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Sample records for belize central america

  1. Screening of anti-bacterial activity of medicinal plants from Belize (Central America).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camporese, A; Balick, M J; Arvigo, R; Esposito, R G; Morsellino, N; De Simone, F; Tubaro, A

    2003-07-01

    Twenty-one extracts from seven herbal drugs, Aristolochia trilobata (Aristolochiaceae) leaves and bark, Bursera simaruba (Burseraceae) bark, Guazuma ulmifolia (Sterculiaceae) bark, Hamelia patens (Rubiaceae) leaves and Syngonium podophyllum (Araceae) leaves and bark, used in traditional medicine of Belize (Central America) as deep and superficial wound healers, were evaluated for their anti-bacterial properties. Activity was tested against standard strains of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212. Almost all the extracts were able to inhibit the growth of one or more of the bacterial strains, except that of Enterococcus faecalis. For the first time an anti-microbial activity is reported for Aristolochia trilobata as well as for Syngonium podophyllum. The hexane extracts of Aristolochia trilobata leaves and bark were the most active extracts against Staphylococcus aureus (MIC=0.31 and 0.625mg/ml, respectively).

  2. Coral zonation and diagenesis of an emergent Pleistocene patch reef, Belize, Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lighty, R.G.; Russell, K.L.

    1985-01-01

    Transect mapping and petrologic studies reveal a new depositional model and limited diagenesis of a well-exposed Pleistocene reef outcrop at Ambergris Cay, northern Belize. This emergent shelf-edge reef forms a rocky wave-washed headland at the northern terminus of the present-day 250 km long flourishing Belize Barrier Reef. Previously, the Belize reef outcrop was thought to extend southward in the subsurface beneath the modern barrier reef as a Pleistocene equivalent. The authors study indicate that this outcrop is a large, coral patch reef and not part of a barrier reef trend. Sixteen transects 12.5 m apart described in continuous cm increments from fore reef to back reef identified: extensive deposits of broken Acropora cervicornis; small thickets of A. palmata with small, oriented branches; and muddy skeletal sediments with few corals or reef rubble. Thin section and SEM studies show three phases of early submarine cementation: syntaxial and rosette aragonite; Mg-calcite rim cement and peloids; and colloidal Mg-calcite geopetal fill. Subaerial exposure in semi-arid northern Belize caused only minor skeletal dissolution, some precipitation of vadose whisker calcite, and no meteoric phreatic diagenesis. Facies geometry, coral assemblages, lack of rubble deposits, coralline algal encrustations and Millepora framework, and recognition of common but discrete submarine cements, all indicate that this Pleistocene reef was an isolated, coral-fringed sediment buildup similar to may large patch reefs existing today in moderate-energy shelf environments behind the modern barrier reef in central and southern Belize.

  3. Assessing the suitability of Holocene environments along the central Belize coast, Central America, for the reconstruction of hurricane records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adomat, Friederike; Gischler, Eberhard

    2017-01-01

    Since the Belize coast was repeatedly affected by hurricanes and the paleohurricane record for this region is poor, sediment cores from coastal lagoon environments along the central Belize coast have been examined in order to identify storm deposits. The paleohurricane record presented in this study spans the past 8000 years and exhibits three periods with increased evidences of hurricane strikes occurring at 6000-4900, 4200-3600 and 2200-1500 cal yr BP. Two earlier events around 7100 and 7900 cal yr BP and more recent events around 180 cal yr BP and during modern times have been detected. Sand layers, redeposited corals and lagoon shell concentrations have been used as proxies for storm deposition. Additionally, hiatuses and reversed ages may indicate storm influence. While sand layers and corals represent overwash deposits, the lagoon shell concentrations, which mainly comprise the bivalve Anomalocardia cuneimeris and cerithid gastropods, have been deposited due to changes in lagoon salinity during and after storm landfalls. Comparison with other studies reveals similarities with one record from Belize, but hardly any matches with other published records. The potential for paleotempestology reconstructions of the barrier-lagoon complexes along the central Belize coast differs depending on geomorphology, and deposition of washovers in the lagoon basins is limited, probably due to the interplay of biological, geological and geomorphological processes.

  4. Assessing the suitability of Holocene environments along the central Belize coast, Central America, for the reconstruction of hurricane records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adomat, Friederike; Gischler, Eberhard

    2016-03-01

    Since the Belize coast was repeatedly affected by hurricanes and the paleohurricane record for this region is poor, sediment cores from coastal lagoon environments along the central Belize coast have been examined in order to identify storm deposits. The paleohurricane record presented in this study spans the past 8000 years and exhibits three periods with increased evidences of hurricane strikes occurring at 6000-4900, 4200-3600 and 2200-1500 cal yr BP. Two earlier events around 7100 and 7900 cal yr BP and more recent events around 180 cal yr BP and during modern times have been detected. Sand layers, redeposited corals and lagoon shell concentrations have been used as proxies for storm deposition. Additionally, hiatuses and reversed ages may indicate storm influence. While sand layers and corals represent overwash deposits, the lagoon shell concentrations, which mainly comprise the bivalve Anomalocardia cuneimeris and cerithid gastropods, have been deposited due to changes in lagoon salinity during and after storm landfalls. Comparison with other studies reveals similarities with one record from Belize, but hardly any matches with other published records. The potential for paleotempestology reconstructions of the barrier-lagoon complexes along the central Belize coast differs depending on geomorphology, and deposition of washovers in the lagoon basins is limited, probably due to the interplay of biological, geological and geomorphological processes.

  5. Accretionary Lapilli (Carbonate Spherules) at the Cretaceous-Paleogene ('KT') Boundary in Belize (Central America)

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, D. T.; Petruny, L. W.

    2013-08-01

    The Chicxulub impact event produced accretionary lapilli (or carbonate spherules) that fell across a wide area. This paper compares Chicxulub ('KT') accretionary lapilli from two sites in Belize: Albion Island and Armenia.

  6. Holocene coral patch reef ecology and sedimentary architecture, Northern Belize, Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzullo, S.J.; Anderson-Underwood, K.E.; Burke, C.D.; Bischoff, W.D. (Wichita State Univ., KS (United States))

    1992-12-01

    Coral patch reefs are major components of Holocene platform carbonate facies systems in tropical and subtropical areas. The biotic composition, growth and relationship to sea level history, and diagenetic attributes of a representative Holocene patch reef ([open quotes]Elmer Reef[close quotes]) in the Mexico Rocks complex in northern Belize are described and compared to those of Holocene patch reefs in southern Belize. Elmer Reef has accumulated in shallow (2.5 m) water over the last 420 yr, under static sea level conditions. Rate of vertical construction is 0.3-0.5 m/100 yr, comparable to that of patch reefs in southern Belize. A pronounced coral zonation exists across Elmer Reef, with Monastrea annularis dominating on its crest and Acropora cervicornis occurring on its windward and leeward flanks. The dominance of Montastrea on Elmer Reef is unlike that of patch reefs in southern Belize, in which this coral assumes only a subordinate role in reef growth relative to that of Acropora palmata. Elmer Reef locally is extensively biodegraded and marine, fibrous aragonite and some bladed high-magnesium calcite cements occur throughout the reef section, partially occluding corallites and interparticle pores in associated sands. Patch reefs in southern Belize have developed as catch-up and keep-up reefs in a transgressive setting. In contrast, the dominant mode of growth of Elmer Reef, and perhaps other patch reefs in Mexico Rocks, appears to be one of lateral rather than vertical accretion. This style of growth occurs in a static sea level setting where there is only limited accommodation space because of the shallowness of the water, and such reefs are referred to as [open quotes]expansion reefs[close quotes]. 39 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Noninvasive individual and species identification of jaguars (Panthera onca), pumas (Puma concolor) and ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) in Belize, Central America using cross-species microsatellites and faecal DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wultsch, Claudia; Waits, Lisette P; Kelly, Marcella J

    2014-11-01

    There is a great need to develop efficient, noninvasive genetic sampling methods to study wild populations of multiple, co-occurring, threatened felids. This is especially important for molecular scatology studies occurring in challenging tropical environments where DNA degrades quickly and the quality of faecal samples varies greatly. We optimized 14 polymorphic microsatellite loci for jaguars (Panthera onca), pumas (Puma concolor) and ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) and assessed their utility for cross-species amplification. Additionally, we tested their reliability for species and individual identification using DNA from faeces of wild felids detected by a scat detector dog across Belize in Central America. All microsatellite loci were successfully amplified in the three target species, were polymorphic with average expected heterozygosities of HE = 0.60 ± 0.18 (SD) for jaguars, HE = 0.65 ± 0.21 (SD) for pumas and HE = 0.70 ± 0.13 (SD) for ocelots and had an overall PCR amplification success of 61%. We used this nuclear DNA primer set to successfully identify species and individuals from 49% of 1053 field-collected scat samples. This set of optimized microsatellite multiplexes represents a powerful tool for future efforts to conduct noninvasive studies on multiple, wild Neotropical felids.

  8. Belize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-01

    In 1986, the population of Belize stood at 166,000, with an annual growth rate of 1%. The infant mortality rate was 56/1000, and life expectancy is 60 years. Of the work force of 50,000, 30% are engaged in agriculture, 27% are employed in industry and commerce, 25% are in the services sector, and 16% are government employees. Belize is a parliamentary democracy. Independence was achieved in 1981. The country's gross domestic product was US$156 million in 1985, with an annual growth rate of 1.5%. Per capita income is US$938. Forestry was the major economic activity until the timber supply began to dwindle. Sugar is now the principal export, although efforts are underway to expand the production of citrus, rice, beef, bananas, and tropical fruit. Domestic industry is constrained by the relatively high cost of labor and a small domestic market. Membership in the Caribbean community provides Belize with assured access to a large market for potential grain and livestock surpluses and should help stimulate the growth of commercial agriculture. Belize also expects to benefit from its designation for the Caribbean Basin Initiative, a US Government program designed to stimulate investment in Caribbean nations by providing duty free access to the US market for most Caribbean products. Economic growth has been hindered by the lack of infrastructure, especially roads, electricity, and port facilities. The Government recognizes the need to develop the country, and 54% of its 1986-87 budget of US$106.8 million is earmarked for development spending.

  9. Chicxulub High-Altitude Ballistic Ejecta from Central Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, K. O.; Ocampo, A. C.

    2000-01-01

    Chicxulub ejecta are found in central Belize, 475 km southeast of the impact crater center. These deposits are ballistic ejecta launched along high-altitude trajectories above the atmosphere and deposited as a discontinuous sheet on the terminal Cretaceous land surface.

  10. Centennial and Extreme Climate Variability in the Last 1500 Year from the Belize Central Shelf Lagoon (Central America): Successive Droughts and Floods Linked to the Demise of the Mayan Civilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droxler, A. W.; Agar Cetin, A.; Bentley, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    This study focuses on the last 1500 yr precipitation record archived in the mixed carbonate/siliciclastic sediments accumulated in the Belize Central Shelf Lagoon, part of the Yucatan Peninsula eastern continental margin, proximal to the land areas where the Mayan Civilization thrived and then abruptly collapsed. This study is mainly based upon the detailed analyses of cores, BZE-RH-SVC-58 and 68, retrieved in 30 and 19 m of water depth from Elbow Caye Lagoon and English Caye Channel, respectively. The core timeframe is well-constrained by AMS radiocarbon dating of benthic foraminifera, Quinqueloculina. Carbonate content was determined by carbonate bomb, particle size fractions with a Malvern Master Sizer 2000 particle size analyzer, and element (Ti, Si, K, Fe, Al, Ca, and Sr) counts via X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF). The variations of elements such as Ti and K counts, and Ti/Al in these two cores have recorded, in the past past 1500 years, the weathering rate variations of the adjacent Maya Mountain, defining alternating periods of high precipitation and droughts, linked to large climate fluctuations and extreme events, highly influenced by the ITCZ latitudinal migration. The CE 800-900 century just preceding the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), characterized by unusually low Ti counts and Ti/Al, is interpreted to represent a time of low precipitation and resulting severe droughts in the Yucatan Peninsula, contemporaneous with the Mayan Terminal Classic Collapse. High Ti counts and Ti/Al, although highly variable, during the MCA (CE 900-1350) are interpreted as an unusually warm period characterized by two 100-to-250 years-long intervals of higher precipitation when the number of tropical cyclones peaked. These two intervals of high precipitation during the MCA are separated by a century (CE 1000 -1100) of severe droughts and low tropical storm frequency coinciding with the collapse of Chichen Itza (CE 1040-1100). The Little Ice Age (CE 1350-1850), several centuries

  11. Gangs in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-17

    Citizen Security held in July 2008 indicated that Guatemala now has the second highest murder rate in Central America (roughly 45 per 100,000 people...training regional security forces.48 In recent years, the U.S. Southern Command has taken a leading role in discussing the problem of citizen security in...the results CRS-19 51 “Memo: The Merida Initiative and Citizen Security in Mexico and Central America,” Washington Office on Latin America, March 2008

  12. Ecodesign in Central America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crul, M.R.M.

    2003-01-01

    This PhD thesis describes and analyses the change process started by the Ecodesign project in Central America, executed between 1998 and 2002. The project started using the concept and praxis developed in Europe. Nine ecodesign projects were performed in industry, and ecodesign was introduced to cou

  13. Child health outcomes among Central American refugees and immigrants in Belize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, N; Stone, M C; Smith, J B

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of international migration, including refugee status, upon child health outcomes. Data were drawn from a survey conducted in 1989 in three settlements in Belize, Central America, that have a high proportion of refugees and economic immigrants living side-by-side with the local population. In two of the settlements, the entire population of mothers with children under 6 was interviewed; in the third settlement a two-thirds random sample was interviewed. Health history data were obtained for 255 children of 134 mothers, from whom sociodemographic data were also collected. The majority of children were born to Salvadoran or Guatemalan mothers, but native and naturalized Belizeans in the survey communities were included for comparison purposes. Migration, the exposure variable, was characterized by mother's residency/refugee legal status, nationality, and duration of time in country. Socioeconomic and proximate control variables were included as suggested by the Mosley-Chen framework. Despite normal birthweight averaging 3374 g, a large proportion of children are at the lowest percentiles of the weight-for-age curves (44% below the tenth percentile for the international reference population). A high incidence of diarrheal and respiratory illnesses (30% and 47% of children, respectively, having frequent episodes), and 50% of children with measles vaccination appropriate for age, indicate a population with high potential morbidity. Logistic regression was used to model the effects of migration on weight-for-age and frequency of diarrheal and respiratory tract episodes independent of socioeconomic and proximate factors, as suggested by the Mosley-Chen framework.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Demographic tensions in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-01

    This discussion of Central America focuses on the rapid growth of its population, its stagnating economy, and those countries that are socioeconomically advanced. Between 1950-85 the population of Central America tripled, from 9.1 million to 26. 4 million, due to marked mortality declines and the absence of off-setting fertility declines. The distribution of Central Americas's growing populations sets its population growth apart from that of other developing regions. Currently, almost half of all Central Americans live in cities. Although the average growth rate for Central American countries has fallen and is expected to drop further, the decline does not counterbalance the effect of the absolute rise in population numbers. The average annual growth rate of more than 3% annually in the 1960s fell to about 2.6% in recent years, but this decline is due primarily to socioeconomically advanced Costa Rica and Panama. Central America's age structure further complicates the population crisis. About 43% of Central Americans are under the age of 15. When the increasingly larger young population group enters it reproductive years, the potential for future growth (albeit the falling rate of population increase) is unparalleled. UN population projections show the region's population at 40 million by the year 2000. The 1973 oil crisis began a downward spiral for the buoyant post World War II Central American economy. Between 1950-79, real per capita income growth in Central America doubled, with Central American economies growing an average of 5.3% annually. By the early 1980s, overseas markets of the trade-dependent countries of Central America had dried up due to protectionism abroad and slumping basic commodity prices. These and other factors plunged Central America into its current economic malaise of falling real per capita income, rising unemployment, curtailed export led economic growth, and a rising cost of living. In general, economic growth in Central America

  15. Jaguar conservation in southern Belize: Conflicts, perceptions, and prospects among mayan hunters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K Steinberg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Belize has emerged as an international leader in jaguar conservation through the creation of numerous protected areas that contain prime cat habitat and by strengthening conservation laws. For example, in 1984, Belize created the Cockscomb Basin Jaguar Preserve, the first special jaguar protection area in the Americas. In 1995, the government expanded Cockscomb by creating the adjacent Chiquibul National Park. In 2010, the government continued this commitment to jaguar conservation by creating the Labouring Creek Jaguar Corridor Wildlife Sanctuary in central Belize. As a result of these protected areas, Belize has been rightfully lauded as a leader in nature-based tourism and protected areas creation in Central America. However, outside national parks and communities that directly benefit from ecotourism, it is less clear how supportive rural residents are of cat conservation. It is also not clear if jaguars persist outside protected areas in locations such as southern Belize, where the environment has been significantly altered by human activities. Through interviews with Mayan hunters, this paper investigates the attitudes towards jaguars, human-jaguar conflicts, and potential community-based jaguar conservation in two Mayan villages in the Toledo District in southern Belize. Also, using indirect methods, the paper documents the presence/absence and other temporal/spatial aspects of jaguars in a heavily altered landscape in southern Belize.

  16. Ancient Maya Regional Settlement and Inter-Site Analysis: The 2013 West-Central Belize LiDAR Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlen F. Chase

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available During April and May 2013, a total of 1057 km2 of LiDAR was flown by NCALM for a consortium of archaeologists working in West-central Belize, making this the largest surveyed area within the Mayan lowlands. Encompassing the Belize Valley and the Vaca Plateau, West-central Belize is one of the most actively researched parts of the Maya lowlands; however, until this effort, no comprehensive survey connecting all settlement had been conducted. Archaeological projects have investigated at least 18 different sites within this region. Thus, a large body of archaeological research provides both the temporal and spatial parameters for the varied ancient Maya centers that once occupied this area; importantly, these data can be used to help interpret the collected LiDAR data. The goal of the 2013 LiDAR campaign was to gain information on the distribution of ancient Maya settlement and sites on the landscape and, particularly, to determine how the landscape was used between known centers. The data that were acquired through the 2013 LiDAR campaign have significance for interpreting both the composition and limits of ancient Maya political units. This paper presents the initial results of these new data and suggests a developmental model for ancient Maya polities.

  17. Regional Strategic Appraisal of Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    originally consisted of five states that gained their independence from Spain in 1821 and formed a single country, called Central America Federation ...and in each case a civilian president has voluntarily yielded power to another elected civilian. Electoral processes have nearly acquired a “life of...Observatorio de Seguridad y Defensa en America Latina (OSAL), Instituto Universitario Ortega y Gasset. 38 Ibid. 26 BIBLIOGRAPHY Agosin, Manuel R., David

  18. Post-War Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Kruijt

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available – Terror in the Countryside. Campesino Responses to Political Violence in Guatemala, 1954-1985, by Rachel A. May. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Center for International Studies/Research in International Studies/Latin America Series #35, 2001. – La guerrilla fue mi camino. Epitafio para César Montes, by Julio César Macías. Guatemala: Piedra Santa/Colección Afluentes de Modernidad, 1999. – Testigo de conciencia (Periodismo de Opinión Documentado, by Marco A. Mérida. Guatemala: ARCASAVI, 2000. – Centroamérica 2002. Un nuevo modelo de desarrollo regional, edited by Klaus Bodemer and Eduardo Gamarra. Caracas: Nueva Sociedad, 2002. – Who Governs? Guatemala Five years After the Peace Accords, by Rachel Sieder, Megan Thomas, George Vickers and Jack Spence. Cambridge, Mass.: Hemispheric Initiatives/Washington Office on Latin America (WOLA, January 2002. – Pasos hacia una nueva convivencia: Democracia y participación en Centroamérica, edited by Ricardo Córdova Macías, Günther Maihold and Sabina Kurtenbach. San Salvador: FUNDAUNGO, Instituto de Estudios Iberoamericanos de Hamburgo and Instituto Iberoamericano de Berlin, 2001. – Los desafíos de la democracia en Centroamérica, by René Poitevin and Alexander Sequén-Mónchez. Guatemala: FLACSO, 2002. – Más allá de las elecciones: Diez años después de los acuerdos de paz, edited by Hector Dada Hirezi. San Salvador: FLACSO, 2002. – Guatemala, un proyecto inconcluso: La multiculturalidad, un paso hacia la democracia, by Hugo Cayzac. Guatemala: FLACSO, 2001. – La violencia en el contexto del posconflicto, según la percepción de comunidades urbanas pobres de Guatemala, by Caroline Moser and Cathy McIlwaine. Washington/Bogotá: Banco Mundial-Región de Latinoamérica y el Caribe/Tercer Mundo Editores, 2001. – El lado oscuro de la eterna primavera. Violencia, criminalidad y delincuencia en la postguerra, by Manolo Vela, Alexander Sequén-Mónchez and Hugo Antonio Solares

  19. Scorpionism in Central America, with special reference to the case of Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Borges

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Scorpionism in the Americas occurs mainly in Mexico, northern South America and southeast Brazil. This article reviews the local scorpion fauna, available health statistics, and the literature to assess scorpionism in Central America. Notwithstanding its high toxicity in Mexico, most scorpion sting cases in Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica are produced by species in the genus Centruroides that are only mildly toxic to humans despite the existence of ion channel-active toxins in their venoms. Regional morbidity is low with the exception of Panama, where an incidence of 52 cases per 100,000 inhabitants was recorded for 2007, with 28 deaths from 1998 to 2006. Taxa belonging to the genus Tityus (also present in the Atlantic coast of Costa Rica are responsible for fatalities in Panama, with Tityus pachyurus being the most important species medically. Most Tityus species inhabiting Panama are also found in northern South America from which they probably migrated upon closure of the Panamanian isthmus in the Miocene era. Incorporation of Panama as part of the northern South American endemic area of scorpionism is thereby suggested based on the incidence of these accidents and the geographical distribution of Panamanian Tityus species.

  20. Pandillas and Security in Central America

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces the topic of pandillas (street gangs) and their implications for security in Central America. There is minimal scholarly literature on pandillas and security. In part this is due to serious challenges in analyzing pandillas. First, pandilla members consider truth to be situational; data derived directly from them is suspect. Second, those who know most about them are involved in NGOs that rely on foreign assistance for their work. The project reports the...

  1. Low genetic variation and evidence of limited dispersal in the regionally important Belize manatee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, M.E.; Auil-Gomez, N. E.; Tucker, K.P.; Bonde, R.K.; Powell, J.; McGuire, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    The Antillean subspecies of the West Indian manatee Trichechus manatus is found throughout Central and South America and the Caribbean. Because of severe hunting pressure during the 17th through 19th centuries, only small populations of the once widespread aquatic mammal remain. Fortunately, protections in Belize reduced hunting in the 1930s and allowed the country's manatee population to become the largest breeding population in the Wider Caribbean. However, increasing and emerging anthropogenic threats such as coastal development, pollution, watercraft collision and net entanglement represent challenges to this ecologically important population. To inform conservation and management decisions, a comprehensive molecular investigation of the genetic diversity, relatedness and population structure of the Belize manatee population was conducted using mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA. Compared with other mammal populations, a low degree of genetic diversity was detected (HE=0.455; NA=3.4), corresponding to the small population size and long-term exploitation. Manatees from the Belize City Cayes and Southern Lagoon system were genetically different, with microsatellite and mitochondrial FST values of 0.029 and 0.078, respectively (P≤0.05). This, along with the distinct habitats and threats, indicates that separate protection of these two groups would best preserve the region's diversity. The Belize population and Florida subspecies appear to be unrelated with microsatellite and mitochondrial FST values of 0.141 and 0.63, respectively (P≤0.001), supporting the subspecies designations and suggesting low vagility throughout the northern Caribbean habitat. Further monitoring and protection may allow an increase in the Belize manatee genetic diversity and population size. A large and expanding Belize population could potentially assist in the recovery of other threatened or functionally extinct Central American Antillean manatee populations.

  2. A botanical inventory of forest on karstic limestone and metamorphic substrate in the Chiquibul Forest, Belize, with focus on woody taxa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baden, Maria; Särkinen, Tiina; Conde, Dalia Amor

    2016-01-01

    The Chiquibul Forest Reserve and National Park in Belize is a priority conservation area within the ‘Maya Forest’ in Central America. Although taxonomic data are essential for the development of conservation plans in the region, there is limited knowledge of the existing species in the area. Here...

  3. Mosquito Studies in Belize, Central America: Records, Taxonomic Notes, and a Checklist of Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    S, Roberts DR, Peyton EL, Fernandez-Salas I, Barreto M, Fernandez Loayza R, Elgueta Spinola R, Martinez Granaou R, Rodriguez MH. 1995. Biochem...BHZ 383. Toledo, Jacinto Landing, next to Ja- cinto River, 16ø09’N, 88ø50’W, August 27, 1992. Edge of river; water clear, permanent, with slow to

  4. Turf algae-mediated coral damage in coastal reefs of Belize, Central America

    KAUST Repository

    Wild, Christian

    2014-09-16

    Many coral reefs in the Caribbean experienced substantial changes in their benthic community composition during the last decades. This often resulted in phase shifts from scleractinian coral dominance to that by other benthic invertebrate or algae. However, knowledge about how the related role of coral-algae contacts may negatively affect corals is scarce. Therefore, benthic community composition, abundance of algae grazers, and the abundance and character of coral-algae contacts were assessed in situ at 13 Belizean reef sites distributed along a distance gradient to the Belizean mainland (12–70 km): Mesoamerican Barrier Reef (inshore), Turneffe Atoll (inner and outer midshore), and Lighthouse Reef (offshore). In situ surveys revealed significantly higher benthic cover by scleractinian corals at the remote Lighthouse Reef (26–29%) when compared to the other sites (4–19%). The abundance of herbivorous fish and the sea urchin Diadema antillarum significantly increased towards the offshore reef sites, while the occurrence of direct coral-algae contacts consequently increased significantly with decreasing distance to shore. About 60% of these algae contacts were harmful (exhibiting coral tissue damage, pigmentation change, or overgrowth) for corals (mainly genera Orbicella and Agaricia), particularly when filamentous turf algae were involved. These findings provide support to the hypothesis that (turf) algae-mediated coral damage occurs in Belizean coastal, near-shore coral reefs.

  5. A Study on the Bionomics of Anopheles darlingi Root (Diptera: Culicidae) in Belize, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-01

    shown). (B) A supervised classification of the image was used to quantify the difference in pixel counts of broadleaf/ palm forest (green), pasture...flow by bulldozed forest debris; contamination of freshwater by agrochemicals; and eutrophication of waterways by discharge from food and sugar...conditions of high populations and/or malaria transmission, the application of oils to potential breeding habitats surrounding homes will be performed

  6. The Rotifer fauna of Guatemala and Belize: survey and biogeographical affinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Morales, Alma Estrella; Elías-Gutiérrez, Manuel

    2007-06-01

    Rotifer samples were obtained from 29 localities in northern Guatemala and central-southern Belize during March 2000 and June 2001. A total of 119 species were identified. Ten selected taxa are illustrated and commented: Euchlanis semicarinata, Lepadella apsicora, L. cryphaea, Lecane curvicornis f. lofuana, L. whitfordi, Monommata maculata, Scaridium bostjani, Trichocerca elongata f. braziliensis, and Z. hollaerti. The species Lepadella rhomboidula is a first record for the American Continent. The species are 71% cosmopolitan, 6 % tropicopolitan, and 4.2 % restricted to the subtropics. The Guatemala species number range was Petén-Itza lake (53 taxa), and Raxruja pool (three). La Democracia pool (49 taxa), and the Blue Hole sink-hole (six species) were the extremes in Belize. In total, 68 of the recorded taxa are new for Guatemala and 91 for Belize. Additionally, 47 species are registered by the first time in Central America. A comparison between these two countries and Mexico revealed that the south part of the latter conform a cluster with them, emphasizing the transitional character of this region between the Nearctics and the Neotropics. Furthermore, Guatemala and Belize have differences in species assemblages, as a response to the nature of their particular environments and topographical accidents.

  7. Sources of Economic Fluctuations in Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfredo Toledo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Using panel data from Central America, this paper studies the determining factors of inflation and aggregate output fluctuations by estimating two Structural Vector Autoregressive (SVAR models. Price and output variables are included in one of the models, whereas M2 and the price of oil are additional variables in the other one. Findings of this study suggest that price is determined by the demand, while output seems to be influenced mainly by the supply shocks in that area. It was also evidenced that the price of oil does not have a significant impact on the general price level in that region.

  8. Crustal deformation in northern Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, Diego; Monterroso, David; Tavakoli, Behrooz

    2005-07-01

    Evaluation of the seismic moment tensor for earthquakes on plate boundary is a standard procedure to determine the relative velocity of plates, which controls the seismic deformation rate predicted from the slip on a single fault. The moment tensor is also decomposed into an isotropic and a deviatoric part to discover the relationship between the average strain rate and the relative velocity between two plates. We utilize this procedure to estimate the rates of deformation in northern Central America where plate boundaries are seismically well defined. Four different tectonic environments are considered for modelling of the plate motions. The deformation rates obtained here compare well with those predicted from the plate motions models and are in good agreement with actual observations. Deformation rates on faults are increasingly being used to estimate earthquake recurrence from information on fault slip rate and more on how we can incorporate our current understanding into seismic hazard analyses.

  9. Drug Trafficking as a Lethal Regional Threat in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    and Central America are only found in some magazines like TIME, and “Nueva Sociedad ” [New Society]. Another good source for analysis of current...relacion compleja” [Drugs and Insecurity in Latin America: a complex relation] published by the Colombian magazine Nueva Sociedad in July-August 2000...Organization of American States. 65 Table 1. Police Ratios in Central America Source: Author Interviews; Observatoriapara la violencia , Honduras; CIA

  10. Mantle Structure Beneath Central South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandecar, J. C.; Silver, P. G.; James, D. E.; Assumpcao, M.; Schimmel, M.; Zandt, G.

    2003-12-01

    Making use of 60 digital broadband seismic stations that have operated across central South America in recent years, we have undertaken an inversion for the upper- and uppermost lower-mantle P- and S-wave velocity structures beneath the region. We have combined data from four portable PASSCAL-type experiments as well as the 3 GTSN permanent stations (LPAZ, BDFB and CPUP) and 1 Geoscope station (SPB) located in the region. The portable data were deployed at various times between 1992 and 1999 and include: 28 sites from the Brazilian Lithosphere Seismic Project (BLSP: Carnegie Institution of Washington and Universidade de Sao Paulo), 16 sites from the Broadband ANdean JOint experiment (BANJO: Carnegie Institution of Washington and University of Arizona), 8 sites from the Seismic Exploration of the Deep Altiplano project (SEDA: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) and 4 sites from the University of Brasilia. The P- and S-wave relative delay times are independently obtained via a multi-channel cross correlation of band-passed waveforms for each teleseismic event. These data are then inverted using an iterative, robust, non-linear scheme which parameterizes the 3-D velocity variations as splines under tension constrained at over 120,000 nodes across South America between latitudes of 15 and 30 degrees South. Amongst other features, we robustly image the high-velocity subducting Nazca plate penetrating into the lower mantle and the high-velocity root of the ~3.2 Gyr old Sao Francisco Craton extending to depths of 200-300 km. We will discuss the consistency between our tomographic models and predictions of dynamic mantle models based on plate tectonic reconstructions of subduction.

  11. Preliminary study of pesticide drift into the Maya Mountain protected areas of Belize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    In Belize, Central America, many farms surrounding the Protected Areas of the Maya Mountains rely heavily on the application of agrochemicals. The purpose of this study was to test whether orographic drift of glyphosate and organophosphates into the nearby Maya Mountain Protected Areas occurred by collecting phytotelmic water from seven sites over 3 years. Regardless of location within the Maya Mountain Protected Areas, glyphosate was present; organophosphates were more common at ridge sites. Although glyphosate concentrations were low, due to the number of threatened species and the human use of stream water outside the Maya Mountain Protected Areas, better understanding of these effects is warranted.

  12. Private Higher Education in a Cold War World: Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, James J.

    2009-01-01

    In Central America the Cold War support of the elites by the United States was designed to ward off the communist threat. At the same time social and economic demands by the working and middle classes created revolutionary movements in the face of rigid and violent responses by Central American governments. Issues of social justice pervaded the…

  13. 9 CFR 93.320 - Horses from Central America and the West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Central America and the... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Central America and the West Indies 17 § 93.320 Horses from Central America and the West Indies. Horses from Central America and...

  14. Microsatellite data suggest significant population structure and differentiation within the malaria vector Anopheles darlingi in Central and South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achee Nicole L

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles darlingi is the most important malaria vector in the Neotropics. An understanding of A. darlingi's population structure and contemporary gene flow patterns is necessary if vector populations are to be successfully controlled. We assessed population genetic structure and levels of differentiation based on 1,376 samples from 31 localities throughout the Peruvian and Brazilian Amazon and Central America using 5–8 microsatellite loci. Results We found high levels of polymorphism for all of the Amazonian populations (mean RS = 7.62, mean HO = 0.742, and low levels for the Belize and Guatemalan populations (mean RS = 4.3, mean HO = 0.457. The Bayesian clustering analysis revealed five population clusters: northeastern Amazonian Brazil, southeastern and central Amazonian Brazil, western and central Amazonian Brazil, Peruvian Amazon, and the Central American populations. Within Central America there was low non-significant differentiation, except for between the populations separated by the Maya Mountains. Within Amazonia there was a moderate level of significant differentiation attributed to isolation by distance. Within Peru there was no significant population structure and low differentiation, and some evidence of a population expansion. The pairwise estimates of genetic differentiation between Central America and Amazonian populations were all very high and highly significant (FST = 0.1859 – 0.3901, P DA and FST distance-based trees illustrated the main division to be between Central America and Amazonia. Conclusion We detected a large amount of population structure in Amazonia, with three population clusters within Brazil and one including the Peru populations. The considerable differences in Ne among the populations may have contributed to the observed genetic differentiation. All of the data suggest that the primary division within A. darlingi corresponds to two white gene genotypes between Amazonia (genotype 1

  15. Collaborative studies target volcanic hazards in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluth, Gregg J. S.; Rose, William I.

    Central America is the second-most consistently active volcanic zone on Earth, after Indonesia. Centuries of volcanic activity have produced a spectacular landscape of collapsed calderas, debris flows, and thick blankets of pyroclastic materials. Volcanic activity dominates the history, culture, and daily life of Central American countries.January 2002 marked the third consecutive year in which a diverse group of volcanologists and geophysicists conducted focused field studies in Central America. This type of multi-institutional collaboration reflects the growing involvement of a number of U.S. and non-U.S. universities, and of other organizations, in Guatemala and El Salvador (Table 1).

  16. Forest to agriculture conversion in southern Belize: Implications for migrant land birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, J.P.; Dowell, B.A.; Robbins, C.S.; Sader, S.A.; Doyle, Jamie K.; Schelhas, John

    1993-01-01

    Central America offers a suite of neotropical habitats vital to overwintering migrant land birds. The recent decline of many forest dwelling avian migrants is believed to be related in part to neotropical deforestation and land use change. However, spatio-temporal trends in neotropical habitat availability and avian migrant habitat use are largely unknown. Such information is needed to assess the impact of agriculture conversion on migrant land birds. In response, the USDI Fish and Wildlife Service and the University of Maine began a cooperative study in 1988 which applies remote sensing and field surveys to determine current habitat availability and avian migrant habitat use. Study sites include areas in Belize, Costa Rica, Guatemala and southern Mexico. Visual assessment of Landsat TM imagery indicates southern Belize forests are fragmented by various agricultural systems. Shifting agriculture is predominant in some areas, while permanent agriculture (citrus and mixed animal crops) is the primary system in others. This poster focuses on efforts to monitor forest to agriculture conversion in southern Belize using remote sensing, field surveys and GIS techniques. Procedures and avian migrant use of habitat are summarized.

  17. Women and development in Northern Belize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmann, C T

    1985-07-01

    Northern Belize, composed of Orange Walk and Corozal districts, is the sugar-producing region of Belize, a newly independent country on the Caribbean coast of Central America, and because of the extensive involvement in the modern sugar industry, existing status differentials in Orange Walk have increased. Town farmers have increased their sugarcane license sizes more than villagers and also are much more likely to meet or exceed their delivery quotas than villagers. There has been the differentiation of a new middle socioeconomic stratum in Orange Walk, with a much higher proportion of villagers remaining in the lower stratum than townspeople. With greater involvement in the market economy, there has been a decline in the social integration of groups in the district as well as less symbiosis between husband and wife and among related male age mates. Some people now consistently work for others; there was an egalitarian labor exchange before. With the decline in subsistence production, the extensive reciprocity in food among related women diminishes. Women have participated in the overall changes in Orange Walk, yet their position vis-a-vis men has become weaker. Women are most likely to hold licenses in the communities that participated earliest in the sugar industry and that are the most traditional. With greater market involvement, women become less likely to hold licenses. Women's licenses have not increased to the same degree as those of men. And, with the income from sugar and wage labor, the family income is more and more viewed as belonging to men, rather than being the result of a joint family enterprise. Women become dependent on what men give them, with less control and security. With declining subsistence production, women have a reduced basis of involvement in traditional reciprocal food exchanges with other households. They lose some independent sources of money income with the result of increasing undernutrition for young children. The economic

  18. Nutrition, poverty alleviation, and development in Central America and Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immink, Maarten D C

    2010-03-01

    This paper reviews research with policy relevance for food and nutrition in Central America and similar areas. The research was conducted by the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama (INCAP) during the last three decades of the past millennium (1970-99). Six policy areas were selected for this review: agricultural commercialization and rural development; wage and price policies; human resource development; social safety nets, particularly complementary food programs; multi-sectoral nutrition planning; and food and nutrition monitoring for policy formulation. The contents and major conclusions of the work are described, as well as their public policy implications.

  19. Vertebrate Paleontology in Central America: 30 years of progress

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Vertebrate paleontology began in Central America in 1858 with the first published records, but the last 30 years have seen remarkable advances. These advances range from new localities, to new taxa to new analyses of diverse data. Central American vertebrate fossils represent all of the major taxonomic groups of vertebrates—fishes, amphibians, reptiles (especially turtles), birds and mammals (mostly xenarthrans, carnivores and ungulates)—but coverage is very uneven, with many groups (especial...

  20. José del Valle: a Benthamite in Central America

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between Jeremy Bentham and José Cecilio del Valle, one of the most important leaders of Central America’s independence process. Since this relationship has received little attention from those studying the links between Bentham and Spanish American politicians, with the exception of Miriam Williford, we consider that is very important to explore the influence of the utilitarian philosophy in Central America. With this purpose in mind, we will examine the i...

  1. Visiting the Digital Divide: Women Entrepreneurs in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapper, Helena

    2006-01-01

    Micro and small enterprises comprise approximately 60-70% of enterprises in South and Central America. Most of these enterprises, particularly micro enterprises, are managed and owned by women. These women for the most part lack both skills and training in the use of computers and the Internet, and access to the use of information and…

  2. Investigating the Maya Polity at Lower Barton Creek Cayo, Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollias, George Van, III

    The objectives of this research are to determine the importance of Lower Barton Creek in both time and space, with relation to other settlements along the Belize River Valley. Material evidence recovered from field excavations and spatial information developed from Lidar data were employed in determining the socio-political nature and importance of this settlement, so as to orient its existence within the context of ancient socio-political dynamics in the Belize River Valley. Before the investigations detailed in this thesis no archaeological research had been conducted in the area, the site of Lower Barton Creek itself was only recently identified via the 2013 West-Central Belize LiDAR Survey (WCBLS 2013). Previously, the southern extent of the Barton Creek area represented a major break in our knowledge not only of the Barton Creek area, but the southern extent of the Belize River Valley. Conducting research at Lower Barton Creek has led to the determination of the polity's temporal existence and allowed for a greater and more complex understanding of the Belize River Valley's interaction with regions abutting the Belize River Valley proper.

  3. Contextualizing the trauma experience of women immigrants from Central America, South America, and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltman, Stacey; Hurtado de Mendoza, Alejandra; Gonzales, Felisa A; Serrano, Adriana; Guarnaccia, Peter J

    2011-12-01

    Trauma has been understudied among Latina immigrants from Central and South America. This study examined the types and context of trauma exposure experienced by immigrant women from Central America, South America, and Mexico living in the United States. Twenty-eight women seeking care in primary care or social service settings completed life history interviews. The majority of the women reported some type of trauma exposure in their countries of origin, during immigration, and/or in the United States. In the interviews, we identified types of trauma important to the experience of these immigrants that are not queried by trauma assessments typically used in the United States. We also identified factors that are likely to amplify the impact of trauma exposure. The study highlights the importance of utilizing a contextualized approach when assessing trauma exposure among immigrant women.

  4. Chicxulub Impact Ejecta in Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo, A.; Pope, K.; Fischer, A.; Alvarez, W.; Fouke, B.; Asaro, F.; Webster, C., Jr.; Vega, F.; Smith, J.; Fritsche, A. E.

    1997-01-01

    Chicxulub ejecta deposits in Belize provide the closest exposures of ejecta to the crater and the only exposures of proximal ejecta deposited in a terrestrial environment. A quarry on Albion Island in northern Belize exposes Late Cretaceous, possibly Maastrichtian, carbonate platform sediments that were folded, eroded, and subaerially weathered prior to the deposition of coarse ejecta from Chicxulub. These ejecta deposits are composed of a basal, about 1-m-thick clay and dolomite Spheroid Bed overlain by a about 15-m-thick coarse Diamictite Bed. Many and perhaps most of the clay spheroids are altered glass. Many dolomite spheroids have concentric layers and angular cores are probably of accretionary lapilli origin. A slight Ir concentration (111-152 ppt) was detected in the base of the Spheroid Bed. The Diamictite Bed contains about 10% altered glass, rare shocked quartz, 3-8 m diameter boulders and striated and polished cobbles, one with a penetrating rock chip that plastically deformed the cobble. Ejecta deposits extend to the surface at Albion and the maximum thickness in this area is not known. Ejecta deposits are exposed in several roadside quarries in the Cayo District of central Belize. The Late Cretaceous here is also represented by carbonate platform sediments. The upper surface of the carbonate platform is a highly irregular and extensively recrystallized horizon possibly representing deep karst weathering. Approximately 30 in of diamictite overlies this horizon with a texture similar to the Diamictite Bed at the Albion quarry, but with a more diverse lithology. In three locations the Cayo diamictites, contain red clay layers with abundant polished and striated limestone pebbles and cobbles called Pook's Pebbles, several of which have penetrating rock chips and ablated surfaces. We interpret the Albion Spheroid Bed as a deposit from the impact vapor plume and the Albion and Cayo diamictites as the result of a turbulent flow that contained debris derived

  5. Harmonization of Legislation against Organized Crime in Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Edwin Martínez Ventura

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With the expansion of organized crime in Central America, the countries in this continental sub-region have enacted a great deal of internal legislation, and have ratified international treaties at the universal, regional and Central American level, particularly after the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime took effect in 2000.This abundance of laws is very positive, and is an expression of these Central American States’ intent to fulfill their supranational obligations and provide security for their inhabitants. However, it is also negative in that it has led to dispersion, dislocation, discrepancies and inaccuracies regarding the prevailing legal regulations, because national laws have been developed with different concepts, structures, approaches, scope and definitions.Despite these conditions that are adverse to legal harmonization, Central America can move forward with matching its legislation against organized crime. Actually, there already exists an extensive common legal framework in this area, expressed in the fact that most international treaties on Organized Crime have come into force at the universal, regional and subregional levels, ratified by all or most countriesPolitical will is the common denominator that should mediate all efforts of harmonization and alignment of legislation in Central America; it is essential for proposing steps that are based on a common strategy or program.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5377/rpsp.v1i2.1359

  6. Criticality of U.S. Military Presence in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    The United States can also bring information technology to these societies. New technologies, including biotechnology , have enormous potential to...million cannabis and 12,500 poppy plants during operations in Belize, Costa Rica and Guatemela.58 Unfortunately, future successes like these are likely

  7. Narco-scapes: Cocaine Trafficking and Deforestation in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrathall, D.; McSweeney, K.; Nielsen, E.; Pearson, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Narcotics trafficking and drug interdiction efforts have resulted in a well-documented social crisis in Central America, but more recently, has been tightly linked to environmental catastrophe and accelerated deforestation in transit zones. This talk will outline synthesis findings from multi-country, interdisciplinary research on cocaine trafficking as an engine of forest loss in Central America. During the "narco-boom" of the mid-2000s, we observed a geographical evolution of cocaine flows into Central America, and the transit of cocaine through new spaces, accompanied by specific patterns of social and environmental change in new nodes of transit. We coarsely estimated that the total amount of cocaine flowing through Central America increased from 70 metric tons in 2000 to 350 mt in 2012, implying that total cocaine trafficking revenue in the region increased from roughly 600 million dollars to 3.5 billion in that time. We describe the mechanism by which these locally captured cocaine rents resulted in a rapid conversion of forest into cattle pasture. Narco-traffickers are drawn to invest in the cattle economy, as a direct means of laundering and formalizing proceeds. Ranching is a land intensive activity, and new narco-enriched cattle pastures can be isolated from other forms forest loss solely by their spatial and temporal change characteristics. A preliminary forest change study in Honduras, for example, indicated that areas of accelerated deforestation were in close proximity to known narcotics trafficking routes and were thirteen times more extensive on average than other forest clearings. Deforested areas commonly appeared in isolated and biodiverse lowland tropical rainforest regions that often intersected with protected areas and indigenous reserves. We find that narco-deforestation is a readily identifiable signal of the extent and health of the cocaine economy. This talk will feature summaries of both ethnographic and land cover change we have observed

  8. National Geothermal Association Trade Mission to Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    The United States (US) geothermal industry, the world`s most technically proficient, has been unable to achieve penetration into the markets of the developing nations. This report details the findings of an industry Trade Mission to Central America, tasked with determining the reasons for this shortfall and with developing a US industry geothermal export strategy designed to achieve immediate and long-term export benefits.

  9. National Geothermal Association Trade Mission to Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    The United States (US) geothermal industry, the world's most technically proficient, has been unable to achieve penetration into the markets of the developing nations. This report details the findings of an industry Trade Mission to Central America, tasked with determining the reasons for this shortfall and with developing a US industry geothermal export strategy designed to achieve immediate and long-term export benefits.

  10. Are the Maras Overwhelming Governments in Central America?

    OpenAIRE

    Boraz, Steven C.; Thomas C. BRUNEAU

    2006-01-01

    Military Review, November - December 2006 Violence in Central America has grown so much in the last half decade that Colombia is no longer the homicide capital of the region. In fact, it now ranks fourth in that ignominious distinction behind El Salvador, Honduras, and Guatemala.1 The violence is mostly due to the phenomenon of street gangs, also called pandillas or gangas, but most often maras. They have grown in number, sophistication, and stature and have largely...

  11. Geoenvironmental problems and cross-border cooperation in Central America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marek Graniczny; Jonas Satkunas; Jurga Lazauskiene; Jiri Sebesta

    2006-01-01

    @@ The International Workshop on "Geoenvironmental problems and cross-border cooperation in Central America" was organized in Managua, Nicaragua, 5-8 December, 2005 by the Working Group International Borders-Geoenvironmental Concerns (IBC), under the IUGS Commission on Geosciences for Environmental Management (GEM) and in the framework of the IUGS funded project "Application of geosciences for sustainable development of cross-border areas(GEOCrossBorder)".

  12. Comparison of experimental hut entrance and exit behavior between Anopheles darlingi from the Cayo District, Belize, and Zungarococha, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Paige; Diaz Rodriguez, Gloria Alicia; Briceno, Ireneo; King, Russell; Achee, Nicole L; Grieco, John P

    2013-12-01

    Anopheles darlingi is a major vector for malaria in Central and South America. Behavioral, ecological, genetic, and morphologic variability has been observed across its wide distribution. Recent studies have documented that 2 distinct genotypes exist for An. darlingi: a northern lineage (Belize, Guatemala, Colombia, Venezuela, and Panama) and a southern lineage (Amazonia and southern Brazil). In order to determine if these genotypes exhibited different behavioral traits, entrance and exit movement patterns between 2 field populations of An. darlingi that represented each genotype were evaluated using experimental huts. The Belize population exhibited bimodal entrance, with peak entry occurring between 7:00-8:00 p.m. and 5:00-6:00 a.m. and peak exiting occurring between 7:00-8:00 p.m. The Peru population exhibited unimodal entrance, with peak entry occurring between 10:00-11:00 p.m. and peak exiting occurring between 11:00-12:00 a.m. with a secondary smaller peak at 2:30 a.m. Entrance and exit behavioral patterns were significantly different between the Belize and Peru populations of An. darlingi (log-rank [Mantel-Cox] P < 0.001). Information from the present study will be used in the future to determine if there is a correlation between genotype and host-seeking behavior and can be used in the present for regional vector risk assessment.

  13. A bird's eye survey of central american planorbid molluscs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraense W Lobato

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the course of two trips to Central America (June 1967 and JulyAugust 1976 I had the opportunity of collecting topotypic specimens of Planorbis nicaraguanus Morelet, 1849, anatomically defined in this paper, and of P. yzabalensis Crosse & Fischer, 1879, the identity of the latter with Drepanotrema anatinum (Orbigny, 1835 is confirmed. The following planorbid species were also found: Helisoma trivolvis (Say, 1817 in Nicaragua, Guatemala, Costa Rica and Belize; H. duryi (Wetherby, 1879 in Costa Rica; Biomphalaria helophila (Orbigny, 1835 in Guatemala, Belize, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and El Salvador; B. kuhniana (Clessin, 1883 in Panama; B. obstructa (Morelet,1849 in Guatemala, Belize and El Salvador; B. straminea (Dunker, 1848 in Costa Rica; B. subprona (Martens, 1899 in Guatemala; D. anatinum (Orbigny,1835 in Belize, Guatemala, Nicaragua and Costa Rica; D. depressissimum (Moricand,1839 in Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama; D. lucidum (Pfeiffer, 1839 in Guatemala, Belize and Nicaragua; D. surinamense (Clessin, 1884 in Costa Rica and Panama; and Gyraulus percarinatus sp. n. in Panama. The occurrence of B. kuhniana and D. surinamense is first recorded in Central America, and Gyraulus percarinatus is the first representative of the genus provenly occurring in the American continent south of the United States. The following synonymy is proposed: Planorbis declivis Tate, 1870 = Biomphalaria helophila (Orbigny, 1835; Planorbis isthmicus Pilsbry, 1920 = Biomphalaria kuhniana (Clessin, 1883; Planorbis cannarum Morelet, 1849 and Segmentina donbilli Tristram, 1861 = Biomphalaria obstructa (Morelet, 1849; and Planorbis yzabalensis Crosse & Fischer, 1879 = Drepanotrema anatinum (Orbigny, 1835, confirming Aguayo (1933.

  14. Seamount, ridge, and transform subduction in southern Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morell, Kristin D.

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the factors that control subduction zone processes is a first-order goal in the study of convergent margins. In southern Central America, a growing body of research reveals strong links between the character of the subducting slab and the mechanics of important processes that include subduction erosion, fluid flow, deformation, and seismogenesis. In this paper, I evaluate the role that seamount, ridge, and transform subduction have in the development of upper plate deformation and volcanism by summarizing previous work across a >500 km long region of Central America where each of these three scenarios are present along strike. The data show that the subduction of short-wavelength bathymetry (e.g., seamounts and faults on the seafloor) produces short-wavelength deformation that persists for relatively short timescales (104-105 years), whereas the subduction of longer-wavelength bathymetry (e.g., the aseismic Cocos Ridge) results in longer-wavelength deformation that endures over a longer time scale (106 years). The timing and distribution of upper plate deformation are consistent with subhorizontal Cocos Ridge subduction driving upper plate deformation, and the increased crustal thickness (>20 km) of the subducting Cocos Ridge is likely one of the most important factors in the production of upper plate contraction and crustal thickening. The data illustrate a fundamental connection between lower plate properties and upper plate deformation and highlight the profound influence that bathymetry and crustal thickness have in the localization and kinematics of upper plate strain and volcanism in Middle America.

  15. Central and South America GPS geodesy - CASA Uno

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, James N.; Dixon, Timothy H.

    1990-01-01

    In January 1988, scientists from over 25 organizations in 13 countries and territories cooperated in the largest GPS campaign in the world to date. A total of 43 GPS receivers collected approximately 590 station-days of data in American Samoa, Australia, Canada, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, New Zealand, Norway, Panama, Sweden, United States, West Germany, and Venezuela. The experiment was entitled CASA Uno. Scientific goals of the project include measurements of strain in the northern Andes, subduction rates for the Cocos and Nazca plates beneath Central and South America, and relative motion between the Caribbean plate and South America. A second set of measurements are planned in 1991 and should provide preliminary estimates of crustal deformation and plate motion rates in the region.

  16. Environmental impacts during geothermal development: Some examples from Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, S.; Goff, F.

    1997-04-01

    The impacts of geothermal development projects are usually positive. However, without appropriate monitoring plans and mitigation actions firmly incorporated into the project planning process, there exists the potential for significant negative environmental impacts. The authors present five examples from Central America of environmental impacts associated with geothermal development activities. These brief case studies describe landslide hazards, waste brine disposal, hydrothermal explosions, and air quality issues. Improved Environmental Impact Assessments are needed to assist the developing nations of the region to judiciously address the environmental consequences associated with geothermal development.

  17. Violence, Rule of Law, and Punitive Policies in Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica De la Torre

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article suggests that high levels of violence and crime in the so called North Triangle of Central America (Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras, together with the incapacity of the state of enforcing the rule of law, are causing growing anxiety among the population and are attracting the support of the community to implement authoritarian measures to fight crime. The response of the governments of the region in the face of the rise of crime and public demand for security has been the policies of "iron fist", and the use of "populist punitiveness" as a strategy to gain the backing of an electorate deeply concerned by insecurity.

  18. Team Massachusetts & Central America Solar Decathlon 2015 Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kenneth [Western New England Univ., Springfield, MA (United States)

    2016-04-29

    Our team was Team MASSCA (Massachusetts and Central America), which was a partnership of Western New England University (WNE) located in Massachusetts USA, The Technological University of Panama (UTP), and Central American Technological University (UNITEC) of Honduras. Together we had a group of 6 faculty members and approximately 30 undergraduate students. Our house is ‘The EASI’ House, which stands for Efficient, Affordable, Solar Innovation. The EASI house is rectangular with two bedrooms and one bath, and offers a total square footage of 680. Based on competition estimates, The EASI house costs roughly $121,000. The EASI house has a 5kW solar system. Faculty and students from all three institutions were represented at the competition in Irvine California. Team MASSCA did well considering this was our first entry in the Solar Decathlon competition. Team MASSCA won the following awards: First Place – Affordability Contest Second Place – Energy Balance Contest. The competition provided a great experience for our students (and faculty as well). This competition provided leadership, endurance, and technical knowledge/skills for our students, and was the single most important hands-on experience during their undergraduate years. We are extremely pleased with the awards we received. At the same time we have learned from our efforts and would do better if we were to compete in the future. Furthermore, as a result of our team’s Inter-Americas collaborative effort, UTP and WNE have partnered to form Team PANAMASS (PANAma and MASSachusetts) and have developed The 3 SMART House for the inaugural Solar Decathlon Latin America & Caribbean competition held in Colombia.

  19. Exploration geothermal gradient drilling, Platanares, Honduras, Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, S.J.; Laughlin, A.W.; Ruefenacht, H.D.; Goff, F.E.; Heiken, G.; Ramos, N.

    1988-01-01

    This paper is a review and summary of the core drilling operations component of the Honduras Geothermal Resource Development Project at the Platanares geothermal prospect in Honduras, Central America. Three intermediate depth (428 to 679 m) coreholes are the first continuously cored geothermal exploration boreholes in Honduras. These coring operations are part of the Central America Energy Resource Project (CAERP) effort funded by the Agency for International Development (AID) and implemented by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos) in cooperation with the Empresa Nacional de Energia Electrica (ENEE) and the United States Geological Survey (USGS). This report emphasizes coring operations with reference to the stratigraphy, thermal gradient, and flow test data of the boreholes. The primary objectives of this coring effort were (1) to obtain quantitative information on the temperature distribution as a function of depth, (2) to recover fluids associated with the geothermal reservoir, (3) to recover 75% or better core from the subsurface rock units, and (4) to drill into the subsurface rock as deeply as possible in order to get information on potential reservoir rocks, fracture density, permeabilities, and alteration histories of the rock units beneath the site. The three exploration coreholes drilled to depths of 650, 428 and 679 m, respectively, encountered several hot water entries. Coring operations and associated testing began in mid-October 1986 and were completed at the end of June 1987.

  20. Performance of Early Warning Systems on Landslides in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauch, W.; Devoli, G.

    2012-04-01

    We performed a reconnaissance about Early Warning Systems (EWS) on Landslides (EWSL) in the countries of Central America. The advance of the EWSL began in the 1990-ies and accelerated dramatically after the regional disaster provoked by Hurricane Mitch in 1998. In the last decade, Early Warning Systems were intensely promoted by national and international development programs aimed on disaster prevention. Early Warning on landslides is more complicated than for other geological phenomena. But, we found information on more than 30 EWSL in the region. In practice, for example in planning, implementation and evaluation of development projects, it is often not clearly defined what exactly is an Early Warning System. Only few of the systems can be classified as true EWSL that means 1) being directly and solely aimed at persons living in the well-defined areas of greatest risk and 2) focusing their work on saving lives before the phenomenon impacts. There is little written information about the work of the EWSL after the initial phase. Even, there are no statistics whether they issued warnings, if the warnings were successful, how many people were evacuated, if there were few false alerts, etc.. Actually, we did not find a single report on a successful landslide warning issued by an EWSL. The lack of information is often due to the fact that communitarian EWSL are considered local structures and do not have a clearly defined position in the governmental hierarchy; there is little oversight and no qualified support and long-term support. The EWSL suffer from severe problems as lack of funding on the long term, low technical level, and insufficient support from central institutions. Often the EWSL are implemented by NGÓs with funding from international agencies, but leave the project alone after the initial phase. In many cases, the hope of the local people to get some protection against the landslide hazard is not really fulfilled. There is one case, where an EWSL with a

  1. Metals and organochlorine pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainwater, Thomas R; Wu, Ted H; Finger, Adam G; Cañas, Jaclyn E; Yu, Lu; Reynolds, Kevin D; Coimbatore, Gopal; Barr, Brady; Platt, Steven G; Cobb, George P; Anderson, Todd A; McMurry, Scott T

    2007-02-01

    Despite high animal diversity in the Neotropics and the largely unregulated use and disposal of pesticides and industrial chemicals in Central America, few data exist regarding accumulation of environmental contaminants in Central American wildlife. In this study we examined accumulation of metals and organochlorine (OC) pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica. Scutes from Morelet's crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) from two sites in northern Belize were analyzed for metals, and scutes from American crocodiles (C. acutus) from one site in Costa Rica were analyzed for metals and OC pesticides. All scutes (n=25; one scute from each of 25 individuals) contained multiple contaminants. Mercury was the predominant metal detected, occurring in all scutes examined from both species. Other metals detected include cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. American crocodile scutes from Costa Rica contained multiple OC pesticides, including endrin, methoxychlor, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDT, all of which occurred in 100% of scutes analyzed (n=6). Mean metal and OC concentrations varied in relation to those previously reported in crocodilian scutes from other localities in North, Central, and South America. OC concentrations in American crocodile scutes were generally higher than those previously reported for other Costa Rican wildlife. Currently, caudal scutes may serve as general, non-lethal indicators of contaminant accumulation in crocodilians and their areas of occurrence. However, a better understanding of the relationships between pollutant concentrations in scutes, internal tissues, and environmental matrices at sample collection sites are needed to improve the utility of scutes in future ecotoxicological investigations.

  2. Metals and organochlorine pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rainwater, Thomas R. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)]. E-mail: thomas.rainwater@tiehh.ttu.edu; Wu, Ted H. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Finger, Adam G. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Canas, Jaclyn E. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Yu Lu [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Reynolds, Kevin D. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Coimbatore, Gopal [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Barr, Brady [National Geographic Channel, 1145 17th St. NW Washington, DC 20036 (United States); Platt, Steven G. [Department of Biology, Box C-64, Sul Ross State University, Alpine, TX 79832 (United States); Cobb, George P. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Anderson, Todd A. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); McMurry, Scott T. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)

    2007-02-01

    Despite high animal diversity in the Neotropics and the largely unregulated use and disposal of pesticides and industrial chemicals in Central America, few data exist regarding accumulation of environmental contaminants in Central American wildlife. In this study we examined accumulation of metals and organochlorine (OC) pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica. Scutes from Morelet's crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) from two sites in northern Belize were analyzed for metals, and scutes from American crocodiles (C. acutus) from one site in Costa Rica were analyzed for metals and OC pesticides. All scutes (n = 25; one scute from each of 25 individuals) contained multiple contaminants. Mercury was the predominant metal detected, occurring in all scutes examined from both species. Other metals detected include cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. American crocodile scutes from Costa Rica contained multiple OC pesticides, including endrin, methoxychlor, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDT, all of which occurred in 100% of scutes analyzed (n = 6). Mean metal and OC concentrations varied in relation to those previously reported in crocodilian scutes from other localities in North, Central, and South America. OC concentrations in American crocodile scutes were generally higher than those previously reported for other Costa Rican wildlife. Currently, caudal scutes may serve as general, non-lethal indicators of contaminant accumulation in crocodilians and their areas of occurrence. However, a better understanding of the relationships between pollutant concentrations in scutes, internal tissues, and environmental matrices at sample collection sites are needed to improve the utility of scutes in future ecotoxicological investigations.

  3. Petroleum geology of Pacific margin of Central America and northern South America, from Guatemala to Ecuador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scrutton, M.E.; Escalante, G.F.

    1986-07-01

    Exploration for hydrocarbons along the Pacific margin of Central America and northern South America has been limited and spasmodic. Less than 100 exploration wells have been drilled, with nearly 50 of these being in the Santa Elena, Progreso, and Guayas basins in Ecuador. Shows have been reported in some wells, and a few oil seeps are known. The only commercial production established to date has been from the Santa Elena Peninsula in Ecuador in the extreme south of the study area. Understanding of the geology in this part of the continental margin is incomplete at best. This paper reviews present-day knowledge in an attempt to define the sedimentary basins better, to characterize their structure and stratigraphy, and to assess their petroleum prospects. The area of continental margin reviewed is to the north, located northwest of the trench system where oceanic crust of the Cocos plate subducts under the Caribbean plate, and to the south, where the northern part of the Nazca plate collides with the South American plate. This plate tectonic setting forms the framework on which local structural and sedimentary events have created a series of relatively small trench-slope and forearc basins in what is now the coastal plain and adjacent offshore area of Central and South America, south or west of a line of mountain ranges with active volcanism. Sedimentary fill is generally of Tertiary age. The basins and subbasins recognized and described include: in Ecuador - Guayas, Santa Elena, Progreso, Valdivia, Bajo Grande, Manta, Muisne-Esmeraldas, and Borbon; in Colombia - Choco-Pacific; in Panama - Gulf of Panama basin complex (Santiago, Tonosi, Sambu), and Burica-Chiriqui; in Costa Rica - Terraba and Coronado/Tempisque; in Nicaragua - San Juan del Sur; and in the Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala - the Pacific coastal basin.

  4. Geomorphic analysis of transient landscapes from the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains (northern Central America): implications for the North American-Caribbean-Cocos plate boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreani, L.; Gloaguen, R.

    2015-09-01

    We use a geomorphic approach in order to unravel the recent evolution of the diffuse triple junction between the North American, Caribbean, and Cocos plates in northern Central America. The complex tectonic setting produced an intricate pattern of landscapes that we try to systemize using remote sensing tectonic geomorphology and available geological and geophysical data. We classify regions with specific relief characteristics and highlight uplifted relict landscapes in northern Central America. We also analyze the drainage network from the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains in order to extract information about potential vertical displacements. Our results suggest that most of the landscapes of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains are in transient stage. Topographic profiles and morphometric maps highlight elevated relict surfaces that are characterized by a low amplitude relief. The river longitudinal profiles display upper reaches witnessing these relict landscapes while lower segments characterized by multiple knickpoints, that adjust to new base-level conditions. These results backed by published GPS and seismotectonic data allow us to refine and extend existing geodynamic models of the triple junction. Relict landscapes are delimited by faults and thus result from a tectonic control. The topography of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas evolved as the result of (1) the inland migration of deformation related to the coupling between the Chiapas Massif and the Cocos fore-arc sliver, and (2) the compression along the northern tip of the Central America Volcanic Arc. Although most of the shortening between the Cocos fore-arc sliver and the North American plate is accommodated within the Sierra de Chiapas and Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, a small part may be still transmitted to the Maya Mountains and the Belize margin through a "rigid" Petén basin.

  5. Organochlorine contaminants in Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) eggs from Belize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, T H; Rainwater, T R; Platt, S G; McMurry, S T; Anderson, T A

    2000-03-01

    Non-viable eggs of Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) were collected from Gold Button (GBL) and New River lagoons (NRL) in northern Belize and screened for organochlorine (OC) compounds using gas chromatography (GC) with electron capture detection (ECD). All egg samples from both lagoons (n = 24) tested positive for one or more OCs. Primary contaminants were p,p-DDE and methoxychlor, detected in 100% and 29% of the eggs examined, respectively. Concentrations of individual OC contaminants ranged from 1 ppb (ng chemical/g egg) to > 0.5 ppm (microgram chemical/g egg). Total concentrations of OCs (sum of all OCs) for one egg collected from a nest at GBL reached as high as 0.7 ppm. Sediment samples from both lagoons also tested positive for OCs (lindane, aldrin, methoxychlor, heptachlor epoxide, p,p-DDT, among others). Nest media (soil and plant material) collected from crocodile nests at GBL were positive for p,p-DDT, methoxychlor, aldrin, endosulfan II, and endrin aldehyde. Based on the 24 egg samples analyzed to date, crocodiles from both lagoons are being exposed to OCs. Such exposure may present a health threat to populations of crocodiles in Central America.

