Rourke, P. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-01-26

    In an amended record of decision for the management of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Savannah River Site, the US Department of Energy has authorized the dissolution and recovery of U from 1000 bundles of Al-clad SNF. The SNF is fuel from domestic and foreign research reactors and is typically referred to as Material Test Reactor (MTR) fuel. Bundles of MTR fuel containing assemblies fabricated from U-Al alloys (or other U compounds) are currently dissolved using a Hg-catalyzed HNO3 flowsheet. Since the development of the existing flowsheet, improved experimental methods have been developed to more accurately characterize the offgas composition and generation rate during laboratory dissolutions. Recently, these new techniques were successfully used to develop a flowsheet for the dissolution of High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) fuel. Using the data from the HFIR dissolution flowsheet development and necessary laboratory experiments, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to define flowsheet conditions for the dissolution of MTR fuels. With improved offgas characterization techniques, SRNL will be able define the number of bundles of fuel which can be charged to an H-Canyon dissolver with much less conservatism.

  4. Bell inequalities and waiting times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poeltl, Christina; Governale, Michele [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences and MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Victoria University of Wellington, PO Box 600, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand)

    2015-07-01

    We propose a Bell test based on waiting time distributions for spin entangled electron pairs, which are generated and split in mesoscopic Coulomb blockade structures, denoted as entanglers. These systems have the advantage that quantum point contacts enable a time resolved observation of the electrons occupying the system, which gives access to quantities such as full counting statistics and waiting time distributions. We use the partial waiting times to define a CHSH-Bell test, which is a purely electronic analogue of the test used in quantum optics. After the introduction of the Bell inequality we discuss the findings on the two examples of a double quantum dot and a triple quantum dot. This Bell test allows the exclusion of irrelevant tunnel processes from the statistics normally used for the Bell correlations. This can improve the parameter range for which a violation of the Bell inequality can be measured significantly.

  5. Ponded infiltration tests at the Box Canyon site: data report and preliminary analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, Paul; Faybishenko, Boris; Freifeld, Barry; Jacobsen, Janet; Lee, Ki Ha; Salve, Rohit; Zawislanski, Peter

    1998-01-01

    We discuss the design and present the main results of a two-week ponded infiltration test conducted in 1996 at the Box Canyon site near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. To investigate liquid flow and chemical transport in fractured basalt, the following types of instruments were installed in boreholes: tensiometers, suction lysimeters, thermistors, time domain reflectrometry probes, and electrical resisitivity probes. These probes were installed using an innovative technology of borehole instrumentation and completion using polyurethane foam injection. The probes were attached to plastic packers that were inflated using the polyurethane foam, and then the space between packers was back-filled with the foam in order to ensure the isolation of the instruments at different depths. Polyurethane foam showed great promise in enabling rapid, cost-effective installation of sensors and probes in fractured rock. A ponded infiltration test was conducted from 8/27/96 to 9/9/96, by maintaining water to an average depth of 23 cm in a rectangular infiltration pond. Within the 7 x 8 m pond, nine local infiltrometers (0.25 m diameter) were-installed to determine local values of the water flux. A slug of conservative tracer (KM) was added to the pond on 9/2/96, yielding a tracer concentration in the pond of approximately 3 g/L. The water supply to the pond was halted for two days so that the tracer concentration in the pond water would remain essentially constant. Thereafter, the water supply was re-established to maintain a constant water level. Installation procedures and measurement results for each type of probe are presented, along with a description of the data acquisition system. The attachments include a description of the calibration and testing of instrumentation. The data files can be found at the FTP site zenitMnel/ or the Web site http://www- esd.lbl.gov/ERT/inel/inel.htrnl

  6. Archaeological Test and Data Recovery Program at Telegraph Canyon, Chula Vista, California,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-09-01

    Several areas in the immediate vicinity were known to contain subsurface cables used to control SDG &E’s power network, and required avoidance. Addi...3 oEST FACE A TRENCH 4 Corps of Engineers Telegraph Canyon Creek WESTEC Servjces. Inr . compass bearing 20 7 ;7777,77 .77 7 1 METERS 170 c{ METERS...666 1.00 ~ 0 1.33 E -2.*00 -2.33 2.66 3.00 FUREf TRENCH 4 Corps of EngineersgTelegraph Canyon Creek; compass bearing 20 28 ’Lb..--._ .. *.* o •- -. o

  7. Bell's Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have been linked to Bell's palsy include the virus that causes: Cold sores and genital herpes (herpes simplex) Chickenpox and shingles (herpes zoster) Infectious mononucleosis (Epstein-Barr) Cytomegalovirus infections Respiratory illnesses (adenovirus) German measles (rubella) ...

  8. Experimental test of Bell's inequality with a proton pair and quantum nonlocality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Hideyuki; Saito, Takaaki

    2009-01-01

    One of the most profound feature of quantum mechanics is the non-locality of entangled system. Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) criticized this non-locality from the classical view point, realistic local theory. This criticism is known as the EPR paradox which has been thought as a philosophical argument between Copenhagen interpretation and EPR rather than the experimental issue. About 30 years later, John Bell found the inequality which is amenable to experiments. We succeeded to measure the spin correlation of an entangled proton pair in high accuracy which disagrees with Bell's inequality and confirmed the nonlocality of quantum mechanics in the massive Fermion pair. This short article introduces our experiment. The difference between present experiment and photon experiments is briefly mentioned. (author)

  9. Analysis of elliptically polarized maximally entangled states for bell inequality tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A.; Smirr, J.-L.; Kaiser, F.; Diamanti, E.; Issautier, A.; Alibart, O.; Frey, R.; Zaquine, I.; Tanzilli, S.

    2012-06-01

    When elliptically polarized maximally entangled states are considered, i.e., states having a non random phase factor between the two bipartite polarization components, the standard settings used for optimal violation of Bell inequalities are no longer adapted. One way to retrieve the maximal amount of violation is to compensate for this phase while keeping the standard Bell inequality analysis settings. We propose in this paper a general theoretical approach that allows determining and adjusting the phase of elliptically polarized maximally entangled states in order to optimize the violation of Bell inequalities. The formalism is also applied to several suggested experimental phase compensation schemes. In order to emphasize the simplicity and relevance of our approach, we also describe an experimental implementation using a standard Soleil-Babinet phase compensator. This device is employed to correct the phase that appears in the maximally entangled state generated from a type-II nonlinear photon-pair source after the photons are created and distributed over fiber channels.

  10. Construction and test of the first Belle II SVD ladder implementing the origami chip-on-sensor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irmler, C.; Bauer, A.; Bergauer, T.; Adamczyk, K.; Bacher, S.; Aihara, H.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bosi, F.; Aziz, T.; Babu, V.; Bahinipati, S.; Barberio, E.; Baroncelli, Ti.; Baroncelli, To.; Basith, A.K.; Behera, P.K.; Bhuyan, B.; Bilka, T.

    2016-01-01

    The Belle II Silicon Vertex Detector comprises four layers of double-sided silicon strip detectors (DSSDs), consisting of ladders with two to five sensors each. All sensors are individually read out by APV25 chips with the Origami chip-on-sensor concept for the central DSSDs of the ladders. The chips sit on flexible circuits that are glued on the top of the sensors. This concept allows a low material budget and an efficient cooling of the chips by a single pipe per ladder. We present the construction of the first SVD ladders and results from precision measurements and electrical tests

  11. Performance tests of a full scale prototype of the Belle II TOP counter with cosmic muons and 2.1 GeV/c positron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, Tomokatsu

    2014-12-01

    A time-of-propagation detector named TOP is a hadronic particle identification system for the Belle II experiment. We have produced a full scale prototype of the Belle II TOP counter and tested with cosmic muons at KEK and the 2.1 GeV/c positrons at SPring-8 LEPS beamline. The procedures for the quartz acceptance test and assembly worked well and the first quartz radiator was successfully fabricated. The obtained test data shows good agreement with Monte Carlo expectation. - Highlights: • We have successfully produced a full scale prototype of the Belle II TOP counter. • The prototype counter has been tested at KEK and SPring-8 LEPS beamline. • The obtained test data shows good agreement with Monte Carlo expectation.

  12. Numerical model of turbulence, sediment transport, and morphodynamics tested in the Colorado River at Grand Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, L. V.; Grams, P.

    2017-12-01

    We present a parallelized, three-dimensional, turbulence-resolving model using the Detached-Eddy Simulation (DES) technique, tested at the scale of the river-reach in the Colorado River. DES is a hybrid large eddy simulation (LES) and Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes (RANS). RANS is applied to the near-bed grid cells, where grid resolution is not sufficient to fully resolve wall turbulence. LES is applied in the flow interior. We utilize the Spalart-Allmaras one equation turbulence closure with a rough wall extension. The model resolves large-scale turbulence using DES and simultaneously integrates the suspended sediment advection-diffusion equation. The Smith and McLean suspended sediment boundary condition is used to calculate the upward and downward settling of sediment fluxes in the grid cells attached to the bed. Model results compare favorably with ADCP measurements of flow taken on the Colorado River in Grand Canyon during the High Flow Experiment (HFE) of 2008. The model accurately reproduces the size and position of the major recirculation currents, and the error in velocity magnitude was found to be less than 17% or 0.22 m/s absolute error. The mean deviation of the direction of velocity with respect to the measured velocity was found to be 20 degrees. Large-scale turbulence structures with vorticity predominantly in the vertical direction are produced at the shear layer between the main channel and the separation zone. However, these structures rapidly become three-dimensional with no preferred orientation of vorticity. Cross-stream velocities, into the main recirculation zone just upstream of the point of reattachment and out of the main recirculation region just downstream of the point of separation, are highest near the bed. Lateral separation eddies are more efficient at storing and exporting sediment than previously modeled. The input of sediment to the eddy recirculation zone occurs in the interface of the eddy and main channel. Pulsation of the

  13. Hacking the Bell test using classical light in energy-time entanglement-based quantum key distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jogenfors, Jonathan; Elhassan, Ashraf Mohamed; Ahrens, Johan; Bourennane, Mohamed; Larsson, Jan-Åke

    2015-12-01

    Photonic systems based on energy-time entanglement have been proposed to test local realism using the Bell inequality. A violation of this inequality normally also certifies security of device-independent quantum key distribution (QKD) so that an attacker cannot eavesdrop or control the system. We show how this security test can be circumvented in energy-time entangled systems when using standard avalanche photodetectors, allowing an attacker to compromise the system without leaving a trace. We reach Bell values up to 3.63 at 97.6% faked detector efficiency using tailored pulses of classical light, which exceeds even the quantum prediction. This is the first demonstration of a violation-faking source that gives both tunable violation and high faked detector efficiency. The implications are severe: the standard Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality cannot be used to show device-independent security for energy-time entanglement setups based on Franson's configuration. However, device-independent security can be reestablished, and we conclude by listing a number of improved tests and experimental setups that would protect against all current and future attacks of this type.

  14. Microscopic and macroscopic bell inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, E.

    1984-01-01

    The Bell inequalities, being derived for micro-systems, cannot be tested by (macroscopic) experiments without additional assumptions. A macroscopic definition of local realism is proposed which might be the starting point for deriving Bell inequalities testable without auxiliary assumptions. (orig.)

  15. Major-element geochemistry of the Silent Canyon--Black Mountain peralkaline volcanic centers, northwestern Nevada Test Site: applications to an assessment of renewed volcanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, B.M.; Sargent, K.A.

    1979-01-01

    The Silent Canyon and Black Mountain volcanic centers are located in the northern part of the Nevada Test Site. The Silent Canyon volcanic center is a buried cauldron complex of Miocene age (13 to 15 m.y.). Black Mountain volcanic center is an elliptical-shaped cauldron complex of late Miocene age. The lavas and tuffs of the two centers comprise a subalkaline-peralkaline association. Rock types range from quartz normative subalkaline trachyte and rhyolite to peralkaline commendite. The Gold Flat Member of the Thirsty Canyon Tuff (Black Mountain) is a pantellerite. The major-element geochemistry of the Black Mountain--Silent Canyon volcanic centers differ in the total range and distribution of SiO 2 , contents, the degree of peralkalinity (molecular Na 2 O + K 2 O > Al 2 O 3 ) and in the values of total iron and alumina through the range of rock types. These differences indicate that the suites were unrelated and evolved from differing magma bodies. The Black Mountain volcanic cycle represents a renewed phase of volcanism following cessation of the Timber Mountain--Silent Canyon volcanic cycles. Consequently, there is a small but numerically incalculable probability of recurrence of Black Mountain-type volcanism within the Nevada Test Site region. This represents a potential risk with respect to deep geologic storage of high-level radioactive waste at the Nevada Test Site

  16. Flight service evaluation of composite components on the Bell Helicopter model 206L: Design, fabrication and testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinberg, H.

    1982-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and testing phases of a program to obtain long term flight service experience on representative helicopter airframe structural components operating in typical commercial environments are described. The aircraft chosen is the Bell Helicopter Model 206L. The structural components are the forward fairing, litter door, baggage door, and vertical fin. The advanced composite components were designed to replace the production parts in the field and were certified by the FAA to be operable through the full flight envelope of the 206L. A description of the fabrication process that was used for each of the components is given. Static failing load tests on all components were done. In addition fatigue tests were run on four specimens that simulated the attachment of the vertical fin to the helicopter's tail boom.

  17. Bell inequalities for the simplest exclusivity graph

    OpenAIRE

    Sadiq, Muhamad; Badziag, Piotr; Bourennane, Mohamed; Cabello, Adan

    2011-01-01

    Which is the simplest logical structure for which there is quantum nonlocality? We show that there are only three bipartite Bell inequalities with quantum violation associated with the simplest graph of relationships of exclusivity with a quantum-classical gap. These are the most elementary logical Bell inequalities. We show that the quantum violation of some well-known Bell inequalities is related to them. We test the three Bell inequalities with pairs of polarization-entangled photons and r...

  18. Quantum mechanics and hidden variables: A test of Bell's inequality by the measurement of the spin correlation in low-energy proton-proton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamehi-Rachti, M.; Mittig, W.

    1976-01-01

    The inequality of Bell has been tested by the measurement of the spin correlation in proton-proton scattering. Measurements were made at E/sub p/ = 13.2 and 13.7 MeV using carbon analyzers of 18.6 and 29 mg/cm 2 , respectively, accumulating a total of 10 4 coincidences. The experimental analyzing power, geometric correlation coefficients, and energy spectra are compared to the result of a Monte Carlo simulation of the apparatus. The results are in good agreement with quantum mechanics and in disagreement with the inequality of Bell if the same additional assumptions are made. The conditions for comparing the results of the experiments to the inequality of Bell are discussed

  19. Bell's Palsy Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Bell's Palsy Sections What Is Bell's Palsy? Bell's Palsy Symptoms Bell's Palsy Treatment Bell's Palsy Treatment Leer en Español: Tratamiento de la parálisis ...

  20. Bell's Palsy (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Bell's Palsy KidsHealth / For Teens / Bell's Palsy What's in this ... Print en español Parálisis de Bell What Is Bell's Palsy? Bell's palsy is a temporary weakness or paralysis ...

  1. Bell's Palsy Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Bell's Palsy Sections What Is Bell's Palsy? Bell's Palsy Symptoms Bell's Palsy Treatment Bell's Palsy Symptoms Leer en Español: Síntomas de la parálisis ...

  2. Tests and measurements with a thermal VXD mock-up for BELLE II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, Lars

    2015-03-01

    As part of the Belle detector upgrade, located at the KEK in Tsukuba, Japan, a CO 2 cooling system will be added. Using new detector components, which are easily damageable or influenced by heat, make this step necessary. Particularly the next to the beam pipe located PXD is strained by high thermal load and therefore requires cooling. The CDC needs a constant temperature for precise measurements, but it could be influenced by heat from the SVD. Knowledge about the heat generation and distribution is needed before assembling the full detector. A mock-up of the innermost parts of the detector and a CO 2 cooling system is under construction at DESY in Hamburg, Germany, to gather such knowledge. The mock-up should be able to emulate the thermal properties of the final detector. Within the scope of this bachelor's thesis, the outermost VXD Layer 6 was studied in a flat arrangement. Focus lay on the heat dissipation at the sensors and on pressure drop measurements of the cooling pipe. It was investigated whether the applied heat load can be sufficiently lead away and how large the pressure drop is along the experiment line. Despite cooling was applied, a remarkable rise in temperature was observed. However, the unfavorable position of the thermistors make reliable quantitative statements of the sensor dummies' temperatures impossible. The pressure drop was determined, but is of limited accuracy due to large uncertainties. Further investigations have to be made with a better set-up.

  3. Testing the Limits of Temporal Stability: Willingness to Pay Values among Grand Canyon Whitewater Boaters Across Decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neher, Chris; Duffield, John; Bair, Lucas; Patterson, David; Neher, Katherine

    2017-12-01

    We directly compare trip willingness to pay (WTP) values between 1985 and 2015 stated preference surveys of private party Grand Canyon boaters using identically designed valuation methods. The temporal gap of 30 years between these two studies is well beyond that of any tests of WTP temporal stability in the literature. Comparisons were made of mean WTP estimates for four hypothetical Colorado River flow level scenarios. WTP values from the 1985 survey were adjusted to 2015 levels using the consumer price index. Mean WTP precision was estimated through simulation. No statistically significant differences were detected between the adjusted Bishop et al. (1987) and the current study mean WTP estimates. Examination of pooled models of the data from the studies suggest that while the estimated WTP values are stable over time, the underlying valuation functions may not be, particularly when the data and models are corrected to account for differing bid structures and possible panel effects.

  4. Computing for Belle

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    2s-1, 10 times as much as we obtain now. This presentation describes Belle's efficient computing operations, struggles to manage large amount of raw and physics data, and plans for Belle computing for Super KEKB/Belle.

  5. 236-Z canyon utilization study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D.R.

    1977-01-01

    The 236-Z canyon contains equipment for repurification of plutonium and recovery of plutonium from scrap material. To meet production requirements of Fast Flux Test Facility/Clinch River Breeder Reactor oxide with the existing plant, several new pieces of equipment will be needed in the future. More storage space and a better accountability system are needed to support this increased production. The available canyon space needs to be utilized to its fullest in order to accommodate the new equipment. The purpose of this document is to identify the new pieces of equipment, show how they fit into the flowsheet, and locate them in the canyon

  6. Clinical practice guideline: Bell's palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugh, Reginald F; Basura, Gregory J; Ishii, Lisa E; Schwartz, Seth R; Drumheller, Caitlin Murray; Burkholder, Rebecca; Deckard, Nathan A; Dawson, Cindy; Driscoll, Colin; Gillespie, M Boyd; Gurgel, Richard K; Halperin, John; Khalid, Ayesha N; Kumar, Kaparaboyna Ashok; Micco, Alan; Munsell, Debra; Rosenbaum, Steven; Vaughan, William

    2013-11-01

    Bell's palsy, named after the Scottish anatomist, Sir Charles Bell, is the most common acute mono-neuropathy, or disorder affecting a single nerve, and is the most common diagnosis associated with facial nerve weakness/paralysis. Bell's palsy is a rapid unilateral facial nerve paresis (weakness) or paralysis (complete loss of movement) of unknown cause. The condition leads to the partial or complete inability to voluntarily move facial muscles on the affected side of the face. Although typically self-limited, the facial paresis/paralysis that occurs in Bell's palsy may cause significant temporary oral incompetence and an inability to close the eyelid, leading to potential eye injury. Additional long-term poor outcomes do occur and can be devastating to the patient. Treatments are generally designed to improve facial function and facilitate recovery. There are myriad treatment options for Bell's palsy, and some controversy exists regarding the effectiveness of several of these options, and there are consequent variations in care. In addition, numerous diagnostic tests available are used in the evaluation of patients with Bell's palsy. Many of these tests are of questionable benefit in Bell's palsy. Furthermore, while patients with Bell's palsy enter the health care system with facial paresis/paralysis as a primary complaint, not all patients with facial paresis/paralysis have Bell's palsy. It is a concern that patients with alternative underlying etiologies may be misdiagnosed or have unnecessary delay in diagnosis. All of these quality concerns provide an important opportunity for improvement in the diagnosis and management of patients with Bell's palsy. The primary purpose of this guideline is to improve the accuracy of diagnosis for Bell's palsy, to improve the quality of care and outcomes for patients with Bell's palsy, and to decrease harmful variations in the evaluation and management of Bell's palsy. This guideline addresses these needs by encouraging

  7. Ground penetrating radar results at the Box Canyon Site - 1996 survey as part of infiltration test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, J.E. Jr.; Williams, K.H.

    1997-08-01

    This data report presents a discussion of the borehole radar tomography experiment conducted at Box Canyon, Idaho. Discussion concentrates on the survey methodology, data acquisition procedures, and the resulting tomographic images and interpretations. The entire geophysics field effort for FY96 centered around the collection of the borehole radar data within the inclined boreholes R1, R2, R3, and R4 before, during, and after the ponded infiltration experiment. The well pairs R1-R2, R2-R4, and R3-R4 comprised the bulk of the field survey; however, additional data were collected between vertical boreholes within and around the infiltration basin. The intent of the inclined boreholes was to allow access beneath the infiltration basin and to enhance the ability of the radar method to image both vertical and horizontal features where flow may dominate. This data report will concentrate on the inclined borehole data and the resulting tomograms. The borehole radar method is one in which modified ground penetrating radar antennas are lowered into boreholes and high frequency electromagnetic signals are transmitted through subsurface material to a receiving antenna. The transmitted signals may be represented as multiple raypaths crossing through the zone of interest. If sufficient raypaths are recorded, a tomographic image may be obtained through computer processing. The data normally recorded are signal amplitude versus time. The information extracted from such data includes the following: (a) the transit time which depends on the wave velocity, (b) the amplitude which depends on the wave attenuation, the dispersion which indicates a change in velocity and attenuation with frequency

  8. Petrology and geochemistry of the Grouse Canyon Member of the Belted Range Tuff, Rock-Mechanics Drift, U12g Tunnel, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, J.R.; Mansker, W.L.; Hicks, R.; Allen, C.C.; Husler, J.; Keil, K.; Lappin, A.R.

    1983-04-01

    G-Tunnel at Nevada Test Site (NTS) is the site of thermal and thermomechanical experiments examining the feasibility of emplacing heat-producing nuclear wastes in silicic tuffs. This report describes the general stratigraphy, mineralogy, and bulk chemistry of welded portions of the Grouse Canyon Member of the Belted Range Tuff, the unit in which most of these experiments will be performed. The geologic characteristics of the Grouse Canyon Member are compared with those of the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff, presently the preferred horizon for an actual waste repository at Yucca Mountain, near the southwest boundary of Nevada Test Site. This comparison suggests that test results obtained in welded tuff from G-Tunnel are applicable, with limitations, to evaluation of the Topopah Spring Member at Yucca Mountain

  9. Biologic surveys for the Sandia National Laboratories, Coyote Canyon Test Complex, Kirtland Air Force Base, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, R.M. [4115 Allen Dr., Kingsville, TX (United States); Knight, P.J. [Marron and Associates, Inc., Corrales, NM (United States)

    1994-05-25

    This report provides results of a comprehensive biologic survey performed in Coyote Canyon Test Complex (CCTC), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Bernalillo County, New Mexico, which was conducted during the spring and summer of 1992 and 1993. CCTC is sited on land owned by the Department of Energy (DOE) and Kirtland Air Force Base and managed by SNL. The survey covered 3,760 acres of land, most of which is rarely disturbed by CCTC operations. Absence of grazing by livestock and possibly native ungulates, and relative to the general condition of private range lands throughout New Mexico, and relative to other grazing lands in central New Mexico. Widely dispersed, low intensity use by SNL as well as prohibition of grazing has probably contributed to abundance of special status species such as grama grass cactus within the CCTC area. This report evaluates threatened and endangered species found in the area, as well as comprehensive assessment of biologic habitats. Included are analyses of potential impacts and mitigative measures designed to reduce or eliminate potential impacts. Included is a summary of CCTC program and testing activities.

  10. Proposed optical test of Bell's inequalities not resting upon the fair sampling assumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Emilio

    2004-01-01

    Arguments are given against the fair sampling assumption, used to claim an empirical disproof of local realism. New tests are proposed, able to discriminate between quantum mechanics and a restricted, but appealing, family of local hidden-variables models. Such tests require detectors with efficiencies just above 20%

  11. [Bell's palsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'hon, S; Kubis, N

    2018-03-30

    Idiopathic peripheral facial palsy, also named Bell's palsy, is the most common cause of peripheral facial palsy in adults. Although it is considered as a benign condition, its social and psychological impact can be dramatic, especially in the case of incomplete recovery. The main pathophysiological hypothesis is the reactivation of HSV 1 virus in the geniculate ganglia, leading to nerve edema and its compression through the petrosal bone. Patients experience an acute (less than 24 hours) motor deficit involving ipsilateral muscles of the upper and lower face and reaching its peak within the first three days. Frequently, symptoms are preceded or accompanied by retro-auricular pain and/or ipsilateral face numbness. Diagnosis is usually clinical but one should look for negative signs to eliminate central facial palsy or peripheral facial palsy secondary to infectious, neoplastic or autoimmune diseases. About 75% of the patients will experience spontaneous full recovery, this rate can be improved with oral corticotherapy when introduced within the first 72 hours. To date, no benefit has been demonstrated by adding an antiviral treatment. Hemifacial spasms (involuntary muscles contractions of the hemiface) or syncinesia (involuntary muscles contractions elicited by voluntary ones, due to aberrant reinnervation) may complicate the disease's course. Electroneuromyography can be useful at different stages: it can first reveal the early conduction bloc, then estimate the axonal loss, then bring evidence of the reinnervation process and, lastly, help for the diagnosis of complications. Copyright © 2018 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Clinical practice guideline: Bell's Palsy executive summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugh, Reginald F; Basura, Gregory J; Ishii, Lisa E; Schwartz, Seth R; Drumheller, Caitlin Murray; Burkholder, Rebecca; Deckard, Nathan A; Dawson, Cindy; Driscoll, Colin; Gillespie, M Boyd; Gurgel, Richard K; Halperin, John; Khalid, Ayesha N; Kumar, Kaparaboyna Ashok; Micco, Alan; Munsell, Debra; Rosenbaum, Steven; Vaughan, William

    2013-11-01

    The American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation (AAO-HNSF) has published a supplement to this issue featuring the new Clinical Practice Guideline: Bell's Palsy. To assist in implementing the guideline recommendations, this article summarizes the rationale, purpose, and key action statements. The 11 recommendations developed encourage accurate and efficient diagnosis and treatment and, when applicable, facilitate patient follow-up to address the management of long-term sequelae or evaluation of new or worsening symptoms not indicative of Bell's palsy. There are myriad treatment options for Bell's palsy; some controversy exists regarding the effectiveness of several of these options, and there are consequent variations in care. In addition, there are numerous diagnostic tests available that are used in the evaluation of patients with Bell's palsy. Many of these tests are of questionable benefit in Bell's palsy. Furthermore, while patients with Bell's palsy enter the health care system with facial paresis/paralysis as a primary complaint, not all patients with facial paresis/paralysis have Bell's palsy. It is a concern that patients with alternative underlying etiologies may be misdiagnosed or have an unnecessary delay in diagnosis. All of these quality concerns provide an important opportunity for improvement in the diagnosis and management of patients with Bell's palsy.

  13. Bell's inequality without alternative settings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabello, Adan

    2003-01-01

    A suitable generalized measurement described by a 4-element positive operator-valued measure (POVM) on each particle of a two-qubit system in the singlet state is, from the point of view of Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen's (EPR's) criterion of elements of reality, equivalent to a random selection between two alternative projective measurements. It is shown that an EPR-experiment with a fixed POVM on each particle provides a violation of Bell's inequality without requiring local observers to choose between the alternatives. This approach could be useful for designing a loophole-free test of Bell's inequality

  14. Basic data report for borehole Cabin Baby-1 deepening and hydrologic testing. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project, southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beauheim, R.L.; Hassinger, B.W.; Klaiber, J.A.

    1983-12-01

    Borehole Cabin Baby-1 was originally drilled to a depth of 4159.0 feet below kelly bushing (8.0 feet above ground surface) in 1974 and 1975 as a ''wildcat'' hydrocarbon exploratory well. Control of the borehole was given to the US Department of Energy (DOE) after it was found to be a ''dry hole''. Cabin Baby-1 was reentered, deepened, and hydrologically tested in August and September 1983. The well is located in Section 5, T23S, R31E, just outside the limit of WIPP Zone III, approximately 2.5 miles south of the WIPP exploratory shaft. The deepening and testing of Cabin Baby-1 was undertaken for several reasons: to provide data on the hydrologic properties, including hydrostatic head potential of selected permeable zones in the Bell Canyon Formation; to provide representative fluid samples from selected permeable zones in the Bell Canyon Formation for determination of fluid composition and density; and to define further the stratigraphy of the upper Bell Canyon Formation at the Cabin Baby-1 location. The borehole was deepened from the previous total depth to a new depth of 4298.6 feet below kelly bushing by continuous coring. Field operations related to deepening and logging of the borehole began August 12, 1983 and were completed August 30, 1983. Hydrologic testing activities began August 30, 1983 and were completed September 29, 1983. Drill-stem tests were conducted in four zones in the Bell Canyon Formation, and one test of the Salado Formation was performed. Fluid samples were collected from the Hays and Olds sandstones of the Bell Canyon Formation

  15. Hydrogeology of Middle Canyon, Oquirrh Mountains, Tooele County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Joseph Spencer

    1963-01-01

    -feet of water was unaccounted for in the 1947 water year. This may represent a reasonable estimate of annual leakage from Middle Canyon.The future development of Middle Canyon water can best be planned after additional information is obtained on movement of water through the channel fill. Much of this information could be supplied by test drilling in the channel fill.

  16. Clinical studies on Bell's palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Yoshio

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of the salivary gland scintigraphy using sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate for the prognosis of Bell's palsy. The salivary gland scintigraphy was performed in 40 patients with Bell's palsy and 15 normal subjects. After intravenous injection of 10 mCt of sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate, sequential scintigrams were taken with a scintillation camera every one minute for 25 minutes. At 15 minutes after injection, both of normal subjects and patients were given ascorbic acid to stimulate the secretion of saliva. By the present method, the time activity curve was examined for the regions of interest over the parotid and submandibular glands and backgrounds. In normal subjects, values of the concentration and excretory ratio between the right and left sides of the parotid and submandibular glands were more than 80%. Some patients with Bell's palsy showed a decreased concentration and/or excretory ratio less than 80% between the normal and affected sides of the parotid glands. This suggests a functional involvement of the facial nerve in the salivary secretion from the parotid glands. On examination within 10 days of the onset of Bell's palsy, 31 cases with complete recovery showed values of the concentration ratio and/or excretory ratio more than 80% between the normal and affected sides of the submandibular glands. In contrast, 9 cases with imcomplete recovery showed low values of the concentration ratio and excretory ratio less than 80%. In the latter, more active treatments such as decompression operation should be considerd in the early stage of the palsy. The salivary scintigraphy using sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate is more valuable as an early prognostic indicator for Bell's palsy compared with other prognostic tests such as the lid vibration test, the stapedial reflex test, the electrogustometry, the nerve excitability test and the evoked electromyography. (author)

  17. EPR and Bell Locality

    OpenAIRE

    Norsen, Travis

    2004-01-01

    A new formulation of the EPR argument is presented, one which uses John Bell's mathematically precise local causality condition in place of the looser locality assumption which was used in the original EPR paper and on which Niels Bohr seems to have based his objection to the EPR argument. The new formulation of EPR bears a striking resemblance to Bell's derivation of his famous inequalities. The relation between these two arguments -- in particular, the role of EPR as part one of Bell's two-...

  18. Computing at Belle II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhr, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Belle II, a next-generation B-factory experiment, will search for new physics effects in a data sample about 50 times larger than the one collected by its predecessor, the Belle experiment. To match the advances in accelerator and detector technology, the computing system and the software have to be upgraded as well. The Belle II computing model is presented and an overview of the distributed computing system and the offline software framework is given.

  19. Herpes Simplex Virus-1 and Bell's Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The association between herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1 infection and Bell palsy was determined in 47 children studied at Children's Hospital at Montefiore, Bronx, NY. Swabs of saliva and conjunctiva were taken for PCR testing.

  20. Beyond Bell's theorem: realism and locality without Bell-type correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Zela, F

    2017-11-06

    The long-lasting view of entanglement as the characteristic trait of quantum mechanics has been recently challenged by experimental demonstrations of non-quantum entanglement. This motivates a review of the meaning of Bell violations, which have been widely taken to prove the impossibility of a realistic interpretation of quantum mechanics and as a manifestation of its non-local character. This work provides new theoretical evidence for the need of reviewing the meaning of Bell violations, especially when they occur outside the quantum framework. We present a local-realistic model that reproduces quantum predictions concerning Bell tests. We claim that local-realism is fully compatible with correlations that are not of the Bell type and therefore lie outside the scope of Bell's theorem. Most experimental Bell tests involve either spin vectors spanning the Bloch sphere or Stokes vectors spanning the Poincaré sphere. A suitable statistical tool that allows assessing correlations between vectors is given by inner-product-type correlations. Using them, it is possible to reproduce quantum predictions for all Bell states, thereby explaining experimental results of Bell tests within a local-realistic framework.

  1. Wind-tunnel tests of a 1/4 scale model of the Bell XS-1 transonic airplane. 1: Longitudinal stability and control characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donlan, C. J.; Kemp, W. B., Jr.; Polhamus, E. C.

    1976-01-01

    A 1/4 scale model of the Bell XS-1 transonic aircraft was tested in the Langley 300 mile-per-hour 7 by 10 foot tunnel to determine its low speed longitudinal stability and control characteristics. Pertinent longitudinal flying qualities expected of the XS-1 research airplane were estimated from the results of these tests including the effects of compressibility likely to be encountered at speeds below the force break. It appears that the static longitudinal stability and elevator control power will be adequate, but that the elevator control force gradient in steady flight will be undesirably low for all configurations. It is suggested that a centering spring be incorporated in the elevator control system of the airplane in order to increase the control force gradient in steady flight and in maneuvers.

  2. Clay Bells: Edo Inspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The ceremonial copper and iron bells at the Smithsonian's National Museum of African Art were the author's inspiration for an interdisciplinary unit with a focus on the contributions various cultures make toward the richness of a community. The author of this article describes an Edo bell-inspired ceramic project incorporating slab-building…

  3. Where Bell Went Wrong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieuwenhuizen, Th. M.

    2009-01-01

    It is explained on a physical basis how absence of contextuality allows Bell inequalities to be violated, without bringing an implication on locality or realism. Hereto we connect first to the local realistic theory Stochastic Electrodynamics, and then put the argument more broadly. Thus even if Bell Inequality Violation is demonstrated beyond reasonable doubt, it will have no say on local realism.

  4. Einstein, Bohr, and Bell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellac, Michel Le

    2014-11-01

    The final form of quantum physics, in the particular case of wave mechanics, was established in the years 1925-1927 by Heisenberg, Schrödinger, Born and others, but the synthesis was the work of Bohr who gave an epistemological interpretation of all the technicalities built up over those years; this interpretation will be examined briefly in Chapter 10. Although Einstein acknowledged the success of quantum mechanics in atomic, molecular and solid state physics, he disagreed deeply with Bohr's interpretation. For many years, he tried to find flaws in the formulation of quantum theory as it had been more or less accepted by a large majority of physicists, but his objections were brushed away by Bohr. However, in an article published in 1935 with Podolsky and Rosen, universally known under the acronym EPR, Einstein thought he had identified a difficulty in the by then standard interpretation. Bohr's obscure, and in part beyond the point, answer showed that Einstein had hit a sensitive target. Nevertheless, until 1964, the so-called Bohr-Einstein debate stayed uniquely on a philosophical level, and it was actually forgotten by most physicists, as the few of them aware of it thought it had no practical implication. In 1964, the Northern Irish physicist John Bell realized that the assumptions contained in the EPR article could be tested experimentally. These assumptions led to inequalities, the Bell inequalities, which were in contradiction with quantum mechanical predictions: as we shall see later on, it is extremely likely that the assumptions of the EPR article are not consistent with experiment, which, on the contrary, vindicates the predictions of quantum physics. In Section 3.2, the origin of Bell's inequalities will be explained with an intuitive example, then they will be compared with the predictions of quantum theory in Section 3.3, and finally their experimental status will be reviewed in Section 3.4. The debate between Bohr and Einstein goes much beyond a

  5. The Belle II Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Kahn, J

    2017-01-01

    Set to begin data taking at the end of 2018, the Belle II experiment is the next-generation B-factory experiment hosted at KEK in Tsukuba, Japan. The experiment represents the cumulative effort from the collaboration of experimental and detector physics, computing, and software development. Taking everything learned from the previous Belle experiment, which ran from 1998 to 2010, Belle II aims to probe deeper than ever before into the field of heavy quark physics. By achieving an integrated luminosity of 50 ab−1 and accumulating 50 times more data than the previous experiment across its lifetime, along with a rewritten analysis framework, the Belle II experiment will push the high precision frontier of high energy physics. This paper will give an overview of the key components and development activities that make the Belle II experiment possible.

  6. Bell inequalities under non-ideal conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Especial, João N. C.

    2012-01-01

    Bell inequalities applicable to non-ideal EPRB experiments are critical to the interpretation of experimental Bell tests. In this article it is shown that previous treatments of this subject are incorrect due to an implicit assumption and new inequalities are derived under general conditions. Published experimental evidence is reinterpreted under these results and found to be entirely compatible with local-realism, both, when experiments involve inefficient detection, if fair-sampling detecti...

  7. Molecules in the cold environment of a supersonic free-jet beam: from spectroscopy of neutral-neutral interactions to a test of Bell's inequality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koperski, J; Fry, E S

    2006-01-01

    The supersonic free-jet expansion technique has been used in different fields of research in physics, physical chemistry and chemistry to study vibrational and rotational molecular structures in ground and excited electronic energy states as well as in cold chemistry to study chemical reactions in a unique environment. The supersonic beam technique, as a widely used method in laser spectroscopy of molecules, exploits a source of monokinetic, rotationally and vibrationally cold molecules, that are very weakly bound in their ground electronic states (van der Waals molecules). In experiments at Jagiellonian University the supersonic free-jet beam serves as a source of ground-state van der Waals objects in studies of neutral-neutral interactions between group 12 metal (M = Zn, Cd, Hg) and noble gas (NG) atoms. Recently, the method has been applied as a source of entangled 199 Hg atom pairs in order to test Bell's inequality in an experiment at Texas A and M University

  8. Quantum mechanics and Bell's inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.T.; Adelberger, E.G.

    1994-01-01

    Santos argues that, if one interprets probabilities as ratios of detected events to copies of the physical system initially prepared, the quantum mechanical predictions for the classic tests of Bell's inequalities do not violate the inequalities. Furthermore, he suggests that quantum mechanical states which do violate the inequalities are not physically realizable. We discuss a physically realizable experiment, meeting his requirements, where quantum mechanics does violate the inequalities

  9. Looking for symmetric Bell inequalities

    OpenAIRE

    Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Gisin, Nicolas; Pironio, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    Finding all Bell inequalities for a given number of parties, measurement settings and measurement outcomes is in general a computationally hard task. We show that all Bell inequalities which are symmetric under the exchange of parties can be found by examining a symmetrized polytope which is simpler than the full Bell polytope. As an illustration of our method, we generate 238 885 new Bell inequalities and 1085 new Svetlichny inequalities. We find, in particular, facet inequalities for Bell e...

  10. Common questions about Bell palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Janet R; Tamang, Stephen

    2014-02-01

    Bell palsy is an acute affliction of the facial nerve, resulting in sudden paralysis or weakness of the muscles on one side of the face. Testing patients with unilateral facial paralysis for diabetes mellitus or Lyme disease is not routinely recommended. Patients with Lyme disease typically present with additional manifestations, such as arthritis, rash, or facial swelling. Diabetes may be a comorbidity of Bell palsy, but testing is not needed in the absence of other indications, such as hypertension. In patients with atypical symptoms, magnetic resonance imaging with contrast enhancement can be used to rule out cranial mass effect and to add prognostic value. Steroids improve resolution of symptoms in patients with Bell palsy and remain the preferred treatment. Antiviral agents have a limited role, and may improve outcomes when combined with steroids in patients with severe symptoms. When facial paralysis is prolonged, surgery may be indicated to prevent ocular desiccation secondary to incomplete eyelid closure. Facial nerve decompression is rarely indicated or performed. Physical therapy modalities, including electrostimulation, exercise, and massage, are neither beneficial nor harmful.

  11. Covariance Bell inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozsgay, Victor; Hirsch, Flavien; Branciard, Cyril; Brunner, Nicolas

    2017-12-01

    We introduce Bell inequalities based on covariance, one of the most common measures of correlation. Explicit examples are discussed, and violations in quantum theory are demonstrated. A crucial feature of these covariance Bell inequalities is their nonlinearity; this has nontrivial consequences for the derivation of their local bound, which is not reached by deterministic local correlations. For our simplest inequality, we derive analytically tight bounds for both local and quantum correlations. An interesting application of covariance Bell inequalities is that they can act as "shared randomness witnesses": specifically, the value of the Bell expression gives device-independent lower bounds on both the dimension and the entropy of the shared random variable in a local model.

  12. Boole and Bell inequality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michielsen, K.; De Raedt, H.; Hess, K.

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the relation between Bell's and Boole's inequality. We apply both to the analysis of measurement results in idealized Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiments. We present a local realist model that violates Bell's and Boole's inequality due to the absence of Boole's one-to-one correspondence between the two-valued variables of the mathematical description and the two-valued measurement results.

  13. BELLE progress report. 1995 April - 1996 March

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The scientific goals of the BELLE experiment continue to be of great interest. The large number of papers during the past year that identify measurements that can be done with BELLE reflects the considerable interest in the theoretical community in these physics issues. This is also demonstrated by the approval during the past year of two major B physics projects: the BaBar experiment at SLAC and the HERAB experiment at DESY. Both projects have schedules that put them into direct competition with BELLE for the important goal of testing the KM predictions for CP violations in B meson decays. Other projects addressing this physics are planned for the Tevatron collider and have been proposed both for the LHC and RHIC. The BELLE collaboration remains committed to its goal of being the first group to provide conclusive evidence either confirming or refuting the KM model. The year 1995 was an exciting time for the BELLE experiment. All of the major technology choices were finalized and a final detector configuration has been established. Continued R and D has resulted in improved performance expectations for a number of detector subsystems. The procurement of materials for major subsystems is underway and construction of long leadtime items has started. A construction schedule has been established and an integration strategy is being developed. This report describes the status of BELLE with an emphasis on progress since the last LCPAC meeting in January 1995. (J.P.N.). 90 refs.

  14. BELLE progress report. 1995 April - 1996 March

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    The scientific goals of the BELLE experiment continue to be of great interest. The large number of papers during the past year that identify measurements that can be done with BELLE reflects the considerable interest in the theoretical community in these physics issues. This is also demonstrated by the approval during the past year of two major B physics projects: the BaBar experiment at SLAC and the HERAB experiment at DESY. Both projects have schedules that put them into direct competition with BELLE for the important goal of testing the KM predictions for CP violations in B meson decays. Other projects addressing this physics are planned for the Tevatron collider and have been proposed both for the LHC and RHIC. The BELLE collaboration remains committed to its goal of being the first group to provide conclusive evidence either confirming or refuting the KM model. The year 1995 was an exciting time for the BELLE experiment. All of the major technology choices were finalized and a final detector configuration has been established. Continued R and D has resulted in improved performance expectations for a number of detector subsystems. The procurement of materials for major subsystems is underway and construction of long leadtime items has started. A construction schedule has been established and an integration strategy is being developed. This report describes the status of BELLE with an emphasis on progress since the last LCPAC meeting in January 1995. (J.P.N.). 90 refs

  15. Diablo Canyon ECCS enhancements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, A.; Lee, T.P.; Walter, L.E.

    2004-01-01

    Diablo Canyon Power Plant (DCPP) operated by Pacific Gas and Electric Co. (PG and E) is a Westinghouse designed four loop plant. In recent years, several issues were identified regarding the compliance of the Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) surveillance tests to the ECCS analyses assumptions. These concerns are related mostly to the High Head Safety Injection (HHSI) and the Intermediate Head Safety Injection (IHSI) systems where the injection line throttle valves are adjusted during outage surveillance testing to ensure compliance with the Technical Specifications (TS). To resolve all of the identified issues PG and E performed an ECCS reanalysis and upgraded the ECCS surveillance test program and also had Westinghouse perform a containment reanalysis using their latest model. As a result of these plant specific enhancement efforts, DCPP widened the operating window for TS surveillance testing, lowered the ECCS pumps' acceptance performance curves, and re-gained Peak Clad Temperature (PCT) and containment peak pressure margins. These enhancements are generically applicable to other plants and are addressed in this paper. (author)

  16. Peripheral facial weakness (Bell's palsy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basić-Kes, Vanja; Dobrota, Vesna Dermanović; Cesarik, Marijan; Matovina, Lucija Zadro; Madzar, Zrinko; Zavoreo, Iris; Demarin, Vida

    2013-06-01

    Peripheral facial weakness is a facial nerve damage that results in muscle weakness on one side of the face. It may be idiopathic (Bell's palsy) or may have a detectable cause. Almost 80% of peripheral facial weakness cases are primary and the rest of them are secondary. The most frequent causes of secondary peripheral facial weakness are systemic viral infections, trauma, surgery, diabetes, local infections, tumor, immune disorders, drugs, degenerative diseases of the central nervous system, etc. The diagnosis relies upon the presence of typical signs and symptoms, blood chemistry tests, cerebrospinal fluid investigations, nerve conduction studies and neuroimaging methods (cerebral MRI, x-ray of the skull and mastoid). Treatment of secondary peripheral facial weakness is based on therapy for the underlying disorder, unlike the treatment of Bell's palsy that is controversial due to the lack of large, randomized, controlled, prospective studies. There are some indications that steroids or antiviral agents are beneficial but there are also studies that show no beneficial effect. Additional treatments include eye protection, physiotherapy, acupuncture, botulinum toxin, or surgery. Bell's palsy has a benign prognosis with complete recovery in about 80% of patients, 15% experience some mode of permanent nerve damage and severe consequences remain in 5% of patients.

  17. Bell violation in the sky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhury, Sayantan [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Department of Theoretical Physics, Mumbai (India); TIFR, DTP, Mumbai (India); Panda, Sudhakar [Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar, Odisha (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai (India); Singh, Rajeev [Savitribai Phule Pune University, Department of Physics, Pune (India)

    2017-02-15

    In this work, we have studied the possibility of setting up Bell's inequality violating experiment in the context of cosmology, based on the basic principles of quantum mechanics. First we start with the physical motivation of implementing the Bell inequality violation in the context of cosmology. Then to set up the cosmological Bell violating test experiment we introduce a model independent theoretical framework using which we have studied the creation of new massive particles by implementing the WKB approximation method for the scalar fluctuations in the presence of additional time-dependent mass contribution in the cosmological perturbation theory. Here for completeness we compute the total number density and the energy density of the newly created particles in terms of the Bogoliubov coefficients using the WKB approximation method. Next using the background scalar fluctuation in the presence of a new time-dependent mass contribution, we explicitly compute the expression for the one point and two point correlation functions. Furthermore, using the results for a one point function we introduce a new theoretical cosmological parameter which can be expressed in terms of the other known inflationary observables and can also be treated as a future theoretical probe to break the degeneracy amongst various models of inflation. Additionally, we also fix the scale of inflation in a model-independent way without any prior knowledge of primordial gravitational waves. Also using the input from a newly introduced cosmological parameter, we finally give a theoretical estimate for the tensor-to-scalar ratio in a model-independent way. Next, we also comment on the technicalities of measurements from isospin breaking interactions and the future prospects of newly introduced massive particles in a cosmological Bell violating test experiment. Further, we cite a precise example of this setup applicable in the context of string theory motivated axion monodromy model. Then we

  18. Bell violation in the sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Sayantan; Panda, Sudhakar; Singh, Rajeev

    2017-02-01

    In this work, we have studied the possibility of setting up Bell's inequality violating experiment in the context of cosmology, based on the basic principles of quantum mechanics. First we start with the physical motivation of implementing the Bell inequality violation in the context of cosmology. Then to set up the cosmological Bell violating test experiment we introduce a model independent theoretical framework using which we have studied the creation of new massive particles by implementing the WKB approximation method for the scalar fluctuations in the presence of additional time-dependent mass contribution in the cosmological perturbation theory. Here for completeness we compute the total number density and the energy density of the newly created particles in terms of the Bogoliubov coefficients using the WKB approximation method. Next using the background scalar fluctuation in the presence of a new time-dependent mass contribution, we explicitly compute the expression for the one point and two point correlation functions. Furthermore, using the results for a one point function we introduce a new theoretical cosmological parameter which can be expressed in terms of the other known inflationary observables and can also be treated as a future theoretical probe to break the degeneracy amongst various models of inflation. Additionally, we also fix the scale of inflation in a model-independent way without any prior knowledge of primordial gravitational waves. Also using the input from a newly introduced cosmological parameter, we finally give a theoretical estimate for the tensor-to-scalar ratio in a model-independent way. Next, we also comment on the technicalities of measurements from isospin breaking interactions and the future prospects of newly introduced massive particles in a cosmological Bell violating test experiment. Further, we cite a precise example of this setup applicable in the context of string theory motivated axion monodromy model. Then we comment

  19. Bell violation in the sky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhury, Sayantan; Panda, Sudhakar; Singh, Rajeev

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we have studied the possibility of setting up Bell's inequality violating experiment in the context of cosmology, based on the basic principles of quantum mechanics. First we start with the physical motivation of implementing the Bell inequality violation in the context of cosmology. Then to set up the cosmological Bell violating test experiment we introduce a model independent theoretical framework using which we have studied the creation of new massive particles by implementing the WKB approximation method for the scalar fluctuations in the presence of additional time-dependent mass contribution in the cosmological perturbation theory. Here for completeness we compute the total number density and the energy density of the newly created particles in terms of the Bogoliubov coefficients using the WKB approximation method. Next using the background scalar fluctuation in the presence of a new time-dependent mass contribution, we explicitly compute the expression for the one point and two point correlation functions. Furthermore, using the results for a one point function we introduce a new theoretical cosmological parameter which can be expressed in terms of the other known inflationary observables and can also be treated as a future theoretical probe to break the degeneracy amongst various models of inflation. Additionally, we also fix the scale of inflation in a model-independent way without any prior knowledge of primordial gravitational waves. Also using the input from a newly introduced cosmological parameter, we finally give a theoretical estimate for the tensor-to-scalar ratio in a model-independent way. Next, we also comment on the technicalities of measurements from isospin breaking interactions and the future prospects of newly introduced massive particles in a cosmological Bell violating test experiment. Further, we cite a precise example of this setup applicable in the context of string theory motivated axion monodromy model. Then we comment

  20. Better Bell-inequality violation by collective measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Y.-C.; Doherty, Andrew C.

    2006-01-01

    The standard Bell-inequality experiments test for violation of local realism by repeatedly making local measurements on individual copies of an entangled quantum state. Here we investigate the possibility of increasing the violation of a Bell inequality by making collective measurements. We show that the nonlocality of bipartite pure entangled states, quantified by their maximal violation of the Bell-Clauser-Horne inequality, can always be enhanced by collective measurements, even without communication between the parties. For mixed states we also show that collective measurements can increase the violation of Bell inequalities, although numerical evidence suggests that the phenomenon is not common as it is for pure states

  1. Violation of Bell's Inequality Using Continuous Variable Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thearle, Oliver; Janousek, Jiri; Armstrong, Seiji; Hosseini, Sara; Schünemann Mraz, Melanie; Assad, Syed; Symul, Thomas; James, Matthew R.; Huntington, Elanor; Ralph, Timothy C.; Lam, Ping Koy

    2018-01-01

    A Bell inequality is a fundamental test to rule out local hidden variable model descriptions of correlations between two physically separated systems. There have been a number of experiments in which a Bell inequality has been violated using discrete-variable systems. We demonstrate a violation of Bell's inequality using continuous variable quadrature measurements. By creating a four-mode entangled state with homodyne detection, we recorded a clear violation with a Bell value of B =2.31 ±0.02 . This opens new possibilities for using continuous variable states for device independent quantum protocols.

  2. Flow in bedrock canyons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venditti, Jeremy G; Rennie, Colin D; Bomhof, James; Bradley, Ryan W; Little, Malcolm; Church, Michael

    2014-09-25

    Bedrock erosion in rivers sets the pace of landscape evolution, influences the evolution of orogens and determines the size, shape and relief of mountains. A variety of models link fluid flow and sediment transport processes to bedrock incision in canyons. The model components that represent sediment transport processes are increasingly well developed. In contrast, the model components being used to represent fluid flow are largely untested because there are no observations of the flow structure in bedrock canyons. Here we present a 524-kilometre, continuous centreline, acoustic Doppler current profiler survey of the Fraser Canyon in western Canada, which includes 42 individual bedrock canyons. Our observations of three-dimensional flow structure reveal that, as water enters the canyons, a high-velocity core follows the bed surface, causing a velocity inversion (high velocities near the bed and low velocities at the surface). The plunging water then upwells along the canyon walls, resulting in counter-rotating, along-stream coherent flow structures that diverge near the bed. The resulting flow structure promotes deep scour in the bedrock channel floor and undercutting of the canyon walls. This provides a mechanism for channel widening and ensures that the base of the walls is swept clear of the debris that is often deposited there, keeping the walls nearly vertical. These observations reveal that the flow structure in bedrock canyons is more complex than assumed in the models presently used. Fluid flow models that capture the essence of the three-dimensional flow field, using simple phenomenological rules that are computationally tractable, are required to capture the dynamic coupling between flow, bedrock erosion and solid-Earth dynamics.

  3. Studies on Bell's theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guney, Veli Ugur

    In this work we look for novel classes of Bell's inequalities and methods to produce them. We also find their quantum violations including, if possible, the maximum one. The Jordan bases method that we explain in Chapter 2 is about using a pair of certain type of orthonormal bases whose spans are subspaces related to measurement outcomes of incompatible quantities on the same physical system. Jordan vectors are the briefest way of expressing the relative orientation of any two subspaces. This feature helps us to reduce the dimensionality of the parameter space on which we do searches for optimization. The work is published in [24]. In Chapter 3, we attempt to find a connection between group theory and Bell's theorem. We devise a way of generating terms of a Bell's inequality that are related to elements of an algebraic group. The same group generates both the terms of the Bell's inequality and the observables that are used to calculate the quantum value of the Bell expression. Our results are published in [25][26]. In brief, Bell's theorem is the main tool of a research program that was started by Einstein, Podolsky, Rosen [19] and Bohr [8] in the early days of quantum mechanics in their discussions about the core nature of physical systems. These debates were about a novel type of physical states called superposition states, which are introduced by quantum mechanics and manifested in the apparent inevitable randomness in measurement outcomes of identically prepared systems. Bell's huge contribution was to find a means of quantifying the problem and hence of opening the way to experimental verification by rephrasing the questions as limits on certain combinations of correlations between measurement results of spatially separate systems [7]. Thanks to Bell, the fundamental questions related to the nature of quantum mechanical systems became quantifiable [6]. According to Bell's theorem, some correlations between quantum entangled systems that involve incompatible

  4. [Bell and his palsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gijn, Jan; Gijselhart, Joost P

    2011-01-01

    Unlike his eponymous fame suggests, Sir Charles Bell (1774-1842) was an anatomist, draughtsman and surgeon rather than purely a physiologist. He was born and educated in Edinburgh but spent most of his working life in London (1804 to 1836). It was there he started a School of Anatomy, alongside a fledgling surgical practice, just as his elder brother John had done in Edinburgh. In 1814 he joined the surgical staff at the Middlesex Hospital. In 1810 he surmised from occasional animal experiments that the anterior and posterior spinal roots differed in function. Yet it was left to the Frenchman Magendie to identify that these functions were motor and sensory: a discovery that induced Bell into an ungentlemanly feud. Bell also slightly erred on the functions of the trigeminal and facial nerve, but his description of the features of idiopathic facial palsy is unrivalled.

  5. Belle II Software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhr, T; Ritter, M

    2016-01-01

    Belle II is a next generation B factory experiment that will collect 50 times more data than its predecessor, Belle. The higher luminosity at the SuperKEKB accelerator leads to higher background levels and requires a major upgrade of the detector. As a consequence, the simulation, reconstruction, and analysis software must also be upgraded substantially. Most of the software has been redesigned from scratch, taking into account the experience from Belle and other experiments and utilizing new technologies. The large amount of experimental and simulated data requires a high level of reliability and reproducibility, even in parallel environments. Several technologies, tools, and organizational measures are employed to evaluate and monitor the performance of the software during development. (paper)

  6. Wringing out better Bell inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braunstein, S.L.; Caves, C.M.

    1989-01-01

    Local realism implies constraints on the statistics of two physically separated systems. These constraints, known collectively as Bell inequalities, can be violated by quantum mechanics. We generalize the standard Bell inequalities in two ways: first, by 'chaining' the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt Bell inequality for two-state systems and, second, by formulating information-theoretic Bell inequalities that apply to any pair of systems. (orig.)

  7. Multipartite omnidirectional generalized Bell inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Nagata, Koji

    2007-01-01

    We derive a multipartite generalized Bell inequality which involves the entire range of settings for each of the local observers. Especially, it is applied to show non-local behavior of a six-qubit mixture of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger correlations stronger than previous Bell inequalities. For certain noise admixture to the correlations an explicit local realistic model exists in the case of a standard Bell experiment. Bell experiments with many local settings reveal the non-locality of the ...

  8. Bell, group and tangle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, A. I.

    2010-01-01

    The 'Bell' of the title refers to bipartite Bell states, and their extensions to, for example, tripartite systems. The 'Group' of the title is the Braid Group in its various representations; while 'Tangle' refers to the property of entanglement which is present in both of these scenarios. The objective of this note is to explore the relation between Quantum Entanglement and Topological Links, and to show that the use of the language of entanglement in both cases is more than one of linguistic analogy.

  9. Bell's inequalities for quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andaas, H.E.

    1991-10-01

    Inequalities corresponding to the generalized Bell's inequalities of local realism are derived for the quantum case. The extremal values permitted by these inequalities exceed those allowed by the generalized Bell's inequalities. Quantum predictions for systems of two spin-1/2 particles prepared as mixtures do not violate Bell's inequalities. 15 refs

  10. Lorentz-invariant Bell's inequality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Won Tae; Son, Edwin J.

    2005-01-01

    We study Bell's inequality in relation to the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox in the relativistic regime. For this purpose, a relativistically covariant analysis is used in the calculation of the Bell's inequality, which results in the maximally violated Bell's inequality in any reference frame

  11. Bell numbers, determinants and series

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this article, we study Bell numbers and Uppuluri Carpenter numbers. We obtain various expressions and relations between them. These include polynomial recurrences and expressions as determinants of certain matrices of binomial coefficients. Keywords. p-adic series; Bell numbers. 1. Introduction. Bell numbers, Bn [2] ...

  12. Separations canyon decontamination facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hershey, J.H.

    1975-01-01

    Highly radioactive process equipment is decontaminated at the Savannah River Plant in specially equipped areas of the separations canyon building so that direct mechanical repairs or alterations can be made. Using these facilities it is possible to decontaminate and repair equipment such as 10- x 11-ft storage tanks, 8- x 8-ft batch evaporator pots and columns, 40-in. Bird centrifuges, canyon pumps and agitators, and various canyon piping systems or ''jumpers.'' For example, centrifuge or evaporator pots can be decontaminated and rebuilt for about 60 percent of the 1974 replacement cost. The combined facilities can decontaminate and repair 6 to 10 pieces of major equipment per year. Decontamination time varies with type of equipment and radioactivity levels encountered

  13. Separations canyon decontamination facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hershey, J.H.

    1975-05-01

    Highly radioactive process equipment is decontaminated at the Savannah River Plant in specially equipped areas of the separations canyon buildings so that direct mechanical repairs or alterations can be made. Using these facilities it is possible to decontaminate and repair equipment such as 10- x 11-ft storage tanks, 8- x 8-ft batch evaporator pots and columns, 40-in. Bird centrifuges, canyon pumps and agitators, and various canyon piping systems or ''jumpers.'' For example, centrifuge or evaporator pots can be decontaminated and rebuilt for about 60 percent of the 1974 replacement cost. The combined facilities can decontaminate and repair 6 to 10 pieces of major equipment per year. Decontamination time varies with type of equipment and radioactivity levels encountered. (U.S.)

  14. The "Belles" Are Back

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kendra

    2009-01-01

    The "Bennett Belle." The words conjure an image that is genteel, old-fashioned--hats and gloves, brown-skinned women in flowing white dresses beaming as they take that final walk to graduation. The Bennett College for Women campus certainly reinforces the image, with its broad, tree-shaded lawns and quadrangle and its historic buildings--fully 15…

  15. Sufficiency of Bell's conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutkowski, D; Masotto, G [Istituto di Matematica della Universita di Palermo (Italy); Valdes, M V

    1979-04-11

    It is shown that, if the results of measurements of spin components of two-spin one-half particles coupled to a singlet state with respect to n=3 directions satisfy Bell's conditions, then these results are compatible with a local hidden-variable theory. The previous statement is extended to the case n=4.

  16. Elizabeth Belle's Birth Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boro, Jessica; Boro, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    In this article, Jessica and Samuel Boro share the story of the birth of their daughter, Elizabeth Belle. With the physical and emotional support of her husband and her doula, this mother was able to cope with a long labor and have the natural birth she wanted. Her husband describes how important the doula was for him.

  17. Bells against palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J D; Lehman, R

    1988-01-01

    A technique is described in which "jingle bells" are sutured in three positions on the face at the points of maximum excursion of the facial musculature when stimulated by a Hilger nerve stimulator set at 2 mA. The procedure is used to monitor movement of the facial nerve while the surgeon dissects the nerve in the cerebellopontine angle and internal auditory canal.

  18. Looking for symmetric Bell inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Gisin, Nicolas; Pironio, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    Finding all Bell inequalities for a given number of parties, measurement settings and measurement outcomes is in general a computationally hard task. We show that all Bell inequalities which are symmetric under the exchange of parties can be found by examining a symmetrized polytope which is simpler than the full Bell polytope. As an illustration of our method, we generate 238 885 new Bell inequalities and 1085 new Svetlichny inequalities. We find, in particular, facet inequalities for Bell experiments involving two parties and two measurement settings that are not of the Collins-Gisin-Linden-Massar-Popescu type.

  19. Multipartite omnidirectional generalized Bell inequality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Koji

    2007-01-01

    We derive a multipartite generalized Bell inequality which involves the entire range of settings for each of the local observers. Especially, it is applied to show non-local behavior of a six-qubit mixture of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger correlations stronger than previous Bell inequalities. For certain noise admixture to the correlations an explicit local realistic model exists in the case of a standard Bell experiment. Bell experiments with many local settings reveal the non-locality of the state. It turns out that the new inequality is more stringent than many other Bell inequalities in the specific quantum state

  20. Looking for symmetric Bell inequalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Gisin, Nicolas [Group of Applied Physics, University of Geneva, 20 rue de l' Ecole-de Medecine, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Pironio, Stefano, E-mail: jean-daniel.bancal@unige.c [Laboratoire d' Information Quantique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2010-09-24

    Finding all Bell inequalities for a given number of parties, measurement settings and measurement outcomes is in general a computationally hard task. We show that all Bell inequalities which are symmetric under the exchange of parties can be found by examining a symmetrized polytope which is simpler than the full Bell polytope. As an illustration of our method, we generate 238 885 new Bell inequalities and 1085 new Svetlichny inequalities. We find, in particular, facet inequalities for Bell experiments involving two parties and two measurement settings that are not of the Collins-Gisin-Linden-Massar-Popescu type.

  1. Multipartite omnidirectional generalized Bell inequality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, Koji [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-10-26

    We derive a multipartite generalized Bell inequality which involves the entire range of settings for each of the local observers. Especially, it is applied to show non-local behavior of a six-qubit mixture of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger correlations stronger than previous Bell inequalities. For certain noise admixture to the correlations an explicit local realistic model exists in the case of a standard Bell experiment. Bell experiments with many local settings reveal the non-locality of the state. It turns out that the new inequality is more stringent than many other Bell inequalities in the specific quantum state.

  2. H-Canyon Recovery Crawler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriikku, E. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hera, K. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Marzolf, A. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Phillips, M. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-08-01

    The Nuclear Material Disposition Project group asked the Savannah River National Lab (SRNL) Research and Development Engineering (R&DE) department to help procure, test, and deploy a remote crawler to recover the 2014 Inspection Crawler (IC) that tipped over in the H-Canyon Air Exhaust Tunnel. R&DE wrote a Procurement Specification for a Recovery Crawler (RC) and SRNS Procurement Department awarded the contract to Power Equipment Manufacturing Inc. (PEM). The PEM RC was based on their standard sewer inspection crawler with custom arms and forks added to the front. The arms and forks would be used to upright the 2014 Inspection Crawler. PEM delivered the RC and associated cable reel, 2014 Inspection Crawler mockup, and manuals in late April 2015. R&DE and the team tested the crawler in May of 2015 and made modifications based on test results and Savannah River Site (SRS) requirements. R&DE delivered the RC to H-Area at the end of May. The team deployed the RC on June 9, 10, and 11, 2015 in the H-Canyon Air Exhaust Tunnel. The RC struggled with some obstacles in the tunnel, but eventually made it to the IC. The team spent approximately five hours working to upright the IC and eventually got it on its wheels. The IC travelled approximately 20 feet and struggled to drive over debris on the air tunnel floor. Unfortunately the IC tripped over trying to pass this obstacle. The team decided to leave the IC in this location and inspect the tunnel with the RC. The RC passed the IC and inspected the tunnel as it travelled toward H-Canyon. The team turned the RC around when it was about 20 feet from the H-Canyon crossover tunnel. From that point, the team drove the RC past the manway towards the new sand filter and stopped approximately 20 feet from the new sand filter. The team removed the RC from the tunnel, decontaminated the RC, and stored it the manway building, 294-2H. The RC deployment confirmed the IC was not in a condition to perform useful tunnel inspections and

  3. Fourmile Canyon Fire Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell Graham; Mark Finney; Chuck McHugh; Jack Cohen; Dave Calkin; Rick Stratton; Larry Bradshaw; Ned Nikolov

    2012-01-01

    The Fourmile Canyon Fire burned in the fall of 2010 in the Rocky Mountain Front Range adjacent to Boulder, Colorado. The fire occurred in steep, rugged terrain, primarily on privately owned mixed ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir forests. The fire started on September 6 when the humidity of the air was very dry (¡Ö

  4. Evaluative Testing of 5LA3421: A Multicomponent Prehistoric and Historic Site, Pinon Canyon Maneuver Site, Las Animas County, Colorado

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Charles, Mona; Baker, Thann; Markussen, Christine; Nathan, Randy; Duke, Philip

    2004-01-01

    In the summer of 2002, evaluative testing was undertaken at a large multicomponent site for the purpose of evaluating the potential of this site to yield significant information about the prehistory...

  5. Bell's palsy before Bell: Cornelis Stalpart van der Wiel's observation of Bell's palsy in 1683.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Graaf, Robert C; Nicolai, Jean-Philippe A

    2005-11-01

    Bell's palsy is named after Sir Charles Bell (1774-1842), who has long been considered to be the first to describe idiopathic facial paralysis in the early 19th century. However, it was discovered that Nicolaus Anton Friedreich (1761-1836) and James Douglas (1675-1742) preceded him in the 18th century. Recently, an even earlier account of Bell's palsy was found, as observed by Cornelis Stalpart van der Wiel (1620-1702) from The Hague, The Netherlands in 1683. Because our current knowledge of the history of Bell's palsy before Bell is limited to a few documents, it is interesting to discuss Stalpart van der Wiel's description and determine its additional value for the history of Bell's palsy. It is concluded that Cornelis Stalpart van der Wiel was the first to record Bell's palsy in 1683. His manuscript provides clues for future historical research.

  6. Belle status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Takanori

    2003-01-01

    We review the current status and the future perspectives of the Belle experiment and KEKB asymmetric e + e - collider. Thanks to many efforts of Belle collaborators and KEKB accelerator staffs, we could accumulate a 41.8 fb -1 data by the end of 2001 (more than 80 fb -1 data by the end of summer, 2002), also the KEKB recorded the highest peak luminosity (7.35 x 10 33 cm -2 s -1 ) in the world. Furthermore, the Super KEKB project is being proposed not only to extract the CP violation parameters and moduluses of the CKM matrix with high accuracy, but also to search for B rare decays and explore beyond the Standard Model

  7. Boxing with Bell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-04-01

    When Protech Mining moved onto a greenfields site near Ermelo in mid-November last year to start work on the establishment of a box cut for an underground bituminous coal and anthracite mine for Delta Colliery, the company could not have foreseen the difficulties it was to encounter from the unusually high rainfall which fell, almost without abatement, from the time the first sod was turned. Production at the so called Mooiplants mine will commence in March 2001. Mining will take place at a maximum depth of 47 m and coal will be extracted from underground by two conveyor belts and stockpiled. Bell B40 CM mining trucks and an 18 Bell B20 articulated dump truck will be in the haulage fleet. 3 photos.

  8. Alexander Graham Bell: Teacher of the Deaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Robert V.

    The lecture on Alexander Graham Bell by Dr. Robert V. Bruce, the author of a biography of Bell, focuses on Bell's association with the Clarke School for the Deaf in Massachusetts. Noted are Bell's employment by the school at 25 years of age and the preceding period during which Bell taught elocution at a boys' school in Scotland and used his…

  9. Limitation on Bell's inequality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buonomano, V [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Brazil). Inst. de Matematica

    1978-01-01

    It is shown that Bell's Inequality does not characterize all local hidden variable explanations of the polarization correlation experiments. If one considers theories in which a single polarization measurement is not independent of previous particle-polarizer interactions then it is possible to manufacture local hidden variable theories which agree with quantum mechanics for any of the experiments performed to date. A relevant property here is ergodicity, and we can say that Bell's Inequality characterizes all ergodic local hidden variable theories (i.e., all local theories that give the same time and ensemble average) but not all non-ergodic local hidden variable theories. It is further shown that the most physically reasonable class of non-ergodic local hidden variable theories must also satisfy Bell's Inequality. It might be concluded from this article that if one insists on believing in both local hidden variable theories and the polarization correlation experiments supporting quantum mechanics then one must also believe in the existence of a field, medium or ether that permeates space and has relatively stable states (memory).

  10. Hydraulics of outburst floods spilling over a steep-walled canyon: Implications for paleo-discharges on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapotre, Mathieu; Lamb, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Canyons carved by outburst floods are common landforms on Earth and Mars. These canyons are generally found in fractured basalts and jointed sedimentary rocks. Flood-carved canyons commonly have steep headwalls and a roughly constant width, and are often thought to have formed from upstream headwall propagation due to waterfall erosion. Because morphology is readily available from satellite imagery, these canyons offer a unique opportunity to quantify the discharge of rare, catastrophic paleo-floods on Earth and Mars. However, mechanistic relationships that relate canyon size to flood discharge have yet to be developed. We propose that the width of a canyon headwall in fractured rock is set by the spatial distribution of erosion around the rim of the canyon, which is controlled by the distribution of shear stresses induced by the overflowing water as it is focused into the canyon head. We test this hypothesis by performing a series of numerical simulations of flood-water focusing using ANUGA Hydro, a 2D-depth averaged, fully turbulent, hydraulic numerical modeling suite allowing for Froude-number transitions. The numerical simulations were designed to explore five dimensionless variables: the aspect ratio of the canyon (length normalized by width), the canyon width to flood-water width ratio, the canyon width to normal-flow depth ratio, the Froude number, and the topographic gradient upstream of the canyon. Preliminary results show that flow focusing leads to increased shear stresses at the canyon head compared to the sides of the canyon for subcritical floods and higher canyon aspect ratios. This suggests that proto-canyons start growing from a topographic defect in all directions until they reach a critical length for the side walls to dry. Once this critical length is attained, canyons focus most of the flood waters into their heads, and propagate upstream only, maintaining roughly constant widths. Preliminary results suggest that canyon width may be used to

  11. Bell Inequalities for Complex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-26

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2015-0355 YIP Bell Inequalities for Complex Networks Greg Ver Steeg UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA LOS ANGELES Final Report 10/26...performance report PI: Greg Ver Steeg Young Investigator Award Grant Title: Bell Inequalities for Complex Networks Grant #: FA9550-12-1-0417 Reporting...October 20, 2015 Final Report for “Bell Inequalities for Complex Networks” Greg Ver Steeg Abstract This effort studied new methods to understand the effect

  12. Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-type and W-type entangled coherent states: Generation and Bell-type inequality tests without photon counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hyunseok; Nguyen Ba An

    2006-01-01

    We study Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-type (GHZ-type) and W-type three-mode entangled coherent states. Both types of entangled coherent states violate Mermin's version of the Bell inequality with threshold photon detection (i.e., without photon counting). Such an experiment can be performed using linear optics elements and threshold detectors with significant Bell violations for GHZ-type entangled coherent states. However, to demonstrate Bell-type inequality violations for W-type entangled coherent states, additional nonlinear interactions are needed. We also propose an optical scheme to generate W-type entangled coherent states in free-traveling optical fields. The required resources for the generation are a single-photon source, a coherent state source, beam splitters, phase shifters, photodetectors, and Kerr nonlinearities. Our scheme does not necessarily require strong Kerr nonlinear interactions; i.e., weak nonlinearities can be used for the generation of the W-type entangled coherent states. Furthermore, it is also robust against inefficiencies of the single-photon source and the photon detectors

  13. Canyons off northwest Puerto Rico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, W.D.; Glover, L.K.; Hollister, C.D.

    1980-01-01

    The Nuclear-Research Submarine NR-1 was used to study morphoplogy, sediment, and sediment-water interactions off the northwest coast of Puerto Rico. New detailed bathymetry from the surface-support ship, USS Portland, shows several submarine canyons in the area, some of them unreported previously. The north coast canyons, Arecibo, Tiberones and Quebradillas, are primarily erosional features although no recent turbidity-current evidence is seen. The canyons are presently filling with river-transported sediments. (orig./ME)

  14. From Bell's inequalities to quantum information: a new quantum revolution

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    In 1964, John Stuart Bell discovered that it is possible to settle the debate experimentally, by testing the famous "Bell's inequalities", and to show directly that the revolutionary concept of entanglement is indeed a reality. 

A long series of experiments closer and closer to the ideal scheme presented by Bell has confirmed that entanglement is indeed "a great quantum mystery", to use the words of Feynman. Based on that concept, a new field of research has emerged, quantum information, where one uses quantum bits, the so-called “qubits”, to encode the information and process it. Entanglement ...

  15. Observation of Bell Inequality violation in B mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Go, A

    2004-01-01

    A pair of $B^0\\bar B^0$ mesons from $\\Upsilon(4S)$ decay exhibit EPR type non-local particle-antiparticle (flavor) correlation. It is possible to write down Bell Inequality (in the CHSH form: $S\\le2$) to test the non-locality assumption of EPR. Using semileptonic $B^0$ decays of $\\Upsilon(4S)$ at Belle experiment, a clear violation of Bell Inequality in particle-antiparticle correlation is observed: S=2.725+-0.167(stat)+-0.092(syst)

  16. Recurrences of Bell's palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirpaciu, D; Goanta, C M; Cirpaciu, M D

    2014-01-01

    Bell's palsy in known as the most common cause of facial paralysis, determined by the acute onset of lower motor neuron weakness of the facial nerve with no detectable cause. With a lifetime risk of 1 in 60 and an annual incidence of 11-40/100,000 population, the condition resolves completely in around 71% of the untreated cases. Clinical trials performed for Bell's palsy have reported some recurrences, ipsilateral or contralateral to the side affected in the primary episode of facial palsy. Only few data are found in the literature. Melkersson-Rosenthal is a rare neuromucocutaneous syndrome characterized by recurrent facial paralysis, fissured tongue (lingua plicata), orofacial edema. We attempted to analyze some clinical and epidemiologic aspects of recurrent idiopathic palsy, and to develop relevant correlations between the existing data in literature and those obtained in this study. This is a retrospective study carried out on a 10-years period for adults and a five-year period for children. A number of 185 patients aged between 4 and 70 years old were analyzed. 136 of them were adults and 49 were children. 22 of 185 patients with Bell's palsy (12%) had a recurrent partial or complete facial paralysis with one to six episodes of palsy. From this group of 22 cases, 5 patients were diagnosed with Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome. The patients' age was between 4 and 70 years old, with a medium age of 27,6 years. In the group studied, fifteen patients, meaning 68%, were women and seven were men. The majority of patients in our group with more than two facial palsy episodes had at least one episode on the contralateral side. Our study found a significant incidence of recurrences of idiopathic facial palsy. Recurrent idiopathic facial palsy and Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome is diagnosed more often in young females. Recurrence is more likely to occur in the first two years from the onset, which leads to the conclusion that we should have a follow up of patients

  17. The BELLE DAQ system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Soh Yamagata; Yamauchi, Masanori; Nakao, Mikihiko; Itoh, Ryosuke; Fujii, Hirofumi

    2000-10-01

    We built a data acquisition system for the BELLE experiment. The system was designed to cope with the average trigger rate up to 500 Hz at the typical event size of 30 kB. This system has five components: (1) the readout sequence controller, (2) the FASTBUS-TDC readout systems using charge-to-time conversion, (3) the barrel shifter event builder, (4) the parallel online computing farm, and (5) the data transfer system to the mass storage. This system has been in operation for physics data taking since June 1999 without serious problems.

  18. The BELLE DAQ system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Soh Yamagata; Yamauchi, Masanori; Nakao, Mikihiko; Itoh, Ryosuke; Fujii, Hirofumi

    2000-01-01

    We built a data acquisition system for the BELLE experiment. The system was designed to cope with the average trigger rate up to 500 Hz at the typical event size of 30 kB. This system has five components: (1) the readout sequence controller, (2) the FASTBUS-TDC readout systems using charge-to-time conversion, (3) the barrel shifter event builder, (4) the parallel online computing farm, and (5) the data transfer system to the mass storage. This system has been in operation for physics data taking since June 1999 without serious problems

  19. Gum-compliant uncertainty propagations for Pu and U concentration measurements using the 1st-prototype XOS/LANL hiRX instrument; an SRNL H-Canyon Test Bed performance evaluation project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, Michael K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); O' Rourke, Patrick E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-05-04

    An SRNL H-Canyon Test Bed performance evaluation project was completed jointly by SRNL and LANL on a prototype monochromatic energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence instrument, the hiRX. A series of uncertainty propagations were generated based upon plutonium and uranium measurements performed using the alpha-prototype hiRX instrument. Data reduction and uncertainty modeling provided in this report were performed by the SRNL authors. Observations and lessons learned from this evaluation were also used to predict the expected uncertainties that should be achievable at multiple plutonium and uranium concentration levels provided instrument hardware and software upgrades being recommended by LANL and SRNL are performed.

  20. Bell inequalities for random fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, Peter [Physics Department, Yale University, CT 06520 (United States)

    2006-06-09

    The assumptions required for the derivation of Bell inequalities are not satisfied for random field models in which there are any thermal or quantum fluctuations, in contrast to the general satisfaction of the assumptions for classical two point particle models. Classical random field models that explicitly include the effects of quantum fluctuations on measurement are possible for experiments that violate Bell inequalities.

  1. Bell inequalities for random fields

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The assumptions required for the derivation of Bell inequalities are not usually satisfied for random fields in which there are any thermal or quantum fluctuations, in contrast to the general satisfaction of the assumptions for classical two point particle models. Classical random field models that explicitly include the effects of quantum fluctuations on measurement are possible for experiments that violate Bell inequalities.

  2. The Legacy of Dr. Bell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breunig, H. Latham

    1990-01-01

    This article describes the family of Alexander Graham Bell, including research and therapeutic work in speech and hearing impairments spanning three generations. Bell's life and discoveries are discussed, including the formation of the American Association for the Promotion of Teaching of Speech to the Deaf, whose history and organization are…

  3. Bell inequalities in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Yibing; Li Junli; Qiao Congfeng

    2007-01-01

    We review in this paper the research status on testing the completeness of Quantum mechanics in High Energy Physics, especially on the Bell Inequalities. We briefly introduce the basic idea of Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen paradox and the results obtained in photon experiments. In the content of testing the Bell inequalities in high energy physics, the early attempts of using spin correlations in particle decays and later on the mixing of neutral mesons used to form the quasi-spin entangled states are covered. The related experimental results in K 0 and B 0 systems are presented and discussed. We introduce the new scheme, which is based on the non-maximally entangled state and proposed to implement in φ factory, in testing the Local Hidden Variable Theory. And, we also discuss about the possibility of realising it to the tau charm factory. (authors)

  4. The Whittard Canyon - A case study of submarine canyon processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, T.; Huvenne, V. A. I.; Allcock, A. L.; Aslam, T.; Davies, J. S.; Danovaro, R.; De Stigter, H. C.; Duineveld, G. C. A.; Gambi, C.; Gooday, A. J.; Gunton, L. M.; Hall, R.; Howell, K. L.; Ingels, J.; Kiriakoulakis, K.; Kershaw, C. E.; Lavaleye, M. S. S.; Robert, K.; Stewart, H.; Van Rooij, D.; White, M.; Wilson, A. M.

    2016-08-01

    Submarine canyons are large geomorphological features that incise continental shelves and slopes around the world. They are often suggested to be biodiversity and biomass hotspots, although there is no consensus about this in the literature. Nevertheless, many canyons do host diverse faunal communities but owing to our lack of understanding of the processes shaping and driving this diversity, appropriate management strategies have yet to be developed. Here, we integrate all the current knowledge of one single system, the Whittard Canyon (Celtic Margin, NE Atlantic), including the latest research on its geology, sedimentology, geomorphology, oceanography, ecology, and biodiversity in order to address this issue. The Whittard Canyon is an active system in terms of sediment transport. The net suspended sediment transport is mainly up-canyon causing sedimentary overflow in some upper canyon areas. Occasionally sediment gravity flow events do occur, some possibly the result of anthropogenic activity. However, the role of these intermittent gravity flows in transferring labile organic matter to the deeper regions of the canyon appears to be limited. More likely, any labile organic matter flushed downslope in this way becomes strongly diluted with bulk material and is therefore of little food value for benthic fauna. Instead, the fresh organic matter found in the Whittard Channel mainly arrives through vertical deposition and lateral transport of phytoplankton blooms that occur in the area during spring and summer. The response of the Whittard Canyon fauna to these processes is different in different groups. Foraminiferal abundances are higher in the upper parts of the canyon and on the slope than in the lower canyon. Meiofaunal abundances in the upper and middle part of the canyon are higher than on adjacent slopes, but lower in the deepest part. Mega- and macrofauna abundances are higher in the canyon compared with the adjacent slope and are higher in the eastern than

  5. Bell Discourse in Russian Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Элеонора Р Лассан

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the symbolic meaning of Russian ringing of bell in the Russian discourse. According to Lotman’s definition of symbol, it has dual nature: an invariant essence and its modification in relation to the cultural context. The article introduces informative and linguistic modifications of the bell topic in the Russian poetic discourse of the 19th, the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century. The author of the article provides the detailed analysis of such discursive descriptions of bell ringing as the ringing of church bells and alarm . The author arrives at the conlusion that the alarm topic prevails in contemporary poetry and this indicates the state of public dissatisfaction. In the 19th and the 20th centuries lexemes the ringing of church bells and alarm were used literally, but in the 21st century lexeme alarm acquires metaphorical meaning of call for blood.

  6. 77 FR 64439 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada (Bell) Model Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... unsafe condition for the Bell Model 430 helicopters. Discrepancies in the processing and display of air... pilot and copilot electronic attitude direction indicators airspeed indicators; [cir] Leak testing the... and responsibilities among the various levels of government. For the reasons discussed, I certify this...

  7. Bell's theorem with and without inequalities for the three-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and W states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabello, Adan

    2002-01-01

    A proof of Bell's theorem without inequalities valid for both inequivalent classes of three-qubit entangled states under local operations assisted by classical communication, namely Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) and W, is described. This proof leads to a Bell inequality that allows more conclusive tests of Bell's theorem for three-qubit systems. Another Bell inequality involving both tri- and bipartite correlations is introduced which illustrates the different violations of local realism exhibited by the GHZ and W states

  8. Bell's palsy before Bell : Cornelis Stalpart van der Wiel's observation of Bell's palsy in 1683

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Graaf, RC; Nicolai, JPA

    Bell's palsy is named after Sir Charles Bell (1774-1842), who has long been considered to be the first to describe idiopathic facial paralysis in the early 19th century. However, it was discovered that Nicolaus Anton Friedreich (1761-1836) and James Douglas (1675-1742) preceded him in the 18th

  9. New York Canyon Stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raemy, Bernard

    2012-06-21

    The New York Canyon Stimulation Project was to demonstrate the commercial application of Enhanced Geothermal System techniques in Buena Vista Valley area of Pershing County, Nevada. From October 2009 to early 2012, TGP Development Company aggressively implemented Phase I of Pre-Stimulation and Site/Wellbore readiness. This included: geological studies; water studies and analyses and procurement of initial permits for drilling. Oversubscription of water rights and lack of water needed for implementation of EGS were identified and remained primary obstacles. Despite extended efforts to find alternative solutions, the water supply circumstances could not be overcome and led TGP to determine a "No Go" decision and initiate project termination in April 2012.

  10. Field-test programs of borehole plugs in southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, C.L.; Peterson, E.W.

    1981-01-01

    This paper gives a general overview of the repository-sealing field test effort being conducted by Sandia National Laboratories in support of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in southeast New Mexico. Summary descriptions of supporting activities, such as performance assessment and plugging materials development, are included to create the connection between modeling and laboratory activities as they relate to field results. Results of tests on a portion of a 17-year-old plug (Plug 217) recovered from a mine horizon and the Bell Canyon Test, in which a cement plug was emplaced to isolate a naturally pressurized aquifer, are given. Conclusions from these field plugging tests are included

  11. New supply for canyon fire foam system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gainey, T.

    1995-01-01

    The raw water supply for the B-Plant Canyon fire foam system is being replaced. The 4 inche water supply line to the foam system is being rerouted from the 6 inches raw water line in the Pipe Gallery to the 10 inches raw water main in the Operating Gallery. This document states the acceptance criteria for the flushing and testing to be performed by the contractor

  12. Belle computing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Ichiro; Hibino, Taisuke; Hinz, Luc; Itoh, Ryosuke; Katayama, Nobu; Nishida, Shohei; Ronga, Frederic; Tsukamoto, Toshifumi; Yokoyama, Masahiko

    2004-01-01

    We describe the present status of the computing system in the Belle experiment at the KEKB e+e- asymmetric-energy collider. So far, we have logged more than 160fb-1 of data, corresponding to the world's largest data sample of 170M BB-bar pairs at the -bar (4S) energy region. A large amount of event data has to be processed to produce an analysis event sample in a timely fashion. In addition, Monte Carlo events have to be created to control systematic errors accurately. This requires stable and efficient usage of computing resources. Here, we review our computing model and then describe how we efficiently proceed DST/MC productions in our system

  13. Obstructions to Bell CMB experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jérôme; Vennin, Vincent

    2017-09-01

    We present a general and systematic study of how a Bell experiment on the cosmic microwave background could be carried out. We introduce different classes of pseudo-spin operators and show that, if the system is placed in a two-mode squeezed state as inflation predicts, they all lead to a violation of the Bell inequality. However, we also discuss the obstacles that one faces in order to realize this program in practice and show that they are probably insurmountable. We suggest alternative methods that could reveal the quantum origin of cosmological structures without relying on Bell experiments.

  14. Belle II Technical Design Report

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, T; Adamczyk, K; Ahn, S; Aihara, H; Akai, K; Aloi, M; Andricek, L; Aoki, K; Arai, Y; Arefiev, A; Arinstein, K; Arita, Y; Asner, D M; Aulchenko, V; Aushev, T; Aziz, T; Bakich, A M; Balagura, V; Ban, Y; Barberio, E; Barvich, T; Belous, K; Bergauer, T; Bhardwaj, V; Bhuyan, B; Blyth, S; Bondar, A; Bonvicini, G; Bozek, A; Bracko, M; Brodzicka, J; Brovchenko, O; Browder, T E; Cao, G; Chang, M -C; Chang, P; Chao, Y; Chekelian, V; Chen, A; Chen, K -F; Chen, P; Cheon, B G; Chiang, C -C; Chistov, R; Cho, K; Choi, S -K; Chung, K; Comerma, A; Cooney, M; Cowley, D E; Critchlow, T; Dalseno, J; Danilov, M; Dieguez, A; Dierlamm, A; Dillon, M; Dingfelder, J; Dolenec, R; Dolezal, Z; Drasal, Z; Drutskoy, A; Dungel, W; Dutta, D; Eidelman, S; Enomoto, A; Epifanov, D; Esen, S; Fast, J E; Feindt, M; Garcia, M Fernandez; Fifield, T; Fischer, P; Flanagan, J; Fourletov, S; Fourletova, J; Freixas, L; Frey, A; Friedl, M; Fruehwirth, R; Fujii, H; Fujikawa, M; Fukuma, Y; Funakoshi, Y; Furukawa, K; Fuster, J; Gabyshev, N; Cueto, A Gaspar de Valenzuela; Garmash, A; Garrido, L; Geisler, Ch; Gfall, I; Goh, Y M; Golob, B; Gorton, I; Grzymkowski, R; Guo, H; Ha, H; Haba, J; Hara, K; Hara, T; Haruyama, T; Hayasaka, K; Hayashi, K; Hayashii, H; Heck, M; Heindl, S; Heller, C; Hemperek, T; Higuchi, T; Horii, Y; Hou, W -S; Hsiung, Y B; Huang, C -H; Hwang, S; Hyun, H J; Igarashi, Y; Iglesias, C; Iida, Y; Iijima, T; Imamura, M; Inami, K; Irmler, C; Ishizuka, M; Itagaki, K; Itoh, R; Iwabuchi, M; Iwai, G; Iwai, M; Iwasaki, M; Iwasaki, M; Iwasaki, Y; Iwashita, T; Iwata, S; Jang, H; Ji, X; Jinno, T; Jones, M; Julius, T; Kageyama, T; Kah, D H; Kakuno, H; Kamitani, T; Kanazawa, K; Kapusta, P; Kataoka, S U; Katayama, N; Kawai, M; Kawai, Y; Kawasaki, T; Kennedy, J; Kichimi, H; Kikuchi, M; Kiesling, C; Kim, B K; Kim, G N; Kim, H J; Kim, H O; Kim, J -B; Kim, J H; Kim, M J; Kim, S K; Kim, K T; Kim, T Y; Kinoshita, K; Kishi, K; Kisielewski, B; van Dam, K Kleese; Knopf, J; Ko, B R; Koch, M; Kodys, P; Koffmane, C; Koga, Y; Kohriki, T; Koike, S; Koiso, H; Kondo, Y; Korpar, S; Kouzes, R T; Kreidl, Ch; Kreps, M; Krizan, P; Krokovny, P; Krueger, H; Kruth, A; Kuhn, W; Kuhr, T; Kumar, R; Kumita, T; Kupper, S; Kuzmin, A; Kvasnicka, P; Kwon, Y -J; Lacasta, C; Lange, J S; Lee, I -S; Lee, M J; Lee, M W; Lee, S -H; Lemarenko, M; Li, J; Li, W D; Li, Y; Libby, J; Limosani, A; Liu, C; Liu, H; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Liventsev, D; Virto, A Lopez; Makida, Y; Mao, Z P; Marinas, C; Masuzawa, M; Matvienko, D; Mitaroff, W; Miyabayashi, K; Miyata, H; Miyazaki, Y; Miyoshi, T; Mizuk, R; Mohanty, G B; Mohapatra, D; Moll, A; Mori, T; Morita, A; Morita, Y; Moser, H -G; Martin, D Moya; Mueller, T; Muenchow, D; Murakami, J; Myung, S S; Nagamine, T; Nakamura, I; Nakamura, T T; Nakano, E; Nakano, H; Nakao, M; Nakazawa, H; Nam, S -H; Natkaniec, Z; Nedelkovska, E; Negishi, K; Neubauer, S; Ng, C; Ninkovic, J; Nishida, S; Nishimura, K; Novikov, E; Nozaki, T; Ogawa, S; Ohmi, K; Ohnishi, Y; Ohshima, T; Ohuchi, N; Oide, K; Olsen, S L; Ono, M; Ono, Y; Onuki, Y; Ostrowicz, W; Ozaki, H; Pakhlov, P; Pakhlova, G; Palka, H; Park, H; Park, H K; Peak, L S; Peng, T; Peric, I; Pernicka, M; Pestotnik, R; Petric, M; Piilonen, L E; Poluektov, A; Prim, M; Prothmann, K; Regimbal, K; Reisert, B; Richter, R H; Riera-Babures, J; Ritter, A; Ritter, A; Ritter, M; Roehrken, M; Rorie, J; Rosen, M; Rozanska, M; Ruckman, L; Rummel, S; Rusinov, V; Russell, R M; Ryu, S; Sahoo, H; Sakai, K; Sakai, Y; Santelj, L; Sasaki, T; Sato, N; Sato, Y; Scheirich, J; Schieck, J; Schwanda, C; Schwartz, A J; Schwenker, B; Seljak, A; Senyo, K; Seon, O -S; Sevior, M E; Shapkin, M; Shebalin, V; Shen, C P; Shibuya, H; Shiizuka, S; Shiu, J -G; Shwartz, B; Simon, F; Simonis, H J; Singh, J B; Sinha, R; Sitarz, M; Smerkol, P; Sokolov, A; Solovieva, E; Stanic, S; Staric, M; Stypula, J; Suetsugu, Y; Sugihara, S; Sugimura, T; Sumisawa, K; Sumiyoshi, T; Suzuki, K; Suzuki, S Y; Takagaki, H; Takasaki, F; Takeichi, H; Takubo, Y; Tanaka, M; Tanaka, S; Taniguchi, N; Tarkovsky, E; Tatishvili, G; Tawada, M; Taylor, G N; Teramoto, Y; Tikhomirov, I; Trabelsi, K; Tsuboyama, T; Tsunada, K; Tu, Y -C; Uchida, T; Uehara, S; Ueno, K; Uglov, T; Unno, Y; Uno, S; Urquijo, P; Ushiroda, Y; Usov, Y; Vahsen, S; Valentan, M; Vanhoefer, P; Varner, G; Varvell, K E; Vazquez, P; Vila, I; Vilella, E; Vinokurova, A; Visniakov, J; Vos, M; Wang, C H; Wang, J; Wang, M -Z; Wang, P; Wassatch, A; Watanabe, M; Watase, Y; Weiler, T; Wermes, N; Wescott, R E; White, E; Wicht, J; Widhalm, L; Williams, K M; Won, E; Xu, H; Yabsley, B D; Yamamoto, H; Yamaoka, H; Yamaoka, Y; Yamauchi, M; Yin, Y; Yoon, H; Yu, J; Yuan, C Z; Yusa, Y; Zander, D; Zdybal, M; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhao, L; Zhao, Z; Zhilich, V; Zhou, P; Zhulanov, V; Zivko, T; Zupanc, A; Zyukova, O

    2010-01-01

    The Belle detector at the KEKB electron-positron collider has collected almost 1 billion Y(4S) events in its decade of operation. Super-KEKB, an upgrade of KEKB is under construction, to increase the luminosity by two orders of magnitude during a three-year shutdown, with an ultimate goal of 8E35 /cm^2 /s luminosity. To exploit the increased luminosity, an upgrade of the Belle detector has been proposed. A new international collaboration Belle-II, is being formed. The Technical Design Report presents physics motivation, basic methods of the accelerator upgrade, as well as key improvements of the detector.