  6. Smart power and foreign policy of the People's Republic of China: the case of Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Villegas Mendoza

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the most relevant aspects of the academic debate on smart power, in order to apply this concept to analyze the foreign policy of the Republic of China on Latin America and the Caribbean, but especially to Central America; where the dispute between China and Taiwan for international recognition is evident. It is argued that the smart power of China to Central America is expressed in the attractiveness of having privileged access to the Chinese market and its funding programs and official development assistance. While this country has a large presence in Latin America and the Caribbean, in Central America such influence is counteracted in the light of the close relationship that all Central American countries except Costa Rica, maintain with Taiwan. Based on the development of China as a world power, it is expected that this condition changed, so that this country would increase its influence in Central America.

  7. Are civil wars to blame for crime in Central America?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sofia Cardenal Izquierdo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The countries of Central America are high up on the list of nations with the highest crime rates in the world. According to the literature, the most common argument is that these high crimerates are a legacy of the armed conflicts of the 1980s. This article subjects this theory to an empirical examination. Even though the analysis is preliminary and limited, the results serve to question theexistence of such a link between war and crime. The data show that the areas most affected by war in El Salvador and Guatemala are not the ones that show the highest rates of crime. Furthermore, no direct relation exists between the presence of armed conflict and crime rates at a national level. The presence of armed conflict is neither a necessary factor nor a sufficient one for criminal violence. Onthe contrary, this work points to a close link between inequality and crime rates at a national level.

  8. Comparative Vector Bionomics and Morphometrics of Two Genetically Distinct Field Populations of Anopheles darlingi Root from Belize, Central America and Zungarococha, Peru, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-31

    Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical 46: 172-7 64. Garrett-Jones C. 1964. The Human Blood Index of Malaria Vectors in Relation to...Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical 24: 13-20 94. Klingenberg CP. 2002. Morphometrics and the role of the phenotype in studies of the...Anopheles species from Porto Velho, Rondonia state, western Amazon, Brazil. Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo 54:331-5 125. Morales

  9. Renewable energies. A challenge and an opportunity for Central America; Energias renovables. Un reto y una oportunidad para America Central

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guevara, Leo; Castro S, Rene [Instituto Centroamericano de Administracion de Empresas (INCAE) (Costa Rica)

    2007-07-15

    There are analyzed in this working paper the following aspects: the Central America countries and their relations with the regional energy potencies -Mexico and Venezuela- and the impact they have in the energy supply. There are also explore the following aspects: the San Jose Agreement linked to the fossil fuels supply, the emerging scope boosted by Brazil and Colombia regarding to the alternative fuels. [Spanish] Este trabajo analiza los paises centroamericanos y sus relaciones con las potencias energeticas regionales como Mexico y Venezuela, y como estas impactan el suministro de energia en la region. Tambien se exploran mecanismos como el Pacto de San Jose, ligado al suministro de combustibles fosiles y las oportunidades emergentes impulsadas por Brasil y Colombia con combustibles alternativos.

  10. Biogeography of cedrela (meliaceae, sapindales) in central and South america.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muellner, Alexandra N; Pennington, Terence D; Koecke, A Valerie; Renner, Susanne S

    2010-03-01

    Dated phylogenies have helped clarify the complex history of many plant families that today are restricted to the world's tropical forests, but that have Eocene, Oligocene, and Miocene fossils from the northern hemisphere. One such family is the Meliaceae. Here we infer the history of the neotropical Meliaceae genus Cedrela (17 species), the sister clade of which today is restricted to tropical Asia. Sequences from the nuclear ribosomal spacer region and five plastid loci obtained for all ingroup species and relevant outgroups were used to infer species relationships and for molecular-clock dating under two Bayesian relaxed clock models. The clock models differed in their handling of rate autocorrelation and sets of fossil constraints. Results suggest that (1) crown group diversification in Cedrela started in the Oligocene/Early Miocene and intensified in the Late Miocene and Early Pliocene, and (2) Central American Cedrela species do not form a clade, implying reentry into Central America after the closure of the Panamanian Isthmus. At present, Cedrela is distributed in both dry and humid habitats, but morphological features suggest an origin in dry forest under seasonal climates, fitting with Miocene and Pliocene Cedrela fossils from deciduous forests.

  11. 7 CFR 319.56-25 - Papayas from Central America and Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Papayas from Central America and Brazil. 319.56-25... § 319.56-25 Papayas from Central America and Brazil. The Solo type of papaya may be imported into the... section and all other applicable provisions of this subpart. (a) The papayas were grown and packed...

  12. Geomorphic analysis of transient landscapes in the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains (northern Central America): implications for the North American-Caribbean-Cocos plate boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreani, L.; Gloaguen, R.

    2016-01-01

    We use a geomorphic approach in order to unravel the recent evolution of the diffuse triple junction between the North American, Caribbean, and Cocos plates in northern Central America. We intend to characterize and understand the complex tectonic setting that produced an intricate pattern of landscapes using tectonic geomorphology, as well as available geological and geophysical data. We classify regions with specific relief characteristics and highlight uplifted relict landscapes in northern Central America. We also analyze the drainage network from the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains in order to extract information about potential vertical displacements. Our results suggest that most of the landscapes of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains are in a transient stage. Topographic profiles and morphometric maps highlight elevated relict surfaces that are characterized by a low-amplitude relief. The river longitudinal profiles display upper reaches witnessing these relict landscapes. Lower reaches adjust to new base-level conditions and are characterized by multiple knickpoints. These results backed by published GPS and seismotectonic data allow us to refine and extend existing geodynamic models of the triple junction. Relict landscapes are delimited by faults and thus result from a tectonic control. The topography of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas evolved as the result of (1) the inland migration of deformation related to the coupling between the Chiapas Massif and the Cocos forearc sliver and (2) the compression along the northern tip of the Central American volcanic arc. Although most of the shortening between the Cocos forearc sliver and the North American Plate is accommodated within the Sierra de Chiapas and Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, a small part may be still transmitted to the Maya Mountains and the Belize margin through a "rigid" Petén Basin.

  13. Geochemistry of crude oils, seepage oils and source rocks from Belize and Guatemala

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, H.I.; Holland, B.; Nytoft, H.P.;

    2012-01-01

    Mountains fault block in central Belize which separates the Corozal Basin in northern Belize from the Belize Basin to the south. Numerous petroleum seeps have been reported in both of these basins. Small-scale oil production takes place in the Corozal Basin and the North and South Petén Basins....... For this study, samples of crude oil, seepage oil and potential source rocks were collected from both countries and were investigated by organic geochemical analyses and microscopy. The oil samples consisted of non-biodegraded crude oils and slightly to severely biodegraded seepage oils, both of which were...... generated from source rocks with similar thermal maturities. The crude oils were generated from marine carbonate source rocks and could be divided into three groups: Group 1 oils come from the North Petén Basin (Guatemala) and the western part of the Corozal Basin (Belize), and have a typical carbonate...

  14. Managing weather and climate risks to agriculture in North America, Central America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harlan D. Shannon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, numerous weather- and climate-related natural disasters have impacted North America, Central America, and the Caribbean, repeatedly demonstrating how vulnerable local agriculture is to extreme episodic events. Given this recent history, and expectations that the frequency and intensity of some episodic events will increase with climate change, it is becoming increasingly important for farmers to proactively manage weather and climate risks to agriculture to protect their livelihoods. Some farmers in this region already apply various strategies to help reduce weather and climate risks and uncertainties, including farming in multiple locations, diversifying crops and varieties, seeking alternative sources of income, and purchasing crop insurance. Such efforts often help farmers maintain a more stable income while also protecting and preserving the productivity of the land. Other farmers, however, have failed to implement basic risk management strategies despite the clear benefits. Reasons for these failures can be attributed to inadequate farmer education and training, a lack of tools to help facilitate the practical application of risk management concepts, and poor communications between the agrometeorological and farming communities. The agrometeorological community can help overcome these obstacles by building upon existing efforts that have successfully educated farmers about weather and climate risks to agriculture and have equipped farmers with the data, tools, and applications necessary to manage these risks. Farmer input is critical to preparing effective educational and training materials and developing user-friendly risk management tools. The agrometeorological community should solicit input from farmers regularly to ensure that farmers are obtaining the information necessary to effectively manage weather and climate risks to agriculture.

  15. Federacion de Universidades Privadas de America Central y Panama: Boletin Estadistico (Federation of Private Universities of Central America and Panama: Statistical Bulletin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Jorge A.

    This statistical bulletin provides details on the universities belonging to the Federation of Private Universities of Central America and Panama (FUPAC): Central American University, Rafael Landivar University, Saint John's College, University of Santa Maria La Antigua, Jose Simeon Canas University, Doctor Mariano Galvez University, and the…

  16. Recent crustal deformation in west-central South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Matthew Earl

    I use interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) to create maps of crustal deformation along the coast and within the volcanic arc of central South America. I image deformation associated with six subduction zone earthquakes, four volcanic centers, at least one shallow crustal earthquake, and several salt flats. In addition, I constrain the magnitude and location of post-seismic deformation from the aforementioned subduction zone earthquakes. I combine InSAR observations with data from the Global Positioning System (GPS) and teleseismic data to explore each source of deformation. I use the observations to constrain earthquake and volcanic processes of this subduction zone, including the plumbing system of the volcanoes and the decadal along strike variations in the subduction zone earthquake cycle. I created interferograms of over 900 volcanoes in the central Andes spanning 1992--2002, and found four areas of deformation. I constrained the temporal variability of the deformation, the depth of the sources of deformation assuming a variety of source geometries and crustal structures, and the possible cause of the deformation. I do not observe deformation associated with eruptions at several volcanoes, and I discuss the possible explanations for this lack of deformation. In addition, I constrain the amount of co-seismic and post-seismic slip on the subduction zone fault interface from the following earthquakes: 1995 Mw 8.1 Antofagasta, Chile; 1996 Mw 7.7 Nazca, Peru; 1998 Mw 7.1 Antofagasta, Chile; and 2001 Mw 8.4 Arequipa, Peru. In northern Chile, I compare the location and magnitude of co-seismic slip from 5 Mw > 7 earthquakes during the past 15 years with the post-seismic slip distribution. There is little post-seismic slip from the 1995 and 1996 earthquakes relative to the 2001 event and other recent subduction zone earthquakes.

  17. Pre-Cenozoic tectonic framework of Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horne, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    Central America (C.A.) lies along the junctions of five crustal plates at the western edge of the Caribbean. Major fault zones divide it into at least three blocks, each of which has experienced a distinct tectonic history. Although the region has been dominated by plate interactions during the Cenozoic, paleogeographic and palinspastic relations among the various blocks is increasingly obscure and conjectural back through the Phanerozoic. Pre-Mesozoic rocks are unknown in southern C.A., but are widespread as metamorphic basement complexes in northern C.A. The Maya basement consists of Precambrian igneous massifs and Lower Paleozoic metasedimentary sequences cut by mid-Paleozoic plutons, unconformably overlain locally by Upper Paleozoic terrestrial-to-marine strata. The Chorotega-Choco basement is a Late Mesozoic ophiolite sequence accreted with Upper Cretaceous and Lower Tertiary deep marine volcanic and sedimentary strata into a forearc subduction complex along the Pacific margin. By contrast, Mesozoic successions on the Maya and Chortis blocks are cratonic and grossly similar, consisting of basal transgressive clastics, one or more thick Lower Cretaceous rudistid limestone units, and fluvial-deltaic terrigenous redbed sequences; sections vary in detail locally, and evaporites are common on the Maya block. The Late Cretaceous along the Maya-Chortis boundary was characterized by plate collision, ophiolite obduction, and sinistral block translation.

  18. A regional dynamic vegetation-climate model for Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, R. S.; Cowling, S. A.; Smith, B.

    2009-12-01

    Global vegetation models simulate the distribution of vegetation as a function of climate. Dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) are also able to simulate the vegetation shifts in response to climate change, which makes them particularly useful for addressing questions about past and future climate scenarios. However, DGVMs have been criticized for using generic plant functional types (PFTs) and running the models at a coarse grid cell resolution. Regional dynamic vegetation models are able to simulate important landscape variation, since they use a finer resolution and specific PFTs for their region. Regional studies have typically focused on boreal or temperate ecosystems in North America and Europe. We will be presenting the results of applying a dynamic regional vegetation-climate model (LPJ-GUESS) for Central America. Initially, the model was run with the described global PFTs. However, several biomes were very poorly represented. Two PFTs were added: a Tropical Needleleaf Evergreen Tree to improve the simulation of the Mixed Pine-Oak biome, and a Desert Shrub to capture the Xeric Shrublands. The overall distribution of biomes was visually similar, however the Kappa statistic indicated a poor agreement with the potential biome map (overall Kappa = 0.301). The Kappa statistic did improve as we aggregated cell sizes and simplified the biomes (overall Kappa = 0.728). Compared to remote sensing data, the model showed a strong correlation with total LAI (r = 0.75). The poor Kappa statistic is likely due to a combination of factors. The way in which biomes are defined by the author can have a large influence on the level of agreement between simulated and potential vegetation. The Kappa statistic is also limited to comparing individual grid cells and thus, cannot detect overall patterns. Examining those areas which are poorly represented will help to identify future work and improve the representation of vegetation in these ecological models. In particular, the

  19. Diabetes in South and Central America: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschner, Pablo; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos; Aguirre, Loreto; Franco, Laercio; Gagliardino, Juan Jose; de Lapertosa, Sylvia Gorban; Seclen, Segundo; Vinocour, Mary

    2014-02-01

    The estimated population of the South and Central America (SACA) Region is 467.6 million and 64% is in the age range of 20-79 years but the population pyramid and age distribution are changing. The average prevalence of diabetes in the Region is 8.0% and is expected to reach 9.8% by the year 2035. Prevalence is much lower in rural settings than in urban and the differences attributed to lifestyle changes may be a target for intervention. The indigenous population is a particularly vulnerable group needing special attention. On average, 24% of the adult cases with diabetes are undiagnosed but in some countries this is still as high as 50%. Health expenditure due to diabetes in the Region is around 9% of the global total. Inadequate glycemic control, defined as HbA1c >7%, is a strong predictor of chronic complications which increase resource use in the Region and less than half of the patients enrolled in diabetes care programmes are at target. Fifty percent or more of the adult population is overweight/obese and around one third of the adult population has metabolic syndrome using regional cutoffs for waist circumference. The number of people with IGT is almost equal to those with diabetes presenting an additional challenge for prevention. Children with type 1 diabetes represent only 0.2% of the total population with diabetes but the incidence may be increasing. In many places they have limited access to insulin, and even when available, it is not used appropriately. The available epidemiological data provide the background to act in developing national diabetes programmes which integrate diabetes care with cardiovascular prevention and promote diabetes prevention as well.

  20. Seismic swarms and fluid flow offshore Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzierma, Yvonne; Thorwart, Martin; Hensen, Christian; Rabbel, Wolfgang; Wolf, Florian

    2010-05-01

    Offshore Nicaragua and Northern Costa Rica, the Cocos Plate subducts beneath the Caribbean Plate, carrying with it a large amount of fluids and volatiles. While some of these are set free at great depth beneath the volcanic arc, causing the extremely high water content observed in Nicaraguan mafic magmas (Carr et al., 2003; Kutterolf et al., 2007), some early dehydration reactions already release fluids from the subducting plate underneath the continental slope. Unlike in accretionary margins, where these fluids migrate up along the decollement towards the deformation front, fluid release at erosional margins seems to occur through fractures in the overriding plate (Ranero et al., 2008). Fluid seeps in this region have be observed at seafloor mounds, appearing as side-scan sonar backscatter anomalies or revealed by the presence of chemosynthetic communities (Sahling et al., 2008). In the framework of the General Research Area SFB 574 "Volatiles and Fluids in Subduction Zones", a network of 20 ocean-bottom-stations was deployed offshore Sta Elena Peninsula, Northern Costa Rica, from December 2005 to June 2006. Several distinct swarms of small earthquakes were observed at the seismic stations, which occurred clustered over a time period of several days and have very similar seismic waveforms. Since a correlation of fluid-release sites with the occurrence of sporadic seismic swarms would indicate that fluid migration and fracturing is the mechanism responsible for triggering the earthquake swarms, the events are re-analysed by double-difference localisation to enhance the resolution of the earthquake locations. The results are then considered to estimate the migration velocity and direction and compare the localisations with the known mound sites. Carr, M., Feigenson, M. D., Patino, L. C., and Walker, J. A., 2003: Volcanism and geochemistry in Central America: Progress and problems, in Eiler, J. (ed.), Inside the subduction factory, pp. 153-179, American Geophysical

  1. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis shows high genetic diversity and ecological niche specificity among haplotypes in the Maya Mountains of Belize.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Kaiser

    Full Text Available The amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd has been implicated in amphibian declines around the globe. Although it has been found in most countries in Central America, its presence has never been assessed in Belize. We set out to determine the range, prevalence, and diversity of Bd using quantitative PCR (qPCR and sequencing of a portion of the 5.8 s and ITS1-2 regions. Swabs were collected from 524 amphibians of at least 26 species in the protected areas of the Maya Mountains of Belize. We sequenced a subset of 72 samples that had tested positive for Bd by qPCR at least once; 30 samples were verified as Bd. Eight unique Bd haplotypes were identified in the Maya Mountains, five of which were previously undescribed. We identified unique ecological niches for the two most broadly distributed haplotypes. Combined with data showing differing virulence shown in different strains in other studies, the 5.8 s - ITS1-2 region diversity found in this study suggests that there may be substantial differences among populations or haplotypes. Future work should focus on whether specific haplotypes for other genomic regions and possibly pathogenicity can be associated with haplotypes at this locus, as well as the integration of molecular tools with other ecological tools to elucidate the ecology and pathogenicity of Bd.

  2. Characterization of the Mid Summer Drought in the Central Valley of Costa Rica, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, E.

    2013-05-01

    The IAS region is characterized by climate features of unique nature, one of them is the Mid-Summer Drought (MSD) or "veranillo", an atmospheric feature rarely observed in other tropical regions. On the Pacific slope of Central America, the precipitation annual cycle is characterized by two rainfall maxima in June and September-October, an extended dry season from November to May, and a secondary precipitation minima during July-August (MSD). Three daily gauge stations records, e.g. La Argentina, Fabio Baudrit and Juan Santamaria, located in the Central Valley of Costa Rica were studied to characterize the MSD from 1937 to 2010. Among the aspects considered are the MSD duration, intensity, timing and seasonal predictability. The modulation of these aspects by climate variability sources as Equatorial Eastern Pacific and Tropical North Atlantic was lately explored, including their interannual and decadal variability. The MSD signal strongly impact social and economic life in the region like energy and the agriculture sector. Additionally, the Central Valley of Costa Rica hosts most of the Costa Rican population with the higher level of exposure and vulnerability to hydro-meteorological hazards.

  3. Patterns of illness in travelers visiting Mexico and Central America: the GeoSentinel experience

    OpenAIRE

    Flores-Figueroa, J; Okhuysen, P C; von Sonnenburg, F.; DuPont, H L; Libman, M D; Keystone, J S; Hale, D C; Burchard, G.; Han, P V; Wilder-Smith, A; Freedman, D O

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mexico and Central America are important travel destinations for North American and European travelers. There is limited information on regional differences in travel related morbidity. METHODS: We describe the morbidity among 4779 ill travelers returned from Mexico and Central America who were evaluated at GeoSentinel network clinics during December 1996 to February 2010. RESULTS: The most frequent presenting syndromes included acute and chronic diarrhea, dermat...

  4. THE FISHES OF THE PELICAN CAYS, BELIZE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C. Lavett, James C. Tyler, William P. Davis, Robert S. Jones, David G. Smith and Carole C. Baldwin. Submitted. Fishes of the Pelican Cays, Belize. Atoll Res. Bull. 108 p. (ERL,GB 1204). The fishes of the Pelican Cays, Belize, were sampled using a combination of sma...

  5. Identifying and assessing ecotourism visitor impacts at selected protected areas in Costa Rica and Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, T.A.; Marion, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    Protected area visitation is an important component of ecotourism, and as such, must be sustainable. However, protected area visitation may degrade natural resources, particularly in areas of concentrated visitor activities like trails and recreation sites. This is an important concern in ecotourism destinations such as Belize and Costa Rica, because they actively promote ecotourism and emphasize the pristine qualities of their natural resources. Research on visitor impacts to protected areas has many potential applications in protected area management, though it has not been widely applied in Central and South America. This study targeted this deficiency through manager interviews and evaluations of alternative impact assessment procedures at eight protected areas in Belize and Costa Rica. Impact assessment procedures included qualitative condition class systems, ratings systems, and measurement-based systems applied to trails and recreation sites. The resulting data characterize manager perceptions of impact problems, document trail and recreation site impacts, and provide examples of inexpensive, efficient and effective rapid impact assessment procedures. Interview subjects reported a variety of impacts affecting trails, recreation sites, wildlife, water, attraction features and other resources. Standardized assessment procedures were developed and applied to record trail and recreation site impacts. Impacts affecting the study areas included trail proliferation, erosion and widening, muddiness on trails, vegetation cover loss, soil and root exposure, and tree damage on recreation sites. The findings also illustrate the types of assessment data yielded by several alternative methods and demonstrate their utility to protected area managers. The need for additional rapid assessment procedures for wildlife, water, attraction feature and other resource impacts was also identified.

  6. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Belize; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Belize, a Central American country bordering Mexico to the north, Guatemala to the west and south, and the Caribbean Sea to the east. Although not an island nation, Belize is included in this energy snapshot series because it is a member of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM), an alliance of 15 Caribbean nations in the region.

  7. Central Wind Forecasting Programs in North America by Regional Transmission Organizations and Electric Utilities: Revised Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, J.; Porter, K.

    2011-03-01

    The report and accompanying table addresses the implementation of central wind power forecasting by electric utilities and regional transmission organizations in North America. The first part of the table focuses on electric utilities and regional transmission organizations that have central wind power forecasting in place; the second part focuses on electric utilities and regional transmission organizations that plan to adopt central wind power forecasting in 2010. This is an update of the December 2009 report, NREL/SR-550-46763.

  8. Drug Cartels and Gangs in Mexico and Central America: A View through the Lens of Counterinsurgency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    South America to the U.S.. Since Spanish colonization in the early sixteenth century, Central America and Mexico have endured civil wars, political...fundamental knowledge of the cultural and revolutionary events that shaped socio–political terrain in the region. From as early as the days of the Mayan ...empire, violence and conflict marked the Mesoamerican landscape. The Mayans , a conquering nation in their own right, imposed their rule of law on

  9. Health outcomes among HIV-positive Latinos initiating antiretroviral therapy in North America versus Central and South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Cesar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Latinos living with HIV in the Americas share a common ethnic and cultural heritage. In North America, Latinos have a relatively high rate of new HIV infections but lower rates of engagement at all stages of the care continuum, whereas in Latin America antiretroviral therapy (ART services continue to expand to meet treatment needs. In this analysis, we compare HIV treatment outcomes between Latinos receiving ART in North America versus Latin America. Methods: HIV-positive adults initiating ART at Caribbean, Central and South America Network for HIV (CCASAnet sites were compared to Latino patients (based on country of origin or ethnic identity starting treatment at North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD sites in the United States and Canada between 2000 and 2011. Cox proportional hazards models compared mortality, treatment interruption, antiretroviral regimen change, virologic failure and loss to follow-up between cohorts. Results: The study included 8400 CCASAnet and 2786 NA-ACCORD patients initiating ART. CCASAnet patients were younger (median 35 vs. 37 years, more likely to be female (27% vs. 20% and had lower nadir CD4 count (median 148 vs. 195 cells/µL, p<0.001 for all. In multivariable analyses, CCASAnet patients had a higher risk of mortality after ART initiation (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR 1.61; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.32 to 1.96, particularly during the first year, but a lower hazard of treatment interruption (AHR: 0.46; 95% CI: 0.42 to 0.50, change to second-line ART (AHR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.51 to 0.62 and virologic failure (AHR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.48 to 0.57. Conclusions: HIV-positive Latinos initiating ART in Latin America have greater continuity of treatment but are at higher risk of death than Latinos in North America. Factors underlying these differences, such as HIV testing, linkage and access to care, warrant further investigation.

  10. Health outcomes among HIV-positive Latinos initiating antiretroviral therapy in North America versus Central and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesar, Carina; Koethe, John R; Giganti, Mark J; Rebeiro, Peter; Althoff, Keri N; Napravnik, Sonia; Mayor, Angel; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Wolff, Marcelo; Padgett, Denis; Sierra-Madero, Juan; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Sterling, Timothy R; Willig, James; Levison, Julie; Kitahata, Mari; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C; Moore, Richard D; McGowan, Catherine; Shepherd, Bryan E; Cahn, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Latinos living with HIV in the Americas share a common ethnic and cultural heritage. In North America, Latinos have a relatively high rate of new HIV infections but lower rates of engagement at all stages of the care continuum, whereas in Latin America antiretroviral therapy (ART) services continue to expand to meet treatment needs. In this analysis, we compare HIV treatment outcomes between Latinos receiving ART in North America versus Latin America. Methods HIV-positive adults initiating ART at Caribbean, Central and South America Network for HIV (CCASAnet) sites were compared to Latino patients (based on country of origin or ethnic identity) starting treatment at North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD) sites in the United States and Canada between 2000 and 2011. Cox proportional hazards models compared mortality, treatment interruption, antiretroviral regimen change, virologic failure and loss to follow-up between cohorts. Results The study included 8400 CCASAnet and 2786 NA-ACCORD patients initiating ART. CCASAnet patients were younger (median 35 vs. 37 years), more likely to be female (27% vs. 20%) and had lower nadir CD4 count (median 148 vs. 195 cells/µL, p<0.001 for all). In multivariable analyses, CCASAnet patients had a higher risk of mortality after ART initiation (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) 1.61; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.32 to 1.96), particularly during the first year, but a lower hazard of treatment interruption (AHR: 0.46; 95% CI: 0.42 to 0.50), change to second-line ART (AHR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.51 to 0.62) and virologic failure (AHR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.48 to 0.57). Conclusions HIV-positive Latinos initiating ART in Latin America have greater continuity of treatment but are at higher risk of death than Latinos in North America. Factors underlying these differences, such as HIV testing, linkage and access to care, warrant further investigation. PMID:26996992

  11. Neurocysticercosos in South-Central America and the Indian Subcontinent: a comparative evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagandeep Singh

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis is an important public health problem in South-Central America and South Asia. A review of the differences in epidemiological and clinical attributes of cysticercosis and taeniasis in South Central America and India, respectively, is undertaken in the present communication. Intestinal taeniasis is hyperendemic in several American countries. In comparison, the prevalence of Taenia solium infestation is lower in India. The clinical manifestations in several American neurocysticercosis series comprise epilepsy, intracranial hypertension and meningeal - racemose cysticercosis, in roughly equal proportions. An overwhelming majority of the Indian subjects present with seizures. The commonest pathological substrate of the disorder in Indian patients is the solitary parenchymal degenerating cyst. The reasons for the predominance of solitary forms in India, and of multilesional forms in South Central America are discussed. The magnitude of Taenia solium infestation and the frequency of pork consumption in a given population appear to influence the quantum of cyst load in affected individuals.

  12. Chicxulub Impact Ejecta From Albion Island, Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo, A.; Pope, K.; Fischer, A.; Alvarez, W.; Fouke, B.; Webster, C.; Vega, F.; Smit, J.; Fritsche, A.; Claeys, P.

    1999-01-01

    Impact ejecta from the Albion Formation are exposed in northern Belize. The ejecta come from the outer portion of the continuous ejecta blanket of the Chicxulub crater, which is located 360 km to the northwest.

  13. Are the Maras Overwhelming Governments in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    basic societal functions (for example, commercial transactions, transportation , or communications) and the rule of law. “citizen security” alludes to... transport are prevented from operating unless they pay off the maras. Whole sections of cities, such as Guatemala city and tegucigalpa, are under the...Governments of the Coun- tries of the Central American Integration System, <http://www.sieca.org.gt/ publico / Reuniones_Presidentes

  14. Book review: Vetter, H. 2005. Terralog. Turtles of the World. Vol. 3. Central and South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Book review: Vetter, H. 2005. Terralog. Turtles of the World. Vol. 3. Central and South America/Schildkröten der Welt Band 3. Mittel- und Südamerika: 1-128, color pictures 606 + 9. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, Germany.ISBN 3-930612-82-8; 29.7 x 20.8 cm

  15. Annotated zoogeography of non-marine Tardigrada. Part I: Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, Łukasz; Michalczyk, Łukasz; McInnes, Sandra J

    2014-02-05

    Dividing the world into nine regions, this first paper describes literature records of the limno-terrestrial tardigrades (Tardigrada) reported from Central America. Updating previously published species lists we have revised the taxonomy and provided additional habitat, geographic co-ordinates, and biogeographic comments. It is hoped this work will serve as a reference point and background for further zoogeographic studies.

  16. What drives the high price of road freight transport in Central America ?

    OpenAIRE

    Osborne, Theresa; Pachon, Maria Claudia; Araya, Gonzalo Enrique

    2014-01-01

    In Central America, like many other developing regions, high transport costs are cited as an important impediment to trade and economic growth. Prices for road freight transport, a key mode of transport comprising a significant share of total transport costs for both intra, and extra, regional trade, are particularly high. Averaging 17 US cents per ton-kilometer on main trading routes, the...

  17. The Susceptibility and Behavioral Response of Anopheles Albimanus Weidemann and Anopheles Vestitipennis Dyar and Knab (Diptera: Culicidae) to Insecticides in Northern Belize, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    33:205-211. 66 Marquetti, M.C.., A. Navarro and JA Bisset. 1990. Estudio de la actividad hematofagica de Anopheles vestitipennis Dyar & Knab, 1906...Garcia. 1986. Estudio estaeional de sitios de reposo de anophelinos (Diptera: Culicidae). [Studies of the resting places ofanophelines (Diptera...Anofelinos mexicanos . Taxonomia y distribucion [Mexican anophelines. Taxonomy and distribution]. Mex.., D.F.., ecr. Salubr. Assist. CNEP/SS~ 181 pp

  18. Holocene lagoonal development in the isolated carbonate platforms off Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gischler, Eberhard

    2003-06-01

    Thirty-one vibracores were taken in interior lagoons of Glovers Reef, Lighthouse Reef, and Turneffe Islands—three isolated carbonate platforms offshore Belize, Central America. Holocene facies successions overlying the Pleistocene limestone bedrock begin with soils, followed by mangrove peats, and marine carbonate sediments of lagoonal origin. The soils formed on top of subaerially exposed Pleistocene limestone before the Holocene transgression. Mangrove peats developed during initial flooding of the platforms (Glovers ca. 8.5 ky, Lighthouse ca. 7 ky, Turneffe ca. 6 ky BP). As water depths increased, reefs colonized platform margins, lagoonal circulation improved thereby promoting carbonate production. The basal lagoonal carbonate sediments are characterized by shell beds and/or Halimeda packstones-grainstones. Mollusk-dominated wackestones and packstones follow upsection in Glovers and Lighthouse Reefs. At present, open circulation prevails in Glovers and Lighthouse lagoons. In contrast, organic-rich Halimeda wackestones and packstones dominate the Turneffe Islands Holocene succession. The main lagoon area of Turneffe is enclosed by mangroves, and restricted circulation prevails. Factors that explain the differences in geomorphology, circulation, and facies are variations in depth of antecedent topography and degree of exposure to waves and currents. The thickness of Holocene lagoon sediments may exceed the maximum core length of 6 m in all atolls. Holocene sedimentation rates average 0.6 m/ky, with highest rates in Turneffe (0.82 m/ky), followed by Lighthouse (0.53 m/ky), and Glovers (0.46 m/ky). Like in many other isolated carbonate platforms and atolls, lagoon floor sedimentation did not keep pace with rising sea level, leading to unfilled accommodation space. At present, Glovers has an 18 m deep lagoon, while Lighthouse and the main Turneffe lagoon are 8 m deep. It is unlikely that the lagoons will be completely filled during the Holocene sea level highstand

  19. Galapagos-OIB signature in southern Central America: Mantle refertilization by arc-hot spot interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazel, Esteban; Carr, Michael J.; Hoernle, Kaj; Feigenson, Mark D.; Szymanski, David; Hauff, Folkmar; van den Bogaard, Paul

    2009-02-01

    Although most Central American magmas have a typical arc geochemical signature, magmas in southern Central America (central Costa Rica and Panama) have isotopic and trace element compositions with an ocean island basalt (OIB) affinity, similar to the Galapagos-OIB lavas (e.g., Ba/La 10, 206Pb/204Pb > 18.8). Our new data for Costa Rica suggest that this signature, unusual for a convergent margin, has a relatively recent origin (Late Miocene ˜6 Ma). We also show that there was a transition from typical arc magmas (analogous to the modern Nicaraguan volcanic front) to OIB-like magmas similar to the Galapagos hot spot. The geographic distribution of the Galapagos signature in recent lavas from southern Central America is present landward from the subduction of the Galapagos hot spot tracks (the Seamount Province and the Cocos/Coiba Ridge) at the Middle American Trench. The higher Pb isotopic ratios, relatively lower Sr and Nd isotopic ratios, and enriched incompatible-element signature of central Costa Rican magmas can be explained by arc-hot spot interaction. The isotopic ratios of central Costa Rican lavas require the subducting Seamount Province (Northern Galapagos Domain) component, whereas the isotopic ratios of the adakites and alkaline basalts from southern Costa Rica and Panama are in the geochemical range of the subducting Cocos/Coiba Ridge (Central Galapagos Domain). Geological and geochemical evidence collectively indicate that the relatively recent Galapagos-OIB signature in southern Central America represents a geochemical signal from subducting Galapagos hot spot tracks, which started to collide with the margin ˜8 Ma ago. The Galapagos hot spot contribution decreases systematically along the volcanic front from central Costa Rica to NW Nicaragua.

  20. Mangrove ecosystem dynamics and elemental cycling at Twin Cays, Belize, during the Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooller, Matthew J.; Behling, Hermann; Smallwood, Barbara J.; Fogel, Marilyn

    2004-10-01

    Existing at the transition between the terrestrial environment and hydrosphere, mangroves are sensitive to environmental change (e.g. sea-level rise). We present pollen and stable isotope data from a core (TCC1) of continuous (10 m) mangrove peat from Twin Cays, 12 km off of the coast of Belize, Central America. Radiocarbon dates on fragments of mangrove leaves preserved in TCC1 show that the core provides an 8600 14C year record of mangrove ecosystem changes. Variation in the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition (13C = -30 to -25; 15N = -6 to 2) of mangrove leaves imply that the stand structure and nutrient status of the mangroves at the site have changed during the Holocene. Pollen data from the same core show that the floral composition of the site has changed at points during the Holocene, most notably a brief (240 years) switch at 3860 14C yr BP to dominance by a species of Myrsine (not currently present at the site). Our results are consistent with significant environmental changes (either marked disturbance from hurricanes or fluctuations in sea-level) through the Holocene. Copyright

  1. Risk for transfusion-transmitted infectious diseases in Central and South America.

    OpenAIRE

    Schmunis, G. A.; Zicker, F.; Pinheiro, F.; Brandling-Bennett, D.

    1998-01-01

    We report the potential risk for an infectious disease through tainted transfusion in 10 countries of South and Central America in 1993 and in two countries of South America in 1994, as well as the cost of reagents as partial estimation of screening costs. Of the 12 countries included in the study, nine screened all donors for HIV; three screened all donors for hepatitis B virus (HBV); two screened all donors for Trypanosoma cruzi; none screened all donors for hepatitis C virus (HCV); and six...

  2. Molecular characterization of adenovirus circulating in Central and South America during the 2006–2008 period

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Josefina; Sovero, Merly; Laguna‐Torres, Victor Alberto; Gomez, Jorge; Chicaiza, Wilson; Barrantes, Melvin; Sanchez, Felix; Jimenez, Mirna; Comach, Guillermo; De Rivera, Ivette L.; Agudo, Roberto; Arango, Ana E.; Barboza, Alma; Aguayo, Nicolas; Kochel, Tadeusz J.

    2009-01-01

    Background  Human Adenoviruses are recognized pathogens, causing a broad spectrum of diseases. Serotype identification is critical for epidemiological surveillance, detection of new strains and understanding of HAdvs pathogenesis. Little data is available about HAdvs subtypes in Latin America. Methods  In this study, we have molecularly characterized 213 adenoviruses collected from ILI presenting patients, during 2006‐08, in Central and South America. Results  Our results indicate that 161(76%) adenoviruses belong to subgroup C, 45 (21%) to subgroup B and 7 (3%) to subtype E4. PMID:19903214

  3. Hydrogeochemical investigation of six geothermal sites in Honduras, Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, F.E.; Truesdell, A.H.; Grigsby, C.O.; Janik, C.J.; Shevenell, L.A.; Paredes, J.R.; Gutierrez, J.W.; Trujillo, Jr.; Counce, D.A.

    1987-06-01

    We conducted detailed hydrogeochemical investigations at six geothermal sites in western Honduras: Azacualpa, El Olivar, Pavana, Platanares, Sambo Creek, and San Ignacio. None of the sites is associated with Quaternary silicic volcanism, although El Olivar lies adjacent to a small Quaternary basalt field and Pavana is part of a belt of hot spring activity parallel to and 35 km east of the Central American volcanic arc. None of the sites contains acid-sulfate waters indicative of vapor-dominated conditions. Thermal fluids are characterized by pH between 7 and 10, Cl<125 mg/l, HCO/sub 3/>Cl, SO/sub 4/greater than or equal toCl, Bless than or equal to17 mg/l, Liless than or equal to4 mg/l, and Asless than or equal to1.25 mg/l. Stable isotope analyses of the water show that recharge to the geothermal systems generally occurs from areas of higher elevation adjacent to the sites. Tritium contents of apparently undiluted thermal fluids range from 0 to 0.4 T.U., indicating residence times of fluids in the systems of more than 500 y. Various geochemical indicators show that mixing of hot and cold end-member fluids occurs in the system at Platanares and, to a lesser degree, in the systems at San Ignacio and Azacualpa. No mixing is apparent in the fluids discharging at Pavana, Sambo Creek, or El Olivar. Boiling is the dominant process responsible for subtle geochemical variations at Azacualpa and, possibly, San Ignacio. Our best estimates of subsurface reservoir temperatures are 225/sup 0/C at Platanares, 190/sup 0/C at San Ignacio, 185/sup 0/C at Azacualpa, 155/sup 0/C at Sambo Creek, 150/sup 0/C at Pavana, and 120/sup 0/C at El Olivar. The estimated power output of the three hottest sites is 45 thermal megawatts at Platanares, 14 thermal megawatts at San Ignacio, and 13 thermal megawatts at Azacualpa.

  4. The implications of trade liberalization for diet and health: a case study from Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawkes Corinna

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Central America has undergone extensive trade liberalization over the past two decades, and has recently signed a Free Trade Agreement with the United States. The region is also experiencing a dual burden of malnutrition with the growth of dietary patterns associated with the global 'nutrition transition'. This study describes the relationship between trade liberalization policies and food imports and availability, and draws implications for diet and health, using Central America as a case study region. Methods Changes in tariff and non-tariff barriers for each country were documented, and compared with time-series graphs of import, production and availability data to show the outcome of changes in trade policy in relation to food imports and food availability. Results Changes in trade policy in Central America have directly affected food imports and availability via three avenues. First, the lowering of trade barriers has promoted availability by facilitating higher imports of a wide range of foods. Second, trade liberalization has affected food availability through promoting domestic meat production. Third, reductions in barriers to investment appear to be critical in expansion of processed food markets. This suggests that changes in trade policies have facilitated rising availability and consumption of meat, dairy products, processed foods and temperate (imported fruits in Central America. Conclusion This study indicates that the policies of trade liberalization in Central American countries over the past two decades, particularly in relation to the United States, have implications for health in the region. Specifically, they have been a factor in facilitating the "nutrition transition", which is associated with rising rates of obesity and chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Given the significant cost of chronic disease for the health care system, individuals and the wider community, it is critical

  5. Geochemical signatures of the oceanic complexes in southern Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazel, E.; Herzberg, C. T.; Carr, M. J.; Denyer, P.

    2006-12-01

    /204Pb (18.5-19.0) and 207Pb/204Pb (15.53-15.58). Cretaceous oceanic islands show the same 206Pb/204Pb ratios but higher 207Pb/204Pb. Both could be included in the north and central fields of the Galapagos hot-spot. The post-Cretaceous oceanic islands show higher Pb isotopic ratios that reflect a higher HIMU component and could be included in the in the eastern Galapagos Hot-Spot field. Zr/Nb, Nb/Th, Nb/Y, and Zr/Y show that the CLIP rocks are included within the range of the oceanic plateau basalts with primitive and MORB components. The oceanic islands share these components but also include a recycling component (OIB). Santa Elena Nappe trends toward the subduction component (ARC).

  6. Mapping agricultural landscapes and characterizing adaptive capacity in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, M. B.; Imbach, P. A.; Bouroncle, C.; Donatti, C.; Leguia, E.; Martinez, M.; Medellin, C.; Saborio-Rodriguez, M.; Shamer, S.; Zamora, J.

    2013-12-01

    One of the key challenges in developing adaptation strategies for smallholder farmers in developing countries is that of a data-poor environment, where spatially-explicit information about where the most vulnerable smallholder communities are located is lacking. Developing countries tend to lack consistent and reliable maps on agricultural land use, and have limited information available on smallholder adaptive capacity. We developed a novel participatory and expert mapping process to overcome these barriers and develop detailed national-scale maps that allow for a characterization of unique agricultural landscapes based on profiles of adaptive capacity for smallholder agriculture in each area. This research focuses specifically on the Central American nations of Costa Rica, Guatemala, and Honduras, where our focus is on coffee and basic grains as the two main cropping systems. Here we present the methodology and results of a series of in-depth interviews and participatory mapping sessions with experts working within the broader agricultural sector in each country. We held individual interviews and mapping sessions with approximately thirty experts from each country, and used a detailed survey instrument for each mapping session to both spatially identify distinct agricultural landscapes, and to further characterize each area based on specific farm practices and social context. The survey also included a series of questions to help us assess the relative adaptive capacity of smallholder agriculture within each landscape. After all expert mapping sessions were completed in each country we convened an expert group to assist in both validating and refining the set of landscapes already defined. We developed a characterization of adaptive capacity by aggregating indicators into main assets-based criteria (e.g. land tenure, access to credit, access to technical assistance, sustainable farm practices) derived from further expert weighting of indicators through an online

  7. Population genetics of the understory fishtail palm Chamaedorea ernesti-augusti in Belize: high genetic connectivity with local differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Meredith M

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Developing a greater understanding of population genetic structure in lowland tropical plant species is highly relevant to our knowledge of increasingly fragmented forests and to the conservation of threatened species. Specific studies are particularly needed for taxa whose population dynamics are further impacted by human harvesting practices. One such case is the fishtail or xaté palm (Chamaedorea ernesti-augusti of Central America, whose wild-collected leaves are becoming progressively more important to the global ornamental industry. We use microsatellite markers to describe the population genetics of this species in Belize and test the effects of climate change and deforestation on its recent and historical effective population size. Results We found high levels of inbreeding coupled with moderate or high allelic diversity within populations. Overall high gene flow was observed, with a north and south gradient and ongoing differentiation at smaller spatial scales. Immigration rates among populations were more difficult to discern, with minimal evidence for isolation by distance. We infer a tenfold reduction in effective population size ca. 10,000 years ago, but fail to detect changes attributable to Mayan or contemporary deforestation. Conclusion Populations of C. ernesti-augusti are genetically heterogeneous demes at a local spatial scale, but are widely connected at a regional level in Belize. We suggest that the inferred patterns in population genetic structure are the result of the colonization of this species into Belize following expansion of humid forests in combination with demographic and mating patterns. Within populations, we hypothesize that low aggregated population density over large areas, short distance pollen dispersal via thrips, low adult survival, and low fruiting combined with early flowering may contribute towards local inbreeding via genetic drift. Relatively high levels of regional connectivity

  8. A rapid diversification of rainforest trees (Guatteria; Annonaceae) following dispersal from Central into South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkens, Roy H J; Chatrou, Lars W; Maas, Jan W; van der Niet, Timotheüs; Savolainen, Vincent

    2007-07-01

    Several recent studies have suggested that a substantial portion of today's plant diversity in the Neotropics has resulted from the dispersal of taxa into that region rather than vicariance, but more data are needed to substantiate this claim. Guatteria (Annonaceae) is, with 265 species, the third largest genus of Neotropical trees after Inga (Fabaceae) and Ocotea (Lauraceae), and its widespread distribution and frequent occurrence makes the genus an excellent model taxon to study diversification patterns. This study reconstructed the phylogeny of Guatteria and inferred three major biogeographical events in the history of the genus: (1) a trans-oceanic Miocene migration from Central into South America before the closing of the Isthmus of Panama; (2) a major diversification of the lineage within South America; and (3) several migrations of South American lineages back into Central America via the closed Panamanian land bridge. Therefore, Guatteria is not an Amazonian centred-genus sensu Gentry but a major Miocene diversification that followed its dispersal into South America. This study provides further evidence that migration into the Neotropics was an important factor in the historical assembly of its biodiversity. Furthermore, it is shown that phylogenetic patterns are comparable to those found in Ocotea and Inga and that a closer comparison of these genera is desirable.

  9. Resisting violence against women in Central America: the experience of a feminist collective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Profitt, N J

    1994-01-01

    This article explores how violence against women was resisted in Central America. It was observed that women in Central America have "developed a feminist critical consciousness of the negative responses to their personal and political transformation." This consciousness served as a bridge between various women groups and movements such as the Women's Collective Pancha Carrasco and other mutual support groups. This paper made clear that any organization addressing the issue of violence against women should take place in a context of a political framework where women can make sense of their resistance. Feminist social work practice should therefore be aimed towards a deeper understanding of the social and political dimensions of women. With this, feminist workers shall be able to create a feminist politics that is rooted on the collectivity of the experiences of women and resistance to abuse and violence.

  10. Neoliberal Forms of Capital and The Rise of Social Movement Partyism in Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Almeida

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Historical shifts in global economic formations shape the strategies of resistance movements in the global South. Neoliberal forms of economic development over the past thirty years in Central America have weakened traditional actors sponsoring popular mobilization such as labor unions and rural cooperatives. At the same time, the free market reforms produced new threats to economic livelihood and well-being throughout the region. The neoliberal measures that have generated the greatest levels of mass discontent include rising prices, privatization, labor flexibility laws, mining projects, and free trade. This article analyzes the role of emerging anti-neoliberal political parties in alliance with popular movements in Central America. Countries with already existing strong anti-systemic parties in the initial phases of the global turn to neoliberalism in the late twentieth century resulted in more efficacious manifestations of social movement partyism in the twenty-first century resisting free market globalization.

  11. Transition from the Farallon Plate subduction to the collision between South and Central America: Geological evolution of the Panama Isthmus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barat, Flore; Mercier de Lépinay, Bernard; Sosson, Marc; Müller, Carla; Baumgartner, Peter O.; Baumgartner-Mora, Claudia

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents new geological constraints on the collision of southern Central America with South America, and the resulting deformational episodes that have affected the Panama Isthmus since the Late Cretaceous. The Panama Isthmus is located in southwestern Central America, and it represents the zone of contact between the two land masses: Central America and South America. This collision event is still active today. It has resulted in regional uplift since the Late Miocene/Pliocene and is responsible for the Great American Biotic Interchange between South and North America. Depending on the methods of investigation used, and due to the lack of data available, the time when this collision began is still widely debated and poorly constrained. To better constrain this age, we have studied the rock formations and the tectonic deformations in central and eastern Panama that have occurred since the Late Cretaceous. This study presents new rock ages, field-work documentation and analyses, and seismic-line interpretations, and it is complemented by spatial images for the eastern Panama area. During the Middle Eocene, a number of changes suddenly appeared in the geological records that were synchronous with the break-up of southern Central America into two smaller blocks: Chorotega and Chocó. Our main results identify the prevalence of an extensional tectonic regime from the Middle Eocene to the Middle Miocene that caused the formation of horst and graben structures with thick sedimentary basin fills, and a synchronous clockwise block rotation. Here, we propose that these geologic events are associated with the initiation of the oblique collision of southern Central America with South America. The first contact of the southeastern extremity of Central America occurred around 40 Ma to 38 Ma, and then propagated northwestwards. We describe here this long-term collision episode in relation to the history of the Panama Isthmus.

  12. The politics of civil society building: European private aid agencies and democratic transitions in Central America

    OpenAIRE

    Biekart, C.H.

    1999-01-01

    textabstractStrengthening civil society may be all the rage in the international donor community, but what does it mean in practice? This seminal work critically examines the political aspects of civil society building and the role of non-governmental development aid agencies during recent democratic transitions in Central America. ‘The Politics of Civil Society Building’ is the first comparative study of the policies, practices and political impact of European NGO aid interventions. Drawing ...

  13. A key to the Mexican and Central America Genera of Anthonomini (Curculionidae, Curculioninae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Macotulio Soto; Jones, Robert W; Castillo, Pedro Reyes

    2013-01-01

    Presently the only keys available for identification of genera of Anthonomini are limited to those of the United States of America and Canada. A dichotomous key is presented to identify all genera of Mexican and Central American Anthonomini. Previous keys do not include the genera Achia, Botanebius, Loncophorus, Loncophorellus and Melexerus. A brief synopsis is given for each genus and photographs of representative species are included.

  14. A key to the Mexican and Central America Genera of Anthonomini (Curculionidae, Curculioninae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macotulio Hernandez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Presently the only keys available for identification of genera of Anthonomini are limited to those of the United States of America and Canada. A dichotomous key is presented to identify all genera of Mexican and Central American Anthonomini. Previous keys do not include the genera Achia, Botanebius, Loncophorus, Loncophorellus and Melexerus. A brief synopsis is given for each genus and photographs of representative species are included.

  15. Improving Regional Security in Central America: Military Engagement Options for Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-12-01

    peaceful resolution. This group was made up of foreign ministers from Mexico , Venezuela, Colombia, and Panama and was named after Contadora Island, the...from: Martine, George and Guzman, Jose Miguel, UNFPA Country Support Team, Mexico Source: OPS/OMS (1994); CEPAL (1999); OPS-Nicaragua (http...State. Isacson, Adam 1998. Seguridad Cooperativa en Centroamérica. (Cooperative Security in Central America) Diálogo Centro-americano No. 35

  16. Street Gangs in Central America: Combating them with Intelligence Fusion Centers

    OpenAIRE

    Bruneau, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Street gangs – pandillas in Spanish – are a major security challenge in the three Northern Triangle countries of Central America – El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras.[1] They are also considered a threat in many US cities, with particular focus on the Mara Salvatrucha, MS-13. Domestic party politics in the three countries have resulted in the reliance of heavy hand (mano dura) responses to the gangs, which have mainly served to exacerbate the problem. The anomalous situation of ...

  17. SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND LEARNING: THE CASE OF THE CENTRAL AMERICA LEARNING ALLIANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Faminow, Merle D.; SIMON E. CARTER; MARK LUNDY

    2009-01-01

    This paper sets out to analyze social entrepreneurship in the Central America Learning Alliance, in the context of recent literature on entrepreneurship and learning. Drawing on a recent and rapidly growing literature that describes entrepreneurship as a process that is inherently dynamic and experimental, with learning as a core component, we focus on social entrepreneurship in development as a catalyst of social transformation. A case study of a multi-stakeholder network focused on promotin...

  18. Modeling the Agroecological Land Suitability for Coffea arabica L. in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Leonel; Rasche, Livia; Schneider, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    Coffee production is an important income source for small farms in Central America, but climate change threatens the production. In order to develop efficient adaptation strategies, an assessment of local conditions and opportunities is essential. Lack or uncertainty of information are common challenges for such assessments. A tool to resolve these challenges is Bayesian network analysis. In this study, we developed ALECA, the first Bayesian network model to evaluate the agroecological land suitability for Coffea arabica L. A new set of suitability functions was created and subsequently used to populate the conditional probability tables of the variables. The variables include temperature, precipitation and dry season length for the climate, slope and aspect for the landform, and soil pH, cation exchange capacity and texture for the soil component. We validated ALECA by comparing a map of current coffee areas, and specific coffee areas with known suitability for coffee production in Central America to the suitability evaluations of the model; and proceeded to explore 1) the capabilities of the model to manage data uncertainty, and 2) the changes to suitability scores under climate change. The results showed that the area suitable for coffee production will decline in Central America under climate change, underlining the need for models like ALECA, which can be used to produce reliable land evaluations at local, national and regional scales under uncertainty.

  19. Parvitermes (Isoptera, Termitidae, Nasutitermitinae) in Central America: Two new termite species and reassignment of Nasutitermes mexicanus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffrahn, Rudolf H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The termite genus Parvitermes is now recognized on the Central American mainland to include Parvitermes mexicanus, new combination (previously in Nasutitermes) and two new species, Parvitermes mesoamericanus sp. n. and Parvitermes yucatanus sp. n., herein described from soldiers and workers. These three species, nine West Indian Parvitermes, and Antillitermes subtilis all share characteristic enteric valve spines that orientate against intestinal flow. All species are subterranean nesters and cellulose feeders. Evidence is mounting that generic-level endemicity may be completely absent among the West Indian nasutitermitine fauna and that its origins stem from Central America. PMID:27667954

  20. Making central-local relations work:Comparing America and China environmental governance systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan GUTTMAN; SONG Yaqin

    2007-01-01

    The challenge of making central requirements work at local levels is a common problem for environmental governance throughout the world.Countries can learn from one another's approaches,but must understand the local con text in which they are set.This paper compares the features of the China and US environmental governance systems that need be understood by those working between the systems.Key features include:(1) common values which shape the environmental governance choices in both countries,but which may have different practical meanings in each country;(2) America's common law-based environmental governance system,and China's civil law system,which involves plan(s)as well as law;(3) America's Federal central-local system,and China's unitary central local system.This paper concludes by suggesting areas in which further comparative understanding may be of value,including:(1) better under standing of the role of plan and law in China's governance system;(2) comparing the American Federal-state agreement system for implementation of environmental law with the China central-local system of target responsibility agreements for plan implementation;(3) improving understanding of nongovernmental resources needed to assure compliance with environmental laws and plans;(4) identifying institutions that can coordinate central-local and cross-border environmental governance.

  1. Prevalence, Distributions and Determinants of Obesity and Central Obesity in the Southern Cone of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzano, Lydia; Rubinstein, Adolfo; Calandrelli, Matias; Chen, Chung-Shiuan; Elorriaga, Natalia; Gutierrez, Laura; Manfredi, Jose A.; Seron, Pamela; Mores, Nora; Poggio, Rosana; Ponzo, Jacqueline; Olivera, Hector; He, Jiang; Irazola, Vilma E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity is a major determinant of cardiovascular disease in South America. However, population-based data are limited. Methods A total of 7,524 women and men, aged 35 to 74 years old, were randomly selected from 4 cities in the Southern Cone of Latin America between February 2010 and December 2011. Obesity clinical measurements and cardiovascular risk factors were measured using standard methodology. Results The prevalence of obesity and central obesity were 35.7% and 52.9%, respectively. The prevalence of obesity and central obesity were higher in women, and even higher in women with lower education compared with women with higher education. In men and women obesity was associated with a higher prevalence of diabetes, odds ratio (OR) 2.38 (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.86 to 3.05) and 3.01 (95%CI 2.42 to 3.74) respectively, hypertension (OR 2.79 (95%CI 2.32 to 3.36) and 2.40 (95%CI 2.05 to 2.80) respectively, dyslipidemia (OR 1.83 (95%CI 1.50 to 2.24) and 1.69 (95%CI 1.45 to 1.98), respectively, low physical activity (OR 1.38(95%CI 1.14 to 1.68) and 1.38 (95%CI 1.18 to 1.62) respectively and a lower prevalence of smoking (OR, 0.65 (95%CI 0.53 to 0.80) and 0.58(95%CI 0.48 to 0.70) respectively. Conclusions Obesity and central obesity are highly prevalent in the general population in the Southern Cone of Latin America and are strongly associated with cardiovascular risk factor prevalence. These data suggest that efforts toward prevention, treatment, and control of obesity should be a public health priority in the Southern Cone of Latin America. PMID:27741247

  2. Circulation characteristics of persistent cold spells in central-eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenhua; Manson, Alan H.; Li, Yanping; Meek, Chris

    2017-02-01

    The circulation patterns of persistent cold weather spells with durations longer than 10 days in central-eastern North America (United States and Canada; 32°-52°N, 95°-65°W) are investigated by using NCEP reanalysis data from 1948 to 2014. The criteria for the persistent cold spells are: (1) three-day averaged temperature anomalies for the regional average over the central-eastern United States and Canada must be below the 10th percentile, and (2) such extreme cold spells must last at least 10 days. The circulation patterns associated with these cold spells are examined to find the common signals of these events. The circulation anomaly patterns of these cold spells are categorized based on the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, Arctic Oscillation (AO), and other climate indices. The atmospheric circulation patterns that favor the cold spells are identified through composites of geopotential height maps for the cold spells. Negative AO phases favor persistent cold spells. Phases of sea surface temperature (SST) modes that are associated with warm SSTs in the eastern extratropical Pacific also favor persistent cold events in the study region. Stratospheric polar vortex breakdown alone is not a good predictor for the regional extreme cold spells in central-eastern North America. The meridional dispersions of quasi-stationary Rossby waves in the Pacific-North America sector in terms of cut-off zonal wavenumber modulated by background flow are analyzed to provide insight into the difference in evolution of the cold spells under different mean AO phases. The waveguide for AO > 1 is in a narrow latitudinal band centered on 40°N, whereas the waveguide for AO <-1 is in a broader latitudinal band from 40° to 65°N. The circulation patterns and lower boundary conditions favorable for persistent cold spells identified by this study can be a stepping-stone for improving winter subseasonal forecasting in North America.

  3. Spanish Cooperation with Central America: Political will or Transfer of Resources?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Àngels Miralpeix i Güell

    1995-11-01

    Full Text Available The economies of the six states of Central America do not form a homogeneous block although they share the common denominators of underdevelopment and dependence. The great dependence of Central American economies on only a few export products whose value has been drastically reduced in international markets was one of the fundamental causes of the economic crisis. The reactivation of the subregional economy largely depends on the opening up of foreign markets, the availability of modern technology, debt renegotiation and the fostering of direct investments.Spanish foreign policy towards Central America has been characterized by a clear political committment to the peace process which set it on the long road towards the end of the so-called Central American crisis. But we can show that the Spanish Policy for Development and Cooperation towards the isthmus has not always been translated into the transfer of resources. The present study which has, as its objective, the analysis of this policy, is based on the study of the PACI-Report (1990-1992 and on the PACIPrevisions (1987-1989 and 1993-1994 given the non-availability of its documented achievements in these years. In order that the political committments taken on by Spain are translated into the assuming of economic responsibilites, it is inevitable that the cooperation be largely technical, based on projects designed in connection with the governments of the isthmus as well as with regional institutions.Political peace will be impossible to reach if the grave economic and social problems are not solved and if the process of democratization and modernization of the State is not consolidated. All these challenges cannot be confronted without intense external support such as that given during the political crisis; regional integration both political (strengthening the Central American Parlament and economic (reactivation of the Central American Common Market offers a clear opportunity for

  4. Pre-Hispanic agricultural decline prior to the Spanish Conquest in southern Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Zachary P.; Horn, Sally P.; Finkelstein, David B.

    2013-08-01

    Archeological and paleoenvironmental records from southern Central America attribute population collapse to the Spanish Conquest about 500 years ago. Paleoclimate records from the circum-Caribbean have shown evidence of severe, regional droughts that contributed to the collapse of the Mayan Civilization, but there are few records of these droughts in southern Central America and no records of their effects on prehistoric populations in the region. Here we present a high-resolution lake sediment record of prehistoric agricultural activities using bulk sediment stable carbon isotopes from Laguna Zoncho, Costa Rica. We find isotopic evidence that agriculture was nearly absent from the watershed approximately 220 years prior to the Spanish arrival in Costa Rica and identify two distinct periods of agricultural decline, 1150-970 and 860-640 cal yr BP, which correspond to severe droughts in central Mexico. We attribute decreases in agriculture to a weakened Central American monsoon, which would have shortened the growing season at Laguna Zoncho, reduced crop yields, and negatively affected prehistoric populations.

  5. Landscape evolution within a retreating volcanic arc, Costa Rica, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jeffrey S.; Idleman, Bruce D.; Gardner, Thomas W.; Fisher, Donald M.

    2003-05-01

    Subduction of hotspot-thickened seafloor profoundly affects convergent margin tectonics, strongly affecting upper plate structure, volcanism, and landscape evolution. In southern Central America, low-angle subduction of the Cocos Ridge and seamount domain largely controls landscape evolution in the volcanic arc. Field mapping, stratigraphic correlation, and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology for late Cenozoic volcanic rocks of central Costa Rica provide new insights into the geomorphic response of volcanic arc landscapes to changes in subduction parameters (slab thickness, roughness, dip). Late Neogene volcanism was focused primarily along the now-extinct Cordillera de Aguacate. Quaternary migration of the magmatic front shifted volcanism northeastward to the Caribbean slope, creating a new topographic divide and forming the Valle Central basin. Stream capture across the paleo Aguacate divide led to drainage reversal toward the Pacific slope and deep incision of reorganized fluvial networks. Pleistocene caldera activity generated silicic ash flows that buried the Valle Central and descended the Tárcoles gorge to the Orotina debris fan at the coast. Growth of the modern Cordillera Central accentuated relief along the new divide, establishing the Valle Central as a Pacific slope drainage basin. Arc migration, relocation of the Pacific-Caribbean drainage divide, and formation of the Valle Central basin resulted from slab shallowing as irregular, hotspot-thickened crust entered the subduction zone. The geomorphic evolution of volcanic arc landscapes is thus highly sensitive to changes in subducting plate character.

  6. [Lack of food and nutritional security in Central America: contributing factors and social exclusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, H

    2001-12-01

    In August 2001, the XVII Meeting of the Health Sector in Central America and the Dominican Republic (RESSCAD) was held in Managua, Nicaragua. At the meeting, a resolution was adopted in support of strengthening and furthering the Central American initiative for the Promotion of Food and Nutritional Security. This paper examines the conceptual framework behind the initiative, which was approved by the XIV Central American Presidents Summit Meeting (Guatemala City, Guatemala) and launched in 1994 at the regional, national, and municipal levels (Guacimo, Costa Rica, 1994). It focuses on the accomplishments attributable to this initiative, the challenges it has faced over 2001 and those it will be facing over the next biennium, and the measures taken or recommended so far in order to ensure its long-term success.

  7. The occurrence of rabies in pre-Columbian Central America: an historical search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, A; Nunan, C; Bolles, D; Müller, T; Fooks, A R; Tordo, N; Baer, G M

    2011-10-01

    Rabies is considered one of the oldest infectious diseases known to humans. However, the first written reports on rabies cases in the Americas did not appear until the first decade of the 18th century from Mexico. In an attempt to clarify if the disease was already present in pre-Columbian times, we searched for evidence in the Maya and Aztec cultures. Other sources of information were early manuscripts written by the conquistadors and early explorers. We did not identify any unequivocal direct evidence that the disease rabies was known in pre-Columbian Central America but sufficient circumstantial evidence is available suggesting that (bat) rabies was already present in these early times.

  8. Circulating strains of human respiratory syncytial virus in central and south America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merly Sovero

    Full Text Available Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV is a major cause of viral lower respiratory tract infections among infants and young children. HRSV strains vary genetically and antigenically and have been classified into two broad subgroups, A and B (HRSV-A and HRSV-B, respectively. To date, little is known about the circulating strains of HRSV in Latin America. We have evaluated the genetic diversity of 96 HRSV strains by sequencing a variable region of the G protein gene of isolates collected from 2007 to 2009 in Central and South America. Our results show the presence of the two antigenic subgroups of HRSV during this period with the majority belonging to the genotype HRSV-A2.

  9. Belize--a last stronghold for manatees in the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, T.J.; Salisbury, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    Belize is a small country but it offers a safe haven for the largest number of manatees in the Caribbean. The authors' survey in 1989 revealed that there has been no apparent decline since the last study in 1977. However, there is no evidence for population growth either and as the Belize economy develops threats from fisheries, human pressure and declining habitat quality will increase. Recommendations are made to ensure that Belize safeguards its manatee populations.

  10. Late Miocene to recent plate tectonic history of the southern Central America convergent margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morell, Kristin D.

    2015-10-01

    New plate reconstructions constrain the tectonic evolution of the subducting Cocos and Nazca plates across the southern Central American subduction zone from late Miocene to recent. Because of the strong relationships between lower and upper (Caribbean) plate dynamics along this margin, these constraints have wide-ranging implications for the timing and growth of upper plate deformation and volcanism in southern Central America. The reconstructions outline three important events in the Neogene history of this margin: (1) the coeval development of the Panama Triple Junction with the initiation of oblique subduction of the Nazca plate at ˜8.5 Ma; (2) the initiation of seamount and rough crust subduction beginning at ˜3-4 Ma; and (3) Cocos Ridge subduction from ˜2 to 3 Ma. A comparison of these events with independent geologic, geomorphic, volcanic, and stratigraphic data sets reveals that the timing, rates, and origin of subducting crust directly impacted the Neogene growth of upper plate deformation and volcanism in southern Central America. These analyses constrain the timing, geometry, and causes of a number of significant tectonic and volcanic processes, including rapid Plio-Quaternary arc-fore arc contraction due to Cocos Ridge subduction, the detachment of the Panama microplate at ˜1-3 Ma, and the late Miocene cessation of mantle-wedge-derived volcanism across ˜300 km of the subduction zone.

  11. Central America in Transition: From Maize to Wheat Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amado Salvador Peña

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Central American countries: Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama are in transition from a dietary culture based mainly on maize to a wheat-containing diet. Several other changes are occurring, such as a decrease of parasitic and infectious diseases. The environmental changes permit a prediction of an increase of celiac disease and other autoimmune diseases such as type I diabetes and thyroid disease in these genetically heterogeneous countries. At present, celiac disease and gluten-related disorders are considered to be of no relevance at the level of public health in these nations. This review documents the presence of celiac disease in Central America. It draws attention to some of the challenges in planning systematic studies in the region since up until recently celiac disease was unknown. The aim of this review is to disseminate knowledge obtained with preliminary data, to stimulate clinical and basic scientists to study these diseases in Central America and to alert authorities responsible for the planning of education and health, to find possibilities to avoid a rise in these disorders before the epidemics start, as has occurred in the Mediterranean countries.