  15. Magic moments with John Bell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertlmann, Reinhold A.

    2015-07-15

    John Bell, with whom I had a fruitful collaboration and warm friendship, is best known for his seminal work on the foundations of quantum physics, but he also made outstanding contributions to particle physics and accelerator physics.

  16. Magic moments with John Bell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertlmann, Reinhold A.

    2015-01-01

    John Bell, with whom I had a fruitful collaboration and warm friendship, is best known for his seminal work on the foundations of quantum physics, but he also made outstanding contributions to particle physics and accelerator physics

  17. Bell's inequalities and Kolmogorov's axioms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. After recalling proofs of the Bell inequality based on the assumptions of separability and of noncontextuality, the most general noncontextual contrapositive conditional probabilities consistent with the Aspect experiment are constructed. In general these probabilities are not all positive.

  18. Study of line source characteristics for 2-D physical modelling of pollutant dispersion in street canyons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meroney, Robert N. [Fluid Mechanics and Wind Engineering Program, Civil Engineering Department, Colorado State University Fort Collins, CO (United States); Pavageau, Michel; Rafailidis, Stilianos; Schatzmann, Michael [Meteorologisches Institut, Universitaet Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany)

    1996-08-01

    The University of Hamburg initiated a wind tunnel study of car exhaust dispersion from street canyons in an urban environment to investigate how pollution dispersion is affected by street geometry. Particular emphasis at the beginning of this work was put on the design of a line source to represent traffic exhaust. Pollution dispersion was studied in two dimensions (i.e., infinite-length streets were assumed). The case of an isolated street canyon in open country was examined first. The same street canyon geometry was subsequently studied in an urban environment, i.e., with additional canyons of similar geometry upstream and downstream of the test street. The dynamic and dispersion characteristics of the flow in the two cases were quite different. In the canyon amidst open country we observed better canyon ventilation than in the urban roughness case

  19. 2010 Pacific Gas and Electric Diablo Canyon Power Plant (DCPP): Diablo Canyon, CA Central Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Diablo Canyon Power Plant (DCPP) LiDAR and Imagery datasets are comprised of three separate LiDAR surveys: Diablo Canyon (2010), Diablo Canyon (2010), and San...

  20. Marine litter in submarine canyons of the Bay of Biscay

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Beld, Inge M. J.; Guillaumont, Brigitte; Menot, Lénaïck; Bayle, Christophe; Arnaud-Haond, Sophie; Bourillet, Jean-François

    2017-11-01

    Marine litter is a matter of increasing concern worldwide, from shallow seas to the open ocean and from beaches to the deep-seafloor. Indeed, the deep sea may be the ultimate repository of a large proportion of litter in the ocean. We used footage acquired with a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) and a towed camera to investigate the distribution and composition of litter in the submarine canyons of the Bay of Biscay. This bay contains many submarine canyons housing Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems (VMEs) such as scleractinian coral habitats. VMEs are considered to be important for fish and they increase the local biodiversity. The objectives of the study were to investigate and discuss: (i) litter density, (ii) the principal sources of litter, (iii) the influence of environmental factors on the distribution of litter, and (iv) the impact of litter on benthic communities. Litter was found in all 15 canyons and at three sites on the edge of the continental shelf/canyon, in 25 of 29 dives. The Belle-île and Arcachon Canyons contained the largest amounts of litter, up to 12.6 and 9.5 items per 100 images respectively. Plastic items were the most abundant (42%), followed by fishing-related items (16%). The litter had both a maritime and a terrestrial origin. The main sources could be linked to fishing activities, major shipping lanes and river discharges. Litter appeared to accumulate at water depths of 801-1100 m and 1401-1700 m. In the deeper of these two depth ranges, litter accumulated on a geologically structured area, accounting for its high frequency at this depth. A larger number of images taken in areas of coral in the shallower of these two depth ranges may account for the high frequency of litter detection at this depth. A larger number of litter items, including plastic objects in particular, were observed on geological structures and in coral areas than on areas of bare substratum. The distribution of fishing-related items was similar for the various types of

  1. Analytic quantum bounds on Bell inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipp, S.; Svozil, K.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Can realism be combined with the quantum world? An important tool to investigate in this question are Bell's inequalities and violations thereof - they represent a cornerstone of our present understanding of quantum mechanics and therefore the description of nature. Here we present a simple algebraic method to calculate violations for any measurement arrangements that are maximal in the sense that quantum mechanics does not allow a stronger violation. Having two or more polarization analyzers available and a source producing photon-pairs in arbitrary polarization states Bell-type inequalities tell us which probabilities for measuring the polarization in particular directions are viable in a deterministic theory. Quantum mechanics does not obey these rules, but yields a violation of these inequalities. The questions is to what extent the inequalities are violated. Making use of a min-max principle analytical expressions can be found for the 'fine structure' of the maximal violations of arbitrary Bell-like inequalities, i. e. the upper bound reachable by any state when the analyzers measure in given directions. Knowing these bounds is useful for experimental tests of the validity of quantum mechanics and can serve as a prerequisite to answer the even more pressing question, why no stronger violation has been observed until now. (author)

  2. Is the bell ringing?

    CERN Multimedia

    Francesco Poppi

    2010-01-01

    During the Nobel prize-winning UA1 experiment, scientists in the control room used to ring a bell if a particularly interesting event had occurred. Today, the “CMS Exotica hotline” routine produces a daily report that lists the exotic events that were recorded the day before.   Display of an event selected by the Exotica routine. Take just a very small fraction of the available data (max. 5%); define the events that you want to keep and set the parameters accordingly; run the Exotica routine and only look at the very few images that the system has selected for you. This is the recipe that a small team of CMS researchers has developed to identify the signals coming from possible new physics processes. “This approach does not replace the accurate data analysis on the whole set of data. However, it is a very fast and effective way to focus on just a few events that are potentially very interesting”, explains Maurizio Pierini (CERN), who developed the...

  3. Mineral resources of the Desolation Canyon, Turtle Canyon, and Floy Canyon Wilderness Study Areas, Carbon Emery, and Grand counties, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashion, W.B.; Kilburn, J.E.; Barton, H.N.; Kelley, K.D.; Kulik, D.M.; McDonnell, J.R.

    1990-09-01

    This paper reports on the Desolation Canyon, Turtle Canyon, and Floy Canyon Wilderness Study Areas which include 242,000 acres, 33,690 acres, and 23,140 acres. Coal deposits underlie all three study areas. Coal zones in the Blackhawk and Nelsen formations have identified bituminous coal resources of 22 million short tons in the Desolation Canyon Study Area, 6.3 million short tons in the Turtle Canyon Study Area, and 45 million short tons in the Floy Canyon Study Area. In-place inferred oil shale resources are estimated to contain 60 million barrels in the northern part of the Desolation Canyon area. Minor occurrences of uranium have been found in the southeastern part of the Desolation Canyon area and in the western part of the Floy Canyon area. Mineral resource potential for the study areas is estimated to be for coal, high for all areas, for oil and gas, high for the northern tract of the Desolation Canyon area and moderate for all other tracts, for bituminous sandstone, high for the northern part of the Desolation Canyon area, and low for all other tracts, for oil shale, low in all areas, for uranium, moderate for the Floy Canyon area and the southeastern part of the Desolation Canyon area and low for the remainder of the areas, for metals other than uranium, bentonite, zeolites, and geothermal energy, low in all areas, and for coal-bed methane unknown in all three areas

  4. Formative flow in bedrock canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venditti, J. G.; Kwoll, E.; Rennie, C. D.; Church, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    In alluvial channels, it is widely accepted that river channel configuration is set by a formative flow that represents a balance between the magnitude and frequency of flood flows. The formative flow is often considered to be one that is just capable of filling a river channel to the top of its banks. Flows much above this formative flow are thought to cause substantial sediment transport and rearrange the channel morphology to accommodate the larger flow. This idea has recently been extended to semi-alluvial channels where it has been shown that even with bedrock exposed, the flows rarely exceed that required to entrain the local sediment cover. What constitutes a formative flow in a bedrock canyon is not clear. By definition, canyons have rock walls and are typically incised vertically, removing the possibility of the walls being overtopped, as can occur in an alluvial channel at high flows. Canyons are laterally constrained, have deep scour pools and often have width to maximum depth ratios approaching 1, an order of magnitude lower than alluvial channels. In many canyons, there are a sequence of irregularly spaced scour pools. The bed may have intermittent or seasonal sediment cover, but during flood flows the sediment bed is entrained leaving a bare bedrock channel. It has been suggested that canyons cut into weak, well-jointed rock may adjust their morphology to the threshold for block plucking because the rock bed is labile during exceptionally large magnitude flows. However, this hypothesis does not apply to canyons cut into massive crystalline rock where abrasion is the dominant erosion process. Here, we argue that bedrock canyon morphology is adjusted to a characteristic flow structure developed in bedrock canyons. We show that the deeply scoured canyon floor is adjusted to a velocity inversion that is present at low flows, but gets stronger at high flows. The effect is to increase boundary shear stresses along the scour pool that forms in constricted

  5. Bipartite Bell Inequality and Maximal Violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ming; Fei Shaoming; Li-Jost Xian-Qing

    2011-01-01

    We present new bell inequalities for arbitrary dimensional bipartite quantum systems. The maximal violation of the inequalities is computed. The Bell inequality is capable of detecting quantum entanglement of both pure and mixed quantum states more effectively. (general)

  6. John Bell and the Identical Twins

    CERN Multimedia

    1984-01-01

    A biographical profile of John S.Bell is presented based on extensive interviews the author had with Bell. Bell’s vierws on the quantum theory are presented along with a simple explanation of his idenity.

  7. Bell's Theorem and Einstein's "Spooky Actions" from a Simple Thought Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttner, Fred; Rosenblum, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    In 1964 John Bell proved a theorem allowing the experimental test of whether what Einstein derided as "spooky actions at a distance" actually exist. We will see that they "do". Bell's theorem can be displayed with a simple, nonmathematical thought experiment suitable for a physics course at "any" level. And a simple, semi-classical derivation of…

  8. Bell's theorem, accountability and nonlocality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vona, Nicola; Liang, Yeong-Cherng

    2014-01-01

    Bell's theorem is a fundamental theorem in physics concerning the incompatibility between some correlations predicted by quantum theory and a large class of physical theories. In this paper, we introduce the hypothesis of accountability, which demands that it is possible to explain the correlations of the data collected in many runs of a Bell experiment in terms of what happens in each single run. Under this assumption, and making use of a recent result by Colbeck and Renner (2011 Nature Commun. 2 411), we then show that any nontrivial account of these correlations in the form of an extension of quantum theory must violate parameter independence. Moreover, we analyze the violation of outcome independence of quantum mechanics and show that it is also a manifestation of nonlocality. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell's theorem’. (paper)

  9. Compact Bell inequalities for multipartite experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Yu-Chun; Żukowski, Marek; Chen, Jing-Ling; Guo, Guang-Can

    2013-01-01

    A method for construction of the multipartite Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) type Bell inequalities, for the case of local binary observables, is presented. The standard CHSH-type Bell inequalities can be obtained as special cases. A unified framework to establish all kinds of CHSH-type Bell inequalities by increasing step by step the number of observers is given. As an application, compact Bell inequalities, for eight observers, involving just four correlation functions are proposed. They...

  10. Deepwater Canyons 2013: Pathways to the Abyss

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Leg I focused on biological objectives in Norfolk Canyon, with some sampling in Baltimore Canyon. Leg II focused on archaeological targets in and around the Norfolk...

  11. Belle Physics at Wayne State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cinabro, David

    2016-01-01

    The major goals of our work on Belle II were to complete our contributions, a 64-channel PIN diode-based radiation monitor, to the precursor detector called Beast II and the electronics for the endcap K-Long/Muon (E-KLM) detector. This was done by Professor Cinabro, Technician Gutierrez, and undergraduate labor supported by US-Japan funds. Professor Bonvicini through US-Japan funds led the development and installation of a beamstrahlung monitor system in the Belle II interaction region. Graduate students Farhat and DiCarlo worked on this. We also worked on charm physics analysis.

  12. 78 FR 48670 - Boulder Canyon Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Western Area Power Administration Boulder Canyon Project AGENCY: Western Area... Canyon Project (BCP) electric service provided by the Western Area Power Administration (Western). The... INFORMATION: Hoover Dam, authorized by the Boulder Canyon Project Act (45 Stat. 1057, December 21, 1928), sits...

  13. 77 FR 48151 - Boulder Canyon Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Western Area Power Administration Boulder Canyon Project AGENCY: Western Area... Canyon Project (BCP) electric service provided by the Western Area Power Administration (Western). The... INFORMATION: Hoover Dam, authorized by the Boulder Canyon Project Act (45 Stat. 1057, December 21, 1928), sits...

  14. The simulation library of the Belle II software system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D. Y.; Ritter, M.; Bilka, T.; Bobrov, A.; Casarosa, G.; Chilikin, K.; Ferber, T.; Godang, R.; Jaegle, I.; Kandra, J.; Kodys, P.; Kuhr, T.; Kvasnicka, P.; Nakayama, H.; Piilonen, L.; Pulvermacher, C.; Santelj, L.; Schwenker, B.; Sibidanov, A.; Soloviev, Y.; Starič, M.; Uglov, T.

    2017-10-01

    SuperKEKB, the next generation B factory, has been constructed in Japan as an upgrade of KEKB. This brand new e+ e- collider is expected to deliver a very large data set for the Belle II experiment, which will be 50 times larger than the previous Belle sample. Both the triggered physics event rate and the background event rate will be increased by at least 10 times than the previous ones, and will create a challenging data taking environment for the Belle II detector. The software system of the Belle II experiment is designed to execute this ambitious plan. A full detector simulation library, which is a part of the Belle II software system, is created based on Geant4 and has been tested thoroughly. Recently the library has been upgraded with Geant4 version 10.1. The library is behaving as expected and it is utilized actively in producing Monte Carlo data sets for various studies. In this paper, we will explain the structure of the simulation library and the various interfaces to other packages including geometry and beam background simulation.

  15. Nonlocal interactions and Bell's inequality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garuccio, A.; Selleri, F.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that natural extensions of the local hidden variable theories to include nonlocal effects still lead to a full validity of Bell's inequality. It is conjectured that the essential point expressed by this inequality is not locality, but the wave-particle dualism

  16. Clusters of Bell's palsy "Surtos" da paralisia de Bell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago D. Gonçalves-Coêlho

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The idiopathic facial paralysis or Bell's palsy installs abruptly or within a few hours, without any apparent cause. It corresponds to approximately 75% of all peripheral facial palsies. Three theories try to explain its pathogenecity: vascular-ischemic, viral and auto-immune. We reviewed the records of the EMG Sector, Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual (São Paulo, Brazil, from 1985 to 1995 and found 239 cases of Bell's palsy. Data were analysed according to age, gender, seasonal distribution of cases. There was a predominance of cases in the 31 - 60 age bracket (40.59 %. The female gender was responsible to 70.71 % of cases. There was a predominance of cases in winter (31.38 % and autumn (30.13 %, which was statiscally significant. These findings let us to suppose that Bell's palsy predominates in females, in 41-60 years age bracket, and occurs predominantly in cold months. There are groups of clusters throughout temporal distribution of cases and cases are dependent on one each other or on factors affecting them all, which reinforces the infectious hypothesis (there is a rise in the incidence of viral upper respiratory tract infection during cold months.A paralisia facial idiopática ou paralisia de Bell se instala abruptamente ou em algumas horas, sem causa aparente. Corresponde a aproximadamente 75% de todos os casos de paralisia facial. Três teorias tentam explicar sua patogenia: vásculo-isquêmica, autoimune e viral. Nós revisamos os arquivos do Setor de Eletromiografia do Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual (São Paulo de 1985 a 1995, encontrando 239 casos de paralisia de Bell. Dados foram analisados quanto a idade, sexo, distribuição sazonal. Houve predominância dos casos na faixa etária de 31 a 60 anos (40,59 %. O sexo feminino foi responsável por 70,71 % dos casos. Houve predominância de casos no inverno (31,38 % e outono (30,13 %, estatisticamente sigmficante. Estes achados levam-nos a supor que a paralisia de Bell

  17. Software Quality Control at Belle II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, M.; Kuhr, T.; Hauth, T.; Gebard, T.; Kristof, M.; Pulvermacher, C.; Belle Software Group, II

    2017-10-01

    Over the last seven years the software stack of the next generation B factory experiment Belle II has grown to over one million lines of C++ and Python code, counting only the part included in offline software releases. There are several thousand commits to the central repository by about 100 individual developers per year. To keep a coherent software stack of high quality that it can be sustained and used efficiently for data acquisition, simulation, reconstruction, and analysis over the lifetime of the Belle II experiment is a challenge. A set of tools is employed to monitor the quality of the software and provide fast feedback to the developers. They are integrated in a machinery that is controlled by a buildbot master and automates the quality checks. The tools include different compilers, cppcheck, the clang static analyzer, valgrind memcheck, doxygen, a geometry overlap checker, a check for missing or extra library links, unit tests, steering file level tests, a sophisticated high-level validation suite, and an issue tracker. The technological development infrastructure is complemented by organizational means to coordinate the development.

  18. Durable terrestrial bedrock predicts submarine canyon formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elliot; Finnegan, Noah J.; Mueller, Erich R.; Best, Rebecca J.

    2017-01-01

    Though submarine canyons are first-order topographic features of Earth, the processes responsible for their occurrence remain poorly understood. Potentially analogous studies of terrestrial rivers show that the flux and caliber of transported bedload are significant controls on bedrock incision. Here we hypothesize that coarse sediment load could exert a similar role in the formation of submarine canyons. We conducted a comprehensive empirical analysis of canyon occurrence along the West Coast of the contiguous United States which indicates that submarine canyon occurrence is best predicted by the occurrence of durable crystalline bedrock in adjacent terrestrial catchments. Canyon occurrence is also predicted by the flux of bed sediment to shore from terrestrial streams. Surprisingly, no significant correlation was observed between canyon occurrence and the slope or width of the continental shelf. These findings suggest that canyon incision is promoted by greater yields of durable terrestrial clasts to the shore.

  19. Submarine canyons off Madras Coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G.A.P.

    Submarine canyons off the coast of Madras, Tamil Nadu, India were studied during cruise of @iINS Kistna@@ as part of the IIOE programme They consist of hill-like projections and V-shaped valleys Their other features are also reported...

  20. A Measurement of "g" Using Alexander's Diving Bell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, M.; Martinez, S.; Otranto, S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a very simple exercise using an inverted test tube pushed straight down into a column of water to determine the free-fall acceleration "g". The exercise employs the ideal gas law and only involves the measurement of the displacement of the bottom of the "diving bell" and the water level inside the tube with respect to the…

  1. Violation of Bell's inequality in neutral kaons system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We show by general considerations that it is not possible to test violation of the existing versions of Bell's inequality in entangled neutral kaons system using experimentally accessible thin regenerators. We point out the loophole in the recent argument (A Bramon and M Nowakowski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1 (1999)) that ...

  2. Violation of Bell's inequality in neutral kaons system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We show by general considerations that it is not possible to test violation of the existing versions of Bell's inequality in entangled neutral kaons system using experimentally accessible thin regenerators. We point out the loophole in the recent argument (A Bramon and M Nowakowski,. Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1 (1999)) ...

  3. Typical Werner states satisfying all linear Bell inequalities with dichotomic measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ming-Xing

    2018-04-01

    Quantum entanglement as a special resource inspires various distinct applications in quantum information processing. Unfortunately, it is NP-hard to detect general quantum entanglement using Bell testing. Our goal is to investigate quantum entanglement with white noises that appear frequently in experiment and quantum simulations. Surprisingly, for almost all multipartite generalized Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states there are entangled noisy states that satisfy all linear Bell inequalities consisting of full correlations with dichotomic inputs and outputs of each local observer. This result shows generic undetectability of mixed entangled states in contrast to Gisin's theorem of pure bipartite entangled states in terms of Bell nonlocality. We further provide an accessible method to show a nontrivial set of noisy entanglement with small number of parties satisfying all general linear Bell inequalities. These results imply typical incompleteness of special Bell theory in explaining entanglement.

  4. Increased risk of Bell palsy in patients with migraine: a nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Kuan-Po; Chen, Yung-Tai; Fuh, Jong-Ling; Tang, Chao-Hsiun; Wang, Shuu-Jiun

    2015-01-13

    To evaluate the association between migraine and Bell palsy and to examine the effects of age, sex, migraine subtype, and comorbid risk factors for Bell palsy. This nationwide cohort study was conducted using data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Subjects aged 18 years or older with neurologist-diagnosed migraine from 2005 to 2009 were included. A nonheadache age- and propensity score-matched control cohort was selected for comparison. All subjects were followed until the end of 2010, death, or the occurrence of a Bell palsy event. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate the adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals to compare the risk of Bell palsy between groups. Both cohorts (n = 136,704 each) were followed for a mean of 3.2 years. During the follow-up period, 671 patients (424,372 person-years) in the migraine cohort and 365 matched control subjects (438,677 person-years) were newly diagnosed with Bell palsy (incidence rates, 158.1 and 83.2/100,000 person-years, respectively). The adjusted hazard ratio for Bell palsy was 1.91 (95% confidence interval, 1.68-2.17; p Bell palsy remained significant in sensitivity analyses, and tests of interaction failed to reach significance in all subgroup analyses. Migraine is a previously unidentified risk factor for Bell palsy. The association between these 2 conditions suggests a linked disease mechanism, which is worthy of further exploration. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  5. Bell Palsy and Acupuncture Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betul Battaloglu Ižnanc

    2013-08-01

    A 22-year-old female patient, a midwifery student, had treatment with corticosteroid and antiviral agents as soon as Bell Palsy (BP was diagnosed (House-Breckman stage 6. Six weeks later, patient didn’t recover, while in House-Breckman stage 3, acupuncture was perfomed and local and distal acupoints were used with ears, body and face. Ear acupuncture point was used two times with detection. In the course of six sessions body and face points were stimulated by electroacupuncture. After ten acupuncture treatments, the subjective symptoms and the facial motion on the affected side improved. There was an spotting ecchymosis the ST2 points on. The symmetry of the face is a determinant of facial charm and influences interpersonal attraction for adults, children and pregnant women. Medical options for the sequelae of BP are limited. Acupuncture’s effectively in Bell palsy patients’ should be shown with more clinical and electrophysiological studies.

  6. Update on managing Bell's palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Each year in the UK, around 1 in 5,000 people develops Bell's palsy--idiopathic unilateral lower motor neurone facial weakness of rapid onset. Of those who are not treated, about 16% end up with permanent moderate to severe weakness, which can result in facial dysfunction and disfigurement, and psychological difficulties. There has been longstanding controversy about what, if any, treatment should be given, with potential alternatives including corticosteroids, antiviral drugs, acupuncture and physiotherapy. We last reviewed this condition in 2006, indicating that "published trials on the efficacy of drug treatments have been poor and no firm conclusions can be drawn about the benefit of any single drug", and "it is unclear what place, if any, acupuncture and physiotherapy have in the management of patients with Bell's palsy". Here we update our conclusions in the light of recently published evidence.

  7. Bell's inequalities and physical reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chylinski, Z.

    1985-01-01

    Bell's theory proves the nonlocal character of quantum mechanics alien to the theory of relativity, which shows how essential were the objections of Einstein against quantum mechanics. Since the experiment on Bell's inequalities favours quantum mechanics, this forces one to revise the notion of physical reality. According to Heisenberg one should distinguish between the quantum-potential reality of relations and the classical-actual reality of events. The hypothesis of internal space-time put forward in previous papers supplies the geometrical framework of such a philosophy. Consequently, relations between the constituents of isolated systems precede the space-time events, which fact essentially modifies the meaning of quantum nonlocality and the physical reality itself. 19 refs. (author)

  8. Belle II silicon vertex detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamczyk, K. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow 31-342 (Poland); Aihara, H. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Angelini, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Aziz, T.; Babu, V. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Bacher, S. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow 31-342 (Poland); Bahinipati, S. [Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar, Satya Nagar (India); Barberio, E.; Baroncelli, Ti.; Baroncelli, To. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Basith, A.K. [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Batignani, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bauer, A. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Behera, P.K. [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Bergauer, T. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Bettarini, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bhuyan, B. [Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Assam 781039 (India); Bilka, T. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, 121 16 Prague (Czech Republic); Bosi, F. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bosisio, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); INFN Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); and others

    2016-09-21

    The Belle II experiment at the SuperKEKB collider in Japan is designed to indirectly probe new physics using approximately 50 times the data recorded by its predecessor. An accurate determination of the decay-point position of subatomic particles such as beauty and charm hadrons as well as a precise measurement of low-momentum charged particles will play a key role in this pursuit. These will be accomplished by an inner tracking device comprising two layers of pixelated silicon detector and four layers of silicon vertex detector based on double-sided microstrip sensors. We describe herein the design, prototyping and construction efforts of the Belle-II silicon vertex detector.

  9. Bell's theorem and quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Nathan

    1994-02-01

    Bell showed that assuming locality leads to a disagreement with quantum mechanics. Here the nature of the nonlocality that follows from quantum mechanics is investigated. Note by the Editor—Readers will recognize Professor Rosen, author of this paper, as one of the co-authors of the famous EPR paper, Albert Einstein, Boris Podolsky, and Nathan Rosen, ``Can Quantum-Mechanical Description of Physical Reality be considered Complete?'', Phys. Rev. 47, 770-780 (1935). Robert H. Romer, Editor

  10. A limitation on Bell's inequality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buonomano, V.

    1978-01-01

    It is shown that Bell's Inequality does not characterize all local hidden variable explanations of the polarization correlation experiments. If one considers theories in which a single polarization measurement is not independent of previous particle-polarizer interactions then it is possible to manufacture local hidden variable theories which agree with quantum mechanics for any of the experiments performed to date. A relevant property here is ergodicity, and we can say that Bell's Inequality characterizes all ergodic local hidden variable theories (i.e. all local theories that give the same time and ensemble average) but not all non-ergodic local hidden variable theories. It is further shown that the most physically reasonable class of non-ergodic local hidden variable theories must also satisfy Bell's Inequality. It might be concluded from this article that if one insists on believing in both local hidden variable theories and the polarization correlation experiments supporting quantum mechanics then one must also believe in the existence of a field, medium or ether that permeates space and has relatively stable states (memory)

  11. Geomorphic process fingerprints in submarine canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Daniel S.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Andrews, Brian D.; Chaytor, Jason D.; Twichell, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Submarine canyons are common features of continental margins worldwide. They are conduits that funnel vast quantities of sediment from the continents to the deep sea. Though it is known that submarine canyons form primarily from erosion induced by submarine sediment flows, we currently lack quantitative, empirically based expressions that describe the morphology of submarine canyon networks. Multibeam bathymetry data along the entire passive US Atlantic margin (USAM) and along the active central California margin near Monterey Bay provide an opportunity to examine the fine-scale morphology of 171 slope-sourced canyons. Log–log regression analyses of canyon thalweg gradient (S) versus up-canyon catchment area (A) are used to examine linkages between morphological domains and the generation and evolution of submarine sediment flows. For example, canyon reaches of the upper continental slope are characterized by steep, linear and/or convex longitudinal profiles, whereas reaches farther down canyon have distinctly concave longitudinal profiles. The transition between these geomorphic domains is inferred to represent the downslope transformation of debris flows into erosive, canyon-flushing turbidity flows. Over geologic timescales this process appears to leave behind a predictable geomorphic fingerprint that is dependent on the catchment area of the canyon head. Catchment area, in turn, may be a proxy for the volume of sediment released during geomorphically significant failures along the upper continental slope. Focused studies of slope-sourced submarine canyons may provide new insights into the relationships between fine-scale canyon morphology and down-canyon changes in sediment flow dynamics.

  12. Local realism and the Bell inequality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brody, T.A.

    1989-01-01

    The Bell inequality has generally been interpreted to involve two requirements for its validity: a locality condition and the existence of hidden variables. The Bell inequality could only be satisfied within the framework of a non-local theory. The Pauli exclusion principle bears an evident non-local character, the origins and implications of which cannot be said to be fully understood; nevertheless, it has not given rise to the conceptual confusions that followed in the wake of the Bell inequality. (Author)

  13. Review of ϕ3 measurements at Belle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Červenkov, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    One of the main goals of the Belle experiment (and the upcoming Belle II experiment) is to measure parameters of electro-weak CP violation (CPV). A useful way to parametrize CPV is through the use of unitarity triangles. A brief introduction tounitarity triangle measurements of CP violation is presented, followed by a summary of recent results from the Belle experiment concerning measurements of the least well constrained angle of the standard unitarity triangle — ϕ_3/γ

  14. Nondestructive identification of the Bell diagonal state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Jiasen; Yu Changshui; Song Heshan

    2011-01-01

    We propose a scheme for identifying an unknown Bell diagonal state. In our scheme the measurements are performed on the probe qubits instead of the Bell diagonal state. The distinct advantage is that the quantum state of the evolved Bell diagonal state ensemble plus probe states will still collapse on the original Bell diagonal state ensemble after the measurement on probe states; i.e., our identification is quantum state nondestructive. How to realize our scheme in the framework of cavity electrodynamics is also shown.

  15. Marble Canyon spring sampling investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCulley, B.

    1985-10-01

    The Mississippian Leadville Limestone is the most permeable formation in the lower hydrostratigraphic unit underlying the salt beds of the Paradox Formation in Gibson Dome, Paradox Basin, Utah, which is being considered as a potential nuclear waste repository site. The closest downgradient outcrop of the Mississippian limestone is along the Colorado River in Marble Canyon, Arizona. This report describes the sampling and interpretation of springs in that area to assess the relative contribution of Gibson Dome-type Leadville Limestone ground water to that spring discharge. The high-volume (hundreds of liters per second or thousands of gallons per minute) springs discharging from fault zones in Marble Canyon are mixtures of water recharged west of the Colorado River on the Kaibab Plateau and east of the river in the Kaiparowits basin. No component of Gibson Dome-type Leadville Limestone ground water is evident in major and trace element chemistry or isotopic composition of the Marble Canyon Springs. A low-volume (0.3 liters per second or 5 gallons per minute) spring with some chemical and isotopic characteristics of Gibson Dome-type Leadville Limestone water diluted by Kaiparowits basin-type water issues from a travertine mound in the Bright Angel Shale on the Little Colorado River. However, the stable isotopic composition and bromide levels of that spring discharge, in addition to probable ground-water flow paths, contradict the dilution hypothesis

  16. Basic data report for drilling and hydrologic testing of drillhole DOE-2 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIIP) site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercer, J.W.; Beauheim, R.L.; Snyder, R.P.; Fairer, G.M.

    1987-04-01

    Drillhole DOE-2 was drilled to investigate a structural depression marked by the downward displacement of stratigraphic markers in the Salado Formation. Contrary to several hypotheses, halite layers were thicker in the lower part of the Salado, not thinner as a result of any removal of halite. The upper Castile anhydrite in Drillhole DOE-2 is anomalously thick and is strongly deformed relative to the anhydrite in adjacent drillholes. In contrast, the halite was <8 ft thick and significantly thinner than usually encountered. The lower Castile anhydrite appears to be normal. The depression within the correlated marker beds in the Salado Formation in Drillhole DOE-2 is interpreted as a result of gravity-driven deformation of the underlying Castile Formation. Several stratigraphic units were hydrologically tested in Drillhole DOE-2. Testing of the unsaturated lower portion of the Dewey Lake Red Beds was unsuccessful because of exceptionally small rates of fluid intake. Drill-stem tests were conducted in five intervals in the Rustler Formation, over the Marker Bed 138-139 interval in the Salado formation, and over three sandstone members of the Bell Canyon Formation. A pumping test was conducted in the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation. Pressure-pulse tests were conducted over the entire Salado Formation. Fluid samples were collected from the Culebra Dolomite Member and from the Hays Member of the Bell Canyon Formation. 31 refs., 31 figs., 5 tabs

  17. Basic data report for drilling and hydrologic testing of drillhole DOE-2 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIIP) site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercer, J.W.; Beauheim, R.L.; Snyder, R.P.; Fairer, G.M.

    1987-04-01

    Drillhole DOE-2 was drilled to investigate a structural depression marked by the downward displacement of stratigraphic markers in the Salado Formation. Contrary to several hypotheses, halite layers were thicker in the lower part of the Salado, not thinner as a result of any removal of halite. The upper Castile anhydrite in Drillhole DOE-2 is anomalously thick and is strongly deformed relative to the anhydrite in adjacent drillholes. In contrast, the halite was <8 ft thick and significantly thinner than usually encountered. The lower Castile anhydrite appears to be normal. The depression within the correlated marker beds in the Salado Formation in Drillhole DOE-2 is interpreted as a result of gravity-driven deformation of the underlying Castile Formation. Several stratigraphic units were hydrologically tested in Drillhole DOE-2. Testing of the unsaturated lower portion of the Dewey Lake Red Beds was unsuccessful because of exceptionally small rates of fluid intake. Drill-stem tests were conducted in five intervals in the Rustler Formation, over the Marker Bed 138-139 interval in the Salado formation, and over three sandstone members of the Bell Canyon Formation. A pumping test was conducted in the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation. Pressure-pulse tests were conducted over the entire Salado Formation. Fluid samples were collected from the Culebra Dolomite Member and from the Hays Member of the Bell Canyon Formation. 31 refs., 31 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Experimental violation of a Bell's inequality with efficient detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, M A; Kielpinski, D; Meyer, V; Sackett, C A; Itano, W M; Monroe, C; Wineland, D J

    2001-02-15

    Local realism is the idea that objects have definite properties whether or not they are measured, and that measurements of these properties are not affected by events taking place sufficiently far away. Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen used these reasonable assumptions to conclude that quantum mechanics is incomplete. Starting in 1965, Bell and others constructed mathematical inequalities whereby experimental tests could distinguish between quantum mechanics and local realistic theories. Many experiments have since been done that are consistent with quantum mechanics and inconsistent with local realism. But these conclusions remain the subject of considerable interest and debate, and experiments are still being refined to overcome 'loopholes' that might allow a local realistic interpretation. Here we have measured correlations in the classical properties of massive entangled particles (9Be+ ions): these correlations violate a form of Bell's inequality. Our measured value of the appropriate Bell's 'signal' is 2.25 +/- 0.03, whereas a value of 2 is the maximum allowed by local realistic theories of nature. In contrast to previous measurements with massive particles, this violation of Bell's inequality was obtained by use of a complete set of measurements. Moreover, the high detection efficiency of our apparatus eliminates the so-called 'detection' loophole.

  19. FPGA based algorithms for data reduction at Belle II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muenchow, David; Gessler, Thomas; Kuehn, Wolfgang; Lange, Jens Soeren; Liu, Ming; Spruck, Bjoern [II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Giessen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Belle II, the upgrade of the existing Belle experiment at Super-KEKB in Tsukuba, Japan, is an asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} collider with a design luminosity of 8.10{sup 35}cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. At Belle II the estimated event rate is {<=}30 kHz. The resulting data rate at the Pixel Detector (PXD) will be {<=}7.2 GB/s. This data rate needs to be reduced to be able to process and store the data. A region of interest (ROI) selection is based upon two mechanisms. a.) a tracklet finder using the silicon strip detector and b.) the HLT using all other Belle II subdetectors. These ROIs and the pixel data are forwarded to an FPGA based Compute Node for processing. Here a VHDL based algorithm on FPGA with the benefit of pipelining and parallelisation will be implemented. For a fast data handling we developed a dedicated memory management system for buffering and storing the data. The status of the implementation and performance tests of the memory manager and data reduction algorithm is presented.

  20. TOP counter for particle identification at the Belle II experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inami, Kenji

    2014-12-01

    Ring imaging Cherenkov counter, named TOP counter, utilizing precise photon detection timing has been developed as a particle identification detector for the Belle II experiment. The real size prototype has been produced and tested with 2 GeV positrons at Spring-8 LEPS beam line. The quartz radiator production and assembling with microchannel plate photomultipliers was successfully carried out. The beam test data shows good agreement with full Monte-Carlo simulation results in the ring image and the distribution of number of detected photons and timing information. - Highlights: • TOP counter was developed as a particle identification detector for the Belle II experiment. • The real size prototype was produced and tested with 2 GeV positrons. • The quartz radiator production and assembling with MCP-PMT was successfully carried out. • The beam test data shows good agreement with full Monte-Carlo simulation results.

  1. Rapid formation of a modern bedrock canyon by a single flood event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Michael P.; Fonstad, Mark A.

    2010-07-01

    Deep river canyons are thought to form slowly over geological time (see, for example, ref. 1), cut by moderate flows that reoccur every few years. In contrast, some of the most spectacular canyons on Earth and Mars were probably carved rapidly during ancient megaflood events. Quantification of the flood discharge, duration and erosion mechanics that operated during such events is hampered because we lack modern analogues. Canyon Lake Gorge, Texas, was carved in 2002 during a single catastrophic flood. The event offers a rare opportunity to analyse canyon formation and test palaeo-hydraulic-reconstruction techniques under known topographic and hydraulic conditions. Here we use digital topographic models and visible/near-infrared aerial images from before and after the flood, discharge measured during the event, field measurements and sediment-transport modelling to show that the flood moved metre-sized boulders, excavated ~7m of limestone and transformed a soil-mantled valley into a bedrock canyon in just ~3days. We find that canyon morphology is strongly dependent on rock type: plucking of limestone blocks produced waterfalls, inner channels and bedrock strath terraces, whereas abrasion of cemented alluvium sculpted walls, plunge pools and streamlined islands. Canyon formation was so rapid that erosion might have been limited by the ability of the flow to transport sediment. We suggest that our results might improve hydraulic reconstructions of similar megafloods on Earth and Mars.

  2. Strong violations of Bell-type inequalities for path-entangled number states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wildfeuer, Christoph F.; Dowling, Jonathan P.; Lund, Austin P.

    2007-01-01

    We show that nonlocal correlation experiments on the two spatially separated modes of a maximally path-entangled number state may be performed. They lead to a violation of a Clauser-Horne Bell inequality for any finite photon number N. We also present an analytical expression for the two-mode Wigner function of a maximally path-entangled number state and investigate a Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt Bell inequality for such a state. We test other Bell-type inequalities. Some are violated by a constant amount for any N

  3. Strong versions of Bell's theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapp, H.P.

    1994-01-01

    Technical aspects of a recently constructed strong version of Bell's theorem are discussed. The theorem assumes neither hidden variables nor factorization, and neither determinism nor counterfactual definiteness. It deals directly with logical connections. Hence its relationship with modal logic needs to be described. It is shown that the proof can be embedded in an orthodox modal logic, and hence its compatibility with modal logic assured, but that this embedding weakens the theorem by introducing as added assumptions the conventionalities of the particular modal logic that is adopted. This weakening is avoided in the recent proof by using directly the set-theoretic conditions entailed by the locality assumption

  4. Contemporary management of Bell palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jowett, Nate; Hadlock, Tessa A

    2015-04-01

    Bell palsy (BP) is the most common diagnosis in acute and chronic facial palsy. Although most patients fully recover, more than one-quarter will have residual dysfunction. Of these, nearly half will demonstrate severe limitations in facial expression. Though significant attention has been paid to acute management and prognosis, a paucity of literature exists addressing management of the long-term sequelae of BP. This article describes contemporary use of physical therapy, injectables, and static and dynamic surgical procedures in facial reanimation of acute and chronic BP. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  5. Bell inequality, nonlocality and analyticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Socolovsky, M.

    2003-01-01

    The Bell and the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequalities are shown to hold for both the cases of complex and real analytic nonlocality in the setting parameters of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiments for spin ((1)/(2)) particles and photons, in both the deterministic and stochastic cases. Therefore, the theoretical and experimental violation of the inequalities by quantum mechanics excludes all hidden variables theories with that kind of nonlocality. In particular, real analyticity leads to negative definite correlations, in contradiction with quantum mechanics

  6. Bell inequality, nonlocality and analyticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Socolovsky, M

    2003-09-15

    The Bell and the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequalities are shown to hold for both the cases of complex and real analytic nonlocality in the setting parameters of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiments for spin ((1)/(2)) particles and photons, in both the deterministic and stochastic cases. Therefore, the theoretical and experimental violation of the inequalities by quantum mechanics excludes all hidden variables theories with that kind of nonlocality. In particular, real analyticity leads to negative definite correlations, in contradiction with quantum mechanics.

  7. Classifying 50 years of Bell inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosset, Denis; Gisin, Nicolas; Bancal, Jean-Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Since John S Bell demonstrated the interest of studying linear combinations of probabilities in relation with the EPR paradox in 1964, Bell inequalities have lead to numerous developments. Unfortunately, the description of Bell inequalities is subject to several degeneracies, which make any exchange of information about them unnecessarily hard. Here, we analyze these degeneracies and propose a decomposition for Bell-like inequalities based on a set of reference expressions which is not affected by them. These reference expressions set a common ground for comparing Bell inequalities. We provide algorithms based on finite group theory to compute this decomposition. Implementing these algorithms allows us to set up a compendium of reference Bell-like inequalities, available online at www.faacets.com. This website constitutes a platform where registered Bell-like inequalities can be explored, new inequalities can be compared to previously-known ones and relevant information on Bell inequalities can be added in a collaborative manner. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell’s theorem’. (paper)

  8. Belle-II Experiment Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asner, David [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bell, Greg [ESnet; Carlson, Tim [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cowley, David [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dart, Eli [ESnet; Erwin, Brock [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Godang, Romulus [Univ. of South Alabama, Mobile, AL (United States); Hara, Takanori [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Johnson, Jerry [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Ron [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Johnston, Bill [ESnet; Dam, Kerstin Kleese-van [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kaneko, Toshiaki [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Kubota, Yoshihiro [NII; Kuhr, Thomas [Karlsruhe Inst. of Technology (KIT) (Germany); McCoy, John [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Miyake, Hideki [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Monga, Inder [ESnet; Nakamura, Motonori [NII; Piilonen, Leo [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Pordes, Ruth [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Ray, Douglas [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Russell, Richard [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schram, Malachi [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schroeder, Jim [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sevior, Martin [Univ. of Melbourne (Australia); Singh, Surya [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Suzuki, Soh [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Sasaki, Takashi [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Williams, Jim [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

    2013-05-28

    The Belle experiment, part of a broad-based search for new physics, is a collaboration of ~400 physicists from 55 institutions across four continents. The Belle detector is located at the KEKB accelerator in Tsukuba, Japan. The Belle detector was operated at the asymmetric electron-positron collider KEKB from 1999-2010. The detector accumulated more than 1 ab-1 of integrated luminosity, corresponding to more than 2 PB of data near 10 GeV center-of-mass energy. Recently, KEK has initiated a $400 million accelerator upgrade to be called SuperKEKB, designed to produce instantaneous and integrated luminosity two orders of magnitude greater than KEKB. The new international collaboration at SuperKEKB is called Belle II. The first data from Belle II/SuperKEKB is expected in 2015. In October 2012, senior members of the Belle-II collaboration gathered at PNNL to discuss the computing and neworking requirements of the Belle-II experiment with ESnet staff and other computing and networking experts. The day-and-a-half-long workshop characterized the instruments and facilities used in the experiment, the process of science for Belle-II, and the computing and networking equipment and configuration requirements to realize the full scientific potential of the collaboration's work.

  9. Classifying 50 years of Bell inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosset, Denis; Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Gisin, Nicolas

    2014-10-01

    Since John S Bell demonstrated the interest of studying linear combinations of probabilities in relation with the EPR paradox in 1964, Bell inequalities have lead to numerous developments. Unfortunately, the description of Bell inequalities is subject to several degeneracies, which make any exchange of information about them unnecessarily hard. Here, we analyze these degeneracies and propose a decomposition for Bell-like inequalities based on a set of reference expressions which is not affected by them. These reference expressions set a common ground for comparing Bell inequalities. We provide algorithms based on finite group theory to compute this decomposition. Implementing these algorithms allows us to set up a compendium of reference Bell-like inequalities, available online at www.faacets.com. This website constitutes a platform where registered Bell-like inequalities can be explored, new inequalities can be compared to previously-known ones and relevant information on Bell inequalities can be added in a collaborative manner. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell’s theorem’.

  10. Minimax discrimination of quasi-Bell states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Kentaro [Quantum ICT Research Institute, Tamagawa University, 6-1-1 Tamagawa-gakuen, Machida, Tokyo 194-8610 (Japan)

    2014-12-04

    An optimal quantum measurement is considered for the so-called quasi-Bell states under the quantum minimax criterion. It is shown that the minimax-optimal POVM for the quasi-Bell states is given by its square-root measurement and is applicable to the teleportation of a superposition of two coherent states.