  12. Characterising droughts in Central America with uncertain hydro-meteorological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada Montano, B.; Westerberg, I.; Wetterhall, F.; Hidalgo, H. G.; Halldin, S.

    2015-12-01

    Droughts studies are scarce in Central America, a region frequently affected by droughts that cause significant socio-economic and environmental problems. Drought characterisation is important for water management and planning and can be done with the help of drought indices. Many indices have been developed in the last decades but their ability to suitably characterise droughts depends on the region of application. In Central America, comprehensive and high-quality observational networks of meteorological and hydrological data are not available. This limits the choice of drought indices and denotes the need to evaluate the quality of the data used in their calculation. This paper aimed to find which combination(s) of drought index and meteorological database are most suitable for characterising droughts in Central America. The drought indices evaluated were the standardised precipitation index (SPI), deciles (DI), the standardised precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) and the effective drought index (EDI). These were calculated using precipitation data from the Climate Hazards Group Infra-Red Precipitation with station (CHIRPS), CRN073, the Climate Research Unit (CRU), ERA-Interim and station databases, and temperature data from the CRU database. All the indices were calculated at 1-, 3-, 6-, 9- and 12-month accumulation times. As a first step, the large-scale meteorological precipitation datasets were compared to have an overview of the level of agreement between them and find possible quality problems. Then, the performance of all the combinations of drought indices and meteorological datasets were evaluated against independent river discharge data, in form of the standardised streamflow index (SSI). Results revealed the large disagreement between the precipitation datasets; we found the selection of database to be more important than the selection of drought index. We found that the best combinations of meteorological drought index and database were

  13. Climate change in Central America and Mexico: regional climate model validation and climate change projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karmalkar, Ambarish V. [University of Oxford, School of Geography and the Environment, Oxford (United Kingdom); Bradley, Raymond S. [University of Massachusetts, Department of Geosciences, Amherst, MA (United States); Diaz, Henry F. [NOAA/ESRL/CIRES, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Central America has high biodiversity, it harbors high-value ecosystems and it's important to provide regional climate change information to assist in adaptation and mitigation work in the region. Here we study climate change projections for Central America and Mexico using a regional climate model. The model evaluation shows its success in simulating spatial and temporal variability of temperature and precipitation and also in capturing regional climate features such as the bimodal annual cycle of precipitation and the Caribbean low-level jet. A variety of climate regimes within the model domain are also better identified in the regional model simulation due to improved resolution of topographic features. Although, the model suffers from large precipitation biases, it shows improvements over the coarse-resolution driving model in simulating precipitation amounts. The model shows a dry bias in the wet season and a wet bias in the dry season suggesting that it's unable to capture the full range of precipitation variability. Projected warming under the A2 scenario is higher in the wet season than that in the dry season with the Yucatan Peninsula experiencing highest warming. A large reduction in precipitation in the wet season is projected for the region, whereas parts of Central America that receive a considerable amount of moisture in the form of orographic precipitation show significant decreases in precipitation in the dry season. Projected climatic changes can have detrimental impacts on biodiversity as they are spatially similar, but far greater in magnitude, than those observed during the El Nino events in recent decades that adversely affected species in the region. (orig.)

  14. Climate change in Central America and Mexico: regional climate model validation and climate change projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmalkar, Ambarish V.; Bradley, Raymond S.; Diaz, Henry F.

    2011-08-01

    Central America has high biodiversity, it harbors high-value ecosystems and it's important to provide regional climate change information to assist in adaptation and mitigation work in the region. Here we study climate change projections for Central America and Mexico using a regional climate model. The model evaluation shows its success in simulating spatial and temporal variability of temperature and precipitation and also in capturing regional climate features such as the bimodal annual cycle of precipitation and the Caribbean low-level jet. A variety of climate regimes within the model domain are also better identified in the regional model simulation due to improved resolution of topographic features. Although, the model suffers from large precipitation biases, it shows improvements over the coarse-resolution driving model in simulating precipitation amounts. The model shows a dry bias in the wet season and a wet bias in the dry season suggesting that it's unable to capture the full range of precipitation variability. Projected warming under the A2 scenario is higher in the wet season than that in the dry season with the Yucatan Peninsula experiencing highest warming. A large reduction in precipitation in the wet season is projected for the region, whereas parts of Central America that receive a considerable amount of moisture in the form of orographic precipitation show significant decreases in precipitation in the dry season. Projected climatic changes can have detrimental impacts on biodiversity as they are spatially similar, but far greater in magnitude, than those observed during the El Niño events in recent decades that adversely affected species in the region.

  15. Evaluating regional differences in macroinvertebrate communities from forested depressional wetlands across eastern and central North America.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batzer, Darold, P.; Dietz-Brantley, Susan E.; Taylor, Barbera E.; DeBiase, Adrienne E.

    2005-02-12

    Batzer, Darold, P., Susan E. Dietz-Brantley, Barbera E. Taylor, and Adrienne E. DeBiase. 2005. Evaluating regional differences in macroinvertebrate communities from forested depressional wetlands across eastern and central North America. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 24(2):403-414. Abstract. Forested depressional wetlands are an important seasonal wetland type across eastern and central North America. Macroinvertebrates are crucial ecosystem components of most forested depressional wetlands, but community compositions can vary widely across the region. We evaluated variation in macroinvertebrate faunas across eastern and central North America using 5 published taxa lists from forested depressional wetlands in Michigan, Ontario, Wisconsin, Florida, and Georgia. We supplemented those data with quantitative community descriptions generated from 17 forested depressional wetlands in South Carolina and 74 of these wetlands in Minnesota. Cluster analysis of presence/absence data from these 7 locations indicated that distinct macroinvertebrate communities existed in northern and southern areas. Taxa characteristic of northern forested depressionalwetlands included Sphaeriidae, Lumbriculidae, Lymnaeidae, Physidae, Limnephilidae, Chirocephalidae, and Hirudinea (Glossophoniidae and/or Erpodbellidae) and taxa characteristic of southern sites included Asellidae, Crangonyctidae, Noteridae, and Cambaridae. Quantitative sampling in South Carolina and Minnesota indicated that regionally characteristic taxa included some of the most abundant organisms, with Sphaeriidae being the 2nd most abundant macroinvertebrate in Minnesota wetlands and Asellidae being the 2nd most abundant macroinvertebrate in South Carolina wetlands. Mollusks, in general, were restricted to forested depressional wetlands of northern latitudes, a pattern that may reflect a lack of Ca needed for shell formation in acidic southern sites. Differences in community composition probably translate into region

  16. Reproductive periodicity of the tropical crab Callinectes arcuatus Ordway in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, M. C.; Epifanio, C. E.; Dittel, A. I.

    1983-12-01

    The Gulf of Nicoya, an estuary on the Pacific coast of Central America, contains a large population of the portunid crab Callinectes arcuatus. Results of a 12 month survey indicated that spawning activity occurs throughout the year, but with a distinct peak during the five-month dry season (December-April). Mature females were most prevalent in the upper regions of the gulf during the rainy season and appeared to migrate to the lower gulf to spawn during the dry season. Patterns of spawning and apparent migration differed from those reported in an earlier study of C. arcuatus along the Pacific coast of Mexico.

  17. Statistical Seismology Studies in Central America : b-value, seismic hazard and seismic quiescence

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The present thesis collects results of research applying theory and methods of statistical seismology to the seismicity of Central America, a region with a complex tectonic setting controlled by the interaction of four major plates, namely the Caribbean, Cocos, Nazca and North American plates. Three different earthquake catalogues were used for studies focused on stress in a tectonic volume, seismic hazard maps and seismicity patterns (precursors), covering the region 94ºW to 81ºW and 5ºN to ...

  18. Diarrhea and respiratory symptoms among travelers to Asia, Africa, and South and Central America from Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Christopher Allan; Maclennan, Alice; Wilson, Eleanor; Walker, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Surveillance using admissions to hospital, while being useful, is a poor indicator of the real incidence of disease encountered by travelers. An alternative is self-reported illness among those who attended at a pretravel clinic prior to their travels. Estimates of incidence and risk factors were determined for attendees at a travel clinic in Scotland using a questionnaire. Analysis for risk factors was carried out for those travelers visiting countries in Africa, Asia, or South and Central America, who had traveled for 1 week or more and had returned between 1997 and 2001 (N= 4,856). Multivariate logistic regression was used to test the hypotheses that time abroad and age-group would be significant for both respiratory and diarrheal symptoms regardless of which of the three geographical areas are visited. From 2006 returned questionnaires (response rate = 41.3%), diarrhea and respiratory symptoms were reported by 44.2 and 16.8% of respondents, respectively; the incidence was significantly greater among travelers to Asia for both diarrheal (55.5%) and respiratory (23.7%) symptoms than among travelers to Africa (36.6 and 12.2%, respectively) or South and Central America (39.5 and 16.2%, respectively). For diarrhea, age was a highly significant risk factor for travelers to Asia, South and Central America, and Africa. Being a self-organized tourist/backpacker, traveling to Asia was associated with increased risk, while for Africa and South and Central America visiting family or friends was associated with a lower risk. For travelers to Asia, traveling to the Indian subcontinent was significantly associated with increased risk. The majority of travelers had an adverse event while traveling abroad, with diarrhea and respiratory conditions being especially common despite attending a travel clinic for advice prior to departure. However, the limitations of this surveillance-based strategy have highlighted the requirement for more research to understand more fully the

  19. Chicxulub Ejecta Blanket Deposits From Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo, A.

    1995-01-01

    The Chicxulub impact into a thick sequence of carbonates and sulfates released over a trillion tons of volatiles. The importance of the explosive release of such a large mass of volatiles has been greatly underestimated in studies of ejecta depositional processes. Proximal Chicxulub ejecta blanket deposits recent discovered on Albion Island in Belize provide a key to understanding the role of volatile-rich target material during large impact events.

  20. Phylogeny and biogeography of the Poecilia sphenops species complex (Actinopterygii, Poeciliidae) in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alda, Fernando; Reina, Ruth G; Doadrio, Ignacio; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2013-03-01

    We inferred the phylogenetic relationships among members of the Poecilia sphenops species complex to resolve the colonization process and radiation of this group in Central America. We analyzed 2550 base pairs (bp) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), including ATP synthase 6 and 8, cytochrome oxidase subunit I and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 genes, and 906bp of the nuclear S7 ribosomal protein of 86 ingroup individuals from 61 localities spanning most of its distribution from Mexico to Panama. Our mitochondrial data rendered a well-supported phylogeny for the P. sphenops complex that differed with the nuclear data set topology, which did not recover the monophyly of the P. mexicana mitochondrial lineage. Coalescent-based simulations tests indicated that, although hybridization cannot be completely ruled out, this incongruence is most likely due to incomplete lineage sorting in this group, which also showed the widest geographic distribution. A single colonization event of Central America from South America was estimated to have occurred between the early Paleocene and Oligocene (53-22millionyears ago). Subsequently, two largely differentiated evolutionary lineages diverged around the Early Oligocene-Miocene (38-13million years ago), which are considered two separate species complexes: P. sphenops and P. mexicana, which can also be distinguished by their tricuspid and unicuspid inner jaw teeth, respectively. Ultimately, within lineage diversification occurred mainly during the Miocene (22-5million years ago). All major cladogenetic events predated the final closure of the Isthmus of Panama. The allopatric distribution of lineages together with the long basal internodes suggest that vicariance and long term isolations could be the main evolutionary forces promoting radiation in this group, although dispersal through water barriers might also have occurred. Lastly, our results suggest the need to review the current species distribution and taxonomy of the P. sphenops

  1. Do pathogens become more virulent as they spread? Evidence from the amphibian declines in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Ben L; Puschendorf, Robert

    2013-09-01

    The virulence of a pathogen can vary strongly through time. While cyclical variation in virulence is regularly observed, directional shifts in virulence are less commonly observed and are typically associated with decreasing virulence of biological control agents through coevolution. It is increasingly appreciated, however, that spatial effects can lead to evolutionary trajectories that differ from standard expectations. One such possibility is that, as a pathogen spreads through a naive host population, its virulence increases on the invasion front. In Central America, there is compelling evidence for the recent spread of pathogenic Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and for its strong impact on amphibian populations. Here, we re-examine data on Bd prevalence and amphibian population decline across 13 sites from southern Mexico through Central America, and show that, in the initial phases of the Bd invasion, amphibian population decline lagged approximately 9 years behind the arrival of the pathogen, but that this lag diminished markedly over time. In total, our analysis suggests an increase in Bd virulence as it spread southwards, a pattern consistent with rapid evolution of increased virulence on Bd's invading front. The impact of Bd on amphibians might therefore be driven by rapid evolution in addition to more proximate environmental drivers.

  2. SALTRA: a regional program for workers' health and sustainable development in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesseling, Catharina; Aragón, Aurora; Elgstrand, Kaj; Flores, Reinaldo; Hogstedt, Christer; Partanen, Timo

    2011-01-01

    In 2003, the university-based Program on Work and Health in Central America, SALTRA, was launched to build national and regional capacities in occupational safety and health with the goal of preventing and reducing poverty in Central America. SALTRA has implemented 20 projects including action projects in priority sectors (e.g., construction, sugarcane, hospitals, migrant coffee workers); strengthening of surveillance (occupational health profiles, carcinogenic exposures, fatal injuries and pesticides); a participatory model for training and risk monitoring by workers; building occupational health capacity for professionals, employers, and workers, with collaborating networks between the countries; strengthening of universities in work, environment, and health; studies of serious occupational and environmental situations; communication channels; and continued efforts to raise political awareness. SALTRA has placed issues of workers' health on political, business, and academic agendas throughout the region and has laid the foundations for achieving substantial future improvements in health conditions of all workers in the region. External evaluators envisioned SALTRA as an innovative development model.

  3. Description of three new species of Protodrilus (Annelida, Protodrilidae) from Central America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Garcia, Alejandro; Di Domenico, Maikon; Jörger, Katharina

    2013-01-01

    Three new species of Protodrilus are described from the shallow Western Atlantic waters of Belize and Panama: P. smithsoni sp. nov., P. draco sp. nov. and P. hochbergi sp. nov. Protodrilus smithsoni sp. nov. resembles P. jagersteni and P. submersus from New Zealand, differing by (i) the presence...... of a dorsal ciliated area on segments 56 of males, (ii) lateral organs extending only to segment 15 (versus 16) and (iii) the smaller size of body and palps. Protodrilus draco sp. nov. is similar to the European P. hypoleucus and P. helgolandicus, but differs in (i) each pygidial lobe possessing a short...

  4. Lobster and Conch Fisheries of Belize: a History of Sequential Exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Huitric

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a historical review of the lobster and conch fisheries in Belize, Central America. In terms of yield and value, these are the main wild-caught targets of the national fisheries, a small-scale commercial fishery of around 3000 fishermen. Data were collected during interviews with key informants involved with the fisheries and through literature and archive research. The goal was to study how the fishing industry has responded to environmental signals from these resources and from their ecosystems and ecosystem dynamics. National yields for both lobster and conch have been relatively stable, however, individuals’ yields have been declining despite increased effort since the 1980s. This study concludes that the use of fossil fuel-based technology and organizational change, with the establishment of fishermen's cooperatives, have masked environmental signals. This masking, together with economic incentives, has led to the “pathology of resource use.” As a symptom of this pathology, four forms of sequential exploitation in these fisheries were identified. A major conclusion is that social resilience may not confer ecological resilience. The development of the cooperatives was needed in order to improve equity in the industry. Before their impacts could be assessed, this organizational change, together with new technology, led to very important and rapid changes in the industry. Together with existing regulations that allow de facto open access to lobster and conch, these changes resulted in a short-term boom that has resulted in the pathology of resource use, with over-capitalization and dependence on maintained yields, regardless of environmental feedback.

  5. Area Handbook Series: Guyana and Belize: Country Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    coat and dark blue trousers. Women had sever- al uniforms, including a khaki blouse and slacks worn with a fa- tigue hat and a light khaki blouse and...Europeans Belize: 198 Guyana: xx, 37, 43 Exclusive Economic Zone, 147 executive blanch (ste also executive presi- dent; president): of Belize, 244

  6. Lagrangian analysis of moisture sources associated with precipitation in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán-Quesada, A.; Gimeno, L.; Amador, J.

    2013-05-01

    The moisture sources associated with precipitation in Central America are identified using a Lagrangian methodology based on backward trajectories for the 1980-1999 period. The Caribbean Sea is highlighted as the main source of moisture for Central American precipitation. The Eastern Tropical Pacific is identified as a complementary oceanic source with a marked annual cycle. Moisture recycling is determined to be of importance in terms of local precipitation. The importance of improving the representation of vegetation coverage and land use in the region is pointed out. A remote terrestrial moisture source is identified in northern South America with a peak of intensity in summer. This source is suggested to provide a link between climate in the north of South America and precipitation in the Intra Americas Sea through convective anomalies. The variability of the moisture sources is analysed and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is found to be the leading variability mode. Forcing from the North Atlantic Oscillation seems to be of importance modulating the Caribbean via the forcing exerted by the NASH. The results suggest that the Madden-Julian Oscillation may play a role in the modulation of precipitation associated with moisture transport through variations in convective activity, the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and the Caribbean Low Level Jet (CLLJ). Low frequency variability is suggested to affect the remote terrestrial source. The contributions to precipitation from the sources are computed. It is found that moisture transported from the sources and recycling may account up to a 80% of the observed precipitation. The CLLJ is found to be the modulator of the regional precipitation by means of the distribution of the regional moisture transport. It is suggested that there may be an important connection between the CLLJ and the ITCZ which may be responsible for the modulation of the regional distribution of precipitation. The response of the

  7. Comparative phylogeography of Oryzomys couesi and Ototylomys phyllotis; historic and geographic implications for the Central America conformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Anaid Gutiérrez-García

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Central America is an ideal region for comparative phylogeographic studies because of its intricate geologic and biogeographic history, diversity of habitats and dynamic climatic and tectonic history. The aim of this work was to assess the phylogeography of two rodents codistributed throughout Central America, in order to identify if they show concordant genetic and phylogeographic patterns. The synopsis includes four parts: (1 an overview of the field of comparative phylogeography; (2 a detailed review that describes how genetic and geologic studies can be combined to elucidate general patterns of the biogeographic and evolutionary history of Central America; and a phylogeographic analysis of two species at both the (3 intraspecific and (4 comparative phylogeographic levels. The last incorporates specific ecological features and evaluates their influence on the species’ genetic patterns. Results showed a concordant genetic structure influenced by geographic distance for both rodents, but dissimilar dispersal patterns due to ecological features and life history. 

  8. Drought assessment for cropland of Central America using course-resolution remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. F.; Nguyen, S. T.; Chen, C. R.; Chiang, S. H.; Chang, L. Y.; Khin, L. V.

    2015-12-01

    Drought is one of the most frequent and costliest natural disasters, which imposes enormous effects to human societies and ecosystems. Agricultural drought is referred to an interval of time, such as weeks or months, when the soil moisture supply of a region consistently falls below the appropriate moisture supply leading to negative impacts on agricultural production. Millions of households in Central America were dependent upon major food crops, including maize, beans, and sorghum, for their daily subsistence. In recent years, impacts of climate change through global warming in forms of higher temperature and widespread rainfall deficits have however triggered severe drought during the primera cropping season (April-August) in the study region, causing profound impacts on agriculture, crop production losses, increased market food prices, as well as food security issues. This study focuses on investigating agricultural droughts for cropland of Central America using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. We processed the data for a normal year 2013 and an abnormal year 2014 using a simple vegetation health index (VHI) that is developed based on the temperature condition index (TCI) and vegetation condition index (VCI). The VHI results were validated using the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) precipitation data and temperature vegetation dryness index (TVDI) that is developed based on the empirical analysis of TCI and VCI data. The correlation coefficients (r) obtained by comparisons between the VHI data and the AMSR2 precipitation and TVDI data were higher than 0.62 and -0.61, respectively. The severe drought was intensive during the dry season (January-April) and likely backed to normal conditions in May with the onset of rainy season. The larger area of serve drought was observed for the 2014 primera season, especially during April-July. When investigating the cultivated areas affected by severe drought in the primera

  9. Deep Earthquake Mechanics Inferred From Fault-Plane Orientations in Central South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, L. M.; Biryol, C. B.; Beck, S. L.

    2007-12-01

    To place constraints on the physical mechanisms of deep earthquakes, we analyze the rupture properties of >30 intraslab earthquakes with MW >5.7 in central South America (15°--25°S). For all earthquakes, we perform a directivity analysis to estimate the rupture vector and identify the fault plane. After comparing the results with synthetics, we can distinguish the fault plane of the focal mechanism for ~1/3 of these earthquakes. For the largest earthquakes, we also invert for the slip distribution on the fault plane. At intermediate depths, we test whether earthquakes result from dehydration embrittlement reactivating the steep, trenchward-dipping faults of the outer rise. After accounting for the angle of subduction, these faults would be approximately vertical. This prediction contrasts with the orientation of faults identified between 100--300 km depth, which are all subhorizontal and instead suggest the creation of a new system of faults. The exclusive occurrence of subhorizontal faults agrees with previous studies in the Tonga-Kermadec and Middle America subduction zones. The similarity in results between the three subduction zones despite large differences in temperature, subduction velocity, and subduction angle suggests that the earthquake-generating mechanism is controlled by pressure rather than tectonic parameters. Deeper than 300 km, earthquakes occur along both subhorizontal and subvertical fault planes.

  10. Multi-year GNSS monitoring of atmospheric IWV over Central and South America for climate studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Clara Eugenia; Mendoza, Luciano Pedro Oscar; Fernández, Laura Isabel; Natali, María Paula; Meza, Amalia Margarita; Francisco Moirano, Juan

    2016-07-01

    Atmospheric water vapour has been acknowledged as an essential climate variable. Weather prediction and hazard assessment systems benefit from real-time observations, whereas long-term records contribute to climate studies. Nowadays, ground-based global navigation satellite system (GNSS) products have become widely employed, complementing satellite observations over the oceans. Although the past decade has seen a significant development of the GNSS infrastructure in Central and South America, its potential for atmospheric water vapour monitoring has not been fully exploited. With this in mind, we have performed a regional, 7-year-long and homogeneous analysis, comprising 136 GNSS tracking stations, obtaining high-rate and continuous observations of column-integrated water vapour and troposphere zenith total delay. As a preliminary application for this data set, we have estimated local water vapour trends, their significance, and their relation with specific climate regimes. We have found evidence of drying at temperate regions in South America, at a rate of about 2 % per decade, while a slow moistening of the troposphere over tropical regions is also weakly suggested by our results. Furthermore, we have assessed the regional performance of the empirical model GPT2w to blindly estimate troposphere delays. The model reproduces the observed mean delays fairly well, including their annual and semi-annual variations. Nevertheless, a long-term evaluation has shown systematical biases, up to 20 mm, probably inherited from the underlying atmospheric reanalysis. Additionally, the complete data set has been made openly available as supplementary material.

  11. Characterization of Trypanosoma rangeli Strains Isolated in Central and South America: an Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grisard Edmundo C

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma rangeli is a hemoflagelate parasite that infects domestic and sylvatic animals, as well as man, in Central and South America. T. rangeli has an overlapping distribution with T. cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, sharing several animal reservoirs and triatomine vectors. We have isolated T. rangeli strains in the State of Santa Catarina, in southern Brazil, which dramatically increased the distribution area of this parasite. This brief review summarizes several studies comparing T. rangeli strains isolated in Santa Catarina with others isolated in Colombia, Honduras and Venezuela. The different methods used include indirect immunofluorescence and western blot assays, lectin agglutination, isoenzyme electrophoresis and random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, triatomine susceptibility, in vitro cell infection assays, and mini-exon gene analysis.

  12. First record of the invasive Asian fish tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in Honduras, Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salgado-Maldonado Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides the first report of the invasive Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934, in Honduras. The cestode was found in Profundulus portillorum (Cyprinodontiformes: Profundulidae, which represents a new host record, and which is a member of a genus faced with a variety of conservation challenges, now potentially complicated by the presence of this pathogenic cestode. Nearly complete sequence data from the ITS-1 5.8S and ITS-2 regions corroborate the determination based on morphological characteristics. Several species of carp were introduced to Honduras for aquaculture purposes in the early 1980s and the presence of the Asian fish tapeworm in Honduras may be related to these introductions. In addition, this report documents the currently known geographical distribution of this parasite in Central America, first recorded from Panamá and now from Honduras.

  13. The genus Cephaloleia (Coleoptera:Chrysomelidae) in Central America and the West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staines, C L

    1996-01-01

    The species of Cephaloleia Chevrolat known to occur in Central America and the West Indies are revised and a key to the 88 species is presented. Most species are illustrated. Twenty new species of Cephaloleia are described: amblys, cylindrica, eumorpha, erugatus, facetus, formosus, lepida, scitulus, and weisei from Panamá; delectabilis and presignis from México; brunnea and rubra from Trinidad; immaculata, triangularis, and viltata from Costa Rica; splendida and uhmanni from Costa Rica and Panamá; cyanea from Costa Rica, Colombia, and Venezuela; and varabilis from Panamá and Colombia. Three new synonyms are given: abscissa Uhmann (= dilaticollis Baly), beckeri Weise (= gratiosa Baly), and quadrimaculata Uhmann (= fenestrata Weise). Lectotypes are designated for eleven species: belti Baly, consanguinea Baly, elegantula Baly, fulvicollis Weise, instabilis Baly, nigropicta Baly, postuma Weise, quadrilineata Baly, separata Baly, stenosoma Baly, and vicina Baly. Two species are transferred from Demotispa to Cephaloleia: coeruleata Sanderson and costaricensis Uhmann. Cephaloleia coeruleata (Sanderson) is renamed C. sandersoni.

  14. First record of the invasive Asian fish tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in Honduras, Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo; Matamoros, Wilfredo A; Kreiser, Brian R; Caspeta-Mandujano, Juan Manuel; Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides the first report of the invasive Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934, in Honduras. The cestode was found in Profundulus portillorum (Cyprinodontiformes: Profundulidae), which represents a new host record, and which is a member of a genus faced with a variety of conservation challenges, now potentially complicated by the presence of this pathogenic cestode. Nearly complete sequence data from the ITS-1 5.8S and ITS-2 regions corroborate the determination based on morphological characteristics. Several species of carp were introduced to Honduras for aquaculture purposes in the early 1980s and the presence of the Asian fish tapeworm in Honduras may be related to these introductions. In addition, this report documents the currently known geographical distribution of this parasite in Central America, first recorded from Panamá and now from Honduras.

  15. The Spanish decentralised international cooperation in Central America in the area of municipalism and decentralisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Haedo

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to link the international dimension with the local one, this article lays out an approach to the situation of Spanish decentralised international cooperation in the area of municipalism and decentralisation in the countries of Central America. In the firstplace, it offers a characterisation of the current state of Spanish decentralised cooperation in order to thus frame the cooperation actions carried out by the Barcelona Provincial Council; the UIM (Unión Iberoamericana de Municipios together with CEMCI (Centro de Estudios Municipales y de Cooperación Internacional; and the Confederación de Fondos de Cooperación y Solidaridad. Finally, it describes bankruptcies and it recovers some of the achievements ofthis kind of cooperation specifically in reference to the field of municipalism.

  16. Satellite-based detection of volcanic sulphur dioxide from recent eruptions in Central and South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Loyola

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic eruptions can emit large amounts of rock fragments and fine particles (ash into the atmosphere, as well as several gases, including sulphur dioxide (SO2. These ejecta and emissions are a major natural hazard, not only to the local population, but also to the infrastructure in the vicinity of volcanoes and to aviation. Here, we describe a methodology to retrieve quantitative information about volcanic SO2 plumes from satellite-borne measurements in the UV/Visible spectral range. The combination of a satellite-based SO2 detection scheme and a state-of-the-art 3D trajectory model enables us to confirm the volcanic origin of trace gas signals and to estimate the plume height and the effective emission height. This is demonstrated by case-studies for four selected volcanic eruptions in South and Central America, using the GOME, SCIAMACHY and GOME-2 instruments.

  17. Seismicity at Fuego, Pacaya, Izalco, and San Cristobal Volcanoes, Central America, 1973-1974

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNutt, S.R.; Harlow, D.H.

    1983-01-01

    Seismic data collected at four volcanoes in Central America during 1973 and 1974 indicate three sources of seismicity: regional earthquakes with hypocentral distances greater than 80 km, earthquakes within 40 km of each volcano, and seismic activity originating at the volcanoes due to eruptive processes. Regional earthquakes generated by the underthrusting and subduction of the Cocos Plate beneath the Caribbean Plate are the most prominent seismic feature in Central America. Earthquakes in the vicinity of the volcanoes occur on faults that appear to be related to volcano formation. Faulting near Fuego and Pacaya volcanoes in Guatemala is more complex due to motion on a major E-W striking transform plate boundary 40 km north of the volcanoes. Volcanic activity produces different kinds of seismic signatures. Shallow tectonic or A-type events originate on nearby faults and occur both singly and in swarms. There are typically from 0 to 6 A-type events per day with b value of about 1.3. At very shallow depths beneath Pacaya, Izalco, and San Cristobal large numbers of low-frequency or B-type events are recorded with predominant frequencies between 2.5 and 4.5 Hz and with b values of 1.7 to 2.9. The relative number of B-type events appears to be related to the eruptive states of the volcanoes; the more active volcanoes have higher levels of seismicity. At Fuego Volcano, however, low-frequency events have unusually long codas and appear to be similar to tremor. High-amplitude volcanic tremor is recorded at Fuego, Pacaya, and San Cristobal during eruptive periods. Large explosion earthquakes at Fuego are well recorded at five stations and yield information on near-surface seismic wave velocities (??=3.0??0.2 km/sec.). ?? 1983 Intern. Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior.

  18. Pediatric Sarcoma in Central America: Outcomes, Challenges and Plans for Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Paola; Ortiz, Roberta; Strait, Kelly; Fuentes, Soad; Gamboa, Yéssica; Arambú, Ingrid; Ah-Chu-Sanchez, María; London, Wendy; Rodríguez-Galindo, Carlos; Antillón-Klussmann, Federico; Báez, Fulgencio

    2012-01-01

    Background Children with cancer in middle-income countries have inferior outcomes to those in high-income countries. The magnitude and drivers for this survival gap are not well understood. We sought to describe patterns of clinical presentation, magnitude of treatment abandonment, and survival in children with sarcoma in Central America. Methods Retrospective review of hospital-based registries from national pediatric oncology referral centers. Patients with newly diagnosed osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma (Ewing), rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), and soft tissue sarcomas (STS) between 1/1/00-12/31/09 were included. Survival analysis was performed using standard definitions of overall and event-free survival (OS and EFS) and with abandonment included as an event (AOS and AEFS). Results A total of 785 new cases of pediatric sarcoma were reported (264 osteosarcoma, 175 Ewing, 240 RMS, and 106 STS). Metastatic disease at presentation was high (osteosarcoma 38%, Ewing 39%, RMS 29% and STS 21%). Treatment abandonment rate was high, particularly among patients with extremity bone sarcomas (osteosarcoma 30%, Ewing 15%, RMS 25% and STS 15%). Of 559 patients experiencing a first event, 59% had either relapse or progressive disease. The 4-year OS was 40% (SE±3%) and EFS was 30% (SE±2%), but further decreased to 31% (SE±2%) and 24% (SE±2%), when abandonment was taken into account. Conclusion High rate of metastases and treatment abandonment, and difficulty with upfront treatment effectiveness are important contributors to poor survival of children with pediatric sarcomas in Central America. Initiatives for early diagnosis, psychosocial support, quality improvement, and multidisciplinary care are warranted to improve outcomes. PMID:22972687

  19. Seismic hazard map of North and Central America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Shedlock

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Minimization of the loss of life, property damage, and social and economic disruption due to earthquakes depends on reliable estimates of seismic hazard. National, state, and local governments, decision makers, engineers, planners, emergency response organizations, builders, universities, and the general public require seismic hazard estimates for land use planning, improved building design and construction (including adoption of building construction codes, emergency response preparedness plans, economic forecasts, housing and employment decisions, and many more types of risk mitigation. The seismic hazard map of North and Central America and the Caribbean is the concatenation of various national and regional maps, involving a suite of approaches. The combined maps and documentation provide a useful regional seismic hazard framework and serve as a resource for any national or regional agency for further detailed studies applicable to their needs. This seismic hazard map depicts Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA with a 10% chance of exceedance in 50 years. PGA, a short-period ground motion parameter that is proportional to force, is the most commonly mapped ground motion parameter because current building codes that include seismic provisions specify the horizontal force a building should be able to withstand during an earthquake. This seismic hazard map of North and Central America and the Caribbean depicts the likely level of short-period ground motion from earthquakes in a fifty-year window. Short-period ground motions effect short-period structures (e.g., one-to-two story buildings. The highest seismic hazard values in the region generally occur in areas that have been, or are likely to be, the sites of the largest plate boundary earthquakes.

  20. Winter habitat occurrence patterns of temperate migrant birds in Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, D.K.; Robbins, C.S.; Sauer, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    We used mist nets and point counts to sample bird populations in 61 sites in Belize during January-March of 1987-1991. Sites were classified as forest, second growth, woody agricultural crops (citrus, mango, cacao, and cashew), or non-woody agricultural crops (rice and sugar cane). We evaluated patterns of occurence of wintering temperate migrant bird species in these habitats. Mist net captures of 22 of 31 migrant species differed significantly among habitats. Of these, 13 species were captured more frequently in the agricultural habitats. American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla), Black-and-white Warbler (Mniotilta varia), and Magnolia Warbler (Dendroica magnolia) were among the species captured most frequently in woody agricultural habitats; captures of Common Yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas), Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea), and Northern (lcterus galbula) and Orchard orioles (I. spur/anus) were highest in the non-woody agricultural sites. We relate these occurrence patterns to trends in breeding populations in North America. While count data provide a wide picture of winter habitat distribution of migrants, more intensive work is necessary to assess temporal and geographic variation of migrant bird use of agricultural habitats.

  1. Catalogo General de Universidades, 1970-1971: Federacion de Universidades Privadas de America Central y Panama (General Catalog of Universities, 1970-1971: Federation of Private Universities of Central America and Panama).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federacion de Universidades Privadas de America Central y Panama, Guatemala City (Guatemala).

    This document contains the 1970-1971 catalogues of five universities belonging to the Federation of Private Universities of Central America and Panama (FUPAC). The catalogues provide information on university administrators and staff, historical background, admission requirements, degree programs, scholarships, and courses. The catalogues included…

  2. Warm and Dry Spells (WDS in Austral Winter over Central South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Satyamurty

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The horizontal and vertical structure of unusually warm and dry spells (WDS over the central parts of South America during the winter and post-winter months (JJAS are studied. During WDS the mean temperature and humidity anomalies over central Brazil are about +4.1°C and −13.2%, respectively. The mean duration of WDS is 11 days and their mean frequency is less than one per year during the months of JJAS. Apparently, WDS have no preference for the phase of ENSO. Widespread and persistent subsidence in the middle troposphere is observed in tropical Brazil during WDS, which renders the lower tropospheric air warm and dry. The negative anomalies of the specific humidity are observed to be associated with the subsidence regions. A strong, slow moving ridge in the eastern South Pacific and a low-pressure center in northern Argentina are important surface characteristics during the WDS. A more detailed investigation of two specific WDS events, a strong event (August–September 1999 and a moderate one (June 2002, shows a blocking-like situation in the 500-hPa geopotential and surface pressure fields in the Pacific. The South Atlantic subtropical high somewhat approaches the continent. Strong northerlies over the central and eastern parts of Brazil are also observed in the lower troposphere. During WDS the regional circulation acquires summertime characteristics, except for the absence of precipitation, and the circulation in the meridional plane is in the opposite sense from the Hadley circulation. A frontal system, supported by a 500-hPa trough, advances into central Brazil, causing the dissipation of the anomalous situation.

  3. Scirrotherium Antelucanus, a new species of Pampatheriidae (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Cingulata) from the Upper Miocene of Costa Rica, Central America

    OpenAIRE

    César A. Laurito; Valerio, Ana L.

    2011-01-01

    For the first time the genus Scirrotherium is recorded and a new species is described for the early Hem- phillian of Costa Rica. This finding constitutes a new clue about the early arrived of South American heralds to Central American during Pre-Great American Biotic Interchange, increasing by at least 3 Ma the record of the Pampatheriidae family in the Northern Hemisphere. The new Central America species described herein differs from the South American species of Scirrotherium because they h...

  4. Geoid modeling in Mexico and the collaboration with Central America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avalos, D.; Gomez, R.

    2012-12-01

    The model of geoidal heights for Mexico, named GGM10, is presented as a geodetic tool to support vertical positioning in the context of regional height system unification. It is a purely gravimetric solution computed by the Stokes-Helmert technique in resolution of 2.5 arc minutes. This product from the Instituto Nacional de Estadistica y Geografia (INEGI) is released together with a series of 10 gravimetric models which add to the improvements in description of the gravity field. In the recent years, the INEGI joined the initiative of the U.S. National Geodetic Survey and the Canada's Geodetic Survey Division to promote the regional height system unification. In an effort to further improve the compatibility among national geoid models in the region, the INEGI has begun to champion a network of specialists that includes national representatives from Central America and the Caribbean. Through the opening of opportunities for training and more direct access to international agreements and discussions, the tropical region is gaining participation. Now a significantly increased number of countries is pushing for a future North and Central American geoid-based vertical datum as support of height system unification.eoidal height in Mexico, mapped from the model GGM10.

  5. Cancer survival in Africa, Asia, the Caribbean and Central America: database and attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, R; Lucas, E; Sankaranarayanan, R

    2011-01-01

    Thirty-one registries in 17 countries submitted data for systematic and centralized scrutiny. Data on 564 606 cases of different cancers ranging 1-56 sites/types from 27 registries in 14 low-/medium-resource countries in Eastern and Western Africa, the Caribbean, Central America and four regions of Asia, registered during 1990-2001 (period varying for individual registries) were reported. The database for this survival study comprised data that were classified as mandatory and optional. Mandatory variables provided by all registries included case-ID, age at diagnosis, sex, incidence date, most valid basis of diagnosis, cancer site/type (ICD-10 codes C00-96), vital status at follow-up and corresponding date. Clinical extent of disease was prominent among the optional variables provided by 17 registries and analysed. The grouping of cancer sites for analysis was based on standard norms, and only categories with at least 25 cases were reported. Cases registered based on a death certificate only, cases lacking any follow-up after initial registration, or cases rejected based on validation checks were excluded from the survival analysis. An easy guide to contents in subsequent chapters, especially tables and graphs describing data quality indices, survival statistics and online dynamic functions, is provided.

  6. A comparative study of Taiwan's short-term medical missions to the South Pacific and Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu Ya-Wen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taiwan has been dispatching an increasing number of short-term medical missions (STMMs to its allied nations to provide humanitarian health care; however, overall evaluations to help policy makers strengthen the impact of such missions are lacking. Our primary objective is to identify useful strategies by comparing STMMs to the South Pacific and Central America. Methods The data for the evaluation come from two main sources: the official reports of 46 missions to 11 countries in Central America and 25 missions to 8 countries in the South Pacific, and questionnaires completed by health professionals who had participated in the above missions. In Central America, STMMs were staffed by volunteer health professionals from multiple institutions. In the South Pacific, STMMs were staffed by volunteer health professionals from single institutions. Results In comparison to STMMs to Central America, STMMs to the South Pacific accomplished more educational training for local health providers, including providing heath-care knowledge and skills (p Conclusions Health-care services provided by personnel from multiple institutions are as efficient as those from single institutions. Proficiency in the native language and provision of education for local health-care workers are essential for conducting a successful STMM. Our data provide implications for integrating evidence into the deployment of STMMs.

  7. A revision of the Yelicones species (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Rogadinae) from Central America, with descriptions of sixteen new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quicke, D.L.J.; Chishti, M.J.K.; Basibuyuk, H.H.

    1996-01-01

    The genus Yelicones Cameron, 1887, from North and Central America is revised. Ninteen species are recognized: Y. arizonus spec. nov. from U.S.A. (Arizona) and Mexico; Y. barroci spec. nov. from Panama; Y. bicoloripes spec. nov. from Costa Rica and Panama; Y. canalensis spec. nov. from Panama; Y. con

  8. Anti-gang policies and gang responses in the Northern Triangle : The Evolution of the Gang Phenomenon in Central America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Borgh, G.J.C.; Savenije, W.

    2014-01-01

    During the past decade, gangs have become a powerful and violent presence in El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras, the ‘Northern Triangle’ of Central America. 1 The particular evolution of the gang phenomenon has been deeply shaped by a series of reactions and adaptations to ill-developed security po

  9. Economics of an ecotourism operation in Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangas, Patrick; Shave, Mary; Shave, Paul

    1995-09-01

    The economic inputs and outputs for the Possum Point Biological Station in Belize during 1990 1992 are described to illustrate some aspects of an ecotourism operation. Eight hundred fifty-four people in 59 groups visited Possum Point during the study period to tour rain forests, estuaries, and coral reefs. The economic input to Possum Point from these groups increased from 74,552 in 1990 to 166,268 in 1992. Outputs were for license fees, capital improvements, goods and services, labor, fossil fuels, and development of a historic sugar mill site. An annual donation was also made to a scholarship fund for local Belizean students. The net cash balance of income and outputs changed from negative (-6678) in 1990 to positive (+4811) in 1992, suggesting development of the economic operation. Possum Point meets the economic criteria for ecotourism by feeding back some tourist monies for community and environmental support, particularly donations for the sugar mill site and the scholarship fund. Most of the outputs from Possum Point (about 80%) were retained in the local economy through employment and purchases, which have a positive influence on the local community. We conclude that ecotourism operations, such as Possum Point, offer important sustainable development opportunities for Belize.

  10. Belize: Reflections on Police Training and Professionalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Barrachina

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article looks to analyze the preparation process the Belizean police force goes through with the objective of training the officers for duty. It also has the purpose of detailing the entrails the officers have to confront in their way up the corporate ladder as they develop into a professional police officer. Seen from a regional objectivity, Belize has been singled out to be in the center of numerous regional and hemispherical security problems; it is facing several of the same security challenges as its neighbors and explains the use of armed forces at the service of the public safety and the necessity to upgrade their law enforcement tactics and practices. The country also participates in many several mutual support instruments designed to assist and receive preparation and instruction from other nation’s police bodies. An example of that international aid came in a report from 2008 entitled "Review of the Belize Department" written by a Jamaican consultant in which the Police Plan elaborated in 2006 was analyzed and critiqued pointed out the strong and weak points of that project.

  11. Projected impact of twenty-first century ENSO changes on rainfall over Central America and northwest South America from CMIP5 AOGCMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhoff, Daniel F.; Monaghan, Andrew J.; Clark, Martyn P.

    2015-03-01

    Due to the importance that the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) has on rainfall over the tropical Americas, future changes in ENSO characteristics and teleconnections are important for regional hydroclimate. Projected changes to the ENSO mean state and characteristics, and the resulting impacts on rainfall anomalies over Central America, Colombia, and Ecuador during the twenty-first century are explored for several forcing scenarios using a suite of coupled atmosphere-ocean global climate models (AOGCMs) from the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Mean-state warming of eastern tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures, drying of Central America and northern Colombia, and wetting of southwest Colombia and Ecuador are consistent with previous studies that used earlier versions of the AOGCMs. Current and projected future characteristics of ENSO (frequency, duration, amplitude) show a wide range of values across the various AOGCMs. The magnitude of ENSO-related rainfall anomalies are currently underestimated by most of the models, but the model ensembles generally simulate the correct sign of the anomalies across the seasons around the peak ENSO effects. While the models capture the broad present-day ENSO-related rainfall anomalies, there is not a clear sense of projected future changes in the precipitation anomalies.

  12. Mantle Response to a Slab Gap and Three-dimensional Slab Interaction in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadamec, M. A.; Fischer, K. M.

    2013-12-01

    Seismically constrained global slab geometries suggest the Middle America-South American subduction system contains a gap on the order of 500 km separating the east-dipping Cocos and Nazca slabs at depth (Gudmundsson and Sambridge, 1998; Syracuse and Abers, 2006; Hayes et al., 2012). The location of the gap correlates with tectonic features impinging on the Pacific side of the Middle America trench, in particular the incoming young buoyant oceanic lithosphere and oceanic ridges associated with the Galapagos hotspot and Cocos-Nazca spreading center (Protti et al., 1994; Mann et al., 2007; Muller et al., 2008). Moreover, geochemical studies focusing on the arc chemistry in the Central American volcanic front argue for a slab window of some kind in this region (Johnston and Thorkelson, 1997; Abratis and Worner, 2001; Hoernle et al., 2008). We use high-resolution, three-dimensional (3D) geodynamic modeling of the Middle America-South American subduction system to investigate the role of the incoming young oceanic lithosphere and a gap between the Cocos and Nazca slabs in controlling mantle flow velocity and geochemical signatures beneath Central America. The geodynamic models are geographically referenced with the geometry and thermal structure for the overriding and subducting plates based on geological and geophysical observables and constructed with the multi-plate subduction generator code, SlabGenerator (Jadamec and Billen, 2010; Jadamec et al., 2012; Jadamec and Billen, 2012). The viscous flow simulations are solved using the mantle convection finite-element code, CitcomCU (Zhong, 2006), modified by Jadamec and Billen (2010) to take into account the experimentally derived flow law for olivine and allow for variable 3D plate interface geometries and magnitudes of inter-plate coupling. The 3D numerical models indicate the gap between the Cocos and Nazca slabs serves as a conduit for Pacific-Cocos mantle to pass into the Caribbean, with toroidal flow around the

  13. International relations among Tom Thumbs: Taiwan as provider of aid Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Haro Navejas

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the Official Development Aid (AOD that has as its source Taiwan and as its destination Central America. It has three basic aims: Firstly, there is a huge bibliographic vacuum on the topic of these pages. Beginning filling it is an academic need. Even some intellectuals feel that they should lean against either Beijing or Taipei, that if they write on Taiwan they should defend or attack one of the contending parties. Here it is seen that a study close to objectivity is possible. Secondly, most of the research in International Relations has been focused on topics related with power itself or with just elements related with hard power. AOD is both hard and soft power, therefore this paper shades light to the dark side partially viewing international relations from a theoretical perspective were interactions help to construct identities and cooperation is an essential variable of world politics. Finally, it will be seen below that the Taiwanese cooperativeeconomic actions are helpful to the progress of poor parts of the Central American region and are helpful to create domestic markets with strong links with the world market deepening the economic integration both regional and global. Aid from Taiwan and some other countries, mainly through the transmission of know how, could be of assistance in surmounting huge troubles. Aid is vital because some of Central American’s problems are being exported mainly to México and the United States under the form, just to give an example, of Mara Salvatrucha gangs source of violence and drug trafficking. It is not meaningless to stress that Taiwanese ODA is by far not enough and is very small in the international context.

  14. Risk for transfusion-transmitted infectious diseases in Central and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmunis, G A; Zicker, F; Pinheiro, F; Brandling-Bennett, D

    1998-01-01

    We report the potential risk for an infectious disease through tainted transfusion in 10 countries of South and Central America in 1993 and in two countries of South America in 1994, as well as the cost of reagents as partial estimation of screening costs. Of the 12 countries included in the study, nine screened all donors for HIV; three screened all donors for hepatitis B virus (HBV); two screened all donors for Trypanosoma cruzi; none screened all donors for hepatitis C virus (HCV); and six screened some donors for syphilis. Estimates of the risk of acquiring HIV through blood transfusion were much lower than for acquiring HBV, HCV, or T. cruzi because of significantly higher screening and lower prevalence.rates for HIV. An index of infectious disease spread through blood transfusion was calculated for each country. The highest value was obtained for Bolivia (233 infections per 10,000 transfusions); in five other countries, it was 68 to 103 infections per 10,000. The risks were lower in Honduras (nine per 10,000), Ecuador (16 per 10,000), and Paraguay (19 per 10,000). While the real number of potentially infected units or infected persons is probably lower than our estimates because of false positives and already infected recipients, the data reinforce the need for an information system to assess the level of screening for infectious diseases in the blood supply. Since this information was collected, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, and Venezuela have made HCV screening mandatory; serologic testing for HCV has increased in those countries, as well as in El Salvador and Honduras. T. cruzi screening is now mandatory in Colombia, and the percentage of screened donors increased not only in Colombia, but also in Ecuador, El Salvador, and Paraguay. Laws to regulate blood transfusion practices have been enacted in Bolivia, Guatemala, and Peru. However, donor screening still needs to improve for one or more diseases in most countries.

  15. Naturalization of central European plants in North America: species traits, habitats, propagule pressure, residence time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyšek, Petr; Manceur, Ameur M; Alba, Christina; McGregor, Kirsty F; Pergl, Jan; Stajerová, Katerina; Chytrý, Milan; Danihelka, Jiří; Kartesz, John; Klimesova, Jitka; Lucanova, Magdalena; Moravcová, Lenka; Nishino, Misako; Sadlo, Jiri; Suda, Jan; Tichy, Lubomir; Kühn, Ingolf

    2015-03-01

    The factors that promote invasive behavior in introduced plant species occur across many scales of biological and ecological organization. Factors that act at relatively small scales, for example, the evolution of biological traits associated with invasiveness, scale up to shape species distributions among different climates and habitats, as well as other characteristics linked to invasion, such as attractiveness for cultivation (and by extension propagule pressure). To identify drivers of invasion it is therefore necessary to disentangle the contribution of multiple factors that are interdependent. To this end, we formulated a conceptual model describing the process of invasion of central European species into North America based on a sequence of "drivers." We then used confirmatory path analysis to test whether the conceptual model is supported by a statistical model inferred from a comprehensive database containing 466 species. The path analysis revealed that naturalization of central European plants in North America, in terms of the number of North American regions invaded, most strongly depends on residence time in the invaded range and the number of habitats occupied by species in their native range. In addition to the confirmatory path analysis, we identified the effects of various biological traits on several important drivers of the conceptualized invasion process. The data supported a model that included indirect effects of biological traits on invasion via their effect on the number of native range habitats occupied and cultivation in the native range. For example, persistent seed banks and longer flowering periods are positively correlated with number of native habitats, while a stress-tolerant life strategy is negatively correlated with native range cultivation. However, the importance of the biological traits is nearly an order of magnitude less than that of the larger scale drivers and highly dependent on the invasion stage (traits were associated

  16. Studies in Annonaceae XXVIII. Macromorphological variation of recent invaders in northern Central America: the case of Malmea (annonaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatrou, L.W.

    1997-01-01

    Cluster analysis is used to reveal patterns of macromorphological variation in a species complex of Malmea (Annonaceae) distributed in eastern Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, and Honduras. Of 53 characters, 24 are important for the clustering of 238 herbarium specimens into 12 clusters. No cluster is exc

  17. Trypanosoma rangeli genotypes association with Rhodnius prolixus and R. pallescens allopatric distribution in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Antón, Fernando; Urrea, Daniel Alfonso; Guhl, Felipe; Arévalo, Carolina; Azofeifa, Gabriela; Urbina, Andrea; Blandón-Naranjo, Melissa; Sousa, Octavio E; Zeledón, Rodrigo; Vallejo, Gustavo Adolfo

    2009-12-01

    Previous kDNA polymorphism-based reports have revealed the existence of two Trypanosoma rangeli genotypes (KP1+ and KP1-): SL and SSU rRNA gene polymorphism-based studies have revealed that five genotypes (A-E) are distributed throughout different Latin-American countries. Some evidence has shown that the genotypes' biogeographical distribution is associated with sympatric Rhodnius species. 12 T. rangeli isolates from humans and reservoirs from El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Costa Rica and Panama were characterised by kDNA and mini-exon gene intergene spacer analysis and compared to 12 previously characterised isolates from humans and vectors from Colombia, Guatemala, Honduras and Venezuela. Central American isolates corresponded to genotypes called KP1(+) or lineage A and KP1(-) or lineage C. Such dimorphism was corroborated by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) in 22 selected isolates; a dendrogram was thus produced having two defined branches. One branch grouped KP1(-) or lineage C strains isolated from Rhodnius colombiensis (Colombia), humans (Panama), Procyon lotor and Choloepus hoffmanni (Costa Rica). The other group was formed by KP1(+) or lineage A strains isolated from Rhodnius prolixus (Colombia, Venezuela) and humans (El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras). These results present evidence that both groups infect different mammals (humans, domestic and silvatic animals) having no association with any particular vertebrate species; however, T. rangeli KP1(+) or (A) strains have been isolated in Central America in areas where R. prolixus circulate (Honduras, El Salvador and Guatemala) and KP1(-) or (C) strains have been isolated in areas where Rhodnius pallescens is the main vector (Panama and Costa Rica) indicating a parasite-vector association. The same lineages circulate in Andean countries (Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador and Peru), KP1+ being associated with members of the prolixus group (R. prolixus and Rhodnius robustus) and KP1- with members of the

  18. Application of scientific core drilling to geothermal exploration: Platanares, Honduras and Tecuamburro Volcano, Guatemala, Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, S.J.; Goff, F.E.; Heiken, G.H. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Duffield, W.A. [Geological Survey, Flagstaff, AZ (United States); Janik, C.J. [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Our efforts in Honduras and Guatemala were part of the Central America Energy Resource Project (CAERP) funded by the United States Agency for International Development (AID). Exploration core drilling operations at the Platanares, Honduras and Tecuamburro Volcano, Guatemala sites were part of a geothermal assessment for the national utility companies of these countries to locate and evaluate their geothermal resources for electrical power generation. In Honduras, country-wide assessment of all thermal areas determined that Platanares was the site with the greatest geothermal potential. In late 1986 to middle 1987, three slim core holes were drilled at Platanares to a maximum depth of 680 m and a maximum temperature of 165{degree}C. The objectives were to obtain information on the geothermal gradient, hydrothermal alterations, fracturing, and possible inflows of hydrothermal fluids. Two holes produced copious amounts of water under artesian conditions and a total of 8 MW(t) of energy. Geothermal investigations in Guatemala focused on the Tecuamburro Volcano geothermal site. The results of surface geological, volcanological, hydrogeochemical, and geophysical studies at Tecuamburro Volcano indicated a substantial shallow heat source. In early 1990 we drilled one core hole, TCB-1, to 808 m depth. The measured bottom hole temperature was 238{degree}C. Although the borehole did not flow, in-situ samples indicate the hole is completed in a vapor-zone above a probable 300{degree}C geothermal reservoir.

  19. Comparison of GNSS integrated water vapor and NWM reanalysis data over Central and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Laura Isabel; Natali, Maria Paula; Meza, Amalia; Mendoza, Luciano; Bianchi, Clara

    2016-07-01

    Integrated water vapor (IWV) derived from Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and Numerical Weather Models (NWM) reanalysis data were compared in order to assess the consistency between the different datasets over the extended geographical region of Central and South America. The analysis was performed for the seven years period between 2007 and 2013. We analyzed two different NWM: the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) reanalysis data (ERA Interim) and the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The statistical analysis of the differences was performed in 110 GNSS sites (GPS + GLONASS), although the most interesting results came from the 73 sites which have more than 5 years of data. The selected area involves different climate types, from polar to tropical, and it is characterized by large temporal variability of the integrated total humidity content. Moreover, the scarce coverage of operational radio sounding stations is noticeable in large areas of the selected region; hence the contribution of IWV-GNSS is essential to improve the weather understanding. Considering that the atmospheric water vapor has a highly variable and complex distribution which knowledge is essential for weather prediction and local meteorological studies. This study aims to provide IWV-GNSS observations able to be assimilated by operational weather centers, for both prediction and simulation, as well for improving regional modeling.

  20. [Optimization of registry of deaths from chronic kidney disease in agricultural communities in Central America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escamilla-Cejudo, José Antonio; Báez, Jorge Lara; Peña, Rodolfo; Luna, Patricia Lorena Ruiz; Ordunez, Pedro

    2016-11-01

    Several Central American countries are seeing continued growth in the number of deaths from chronic kidney disease of nontraditional causes (CKDnT) among farm workers and there is underreporting. This report presents the results of a consensus process coordinated by the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization (PAHO/WHO), the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the Latin American Society of Nephrology and Hypertension (SLANH). This consensus seeks to increase the probability of detecting and recording deaths from these causes. There has been recognition of the negative impact of the lack of a standardized instrument and the lack of training in the medical profession for adequate registration of the cause or causes of death. As a result of the consensus, the following has been proposed: temporarily use a code from the Codes for Special Purposes in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10); continue to promote use of the WHO international standardized instrument for recording causes and preceding events related to death; increase training of physicians responsible for filling out death certificates; take action to increase the coverage and quality of information on mortality; and create a decision tree to facilitate selection of CKDnT as a specific cause of death, while presenting the role that different regional and subregional mechanisms in the Region of the Americas should play in order to improve CKD and CKDnT mortality records.

  1. Cancer survival in Africa, Asia, the Caribbean and Central America. Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, R

    2011-01-01

    The dearth of reliable survival statistics from developing countries was very evident until the mid-1990s. This prompted the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) to undertake a project that facilitated hands-on-training and thereby transfer of knowledge and technology on cancer survival analysis to a majority of researchers from the participating population-based cancer registries, which culminated in the publication of the first volume of the IARC scientific publication on Cancer Survival in Developing Countries in 1998. The present study is the second in the series with wider geographical coverage and is based on data from 27 registries in 14 countries in Africa, Asia, the Caribbean and Central America. The calendar period of registration of incident cases for the present study ranges between 1990 and 2001. Data on 564 606 cases of 1-56 cancer sites from different registries are reported. Data from eleven registries were utilized for eliciting survival trend and seventeen registries for reporting survival by clinical extent of disease. Besides chapters on every registry and general chapters on methodology, database and overview, the availability of online comparative statistics on cancer survival data by participating registries or cancer site in the form of tables or graphs is an added feature (available online at http://survcan.iarc.fr).

  2. Deforestation Along the Maya Mountain Massif Belize-Guatemala Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicas, S. D.; Omine, K.; Arevalo, B.; Ford, J. B.; Sugimura, K.

    2016-06-01

    In recent years trans-boundary incursions from Petén, Guatemala into Belize's Maya Mountain Massif (MMM) have increased. The incursions are rapidly degrading cultural and natural resources in Belize's protected areas. Given the local, regional and global importance of the MMM and the scarcity of deforestation data, our research team conducted a time series analysis 81 km by 12 km along the Belize-Guatemalan border adjacent to the protected areas of the MMM. Analysis drew on Landsat imagery from 1991 to 2014 to determine historic deforestation rates. The results indicate that the highest deforestation rates in the study area were -1.04% and -6.78% loss of forested area per year in 2012-2014 and 1995-1999 respectively. From 1991 to 2014, forested area decreased from 96.9 % to 85.72 % in Belize and 83.15 % to 31.52 % in Guatemala. During the study period, it was clear that deforestation rates fluctuated in Belize's MMM from one time-period to the next. This seems linked to either a decline in deforestation rates in Guatemala, the vertical expansion of deforestation in Guatemalan forested areas and monitoring. The results of this study urge action to reduce incursions and secure protected areas and remaining forest along the Belize-Guatemalan border.

  3. Holocene cemented beach deposits in Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gischler, Eberhard; Lomando, Anthony J.

    1997-06-01

    Two types of cemented beach deposits occur on reef islands off the coast of Belize. These are (1) intertidal beachrock that is dominantly cemented by marine aragonite and high-magnesium-calcite cements, and (2) supratidal cayrock that is cemented mainly by vadose low-magnesium-calcite cements. Besides differences in position relative to present sea level and resulting early diagenesic features, beachrock and cayrock can be distinguished on the basis of differences in composition, texture, geographical position, and age. Whereas the composition of beachrock is similar to that of the adjacent marginal reef sediments, cayrock is enriched in benthic foraminifera. Intertidal beachrock is moderately to well sorted and well cemented, while supratidal cayrock is very well sorted, poorly cemented and friable. Beachrock occurs preferentially on windward beaches of sand-shingle Gays on the middle and southern barrier reefs and on the isolated platforms Glovers and Lighthouse Reefs. Cayrock only occurs on larger mangrove-sand Gays of the isolated platforms Turneffe Islands, Lighthouse Reef, and the northern barrier reef. 14C-dating of ten whole-rock and mollusk shell samples produced calibrated dates between AD 345 and AD 1435 for beachrock and between BC 1085 and AD 1190 for cayrock. The large-scale distribution of beachrock in Belize supports the contention that physical processes such as water agitation rather than biological processes control beachrock formation and distribution. Only on windward sides of cays that are close to the reef crest, where large amounts of seawater flush the beaches, considerable amounts of cements can be precipitated to produce beachrock. Cayrock forms due to cementation in the vadose zone and is only preserved on larger, stable mangrove-sand cays.

  4. Geomorphological impact on agroforestry systems in the interior highlands of Nicaragua, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentler, Axel; Wriessnig, Karin; Ottner, Franz; Schomakers, Jasmin; Benavides González, Álvaro; Cisne Contreras, José Dolores; Querol Lipcovich, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Cerro el Castillo is located in the NW of Nicaragua, Central America, close to the border of Honduras (Provincia Central de las Cordilleras) at 1000-1200m above sea level. In this region, small and medium-sized farms are agroforestry systems with mangos, avocados, coffee, papayas, bananas, strawberries, maize, pumpkins, beans and other vegetables. The production systems are strongly linked to facilities for raising small domestic animals and cows. Main regional agricultural production problems are steep slopes, soil erosion, varying precipitation and distribution, water management and the unstable family income. An investigation of topsoil properties with comparable management systems showed on small scales significant differences in key values of soil chemistry and mineralogy. The outline of the analytical parameters included determination of pH, electrical conductivity (EC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), organic carbon (TOC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total nitrogen (TN) and dissolved nitrogen (DN) in soil solution, and plant available nutrients (P and K). The soil's mineralogical composition was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. The area is a highly weathered karst landscape within a tropical limestone region displaying different amounts of volcanic pyroclastic parent material. The dominant Nitisoils and Andosols show degraded argic and andic horizons along the upper half of the mountainside. The pH values in the topsoil are moderate from pH 5.0 to 5.6. The upland topsoil is decalcified and the amount of plant available phosphorous is very low with significant low Ca concentration at the sorption complex. The mineralogical composition points to the high weathering intensity of this area (high content of kaolinite and a lower concentration of potassium and plagioclase feldspars and andesite). Along the upper half of the mountain, the soil profiles show wider C:N ratios and lower amounts of organic matter. Topsoil at lower altitude and with a lower

  5. Why is Liberal Peace-building so Difficult? Some Lessons from Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Kurtenbach

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available According to the liberal peace-building paradigm the termination of war is a window of opportunity for fundamental change. Central America has been one of the first laboratories of international policies promoting the threefold transformation process of pacification, democratization and economic liberalization. Although none of the postwar countries (Nicaragua, El Salvador, Guatemala slipped back into war, serious deficits abound that can neither be explained as mere consequences of war nor as ‘normal’ developmental problems. The paper introduces an analytical framework locating these problems at the intersection between external influences, societal foundations, consequences of war and violence as well as peace-building. The comparative analysis of the three transformation processes – democratization, market economy and pacification – shows how path dependent patterns remain dominant while reform processes are fragile. This allows for an explanation of common features as well as differences inside the region. Resumen: ¿Por qué es tan difícil la construcción de una paz liberal? Algunas lecciones de América CentralDe acuerdo al paradigma liberal sobre la construcción de la paz, el fin de una guerra abre un abanico de oportunidades para introducir cambios fundamentales. América Central fue uno de los primeros laboratorios donde se aplicaron políticas internacionales que fomentaban el triple proceso de transformación compuesto por la pacificación, la democratización y la liberalización económica. Aunque ninguna de las sociedades de posguerra (Nicaragua, El Salvador, Guatemala volvió a recaer en ella, abundan graves deficiencias que no se pueden explicar ni como meras consecuencias del conflicto ni como problemas ‘normales’ de países en desarrollo. El artículo define un marco analítico que localiza estos problemas en la intersección de influencias externas, bases sociales, consecuencias de la guerra y violencia as

  6. Tsunami hazard assessment in El Salvador, Central America, from seismic sources through flooding numerical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Álvarez-Gómez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El Salvador is the smallest and most densely populated country in Central America; its coast has approximately a length of 320 km, 29 municipalities and more than 700 000 inhabitants. In El Salvador there have been 15 recorded tsunamis between 1859 and 2012, 3 of them causing damages and hundreds of victims. The hazard assessment is commonly based on propagation numerical models for earthquake-generated tsunamis and can be approached from both Probabilistic and Deterministic Methods. A deterministic approximation has been applied in this study as it provides essential information for coastal planning and management. The objective of the research was twofold, on the one hand the characterization of the threat over the entire coast of El Salvador, and on the other the computation of flooding maps for the three main localities of the Salvadorian coast. For the latter we developed high resolution flooding models. For the former, due to the extension of the coastal area, we computed maximum elevation maps and from the elevation in the near-shore we computed an estimation of the run-up and the flooded area using empirical relations. We have considered local sources located in the Middle America Trench, characterized seismotectonically, and distant sources in the rest of Pacific basin, using historical and recent earthquakes and tsunamis. We used a hybrid finite differences – finite volumes numerical model in this work, based on the Linear and Non-linear Shallow Water Equations, to simulate a total of 24 earthquake generated tsunami scenarios. In the western Salvadorian coast, run-up values higher than 5 m are common, while in the eastern area, approximately from La Libertad to the Gulf of Fonseca, the run-up values are lower. The more exposed areas to flooding are the lowlands in the Lempa River delta and the Barra de Santiago Western Plains. The results of the empirical approximation used for the whole country are similar to the results obtained

  7. Plume-subduction interaction in southern Central America: Mantle upwelling and slab melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazel, Esteban; Hoernle, Kaj; Carr, Michael J.; Herzberg, Claude; Saginor, Ian; den Bogaard, Paul van; Hauff, Folkmar; Feigenson, Mark; Swisher, Carl

    2011-01-01

    The volcanic front in southern Central America is well known for its Galapagos OIB-like geochemical signature. A comprehensive set of geochemical, isotopic and geochronological data collected on volumetrically minor alkaline basalts and adakites were used to better constrain the mantle and subduction magma components and to test the different models that explain this OIB signature in an arc setting. We report a migration of back-arc alkaline volcanism towards the northwest, consistent with arc-parallel mantle flow models, and a migration towards the southeast in the adakites possibly tracking the eastward movement of the triple junction where the Panama Fracture Zone intersects the Middle America Trench. The adakites major and trace element compositions are consistent with magmas produced by melting a mantle-wedge source metasomatized by slab derived melts. The alkaline magmas are restricted to areas that have no seismic evidence of a subducting slab. The geochemical signature of the alkaline magmas is mostly controlled by upwelling asthenosphere with minor contributions from subduction components. Mantle potential temperatures calculated from the alkaline basalt primary magmas increased from close to ambient mantle (~ 1380-1410 °C) in the Pliocene to ~ 1450 °C in the younger units. The calculated initial melting pressures for these primary magmas are in the garnet stability field (3.0-2.7 GPa). The average final melting pressures range between 2.7 and 2.5 GPa, which is interpreted as the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary at ~ 85-90 km. We provide a geotectonic model that integrates the diverse observations presented here. The slab detached after the collision of the Galapagos tracks with the arc (~ 10-8 Ma). The detachment allowed hotter asthenosphere to flow into the mantle wedge. This influx of hotter asthenosphere explains the increase in mantle potential temperatures, the northwest migration in the back-arc alkaline lavas that tracks the passage of the

  8. Tsunami hazard assessment in El Salvador, Central America, from seismic sources through flooding numerical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Gómez, J. A.; Aniel-Quiroga, Í.; Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, O. Q.; Larreynaga, J.; González, M.; Castro, M.; Gavidia, F.; Aguirre-Ayerbe, I.; González-Riancho, P.; Carreño, E.