  11. Bell's theorem and the nature of reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertlmann, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    We rediscuss the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox in Bohm's spin version and oppose to it Bohr's controversial point of view. Then we explain Bell's theorem, Bell inequalities and its consequences. We describe the experiment of Aspect, Dalibard and Roger in detail. Finally we draw attention to the nonlocal structure of the underlying theory. 61 refs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  12. Small Mammal Sampling in Mortandad and Los Alamos Canyons, 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathy Bennett; Sherri Sherwood; Rhonda Robinson

    2006-01-01

    As part of an ongoing ecological field investigation at Los Alamos National Laboratory, a study was conducted that compared measured contaminant concentrations in sediment to population parameters for small mammals in the Mortandad Canyon watershed. Mortandad Canyon and its tributary canyons have received contaminants from multiple solid waste management units and areas of concern since establishment of the Laboratory in the 1940s. The study included three reaches within Effluent and Mortandad canyons (E-1W, M-2W, and M-3) that had a spread in the concentrations of metals and radionuclides and included locations where polychlorinated biphenyls and perchlorate had been detected. A reference location, reach LA-BKG in upper Los Alamos Canyon, was also included in the study for comparison purposes. A small mammal study was initiated to assess whether potential adverse effects were evident in Mortandad Canyon due to the presence of contaminants, designated as contaminants of potential ecological concern, in the terrestrial media. Study sites, including the reference site, were sampled in late July/early August. Species diversity and the mean daily capture rate were the highest for E-1W reach and the lowest for the reference site. Species composition among the three reaches in Mortandad was similar with very little overlap with the reference canyon. Differences in species composition and diversity were most likely due to differences in habitat. Sex ratios, body weights, and reproductive status of small mammals were also evaluated. However, small sample sizes of some species within some sites affected the analysis. Ratios of males to females by species of each site (n = 5) were tested using a Chi-square analysis. No differences were detected. Where there was sufficient sample size, body weights of adult small mammals were compared between sites. No differences in body weights were found. Reproductive status of species appears to be similar across sites. However, sample

  13. Small Mammal Sampling in Mortandad and Los Alamos Canyons, 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Kathy; Sherwood, Sherri; Robinson, Rhonda

    2006-08-15

    As part of an ongoing ecological field investigation at Los Alamos National Laboratory, a study was conducted that compared measured contaminant concentrations in sediment to population parameters for small mammals in the Mortandad Canyon watershed. Mortandad Canyon and its tributary canyons have received contaminants from multiple solid waste management units and areas of concern since establishment of the Laboratory in the 1940s. The study included three reaches within Effluent and Mortandad canyons (E-1W, M-2W, and M-3) that had a spread in the concentrations of metals and radionuclides and included locations where polychlorinated biphenyls and perchlorate had been detected. A reference location, reach LA-BKG in upper Los Alamos Canyon, was also included in the study for comparison purposes. A small mammal study was initiated to assess whether potential adverse effects were evident in Mortandad Canyon due to the presence of contaminants, designated as contaminants of potential ecological concern, in the terrestrial media. Study sites, including the reference site, were sampled in late July/early August. Species diversity and the mean daily capture rate were the highest for E-1W reach and the lowest for the reference site. Species composition among the three reaches in Mortandad was similar with very little overlap with the reference canyon. Differences in species composition and diversity were most likely due to differences in habitat. Sex ratios, body weights, and reproductive status of small mammals were also evaluated. However, small sample sizes of some species within some sites affected the analysis. Ratios of males to females by species of each site (n = 5) were tested using a Chi-square analysis. No differences were detected. Where there was sufficient sample size, body weights of adult small mammals were compared between sites. No differences in body weights were found. Reproductive status of species appears to be similar across sites. However, sample

  14. Quantum correlations in connected multipartite Bell experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavakoli, Armin

    2016-01-01

    Bell experiments measure correlations between outcomes of a number of observers measuring on a shared physical state emitted from a single source. Quantum correlations arising in such Bell experiments have been intensively studied over the last decades. Much less is known about the nature of quantum correlations arising in network structures beyond Bell experiments. Such networks can involve many independent sources emitting states to observers in accordance with the network configuration. Here, we will study classical and quantum correlations in a family of networks which can be regarded as compositions of several independent multipartite Bell experiments connected together through a central node. For such networks we present tight Bell-type inequalities which are satisfied by all classical correlations. We study properties of the violations of our inequalities by probability distributions arising in quantum theory. (paper)

  15. Classical counterexamples to Bell's inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlov, Yuri F.

    2002-01-01

    This paper shows that a classical system containing a conventional yes/no decision-making component can behave like a quantum system of spin measurements in many ways (although it lacks a wave function) when, in principle, there are no deterministic decision procedures to govern the decision making, and when probabilistic decision procedures consistent with the system are introduced. Most notably, the system violates Bell's inequalities. Moreover, since the system is simple and macroscopic, its similarities to quantum systems arguably provide an insight into quantum mechanics and, in particular, EPR experiments. Thus, from the qualitative correspondences, decisions↔quantum measurements and the impossibility of deterministic decision procedures↔quantum noncommutativity, we conclude that the violation of Bell's inequalities in quantum mechanics does not require the existence of an unknown nonclassical nonlocality. It can merely be a result of local noncommutativity combined with nonlocalities of the classical type. The proposed classical decision-making system is a nonquantum theoretical construct possessing complementarity features in Bohr's sense

  16. Quantum bounds on Bell inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pál, Károly F.; Vértesi, Tamás

    2009-02-01

    We have determined the maximum quantum violation of 241 tight bipartite Bell inequalities with up to five two-outcome measurement settings per party by constructing the appropriate measurement operators in up to six-dimensional complex and eight-dimensional real-component Hilbert spaces using numerical optimization. Out of these inequalities 129 have been introduced here. In 43 cases higher-dimensional component spaces gave larger violation than qubits, and in three occasions the maximum was achieved with six-dimensional spaces. We have also calculated upper bounds on these Bell inequalities using a method proposed recently. For all but 20 inequalities the best solution found matched the upper bound. Surprisingly, the simplest inequality of the set examined, with only three measurement settings per party, was not among them, despite the high dimensionality of the Hilbert space considered. We also computed detection threshold efficiencies for the maximally entangled qubit pair. These could be lowered in several instances if degenerate measurements were also allowed.

  17. Conceptual Design for a Dual-Bell Rocket Nozzle System Using a NASA F-15 Airplane as the Flight Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Daniel S.; Ruf, Joseph H.; Bui, Trong T.; Martinez, Martel; St. John, Clinton W.

    2014-01-01

    The dual-bell rocket nozzle was first proposed in 1949, offering a potential improvement in rocket nozzle performance over the conventional-bell nozzle. Despite the performance advantages that have been predicted, both analytically and through static test data, the dual-bell nozzle has still not been adequately tested in a relevant flight environment. In 2013 a proposal was constructed that offered a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) F-15 airplane as the flight testbed, with the plan to operate a dual-bell rocket nozzle during captive-carried flight. If implemented, this capability will permit nozzle operation into an external flow field similar to that of a launch vehicle, and facilitate an improved understanding of dual-bell nozzle plume sensitivity to external flow-field effects. More importantly, this flight testbed can be utilized to help quantify the performance benefit with the dual-bell nozzle, as well as to advance its technology readiness level. Toward this ultimate goal, this report provides plans for future flights to quantify the external flow field of the airplane near the nozzle experiment, as well as details on the conceptual design for the dual-bell nozzle cold-flow propellant feed system integration within the NASA F-15 Propulsion Flight Test Fixture. The current study shows that this concept of flight research is feasible, and could result in valuable flight data for the dual-bell nozzle.

  18. 78 FR 7775 - Boulder Canyon Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Western Area Power Administration Boulder Canyon Project AGENCY: Western Area...), is proposing an adjustment to the Boulder Canyon Project (BCP) electric service base charge and rates... subsequent laws, particularly section 9(c) of the Reclamation Project Act of 1939 (43 U.S.C. 485h(c)); and...

  19. 77 FR 2533 - Boulder Canyon Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Western Area Power Administration Boulder Canyon Project AGENCY: Western Area...), is proposing an adjustment to the Boulder Canyon Project (BCP) electric service base charge and rates...) of the Reclamation Project Act of 1939 (43 U.S.C. 485h(c)); and other acts that specifically apply to...

  20. 76 FR 56430 - Boulder Canyon Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Western Area Power Administration Boulder Canyon Project AGENCY: Western Area... Project (BCP) electric service provided by the Western Area Power Administration (Western). The Rates will... by the Boulder Canyon Project Act (45 Stat. 1057, December 21, 1928), sits on the Colorado River...

  1. 76 FR 8359 - Boulder Canyon Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Western Area Power Administration Boulder Canyon Project AGENCY: Western Area... Western Area Power Administration (Western) is proposing an adjustment to the Boulder Canyon Project (BCP... Reclamation Project Act of 1939 (43 U.S.C. 485h(c)), and other acts that specifically apply to the project...

  2. Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamill, John F.

    2009-01-01

    The Grand Canyon of the Colorado River, one of the world's most spectacular gorges, is a premier U.S. National Park and a World Heritage Site. The canyon supports a diverse array of distinctive plants and animals and contains cultural resources significant to the region's Native Americans. About 15 miles upstream of Grand Canyon National Park sits Glen Canyon Dam, completed in 1963, which created Lake Powell. The dam provides hydroelectric power for 200 wholesale customers in six western States, but it has also altered the Colorado River's flow, temperature, and sediment-carrying capacity. Over time this has resulted in beach erosion, invasion and expansion of nonnative species, and losses of native fish. Public concern about the effects of Glen Canyon Dam operations prompted the passage of the Grand Canyon Protection Act of 1992, which directs the Secretary of the Interior to operate the dam 'to protect, mitigate adverse impacts to, and improve values for which Grand Canyon National Park and Glen Canyon National Recreation Area were established...' This legislation also required the creation of a long-term monitoring and research program to provide information that could inform decisions related to dam operations and protection of downstream resources.

  3. Environmental assessment: Davis Canyon site, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Davis Canyon site in Utah as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high- level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Davis Canyon site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EA. The Davis Canyon site is in the Paradox Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. This setting contains one other potentially acceptable site -- the Lavender Canyon site. Although the Lavender Canyon site is suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Davis Canyon site is the preferred site in the Paradox Basin. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Davis Canyon site is not disqualified under the guidelines. Furthermore, the DOE has found that the site is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Davis Canyon site as one of the five sites suitable for characterization.

  4. Environmental assessment: Davis Canyon site, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Davis Canyon site in Utah as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Davis Canyon site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EA. The Davis Canyon site is in the Paradox Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considering for the first repository. This setting contains one other potentially acceptable site -- the Lavender Canyon site. Although the Lavender Canyon site is suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Davis Canyon site is the preferred site in the Paradox Basin. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Davis Canyon site is not disqualified under the guidelines. Furthermore, the DOE has found that the site is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Davis Canyon site as one of five sites suitable for characterization.

  5. Environmental assessment: Davis Canyon site, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Davis Canyon site in Utah as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Davis Canyon site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EA. The Davis Canyon site is in the Paradox Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considering for the first repository. This setting contains one other potentially acceptable site -- the Lavender Canyon site. Although the Lavender Canyon site is suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Davis Canyon site is the preferred site in the Paradox Basin. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Davis Canyon site is not disqualified under the guidelines. Furthermore, the DOE has found that the site is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Davis Canyon site as one of five sites suitable for characterization

  6. Environmental assessment: Davis Canyon site, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Davis Canyon site in Utah as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high- level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Davis Canyon site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EA. The Davis Canyon site is in the Paradox Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. This setting contains one other potentially acceptable site -- the Lavender Canyon site. Although the Lavender Canyon site is suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Davis Canyon site is the preferred site in the Paradox Basin. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Davis Canyon site is not disqualified under the guidelines. Furthermore, the DOE has found that the site is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Davis Canyon site as one of the five sites suitable for characterization

  7. Bell-type experiments and the concept of locally stochastic causality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andaas, H.E.

    1992-08-01

    The concept of locally stochastic causality (LSC), related to the theory of local beables suggested by Bell, is introduced. It is argued that the experiments performed to verify the predictions of Bell's inequalities have merely been tests for the possibility of a description of nature in terms of joint probability distributions for the observables and that they do not provide sufficient results to sustain claims that theories based upon LSC have been falsified. 31 refs., 5 figs

  8. Preliminary hydrologic testing results: McCoy Canyon flow-top, DC-7, 3410.2-3477.6 feet and DC-8: 3407.0-3480.4 feet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, R.L.; Moak, D.J.; Spane, F.A. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes the hydrologic tests performed for an interflow zone within the Grande Ronde Basalt at Boreholes DC-7/8. The results, along with hydrologic data from several boreholes, will provide input for hydrologic modeling of groundwater flow and solute transport to assess the feasibility of siting a nuclear waste repository beneath the Hanford Site. 7 figs., 1 tab

  9. Environmental assessment overview, Davis Canyon site, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Davis Canyon site in Utah as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Davis Canyon site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. The Davis Canyon site is in the Paradox Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Davis Canyon site is not disqualified under the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Davis Canyon site as one of five sites suitable for characterization. 3 figs

  10. Proposal for a loophole-free Bell inequality experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiat, P.G.; Eberhard, P.H.; Steinberg, A.M.; Chiao, R.Y.

    1994-01-01

    The nonlocality inherent in quantum mechanics has been tested experimentally, but the nonlocal interpretation of all the relevant experiments can be challenged. All past tests of Bell's inequalities have required supplementary assumptions, without which the experimental results satisfy the inequalities, in agreement with the notion of local realism. There are basically three loopholes that need to be closed; neither the cascade sources nor the parametric down-conversion sources of correlation photons used to date are capable of closing all of them, even if the detectors used had been 100% efficient. We propose a two-crystal down-conversion source, relying on type-II collinear phase matching, which should permit a violation of Bell's inequalities without the need for supplementary assumptions. As the source can produce a true singletlike state, it is also relevant for quantum cryptographic applications

  11. Detecting nonlocal Cooper pair entanglement by optical Bell inequality violation

    OpenAIRE

    Nigg, Simon E.; Tiwari, Rakesh P.; Walter, Stefan; Schmidt, Thomas L.

    2014-01-01

    Based on the Bardeen Cooper Schrieffer (BCS) theory of superconductivity, the coherent splitting of Cooper pairs from a superconductor to two spatially separated quantum dots has been predicted to generate nonlocal pairs of entangled electrons. In order to test this hypothesis, we propose a scheme to transfer the spin state of a split Cooper pair onto the polarization state of a pair of optical photons. We show that the produced photon pairs can be used to violate a Bell inequality, unambiguo...

  12. Near-equilibrium dumb-bell-shaped figures for cohesionless small bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descamps, Pascal

    2016-02-01

    In a previous paper (Descamps, P. [2015]. Icarus 245, 64-79), we developed a specific method aimed to retrieve the main physical characteristics (shape, density, surface scattering properties) of highly elongated bodies from their rotational lightcurves through the use of dumb-bell-shaped equilibrium figures. The present work is a test of this method. For that purpose we introduce near-equilibrium dumb-bell-shaped figures which are base dumb-bell equilibrium shapes modulated by lognormal statistics. Such synthetic irregular models are used to generate lightcurves from which our method is successfully applied. Shape statistical parameters of such near-equilibrium dumb-bell-shaped objects are in good agreement with those calculated for example for the Asteroid (216) Kleopatra from its dog-bone radar model. It may suggest that such bilobed and elongated asteroids can be approached by equilibrium figures perturbed be the interplay with a substantial internal friction modeled by a Gaussian random sphere.

  13. Some properties of the functions satisfying Bell's inequalities in relation to quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roussel, P.

    1985-01-01

    Having recalled the 1935 debate between A. Einstein and N. Bohr about quantum mechanics (Q.M.) the thought-experiment of D. Bohm is described and a new derivation of the Bell's inequalities is established to test the class of theories based on the hypothesis of hidden-parameters in the common past. It is shown that Q.M. violates these inequalities almost everywhere. The general properties of functions satisfying Bell's inequalities are studied in order to compare them to Q.M. predictions as regards derivatives, integrals, values, intervals, amplitudes and finally the overall behaviour: a few of the Bell's functions chosen to approach somehow Q.M. are given. Altogether, in the comparison between Q.M. and functions satisfying Bell's inequalities, an incompatibility is revealed that is stronger then that resulting from consideration of just the inequalities [fr

  14. Prehistoric deforestation at Chaco Canyon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, W H; Drake, Brandon L; Dorshow, Wetherbee B

    2014-08-12

    Ancient societies are often used to illustrate the potential problems stemming from unsustainable land-use practices because the past seems rife with examples of sociopolitical "collapse" associated with the exhaustion of finite resources. Just as frequently, and typically in response to such presentations, archaeologists and other specialists caution against seeking simple cause-and effect-relationships in the complex data that comprise the archaeological record. In this study we examine the famous case of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, during the Bonito Phase (ca. AD 860-1140), which has become a prominent popular illustration of ecological and social catastrophe attributed to deforestation. We conclude that there is no substantive evidence for deforestation at Chaco and no obvious indications that the depopulation of the canyon in the 13th century was caused by any specific cultural practices or natural events. Clearly there was a reason why these farming people eventually moved elsewhere, but the archaeological record has not yet produced compelling empirical evidence for what that reason might have been. Until such evidence appears, the legacy of Ancestral Pueblo society in Chaco should not be used as a cautionary story about socioeconomic failures in the modern world.

  15. Carbon transport in Monterey Submarine Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, J.; Paull, C. K.; Xu, J. P.; Clare, M. A.; Gales, J. A.; Buck, K. R.; Lovera, C.; Gwiazda, R.; Maier, K. L.; McGann, M.; Parsons, D. R.; Simmons, S.; Rosenberger, K. J.; Talling, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    Submarine canyons are important conduits for sediment transport from continental margins to the abyss, but the rate, volume, and time scales of material transport have been measured only rarely. Using moorings with current meters, sediment traps (10 m above bottom) and optical backscatter sensors, we measured near-bottom currents, suspended sediment concentrations, and sediment properties at 1300 m depth in Monterey Canyon and at a non-canyon location on the continental slope at the same depth. Flow and water column backscatter were used to characterize "ambient" conditions when tidal currents dominated the flow field, and occasional "sediment transport events" when anomalously high down-canyon flow with sediment-laden waters arrived at the canyon mooring. The ambient sediment flux measured in sediment traps in Monterey Canyon was 350 times greater than measured at the non-canyon location. Although the organic carbon content of the canyon sediment flux during ambient periods was low (1.8 %C) compared to the slope location (4.9 %C), the ambient carbon transport in the canyon was 130 times greater than at the non-canyon site. Material fluxes during sediment transport events were difficult to measure owing to clogging of sediment traps, but minimal estimates indicate that mass transport during events exceeds ambient sediment fluxes through the canyon by nearly 3 orders of magnitude, while carbon transport is 380 times greater. Estimates of the instantaneous and cumulative flux of sediment and carbon from currents, backscatter, and sediment properties indicated that: 1) net flux is down-canyon, 2) flux is dominated by sediment transport events, and 3) organic carbon flux through 1300 m in Monterey Canyon was ca. 1500 MT C per year. The injection of 1500 MTCy-1 into the deep-sea represents ca. 260 km2 of the sediment C flux measured at the continental slope station (5.8 gCm-2y-1) and is sufficient to support a benthic community carbon demand of 5 gCm-2y-1 over 300 km2.

  16. Aerogel RICH for the Belle II forward PID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishida, S., E-mail: shohei.nishida@kek.jp [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Adachi, I. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Hamada, N. [Toho University, Funabashi (Japan); Hara, K. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Iijima, T. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Iwata, S.; Kakuno, H. [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji (Japan); Kawai, H. [Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Korpar, S.; Krizan, P. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Ogawa, S. [Toho University, Funabashi (Japan); Pestotnik, R.; Ŝantelj, L.; Seljak, A. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Sumiyoshi, T. [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji (Japan); Tabata, M. [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Sagamihara (Japan); Tahirovic, E. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Yoshida, K. [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji (Japan); Yusa, Y. [Niigata University, Niigata (Japan)

    2014-12-01

    The Belle II spectrometer, a follow up of the very successful Belle experiment, is under construction at the SuperKEKB electron–positron collider at KEK in Japan. For the PID system in the forward region of the spectrometer, a proximity focusing ring-imaging Cherenkov (RICH) counter with an aerogel radiator is being developed. The counter will provide a 4σ separation of pions and kaons up to momenta of 4 GeV/c. For the position sensitive photon sensor, a 144-channel Hybrid Avalanche Photo-Detector (HAPD) has been developed with Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. The readout electronics is based on the custom developed ASIC. The design of the components is currently being finalized and part of their mass production have already started. Herein, we report the final design of the counter and a prototype test conducted with test beams at DESY. - Highlights: • We are constructing a RICH counter with aerogel radiator for Belle II. • Beam test for the prototype Aerogel RICH shows its good performance. • The effect of the neutron irradiation of the photodetector is examined.

  17. The BELLE silicon vertex detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alimonti, G.; Aihara, H.; Alexander, J.; Asano, Y.; Bakich, A.; Bozek, A.; Banas, E.; Browder, T.; Dragic, J.; Fukunaga, C.; Gordon, A.; Guler, H.; Everton, C.; Heenan, E.; Haba, J.; Hazumi, M.; Hastings, N.; Hara, T.; Hojo, T.; Higuchi, T.; Iwai, G.; Ishino, H.; Jalocha, P.; Korotuschenko, K.; Kaneko, J.; Kapusta, P.; Kawasaki, T.; Lange, J.S.; Li, Y.; Marlow, D.; Moloney, G.; Moffitt, L.; Mori, S.; Matsubara, T.; Nakadaira, T.; Nakamura, T.; Natkaniec, Z.; Okuno, S.; Olsen, S.; Ostrowicz, W.; Palka, H.; Peak, L.S.; Ryuko, J.; Rozanska, M.; Sevior, M.; Shimada, J.; Sumisawa, K.; Stock, R.; Stanic, S.; Swain, S.; Taylor, G.; Takasaki, F.; Tajima, H.; Trabelsi, K.; Tamura, N.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, M. E-mail: tanakam@post.kek.jp; Takahashi, S.; Tomura, T.; Tsuboyama, T.; Tsujita, Y.; Varner, G.; Varvell, K.E.; Watanabe, Y.; Yamamoto, H.; Yamada, Y.; Yokoyama, M.; Zhao, H.; Zontar, D

    2000-10-11

    A silicon vertex detector has been developed for the BELLE experiment at the KEK B-factory to be used to determine the relative displacements of B-meson decay vertices for CP violation measurements. The device has been successfully installed and operated with high-luminosity beam conditions. The average strip yield is larger than 96%, including the preamplifier electronics yield and the detector is currently working stably with a signal-to-noise ratio of 17-40. The measured impact parameter resolution agrees with expectations based on Monte Carlo simulations, and the measured D{sup 0} lifetime is in good agreement with the particle data group's average of other measurements. Several B{yields}J/{psi}K events produced at the {upsilon}(4S) resonance have been detected and separate decay vertices have been found.

  18. Alexander Graham Bell (170th birthday anniversary)

    OpenAIRE

    V. P. Samokhin; K. V. Meshcherinova

    2017-01-01

    A brief overview of the main works and achievements of Alexander Graham Bell, an educated teacher for the hard of hearing and public figure, author of 30 US patents, is mainly given in the field of telephony and sound recording and reproduction. Biographical information about the Bell family, as well as some interesting facts from his life and activities are given. Scotsman by birth, A. Bell from his youthful years was carried away by the acoustic features of the human voice apparatus and dev...

  19. Flow dynamics around downwelling submarine canyons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Spurgin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Flow dynamics around a downwelling submarine canyon were analysed with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model. Blanes Canyon (northwestern Mediterranean was used for topographic and initial forcing conditions. Fourteen scenarios were modelled with varying forcing conditions. Rossby and Burger numbers were used to determine the significance of Coriolis acceleration and stratification (respectively and their impacts on flow dynamics. A new non-dimensional parameter (χ was introduced to determine the significance of vertical variations in stratification. Some simulations do see brief periods of upwards displacement of water during the 10-day model period; however, the presence of the submarine canyon is found to enhance downwards advection of density in all model scenarios. High Burger numbers lead to negative vorticity and a trapped anticyclonic eddy within the canyon, as well as an increased density anomaly. Low Burger numbers lead to positive vorticity, cyclonic circulation, and weaker density anomalies. Vertical variations in stratification affect zonal jet placement. Under the same forcing conditions, the zonal jet is pushed offshore in more uniformly stratified domains. The offshore jet location generates upwards density advection away from the canyon, while onshore jets generate downwards density advection everywhere within the model domain. Increasing Rossby values across the canyon axis, as well as decreasing Burger values, increase negative vertical flux at shelf break depth (150 m. Increasing Rossby numbers lead to stronger downwards advection of a passive tracer (nitrate, as well as stronger vorticity within the canyon. Results from previous studies are explained within this new dynamic framework.

  20. Street canyon aerosol pollutant transport measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longley, I D; Gallagher, M W; Dorsey, J R; Flynn, M; Bower, K N; Allan, J D

    2004-12-01

    Current understanding of dispersion in street canyons is largely derived from relatively simple dispersion models. Such models are increasingly used in planning and regulation capacities but are based upon a limited understanding of the transport of substances within a real canyon. In recent years, some efforts have been made to numerically model localised flow in idealised canyons (e.g., J. Appl. Meteorol. 38 (1999) 1576-89) and stepped canyons (Assimakopoulos V. Numerical modelling of dispersion of atmospheric pollution in and above urban canopies. PhD thesis, Imperial College, London, 2001) but field studies in real canyons are rare. To further such an understanding, a measurement campaign has been conducted in an asymmetric street canyon with busy one-way traffic in central Manchester in northern England. The eddy correlation method was used to determine fluxes of size-segregated accumulation mode aerosol. Measurements of aerosol at a static location were made concurrently with measurements on a platform lift giving vertical profiles. Size-segregated measurements of ultrafine and coarse particle concentrations were also made simultaneously at various heights. In addition, a small mobile system was used to make measurements of turbulence at various pavement locations within the canyon. From this data, various features of turbulent transport and dispersion in the canyon will be presented. The concentration and the ventilation fluxes of vehicle-related aerosol pollutants from the canyon will be related to controlling factors. The results will also be compared with citywide ventilation data from a separate measurement campaign conducted above the urban canopy.

  1. Bell's inequalities from the field concept in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachs, M.

    1980-01-01

    A nonlinear field theory of matter, based axiomatically on general relativity, has an asymptotic, low-energy limit that predicts the outcome of experimental tests of Bell's inequalities. The inequalities should follow if spin-correlated, spin-1/2 particles, observed in coincidence, were a spacelike distance apart; they should be violated if they were separated by timelike distances. The experiment at timelike separations, for scattered protons observed in coincidence, was carried out by Lahemi-Rachti and Mittig and, thus far, agrees with this theory. Extension of the low-energy pp scattering experiment to observations at spacelike distances is suggested, with the prediction that agreement should be obtained with Bell's inequalities there. (author)

  2. Intelligence, genes, and success scientists respond to the bell curve

    CERN Document Server

    Fienberg, Stephen; Resnick, Daniel; Roeder, Kathryn

    1997-01-01

    This is author-approved bcc. If it is too long, delete the last sentence in each of the biographies. THE BELL CURVE by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, a best selling book published in 1994, set off a hailstorm of controversy about the relationships among IQ, genetics, and various social outcomes, including welfare dependency, crime, and earnings. Much of the public reaction to the book was polemical and did not focus on the details of the science and in particular on the validity of the statistical arguments that underlie the books's conclusions. A detailed understanding of the arguments in THE BELL CURVE requires knowledge about (i) statistical models for genetic heritability, (ii) factor analysis, especially as it has been applied to the analysis of IQ tests, (iii) logistic regression and multiple regression analyses,and (iv) causal modelling and alternative statistical frameworks for making inference from longitudinal data. In this volume a group of statisticians and social scientists have assembled...

  3. Violation of Bell's inequality with continuous spatial variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abouraddy, Ayman F.; Yarnall, Timothy; Saleh, Bahaa E. A.; Teich, Malvin C.

    2007-01-01

    The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) argument revealed the paradoxical properties of a two-particle system entangled continuously in the spatial parameter. Yet a direct test of quantum nonlocality exhibited by this state, via a violation of Bell's inequality, has not been forthcoming. In this paper, we identify and construct experimental arrangements comprising simple optical components, without nonlinearities or moving parts, that implement operators in the spatial-parity space of single-photon fields that correspond to the familiar Pauli spin operators. We achieve this by first establishing an isomorphism between the single-mode multiphoton electromagnetic-field space spanned by a Fock-state basis and the single-photon multimode electromagnetic-field space spanned by a spatial-eigenmode basis. We then proceed to construct a Hilbert space with a two-dimensional basis of spatial even-odd parity modes. In particular, we describe an arrangement that implements a rotation in the parity space of each photon of an entangled-photon pair, allowing for a straightforward experimental test of Bell's inequality using the EPR state. Finally, the violation of a Bell inequality is quantified in terms of the physical parameters of the two-photon source

  4. Revealing Bell's nonlocality for unstable systems in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiesmayr, Beatrix C.; Gabriel, Andreas; Huber, Marcus; Di Domenico, Antonio; Curceanu, Catalina; Larsson, Jan-Aake; Moskal, Pawel

    2012-01-01

    Entanglement and its consequences - in particular the violation of Bell inequalities, which defies our concepts of realism and locality - have been proven to play key roles in Nature by many experiments for various quantum systems. Entanglement can also be found in systems not consisting of ordinary matter and light, i.e. in massive meson-antimeson systems. Bell inequalities have been discussed for these systems, but up to date no direct experimental test to conclusively exclude local realism was found. This mainly stems from the fact that one only has access to a restricted class of observables and that these systems are also decaying. In this Letter we put forward a Bell inequality for unstable systems which can be tested at accelerator facilities with current technology. Herewith, the long awaited proof that such systems at different energy scales can reveal the sophisticated ''dynamical'' nonlocal feature of Nature in a direct experiment gets feasible. Moreover, the role of entanglement and CP violation, an asymmetry between matter and antimatter, is explored, a special feature offered only by these meson-antimeson systems. (orig.)

  5. Megabenthic assemblages at the Hudson Canyon head (NW Atlantic margin): Habitat-faunal relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierdomenico, Martina; Gori, Andrea; Guida, Vincent G.; Gili, Josep-Maria

    2017-09-01

    The distribution of megabenthic communities at the head of Hudson Canyon and adjacent continental shelf was studied by means of underwater video transects and still photo imagery collected using a towed camera system. The goal was to explore the relationships between faunal distribution and physical seafloor conditions and to test the hypothesis that increased seafloor heterogeneity in the Hudson Canyon supports a larger diversity of benthic communities, compared with the adjacent continental shelf. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed to identify benthic assemblages as defined in imagery. The BIO-ENV procedure and the Canonical Correspondence Analysis were carried out to elucidate species groupings in relation to terrain variables extracted from bathymetric data. Species accumulation curves were generated to evaluate species turn over in and out of Hudson Canyon. The results indicate that seafloor morphology is the main physical factor related to benthic community composition and distribution. Assemblages dominated by sponges, zoanthids and cup corals colonized the canyon margins and flanks, and were associated with coarse-grained sediments, while sea pen assemblages were observed along muddy seafloor within the thalweg. An assemblage dominated by sea stars occurred on the shelf, associated with a sandy seafloor. Some assemblages were exclusively observed in the canyon area, suggesting that the increased variability of seafloor composition, together with the oceanographic processes specific to the canyon area, enhance beta diversity. The colonization by benthic suspension feeders within the canyon, in contrast to shelf assemblages, mainly composed of carnivores and detritus feeders could be favored the intense hydrodynamics at the canyon head that increase the availability of suspended organic matter. From the perspective of management and conservation of marine resources, the results obtained support the relevance of Hudson Canyon as a biodiversity hotspot

  6. Bell inequalities resistant to detector inefficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massar, Serge; Pironio, Stefano; Roland, Jeremie; Gisin, Bernard

    2002-01-01

    We derive both numerically and analytically Bell inequalities and quantum measurements that present enhanced resistance to detector inefficiency. In particular, we describe several Bell inequalities which appear to be optimal with respect to inefficient detectors for small dimensionality d=2,3,4 and two or more measurement settings at each side. We also generalize the family of Bell inequalities described by Collins et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 040404 (2002)] to take into account the inefficiency of detectors. In addition, we consider the possibility for pairs of entangled particles to be produced with probability less than 1. We show that when the pair production probability is small, one should in general use different Bell inequalities than when the pair production probability is high

  7. Random Constructions in Bell Inequalities: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazuelos, Carlos

    2018-01-01

    Initially motivated by their relevance in foundations of quantum mechanics and more recently by their applications in different contexts of quantum information science, violations of Bell inequalities have been extensively studied during the last years. In particular, an important effort has been made in order to quantify such Bell violations. Probabilistic techniques have been heavily used in this context with two different purposes. First, to quantify how common the phenomenon of Bell violations is; and second, to find large Bell violations in order to better understand the possibilities and limitations of this phenomenon. However, the strong mathematical content of these results has discouraged some of the potentially interested readers. The aim of the present work is to review some of the recent results in this direction by focusing on the main ideas and removing most of the technical details, to make the previous study more accessible to a wide audience.

  8. A general practice approach to Bell's palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Nga T; Panizza, Benedict; Wallwork, Benjamin

    2016-11-01

    Bell's palsy is characterised by an acute onset of unilateral, lower motor neuron weakness of the facial nerve in the absence of an identifiable cause. Establishing the correct diagnosis is imperative and choosing the correct treatment options can optimise the likelihood of recovery. This article summarises our understanding of Bell's palsy and the evidence-based management options available for adult patients. The basic assessment should include a thorough history and physical examination as the diagnosis of Bell's palsy is based on exclusion. For confirmed cases of Bell's palsy, corticosteroids are the mainstay of treatment and should be initiated within 72 hours of symptom onset. Antiviral therapy in combination with corticosteroid therapy may confer a small benefit and may be offered on the basis of shared decision making. Currently, no recommendations can be made for acupuncture, physical therapy, electrotherapy or surgical decompression because well-designed studies are lacking and available data are of low quality.

  9. Quantum States Transfer by Analogous Bell States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei Di; Li Chong; Yang Guohui; Song Heshan

    2008-01-01

    Transmitting quantum states by channels of analogous Bell states is studied in this paper. We analyze the transmitting process, constructed the probabilitic unitary operator, and gain the largest successful transfer quantum state probability.

  10. The Haunting Influence of Alexander Graham Bell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Sue H.

    1971-01-01

    The article examines the significance that Alexander Graham Bell's attitude and actions had on the social and economic conditions experienced by deaf people during his lifetime and into the present. (CD)

  11. Telecom Modeling with ChatterBell.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jrad, Ahmad M.; Kelic, Andjelka

    2017-12-01

    This document provides a description and user manual for the ChatterBell voice telecom modeling and simulation capability. The intended audience consists of network planners and practitioners who wish to use the tool to model a particular voice network and analyze its behavior under varying assumptions and possible failure conditions. ChatterBell is built on top of the N-SMART voice simulation and visualization suite that was developed through collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories and Bell Laboratories of Lucent Technologies. The new and improved modeling and simulation tool has been modified and modernized to incorporate the latest development in the telecom world including the widespread use of VoIP technology. In addition, ChatterBell provides new commands and modeling capabilities that were not available in the N-SMART application.

  12. Some inequalities for the Bell numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Feng Qi

    2017-08-19

    Aug 19, 2017 ... Bell number determinant; product; inequality; generating function; derivative; absolutely monotonic function; completely monotonic func- tion; logarithmically absolutely monotonic function; logarithmically completely monotonic function; Stirling number of the second kind; induction; Faà di Bruno formula;.

  13. Evaluation of composite components on the Bell 206L and Sikorsky S-76 helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Donald J.

    1990-01-01

    Progress on two programs to evaluate structural composite components in flight service on Bell 206L and Sikorsky S-76 commercial helicopters is described. Forty ship sets of composite components that include the litter door, baggage door, forward fairing, and vertical fin have been installed on Bell Model 206L helicopters that are operating in widely different climates. Component installation started in 1981 and selected components were removed and tested at prescribed intervals over a ten year evaluation. Four horizontal stabilizers and eleven tail rotor spars that are production components on the S-76 helicopter were tested after prescribed periods of service to determine the effects of the operating environment on their performance. Concurrent with the flight evaluation, materials used to fabricate the components were exposed in ground racks and tested at specified intervals to determine the effects of outdoor environments. Results achieved from 123,000 hours of accumulated service on the Bell 206L components and 53,000 hours on the Sikorsky S-76 components are reported. Seventy-eight Bell 206L components were removed and tested statically. Results of seven years of ground exposure of materials used to fabricate the Bell 206L components are presented. Results of tests on four Sikorsky S-76 horizontal stabilizers and eleven tail rotor spars are also presented. Panels of material used to fabricate the Sikorsky S-76 components that were exposed for six years were tested and results are presented.

  14. Classical correlations, Bell inequalities, and communication complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilms, Johannes; Alber, Gernot [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Percival, Ian C. [Department of Physics, Univ. of London (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01

    A computer program is presented which is capable of exploring generalizations of Bell-type inequalities for arbitrary numbers of classical inputs and outputs. Thereby, polytopes can be described which represent classical local realistic theories, classical theories without signaling, or classical theories with explicit signaling. These latter polytopes may also be of interest for exploring basic problems of communication complexity. As a first application the influence of non-perfect detectors is discussed in simple Bell experiments.

  15. Diablo Canyon refueling outage program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLane, W.B.; Irving, T.L.

    1991-01-01

    Management of outages has become one of the most talked about subjects in the nuclear power industry in the past several years. Many utilities do not perform refueling outages very well or in the past have had some outages that they would not like to repeat and in some cases do not even like to think about. With the growing cost of energy and the demands placed on utilities to improve capacity factors, it is very easy for management to focus on shortening refueling outage durations as a prime objective in improving overall corporate performance. So it is with Pacific Gas and Electric Company and the Diablo Canyon power plant. A review of their refueling outage performance reflects a utility that is responding to the nuclear industry's call for improved outage performance

  16. Alexander Graham Bell (170th birthday anniversary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Samokhin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A brief overview of the main works and achievements of Alexander Graham Bell, an educated teacher for the hard of hearing and public figure, author of 30 US patents, is mainly given in the field of telephony and sound recording and reproduction. Biographical information about the Bell family, as well as some interesting facts from his life and activities are given. Scotsman by birth, A. Bell from his youthful years was carried away by the acoustic features of the human voice apparatus and devoted his entire life to teaching the deaf to the perception of oral speech. The first success in this field Bell reached, opening a private school for the deaf in Boston. Bell's creation of the phone was the result of his attempts to facilitate communication with the hard-of-hearing and led to the development of mass communications technology around the world. Alexander Bell is also known for his achievements in the design of hydroplanes, hydrofoils and as one of the founders of the popular magazine National Geographic. He was awarded many honorable awards and academic titles.

  17. Bell inequalities for continuous-variable measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Q. Y.; Reid, M. D.; Drummond, P. D.; Cavalcanti, E. G.

    2010-01-01

    Tests of local hidden-variable theories using measurements with continuous-variable (CV) outcomes are developed, and a comparison of different methods is presented. As examples, we focus on multipartite entangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and cluster states. We suggest a physical process that produces the states proposed here, and investigate experiments both with and without binning of the continuous variable. In the former case, the Mermin-Klyshko inequalities can be used directly. For unbinned outcomes, the moment-based Cavalcanti-Foster-Reid-Drummond inequalities are extended to functional inequalities by consideration of arbitrary functions of the measurements at each site. By optimizing these functions, we obtain more robust violations of local hidden-variable theories than with either binning or moments. Recent inequalities based on the algebra of quaternions and octonions are compared with these methods. Since the prime advantage of CV experiments is to provide a route to highly efficient detection via homodyne measurements, we analyze the effect of noise and detection losses in both binned and unbinned cases. The CV moment inequalities with an optimal function have greater robustness to both loss and noise. This could permit a loophole-free test of Bell inequalities.

  18. Proposed Flight Research of a Dual-Bell Rocket Nozzle Using the NASA F-15 Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Daniel S.; Bui, Trong T.; Ruf, Joseph H.

    2013-01-01

    For more than a half-century, several types of altitude-compensating rocket nozzles have been proposed and analyzed, but very few have been adequately tested in a relevant flight environment. One type of altitude-compensating nozzle is the dual-bell rocket nozzle, which was first introduced into literature in 1949. Despite the performance advantages that have been predicted, both analytically and through static test data, the dual-bell nozzle has still not been adequately tested in a relevant flight environment. This paper proposes a method for conducting testing and research with a dual-bell rocket nozzle in a flight environment. We propose to leverage the existing NASA F-15 airplane and Propulsion Flight Test Fixture as the flight testbed, with the dual-bell nozzle operating during captive-carried flights, and with the nozzle subjected to a local flow field similar to that of a launch vehicle. The primary objective of this effort is not only to advance the technology readiness level of the dual-bell nozzle, but also to gain a greater understanding of the nozzle mode transitional sensitivity to local flow-field effects, and to quantify the performance benefits with this technology. The predicted performance benefits are significant, and may result in reducing the cost of delivering payloads to low-Earth orbit.

  19. Association between recovery from Bell's palsy and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S A; Shim, H S; Jung, J Y; Kim, H J; Kim, S H; Byun, J Y; Park, M S; Yeo, S G

    2017-06-01

    Although many factors have been found to be involved in recovery from Bell's palsy, no study has investigated the association between recovery from Bell's palsy and obesity. This study therefore evaluated the association between recovery from Bell's palsy and body mass index (BMI). Subjects were classified into five groups based on BMI (kg/m 2 ). Demographic and clinical characteristics were compared among these groups. Assessed factors included sex, age, time from paralysis to visiting a hospital, the presence of comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension, degree of initial facial nerve paralysis by House-Brackmann (H-B) grade and neurophysiological testing, and final recovery rate. Based on BMI, 37 subjects were classified as underweight, 169 as normal weight, 140 as overweight, 155 as obese and 42 as severely obese. Classification of the degree of initial facial nerve paralysis as moderate or severe, according to H-B grade and electroneurography, showed no difference in severity of initial facial paralysis among the five groups (P > 0.05). However, the final recovery rate was significantly higher in the normal weight than in the underweight or obese group (P < 0.05). Obesity or underweight had no effect on the severity of initial facial paralysis, but the final recovery rate was lower in the obese and underweight groups than in the normal group. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Spin and Wind Directions II: A Bell State Quantum Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Diederik; Arguëlles, Jonito Aerts; Beltran, Lester; Geriente, Suzette; Sassoli de Bianchi, Massimiliano; Sozzo, Sandro; Veloz, Tomas

    2018-01-01

    In the first half of this two-part article (Aerts et al. in Found Sci. doi:10.1007/s10699-017-9528-9, 2017b), we analyzed a cognitive psychology experiment where participants were asked to select pairs of directions that they considered to be the best example of Two Different Wind Directions , and showed that the data violate the CHSH version of Bell's inequality, with same magnitude as in typical Bell-test experiments in physics. In this second part, we complete our analysis by presenting a symmetrized version of the experiment, still violating the CHSH inequality but now also obeying the marginal law, for which we provide a full quantum modeling in Hilbert space, using a singlet state and suitably chosen product measurements. We also address some of the criticisms that have been recently directed at experiments of this kind, according to which they would not highlight the presence of genuine forms of entanglement. We explain that these criticisms are based on a view of entanglement that is too restrictive, thus unable to capture all possible ways physical and conceptual entities can connect and form systems behaving as a whole. We also provide an example of a mechanical model showing that the violations of the marginal law and Bell inequalities are generally to be associated with different mechanisms.

  1. The Belle II silicon vertex detector assembly and mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamczyk, K. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow 31-342 (Poland); Aihara, H. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Angelini, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Aziz, T.; Babu, V. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Bacher, S. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow 31-342 (Poland); Bahinipati, S. [Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar, Satya Nagar (India); Barberio, E.; Baroncelli, Ti.; Baroncelli, To. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Basith, A.K. [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Batignani, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bauer, A. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Behera, P.K. [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Bergauer, T. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Bettarini, S., E-mail: stefano.bettarini@pi.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bhuyan, B. [Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Assam 781039 (India); Bilka, T. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, 121 16 Prague (Czech Republic); Bosi, F. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bosisio, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); INFN Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); and others

    2017-02-11

    The Belle II experiment at the asymmetric SuperKEKB collider in Japan will operate at an instantaneous luminosity approximately 50 times greater than its predecessor (Belle). The central feature of the experiment is a vertex detector comprising two layers of pixelated silicon detectors (PXD) and four layers of double-sided silicon microstrip detectors (SVD). One of the key measurements for Belle II is CP violation asymmetry in the decays of beauty and charm hadrons, which hinges on a precise charged-track vertex determination and low-momentum track measurement. Towards this goal, a proper assembly of the SVD components with precise alignment ought to be performed and the geometrical tolerances should be checked to fall within the design limits. We present an overview of the assembly procedure that is being followed, which includes the precision gluing of the SVD module components, wire-bonding of the various electrical components, and precision 3D coordinate measurements of the final SVD modules. Finally, some results from the latest test-beam are reported.

  2. Quantum nonlocality, Bell inequalities, and the memory loophole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, Jonathan; Collins, Daniel; Popescu, Sandu; Hardy, Lucien; Kent, Adrian

    2002-01-01

    In the analysis of experiments designed to reveal violation of Bell-type inequalities, it is usually assumed that any hidden variables associated with the nth particle pair would be independent of measurement choices and outcomes for the first (n-1) pairs. Models which violate this assumption exploit what we call the memory loophole. We focus on the strongest type of violation, which uses the two-sided memory loophole, in which the hidden variables for pair n can depend on the previous measurement choices and outcomes in both wings of the experiment. We show that the two-sided memory loophole allows a systematic violation of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality when the data are analyzed in the standard way, but cannot produce a violation if a CHSH expression depending linearly on the data is used. In the first case, the maximal CHSH violation becomes small as the number of particle pairs tested becomes large. Hence, although in principle the memory loophole implies a slight flaw in the existing analyses of Bell experiments, the data still strongly confirm quantum mechanics against local hidden variables. We consider also a related loophole, the simultaneous measurement loophole, which applies if all measurements on each side are carried out simultaneously. We show that this can increase the probability of violating the linearized CHSH inequality as well as other Bell-type inequalities

  3. Bioavailability of sinking organic matter in the Blanes canyon and the adjacent open slope (NW Mediterranean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Fernandez, P.; Bianchelli, S.; Pusceddu, A.; Calafat, A.; Sanchez-Vidal, A.; Danovaro, R.

    2013-05-01

    Submarine canyons are sites of intense energy and material exchange between the shelf and the deep adjacent basins. To test the hypothesis that active submarine canyons represent preferential conduits of available food for the deep-sea benthos, two mooring lines were deployed at 1200 m depth from November 2008 to November 2009 inside the Blanes canyon and on the adjacent open slope (Catalan Margin, NW Mediterranean Sea). We investigated the fluxes, biochemical composition and food quality of sinking organic carbon (OC). OC fluxes in the canyon and the open slope varied among sampling periods, though not consistently in the two sites. In particular, while in the open slope the highest OC fluxes were observed in August 2009, in the canyon the highest OC fluxes occurred in April-May 2009. For almost the entire study period, the OC fluxes in the canyon were significantly higher than those in the open slope, whereas OC contents of sinking particles collected in the open slope were consistently higher than those in the canyon. This result confirms that submarine canyons are effective conveyors of OC to the deep sea. Particles transferred to the deep sea floor through the canyons are predominantly of inorganic origin, significantly higher than that reaching the open slope at a similar water depth. Using multivariate statistical tests, two major clusters of sampling periods were identified: one in the canyon that grouped trap samples collected in December 2008, concurrently with the occurrence of a major storm at the sea surface, and associated with increased fluxes of nutritionally available particles from the upper shelf. Another cluster grouped samples from both the canyon and the open slope collected in March 2009, concurrently with the occurrence of the seasonal phytoplankton bloom at the sea surface, and associated with increased fluxes of total phytopigments. Our results confirm the key ecological role of submarine canyons for the functioning of deep-sea ecosystems

  4. Environmental assessment: Davis Canyon site, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Davis Canyon site in Utah as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Davis Canyon site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EA. The Davis Canyon site is in the Paradox Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. This setting contains one other potentially acceptable site -- the Lavender Canyon site. Although the Lavender Canyon site is suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Davis Canyon site is the preferred site in the Paradox Basin. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Davis Canyon site is not disqualified under the guidelines. Furthermore, the DOE has fond that the site is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Davis Canyon site as one of five sites suitable for characterization. 181 figs., 175 tabs

  5. Environmental assessment: Davis Canyon site, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Davis Canyon site in Utah as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Davis Canyon site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EA. The Davis Canyon site is in the Paradox Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. This setting contains one other potentially acceptable site -- the Lavender Canyon site. Although the Lavender Canyon site is suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Davis Canyon site is the preferred site in the Paradox Basin. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Davis Canyon site is not disqualified under the guidelines. Furthermore, the DOE has fond that the site is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Davis Canyon site as one of five sites suitable for characterization. 181 figs., 175 tabs.