    2013-11-01

    El Salvador is the smallest and most densely populated country in Central America; its coast has an approximate length of 320 km, 29 municipalities and more than 700 000 inhabitants. In El Salvador there were 15 recorded tsunamis between 1859 and 2012, 3 of them causing damages and resulting in hundreds of victims. Hazard assessment is commonly based on propagation numerical models for earthquake-generated tsunamis and can be approached through both probabilistic and deterministic methods. A deterministic approximation has been applied in this study as it provides essential information for coastal planning and management. The objective of the research was twofold: on the one hand the characterization of the threat over the entire coast of El Salvador, and on the other the computation of flooding maps for the three main localities of the Salvadorian coast. For the latter we developed high-resolution flooding models. For the former, due to the extension of the coastal area, we computed maximum elevation maps, and from the elevation in the near shore we computed an estimation of the run-up and the flooded area using empirical relations. We have considered local sources located in the Middle America Trench, characterized seismotectonically, and distant sources in the rest of Pacific Basin, using historical and recent earthquakes and tsunamis. We used a hybrid finite differences-finite volumes numerical model in this work, based on the linear and non-linear shallow water equations, to simulate a total of 24 earthquake-generated tsunami scenarios. Our results show that at the western Salvadorian coast, run-up values higher than 5 m are common, while in the eastern area, approximately from La Libertad to the Gulf of Fonseca, the run-up values are lower. The more exposed areas to flooding are the lowlands in the Lempa River delta and the Barra de Santiago Western Plains. The results of the empirical approximation used for the whole country are similar to the results

  9. 75 FR 53370 - RailAmerica, Inc., Palm Beach Holding, Inc., RailAmerica Transportation Corp., Central Railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ...., Central Railroad Company of Indianapolis, Chicago Ft. Wayne and Eastern Railroad Division, Fortress... Company of Indianapolis (CERA); Chicago Ft. Wayne and Eastern Railroad Division (CFE); Fortress Investment... Louis E. Gitomer, Esq., Law Offices of Louis E. Gitomer, 600 Baltimore Avenue, Suite 301, Towson,...

  10. Independence and education in Central America: José Cecilio del Valle’s Report on education (1829)

    OpenAIRE

    Acuña Ortega, Víctor Hugo

    2011-01-01

    The Honduran José Cecilio del Valle (1777-1834) is the most prominent thinker from the historical time of the Independence of Central America and one of its key political actors. Valle was one of the great promulgators of the Enlightenment in the Kingdom of Guatemala. His interests included rationalist philosophy, experimental science, the doctrines of liberalism, and the theories of political economy. But what mostly stands out from his thought is his concern for education, which according t...

  11. Natural Hazard Mitigation Strategies in the Continental Caribbean: The Case of Belize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kareem M. Usher

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available La petite nation de Belize est nichée au cœur de l’Amérique Centrale, bordée au nord par le Mexique, à l'ouest et au sud par le Guatemala ; la mer Caraïbe constituant sa frontière orientale. Situé sur la trajectoire des cyclones tropicaux atlantiques, le pays est exposé aux catastrophes atmosphériques. Parmi les plus notables dans l’histoire de Bélize : l'ouragan de 1931 et l'ouragan Hattie qui ont fait 275 victimes et causé des dommages évalués à plus de 1 milliard de dollars. En réponse, le pays a mis en place diverses politiques responsables et inédites visant la réduction des risques afin de sauvegarder sa population et de protéger l’essor du tourisme. Malgré ces efforts, la majorité des populations côtières demeure vulnérable aux ouragans et aux inondationsThe small nation of Belize is nestled on the Central American Continent bounded on its north by Mexico, the west and south by Guatemala and the Caribbean Sea on its eastern border.  Located in the path of Atlantic Tropical Cyclones, the country is susceptible to atmospheric disasters.  Most notably are the Hurricane of 1931 and Hurricane Hattie which claimed 275 lives and caused damages in excess of US$1 Billion. Consequently, Belize has implemented several responsible and original mitigation policies to safeguard its population and protect the bourgeoning tourism industry. In spite of those efforts, most of its coastal populations remain vulnerable to hurricanes and floods.

  12. Micro and Macroscale Drivers of Nutrient Concentrations in Urban Streams in South, Central and North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiselle, Steven A.; Gasparini Fernandes Cunha, Davi; Shupe, Scott; Valiente, Elsa; Rocha, Luciana; Heasley, Eleanore; Belmont, Patricia Pérez; Baruch, Avinoam

    2016-01-01

    Global metrics of land cover and land use provide a fundamental basis to examine the spatial variability of human-induced impacts on freshwater ecosystems. However, microscale processes and site specific conditions related to bank vegetation, pollution sources, adjacent land use and water uses can have important influences on ecosystem conditions, in particular in smaller tributary rivers. Compared to larger order rivers, these low-order streams and rivers are more numerous, yet often under-monitored. The present study explored the relationship of nutrient concentrations in 150 streams in 57 hydrological basins in South, Central and North America (Buenos Aires, Curitiba, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Mexico City and Vancouver) with macroscale information available from global datasets and microscale data acquired by trained citizen scientists. Average sub-basin phosphate (P-PO4) concentrations were found to be well correlated with sub-basin attributes on both macro and microscales, while the relationships between sub-basin attributes and nitrate (N-NO3) concentrations were limited. A phosphate threshold for eutrophic conditions (>0.1 mg L-1 P-PO4) was exceeded in basins where microscale point source discharge points (eg. residential, industrial, urban/road) were identified in more than 86% of stream reaches monitored by citizen scientists. The presence of bankside vegetation covaried (rho = –0.53) with lower phosphate concentrations in the ecosystems studied. Macroscale information on nutrient loading allowed for a strong separation between basins with and without eutrophic conditions. Most importantly, the combination of macroscale and microscale information acquired increased our ability to explain sub-basin variability of P-PO4 concentrations. The identification of microscale point sources and bank vegetation conditions by citizen scientists provided important information that local authorities could use to improve their management of lower order river

  13. A Geodynamical Perspective on the Subduction of Cocos and Rivera plates beneath Mexico and Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin Manea, Vlad; Manea, Marina; Ferrari, Luca

    2013-04-01

    The Middle America subduction zone (MASZ) is one of the world most complex convergent margins as it involves the subduction of the Rivera and Cocos young oceanic plates beneath the North American and Caribbean plates and is bounded by the Gulf of California rift and the Panama slab window. Characterized by contorted and unusual slab geometry, irregularly distributed seismicity and volcanism, exceptionally large slow slip events (SSE) and non-volcanic tremors (NVT), this subduction system represents a great natural laboratory for better understanding geodynamic processes at a fundamental level. Based on a solid observational foundation, and incorporating the latest experimental results into a coherent geodynamical framework, we shed light on the main processes controlling the subduction system evolution in this region. The tectonics, volcanism, slab geometry and segmentation along the margin are reviewed from a geodynamical perspective. We proposed and discussed a series of evolutionary scenarios for the Mexican and Central American subduction zones, providing a coherent starting base for future geodynamical modeling studies tailored to this active margin. We discuss comparatively the recently discovered SSEs and NVTs along the MASZ, and try to differentiate among the proposed mechanisms responsible for these observations. Finally we discuss the recent seismic anisotropy observations in a geodynamic context, offering an integrated view of mantle flow pattern along the entire active margin. Although the MASZ as a whole may be considered a fairly complicated region with many unusual features and sometimes controversial interpretations, its complexity and unusual characteristics can improve our knowledge about the linkage between deep and surface processes associated with subduction zone dynamics.

  14. Offspring production in three freshwater crab species (Brachyura: Pseudothelphusidae from the Amazon region and Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo S. Wehrtmann

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater crabs are an important component of the fauna of limnic environments, and out of the two true freshwater crab families present in the Neotropics, Pseudothelphusidae is the most diverse. Considering the lack of information regarding reproductive features of neotropical freshwater crabs, we studied, for the first time, the fecundity and the presence of juveniles carried by females of two pseudothelphusids from the Amazon region - Kingsleya latifrons (Randall, 1840 and Kingsleya ytupora Magalhães, 1986 - and one from Central America - Potamocarcinus magnus (Rathbun, 1896. The two Kingsleya species produced relatively few (56-114 and large eggs (1.9-3.7 mm, typical for species with an abbreviated or direct development. Recently produced eggs were substantially larger in K. latifrons (mean 2.83 mm when compared to those of K. ytupora (mean 1.87 mm; however, at the end of the embryogenesis, mean egg diameter was similar in both species. Therefore, it is assumed that hatchlings in both species should have a similar size. A brief description of attached juveniles of K. ytupora is provided. The number of juveniles varied between 30 (K. ytupora and 179 (P. magnus; two size groups of juveniles were found, which indicates that the offspring cling to their mother for a prolonged period of time. There was no significant loss of eggs and juveniles; it is assumed that parental care diminishes the loss of their offspring. We compiled the available information of reproductive aspects from freshwater crabs: egg diameter was in the range of 2-3 mm, independent of female size and fecundity, and reported egg number varied between 9 and 417 eggs.

  15. Economic Accountability in Central America La accountability económica en Centroamérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregg B. Johnson

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Representative democracy hinges upon the notion of accountability. We examine the mediating effects of political context on economic accountability in a hostile environment – the developing democracies of Central America. We test whether clarity of responsibility mediates the economy’s effects on citizens’ support for a president using approval ratings. In general, we find that a good economy increases public support for a president significantly more under unified government, but surprisingly, we find that a bad economy decreases public support for a president far more under divided government. Dynamic simulations show that these effects become more pronounced during sustained periods of economic expansion or contraction. La democracia representativa depende de la responsabilidad personal de los oficiales elegidos. Este artículo examina cómo el contexto político afecta la accountability económica en el ambiente hostil de las democracias en desarrollo de Centroamérica. Se investiga si la claridad de la responsabilidad afecta la relación entre las condiciones económicas y la aprobación popular del presidente manifestada en encuestas. Se revela que ge¬ne¬ralmente bajo un gobierno unido la correspondencia entre buenas condiciones económicas y un alto nivel de aprobación popular es mucho mayor que bajo un gobierno dividido. Sin embargo, la reducción de la aprobación popular del presidente bajo malas condiciones económicas sorprendentemente es mucho mayor en un gobierno divido que en un gobierno unido. Simulaciones dinámicas demuestran que estos efectos se destacan aun más durante largos períodos de expansión o contracción económica.

  16. Emerging deforestation trends in tropical dry forests ecoregions of Mexico and Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo, C. A.; Cao, G.; Smith, V.

    2015-12-01

    Neotropical dry forests (TDF) have experienced an unprecedented deforestation that is leading to the loss of tropical biodiversity at a rapid pace, but information on deforestation dynamics in TDF is scarce. In this study, we present a sub-continental and national level assessment of TDF loss patterns in Mexico and Central America at high spatial and temporal resolution using remote sensing and GIS technologies. We used the Global Forest Change (GFC) dataset published by Hansen et al. (2013) which shows results from time-series analysis of Landsat images in characterizing global forest extent and change from 2000 through 2013. We analyzed forest loss within and around mapped TDF cover mapped by Portillo-Quintero et al. 2010. In order to minimize errors in source data, we overlaid a 25 x 25 km grid on top of the regional dataset and conducted a cell by cell and country by country inspection at multiple scales using high resolution ancillary data. We identified trends in the clustering of space-time TDF deforestation data using ArcGIS, categorizing trends in: new, consecutive, intensifying, persistent, diminishing, sporadic, oscillating and historical hotspots (high frequency of deforestation events) and cold spots (low frequency of deforestation). In general, the region is experiencing less frequent deforestation events with a higher number of intensifying and new cold spots across TDF landscapes. However, an important number of intensifying and persistent hotspots exist so no general trend in forest loss was detected for the period 2001-2013, except for El Salvador which shows a significant decreasing trend in forest loss. Mexico, Nicaragua, Honduras and Guatemala are the major sources of intensifying, persistent and new deforestation hot spots. These were identified in the southern pacific coast and the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico, northwestern Guatemala, both western and eastern Honduras and around Lake Nicaragua in Nicaragua.

  17. Atmospheric circulation associated with extreme generalized frosts persistence in central-southern South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Gabriela V. [Centro de Investigaciones Cientificas y Transferencia de Tecnologia a la Produccion, Diamante (CICYTTTP-CONICET), Diamante, Entre Rios (Argentina); Berri, Guillermo J. [Servicio Meteorologico Nacional - CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-03-15

    Generalized frosts (GF) in central-southern South America have a strong impact due to their spatial extension, and they are especially important when they become persistent. This paper aims at identifying the atmospheric circulation features that determine the extreme GF persistence, i.e. very persistent and without persistence, and the differences between them, during the 1961-1990 winters. Since the GF without persistence group outnumbers the other one, two subgroups are composed with events selected from winters with maximum and minimum frequency of GF occurrence, respectively. Additionally, the individual event of July 1988 within the very persistent GF group is analyzed due to its exceptional persistence. GF persistence is mainly conditioned by two large-scale dynamic factors. One is the Rossby wave train propagation across the Pacific Ocean, and the other one is the location with respect to the continent and the magnitude of the confluence in the jet entrance region in subtropical latitudes. A predominantly meridional Rossby wave train propagation with a confluence region to the west of the continent prior to the event favors GF with intermediate (null) persistence depending on the greater (lesser) jet acceleration. This is conditioned by the magnitude of the confluence, which, in turn, depends on the disposition of the wave train propagation pattern. Instead, an essentially zonal propagation with a confluence region to the east of the continent favors the GF persistence for several days, yet if there is no confluence the event does not persist. The greatest persistence of an event combines the confluence/diffluence of the jet entrance/exit region, which depends on the disposition with respect to the continent of the zonally propagating Rossby wave trains. (orig.)

  18. Constraining the Fore-Arc Flux Along the Central America Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, D. R.; Barry, P. H.; Ramirez, C. J.; Kulongoski, J. T.; Patel, B. S.; Blackmon, K.

    2014-12-01

    The transport of carbon to the deep mantle via subduction zones is interrupted by outputs via the fore-arc, volcanic front, and back-arc regions. Whereas output fluxes for the front and back-arc locales are well constrained for Central America (CA) [1], the fore-arc flux via cold seeps and groundwaters is virtually unknown. We present new He and CO2 data for the inner fore-arc of Costa Rica and western Panama to complement our study [2] of offshore CO2fluxes on the outer-forearc. On the Nicoya Peninsula, the Costa Rica Pacific coastline (including the Oso Peninsula) and the Talamanca Mountain Range, as well as coastal seeps in Panama, coupled CO2-He studies allow recognition of mantle (3He/4He up to 6RA) and crustal inputs to the volatile inventory. We associate the crustal component with CO2 derived from limestone (L) and organic sediments (S) on the subducting slab, and see a decrease in the L/S ratio trench-ward with the lowest values akin to those of diatomaceous ooze in the uppermost sequence of the subducting sediment package. This observation is consistent with the removal of the uppermost organic-rich sediment from deep subduction by under-plating. As the input carbon fluxes of the individual sedimentary layers are well constrained [3], we can limit the potential steady-state flux of carbon loss at the subaerial fore-arc to ~ 6 × 107 gCkm-1yr-1, equivalent to ~88% of the input flux of C associated with the ooze, or mass balance studies at subduction zones. [1] De Leeuw et al., EPSL, 2007; [2] Furi et al., G-cubed, 2010; [3] Li and Bebout, JGR, 2005.

  19. [Agrarian movements, development alternatives and food security in Central America: scenarios of transition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Rojas, R

    1991-01-01

    This article, based on personal experiences with a network of organizations of small and medium agricultural producers in Central America, aims to present the views of peasant organizations concerning agrarian problems in the region. The 3 major sections of work define the place of peasant agriculture in the traditional agrarian structure and the new problems resulting from the structural adjustment programs of the 1980s; separately describe the new peasant movements emerging in Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama, identifying common themes an efforts at international collaboration; and explore the positions of the peasant organizations on the optimal strategies for agricultural development and agrarian change. Agriculture remains the backbone of the Central American economies. But because the economic model in the region is 1 of accumulation characterized by dependency, concentration of capital, and social marginalization, the agrarian structure is at the basis of social tensions. Efforts to develop peasant agriculture and to give small producers access to marketing and credit services have been weak and sporadic. The new peasant movements are less inclined than those of the past to employ tactics of confrontation in their efforts to secure access to land and better working conditions. The new movement is the expression of small market producers sometimes grouped into associations who are oriented to production of basic foodstuffs for the internal market. A new concern with adaptation and negotiation is evident. The new organizations have in common a belief in their ability to propose new solutions to regional problems. Their views are founded on a positive assessment of the ability of peasant agriculture to produce food and add dynamism to the regional economy after barriers to credit, technological progress, and modernization in general are removed. Signs of increased cooperation are evident between peasant organizations and other groups

  20. Molecular genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii from Central and South America revealed highly diverse populations and suggested possible different origins of the three archetypal lineages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most T. gondii strains in North America and Europe belong to three archetypal clonal lineages including the Type I, II and III but, isolates from Brazil are highly diverse. Here, we analyzed 164 T. gondii isolates from three countries in Central America (Guatemala, Nicaragua, Costa Rica), from one c...

  1. Neglected tropical diseases in Central America and Panama: review of their prevalence, populations at risk and impact on regional development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotez, Peter J; Woc-Colburn, Laila; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2014-08-01

    A review of the literature since 2009 reveals a staggering health and economic burden resulting from neglected tropical diseases in Panama and the six countries of Central America (referred to collectively here as 'Central America'). Particularly at risk are the 10.2million people in the region who live on less than $2 per day, mostly in Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and El Salvador. Indigenous populations are especially vulnerable to neglected tropical diseases. Currently, more than 8million Central American children require mass drug treatments annually (or more frequently) for their intestinal helminth infections, while vector-borne diseases are widespread. Among the vector-borne parasitic infections, almost 40% of the population is at risk for malaria (mostly Plasmodium vivax infection), more than 800,000 people live with Chagas disease, and up to 39,000 people have cutaneous leishmaniasis. In contrast, an important recent success story is the elimination of onchocerciasis from Central America. Dengue is the leading arbovirus infection with 4-5million people affected annually and hantavirus is an important rodent-borne viral neglected tropical disease. The leading bacterial neglected tropical diseases include leptospirosis and trachoma, for which there are no disease burden estimates. Overall there is an extreme dearth of epidemiological data on neglected tropical diseases based on active surveillance as well as estimates of their economic impact. Limited information to date, however, suggests that neglected tropical diseases are a major hindrance to the region's economic development, in both the most impoverished Central American countries listed above, as well as for Panama and Costa Rica where a substantial (but largely hidden) minority of people live in extreme poverty.

  2. Evaluating Ultraviolet Radiation Exposures Determined from TOMS Satellite Data at Sites of Amphibian Declines in Central and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Many amphibian species have experienced substantial population declines, or have disappeared altogether, during the last several decades at a number of amphibian census sites in Central and South America. This study addresses the use of satellite-derived trends in solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B; 280-320 nm) radiation exposures at these sites over the last two decades, and is intended to demonstrate a role for satellite observations in determining whether UV-B radiation is a contributing factor in amphibian declines. UV-B radiation levels at the Earth's surface were derived from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) satellite data, typically acquired daily since 1979. These data were used to calculate the daily erythemal (sunburning) UV-B, or UV-B(sub ery), exposures at the latitude, longitude, and elevation of each of 20 census sites. The annually averaged UV-B(sub ery) dose, as well as the maximum values, have been increasing in both Central and South America, with higher levels received at the Central American sites. The annually averaged UV-B(sub ery) exposures increased significantly from 1979-1998 at all 11 Central American sites examined (r(exp 2) = 0.60 - 0.79; Pexposure levels (>= 6750 J/sq m*d) to the annual UV-B(sub ery) total has increased from approx. 5% to approx. 15% in Central America over the 19 year period, but actual daily exposures for each species are unknown. Synergy among UV-B radiation and other factors, especially those associated with alterations of water chemistry (e.g., acidification) in aqueous habitats is discussed. These findings justify further research concerning whether UV-B(sub ery) radiation plays a role in amphibian population declines and extinctions.

  3. Energy integration experiences at the Europe, at the Nordic countries and at the Central America: considerations relevant to the South America integration process; Experiencias de integracao energetica na Europa, nos paises nordicos e na America Central: consideracoes relevantes ao processo de integracao Sul-Americana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Adriana Fiorotti; Andreza, Fernanda Marques Pereira; Soares, Jeferson Borghetti; Pinheiro, Maria Fernanda Bacile; Oliveira, Ricardo Gorini de [Empresa de Pesquisa Energetica (EPE), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], Emails: adriana.campos@epe.gov.br, fernanda.andreza@epe.gov.br; jeferson.soares@epe.gov.br, maria.pinheiro, ricardo.gorini@epe.gov.br

    2010-07-01

    In view of institutional/contractual regulatory problems at the South America, some experiences of energy integration at the electrical sectors and natural gas (Nordic countries. European Union and Central America), identifying related vantages and advantageous. Besides, there is an attempt of characterization of the process step of energy integration, and the fitting of regions in these steps, observing that the process of energy integration in the South America it is found in a initial step yet if it is considered the used methodology by the Colombian enterprise Interconexion Electrica S.A.E.S.P. - ISA (2007)

  4. Magmatic evolution of the Sarapiqui Miocene Arc, Costa Rica, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazel, E.; Alvarado, G. E.; Carr, M. J.; Obando, J.; Alfaro, A.

    2005-12-01

    The Sarapiqui Miocene Arc (22.2-11.4 Ma) is located in the modern back-arc region of northern Costa Rica, Central America. The arc basement is represented by serpentinized peridotites, Albian silicic pelagites, and Paleocene to Middle Eocene turbidites. Magmatic units vary from basalts to rhyolites and include lavas, pyroclastic deposits, and a few subvolcanic bodies. The magmatic evolution of the Sarapiqui Miocene Arc consists of three distinct stages: 1) Jardin Basalts (22.2 Ma) showing a primary tendency with high MgO, Ni, Cr, and Nb, high initial La/Yb ratios, and low Ba/La which increase with the slab fluids addition; 2) Arrepentidos Basaltic-andesites, Chaparron Pyroclasts, Hito Sar Basalts, Boca Tapada Gabro, and Chamorro Andesites, that represent the island arc evolution from 17.2 to 11.4 Ma; and 3) Crucitas Rhyolites (14.3 Ma) characterizated by low TiO2 and very high Ba/La ratios represent non-cogenetic, but contemporaneous felsic magmas produced by remelting of pre-existing intrusives. The REE patterns indicate a plagioclase rich, amphibole bearing source for this last unit. The Zr/Nb ratios (7-36) are evidence of the coalescing of a minor OIB source with a dominant MORB source, both modified by subduction. 87Sr/86Sr correlate positively with Ba/La; however, they are still within the OIB field. An inverse model using the REEs of the mafic units is consistent with a source mantle composition of garnet peridotite. All but one of the units show LILE enrichments and HFSE depletions typical of the island arc environment. The exception is a suite of near primary magmas, included in the Jardin Basalts, which probably originated by decompression melting. The Ba/La and La/Yb ratios of the Sarapiqui Miocene Arc are very similar to those of the modern Northern Costa Rican Arc, suggesting that the subduction fluid composition and the degree of partial melting have not changed significantly in the last 20 Ma.

  5. The State of Development of National CDM Offices in Central and South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morera, L.; Cabeza, O.; Black-Arbelaez, T. [Andean Center for Economics in the Environment, Bogota (Colombia)

    2003-07-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) offers great potential to assist Annex B countries in meeting their emissions reduction commitments by increasing the supply of low-cost emissions mitigation projects, thereby reducing the international market price of emissions reduction credits and the national cost of compliance. However, CDM project development is facing a series of barriers, which if not addressed, may constrain the effective supply of Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) into the international marketplace. Low CER prices coupled with high formulation and transactions costs make for weak benefit-cost ratios. Owners of potential projects perceive major institutional, regulatory and market risks. These conditions are compounded by a lack of capital in developing countries to appropriately formulate or to execute projects, both from the weaknesses of the capital markets and from the unfamiliarity of bankers with the CDM. One of the requirements for developing countries to participate in the CDM established by the COP7 Marrakech Accords pertains to the designation of a national authority for the CDM. Specifically, this accord stipulates that a Non-Annex B country choosing to participate in the CDM must only do so voluntarily, and shall designate a national authority in charge of the mechanism, which shall be responsible of evaluating and granting national approval to the projects developed within said framework. According to Article 12 of the Kyoto Protocol, projects to be carried out under the (CDM) must be 'additional', produce real and long term emissions reductions, have the consent of the participating Parties, and contribute to the sustainable development of the countries in which said projects are established. If the expected supply of CERs from Latin America is to materialise, national CDM offices must come on line, operate effectively and approve projects. National approval, which forms part of the CDM project cycle established by the

  6. Central Bank independence in Latin America La independencia de la Banca Central en América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junguito Bonnet Roberto

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the origin and evolution of the central banks of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, and Venezuela, and analyzes their respective institutional structures. It also studies the contribution of the central bank to stabilization and the problems for maintaining this independence into the future.Este artículo describe el origen y la evolución de los Bancos Centrales de Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Colombia, México y Venezuela, y analiza sus respectivas estructruras institucionales. También estudia la contribución de la banca central a la estabilización y los problemas para que esta independencia se mantenga en el futuro.

  7. New challenges to electrical interconnection systems in Central America; Nuevos retos que plantea la integracion electrica Centroamericana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Pinzon, Luz Amalia [IRHE, Panama (Panama)

    1996-07-01

    The electrical interconnection between Central America countries is a project of regional integration, whose purpose is to optimize the advantage of interconnecting of six electrical systems of their respective countries. This require the establishment of legal procedures to operate the high voltage transmission grid from Guatemala to Panama. The mid and long term planning of the interconnected electrical grid, is a new challenge for the electrical companies, considering that as up to now, they have been satisfying small markets. The possibility to use nuclear energy to satisfy a bigger market is now feasible and deserves to be considered since the beginning of the interconnection project. (author)

  8. Mid-term evaluation of the NRECA (National Rural Electric Cooperative Association) Central America Rural Electrification Support Program (CARES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlack, R.D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Jones, H.G. (Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (USA)); Garcia, A. III (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (USA). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering); Flores, E. (Flores (Edgar), Guatemala City (Guatemala))

    1990-09-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory was requested by the Regional Office for Central America and Panama to conduct a mid-term evaluation of the Cares Project, which is being implemented by the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association. This evaluation was conducted over a three week period by a four person team. Overall, the project has had numerous successes and is highly valued by local counterpart utilities and USAID Missions. Notwithstanding the significant results of the project, changes can be made in certain operating procedures and in the direction of some programmatic activities that can lead to an even more effective project.

  9. Development and validation of a nutritional education pamphlet for low literacy pediatric oncology caregivers in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Melissa; Chismark, Elisabeth A; Mosby, Terezie; Day, Sara W

    2010-12-01

    A culturally appropriate nutrition education pamphlet was developed and validated for low-literacy caregivers in Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala. The pamphlet was developed after a preliminary survey of pediatric oncology nurses in the 3 countries to assess the need for education materials, caregiver literacy levels, and local eating habits. Experts in nutrition and low-literacy patient education and pediatric oncology nurses validated the pamphlet's content and design. The pamphlet was validated positively and has been circulated to pediatric oncology caregivers in Central America.

  10. Revision of the species of the genus Cathorops (Siluriformes: Ariidae from Mesoamerica and the Central American Caribbean, with description of three new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre P. Marceniuk

    Full Text Available The ariid genus Cathorops includes species that occur mainly in estuarine and freshwater habitats of the eastern and western coasts of southern Mexico, Central and South America. The species of Cathorops from the Mesoamerica (Atlantic slope and Caribbean Central America are revised, and three new species are described: C. belizensis from mangrove areas in Belize; C. higuchii from shallow coastal areas and coastal rivers in the Central American Caribbean, from Honduras to Panama; and C. kailolae from río Usumacinta and lago Izabal basins in Mexico and Guatemala. Additionally, C. aguadulce, from the río Papaloapan basin in Mexico, and C. melanopus from the río Motagua basin in Guatemala and Honduras, are redescribed and their geographic distributions are revised.

  11. Tree-ring records of near-Younger Dryas time in central North America - Preliminary results from the Lincoln quarry site, central Illinois, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panyushkina, Irina P.; Leavitt, Steven W.; Wiedenhoeft, A.; Noggle, S.; Curry, B.; Grimm, E.

    2004-01-01

    The abrupt millennial-scale changes associated with the Younger Dryas (YD) event ("chronozone") near the dawn of the Holocene are at least hemispheric, if not global, in extent. Evidence for the YD cold excursion is abundant in Europe but fairly meager in central North America. We are engaged in an investigation of high-resolution environmental changes in mid-North America over several millennia (about 10,000 to 14,000 BP) during the Late Glacial-Early Holocene transition, including the YD interval. Several sites containing logs or stumps have been identified and we are in the process of initial sampling or re-sampling them for this project. Here, we report on a site in central Illinois containing a deposit of logs initially thought to be of YD age preserved in alluvial sands. The assemblage of wood represents hardwood (angiosperm) trees, and the ring-width characteristics are favorable to developing formal tree-ring chronologies. However, 4 new radiocarbon dates indicate deposition of wood may have taken place over at least 8000 14C yr (6000-14,000 BP). This complicates the effort to develop a single floating chronology of several hundred years at this site, but it may provide wood from a restricted region over a long period of time from which to develop a sequence of floating chronologies, the timing of deposition and preservation of which could be related to paleoclimatic events and conditions.

  12. DEFORESTATION ALONG THE MAYA MOUNTAIN MASSIF BELIZE-GUATEMALA BORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Chicas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years trans-boundary incursions from Petén, Guatemala into Belize’s Maya Mountain Massif (MMM have increased. The incursions are rapidly degrading cultural and natural resources in Belize’s protected areas. Given the local, regional and global importance of the MMM and the scarcity of deforestation data, our research team conducted a time series analysis 81 km by 12 km along the Belize-Guatemalan border adjacent to the protected areas of the MMM. Analysis drew on Landsat imagery from 1991 to 2014 to determine historic deforestation rates. The results indicate that the highest deforestation rates in the study area were −1.04% and −6.78% loss of forested area per year in 2012-2014 and 1995-1999 respectively. From 1991 to 2014, forested area decreased from 96.9 % to 85.72 % in Belize and 83.15 % to 31.52 % in Guatemala. During the study period, it was clear that deforestation rates fluctuated in Belize's MMM from one time-period to the next. This seems linked to either a decline in deforestation rates in Guatemala, the vertical expansion of deforestation in Guatemalan forested areas and monitoring. The results of this study urge action to reduce incursions and secure protected areas and remaining forest along the Belize-Guatemalan border.

  13. Methodological and Practical Considerations for DevelopingMultiproject Baselines for Electric Power and Cement Industry Projects inCentral America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murtishaw, Scott; Sathaye, Jayant; Galitsky, Christina; Dorion,Kristel

    2004-09-02

    The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) andthe Center for Sustainable Development in the Americas (CSDA) conductedtechnical studies and organized two training workshops to developcapacity in Central America for the evaluation of climate changeprojects. This paper describes the results of two baseline case studiesconducted for these workshops, one for the power sector and one for thecement industry, that were devised to illustrate certain approaches tobaseline setting. Multiproject baseline emission rates (BERs) for themain Guatemalan electricity grid were calculated from 2001 data. Inrecent years, the Guatemalan power sector has experienced rapid growth;thus, a sufficient number of new plants have been built to estimateviable BERs. We found that BERs for baseload plants offsetting additionalbaseload capacity ranged from 0.702 kgCO2/kWh (using a weighted averagestringency) to 0.507 kgCO2/kWh (using a 10th percentile stringency),while the baseline for plants offsetting load-followingcapacity is lowerat 0.567 kgCO2/kWh. For power displaced from existing load-followingplants, the rate is higher, 0.735 kgCO2/kWh, as a result of the age ofsome plants used for meeting peak loads and the infrequency of their use.The approved consolidated methodology for the Clean Development Mechanismyields a single rate of 0.753 kgCO2/kWh. Due to the relatively smallnumber of cement plants in the region and the regional nature of thecement market, all of Central America was chosen as the geographicboundary for setting cement industry BERs. Unfortunately, actualoperations and output data were unobtainable for most of the plants inthe region, and many data were estimated. Cement industry BERs rangedfrom 205 kgCO2 to 225 kgCO2 per metric ton of cement.

  14. The deepwater fishery along the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, Central America

    OpenAIRE

    Ingo S Wehrtmann; Nielsen Muñoz, Vanessa

    2009-01-01

    artículo (arbitrado) -- Universidad de Costa Rica. Centro de Investigación en Ciencias del Mar y Limonología (CIMAR), 2009 Global catches of marine fishery resources declined during the last decades; however, there has been a trend of increasing exploitation of deepwater resources that are especially vulnerable to depletion. Such a tendency was noticeable in Pacific Latin America, too.In Costa Rica, the vast majority of the commercial fishing activities are concentrated on the Pacific coas...

  15. Spathelia belizensis, a new species and first record for the genus in Central America (tribe Spathelieae, Rutaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo-Rodríguez, Pedro; Brewer, Steven W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Spathelia L. as currently circumscribed is endemic to the western portion of the West Indies, and contains nine species, one endemic to the Bahamas, three endemic to Jamaica and five endemic to Cuba. The discovery of a new species in Belize brings the total number of species in Spathelia to ten and expands its known distribution beyond the West Indies. Spathelia belizensis sp. nov. is herein described, illustrated and contrasted to its most morphologically similar congener. A key to the species of Spathelia is provided. PMID:28127250

  16. Biologic and genetic characteristics of Toxoplasma gondii isolates in free-range chickens from Nicaragua, Central America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubey, J.P.; Sundar, N.; Pineda, N.

    2006-01-01

    :10 or less were pooled and fed to three T. gondii-free cats. Hearts and brains of 66 chickens with titers of 1:20 or higher were bioassayed in mice. Feces of cats were examined for oocysts. The cat fed tissues from eight chickens with titers of 1:10 shed T. gondii oocysts. The two cats fed tissues of 24...... from the same household, indicating multiple genotypes were circulating in the same environment. This may explain the high frequency of mixed infections observed. High rate of mixed infection in intermediate hosts such as chickens may facilitate genetic exchange between different parasite lineages...... in definitive feline hosts. This is the first report of genetic characterization of T. gondii isolates from Nicragua, Central America....

  17. Population biology of the portunid crab Callinectes arcuatus Ordway in the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittel, Ana I.; Epifanio, C. E.; Chavarria, Juan Bautista

    1985-05-01

    Tropical blue crabs Callinectes arcuatus were collected by trawling in the Gulf of Nicoya on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, Central America. The gulf population was generally dominated by females. Adult females were common in the upper, more estuarine regions of the gulf during rainy season, but appeared to migrate to the lower gulf during dry season for spawning. Biomass varied with seasonal changes in abundance, but was generally similar to biomass of C. sapidus in Chesapeake Bay. Analysis of size frequency indicated that the population is numerically dominated by adults during January and February and that juveniles are common during the remainder of the year. Extrapolation of available data suggests that female crabs reach maturity in approximately one year after hatching.

  18. A Summary of the 1999-2002 Seasons of Archaeological Investigations at Pook's Hill, Cayo District, Belize

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helmke, Christophe G.B.

    2006-01-01

    The following is a synopsis of the 1999 through 2002 seasons of archaeological investigations conducted at the site of Pook's Hill. The site's location and description precede an outline of the research objectives that have guided the investigations. Results of the first four seasons of investiga...... wider Late to Terminal Classic social processes in central Belize and the eastern Maya Lowlands generally........ Our investigations have revealed thar there is a notable diachronic and spatial patterning in ritual practices at Pook's Hill, as reflected in the material precipitates of such actions. Further study should offer insight into whether local and idiosyncratic patterns are manifest, or if it reflects...

  19. Structural Vulnerability among Migrating Women and Children Fleeing Central America and Mexico:The Public Health Impact of Humanitarian Parole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Salerno Valdez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Since October 2013, US Customs and Border Patrol (USCBP has apprehended 15,979 families on the Southwest Border of the United States. Daily, migrating women and children from Mexico and Central America that qualify for humanitarian parole are released from immigration detention to a humanitarian aid organization in Southern Arizona. After several days in detention facilities, these families arrive tired, hungry, dehydrated, and with minimal direction regarding their final destination, and adherence to the parameters of their parole. Project Helping Hands (PHH utilizes a network of volunteers to provide the women and children with food, water, clothing, hygiene products, hospitality, and legal orientation. The aim of this assessment was to document the experiences of families granted humanitarian parole through the lens of structural vulnerability. Here we apply qualitative methods to elicit PHH lead volunteer perspectives regarding the migration experience of migrating families. Using inductive analysis, we found six major themes emerged from the qualitative data: reasons for leaving, experience on the journey, dehumanization in detention, family separation, vulnerability, and resiliency.These findings elucidate the different physical and psychological distresses that migrating families from Mexico and Central America experience before, during and after their arrival at the US-Mexico border. We posit that these distresses are a result of, or exacerbated by, structural vulnerability. Structural vulnerability has life-long health implications for a sub-population of young mothers and their children. The number of migrating families who have experienced traumatic events before, and during their migration experience continues to expand and thus warrants consideration of mental health surveillance and intervention efforts for these families. More public health research is needed to better understand and combat the health challenges of this growing

  20. Structural Vulnerability Among Migrating Women and Children Fleeing Central America and Mexico: The Public Health Impact of "Humanitarian Parole".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Elizabeth Salerno; Valdez, Luis A; Sabo, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    Since October 2013, US Customs and Border Patrol has apprehended 15,979 families on the Southwest Border of the US. Daily, migrating women and children from Mexico and Central America that qualify for humanitarian parole are released from immigration detention to a humanitarian aid organization in Southern Arizona. After several days in detention facilities, these families arrive tired, hungry, dehydrated, and with minimal direction regarding their final destination, and adherence to the parameters of their parole. Project helping hands (PHHs) utilizes a network of volunteers to provide the women and children with food, water, clothing, hygiene products, hospitality, and legal orientation. The aim of this assessment was to document the experiences of families granted humanitarian parole through the lens of structural vulnerability. Here, we apply qualitative methods to elicit PHH lead volunteer perspectives regarding the migration experience of migrating families. Using inductive analysis, we found six major themes emerged from the qualitative data: reasons for leaving, experience on the journey, dehumanization in detention, family separation, vulnerability, and resiliency. These findings elucidate the different physical and psychological distresses that migrating families from Mexico and Central America experience before, during and after their arrival at the US-Mexico border. We posit that these distresses are a result of, or exacerbated by, structural vulnerability. Structural vulnerability has life-long health implications for a sub-population of young mothers and their children. The number of migrating families who have experienced traumatic events before and during their migration experience continues to expand and thus warrants consideration of mental health surveillance and intervention efforts for these families. More public health research is needed to better understand and combat the health challenges of this growing population.

  1. Rainforest understory beetles of the Neotropics: Mizotrechus Bates 1872, a generic synopsis with descriptions of new species from Central America and northern South America (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Perigonini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Erwin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Information on the single previously described species, Mizotrechus novemstriatus Bates 1872 (type locality: Brazil – Amazonas, Tefé, is updated and 17 new species for the genus from Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panamá, Colombia, Venezuela, and Guyane are described. The species records in the literature and on determined specimens in some collections of M. novemstriatus Bates from Central America are not that species; currently, M. novemstriatus is known only from its type locality in Amazonian Brazil. For the new species described, their known general distributions are as follows: Mizotrechus batesi sp. n. (Guyane, Mizotrechus bellorum sp. n. (Guyane, Mizotrechus brulei sp. n. (Guyane, Mizotrechus belevedere sp. n. (Guyane, Mizotrechus costaricensis sp. n. (Costa Rica, Mizotrechus dalensi sp. n. (Guyane, Mizotrechus edithpiafae sp. n. (provenance unknown, Mizotrechus fortunensis sp. n. (Panamá, Mizotrechus gorgona. sp. n. (Colombia, Mizotrechus grossus sp. n. (Guyane, Mizotrechus jefe sp. n. (Panamá, Mizotrechus marielaforetae sp. n. (Guyane, Mizotrechus minutus sp. n. (Guyane, Mizotrechus neblinensis sp. n. (Guyane, Venezuela, Mizotrechus poirieri sp. n. (Guyane, and Mizotrechus woldai sp. n. (Panamá. Long-term use of flight intercept traps in Guyane provided so many new species that apparently the use of FITs is the way to collect adults of this taxon, previously known from very few specimens. Many more species of this genus can be expected to be discovered throughout the Neotropics; the present contribution is a preliminary synopsis with identification key and adult images of all known species. Likely numerous species are yet to be discovered throughout tropical climes.

  2. The Epidemiology of Malaria in Belize, 1989-1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-02-01

    responsible for transmission were the same as those in Canada (Faust 1949). Malaria was highly endemic in the South at the time of the civil war. Returning...in reaching inaccessible areas, by the speed in which they change, and by other situations such as natural disasters and civil strife. Remote sensing...and broadleaf forests. Culturally diverse, Belize is home to many ethnicities such as three Mayan groups, Afro- Belizeans or creoles, Spanish-speaking

  3. Predicting Citizen Satisfaction with Government Services in Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    thousand per citizen (CIA: The World Factbook, 2014). The largest sector of Belize’s economy is tourism , which accounts for 33.2% of the GDP and 30.1...of the employed workforce (World Travel & Tourism Council, 2012). The rest of Belize’s economy consists of agricultural exports such as bananas...of Belize is English, which negated the requirement for language translation and back- translation of the survey instrument; however, due to a

  4. Active tectonics and Quaternary landscape evolution across the western Panama block, Costa Rica, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jeffrey Scott

    Three aspects of active tectonism are examined across central Costa Rica: (1) fault kinematics; (2) volcanic arc retreat; and (3) spatially variable coastal uplift. Diffuse faulting along the Central Costa Rica Deformed Belt (CCRDB) defines the western margin of the Panama block and aligns with the rough-smooth boundary (RSB) on the subducting Cocos plate. Sub-horizontal subduction of rough, hotspot thickened crust (Cocos Ridge and seamounts) shifts active shortening into the volcanic arc along the CCRDB. Mesoscale faults express variable kinematics across three domains: transtension in the forearc, transcurrent motion across the volcanic arc, and transpression in the back arc. Fault kinematics agree with seismicity and GPS data, and isotopic ages confirm that faulting postdates the late Neogene onset of shallow subduction. Stratigraphic correlation augmented by 40Ar/39Ar dating constrain the timing of Quaternary arc migration from the Neogene Aguacate range to the modern Cordillera Central. The Valle Central basin, between the cordilleras, filled with thick sequences of lavas, pyroclastic flows, and lahars. Middle Pleistocene drainage capture across the Aguacate arc linked the Valle Central with the Pacific slope and ash flows descended onto the coastal Orotina debris fan. Arc retreat reflects slab shallowing and enhanced tectonic erosion as rough crust entered the subduction zone. Differing subduction parameters across the RSB (crustal age, slab dip, roughness) produce marked contrasts in coastal tectonism. Varying uplift rates across coastal faults reflect sub-horizontal subduction of seamount roughness. Three groups (I--III) of fluvial terraces are correlated along the coast by isotopic ages and geomorphic characteristics. Base level fluctuations and terrace genesis reflect interaction between eustatic sea level and spatially variable rock uplift. Low uplift rates (north of RSB), yield one surface per terrace group, whereas moderate rates (south of RSB

  5. Changing drug markets under new intellectual property regimes: the view from Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, Angelina Snodgrass; Cerón, Alejandro

    2011-07-01

    The intellectual property rules inscribed in the Central American Free Trade Agreement have generated concern about access to medicines. We examined the implementation of the new intellectual property regime by tracking the policies and practices in place across 4 Central American countries. Although all 4 were responding to the same requirements under the agreement, their implementation of intellectual property rules differed. Not only were institutional practices different, but the lists of drugs to which intellectual property protection was applied varied in both volume and content. We also found that even without the influence of intellectual property, drug pricing in the region was often unpredictable and that lower cost was not the only motivation driving governments' purchasing decisions.

  6. Molecular diagnosis and species identification of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma infections in dogs from Panama, Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaria, Annamaria; Calzada, Jose E; Saldaña, Azael; Yabsley, Michael J; Gottdenker, Nicole L

    2014-05-01

    The prevalence and distribution of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia were estimated in 201 symptomatic dogs from Panama by nested PCR and DNA sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. In total, 163 dogs (70.6%; 163/201) were infected with either Anaplasma or Ehrlichia. On the basis of PCR results, the majority of cases were infected with E. canis (64.2%; 129/201) followed by 21.4% (43/201) with A. platys, whereas 7.5% (15/201) had Anaplasma/Ehrlichia co-infections. Further analyses of 16S rDNA partial sequences show sequence homology with E. canis and A. platys from other countries. Hematology findings from 79 E. canis PCR-positive dogs included anemia (74.7%), thrombocytopenia (81.9%), macroplatelets (29.1%), and leukopenia (6.3%). Among 16 A. platys PCR-positive dogs with available hematology, 62.5% were anemic, 75% had thrombocytopenia, and 100% had macroplatelets. On the basis of E.canis serology (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA]) (n=92 dogs), 30 dogs that were seropositive for E. canis were also PCR-positive, whereas among seronegatives (n=62), 10 were PCR-positive for E. canis. This study provides the first characterization of canine anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis infections in Panama and is important to veterinary public health and comparative studies of these pathogens in the Americas.

  7. New records of Anacroneuria Klapálek, 1909 (Plecoptera: Perlidae) for Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Fonseca, Pablo E; Alonso-Rodríguez, Aura M; Cornejo, Aydeé; Bailey, Anna Cristina; Maes, Jean-Michel; Ramírez, Alonso

    2015-08-03

    The perlid genus Anacroneuria is the most widely distributed stonefly occurring in the Neotropics. Regional studies of this genus were made early in the last century, whereas local taxonomic and distributional studies have recently increased. In this study, we provide new Central American records for four species of Anacroneuria. Anacroneuria choco Stark & Bersosa 2006, A. costana (Navás 1924), A. hacha Stark 1998, and A. laru Gutiérrez-Fonseca 2015 are newly reported including new range extensions.

  8. FBOs in Central America: A Critique of Power, Religion and Social Development in Maurice Echeverríaâ s Diccionario esotérico

    OpenAIRE

    Owens, Ashby

    2012-01-01

    Latin American literature has a rich tradition of translating recreated realities and social commentaries into fictional works. In Central America, especially in Guatemala, El Salvador, and Nicaragua, these commentaries often speak to the plight of the people and the unjust actions of many governments during and after their still fresh civil wars. One Guatemalan author, Maurice Echeverría, stays within the broader trajectory of Central American literature with his novel Diccionario esotéric...

  9. Hydro, wind and solar power as a base for a 100% renewable energy supply for South and Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Larissa de Souza Noel Simas; Bogdanov, Dmitrii; Vainikka, Pasi; Breyer, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Power systems for South and Central America based on 100% renewable energy (RE) in the year 2030 were calculated for the first time using an hourly resolved energy model. The region was subdivided into 15 sub-regions. Four different scenarios were considered: three according to different high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission grid development levels (region, country, area-wide) and one integrated scenario that considers water desalination and industrial gas demand supplied by synthetic natural gas via power-to-gas (PtG). RE is not only able to cover 1813 TWh of estimated electricity demand of the area in 2030 but also able to generate the electricity needed to fulfil 3.9 billion m3 of water desalination and 640 TWhLHV of synthetic natural gas demand. Existing hydro dams can be used as virtual batteries for solar and wind electricity storage, diminishing the role of storage technologies. The results for total levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) are decreased from 62 €/MWh for a highly decentralized to 56 €/MWh for a highly centralized grid scenario (currency value of the year 2015). For the integrated scenario, the levelized cost of gas (LCOG) and the levelized cost of water (LCOW) are 95 €/MWhLHV and 0.91 €/m3, respectively. A reduction of 8% in total cost and 5% in electricity generation was achieved when integrating desalination and power-to-gas into the system.

  10. Hydro, wind and solar power as a base for a 100% renewable energy supply for South and Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Larissa de Souza Noel Simas; Bogdanov, Dmitrii; Vainikka, Pasi; Breyer, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Power systems for South and Central America based on 100% renewable energy (RE) in the year 2030 were calculated for the first time using an hourly resolved energy model. The region was subdivided into 15 sub-regions. Four different scenarios were considered: three according to different high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission grid development levels (region, country, area-wide) and one integrated scenario that considers water desalination and industrial gas demand supplied by synthetic natural gas via power-to-gas (PtG). RE is not only able to cover 1813 TWh of estimated electricity demand of the area in 2030 but also able to generate the electricity needed to fulfil 3.9 billion m3 of water desalination and 640 TWhLHV of synthetic natural gas demand. Existing hydro dams can be used as virtual batteries for solar and wind electricity storage, diminishing the role of storage technologies. The results for total levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) are decreased from 62 €/MWh for a highly decentralized to 56 €/MWh for a highly centralized grid scenario (currency value of the year 2015). For the integrated scenario, the levelized cost of gas (LCOG) and the levelized cost of water (LCOW) are 95 €/MWhLHV and 0.91 €/m3, respectively. A reduction of 8% in total cost and 5% in electricity generation was achieved when integrating desalination and power-to-gas into the system. PMID:28329023

  11. Differential effects of landscape-level environmental features on genetic structure in three codistributed tree species in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poelchau, Monica F; Hamrick, J L

    2012-10-01

    Landscape genetic studies use spatially explicit population genetic information to determine the physical and environmental causes of population genetic structure on regional scales. Comparative studies that identify common barriers to gene flow across multiple species within a community are important to both understand the evolutionary trajectories of populations and prioritize habitat conservation. Here, we use a comparative landscape genetic approach to ask whether gradients in temperature or precipitation seasonality structure genetic variation across three codistributed tree species in Central America, or whether a simpler (geographic distance) or more complex, species-specific environmental niche model is necessary to individually explain population genetic structure. Using descriptive statistics and causal modelling, we find that different factors best explain genetic distance in each of the three species: environmental niche distance in Bursera simaruba, geographic distance in Ficus insipida and historical barriers to gene flow or cryptic reproductive barriers for Brosimum alicastrum. This study confirms suggestions from previous studies of Central American tree species that imply that population genetic structure of trees in this region is determined by complex interactions of both historical and current barriers to gene flow.

  12. Genetic Analysis of Influenza A/H1N1 of Swine Origin Virus (SOIV) Circulating in Central and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovero, Merly; Garcia, Josefina; Laguna-Torres, V. Alberto; Gomez, Jorge; Aleman, Washington; Chicaiza, Wilson; Barrantes, Melvin; Sanchez, Felix; Jimenez, Mirna; Comach, Guillermo; de Rivera, Ivette Lorenzana; Barboza, Alma; Aguayo, Nicolas; Kochel, Tadeusz

    2010-01-01

    Since the first detection of swine origin virus (SOIV) on March 28, 2009, the virus has spread worldwide and oseltamivir-resistant strains have already been identified in the past months. Here, we show the phylogenetic analysis of 63 SOIV isolates from eight countries in Central and South America, and their sensitivity to oseltamivir. PMID:20810843

  13. Anxiety and depression during pregnancy in Central America : a cross-sectional study among pregnant women in the developing country Nicaragua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, T.; Arjadi, R.; Vendrik, J. J.; Burger, H.; Berger, M. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Around the world, maternal psychopathology during pregnancy is associated with a range of negative consequences for mother and child. Nevertheless, in Central America the magnitude of this public health problem is still unknown. The objective of this first explorative study was to invest

  14. Health care providers and human trafficking: what do they know, what do they need to know? Findings from the middle East, the Caribbean, and central america

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viergever, R.F.; West, H.; Borland, R.; Zimmerman, C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human trafficking is a crime that commonly results in acute and chronic physical and psychological harm. To foster more informed health sector responses to human trafficking, training sessions for health care providers were developed and pilot-tested in the Middle East, Central America,

  15. Central America and Caribbean consensus on use of viscosupplementation for Osteoarthritis: multimodal treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Carrillo Rigueros, Franklin; Castro Majano, William; Contreras Soares, Fernando; De Peña Rojas, Servio; García, Andrés Nicolás; Guerrero De León, Estela; Ivancovich Cruz, Rodolfo; Lee Choy, Luis; Quiñonez Magaña, Luis; Ruiz Pitano, Marcos; Sosa Sagastume, Eddy; Villanueva García, Andrés; Villatoro Bran, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    A meeting of Central American and Caribbean experts was hold with the support of the Latin American Society of Orthopedics and Traumatology (SLAOT), which aimed to review the published eviden- ce on viscosupplementation with hyaluronic acid (HA) in the multimodal management of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee and generating the basis for a consensus. Se realizó una reunión de expertos centroamericanos y del caribe, con el apoyo de la Sociedad Latinoamericana de de Ortopedia y Traumatología ...

  16. Reconstructing the timing and dispersion routes of HIV-1 subtype B epidemics in the Caribbean and Central America: a phylogenetic story.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Pagán

    Full Text Available The Caribbean and Central America are among the regions with highest HIV-1B prevalence worldwide. Despite of this high virus burden, little is known about the timing and the migration patterns of HIV-1B in these regions. Migration is one of the major processes shaping the genetic structure of virus populations. Thus, reconstruction of epidemiological network may contribute to understand HIV-1B evolution and reduce virus prevalence. We have investigated the spatio-temporal dynamics of the HIV-1B epidemic in The Caribbean and Central America using 1,610 HIV-1B partial pol sequences from 13 Caribbean and 5 Central American countries. Timing of HIV-1B introduction and virus evolutionary rates, as well as the spatial genetic structure of the HIV-1B populations and the virus migration patterns were inferred. Results revealed that in The Caribbean and Central America most of the HIV-1B variability was generated since the 80 s. At odds with previous data suggesting that Haiti was the origin of the epidemic in The Caribbean, our reconstruction indicated that the virus could have been disseminated from Puerto Rico and Antigua. These two countries connected two distinguishable migration areas corresponding to the (mainly Spanish-colonized Easter and (mainly British-colonized Western islands, which indicates that virus migration patterns are determined by geographical barriers and by the movement of human populations among culturally related countries. Similar factors shaped the migration of HIV-1B in Central America. The HIV-1B population was significantly structured according to the country of origin, and the genetic diversity in each country was associated with the virus prevalence in both regions, which suggests that virus populations evolve mainly through genetic drift. Thus, our work contributes to the understanding of HIV-1B evolution and dispersion pattern in the Americas, and its relationship with the geography of the area and the movements of

  17. Reconstructing the timing and dispersion routes of HIV-1 subtype B epidemics in the Caribbean and Central America: a phylogenetic story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagán, Israel; Holguín, Africa

    2013-01-01

    The Caribbean and Central America are among the regions with highest HIV-1B prevalence worldwide. Despite of this high virus burden, little is known about the timing and the migration patterns of HIV-1B in these regions. Migration is one of the major processes shaping the genetic structure of virus populations. Thus, reconstruction of epidemiological network may contribute to understand HIV-1B evolution and reduce virus prevalence. We have investigated the spatio-temporal dynamics of the HIV-1B epidemic in The Caribbean and Central America using 1,610 HIV-1B partial pol sequences from 13 Caribbean and 5 Central American countries. Timing of HIV-1B introduction and virus evolutionary rates, as well as the spatial genetic structure of the HIV-1B populations and the virus migration patterns were inferred. Results revealed that in The Caribbean and Central America most of the HIV-1B variability was generated since the 80 s. At odds with previous data suggesting that Haiti was the origin of the epidemic in The Caribbean, our reconstruction indicated that the virus could have been disseminated from Puerto Rico and Antigua. These two countries connected two distinguishable migration areas corresponding to the (mainly Spanish-colonized) Easter and (mainly British-colonized) Western islands, which indicates that virus migration patterns are determined by geographical barriers and by the movement of human populations among culturally related countries. Similar factors shaped the migration of HIV-1B in Central America. The HIV-1B population was significantly structured according to the country of origin, and the genetic diversity in each country was associated with the virus prevalence in both regions, which suggests that virus populations evolve mainly through genetic drift. Thus, our work contributes to the understanding of HIV-1B evolution and dispersion pattern in the Americas, and its relationship with the geography of the area and the movements of human populations.

  18. Temporal patterns and geographic heterogeneity of Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreaks in French Polynesia and Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission has been reported in 67 countries/territories in the Oceania region and the Americas since 2015, prompting the World Health Organization (WHO) to declare ZIKV as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern in February 2016, due to its strong association with medical complications such as microcephaly and Guillain–Barré Syndrome (GBS). However, a substantial gap in knowledge still exists regarding differing temporal pattern and potential of transmission of ZIKV in different regions of the world. Methods We use a phenomenological model to ascertain the temporal patterns and transmission potential of ZIKV in various countries/territories, by fitting the model to Zika case data from Yap Island and French Polynesia in the Oceania region and 11 countries/territories with confirmed case data, namely, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Puerto Rico, Saint Martin, and Suriname, to pinpoint the waves of infections in each country/territory and to estimate the respective basic reproduction number R0. Results Six of these time series datasets resulted in statistically significant model fit of at least one wave of reported cases, namely that of French Polynesia, Colombia, Puerto Rico, Guatemala, Suriname and Saint Martin. However, only Colombia and Guatemala exhibited two waves of cases while the others had only one wave. Temporal patterns of the second wave in Colombia and the single wave in Suriname are very similar, with the respective turning points separated by merely a week. Moreover, the mean estimates of R0 for Colombia, Guatemala and Suriname, all land-based populations, range between 1.05 and 1.75, while the corresponding mean estimates for R0 of island populations in French Polynesia, Puerto Rico and Saint Martin are significantly lower with a range of 5.70–6.89. We also fit the Richards model to Zika case data from six main archipelagos in French Polynesia

  19. Temporal patterns and geographic heterogeneity of Zika virus (ZIKV outbreaks in French Polynesia and Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Hen Hsieh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Zika virus (ZIKV transmission has been reported in 67 countries/territories in the Oceania region and the Americas since 2015, prompting the World Health Organization (WHO to declare ZIKV as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern in February 2016, due to its strong association with medical complications such as microcephaly and Guillain–Barré Syndrome (GBS. However, a substantial gap in knowledge still exists regarding differing temporal pattern and potential of transmission of ZIKV in different regions of the world. Methods We use a phenomenological model to ascertain the temporal patterns and transmission potential of ZIKV in various countries/territories, by fitting the model to Zika case data from Yap Island and French Polynesia in the Oceania region and 11 countries/territories with confirmed case data, namely, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Puerto Rico, Saint Martin, and Suriname, to pinpoint the waves of infections in each country/territory and to estimate the respective basic reproduction number R0. Results Six of these time series datasets resulted in statistically significant model fit of at least one wave of reported cases, namely that of French Polynesia, Colombia, Puerto Rico, Guatemala, Suriname and Saint Martin. However, only Colombia and Guatemala exhibited two waves of cases while the others had only one wave. Temporal patterns of the second wave in Colombia and the single wave in Suriname are very similar, with the respective turning points separated by merely a week. Moreover, the mean estimates of R0 for Colombia, Guatemala and Suriname, all land-based populations, range between 1.05 and 1.75, while the corresponding mean estimates for R0 of island populations in French Polynesia, Puerto Rico and Saint Martin are significantly lower with a range of 5.70–6.89. We also fit the Richards model to Zika case data from six main archipelagos in French

  20. CO{sub 2} emissions, energy usage, and output in Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apergis, Nicholas [Department of Banking and Financial Management, University of Piraeus, Karaoli and Dimitriou 80, Piraeus, ATTIKI 18534 (Greece); Payne, James E. [College of Arts and Sciences, Illinois State University, Campus Box 4100, Normal, IL 61790-4100 (United States)

    2009-08-15

    This study extends the recent work of Ang (2007) [Ang, J.B., 2007. CO{sub 2} emissions, energy consumption, and output in France. Energy Policy 35, 4772-4778] in examining the causal relationship between carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption, and output within a panel vector error correction model for six Central American countries over the period 1971-2004. In long-run equilibrium energy consumption has a positive and statistically significant impact on emissions while real output exhibits the inverted U-shape pattern associated with the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis. The short-run dynamics indicate unidirectional causality from energy consumption and real output, respectively, to emissions along with bidirectional causality between energy consumption and real output. In the long-run there appears to be bidirectional causality between energy consumption and emissions. (author)

  1. Building America Case Study: Multifamily Central Heat Pump Water Heaters, Davis, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-08

    Although heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have gained significant attention in recent years as a high efficiency electric water heating solution for single family homes, central HPWHs for commercial or multi-family applications are not as well documented in terms of measured performance and cost effectiveness. To evaluate this technology, the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team monitored the performance of a 10.5 ton central HPWH installed on a student apartment building at the West Village Zero Net Energy Community in Davis, California. Monitoring data collected over a 16-month period were then used to validate a TRNSYS simulation model. The TRNSYS model was then used to project performance in different climates using local electric rates. Results of the study indicate that after some initial commissioning issues, the HPWH operated reliably with an annual average efficiency of 2.12 (Coefficient of Performance). The observed efficiency was lower than the unit's rated efficiency, primarily due to the fact that the system rarely operated under steady-state conditions. Changes in the system configuration, storage tank sizing, and control settings would likely improve the observed field efficiency. Modeling results suggest significant energy savings relative to electric storage water heating systems (typical annual efficiencies around 0.90) providing for typical simple paybacks of six to ten years without any incentives. The economics versus gas water heating are currently much more challenging given the current low natural gas prices in much of the country. Increased market size for this technology would benefit cost effectiveness and spur greater technology innovation.

  2. Estimativas de possiveis recursos de petroleo e gas na America Central e na America do Sul [Estimates of possible petroleum and gas resources in Central American and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, C.S.

    2001-01-01

    O U.S. Geological Survey recentemente completou estimativas de possíveis recursos de petróleo e gás em 130 áreas petrolíferas pré-determinadas no mundo (USGS, 2000). Vinte e três destas áreas ficam na América do Sul, na América Central, e no Caribe (fig. 1). Os resultados estão apresentados na tabela 1. Nas 23 áreas, estimamos um total de 105 BBO e um total de 487 TCFG. A região composta de América Central mais América do Sul ficou em terceiro lugar no mundo em termos de possíveis recursos de petróleo e gás. No primeiro lugar ficou o Oriente Médio e no segundo lugar ficou a antiga União Soviética (USGS, 2000). As áreas com maiores probabilidades de encontrar depósitos gigantes de petróleo e gás se localizam nas áreas do Oceano Atlântico começando com a Bacia de Santos no sul até a Bacia Guyana-Suriname no norte. As possibilidades de existirem depósitos gigantes são maiores nas áreas submersas do mar até profundidades de 3,600 m. Diversos depósitos gigantes de petróleo foram descobertos no mar na Bacia de Campos e ainda podem serem encontrados depósitos similares na Bacia de Campos e suas imediações.

  3. Volcanoes in the pre-Columbian life, legend, and archaeology of Costa Rica (Central America)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Guillermo E.; Soto, Gerardo J.

    2008-10-01

    Costa Rica is located geographically in the southern part of the Central American Volcanic Front, a zone where interaction between the Mesoamerican and South American cultures occurred in pre-Columbian times. Several volcanoes violently erupted during the Holocene, when the first nomadic human hunters and later settlers were present. Volcanic rocks were the most important geo-resource in making artifacts and as construction materials for pre-Columbian inhabitants. Some pottery products are believed to resemble smoking volcanoes, and the settlements around volcanoes would seem to indicate their influence on daily life. Undoubtedly, volcanic eruptions disrupted the life of early settlers, particularly in the vicinity of Arenal and Irazú volcanoes, where archaeological remains show transient effects and displacement caused by periodical eruptions, but later resilient occupations around the volcanoes. Most native languages are extinct, with the exception of those presently spoken in areas far away from active volcanoes, where no words are related to volcanic phenomena or structures. The preserved legends are ambiguous, suggesting that they were either produced during the early Spanish conquest or were altered following the pre-Columbian period.

  4. Geology of the Pavana geothermal area, Departamento de Choluteca, Honduras, Central America: Field report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eppler, D.B.; Heiken, G.; Wohletz, K.; Flores, W.; Paredes, J.R.; Duffield, W.A.

    1987-09-01

    The Pavana geothermal area is located in southern Honduras near the Gulf of Fonseca. This region is underlain by late Tertiary volcanic rocks. Within ranges near the geothermal manifestations, the rock sequences is characterized by intermediate to mafic laharic breccias and lavas overlain by silicic tuffs and lavas, which are in turn overlain by intermediate to mafic breccias, lavas, and tuffs. The nearest Quaternary volcanoes are about 40 km to the southwest, where the chain of active Central American volcanoes crosses the mouth of the Gulf of Fonseca. Structure of the Pavana area is dominated by generally northwest-trending, southwest-dipping normal faults. This structure is topographically expressed as northwest-trending escarpments that bound blocks of bedrock separated by asymmetric valleys that contain thin alluvial deposits. Thermal waters apparently issue from normal faults and are interpreted as having been heated during deep circulation along fault zones within a regional environment of elevated heat flow. Natural outflow from the main thermal area is about 3000 l/min of 60/sup 0/C water. Geothermometry of the thermal waters suggests a reservoir base temperature of about 150/sup 0/C.

  5. A taxonomic study of Albizia (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae: Ingeae in Mexico and Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rico Arce, María de Lourdes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Albizia is economically and environmentally important because many elements are multipurpose trees. A taxonomic study of 12 Central American and Mexican Albizia species is presented. Identification keys, illustrations and ecological information are provided together with some taxonomic comments. Distribution maps and conservation status are given for each native species in the area. Three epithets are lectotypyfied and three new name combinations are made. An interactive identification electronic key is available from the authors if requested. Full specimen records are available at www.kew.org/herbcat .El género Albizia tiene importancia económica y ecológica porque en su mayoría está integrado por árboles con usos múltiples. Se presenta un estudio taxonómico para 12 especies con distribución en México y Centro América, se incluyen claves para la identificación de las especies, ilustraciones, mapas de distribución, estados de conservación de las especies nativas del área y comentarios ecológicos y taxonómicos. Se formaliza la lectipificacion de tres epítetos y se proponen tres nuevas combinaciones. Una clave electrónica interactiva para la identificación de las especies se puede solicitar a los autores. Finalmente el conjunto completo de los ejemplares de herbario puede ser consultado en el sitio Web de los Jardines Reales de Kew: www.kew.org/herbcat.

  6. Ecological consequences of hydropower development in Central America: Impacts of small dams and water diversion on neotropical stream fish assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Elizabeth P.; Freeman, Mary C.; Pringle, C.M.

    2006-01-01

    Small dams for hydropower have caused widespread alteration of Central American rivers, yet much of recent development has gone undocumented by scientists and conservationists. We examined the ecological effects of a small hydropower plant (Dona Julia Hydroelectric Center) on two low-order streams (the Puerto Viejo River and Quebradon stream) draining a mountainous area of Costa Rica. Operation of the Dona Julia plant has dewatered these streams, reducing discharge to ~ 10% of average annual flow. This study compared fish assemblage composition and aquatic habitat upstream and downstream of diversion dams on two streams and along a ~ 4 km dewatered reach of the Puerto Viejo River in an attempt to evaluate current instream flow recommendations for regulated Costa Rican streams. Our results indicated that fish assemblages directly upstream and downstream of the dam on the third order Puerto Viejo River were dissimilar, suggesting that the small dam (fishes. Along the ~ 4 km dewatered reach of the Puerto Viejo River, species count increased with downstream distance from the dam. However, estimated species richness and overall fish abundance were not significantly correlated with downstream distance from the dam. Our results suggested that effects of stream dewatering may be most pronounced for a subset of species with more complex reproductive requirements, classified as equilibrium-type species based on their life-history. In the absence of changes to current operations, we expect that fish assemblages in the Puerto Viejo River will be increasingly dominated by opportunistic-type, colonizing fish species. Operations of many other small hydropower plants in Costa Rica and other parts of Central America mirror those of Doha Julia; the methods and results of this study may be applicable to some of those projects.

  7. Nazca-South America interactions and the late Eocene-late Oligocene flat-slab episode in the central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Driscoll, Leland J.; Richards, Mark A.; Humphreys, Eugene D.

    2012-04-01

    The most prominent features of the Andean range are the Altiplano and Puna plateaus, which were constructed by crustal shortening and uplift over the past ˜45 Myr. The early construction of these plateaus may have controlled subsequent growth of the orogen. Proposed models have suggested that an abrupt acceleration in relative motion between the Nazca plate and the South American plate at ˜30 Ma may have led to compression of the continent. However, the major plate motion change occurred at 25-23 Ma, and paleomagnetic rotations and crustal shortening of the Andean forearc require that the Arica Bend formed prior to about 25 Ma. Inferred history of flat-slab subduction along the Altiplano section of the Andean margin and the structure of the adjacent South American cratonic shield combine to suggest an alternate scenario, based partly upon geodynamic models of oceanic-continental plate interactions in subduction zones. We propose that central Andean tectonism may have been controlled by two distinct regimes of subduction: (1) oblique subduction along the central Andean margin during the late Eocene and Oligocene accompanied by downdip alignment with the center of the Amazonian Shield (flat-slab activity in this phase of orogenesis may have been caused by a combination of cratonic root enhanced tectonics and oceanic plateau subduction) and (2) an abrupt transition to trench-normal subduction after ˜25 Ma toward the more distal São Francisco Craton was accompanied by a return to normal angle subduction. Similar interactions are hypothesized to have occurred during the Laramide Orogeny in western North America.

  8. Southern Hemisphere humpback whales wintering off Central America: insights from water temperature into the longest mammalian migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Kristin; Palacios, Daniel M; Calambokidis, John; Saborío, Marco T; Dalla Rosa, Luciano; Secchi, Eduardo R; Steiger, Gretchen H; Allen, Judith M; Stone, Gregory S

    2007-06-22

    We report on a wintering area off the Pacific coast of Central America for humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) migrating from feeding areas off Antarctica. We document seven individuals, including a mother/calf pair, that made this migration (approx. 8300km), the longest movement undertaken by any mammal. Whales were observed as far north as 11 degrees N off Costa Rica, in an area also used by a boreal population during the opposite winter season, resulting in unique spatial overlap between Northern and Southern Hemisphere populations. The occurrence of such a northerly wintering area is coincident with the development of an equatorial tongue of cold water in the eastern South Pacific, a pattern that is repeated in the eastern South Atlantic. A survey of location and water temperature at the wintering areas worldwide indicates that they are found in warm waters (21.1-28.3 degrees C), irrespective of latitude. We contend that while availability of suitable reproductive habitat in the wintering areas is important at the fine scale, water temperature influences whale distribution at the basin scale. Calf development in warm water may lead to larger adult size and increased reproductive success, a strategy that supports the energy conservation hypothesis as a reason for migration.

  9. Zonda downslope winds in the central Andes of South America in a 20-year climate simulation with the Eta model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antico, Pablo L.; Chou, Sin Chan; Mourão, Caroline

    2015-12-01

    The Zonda wind is a local version of the alpine foehn in the central Andes Mountains in South America. It blows on the eastern slopes and produces an extremely warm and dry condition in Argentina. In this study, the occurrence of Zonda wind events during a 20-year simulation from the regional Eta model is analyzed and results are compared to previous studies of Zonda wind events based on weather observations. We define a set of parameters to account for the zonal pressure gradient across the mountain, vertical movement, and air humidity typical of Zonda wind events. These parameters are applied to characterize Zonda wind events in model run and to classify them as surface-level or high-level episodes. The resulting annual distribution of Zonda occurrences based on composite analyses shows a preference for winter and spring with rare occurrences during summer. For the surface-level Zonda wind events, the highest frequency occurs during spring. Whereas surface-level Zonda wind episodes more commonly initiate in the afternoon, high-level Zonda wind events show no preference for a given initiation time. Our results are mostly in agreement with previous observational results.

  10. Porphyry copper assessment of Central America and the Caribbean Basin: Chapter I in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Floyd; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Ludington, Stephen; Zürcher, Lukas; Nelson, Carl E.; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Miller, Robert J.; Moring, Barry C.

    2014-01-01

    Mineral resource assessments provide a synthesis of available information about distributions of mineral deposits in the Earth’s crust. The U.S. Geological Survey prepared a probabilistic mineral resource assessment of undiscovered resources in porphyry copper deposits in Central America and the Caribbean Basin in collaboration with geoscientists from academia and the minerals industry. The purpose of the study was to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within 1 kilometer of the surface at a scale of 1:1,000,000; (2) provide a database of known porphyry copper deposits and significant prospects; (3) estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within the permissive tracts; and (4) provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper, molybdenum, gold, and silver that could be contained in undiscovered deposits. The assessment was done using a three-part mineral resource assessment based on established mineral deposit models. Permissive tracts were delineated based primarily on distributions of mapped igneous rocks related to magmatic arcs that formed in tectonic settings associated with convergent plate margins. Five permissive tracts were delineated: the Early Cretaceous through Eocene Santiago tract, the Late Cretaceous through Oligocene Chortis tract, the Paleocene through Oligocene Darién tract, the Miocene and Pliocene Cocos tract, and the Eocene to Holocene Lesser Antilles tract. These tracts range in size from about 3,000 to about 204,000 square kilometers.

  11. Migrants and asylum seekers: policy responses in the United States to immigrants and refugees from Central America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcbride, M J

    1999-01-01

    This article analyzes the complex political environment of US immigration and refugee policies in which tensions exist, especially with regard to Central America and the Caribbean. Recommendations for managing it more effectively in the future are discussed. Several western countries, including the US, have implemented stricter restriction policies as a result of the perceived threats to their economies and cultural homogeneity. In general, US immigration policy has addressed both economic concerns and domestic pressures, whereas US refugee policy has reflected foreign policy concerns. As a result of these policies, there has been an increasing number of immigrants from Mexico, as well as huge numbers of refugees from Cuba and Nicaragua. Yet, there has been limited acceptance of asylum seekers from Haiti, El Salvador and Guatemala. Among the policies passed by the US Congress to reduce illegal immigration and limit assistance to legal immigrants were the Welfare Reform Act, Illegal Immigration Reform, Immigration Responsibility Act of 1996, and the Proposition 187 movement. Revisions in the procedures of the Immigration and Naturalization Service were also made.

  12. Phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity among Streptococcus iniae isolates recovered from cultured and wild fish in North America, Central America and the Caribbean Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus iniae, the etiological agent of streptococcosis in fish, is an important pathogen of cultured and wild fish worldwide. During the last decade outbreaks of streptococcosis have occurred in a wide range of cultured and wild fish in the Americas and Caribbean islands. To gain a better und...

  13. First imported Plasmodium ovale malaria in Central America: case report of a Guatemalan soldier and a call to improve its accurate diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, María Eugenia; Díaz, Sheilee; Parsons, Emily; Peruski, Leonard F; Enríquez, Fabiola; Ramírez, Juan Luis; Padilla, Norma

    2015-01-01

    The Mesoamerican Ministers of Health have set 2020 as the target for malaria elimination to be achieved in the region. Imported malaria cases are a potential threat to countries attempting elimination or working to prevent resurgence. We report the first imported Plasmodium ovale infection with molecular confirmation in Central America, which occurred in a Guatemalan soldier that had been deployed in Africa. The obstacles for its diagnosis using the standard microscopy technique and the need to improve its detection are discussed.

  14. The integripennis species group of Geocharidius Jeannel, 1963 (Carabidae, Bembidiini, Anillina) from Nuclear Central America: a taxonomic review with notes about biogeography and speciation

    OpenAIRE

    Igor Sokolov; David Kavanaugh

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Our review recognizes 15 species of the integripennis species group of Geocharidius from Nuclear Central America, include three species previously described ( Geocharidius gimlii Erwin, Geocharidius integripennis (Bates) and Geocharidius zullinii Vigna Taglianti) and 12 described here as new. They are: Geocharidius andersoni sp. n. (type locality: Chiapas, Chiapas Highlands, Cerro Huitepec) and Geocharidius vignatagliantii sp. n. (type locality: Chiapas, Motozintla, Sierra Madre de C...

  15. Reconstructing the Timing and Dispersion Routes of HIV-1 Subtype B Epidemics in The Caribbean and Central America: A Phylogenetic Story.

    OpenAIRE

    Israel Pagán; Africa Holguín

    2013-01-01

    The Caribbean and Central America are among the regions with highest HIV-1B prevalence worldwide. Despite of this high virus burden, little is known about the timing and the migration patterns of HIV-1B in these regions. Migration is one of the major processes shaping the genetic structure of virus populations. Thus, reconstruction of epidemiological network may contribute to understand HIV-1B evolution and reduce virus prevalence. We have investigated the spatio-temporal dynamics of the HIV-...

  16. Paleoecology of mangroves along the Sibun River, Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monacci, Natalie M.; Meier-Grünhagen, Ursula; Finney, Bruce P.; Behling, Hermann; Wooller, Matthew J.

    2011-09-01

    This study examines a sediment core (SR-63) from a mangrove ecosystem along the Sibun River in Belize, which is subject to both changes in sea-level and in the characteristics of the river's drainage basin. Radiocarbon dates from the core show a decreased sedimentation rate from ~ 6 ka to 1 cal ka BP and a marked change in lithology from primarily mangrove peat to fluvial-derived material at ~ 2.5 cal ka BP. Changes in the sedimentation rates observed in mangrove ecosystems offshore have previously been attributed to changes in relative sea-level and the rate of sea-level rise. Pollen analyses show a decreased abundance of Rhizophora (red mangrove) pollen and an increased abundance of Avicennia (black mangrove) pollen and non-mangrove pollen coeval with the decreased sedimentation rates. Elemental ratios ([N:C] a) and stable isotope analyses (δ 15N and δ 13C) show that changes in the composition of the organic material are also coeval with the change in lithology. The decrease in sedimentation rate at the site of core SR-63 and at offshore sites supports the idea that regional changes in hydrology occurred during the Holocene in Belize, influencing both mainland and offshore mangrove ecosystems.

  17. Assessing and mapping drought hazard in Africa and South-Central America with a Meteorological Drought Severity Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrao, Hugo; Barbosa, Paulo; Vogt, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    the intra-annual variability of precipitation in estimating the severity of events that can impact on seasonal activities. The MDSI is standardized in space and time, and considers the relative monthly precipitation deficits and the seasonal influence of precipitation regimes in the meteorological drought severity computation. In this study, the calculation of the MDSI is performed with monthly precipitation totals from the Full Data Reanalysis Monthly Product Version 6.0 of the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC). This dataset provides a global analysis at 0.5 dd latitude/longitude grid spacing of monthly precipitation over land from operational in situ rain gauges collected between January 1901 and December 2010. Using the MDSI, we estimated the severity of drought events that occurred in the past 100 years in Africa and South-Central America, and produced drought hazard maps based on the probability of exceedance the median historical severity. Overall, results indicate that drought hazard is high for semiarid areas, such as Northeastern and Southern South America, as well as Eastern and Southwestern Africa. Since available water resources in semiarid areas are already insufficient to permanently meet the demands of human activities, the outcomes highlight the aggravated risk for food security and confirm the need for the implementation of disaster mitigation measures in those regions.

  18. Gangs in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-27

    particularly active.15 For example, despite (or perhaps because) of its isolated and rural location, Petén had the second highest murder rate in Guatemala in...American Weekly Report, February 7, 2008; United Nations Development Program (UNDP), “Maras y Pandillas: Comunidad y Policia en Centroamérica

  19. Five new species of Trigonopeltastes Burmeister and Schaum from Central America with new country records for other New World Trichiini (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew B T

    2016-01-01

    Five new species of Trigonopeltastes Burmeister and Schaum, 1840 are described: Trigonopeltastes arborfloricola sp. n. from Nicaragua, Trigonopeltastes formidulosus sp. n. from Costa Rica, Trigonopeltastes henryi sp. n. from Costa Rica, Trigonopeltastes mombachoensis sp. n. from Nicaragua, and Trigonopeltastes warneri sp. n. from Belize and Guatemala. An updated key to species of Trigonopeltastes is presented. Trigonopeltastes nigrinus Bates, 1889 and Trigonopeltastes carus Bates, 1889 are placed in synonymy with Trigonopeltastes geometricus Schaum, 1841, syn. n.. The males of Trigonopeltastes aurovelutinus Curoe, 2011 and Trigonopeltastes simplex Bates, 1889 are described for the first time. New country records are given for the following: Giesbertiolus ornatus Howden, 1988: Costa Rica; Paragnorimus sambucus Howden, 1970: Guatemala; Trichiotinus bibens (Fabricius, 1775): Canada; Trigonopeltastes archimedes Schaum, 1841: Guatemala and Costa Rica; Trigonopeltastes frontalis Bates, 1889: Belize, Guatemala, and Honduras; Trigonopeltastes glabellus Howden, 1988: Guatemala; Trigonopeltastes geometricus Schaum, 1841: Honduras; Trigonopeltastes sallaei sallaei Bates, 1889: Guatemala and Honduras; Trigonopeltastes simplex Bates, 1889: Mexico; Trigonopeltastes variabilis Howden, 1968: Honduras.

  20. Assessment of undiscovered, conventional oil and gas resources of Mexico, Guatemala, and Belize, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Weaver, Jean N.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 19 billion barrels of oil and 83 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas resources in 10 geologic provinces of Mexico, Guatemala, and Belize.

  1. Five new species of Trigonopeltastes Burmeister and Schaum from Central America with new country records for other New World Trichiini (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew B. T. Smith

    2016-01-01

    Five new species of Trigonopeltastes Burmeister and Schaum, 1840 are described: Trigonopeltastes arborfloricola sp. n. from Nicaragua, T. formidulosus sp. n. from Costa Rica, T. henryi sp. n. from Costa Rica, T. mombachoensis sp. n. from Nicaragua, and T. warneri sp. n. from Belize and Guatemala. An updated key to species of Trigonopeltastes is presented. Trigonopeltastes nigrinus Bates, 1889 and Trigonopeltastes carus Bates, 1889 are placed in synonymy with Trigonopeltastes geometricus Schau...

  2. Five new species of Trigonopeltastes Burmeister and Schaum from Central America with new country records for other New World Trichiini ( Coleoptera , Scarabaeidae , Cetoniinae )

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Andrew B. T.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Five new species of Trigonopeltastes Burmeister and Schaum, 1840 are described: Trigonopeltastes arborfloricola sp. n. from Nicaragua, Trigonopeltastes formidulosus sp. n. from Costa Rica, Trigonopeltastes henryi sp. n. from Costa Rica, Trigonopeltastes mombachoensis sp. n. from Nicaragua, and Trigonopeltastes warneri sp. n. from Belize and Guatemala. An updated key to species of Trigonopeltastes is presented. Trigonopeltastes nigrinus Bates, 1889 and Trigonopeltastes carus Bates, 18...

  3. Linking National Parks with its Gateway Communities for Tourism Development in Central America: Nindiri, Nicaragua, Bagazit, Costa Rica and Portobelo, Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguirre G., J. A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Protected areas and national parks are becoming one of the most important forms of land use in Central America. All the projections made by the World Tourism Organization seems to agree that by 2010 Central America, maybe receiving between eight and ten millions tourists, a figure that is almost twice what the region is receiving today. A study was conducted base on 369 direct field surveys conducted in three Central American communities: Bagazit gateway community to Palo Verde National Park, Costa Rica, Nindiri, gateway community to Volcan Masaya National Park, Nicaragua and Portobelo, gateway community to Por-tobelo National Park, Panama. The study found that relative to the socio-demographic variables, that there were no significance differences at the 95% probability level in all four variables, age, sex, education and monthly income of the family. Educational level seems to be the socio-demographic variables affecting more the state of relations. The perception variable being has taken into account in the decision that affects the communities and responsibility to help with community problems are present in two of the three models. The perception variables related to tourism, feel trained to take care of the tourist and existence of businesses that can caters to tourist seem to be key elements in the community perception about the state of relation. Tourism related economic activities and community participation in park decisions are today and will be in the future essential elements in the shaping of community/park relations in Central America as tourism becomes a major economic sector in the region economy.

  4. On the Development of Multi-Hazard Early Warning Networks: Practical experiences from North and Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mencin, David; Hodgkinson, Kathleen; Braun, John; Meertens, Charles; Mattioli, Glen; Phillips, David; Blume, Fredrick; Berglund, Henry; Fox, Otina; Feaux, Karl

    2015-04-01

    The GAGE facility, managed by UNAVCO, maintains and operates about 1300 GNSS stations distributed across North and Central America as part of the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) and the Continuously Operating Caribbean GPS Observational Network (COCONet). UNAVCO has upgraded about 450 stations in these networks to real-time and high-rate (RT-GNSS) and included surface meteorological instruments. The majority of these streaming stations are part of the PBO but also include approximately 50 RT-GNSS stations in the Caribbean and Central American region as part of the COCONet and TLALOCNet projects. Based on community input UNAVCO has been exploring ways to increase the capability and utility of these resources to improve our understanding in diverse areas of geophysics including seismic, volcanic, magmatic and tsunami deformation sources, extreme weather events such as hurricanes and storms, and space weather. The RT-GNSS networks also have the potential to profoundly transform our ability to rapidly characterize geophysical events, provide early warning, as well as improve hazard mitigation and response. Specific applications currently under development with university, commercial, non-profit and government collaboration on national and international scales include earthquake and tsunami early warning systems and near real-time tropospheric modeling of hurricanes and precipitable water vapor estimate assimilation. Using tsunami early warning as an example, an RT-GNSS network can provide multiple inputs in an operational system starting with rapid assessment of earthquake sources and associated deformation which informs the initial modeled tsunami. The networks can then can also provide direct measurements of the tsunami wave heights and propagation by tracking the associated ionospheric disturbance from several 100's of km away as the waves approaches the shoreline. These GNSS based constraints can refine the tsunami and inundation models and potentially

  5. Slab roll-back and trench retreat as controlling factor for basin subsidence in southern Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandes, Christian; Winsemann, Jutta

    2015-04-01

    Slab roll-back and trench retreat are important factors for basin subsidence, magma generation and volcanism in arc-trench systems. Based on the sedimentary and tectonic record of the southern Central American island-arc we conclude that repeated phases of slab roll-back and trench retreats occurred the arc-trench system since the Late Cretaceous. These trench retreats were most probably related to the subduction of oceanic plateaus and seamounts and effected both the fore-arc and back-arc evolution. We used numerical basin modelling techniques to analyse the burial history of fore-arc and back-arc basins in Central America and combined the results with field data of the sedimentological evolution of the basin-fills. From the basin models, geohistory curves were extracted for the fore-arc and back-arc basins to derive the subsidence evolution. The Sandino Fore-arc Basin is characterized by low subsidence during the first 40 Myr. Since the Late Cretaceous the basin has a linear moderate subsidence with a phase of accelerated subsidence in the Oligocene. In the North and South Limón Back-arc Basin, subsidence started at approximately the same time as in the Sandino Fore-arc Basin. The North and South Limón Basins show a linear subsidence trend in the Paleocene and Eocene. Evidence for trench retreats is given by pulses of uplift in the outer-arc area, followed by subsidence in both the fore-arc and back-arc basins. The first slab roll-back probably occurred during the Early Paleocene. This is indicated by the collapse of carbonate platforms, and the re-deposition of large carbonate blocks into deep-water turbidites. A new pulse of uplift or decreased subsidence, respectively during the Late Eocene is attributed to subduction of rough crust. A subsequent slab detachment and the establishment of a new subduction zone further westward was described by Walther et al. (2000). Strong uplift affected the entire fore-arc area, which led to the deposition of very coarse

  6. Energy transactions in Mexico, Central and South America. 1. ed.; Transacciones energeticas en Mexico, Centro y Sudamerica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintanilla Martinez, Juan [ed.] [Programa Universitario de Energia (PUE), Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    This document contains the technical proceedings of the Second National Congress of the Mexican Association for the Economy of Energy that took place the days 23, 24 and 25 of September of 1996. In this seminar it was spoken on the global overview of the energy markets; the exploration and oil production in Latin America: present and future; oil-producing and petrochemistry in Latin America; regional and global markets; the deregulation of the electrical sector; experiences and perspective in Latin America; environmental externalisation in the energy systems; amelioration of the impact on the costs and the prices of the energy by means of technology and energy efficiency. [Spanish] Este documento contiene la memoria tecnica del segundo congreso nacional de la Asociacion Mexicana para la Economia Energetica A. C. llevado a efecto los dias 23, 24 y 25 de septiembre de 1996. En este seminario se hablo sobre la panoramica global de los mercados energeticos; la exploracion y produccion petrolera en America Latina: presente y futuro; petroliferos y petroquimica en America Latina: mercados regionales y globales; la desregulacion del sector electrico: experiencias y perspectivas en Latinoamerica; externalidades ambientales en los sistemas energeticos: mitigacion por medio de tecnologia y eficiencia energetica e impacto sobre los costos y los precios de la energia.

  7. Nuevo registro de Gomphotherium hondurensis (Frick, 1933 (Proboscidea, Gomphoteriidae para el Mioceno Superior de El Salvador, América Central A new record of Gomphotherium hondurensis (Frick, 1933 (Proboscidea, Gomphoteriidae on the Upper Miocene of El Salvador, Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H. Aguilar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un molar inferior, aislado, del proboscídeo endémico de América Central Gomphotherium hondurensis (Frick, 1933, recuperado en el valle del río Torola en la localidad fosilífera de Corinto, la cual fue estudiada y caracterizada en los años 70 por los paleontólogos estadounidenses David S. Webb y Stephen Perrigo; la fauna local de Corinto es considerada una de las más importantes localidades fosilíferas del Mioceno Superior de América Central.An isolated lower molar of the endemic Central America Proboscidea Gomphotherium hondurensis (Frick, 1933, recovered at the Valley of Torola River is described here. This locality corresponds with the outcrops of the Corinto local fauna, previously studied and defined by the American paleontologists David S. Webb and Stephen Perrigo during the 70’s years; which is considered as one of the most important fossiliferous localities of the Upper Miocene of Central America

  8. A review of the genus Agapetus Curtis (Trichoptera: Glossosomatidae) in eastern and central North America, with description of 12 new species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etnier, David A.; Parker, Charles R.; Baxter, John T.; Long, Todd M.

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-nine species of caddisflies in the genus Agapetus Curtis in eastern and central North America are reviewed. Twelve are described as new species: Agapetus aphallus (known only from females); Agapetus baueri, Agapetus flinti, Agapetus harrisi, Agapetus hesperus, Agapetus ibis, Agapetus kirchneri, Agapetus meridionalis, Agapetus pegram, Agapetus ruiteri, Agapetus stylifer, and Agapetus tricornutus. Agapetus rossi Denning 1941 is recognized as a junior subjective synonym of Agapetus walkeri (Betten and Mosely 1940), new synonym. A key to males is provided, and species’ distributions are mapped.

  9. Educacion y Pueblos Indigenas en Centroamerica: Un Balance Critico (Education and Indigenous People in Central America: A Critical Balance).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadio, Massimo, Comp.; And Others

    Global society is polarized between the modern capitalist sector and the marginal sector, which is composed of indigenous, poor, and ethnic, tribal people. The problems of education for groups in Latin America, key issues in planning to meet their needs, and strategies to resolve them, are the focus of this publication. Nine papers provide a…

  10. 25 YEARS EXPERIENCES OF CHINA MADE SMALL HYDROELECTRIC UNITS WITH USA MADE DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY INSTALLED IN USA AND CENTRAL AMERICA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DR.ALEXANDERA

    2005-01-01

    Twenty-five years ago America's small hydroelectric power generations were reactivated by private, municipal, and local governments to utilize the renewable energy from the small hydro sties available 10,000 existing dams, small rivers and/or streams, and energy recovery facilities at many water transmission and delivery systems.

  11. South America Geologic Map (geo6ag)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — South America is part of Region 6 (Central and South America) for the World Energy Assessment. The geologic map of South America was digitized so that we could use...

  12. Central Bank autonomy in Europe and Latin America: analysis of differences and applications Autonomía de la banca central en Europa y América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rollinat Robert

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available This article makes a comparative analysis of the experiences of the independent central bank in Latin America and Europe. After reviewing the problems and theories of central bank autonomy, it studies the recent evolution of the Latin American central bank in comparison with the European central bank, high lights the perverse effects of the reforms, and shows that their objective is more the stability of the financial system than the stability of prices. Finally, it describes the tests to which the new Latin American central banks have been subjected and the effects on their credibility. It concludes that these entities have had to correct and pay for the incoherences and errors of the market, and that their independence or autonomy depends on their continuing to ful fill this role, not only for economíc or monetary reasons but for the needs of political and social democracy.Este artículo hace un análisis comparativo de las experiencias de la banca central independiente en América Latina y Europa. Después de revisar los problemas y las teorías de la autonompia de los bancos centrales, estudia la reciente evolución de la banca central latinoamericana en comparación con la europea, destaca los efectos perversos de estas reformas u muestra que sus objetivo es más la estabilidad del sistema financiero que la de los precios. Finalmente, describe las pruebas a que han sido sometidos los nuevos bancos centrales latinomaericanos y los efectos de sus credibilidad. Concluye que estas entidades han tenido que corregir y pagar las incoherencias y los errrores del mercado, y que su 'independencia' o autonomía depende de que sigan cumpliendo con ese papel no sólo por razones económicas o monetarias sino por las necesidades de la democracia política y social.

  13. The Great American Biotic Interchange in frogs: multiple and early colonization of Central America by the South American genus Pristimantis (Anura: Craugastoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Sánchez, Nelsy Rocío; Ibáñez, Roberto; Madriñán, Santiago; Sanjur, Oris I; Bermingham, Eldredge; Crawford, Andrew J

    2012-03-01

    The completion of the land bridge between North and South America approximately 3.5-3.1 million years ago (Ma) initiated a tremendous biogeographic event called the Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI), described principally from the mammalian fossil record. The history of biotic interchange between continents for taxonomic groups with poor fossil records, however, is not well understood. Molecular and fossil data suggest that a number of plant and animal lineages crossed the Isthmus of Panama well before 3.5 Ma, leading biologists to speculate about trans-oceanic dispersal mechanisms. Here we present a molecular phylogenetic analysis of the frog genus Pristimantis based on 189 individuals of 137 species, including 71 individuals of 31 species from Panama and Colombia. DNA sequence data were obtained from three mitochondrial (COI, 12S, 16S) and two nuclear (RAG-1 and Tyr) genes, for a total of 4074 base pairs. The resulting phylogenetic hypothesis showed statistically significant conflict with most recognized taxonomic groups within Pristimantis, supporting only the rubicundus Species Series, and the Pristimantis myersi and Pristimantis pardalis Species Groups as monophyletic. Inference of ancestral areas based on a likelihood model of geographic range evolution via dispersal, local extinction, and cladogenesis (DEC) suggested that the colonization of Central America by South American Pristimantis involved at least 11 independent events. Relaxed-clock analyses of divergence times suggested that at least eight of these invasions into Central America took place prior to 4 Ma, mainly in the Miocene. These findings contribute to a growing list of molecular-based biogeographic studies presenting apparent temporal conflicts with the traditional GABI model.

  14. Security Assistance to Central America: Assessment of U.S. Involvement in El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    34 encomienda " (7:155) system which divided the land of Latin America among its settlers, to include all the Indians living on the land as the subjects and labor...all subservient to the crown in Spain. Problems with the Indians acceptance of the encomienda system and internal strife prompted a change in 1570...and stagnation. Spanish rule nearly destroyed the Indian race with its encomienda slave system, but forced upon the area its lasting heritage of tongue

  15. 76 FR 63985 - Notice of Receipt of Cultural Property Request From the Government of the Republic of Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Notice of Receipt of Cultural Property Request From the Government of the Republic of Belize Belize, concerned that its cultural heritage is in jeopardy from pillage, made a request to the Government of the United States under Article 9 of the 1970...

  16. Fiesta! Mexico and Central America: A Global Awareness Program for Children in Grades 2-5. Bridges between Nations Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linse, Barbara; Judd, Dick

    Mexican and Central American cultures are a blend of Native American influences and Spanish traditions and religions. These are seen in aspects of Mexican and Central American celebrations. This book explores those celebrations through activities in art, folk and classical music, dances and fiestas. The book is organized into two sections to…

  17. Mercury in Morelet's crocodile eggs from northern Belize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainwater, T R; Adair, B M; Platt, S G; Anderson, T A; Cobb, G P; McMurry, S T

    2002-04-01

    Recent studies have examined mercury accumulation in crocodilians. However, though most researchers have focused on tissue concentrations, few have examined mercury levels in crocodilian eggs. In July 1995, we analyzed mercury in 31 nonviable Morelet's crocodile ( Crocodylus moreletii) eggs collected from eight nests across three localities in northern Belize. All eggs were found to contain mercury. Based on an individual egg basis, mean concentration of mercury for all three localities was among the lowest reported for any crocodilian species. When localities were examined separately, mean concentrations for Laguna Seca and Gold Button Lagoon were comparable to those observed in other studies, and the mean for Sapote Lagoon was the lowest ever reported. Based on mean nest concentrations, mercury in eggs from Laguna Seca was approximately two- and tenfold higher than for Gold Button Lagoon and Sapote Lagoon, respectively. Variability in mercury concentrations among localities is likely the result of site-specific differences in mercury input, bioavailabilty, and bioaccumulation. Mercury concentrations were relatively uniform in eggs from the same nest and among nests from the same localities. The presence of mercury in Morelet's crocodile eggs suggests exposure in adult females, developing embryos, and neonates. However, crocodiles in these areas show no overt signs of mercury toxicity, and no indication of population decline is evident. A paucity of data on the effects of mercury on crocodilians precludes meaningful speculation as to the biological significance of tissue and egg concentrations. Controlled laboratory studies and long-term population monitoring are needed to address these questions.

  18. Supporting School Counseling in Belize: Establishing a Middle School Career Development Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa COOGAN

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Within the education field, international partnerships to address career development have been successful around the world (Brown, Bim Rose, & Hughes, 2005; Nazali, 2007; Prideaux, Patton, & Creed, 2002; Repetto, 2001. Career development programming impacts the educational development for children and adolescents (Gottfredson, 1981; Gottfredson & Lapan, 1997; NCDA, 2011. School Counselors are often an untapped resource in the schools to design, implement and evaluate school-wide programs centered on career development. This article explores the benefits of career development and the creation of a career development school-wide program for the 6th grade level in Belize. This is accomplished through an international partnership between the Ministry of Education in Belize and a University in the Northeastern United States. This article explains the school counselors role as well as best practices for international partnerships when creating a full-year, school-wide career program at the middle school level in Belize.

  19. Five new species of Trigonopeltastes Burmeister and Schaum from Central America with new country records for other New World Trichiini (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew B. T.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Five new species of Trigonopeltastes Burmeister and Schaum, 1840 are described: Trigonopeltastes arborfloricola sp. n. from Nicaragua, Trigonopeltastes formidulosus sp. n. from Costa Rica, Trigonopeltastes henryi sp. n. from Costa Rica, Trigonopeltastes mombachoensis sp. n. from Nicaragua, and Trigonopeltastes warneri sp. n. from Belize and Guatemala. An updated key to species of Trigonopeltastes is presented. Trigonopeltastes nigrinus Bates, 1889 and Trigonopeltastes carus Bates, 1889 are placed in synonymy with Trigonopeltastes geometricus Schaum, 1841, syn. n.. The males of Trigonopeltastes aurovelutinus Curoe, 2011 and Trigonopeltastes simplex Bates, 1889 are described for the first time. New country records are given for the following: Giesbertiolus ornatus Howden, 1988: Costa Rica; Paragnorimus sambucus Howden, 1970: Guatemala; Trichiotinus bibens (Fabricius, 1775): Canada; Trigonopeltastes archimedes Schaum, 1841: Guatemala and Costa Rica; Trigonopeltastes frontalis Bates, 1889: Belize, Guatemala, and Honduras; Trigonopeltastes glabellus Howden, 1988: Guatemala; Trigonopeltastes geometricus Schaum, 1841: Honduras; Trigonopeltastes sallaei sallaei Bates, 1889: Guatemala and Honduras; Trigonopeltastes simplex Bates, 1889: Mexico; Trigonopeltastes variabilis Howden, 1968: Honduras. PMID:27667956

  20. Five new species of Trigonopeltastes Burmeister and Schaum from Central America with new country records for other New World Trichiini (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew B. T. Smith

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Five new species of Trigonopeltastes Burmeister and Schaum, 1840 are described: Trigonopeltastes arborfloricola sp. n. from Nicaragua, T. formidulosus sp. n. from Costa Rica, T. henryi sp. n. from Costa Rica, T. mombachoensis sp. n. from Nicaragua, and T. warneri sp. n. from Belize and Guatemala. An updated key to species of Trigonopeltastes is presented. Trigonopeltastes nigrinus Bates, 1889 and Trigonopeltastes carus Bates, 1889 are placed in synonymy with Trigonopeltastes geometricus Schaum, 1841, syn. n.. The males of Trigonopeltastes aurovelutinus Curoe, 2011 and Trigonopeltastes simplex Bates, 1889 are described for the first time. New country records are given for the following: Giesbertiolus ornatus Howden, 1988: Costa Rica; Paragnorimus sambucus Howden, 1970: Guatemala; Trichiotinus bibens (Fabricius, 1775: Canada; Trigonopeltastes archimedes Schaum, 1841: Guatemala and Costa Rica; Trigonopeltastes frontalis Bates, 1889: Belize, Guatemala, and Honduras; Trigonopeltastes glabellus Howden, 1988: Guatemala; Trigonopeltastes geometricus Schaum, 1841: Honduras; Trigonopeltastes sallaei sallaei Bates, 1889: Guatemala and Honduras; Trigonopeltastes simplex Bates, 1889: Mexico; Trigonopeltastes variabilis Howden, 1968: Honduras.

  1. Paleobiogeografía del arribo de mamíferos suramericanos al sur de América Central de previo al gran intercambio biótico americano: un vistazo al GABI en América Central Paleobiogeography of the arrival of south american mammals to southern Central America prior to the great american biotic interchange: a look at the GABI in Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César A Laurito

    2012-06-01

    of South American mammals to the Southern Central America region, not known until now. The arrival of South American mammals to the Panama Region was due to a series of factors such as the development of the Costa Rica-Panamá Island Arc by subduction processes, the collision and the deformation of the Island Arc with the North-Western Colombia territories and the prevailing climate factors which stimulated the predominance of warm, humid and basal forests, both in Colombia and in southern Central America. This permitted the xenarthrans, which are considered strong swimmers and islands hoppers to migrate to the North. These conditions on the other hand, limited the migration to the South of the North American mammals, whose arrival in South America was postponed until the Blancan age with drier climatic conditions and the new land corridor that was established in the region. Additionally, the current state of the Great American Biotic Interchange in Central America (GABI is analyzed

  2. Is violence associated with increased risk behavior among MSM? Evidence from a population-based survey conducted across nine cities in Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Wheeler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: There is a dearth of research examining the linkages between violence and HIV risk behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM, including those who identify as transgender women (TW, particularly in Central America where violence is widespread. In this paper, we use population-based survey results to independently examine the correlations between physical, emotional and sexual violence and HIV risk behavior among MSM populations in five countries in Central America. Design: As part of USAID's Combination Prevention for HIV program in Central America, PASMO conducted population based surveys using respondent-driven sampling (RDS in nine cities in Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. Initial seeds were recruited using the following criteria: individuals who represented subgroups of MSM by self-identification (homosexual vs. heterosexual or bisexual vs. transgender, social economic strata, and by sex work practices. This study examines the association between violence and 1 HIV risk behaviors relevant to the study populations; 2 protective behaviors; and 3 reported STIs. Individualized RDS estimator weights for each outcome variable were calculated using RDSAT software, and logistic regression analysis was used to determine associations between different forms of violence and the outcome variables. Results: MSM who experienced physical violence were more likely to be engaged in transactional sex (OR: 1.76 [1.42–2.18], have multiple partners in the past 30 days (OR: 1.37 [1.09–1.71], and have engaged in sex under the influence of alcohol or drugs (OR: 1.51 [1.24–1.83]. Both physical violence and psychological/verbal violence were also associated with reporting STI symptoms or diagnosis within the past 12 months (OR: 1.72 [1.34–2.21] and 1.80 [1.45–2.23]. The effects of violence on the outcomes were observed after controlling for other risk factors. Transgender women were 3.9 times more likely

  3. “He Beat You in the Blood”: Knowledge and Beliefs about the Transmission of Traits among Latinos from Mexico and Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Joanne C.; Rodriguez, Guadalupe; Howard, Timothy D.; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Genomic literacy is becoming increasingly important. Knowledge about how Latinos from Mexico and Central America (MCA) think and speak about how traits are shared by family members is needed. Methods Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 16 MCA Latino men and women. Interviews elicited detailed information about participant beliefs and knowledge about intergenerational trait transmission, genes and genetics. Transcripts were systematically analyzed. Results Most participants had familiarity with the role of genes. Knowledge about gene function was limited. Participants used “blood talk” to discuss awareness that traits are transmitted between generations and to express that blood itself plays a crucial role often, but not necessarily, in conjunction with genes or DNA to transmit traits. Conclusion Health educators need to directly address potential confusion about blood’s role in the transmission of traits. Culturally and linguistically appropriate materials are needed to present genetic and genomic information to MCA Latinos. PMID:26660317

  4. Structural Vulnerability Among Migrating Women and Children Fleeing Central America and Mexico: The Public Health Impact of “Humanitarian Parole”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Elizabeth Salerno; Valdez, Luis A.; Sabo, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    Since October 2013, US Customs and Border Patrol has apprehended 15,979 families on the Southwest Border of the US. Daily, migrating women and children from Mexico and Central America that qualify for humanitarian parole are released from immigration detention to a humanitarian aid organization in Southern Arizona. After several days in detention facilities, these families arrive tired, hungry, dehydrated, and with minimal direction regarding their final destination, and adherence to the parameters of their parole. Project helping hands (PHHs) utilizes a network of volunteers to provide the women and children with food, water, clothing, hygiene products, hospitality, and legal orientation. The aim of this assessment was to document the experiences of families granted humanitarian parole through the lens of structural vulnerability. Here, we apply qualitative methods to elicit PHH lead volunteer perspectives regarding the migration experience of migrating families. Using inductive analysis, we found six major themes emerged from the qualitative data: reasons for leaving, experience on the journey, dehumanization in detention, family separation, vulnerability, and resiliency. These findings elucidate the different physical and psychological distresses that migrating families from Mexico and Central America experience before, during and after their arrival at the US–Mexico border. We posit that these distresses are a result of, or exacerbated by, structural vulnerability. Structural vulnerability has life-long health implications for a sub-population of young mothers and their children. The number of migrating families who have experienced traumatic events before and during their migration experience continues to expand and thus warrants consideration of mental health surveillance and intervention efforts for these families. More public health research is needed to better understand and combat the health challenges of this growing population. PMID:26157791

  5. Magmas with slab fluid and decompression melting signatures coexisting in the Gulf of Fonseca: Evidence from Isla El Tigre volcano (Honduras, Central America)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioli, Michele; Renzulli, Alberto; Agostini, Samuele; Lucidi, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Isla El Tigre volcano is located in the Gulf of Fonseca (Honduras) along the Central America volcanic front, where a significant change in the strike of the volcanic chain is observed. The studied samples of this poorly investigated volcano are mainly subalkaline basic to intermediate lavas (basalts and basaltic andesites) and subordinate subalkaline/alkaline transitional basalts, both having the typical mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of arc volcanic rocks. On the basis of petrographic and geochemical features, two groups of rocks have been distinguished. Lavas from the main volcanic edifice are highly porphyritic and hy-qz normative, and have lower MgO contents ( 5 wt.%), are ol-hy normative and show lower HFSE depletions relative to LILE and LREE, with lower Ba/La, Ba/Nb and Zr/Nb ratios. This suggests that mantle-derived magmas were not produced by the same process throughout the activity of the volcano. The bulk rock geochemistry and 87Sr/86Sr (0.70373-0.70382), 143Nd/144Nd (0.51298-0.51301), 206Pb/204Pb (18.55-18.58), 207Pb/204Pb (15.54-15.56) and 208Pb/204Pb (38.23-38.26) isotopic data of Isla El Tigre compared with the other volcanoes of the Gulf of Fonseca and all available literature data for Central America suggests that this stratovolcano was mainly built by mantle-derived melts driven by slab-derived fluid-flux melting, while magmas erupted through its parasitic cones have a clear signature of decompression melting with minor slab contribution. The coexistence of these two different mantle melting generation processes is likely related to the complex geodynamic setting of the Gulf of Fonseca, where the volcanic front changes direction by ca. 30° and two fundamental tectonic structures of the Chortis continental block, mainly the N-S Honduras Depression and the NE-SW Guayape Fault Zone, cross each other.

  6. Taphonomy of coral reefs from Southern Lagoon of Belize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westphall, M.J.; Ginsburg, R.N.

    1985-02-01

    The Southern Lagoon of the Belize barrier complex, an area of some 600 km/sup 2/, contains a tremendous number of lagoon reefs, which range in size from patches several meters across to rhomboidal-shaped structures several kilometers in their long dimension. These lagoon reefs are remarkable because they have Holocene sediment accumulations in excess of 13 m consisting almost entirely of coral debris and lime mud and sand, and rise up to 30 m above the surrounding lagoon floor with steeply sloping sides (50-80/sup 0/), yet are totally uncemented. The reef-building biota and their corresponding deposits were studied at a representative reef, the rhomboidal complex of Channel Cay. As with many of the reefs in this area, the steeply sloping flanks of Channel Cay are covered mainly by the branched staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis and ribbonlike and platy growth of Agaricia spp. The living corals are not cemented to the substrate, but are merely intergrown. Fragmented pieces of corals accumulate with an open framework below the living community; this open framework is subsequently infilled by lime muds and sands produced mainly from bioerosion. Results from probing and coring suggest that the bafflestone fabric of coral debris and sediment extends at least 13 m into the subsurface. Radiocarbon-age estimates indicate these impressive piles of coral rubble and sediment have accumulated in the past 9000 yr (giving a minimum accumulation rate of 1.4 m/1000 yr) and illustrate the potential for significant carbonate buildups without the need for early lithification.

  7. Education for Management in Central America. The Role of the Library of the Instituto Centroamericano de Administracion de Empresas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Thomas

    1973-01-01

    The institute, established in 1968, is a multinational organization for education in management at the post-graduate level. Its library, with five staff members, now has 4,000 volumes and receives 300 periodical publications: it should eventually become a Central American business and economic management information and research center. (Author/SJ)

  8. Working Together to Make a Difference in Rural America: North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, 2010 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The North Central Regional Center for Rural Development (NCRCRD) is one of four regional centers in the United States that have worked to improve the quality of life in rural communities for nearly 40 years. With funding from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture and the land-grant universities in our 12-state region, the NCRCRD…

  9. The University as Agent of Social Transformation: The Case of the University of Central America in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiente, Orfilio Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    In 1965, the Jesuit-run Central American University (UCA) was launched in El Salvador as the wealthy family's educational alternative to the increasingly leftist National University. But within a decade, the UCA would shift its focus to the inequalities and injustice experienced by the country's popular majorities and to its own role as society's…

  10. The impacts of tourism on coral reef conservation awareness and support in coastal communities in Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, A.

    2007-12-01

    Marine recreational tourism is one of a number of threats to the Belize Barrier Reef but, conversely, represents both a motivation and source of resources for its conservation. The growth of tourism in Belize has resulted in the fact that many coastal communities are in varying stages of a socio-economic shift from dependence on fishing to dependence on tourism. In a nation becoming increasingly dependent on the health of its coral reef ecosystems for economic prosperity, a shift from extractive uses to their preservation is both necessary and logical. Through examining local perception data in five coastal communities in Belize, each attracting different levels of coral reef related tourism, this analysis is intended to explore the relationship between tourism development and local coral reef conservation awareness and support. The results of the analysis show a positive correlation between tourism development and coral reef conservation awareness and support in the study communities. The results also show a positive correlation between tourism development and local perceptions of quality of life, a trend that is most likely the source of the observed relationship between tourism and conservation. The study concludes that, because the observed relationship may be dependent on continued benefits from tourism as opposed to a perceived crisis in coral reef health, Belize must pay close attention to tourism impacts in the future. Failure to do this could result in a destructive feedback loop that would contribute to the degradation of the reef and, ultimately, Belize’s diminished competitiveness in the ecotourism market.

  11. Attitudes toward Spanish and Code-Switching in Belize: Stigmatization and Innovation in the Spanish Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balam, Osmer; de Prada Pérez, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Through the analysis of survey and interview data, we investigated the attitudes and perceptions of 32 multilingual teachers of Spanish in Belize, a code-switching (CS) context where Spanish is in intense contact with English and Belizean Kriol. More specifically, we examined teachers' and students' attitudes toward Spanish and CS and teachers'…

  12. Student Identities and the Tourist Gaze in International Service-Learning: A University Project in Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Esther; Webster, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study explores how 11 university students in a U.S. service-learning course in Belize understood and represented their identities during the project, particularly their use of "the tourist" as a construct to interpret their experiences. Drawing on literature in international service-learning (ISL) and tourism studies,…

  13. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in three Dutch military cohorts following jungle training in Belize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P.A.M. van Thiel; J.E. Zeegelaar; T. van Gool; W.R. Faber; P.A. Kager

    2011-01-01

    Skin lesions occur frequently in travelers to tropical countries. Military personnel acquire skin lesions regularly during jungle training as did Dutch troops who trained in the jungle of Belize in 1998, 2004 and 2009, in an area endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis. Demographic and clinical data wer

  14. Members of Gammaproteobacteria as indicator species of healthy banana plants on Fusarium wilt-infested fields in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köberl, Martina; Dita, Miguel; Martinuz, Alfonso; Staver, Charles; Berg, Gabriele

    2017-01-01

    Culminating in the 1950’s, bananas, the world’s most extensive perennial monoculture, suffered one of the most devastating disease epidemics in history. In Latin America and the Caribbean, Fusarium wilt (FW) caused by the soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (FOC), forced the abandonment of the Gros Michel-based export banana industry. Comparative microbiome analyses performed between healthy and diseased Gros Michel plants on FW-infested farms in Nicaragua and Costa Rica revealed significant shifts in the gammaproteobacterial microbiome. Although we found substantial differences in the banana microbiome between both countries and a higher impact of FOC on farms in Costa Rica than in Nicaragua, the composition especially in the endophytic microhabitats was similar and the general microbiome response to FW followed similar rules. Gammaproteobacterial diversity and community members were identified as potential health indicators. Healthy plants revealed an increase in potentially plant-beneficial Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas, while diseased plants showed a preferential occurrence of Enterobacteriaceae known for their plant-degrading capacity. Significantly higher microbial rhizosphere diversity found in healthy plants could be indicative of pathogen suppression events preventing or minimizing disease expression. This first study examining banana microbiome shifts caused by FW under natural field conditions opens new perspectives for its biological control. PMID:28345666

  15. Inorganic particles in the skin of inhabitants of volcanic areas of Central America: their possible immunomodulatory influence in leishmaniasis and leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convit, J; Ulrich, M; Castillo, J; De Lima, H; Pérez, M; Caballero, N; Hung, J; Arana, B; Pérez, P

    2006-08-01

    We have evaluated biopsies from patients with atypical nodular and typical ulcerated lesions of cutaneous leishmaniasis, from leishmanin reactions and skin from normal individuals from Nicaragua, Honduras and Guatemala for the presence of inorganic particles using confocal microscopy with a polarised light source and conventional histopathological techniques. Analysis by semiquantitative confocal microscopy permitted the demonstration of significantly larger numbers of particles in atypical lesions. Silica and aluminium, important components of these particles, were less abundant in particles from normal skin. The histology of these atypical lesions, characterised by 'naked' sarcoidal granulomas with epithelioid differentiation but very few lymphocytes, was very similar to the histological reaction observed after 14 days in persisting inflammation at leishmanin skin test sites. The presence of these unusual lesions in areas of Central American countries characterised by the presence of large amounts of volcanic ash, as well the unexpectedly low prevalence of leprosy in Central America, suggest that environmental factors may contribute significantly to the frequency and clinical manifestations of these infections. Among possible environmental features, the presence of inorganic particles with immunomodulatory properties in the skin may be a significant factor.

  16. Transmitted drug-resistance in human immunodeficiency virus-infected adult population in El Salvador, Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holguín, Á; Yebra, G; Martín, L; de Pineda, A T; Ruiz, L E; Quezada, A Y; Nieto, A I; Escobar, G

    2013-12-01

    El Salvador harbours one of the largest Central American human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemics, but few studies have analysed it in depth. Here, we describe the presence of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) and HIV variants in the HIV-infected adult population in El Salvador. Dried blood spots from 119 HIV-infected antiretroviral-naive adults attended in El Salvador were collected in 2011. The TDR was assessed according to the list recommended by the WHO. HIV-1 variants were described using phylogeny. Pol sequences could be amplified in 88 patients (50.6% men), with a mean age of 35 years. Almost all (96.7%) were infected with HIV through sexual practice and 58.7% were recently diagnosed. The mean CD4(+) count was 474 cells/mm(3) and 43.1% and 15.5% of patients showed moderate (100 000 copies/mL in 24.7% of patients and Salvador, lower than in other Central American studies. Periodical studies are essential to monitor and prevent TDR emergence in low-income and middle-income regions. Also, more efforts are needed to promote early diagnosis and prevention of infection in El Salvador.

  17. Electricity in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breeze, Paul

    1998-12-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: The Political and Economic Environment; Natural Resources; The Financial Situation; Argentina; Belize; Bolivia; Brazil; Chile; Columbia; Costa Rica; Ecuador; El Salvador; French Guyana; Guatemala; Guyana; Honduras; Nicaragua; Panama; Paraguay; Peru; Surinam; Uruguay; Venezuela. (Author)

  18. Radical, reformist and aborted liberalism: origins of national regimes in Central America Liberalismo radical, reformista y frustrado: orígenes de los regímenes nacionales en América central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James MAHONEY

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available During the twentieth century, the countries of Central America were characterized by remarkably different political regimes: military-authoritarianism in Guatemala and El Salvador, progressive democracy in Costa Rica and traditional-authoritarianism in Honduras and Nicaragua. This article explains these contrasting regime outcomes by exploring the agrarian and state-building reforms pursued by political leaders during the nineteenth– and early twentieth century liberal reform period. Based on differences in the transformation of state and class structures, three types of liberalism are identified: radical liberalism in Guatemala and El Salvador, reformist liberalism in Costa Rica and aborted liberalism in Honduras and Nicaragua. It is argued that these types of liberalism set the Central American countries on contrasting paths of political development, culminating in diverse regime outcomes.Durante el siglo XX, los países de América Central se caracterizaron por tener regímenes políticos muy diferentes: el autoritarismo militar en Guatemala y El Salvador; la democracia progresista en Costa Rica y el autoritarismo tradicional en Honduras y Nicaragua. Este artículo explica los resultados de estos distintos regímenes mediante la exploración de las reformas agrarias y de la construcción del Estado llevadas a cabo por los líderes políticos durante el siglo XIX y principios del periodo de reformas liberales del siglo XX. Basándose en las diferencias de la transformación del Estado y de las estructuras de clases, se pueden identificar tres tipos de liberalismo: liberalismo radical en Guatemala y El Salvador; liberalismo reformista en Costa Rica y liberalismo frustrado en Honduras y Nicaragua. Se argumenta que estos tipos de liberalismo condujeron a los países de América Central a caminos contrarios al desarrollo político, culminando así en regímenes con resultados diversos.

  19. GPS-derived coupling estimates for the Central America subduction zone and volcanic arc faults: El Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Mora, F.; DeMets, C.; Alvarado, D.; Turner, H. L.; Mattioli, G.; Hernandez, D.; Pullinger, C.; Rodriguez, M.; Tenorio, C.

    2009-12-01

    We invert GPS velocities from 32 sites in El Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua to estimate the rate of long-term forearc motion and distributions of interseismic coupling across the Middle America subduction zone offshore from these countries and faults in the Salvadoran and Nicaraguan volcanic arcs. A 3-D finite element model is used to approximate the geometries of the subduction interface and strike-slip faults in the volcanic arc and determine the elastic response to coupling across these faults. The GPS velocities are best fit by a model in which the forearc moves 14-16 mmyr-1 and has coupling of 85-100 per cent across faults in the volcanic arc, in agreement with the high level of historic and recent earthquake activity in the volcanic arc. Our velocity inversion indicates that coupling across the potentially seismogenic areas of the subduction interface is remarkably weak, averaging no more than 3 per cent of the plate convergence rate and with only two poorly resolved patches where coupling might be higher along the 550-km-long segment we modelled. Our geodetic evidence for weak subduction coupling disagrees with a seismically derived coupling estimate of 60 +/- 10 per cent from a published analysis of earthquake damage back to 1690, but agrees with three other seismologic studies that infer weak subduction coupling from 20th century earthquakes. Most large historical earthquakes offshore from El Salvador and western Nicaragua may therefore have been intraslab normal faulting events similar to the Mw 7.3 1982 and Mw 7.7 2001 earthquakes offshore from El Salvador. Alternatively, the degree of coupling might vary with time. The evidence for weak coupling indirectly supports a recently published hypothesis that much of the Middle American forearc is escaping to the west or northwest away from the Cocos Ridge collision zone in Costa Rica. Such a hypothesis is particularly attractive for El Salvador, where there is little or no convergence obliquity to drive the

  20. Replacing America's Job Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollman, Jim

    2009-01-01

    The Job Central National Labor Exchange (www.jobcentral.com) has become the effective replacement for America's Job Bank with state workforce agencies and, increasingly, with community colleges throughout the country. The American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) has formed a partnership with Job Central to promote its use throughout the…

  1. A 400-ka tephrochronological framework for Central America from Lake Petén Itzá (Guatemala) sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutterolf, S.; Schindlbeck, J. C.; Anselmetti, F. S.; Ariztegui, D.; Brenner, M.; Curtis, J.; Schmid, D.; Hodell, D. A.; Mueller, A.; Pérez, L.; Pérez, W.; Schwalb, A.; Frische, M.; Wang, K.-L.

    2016-10-01

    Lake Petén Itzá, northern Guatemala, lies within a hydrologically closed basin in the south-central area of the Yucatán Peninsula, and was drilled under the auspices of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) in 2006. At 16°55‧N latitude, the lake is ideally located for study of past climate and environmental conditions in the Neotropical lowlands. Because of its great depth (>160 m), Lake Petén Itzá has a record of continuous sediment accumulation that extends well into the late Pleistocene. A key obstacle to obtaining long climate records from the region is the difficulty of establishing a robust chronology beyond ∼40 ka, the limit of 14C dating. Tephra layers within the Lake Petén Itzá sediments, however, enable development of age/depth relations beyond 40 ka. Ash beds from large-magnitude, Pleistocene-to-Holocene silicic eruptions of caldera volcanoes along the Central American Volcanic Arc (CAVA) were found throughout drill cores collected from Lake Petén Itzá. These ash beds were used to establish a robust chronology extending back 400 ka. We used major- and trace-element glass composition to establish 12 well-constrained correlations between the lacustrine tephra layers in Lake Petén Itzá sediments and dated deposits at the CAVA source volcanoes, and with their marine equivalents in eastern Pacific Ocean sediments. The data also enabled revision of eight previous determinations of erupted volumes and masses, and initial estimates for another four eruptions, as well as the designation of source areas for 14 previously unknown eruptions. The new and revised sedimentation rates for the older sediment successions identify the interglacial of MIS5a between 84 and 72 ka, followed by a stadial between 72 and 59 ka that corresponds to MIS4. We modified the age models for the Lake Petén Itzá sediment sequences, extended the paleoclimate and paleoecological record for this Neotropical region to ∼400 ka, and determined the

  2. Notes from the field: hospitalizations for respiratory disease among unaccompanied children from Central America - multiple States, June-July 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyangoma, Edith N; Arriola, Carmen Sofia; Hagan, Jose; Socias, Christina; Tomczyk, Sara; Watkins, Louise Francois; Westercamp, Matthew; Kim, Curi

    2014-08-15

    During October 2013-June 2014, approximately 54,000 unaccompanied children, mostly from the Central American countries of El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras, were identified attempting entry into the United States from Mexico, exceeding numbers reported in previous years. Once identified in the United States, U.S. Customs and Border Protection, an agency of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, processes the unaccompanied children and transfers them to the Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR), an office of the Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. ORR cares for the children in shelters until they can be released to a sponsor, typically a parent or relative, who can care for the child while their immigration case is processed. In June 2014, in response to the increased number of unaccompanied children, U.S. Customs and Border Protection expanded operations to accommodate children at a processing center in Nogales, Arizona. ORR, together with the U.S. Department of Defense, opened additional large temporary shelters for the children at Lackland Air Force Base, Texas; U.S. Army Garrison Ft. Sill, Oklahoma; and Naval Base Ventura County, California.

  3. Evidence and future scenarios of a low-carbon energy transition in Central America: a case study in Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barido, Diego Ponce de Leon; Johnston, Josiah; Moncada, Maria V.; Callaway, Duncan; Kammen, Daniel M.

    2015-10-01

    The global carbon emissions budget over the next decades depends critically on the choices made by fast-growing emerging economies. Few studies exist, however, that develop country-specific energy system integration insights that can inform emerging economies in this decision-making process. High spatial- and temporal-resolution power system planning is central to evaluating decarbonization scenarios, but obtaining the required data and models can be cost prohibitive, especially for researchers in low, lower-middle income economies. Here, we use Nicaragua as a case study to highlight the importance of high-resolution open access data and modeling platforms to evaluate fuel-switching strategies and their resulting cost of power under realistic technology, policy, and cost scenarios (2014-2030). Our results suggest that Nicaragua could cost-effectively achieve a low-carbon grid (≥80%, based on non-large hydro renewable energy generation) by 2030 while also pursuing multiple development objectives. Regional cooperation (balancing) enables the highest wind and solar generation (18% and 3% by 2030, respectively), at the least cost (US127 MWh-1). Potentially risky resources (geothermal and hydropower) raise system costs but do not significantly hinder decarbonization. Oil price sensitivity scenarios suggest renewable energy to be a more cost-effective long-term investment than fuel oil, even under the assumption of prevailing cheap oil prices. Nicaragua’s options illustrate the opportunities and challenges of power system decarbonization for emerging economies, and the key role that open access data and modeling platforms can play in helping develop low-carbon transition pathways.

  4. Genetic and morphological divergence among Cooper's Hawk (Accipiter cooperii) populations breeding in north-central and western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Rosenfield, Robert N.; Bielefeldt, John; Murphy, Robert K.; Stewart, Andrew C.; Stout, William C.; Driscoll, Timothy G.; Bozek, Michael A.; Sloss, Brian L.; Talbot, Sandra L.

    2012-01-01

    Cooper's Hawk (Accipiter cooperii) populations breeding in the northern portion of the species' range exhibit variation in morphological traits that conforms to predictions based on differences in prey size, tree stand density, and migratory behavior. We examined genetic structure and gene flow and compared divergence at morphological traits (PST) and genetic markers (FST) to elucidate mechanisms (selection or genetic drift) that promote morphological diversification among Cooper's Hawk populations. Cooper's Hawks appear to conform to the genetic pattern of an east-west divide. Populations in British Columbia are genetically differentiated from north-central populations (Wisconsin, Minnesota, and North Dakota; pairwise microsatellite FST= 0.031-0.050; mitochondrial DNA ΦST = 0.177-0.204), which suggests that Cooper's Hawks were restricted to at least two Pleistocene glacial refugia. The strength of the Rocky Mountains—Great Plains area as a barrier to dispersal is further supported by restricted gene-flow rates between British Columbia and other sampled breeding populations. Divergence in morphological traits (PST) was also observed across study areas, but with British Columbia and North Dakota differentiated from Wisconsin and Minnesota, a pattern not predicted on the basis of FST and ΦST interpopulation estimates. Comparison of PSTand FSTestimates suggests that heterogeneous selection may be acting on Cooper's Hawks in the northern portion of their distribution, which is consistent with hypotheses that variation in prey mass and migratory behavior among populations may be influencing overall body size and wing chord. We were unable to distinguish between the effects of genetic drift and selection on tail length in the study populations.