  6. Bell inequalities for graph states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, G.; Hyllus, P.; Briegel, H.J.; Guehne, O.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: In the last years graph states have attracted an increasing interest in the field of quantum information theory. Graph states form a family of multi-qubit states which comprises many popular states such as the GHZ states and the cluster states. They also play an important role in applications. For instance, measurement based quantum computation uses graph states as resources. From a theoretical point of view, it is remarkable that graph states allow for a simple description in terms of stabilizing operators. In this contribution, we investigate the non-local properties of graph states. We derive a family of Bell inequalities which require three measurement settings for each party and are maximally violated by graph states. In turn, any graph state violates at least one of the inequalities. We show that for certain types of graph states the violation of these inequalities increases exponentially with the number of qubits. We also discuss connections to other entanglement properties such as the positively of the partial transpose or the geometric measure of entanglement. (author)

  7. Wintertime Boundary Layer Structure in the Grand Canyon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, C. David; Zhong, Shiyuan; Bian, Xindi

    1999-08-01

    Wintertime temperature profiles in the Grand Canyon exhibit a neutral to isothermal stratification during both daytime and nighttime, with only rare instances of actual temperature inversions. The canyon warms during daytime and cools during nighttime more or less uniformly through the canyon's entire depth. This weak stability and temperature structure evolution differ from other Rocky Mountain valleys, which develop strong nocturnal inversions and exhibit convective and stable boundary layers that grow upward from the valley floor. Mechanisms that may be responsible for the different behavior of the Grand Canyon are discussed, including the possibility that the canyon atmosphere is frequently mixed to near-neutral stratification when cold air drains into the top of the canyon from the nearby snow-covered Kaibab Plateau. Another feature of canyon temperature profiles is the sharp inversions that often form near the canyon rims. These are generally produced when warm air is advected over the canyon in advance of passing synoptic-scale ridges.Wintertime winds in the main canyon are not classical diurnal along-valley wind systems. Rather, they are driven along the canyon axis by the horizontal synoptic-scale pressure gradient that is superimposed along the canyon's axis by passing synoptic-scale weather disturbances. They may thus bring winds into the canyon from either end at any time of day.The implications of the observed canyon boundary layer structure for air pollution dispersion are discussed.

  8. 78 FR 65178 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada (Bell) Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... the TCAA AD, and we do not require you to provide an affected cap for rework to Bell Tennessee nor... assembly, ensuring that the rework has been done. Related Service Information Bell has issued ASB No. 206L... or rework the cap assembly by following the instructions depicted in Figure 3 of ASB 206L-04-129 or...

  9. Functional Bell inequalities can serve as a stronger entanglement witness than conventional Bell inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal; Zukowski, Marek

    2002-01-01

    We consider a Bell inequality for a continuous range of settings of the apparatus at each site. This 'functional' Bell inequality gives a better range of violation for generalized Greenberger, Horne, and Zeilinger states. Also a family of N-qubit bound entangled states violate this inequality for N>5

  10. Bell's palsy before Bell : Evert Jan Thomassen a Thuessink and idiopathic peripheral facial paralysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Graaf, R. C.; IJpma, F. F. A.; Nicolai, J-P A.; Werker, P. M. N.

    Bell's palsy is the eponym for idiopathic peripheral facial paralysis. It is named after Sir Charles Bell (1774-1842), who, in the first half of the nineteenth century, discovered the function of the facial nerve and attracted the attention of the medical world to facial paralysis. Our knowledge of

  11. Buonomano against Bell: Nonergodicity or nonlocality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    The aim of this note is to attract attention of the quantum foundational community to the fact that in Bell’s arguments, one cannot distinguish two hypotheses: (a) quantum mechanics is nonlocal, (b) quantum mechanics is nonergodic. Therefore, experimental violations of Bell’s inequality can be as well interpreted as supporting the hypothesis that stochastic processes induced by quantum measurements are nonergodic. The latter hypothesis was discussed actively by Buonomano since 1980. However, in contrast to Bell’s hypothesis on nonlocality, it did not attract so much attention. The only experiment testing the hypothesis on nonergodicity was performed in neutron interferometry (by Summhammer, in 1989). This experiment can be considered as rejecting this hypothesis. However, it cannot be considered as a decisive experiment. New experiments are badly needed. We point out that a nonergodic model can be realistic, i.e. the distribution of hidden (local!) variables is well-defined. We also discuss coupling of violation of the Bell inequality with violation of the condition of weak mixing for ergodic dynamical systems.

  12. Plasma Fibrinogen in Patients With Bell Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hua; Zhang, Xin; Tang, Yinda; Li, Shiting

    2016-10-01

    To determine the plasma fibrinogen level in patients with Bell palsy and explore the significances of it in Bell palsy. One hundred five consecutive patients with facial paralysis were divided into 3 groups: group I (Bell palsy), group II (temporal bone fractures), and group III (facial nerve schwannoma). In addition, 22 volunteers were defined as control group. Two milliliters fasting venous blood from elbow was collected, and was evaluated by CA-7000 Full-Automatic Coagulation Analyzer. The plasma fibrinogen concentration was significantly higher in the group of patients with Bell palsy (HB IV-VI) than that in the control group (P 0.05); similarly, there was also no marked difference between group III and control group (P >0.05). In group I, the plasma fibrinogen levels became higher with the HB grading increase. The plasma fibrinogen level of HB-VI was highest. Plasma fibrinogen has an important clinical meaning in Bell palsy, which should be used as routine examination items. Defibrinogen in treatment for patients with high plasma fibrinogen content also should be suggested.

  13. Calcareous nannoplankton and benthic foraminiferal assemblages from the Nazare Canyon (Portuguese continental margin): Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerreiro, C; Oliveira, A; Rodrigues, A; Rosa, F; Cachao, M; Fatela, F

    2009-01-01

    Submarine canyons are assumed to play an important role in oceanic/neritic circulation, marine productivity and sedimentary processes, acting as preferential conduits between the littoral and deep oceanic domain. Here we present first results of a comparative micropalaeontological study on calcareous nannoplankton and benthic foraminifera from surface sediments from the surroundings of the upper Nazare Canyon (Portuguese continental margin) and from the shelf north of the canyon. Regardless of the difficulty to distinguish taphonomical from (palaeo)ecological effects in such a complex and still poorly known marine system, the first results suggest that the canyon's hydro-sedimentary dynamic regime act as a prolongation of the shore/inner shelf hydrodynamic conditions towards west, preventing deposition and/or preservation of the smaller and fragile species of calcareous nannoplankton (e.g. E. huxleyi and G. ericsonii) and enhancing the record of the larger and more opportunistic ones (e.g. G. oceanica); and disturbing benthic foraminiferal productivity and/or diversity, or their preservation in the fossil record. Both calcareous nannoplankton and benthic foraminifera are more abundant off the canyon's domain, suggesting that its highly energetic thalweg conditions are probably filtering the fossil record in the sediment. Still, preliminary results suggest that the occurrence of persistent physical phenomena related with the canyon's morphology and proximity to the coast (e.g. solitary internal waves) may be locally promoting favourable conditions for calcareous nannoplankton, as shown by high values of nannoliths, chlorophyll a and 19' hexanoyloxyfucoxantine (unpublished data) north of the canyon's head. It is our goal to test this hypothesis in the near future by (a) studying multicore and surficial sediments from more recent surveys, and (b) calibrating the sediment results with water column data presently in process at the Institute of Oceanography (IO).

  14. Calcareous nannoplankton and benthic foraminiferal assemblages from the Nazare Canyon (Portuguese continental margin): Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerreiro, C; Oliveira, A; Rodrigues, A [Division of Marine Geology, Portuguese Hydrographic Institute (IH), Rua das Trinas 49, 1249-093 Lisboa (Portugal); Rosa, F [CIACOMAR, Algarve University, Av. 16 de Julho s/n 8700-311 Olhao (Portugal); Cachao, M; Fatela, F [Geology Center and Geology Department, FCUL, Bloco C6, 3o Piso, sala 6.3.57 Campo Grande 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal)], E-mail: catarina.guerreiro@hidrografico.pt

    2009-01-01

    Submarine canyons are assumed to play an important role in oceanic/neritic circulation, marine productivity and sedimentary processes, acting as preferential conduits between the littoral and deep oceanic domain. Here we present first results of a comparative micropalaeontological study on calcareous nannoplankton and benthic foraminifera from surface sediments from the surroundings of the upper Nazare Canyon (Portuguese continental margin) and from the shelf north of the canyon. Regardless of the difficulty to distinguish taphonomical from (palaeo)ecological effects in such a complex and still poorly known marine system, the first results suggest that the canyon's hydro-sedimentary dynamic regime act as a prolongation of the shore/inner shelf hydrodynamic conditions towards west, preventing deposition and/or preservation of the smaller and fragile species of calcareous nannoplankton (e.g. E. huxleyi and G. ericsonii) and enhancing the record of the larger and more opportunistic ones (e.g. G. oceanica); and disturbing benthic foraminiferal productivity and/or diversity, or their preservation in the fossil record. Both calcareous nannoplankton and benthic foraminifera are more abundant off the canyon's domain, suggesting that its highly energetic thalweg conditions are probably filtering the fossil record in the sediment. Still, preliminary results suggest that the occurrence of persistent physical phenomena related with the canyon's morphology and proximity to the coast (e.g. solitary internal waves) may be locally promoting favourable conditions for calcareous nannoplankton, as shown by high values of nannoliths, chlorophyll a and 19' hexanoyloxyfucoxantine (unpublished data) north of the canyon's head. It is our goal to test this hypothesis in the near future by (a) studying multicore and surficial sediments from more recent surveys, and (b) calibrating the sediment results with water column data presently in process at the Institute of

  15. Violation of multipartite Bell inequalities with classical subsystems via operationally local transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, Mark S.; Son Wonmin; Heaney, Libby

    2010-01-01

    Recently, it was demonstrated by Son et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 110404 (2009), that a separable bipartite continuous-variable quantum system can violate the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality via operationally local transformations. Operationally local transformations are parametrized only by local variables; however, in order to allow violation of the CHSH inequality, a maximally entangled ancilla was necessary. The use of the entangled ancilla in this scheme caused the state under test to become dependent on the measurement choice one uses to calculate the CHSH inequality, thus violating one of the assumptions used in deriving a Bell inequality, namely, the free will or statistical independence assumption. The novelty in this scheme however is that the measurement settings can be external free parameters. In this paper, we generalize these operationally local transformations for multipartite Bell inequalities (with dichotomic observables) and provide necessary and sufficient conditions for violation within this scheme. Namely, a violation of a multipartite Bell inequality in this setting is contingent on whether an ancillary system admits any realistic local hidden variable model (i.e., whether the ancilla violates the given Bell inequality). These results indicate that violation of a Bell inequality performed on a system does not necessarily imply that the system is nonlocal. In fact, the system under test may be completely classical. However, nonlocality must have resided somewhere, this may have been in the environment, the physical variables used to manipulate the system or the detectors themselves provided the measurement settings are external free variables.

  16. ["Bell-striking" Saying of Acupuncture Therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing-Sheng

    2017-04-25

    As an analogy, a prototype of "bell-striking" is proposed in the present paper for exploring the basic properties, major elements, and potential mechanisms of acupuncture stimulation. On the strength of analysis on the physiological basis of acupuncture effect, several fundamental aspects of acupuncture are summarized as a) the body-surface stimulating characters, b) general and local effects, and c) triggering the auto-regulative function of the organism, which mimics the "bell-striking" response. Namely, when stroke, bell will chime, otherwise, chiming will not be heard. During analyzing special contents of acupuncture theory, its formative background should not be separated, and it is improper to take, modern medical theory of the human body as the guiding thinking way for researching the ancient Chinese medical literature.

  17. Emissões otoacústicas por produtos de distorção na paralisia de Bell Distortion product otoacustic emissions in Bell's palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane A. Kasse

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: O núcleo do nervo facial e do núcleo olivar superior são conectados por fibras, desta forma uma lesão nesta conecção poderia interferir na função das células ciliadas externas, alterando o exame de emissão otoacústica por produtos de distorção (EOAPD. Objetivo: Observar a possibilidade da paralisia de Bell afetar a função das células ciliadas externas através da EOAPD. Forma do Estudo: Prospectivo clínico. Material e Método: Quarenta pacientes com paralisia de Bell foram comparados com 69 pacientes normais (grupo controle, usando EOAPD. Resultados: Os pacientes com paralisia de Bell e EOAPD alterados foram de 17,5% e no grupo controle de 7,2%, sem diferença estatística entre os valores. Não se observou também uma correlação entre o reflexo estapediano e o grau da paralisia facial com a EOAPD. Conclusão: Não observamos correlação entre EOAPD e a paralisia de Bell.Introduction: The facial nucleus and olivar nucleus are connected with fibers, then a lesion in this conection could interfer in the outer cell function changing the result of otoacoustic emission product distortion test (DPOE. Objective: To observe the possibility of Bell's palsy affect the function of outer hair cells, using the DPOE test. Study Design: Prospective clinical. Material and Method: Forty patients with Bell's palsy were compared with 69 patients without symptons (control group using DPOE. Results: The patients with Bell's palsy without DPOE response were 17.5% and in the control group, 7.2%, without statistical difference between them. We did not observe a correlation with stapedium reflex and degree of palsy and DPOE. Conclusion: There was no correlation with Bell's palsy and DPOE.

  18. Contemporary sediment-transport processes in submarine canyons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Pere; Palanques, Albert; Martín, Jacobo

    2014-01-01

    Submarine canyons are morphological incisions into continental margins that act as major conduits of sediment from shallow- to deep-sea regions. However, the exact mechanisms involved in sediment transfer within submarine canyons are still a subject of investigation. Several studies have provided direct information about contemporary sedimentary processes in submarine canyons that suggests different modes of transport and various triggering mechanisms. Storm-induced turbidity currents and enhanced off-shelf advection, hyperpycnal flows and failures of recently deposited fluvial sediments, dense shelf-water cascading, canyon-flank failures, and trawling-induced resuspension largely dominate present-day sediment transfer through canyons. Additionally, internal waves periodically resuspend ephemeral deposits within canyons and contribute to dispersing particles or retaining and accumulating them in specific regions. These transport processes commonly deposit sediments in the upper- and middle-canyon reaches for decades or centuries before being completely or partially flushed farther down-canyon by large sediment failures.

  19. Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area Transportation Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area is a popular Bureau of Land Management natural area located near Las Vegas, Nevada. Red Rock Canyon experiences heavy congestion on its Scenic Drive and associated parking areas, due to high volumes of visit...

  20. The probabilistic origin of Bell's inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenn, Guenther

    1994-01-01

    The concept of local realism entails certain restrictions concerning the possible occurrence of correlated events. Although these restrictions are inherent in classical physics they have never been noticed until Bell showed in 1964 that general correlations in quantum mechanics can not be interpreted in a classical way. We demonstrate how a local realistic way of thinking about measurement results necessarily leads to limitations with regard to the possible appearance of correlated events. These limitations, which are equivalent to Bell's inequality can be easily formulated as an immediate consequence of our discussion.

  1. Tinjauan Anatomi Klinik dan Manajemen Bell's Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Mujaddidah

    2017-01-01

    Bell's Palsy is a peripheral facial nerve weakness (facial nerve) with acute onset on one side of the face. This condition causes the inability of the patient to move half of his face consciously (volunter) on the affected side. The Bell's Palsy incidence is 20-30 cases out of 100.000 people and accounts for 60-70% of all cases of unilateral facial paralysis. The disease is self-limited, but causes great suffering for patients who are not treated properly. Controversy in the management is sti...

  2. Tectonic activity and the evolution of submarine canyons: The Cook Strait Canyon system, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micallef, Aaron; Mountjoy, Joshu; Barnes, Philip; Canals, Miquel; Lastras, Galderic

    2016-04-01

    Submarine canyons are Earth's most dramatic erosional features, comprising steep-walled valleys that originate in the continental shelf and slope. They play a key role in the evolution of continental margins by transferring sediments into deep water settings and are considered important biodiversity hotspots, pathways for nutrients and pollutants, and analogues of hydrocarbon reservoirs. Although comprising only one third of continental margins worldwide, active margins host more than half of global submarine canyons. We still lack of thorough understanding of the coupling between active tectonics and submarine canyon processes, which is necessary to improve the modelling of canyon evolution in active margins and derive tectonic information from canyon morphology. The objectives of this study are to: (i) understand how tectonic activity influences submarine canyon morphology, processes, and evolution in an active margin, and (2) formulate a generalised model of canyon development in response to tectonic forcing based on morphometric parameters. We fulfil these objectives by analysing high resolution geophysical data and imagery from Cook Strait Canyon system, offshore New Zealand. Using these data, we demonstrate that tectonic activity, in the form of major faults and structurally-generated tectonic ridges, leaves a clear topographic signature on submarine canyon location and morphology, in particular their dendritic and sinuous planform shapes, steep and linear longitudinal profiles, and cross-sectional asymmetry and width. We also report breaks/changes in canyon longitudinal slope gradient, relief and slope-area regression models at the intersection with faults. Tectonic activity gives rise to two types of knickpoints in the Cook Strait Canyon. The first type consists of low slope gradient, rounded and diffusive knickpoints forming as a result of short wavelength folds or fault break outs and being restored to an equilibrium profile by upstream erosion and

  3. 78 FR 51123 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ...-0734; Directorate Identifier 2012-SW-080-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter...). SUMMARY: We propose to supersede an existing airworthiness directive (AD) for Bell Helicopter Textron (Bell) Model 222, 222B, 222U, 230, and 430 helicopters. The existing AD currently requires inspecting...

  4. The Real "Toll" of A. G. Bell: Lessons about Eugenics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, Brian H.

    2009-01-01

    Historian Brian Greenwald offers a revisionist interpretation of Bell. He reviews Bell's role and influence within the American eugenics movement and shows that Bell had the respect of the most prominent American eugenicists. His intimate knowledge of deafness, from personal experience with his mother and wife and from his studies of deaf people…

  5. Detecting nonlocal Cooper pair entanglement by optical Bell inequality violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigg, Simon E.; Tiwari, Rakesh P.; Walter, Stefan; Schmidt, Thomas L. [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, 4056 Basel (Switzerland)

    2015-07-01

    Based on the Bardeen Cooper Schrieffer (BCS) theory of superconductivity, the coherent splitting of Cooper pairs from a superconductor to two spatially separated quantum dots has been predicted to generate nonlocal pairs of entangled electrons. In order to test this hypothesis, we propose a scheme to transfer the spin state of a split Cooper pair onto the polarization state of a pair of optical photons. We show that the produced photon pairs can be used to violate a Bell inequality, unambiguously demonstrating the entanglement of the split Cooper pairs.

  6. Detecting nonlocal Cooper pair entanglement by optical Bell inequality violation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, Simon E.; Tiwari, Rakesh P.; Walter, Stefan; Schmidt, Thomas L.

    2015-03-01

    Based on the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory of superconductivity, the coherent splitting of Cooper pairs from a superconductor to two spatially separated quantum dots has been predicted to generate nonlocal pairs of entangled electrons. In order to test this hypothesis, we propose a scheme to transfer the spin state of a split Cooper pair onto the polarization state of a pair of optical photons. We show that the photon pairs produced can be used to violate a Bell inequality, unambiguously demonstrating the entanglement of the split Cooper pairs.

  7. 77 FR 22801 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group...). SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) makes recommendations to the Secretary..., the AMWG, a technical work group, a Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center, and independent...

  8. Ancho Canyon RF Collect, March 2, 2017: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junor, William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Layne, John Preston [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gamble, Thomas Kirk [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Quintana, Bobby Arthur [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Snelson-Gerlicher, Catherine Mary [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Goorley, John Timothy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-21

    We report the results from the March 2, 2017, Ancho Canyon RF collection. While bright electromagnetic signals were seen nearby the firing point, there were no detections of signals from the explosively-fired fuse at a collection point about 570m distant on the East Mesa. However, "liveness" tests of the East Mesa data acquisition system and checks of the timing both suggest that the collection system was working correctly. We examine possible reasons for the lack of detection. Principal among these is that the impulsive signal may be small compared to the radio frequency background on the East Mesa.

  9. Crossing fitness canyons by a finite population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saakian, David B.; Bratus, Alexander S.; Hu, Chin-Kun

    2017-06-01

    We consider the Wright-Fisher model of the finite population evolution on a fitness landscape defined in the sequence space by a path of nearly neutral mutations. We study a specific structure of the fitness landscape: One of the intermediate mutations on the mutation path results in either a large fitness value (climbing up a fitness hill) or a low fitness value (crossing a fitness canyon), the rest of the mutations besides the last one are neutral, and the last sequence has much higher fitness than any intermediate sequence. We derive analytical formulas for the first arrival time of the mutant with two point mutations. For the first arrival problem for the further mutants in the case of canyon crossing, we analytically deduce how the mean first arrival time scales with the population size and fitness difference. The location of the canyon on the path of sequences has a crucial role. If the canyon is at the beginning of the path, then it significantly prolongs the first arrival time; otherwise it just slightly changes it. Furthermore, the fitness hill at the beginning of the path strongly prolongs the arrival time period; however, the hill located near the end of the path shortens it. We optimize the first arrival time by applying a nonzero selection to the intermediate sequences. We extend our results and provide a scaling for the valley crossing time via the depth of the canyon and population size in the case of a fitness canyon at the first position. Our approach is useful for understanding some complex evolution systems, e.g., the evolution of cancer.

  10. 76 FR 81992 - PPL Bell Bend, LLC; Combined License Application for Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... License Application for Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background PPL Bell Bend, LLC... for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This reactor is to be identified as Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant (BBNPP... based upon the U.S. EPR reference COL (RCOL) application for UniStar's Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power...

  11. Let's Bet on Sediments! Hudson Canyon Cruise--Grades 9-12. Focus: Sediments of Hudson Canyon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (DOC), Rockville, MD.

    These activities are designed to teach about the sediments of Hudson Canyon. Students investigate and analyze the patterns of sedimentation in the Hudson Canyon, observe how heavier particles sink faster than finer particles, and learn that submarine landslides are avalanches of sediment in deep ocean canyons. The activity provides learning…

  12. Peripheral nerve involvement in Bell's palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Bueri

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available A group of patients with Bell's palsy were studied in order to disclose the presence of subclinical peripheral nerve involvement. 20 patients, 8 male and 12 female, with recent Bell's palsy as their unique disease were examined, in all cases other causes of polyneuropathy were ruled out. Patients were investigated with CSF examination, facial nerve latencies in the affected and in the sound sides, and maximal motor nerve conduction velocities, as well as motor terminal latencies from the right median and peroneal nerves. CSF laboratory examination was normal in all cases. Facial nerve latencies were abnormal in all patients in the affected side, and they differed significantly from those of control group in the clinically sound side. Half of the patients showed abnormal values in the maximal motor nerve conduction velocities and motor terminal latencies of the right median and peroneal nerves. These results agree with previous reports which have pointed out that other cranial nerves may be affected in Bell's palsy. However, we have found a higher frequency of peripheral nerve involvement in this entity. These findings, support the hypothesis that in some patients Bell's palsy is the component of a more widespread disease, affecting other cranial and peripheral nerves.

  13. Delayed facial nerve decompression for Bell's palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Hoon; Jung, Junyang; Lee, Jong Ha; Byun, Jae Yong; Park, Moon Suh; Yeo, Seung Geun

    2016-07-01

    Incomplete recovery of facial motor function continues to be long-term sequelae in some patients with Bell's palsy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of transmastoid facial nerve decompression after steroid and antiviral treatment in patients with late stage Bell's palsy. Twelve patients underwent surgical decompression for Bell's palsy 21-70 days after onset, whereas 22 patients were followed up after steroid and antiviral therapy without decompression. Surgical criteria included greater than 90 % degeneration on electroneuronography and no voluntary electromyography potentials. This study was a retrospective study of electrodiagnostic data and medical chart review between 2006 and 2013. Recovery from facial palsy was assessed using the House-Brackmann grading system. Final recovery rate did not differ significantly in the two groups; however, all patients in the decompression group recovered to at least House-Brackmann grade III at final follow-up. Although postoperative hearing threshold was increased in both groups, there was no significant between group difference in hearing threshold. Transmastoid decompression of the facial nerve in patients with severe late stage Bell's palsy at risk for a poor facial nerve outcome reduced severe complications of facial palsy with minimal morbidity.

  14. Tinjauan Anatomi Klinik dan Manajemen Bell's Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Mujaddidah

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Bell's Palsy is a peripheral facial nerve weakness (facial nerve with acute onset on one side of the face. This condition causes the inability of the patient to move half of his face consciously (volunter on the affected side. The Bell's Palsy incidence is 20-30 cases out of 100.000 people and accounts for 60-70% of all cases of unilateral facial paralysis. The disease is self-limited, but causes great suffering for patients who are not treated properly. Controversy in the management is still debated, and the cause is still unknown. The underlying hypothesis is ischemic, vascular, viral, bacterial, hereditary, and immunologic. Therapy done so far is to improve facial nerve function and healing process. The management of the therapy used will be closely related to the structure of the anatomy and its functions and associated abnormalities. The modalities of Bell's Palsy therapy are with corticosteroids and antivirals, facial exercises, electrostimulation, physiotherapy and decompression operations. Approximately 80-90% of patients with Bell's palsy recover completely within 6 months, even in 50-60% of cases improved within 3 weeks. Approximately 10% experienced persistent facial muscle asymmetry, and 5% experienced severe sequelae, and 8% of cases were recurrent.

  15. Controlled quantum teleportation with Bell states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Tian-Yin; Wen Qiao-Yan

    2011-01-01

    We propose a new scheme for controlled quantum teleportation with Bell states in which classical keys for controllers' portion are used. We also discuss the security of the proposed scheme and show that it can satisfy the requirements for controlled quantum teleportation. The comparison between this scheme and the previous ones shows that it is more economical and efficient. (general)

  16. Faulkner's Southern belle - myth or reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Intihar Klančar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with heroines of William Faulkner's novels Light in August, Absalom, Absalom!, The Sound and the Fury, The Unvanquished, The Town and his short story "A Rose for Emily". The Southern belle features as a recurring character in Faulkner's fiction, her fragility, modesty, weakness yet strength, beauty, sincerity, generous nature, status and her fall from innocence comprise her central characteristics. Confronted with various expectations of Southern society and with the hardships of war, the belle is faced with many obstacles and challenges. Faulkner's heroines face a wide array of problems that prevent them from being and/or remaining a Southern belle. Let us name a few: Lena's inappropriate social status, Joanna's wrong roots, Mrs. Hightower's inability to fulfill her duties as the minister's wife, Ellen's miserable marriage, Judith's sad love life, Rosa's feelings of inferiority and humiliation, Mrs. Compson's failure as a mother, Caddy's weak rebellion against male convention, Drusilla's male characteristics, Linda's unrequited love and Emily's dark secret, to name a few. Through these characters and their destinies Faulkner shows a decaying South whose position has changed considerably over the years. Can the Southern belle save it? Can she save herself?

  17. Violations of Bell inequalities as lower bounds on the communication cost of nonlocal correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pironio, Stefano

    2003-01-01

    To reproduce in a local hidden variables theory correlations that violate Bell inequalities, communication must occur between the parties. We show that the amount of violation of a Bell inequality imposes a lower bound on the average communication needed to produce these correlations. Moreover, for every probability distribution there exists an optimal inequality for which the degree of violation gives the minimal average communication. As an example, to produce using classical resources the correlations that maximally violate the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality, (√2)-1≅0.4142 bits of communication are necessary and sufficient. For Bell tests performed on two entangled states of dimension d≥3 where each party has the choice between two measurements, our results suggest that more communication is needed to simulate outcomes obtained from certain nonmaximally entangled states than maximally entangled ones

  18. Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiment and Bell inequality violation using Type 2 parametric down conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiess, Thomas E.; Shih, Yan-Hua; Sergienko, A. V.; Alley, Carroll O.

    1994-01-01

    We report a new two-photon polarization correlation experiment for realizing the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm (EPRB) state and for testing Bell-type inequalities. We use the pair of orthogonally-polarized light quanta generated in Type 2 parametric down conversion. Using 1 nm interference filters in front of our detectors, we observe from the output of a 0.5mm beta - BaB2O4 (BBO) crystal the EPRB correlations in coincidence counts, and measure an associated Bell inequality violation of 22 standard deviations. The quantum state of the photon pair is a polarization analog of the spin-1/2 singlet state.

  19. Geohydrology of White Rock Canyon of the Rio Grande from Otowi to Frijoles Canyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purtymun, W.D.; Peters, R.J.; Owens, J.W.

    1980-12-01

    Twenty-seven springs discharge from the Totavi Lentil and Tesuque Formation in White Rock Canyon. Water generally acquires its chemical characteristics from rock units that comprise the spring aquifer. Twenty-two of the springs are separated into three groups of similar aquifer-related chemical quality. The five remaining springs make up a fourth group with a chemical quality that differs due to localized conditions in the aquifer. Localized conditions may be related to recharge or discharge in or near basalt intrusion or through faults. Streams from Pajarito, Ancho, and Frijoles Canyons discharge into the Rio Grande in White Rock Canyon. The base flow in the streams is from springs. Sanitary effluent in Mortandad Canyon from the treatment plant at White Rock also reaches the Rio Grande

  20. The data acquisition system of the Belle II Pixel Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münchow, D.; Dingfelder, J.; Geßler, T.; Konorov, I.; Kühn, W.; Lange, S.; Lautenbach, K.; Levit, D.; Liu, Z.; Marinas, C.; Schnell, M.; Spruck, B.; Zhao, J.

    2014-08-01

    At the future Belle II experiment the DEPFET (DEPleted Field Effect Transistor) pixel detector will consist of about 8 million channels and is placed as the innermost detector. Because of its small distance to the interaction region and the high luminosity in Belle II, for a trigger rate of about 30 kHz with an estimated occupancy of about 3 % a data rate of about 22 GB/s is expected. Due to the high data rate, a data reduction factor higher than 30 is needed in order to stay inside the specifications of the event builder. The main hardware to reduce the data rate is a xTCA based Compute Node (CN) developed in cooperation between IHEP Beijing and University Giessen. Each node has as main component a Xilinx Virtex-5 FX70T FPGA and is equipped with 2 × 2 GB RAM , GBit Ethernet and 4 × 6.25 Gb/s optical links. An ATCA carrier board is able to hold up to four CN and supplies high bandwidth connections between the four CNs and to the ATCA backplane. To achieve the required data reduction on the CNs, regions of interest (ROI) are used. These regions are calculated in two independent systems by projecting tracks back to the pixel detector. One is the High Level Trigger (HLT) which uses data from the Silicon Vertex Detector (SVD), a silicon strip detector, and outer detectors. The other is the Data Concentrator (DATCON) which calculates ROIs based on SVD data only, in order to get low momentum tracks. With this information, only PXD data inside these ROIs will be forwarded to the event builder, while data outside of these regions will be discarded. First results of the test beam time in January 2014 at DESY with a Belle II vertex detector prototype and full DAQ chain will be presented.

  1. Pollutant Dilution and Diffusion in Urban Street Canyon Neighboring Streets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Z.; Fu, Zh. M.

    2011-09-01

    In the present study we investigated the airflow patterns and air quality of a series of typical street canyon combinations, developed a mass balance model to determine the local pollutant dilution rate, and discuss the impact of upstream canyon on the air quality of downstream canyon. The results indicated that the geometrical size of upstream and downstream buildings have significant impacts on the ambient airflow patterns. The pollution distribution within the canyons varies with different building combinations and flow patterns. Within the upstream canyon, pollution always accumulates to the low building side for non-symmetrical canyon, and for symmetrical canyon high level of pollution occurs at the leeward side. The height of the middle and downstream buildings can evidently change the pollutant dispersion direction during the transport process. Within the polluted canyon, the pollutant dilution rate (PDR) also varies with different street canyon combinations. The highest PDR is observed when the upstream buildings are both low buildings no matter the height of downstream building. However, the two cases are likely to contribution pollution to the downstream canyon. The H-L-H combination is mostly against local pollution remove, while the L-H-L case is considered the best optimistic building combination with both the ability of diluting local pollution and not remarkably decreasing air quality of downstream canyon. The current work is expected instructive for city designers to optimize traffic patterns under typical existing geometry or in the development of urban geometry modification for air quality control.

  2. Recreational impacts on Colorado River beaches in Glen Canyon, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carothers, Steven W.; Johnson, Robert A.; Dolan, Robert

    1984-07-01

    Recreational impact was measured on eight beaches in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area and 15 beaches in Grand Canyon National Park using permanently located transects and plots. Recreational impact indices included densities of human trash and charcoal and a measure of sand discoloration due to charcoal. Significant increases in the indices occurred on several Glen Canyon beaches over a seven-month period. Sand discoloration became significantly higher over all Glen Canyon beaches during the same time period. All indices were significantly higher in Glen Canyon than on similar Grand Canyon beaches. These differences are probably due to differences in: (a) level of impacts tolerated by the respective management regimes and, (b) in the number of user days among the two National Park Service administrative units. Management alternatives are presented for reversing the present trends of recreational impact on Glen Canyon beaches.

  3. Submarine canyons off the Coromandel coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varadachari, V.V.R.; Nair, R.R.; Murty, P.S.N.

    During the 26th Cruise of I.N.S. `KISTNA', a bathymetric survey was carried out in some detail off the Pondicherry coast. This survey has revealed the existence of three sets of distinctly separate canyons between Cuddalore and Palar River...

  4. Assessment of changes at Glen Canyon Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherry, D.; McCoy, J.; Crandall, S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the complexity associated with the assessment of financial impacts of proposed and actual short-term restrictions at Glen Canyon Dam. The reasons for these restrictions are discussed as well as the methods used to measure their financial impact to Western Area Power Administration

  5. ACUMEN 2012: Atlantic Canyons Undersea Mapping Expeditions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Between February and August 2012, a team of NOAA and external partners will conduct a mapping ‘blitz’ focused on deepwater canyons off the northeastern...

  6. Turbulent ventilation of a street canyon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten

    2000-01-01

    A selection of turbulence data corresponding to 185 days of field measurements has een analysed. The non-ideal building geometry influenced the circulation patterns in the street canyon and the largest average vertical velocities were observed in the wake of an unbroken line of buildings. The sta...

  7. English Writing Placement Recommendations at College of the Canyons: An Analysis of Disproportionate Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerda, Joseph

    A study was undertaken at California's College of the Canyons (CoC) to determine whether evidence existed of disproportionate impact in English course placement based on student ethnicity, gender, or age. Data were compiled for all 4,309 students tested between spring 1993 and fall 1995, while the standard for disproportionate impact was taken…

  8. English Reading Placement Recommendations at College of the Canyons: An Analysis of Disproportionate Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerda, Joseph

    A study was undertaken at California's College of the Canyons (CC) to determine whether evidence existed of disproportionate impact in English reading course placement based on student ethnicity, gender, or age. Data were compiled for all 4,312 students tested between spring 1993 and fall 1995, while the standard for disproportionate impact was…

  9. Idiopathic diaphragmatic paralysis: Bell's palsy of the diaphragm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crausman, Robert S; Summerhill, Eleanor M; McCool, F Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Idiopathic diaphragm paralysis is probably more common and responsible for more morbidity than generally appreciated. Bell's palsy, or idiopathic paralysis of the seventh cranial nerve, may be seen as an analogous condition. The roles of zoster sine herpete and herpes simplex have increasingly been recognized in Bell's palsy, and there are some data to suggest that antiviral therapy is a useful adjunct to steroid therapy. Thus, we postulated that antiviral therapy might have a positive impact on the course of acute idiopathic diaphragm paralysis which is likely related to viral infection. Three consecutive patients with subacute onset of symptomatic idiopathic hemidiaphragm paralysis were empirically treated with valacyclovir, 1,000 mg twice daily for 1 week. Prior to therapy, diaphragmatic function was assessed via pulmonary function testing and two-dimensional B-mode ultrasound, with testing repeated 1 month later. Diaphragmatic function pre- and post-treatment was compared to that of a historical control group of 16 untreated patients. All three subjects demonstrated ultrasound recovery of diaphragm function 4-6 weeks following treatment with valacyclovir. This recovery was accompanied by improvements in maximum inspiratory pressure (PI(max)) and vital capacity (VC). In contrast, in the untreated cohort, diaphragm recovery occurred in only 11 subjects, taking an average of 14.9 +/- 6.1 months (mean +/- SD). The results of this small, preliminary study suggest that antiviral therapy with valacyclovir may be helpful in the treatment of idiopathic diaphragm paralysis induced by a viral infection.

  10. Anatomy of La Jolla submarine canyon system; offshore southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paull, C.K.; Caress, D.W.; Lundsten, E.; Gwiazda, R.; Anderson, K.; McGann, M.; Conrad, J.; Edwards, B.; Sumner, E.J.

    2013-01-01

    An autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) carrying a multibeam sonar and a chirp profiler was used to map sections of the seafloor within the La Jolla Canyon, offshore southern California, at sub-meter scales. Close-up observations and sampling were conducted during remotely operated vehicle (ROV) dives. Minisparker seismic-reflection profiles from a surface ship help to define the overall geometry of the La Jolla Canyon especially with respect to the pre-canyon host sediments. The floor of the axial channel is covered with unconsolidated sand similar to the sand on the shelf near the canyon head, lacks outcrops of the pre-canyon host strata, has an almost constant slope of 1.0° and is covered with trains of crescent shaped bedforms. The presence of modern plant material entombed within these sands confirms that the axial channel is presently active. The sand on the canyon floor liquefied during vibracore collection and flowed downslope, illustrating that the sediment filling the channel can easily fail even on this gentle slope. Data from the canyon walls help constrain the age of the canyon and extent of incision. Horizontal beds of moderately cohesive fine-grained sediments exposed on the steep canyon walls are consistently less than 1.232 million years old. The lateral continuity of seismic reflectors in minisparker profiles indicate that pre-canyon host strata extend uninterrupted from outside the canyon underneath some terraces within the canyon. Evidence of abandoned channels and point bar-like deposits are noticeably absent on the inside bend of channel meanders and in the subsurface of the terraces. While vibracores from the surface of terraces contain thin (< 10 cm) turbidites, they are inferred to be part of a veneer of recent sediment covering pre-canyon host sediments that underpin the terraces. The combined use of state of the art seafloor mapping and exploration tools provides a uniquely detailed view of the morphology within an active submarine canyon.

  11. Blink reflexes and lateral spreading in patients with synkinesia after Bell's palsy and in hemifacial spasm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eekhof, J. L.; Aramideh, M.; Speelman, J. D.; Devriese, P. P.; Ongerboer de Visser, B. W.

    2000-01-01

    We compared various electrodiagnostical tests in patients with hemifacial spasm and in patients who developed synkinesia after Bell's palsy. We examined the evoked blink reflexes in the orbicularis oculi (o. oculi) and orbicularis oris (o. oris) muscles in 23 patients with hemifacial spasm (HFS), in

  12. Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) and TEMPEST Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Electromagnetic Interference (EMI), Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) and TEMPEST testing are conducted at EPG's Blacktail Canyon Test Facility in one of its two...

  13. A concentration correction scheme for Lagrangian particle model and its application in street canyon air dispersion modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiyang Xia [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China). Department of Engineering Mechanics; Leung, D.Y.C. [The University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong). Department of Mechanical Engineering

    2001-07-01

    Pollutant dispersion in street canyons with various configurations was simulated by discharging a large number of particles into the computation domain after developing a time-dependent wind field. Trajectory of the released particles was predicted using a Lagrangian particle model developed in an earlier study. A concentration correction scheme, based on the concept of 'visibility', was adopted for the Lagrangian particle model to correct the calculated pollutant concentration field in street canyons. The corrected concentrations compared favourably with those from wind tunnel experiments and a linear relationship between the computed concentrations and wind tunnel data were found. The developed model was then applied to four simulations to test for the suitability of the correction scheme and to study pollutant distribution in street canyons with different configurations. For those cases with obstacles presence in the computation domain, the correction scheme gives more reasonable results compared with the one without using it. Different flow regimes are observed in the street canyons, which depend on building configurations. A counter-clockwise rotating vortex may appear in a two-building case with wind flow from left to right, causing lower pollutant concentration at the leeward side of upstream building and higher concentration at the windward side of downstream building. On the other hand, a stable clockwise rotating vortex is formed in the street canyon with multiple identical buildings, resulting in poor natural ventilation in the street canyon. Moreover, particles emitted in the downstream canyon formed by buildings with large height-to-width ratios will be transported to upstream canyons. (author)

  14. BelleII@home: Integrate volunteer computing resources into DIRAC in a secure way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenjing; Hara, Takanori; Miyake, Hideki; Ueda, Ikuo; Kan, Wenxiao; Urquijo, Phillip

    2017-10-01

    The exploitation of volunteer computing resources has become a popular practice in the HEP computing community as the huge amount of potential computing power it provides. In the recent HEP experiments, the grid middleware has been used to organize the services and the resources, however it relies heavily on the X.509 authentication, which is contradictory to the untrusted feature of volunteer computing resources, therefore one big challenge to utilize the volunteer computing resources is how to integrate them into the grid middleware in a secure way. The DIRAC interware which is commonly used as the major component of the grid computing infrastructure for several HEP experiments proposes an even bigger challenge to this paradox as its pilot is more closely coupled with operations requiring the X.509 authentication compared to the implementations of pilot in its peer grid interware. The Belle II experiment is a B-factory experiment at KEK, and it uses DIRAC for its distributed computing. In the project of BelleII@home, in order to integrate the volunteer computing resources into the Belle II distributed computing platform in a secure way, we adopted a new approach which detaches the payload running from the Belle II DIRAC pilot which is a customized pilot pulling and processing jobs from the Belle II distributed computing platform, so that the payload can run on volunteer computers without requiring any X.509 authentication. In this approach we developed a gateway service running on a trusted server which handles all the operations requiring the X.509 authentication. So far, we have developed and deployed the prototype of BelleII@home, and tested its full workflow which proves the feasibility of this approach. This approach can also be applied on HPC systems whose work nodes do not have outbound connectivity to interact with the DIRAC system in general.

  15. A performance study of WebDav access to storages within the Belle II collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardi, S.; Russo, G.

    2017-10-01

    WebDav and HTTP are becoming popular protocols for data access in the High Energy Physics community. The most used Grid and Cloud storage solutions provide such kind of interfaces, in this scenario tuning and performance evaluation became crucial aspects to promote the adoption of these protocols within the Belle II community. In this work, we present the results of a large-scale test activity, made with the goal to evaluate performances and reliability of the WebDav protocol, and study a possible adoption for the user analysis. More specifically, we considered a pilot infrastructure composed by a set of storage elements configured with the WebDav interface, hosted at the Belle II sites. The performance tests include a comparison with xrootd and gridftp. As reference tests we used a set of analysis jobs running under the Belle II software framework, accessing the input data with the ROOT I/O library, in order to simulate as much as possible a realistic user activity. The final analysis shows the possibility to achieve promising performances with WebDav on different storage systems, and gives an interesting feedback, for Belle II community and for other high energy physics experiments.

  16. Bell's "Theorem": loopholes vs. conceptual flaws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kracklauer, A. F.

    2017-12-01

    An historical overview and detailed explication of a critical analysis of what has become known as Bell's Theorem to the effect that, it should be impossible to extend Quantum Theory with the addition of local, real variables so as to obtain a version free of the ambiguous and preternatural features of the currently accepted interpretations is presented. The central point on which this critical analysis, due originally to Edwin Jaynes, is that Bell incorrectly applied probabilistic formulas involving conditional probabilities. In addition, mathematical technicalities that have complicated the understanding of the logical or mathematical setting in which current theory and experimentation are embedded, are discussed. Finally, some historical speculations on the sociological environment, in particular misleading aspects, in which recent generations of physicists lived and worked are mentioned.

  17. The Belle II VXD production database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentan, Manfred; Ritter, Martin [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Wuerkner, Benedikt; Leitl, Bernhard [Institut fuer Hochenergiephysik, Wien (Austria); Pilo, Federico [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pisa (Italy); Collaboration: Belle II-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The construction and commissioning of the Belle II Vertex Detector (VXD) is a huge endeavor involving a large number of valuable components. Both subsystems PXD (Pixel Detector) and SVD (Silicon Vertex Detector) deploy a large number of sensors, readout electronic parts and mechanical elements. These items are scattered around the world at many institutes, where they are built, measured and assembled. One has to keep track of measurement configurations and results, know at any time the location of the sensors, their processing state, quality, where they end up in an assembly, and who is responsible. These requirements call for a flexible and extensive database which is able to reflect the processes in the laboratories and the logistics between the institutes. This talk introduces the database requirements of a physics experiment using the PXD construction workflow as a showcase, and presents an overview of the database ''HephyDb'', which is used by the groups constructing the Belle II VXD.

  18. A Geometrical Approach to Bell's Theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubincam, David Parry

    2000-01-01

    Bell's theorem can be proved through simple geometrical reasoning, without the need for the Psi function, probability distributions, or calculus. The proof is based on N. David Mermin's explication of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiment, which involves Stern-Gerlach detectors which flash red or green lights when detecting spin-up or spin-down. The statistics of local hidden variable theories for this experiment can be arranged in colored strips from which simple inequalities can be deduced. These inequalities lead to a demonstration of Bell's theorem. Moreover, all local hidden variable theories can be graphed in such a way as to enclose their statistics in a pyramid, with the quantum-mechanical result lying a finite distance beneath the base of the pyramid.

  19. Nonrecurrence and Bell-like inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danforth, Douglas G.

    2017-12-01

    The general class, Λ, of Bell hidden variables is composed of two subclasses ΛR and ΛN such that ΛR⋃ΛN = Λ and ΛR∩ ΛN = {}. The class ΛN is very large and contains random variables whose domain is the continuum, the reals. There are an uncountable infinite number of reals. Every instance of a real random variable is unique. The probability of two instances being equal is zero, exactly zero. ΛN induces sample independence. All correlations are context dependent but not in the usual sense. There is no "spooky action at a distance". Random variables, belonging to ΛN, are independent from one experiment to the next. The existence of the class ΛN makes it impossible to derive any of the standard Bell inequalities used to define quantum entanglement.

  20. Global track finder for Belle II experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trusov, Viktor; Feindt, Michael; Heck, Martin; Kuhr, Thomas; Goldenzweig, Pablo [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, IEKP (Germany); Collaboration: Belle II-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    We present an implementation of a method based on the Legendre transformation for reconstruction charged particle tracks in the central drift chamber of the Belle II experiment. The method is designed for fast track finding and restoring circular patterns of track hits in transverse plane. It is done by searching for common tangents to drift circles of hits in the conformal space. With known transverse trajectories longitudinal momentum estimation performed by assigning stereo hits followed by determination of the track parameters. The method includes algorithms responsible for track quality estimation and reduction of rate of fakes. The work is targeting at increasing the efficiency and reducing the execution time because the computing power available to the experiment is limited. The algorithm is developed within the Belle II software environment with using Monte-Carlo simulation for probing its efficiency.

  1. The silicon vertex detector of the Belle II experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedl, Markus, E-mail: friedl@hephy.a [Institute of High Energy Physics, Nikolsdorfergasse 18, A-1050 Vienna (Austria); Bergauer, Thomas; Gfall, Immanuel; Irmler, Christian; Valentan, Manfred [Institute of High Energy Physics, Nikolsdorfergasse 18, A-1050 Vienna (Austria)

    2011-02-01

    After 10 years of successful operation, the Belle experiment at KEK (Tsukuba, Japan) will be completed in 2010. Thereafter, a major upgrade of the KEK-B machine is foreseen until 2014, aiming at a final luminosity of 8x10{sup 35} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, which is about 40 times higher than the present peak value. Consequently, also the Belle experiment needs to be changed and the Silicon Vertex Detector (SVD) in particular will be completely replaced as it already operates close to its limits in the present system. The future SVD (a.k.a. SuperSVD) will consist of four layers of double-sided silicon strip detectors like the present one, but at larger radii, because it will be complemented by a two-layer pixel detector as the innermost sensing device. The SuperSVD will be entirely composed of silicon sensors made from 6 in. wafers read out by APV25 front-end chips that were originally developed for the CMS experiment at the LHC. Several years of R and D effort led to innovations such as the Origami chip-on-sensor concept and readout electronics with hit time finding which were successfully demonstrated on prototypes. These features will be included in the final system which is presently being designed. This paper will give an overview of the SuperSVD and present results from prototype tests ranging from detector modules to back-end electronics.

  2. The silicon vertex detector of the Belle II experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedl, Markus; Bergauer, Thomas; Gfall, Immanuel; Irmler, Christian; Valentan, Manfred

    2011-01-01

    After 10 years of successful operation, the Belle experiment at KEK (Tsukuba, Japan) will be completed in 2010. Thereafter, a major upgrade of the KEK-B machine is foreseen until 2014, aiming at a final luminosity of 8x10 35 cm -2 s -1 , which is about 40 times higher than the present peak value. Consequently, also the Belle experiment needs to be changed and the Silicon Vertex Detector (SVD) in particular will be completely replaced as it already operates close to its limits in the present system. The future SVD (a.k.a. SuperSVD) will consist of four layers of double-sided silicon strip detectors like the present one, but at larger radii, because it will be complemented by a two-layer pixel detector as the innermost sensing device. The SuperSVD will be entirely composed of silicon sensors made from 6 in. wafers read out by APV25 front-end chips that were originally developed for the CMS experiment at the LHC. Several years of R and D effort led to innovations such as the Origami chip-on-sensor concept and readout electronics with hit time finding which were successfully demonstrated on prototypes. These features will be included in the final system which is presently being designed. This paper will give an overview of the SuperSVD and present results from prototype tests ranging from detector modules to back-end electronics.

  3. Anatomy of La Jolla submarine canyon system; offshore southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paull, C.K.; Caress, D.W.; Lundsten, E.; Gwiazda, R.; Anderson, K.; McGann, M.; Conrad, J.; Edwards, B.; Sumner, E.J.

    2013-01-01

    An autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) carrying a multibeam sonar and a chirp profiler was used to map sections of the seafloor within the La Jolla Canyon, offshore southern California, at sub-meter scales. Close-up observations and sampling were conducted during remotely operated vehicle (ROV) dives. Minisparker seismic-reflection profiles from a surface ship help to define the overall geometry of the La Jolla Canyon especially with respect to the pre-canyon host sediments. The floor of the axial channel is covered with unconsolidated sand similar to the sand on the shelf near the canyon head, lacks outcrops of the pre-canyon host strata, has an almost constant slope of 1.0° and is covered with trains of crescent shaped bedforms. The presence of modern plant material entombed within these sands confirms that the axial channel is presently active. The sand on the canyon floor liquefied during vibracore collection and flowed downslope, illustrating that the sediment filling the channel can easily fail even on this gentle slope. Data from the canyon walls help constrain the age of the canyon and extent of incision. Horizontal beds of moderately cohesive fine-grained sediments exposed on the steep canyon walls are consistently less than 1.232 million years old. The lateral continuity of seismic reflectors in minisparker profiles indicate that pre-canyon host strata extend uninterrupted from outside the canyon underneath some terraces within the canyon. Evidence of abandoned channels and point bar-like deposits are noticeably absent on the inside bend of channel meanders and in the subsurface of the terraces. While vibracores from the surface of terraces contain thin (art seafloor mapping and exploration tools provides a uniquely detailed view of the morphology within an active submarine canyon.

  4. Bell palsy: Clinical examination and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Donika K; Levin, Kerry H

    2015-07-01

    Bell palsy is a common neurologic disorder characterized by acute facial mononeuropathy of unclear cause presenting with unilateral facial weakness. Careful examination and a detailed history are important in making an accurate diagnosis. Early recognition is essential, as treatment with corticosteroids within 72 hours of onset has been shown to hasten recovery. Fortunately, most patients recover spontaneously within 3 weeks, even if untreated. Copyright © 2015 Cleveland Clinic.

  5. EPR and Bell's theorem: A critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapp, H.P.

    1991-01-01

    The argument of Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen is reviewed with attention to logical structure and character of assumptions. Bohr's reply is discussed. Bell's contribution is formulated without use of hidden variables, and efforts to equate hidden variables to realism are critically examined. An alternative derivation of nonlocality that makes no use of hidden variables, microrealism, counterfactual definiteness, or any other assumption alien to orthodox quantum thinking is described in detail, with particular attention to the quartet or broken-square question

  6. Double dumb-bell calculus in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi Prashant

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An eight-year old male was admitted with complaints of right scrotal swelling, dysuria and intermittent retention of urine for 10 days. On per-rectal examination, a hard mass was palpable in the posterior urethra. An X-ray (KUB of the abdomen revealed a double dumb-bell calculus at the base of bladder, extending into the posterior urethra. A cystolithotomy via the suprapubic approach was successfully curative.

  7. 3D View of Grand Canyon, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The Grand Canyon is one of North America's most spectacular geologic features. Carved primarily by the Colorado River over the past six million years, the canyon sports vertical drops of 5,000 feet and spans a 445-kilometer-long stretch of Arizona desert. The strata along the steep walls of the canyon form a record of geologic time from the Paleozoic Era (250 million years ago) to the Precambrian (1.7 billion years ago).The above view was acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument aboard the Terra spacecraft. Visible and near infrared data were combined to form an image that simulates the natural colors of water and vegetation. Rock colors, however, are not accurate. The image data were combined with elevation data to produce this perspective view, with no vertical exaggeration, looking from above the South Rim up Bright Angel Canyon towards the North Rim. The light lines on the plateau at lower right are the roads around the Canyon View Information Plaza. The Bright Angel Trail, which reaches the Colorado in 11.3 kilometers, can be seen dropping into the canyon over Plateau Point at bottom center. The blue and black areas on the North Rim indicate a forest fire that was smoldering as the data were acquired on May 12, 2000.Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as

  8. Generalized Bell-inequality experiments and computation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoban, Matty J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Department of Computer Science, University of Oxford, Wolfson Building, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QD (United Kingdom); Wallman, Joel J. [School of Physics, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); Browne, Dan E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-15

    We consider general settings of Bell inequality experiments with many parties, where each party chooses from a finite number of measurement settings each with a finite number of outcomes. We investigate the constraints that Bell inequalities place upon the correlations possible in local hidden variable theories using a geometrical picture of correlations. We show that local hidden variable theories can be characterized in terms of limited computational expressiveness, which allows us to characterize families of Bell inequalities. The limited computational expressiveness for many settings (each with many outcomes) generalizes previous results about the many-party situation each with a choice of two possible measurements (each with two outcomes). Using this computational picture we present generalizations of the Popescu-Rohrlich nonlocal box for many parties and nonbinary inputs and outputs at each site. Finally, we comment on the effect of preprocessing on measurement data in our generalized setting and show that it becomes problematic outside of the binary setting, in that it allows local hidden variable theories to simulate maximally nonlocal correlations such as those of these generalized Popescu-Rohrlich nonlocal boxes.

  9. Generalized Bell-inequality experiments and computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoban, Matty J.; Wallman, Joel J.; Browne, Dan E.

    2011-01-01

    We consider general settings of Bell inequality experiments with many parties, where each party chooses from a finite number of measurement settings each with a finite number of outcomes. We investigate the constraints that Bell inequalities place upon the correlations possible in local hidden variable theories using a geometrical picture of correlations. We show that local hidden variable theories can be characterized in terms of limited computational expressiveness, which allows us to characterize families of Bell inequalities. The limited computational expressiveness for many settings (each with many outcomes) generalizes previous results about the many-party situation each with a choice of two possible measurements (each with two outcomes). Using this computational picture we present generalizations of the Popescu-Rohrlich nonlocal box for many parties and nonbinary inputs and outputs at each site. Finally, we comment on the effect of preprocessing on measurement data in our generalized setting and show that it becomes problematic outside of the binary setting, in that it allows local hidden variable theories to simulate maximally nonlocal correlations such as those of these generalized Popescu-Rohrlich nonlocal boxes.

  10. Numerical study on the impact of ground heating and ambient wind speed on flow fields in street canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Yang, Lin; Zhang, Li-Jie; Jiang, Yin

    2012-11-01

    The impact of ground heating on flow fields in street canyons under different ambient wind speed conditions was studied based on numerical methods. A series of numerical tests were performed, and three factors including height-to-width (H/W) ratio, ambient wind speed and ground heating intensity were taken into account. Three types of street canyon with H/W ratios of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0, respectively, were used in the simulation and seven speed values ranging from 0.0 to 3.0 m s-1 were set for the ambient wind speed. The ground heating intensity, which was defined as the difference between the ground temperature and air temperature, ranged from 10 to 40 K with an increase of 10 K in the tests. The results showed that under calm conditions, ground heating could induce circulation with a wind speed of around 1.0 m s-1, which is enough to disperse pollutants in a street canyon. It was also found that an ambient wind speed threshold may exist for street canyons with a fixed H/W ratio. When ambient wind speed was lower than the threshold identified in this study, the impact of the thermal effect on the flow field was obvious, and there existed a multi-vortex flow pattern in the street canyon. When the ambient wind speed was higher than the threshold, the circulation pattern was basically determined by dynamic effects. The tests on the impact of heating intensity showed that a higher ground heating intensity could strengthen the vortical flow within the street canyon, which would help improve pollutant diffusion capability in street canyons.

  11. Computer-aided performance monitoring program at Diablo Canyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, T.; Glynn, R. III; Kessler, T.C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the thermal performance monitoring program at Pacific Gas ampersand Electric Company's (PG ampersand E's) Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant. The plant performance monitoring program at Diablo Canyon uses the THERMAC performance monitoring and analysis computer software provided by Expert-EASE Systems. THERMAC is used to collect performance data from the plant process computers, condition that data to adjust for measurement errors and missing data points, evaluate cycle and component-level performance, archive the data for trend analysis and generate performance reports. The current status of the program is that, after a fair amount of open-quotes tuningclose quotes of the basic open-quotes thermal kitclose quotes models provided with the initial THERMAC installation, we have successfully baselined both units to cycle isolation test data from previous reload cycles. Over the course of the past few months, we have accumulated enough data to generate meaningful performance trends and, as a result, have been able to use THERMAC to track a condenser fouling problem that was costing enough megawatts to attract corporate-level attention. Trends from THERMAC clearly related the megawatt loss to a steadily degrading condenser cleanliness factor and verified the subsequent gain in megawatts after the condenser was cleaned. In the future, we expect to rebaseline THERMAC to a beginning of cycle (BOC) data set and to use the program to help track feedwater nozzle fouling

  12. Actinide speciation in the shallow aquifer of Mortandad Canyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.M.; Polzer, W.L.

    1983-01-01

    Treated waste effluent at Los Alamos has been released to the environment in Mortandad Canyon since 1963. A study has been initiated to investigate the relative mobilities of the actinides in the shallow aquifer of Mortandad Canyon. Speciation of radionuclides and their adsorption by sediment are important parameters in the evaluation of those mobilities. Plutonium concentrations and oxidation states were measured in water collected from four test wells (MCO 4, 5, 6, 7.5). A regular decrease in 239 240 Pu concentration was observed with increasing distance from the discharge point. The large difference between the concentrations discharged (30 to 1000 pCi/l for period 1977-1982) and those in the wells (0.02 to 5.4 pCi/l) suggests that progressive loss of plutonium from the water as it moves through the alluvium is probably more important in regulating the concentrations than the variability of concentrations in the discharged effluent. The K/sub D/s for 228 Th were also determined and found to be similar to those for plutonium. The factors regulating the concentration of dissolved plutonium are probably the same as those regulating 228 Th. In contrast the K/sub D/s of 241 Am decrease regularly with distance from the discharge point and are about 100 times lower than those of plutonium and thorium for water in wells farthest from the discharge point

  13. Loophole-free Bell inequality violation using electron spins separated by 1.3 kilometres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensen, B.; Bernien, H.; Dréau, A. E.; Reiserer, A.; Kalb, N.; Blok, M. S.; Ruitenberg, J.; Vermeulen, R. F. L.; Schouten, R. N.; Abellán, C.; Amaya, W.; Pruneri, V.; Mitchell, M. W.; Markham, M.; Twitchen, D. J.; Elkouss, D.; Wehner, S.; Taminiau, T. H.; Hanson, R.

    2015-10-01

    More than 50 years ago, John Bell proved that no theory of nature that obeys locality and realism can reproduce all the predictions of quantum theory: in any local-realist theory, the correlations between outcomes of measurements on distant particles satisfy an inequality that can be violated if the particles are entangled. Numerous Bell inequality tests have been reported; however, all experiments reported so far required additional assumptions to obtain a contradiction with local realism, resulting in `loopholes'. Here we report a Bell experiment that is free of any such additional assumption and thus directly tests the principles underlying Bell's inequality. We use an event-ready scheme that enables the generation of robust entanglement between distant electron spins (estimated state fidelity of 0.92 +/- 0.03). Efficient spin read-out avoids the fair-sampling assumption (detection loophole), while the use of fast random-basis selection and spin read-out combined with a spatial separation of 1.3 kilometres ensure the required locality conditions. We performed 245 trials that tested the CHSH-Bell inequality S memory in the devices. Our data hence imply statistically significant rejection of the local-realist null hypothesis. This conclusion may be further consolidated in future experiments; for instance, reaching a value of P = 0.001 would require approximately 700 trials for an observed S = 2.4. With improvements, our experiment could be used for testing less-conventional theories, and for implementing device-independent quantum-secure communication and randomness certification.

  14. Technical evaluation report TMI action: NUREG-0737 (II.D.1) relief and safety valve testing,. Diablo Canyon Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-275, 50-323)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.K.; Magleby, H.L.; Nalezny, C.L.

    1984-07-01

    Light water reactor operators have experienced a number of occurrences of improper performance of safety and relief valves installed in their primary coolant systems. Because of this, the authors of NUREG-0578 (TMI-2 Lessons Learned Task Status Report and Short-Term Recommendations) and subsequently NUREG-0737 (Clarification of TMI Action Plan Requirements) recommended that programs be developed and completed which would reevaluate the functional performance capabilities of Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) safety, relief, and block valves and which would verify the integrity of the piping systems for normal, transient and accident conditions. This report provides the results of the review of these programs and their results by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and their consultant, EG and G Idaho, Inc. Specifically, this report has examined the response of the Licensee for Diablo Canyon Units 1 and 2, to the requirements of NUREG-0578 and NUREG-0737 and finds that the Licensee has provided an acceptable response, reconfirming that the General Design Criteria 14, 15 and 30 of Appendix A to 10 CRF 50 have been met. 18 refs

  15. Experimental Bell-inequality violation without the postselection loophole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, G.; Vallone, G.; Chiuri, A.; Cabello, A.; Mataloni, P.

    2010-01-01

    We report on an experimental violation of the Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (Bell-CHSH) inequality using energy-time-entangled photons. The experiment is not free of the locality and detection loopholes but is the first violation of the Bell-CHSH inequality using energy-time entangled photons which is free of the postselection loophole described by Aerts et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2872 (1999)].

  16. LES of flow in the street canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuka, Vladimír; Brechler, Josef

    2012-04-01

    Results of computer simulation of flow over a series of street canyons are presented in this paper. The setup is adapted from an experimental study by [4] with two different shapes of buildings. The problem is simulated by an LES model CLMM (Charles University Large Eddy Microscale Model) and results are analysed using proper orthogonal decomposition and spectral analysis. The results in the channel (layout from the experiment) are compared with results with a free top boundary.

  17. Bell automation system on STM32F4 Discovery board

    OpenAIRE

    Božović, Denis

    2017-01-01

    A bell automation system is a device, the aim of which is to maximize the automation of bell ringing and thus release from duty the person in charge of it. The modern way of life and forms of employment generally make it difficult for human bell-ringers to carry out the task as they did for centuries. In this thesis it is explained what can be expected of the bell automation system in the regions of Slovenia, and why it is desirable that it supports certain functionalities. Using as an exampl...

  18. Violating Bell inequalities maximally for two d-dimensional systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jingling; Wu Chunfeng; Oh, C. H.; Kwek, L. C.; Ge Molin

    2006-01-01

    We show the maximal violation of Bell inequalities for two d-dimensional systems by using the method of the Bell operator. The maximal violation corresponds to the maximal eigenvalue of the Bell operator matrix. The eigenvectors corresponding to these eigenvalues are described by asymmetric entangled states. We estimate the maximum value of the eigenvalue for large dimension. A family of elegant entangled states |Ψ> app that violate Bell inequality more strongly than the maximally entangled state but are somewhat close to these eigenvectors is presented. These approximate states can potentially be useful for quantum cryptography as well as many other important fields of quantum information

  19. Ventilation Processes in a Three-Dimensional Street Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosek, Štěpán; Kukačka, Libor; Kellnerová, Radka; Jurčáková, Klára; Jaňour, Zbyněk

    2016-05-01

    The ventilation processes in three different street canyons of variable roof geometry were investigated in a wind tunnel using a ground-level line source. All three street canyons were part of an urban-type array formed by courtyard-type buildings with pitched roofs. A constant roof height was used in the first case, while a variable roof height along the leeward or windward walls was simulated in the two other cases. All street-canyon models were exposed to a neutrally stratified flow with two approaching wind directions, perpendicular and oblique. The complexity of the flow and dispersion within the canyons of variable roof height was demonstrated for both wind directions. The relative pollutant removals and spatially-averaged concentrations within the canyons revealed that the model with constant roof height has higher re-emissions than models with variable roof heights. The nomenclature for the ventilation processes according to quadrant analysis of the pollutant flux was introduced. The venting of polluted air (positive fluctuations of both concentration and velocity) from the canyon increased when the wind direction changed from perpendicular to oblique, irrespective of the studied canyon model. Strong correlations (>0.5) between coherent structures and ventilation processes were found at roof level, irrespective of the canyon model and wind direction. This supports the idea that sweep and ejection events of momentum bring clean air in and detrain the polluted air from the street canyon, respectively.

  20. Aspects of the History of the Nerves: Bell's Theory, the Bell-Magendie Law and Controversy, and Two Forgotten Works by P.W. Lund and D.F. Eschricth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, C. Barker

    2003-01-01

    History of nerves, Bell's Idea, Bell-Magendie law, Bell-Magendie controversy, Charles Bell, Francois Magendie, P.W. Lund, D.F. Eschricht, Herbert Mayo, Johannes Müller, Claude Bernard, spinal nerve roots, cranial nerves, recurrent sensitivity......History of nerves, Bell's Idea, Bell-Magendie law, Bell-Magendie controversy, Charles Bell, Francois Magendie, P.W. Lund, D.F. Eschricht, Herbert Mayo, Johannes Müller, Claude Bernard, spinal nerve roots, cranial nerves, recurrent sensitivity...

  1. Violation of a Bell-like inequality in single-neutron interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Yuji; Loidl, Rudolf; Badurek, Gerald; Baron, Matthias; Rauch, Helmut

    2003-09-04

    Non-local correlations between spatially separated systems have been extensively discussed in the context of the Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen (EPR) paradox and Bell's inequalities. Many proposals and experiments designed to test hidden variable theories and the violation of Bell's inequalities have been reported; usually, these involve correlated photons, although recently an experiment was performed with (9)Be(+) ions. Nevertheless, it is of considerable interest to show that such correlations (arising from quantum mechanical entanglement) are not simply a peculiarity of photons. Here we measure correlations between two degrees of freedom (comprising spatial and spin components) of single neutrons; this removes the need for a source of entangled neutron pairs, which would present a considerable technical challenge. A Bell-like inequality is introduced to clarify the correlations that can arise between observables of otherwise independent degrees of freedom. We demonstrate the violation of this Bell-like inequality: our measured value is 2.051 +/- 0.019, clearly above the value of 2 predicted by classical hidden variable theories.

  2. Violation of multipartite Bell inequalities with classical subsystems via operationally local transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Mark S.; Heaney, Libby; Son, Wonmin

    2010-09-01

    Recently, it was demonstrated by Son , Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.102.110404 102, 110404 (2009), that a separable bipartite continuous-variable quantum system can violate the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality via operationally local transformations. Operationally local transformations are parametrized only by local variables; however, in order to allow violation of the CHSH inequality, a maximally entangled ancilla was necessary. The use of the entangled ancilla in this scheme caused the state under test to become dependent on the measurement choice one uses to calculate the CHSH inequality, thus violating one of the assumptions used in deriving a Bell inequality, namely, the free will or statistical independence assumption. The novelty in this scheme however is that the measurement settings can be external free parameters. In this paper, we generalize these operationally local transformations for multipartite Bell inequalities (with dichotomic observables) and provide necessary and sufficient conditions for violation within this scheme. Namely, a violation of a multipartite Bell inequality in this setting is contingent on whether an ancillary system admits any realistic local hidden variable model (i.e., whether the ancilla violates the given Bell inequality). These results indicate that violation of a Bell inequality performed on a system does not necessarily imply that the system is nonlocal. In fact, the system under test may be completely classical. However, nonlocality must have resided somewhere, this may have been in the environment, the physical variables used to manipulate the system or the detectors themselves provided the measurement settings are external free variables.

  3. The Belle II Silicon Vertex Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedl, M., E-mail: markus.friedl@oeaw.ac.at [HEPHY – Institute of High Energy Physics, Nikolsdorfer Gasse 18, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Ackermann, K. [MPI Munich, Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Aihara, H. [University of Tokyo, Department of Physics, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Aziz, T. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Experimental High Energy Physics Group, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Bergauer, T. [HEPHY – Institute of High Energy Physics, Nikolsdorfer Gasse 18, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Bozek, A. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Division of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31 342 Krakow (Poland); Campbell, A. [DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Dingfelder, J. [University of Bonn, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Drasal, Z. [Charles University, Institute of Particle and Nuclear Physics, Ke Karlovu 3, 121 16 Praha 2 (Czech Republic); Frankenberger, A. [HEPHY – Institute of High Energy Physics, Nikolsdorfer Gasse 18, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Gadow, K. [DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Gfall, I. [HEPHY – Institute of High Energy Physics, Nikolsdorfer Gasse 18, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Haba, J.; Hara, K.; Hara, T. [KEK, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Higuchi, T. [University of Tokyo, Kavli Institute for Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Himori, S. [Tohoku University, Department of Physics, Aoba Aramaki Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Irmler, C. [HEPHY – Institute of High Energy Physics, Nikolsdorfer Gasse 18, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Ishikawa, A. [Tohoku University, Department of Physics, Aoba Aramaki Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Joo, C. [Seoul National University, High Energy Physics Laboratory, 25-107 Shinlim-dong, Kwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2013-12-21

    The KEKB machine and the Belle experiment in Tsukuba (Japan) are now undergoing an upgrade, leading to an ultimate luminosity of 8×10{sup 35}cm{sup −2}s{sup −1} in order to measure rare decays in the B system with high statistics. The previous vertex detector cannot cope with this 40-fold increase of luminosity and thus needs to be replaced. Belle II will be equipped with a two-layer Pixel Detector surrounding the beam pipe, and four layers of double-sided silicon strip sensors at higher radii than the old detector. The Silicon Vertex Detector (SVD) will have a total sensitive area of 1.13m{sup 2} and 223,744 channels—twice as many as its predecessor. All silicon sensors will be made from 150 mm wafers in order to maximize their size and thus to reduce the relative contribution of the support structure. The forward part has slanted sensors of trapezoidal shape to improve the measurement precision and to minimize the amount of material as seen by particles from the vertex. Fast-shaping front-end amplifiers will be used in conjunction with an online hit time reconstruction algorithm in order to reduce the occupancy to the level of a few percent at most. A novel “Origami” chip-on-sensor scheme is used to minimize both the distance between strips and amplifier (thus reducing the electronic noise) as well as the overall material budget. This report gives an overview on the status of the Belle II SVD and its components, including sensors, front-end detector ladders, mechanics, cooling and the readout electronics.

  4. The Belle II Silicon Vertex Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedl, M.; Ackermann, K.; Aihara, H.; Aziz, T.; Bergauer, T.; Bozek, A.; Campbell, A.; Dingfelder, J.; Drasal, Z.; Frankenberger, A.; Gadow, K.; Gfall, I.; Haba, J.; Hara, K.; Hara, T.; Higuchi, T.; Himori, S.; Irmler, C.; Ishikawa, A.; Joo, C.

    2013-01-01

    The KEKB machine and the Belle experiment in Tsukuba (Japan) are now undergoing an upgrade, leading to an ultimate luminosity of 8×10 35 cm −2 s −1 in order to measure rare decays in the B system with high statistics. The previous vertex detector cannot cope with this 40-fold increase of luminosity and thus needs to be replaced. Belle II will be equipped with a two-layer Pixel Detector surrounding the beam pipe, and four layers of double-sided silicon strip sensors at higher radii than the old detector. The Silicon Vertex Detector (SVD) will have a total sensitive area of 1.13m 2 and 223,744 channels—twice as many as its predecessor. All silicon sensors will be made from 150 mm wafers in order to maximize their size and thus to reduce the relative contribution of the support structure. The forward part has slanted sensors of trapezoidal shape to improve the measurement precision and to minimize the amount of material as seen by particles from the vertex. Fast-shaping front-end amplifiers will be used in conjunction with an online hit time reconstruction algorithm in order to reduce the occupancy to the level of a few percent at most. A novel “Origami” chip-on-sensor scheme is used to minimize both the distance between strips and amplifier (thus reducing the electronic noise) as well as the overall material budget. This report gives an overview on the status of the Belle II SVD and its components, including sensors, front-end detector ladders, mechanics, cooling and the readout electronics

  5. The silicon vertex detector of the Belle II experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamczyk, K. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow 31-342 (Poland); Aihara, H. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Angelini, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Aziz, T.; Babu, V. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Bacher, S. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow 31-342 (Poland); Bahinipati, S. [Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar, Satya Nagar (India); Barberio, E.; Baroncelli, T. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Basith, A.K. [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Batignani, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bauer, A. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Behera, P.K. [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Bergauer, T. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Bettarini, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bhuyan, B. [Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Assam 781039 (India); Bilka, T. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, 121 16 Prague (Czech Republic); Bosi, F. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bosisio, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); INFN Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bozek, A. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow 31-342 (Poland); and others

    2016-07-11

    The silicon vertex detector of the Belle II experiment, structured in a lantern shape, consists of four layers of ladders, fabricated from two to five silicon sensors. The APV25 readout ASIC chips are mounted on one side of the ladder to minimize the signal path for reducing the capacitive noise; signals from the sensor backside are transmitted to the chip by bent flexible fan-out circuits. The ladder is assembled using several dedicated jigs. Sensor motion on the jig is minimized by vacuum chucking. The gluing procedure provides such a rigid foundation that later leads to the desired wire bonding performance. The full ladder with electrically functional sensors is consistently completed with a fully developed assembly procedure, and its sensor offsets from the design values are found to be less than 200 μm. The potential functionality of the ladder is also demonstrated by the radioactive source test.

  6. Facial nerve problems and Bell's palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Sala, DV; Venter, C; Valenas, O

    2015-01-01

    Bell's palsy is paralysis or weakness of muscle at the hemifacial level, a form of temporary facial paralysis, probable a virus infection or trauma, to one or two facial nerves. Damage to the facial nerve innervating the muscles on one side of the face result in a flabby appearance, fell the respective hemiface. Nerve damage can also affect the sense of taste and salivary and lacrimal secretion. This condition begins suddenly, often overnight, and usually gets better on its own within a few w...

  7. The Bell Curve: An Essay Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C. Culbertson

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available Occasionally a book out of academia will break from scholarly circles and enter into the mainstream market. On even rarer occasions, it will gain considerable notoriety before its initial publication. Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray's The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life is such a book. Currently, it has entered the New York Times best- sellers list and appeared in most academic and mainstream periodical book reviews. Direct publicity for the book has also been strong. Although Herrnstein died September 24 of the past year, Murray has appeared on many popular television and radio talk shows.

  8. 77 FR 30232 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ...-0530; Directorate Identifier 2011-SW-075-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Bell Helicopter...

  9. 77 FR 68055 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Bell Helicopter Textron (BHT) Model 412, 412EP, and 412CF helicopters. This AD requires a repetitive inspection of the...

  10. A remark on the use of Bell inequalities

    OpenAIRE

    Geurdes, J. F

    2009-01-01

    In the present paper it is demonstrated that Bell's expression for local hidden variable correlation allows one to derive the quantum correlation. This raises questions about the use of Bell inequalities in experiments. In the paper a CHSH violating example is given based solely on the locality arguments of the model.

  11. Near-Optimal and Explicit Bell Inequality Violations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buhrman, H.; Regev, O.; Scarpa, G.; de Wolf, R.

    2011-01-01

    Bell inequality violations correspond to behavior of entangled quantum systems that cannot be simulated classically. We give two new two-player games with Bell inequality violations that are stronger, fully explicit, and arguably simpler than earlier work.The first game is based on the Hidden

  12. The Bells' Capture note TH-3054-CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartouni, Ed P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-01-29

    This document revisits the paper by M. Bell and J. S. Bell “Capture of Cooling Electrons by Cool Protons” TH-3054-CERN (March 30, 1981). I expand the treatment to include e+e- capture.

  13. Eugenics Past and Present: Remembering Buck v. Bell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berson, Michael J.; Cruz, Barbara

    2001-01-01

    Provides background information about the eugenics movement. Focuses on eugenics in the United States detailing the case, Buck v. Bell, and eugenics in Germany. Explores the present eugenic movement, focusing on "The Bell Curve," China's one child policy, and the use of eugenic sterilizations in the United States and Canada. Includes…

  14. Quantification of the gene expression of bell peppers ( Capsicum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fruits can be divided into two groups according to the regulatory mechanisms underlying their ripening process. The two ripening processes are climacteric and non-climacteric process; bell peppers are part of the non-climacteric plant groups. Bell peppers are members of the Solanacaea family. The Solanacaea family is ...

  15. Degenerate r-Stirling Numbers and r-Bell Polynomials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T.; Yao, Y.; Kim, D. S.; Jang, G.-W.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to exploit umbral calculus in order to derive some properties, recurrence relations, and identities related to the degenerate r-Stirling numbers of the second kind and the degenerate r-Bell polynomials. Especially, we will express the degenerate r-Bell polynomials as linear combinations of many well-known families of special polynomials.

  16. Electron entanglement near a superconductor and Bell inequalities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the case of energy filters, Bell-inequality checks constitute a definite probe of entanglement. We formulate Bell-type inequalities in terms of current–current cross-correlations associated with contacts with varying magnetization orientations. We find maximal violation (as in photons) when a superconductor is the particle ...

  17. Reconciling local realism and quantum physics: a critique to Bell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claudio Garola.

    1994-01-01

    A Metatheoretical Generalized Principle (MGP) is stated that formalizes an operational non-standard way of looking at the laws of physics. In Quantum Physics MGP leads to the invalidation of Bell's Inequality without renouncing to a minimal form of realism or to locality. Therefore the violation of Bell's Inequality predicted by Quantum Physics does not appear paradoxial if MGP is accepted

  18. John Stewart Bell and twentieth century physics vision and integrity

    CERN Document Server

    Whitaker, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    John Stewart Bell (1928-1990) was one of the most important figures in twentieth-century physics, famous for his work on the fundamental aspects of the century's most important theory, quantum mechanics. While the debate over quantum theory between the supremely famous physicists, Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr, appeared to have become sterile in the 1930s, Bell was able to revive it and to make crucial advances - Bell's Theorem or Bell's Inequalities. He was able to demonstrate a contradiction between quantum theory and essential elements of pre-quantum theory - locality and causality. The book gives a non-mathematical account of Bell's relatively impoverished upbringing in Belfast and his education. It describes his major contributions to quantum theory, but also his important work in the physics of accelerators, and nuclear and elementary particle physics.

  19. 78 FR 7810 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group... Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) makes recommendations to the Secretary of the Interior concerning..., the AMWG, a technical work group (TWG), a Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center, and independent...

  20. 78 FR 21415 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group... Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) makes recommendations to the Secretary of the Interior concerning... Federal advisory committee, the AMWG, a technical work group, a Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research...

  1. 75 FR 34476 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group... Management Work Group. The purpose of the Adaptive Management Work Group is to advise and to provide... of the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group is in the public interest in connection with...

  2. 76 FR 24516 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group... Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) makes recommendations to the Secretary of the Interior concerning..., the AMWG, a technical work group (TWG), a Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center, and independent...

  3. Modelling the air flow in symmetric and asymmetric street canyons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santiago, J.L.; Martin, F. [Research Center for Energy, Environment and Technology (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain). Fossil Fuels Dept., Numerical Simulation and Modelling Program

    2004-07-01

    In recent years a large amount of research has been conducted on urban scale and street canyon. Control of air quality inside cities is important for human health. To achieve this objective, street canyon modelling plays a significant role. Pollutant dispersion inside canyons are determined by wind flow around this complex geometry. Experimental investigations have been made by means of field measurements such as Vachon, G. et al. or wind tunnel experiences as Meroney, R.N. et al. or Kastner-Klein, P. and E.J. Plate. In many of these researches, they have used CFD models in several configurations, for instance Assimakopoulos, V.D. et al. or Sini, J.-F. et al. These models are based on a numerical resolution of Navier-Stokes equations with a turbulence closure. In this study, the aim is contribute to the understanding of air circulation inside street canyons. In order to achieve this purpose, several configurations of canyons are investigated. Two-dimensional sequences of real-scale street canyons (order to obstacles height is meters) with different features (symmetric canyons and asymmetric canyons forming step-up and step-down notch configurations) are simulated. These general configurations are modified to investigate some parameters such as aspect ratio, W/H, where W is the width of street and H is the height of buildings. Flows with high Reynolds numbers are modelling. FLUENT CFD software is used. (orig.)

  4. Implications of tree planting on pollutant dispersion in street canyons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gromke, C.B.; Ruck, B.

    2009-01-01

    Traffic pollutant dispersion processes inside urban street canyons with avenue-like tree planting have been studied in wind tunnel experiments. Tree planting of different crown porosities and their effects on the pollutant concentrations at the canyon walls have been investigated for wind

  5. Geology and geomorphology of the Lower Deschutes River Canyon, Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin A. Beebee; Jim E. O' Connor; Gordon E. Grant

    2002-01-01

    This field guide is designed for geologists floating the approximately 80 kilometers (50 miles) of the Deschutes River from the Pelton-Round Butte Dam Complex west of Madras to Maupin, Oregon. The first section of the guide is a geologic timeline tracing the formation of the units that compose the canyon walls and the incision of the present canyon. The second section...

  6. Modeling the Effect of Wider Canyons on Urban Heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwan Ahmed Memon

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The k-? turbulence model is adopted in this study to simulate the impact of street canyon AR (Aspect Ratios on heating within street canyon. The two-dimensional model was validated for RANS (Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes and energy transport equations. The validation process confirms that the results of the model for airtemperature and wind speed could be trusted. The application of the said model is carried out to ideal street canyons of ARs (ratio of building-height-to-street-width from 0.4 to 2 with the same boundary conditions. Notably, street canyon aspect ratio was calculated by varying the street width while keeping the building height constant. Results show that the weighted-average-air-temperature within AR 0.4 was around 0.8% (i.e. 2.4K higher than that within AR 2.0. Conversely, there was strong correlation (i.e., R2>0.9 between air temperature within the street canyon and street canyon AR. Results demonstrate stronger influence of vertical velocity on heating within street canyon. Evidently, increased vertical velocity decreased the temperatures. Conversely, temperatures were higher along the leeward side of the canyon in lower ARs.

  7. A loophole-free Bell's inequality experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiat, Paul G.; Steinberg, Aephraim M.; Chiao, Raymond Y.; Eberhard, Philippe H.

    1994-01-01

    The proof of Nature's nonlocality through Bell-type experiments is a topic of longstanding interest. Nevertheless, no experiments performed thus far have avoided the so-called 'detection loophole,' arising from low detector efficiencies and angular-correlation difficulties. In fact, most, if not all, of the systems employed to date can never close this loophole, even with perfect detectors. In addition, another loophole involving the non-rapid, non-random switching of various parameter settings exists in all past experiments. We discuss a proposal for a potentially loophole-free Bell's inequality experiment. The source of the EPR-correlated pairs consists of two simultaneously-pumped type-2 phase-matched nonlinear crystals and a polarizing beam splitter. The feasibility of such a scheme with current detector technology seems high, and will be discussed. We also present a single-crystal version, motivated by other work presented at this conference. In a separate experiment, we have measured the absolute detection efficiency and time response of four single-photon detectors. The highest observed efficiencies were 70.7 plus or minus 1.9 percent (at 633 nm, with a device from Rockwell International) and 76.4 plus or minus 2.3 percent (at 702 nm, with an EG&G counting module). Possible efficiencies as high as 90 percent were implied. The EG&G devices displayed sub-nanosecond time resolution.

  8. The Trieste Lecture of John Stewart Bell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassi, Angelo; Ghirardi, GianCarlo

    2007-01-01

    Delivered at Trieste on the occasion of the 25th Anniversary of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics, 2 November 1989. The video of this lecture is available here. Please see the PDF for the transcript of the lecture. General remarks by Angelo Bassi and GianCarlo Ghirardi During the autumn of 1989 the International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, celebrated the 25th anniversary of its creation. Among the many prestigious speakers, who delivered extremely interesting lectures on that occasion, was the late John Stewart Bell. All lectures have been recorded on tape. We succeeded in getting a copy of John's lecture. In the lecture, many of the arguments that John had lucidly stressed in his writings appear once more, but there are also extremely interesting new remarks which, to our knowledge, have not been presented elsewhere. In particular he decided, as pointed out by the very choice of the title of his lecture, to call attention to the fact that the theory presents two types of difficulties, which Dirac classified as first and second class. The former are those connected with the so-called macro-objectification problem, the latter with the divergences characterizing relativistic quantum field theories. Bell describes the precise position of Dirac on these problems and he stresses appropriately how, contrary to Dirac's hopes, the steps which have led to a partial overcoming of the second class difficulties have not helped in any way whatsoever to overcome those of the first class. He then proceeds to analyse the origin and development of the Dynamical Reduction Program and draws attention to the problems that still affect it, in particular that of a consistent relativistic generalization. When the two meetings Are there quantum jumps? and On the present status of Quantum Mechanics were organized in Trieste and Losinj (Croatia), on 5-10 September 2005, it occurred to us that this lecture, which has never been published, might represent an

  9. Conditions Database for the Belle II Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, L.; Elsethagen, T.; Schram, M.; Stephan, E.

    2017-10-01

    The Belle II experiment at KEK is preparing for first collisions in 2017. Processing the large amounts of data that will be produced will require conditions data to be readily available to systems worldwide in a fast and efficient manner that is straightforward for both the user and maintainer. The Belle II conditions database was designed with a straightforward goal: make it as easily maintainable as possible. To this end, HEP-specific software tools were avoided as much as possible and industry standard tools used instead. HTTP REST services were selected as the application interface, which provide a high-level interface to users through the use of standard libraries such as curl. The application interface itself is written in Java and runs in an embedded Payara-Micro Java EE application server. Scalability at the application interface is provided by use of Hazelcast, an open source In-Memory Data Grid (IMDG) providing distributed in-memory computing and supporting the creation and clustering of new application interface instances as demand increases. The IMDG provides fast and efficient access to conditions data via in-memory caching.

  10. The Trieste Lecture of John Stewart Bell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassi, Angelo; Ghirardi, GianCarlo

    2007-03-23

    Delivered at Trieste on the occasion of the 25th Anniversary of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics, 2 November 1989. The video of this lecture is available here. Please see the PDF for the transcript of the lecture. General remarks by Angelo Bassi and GianCarlo Ghirardi During the autumn of 1989 the International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, celebrated the 25th anniversary of its creation. Among the many prestigious speakers, who delivered extremely interesting lectures on that occasion, was the late John Stewart Bell. All lectures have been recorded on tape. We succeeded in getting a copy of John's lecture. In the lecture, many of the arguments that John had lucidly stressed in his writings appear once more, but there are also extremely interesting new remarks which, to our knowledge, have not been presented elsewhere. In particular he decided, as pointed out by the very choice of the title of his lecture, to call attention to the fact that the theory presents two types of difficulties, which Dirac classified as first and second class. The former are those connected with the so-called macro-objectification problem, the latter with the divergences characterizing relativistic quantum field theories. Bell describes the precise position of Dirac on these problems and he stresses appropriately how, contrary to Dirac's hopes, the steps which have led to a partial overcoming of the second class difficulties have not helped in any way whatsoever to overcome those of the first class. He then proceeds to analyse the origin and development of the Dynamical Reduction Program and draws attention to the problems that still affect it, in particular that of a consistent relativistic generalization. When the two meetings Are there quantum jumps? and On the present status of Quantum Mechanics were organized in Trieste and Losinj (Croatia), on 5-10 September 2005, it occurred to us that this lecture, which has never been published, might represent

  11. Bell-type quantum field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duerr, Detlef; Goldstein, Sheldon; Tumulka, Roderich; Zanghi, Nino

    2005-01-01

    In his paper (1986 Beables for quantum field theory Phys. Rep. 137 49-54) John S Bell proposed how to associate particle trajectories with a lattice quantum field theory, yielding what can be regarded as a vertical bar Ψ vertical bar 2 -distributed Markov process on the appropriate configuration space. A similar process can be defined in the continuum, for more or less any regularized quantum field theory; we call such processes Bell-type quantum field theories. We describe methods for explicitly constructing these processes. These concern, in addition to the definition of the Markov processes, the efficient calculation of jump rates, how to obtain the process from the processes corresponding to the free and interaction Hamiltonian alone, and how to obtain the free process from the free Hamiltonian or, alternatively, from the one-particle process by a construction analogous to 'second quantization'. As an example, we consider the process for a second quantized Dirac field in an external electromagnetic field. (topical review)

  12. On my association with Bell Labs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondhi, M. Mohan

    2004-05-01

    I joined the Acoustics Research department at Bell Labs in 1962, just eight days before AT&T launched the first communications satellite, Telstar. During the 39 years between 1962 and my retirement in 2001, I worked on several problems related in one way or another to the processing of speech signals. Schroeder and Flanagan are presenting talks from a broad perspective in this session, so I will confine this talk to just my own contributions and collaborations for some of the topics on which I worked, e.g., echo cancellation, inverse problems in acoustics, speech analysis, synthesis, and recognition. I will tell you about one of these contributions that fortunately turned out to yield considerable profits to AT&T. To give you a flavor of the spirit of free inquiry at Bell Labs during that period, I will tell you about the contribution that I am most proud of (which was supported for several years even though it had no monetary value). And I will also mention the contribution that is most often cited of all my papers (which was in collaboration with two mathematicians, and had nothing at all to do with acoustics).

  13. Classical probability model for Bell inequality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2014-01-01

    We show that by taking into account randomness of realization of experimental contexts it is possible to construct common Kolmogorov space for data collected for these contexts, although they can be incompatible. We call such a construction 'Kolmogorovization' of contextuality. This construction of common probability space is applied to Bell's inequality. It is well known that its violation is a consequence of collecting statistical data in a few incompatible experiments. In experiments performed in quantum optics contexts are determined by selections of pairs of angles (θ i ,θ ' j ) fixing orientations of polarization beam splitters. Opposite to the common opinion, we show that statistical data corresponding to measurements of polarizations of photons in the singlet state, e.g., in the form of correlations, can be described in the classical probabilistic framework. The crucial point is that in constructing the common probability space one has to take into account not only randomness of the source (as Bell did), but also randomness of context-realizations (in particular, realizations of pairs of angles (θ i , θ ' j )). One may (but need not) say that randomness of 'free will' has to be accounted for.

  14. Perspective view over the Grand Canyon, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This simulated true color perspective view over the Grand Canyon was created from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data acquired on May 12, 2000. The Grand Canyon Village is in the lower foreground; the Bright Angel Trail crosses the Tonto Platform, before dropping down to the Colorado Village and then to the Phantom Ranch (green area across the river). Bright Angel Canyon and the North Rim dominate the view. At the top center of the image the dark blue area with light blue haze is an active forest fire. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate. Size: 5 km in foreground to 40 km Location: 36.3 degrees north latitude, 112 degrees west longitude Orientation: North-northeast at top Original Data Resolution: ASTER 15 meters Dates Acquired: May 12, 2000

  15. Big Canyon Creek Ecological Restoration Strategy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Lynn; Richardson, Shannon

    2007-10-01

    He-yey, Nez Perce for steelhead or rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), are a culturally and ecologically significant resource within the Big Canyon Creek watershed; they are also part of the federally listed Snake River Basin Steelhead DPS. The majority of the Big Canyon Creek drainage is considered critical habitat for that DPS as well as for the federally listed Snake River fall chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) ESU. The Nez Perce Soil and Water Conservation District (District) and the Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resources Management-Watershed (Tribe), in an effort to support the continued existence of these and other aquatic species, have developed this document to direct funding toward priority restoration projects in priority areas for the Big Canyon Creek watershed. In order to achieve this, the District and the Tribe: (1) Developed a working group and technical team composed of managers from a variety of stakeholders within the basin; (2) Established geographically distinct sub-watershed areas called Assessment Units (AUs); (3) Created a prioritization framework for the AUs and prioritized them; and (4) Developed treatment strategies to utilize within the prioritized AUs. Assessment Units were delineated by significant shifts in sampled juvenile O. mykiss (steelhead/rainbow trout) densities, which were found to fall at fish passage barriers. The prioritization framework considered four aspects critical to determining the relative importance of performing restoration in a certain area: density of critical fish species, physical condition of the AU, water quantity, and water quality. It was established, through vigorous data analysis within these four areas, that the geographic priority areas for restoration within the Big Canyon Creek watershed are Big Canyon Creek from stream km 45.5 to the headwaters, Little Canyon from km 15 to 30, the mainstem corridors of Big Canyon (mouth to 7km) and Little Canyon (mouth to 7km). The District and the Tribe

  16. The Black Canyon of the Gunnison: Today and Yesterday

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Wallace R.