  5. Providers’ perspectives on inbound medical tourism in Central America and the Caribbean: factors driving and inhibiting sector development and their health equity implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory Johnston

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many governments and health care providers worldwide are enthusiastic to develop medical tourism as a service export. Despite the popularity of this policy uptake, there is relatively little known about the specific local factors prospectively motivating and informing development of this sector. Objective: To identify common social, economic, and health system factors shaping the development of medical tourism in three Central American and Caribbean countries and their health equity implications. Design: In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted in Mexico, Guatemala, and Barbados with 150 health system stakeholders. Participants were recruited from private and public sectors working in various fields: trade and economic development, health services delivery, training and administration, and civil society. Transcribed interviews were coded using qualitative data management software, and thematic analysis was used to identify cross-cutting issues regarding the drivers and inhibitors of medical tourism development. Results: Four common drivers of medical tourism development were identified: 1 unused capacity in existing private hospitals, 2 international portability of health insurance, vis-a-vis international hospital accreditation, 3 internationally trained physicians as both marketable assets and industry entrepreneurs, and 4 promotion of medical tourism by public export development corporations. Three common inhibitors for the development of the sector were also identified: 1 the high expense of market entry, 2 poor sector-wide planning, and 3 structural socio-economic issues such as insecurity or relatively high business costs and financial risks. Conclusion: There are shared factors shaping the development of medical tourism in Central America and the Caribbean that help explain why it is being pursued by many hospitals and governments in the region. Development of the sector is primarily being driven by public

  6. Phylogeography and genetic variation of Triatoma dimidiata, the main Chagas disease vector in Central America, and its position within the genus Triatoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Dolores Bargues

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Among Chagas disease triatomine vectors, the largest genus, Triatoma, includes species of high public health interest. Triatoma dimidiata, the main vector throughout Central America and up to Ecuador, presents extensive phenotypic, genotypic, and behavioral diversity in sylvatic, peridomestic and domestic habitats, and non-domiciliated populations acting as reinfestation sources. DNA sequence analyses, phylogenetic reconstruction methods, and genetic variation approaches are combined to investigate the haplotype profiling, genetic polymorphism, phylogeography, and evolutionary trends of T. dimidiata and its closest relatives within Triatoma. This is the largest interpopulational analysis performed on a triatomine species so far. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: Triatomines from Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Cuba, Colombia, Ecuador, and Brazil were used. Triatoma dimidiata populations follow different evolutionary divergences in which geographical isolation appears to have had an important influence. A southern Mexican-northern Guatemalan ancestral form gave rise to two main clades. One clade remained confined to the Yucatan peninsula and northern parts of Chiapas State, Guatemala, and Honduras, with extant descendants deserving specific status. Within the second clade, extant subspecies diversity was shaped by adaptive radiation derived from Guatemalan ancestral populations. Central American populations correspond to subspecies T. d. dimidiata. A southern spread into Panama and Colombia gave the T. d. capitata forms, and a northwestern spread rising from Guatemala into Mexico gave the T. d. maculipennis forms. Triatoma hegneri appears as a subspecific insular form. CONCLUSIONS: The comparison with very numerous Triatoma species allows us to reach highly supported conclusions not only about T. dimidiata, but also on different, important Triatoma species groupings and their evolution. The very large intraspecific genetic

  7. Phylogeography and Genetic Variation of Triatoma dimidiata, the Main Chagas Disease Vector in Central America, and Its Position within the Genus Triatoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargues, María Dolores; Klisiowicz, Debora R.; Gonzalez-Candelas, Fernando; Ramsey, Janine M.; Monroy, Carlota; Ponce, Carlos; Salazar-Schettino, Paz María; Panzera, Francisco; Abad-Franch, Fernando; Sousa, Octavio E.; Schofield, Christopher J.; Dujardin, Jean Pierre; Guhl, Felipe; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2008-01-01

    Background Among Chagas disease triatomine vectors, the largest genus, Triatoma, includes species of high public health interest. Triatoma dimidiata, the main vector throughout Central America and up to Ecuador, presents extensive phenotypic, genotypic, and behavioral diversity in sylvatic, peridomestic and domestic habitats, and non-domiciliated populations acting as reinfestation sources. DNA sequence analyses, phylogenetic reconstruction methods, and genetic variation approaches are combined to investigate the haplotype profiling, genetic polymorphism, phylogeography, and evolutionary trends of T. dimidiata and its closest relatives within Triatoma. This is the largest interpopulational analysis performed on a triatomine species so far. Methodology and Findings Triatomines from Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Cuba, Colombia, Ecuador, and Brazil were used. Triatoma dimidiata populations follow different evolutionary divergences in which geographical isolation appears to have had an important influence. A southern Mexican–northern Guatemalan ancestral form gave rise to two main clades. One clade remained confined to the Yucatan peninsula and northern parts of Chiapas State, Guatemala, and Honduras, with extant descendants deserving specific status. Within the second clade, extant subspecies diversity was shaped by adaptive radiation derived from Guatemalan ancestral populations. Central American populations correspond to subspecies T. d. dimidiata. A southern spread into Panama and Colombia gave the T. d. capitata forms, and a northwestern spread rising from Guatemala into Mexico gave the T. d. maculipennis forms. Triatoma hegneri appears as a subspecific insular form. Conclusions The comparison with very numerous Triatoma species allows us to reach highly supported conclusions not only about T. dimidiata, but also on different, important Triatoma species groupings and their evolution. The very large intraspecific genetic variability found in T

  8. Providers’ perspectives on inbound medical tourism in Central America and the Caribbean: factors driving and inhibiting sector development and their health equity implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Rory; Crooks, Valorie A.; Cerón, Alejandro; Labonté, Ronald; Snyder, Jeremy; Núñez, Emanuel O.; Flores, Walter G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Many governments and health care providers worldwide are enthusiastic to develop medical tourism as a service export. Despite the popularity of this policy uptake, there is relatively little known about the specific local factors prospectively motivating and informing development of this sector. Objective To identify common social, economic, and health system factors shaping the development of medical tourism in three Central American and Caribbean countries and their health equity implications. Design In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted in Mexico, Guatemala, and Barbados with 150 health system stakeholders. Participants were recruited from private and public sectors working in various fields: trade and economic development, health services delivery, training and administration, and civil society. Transcribed interviews were coded using qualitative data management software, and thematic analysis was used to identify cross-cutting issues regarding the drivers and inhibitors of medical tourism development. Results Four common drivers of medical tourism development were identified: 1) unused capacity in existing private hospitals, 2) international portability of health insurance, vis-a-vis international hospital accreditation, 3) internationally trained physicians as both marketable assets and industry entrepreneurs, and 4) promotion of medical tourism by public export development corporations. Three common inhibitors for the development of the sector were also identified: 1) the high expense of market entry, 2) poor sector-wide planning, and 3) structural socio-economic issues such as insecurity or relatively high business costs and financial risks. Conclusion There are shared factors shaping the development of medical tourism in Central America and the Caribbean that help explain why it is being pursued by many hospitals and governments in the region. Development of the sector is primarily being driven by public investment promotion

  9. Diversity analyses of Aeschynomene symbionts in Tropical Africa and Central America reveal that nod-independent stem nodulation is not restricted to photosynthetic bradyrhizobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miché, Lucie; Moulin, Lionel; Chaintreuil, Clémence; Contreras-Jimenez, José Luis; Munive-Hernández, José-Antonio; Del Carmen Villegas-Hernandez, María; Crozier, Françoise; Béna, Gilles

    2010-08-01

    Tropical aquatic legumes of the genus Aeschynomene are unique in that they can be stem-nodulated by photosynthetic bradyrhizobia. Moreover, a recent study demonstrated that two Aeschynomene indica symbionts lack canonical nod genes, thereby raising questions about the distribution of such atypical symbioses among rhizobial-legume interactions. Population structure and genomic diversity were compared among stem-nodulating bradyrhizobia isolated from various Aeschynomene species of Central America and Tropical Africa. Phylogenetic analyses based on the recA gene and whole-genome amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprints on 110 bacterial strains highlighted that all the photosynthetic strains form a separate cluster among bradyrhizobia, with no obvious structuring according to their geographical or plant origins. Nod-independent symbiosis was present in all sampling areas and seemed to be linked to Aeschynomene host species. However, it was not strictly dependent on photosynthetic ability, as exemplified by a newly identified cluster of strains that lacked canonical nod genes and efficiently stem-nodulated A. indica, but were not photosynthetic. Interestingly, the phenotypic properties of this new cluster of bacteria were reflected by their phylogenetical position, as being intermediate in distance between classical root-nodulatingBradyrhizobium spp. and photosynthetic ones. This result opens new prospects about stem-nodulating bradyrhizobial evolution.

  10. Transboundary aquifers: the response of international law and legal voids in Central America; Acuiferos transfronterizos: respuestas desde el derecho internacional y vacios en Centroamerica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeglin, N.

    2012-11-01

    Central America is one of the regions of the world that will suffer the impact of climate change much more than others. The adoption of clear rules on the use of transboundary aquifers and on the need to preserve these groundwater reservoirs from serious pollution by the various states in the region is absolutely essential. Despite the lack of any bilateral or regional frameworks to rule on this issue, many general regulations have been adopted within the international framework of the United Nations that are applicable to shared surface and groundwater resources as well as to transboundary aquifers. The case of the Las Crucitas project in Costa Rica, halted by domestic tribunals thanks to the decisive action of its civilian society, reflects a clear lack of technical information concerning aquifers in Costa Rica, and probably in many other states in the region, despite the very valuable efforts being undertaken by the OAS and UNESCO under the aegis of the ISARM project for the Latin American region.

  11. Two new species of Urocleidoides Mizelle et Price, 1964 (Monogenoidea) from the gill lamellae of profundulids and poeciliids from Central America and southern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Caspeta-Mandujano, Juan Manuel; Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo; Matamoros, Wilfredo Antonio

    2015-09-07

    During investigations of gill ectoparasites (Platyhelminthes) parasitising freshwater fish from Central America (Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador and Panama) and southeastern Mexico (Guerrero, Oaxaca and Chiapas), the following dactylogyrid monogenoidean were found: Urocleidoides simonae sp. n. from Profundulus punctatus (Günther) (type host), Profundulus balsanus Ahl, Profundulus guatemalensis (Günther), Profundulus kreiseri Matamoros, Shaefer, Hernández et Chakrabarty, Profundulus labialis (Günther), Profundulus oaxacae (Meek), Profundulus sp. 1 and Profundulus sp. 2 (all Profundulidae); Urocleidoides vaginoclaustroides sp. n. from Pseudoxiphophorus bimaculata (Heckel) (type host) and Poeciliopsis retropinna (Regan) (both Poeciliidae); and Urocleidoides vaginoclaustrum Jogunoori, Kritsky et Venkatanarasaiah, 2004 from P. labialis, Profundulus portillorum Matamoros et Shaefer and Xiphophorus hellerii Heckel (Poeciliidae). Urocleidoides simonae sp. n. differs from all other congeneric species in having anchors with well-differentiated roots, curved elongate shaft and short point. Urocleidoides vaginoclaustroides sp. n. most closely resembles U. vaginoclaustrum, but differs from this species mainly in the shape of its anchors (i.e. evenly curved shaft and short point vs curved shaft and elongate point extending just past the tip of the superficial anchor root). The complexity of potential hosts for species of Urocleidoides and their effect on its distribution on profundulid and poeciliid fishes are briefly discussed.

  12. An overview of cancer survival in Africa, Asia, the Caribbean and Central America: the case for investment in cancer health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, R; Swaminathan, R; Jayant, K; Brenner, H

    2011-01-01

    Population-based cancer survival data, a key indicator for monitoring progress against cancer, are reported from 27 population-based cancer registries in 14 countries in Africa, Asia, the Caribbean and Central America. In China, Singapore, the Republic of Korea, and Turkey, the 5-year age-standardized relative survival ranged from 76-82% for breast, 63-79% for cervical, 71-78% for bladder, and 44-60% for large-bowel cancer. Survival did not exceed 22% for any cancer site in The Gambia, or 13% for any cancer site except breast (46%) in Uganda. For localized cancers of the breast, large bowel, larynx, ovary, urinary bladder and for regional diseases at all sites, higher survival rates were observed in countries with more rather than less developed health services. Inter- and intra-country variations in survival imply that the levels of development of health services and their efficiency to provide early diagnosis, treatment and clinical follow-up care have a profound impact on survival from cancer. These are reliable baseline summary estimates to evaluate improvements in cancer control and emphasise the need for urgent investment to improve awareness, population-based cancer registration, early detection programmes, health-services infrastructure, and human resources in these countries in the future.

  13. Soil bioengineering measures for disaster mitigation and environmental restoration in Central America: authochtonal cuttings suitability and economic efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrone, A.; Preti, F.

    2009-04-01

    The use of Soil Bio-Engineering techniques in Developing countries is a relevant issue for Disaster mitigation, environmental restoration and poverty reduction. Research on authochtonal plants suitable for this kind of works and on economic efficiency is essential for the divulgation of this Discipline. The present paper is focused on this two issues related to the realization of various typologies of Soil Bio-engineering works in the Humid tropic of Nicaragua. In the area of Río Blanco, located in the Department of Matagalpa, Soil bio-engineering installations were built in several sites. The particular structures built were: drainages with live fascine mattress, a live palisade, a vegetated live crib wall for riverbank protection, a vegetative covering made of a metallic net and biotextile coupled with a live palisade made of bamboo. In order to evaluate the suitability of the various plants used in the works, monitorings were performed, one in the live palisade alongside an unpaved road and the other on the live crib wall along a riverbank, collecting survival rate and morphological parameters data. Concerning the economic efficiency we proceed to a financial analysis of the works and once the unit price was obtained, we converted the amount in EPP Dollars (Equal Purchasing Power) in order to compare the Nicaraguan context with the Italian one. Among the used species we found that Madero negro (Gliricidia sepium) and Roble macuelizo (Tabebuia rosea) are adequate for Soil-bioengineering measure on slopes while Helequeme (Erythrina fusca) reported a successful behaviour only in the crib wall for riverbank protection. In the comparison of the costs in Nicaragua and in Italy, the unit price reduction for the central American country ranges between 1.5 times (for the vegetative covering) and almost 4 times (for the fascine mattress) if it's used the EPP dollar exchange rate. Thus, a conclusion can be reached with regard to hydrological-risk mitigating actions

  14. South America Province Boundaries, 1999 (prv6ag)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — South America is part of Region 6 (Central and South America) for the World Energy Assessment. South America was divided into 107 geologic provinces as background...

  15. Body condition of Morelet’s Crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) from northern Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzotti, Frank J.; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Brandt, Laura A.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Hart, Kristen; Jeffery, Brian; McMurry, Scott T.; Platt, Steven G.; Rainwater, Thomas R.; Vinci, Joy

    2012-01-01

    Body condition factors have been used as an indicator of health and well-being of crocodilians. We evaluated body condition of Morelet's Crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) in northern Belize in relation to biotic (size, sex, and habitat) and abiotic (location, water level, and air temperature) factors. We also tested the hypothesis that high water levels and warm temperatures combine or interact to result in a decrease in body condition. Size class, temperature, and water level explained 20% of the variability in condition of Morelet's Crocodiles in this study. We found that adult crocodiles had higher condition scores than juveniles/subadults but that sex, habitat, and site had no effect. We confirmed our hypothesis that warm temperatures and high water levels interact to decrease body condition. We related body condition of Morelet's Crocodiles to natural fluctuations in air temperatures and water levels in northern Belize, providing baseline conditions for population and ecosystem monitoring.

  16. Tomographic images of subducted oceans matched to the accretionary records of orogens - Case study of North America and relevance to Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigloch, Karin; Mihalynuk, Mitchell G.; Hosseini, Kasra

    2016-04-01

    Accretionary orogens are the surface record of subduction on the 100-million-year timescale; they aggregate buoyant crustal welts that resisted subduction. The other record of subduction is found in the deep subsurface: oceanic lithosphere preserved in the mantle that records ocean basin closure between successive generations of arcs. Seismic tomography maps out these crumpled paleo-oceans down to the core-mantle boundary, where slab accumulates. One such accumulation of enormous scale is under Eastern Asia, recording the assembly of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). Deep CAOB slab has hardly been explored because tomographic image resolution in the lowermost mantle is limited, but this is rapidly improving. We present new images of the CAOB slabs from our P-wave tomography that includes core-diffracted waves as a technical novelty. The previous slab blur sharpens into the type of elongated geometries expected to trace paleo-trench lines. Since the North American Cordillera is younger than the CAOB (mostly 10,000 km long. North America converged on the two microcontinents by westward subduction of two intervening basins (which we name Mezcalera and Angayucham oceans), culminating in diachronous suturing between ~150 Ma and ~50 Ma. Hence geophysical subsurface evidence negates the widely accepted "Andean-style" model of Farallon-beneath-continent subduction since at least 180 Ma, and supports a Jura-Cretaceous paleogeography closer to today's Southwestern Pacific, or to the Paleozoic CAOB. Though advocated since the 1970's by a minority of geologists, this scenario had not gained wide acceptance due to a record obscured by overprinting, margin-parallel translation, and oroclinal bending. The new subsurface evidence provides specific indications where to seek the decisive Mezcalera-Angayucham suture. The suture is evident in a trail of collapsed Jura-Cretaceous basin relics that run the length of the Cordillera. Reference: Sigloch, K., & Mihalynuk, M. G. (2013

  17. Historical Glacier Variations in Southern South America since the Little Ice Age: Examples from Lago Viedma (Southern Patagonia) and Mendoza (Central Andes), Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaumer, S. U.; Masiokas, M.; Pitte, P.; Berthier, E.; Guerrido, C.; Luckman, B. H.; Villalba, R.

    2013-12-01

    The evaluation of historical information can give valuable insight into past glacier dynamics, especially before the onset of modern measurements. Early photographs and maps depict changes for selected glaciers in southern South America. Within this study, written documents and pictorial historical records (drawings, sketches, engravings, photographs, chronicles, topographic maps) are analysed critically, with a particular focus on two regions: Lago Viedma (El Chaltén, southern Patagonia, 49.5°S, 73.0°W) and the Río Mendoza basin (Mendoza, central Andes, 33.1°S, 69.9°W). For the Lago Viedma area, early historical data for the end of the 19th century stem from the expedition of the Chilean-Argentinean border commission. In addition, the expedition by the German Scientific Society, conducted between 1910 and 1916, and the later photographs by Alberto M. de Agostini give an excellent depiction of the glaciers. Glaciar Viedma is a calving glacier which shows distinct retreat from 1896 until the present (though with a stationary or possibly advancing glacier front between 1930/31 and 1951/52), similar to the neighbouring glaciers. On the contrary, nearby Glaciar Perito Moreno shows an exceptional behaviour: the glacier front has been advancing during the first half of the 20th century, staying in an advanced position until the present. At the beginning of the 20th century, Robert Helbling explored the Argentinean-Chilean Andes together with his friend Friedrich Reichert. In the summer of 1909/10, they started a detailed survey of the highly glacierized Juncal-Tupungato mountains (Río Mendoza basin), leading to the first accurate topographic map of the area published in 1914. Its outstanding quality allows a comparison with contemporary satellite imagery. The area received attention in 1934, when the sudden drainage of a glacier-dammed lake in the upper Río del Plomo valley caused fatalities and considerable damage to constructions and the Transandine Railway. A

  18. Comparative mtDNA phylogeography of neotropical freshwater fishes: testing shared history to infer the evolutionary landscape of lower Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermingham, E; Martin, A P

    1998-04-01

    Historical biogeography seeks to explain contemporary distributions of taxa in the context of intrinsic biological and extrinsic geological and climatic factors. To decipher the relative importance of biological characteristics vs. environmental conditions, it is necessary to ask whether groups of taxa with similar distributions share the same history of diversification. Because all of the taxa will have shared the same climatic and geological history, evidence of shared history across multiple species provides an estimate of the role of extrinsic factors in shaping contemporary biogeographic patterns. Similarly, differences in the records of evolutionary history across species will probably be signatures of biological differences. In this study, we focus on inferring the evolutionary history for geographical populations and closely related species representing three genera of primary freshwater fishes that are widely distributed in lower Central America (LCA) and northwestern Colombia. Analysis of mitochondrial gene trees provides the opportunity for robust tests of shared history across taxa. Moreover, because mtDNA permits inference of the temporal scale of diversification we can test hypotheses regarding the chronological development of the Isthmian corridor linking North and South America. We have focused attention on two issues. First, we show that many of the distinct populations of LCA fishes diverged in a relatively brief period of time thus limiting the phylogenetic signal available for tests of shared history. Second, our results provide reduced evidence of shared history when all drainages are included in the analysis because of inferred dispersion events that obscure the evolutionary history among drainage basins. When we restrict the analysis to areas that harbour endemic mitochondrial lineages, there is evidence of shared history across taxa. We hypothesize that there were two to three distinct waves of invasion into LCA from putative source

  19. Survey, Settlement, and Population History at the Ancient Maya Site of Pacbitun, Belize

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Healy, Paul F.; Helmke, Christophe G.B.; Awe, Jaime J.

    2007-01-01

    Survey and excavations of mounds on the outskirts of the site of Pacbitun in western Belize provide insights to the ancient Maya settlement pattern at this medium-sized regional center. This research employed two methods: analysis of structural remains from four separate 1000 m transect surveys...... to have been about 5000-6000 persons. This population estimate is compared with several coeval lowland Maya centers, and found to be reasonable for a medium-sized, Late Classic Maya center....

  20. Validation of a Rapid and Reliable Test for Diagnosis of Chagas' Disease by Detection of Trypanosoma cruzi-Specific Antibodies in Blood of Donors and Patients in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Carlos; Ponce, Elisa; Vinelli, Elizabeth; Montoya, Alberto; de Aguilar, Vilma; Gonzalez, Antonio; Zingales, Bianca; Rangel-Aldao, Rafael; Levin, Mariano J.; Esfandiari, Javan; Umezawa, Eufrosina S.; Luquetti, Alejandro O.; da Silveira, José Franco

    2005-01-01

    In this study we compared the performance of the Chagas Stat-Pak rapid immunochromatographic test with a standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the serodiagnosis of Chagas' disease in Central America. Out of 3,400 blood donor samples, 156 (4.6%) were positive in both assays. Three sera out of 2,084 samples from reference laboratories were negative with the rapid test but positive with the ELISA (99.8% agreement). Agreement of 100% between the two tests was observed with 339 additional sera from patients with cardiopathies and 175 sera from potential blood donors in emergency surgical cases occurring on weekends or at night. In conclusion, Chagas Stat-Pak showed 99.6% and 99.9% sensitivity and specificity, respectively, when assayed with 5,998 serum samples. It is a sensitive and specific alternative to the ELISA, as required in medical emergencies and blood screenings in Central America. PMID:16207963

  1. Children’s Migration to the United States from Mexico and Central America: Evidence from the Mexican and Latin American Migration Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine M. Donato

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In light of rising numbers of unaccompanied minors at the Mexico-US border in 2014, this article examines child migration from Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Costa Rica, and Nicaragua. Using data from the Mexican and Latin American Migration Projects that permit us to go beyond simple descriptive analysis about children apprehended at the border, we investigate the extent to which children from these countries: (1 enter without legal authorization to do so; (2 are more likely to cross the border now than in the past; and (3 are tied to their parents’ migration. In theory, if immigration and refugee protections worked well for children and offered them legal pathways to reunify with their families, then we would expect low levels of unauthorized entry and no dramatic shifts over time. However, our examination of child migration shows that it is strongly linked to unauthorized entry, period of entry, and parents’ US experience.The findings show that the migration of children is closely linked to their parents’ migration history. Although the overall likelihood of a Mexican child making a first US trip is quite low, it is practically non-existent for children whose parents have no US experience. Thus, the increase in child migration from Central America, and the continued high levels of child migration from Mexico result from widespread migration networks and the United States’ long-standing reliance on the children’s parents as immigrant workers. The findings suggest that these children need protection in the form of family reunification and permanent legal status.

  2. Description of the Oocysts of Three New Species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae from Iguanid Lizards (Sauria: Iguanidae of Central and South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daszak P

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of Eimeria are described from iguanid lizards of Central and South America. The oocysts of each species have no micropyles or residua and the sporocysts lack Stieda bodies, but all have a sporocyst residuum. Eimeria sanctaluciae n.sp. was found in the St. Lucia tree lizard, Anolis luciae, collected from the Maria Islands, Lesser Antilles. The oocysts are spherical to subspherical, averaging 17.3 x 16.5 µm, with a single layered colourless wall; about 60% contain polar granules. The sporocysts are ellipsoidal and average 7.7 x 5.5 µm. Eimeria liolaemi n.sp. was recovered from the blue-gold swift, Liolaemus taenius, from Chile. The oocysts are spherical to subspherical, measuring 21 x 20.1 µm with a single-layered colourless wall. The sporocysts are subspherical and average 7.4 x 6.8 µm. Eimeria caesicia n.sp. is described from the Brazilian collared iguanid, Tropidurus torquatus. The oocysts measure 27.4 x 23.7 µm, are spherical to subspherical, with a bilayered wall, the outer surface of which appears pale blue in colour, the thin, inner wall appearing brown, when viewed by direct light under the optical microscope. The sporocysts are subspherical and average 9.4 x 7.2 µm. Unnamed polysporocystid oocysts with dizoic sporocysts are reported from the faeces of the lesser St. Vincent tree lizard, Anolis trinitatis and the possibility of spurious parasitism briefly discussed. In addition, oocysts of an unnamed Isospora sp. with a smooth oocyst wall which closely resembles I. reui were recovered from A. trinitatis.

  3. Clinical and virologic outcomes after changes in first antiretroviral regimen at 7 sites in the Caribbean, Central and South America Network (CCASAnet)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Marcelo; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Cortés, Claudia; Rebeiro, Peter; Cesar, Carina; Cardoso, Sandra Wagner; Pape, Jean W.; Padgett, Denis; Sierra-Madero, Juan; Echevarria, Juan; McGowan, Catherine C.

    2015-01-01

    Background HIV-infected persons in lower income countries may experience high rates of antiretroviral therapy (ART) change, particularly due to toxicity or other non-failure reasons. Few reports address patient outcomes after these modifications. Methods HIV-infected adults from 7 Caribbean, Central and South America network (CCASAnet) clinical cohorts who modified > or = 1 drug from first ART regimen (ART-1) for any reason thereby starting a second regimen (ART-2) were included. Results 5,565 ART-naïve HAART initiators started ART-2 after a median of 9.8 months on ART-1; 39% changed to ART-2 due to toxicity and 11% due to failure. Median follow-up after starting ART-2 was 2.9 years; 45% subsequently modified ART-2. Cumulative incidences of death at 1, 3, and 5 years after starting ART-2 were 5.1%, 8.4% and 10.5%, respectively. In adjusted analyses, death was associated with older age, clinical AIDS, lower CD4 at ART-2 start, earlier calendar year, and starting ART-2 because of toxicity (adjusted hazard ratio[aHR]=1.5 vs. failure, 95% confidence interval[CI]=1.0–2.1). Cumulative incidences of VF after 1, 3, and 5 years were 9%, 19%, and 25%. In adjusted analyses, VF was associated with younger age, earlier calendar year, lower CD4 at start of ART-2, and starting ART-2 because of failure (aHR=2.1 vs. toxicity, 95% CI=1.5–2.8). Conclusions Among patients modifying first ART regimen, risks of subsequent modifications, mortality, and virologic failure were high. Access to improved antiretrovirals in the region is needed to improve initial treatment success. PMID:26761273

  4. Organophosphate pesticide method development and presence of chlorpyrifos in the feet of nearctic-neotropical migratory songbirds from Canada that over-winter in Central America agricultural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Hattan A; Letcher, Robert J; Mineau, Pierre; Chen, Da; Chu, Shaogang

    2016-02-01

    Recent modeling analysis suggests that numerous birds may be at risk of acute poisoning in insecticide-treated fields. Although the majority of avian field studies on pesticides have focused on treated seed, granule, insect or vegetation (oral exposure) ingestion, dermal exposure is an important exposure route when birds come into contact with deposited pesticides on foliage and other surfaces. Some nearctic-neotropical migratory songbirds are likely exposed to pesticides on their non-breeding habitats and include treated crops, plantations or farmlands. In the present study, we developed a method for four environmentally-relevant organophosphate (OP) pesticides (fenthion, fenamiphos, chlorpyrifos and diazinon) in the feet of migratory songbirds (i.e. Common yellowthroat, Gray catbird, Indigo bunting, America redstart, Northern waterthrush, Northern parula, and an additional 12 species of warblers). A total of 190 specimens of the 18 species of songbirds were sampled from available window-killed birds (spring of 2007 and 2011) in downtown Toronto, Canada. The species that were available most likely over-wintered in Mexican/Central American crops such as citrus, coffee and cacao. The feet of the dead birds were sampled and where OP foot exposure likely occurred during over-wintering foraging on pesticide-treated crops. Chlorpyrifos was the only measurable OP (pg mg feet weight(-1)) and in the 2011-collected feet of Black throated blue warbler (0.5), Tennessee warbler (1.0), Northern parula (1.2), Northern waterthrush (0.6), Common yellowthroat (1.0) and the Blue winged warbler (0.9). Dermal contact with OP pesticides during over-wintering in agricultural areas resulted in low levels of chlorpyrifos and long time retention on the feet of a subset of songbirds.

  5. the Caribbean, and Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas S. Massey

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Se comparan datos de las encuestas Latin American Migration Project (LAMP y Mexican Migration Project (MMP para analizar patrones migratorios a los Estados Unidos desde México, Puerto Rico, República Dominicana, Nicaragua y Costa Rica. Usando muestras de 31 comunidades, se documenta la frecuencia y tiempos de migración, la fecha, duración, destino y documentación del primer y más reciente viaje a los Estados Unidos, las características laborales de los migrantes en estos viajes, y las características socieconómicas y la selectividad de los migrantes. Los resultados muestran que una proporción significativa de la migración es indocumentada. Las características distintivas de la migración mexicana con respecto a otros flujos son su concentración en el trabajo agrícola, la falta de selectividad educativa, la mayor frecuencia de los viajes y tiempos de estancia más cortos. Todos los grupos muestran una pronunciada tendencia a establecerse lejos de las áreas de destino tradicionales. El análisis sugiere patrones y procesos de migración comunes, estructurados y expresados en maneras distintas de acuerdo al contexto. Este análisis muestra que los datos del LAMP y del MMP pueden conjugarse con efectividad para llevar a cabo estudios cuantitativos comparativos

  6. A Novel Educational Strategy Targeting Health Care Workers in Underserved Communities in Central America to Integrate HIV into Primary Medical Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flys, Tamara; González, Rosalba; Sued, Omar; Suarez Conejero, Juana; Kestler, Edgar; Sosa, Nestor; McKenzie-White, Jane; Monzón, Irma Irene; Torres, Carmen-Rosa; Page, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Background Current educational strategies to integrate HIV care into primary medical care in Central America have traditionally targeted managers or higher-level officials, rather than local health care workers (HCWs). We developed a complementary online and on-site interactive training program to reach local HCWs at the primary care level in underserved communities. Methods The training program targeted physicians, nurses, and community HCWs with limited access to traditional onsite training in Panama, Nicaragua, Dominican Republic, and Guatemala. The curriculum focused on principles of HIV care and health systems using a tutor-supported blended educational approach of an 8-week online component, a weeklong on-site problem-solving workshop, and individualized project-based interventions. Results Of 258 initially active participants, 225 (225/258 = 87.2%) successfully completed the online component and the top 200 were invited to the on-site workshop. Of those, 170 (170/200 = 85%) attended the on-site workshop. In total, 142 completed all three components, including the project phase. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation instruments included knowledge assessments, reflexive essays, and acceptability surveys. The mean pre and post-essay scores demonstrating understanding of social determinants, health system organization, and integration of HIV services were 70% and 87.5%, respectively, with an increase in knowledge of 17.2% (p<0.001). The mean pre- and post-test scores evaluating clinical knowledge were 70.9% and 90.3%, respectively, with an increase in knowledge of 19.4% (p<0.001). A survey of Likert scale and open-ended questions demonstrated overwhelming participant satisfaction with course content, structure, and effectiveness in improving their HIV-related knowledge and skills. Conclusion This innovative curriculum utilized technology to target HCWs with limited access to educational resources. Participants benefited from technical skills acquired

  7. The integripennis species group of Geocharidius Jeannel, 1963 (Carabidae, Bembidiini, Anillina) from Nuclear Central America: a taxonomic review with notes about biogeography and speciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Igor M.; Kavanaugh, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Our review recognizes 15 species of the integripennis species group of Geocharidius from Nuclear Central America, include three species previously described (Geocharidius gimlii Erwin, Geocharidius integripennis (Bates) and Geocharidius zullinii Vigna Taglianti) and 12 described here as new. They are: Geocharidius andersoni sp. n. (type locality: Chiapas, Chiapas Highlands, Cerro Huitepec) and Geocharidius vignatagliantii sp. n. (type locality: Chiapas, Motozintla, Sierra Madre de Chiapas, Benito Juárez) from Mexico; Geocharidius antigua sp. n. (type locality: Sacatepéquez, 5 km SE of Antigua), Geocharidius balini sp. n. (type locality: Suchitepéquez, 4 km S of Volcan Atitlán), Geocharidius erwini sp. n. (type locality: Quiché Department, 7 km NE of Los Encuentros), Geocharidius jalapensis sp. n. (type locality: Jalapa Department, 4 km E of Mataquescuintla), Geocharidius longinoi, sp. n. (type locality: El Progreso Department, Cerro Pinalón), and Geocharidius minimus sp. n. (type locality: Sacatepéquez Department, 5 km SE of Antigua) from Guatemala; and Geocharidius celaquensis sp. n. (type locality: Lempira Department, Celaque National Park), Geocharidius comayaguanus sp. n. (type locality: Comayagua Department, 18 km ENE of Comayagua), Geocharidius disjunctus sp. n. (type locality: Francisco Morazán, La Tigra National Park), and Geocharidius lencanus sp. n. (type locality: Lempira Department, Celaque National Park) from Honduras. For all members of the group, adult structural characters, including male and female genitalia, are described, and a taxonomic key for all members of the integripennis species group is presented based on these characters. Behavioral and biogeographical aspects of speciation in the group are discussed, based on the morphological analysis. In all cases of sympatry, pairs of closely related species show greater differences in sizes than pairs of more remotely related species. Integripennis group species occupy six different

  8. The integripennis species group of Geocharidius Jeannel, 1963 (Carabidae, Bembidiini, Anillina from Nuclear Central America: a taxonomic review with notes about biogeography and speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Sokolov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Our review recognizes 15 species of the integripennis species group of Geocharidius from Nuclear Central America, include three species previously described (G. gimlii Erwin, G. integripennis (Bates and G. zullinii Vigna Taglianti and 12 described here as new. They are: G. andersoni sp. n. (type locality: Chiapas, Chiapas Highlands, Cerro Huitepec and G. vignatagliantii sp. n. (type locality: Chiapas, Motozintla, Sierra Madre de Chiapas, Benito Juárez from Mexico; G. antigua sp. n. (type locality: Sacatepéquez, 5 km SE of Antigua, G. balini sp. n. (type locality: Suchitepéquez, 4 km S of Volcan Atitlán, G. erwini sp. n. (type locality: Quiché Department, 7 km NE of Los Encuentros, G. jalapensis sp. n. (type locality: Jalapa Department, 4 km E of Mataquescuintla, G. longinoi, sp. n. (type locality: El Progreso Department, Cerro Pinalón, and G. minimus sp. n. (type locality: Sacatepéquez Department, 5 km SE of Antigua from Guatemala; and G. celaquensis sp. n. (type locality: Lempira Department, Celaque National Park, G. comayaguanus sp. n. (type locality: Comayagua Department, 18 km ENE of Comayagua, G. disjunctus sp. n. (type locality: Francisco Morazán, La Tigra National Park, and G. lencanus sp. n. (type locality: Lempira Department, Celaque National Park from Honduras. For all members of the group, adult structural characters, including male and female genitalia, are described, and a taxonomic key for all members of the integripennis species group is presented based on these characters. Behavioral and biogeographical aspects of speciation in the group are discussed, based on the morphological analysis. In all cases of sympatry, pairs of closely related species show greater differences in sizes than pairs of more remotely related species. Integripennis group species occupy six different montane areas at elevations above 1300m, with no species shared among them. Major faunal barriers in the region limiting present species distributions

  9. Methane fates in the benthos and water column at cold seep sites along the continental margin of Central and North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansman, Roberta L.; Thurber, Andrew R.; Levin, Lisa A.; Aluwihare, Lihini I.

    2017-02-01

    The potential influence of methane seeps on carbon cycling is a key question for global assessments, but the study of carbon cycling in surface sediments and the water column of cold seep environments is complicated by the high temporal and spatial variability of fluid and gas fluxes at these sites. In this study we directly examined carbon sources supporting benthic and planktonic food webs at venting methane seeps using isotopic and molecular approaches that integrate this variability. At four seep environments located along North and Central America, microorganisms from two size fractions were collected over several days from 2800 to 9050 l of seawater to provide a time-integrated measure of key microbial groups and the carbon sources supporting the overall planktonic microbial community. In addition to water column measurements, the extent of seafloor methane release was estimated at two of the sites by examining the stable carbon isotopic signature (δ13C) of benthic metazoan infauna. This signature reveals carbon sources fueling the base of the food chain and thus provides a metric that represents a time-integrated view of the dominant microbial processes within the sediment. The stable carbon isotopic composition of microbial DNA (δ13C-DNA), which had values between -17.0 and -19.5‰, indicated that bulk planktonic microbial production was not ultimately linked to methane or other 13C-depleted seep-derived carbon sources. Instead these data support the importance of organic carbon derived from either photo- or chemoautotrophic CO2 fixation to the planktonic food web. Results of qPCR of microbial DNA sequences coding for a subunit of the particulate methane monooxygenase gene (pmoA) showed that only a small percentage of the planktonic microbial community were potential methane oxidizers possessing pmoA (<5% of 16S rRNA gene copies). There was an overall decrease of 13C-depleted carbon fueling the benthic metazoan community from 3 to 5 cm below the seafloor

  10. A novel educational strategy targeting health care workers in underserved communities in Central America to integrate HIV into primary medical care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Flys

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Current educational strategies to integrate HIV care into primary medical care in Central America have traditionally targeted managers or higher-level officials, rather than local health care workers (HCWs. We developed a complementary online and on-site interactive training program to reach local HCWs at the primary care level in underserved communities. METHODS: The training program targeted physicians, nurses, and community HCWs with limited access to traditional onsite training in Panama, Nicaragua, Dominican Republic, and Guatemala. The curriculum focused on principles of HIV care and health systems using a tutor-supported blended educational approach of an 8-week online component, a weeklong on-site problem-solving workshop, and individualized project-based interventions. RESULTS: Of 258 initially active participants, 225 (225/258=87.2% successfully completed the online component and the top 200 were invited to the on-site workshop. Of those, 170 (170/200=85% attended the on-site workshop. In total, 142 completed all three components, including the project phase. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation instruments included knowledge assessments, reflexive essays, and acceptability surveys. The mean pre and post-essay scores demonstrating understanding of social determinants, health system organization, and integration of HIV services were 70% and 87.5%, respectively, with an increase in knowledge of 17.2% (p<0.001. The mean pre- and post-test scores evaluating clinical knowledge were 70.9% and 90.3%, respectively, with an increase in knowledge of 19.4% (p<0.001. A survey of Likert scale and open-ended questions demonstrated overwhelming participant satisfaction with course content, structure, and effectiveness in improving their HIV-related knowledge and skills. CONCLUSION: This innovative curriculum utilized technology to target HCWs with limited access to educational resources. Participants benefited from technical skills

  11. A multiproxy peat record of Holocene mangrove palaeoecology from Twin Cays, Belize

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The extent and function of coastal mangrove ecosystems are likely to be influenced by future changes in sea level. Multiple proxies of past mangrove ecosystems preserved in a 780 cm long peat core (TCC2) taken from Twin Cays, Belize, record palaeoecological changes since ~8000 cal. yr BP. The proxies included pollen and the stable-isotope (C, N and O) compositions of mangrove leaf fragments. Rhizophora mangle (red mangrove) has been dominant at this site on Twin Cays for over ~8000 years. Var...

  12. A new species of the alpheid shrimp genus Triacanthoneus Anker, 2010 (Crustacea: Alpheidae) from Belize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Fernando; Iliffe, Thomas M; Villalobos, José Luis

    2014-02-24

    A new species of the alpheid shrimp genus Triacanthoneus Anker, 2010, is described based on material collected in a marine cave off Caye Chapel, Belize. Triacanthoneus chapelianus sp. nov. is the fifth species in the genus and can be distinguished from the other four species by the position of the dorsolateral teeth on the carapace, which in the new species have an anterior (= submarginal) position, and by the configuration of the posterior margin of the telson, with a notch in the middle portion and two pairs of spines and one pair of plumose setae. A key to the five species of Triacanthoneus is provided.

  13. Late Cretaceous-recent tectonic assembly of diverse crustal blocks in Central America, the Nicaraguan Rise, the Colombian Basin and northern South America as seen on a 1600-km-long, geologic and structural transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, J.; Mann, P.

    2015-12-01

    We have constructed a 1600-km-long transect from northern Honduras to northern Colombia that crosses northeastward-striking crustal blocks using a combination of offshore seismic data, gravity and magnetic data, well subsidence information, nearby outcrop information, and results from previous thermochronological, geochronological, geochemical and paleostress studies. The transect defines three major crustal and structural provinces: 1) Precambrian-Paleozoic, Chortis continental block whose northern edge is defined by the North America-Caribbean plate boundary. Events in this ~20-25-km-thick province include two major unconformities at the top of the Cretaceous and Eocene, associated southeast-dipping thrust faults related to collision of the Great Arc of the Caribbean (GAC) and Caribbean Large Igneous Province (CLIP) with the Chortis continental block. A third event is Eocene to recent subsidence and transtensional basins formed during the opening of the Cayman trough; 2) Late Cretaceous GAC and CLIP of oceanic arc and plateau origin, whose northern, deformed edge corresponds to the mapped Siuna belt of northern Nicaragua. This crustal province has a ~15-20-km-thick crust and is largely undeformed and extends across the Lower Nicaraguan Rise, Hess fault, to the southern limit of the Colombian basin where about 300 km of this province has been subducted beneath the accretionary wedge of the South Caribbean deformed belt of northwestern South America; and 3) Eocene to recent accretionary prism and intramontane basins on continental crust of northern South America, where Miocene accelerated exhumation and erosion of Paleogene and Cretaceous rocks reflect either shallow subduction of the CLIP or the Panama collisional event to the southwest.

  14. High prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths in Southern Belize-highlighting opportunity for control interventions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rina Girard Kaminsky; Steven K Ault; Phillip Castillo; Kenton Serrano; Guillermo Troya

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminths (STH) in school age children of two southern districts as baseline information prior to implement a deworming program against intestinal parasites as part of an integrated country development plan. Methods:Children randomly selected from urban and rural schools in Southern Belize provided one stool sample each, analysed by the Kato-Katz method to assess prevalence and intensity of STH infections. Epi Info software was used for data analysis;Chi-square test and Fischer exact test were applied to compare group proportions;P Results:A total of 500 children from 10 schools participated in the study from May to December 2005. Prevalence of STH ranged between 40%and 82%among schools, with a median of 59.2%;the majority of light intensity, and with 2.2%high intensity infection. Trichuris and Ascaris infections presented similar frequency in children aged from 6 to 9 years old;hookworm infections tended to be more frequent in the older group 10 to 12 years old. Statistical significances (P≤0.01) were found in children in rural schools infected with any species of STH, in moderate Trichuris infections, in hookworm infections in rural areas with strong Mayan presence and in Ascaris infections in children of Mayan origin. Conclusions:High prevalence of STH in Southern Belize provided sound ground for implementing an integrated deworming control program.

  15. Oceanic terranes of S-Central America - 200 Million years of accretion history recorded on the W-edge of the Caribbean Plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, P. O.; Flores, K.; Bandini, A.; Buchs, D.; Andjic, G.; Baumgartner-Mora, C.

    2012-04-01

    The W-edge of the Caribbean Plate is characterized by two major basement domains, separated today by a SW-NE trending diffuse fault zone located SE of the Nicoya Peninsula (Costa Rica) and possibly connecting with the Hess Escarpment. To the NW, in the area originally called "Chortis Block", oceanic island/arc basements range in age from Late Triassic to Early Cretaceous and form a complicated puzzle of geodynamic units. To the SE of this fault line, no age older than Turonian-Santonian (90-85 Ma) is known. This area only represents the trailing edge of the Caribbean Large Igensous Procince (CLIP). The Mesquito Composite Oceanic Terrane (MCOT) comprises the southern half of the "Chortis Block", classically considered as a continental fragment of N-America. The MCOT is defined by isolated outcrops of ultramafic, mafic oceanic/arc rocks, and radiolarites of Late Triassic, Jurassic and Early Cretaceous age: Rhaetian (latest Triassic) radiolarites found in the El Castillo Mélange (S-MCOT: S-Nicaragua/N- Costa Rica). They are associated with blocks of OIB-metabasalts. These rocks document the presence of a Late Triassic oceanic basement that must have been the substrate of the 174 -177 Ma old (Early/Middle Jurassic) Petit-Spot-like alkaline volcanics that intruded Early Jurassic radiolarites. These rocks form tectonic slivers in the middle Cretaceous Santa Rosa Accretionary Complex (relative autochthonous of the Santa Elena ultramafic unit, N-Costa Rica). The oldest rocks of the Nicoya Complex s. str. (NW-Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica) are Bajocian (Middle Jurassic) radiolarites, that occur as blocks magmatically engulfed in plateau-type basalts and intrusives that range in age thoughout the pre-Campanian Cretaceous (130-83 Ma). Middle and Late Jurassic metaradiolarites occur as blocks in the Siuna Serpentinite Médange (NE-Nicaragua), along with High-p, arc-related mafics. We envision an oceanic arc that collided in the latest Jurassic with the Agua Fria arc system

  16. Scholar-Practitioner Inquiry as International Action Research: Surveying Leadership Perceptions of Principals in the Toledo District of Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Wesley D.; Gill, Peggy B.; Brown, Lakesha

    2011-01-01

    The scholar-practitioner approach to leadership has the potential for effectiveness in developing countries through contextual understanding of unique circumstances. The purpose of this study was to survey leadership perceptions of principals in the Toledo District of Belize. This data, in the tradition of scholar-practitioner involvement, was…

  17. Revision of the species of the genus Cathorops (Siluriformes: Ariidae from Mesoamerica and the Central American Caribbean, with description of three new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre P. Marceniuk

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The ariid genus Cathorops includes species that occur mainly in estuarine and freshwater habitats of the eastern and western coasts of southern Mexico, Central and South America. The species of Cathorops from the Mesoamerica (Atlantic slope and Caribbean Central America are revised, and three new species are described: C. belizensis from mangrove areas in Belize; C. higuchii from shallow coastal areas and coastal rivers in the Central American Caribbean, from Honduras to Panama; and C. kailolae from río Usumacinta and lago Izabal basins in Mexico and Guatemala. Additionally, C. aguadulce, from the río Papaloapan basin in Mexico, and C. melanopus from the río Motagua basin in Guatemala and Honduras, are redescribed and their geographic distributions are revised.O gênero de ariídeos Cathorops inclui espécies que habitam principalmente águas doces e estuarinas das plataformas orientais e ocidentais do sul do México, Américas do Sul e Central. Neste estudo, se apresenta uma revisão das espécies de Cathorops da Mesoamérica (bacias do Atlântico e Caribe centroamericano, incluindo a descrição de três espécies novas: C. belizensis, de áreas de manglar em Belice; C. higuchii, de águas costeiras rasas e rios costeiros do Caribe centroamericano, desde Honduras até o Panamá; e C. kailolae, das bacias do rio Usumacinta e lago Izabal no México e Guatemala. Adicionalmente, se redescrevem C. aguadulce, da bacia do rio Papaloapan no México, e C. melanopus, da bacia do rio Motagua na Guatemala e Honduras, apresentando-se uma revisão de suas distribuições geográficas.

  18. Assessment of clinical efficacy and safety in a randomized double-blind study of etanercept and sulfasalazine in patients with ankylosing spondylitis from Eastern/Central Europe, Latin America, and Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damjanov, Nemanja; Shehhi, Waleed Al; Huang, Feng; Kotak, Sameer; Burgos-Vargas, Ruben; Shirazy, Khalid; Bananis, Eustratios; Szumski, Annette; Llamado, Lyndon J Q; Mahgoub, Ehab

    2016-05-01

    Despite the demonstrated efficacy of etanercept for the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis (AS), sulfasalazine is often prescribed, especially in countries with limited access to biologic agents. The objective of this subset analysis of the ASCEND trial was to compare the efficacy of etanercept and sulfasalazine in treating patients with AS from Asia, Eastern/Central Europe, and Latin America. A total of 287 patients, 190 receiving etanercept 50 mg once weekly and 97 receiving sulfasalazine 3 g daily, from eight countries were included in this subset analysis. Differences in disease activity and patient-reported outcomes assessing health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) parameters in response to treatment were analyzed using the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test for categorical efficacy endpoints and analysis of covariance model for continuous variables. At week 16, a significantly greater proportion of patients receiving etanercept achieved ASAS20 (79.0 %) compared with patients receiving sulfasalazine (61.9 %; p = 0.002). At week 16, treatment with etanercept also resulted in significantly better responses than sulfasalazine for ASAS40 (64.7 vs. 35.1 %; p Asia, Central/Eastern Europe, and Latin America.

  19. Building America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    IBACOS researched the constructability and viability issues of using high performance windows as one component of a larger approach to building houses that achieve the Building America 70% energy savings target.

  20. Electricity in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breeze, P.

    1998-12-01

    The report provides an overview of the Latin American power market; analyses the power generation, transmission and distribution capabilities of 20 countries in central and south America; includes detailed comparative data on current capacity, shortfall and growth; investigates the existing network infrastructures and projected demand; examines the opportunities for independent power producers resulting from deregulation; assesses indigenous and imported fuel resources; and discusses the broad financial opportunities and restraints.

  1. Latin America Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-05

    8217Americas Watch’ Charges (THE DAILY GLEANER, 26 Sep 86) 92 - c - Briefs World Bank Loans 94 MEXICO 1985 Key Parastate Enterprise Losses Near...year later in the DIARIO DE CENTROAMERICA , on 27 December 1985. The previous pact, which had been in effect for 25 years, was the Central American... Mexico , including a sizable reduction in spreads (risk rates) collected from that country, will be the point of departure for the new round of

  2. Evidence of multiple paternity in Morelet's Crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) in Belize, CA, inferred from microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVay, John D; Rodriguez, David; Rainwater, Thomas R; Dever, Jennifer A; Platt, Steven G; McMurry, Scott T; Forstner, Michael R J; Densmore, Llewellyn D

    2008-12-01

    Microsatellite data were generated from hatchlings collected from ten nests of Morelet's Crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) from New River Lagoon and Gold Button Lagoon in Belize to test for evidence of multiple paternity. Nine microsatellite loci were genotyped for 188 individuals from the 10 nests, alongside 42 nonhatchlings from Gold Button Lagoon. Then mitochondrial control region sequences were generated for the nonhatchlings and for one individual from each nest to test for presence of C. acutus-like haplotypes. Analyses of five of the nine microsatellite loci revealed evidence that progeny from five of the ten nests were sired by at least two males. These data suggest the presence of multiple paternity as a mating strategy in the true crocodiles. This information may be useful in the application of conservation and management techniques to the 12 species in this genus, most of which are threatened or endangered.

  3. Plasma vitellogenin in Morelet's crocodiles from contaminated habitats in northern Belize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainwater, Thomas R; Selcer, Kyle W; Nespoli, Lisa M; Finger, Adam G; Ray, David A; Platt, Steven G; Smith, Philip N; Densmore, Llewellyn D; Anderson, Todd A; McMurry, Scott T

    2008-05-01

    Vitellogenin induction has been widely used as a biomarker of endocrine disruption in wildlife, but few studies have investigated its use in wild reptiles living in contaminated habitats. This study examined vitellogenin induction in Morelet's crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) from wetlands in northern Belize contaminated with organochlorine (OC) pesticides. Vitellogenin was measured in 381 crocodile plasma samples using a vitellogenin ELISA previously developed for this species. Vitellogenin was detected in nine samples, all from adult females sampled during the breeding season. Males and juvenile females did not contain detectable levels of vitellogenin; however, many of these animals contained OC pesticides in their caudal scutes, confirming contaminant exposure. The lack of a vitellogenic response in these animals may be attributable to several factors related to the timing and magnitude of exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals and should not be interpreted as an absence of other contaminant-induced biological responses.

  4. Geographical distribution of the association between El Niño South Oscillation and dengue fever in the Americas: a continental analysis using geographical information system-based techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos C. Ferreira

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available El Niño South Oscillation (ENSO is one climatic phenomenon related to the inter-annual variability of global meteorological patterns influencing sea surface temperature and rainfall variability. It influences human health indirectly through extreme temperature and moisture conditions that may accelerate the spread of some vector-borne viral diseases, like dengue fever (DF. This work examines the spatial distribution of association between ENSO and DF in the countries of the Americas during 1995-2004, which includes the 1997-1998 El Niño, one of the most important climatic events of 20th century. Data regarding the South Oscillation index (SOI, indicating El Niño-La Niña activity, were obtained from Australian Bureau of Meteorology. The annual DF incidence (AIy by country was computed using Pan-American Health Association data. SOI and AIy values were standardised as deviations from the mean and plotted in bars-line graphics. The regression coefficient values between SOI and AIy (rSOI,AI were calculated and spatially interpolated by an inverse distance weighted algorithm. The results indicate that among the five years registering high number of cases (1998, 2002, 2001, 2003 and 1997, four had El Niño activity. In the southern hemisphere, the annual spatial weighted mean centre of epidemics moved southward, from 6° 31' S in 1995 to 21° 12' S in 1999 and the rSOI,AI values were negative in Cuba, Belize, Guyana and Costa Rica, indicating a synchrony between higher DF incidence rates and a higher El Niño activity. The rSOI,AI map allows visualisation of a graded surface with higher values of ENSO-DF associations for Mexico, Central America, northern Caribbean islands and the extreme north-northwest of South America.

  5. Geographical distribution of the association between El Niño South Oscillation and dengue fever in the Americas: a continental analysis using geographical information system-based techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Marcos C

    2014-11-01

    El Niño South Oscillation (ENSO) is one climatic phenomenon related to the inter-annual variability of global meteorological patterns influencing sea surface temperature and rainfall variability. It influences human health indirectly through extreme temperature and moisture conditions that may accelerate the spread of some vector-borne viral diseases, like dengue fever (DF). This work examines the spatial distribution of association between ENSO and DF in the countries of the Americas during 1995-2004, which includes the 1997-1998 El Niño, one of the most important climatic events of 20(th) century. Data regarding the South Oscillation index (SOI), indicating El Niño-La Niña activity, were obtained from Australian Bureau of Meteorology. The annual DF incidence (AIy) by country was computed using Pan-American Health Association data. SOI and AIy values were standardised as deviations from the mean and plotted in bars-line graphics. The regression coefficient values between SOI and AIy (rSOI,AI) were calculated and spatially interpolated by an inverse distance weighted algorithm. The results indicate that among the five years registering high number of cases (1998, 2002, 2001, 2003 and 1997), four had El Niño activity. In the southern hemisphere, the annual spatial weighted mean centre of epidemics moved southward, from 6° 31' S in 1995 to 21° 12' S in 1999 and the rSOI,AI values were negative in Cuba, Belize, Guyana and Costa Rica, indicating a synchrony between higher DF incidence rates and a higher El Niño activity. The rSOI,AI map allows visualisation of a graded surface with higher values of ENSO-DF associations for Mexico, Central America, northern Caribbean islands and the extreme north-northwest of South America.

  6. Hydrological and Oceanographic Considerations for Integrated Coastal Zone Management in Southern Belize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman; Kjerfve

    1999-09-01

    / The objectives of this study are to: (1) characterize the meteorology and hydrology of the Maya Mountain-Marine Area Transect in southern Belize, (2) employ a simple water balance model to examine the discharge rates of seven watersheds to Port Honduras, (3) test the validity of the hydrological model, (4) explore the implications of potential landscape and hydrological alterations, and (5) examine the value of protected areas. The southern coastal portion of the study area is classified as wet tropical forest and the remainder as moist tropical forest. Rainfall is 3000-4000 mm annually. Resulting annual freshwater discharge directly into Port Honduras is calculated at 2.5 x 10(9) m3, a volume equal to the basin. During the rainy season, June-September, 84% of the annual discharge occurs, which causes the bay to become brackish. Port Honduras serves as an important nursery ground for many species of commercially important fish and shellfish. The removal of forest cover in the uplands, as a result of agriculture, aquaculture, and village development, is likely to significantly accelerate erosion. Increased erosion would reduce soil fertility in the uplands and negatively affect mangrove, seagrass, and coral reef productivity in the receiving coastal embayment. Alternatively, the conservation of an existing protected areas corridor, linking the Maya Mountains to the Caribbean Sea, is likely to enhance regional sustainable economic development. This study aims to support environmental management at the scale of the "ecoscape"-a sensible ecological unit of linked watersheds and coastal and marine environments.KEY WORDS: Ecosystem management; Coastal zone management; Belize; Hydrologyhttp://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/journals/00267/bibs/24n2p229.html

  7. Weather and climate socio-economic impacts in Central America for the management and protection of world heritage sites and the Diquis Delta culture in Costa Rica (a case study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador, J. A.; Alfaro, E. J.

    2014-01-01

    The Central America region hosts a valuable amount of World Heritage Sites (WHS), many of them located in areas of floods, landslides, drought, high winds, intense precipitations, and earthquakes. The effective management of WHS requires the understanding of this type of environmental phenomena and their potential impacts on these sites. The objective of this work is twofold. To make an analysis of some of the atmospheric systems (easterly waves, cold fronts and tropical cyclones [TCs]) hitting Central America, to estimate their effects on socio-economic activities and potential impacts on WHS during the period 2002-2012. The second objective is to identify, for a case study, the potential effects of hydro-meteorological events associated with a tropical storm on the Diquis Delta region in southern Costa Rica. This site, an important unique archeological site of stone spheres, has been proposed by this country as a WHS. To achieve both, public data bases like HURDAT (North Atlantic Hurricane Database), and information from regional newspapers and National Emergency Committees, among other sources, were used for the study of socio-economic impacts caused by these natural hazards. To accomplish the latter, course resolution NCEP/NCAR (National Center for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research) Reanalysis atmospheric data served to initialize version 5 of a numerical atmospheric mesoscale model (MM5). This approach permitted to obtain higher resolution gridded data for a set of atmospheric variables for a case study associated with the formation of tropical storm Alma upon the Pacific basin. The MM5 resulted winds and precipitation, among other variables, were then used to evaluate potential impacts on the WHS region. Among the systems analyzed for Central America, TCs were the ones that most severely impacted regional social life and worsened the already weak regional economies. During the period analyzed, TCs affected regions where WHS are

  8. Latin America Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    NACION, 31 May 85).... 45 ’ECONOMIA Y SOCIEDAD ’ Lauds Appointment of Buchi ^ (EL MERCURIO, 21 May 85) Briefs , . 49 National Energy Investment...Belize’s headline news this morning was that the government of Mexico had given our Ministry of Health 55 tons of DDT insecticide (a 3 year supply...the police to comply with the law You 38 cannot have this inversion of values. Everyone says that the strike lav is unjust, but the government

  9. Capacity building and policy development in Belize marine protected areas, an example for Caribbean integrated coastal management

    OpenAIRE

    Crabbe, M James C

    2014-01-01

    Sustainability science can, through capacity building, allow for integrated stakeholder management of the vital Caribbean marine ecosystems. We did a capacity building exercise in two major coral reef areas in Southern Belize. The key outcome was a six-month personal/professional action plan developed by each participant about tactics for leading, educating and supporting issues regarding sustainable development and tactics for collaboration to influence policy decisions. Our results can be a...

  10. Textbook America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Walter

    1980-01-01

    Focuses on how political attitudes have been influenced by American history textbooks at various times throughout history. Excerpts from traditional and revisionist textbooks are presented, with emphasis on "America Revised" by Frances FitzGerald. Journal available from Harper's Magazine Co., 2 Park Ave., New York, NY 10016. (DB)

  11. Simulating the Upper Ocean Circulation on the Belize Shelf: An Application of a Triply Nested-Grid Ocean Circulation Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENG Jinyu; TANG Liqun; WANG Liang

    2005-01-01

    We present a three-level nested-grid ocean circulation modeling system for the Belize shelf of the western Caribbean Sea. The nested-grid system has three subcomponents: a coarse-resolution outer model of the western Caribbean Sea; an intermediate-resolution middle model of the southern Meso-American Barrier Reef System; and a fine-resolution inner model of the Belize shelf. The two-way nesting technique based on the semi-prognostic method is used to exchange information between the three subcomponents. We discuss two applications of the nested-grid system in this study. In the first application we simulate the seasonal mean circulation in the region, with the nested system forced by monthly mean surface fluxes and boundary forcing. The model results reproduce the general circulation features on the western Caribbean Sea and meso-scale circulation features on the Belize shelf. In the second application, we simulate the storm-induced circulation during Hurricane Mitch in 1998, with the nested-grid system forced by the combination of monthly mean forcing and idealized wind stress associated with the storm. The model results demonstrate that the storm-induced currents transport a large amount of estuarinc waters from coastal regions of Honduras and Guatemala to offshore reef atolls.

  12. Electricity and gas regulation in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, Peter N.

    1998-08-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Background Information; The Electricity Chain; The Gas Chain; The Regulatory Structure; International Activity; Argentina; Bolivia; Brazil; Chile; Colombia; Mexico; Peru; Venezuela; Central America; Other Latin American Markets; Non-Latin America Markets; The Caribbean. (Author)

  13. Middle Miocene near trench volcanism in northern Colombia: A record of slab tearing due to the simultaneous subduction of the Caribbean Plate under South and Central America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, M.; Cardona, A.; Monsalve, G.; Yarce, J.; Montes, C.; Valencia, V.; Weber, M.; De La Parra, F.; Espitia, D.; López-Martínez, M.

    2013-08-01

    Field, geochemical, geochronological, biostratigraphical and sedimentary provenance results of basaltic and associated sediments northern Colombia reveal the existence of Middle Miocene (13-14 Ma) mafic volcanism within a continental margin setting usually considered as amagmatic. This basaltic volcanism is characterized by relatively high Al2O3 and Na2O values (>15%), a High-K calc-alkaline affinity, large ion lithophile enrichment and associated Nb, Ta and Ti negative anomalies which resemble High Al basalts formed by low degree of asthenospheric melting at shallow depths mixed with some additional slab input. The presence of pre-Cretaceous detrital zircons, tourmaline and rutile as well as biostratigraphic results suggest that the host sedimentary rocks were deposited in a platform setting within the South American margin. New results of P-wave residuals from northern Colombia reinforce the view of a Caribbean slab subducting under the South American margin. The absence of a mantle wedge, the upper plate setting, and proximity of this magmatism to the trench, together with geodynamic constraints suggest that the subducted Caribbean oceanic plate was fractured and a slab tear was formed within the oceanic plate. Oceanic plate fracturing is related to the splitting of the subducting Caribbean Plate due to simultaneous subduction under the Panama-Choco block and northwestern South America, and the fast overthrusting of the later onto the Caribbean oceanic plate.

  14. Providers’ perspectives on inbound medical tourism in Central America and the Caribbean: factors driving and inhibiting sector development and their health equity implications

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many governments and health care providers worldwide are enthusiastic to develop medical tourism as a service export. Despite the popularity of this policy uptake, there is relatively little known about the specific local factors prospectively motivating and informing development of this sector.Objective: To identify common social, economic, and health system factors shaping the development of medical tourism in three Central American and Caribbean countries and their health equit...

  15. An analysis of modern pollen rain from the Maya lowlands of northern Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, T.; Beach, T.; Wahl, D.

    2011-01-01

    In the lowland Maya area, pollen records provide important insights into the impact of past human populations and climate change on tropical ecosystems. Despite a long history of regional paleoecological research, few studies have characterized the palynological signatures of lowland ecosystems, a fact which lowers confidence in ecological inferences made from palynological data. We sought to verify whether we could use pollen spectra to reliably distinguish modern ecosystem types in the Maya lowlands of Central America. We collected 23 soil and sediment samples from eight ecosystem types, including upland, riparian, secondary, and swamp (bajo) forests; pine savanna; and three distinct wetland communities. We analyzed pollen spectra with non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS), and found significant compositional differences in ecosystem types' pollen spectra. Forested sites had spectra dominated by Moraceae/Urticaceae pollen, while non-forested sites had significant portions of Poaceae, Asteraceae, and Amaranthaceae pollen. Upland, bajo, and riparian forest differed in representation of Cyperaceae, Bactris-type, and Combretaceae/Melastomataceae pollen. High percentages of pine (Pinus), oak (Quercus), and the presence of Byrsonima characterized pine savanna. Despite its limited sample size, this study provides one of the first statistical analyses of modern pollen rain in the Maya lowlands. Our results show that pollen assemblages can accurately reflect differences between ecosystem types, which may help refine interpretations of pollen records from the Maya area. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  16. The role of sponges in the Mesoamerican Barrier-Reef Ecosystem, Belize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rützler, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Over the past four decades, sponge research has advanced by leaps and bounds through endeavours such as the Caribbean Coral Reef Ecosystems (CCRE) programme at the U.S. National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C. Since its founding in the early 1970s, the programme has been dedicated to a detailed multidisciplinary study of a section of the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef, the Atlantic's largest reef complex, and has generated data far beyond the capability of lone investigators and brief expeditions. This reef complex extends 250 km southward from Yucatan, Mexico, into the Gulf of Honduras, most of it lying 20-40 km off the coast of Belize. A relatively unspoiled ecosystem, it features a great variety of habitats in close proximity, ranging from mangrove islands, seagrass meadows, and patch reefs in its lagoon to the barrier reef along the margin of the continental shelf. Among its varied macrobenthos, sponges stand out for their ubiquity, range of colours, rich species and biomass, and ecological importance; they populate rocky substrates, some sandy bottoms, and the subtidal stilt roots and peat banks of mangroves. Working from a field station established in 1972 on Carrie Bow Cay, a sand islet atop the reef off southern Belize, experts in numerous disciplines from both the Museum and academic institutions throughout the world have explored the area's biodiversity in the broadest sense and community development over time. At last count, 113 researchers (88 working on site) have focused on the biological and geological role of Porifera in Carrie Bow's reef communities, with the results reported in 125 scientific papers to date. The majority of these sponge studies have centred on systematics and faunistics, including quantitative distribution among the various habitats. Taxonomic approaches have ranged from basic morphology to fine structure, DNA barcoding, and ecological manipulations and culminated in a mini-workshop involving several experts on Caribbean

  17. The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Velázquez, Jorge A; Silva-Vidal, Karen V; Ponciano-Rodríguez, Guadalupe; Chávez-Tapia, Norberto C; Arrese, Marco; Uribe, Misael; Méndez-Sánchez, Nahum

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an alarming public health problem. The disease is one of the main causes of chronic liver disease worldwide and is directly linked to the increased prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the general population. The worldwide prevalence of NAFLD has been estimated at 20-30%, but the prevalence is unknown in the Americas because of a lack of epidemiological studies. However, given the trends in the prevalence of diabetes and obesity, the prevalence of NAFLD and its consequences are expected to increase in the near future. The aim of the present study is to present the current data on the prevalence of NAFLD in the Americas. We performed an electronic search of the main databases from January 2000 to September 2013 and identified 356 reports that were reviewed. We focused on the epidemiology and prevalence of known NAFLD risk factors including obesity, T2DM, and the metabolic syndrome (MS). The prevalence of the MS was highest in the United States, Mexico, Costa Rica, Puerto Rico, Chile, and Venezuela. In addition, Puerto Rico, Guyana, and Mexico have the highest prevalence of T2DM in the Americas, while USA has the most people with T2DM. In conclusion, the prevalence rates of NAFLD and obesity were highest in the United States, Belize, Barbados, and Mexico.