    1965-01-01

    Since the early visit of Captain John William Gunnison in the middle of the last century, the Black Canyon of the Gunnison has stirred mixed apprehension and wonder in the hearts of its viewers. It ranks high among the more awesome gorges of North America. Many great western canyons are as well remembered for their brightly colored walls as for their airy depths. Not so the Black Canyon. Though it is assuredly not black, the dark-gray tones of its walls and the hazy shadows of its gloomy depths join together to make its name well deserved. Its name conveys an impression, not a picture. After the first emotional impact of the canyon, the same questions come to the minds of most reflective viewers and in about the following order: How deep is the Black Canyon, how wide, how does it compare with other canyons, what are the rocks, how did it form, and how long did it take? Several western canyons exceed the Black Canyon in overall size. Some are longer; some are deeper; some are narrower; and a few have walls as steep. But no other canyon in North American combines the depth, narrowness, sheerness, and somber countenance of the Black Canyon. In many places the Black Canyon is as deep as it is wide. Between The Narrows and Chasm View in the Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Monument (fig. 15) it is much deeper than wide. Average depth in the monument is about 2,000 feet, ranging from a maximum of about 2,700 feet, north of Warner Point (which also is the greatest depth anywhere in the canyon), to a minimum of about 1,750 feet at The Narrows. The stretch of canyon between Pulpit Rock and Chasm View, including The Narrows, though the shallowest in the monument, is also the narrowest, has some of the steepest walls, and is, therefore, among the most impressive segments of the canyon (fig. 3). Profiles of several well-known western canyons are shown in figure 1. Deepest of these by far is Hells Canyon of the Snake, on the Idaho-Oregon border. Clearly, it dwarfs the

  17. Bell's Palsy in Children (BellPIC): protocol for a multicentre, placebo-controlled randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babl, Franz E; Mackay, Mark T; Borland, Meredith L; Herd, David W; Kochar, Amit; Hort, Jason; Rao, Arjun; Cheek, John A; Furyk, Jeremy; Barrow, Lisa; George, Shane; Zhang, Michael; Gardiner, Kaya; Lee, Katherine J; Davidson, Andrew; Berkowitz, Robert; Sullivan, Frank; Porrello, Emily; Dalziel, Kim Marie; Anderson, Vicki; Oakley, Ed; Hopper, Sandy; Williams, Fiona; Wilson, Catherine; Williams, Amanda; Dalziel, Stuart R

    2017-02-13

    Bell's palsy or acute idiopathic lower motor neurone facial paralysis is characterized by sudden onset paralysis or weakness of the muscles to one side of the face controlled by the facial nerve. While there is high level evidence in adults demonstrating an improvement in the rate of complete recovery of facial nerve function when treated with steroids compared with placebo, similar high level studies on the use of steroids in Bell's palsy in children are not available. The aim of this study is to assess the utility of steroids in Bell's palsy in children in a randomised placebo-controlled trial. We are conducting a randomised, triple-blinded, placebo controlled trial of the use of prednisolone to improve recovery from Bell's palsy at 1 month. Study sites are 10 hospitals within the Australian and New Zealand PREDICT (Paediatric Research in Emergency Departments International Collaborative) research network. 540 participants will be enrolled. To be eligible patients need to be aged 6 months to Bell's palsy to one of the participating hospital emergency departments. Patients will be excluded in case of current use of or contraindications to steroids or if there is an alternative diagnosis. Participants will receive either prednisolone 1 mg/kg/day to a maximum of 50 mg/day or taste matched placebo for 10 days. The primary outcome is complete recovery by House-Brackmann scale at 1 month. Secondary outcomes include assessment of recovery using the Sunnybrook scale, the emotional and functional wellbeing of the participants using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory and Child Health Utility 9D Scale, pain using Faces Pain Scale Revised or visual analogue scales, synkinesis using a synkinesis assessment questionnaire and health utilisation costs at 1, 3 and 6 months. Participants will be tracked to 12 months if not recovered earlier. Data analysis will be by intention to treat with primary outcome presented as differences in proportions and an odds ratio

  18. Local commutativity versus Bell inequality violation for entangled states and versus non-violation for separable states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seevinck, Michael; Uffink, Jos

    2007-01-01

    By introducing a quantitative 'degree of commutativity' in terms of the angle between spin observables we present two tight quantitative trade-off relations in the case of two qubits. First, for entangled states, between the degree of commutativity of local observables and the maximal amount of violation of the Bell inequality: if both local angles increase from zero to π/2 (i.e., the degree of local commutativity decreases), the maximum violation of the Bell inequality increases. Secondly, a converse trade-off relation holds for separable states: if both local angles approach π/2 the maximal value obtainable for the correlations in the Bell inequality decreases and thus the non-violation increases. As expected, the extremes of these relations are found in the case of anticommuting local observables where, respectively, the bounds of 2√(2) and √(2) hold for the expectation value of the Bell operator. The trade-off relations show that noncommmutativity gives ''a more than classical result'' for entangled states, whereas ''a less than classical result'' is obtained for separable states. The experimental relevance of the trade-off relation for separable states is that it provides an experimental test for two qubit entanglement. Its advantages are twofold: in comparison to violations of Bell inequalities it is a stronger criterion and in comparison to entanglement witnesses it needs to make less strong assumptions about the observables implemented in the experiment

  19. Dispersion and photochemical evolution of reactive pollutants in street canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Kyung-Hwan; Baik, Jong-Jin; Lee, Kwang-Yeon

    2013-05-01

    Dispersion and photochemical evolution of reactive pollutants in street canyons with canyon aspect ratios of 1 and 2 are investigated using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model coupled with the carbon bond mechanism IV (CBM-IV). Photochemical ages of NOx and VOC are expressed as a function of the NO2-to-NOx and toluene-to-xylene ratios, respectively. These are found to be useful for analyzing the O3 and OH oxidation processes in the street canyons. The OH oxidation process (O3 oxidation process) is more pronounced in the upper (lower) region of the street canyon with a canyon aspect ratio of 2, which is characterized by more (less) aged air. In the upper region of the street canyon, O3 is chemically produced as well as transported downward across the roof level, whereas O3 is chemically reduced in the lower region of the street canyon. The O3 chemical production is generally favorable when the normalized photochemical ages of NOx and VOC are larger than 0.55 and 0.28, respectively. The sensitivities of O3 chemical characteristics to NOx and VOC emission rates, photolysis rate, and ambient wind speed are examined for the lower and upper regions of the street canyon with a canyon aspect ratio of 2. The O3 concentration and the O3 chemical production rate divided by the O3 concentration increase as the NOx emission rate decreases and the VOC emission rate and photolysis rate increase. The O3 concentration is less sensitive to the ambient wind speed than to other factors considered. The relative importance of the OH oxidation process compared to the O3 oxidation process increases with increasing NOx emission rate and photolysis rate and decreasing VOC emission rate. In this study, both O3 and OH oxidation processes are found to be important in street-canyon scale chemistry. The methodology of estimating the photochemical ages can potentially be adopted to neighborhood scale chemistry.

  20. Decontamination of Savannah River Plant H-Area hot-canyon crane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.N.; Sims, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    Decontamination techniques applicable to the remotely operated bridge cranes in canyon buildings at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) were identified and were evaluated in laboratory-scale tests. High pressure Freon blasting was found to be the most attractive process available for this application. Strippable coatings were selected as an alternative technique in selected applications. The ability of high pressure Freon blasting plus two strippable coatings (Quadcoat 100 and Alara 1146) to remove the type of contamination expected on SRP cranes was demonstrated in laboratory-scale tests. Quadrex HPS was given a contract to decontaminate the H-Area hot canyon crane. Decontamination operations were successfully carried out within the specified time-frame window. The radiation level goals specified by SRP were met and decontamination was accomplished with 85% less personnel exposure than estimated by SRP before the job started. This reduction is attributed to the increased efficiency of the new decontamination techniques used. 6 refs., 1 tab

  1. Valor prognóstico de dados clínicos em paralisia de Bell The value of prognostic clinical data in Bell's palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane A. Kasse

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o advento dos testes eletrofisiológicos, a avaliação clínica parece ter perdido interesse na paralisia de Bell. A eletroneuronografia (ENoG associada ao estadiamento clínico da doença é o método mais freqüentemente utilizado para mensurar o prognóstico da paralisia de Bell. Entretanto, a ENoG constitui-se em um teste eletrofisiológico ainda não universalmente disponível, especialmente nos serviços de emergência. OBJETIVO: Estudar a medida do prognóstico da paralisia de Bell com base nos dados clínicos e no teste de estimulação elétrica mínima, teste de Hilger, permitindo assim uma previsão de prognóstico segura e factível na maioria dos serviços. FORMA DE ESTUDO: coorte historica. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Estudo coorte retrospectivo, analisando 1521 casos de paralisia de Bell, correlacionando-se os dados clínicos sexo, idade, lado da paralisia, modo de instalação, sintomas prévios, sintomas associados e os resultados do teste de estimulação elétrica mínima (Hilger, com a evolução da paralisia após 6 meses. RESULTADO: O estudo desses dados indicou que pacientes acima de 60 anos apresentaram prognóstico pior em comparação com pacientes com idade abaixo de 30 anos; o modo de instalação progressiva, a ausência de sintomas prévios, a presença de vertigem concomitante à paralisia e resposta acima de 3,5 mm no teste de Hilger estiveram relacionados com mau prognóstico. Por outro lado, a ausência de sintomas concomitantes, a diminuição do lacrimejamento e o início súbito foram relacionados com bom prognóstico. CONCLUSÃO: A análise de fatores clínicos, associada ao teste de Hilger, pode indicar o prognóstico da paralisia facial com reduzida margem de erro, sendo uma alternativa bastante interessante especialmente quando não há disponibilidade da ENoG.Electroneurography (ENoG and clinical staging are currently the methods of choice to indicate prognosis in Bell's palsy, although ENoG is an

  2. Multiparty Quantum Direct Secret Sharing of Classical Information with Bell States and Bell Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yun; Li, Yongming; Wang, Wenhua

    2018-02-01

    This paper proposed a new and efficient multiparty quantum direct secret sharing (QDSS) by using swapping quantum entanglement of Bell states. In the proposed scheme, the quantum correlation between the possible measurement results of the members (except dealer) and the original local unitary operation encoded by the dealer was presented. All agents only need to perform Bell measurements to share dealer's secret by recovering dealer's operation without performing any unitary operation. Our scheme has several advantages. The dealer is not required to retain any photons, and can further share a predetermined key instead of a random key to the agents. It has high capacity as two bits of secret messages can be transmitted by an EPR pair and the intrinsic efficiency approaches 100%, because no classical bit needs to be transmitted except those for detection. Without inserting any checking sets for detecting the eavesdropping, the scheme can resist not only the existing attacks, but also the cheating attack from the dishonest agent.

  3. Bell's palsy before Bell: Evert Jan Thomassen à Thuessink and idiopathic peripheral facial paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Graaf, R C; IJpma, F F A; Nicolai, J-P A; Werker, P M N

    2009-11-01

    Bell's palsy is the eponym for idiopathic peripheral facial paralysis. It is named after Sir Charles Bell (1774-1842), who, in the first half of the nineteenth century, discovered the function of the facial nerve and attracted the attention of the medical world to facial paralysis. Our knowledge of this condition before Bell's landmark publications is very limited and is based on just a few documents. In 1804 and 1805, Evert Jan Thomassen à Thuessink (1762-1832) published what appears to be the first known extensive study on idiopathic peripheral facial paralysis. His description of this condition was quite accurate. He located several other early descriptions and concluded from this literature that, previously, the condition had usually been confused with other afflictions (such as 'spasmus cynicus', central facial paralysis and trigeminal neuralgia). According to Thomassen à Thuessink, idiopathic peripheral facial paralysis and trigeminal neuralgia were related, being different expressions of the same condition. Thomassen à Thuessink believed that idiopathic peripheral facial paralysis was caused by 'rheumatism' or exposure to cold. Many aetiological theories have since been proposed. Despite this, the cold hypothesis persists even today.

  4. A complete set of multidimensional Bell inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnault, François

    2012-01-01

    We give a multidimensional generalization of the complete set of Bell-correlation inequalities given by Werner and Wolf (2001 Phys. Rev. A 64 032112) and by Zukowski and Brukner (2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 210401), for the two-dimensional case. Our construction applies to the n-party, two-observable case, where each observable is d-valued. The d d n inequalities obtained involve homogeneous polynomials. They define the facets of a polytope in a complex vector space of dimension d n . We detail the inequalities obtained in the case d = 3 and, from them, we recover known inequalities. We finally explain how the violations of our inequalities by quantum mechanics can be computed and could be observed, when using unitary observables. (paper)

  5. Calibration robust entanglement detection beyond Bell inequalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moroder, Tobias [Institut fuer Quantenoptik und Quanteninformation, Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Technikerstrasse 21A, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Gittsovich, Oleg [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, N2L 3G1 Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    In its vast majority entanglement verification is examined either in the complete characterized or totally device independent scenario. The assumptions imposed by these extreme cases are often either too weak or strong for real experiments. Here we investigate this detection task for the intermediate regime where partial knowledge of the measured observables is known, considering cases like orthogonal, sharp or only dimension bounded measurements. We show that for all these assumptions it is not necessary to violate a corresponding Bell inequality in order to detect entanglement. We derive strong detection criteria that can be directly evaluated for experimental data and which are robust against large classes of calibration errors. The conditions are even capable of detecting bound entanglement under the sole assumption of dimension bounded measurements.

  6. Bell trajectories for revealing quantum control mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, Eric; Rabitz, Herschel

    2003-01-01

    The dynamics induced while controlling quantum systems by optimally shaped laser pulses have often been difficult to understand in detail. A method is presented for quantifying the importance of specific sequences of quantum transitions involved in the control process. The method is based on a ''beable'' formulation of quantum mechanics due to John Bell that rigorously maps the quantum evolution onto an ensemble of stochastic trajectories over a classical state space. Detailed mechanism identification is illustrated with a model seven-level system. A general procedure is presented to extract mechanism information directly from closed-loop control experiments. Application to simulated experimental data for the model system proves robust with up to 25% noise

  7. Belle DAQ system upgrade at 2001

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, S Y; Kim, H W; Kim, H J; Kim, H O; Nakao, M; Won, E; Yamauchi, M

    2002-01-01

    We renewed the data acquisition system for the Belle experiment. Previous data acquisition system, which has been used since December 1998, did not have level 2 trigger facility. To improve the data reduction factor and total throughput, we replaced event builder, online computer farm and the storage system. The event builder and online computer farm are unified into one system. This event building farm uses commodity hardware and newly appended level 2 trigger functionality. This data acquisition system started its operation since last autumn and is very stable. We took 36 fb sup - sup 1 with new DAQ system, it had already overtaken 30 fb sup - sup 1 that is total amount of previous DAQ system.

  8. Official regulations and perceptual aspects of bell ringing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačič Mojca

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Through the analytical approach of studying official and perception-related discourse on bell ringing I accentuate the complexity of aspects that the sound of church bell presents in contemporary society. I point out the misleading officially defined level of noise nuisance and reveal how, when and why bell ringing is perceived as a positive or negative part of the acoustic environment. The study argues for a holistic approach to the noise nuisance issues, still much underestimated in the official discourse, that co-create our everyday soundscape.

  9. Quantum communication complexity advantage implies violation of a Bell inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhrman, Harry; Czekaj, Łukasz; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Michał; Horodecki, Paweł; Markiewicz, Marcin; Speelman, Florian; Strelchuk, Sergii

    2016-01-01

    We obtain a general connection between a large quantum advantage in communication complexity and Bell nonlocality. We show that given any protocol offering a sufficiently large quantum advantage in communication complexity, there exists a way of obtaining measurement statistics that violate some Bell inequality. Our main tool is port-based teleportation. If the gap between quantum and classical communication complexity can grow arbitrarily large, the ratio of the quantum value to the classical value of the Bell quantity becomes unbounded with the increase in the number of inputs and outputs. PMID:26957600

  10. Reluctant genius Alexander Graham Bell and the passion for invention

    CERN Document Server

    Gray, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    The popular image of Alexander Graham Bell is that of an elderly American patriarch, memorable only for his paunch, his Santa Claus beard, and the invention of the telephone. In this magisterial reassessment based on thorough new research, acclaimed biographer Charlotte Gray reveals Bell's wide-ranging passion for invention and delves into the private life that supported his genius. The child of a speech therapist and a deaf mother, and possessed of superbly acute hearing, Bell developed an early interest in sound. His understanding of how sound waves might relate to electrical waves enabled h

  11. Seismic qualification of the rotary relay for use in the Trojan and Diablo Canyon Auxiliary Safeguards Cabinets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riggio, M.D.; Jarecki, S.J.

    1977-10-01

    This report presents the results of the analysis performed for the seismic qualification of the rotary relay for use in the Trojan and Diablo Canyon Auxiliary Safeguards Cabinets. A finite element model of the cabinet was developed from seismic test results. This model was analytically subjected to a simulated 3D floor acceleration time history that enveloped, simultaneously, the Trojan and the June 1969 Diablo Canyon Safe Shutdown Earthquake requirements. The dynamic response of the cabinet at the mounting location of the rotary relays was determined. The calculated acceleration time histories were converted to response spectra and these response spectra were compared to the test response spectra successfully achieved during the rotary relay seismic qualification tests. It was found that the dynamic motion levels at the rotary relays, when mounted in the Trojan or Diablo Canyon Auxiliary Safeguards Cabinets, do not exceed the levels for which they were previously seismically qualified by tests. Consequently, the rotary relays are seismically qualified for use in the Trojan or Diablo Canyon Auxiliary Safeguards Cabinets

  12. Morphodynamic Model of Submarine Canyon Incision by Sandblasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Parker, G.; Izumi, N.; Cartigny, M.; Li, T.; Wang, G.

    2017-12-01

    Submarine canyons are carved by turbidity currents under the deep sea. As opposed to subaerial canyons, the relevant processes are not easy to observe directly. Turbidity currents are bottom-hugging sediment gravity flows of that can incise or deposit on the seafloor to create submarine canyons or fans. The triggers of turbidity currents can be storms, edge waves, internal waves, canyon wall sapping, delta failure, breaching and hyperpycnal flows. The formation and evolution mechanisms of submarine canyons are similar to those of subaerial canyons, but have substantial differences. For example, sandblasting, rather than wear due to colliding gravel clasts is more likely to be the mechanism of bedrock incision. Submarine canyons incise downward, and often develop meander bends and levees within the canyon, so defining "fairways". Here we propose a simple model for canyon incision. The starting point of our model is the Macro Roughness Saltation Abrasion Alluviation model of Zhang et al. [2015], designed for bedrock incision by gravel clasts in mixed bedrock-alluvial rivers. We adapt this formulation to consider sandblasting as a means of wear. We use a layer-averaged model for turbidity current dynamics. The current contains a mixture of mud, which helps drive the flow but which does not cause incision, and sand, which is the agent of incision. We show that the model can successfully model channel downcutting, and indeed illustrate the early formation of net incisional cyclic steps, i.e. upstream-migrating undulations on the bed associated with transcritical (in the Froude sense) flow. These steps can be expected to abet the process of incision.

  13. Optimization of ADC transfer curves for the Belle II pixel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haidl, Jakob; Mueller, Felix; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Kiesling, Christian; Valentan, Manfred [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Koffmane, Christian [Halbleiterlabor der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: Belle II-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The Super-KEKB accelerator at the KEK high energy research center in Tsukuba in Japan will provide a 40 times higher luminosity. To cope with this high luminosity the Belle detector is improved to Belle II, which includes the integration of a two layer DEPFET pixel detector (PXD) resulting in a higher vertex resolution. The task of the read-out electronics is to process the high data rate of the PXD. To fulfill these requirements three different types of ASICs were designed. The foremost of them called Drain Current Digitizer (DCD) converts the drain currents of the DEPFET pixel sensors into digital code. Since the PXD will be equipped with 160 DCDs automatic testing of the chips is needed. Analog to digital transfer curves are an appropriate tool for error recognition and optimization of the digitization process within the DCD. An overview of measurements and optimization strategies is presented.

  14. Readout ASICs and Electronics for the 144-channel HAPDs for the Aerogel RICH at Belle II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, S.; Adachi, I.; Ikeda, H.; Hara, K.; Iijima, T.; Iwata, S.; Korpar, S.; Križan, P.; Kuroda, E.; Pestotnik, R.; Seljak, A.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Takagaki, H.

    The particle identification (PID) device in the endcap of the Belle detector will be upgraded to a ring imaging Cherenkov counter (RICH) using aerogel as a radiator at the Belle II experiment. We develop the electronics to read out the 70,000 channels of hit information from the 144-channel hybrid avalanche photodetectors (HAPD), of the aerogel RICH detector. A readout ASIC is developed to digitize the HAPD signals, and was used in a beam test with the prototype detector. The performance and plan of the ASIC is reported in this study. We have also designed the readout electronics for the aerogel RICH, which consist of front-end boards with the ASICs merger boards to collect data from the front-end boards. A front-end board that fits in the actual available space for the aerogel RICH electronics was produced.

  15. Development of slow control system for the Belle II ARICH counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonenaga, M.; Adachi, I.; Dolenec, R.; Hataya, K.; Iori, S.; Iwata, S.; Kakuno, H.; Kataura, R.; Kawai, H.; Kindo, H.; Kobayashi, T.; Korpar, S.; Križan, P.; Kumita, T.; Mrvar, M.; Nishida, S.; Ogawa, K.; Ogawa, S.; Pestotnik, R.; Šantelj, L.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Tabata, M.; Yusa, Y.

    2017-12-01

    A slow control system (SCS) for the Aerogel Ring Imaging Cherenkov (ARICH) counter in the Belle II experiment was newly developed and coded in the development frameworks of the Belle II DAQ software. The ARICH is based on 420 Hybrid Avalanche Photo-Detectors (HAPDs). Each HAPD has 144 pixels to be readout and requires 6 power supply (PS) channels, therefore a total number of 2520 PS channels and 60,480 pixels have to be configured and controlled. Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs) with detector oriented view and device oriented view, were also implemented to ease the detector operation. The ARICH SCS is in operation for detector construction and cosmic rays tests. The paper describes the detailed features of the SCS and preliminary results of operation of a reduced set of hardware which confirm the scalability to the full detector.

  16. Do bells affect behaviour and heart rate variability in grazing dairy cows?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Johns

    Full Text Available In alpine regions cows are often equipped with bells. The present study investigated the impact of wearing a bell on behaviour and heart rate variability in dairy cows. Nineteen non-lactating Brown-Swiss cows with bell experience were assigned to three different treatments. For 3 days each, cows were equipped with no bell (control, with a bell with inactivated clapper (silent bell or with a functional bell (functional bell. The bells weighed 5.5 kg and had frequencies between 532 Hz and 2.8 kHz and amplitudes between 90 and 113 dB at a distance of 20 cm. Data were collected on either the first and third or on all 3 days of each treatment. Whereas duration of rumination was reduced with a functional bell and a silent bell compared with no bell, feeding duration was reduced with a silent bell and was intermediate with a functional bell. Head movements were reduced when wearing a silent bell compared with no bell and tended to be reduced when wearing a functional compared to no bell. With a functional bell, lying duration was reduced by almost 4 hours on the third day of treatment compared with the first day with a functional bell and compared with no bell or a silent bell. All additional behavioural measures are consistent with the hypothesis of a restriction in the behaviour of the cows wearing bells, although this pattern did not reach significance. There was no treatment effect on heart rate variability, suggesting that the bells did not affect vago-sympathetic balance. An effect of experimental day was found for only 1 out of 10 behavioural parameters, as shown by a decrease in lying with a functional bell on day 3. The results indicate behavioural changes in the cows wearing a bell over 3 days, without indication of habituation to the bell. Altogether, the behavioural changes suggest that the behaviour of the cows was disturbed by wearing a bell. If long-lasting, these effects may have implications for animal welfare.

  17. Do Bells Affect Behaviour and Heart Rate Variability in Grazing Dairy Cows?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Julia; Patt, Antonia; Hillmann, Edna

    2015-01-01

    In alpine regions cows are often equipped with bells. The present study investigated the impact of wearing a bell on behaviour and heart rate variability in dairy cows. Nineteen non-lactating Brown-Swiss cows with bell experience were assigned to three different treatments. For 3 days each, cows were equipped with no bell (control), with a bell with inactivated clapper (silent bell) or with a functional bell (functional bell). The bells weighed 5.5 kg and had frequencies between 532 Hz and 2.8 kHz and amplitudes between 90 and 113 dB at a distance of 20 cm. Data were collected on either the first and third or on all 3 days of each treatment. Whereas duration of rumination was reduced with a functional bell and a silent bell compared with no bell, feeding duration was reduced with a silent bell and was intermediate with a functional bell. Head movements were reduced when wearing a silent bell compared with no bell and tended to be reduced when wearing a functional compared to no bell. With a functional bell, lying duration was reduced by almost 4 hours on the third day of treatment compared with the first day with a functional bell and compared with no bell or a silent bell. All additional behavioural measures are consistent with the hypothesis of a restriction in the behaviour of the cows wearing bells, although this pattern did not reach significance. There was no treatment effect on heart rate variability, suggesting that the bells did not affect vago-sympathetic balance. An effect of experimental day was found for only 1 out of 10 behavioural parameters, as shown by a decrease in lying with a functional bell on day 3. The results indicate behavioural changes in the cows wearing a bell over 3 days, without indication of habituation to the bell. Altogether, the behavioural changes suggest that the behaviour of the cows was disturbed by wearing a bell. If long-lasting, these effects may have implications for animal welfare. PMID:26110277

  18. Bell Inequality, Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Steering, and Quantum Metrology with Spinor Bose-Einstein Condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasak, Tomasz; Chwedeńczuk, Jan

    2018-04-01

    We propose an experiment, where the Bell inequality is violated in a many-body system of massive particles. The source of correlated atoms is a spinor F =1 Bose-Einstein condensate residing in an optical lattice. We characterize the complete procedure—the local operations, the measurements, and the inequality—necessary to run the Bell test. We show how the degree of violation of the Bell inequality depends on the strengths of the two-body correlations and on the number of scattered pairs. We show that the system can be used to demonstrate the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox. Also, the scattered pairs are an excellent many-body resource for the quantum-enhanced metrology. Our results apply to any multimode system where the spin-changing collision drives the scattering into separate regions. The presented inquiry shows that such a system is versatile as it can be used for the tests of nonlocality, quantum metrology, and quantum information.

  19. Revealing Bell's nonlocality for unstable systems in high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiesmayr, Beatrix C.; Gabriel, Andreas; Huber, Marcus [University of Vienna, Faculty of Physics, Vienna (Austria); Di Domenico, Antonio [Sapienza Universita di Roma (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Curceanu, Catalina [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Larsson, Jan-Aake [Linkoepings Universitet, Institionen foer Systemteknik, Linkoeping (Sweden); Moskal, Pawel [Jagiellonian University, Institute of Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    2012-01-15

    Entanglement and its consequences - in particular the violation of Bell inequalities, which defies our concepts of realism and locality - have been proven to play key roles in Nature by many experiments for various quantum systems. Entanglement can also be found in systems not consisting of ordinary matter and light, i.e. in massive meson-antimeson systems. Bell inequalities have been discussed for these systems, but up to date no direct experimental test to conclusively exclude local realism was found. This mainly stems from the fact that one only has access to a restricted class of observables and that these systems are also decaying. In this Letter we put forward a Bell inequality for unstable systems which can be tested at accelerator facilities with current technology. Herewith, the long awaited proof that such systems at different energy scales can reveal the sophisticated ''dynamical'' nonlocal feature of Nature in a direct experiment gets feasible. Moreover, the role of entanglement and CP violation, an asymmetry between matter and antimatter, is explored, a special feature offered only by these meson-antimeson systems. (orig.)

  20. Bell Inequality, Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Steering, and Quantum Metrology with Spinor Bose-Einstein Condensates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasak, Tomasz; Chwedeńczuk, Jan

    2018-04-06

    We propose an experiment, where the Bell inequality is violated in a many-body system of massive particles. The source of correlated atoms is a spinor F=1 Bose-Einstein condensate residing in an optical lattice. We characterize the complete procedure-the local operations, the measurements, and the inequality-necessary to run the Bell test. We show how the degree of violation of the Bell inequality depends on the strengths of the two-body correlations and on the number of scattered pairs. We show that the system can be used to demonstrate the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox. Also, the scattered pairs are an excellent many-body resource for the quantum-enhanced metrology. Our results apply to any multimode system where the spin-changing collision drives the scattering into separate regions. The presented inquiry shows that such a system is versatile as it can be used for the tests of nonlocality, quantum metrology, and quantum information.

  1. Two-setting Bell inequalities for graph states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, Geza; Guehne, Otfried; Briegel, Hans J.

    2006-01-01

    We present Bell inequalities for graph states with a high violation of local realism. In particular, we show that there is a basic Bell inequality for every nontrivial graph state which is violated by the state at least by a factor of 2. This inequality needs the measurement of, at most, two operators for each qubit and involves only some of the qubits. We also show that for some families of graph states composite Bell inequalities can be constructed such that the violation of local realism increases exponentially with the number of qubits. We prove that some of our inequalities are facets of the convex polytope containing the many-body correlations consistent with local hidden variable models. Our Bell inequalities are built from stabilizing operators of graph states

  2. Hidden assumptions in the derivation of the theorem of Bell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, Karl; Raedt, Hans De; Michielsen, Kristel

    2012-01-01

    John Bell's inequalities have already been considered by Boole in 1862. Boole established a one-to-one correspondence between experimental outcomes and mathematical abstractions of his probability theory. His abstractions are two-valued functions that permit the logical operations AND, OR and NOT and are the elements of an algebra. Violation of the inequalities indicated to Boole an inconsistency of definition of the abstractions and/or the necessity to revise the algebra. It is demonstrated in this paper, that a violation of Bell's inequality by Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen type of experiments can be explained by Boole's ideas. Violations of Bell's inequality also call for a revision of the mathematical abstractions and corresponding algebra. It will be shown that this particular view of Bell's inequalities points toward an incompleteness of quantum mechanics, rather than to any superluminal propagation or influences at a distance.

  3. The EPR paradox, Bell's inequality, and the question of locality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaylock, Guy

    2010-01-01

    Most physicists agree that the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bell paradox exemplifies much of the strange behavior of quantum mechanics, but argument persists about what assumptions underlie the paradox. To clarify what the debate is about, we employ a simple and well-known thought experiment involving two correlated photons to help us focus on the logical assumptions needed to construct the EPR and Bell arguments. The view presented in this paper is that the minimal assumptions behind Bell's inequality are locality and counterfactual definiteness but not scientific realism, determinism, or hidden variables as are often suggested. We further examine the resulting constraints on physical theory with an illustration from the many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics—an interpretation that we argue is deterministic, local, and realist but that nonetheless violates the Bell inequality.

  4. NOAA Ship Bell M. Shimada Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Bell M. Shimada Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  5. Hugh Blairs Lectures on Rhetoric and Belles Lettres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schatz-Jakobsen, Claus

    1989-01-01

    Artiklen nærlæser dekonstruktivt dele af den skotske retorikprofessor Hugh Blairs Lecures on Rhetoric and Belles Lettres (1783) og påviser splittelsen mellem to vidt forskellige retorik- og liltteraturhistoriske interesser, neoklassicistiske vs. romantiske....

  6. On tight multiparty Bell inequalities for many settings

    OpenAIRE

    Zukowski, Marek

    2006-01-01

    A derivation method is given which leads to a series of tight Bell inequalities for experiments involving N parties, with binary observables, and three possible local settings. The approach can be generalized to more settings. Ramifications are presented.

  7. Quantum nonlocality and reality 50 years of Bell's theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Shan

    2016-01-01

    Description Contents Resources Courses About the Authors Combining twenty-six original essays written by an impressive line-up of distinguished physicists and philosophers of physics, this anthology reflects some of the latest thoughts by leading experts on the influence of Bell's theorem on quantum physics. Essays progress from John Bell's character and background, through studies of his main work, and on to more speculative ideas, addressing the controversies surrounding the theorem, and investigating the theorem's meaning and its deep implications for the nature of physical reality. Combined, they present a powerful comment on the undeniable significance of Bell's theorem for the development of ideas in quantum physics over the past 50 years. Questions surrounding the assumptions and significance of Bell's work still inspire discussion in the field of quantum physics. Adding to this with a theoretical and philosophical perspective, this balanced anthology is an indispensable volume for students and researc...

  8. Outage risk reduction at Diablo Canyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, Tobias W.T.; Eugene Newman, C.

    2004-01-01

    A formal risk reduction program was conducted at the Diablo Canyon Nuclear Generating plant as part of EPRI's Outage Risk Assessment and Management Program. The program began with a probabilistic and deterministic assessment of the frequency of core coolant boiling and core uncovery during shutdown operations. This step identified important contributors to risk, periods of high vulnerability, and potential mechanisms for reducing risk. Next, recovery strategies were evaluated and procedures, training, and outage schedules modified. Twelve risk reduction enhancements were developed and implemented. These enhancements and their impact are described in this paper. These enhancements reduced the calculated risk of core uncovery by about a factor of four for a refueling outage without lengthening the outage schedule; increased the outage efficiency, contributing to completing 11 days ahead of schedule; and helped to earn the highest achievable SALP rating from the NRC. (author)

  9. Radionuclides at the Hudson Canyon disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schell, W.R.; Nevissi, A.E.

    1983-01-01

    A sampling and analytical program was initiated in June 1978 to measure radionuclides in water, sediments, and biota collected at the deepwater (4000 m) radioactive waste disposal site at the mouth of the Hudson Canyon 350km off New York Harbor in the western Atlantic Ocean. Plutonium, americium, cesium, strontium, and uranium series isotopes were measured in selected samples; the /sup 210/Pb data were used to give sedimentation and mixing rates in the upper sediment layers. The results showed that /sup 137/Cs, /sup 239,240/Pu, and /sup 238/Pu were found at low concentrations in the skin, viscera, and stomach contents for some of the fish collected. Significant concentrations of /sup 241/Am were found in tissues of the common rattail Coryphaenoides (Macrouridae) collected at the disposal site, suggesting a local source for this radionuclide and biological accumulation. The edible muscle of this fish contained less than 2.6 x 10/sup -5/ Bq g/sup -1/ (dry wt) of /sup 239,240/Pu. Radionuclides measured in sediment-core profiles showed that mixing occurred to depths of 16 cm and that variable sedimentation or mixing rates, or both, exist at 4000 m deep. Radionuclide deposition near the canisters was not found to be significantly higher than the expected fallout levels at 4000 m deep. At the mouth of the Hudson Canyon variable sedimentation and mixing rates were found using the natural unsupported /sup 210/Pb tracer values; these variable rates were attributed to sediment transport by the currents and to bioturbation

  10. Local models violating Bell's inequality by time delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scalera, G.C.

    1984-01-01

    The performance of ensemble averages is neither a sufficient nor a necessary condition to avoid Bell's inequality violations characteristic of nonergodic systems. Slight modifications of a local nonergodic logical model violating Bell's inequality produce a stochastic model exactly fitting the quantum-mechanical correlation function. From these considerations is appears evident that the last experiments on the existence of local hidden variables are not conclusive

  11. Local deterministic theory surviving the violation of Bell's inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cormier-Delanoue, C.

    1984-01-01

    Bell's theorem which asserts that no deterministic theory with hidden variables can give the same predictions as quantum theory, is questioned. Such a deterministic theory is presented and carefully applied to real experiments performed on pairs of correlated photons, derived from the EPR thought experiment. The ensuing predictions violate Bell's inequalities just as quantum mechanics does, and it is further shown that this discrepancy originates in the very nature of radiations. Complete locality is therefore restored while separability remains more limited [fr

  12. For whom bell toils: medical imaging by telephone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhfeld, A W

    1991-01-01

    The use of the induction balance, which was invented by Alexander Graham Bell to cancel out line interference on his telephone, to determine the location of bullets inside the human body is discussed. Experiments conducted to locate a bullet in the body of US President Garfield, who had been shot by an assassin in 1881, are described. The trials on Garfield were unsuccessful, but the approach was later perfected by Bell.

  13. Trigger Timing Module for SVD2 upgrade at Belle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, M.C.; Gao, Z.W.; Guo, Y.N.; Kawasaki, T.; Ueno, K.; Velikzhanin, Y.S.

    2003-01-01

    We have developed a Trigger Timing Module (TTM2) for the control and readout electronics (CORE) of the upgraded Silicon Vertex Detector (SVD2) for use in the BELLE experiment. Eleven Trigger Timing Modules located at one VME-crate provide timing and strobe signals for the SVD2 CORE electronics and make communication between SVD2 and Global Decision Logic of the BELLE data acquisition system. The main motivation to make a new TTM design is to avoid glitches

  14. Characterization of the Bell-Shaped Vibratory Angular Rate Gyro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfang Fan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The bell-shaped vibratory angular rate gyro (abbreviated as BVG is a novel shell vibratory gyroscope, which is inspired by the Chinese traditional bell. It sensitizes angular velocity through the standing wave precession effect. The bell-shaped resonator is a core component of the BVG and looks like the millimeter-grade Chinese traditional bell, such as QianLong Bell and Yongle Bell. It is made of Ni43CrTi, which is a constant modulus alloy. The exciting element, control element and detection element are uniformly distributed and attached to the resonator, respectively. This work presents the design, analysis and experimentation on the BVG. It is most important to analyze the vibratory character of the bell-shaped resonator. The strain equation, internal force and the resonator's equilibrium differential equation are derived in the orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system. When the input angular velocity is existent on the sensitive axis, an analysis of the vibratory character is performed using the theory of thin shells. On this basis, the mode shape function and the simplified second order normal vibration mode dynamical equation are obtained. The coriolis coupling relationship about the primary mode and secondary mode is established. The methods of the signal processing and control loop are presented. Analyzing the impact resistance property of the bell-shaped resonator, which is compared with other shell resonators using the Finite Element Method, demonstrates that BVG has the advantage of a better impact resistance property. A reasonable means of installation and a prototypal gyro are designed. The gyroscopic effect of the BVG is characterized through experiments. Experimental results show that the BVG has not only the advantages of low cost, low power, long work life, high sensitivity, and so on, but, also, of a simple structure and a better impact resistance property for low and medium angular velocity measurements.

  15. Partial list of bipartite Bell inequalities with four binary settings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, Nicolas; Gisin, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    We give a partial list of 26 tight Bell inequalities for the case where Alice and Bob choose among four two-outcome measurements. All tight Bell inequalities with less settings are reviewed as well. For each inequality we compute numerically the maximal quantum violation, the resistance to noise and the minimal detection efficiency required for closing the detection loophole. Surprisingly, most of these inequalities are outperformed by the CHSH inequality

  16. Interpretation of the quantum formalism and Bell's theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, E.

    1991-01-01

    It is argued that quantum mechanics must be interpreted according to the Copenhagen interpretation. Consequently the formalism must be used in a purely operational way. The relation between realism, hidden variables, and the Bell inequalities is discussed. The proof of impossibility of local hidden-variables theories (Bell theorem) is criticized on the basis that the quantum mechanical states violating local realism are not physically realizable states

  17. Distributions and habitat associations of deep-water corals in Norfolk and Baltimore Canyons, Mid-Atlantic Bight, USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brooke, S.D.; Watts, M.W.; Heil, A.D.; Rhode, M.; Mienis, F.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; Davies, A.J.; Ross, S.W.

    2017-01-01

    A multi-disciplinary study of two major submarine canyons, Baltimore Canyon and Norfolk Canyon, off the US mid-Atlantic coast focused on the ecology and biology of canyon habitats, particularly those supporting deep-sea corals. Historical data on deep-sea corals from these canyons were sparse with

  18. [Bell's palsy and facial pain associated with toxocara infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachtiar, Arian; Auer, Herbert; Finsterer, Josef

    2012-10-01

    Toxocarosis involving cranial nerves is extremely rare and almost exclusively concerns the optic nerve. Toxocarosis involving the seventh cranial nerve has not been reported. A 33y male developed left-sided Bell's palsy two days after left-sided otalgia 6y before. Despite extensive diagnostic work-up at that time the cause of Bell's palsy remained unknown. During the following years Bell's palsy slightly improved but retromandibular pain remained almost unchanged and he developed enlarged lymph nodes along the jugular veins, submandibularly, and in the trigonum caroticum. Re-evaluation 6y later revealed an increased titer of serum antibodies against Toxocara canis and a positive Westernblot for Toxocara canis ES-antigen. Despite absent eosinophilia in the serum, toxocarosis was diagnosed and a therapy with albendazole initiated, with benefit for retromandibular pain, but hardly for Bell's palsy or enlarged lymph nodes. CSF investigations after albendazole revealed a positive Westernblot for antibodies against toxocara but absent pleocytosis or eosinophilia, and negative PCR for Toxocara canis. Visceral larva migrans due to Toxocara canis may be associated with Bell's palsy, retromandibular pain, and lymphadenopathy. A causal relation between Bell's palsy and the helminthosis remains speculative. Adequate therapy years after onset of the infestation may be of limited benefit.

  19. Corticosteroids for Bell's palsy (idiopathic facial paralysis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhok, Vishnu B; Gagyor, Ildiko; Daly, Fergus; Somasundara, Dhruvashree; Sullivan, Michael; Gammie, Fiona; Sullivan, Frank

    2016-07-18

    Inflammation and oedema of the facial nerve are implicated in causing Bell's palsy. Corticosteroids have a potent anti-inflammatory action that should minimise nerve damage. This is an update of a review first published in 2002 and last updated in 2010. To determine the effectiveness and safety of corticosteroid therapy in people with Bell's palsy. On 4 March 2016, we searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE and LILACS. We reviewed the bibliographies of the randomised trials and contacted known experts in the field to identify additional published or unpublished trials. We also searched clinical trials registries for ongoing trials. Randomised trials and quasi-randomised trials comparing different routes of administration and dosage schemes of corticosteroid or adrenocorticotrophic hormone therapy versus a control group receiving no therapy considered effective for this condition, unless the same therapy was given in a similar way to the experimental group. We used standard Cochrane methodology. The main outcome of interest was incomplete recovery of facial motor function (i.e. residual facial weakness). Secondary outcomes were cosmetically disabling persistent sequelae, development of motor synkinesis or autonomic dysfunction (i.e. hemifacial spasm, crocodile tears) and adverse effects of corticosteroid therapy manifested during follow-up. We identified seven trials, with 895 evaluable participants for this review. All provided data suitable for the primary outcome meta-analysis. One of the trials was new since the last version of this Cochrane systematic review. Risk of bias in the older, smaller studies included some unclear- or high-risk assessments, whereas we deemed the larger studies at low risk of bias. Overall, 79/452 (17%) participants allocated to corticosteroids had incomplete recovery of facial motor function six months or more after randomisation

  20. Rose Canyon Sustainable Aquaculture Project, San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents related to EPA's preparation of an Environmental Assessment (EA) to analyze the potential impacts related to the issuance of a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit for the Rose Canyon Sustainable Aquaculture Project.

  1. Habitat Mapping Cruise - Hudson Canyon (HB0904, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Objectives are to: 1) perform multibeam mapping of transitional and deepwater habitats in Hudson Canyon (off New Jersey) with the National Institute of Undersea...

  2. H Canyon Processing In Correlation With FH Analytical Labs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinheimer, E.

    2012-01-01

    Management of radioactive chemical waste can be a complicated business. H Canyon and F/H Analytical Labs are two facilities present at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, SC that are at the forefront. In fact H Canyon is the only large-scale radiochemical processing facility in the United States and this processing is only enhanced by the aid given from F/H Analytical Labs. As H Canyon processes incoming materials, F/H Labs provide support through a variety of chemical analyses. Necessary checks of the chemical makeup, processing, and accountability of the samples taken from H Canyon process tanks are performed at the labs along with further checks on waste leaving the canyon after processing. Used nuclear material taken in by the canyon is actually not waste. Only a small portion of the radioactive material itself is actually consumed in nuclear reactors. As a result various radioactive elements such as Uranium, Plutonium and Neptunium are commonly found in waste and may be useful to recover. Specific processing is needed to allow for separation of these products from the waste. This is H Canyon's specialty. Furthermore, H Canyon has the capacity to initiate the process for weapons-grade nuclear material to be converted into nuclear fuel. This is one of the main campaigns being set up for the fall of 2012. Once usable material is separated and purified of impurities such as fission products, it can be converted to an oxide and ultimately turned into commercial fuel. The processing of weapons-grade material for commercial fuel is important in the necessary disposition of plutonium. Another processing campaign to start in the fall in H Canyon involves the reprocessing of used nuclear fuel for disposal in improved containment units. The importance of this campaign involves the proper disposal of nuclear waste in order to ensure the safety and well-being of future generations and the environment. As processing proceeds in the fall, H Canyon will have a substantial

  3. Effects of Bell Speed and Flow Rate on Evaporation of Water Spray from a Rotary Bell Atomizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajan Ray

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A phase doppler anemometer (PDA was used to determine the effects of evaporation on water spray for three rotary bell atomizer operational variable parameters: shaping air, bell speed and liquid flow. Shaping air was set at either 200 standard liters per minute (L/min or 300 L/min, bell speed was set to 30, 40 or 50 thousand rotations per minute (krpm and water flow rate was varied between 100, 200 or 300 cubic centimeters per minute (cm3/min. The total evaporation between 22.5 and 37.5 cm from the atomizer (cm3/s was calculated for all the combinations of those variables. Evaporation rate increased with higher flow rate and bell speed but no statistically significant effects were obtained for variable shaping air on interactions between parameters.

  4. The data handling processor of the Belle II DEPFET detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Germic, Leonard; Hemperek, Tomasz; Kishishita, Tetsuichi; Paschen, Botho; Luetticke, Florian; Krueger, Hans; Marinas, Carlos; Wermes, Norbert [Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Collaboration: Belle II-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    A two layer highly granular DEPFET pixel detector will be operated as the innermost subsystem of the Belle II experiment, at the new Japanese super flavor factory (SuperKEKB). Such a finely segmented system will allow to improve the vertex reconstruction in such ultra high luminosity environment but, at the same time, the raw data stream generated by the 8 million pixel detector will exceed the capability of real-time processing due to its high frame rate, considering the limited material budged and strict space constrains. For this reason a new ASIC, the Data Handling Processor (DHP) is designed to provide data processing at the level of the front-end electronics, such as zero-suppression and common mode correction. Additional feature of the Data Handling Processor is the control block, providing control signals for the on-module ASICs used in the pixel detector. In this contribution, the description of the latest chip revision in TSMC 65 nm technology together with the latest test results of the interface functionality tests are presented.

  5. Safety Evaluation for Packaging (onsite) T Plant Canyon Items

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OBRIEN, J.H.