  18. Raman and micro-thermometric investigation of the fluid inclusions in quartz in a gold-rich formation from Lepaguare mining district (Honduras, Central America).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersani, D; Salvioli-Mariani, E; Mattioli, M; Menichetti, M; Lottici, P P

    2009-08-01

    Fluid inclusions in the quartz crystals present in gold-rich veins from central Honduras have been studied by means of micro-thermometry and micro-Raman spectroscopy in order to provide information on the physico-chemical conditions and chemical composition of the mineralizing fluids. The use of a confocal micro-Raman apparatus allowed to obtain information on the fluid composition, in particular on the gas phase, minimizing the contributions of the host matrix to the Raman signal. The samples studied were collected from an area (Lepaguare mining district, Northern-Central Honduras) rich in ore deposits due to the Cenozoic magmatic activity, where the gold and sulphide mineralization is connected with a system of quartz veins (few decimetres thick) occurring in low-grade metamorphic rocks and produced by hydrothermal fluids. The quartz crystals present in the gold-rich veins often contain fluid inclusions. Four types of fluid inclusions have been observed, but their assemblage in the same clusters and fracture systems, as well as their comparable salinity and homogenization data, suggest that they have the same origin. Micro-thermometry and Raman spectroscopy provide a composition of the mineralizing fluids attributable to the system H(2)O-NaCl-KCl-CO(2)-CH(4), with temperature and pressure intervals of 210-413 degrees C and 1050-3850 bar, respectively. These data agree with an epigenetic origin of the gold deposit (depth < 6 km) related to granitoid or granodiorite intrusions associated to orogenic environments.

  19. Raman and micro-thermometric investigation of the fluid inclusions in quartz in a gold-rich formation from Lepaguare mining district (Honduras, Central America)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersani, D.; Salvioli-Mariani, E.; Mattioli, M.; Menichetti, M.; Lottici, P. P.

    2009-08-01

    Fluid inclusions in the quartz crystals present in gold-rich veins from central Honduras have been studied by means of micro-thermometry and micro-Raman spectroscopy in order to provide information on the physico-chemical conditions and chemical composition of the mineralizing fluids. The use of a confocal micro-Raman apparatus allowed to obtain information on the fluid composition, in particular on the gas phase, minimizing the contributions of the host matrix to the Raman signal. The samples studied were collected from an area (Lepaguare mining district, Northern-Central Honduras) rich in ore deposits due to the Cenozoic magmatic activity, where the gold and sulphide mineralization is connected with a system of quartz veins (few decimetres thick) occurring in low-grade metamorphic rocks and produced by hydrothermal fluids. The quartz crystals present in the gold-rich veins often contain fluid inclusions. Four types of fluid inclusions have been observed, but their assemblage in the same clusters and fracture systems, as well as their comparable salinity and homogenization data, suggest that they have the same origin. Micro-thermometry and Raman spectroscopy provide a composition of the mineralizing fluids attributable to the system H 2O-NaCl-KCl-CO 2-CH 4, with temperature and pressure intervals of 210-413 °C and 1050-3850 bar, respectively. These data agree with an epigenetic origin of the gold deposit (depth < 6 km) related to granitoid or granodiorite intrusions associated to orogenic environments.

  20. Conflict factors in cooperation for shared watersheds: Rio Hondo case (Mexico-Guatemala- Belize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Nemesio Olvera Alarcón

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Hondo transboundary river basin is a territory shared by Mexico, Guatemala and Belize. There is not enough information about mechanisms of cooperation in water issues in the river basin and the reasons that prevent this process. Nevertheless, we know about the existence of factors of conflicts that limit the cooperation. This article describes the factor of conflicts and their bonds with the cooperation around the water. The construction of the analysis was based in the grounded theory, with the use of the semi–structured interviews and the participant observation as tools of data collection. The data obtained was analyzed by a codification of information based on: the anthropic conflicts, their relation with the cooperation and the institutional paper as part of the factors of conflict. For the location of key stakeholders and the elaboration of interviews, it was necessary to take advantage of a hemerographic analysis and the existing relations as a result of a previous work in 2003, besides applying the technique of “snow ball” to identify new key stakeholders. The paper tries to highlight how existing potential anthropic conflicts in the river basin may affect processes and attempts for cooperation in water issues.

  1. An Iterative Approach to Ground Penetrating Radar at the Maya Site of Pacbitun, Belize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheldon Skaggs

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ground penetrating radar (GPR surveys provide distinct advantages for archaeological prospection in ancient, complex, urban Maya sites, particularly where dense foliage or modern debris may preclude other remote sensing or geophysical techniques. Unidirectional GPR surveys using a 500 MHz shielded antenna were performed at the Middle Preclassic Maya site of Pacbitun, Belize. The survey in 2012 identified numerous linear and circular anomalies between 1 m and 2 m deep. Based on these anomalies, one 1 m × 4 m unit and three smaller units were excavated in 2013. These test units revealed a curved plaster surface not previously found at Pacbitun. Post-excavation, GPR data were reprocessed to best match the true nature of excavated features. Additional GPR surveys oriented perpendicular to the original survey confirmed previously detected anomalies and identified new anomalies. The excavations provided information on the sediment layers in the survey area, which allowed better identification of weak radar reflections of the surfaces of a burnt, Middle Preclassic temple in the northern end of the survey area. Additional excavations of the area in 2014 and 2015 revealed it to be a large square structure, which was named El Quemado.

  2. Holocene Palaeosalinity in a Maya Wetland, Belize, Inferred from the Microfaunal Assemblage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcala-Herrera, Javier A.; Jacob, John S.; Castillo, Maria Luisa Machain; Neck, Raymond W.

    1994-01-01

    A 5.4-m sequence of peat and marl overlying a basal clay in a northern Belize wetland was studied to assess salinity changes over the past 7000 yr. The distribution of ostracods, gastropods, and foraminifers revealed initially freshwater conditions in a terrestrial wetland, changing to at least mesohaline conditions by about 5600 yr B.P. The mesohaline conditions corresponded to the formation of an open-water lagoon (and precipitation of a lacustrine marl) that was contemporaneous with rapidly rising sea level in the area. A mangrove peat filled the lagoon by 4800 yr B.P. probably as a result of increasingly shallow waters as sea level rise slowed and marl precipitation continued. A new lagoon began to form sometime after 3400 yr B.P. Freshwater ostracods and gastropods found in the marl of this lagoon suggest that it formed under near-limnetic conditions. Freshwater input likely resulted from massive deforestation by the Maya that began by 4400 yr B.P. Subsidence of the mangrove peat likely permitted the formation of a lagoon. A peat has filled the lagoon since at least 500 yr B.P.

  3. Pathoecology and paleodiet in Postclassic: Historic Maya from northern coastal Belize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine White

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the synergism among diet, disease, and ecology at two related coastal Maya sites in Belize (Marco Gonzalez and San Pedro for the Postclassic and Historic periods (1350-1650 AD, which immediately follow the Classic period collapse. Stable carbon- and nitrogen-isotope ratios in collagen and stable carbon-isotope ratios in structural carbonate were analysed for bones from 65 humans and a wide variety of faunal species. There are no apparent differences in whole diets or degree of carnivory between individuals with lesions indicative of anemia and those without, but those with lesions appear to have consumed significantly more C4 foods and protein from lower trophic levels. Non-specific infection (periostitis and vitamin C deficiency (scurvy are also present in high frequencies and appear to co-occur with lesions indicative of anemia, particularly in childhood. Individuals with scurvy also appear to have consumed significantly more C4 foods than normal individuals. Spondyloarthropathy is common in adults. These findings are discussed in light of: (1 the debate on how anemia versus scurvy are manifest and diagnosed, (2 Spanish ethnohistoric descriptions of the poor state of Maya health at the time of contact, and (3 the Osteological Paradox. We suggest that although this coastal environment exacerbated morbidity because of possible parasitic infection, the inhabitants were probably able to survive physiological stresses better than either their inland contemporaries or their modern counterparts.

  4. Modern tree species composition reflects ancient Maya "forest gardens" in northwest Belize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Nanci J

    2011-01-01

    Ecology and ethnobotany were integrated to assess the impact of ancient Maya tree-dominated home gardens (i.e., "forest gardens"), which contained a diversity of tree species used for daily household needs, on the modern tree species composition of a Mesoamerican forest. Researchers have argued that the ubiquity of these ancient gardens throughout Mesoamerica led to the dominance of species useful to Maya in the contemporary forest, but this pattern may be localized depending on ancient land use. The tested hypothesis was that species composition would be significantly different between areas of dense ancient residential structures (high density) and areas of little or no ancient settlement (low density). Sixty-three 400-m2 plots (31 high density and 32 low density) were censused around the El Pilar Archaeological Reserve in northwestern Belize. Species composition was significantly different, with higher abundances of commonly utilized "forest garden" species still persisting in high-density forest areas despite centuries of abandonment. Subsequent edaphic analyses only explained 5% of the species composition differences. This research provides data on the long-term impacts of Maya forests gardens for use in development of future conservation models. For Mesoamerican conservation programs to work, we must understand the complex ecological and social interactions within an ecosystem that developed in intimate association with humans.

  5. Plasma vitellogenin in Morelet's crocodiles from contaminated habitats in northern Belize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rainwater, Thomas R. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health and Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409-1163 (United States)], E-mail: thomas.rainwater@gmail.com; Selcer, Kyle W. [Department of Biological Sciences, Bayer School of Natural and Environmental Sciences, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA 15282 (United States)], E-mail: selcer@duq.edu; Nespoli, Lisa M. [Department of Biological Sciences, Bayer School of Natural and Environmental Sciences, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA 15282 (United States)], E-mail: nespoli345@duq.edu; Finger, Adam G. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health and Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409-1163 (United States)], E-mail: agfinger@tiehh.ttu.edu; Ray, David A. [Department of Biological Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)], E-mail: david.ray@mail.wvu.edu; Platt, Steven G. [Department of Biology, P.O. Box C-64, Sul Ross State University, Alpine, TX 79832 (United States)], E-mail: splatt@sulross.edu; Smith, Philip N. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health and Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409-1163 (United States)], E-mail: philip.smith@tiehh.ttu.edu; Densmore, Llewellyn D. [Department of Biological Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)], E-mail: lou.densmore@ttu.edu; Anderson, Todd A. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health and Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409-1163 (United States)], E-mail: todd.anderson@tiehh.ttu.edu; McMurry, Scott T. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health and Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409-1163 (United States)], E-mail: scott.mcmurry@tiehh.ttu.edu

    2008-05-15

    Vitellogenin induction has been widely used as a biomarker of endocrine disruption in wildlife, but few studies have investigated its use in wild reptiles living in contaminated habitats. This study examined vitellogenin induction in Morelet's crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) from wetlands in northern Belize contaminated with organochlorine (OC) pesticides. Vitellogenin was measured in 381 crocodile plasma samples using a vitellogenin ELISA previously developed for this species. Vitellogenin was detected in nine samples, all from adult females sampled during the breeding season. Males and juvenile females did not contain detectable levels of vitellogenin; however, many of these animals contained OC pesticides in their caudal scutes, confirming contaminant exposure. The lack of a vitellogenic response in these animals may be attributable to several factors related to the timing and magnitude of exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals and should not be interpreted as an absence of other contaminant-induced biological responses. - Wild crocodiles living in habitats polluted with organochlorine pesticides did not exhibit contaminant-induced vitellogenin induction in blood plasma.

  6. Diversity of sponges (Porifera) from cryptic habitats on the Belize barrier reef near Carrie Bow Cay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rützler, Klaus; Piantoni, Carla; Van Soest, Rob W M; Díaz, M Cristina

    2014-05-29

    The Caribbean barrier reef near Carrie Bow Cay, Belize, has been a focus of Smithsonian Institution (Washington) reef and mangrove investigations since the early 1970s. Systematics and biology of sponges (Porifera) were addressed by several researchers but none of the studies dealt with cryptic habitats, such as the shaded undersides of coral rubble, reef crevices, and caves, although a high species diversity was recognized and samples were taken for future reference and study. This paper is the result of processing samples taken between 1972 and 2012. In all, 122 species were identified, 14 of them new (including one new genus). The new species are Tetralophophora (new genus) mesoamericana, Geodia cribrata, Placospongia caribica, Prosuberites carriebowensis, Timea diplasterina, Timea oxyasterina, Rhaphidhistia belizensis, Wigginsia curlewensis, Phorbas aurantiacus, Myrmekioderma laminatum, Niphates arenata, Siphonodictyon occultum, Xestospongia purpurea, and Aplysina sciophila. We determined that about 75 of the 122 cryptic sponge species studied (61%) are exclusive members of the sciophilic community, 47 (39 %) occur in both, light-exposed and shaded or dark habitats. Since we estimate the previously known sponge population of Carrie Bow reefs and mangroves at about 200 species, the cryptic fauna makes up 38 % of total diversity.

  7. Revision of Thisiomorphus Pic (Coleoptera: Mycteridae: Eurypinae) with descriptions of eleven new species from Central and South America and a key to genera of Neotropical Eurypinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Darren A

    2016-03-22

    The Neotropical eurypine genus Thisiomorphus is revised, based on external structural features of adults. Twelve species are recognized, including the following eleven new species (type areas in parentheses): T. festivus (Panama, Colón Prov.), T. osaensis (Costa Rica, Puntarenas Prov.), T. davidsoni (Brazil, Chapada), T. inaequalis (Ecuador, Napo Prov.), T. caeruleus (Panama, Panamá Prov.), T. brasiliensis (Brazil, Amazonas), T. solisi (Costa Rica, Guanacaste Prov.), T. andrewsi (Panama, Chiriquí Prov.), T. bolivianus (Bolivia, Santa Cruz Dept.), T. curticornis (Ecuador, Sucumbíos Prov.), and T. convergens (Brazil, Pará). A key to the 13 described eurypine genera of Central and South American is provided, along with a key to species of Thisiomorphus. The keys are supplemented with images of habitus and selected structural features, and maps of known distributions are provided.

  8. Neotectonic development of the El Salvador Fault Zone and implications for deformation in the Central America Volcanic Arc: Insights from 4-D analog modeling experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Henar, Jorge; Schreurs, Guido; Martinez-Díaz, José Jesús; Álvarez-Gómez, José Antonio; Villamor, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    The El Salvador Fault Zone (ESFZ) is an active, approximately 150 km long and 20 km wide, segmented, dextral strike-slip fault zone within the Central American Volcanic Arc striking N100°E. Although several studies have investigated the surface expression of the ESFZ, little is known about its structure at depth and its kinematic evolution. Structural field data and mapping suggest a phase of extension, at some stage during the evolution of the ESFZ. This phase would explain dip-slip movements on structures that are currently associated with the active, dominantly strike slip and that do not fit with the current tectonic regime. Field observations suggest trenchward migration of the arc. Such an extension and trenchward migration of the volcanic arc could be related to slab rollback of the Cocos plate beneath the Chortis Block during the Miocene/Pliocene. We carried out 4-D analog model experiments to test whether an early phase of extension is required to form the present-day fault pattern in the ESFZ. Our experiments suggest that a two-phase tectonic evolution best explains the ESFZ: an early pure extensional phase linked to a segmented volcanic arc is necessary to form the main structures. This extensional phase is followed by a strike-slip dominated regime, which results in intersegment areas with local transtension and segments with almost pure strike-slip motion. The results of our experiments combined with field data along the Central American Volcanic Arc indicate that the slab rollback intensity beneath the Chortis Block is greater in Nicaragua and decreases westward to Guatemala.

  9. Fermilab and Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Leon M.

    2006-09-01

    As Director of Fermilab, starting in 1979, I began a series of meetings with scientists in Latin America. The motivation was to stir collaboration in the field of high energy particle physics, the central focus of Fermilab. In the next 13 years, these Pan American Symposia stirred much discussion of the use of modern physics, created several groups to do collaborative research at Fermilab, and often centralized facilities and, today, still provides the possibility for much more productive North-South collaboration in research and education. In 1992, I handed these activities over to the AAAS, as President. This would, I hoped, broaden areas of collaboration. Such collaboration is unfortunately very sensitive to political events. In a rational world, it would be the rewards, cultural and economic, of collaboration that would modulate political relations. We are not there yet.

  10. Terrestrial and freshwater Tardigrada of the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Harry A

    2013-12-16

    This paper provides a comprehensive list of the freshwater and terrestrial tardigrade fauna reported from the Americas (North America, South America, Central America and the West Indies), their distribution in the Americas, and the substrates from which they have been reported. Data were obtained from 316 published references. Authors' identifications were accepted at face value unless subsequently amended. Taxa were assigned to sub-national units (states, provinces, etc.). Many areas, in particular large portions of Central America and the West Indies, have no reported tardigrade fauna.        The presence of 54 genera and 380 species has been reported for the Americas; 245 species have been collected in the Nearctic ecozone and 251 in the Neotropical ecozone. Among the tardigrade species found in the Americas, 52 are currently considered cosmopolitan, while 153 species have known distributions restricted to the Americas. Based on recent taxonomic revision of the genus Milnesium, the vast majority of records of M. tardigradum in the Americas should now be reassigned to Milnesium tardigradum sensu lato, either because the provided description differs from M. tardigradum sensu stricto or because insufficient description is provided to make a determination; the remainder should be considered Milnesium cf. tardigradum.        Most terrestrial tardigrade sampling in the Americas has focused on cryptogams (mosses, lichens and liverworts); 90% of the species have been collected in such substrates. The proportion of species collected in other habitats is lower: 14% in leaf litter, 20% in soil, and 24% in aquatic samples (in other terrestrial substrates the proportion never exceeds 5%). Most freshwater tardigrades have been collected from aquatic vegetation and sediment. For nine species in the Americas no substrates have been reported. 

  11. A preserved early Ediacaran magmatic arc at the northernmost portion of the Transversal Zone central subprovince of the Borborema Province, Northeastern South America

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    Benjamim Bley de Brito Neves

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Magmatic arcs are an essential part of crust-forming events in planet Earth evolution. The aim of this work was to describe an early Ediacaran magmatic arc (ca. 635-580 Ma exposed in the northernmost portion of the Transversal Zone, central subprovince of Borborema Province, northeast Brazil. Our research took advantage of several syntheses by different authors, including theses and dissertations, carried out on magmatic rocks of the study area for the last 30 years. The ca. 750 km long and up to 140 km wide arc, trending ENE-WSW, is preserved to the south of the Patos Lineament, between 35º15' and 42º30'W and 7º15' and 8ºS. About 90 different stocks and batholiths of I-type granitic rocks were mapped along this orogenic zone, preferentially intruding low-grade schists of the Cryogenian-Ediacaran Piancó-Alto Brígida (SPAB belt. Three igneous supersuites are recognized: a epidote-bearing granodiorites and tonalites ("Conceição" type; b high-K calc-alkaline granites ("Itaporanga" type; c biotite granodiorites of trondhjemite affinity ("Serrita" type. A fourth group of peralkalic and shoshonitic rocks occurs to the south of the previous ones, reflecting special tectonic conditions. NNE-SSW trending Paleoproterozoic fold belts, surrounding Archean nuclei, characterize the continental part of the northern lower plate. The oceanic fraction of this lower plate was recycled by subduction and scarce remnants of which may be seen either within the enclosing low-grade schists or as xenoliths within the arc intrusions. The upper continental plate presents WSW-ENE structural trends and is composed of Neoproterozoic fold belts and Paleoproterozoic reworked basement inliers. Available data bear clear evidence of an Ediacaran magmatic arc built at the northern portion of the Transversal Zone in the Borborema Province, northeast Brazil.

  12. Diet items of manatee Trichechus manatus manatus in three priority sites for the species in Mexico and Belize

    OpenAIRE

    Flores-Cascante, Lavinia; Morales-Vela, Benjamín; Castelblanco-Martínez, Nataly; Padilla-Saldívar, Janneth; Auil, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) are herbivorous mammals with opportunistic habits that feed on approximately 60 species of plants. The focus of this paper was to identify diet elements of the manatee by fecal analysis in two sites in Mexico (Jonuta, Tabasco and Bahía de la Ascensión, Quintana Roo) and one site in Belize (Southern Lagoon). Samples were obtained from wild manatees and captive manatees temporarily captured for health assessment and sampling during 2004-2006. A total of 24 ...

  13. Hunting, swimming, and worshiping: human cultural practices illuminate the blood meal sources of cave dwelling Chagas vectors (Triatoma dimidiata in Guatemala and Belize.

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    Lori Stevens

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma dimidiata, currently the major Central American vector of Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite that causes Chagas disease, inhabits caves throughout the region. This research investigates the possibility that cave dwelling T. dimidiata might transmit the parasite to humans and links the blood meal sources of cave vectors to cultural practices that differ among locations.We determined the blood meal sources of twenty-four T. dimidiata collected from two locations in Guatemala and one in Belize where human interactions with the caves differ. Blood meal sources were determined by cloning and sequencing PCR products amplified from DNA extracted from the vector abdomen using primers specific for the vertebrate 12S mitochondrial gene. The blood meal sources were inferred by ≥ 99% identity with published sequences. We found 70% of cave-collected T. dimidiata positive for human DNA. The vectors had fed on 10 additional vertebrates with a variety of relationships to humans, including companion animal (dog, food animals (pig, sheep/goat, wild animals (duck, two bat, two opossum species and commensal animals (mouse, rat. Vectors from all locations fed on humans and commensal animals. The blood meal sources differ among locations, as well as the likelihood of feeding on dog and food animals. Vectors from one location were tested for T. cruzi infection, and 30% (3/10 tested positive, including two positive for human blood meals.Cave dwelling Chagas disease vectors feed on humans and commensal animals as well as dog, food animals and wild animals. Blood meal sources were related to human uses of the caves. We caution that just as T. dimidiata in caves may pose an epidemiological risk, there may be other situations where risk is thought to be minimal, but is not.

  14. Climate Impacts of Deforestation/Land-Use Changes in Central South America in the PRECIS Regional Climate Model: Mean Precipitation and Temperature Response to Present and Future Deforestation Scenarios

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    Pablo O. Canziani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Deforestation/land-use changes are major drivers of regional climate change in central South America, impacting upon Amazonia and Gran Chaco ecoregions. Most experimental and modeling studies have focused on the resulting perturbations within Amazonia. Using the Regional Climate Model PRECIS, driven by ERA-40 reanalysis and ECHAM4 Baseline model for the period 1961–2000 (40-year runs, potential effects of deforestation/land-use changes in these and other neighboring ecoregions are evaluated. Current 2002 and estimated 2030 land-use scenarios are used to assess PRECIS's response during 1960–2000. ERA-40 and ECHAM4 Baseline driven runs yield similar results. Precipitation changes for 2002 and 2030 land-use scenarios, while significant within deforested areas, do not result in significant regional changes. For temperature significant changes are found within deforested areas and beyond, with major temperature enhancements during winter and spring. Given the current climate, primary effects of deforestation/land-use changes remain mostly confined to the tropical latitudes of Gran Chaco, and Amazonia.

  15. Climate Impacts of Deforestation/Land-Use Changes in Central South America in the PRECIS Regional Climate Model: Mean Precipitation and Temperature Response to Present and Future Deforestation Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canziani, Pablo O.; Carbajal Benitez, Gerardo

    2012-01-01

    Deforestation/land-use changes are major drivers of regional climate change in central South America, impacting upon Amazonia and Gran Chaco ecoregions. Most experimental and modeling studies have focused on the resulting perturbations within Amazonia. Using the Regional Climate Model PRECIS, driven by ERA-40 reanalysis and ECHAM4 Baseline model for the period 1961–2000 (40-year runs), potential effects of deforestation/land-use changes in these and other neighboring ecoregions are evaluated. Current 2002 and estimated 2030 land-use scenarios are used to assess PRECIS's response during 1960–2000. ERA-40 and ECHAM4 Baseline driven runs yield similar results. Precipitation changes for 2002 and 2030 land-use scenarios, while significant within deforested areas, do not result in significant regional changes. For temperature significant changes are found within deforested areas and beyond, with major temperature enhancements during winter and spring. Given the current climate, primary effects of deforestation/land-use changes remain mostly confined to the tropical latitudes of Gran Chaco, and Amazonia. PMID:22645487

  16. Early Scholars' Visits to Central America: Reports by Karl Sapper, Walter Lehmann, and Franz Termer, edited by Marilyn Beaudry-Corbett and Ellen T Hardy, Theodore E Gutman, 2000

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    Charles C. Kolb

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available The Cotsen Institute's Director of Publications is archaeologist Marilyn Beaudry-Corbett, herself a specialist on the production and distribution of archaeological ceramics in Mesoamerica and Central America and a scholar of complex society economic organization. Her colleague and the co-editor of this volume, Ellen Hardy, is a Research Associate at The Cotsen Institute and an expert on mortuary customs of the Nicoya region. Theodore (Ted Gutman (1909-1997 was a longtime supporter of the Institute at UCLA worked on a number of translation projects, several of which are presented here. He was the translator of Karl Sapper's Verapaz im 16. und 17. jahrhundert, which appeared as The Verapaz in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries: A Contribution to the Historical Geography and Ethnography of Northeastern Guatemala (Los Angeles, University of California, Institute of Archae­ology, Occasional Paper 13, 1985. The contributors to the volume's narrative include, in addtion to Beaudry-Corbett and Hardy, nine other anthropologists who are recognized experts on the region and subject matter.

  17. Climate impacts of deforestation/land-use changes in Central South America in the PRECIS regional climate model: mean precipitation and temperature response to present and future deforestation scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canziani, Pablo O; Carbajal Benitez, Gerardo

    2012-01-01

    Deforestation/land-use changes are major drivers of regional climate change in central South America, impacting upon Amazonia and Gran Chaco ecoregions. Most experimental and modeling studies have focused on the resulting perturbations within Amazonia. Using the Regional Climate Model PRECIS, driven by ERA-40 reanalysis and ECHAM4 Baseline model for the period 1961-2000 (40-year runs), potential effects of deforestation/land-use changes in these and other neighboring ecoregions are evaluated. Current 2002 and estimated 2030 land-use scenarios are used to assess PRECIS's response during 1960-2000. ERA-40 and ECHAM4 Baseline driven runs yield similar results. Precipitation changes for 2002 and 2030 land-use scenarios, while significant within deforested areas, do not result in significant regional changes. For temperature significant changes are found within deforested areas and beyond, with major temperature enhancements during winter and spring. Given the current climate, primary effects of deforestation/land-use changes remain mostly confined to the tropical latitudes of Gran Chaco, and Amazonia.

  18. Pleurodese nos derrames pleurais malignos: um inquérito entre médicos em países da América do Sul e Central Pleurodesis for malignant pleural effusions: a survey of physicians in South and Central America

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    Evaldo Marchi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A pleurodese é uma alternativa eficaz no controle dos derrames pleurais malignos, mas existem controvérsias a respeito de sua indicação e técnica. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar como é realizada a pleurodese em países da América do Sul e Central. MÉTODOS: Profissionais que realizam pleurodese responderam um questionário sobre critérios de indicação para pleurodese, técnicas utilizadas e desfechos. RESULTADOS: Nossa amostra envolveu 147 profissionais no Brasil, 49 em outros países da América do Sul e 36 em países da América Central. Mais de 50% dos participantes realizavam pleurodese somente se confirmada a malignidade no derrame pleural. Entretanto, escalas de dispneia e de status de performance eram raramente utilizadas para indicar o procedimento. Aproximadamente 75% dos participantes no Brasil e na América Central preferiam realizar a pleurodese somente no caso de recidiva do derrame, e a expansão pulmonar deveria variar de 90% a 100%. O talco slurry foi o agente mais utilizado, instilado via drenos de calibre intermediário. A toracoscopia foi realizada em menos de 25% dos casos. Febre e dor torácica foram os efeitos adversos mais comuns, e empiema ocorreu em OBJECTIVE: Pleurodesis is an effective alternative for the control of malignant pleural effusions. However, there is as yet no consensus regarding the indications for the procedure and the techniques employed therein. The objective of this study was to evaluate how pleurodesis is performed in South and Central America. METHODS: Professionals who perform pleurodesis completed a questionnaire regarding the indications for the procedure, the techniques used therein, and the outcomes obtained. RESULTS: Our sample comprised 147 respondents in Brazil, 49 in other South American countries, and 36 in Central America. More than 50% of the respondents reported performing pleurodesis only if pleural malignancy had been confirmed. However, scores on dyspnea and

  19. Porewater biogeochemistry and soil metabolism in dwarf red mangrove habitats (Twin Cays, Belize)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R.Y.; Porubsky, W.P.; Feller, Ilka C.; McKee, K.L.; Joye, S.B.

    2008-01-01

    Seasonal variability in biogeochemical signatures was used to elucidate the dominant pathways of soil microbial metabolism and elemental cycling in an oligotrophic mangrove system. Three interior dwarf mangrove habitats (Twin Cays, Belize) where surface soils were overlain by microbial mats were sampled during wet and dry periods of the year. Porewater equilibration meters and standard biogeochemical methods provided steady-state porewater profiles of pH, chloride, sulfate, sulfide, ammonium, nitrate/nitrite, phosphate, dissolved organic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus, reduced iron and manganese, dissolved inorganic carbon, methane and nitrous oxide. During the wet season, the salinity of overlying pond water and shallow porewaters decreased. Increased rainwater infiltration through soils combined with higher tidal heights appeared to result in increased organic carbon inventories and more reducing soil porewaters. During the dry season, evaporation increased both surface water and porewater salinities, while lower tidal heights resulted in less reduced soil porewaters. Rainfall strongly influenced inventories of dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen, possibly due to more rapid decay of mangrove litter during the wet season. During both times of year, high concentrations of reduced metabolites accumulated at depth, indicating substantial rates of organic matter mineralization coupled primarily to sulfate reduction. Nitrous oxide and methane concentrations were supersaturated indicating considerable rates of nitrification and/or incomplete denitrification and methanogenesis, respectively. More reducing soil conditions during the wet season promoted the production of reduced manganese. Contemporaneous activity of sulfate reduction and methanogenesis was likely fueled by the presence of noncompetitive substrates. The findings indicate that these interior dwarf areas are unique sites of nutrient and energy regeneration and may be critical to the overall persistence

  20. Is Echinometra viridis facilitating a phase shift on an Acropora cervicornis patch reef in Belize?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanic, C. M.; Greer, L.; Norvell, D.; Benson, W.; Curran, H.

    2012-12-01

    Coral reef health is in rapid decline across the Caribbean due to a number of anthropogenic and natural disturbances. A phase shift from coral- to macroalgae-dominant reefs is pervasive and has been well documented. Acropora cervicornis (Staghorn Coral) has been particularly affected by this shift due to mass mortality of this species since the 1980s. In recent years few Caribbean A. cervicornis refugia have been documented. This study characterizes the relationship between coral and grazing urchins on a rare patch reef system dominated by A. cervicornis off the coast of Belize. To assess relative abundance of live A. cervicornis and the urchin Echinometra viridis, photographs and urchin abundance data were collected from 132 meter square quadrats along five transects across the reef. Photographs were digitized and manually segmented using Adobe Illustrator, and percent live coral cover and branch tip densities were calculated using Matlab. Mean percent live coral cover across all transects was 24.4 % with a high of 65% live coral per meter square. Average urchin density was 18.5 per quadrat, with an average density per transect ranging from 22.1 to 0.5 per quadrat. Up to over 400 live A. cervicornis branch tips per quadrat were observed. Data show a positive correlation between E. viridis abundance and live A. cervicornis, suggesting that these urchins are facilitating recovery or persistence of this endangered coral species. These results suggest the relationship between E. viridis and A. cervicornis could be a key element in a future reversal of the coral to macroalgae phase shift on some Caribbean coral reefs.

  1. The Source of Volcanic Ash in Late Classic Maya Pottery at El Pilar, Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catlin, B. L.; Ford, A.; Spera, F. J.

    2007-12-01

    The presence of volcanic ash used as temper in Late Classic Maya pottery (AD 600-900) at El Pilar has been long known although the volcano(s) contributing ash have not been identified. We use geochemical fingerprinting, comparing compositions of glass shards in potsherds with volcanic sources to identify the source(s). El Pilar is located in the Maya carbonate lowlands distant from volcanic sources. It is unlikely Maya transported ash from distant sites: ash volumes are too large, the terrain too rugged, and no draft animals were available. Ash layer mining is unlikely because mine sites have not been found despite intensive surveys. Nearest volcanic sources to El Pilar, Belize and Guatemala, are roughly 450 km to the south and east. The ash found in potsherds has a cuspate morphology. This suggests ash was collected during, or shortly after, an ash airfall event following eruption. Analyses of n=333 ash shards from 20 ceramic (pottery) sherds was conducted by electron microprobe for major elements, and LA-ICPMS for trace elements and Pb isotopes. These analyses can be compared to volcanic materials from candidate volcanoes in the region. The 1982 El Chichon eruption caused airfall deposition (clay according to heating schedules used by Maya potters. Two important changes are that Na is rapidly lost preferentially to K and that the Si/Ca ratio decreases due to Ca diffusion from matrix into glass during firing. One expects that ratios of the refractory trace elements such as La/Yb and Zr/Hf are less susceptible to modification. Further experiments of trace element mobility during firing are underway.

  2. Evaluation of the impacts of the Madden-Julian Oscillation on rainfall and hurricanes in Central and South America and the Atlantic Ocean using ICI-RAFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannettone, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    in Australia (Wheeler et al., 2009). The current study found that similar strong relationships between MJO activity over Africa and the western Indian Ocean and rainfall totals in central Argentina, Nicaragua, and northwestern Venezuela. For example, in Nicaragua, the 20-year event almost doubles depending on the phase of the MJO. A fourth case study attempts to develop a relationship between the annual number of hurricanes in the Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean during the hurricane season (July - October) and the average value of the Madden-Julian Oscillation over Africa during a period 3 - 4 months prior to the hurricane season. Similar work has been performed in the northern Atlantic by Villarini et al. (2010), except the authors focused on other indices, including tropical mean sea-surface temperatures (SST's), the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), and the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI). Even though the NAO and SOI show some correlation with hurricane activity, the results of the current study show that there is a stronger link between the MJO prior to hurricane season and the total number of hurricanes that form. The greatest correlation again comes from MJO activity over Africa.

  3. The relic Criollo cacao in Belize- genetic diversity and relationship with Trinitario and other cacao clones held in the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is native to the South American rainforest but it was domesticated in Mesoamerica. The relic Criollo cocoa in Belize has been well known in the premium chocolate market for its high-quality. Knowledge of genetic diversity in this variety is essential for efficient conserva...

  4. Short communication: high prevalence of drug resistance in HIV type 1-infected children born in Honduras and Belize 2001 to 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parham, Leda; de Rivera, Ivette Lorenzana; Murillo, Wendy; Naver, Lars; Largaespada, Natalia; Albert, Jan; Karlsson, Annika C

    2011-10-01

    Antiretroviral therapy has had a great impact on the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1. However, development of drug resistance, which could be subsequently transmitted to the child, is a major concern. In Honduras and Belize the prevalence of drug resistance among HIV-1-infected children remains unknown. A total of 95 dried blood spot samples was obtained from HIV-1-infected, untreated children in Honduras and Belize born during 2001 to 2004, when preventive antiretroviral therapy was often suboptimal and consisted of monotherapy with nevirapine or zidovudine. Partial HIV-1 pol gene sequences were successfully obtained from 66 children (Honduras n=55; Belize n=11). Mutations associated with drug resistance were detected in 13% of the Honduran and 27% of the Belizean children. Most of the mutations detected in Honduras (43%) and all mutations detected in Belize were associated with resistance to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, which was expected from the wide use of nevirapine to prevent MTCT during the study period. In addition, although several mothers reported that they had not received antiretroviral therapy, mutations associated with resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors were found in Honduras. This suggests prior and unreported use of these drugs, or that these women had been infected with resistant virus. The present study demonstrates, for the first time, the presence of drug resistance-associated mutations in HIV-1-infected Honduran and Belizean children.

  5. La geopolítica de México en Centro América: ¿una hegemonía regional? Mexico's geopolitics in Central America: regional hegemony?

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    Alberto Rocha

    2006-12-01

    analizar el Mecanismo de Diálogo y Concertación de Tuxtla-Gutiérrez y sus tres ámbitos de operación: 1. El ámbito político. 2. El ámbito del desarrollo. 3. El ámbito de la cooperación técnica regional. 4. El ámbito económico, comercial y financiero.Mexico as well as Brazil (first decade of 2000 started to release geo-economic and geo-political projections about their unmediated surroundings (their region of belonging and their mediated surroundings (their neighboring region, besides playing major political roles in their far surroundings (the Latin American and Caribbean region and their remote surroundings (the American continent. As a result, we have proposed and developed the idea that such situations and realities are those of processes of constitution of States with "sub-hegemonic" roles, with their respective functions of "sub-hegemony". We therefore ask the following question: Why are both Mexico and Brazil defining "sub-hegemonic" roles? Are such roles and functions possible within a continental space where a "superpower" exerts unquestionable "supremacy" besides seeking to redefine its "hegemony" (the one now undergoing a crisis? In order to work on the theme of Mexico's geopolitical relations with Central America, we have carried out four approximations: Mexico's current stance; historical background of the relations; process of institutionalization of cooperation; and field of action of the relations. Besides, the work is concluded with some ideas about Mexico's geopolitical view. The approximation to Mexico's structural stance in the world and in the American Continent seeks to highlight realities in its condition of semiperipheral and "sub-hegemonic" country. The historical approximation leads to the 1980s and the 1990s, when the background for Mexico's cooperation with Central America is established and that cooperation is started and strengthened. The institutional approximation, focused on the 1990s and the early 2000s, approaches the field of

  6. Independence and education in Central America: José Cecilio del Valle’s Report on education (1829) Independencia y educación en Centroamérica: la «Memoria sobre la educación» de José Cecilio del Valle (1829)

    OpenAIRE

    Acuña Ortega, Víctor Hugo

    2011-01-01

    The Honduran José Cecilio del Valle (1777-1834) is the most prominent thinker from the historical time of the Independence of Central America and one of its key political actors. Valle was one of the great promulgators of the Enlightenment in the Kingdom of Guatemala. His interests included rationalist philosophy, experimental science, the doctrines of liberalism, and the theories of political economy. But what mostly stands out from his thought is his concern for education, which according t...

  7. Less pollen-mediated gene flow for more signatures of glacial lineages: congruent evidence from balsam fir cpDNA and mtDNA for multiple refugia in eastern and central North America.

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    Benjamin Cinget

    Full Text Available The phylogeographic structure and postglacial history of balsam fir (Abies balsamea, a transcontinental North American boreal conifer, was inferred using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA and chloroplast DNA (cpDNA markers. Genetic structure among 107 populations (mtDNA data and 75 populations (cpDNA data was analyzed using Bayesian and genetic distance approaches. Population differentiation was high for mtDNA (dispersed by seeds only, but also for cpDNA (dispersed by seeds and pollen, indicating that pollen gene flow is more restricted in balsam fir than in other boreal conifers. Low cpDNA gene flow in balsam fir may relate to low pollen production due to the inherent biology of the species and populations being decimated by recurrent spruce budworm epidemics, and/or to low dispersal of pollen grains due to their peculiar structural properties. Accordingly, a phylogeographic structure was detected using both mtDNA and cpDNA markers and population structure analyses supported the existence of at least five genetically distinct glacial lineages in central and eastern North America. Four of these would originate from glacial refugia located south of the Laurentide ice sheet, while the last one would have persisted in the northern Labrador region. As expected due to reduced pollen-mediated gene flow, congruence between the geographic distribution of mtDNA and cpDNA lineages was higher than in other North American conifers. However, concordance was not complete, reflecting that restricted but nonetheless detectable cpDNA gene flow among glacial lineages occurred during the Holocene. As a result, new cpDNA and mtDNA genome combinations indicative of cytoplasmic genome capture were observed.

  8. El género Hydrophilus (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae: Hydrophilina en México y Centroamérica The genus Hydrophilus (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae: Hydrophilina in Mexico and Central America

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    Roberto Arce-Pérez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A partir de la revisión morfológica de 499 ejemplares adultos y datos bibliográficos se actualizó la identidad y la distribución precisa de las especies del género Hydrophilus Geoffroy, 1762 que habitan en México y Centroamérica. Se presenta a H. (Dibolocelus purpuracens Régimbart, 1901 como nuevo registro para México. Las especies más ampliamente distribuidas son H. (H. ensifer Brullé, 1837 en 5 países y las Antillas e H. (H. insularis Castelnau, 1840 en 4 países y las Antillas. Los países con mayor riqueza fueron México con 5 especies, y Nicaragua y Costa Rica con 3 especies. En México el estado con mayor riqueza es Veracruz, y en Nicaragua los departamentos de León y Río San Juan. Se presenta una clave ilustrada para el reconocimiento de las especies.The taxonomy and precise distribution of the species of the genus Hydrophilus Geoffroy, 1762 from Mexico and Central America are reviewed, based on the morphological study of499 adult specimens, descriptions and literature records. Hydrophilus (Dibolocelus purpuracens Régimbart, 1901 is recorded for the first time for Mexico. Species with widest distribution are H. (H. ensifer Brullé, 1837 cited from 5 countries and in the Antilles, and H. (H. insularis Castelnau, 1840 cited from 4 countries and the Antilles. The richest countries are Mexico with 5 species, and Costa Rica and Nicaragua with 3 species. The highest species richness is recorded for the state of Veracruz, Mexico, and from the departments of León and Río San Juan, Nicaragua. An illustrated key to the species is included.

  9. Temperature Regimes Impact Coral Assemblages along Environmental Gradients on Lagoonal Reefs in Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Joseph E.; Courtney, Travis A.; Aichelman, Hannah E.; Davies, Sarah W.; Lima, Fernando P.; Castillo, Karl D.

    2016-01-01

    Coral reefs are increasingly threatened by global and local anthropogenic stressors such as rising seawater temperature, nutrient enrichment, sedimentation, and overfishing. Although many studies have investigated the impacts of local and global stressors on coral reefs, we still do not fully understand how these stressors influence coral community structure, particularly across environmental gradients on a reef system. Here, we investigate coral community composition across three different temperature and productivity regimes along a nearshore-offshore gradient on lagoonal reefs of the Belize Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System (MBRS). A novel metric was developed using ultra-high-resolution satellite-derived estimates of sea surface temperatures (SST) to classify reefs as exposed to low (lowTP), moderate (modTP), or high (highTP) temperature parameters over 10 years (2003 to 2012). Coral species richness, abundance, diversity, density, and percent cover were lower at highTP sites relative to lowTP and modTP sites, but these coral community traits did not differ significantly between lowTP and modTP sites. Analysis of coral life history strategies revealed that highTP sites were dominated by hardy stress-tolerant and fast-growing weedy coral species, while lowTP and modTP sites consisted of competitive, generalist, weedy, and stress-tolerant coral species. Satellite-derived estimates of Chlorophyll-a (chl-a) were obtained for 13-years (2003–2015) as a proxy for primary production. Chl-a concentrations were highest at highTP sites, medial at modTP sites, and lowest at lowTP sites. Notably, thermal parameters correlated better with coral community traits between site types than productivity, suggesting that temperature (specifically number of days above the thermal bleaching threshold) played a greater role in defining coral community structure than productivity on the MBRS. Dominance of weedy and stress-tolerant genera at highTP sites suggests that corals utilizing

  10. Linear extension rates and gross carbonate production of Acropora cervicornis at Coral Gardens, Belize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeling, E.; Greer, L.; Lescinsky, H.; Humston, R.; Wirth, K. R.; Baums, I. B.; Curran, A.

    2014-12-01

    Branching Acropora coral species have fast growth and carbonate production rates, and thus have functioned as important reef-building species throughout the Pleistocene and Holocene. Recently, net carbonate production (kg CaCO3 m-2 year-1) has been recognized as an important measure of reef health, especially when monitoring endangered species, such as Acropora cervicornis. This study examines carbonate production in a thriving population of A. cervicornis at the Coral Gardens reef in Belize. Photographic surveys were conducted along five transects of A. cervicornis-dominated reefs from 2011-2014. Matching photographs from 2013 and 2014 were scaled to 1 m2 and compared to calculate 84 individual A. cervicornis linear extension rates across the reef. Linear extension rates averaged 12.4 cm/yr and were as high as 17 cm/yr in some areas of the reef. Carbonate production was calculated two ways. The first followed the standard procedure of multiplying percent live coral cover, by the linear extension rate and skeletal density. The second used the number of live coral tips per square meter in place of percent live coral multiplied by the average cross-sectional area of the branches. The standard method yielded a carbonate production rate of 113 kg CaCO3 m-2 year-1 for the reef, and the tip method yielded a rate of 6 kg m-2 year-1. We suggest that the tip method is a more accurate measure of production, because A. cervicornis grows primarily from the live tips, with only limited radial growth and resheeting over dead skeleton. While this method omits the contributions of radial growth and resheeting, and is therefore somewhat of an underestimate, our future work will quantify these aspects of growth in a more complete carbonate budget. Still, our estimate suggests a carbonate production rate per unit area of A. cervicornis that is on par with other Caribbean coral species, rather than two orders of magnitude higher as reported by Perry et al (2013). Although gross coral

  11. Insurgency and Counterinsurgency in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    At the time of the coming of the Spaniards at the turn of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, the Mayan civilization had long since...the Mayan civilization . The Indians of Guatemala, who make up more than 40 percent of the present population, trace their heritage directly to the...had been the centre of the original Mayan civilization , but by the time the Spanish arrived (1520s) the Mayan empire had long since fragmented and

  12. [Historical demography in the Central American isthmus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Brignoli, H

    1980-01-01

    The author reviews and evaluates sources of information on the demographic history of Central America. Past and present administrative, state, ecclesiastical, and genealogical sources are examined, and recent studies of various Central American countries are cited. A bibliography is provided

  13. Perspectives in Early Childhood Education: Belize, Brazil, Mexico, El Salvador and Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell-Farmer, Judith Lynne; Cook, Pamela R.; Farmer, M. W.

    2012-01-01

    Early childhood education (ECE) provision is becoming a growing priority. During the past twenty years, Latin America has shown a growing recognition in the provision of educational programs for young children, birth to age eight, is essential. Urban and rural populations intimated in 2009, that many countries utilizing equitable access to…

  14. A Multi-Tier Social-Ecological System Analysis of Protected Areas Co-Management in Belize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenrick W. Williams

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Co-management of protected areas has been recognized as a viable option to sustainably manage ecosystems. This collaborative approach actively engages civil society in the protected areas governance processes. Attempts at co-management, however, have not been uniformly successful; whereas the governance of some initiatives succeed and become strong and sustainable, others become weak or fail over time. In this paper, we provide a nuanced application of Ostrom’s multi-tier SES framework to carry out a systematic analysis of representative cases of co-management in Belize. This novel approach allows us to avoid the common problem of overstating the explanatory power of individual variables, while enabling us to tease out the interrelationships among critical process and contextual variables that may influence co-management outcomes. Our findings show that strong co-management is associated with a multiplicity of variables, including information sharing, conflict resolution, investments, self-organization, and networking. Contextual conditions inclusive of strong leadership, social capital, and high levels of dependence on resources for daily livelihoods seem to have influenced these processes over time. The presence of cross-scale and cross-level networks also seems to be important in influencing co-management outcomes. Our study contributes to the further development of Ostrom’s multi-tier SES framework by proposing the addition of five new third-tier variables. We advance some key lessons in the analysis of co-management outcomes and offer some policy recommendations to improve protected areas co-management policy and practice in Belize.

  15. Feeding preferences of West Indian manatees in Florida, Belize, and Puerto Rico as indicated by stable isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Stanley, Christy D.; Worthy, Graham A.J.; Bonde, Robert K.

    2010-01-01

    The endangered West Indian manatee Trichechus manatus has 2 recognized subspecies: the Florida T. m. latirostris and Antillean T. m. manatus manatee, both of which are found in freshwater, estuarine, and marine habitats. A better understanding of manatee feeding preferences and habitat use is essential to establish criteria on which conservation plans can be based. Skin from manatees in Florida, Belize, and Puerto Rico, as well as aquatic vegetation from their presumed diet, were analyzed for stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios. This is the first application of stable isotope analysis to Antillean manatees. Stable isotope ratios for aquatic vegetation differed by plant type (freshwater, estuarine, and marine), collection location, and in one instance, season. Carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios for manatee skin differed between collection location and in one instance, season, but did not differ between sex or age class. Signatures in the skin of manatees sampled in Belize and Puerto Rico indicated a diet composed primarily of seagrasses, whereas those of Florida manatees exhibited greater regional variation. Mixing model results indicated that manatees sampled from Crystal River and Homosassa Springs (Florida, USA) ate primarily freshwater vegetation, whereas manatees sampled from Big Bend Power Plant, Ten Thousand Islands, and Warm Mineral Springs (Florida) fed primarily on seagrasses. Possible diet-tissue discrimination values for 15N were estimated to range from 1.0 to 1.5 per mil. Stable isotope analysis can be used to interpret manatee feeding behavior over a long period of time, specifically the use of freshwater vegetation versus seagrasses, and can aid in identifying critical habitats and improving conservation efforts.

  16. Effects of natural environmental conditions on faecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations in jaguars (Panthera onca) in Belize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa-Cruz, J Bernardo; Brown, Janine L; Kelly, Marcella J

    2014-01-01

    In situ studies that rely on non-invasive faecal hormone monitoring are subject to problems due to potential changes in hormone concentrations in samples exposed to field conditions. In this study, we conducted an environmental validation for measurement of faecal glucocorticoid metabolites (FGMs) in jaguars (Panthera onca). We collected fresh faeces (e.g. no older than 8 h) from jaguars (six males and four females), housed at the Belize Zoo, and exposed them randomly to two environmental conditions: shade and sun. A control (first sub-sample) was immediately frozen, after which sub-samples were frozen daily over a 5 day period in both the dry and wet seasons. We quantified FGMs using a cortisol enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and a corticosterone radioimmunoassay (RIA), both capable of identifying relevant metabolites. Results indicated that FGMs assessed with the cortisol EIA were stable for 5 days during the dry season but for <1 day during the wet season, while FGMs assessed with the corticosterone RIA were stable for 5 days during both the dry and wet seasons. Exposure of jaguar faeces to sun or shade had no effect on FGM concentrations, despite significant differences in weather parameters. Analysis of faecal morphology proved unreliable in identifying faecal age. We conclude that the corticosterone RIA is suitable for assessing FGMs in free-ranging Belizean jaguars by surveying the same transects every 3-4 days in both seasons. The cortisol EIA can be used during the dry season, but there are possible shifts in metabolite immunoactivity in wet conditions. Assessment of adrenal activity in jaguars ranging areas of varying human disturbance is a timely application of this methodology in Belize.

  17. Little People of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... information. World Dwarf Games 2017 Welcome to Little People of America Little People of America (LPA) is a nonprofit organization that provides support and information to people of short stature and their families. LPA is ...

  18. Erosion and deposition by supercritical density flows during channel avulsion and backfilling: Field examples from coarse-grained deepwater channel-levée complexes (Sandino Forearc Basin, southern Central America)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Jörg; Brandes, Christian; Winsemann, Jutta

    2017-03-01

    Erosion and deposition by supercritical density flows can strongly impact the facies distribution and architecture of submarine fans. Field examples from coarse-grained channel-levée complexes from the Sandino Forearc Basin (southern Central America) show that cyclic-step and antidune deposits represent common sedimentary facies of these depositional systems and relate to the different stages of avulsion, bypass, levée construction and channel backfilling. During channel avulsion, large-scale scour-fill complexes (18 to 29 m deep, 18 to 25 m wide, 60 to > 120 m long) were incised by supercritical density flows. The multi-storey infill of the large-scale scour-fill complexes comprises amalgamated massive, normally coarse-tail graded or widely spaced subhorizontally stratified conglomerates and pebbly sandstones, interpreted as deposits of the hydraulic-jump zone of cyclic steps. The large-scale scour-fill complexes can be distinguished from small-scale channel fills based on the preservation of a steep upper margin and a coarse-grained infill comprising mainly amalgamated hydraulic-jump zone deposits. Channel fills include repeated successions deposited by cyclic steps with superimposed antidunes. The deposits of the hydraulic-jump zone of cyclic steps comprise regularly spaced scours (0.2 to 2.6 m deep, 0.8 to 23 m long) infilled by intraclast-rich conglomerates or pebbly sandstones, displaying normal coarse-tail grading or backsets. These deposits are laterally and vertically associated with subhorizontally stratified, low-angle cross-stratified or sinusoidally stratified sandstones and pebbly sandstones, which were deposited by antidunes on the stoss side of the cyclic steps during flow re-acceleration. The field examples indicate that so-called spaced stratified deposits may commonly represent antidune deposits with varying stratification styles controlled by the aggradation rate, grain-size distribution and amalgamation. The deposits of small-scale cyclic

  19. Directional layouts in central lowland Maya settlement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bevan, Andrew; Jobbová, Eva; Helmke, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    This paper suggests the existence of non-random, directional patterns in the location of housemounds across the Late Classic Maya settlement landscape at Baking Pot, Belize, and then explores the wider implications of this patterning in the central Maya lowlands. It introduces an anisotropic method......, by implication, also a set of routes running throughout the housemound landscape and local Maya neighbourhoods during the site’s Late and Terminal Classic history. Furthermore, different possible alignments in different parts of the site are tentatively regarded as an indication of shifting orientations...... to localised grids, following the shift in alignment of monumental architecture, as the settlement landscape expanded over time. Finally, we discuss the implications of these findings with respect to the broader interpretation of Maya settlement patterns....

  20. [Inequities in cardiovascular diseases in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Nancy L; Diez Roux, Ana V

    2013-01-01

    In high-income countries, social inequalities in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk are well-documented. Although Latin America has a rich history of theory and conceptual discussion regarding social inequalities in health, empirical research has been more limited. In this commentary we summarize recent empirical work on social inequalities in CVD risk in Latin America, and highlight key research needs as well as implications for prevention. Although much remains unknown about the social patterning of CVD in Latin America, the limited studies to date indicate that inequalities in CVD risk vary across populations and markers of socioeconomic position, as well as disease risk marker. The strongest social inequalities are seen among women, and in urban areas, with regards to obesity, diabetes, and diet. Few studies, though, have been conducted in some parts of Latin America, including the countries of Central America and northern South America. Vital registration systems and nationally-representative risk factor surveys can be important sources of data, as long as information on socioeconomic indicators is collected. Longitudinal studies will also be important for investigating factors driving social inequalities. As policies and prevention strategies are put into place to reduce CVD in Latin America, they must also address factors generating social inequalities in CVD risk.

  1. Nano particles as the primary cause for long-term sunlight suppression at high southern latitudes following the Chicxulub impact - evidence from ejecta deposits in Belize and Mexico

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vajda, Vivi; Ocampo, Adriana; Ferrow, Embaie;

    2015-01-01

    Life on Earth was sharply disrupted 66 Ma ago as an asteroid hit the sea-floor in what is today Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Approximately 600 km3 of sedimentary rock were vapourized, ejected into the atmosphere and subsequently deposited globally as an ejecta apron and fallout layer. Proximal ejecta...... deposits occur in Belize and southern Mexico where the so called Albion island spheroid bed is superimposed on the target rock (the Barton Creek Formation). We analysed the spheroid bed via Mössbauer spectroscopy, petrology, XRD, and palynology at several sites ~ 350-500 km distance from the crater centre....... Our results show that the relative concentrations of Fe in nano-phase goethite (α-FeOOH) are very high in the spheroid bed samples from Albion Island (Belize) and from Ramonal South (Mexico), but are low to absent in the spheroid bed at Ramonal North, and in the Cretaceous target rock. Moreover, our...

  2. Immigration and the New Racial Diversity in Rural America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichter, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This article highlights the new racial and ethnic diversity in rural America, which may be the most important but least anticipated population shift in recent demographic history. Ethnoracial change is central to virtually every aspect of rural America over the foreseeable future: agro-food systems, community life, labor force change, economic…

  3. Adolescent Literacies in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Lesley; Lopez, Dina; Mein, Erika; Valdiviezo, Laura A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2000, approximately 36 million youth and adults living in Latin America and the Caribbean were reported to be unable to read or write basic texts. Of these, 20 million were women. According to official statistics, some countries in Central America (Guatemala, Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Honduras) have a youth and adult literacy rate of 80% or…

  4. Using spatial metrics and surveys for the assessment of trans-boundary deforestation in protected areas of the Maya Mountain Massif: Belize-Guatemala border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicas, S D; Omine, K; Ford, J B; Sugimura, K; Yoshida, K

    2017-02-01

    Understanding the trans-boundary deforestation history and patterns in protected areas along the Belize-Guatemala border is of regional and global importance. To assess deforestation history and patterns in our study area along a section of the Belize-Guatemala border, we incorporated multi-temporal deforestation rate analysis and spatial metrics with survey results. This multi-faceted approach provides spatial analysis with relevant insights from local stakeholders to better understand historic deforestation dynamics, spatial characteristics and human perspectives regarding the underlying causes thereof. During the study period 1991-2014, forest cover declined in Belize's protected areas: Vaca Forest Reserve 97.88%-87.62%, Chiquibul National Park 99.36%-92.12%, Caracol Archeological Reserve 99.47%-78.10% and Colombia River Forest Reserve 89.22%-78.38% respectively. A comparison of deforestation rates and spatial metrics indices indicated that between time periods 1991-1995 and 2012-2014 deforestation and fragmentation increased in protected areas. The major underlying causes, drivers, impacts, and barriers to bi-national collaboration and solutions of deforestation along the Belize-Guatemala border were identified by community leaders and stakeholders. The Mann-Whitney U test identified significant differences between leaders and stakeholders regarding the ranking of challenges faced by management organizations in the Maya Mountain Massif, except for the lack of assessment and quantification of deforestation (LD, SH: 18.67, 23.25, U = 148, p > 0.05). The survey results indicated that failure to integrate buffer communities, coordinate among managing organizations and establish strong bi-national collaboration has resulted in continued ecological and environmental degradation. The information provided by this research should aid managing organizations in their continued aim to implement effective deforestation mitigation strategies.

  5. Evolution in the Caribbean Classroom: A critical analysis of the role of biology teachers and science standards in shaping evolution instruction in Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, Elvis Enrique; Pringle, Rose M.; Showalter, Kevin Tyler

    2012-10-01

    A survey of the literature on evolution instruction provides evidence that teachers' personal views and understandings can shape instructional approaches and content delivered in science classrooms regardless of established science standards. This study is the first to quantify evolutionary worldviews of in-service teachers in the Caribbean, specifically in Belize, an English-speaking nation with a high school system guided by a regional biology syllabus and strict standardized tests. Using the Measure of Acceptance of the Theory of Evolution (MATE) instrument and knowledge test, we investigated (1) the current level of acceptance and understanding of evolution as given by 97% of high school biology teachers in Belize; (2) the factors associated with acceptance and understanding of evolutionary theory. With an average MATE score of 64.4 and a mean knowledge score of 47.9%, Belizean teachers were classified as having both 'Low Acceptance' and 'Low Understanding' of evolutionary theory. A positive correlation was found between teacher acceptance and understanding of evolution. A review of the Caribbean Secondary Examination Certificate biology syllabus suggests that evolution plays a minimal role in the high school biology classroom. We believe that Belize presents a unique opening for future training on evolution instruction since 57% of the biology teachers self-proclaim to be unprepared to teach evolution. The results of this study have implications for policy, practice and research with teachers' acceptance, understanding and confidence in teaching evolution serving as important predictors for instructional approaches used in the biology classroom.

  6. Snake venomics of the Central American rattlesnake Crotalus simus and the South American Crotalus durissus complex points to neurotoxicity as an adaptive paedomorphic trend along Crotalus dispersal in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvete, Juan J; Sanz, Libia; Cid, Pedro; de la Torre, Pilar; Flores-Díaz, Marietta; Dos Santos, M Cristina; Borges, Adolfo; Bremo, Adolfo; Angulo, Yamileth; Lomonte, Bruno; Alape-Girón, Alberto; Gutiérrez, José María

    2010-01-01

    We report a comparative venomic and antivenomic characterization of the venoms of newborn and adult specimens of the Central American rattlesnake, Crotalus simus, and of the subspecies cumanensis, durissus, ruruima, and terrificus of South American Crotalus durissus. Neonate and adult C. simus share about 50% of their venom proteome. The venom proteome of 6-week-old C. simus is predominantly made of the neurotoxic heterodimeric phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2) crotoxin) (55.9%) and serine proteinases (36%), whereas snake venom Zn(2+)-metalloproteinases (SVMPs), exclusively of class PIII, represent only 2% of the total venom proteins. In marked contrast, venom from adult C. simus comprises toxins from 7 protein families. A large proportion (71.7%) of these toxins are SVMPs, two-thirds of which belong to the PIII class. These toxin profiles correlate well with the overall biochemical and pharmacological features of venoms from adult (hemorrhagic) and newborn (neurotoxic) C. simus specimens. The venoms of the South American Crotalus subspecies belong to one of two distinct phenotypes. C. d. cumanensis exhibits high levels of SVMPs and low lethal potency (LD(50)), whereas C. d. subspecies terrificus, ruruima, and durissus have low SVMP activity and high neurotoxicity to mice. Their overall toxin compositions explain the outcome of envenomation by these species. Further, in all C. simus and C. durissus venoms, the concentration of neurotoxins (crotoxin and crotamine) is directly related with lethal activity, whereas lethality and metalloproteinase activity show an inverse relationship. The similar venom toxin profiles of newborn C. simus and adult C. durissus terrificus, ruruima, and durissus subspecies strongly suggests that the South American taxa have retained juvenile venom characteristics in the adult form (paedomorphism) along their North-South stepping-stone dispersal. The driving force behind paedomorphism is often competition or predation pressure. The increased

  7. Development of food crops by modern biotechnology techniques in Central America Desarrollo de cultivos y alimentos por técnicas de biotecnología moderna en Centroamérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Garro Monge

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, the adoption of Genetically Modified Crops (GMC has increased in stages worldwide. The worldwide total area planted with biotech crops reached 148 million hectares by 2010, also increasing the number of farmers around the world who decided to produce crops with this technology. At the regional level there are different responses of government agencies by generating rules and regu- lations according to the reality of these countries. In Central America, countries with greater partici- pation in the development and cultivation of food biotechnology techniques are Guatemala (papa- ya, Honduras (beans and maize and Costa Rica (cotton, soybean and pineapple, placing the latter two in the 29 countries with more GMO planting crops worldwide in 2010. Some of the countries of the region have implemented governance structures for the regulation through technical committees on Biosafety. The most important characteristics in terms of trade continue to be those that confer herbicide tolerance or pest resistance. But notice the incur- sion of new products that contain changes in their content, which are emerging as an alternative with great perspectives in the region. These experiences of culture and Biosafety regula- tion at the regional level could be a successful and progressive development of agricultural and food biotechnology in the near future.En la última década, la adopción de Cultivos Genéticamente Modificados (CGM se ha incre- mentado de forma escalonada a nivel mundial. El área sembrada con cultivos biotecnológicos llegó a un total de 148 millones de hectáreas en 2010, aumentando también el número de agricultores que decidieron producir este tipo de cultivos. A nivel regional, se producen respuestas diversas de los órganos gubernamentales mediante reglamen- tos y normativas acordes con la realidad local. En Centroamérica, los países con mayor participación en el desarrollo y cultivo de alimentos utilizando t

  8. Helioclimatology of the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurtaev, B. S.; Yakubov, M.; Shermatov, E.

    2013-05-01

    During the last 4 billion years, the Earth's climate has changed many times. There have been periods of warming and there have been ice ages. These large-scale climatic changes are shaped by factors like the tilt of the Earth's axis and tectonic plate movement. These major changes were driven by cyclical changes in the Earth's orbit, which altered the distribution of solar energy between the seasons and across the Earth. Milankovitch cycles explain well changes in climate over periods hundreds of thousands of years and are related to ice age cycles, but these cycles cannot explain the current rapid warming. The Sun is the most driving force for causing climate change. Much of the Sun energy evaporates water and causes atmospheric convection. Solar radiation, general circulation of atmosphere, geographical location of continents, oceans and the largest forms of a relief are the primary factors influencing on climate of lands. The purpose of this study is to identify contribution of the Sun on climate variability in the two continents, North and South America during instrumental records of air temperature. There were compared air temperatures of different weather stations in dependence from solar activity during the period 1878-1996. The high correlation between averaged temperature and solar activity was found for many weather stations of Americas. Air temperature in dependence from solar activity over the period 1878-1996 can be described by following equations: In Buenos Aires: T° = 0,04W+ 15,05, r-0,9; Caracas, Venezuela: T° = 0,03W + 18,88, r-0,73; Cordoba, Argentina: T° = 0,03W + 16,16, r-0,93; New York, Central Park: T° = 0,04W + 9,86, r-0,82; Toronto, T = 0,03W+ 6,66, r-0,81; Santiago Pudahuel, T= 0,019W + 13, 01, r - 0, 91; Rio de Janeiro:T°= 0,02W + 21,95, r= 0,88; Mexico over 1923-1986, T°= 0,021W+ 14,05, r-0,78; Miami over 1902-1996, T = 0,012W + 12,87 r-0,75; In our study, we used stations with reasonably long, consistently measured time records

  9. Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership (BAIHP II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abernethy, Bob; Chandra, Subrato; Baden, Steven; Cummings, Jim; Cummings, Jamie; Beal, David; Chasar, David; Colon, Carlos; Dutton, Wanda; Fairey, Philip; Fonorow, Ken; Gil, Camilo; Gordon, Andrew; Hoak, David; Kerr, Ryan; Peeks, Brady; Kosar, Douglas; Hewes, Tom; Kalaghchy, Safvat; Lubliner, Mike; Martin, Eric; McIlvaine, Janet; Moyer, Neil; Liguori, Sabrina; Parker, Danny; Sherwin, John; Stroer, Dennis; Thomas-Rees, Stephanie; Daniel, Danielle; McIlvaine, Janet

    2010-11-30

    This report summarizes the work conducted by the Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership (BAIHP - www.baihp.org) during the final budget period (BP5) of our contract, January 1, 2010 to November 30, 2010. Highlights from the four previous budget periods are included for context. BAIHP is led by the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) of the University of Central Florida. With over 50 Industry Partners including factory and site builders, work in BP5 was performed in six tasks areas: Building America System Research Management, Documentation and Technical Support; System Performance Evaluations; Prototype House Evaluations; Initial Community Scale Evaluations; Project Closeout, Final Review of BA Communities; and Other Research Activities.