    2000-01-01

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) evaluates and documents the ability to safely ship mostly unique inventories of miscellaneous T Plant canyon waste items (T-P Items) encountered during the canyon deck clean off campaign. In addition, this SEP addresses contaminated items and material that may be shipped in a strong tight package (STP). The shipments meet the criteria for onsite shipments as specified by Fluor Hanford in HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for all Hazardous Material Shipments

  6. Diablo Canyon plant information management system and integrated communication system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, J.W.; Groff, C.

    1990-01-01

    The implementation of a comprehensive maintenance system called the plant information management system (PIMS) at the Diablo Canyon plant, together with its associated integrated communication system (ICS), is widely regarded as the most comprehensive undertaking of its kind in the nuclear industry. This paper provides an overview of the program at Diablo Canyon, an evaluation of system benefits, and highlights the future course of PIMS

  7. Diablo Canyon plant information management system and integrated communication system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanley, J.W.; Groff, C.

    1990-06-01

    The implementation of a comprehensive maintenance system called the plant information management system (PIMS) at the Diablo Canyon plant, together with its associated integrated communication system (ICS), is widely regarded as the most comprehensive undertaking of its kind in the nuclear industry. This paper provides an overview of the program at Diablo Canyon, an evaluation of system benefits, and highlights the future course of PIMS.

  8. Safety Evaluation for Packaging (onsite) T Plant Canyon Items

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OBRIEN, J.H.

    2000-07-14

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) evaluates and documents the ability to safely ship mostly unique inventories of miscellaneous T Plant canyon waste items (T-P Items) encountered during the canyon deck clean off campaign. In addition, this SEP addresses contaminated items and material that may be shipped in a strong tight package (STP). The shipments meet the criteria for onsite shipments as specified by Fluor Hanford in HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for all Hazardous Material Shipments.

  9. B-Plant Canyon Ventilation Control System Description; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCDANIEL, K.S.

    1999-01-01

    Project W-059 installed a new B Plant Canyon Ventilation System. Monitoring and control of the system is implemented by the Canyon Ventilation Control System (CVCS). This document describes the CVCS system components which include a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) coupled with an Operator Interface Unit (OIU) and application software. This document also includes an Alarm Index specifying the setpoints and technical basis for system analog and digital alarms

  10. 221-U Facility concrete and reinforcing steel evaluations specification for the canyon disposition initiative (CDI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, J.T.

    1998-01-01

    This describes a test program to establish the in-situ material properties of the reinforced concrete in Building 221-U for comparison to the original design specifications. Field sampling and laboratory testing of concrete and reinforcing steel structural materials in Building 221-U for design verification will be undertaken. Forty seven samples are to be taken from radiologically clean exterior walls of the canyon. Laboratory testing program includes unconfined compressive strength of concrete cores, tensile strength of reinforcing steel, and petrographic examinations of concrete cores taken from walls below existing grade

  11. The Colorado River and its deposits downstream from Grand Canyon in Arizona, California, and Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Ryan S.; Block, Debra L.; Felger, Tracey J.; House, P. Kyle; Pearthree, Philip A.; Gootee, Brian F.; Youberg, Ann M.; Howard, Keith A.; Beard, L. Sue

    2018-02-05

    Understanding the evolution of the Colorado River system has direct implications for (1) the processes and timing of continental-scale river system integration, (2) the formation of iconic landscapes like those in and around Grand Canyon, and (3) the availability of groundwater resources. Spatial patterns in the position and type of Colorado River deposits, only discernible through geologic mapping, can be used to test models related to Colorado River evolution. This is particularly true downstream from Grand Canyon where ancestral Colorado River deposits are well-exposed. We are principally interested in (1) regional patterns in the minimum and maximum elevation of each depositional unit, which are affected by depositional mechanism and postdepositional deformation; and (2) the volume of each unit, which reflects regional changes in erosion, transport efficiency, and accommodation space. The volume of Colorado River deposits below Grand Canyon has implications for groundwater resources, as the primary regional aquifer there is composed of those deposits. To this end, we are presently mapping Colorado River deposits and compiling and updating older mapping. This preliminary data release shows the current status of our mapping and compilation efforts. We plan to update it at regular intervals in conjunction with ongoing mapping.

  12. A numerical analysis of pollutant dispersion in street canyon: influence of the turbulent Schmidt number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouabdellah Abed

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Realizing the growing importance and availability of motor vehicles, we observe that the main source of pollution in the street canyons comes from the dispersion of automobile engine exhaust gas. It represents a substantial effect on the micro-climate conditions in urban areas. Seven idealized-2D building configurations are investigated by numerical simulations. The turbulent Schmidt number is introduced in the pollutant transport equation in order the take into account the proportion between the rate of momentum turbulent transport and the mass turbulent transport by diffusion. In the present paper, we attempt to approach the experimental test results by adjusting the values of turbulent Schmidt number to its corresponding application. It was with interest that we established this link for achieving our objectives, since the numerical results agree well with the experimental ones. The CFD code ANSYS CFX, the k, e and the RNGk-e models of turbulence have been adopted for the resolutions. From the simulation results, the turbulent Schmidt number is a range of 0.1 to 1.3 that has some effect on the prediction of pollutant dispersion in the street canyons. In the case of a flat roof canyon configuration (case: runa000, appropriate turbulent Schmidt number of 0.6 is estimated using the k-epsilon model and of 0.5 using the RNG k-e model.

  13. A Novel Multiparty Quantum Secret Sharing Scheme of Secure Direct Communication Based on Bell States and Bell Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Run-Hua; Huang Liu-Sheng; Yang Wei; Zhong Hong

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel quantum secret sharing scheme of secure direct communication and analyze its security. This scheme takes Einstein—Podolsky—Rosen (EPR) pairs in Bell states as quantum resources. In order to obtain the direct communication message, all agents only need to perform Bell measurements, not to perform any local unitary operation. The total efficiency in this scheme approaches 100% as the classical information exchanged is unnecessary except for the eavesdropping checks. (general)

  14. Deep-Sea, Deep-Sequencing: Metabarcoding Extracellular DNA from Sediments of Marine Canyons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Guardiola

    Full Text Available Marine sediments are home to one of the richest species pools on Earth, but logistics and a dearth of taxonomic work-force hinders the knowledge of their biodiversity. We characterized α- and β-diversity of deep-sea assemblages from submarine canyons in the western Mediterranean using an environmental DNA metabarcoding. We used a new primer set targeting a short eukaryotic 18S sequence (ca. 110 bp. We applied a protocol designed to obtain extractions enriched in extracellular DNA from replicated sediment corers. With this strategy we captured information from DNA (local or deposited from the water column that persists adsorbed to inorganic particles and buffered short-term spatial and temporal heterogeneity. We analysed replicated samples from 20 localities including 2 deep-sea canyons, 1 shallower canal, and two open slopes (depth range 100-2,250 m. We identified 1,629 MOTUs, among which the dominant groups were Metazoa (with representatives of 19 phyla, Alveolata, Stramenopiles, and Rhizaria. There was a marked small-scale heterogeneity as shown by differences in replicates within corers and within localities. The spatial variability between canyons was significant, as was the depth component in one of the canyons where it was tested. Likewise, the composition of the first layer (1 cm of sediment was significantly different from deeper layers. We found that qualitative (presence-absence and quantitative (relative number of reads data showed consistent trends of differentiation between samples and geographic areas. The subset of exclusively benthic MOTUs showed similar patterns of β-diversity and community structure as the whole dataset. Separate analyses of the main metazoan phyla (in number of MOTUs showed some differences in distribution attributable to different lifestyles. Our results highlight the differentiation that can be found even between geographically close assemblages, and sets the ground for future monitoring and conservation

  15. Chitosan controls postharvest anthracnose in bell pepper by activating defense-related enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edirisinghe, Madushani; Ali, Asgar; Maqbool, Mehdi; Alderson, Peter G

    2014-12-01

    Anthracnose, a postharvest disease caused by the fungus Colletotrichum capsici is the most devastating disease of bell pepper that causes great economic losses especially in tropical climates. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the antifungal properties of chitosan (low molecular weight from crab shell, Mw: 50 kDa and 75-85 % deacetylated) against anthracnose by inducing defense-related enzymes. The concentrations of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 % chitosan were used to control the fungus in vitro and postharvest. There was a reduction in C. capsici mycelial growth and the highest chitosan concentration (2.0 %) reduced the growth by 70 % after 7 days incubation. In germination test, the concentration of 1.5 and 2.0 % chitosan reduced spore germination in C. capsici between 80 % and 84 %, respectively. In postharvest trial the concentration of 1.5 % decreased the anthracnose severity in pepper fruit by approximately 76 % after 28 days of storage (10 ± 1 °C; 80 % RH). For enzymatic activities, the concentration of 1.5 and 2.0 % chitosan increased the polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POD) and total phenolics in inoculated bell pepper during storage. Based on these results, the chitosan presents antifungal properties against C. capsici, as well as potential to induce resistance on bell pepper.

  16. Increasing solubility of red bell pepper carotenoids by complexation with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima Petito, Nicolly; da Silva Dias, Daiana; Costa, Valéria Gonçalves; Falcão, Deborah Quintanilha; de Lima Araujo, Kátia Gome

    2016-10-01

    Red bell pepper carotenoids were complexed with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (2-HPβCD) in different mass ratios (1:4, 1:6, 1:8 and 1:10) through ultrasonic homogenization in order to increase carotenoid solubility and their use as natural pigment in food. Inclusion complexes, red bell pepper extract and physical mixtures were analyzed by DSC, FT-IR, (1)H NMR and DLS. Solubility assay was performed to identify the effect of complexation on the solubility of carotenoids. From characterization assays, results showed that inclusion process occurred for all tested ratios. Results for water solubility assays demonstrated clear differences between solubility index of inclusion complexes (8.06±2.59-16.55±4.40mg/mL) and physical mixtures (3.53±1.44-7.3±1.88mg/mL), while carotenoid extract was no water soluble, as expected. These results indicated that molecular inclusion of carotenoids in 2-HPβCD was efficient to enhance their solubility in water, enabling application of red bell pepper carotenoid as natural pigment and/or bioactive substances in food. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Is Canyon Width a Diagnostic Indicator of the Discharge of Megafloods on Earth and Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapotre, M. G.; Lamb, M. P.

    2013-12-01

    On Earth, large floods have carved steep-walled and amphitheater-headed canyons from the Pleistocene (e.g. Box Canyon, ID) through the Holocene (e.g. Asbyrgi Canyon, Iceland), to historic times (e.g. Canyon Lake Gorge, TX). The geologic record on Mars suggests that similar floods have carved canyons by waterfall retreat about 3.5 billion years ago, when the red planet was wetter and possibly warmer. We currently lack robust paleo-hydraulic tools to reconstruct the discharge of ancient floods, especially on Mars where sediment sizes are obscured from observation. To address this issue, we hypothesize that the width of canyon escarpment is controlled by the hydraulics of the canyon-carving flood due to focusing of the flood into the canyon head. We compiled field data from multiple canyons and floods on Earth and Mars and show that there is a correlation between estimated flood discharge and canyon headwall width. To explore what sets this relationship, we identified five important parameters using dimensional analysis: the Froude number, the ratio of backwater length to canyon length, the ratio of backwater length to flood width, the ratio of canyon width to flood width, and the topographic slope upstream of the canyon. We used the hydraulic numerical modeling suite ANUGA to simulate overland flow over different canyon geometries and flood parameters to systematically explore the relative bed shear stresses along the canyon rim as a metric for flow focusing. Results show that canyons that exceed a certain length, scaling with the hydraulic backwater length, have shear stresses at their heads that are significantly higher than near the canyon mouth. Shear stresses along the rim of the canyon sidewalls are limited, in comparison to stresses along the canyon head, when the flood width is of the order of the backwater length. Flow focusing only occurs for subcritical flow. Together, these results suggest that canyons may only grow from a perturbation that is large

  18. [Effect of greenbelt on pollutant dispersion in street canyon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei-Jia; Xing, Hong; Yu, Zhi

    2012-02-01

    The effect feature of greenbelt on flow field and pollutant dispersion in urban street canyon was researched. The greenbelt was assumed as uniform porous media and its aerodynamics property defined by the pressure loss coefficient. Subsequently, the pollutant dispersion in the street canyon of which there was greenbelt in the middle was simulated with the steady-state standard kappa-epsilon turbulence model and species transport equation. The simulated results agreed well with the wind-tunnel data. Compared with the treeless case, it finds that the street canyon contain a clockwise vortex, the pollutant concentration of the leeward was several times than the windward and the growth rate of pollutant concentration was 46.0%. The further simulation for the impact of tree crown position on the airflow and pollutant dispersion finds that the height of major vortex center in the street canyon increases with the height of tree crown and gradually closes the top of windward building This causes that the average wind speed in the street canyon decreases. Especially when the top of tree crown over the roof and hinder the air flow above the street canyon, the average pollutant concentration increases with the height of tree crown rapidly.

  19. The Silicon Vertex Detector for b-tagging at Belle II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentan, M.

    2013-01-01

    building a high luminosity B factory and a high precision particle detector, and an introduction to the Belle II experiment, outlining purpose and working principle of the involved subdetectors. More details are given on the Belle II SVD, including mechanical structure, sensors, electrical readout and cooling. Furthermore, the basics of semiconductor physics and silicon processing are reviewed, and the principles of single-sided and double-sided silicon microstrip sensors are explained in detail. The author's main task was to develop a trapezoidal double-sided silicon microstrip sensor for the forward region of the Belle II SVD, from the initial CAD drawings to the production. He developed a software framework aiming at fast and flexible design of double-sided silicon microstrip sensors, both for rectangular and trapezoidal shapes. Using this framework, a whole wafer was equipped with a full-scale trapezoidal sensor, several test sensors for optimising the layout, and test structures. Several batches of prototype sensors were produced by Micron Semiconductor Ltd. in England, in close collaboration with the author. The wafer contains small test sensors dedicated to investigating the strip insulation on the n-side, featuring the p-stop blocking method (in three geometry patterns: atoll, common and a combined variant) and of the p-spray blocking method. These sensors have been extensively tested by the author in particle beams and gamma irradiations, showing that the atoll p-stop pattern is best suited for application at Belle II. The full-scale prototype sensors were thoroughly tested by the author in the semiconductor laboratory and in particle beams, long-term stability has been demonstrated by irradiation and thermal cycling campaigns. The knowledge gained by examining the test sensors and full-scale sensors led to an update of the design of the full-scale sensor. After production of another prototype batch the updated design was evaluated, compliance with the

  20. The Belle II SVD data readout system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thalmeier, R., E-mail: Richard.Thalmeier@oeaw.ac.at [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Adamczyk, K. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow 31-342 (Poland); Aihara, H. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Angelini, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita’ di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Aziz, T.; Babu, V. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Bacher, S. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow 31-342 (Poland); Bahinipati, S. [Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar, Satya Nagar (India); Barberio, E.; Baroncelli, Ti.; Baroncelli, To. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Basith, A.K. [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Batignani, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita’ di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bauer, A. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Behera, P.K. [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Bergauer, T. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Bettarini, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita’ di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bhuyan, B. [Indian Institute of Technolog y Guwahati, Assam 781039 (India); Bilka, T. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, 12116 Prague (Czech Republic); Bosi, F. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); and others

    2017-02-11

    The Belle II Experiment at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) in Tsukuba, Japan, will explore the asymmetry between matter and antimatter and search for new physics beyond the standard model. 172 double-sided silicon strip detectors are arranged cylindrically in four layers around the collision point to be part of a system which measures the tracks of the collision products of electrons and positrons. A total of 1748 radiation-hard APV25 chips read out 128 silicon strips each and send the analog signals by time-division multiplexing out of the radiation zone to 48 Flash Analog Digital Converter Modules (FADC). Each of them applies processing to the data; for example, it uses a digital finite impulse response filter to compensate line signal distortions, and it extracts the peak timing and amplitude from a set of several data points for each hit, using a neural network. We present an overview of the SVD data readout system, along with front-end electronics, cabling, power supplies and data processing.

  1. Quantum Locality, Rings a Bell?: Bell's Inequality Meets Local Reality and True Determinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Kuntz, Natalia; Nahmad-Achar, Eduardo

    2018-01-01

    By assuming a deterministic evolution of quantum systems and taking realism into account, we carefully build a hidden variable theory for Quantum Mechanics (QM) based on the notion of ontological states proposed by 't Hooft (The cellular automaton interpretation of quantum mechanics, arXiv:1405.1548v3, 2015; Springer Open 185, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-41285-6, 2016). We view these ontological states as the ones embedded with realism and compare them to the (usual) quantum states that represent superpositions, viewing the latter as mere information of the system they describe. Such a deterministic model puts forward conditions for the applicability of Bell's inequality: the usual inequality cannot be applied to the usual experiments. We build a Bell-like inequality that can be applied to the EPR scenario and show that this inequality is always satisfied by QM. In this way we show that QM can indeed have a local interpretation, and thus meet with the causal structure imposed by the Theory of Special Relativity in a satisfying way.

  2. The Belle II PXD data acquisition and reduction system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, Soeren; Gessler, Thomas; Kuehn, Wolfgang; Muenchow, David; Spruck, Bjoern [Giessen Univ. (Germany). 2. Physikalisches Inst.; Lin, Haichuan; Liu, Zhen-An; Xu, Hao; Zhao, Jingzhou [IHEP Beijing (China); Collaboration: Belle II Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    The Belle II DEPFET pixel detector (PXD) will deliver high data rates of up to 21.6 Gbytes/s for 3% detector occupancy. Data of this high rate must be buffered for 5 seconds, corresponding to the HLT (High Level Trigger) latency, and then a region-of-interest (ROI) filter is applied to reduce the data rate by a factor of ≥10 by charged track extrapolation from other detectors (SVD, CDC). The PXD readout system is based upon ATCA (Advanced Telecommunications Architecture). The 3rd PCB iteration uses a concept with a xTCA carrier board (with a Virtex-4 FX60 FPGA for ATCA backplane routing) and 4 AMC modules (each with a Xilinx Virtex-5 FX70T FPGA). The FPGA firmware implementation comprises a receiver core for the high speed optical links (≤6.25 Gbps), a buffer management with lookup of ≤270.000 pointers/s, DDR2 memory write (native port interface, ≥1.5 Gbytes/s), Gigabit ethernet (UDP stack in VHDL) and a parallelized ROI selection algorithm. Test results of all the components are presented.

  3. Effects of canyon geometry on the distribution of traffic-related air pollution in a large urban area: Implications of a multi-canyon air pollution dispersion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiangwen; Liu, Junfeng; Ban-Weiss, George A.; Zhang, Jiachen; Huang, Xin; Ouyang, Bin; Popoola, Olalekan; Tao, Shu

    2017-09-01

    Street canyons are ubiquitous in urban areas. Traffic-related air pollutants in street canyons can adversely affect human health. In this study, an urban-scale traffic pollution dispersion model is developed considering street distribution, canyon geometry, background meteorology, traffic assignment, traffic emissions and air pollutant dispersion. In the model, vehicle exhausts generated from traffic flows first disperse inside street canyons along the micro-scale wind field generated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Then, pollutants leave the street canyon and further disperse over the urban area. On the basis of this model, the effects of canyon geometry on the distribution of NOx and CO from traffic emissions were studied over the center of Beijing. We found that an increase in building height leads to heavier pollution inside canyons and lower pollution outside canyons at pedestrian level, resulting in higher domain-averaged concentrations over the area. In addition, canyons with highly even or highly uneven building heights on each side of the street tend to lower the urban-scale air pollution concentrations at pedestrian level. Further, increasing street widths tends to lead to lower pollutant concentrations by reducing emissions and enhancing ventilation simultaneously. Our results indicate that canyon geometry strongly influences human exposure to traffic pollutants in the populated urban area. Carefully planning street layout and canyon geometry while considering traffic demand as well as local weather patterns may significantly reduce inhalation of unhealthy air by urban residents.

  4. The Belle II DEPFET pixel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, Hans-Günther, E-mail: moser@mpp.mpg.de

    2016-09-21

    The Belle II experiment at KEK (Tsukuba, Japan) will explore heavy flavour physics (B, charm and tau) at the starting of 2018 with unprecedented precision. Charged particles are tracked by a two-layer DEPFET pixel device (PXD), a four-layer silicon strip detector (SVD) and the central drift chamber (CDC). The PXD will consist of two layers at radii of 14 mm and 22 mm with 8 and 12 ladders, respectively. The pixel sizes will vary, between 50 μm×(55–60) μm in the first layer and between 50 μm×(70–85) μm in the second layer, to optimize the charge sharing efficiency. These innermost layers have to cope with high background occupancy, high radiation and must have minimal material to reduce multiple scattering. These challenges are met using the DEPFET technology. Each pixel is a FET integrated on a fully depleted silicon bulk. The signal charge collected in the ‘internal gate’ modulates the FET current resulting in a first stage amplification and therefore very low noise. This allows very thin sensors (75 μm) reducing the overall material budget of the detector (0.21% X{sub 0}). Four fold multiplexing of the column parallel readout allows read out a full frame of the pixel matrix in only 20 μs while keeping the power consumption low enough for air cooling. Only the active electronics outside the detector acceptance has to be cooled actively with a two phase CO{sub 2} system. Furthermore the DEPFET technology offers the unique feature of an electronic shutter which allows the detector to operate efficiently in the continuous injection mode of superKEKB.

  5. Davis Canyon noise analysis: Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    A study was performed as part of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program to quantify the level and effect of noise from the various major phases of development of the proposed potentially acceptable nuclear waste repository site at Davis Canyon, Utah. This report contains the results of a predictive noise level study for the site characterization, repository construction, and repository operational phases. Included herein are graphic representations of energy averaged sound levels, and of audibility levels representing impact zones expected during each phase. Sound levels from onsite and offsite activity including traffic on highways and railroad routes are presented in isopleth maps. A description of the Environmental Noise Prediction Model used for the study, the study basis and methodologies, and actual modeling data are provided. Noise and vibration levels from blasting are also predicted and evaluated. Protective noise criteria containing a margin of safety are used in relation to residences, schools, churches, noise-sensitive recreation areas, and noise-sensitive biological resources. Protective ground motion criteria for ruins and delicate rock formation in Canyonlands National Park and for human annoyance are used in the evaluation of blasting. The evaluations provide the basis for assessing the noise impacts from the related activities at the proposed repository. 45 refs., 21 figs., 15 tabs

  6. Geology of the Nine Canyon Map Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, M.G.; Landon, R.D.

    1978-09-01

    The basalt stratigraphy and structure of a 175-square kilometer area (the Nine Canyon Map Area) along the southern margin of the Pasco Basin have been studied to help assess the feasibility of a nuclear waste terminal storage facility. Detailed mapping shows that uplift of the Horse Heaven Hills began prior to extrusion of the Priest Rapids Member of the Wanapum Basalt, Columbia River Basalt Group. Both the Pomoma and the Elephant Mountain members (Saddle Mountains Basalt, Columbia River Basalt Group) are wide-spread throughout the basin, but thin considerably along the Horse Heaven Hills in the vicinity of Wallula Gap. The Ice Harbor Member is present only along the northern margin of the map area and possibly occupies a paleo-channel. The Rattlesnake Hills-Wallula Gap Lineament trends north 60 degrees west and intersects the older Horse Heaven Hills anticline in Wallula Gap. Four faults of short length and small vertical displacement are located along this structure. Within the map area, the intensity of folding increases, and the style of faulting changes from normal to reverse with proximity to the Wallula Gap area. No evidence for Quaternary deformation was found

  7. Correlations in star networks: from Bell inequalities to network inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavakoli, Armin; Renou, Marc Olivier; Gisin, Nicolas; Brunner, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    The problem of characterizing classical and quantum correlations in networks is considered. Contrary to the usual Bell scenario, where distant observers share a physical system emitted by one common source, a network features several independent sources, each distributing a physical system to a subset of observers. In the quantum setting, the observers can perform joint measurements on initially independent systems, which may lead to strong correlations across the whole network. In this work, we introduce a technique to systematically map a Bell inequality to a family of Bell-type inequalities bounding classical correlations on networks in a star-configuration. Also, we show that whenever a given Bell inequality can be violated by some entangled state ρ , then all the corresponding network inequalities can be violated by considering many copies of ρ distributed in the star network. The relevance of these ideas is illustrated by applying our method to a specific multi-setting Bell inequality. We derive the corresponding network inequalities, and study their quantum violations. (paper)

  8. A possible loophole in the theorem of Bell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, K; Philipp, W

    2001-12-04

    The celebrated inequalities of Bell are based on the assumption that local hidden parameters exist. When combined with conflicting experimental results, these inequalities appear to prove that local hidden parameters cannot exist. This contradiction suggests to many that only instantaneous action at a distance can explain the Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen type of experiments. We show that, in addition to the assumption that hidden parameters exist, Bell tacitly makes a variety of other assumptions that contribute to his being able to obtain the desired contradiction. For instance, Bell assumes that the hidden parameters do not depend on time and are governed by a single probability measure independent of the analyzer settings. We argue that the exclusion of time has neither a physical nor a mathematical basis but is based on Bell's translation of the concept of Einstein locality into the language of probability theory. Our additional set of local hidden variables includes time-like correlated parameters and a generalized probability density. We prove that our extended space of local hidden variables does not permit Bell-type proofs to go forward.

  9. Device-independent randomness generation from several Bell estimators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto-Silleras, Olmo; Bamps, Cédric; Silman, Jonathan; Pironio, Stefano

    2018-02-01

    Device-independent randomness generation and quantum key distribution protocols rely on a fundamental relation between the non-locality of quantum theory and its random character. This relation is usually expressed in terms of a trade-off between the probability of guessing correctly the outcomes of measurements performed on quantum systems and the amount of violation of a given Bell inequality. However, a more accurate assessment of the randomness produced in Bell experiments can be obtained if the value of several Bell expressions is simultaneously taken into account, or if the full set of probabilities characterizing the behavior of the device is considered. We introduce protocols for device-independent randomness generation secure against classical side information, that rely on the estimation of an arbitrary number of Bell expressions or even directly on the experimental frequencies of measurement outcomes. Asymptotically, this results in an optimal generation of randomness from experimental data (as measured by the min-entropy), without having to assume beforehand that the devices violate a specific Bell inequality.

  10. Computationally Efficient Nonlinear Bell Inequalities for Quantum Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ming-Xing

    2018-04-01

    The correlations in quantum networks have attracted strong interest with new types of violations of the locality. The standard Bell inequalities cannot characterize the multipartite correlations that are generated by multiple sources. The main problem is that no computationally efficient method is available for constructing useful Bell inequalities for general quantum networks. In this work, we show a significant improvement by presenting new, explicit Bell-type inequalities for general networks including cyclic networks. These nonlinear inequalities are related to the matching problem of an equivalent unweighted bipartite graph that allows constructing a polynomial-time algorithm. For the quantum resources consisting of bipartite entangled pure states and generalized Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states, we prove the generic nonmultilocality of quantum networks with multiple independent observers using new Bell inequalities. The violations are maximal with respect to the presented Tsirelson's bound for Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen states and GHZ states. Moreover, these violations hold for Werner states or some general noisy states. Our results suggest that the presented Bell inequalities can be used to characterize experimental quantum networks.

  11. June 2017 Ancho Canyon RF Collects: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junor, William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Layne, John Preston [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Goglio, Joshua Henry [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Quintana, Bobby Arthur [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Snelson-Gerlicher, Catherine Mary [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Goorley, John Timothy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-21

    We report the results from the June 8, 2017, Ancho Canyon RF collection. While bright, electromagnetic signals were seen close to the firing point, there were no detections of signals from the explosively-fired fuse (EFF) at a collection point about 600m distant on the East Mesa. The East Mesa site was unable to collect data because the uninterruptible power supply (UPS) was exhausted by the time of the shot. We did see signals from the EFF at the Bunker 57 antennas, about 123m distant from the Point 88 firing point. The strength of these signals is consistent with our limited knowledge of the collection antenna performance and the use of the standard model to predict the electric field strength. From our knowledge of the geometry of the EFF loop and the current in the loop in this test, and from measurements at the Bunker 57 site, we predict that we would have seen signals of about 50mV at 3.67MHz in a 100 kHz channel on the Rohde & Schwarz HE010 antennas at the East Mesa location. The noise oor there is about 0.113mV (based on the March 2017 collects). Thus we would have had an SNR of 53 dB from the collect, had the data collection system been running.

  12. Relação da presença de hiperacusia em pacientes com paralisia facial periférica de Bell Relation of hyperacusis and peripheral facial paralysis - Bell's palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Ysabel Guzmán Liriano

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A paralisia de Bell é uma paralisia facial unilateral de início súbito e de causa desconhecida. Pode afetar a salivação, o paladar e o lacrimejamento dependendo do topografia do acometimento do nervo facial, e os pacientes podem referir hipersensibilidade auditiva. Nos pacientes com paralisia de Bell, o reflexo estapediano está ausente. OBJETIVO: O objetivo desta investigação foi o de verificar se os pacientes com paralisia de Bell apresentam hiperacusia. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Clínico prospectivo. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram examinados 18 pacientes aleatórios apresentando paralisia facial periférica de Bell. Foi realizada avaliação otorrinolaringológica completa, teste de Hilger, teste de Schirmer, gustometria, audiometria tonal e vocal, imitanciometria e teste de desconforto auditivo. A faixa etária entre 31 e 40 anos foi a mais afetada pela PFP nesta amostra. RESULTADO: Os pacientes do sexo feminino foram os mais afetados estando acometidos em 61% dos casos. A hemi-face direita foi acometida em 56% dos casos. O grau de acometimento local mais encontrado foi o grau IV em 44% dos casos e os graus III e V em 28% dos casos cada. A queixa de hiperacusia esteve presente em apenas um paciente, o que representa 5,5% dos casos. Todos os pacientes estudados apresentaram diminuição nos gráficos audiométricos do limiar de tolerância auditiva, sendo que o reflexo estapediano protege, em média 16 dB, nestes pacientes. CONCLUSÃO: Portanto, concluímos que pacientes com paralisia de Bell apresentam clinicamente queixas de hiperacusia semelhantes da população geral, porém, audiometricamente, o limiar de tolerância auditivo no lado paralisado é menor do que em relação ao do lado normal.Bell's palsy is a unilateral facial paralysis of sudden onset and unknown cause. It may affect salivation, taste and lachrymation depending on the site of facial nerve involvement. Patients can report supersensitive hearing. The stapedius reflex is absent in

  13. 2013 Pacific Gas and Electric Diablo Canyon Power Plant (DCPP): San Simeon, CA Central Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Diablo Canyon Power Plant (DCPP) LiDAR and Imagery datasets are comprised of three separate LiDAR surveys: Diablo Canyon (2010), Los Osos (2011), and San Simeon...

  14. 2011 Pacific Gas and Electric Diablo Canyon Power Plant (DCPP): Los Osos, CA Central Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Diablo Canyon Power Plant (DCPP) LiDAR and Imagery datasets are comprised of three separate LiDAR surveys: Diablo Canyon (2010), Los Osos (2011), and San Simeon...

  15. On the escape of pollutants from urban street canyons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baik, J.J.; Kim, J.J. [Kwangju Inst. of Science and Technology (Korea). Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering

    2002-07-01

    Pollutant transport from urban street canyons is numerically investigated using a two-dimensional flow and dispersion model. The ambient wind blows perpendicular to the street and passive pollutants are released at the street level. Results from the control experiment with a street aspect ratio of 1 show that at the roof level of the street canyon, the vertical turbulent flux of pollutants is upward everywhere and the vertical flux of pollutants by mean flow is upward or downward. The horizontally integrated vertical flux of pollutants by mean flow at the roof level of the street canyon is downward and its magnitude is much smaller than that by turbulent process. These results indicate that pollutants escape from the street canyon mainly by turbulent process and that the net effect of mean flow is to make some escaped pollutants reenter the street canyon. Further experiments with different inflow turbulence intensities, inflow wind speeds, and street aspect ratio confirm the findings from the control experiment. In the case of two isolated buildings, the horizontally integrated vertical flux of pollutants by mean flow is upward due to flow separation but the other main results are the same as those from the control experiment. (author)

  16. Self-guided method to search maximal Bell violations for unknown quantum states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-Kai; Chen, Geng; Zhang, Wen-Hao; Peng, Xing-Xiang; Yu, Shang; Ye, Xiang-Jun; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2017-11-01

    In recent decades, a great variety of research and applications concerning Bell nonlocality have been developed with the advent of quantum information science. Providing that Bell nonlocality can be revealed by the violation of a family of Bell inequalities, finding maximal Bell violation (MBV) for unknown quantum states becomes an important and inevitable task during Bell experiments. In this paper we introduce a self-guided method to find MBVs for unknown states using a stochastic gradient ascent algorithm (SGA), by parametrizing the corresponding Bell operators. For three investigated systems (two qubit, three qubit, and two qutrit), this method can ascertain the MBV of general two-setting inequalities within 100 iterations. Furthermore, we prove SGA is also feasible when facing more complex Bell scenarios, e.g., d -setting d -outcome Bell inequality. Moreover, compared to other possible methods, SGA exhibits significant superiority in efficiency, robustness, and versatility.

  17. On the significance of bell's inequality for hidden-variable theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Baere, W.

    1984-01-01

    It is explicitly shown that Bell's derivation of the generalized Bell inequality and its subsequent interpretation depend on an implicit hypothesis concerning the reproducibility of some set of hidden variables in different runs of the same experiment

  18. Diagnosis and management of patients with Bell's palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Tracy

    Bell's palsy (idiopathic facial paralysis) is the most common cause of acute unilateral facial nerve paralysis. Although it is usually a self-limiting condition, it can be distressing for the patient. Many people who experience one-sided facial paralysis fear that it is a symptom of stroke. However, there are subtle differences between Bell's palsy and stroke. This article discusses potential causes of the condition and identifies the differences between Bell's palsy and stroke. In addition, appropriate strategies for the care of patients with the condition are suggested. Management includes antiviral medication, corticosteroid therapy, eye care, botulinum toxin type A injection, physiotherapy, surgery and acupuncture. Psychological and emotional care of these patients is also important because any facial disability caused by facial nerve paralysis can result in anxiety and stress.

  19. Evaluation of a physiotherapeutic treatment intervention in "Bell's" facial palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederwall, Elisabet; Olsén, Monika Fagevik; Hanner, Per; Fogdestam, Ingemar

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a physiotherapeutic treatment intervention in Bell's palsy. A consecutive series of nine patients with Bell's palsy participated in the study. The subjects were enrolled 4-21 weeks after the onset of facial paralysis. The study had a single subject experimental design with a baseline period of 2-6 weeks and a treatment period of 26-42 weeks. The patients were evaluated using a facial grading score, a paresis index and a written questionnaire created for this study. Every patient was taught to perform an exercise program twice daily, including movements of the muscles surrounding the mouth, nose, eyes and forehead. All the patients improved in terms of symmetry at rest, movement and function. In conclusion, patients with remaining symptoms of Bell's palsy appear to experience positive effects from a specific training program. A larger study, however, is needed to fully evaluate the treatment.

  20. Experimental EPR-steering using Bell-local states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, D. J.; Jones, S. J.; Wiseman, H. M.; Pryde, G. J.

    2010-11-01

    The concept of `steering' was introduced in 1935 by Schrödinger as a generalization of the EPR (Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen) paradox. It has recently been formalized as a quantum-information task with arbitrary bipartite states and measurements, for which the existence of entanglement is necessary but not sufficient. Previous experiments in this area have been restricted to an approach that followed the original EPR argument in considering only two different measurement settings per side. Here we demonstrate experimentally that EPR-steering occurs for mixed entangled states that are Bell local (that is, that cannot possibly demonstrate Bell non-locality). Unlike the case of Bell inequalities, increasing the number of measurement settings beyond two-we use up to six-significantly increases the robustness of the EPR-steering phenomenon to noise.

  1. Experimental violation of multipartite Bell inequalities with trapped ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanyon, B P; Zwerger, M; Jurcevic, P; Hempel, C; Dür, W; Briegel, H J; Blatt, R; Roos, C F

    2014-03-14

    We report on the experimental violation of multipartite Bell inequalities by entangled states of trapped ions. First, we consider resource states for measurement-based quantum computation of between 3 and 7 ions and show that all strongly violate a Bell-type inequality for graph states, where the criterion for violation is a sufficiently high fidelity. Second, we analyze Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states of up to 14 ions generated in a previous experiment using stronger Mermin-Klyshko inequalities, and show that in this case the violation of local realism increases exponentially with system size. These experiments represent a violation of multipartite Bell-type inequalities of deterministically prepared entangled states. In addition, the detection loophole is closed.

  2. Index files for Belle II - very small skim containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevior, Martin; Bloomfield, Tristan; Kuhr, Thomas; Ueda, I.; Miyake, H.; Hara, T.

    2017-10-01

    The Belle II experiment[1] employs the root file format[2] for recording data and is investigating the use of “index-files” to reduce the size of data skims. These files contain pointers to the location of interesting events within the total Belle II data set and reduce the size of data skims by 2 orders of magnitude. We implement this scheme on the Belle II grid by recording the parent file metadata and the event location within the parent file. While the scheme works, it is substantially slower than a normal sequential read of standard skim files using default root file parameters. We investigate the performance of the scheme by adjusting the “splitLevel” and “autoflushsize” parameters of the root files in the parent data files.

  3. Experimental verification of a new Bell-type inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jia-Qiang; Cao, Lian-Zhen; Yang, Yang; Li, Ying-De; Lu, Huai-Xin

    2018-05-01

    Arpan Das et al. proposed a set of new Bell inequalities (Das et al., 2017 [16]) for a three-qubit system and claimed that each inequality within this set is violated by all generalized Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GGHZ) states. We investigate experimentally the new inequalities in the three-photon GGHZ class states. Since the inequalities are symmetric under the identical particles system, we chose one Bell-type inequality from the set arbitrarily. The experimental data well verified the theoretical prediction. Moreover, the experimental results show that the amount of violation of the new Bell inequality against locality realism increases monotonically following the increase of the tangle of the GGHZ state. The most profound physical essence revealed by the results is that the nonlocality of GGHZ state correlate with three tangles directly.

  4. First experimental test of Bell inequalities performed using a non ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    correlation of atomic cascade photons, that was at the origin of the small total efficiency of this type of experiments ... most of the used configurations), and one is, of necessity, led to assume that the photon's population ... a much higher total efficiency than the previous ones, which is, however, still far from the required value ...

  5. Cold-water coral ecosystems in Cassidaigne Canyon: An assessment of their environmental living conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Fabri, Marie-claire; Bargain, Annaelle; Pairaud, Ivane; Pedel, Laura; Taupier-letage, I.

    2017-01-01

    The Cassidaigne canyon is one of the two canyons (together with Lacaze-Duthiers) of the French Mediterranean coast in which cold-water corals have settled and formed large colonies, providing a structural habitat for other species. Nevertheless, the communities settled in the Cassidaigne canyon are physically impacted by discharges of bauxite residues. New information on the distribution of the species Madrepora oculata and the associated species diversity in Cassidaigne canyon was provid...

  6. CODASC : a database for the validation of street canyon dispersion models

    OpenAIRE

    Gromke, C.B.

    2013-01-01

    CODASC stands for Concentration Data of Street Canyons (CODASC 2008, www.codasc.de). It is a database which provides traffic pollutant concentrations in urban street canyons obtained from wind-tunnel dispersion experiments. CODASC comprises concentration data of street canyons with different aspect ratios subjected to various wind directions and also for street canyons with tree-avenues. The database includes concentration data of tree-avenue configurations of different tree arrangement, tree...

  7. The Bell inequality and correlation of spin projection functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, V A

    2009-01-01

    The Bell inequality two-particle spin states are considered. It is shown that violation of this inequality at experimental verifications is connected with the fact that it is proved for some arbitrary random variables, but in experimental verification random variables of special type are used. A new inequality is constructed. It contains a correlation coefficient of random variables, measured at the experiment, and does not have to be violated at experimental verification. For factorizable and separable states it coincides with the usual Bell inequality.

  8. p-adic probability interpretation of Bell's inequality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrennikov, A.

    1995-01-01

    We study the violation of Bell's inequality using a p-adic generalization of the theory of probability. p-adic probability is introduced as a limit of relative frequencies but this limit exists with respect to a p-adic metric. In particular, negative probability distributions are well defined on the basis of the frequency definition. This new type of stochastics can be used to describe hidden-variables distributions of some quantum models. If the hidden variables have a p-adic probability distribution, Bell's inequality is not valid and it is not necessary to discuss the experimental violations of this inequality. ((orig.))

  9. When is facial paralysis Bell palsy? Current diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Anwar

    2005-05-01

    Bell palsy is largely a diagnosis of exclusion, but certain features in the history and physical examination help distinguish it from facial paralysis due to other conditions: eg, abrupt onset with complete, unilateral facial weakness at 24 to 72 hours, and, on the affected side, numbness or pain around the ear, a reduction in taste, and hypersensitivity to sounds. Corticosteroids and antivirals given within 10 days of onset have been shown to help. But Bell palsy resolves spontaneously without treatment in most patients within 6 months.

  10. Gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging in evaluation of Bell palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, A.M.; Wesolowski, D.P.; Bojrab, D.I.; Ernstoff, R.M.; Farah, J.

    1989-01-01

    Eight patients with Bell palsy were evaluated with Gd-DTPA (Magnevist)-enhanced MR imaging in a 1.0-T Siemen's Magnetom unit. Axial pre-and postcontrast and coronal postcontrast T1-weighted MR images of facial nerves were studied. Significant unilateral enhancement of the facial nerve within the internal auditory canal, with or without involvement of the geniculate ganglia, was found in six patients. Three of these patients without satisfactory response to medical treatment underwent surgical decompression, with excellent recovery of facial nerve function. The authors believe that gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging is valuable in the evaluation and management of Bell palsy

  11. [Treatment of idiopathic peripheral facial nerve paralysis (Bell's palsy)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Martin Willy; Hahn, Christoffer Holst

    2013-01-28

    Bell's palsy is defined as an idiopathic peripheral facial nerve paralysis of sudden onset. It affects 11-40 persons per 100,000 per annum. Many patients recover without intervention; however, up to 30% have poor recovery of facial muscle control and experience facial disfigurement. The aim of this study was to make an overview of which pharmacological treatments have been used to improve outcomes. The available evidence from randomized controlled trials shows significant benefit from treating Bell's palsy with corticosteroids but shows no benefit from antivirals.

  12. Constructing quantum games from a system of Bell's inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, Azhar; Abbott, Derek

    2010-01-01

    We report constructing quantum games directly from a system of Bell's inequalities using Arthur Fine's analysis published in early 1980s. This analysis showed that such a system of inequalities forms a set of both necessary and sufficient conditions required to find a joint distribution function compatible with a given set of joint probabilities, in terms of which the system of Bell's inequalities is usually expressed. Using the setting of a quantum correlation experiment for playing a quantum game, and considering the examples of Prisoners' Dilemma and Matching Pennies, we argue that this approach towards constructing quantum games addresses some of their well-known criticisms.

  13. Bell's theorem based on a generalized EPR criterion of reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhard, P.H.; Rosselet, P.

    1995-01-01

    First, the demonstration of Bell's theorem, i.e., of the nonlocal character of quantum theory, is spelled out using the EPR criterion of reality as premises and a gedanken experiment involving two particles. Then, the EPR criterion is extended to include quantities predicted almost with certainty, and Bell's theorem is demonstrated on these new premises. The same experiment is used but in conditions that become possible in real life, without the requirements of ideal efficiencies and zero background. Very high efficiencies and low background are needed, but these requirements may be met in the future

  14. A Newtonian separable model which violates Bell's inequality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notarrigo, S.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of the Mackey's axiomatization of quantum mechanics an argument is given which allows, in determinate circumstances, the violation of Bell's inequality also in a ''classical mechanics'' and a ''classical probability'' context. A classical model made out of two separate subsystems of coupled oscillators is studied by computer experiments to illustrate the point. In fact, the model violates Bell's inequality. The hypothesis is put forward that the principal reason for this violation is due to the special kind of ''detectors'' introduced in the model which gave a ''count'' every time a given dynamical variable of the mechanical system crosses an assigned threshold

  15. The History of Science and Technology at Bell Labs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, David

    2008-03-01

    Over the last 80 years, Bell Labs has been one of the most scientifically and technologically productive research labs in the world. Inventions such as the transistor, laser, cell phone, solar cell, negative feedback amplifier, communications satellite and many others were made there. Scientific breakthroughs such as discovery of the Big Bang, the wave nature of the electron, electron localization and the fractional quantum hall effect were also made there making Bell Labs almost unique in terms of large impacts in both science and technology. In my talk, I will discuss the history of the lab, talk about the present and give some suggestions for how I see it evolving into the future.

  16. Bell's theorem based on a generalized EPR criterion of reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhard, P.H.; Rosselet, P.

    1993-04-01

    First, the demonstration of Bell's theorem, i.e. of the non-local character of quantum theory, is spelled out using the EPR criterion of reality as premises and a gedanken experiment involving two particles. Then, the EPR criterion is extended to include quantities predicted almost with certainty, and Bell's theorem is demonstrated on these new premises. The same experiment is used but in conditions that become possible in real life, without the requirements of ideal efficiencies and zero background. Very high efficiencies and low background are needed, but these requirements may be met in the future. (author) 1 fig., 11 refs

  17. Influence of the Nazaré Canyon, central Portuguese margin, on late winter coccolithophore assemblages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerreiro, C.; Sá, C.; de Stigter, H.; Oliveira, A.; Cachão, M.; Cros, L.; Borges, C.; Quaresma, L.; Santos, A.I.; Fortuño, J.-M.; Rodrigez, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a first attempt to characterize coccolithophore assemblages occurring in the context of an active submarine canyon. Coccolithophores from the upper-middle sections of the Nazaré Canyon (central Portuguese margin) – one of the largest canyons of the European continental margin –

  18. The urban canyon and building energy use: Urban density versus daylight and passive solar gains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strømann-Andersen, Jakob Bjørn; Sattrup, Peter Andreas

    2011-01-01

    .It was found that the geometry of urban canyons has an impact on total energy consumption in the range of up to +30% for offices and +19% for housing, which shows that the geometry of urban canyons is a key factor in energy use in buildings. It was demonstrated how the reflectivity of urban canyons plays...

  19. 77 FR 8895 - Jimbilnan, Pinto Valley, Black Canyon, Eldorado, Ireteba Peaks, Nellis Wash, Spirit Mountain, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ..., Pinto Valley, Black Canyon, Eldorado, Ireteba Peaks, Nellis Wash, Spirit Mountain, and Bridge Canyon..., Eldorado, Ireteba Peaks, Nellis Wash, Spirit Mountain, and Bridge Canyon Wilderness Areas, Lake Mead... wilderness character; providing for reasonable use of Spirit Mountain and adjacent areas in a manner meeting...

  20. CODASC : a database for the validation of street canyon dispersion models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gromke, C.B.

    2013-01-01

    CODASC stands for Concentration Data of Street Canyons (CODASC 2008, www.codasc.de). It is a database which provides traffic pollutant concentrations in urban street canyons obtained from wind-tunnel dispersion experiments. CODASC comprises concentration data of street canyons with different aspect