  10. The coastal marine Tardigrada of the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, William R; Perry, Emma S

    2016-06-20

    The Western Hemisphere or the New World, also known as the Americas (North, Central and South America, associated islands and included seas) have historically been divided into two Realms, the Nearctic and Neotropical based on terrestrial biogeography. The coasts of these two terrestrial realms are bordered by six marine realms, 14 marine provinces and 67 marine ecoregions. From current literature, a comprehensive list of the marine tardigrade fauna from the Americas is presented. Data on marine tardigrades were obtained from 385 published Records of the Occurrence (RoO) of a species, their location, tidal zone, and the substrates from which they were reported. Authors' identifications were accepted at face value unless subsequently amended. Thirty genera and 82 species or subspecies are reported from the Americas; 49 species are documented from margins of the terrestrial Nearctic realm (North America) and 48 from terrestrial Neotropical realm (South America) with only 17 species occurring in both. We define cosmopolitan distribution for marine tardigrades as occurring in or on the margins of five of the seven oceans, only two species of marine tardigrade meets this standard. From the Americas 39 species have been described as new to science, 32 species appear restricted to the hemisphere. Taxa were assigned to marine ecoregions based on adjacent geopolitical units (country, states, provinces, etc.) described in published records. Although tardigrades have been reported from all six marine realms, they are only known from 21 of the 67 ecoregions. Most marine tardigrade sampling in the Americas has focused on near shore substrate (sand, mud, barnacles); for some species no substrates have been reported. The west coasts of both continents have little or no data about tardigrade presence.

  11. a Review of Late Holocene Fluvial Systems in the Karst Maya Lowlands with Focus on the Rio Bravo, Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, T.; Luzzadder-Beach, S.; Krause, S.; Doyle, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Maya Lowlands is mostly an internally draining karst region with about 400 m of regional relief. Fluvial and fluviokarst systems drain the edges of this landscape either from low limestone uplands or igneous and metamorphic complexes. Thus far most fluvial research has focused around archaeology projects, and here we review the extant research conducted across the region and new research on the transboundary Rio Bravo watershed of Belize and Guatemala. The Rio Bravo drains a largely old growth tropical forest today, but was partly deforested around ancient Maya cities and farms from 3,000 to 1000 BP. Several studies estimate that 30 to 40 percent of forest survived through the Maya period. Work here has focused on soils and sediment movement along slope catenas, in floodplain sites, and on contributions from groundwater with high dissolved loads of sulfate and calcium. We review radiocarbon dates and present new dates and soil stratigraphy from these sequences to date slope and floodplain movement, and we estimate ancient land use from carbon isotopic and pollen evidence. Aggradation in this watershed occurred by flooding, gypsum precipitation, upland erosion, and ancient Maya canal building and filling for wetland farming. Soil erosion and aggradation started at least by 3,000 BP and continued through the ancient Maya period, though reduced locally by soil conservation, post urban construction, and source reduction, especially in Maya Classic period from 1700 to 1000 BP.

  12. A likely case of scurvy in a rural Early Classic Maya burial from Actun Uayazba Kab, Belize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrobel, Gabriel

    2014-11-01

    A Maya burial of a late adolescent (Burial 98-3) found in the rockshelter entrance of Actun Uayazba Kab (AUK), Belize, displays a combination of lesions that is consistent with scurvy. Signs include large, active lesions on the posterior surfaces of maxilla; relatively mild porotic hyperostosis along the midline of the skull on the parietals and occipital; cribra orbitalia; potential pinprick lesions on the greater wings of sphenoid and temporal; reactive lesions on the palate, temporal lines of frontal and parietals, and external and internal surfaces of zygomatics; small lesions on the popliteal surfaces of both femora; and periodontal disease. Identification of scurvy at AUK potentially informs the analysis of other primary burials and scattered bone found there and at other nearby sites, which often reveal evidence of nonspecific lesions that are usually attributed to anemia and infection, but that are also consistent with scurvy. The social and ecological context of this Protoclassic (0-AD 300) individual, who lived in a rural agricultural community with no evidence of complex social hierarchy, contrasts with typical discussions of disease among the Maya, which tend to focus on the degrading effects of overcrowding and resource deficiencies. While scurvy has been largely overlooked in the Maya area, this study supports earlier arguments for its presence that were based largely on clinical and ethnographic analogies and suggests the need to incorporate scurvy into broader synergistic models of ancient health.

  13. A "coca-cola" shape: cultural change, body image, and eating disorders in San Andrés, Belize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Fye, Eileen P

    2004-12-01

    Eating disorders have been associated with developing nations undergoing rapid social transition, including participation in a global market economy and heavy media exposure. San Andrés, Belize, a community with many risk factors associated with the cross-cultural development of eating disorders, has shown remarkable resistance to previously documented patterns, despite a local focus on female beauty. Drawing on longitudinal person-centered ethnography with adolescent girls, this article examines why this community appears exceptional in light of the literature. First, community beauty and body image ideals and practices are explicated. Then, a protective ethnopsychology is proposed as a key mediating factor of the rapid socio-cultural change among young women. Finally, possible nascent cases of eating disordered behavior are discussed in light of their unique phenomenology: that is, having to do more with economic opportunity in the tourism industry and less with personal distress or desire for thinness. Close, meaning-centered examination of eating and body image practices may aid understanding and prevention of eating disorders among adolescents undergoing rapid social change in situations of globalization and immigration.

  14. America's Children and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Protection Agency Search Search America's Children and the Environment (ACE) Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us ... of updates to ACE . America's Children and the Environment (ACE) America's Children and the Environment (ACE) is ...

  15. Fish-assemblage variation between geologically defined regions and across a longitudinal gradient in the Monkey River Basin, Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esselman, P.C.; Freeman, Mary C.; Pringle, C.M.

    2006-01-01

    Linkages between geology and fish assemblages have been inferred in many regions throughout the world, but no studies have yet investigated whether fish assemblages differ across geologies in Mesoamerica. The goals of our study were to: 1) compare physicochemical conditions and fish-assemblage structure across 2 geologic types in headwaters of the Monkey River Basin, Belize, and 2) describe basin-scale patterns in fish community composition and structure for the benefit of conservation efforts. We censused headwater-pool fishes by direct observation, and assessed habitat size, structure, and water chemistry to compare habitat and fish richness, diversity, evenness, and density between streams in the variably metamorphosed sedimentary geologic type typical of 80% of Belize's Maya Mountains (the Santa Rosa Group), and an anomalous extrusive geologic formation in the same area (the Bladen Volcanic Member). We also collected species-presence data from 20 sites throughout the basin for analyses of compositional patterns from the headwaters to the top of the estuary. Thirty-nine fish species in 21 families were observed. Poeciliids were numerically dominant, making up 39% of individuals captured, followed by characins (25%), and cichlids (20%). Cichlidae was the most species-rich family (7 spp.), followed by Poeciliidae (6 spp.). Habitat size and water chemistry differed strongly between geologic types, but habitat diversity did not. Major fish-assemblage differences also were not obvious between geologies, despite a marked difference in the presence of the aquatic macrophyte, Marathrum oxycarpum (Podostemaceae), which covered 37% of the stream bottom in high-nutrient streams draining the Santa Rosa Group, and did not occur in the low-P streams draining the Bladen Volcanic Member. Correlation analyses suggested that distance from the sea and amount of cover within pools are important to fish-assemblage structure, but that differing abiotic factors may influence

  16. America in the Eyes of America Watchers:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Huiyun; He, Kai

    2015-01-01

    that almost half of the survey participants thought that America would remain the global hegemon in the next ten years. Meanwhile, a large majority was also optimistic that China is a rising great power, especially in the economic sense, in the world. More than half of the respondents saw Asian military......Based on an original survey conducted in the summer of 2012 in Beijing, we examine how China's America watchers—IR scholars who work on US-China relations—have viewed China's power status in the international system, US-China relations and some specific US policies in Asia. Our survey shows...... issues, such as the South China Sea issue, as the most difficult problem between China and the US....

  17. Lupus Foundation of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Testing New Treatments Learn More About the Lupus Foundation of America We are devoted to solving ... Spam Control Text: Please leave this field empty Lupus FAQ What is lupus? What are the common ...

  18. Prevent Child Abuse America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... call the police . Crisis and support contacts For Child Abuse Reporting Numbers in your State please visit: Child ... suspected child abuse and neglect. Parent Resources Prevent Child Abuse America (800) CHILDREN A resource for tips, referrals, ...

  19. Recommendations for the management of candidemia in adults in Latin America. Latin America Invasive Mycosis Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nucci, Marcio; Thompson-Moya, Luis; Guzman-Blanco, Manuel; Tiraboschi, Iris Nora; Cortes, Jorge Alberto; Echevarría, Juan; Sifuentes, Jose; Zurita, Jeannete; Santolaya, María E; Alvarado Matute, Tito; de Queiroz Telles, Flavio; Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes

    2013-01-01

    Candidemia is one of the most frequent opportunistic mycoses worldwide. Limited epidemiological studies in Latin America indicate that incidence rates are higher in this region than in the Northern Hemisphere. Diagnosis is often made late in the infection, affecting the initiation of antifungal therapy. A more scientific approach, based on specific parameters, for diagnosis and management of candidemia in Latin America is warranted. 'Recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia' are a series of manuscripts that have been developed by members of the Latin America Invasive Mycosis Network. They aim to provide a set of best-evidence recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia. This publication, 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in adults in Latin America', was written to provide guidance to healthcare professionals on the management of adults who have, or who are at risk of, candidemia. Computerized searches of existing literature were performed by PubMed. The data were extensively reviewed and analyzed by members of the group. The group also met on two occasions to pose questions, discuss conflicting views, and deliberate on a series of management recommendations. 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in adults in Latin America' includes prophylaxis, empirical therapy, therapy for proven candidemia, patient work-up following diagnosis of candidemia, duration of candidemia treatment, and central venous catheter management in patients with candidemia. This manuscript is the second of this series that deals with diagnosis and treatment of invasive candidiasis. Other publications in this series include: 'Recommendations for the diagnosis of candidemia in Latin America', 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in children in Latin America', and 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in neonates in Latin America'.

  20. Recommendations for the management of candidemia in neonates in Latin America. Latin America Invasive Mycosis Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santolaya, María E; Alvarado Matute, Tito; de Queiroz Telles, Flavio; Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes; Zurita, Jeannete; Tiraboschi, Iris Nora; Cortes, Jorge Alberto; Thompson-Moya, Luis; Guzman-Blanco, Manuel; Sifuentes, Jose; Echevarría, Juan; Nucci, Marcio

    2013-01-01

    Candidemia is one of the most frequent opportunistic mycoses worldwide. Limited epidemiological studies in Latin America indicate that incidence rates are higher in this region than in the Northern Hemisphere. Diagnosis is often made late in the infection, affecting the initiation of antifungal therapy. A more scientific approach, based on specific parameters, for diagnosis and management of candidemia in Latin America is warranted. 'Recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia' are a series of manuscripts that have been developed by members of the Latin America Invasive Mycosis Network. They aim to provide a set of best-evidence recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia. This publication, 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in neonates in Latin America', was written to provide guidance to healthcare professionals on the management of neonates who have, or who are at risk of, candidemia. Computerized searches of existing literature were performed by PubMed. The data were extensively reviewed and analyzed by members of the group. The group also met on two occasions to pose questions, discuss conflicting views, and deliberate on a series of management recommendations. 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in neonates in Latin America' includes prophylaxis, empirical therapy, therapy for proven candidemia, patient work-up following diagnosis of candidemia, central venous catheter management, and management of complications. This manuscript is the fourth of this series that deals with diagnosis and treatment of invasive candidiasis. Other publications in this series include: 'Recommendations for the diagnosis of candidemia in Latin America', 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in adults in Latin America', and 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in children in Latin America'.

  1. Recommendations for the management of candidemia in children in Latin America. Latin America Invasive Mycosis Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santolaya, María E; de Queiroz Telles, Flavio; Alvarado Matute, Tito; Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes; Zurita, Jeannete; Tiraboschi, Iris Nora; Cortes, Jorge Alberto; Thompson-Moya, Luis; Guzman-Blanco, Manuel; Sifuentes, Jose; Echevarría, Juan; Nucci, Marcio

    2013-01-01

    Candidemia is one of the most frequent opportunistic mycoses worldwide. Limited epidemiological studies in Latin America indicate that incidence rates are higher in this region than in the Northern Hemisphere. Diagnosis is often made late in the infection, affecting the initiation of antifungal therapy. A more scientific approach, based on specific parameters, for diagnosis and management of candidemia in Latin America is warranted. 'Recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia' are a series of manuscripts that have been developed by members of the Latin America Invasive Mycosis Network. They aim to provide a set of best-evidence recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia. This publication, 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in children in Latin America', was written to provide guidance to healthcare professionals on the management of children who have, or who are at risk of, candidemia. Computerized searches of existing literature were performed by PubMed. The data were extensively reviewed and analyzed by members of the group. The group also met on two occasions to pose questions, discuss conflicting views, and deliberate on a series of management recommendations. 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in children in Latin America' includes prophylaxis, empirical therapy, therapy for proven candidemia, patient work-up following diagnosis of candidemia, duration of candidemia treatment, and central venous catheter management in children with candidemia. This manuscript is the third of this series that deals with diagnosis and treatment of invasive candidiasis. Other publications in this series include: 'Recommendations for the diagnosis of candidemia in Latin America', 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in adults in Latin America', and 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in neonates in Latin America'.

  2. A New Eocene Casquehead Lizard (Reptilia, Corytophanidae) from North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Jack L

    2015-01-01

    A new fossil showing affinities with extant Laemanctus offers the first clear evidence for a casquehead lizard (Corytophanidae) from the Eocene of North America. Along with Geiseltaliellus from roughly coeval rocks in central Europe, the new find further documents the tropical fauna present during greenhouse conditions in the northern mid-latitudes approximately 50 million years ago (Ma). Modern Corytophanidae is a neotropical clade of iguanian lizards ranging from southern Mexico to northern South America.

  3. The role of boundary organizations in co-management: examining the politics of knowledge integration in a marine protected area in Belize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noella J. Gray

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Marine protected areas (MPAs are an increasingly popular tool for management of the marine commons. Effective governance is essential if MPAs are to achieve their objectives, yet many MPAs face conflicts and governance challenges, including lack of trust and knowledge integration between fishers, scientists, and policy makers. This paper considers the role of a boundary organization in facilitating knowledge integration in a co-managed MPA, the Gladden Spit and Silk Cayes Marine Reserve in Belize. Boundary organizations can play an important role in resource management, by bridging the science-policy divide, facilitating knowledge integration, and enabling communication in conditions of uncertainty. Drawing on ethnographic research conducted in Belize, the paper identifies four challenges for knowledge integration. First, actors have divergent perspectives on whether and how knowledge is being integrated. Second, actors disagree on resource conditions within the MPA and how these should be understood. Third, in order to maintain accountability with multiple actors, including fishers, government, and funders, the boundary organization has promoted the importance of different types of knowledge for different purposes (science and fishers’ knowledge, rather than the integration of these. Finally, a lack of trust and uneven power relations make it difficult to separate knowledge claims from political claims. However, even if knowledge integration proves difficult, boundary organizations may still play an important role by maintaining accountability, providing space for conflicting understandings to co-exist, and ultimately for governance institutions to evolve.

  4. The ribbon continent of northwestern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamira-Areyan, Armando

    The tectonic structure of the Plate Boundary Zone (PBZ) between the Caribbean Plate (CARIB) and the South American Plate (SOAM) is interpreted using models that require CARIB motion from the Pacific into the Atlantic. Those models can be subdivided into: (1) those in which the island arc rocks that are now in the CARIB-SOAM PBZ have collided with the northern South America margin, either obliquely or directly during the Cretaceous or during the Cenozoic, and (2) those in which the island arc rocks now in the CARIB-SOAM PBZ collided with the west coast of South America during the Cretaceous and were transferred to the northern margin by transform motion during the Cenozoic. Magnetic anomalies were first rotated in the Central and South Atlantic, holding Africa fixed to establish how much NOAM had converged on SOAM during the Cenozoic. WSW convergence was discovered to have been accommodated in the northern boundary of the CARIB. There is no evidence of convergence in the form of Cenozoic island arc igneous rocks on the north coast of South America. Those results are consistent only with models of Class (2) that call for transform movement of material that had collided with the west coast of South America along the CARIB-SOAM PBZ on the northern margin of South America. 40Ar/39Ar ages of island arc rocks from northern Venezuela were found to be older than ca 70 Ma, which is consistent with a requirement of models of Class (2) that those rocks are from an island arc which collided with the west coast of South America during Cretaceous times. Testing that conclusion using data from Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, the Netherlands Antilles, Trinidad and Tobago has led to the construction of a new ribbon continent model of the northwestern Cordillera of South America. Because the part of the ribbon continent on the north coast of South America has been experiencing substantial deformation in the Maracaibo block during the past 10 m.y., structures in that body have had to be

  5. Algal growth and species composition under experimental control of herbivory, phosphorus and coral abundance in Glovers Reef, Belize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClanahan, T R; Cokos, B A; Sala, E

    2002-06-01

    The proliferation of algae on disturbed coral reefs has often been attributed to (1) a loss of large-bodied herbivorous fishes, (2) increases in sea water nutrient concentrations, particularly phosphorus, and (3) a loss of hard coral cover or a combination of these and other factors. We performed replicated small-scale caging experiments in the offshore lagoon of Glovers Reef atoll, Belize where three treatments had closed-top (no large-bodied herbivores) and one treatment had open-top cages (grazing by large-bodied herbivores). Closed-top treatments simulated a reduced-herbivory situation, excluding large fishes but including small herbivorous fishes such as damselfishes and small parrotfishes. Treatments in the closed-top cages included the addition of high phosphorus fertilizer, live branches of Acropora cervicornis and a third unmanipulated control treatment. Colonization, algal biomass and species composition on dead A. palmata "plates" were studied weekly for 50 days in each of the four treatments. Fertilization doubled the concentration of phosphorus from 0.35 to 0.77 microM. Closed-top cages, particularly the fertilizer and A. cervicornis additions, attracted more small-bodied parrotfish and damselfish than the open-top cages such that there was moderate levels of herbivory in closed-top cages. The open-top cages did, however, have a higher abundance of the chemically and morphologically defended erect algal species including Caulerpa cupressoides, Laurencia obtusa, Dictyota menstrualis and Lobophora variegata. The most herbivore-resistant calcareous green algae (i.e. Halimeda) were, however, uncommon in all treatments. Algal biomass increased and fluctuated simultaneously in all treatments over time, but algal biomass, as measured by wet, dry and decalcified weight, did not differ greatly between the treatments with only marginally higher biomass (p cervicornis suppressed algal colonization compared to the unmanipulated controls. Instead, the herbivore

  6. Science in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Francisco J.

    1995-01-01

    A brief history of science and technology in Latin America that begins with the Mayan civilization and progresses through the colonial period to the present. Compares increased scientific productivity in the Latin American and Caribbean regions to productivity in the United States and European Union. (LZ)

  7. Literacy in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberger, Nancy H.

    1991-01-01

    Literacy in South America must be understood in terms of the linguistic diversity there, where only 2 of 14 nations and territories are monolingual. Oral traditions, standardization of indigenous languages, nonstandard varieties of colonial languages, bilingual education and mother tongue literacy, literacy teaching, and politics are discussed.…

  8. Americas at Odds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Despite lingering disputes,the United States keeps a firm grip on Latin America During his presidential campaign,Evo Morales said his election would be a "nightmare" for the United States.The Bolivian president honored his words. On September 10, Morales declared U.S.

  9. Sarcoma Foundation of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Google+ Twitter LinkedIn YouTube © 2017 Sarcoma Foundation of America | All Rights Reserved. | Terms of Use | Privacy Policy Website Design & Hosting by 270net Technologies, Inc. X - Enter Your Location - - or - Get your current location Home About Us History People Public Filings News & Media SFA in the ...

  10. An Idea Called America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartoonian, Michael; Van Scotter, Richard; White, William E.

    2007-01-01

    America evolved out of the principles of the eighteenth-century Enlightenment, suggesting that individuals could govern themselves and that people were "endowed" with "unalienable rights" such as life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. To secure these principles, Americans would continue to work on forming a more perfect Union, by…

  11. Lateinamerika oder -amerikas? Latin America or Americas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Belén García Timón

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Anhand interdisziplinärer und empirischer Studien wird Lateinamerika als Bühne für die Entwicklung transkultureller Phänomene präsentiert. Geschlechterverhältnisse in unterschiedlichen Kontexten stehen im Mittelpunkt der Untersuchung. Begriffe wie Macht, Rasse oder Raum werden mit dem Ziel, weg von der bisherigen Vorstellung von homogenen kulturellen Einheiten zu kommen, revidiert.Latin America is presented as a stage for the development of transcultural phenomena through the use of interdisciplinary and empirical studies. Gender relations in different contexts lie at the heart of this study. Terms such as power, race, or space are revised with the goal of moving away from current perceptions of homogenous cultural unities.

  12. Petroleum geology and resources of southeastern Mexico, northern Guatemala, and Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, James A.

    1983-01-01

    Petroleum deposits in southeastern Mexico and Guatemala occur in two main basinal provinces, the Gulf Coast Tertiary basin area, which includes the Reforma and offshore Campeche Mesozoic fields, and the Peten basin of eastern Chiapas State (Mexico) and Guatemala. Gas production is mainly from Tertiary sandstone reservoirs of Miocene age. Major oil production, in order of importance, is from Cretaceous, Paleocene, and Jurassic carbonate reservoirs in the Reforma and offshore Campeche areas. Several small oil fields have been discovered in Cretaceous carbonate reservoirs in west-central Guatemala, and one major discovery has been reported in northwestern Guatemala. Small- to medium-sized oil accumulations also occur in Miocene sandstone reservoirs on salt structures in the Isthmus Saline basin of western Tabasco State, Mexico. Almost all important production is in salt structure traps or on domes and anticlines that may be related to deep-seated salt structures. Some minor oil production has occurred in Cretaceous carbonate reservoirs in a buried overthrust belt along the west flank of the Veracruz basin. The sedimentary cover of Paleozoic through Tertiary rocks ranges in thickness from about 6,000 m (20,000 ft) to as much as 12,000 m (40,000 ft) or more in most of the region. Paleozoic marine carbonate and clastic rocks 1,000 to 2,000 m (3,300 to 6,500 ft) thick overlie the metamorphic and igneous basement in part of the region; Triassic through Middle Jurassic red beds and evaporite deposits, including halite, apparently are present throughout the region, deposited in part in a Triassic graben system. Upper Jurassic (Oxfordian) through Cretaceous rocks make up the bulk of the Mesozoic regional carbonate bank complex, which dominates most of the area. Tertiary marine and continental clastic rocks, some of deep water origin, 3,000 to 10,000 m (10,000 to 35,000 ft) thick, are present in the coastal plain Tertiary basins. These beds grade eastward into a carbonate

  13. Integración regional centroamericana de la Educación Superior Pública: escenarios y desafíos / Central america regional integration of the public higher education: challenges and scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz Varela, Luis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Se aborda aquí un breve análisis acerca de la globalización y de la sociedad del conocimiento, en su relación con las iniciativas de articulación académica interinstitucional y de integración regional impulsadas por las instituciones de educación superior pública de Centroamérica, a partir de 1995 y en el escenario asociativo del Consejo Superior Universitario Centroamericano (CSUCA. El propósito consiste en identificar elementos que permitan discernir el carácter y los niveles de reconfiguración académica e institucional que, de manera general, las nuevas realidades estructurales en curso acarrean para la educación superior pública de Centroamérica.Abstract:This article develops a brief analysis about globalization and the society of knowledge in terms of the attempts of inter-institutional and regional academic articulation proposed –since 1995- by the Central American institutions of higher education through Consejo Superior Universitario Centroamericano (CSUCA. The principal aim is to identify those elements that could clarify the character and the levels of the academic and institutional reconfiguration that, in a general way, the new ongoing structural realities demand from Central American public higher education.

  14. Economic relations between Latin America and the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Ocampo

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Relations between Latin America and the countries of the European Union have traditionally been strong. The cultural and economic ties that have historically linked the two regions have gradually been transformed opening up new spaces for cooperation and development. Since the consolidation of the EU, this relationship has become stronger and changed with Europe’s recognition of Latin America as a region, as an important partner in economic and political terms, and within it, of each country in accordance with its level of development. Latin America has to an ever greater extent ceased being an aid recipient and begun to establish relationships of reciprocity, which offer great potential for expansion in the future. However, poverty remains the major concern of European policy toward the region. The authors, in their analysis, also focus on the possible consequences for Latin America of future EU enlargement toward the countries of Central and Eastern Europe.

  15. Belize Area Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-20

    is greater than Costa Rica and Janica, similar to El Salvador and Mexico, but less than Guatemtala and Paraguay. In 1981, one-fourth to one-half of...as well as increased poaching by foreign fishing boats. Poachery is difficult to control but with the addition of two patrol boats and two aircrafts...resettlement program. The U. N. effort is directed by Regina Coballer, whose office is located in Costa Rica . There are at least three resettlement areas in

  16. The Failure of Macroeconomics in America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph Stiglitz

    2011-01-01

    Editor's Words On 18 March 2011, the China Association for World Economics hosted "The Presentation of the 2010 Pushan Award for Excellent Papers on International Economics " at the China Central University of Finance and Economics. Over 700 scholars and students from home and abroad attended the ceremony. Professor Joseph Stiglitz, the winner of the Nobel Prize in Economics, presented the awards and gave a speech on "The Failure of Economics in America." The following speech transcript has been approved and edited kindly by Professor Stiglitz.

  17. Market strategies for Central American dry beans.

    OpenAIRE

    Mertínez, Lourdes; Bernsten, Richard; Zamora, Miguel

    2004-01-01

    In the past few years, the dry bean sub-sector in CentralAmerica has witnessed many dynamic changes. Unless wefind ways to increase the competitiveness of the regionalbean sub-sector, Central American countries will likelyexperience significant negative social and economic impacts,especially since these countries are facing the challenge ofadjusting to new open markets, such as the Central AmericanFree Trade Agreement (CAFTA). Bean traders, retailers, andknowledgeable government official in C...

  18. O neoliberalismo na America Latina

    OpenAIRE

    David Ibarra

    2011-01-01

    Neoliberalism in Latin America. Neoliberalism and globalization had decisive influence in shaping public policies both internal and foreign in Latin America. Less state, trade and market freedoms, social goals subordinated to economic criteria, are part and parcel of the neoliberal utopia. Price stability was erected as the main social objective; import substitution resulted replaced by exports as the main source of growth. The neoliberal net results as applied to Latin America are: less grow...

  19. An America unknown

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    If we consider that the Spanish chroniclers had gradually invented what eventually became America, as O'Gorman proposed, the Portuguese chroniclers of the first half of the 16th century were even more cautious in building an identity for the overseas territories visited by Columbus and Cabral. These sixteenth century chroniclers, focusing on Asia, only later ceased to think of this "almost other world" as a place of passage, to think of it as a place to stop. Disregarding the surprised tone o...

  20. Pensamento da America

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Filosofia e Ciências Humanas, Programa de Pós-Graduação em História, Florianópolis, 2013. Esta dissertação objetivou investigar a atividade editorial de Rui Ribeiro Couto e Renato Costa Almeida enquanto estes intelectuais estiveram à frente do Pensamento da America, uma publicação mensal vinculada ao A Manhã, jornal porta voz do Estado Novo. Este suplemento panamericano veio a público entre 1941 e 1949, no entanto a...

  1. Mosques in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Khalidi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The following article derived from an exhibit catalogue put together by Public Affairs Germany in the U.S. Embassy in Berlin and the U.S. Consulates in Frankfurt and Düsseldorf and accompanied Dr. Omar Khalidi’s photo exhibit “Mosques in America.” There are over 2,000 mosques in the United States, mostly housed in buildings originally built for other purposes. American mosques built in the last few decades, however, in the period in which Islam has begun to feel at home in the United States, are almost universally architect-designed.

  2. Eating in America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康海燕

    2007-01-01

    Americans are too busy to cook at home.They often eat outside.Eating culture is one of the important parts in America.There are many kinds of restaurants.Some are open for breakfast. Others are open twenty-four hours a day. A number of restaurants call themselves"family restaurants".They serve no alcohol~* and have fairly restricted~* menus.They serve steaks,hamburgers and sandwiches.Besides these,there are some special restaurants.They serve only or mainly steaks,seafood,etc.

  3. Let's Go to America!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

      The United States and China have signed an agreement to facilitate Chinese group leisure travel to the United States. This agreement provides the necessary framework to permit group leisure travel from China to the United States. U.S. companies can now enter into business relationships with Chinese travel agencies to organize and market travel packages for group leisure travel to the United States. It also attracts more and more Chinese to go to America, as more and more convenience and comforts are coming up during the travel.……

  4. Let's Go to America!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The United States and China have signed an agreement to facilitate Chinese group leisure travel to the United States. This agreement provides the necessary framework to permit group leisure travel from China to the United States. U.S. companies can now enter into business relationships with Chinese travel agencies to organize and market travel packages for group leisure travel to the United States. It also attracts more and more Chinese to go to America, as more and more convenience and comforts are coming up during the travel.

  5. IAI Training in Climate and Health in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, J. L.

    2007-05-01

    The Inter-American Institute for Global Change Research (IAI) has addressed training in climate and health in the Americas in two major ways. First, IAI supports students to engage in research training. A multi-country health activity funded by IAI was the collaborative research network (CRN) on Diagnostics and Prediction of Human Health Impacts in the Tropical Americas, which focused principally on the effect of El Nino/Southern Oscillation and other aspects of climate variability on mosquito-borne diseases malaria and dengue. The CRN involved students in Brazil, Mexico, Venezuela, Colombia and Jamaica. The CRN was also linked to other climate and health projects that used a similar approach. Second, IAI organizes training institutes to expand the network of global change research scientists and facilitate the transfer of global change research into practice. The IAI Training Institute on Climate and Health in the Americas was held on November 7 - 18, 2005 at the University of the West Indies in Kingston, Jamaica, engaging participants from the CRN and other programs in the Americas. The Training Institute's central objective was to help strengthen local and regional capacity to address the impacts of climate variability and climate change on human health in the populations of the Americas, particularly Latin America and the Caribbean. The Training Institute had three core components: Science; Applications; and Proposal Development for Seed Grants. Recommendations for future Training Institutes included incorporating new technologies and communicating with policy-makers to develop more proactive societal strategies to manage risks.

  6. Anaglyph, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This anaglyph (stereoscopic view) of South America was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). It is best viewed at or near full resolution with anaglyph glasses. For this broad view the resolution of the data was first reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters north-south but variable east-west), matching the best previously existing global digital topographic data set called GTOPO30. The data were then resampled to a Mercator projection with approximately square pixels (about one kilometer, or 0.6 miles, on each side). Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the South American continent is readily apparent.Topographic relief in South America is dominated by the Andes Mountains, which extend all along the Pacific Coast. These mountains are created primarily by the convergence of the Nazca and South American tectonic plates. The Nazca Plate, which underlies the eastern Pacific Ocean, slides under western South America resulting in crustal thickening, uplift, and volcanism. Another zone of plate convergence occurs along the northwestern coast of South America where the Caribbean Plate also slides under the South American Plate and forms the northeastern extension of the Andes Mountains.East of the Andes, much of northern South America drains into the Amazon River, the world's largest river in terms of both watershed area and flow volume. Topographic relief is very low in much of the Amazon Basin but SRTM data provide an excellent detailed look at the basin's three-dimensional drainage pattern, including the geologic structural trough (syncline) that hosts the eastern river channel.North of the Amazon, the Guiana Highlands commonly stand in sharp contrast to the surrounding lowlands, indeed hosting the world's tallest waterfall, Angel Falls (979 meters or 3212 feet). Folded and fractured bedrock structures are distinctive in the topographic pattern.South of the Amazon, the Brazilian Highlands show a mix of

  7. Gangs and Transnational Criminals Threaten Central American Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-10

    threaten state sovereignty in Central America and Mexico have close ties with the United States and the two largest ( Mara Salvatrucha , MS-13, and the...distance from our shores. The two predominant regional gangs are Mara Salvatrucha (MS13) and the 18th Street gang (Barrio 18 or M-18). Both originated in...Ibid. 13 Ibid.,19. 14 Ibid. 15 Ibid. 16 Thomas C. Bruneau, "The Maras and National Security in Central America," Strategic Inisghts, (May 2005), http

  8. Locking in on Latin America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MICHAEL; RICE

    2006-01-01

    China cautious as it sets up generous investment in Latin America The United States is keeping a watchful eye as China bolsters political and economic ties with Latin America. The situation has U.S. political analysts trying to determine just how China s emerging influence

  9. GeoCorps America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, M.

    2011-12-01

    GeoCorps America, a program of the Geological Society of America's (GSA) Education and Outreach Department, provides short-term geoscience jobs in America's most amazing public lands. These jobs are hosted on federal lands managed by GeoCorps' three partner agencies: the National Park Service (NPS), the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), and the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). Agency staff submit to GSA position descriptions that help meet their geoscience needs. GSA advertises the positions online, recruits applicants from its 24,000+ members, and coordinates the placement of the candidates selected by agency staff. The typical GeoCorps position lasts for three months, pays a stipend of $2,750, and provides either free housing or a housing allowance. Some GeoCorps positions are classified as "Guest Scientist" positions, which generally last longer, involve larger payments, and require a higher level of expertise. Most GeoCorps positions occur during the spring/summer, but an increasing number of positions are being offered during the fall/winter. GeoCorps positions are open to geoscientists of all levels, from undergraduates through retired professionals. GeoCorps projects involve field and laboratory-based geoscience research, but some projects focus on developing educational programs and materials for staff, volunteers, and the public. The subject areas covered by GeoCorps projects include geology, hydrology, paleontology, mapping/GIS, soils, geo-hazards, cave/karst science, and more. GeoCorps positions have taken place at over 125 different locations nationwide, including Grand Canyon National Park, Sierra National Forest, and Craters of the Moon National Monument. In 2011, GeoCorps began offering GeoCorps Diversity Internships and GeoCorps American Indian Internships. The introduction of these programs doubled the level of diversity among GeoCorps participants. This increase in diversity is helping GSA and its partner agencies in meeting its mutual goal of

  10. Deployable centralizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grubelich, Mark C.; Su, Jiann-Cherng; Knudsen, Steven D.

    2017-02-28

    A centralizer assembly is disclosed that allows for the assembly to be deployed in-situ. The centralizer assembly includes flexible members that can be extended into the well bore in situ by the initiation of a gas generating device. The centralizer assembly can support a large load carrying capability compared to a traditional bow spring with little or no installation drag. Additionally, larger displacements can be produced to centralize an extremely deviated casing.

  11. Petroleum Quality Information System 2013 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Puerto Rico, Virgin Is- lands 10 Central & South America Belize, Columbia, Curacao, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras , Mexico...Nicaragua, Panama, Peru 11 Canada Canada 12 Africa Cape Verde, Ghana 2. Introduction Petroleum Quality Information System 10 JP5 16.47

  12. Independence and education in Central America: José Cecilio del Valle’s Report on education (1829 Independencia y educación en Centroamérica: la «Memoria sobre la educación» de José Cecilio del Valle (1829

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Hugo ACUÑA ORTEGA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Honduran José Cecilio del Valle (1777-1834 is the most prominent thinker from the historical time of the Independence of Central America and one of its key political actors. Valle was one of the great promulgators of the Enlightenment in the Kingdom of Guatemala. His interests included rationalist philosophy, experimental science, the doctrines of liberalism, and the theories of political economy. But what mostly stands out from his thought is his concern for education, which according to him was the foundation of human progress and good governance. His thoughts on this field are brought to light in the pamphlet entitled Report on education, published in Guatemala in 1829. An excerpt of the report, in which he proposes a plan for the organization of primary education, is herewith transcribed.El hondureño José Cecilio de Valle (1777-1834 es el pensador más des- tacado en la época de la Independencia de Centroamérica y uno de sus actores polí- ticos clave. Valle fue uno de los grandes difusores de la Ilustración en el Reino de Guatemala. Sus intereses comprendían la filosofía racionalista, la ciencia experimen- tal, las doctrinas del liberalismo y las teorías de la economía política. Pero en su pen- samiento destaca su preocupación por la educación, fundamento, en su opinión, del progreso humano y del buen gobierno. Sus ideas al respecto aparecen en el opúsculo Memoria sobre la educación, publicado en Guatemala en 1829. Aquí se transcribe un fragmento de dicha memoria, en el cual propone un plan para la organización de la educación primaria.

  13. Wind Powering America Podcasts, Wind Powering America (WPA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-04-01

    Wind Powering America and the National Association of Farm Broadcasters produce a series of radio interviews featuring experts discussing wind energy topics. The interviews are aimed at a rural stakeholder audience and are available as podcasts. On the Wind Powering America website, you can access past interviews on topics such as: Keys to Local Wind Energy Development Success, What to Know about Installing a Wind Energy System on Your Farm, and Wind Energy Development Can Revitalize Rural America. This postcard is a marketing piece that stakeholders can provide to interested parties; it will guide them to this online resource for podcast episodes.

  14. Magmatic evolution of the Ilopango Caldera, El Salvador, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zezin, D.; Mann, C. P.; Hernández, W.; Stix, J.

    2010-12-01

    The Ilopango caldera (16 x 13 km) is an active, long-lived magmatic system, erupting voluminous amounts of pyroclastic material numerous times over the course of its evolution. The caldera is presently water filled and the most recent activity is a dome growth event in 1880. Established age constraints from extracaldera pyroclastic sequences, indicate caldera forming events occur ~ every 10,000 years over the last 40,000 years. The most recent pyroclastic eruption (TBJ) is constrained to A.D. 429 erupting 70 km3 DRE of pyroclastic material. We combine major element and trace element chemistry with 40Ar/39Ar age constraints of the intracaldera domes and intracaldera pyroclastic deposits to extent the caldera history. The intracaldera domes are andesitic to rhyolitic in composition (57 - 76 wt. % SiO2), some with basaltic enclaves (54 wt. % SiO2) and pyroclastic units observed inside the caldera (San Agustín Pumice Breccia) are dacitic to rhyolitic in composition (69 -75 wt. % SiO2). Formation of an intracaldera andesitic dome at 359±7.9 ka provides a minimum age of caldera formation and extends the caldera history back ~ 320 ka years. The variable composition of the intracaldera domes, the presence of mafic enclaves in the dome lavas, mafic clasts in the TB4 plinian fall, mafic banding in the TB3 and TB2, attest to the obvious involvement of a more mafic magma The highly evolved compositions of the pyroclastic units and the volume of erupted material, point towards a large evolving magma reservoir at depth. The mafic magma may replenish the subsurface reservoir and act as a catalyst for volcanic eruption. The presence of an intracaldera lake, the regularity with which the volcano erupts and the presence of a more mafic magma are the ingredients for a catastrophic disaster. The Ilopango caldera, located 10 km to the east of the capital city of San Salvador (~ 1.5 million people) poses a threat both locally and globally as demonstrated 1600 years ago as it devastated the Early Classic Mayan civilization.

  15. Initial Assessment, Nation Assistance Opportunities, Sula Valley, Honduras Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-01

    Trapero Comunicaciones , Obras Pdblicas y Transporte (Communications, Public Works and Transportation) Dr. C~sar Castellanos - Ministry of Salud Pablica y...Engineer, Sub-SecreLario de Comunicaciones y Transporte (Communications and Transportation) A-1 Mr. Mauro Membreho - Minister of Communications, Public

  16. Shark fisheries in Central America a review and update.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rodrigo Rojas M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available La demanda por derivados del tiburón, especialmente aletas y cartílago, ha llevado a una expansión de las pesquerías y del comercio a través de la región. El incremento en el esfuerzo pesquero, las escasas referencias biológicas y la falta de manejo, son factores claves que impactan negativamente esta pesquería. Con el fin de contar con información sobre el estado de las poblaciones, zonas de pesca y crianza, aspectos socioeconómicos y medidas necesarias para la conservación, se llevó a cabo esta investigación. Se identificaron 24 especies de importancia comercial, siendo las más importantes: Carcharhinus falciformis y Nasolamia velox (Guatemala, C. falciformis (Nicaragua, C. falciformis y Mustelus dorsalis (Costa Rica, C. obscurus (El Salvador, C. limbatus (Panamá. Los productos comerciales incluyen carne, aleta, aceite, cartílago y piel. Las aletas son el producto de mayor valor (i.e. aletas caudales secas se venden desde $150 a $400/kg en Costa Rica y son exportadas a Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japón y Estados Unidos.

  17. Evaluation of United States Strategy In Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-03

    Caribbean country almost directly between Cuba and Puerto Rico, ruled for thirty- one’years by a ruthless and tyrannical dictator, Rafael Trujillo. 13...measures to ensure Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands benefit and, therefore, con-- tinue with their strong traditions of democracy and free enterprise...initiate direct talks with the Sandinistas. The Contadora countries looked to the nine subsequent bilateral talks in Manzanillo , Mex- 53 ico, between the

  18. Pediatric convulsive status epilepticus in Honduras, Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinero, Marco R; Holden, Kenton R; Rodriguez, Luis C; Collins, Julianne S; Samra, Jose A; Shinnar, Shlomo

    2009-10-01

    Convulsive status epilepticus (SE) in children is an important public health problem, particularly in low-resource countries. A surveillance study was performed with consecutive enrollment of all children presenting with convulsive SE to Hospital Escuela Materno-Infantil Emergency Department in Tegucigalpa, Honduras over a 13-week period in 2003. In the 47 children with SE, the mean age was 4.5 years and the median seizure duration was 95 min. Mortality and morbidity were higher in children from rural locations, with all six deaths and three cases of new neurologic abnormalities occurring in rural children who had acute symptomatic SE. We conclude that childhood SE is common in the low-resource developing country of Honduras. Given the long delays in obtaining initial treatment in pediatric emergency facilities, availability of prehospital treatment may be of particular importance in this setting.

  19. Forecasters Handbook for Central America and Adjacent Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    34 Saslava - -~. 4 MONTANAS BEHUAPI SIERRA MADRE jCORDILLERA DE YOLAINA ERNADLAIN ALTO CUCHUMATANES CORDILLERA DEGUANACASTESEANADLARN Va~c~n Acaleriariga...at Huehuetenango and Puerto Barrios . Terminal weather: Guatemala City/La Aurora Airport. While the terminal weather is fair to good, early morning...occurs as often as 15 percent (see Appendix B for Huehuetanango and Puerto Barrios data). Terminal weather: Guatemala City/La Aurora Airport

  20. The first contract of Entrepose in Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-11-01

    Following the discovery of the Rubel Santo oilfield in Guatemala, the French firm Entrepose landed a contract for laying a 230 km, 10 in. and 12 in. oil line from the field to the coast at Santo Tomas de Castilla. Of the total length, 50 km are across the jungle. Only 20 km will be buried; the remainder will rest on wooden supports built from native wood, with passages for cattle. Maximum elevation is 235 m above sea level. Design is for a throughput of 2.5 million tons/yr, although the initial rate will be only 500,000 tons/yr. At Santo Tomas, a loading dock and a storage tank will be installed. Pipe for the project will be supplied by Vallourec. Financing of the 115 million franc project has been assured by a French banking consortium.

  1. Civil-Military Relations in Post Cold War Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-07

    Ministro de Gobernacion y policia y seguridad publica , interview by author, 07 Feb 2002 16 Freedom House 17 Constitution of Panama, Artículo 305.- La...Ramos Martínez, Licenciado Rogelio, Ministro de Gobernación y Policía y Seguridad Publica , interview by author, 07 Feb 2002 Salvatierra, BG Manuel...medios ordinarios para el mantenimiento de la paz interna, la tranquilidad y la seguridad pública, el Presidente de la República podrá disponer de la

  2. Diurnal variations in water vapor over Central and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza, Amalia; Mendoza, Luciano; Bianchi, Clara

    2016-07-01

    Diurnal variations in atmospheric integrated water vapor (IWV) are studied employing IWV estimates, with a 30 minutes sampling rate, derived from Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) observations during the period 2007-2013. The analysis was performed in 73 GNSS tracking sites (GPS + GLONASS) which have more than 5 years of data. The selected area involves different climate types, from polar to tropical, with different diurnal variations of the integrated total humidity content. There are many processes that could induce diurnal variations in atmospheric water vapor (Dai et al, 1999 a,b), the most relevant causes are: surface evapotranspiration, atmospheric large-scale vertical motion, atmospheric low-level moisture convergence and precipitation and vertical mixing (which affects the vertical distribution of water vapor but does not affect the IWV). The numerical tools, Singular Value Decomposition and classical Multidimensional Scaling methods, are used to study these variations, considering the measurements made at each stations, as sample in the analysis. The aim of this investigation is to identify the IWV variability with respect to the local time associated to the different climate regions. In order to improve our analysis, all available weather information, such as radiosondes measurements (which are few), measurements of pressure and temperature and Numerical Weather Models reanalysis data, are used. Reference: Dai, A., K. E. Trenberth, and T. R. Karl, 1999 a: Effects of clouds, soil moisture, precipitation and water vapor on diurnal temperature range. J. Climate, 12, 2451-2473. Dai, A., F. Giorgi, and K. E. Trenberth, 1999 b: Observed and model simulated precipitation diurnal cycle over the contiguous United States.J. Geophys. Res., 104, 6377-6402. KEYWORDS: water vapor, diurnal cycle, GNSS

  3. [Population and nutrition in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, S

    1984-04-01

    This discussion of food and population in Latin America consists of 5 sections covering food and the population debate since Malthus, basic data on nutrition problems in Latin America, the demographic impact, food production, and future prospects. The present position in favor of limitation of population growth is based on the view that continued rapid population increase must inevitably bring a crisis of disequilibrium of food, natural resources, and ecological and economic security within about 100 years. The common element uniting those opposed to or indifferent to population control is a belief that science and technology can predict and satisfy the essential food needs of a burgeoning population. All developed countries have per capita caloric availabilities of over 3000/day, compared to an average of 2465 for Latin American as a whole. Only Barbados and Argentina have 3000 calories/day available. The daily average per capita protein consumption of 65.7 grams in Latin America is above the 54 gr/day recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organiation. In Latin America the average daily per capita consumption from animal protein is 496 calories, compared to 1331 in the US. The nutrition status of different Latin American countries varies, with minimal caloric intakes of 1880-2170 calories/day in some Central American and Caribbean countries. Haiti, the Dominican Republic, Honduras, Ecuador, and Bolivia have frank protein deficits. Within countries, there may be large food gaps between regions, rural and urban populations, and social classes. The FAO estimated that 41 million Latin Americans representing 13% of the population are undernourished. 38% of Guatemalans, Hondurans, and Haitians, 30% of Ecuadoreans, and 23% of Peruvians are believed to be inadequately nourished. The quality of the diet varies widely between countries and regions because of a multitude of cultural, environmental, and socioeconomic factors. In

  4. A late Holocene paleoenvironmental reconstruction from Agua Caliente, southern Belize, linked to regional climate variability and cultural change at the Maya polity of Uxbenká

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Megan K.; Prufer, Keith M.; Culleton, Brendan J.; Kennett, Douglas J.

    2014-07-01

    We report high-resolution macroscopic charcoal, pollen and sedimentological data for Agua Caliente, a freshwater lagoon located in southern Belize, and infer a late Holocene record of human land-use/climate interactions for the nearby prehistoric Maya center of Uxbenká. Land-use activities spanning the initial clearance of forests for agriculture through the drought-linked Maya collapse and continuing into the historic recolonization of the region are all reflected in the record. Human land alteration in association with swidden agriculture is evident early in the record during the Middle Preclassic starting ca. 2600 cal yr BP. Fire slowly tapered off during the Late and Terminal Classic, consistent with the gradual political demise and depopulation of the Uxbenká polity sometime between ca. 1150 and 950 cal yr BP, during a period of multiple droughts evident in a nearby speleothem record. Fire activity was at its lowest during the Maya Postclassic ca. 950-430 cal yr BP, but rose consistent with increasing recolonization of the region between ca. 430 cal yr BP and present. These data suggest that this environmental record provides both a proxy for 2800 years of cultural change, including colonization, growth, decline, and reorganization of regional populations, and an independent confirmation of recent paleoclimate reconstructions from the same region.

  5. O neoliberalismo na America Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ibarra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Neoliberalism in Latin America. Neoliberalism and globalization had decisive influence in shaping public policies both internal and foreign in Latin America. Less state, trade and market freedoms, social goals subordinated to economic criteria, are part and parcel of the neoliberal utopia. Price stability was erected as the main social objective; import substitution resulted replaced by exports as the main source of growth. The neoliberal net results as applied to Latin America are: less growth, deindustrialization, income concentration and precarious employments. Therefore, countries public policies should try to gain autonomy to use jointly markets and public intervention in a constructive and innovative fashion.

  6. 75 FR 64306 - Shell Energy North America (US), LP; Notice of Institution of Proceeding and Refund Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Shell Energy North America (US), LP; Notice of Institution of Proceeding and... U.S.C. 824e (2005), concerning the justness and reasonableness of Shell Energy North America (US), LP's market- based rate authority in the Central and Southwest balancing authority area. Shell...

  7. North America and South America (NA-SA) neuropathy project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasnoor, Mamatha; Nascimento, Osvaldo J M; Trivedi, Jaya; Wolfe, Gil I; Nations, Sharon; Herbelin, Laura; de Freitas, M G; Quintanilha, Giseli; Khan, Saud; Dimachkie, Mazen; Barohn, Richard

    2013-08-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is a common neurological disorder. There may be important differences and similarities in the diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy between North America (NA) and South America (SA). Neuromuscular databases were searched for neuropathy diagnosis at two North American sites, University of Kansas Medical Center and University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, and one South American site, Federal Fluminense University in Brazil. All patients were included into one of the six major categories: immune-mediated, diabetic, hereditary, infectious/inflammatory, systemic/metabolic/toxic (not diabetic) and cryptogenic. A comparison of the number of patients in each category was made between North America and South America databases. Total number of cases in North America was 1090 and in South America was 1034 [immune-mediated: NA 215 (19.7%), SA 191 (18%); diabetic: NA 148 (13.5%), SA 236 (23%); hereditary: NA 292 (26.7%), SA 103 (10%); infectious/inflammatory: NA 53 (4.8%), SA 141 (14%); systemic/metabolic/toxic: NA 71 (6.5%), SA 124 (12%); cryptogenic: NA 311 (28.5%), SA 239 (23%)]. Some specific neuropathy comparisons were hereditary neuropathies [Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) cases] in NA 246/292 (84.2%) and SA 60/103 (58%); familial amyloid neuropathy in SA 31/103 (30%) and none in NA. Among infectious neuropathies, cases of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) neuropathy in SA were 36/141(25%), Chagas disease in SA were 13/141(9%) and none for either in NA; cases of neuropathy due to leprosy in NA were 26/53 (49%) and in SA were 39/141(28%). South American tertiary care centers are more likely to see patients with infectious, diabetic and hereditary disorders such as familial amyloid neuropathies. North American tertiary centers are more likely to see patients with CMT. Immune neuropathies and cryptogenic neuropathies were seen equally in North America and South America.

  8. 78 FR 15349 - Trade Mission to Central America in Conjunction With the Trade Americas-Opportunities in Central...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-11

    ... or joint-venture partner. Participants will also be invited to networking events during the mission... participating U.S. companies find potential partners, agents, distributors, and joint venture partners in Costa... the foundation for successful long-term ventures taking advantage of market opportunities in...

  9. America's Electricity Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrecht, Gordon

    2006-03-01

    Where will America's future electricity supply come from? According to Vice President Cheney's energy task force, the U.S. needs to build about one 1 GW generating facilty a week in perpetuity.^(1) What sort of facilities will they be? Can the economy sustain such growth? Are there other possibilities? One possibility that strikes a chord with physicists is conservation as a source of energy. In this regard, Vice President Cheney famously said that conservation is``a sign of personal virtue, but it is not a sufficient basis---all by itself---for a sound, comprehensive energy policy,''^(2) echoing the Ayn Rand Instituite's view that ``Conservation is not a long- or short-term solution to the energy crisis. Conservation is the un-American idea of resigning oneself to doing with less.''^(3) This poster will explore the possible energy futures, their advantages and disadvantages, with and without conservation. 1. National Energy Policy Development Group (R. Cheney, C. L. Powell, P. O'Neill, G. Norton, A. M. Veneman, D. L. Evans, N. Y. Mineta, S. Abraham, J. M. Allbaugh, C. T. Whitman, J. B. Bolten, M. E. Daniels, L. B. Lindsey, and R. Barrales), National Energy Policy: Report of the National Energy Policy Development Group, (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 2001). 2. M. Allen, ``Bush energy plan will emphasize production,'' The Washington Post, 1 May 2001 3. R. Pool, ``Saving power deemed immoral,'' The Los Angeles Times, 12 May 2001.

  10. An America unknown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susani Silveira Lemos França

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available If we consider that the Spanish chroniclers had gradually invented what eventually became America, as O'Gorman proposed, the Portuguese chroniclers of the first half of the 16th century were even more cautious in building an identity for the overseas territories visited by Columbus and Cabral. These sixteenth century chroniclers, focusing on Asia, only later ceased to think of this "almost other world" as a place of passage, to think of it as a place to stop. Disregarding the surprised tone of the letters and reports used as sources, and showing concern in giving Cabral's travels a specific place in the construction of Portuguese history, the explorers' adventures highlight the peculiarities of the lands and peoples that would later come to deserve special attention from their congeners. It is the place that the Portuguese sixteenth century chronicler has given to these territories, and the place that was fixed in the memory of the 16th century Portuguese, which are the aspects covered in this text.

  11. Latin America Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Chihuahua; 14, Chihuahua Jimenez; 17, North Coahuila; 18, Coahuila Monclova; 19, Lake District; 21, Coahuila Saltillo; 23, Nuevo Leon Sabinas, Hidlago...24, North Nuevo Leon; 26, Nuevo Leon Montemore- los; 27, South Nuevo Leon; 29, Central Tamaulipas; 32, North Sinaloa; 32-A, Northeast Sinaloa; 33...SECTOR PUBLICO (1) Total % — Reducir los gastos militares (2) — Reducir los proyectos de inversion (3) — Aumentar los impuestos a las empresas (4

  12. JPRS Report, Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-02

    PY140408 Madrid EFE in Spanish 2253 GMT 13 Jun 87 [Text] Santo Andre, 13 June (EFE)—Jair Meneguelli, president of the Sole Central Organization of Workers...Paulo), Dom Celso is a Corinthians fan, and his main hobbies are reading the classic mysteries of Agatha Christie and Georges Simenon and daily...could be reached that would satisfy the needs of that region. He mentioned also the Yacyreta and Corpus projects and pointed out that these

  13. ScaleUp America Communities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — SBA’s new ScaleUp America Initiative is designed to help small firms with high potential “scale up” and grow their businesses so that they will provide more jobs and...

  14. Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enabled to enjoy the full interactive experience. Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America Find a Doctor Find a ... Local Chapters News Events Search: What are Crohn's & Colitis? What is Crohn's Disease What is Ulcerative Colitis ...

  15. African Ethnobotany in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egleé L. Zent

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Review of African Ethnobotany in the Americas. Edited by Robert Voeks and John Rashford. 2013. Springer. Pp. 429, 105 illustrations, 69 color illustrations. $49.95 (paperback. ISBN 978‐1461408352.

  16. Armas brasileiras na América Central: um estudo sob a perspectiva da Política Nacional de Exportação de Material de Emprego Militar - PNEMEM (1974-1991 Brazilian arms in Central America: a study in the perspective of the Brazilian's Arms Transfer Policy - PNEMEM (1974-1991

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Federico Domínguez Avila

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo avalia a Política Nacional de Exportação de Material de Emprego Militar e seu impacto nas relações brasileiro-centro-americanas durante os anos 1970 e 1980. Parte-se do critério que o comércio internacional de armas implica relevantes consequências políticas, econômicas e estratégicas, especialmente quando se trata de transferências para países em conflito interno ou regional. O texto utiliza fontes primárias resgatadas no Arquivo Histórico do Ministério das Relações Exteriores do Brasil (AHMRE.The paper explores the Brazilian's Arms Transfer Policy and its impact in the Brazilian-Central American relations between 1970 and 1990. The text suggests that arms transfer has relevant politics, economics and strategic consequences, particularly in countries with national or regional conflicts. The paper uses some information from the Brazil's Foreign Affairs Archives.

  17. Domestic Terrorism: Is America Prepared?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-04-01

    Luther King , Jr. were attempts to push America from a path it has chosen. Painfully, the United States has stood firm in the face of terrorism and not...terrorism in America. Cowardly acts of terrorism such as the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, President Abraham Lincoln, and Dr. (Rev) Martin ...there are over 500 racist and neo-Nazi groups and over 400 active militia groups espousing extreme antigovernment views as of 1999. These hate groups

  18. Reforming America's health system through innovation and entrepreneurship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reece, Richard L

    2005-01-01

    America's attempts for healthcare reform are gridlocked. Healthcare special interests are reluctant to abandon profitable activities, and American culture-distrust of centralized federal power, belief in self-improvement, desire for choice, and belief in equal access to medical technologies-is slow to change. Physician entrepreneurship and innovation, coupled with consumer-driven healthcare and public-private partnerships, may break the present gridlock.

  19. North America: US activity is unprecedented

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-15

    For overall drilling activity in 1981, North America is expected to post a 20.9% increase over 1980 figures for a total of 90,347 wells. The growth is due solely to a 28.6% increase in US activity; Canada and Mexico show declines of 31.3% and 7.8%, respectively. Mid-year reports for the US included 36,776 wells, 7078 of them gas wells; of 7526 wildcats, 840 were gas-productive. The success rate for mid-year was 25.5%. The downturn in Canadian activity reflects the decrease in investments caused by the restructuring of the Canadian industry. Exploration is continuing, however, particularly in the east coast offshore region, the Beaufort Sea, and the Arctic Islands. The outlook in Mexico is highly promising: new fields are being discovered regularly in Campeche Bay, the Mesozoic region of Tabasco and Chiapas, the Sabinas Gulf region, and Chicontepec Paleocanyon. Since 1976, Petroleos Mexicanos has successfully reduced natural-gas flaring to less than 2% of production. Gas production increased by 22% in 1980, reaching 3.723 billion CF/day by December. Other drilling activity occurred in the West Indies and Caribbean Sea and parts of Central America.

  20. Los derechos humanos en las normas sobre el VIH/SIDA en México y Centroamérica: 1993-2000 The inclusion of human rights in AIDS/HIV norms in Mexico and Central America: 1993-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Magali Cuadra-Hernández

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Analizar la situación de los derechos humanos en las normas sobre el VIH/SIDA de México y Centroamérica en el periodo de 1993 a 2000. Material y métodos. Se analizó el contenido de las leyes y normas de la Región relacionadas con la prevención y control del VIH/SIDA. Se tomó como referencia una visión constructivista de los subsistemas jurídicos y de los derechos humanos. Se elaboraron categorías de análisis basadas en la Declaración Universal de los Derechos Humanos y a cada una se le asignaron códigos de significado. Resultados. Durante el periodo se observó una intensa actividad legislativa sobre el control de la transmisión del VIH/SIDA en la Región donde el tema de los derechos humanos fue incorporado. Sin embargo, en algunos casos (la Ley de Panamá y la Propuesta de Honduras contienen apartados que lesionan el derecho a la no discriminación y a la privacidad. Ello marca dos vertientes: una, que garantiza totalmente los derechos humanos, y otra, que se convierte en un contexto que puede volver aún más vulnerables a ciertos grupos. Discusión. Se centra en proponer una resignificación del sujeto social y de la vigilancia epidemiológica con base en una normatividad que incluya el tema de los derechos humanos.Objective. To analyze the inclusion of human rights in HIV/AIDS norms in Mexico and Central America for the 1993-2000 period. Material and Methods. Norms and regulations for HIV/AIDS prevention and control in this region were analyzed. A constructivist perspective of judiciary subsystems and human rights was used as a reference framework, to establish categories of analysis with significance codes based on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Results. During the study period, human rights were included within a vigorous legislative activity for HIV/AIDS transmission prevention. In some cases (as in the Panama Law and the Honduras Proposal there were passages of law violating the right to non

  1. Cohabitation and marriage in the Americas : geo-historical legacies and new trends

    OpenAIRE

    Esteve Palós, Albert

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents an innovative study of the rise of unmarried cohabitation in the Americas, from Canada to Argentina. Using an extensive sample of individual census data for nearly all countries on the continent, it offers a cross-national, comparative view of this recent demographic trend and its impact on the family. The book offers a tour of the historical legacies and regional heterogeneity in unmarried cohabitation, covering: Canada, the United States, Mexico, Central America, Colomb...

  2. Forensic anthropology in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Işcan, M Y; Olivera, H E

    2000-03-13

    Forensic anthropology has been one of the fastest growing medico-legal disciplines both in its contribution to the practical needs of the legal system and research accomplishments. New anthropological standards were developed to apply to a specific population of a region. The purpose of this paper is to analyze a large sample of anthropological forensic cases and to review pertinent literature that deals with anthropological standards developed for the population of the continent of Central and South America. Using Uruguay as an example, there was not a single office or anthropologist assigned to analyze human skeletal remains in Uruguay. In 1991 the Laboratorio de Antropología Forense at the Morgue Judicial of Montevideo was created. A total of 189 forensic anthropological cases (276 individuals) were analyzed since this date. Twenty six percent of cases involving human remains were positively identified. The majority came from the Departamento de Montevideo, the largest population district of the country. Most of the cases fell into the 60 to 69 years old age range (35%). Females represented 32% of the total. Since the establishment of the laboratory, the number of forensic cases increased considerably from 20 in 1991 to 40 in 1997. The case studies were accompanied with skull-photo superimposition and facial reconstruction when no other evidence for positive identification was available. This service provided by the laboratory was quickly known to coroners, law enforcement agencies, and other legal authorities and thus utilized not only in Uruguay but also in several other countries in the continent. Because of the obvious need for an anthropologist, there are now university programs to provide forensic anthropological education. Yet, research has lagged behind considerably. Deficiencies are obvious in basic osteological standards of estimating age, calculating stature, determining sex and assessing race that can be applied to populations of the continent

  3. The role of minerals in food selection in a black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra) population in Belize following a major hurricane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behie, Alison M; Pavelka, Mary S M

    2012-11-01

    As plants may contain low levels of some minerals including sodium, copper, and phosphorous, herbivores may become deficient in these nutrients. In 2001, Hurricane Iris hit the Monkey River Forest in Belize causing substantial damage to the food supply of the black howler monkey population (Alouatta pigra) living there. This included an 18-month absence in fruit production and a complete loss of figs that are high in calcium. In this article, we describe the post-hurricane diet of this monkey population and compare the mineral content of food items to each other and to recommendations for non-human primates [NRC 2003]. We also investigate food selection in relation to potentially limiting minerals. Behavioral data from four groups of howlers (2002-2006) and samples of all ingested food items were collected and a sample of 99 plant from 18 food species was analyzed for mineral content. Unexpectedly, the post-hurricane diet contained more mature leaves than new leaves despite the availability of new leaves. Leaves contained higher amounts of minerals than reproductive parts and with the exception of Cecropia peltata stems, plant parts were low in sodium. Cecropia peltata is a pioneer species that grows following habitat disturbance thus the ingestion of these stems may be a potential mechanism to avoid sodium deficiency in this damaged forest. Calcium and zinc were found above recommended values in most food items; however, both positively predicted food selection, which may reflect a difference between their abundance and their bioavailability. However, as mature leaves contained more calcium than other plant parts, their high post-hurricane consumption may also be a response to the absence of figs and the need to find an alternate calcium source. This study highlights how habitat disturbance may affect mineral abundance and the dietary choices of primates.

  4. MICROSATELLITE CHARACTERIZATION IN CENTRAL STONEROLLER CAMPOSTOMA ANOMALUM (PISCES: CYPRINIDAE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The central stoneroller (Campostoma anomalum) is a small cyprinid fish that is native to streams and rivers of central and eastern North America. It can be found in a range of anthropo- genically modified habitats, ranging from nearly pristine to highly polluted waters (Zimmerma...

  5. Latin America`s emerging non-proliferation consensus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redick, J.R.

    1994-03-01

    Latin America`s incorporation into the international nuclear non-proliferation regime is well advanced. The 1967 Tlatelolco Treaty, which established a regional nuclear-weapon-free zone (NWFZ), is nearing completion. A signal event occurred January 18, when Argentina and Chile deposited instruments of ratification to the treaty, leaving Brazil and Cuba the only major countries in Latin America that are not yet contracting parties. And after more than two decades of concern about the nuclear programs and policies in Argentina and Brazil, there is room for great optimism that Brazil may now be moving quickly on important non-proliferation issues. Even Cuba, the {open_quotes}bad boy of the neighborhood{close_quotes} in the eyes of many, which held aloof from the Tlatelolco process for three decades, has stated its willingness to join the zone in the future.

  6. Morfología y representatividad de la vivienda histórica en la frontera México-Belice: algunas notas. Morphology and representativeness of historical housing in the border of Mexico-Belize: some notes. Morfologia e representatividade da moradia histórica na fronteira México-Belize: algumas anotações.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Manuel Checa Artasu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza la vivienda histórica de la frontera de México con Belice. Este es fruto de un proceso de simbiosis arquitectónica entre la casa maya, modelo vernáculo de esta área, y el modelo de bungaló, propio de la colonización británica. Esta arquitectura se desarrolla por los conflictos políticos y cambios económicos y sociales acontecidos en la zona en la segunda mitad del siglo XX, que obligan al traslado de poblaciones a ambos lados de esta frontera. Se trata de una arquitectura habitacional que deviene elemento protagónico en el paisaje para explicar el proceso de ocupación humana dado en este espacio geográfico y su evolución socioeconómica, y que mantiene, hoy en día, numerosos ejemplos. This paper analyzes the historic housing of Mexico’s border with Belize. This is the result of a process of symbiosis between Mayan home architecture, vernacular model of this area, and the model bungalow, typical of British colonization. This architecture is developed by political conflicts and socio economical changes that occurred in the area during the second half of the twentieth century, which force the transfer of populations on both sides of the border. This is a residential architecture that becomes key feature in the landscape to explain the process of human occupation in this area given its geographical space and its socio-economic evolution that maintains a variety of examples nowadays. Este trabalho analisa a moradia histórica na fronteira entre México e Belize. Ele é fruto der um processo de simbiose arquitetônica entre a moradia maia, modelo vernáculo de esta região, e o modelo do bangalô, próprio da colonização britânica. Esta arquitetura é desenvolvida pelos conflitos políticos e as mudanças econômicas e sociais acontecidas na zona na segunda metade do século que obrigam ao traslado de povoados a ambos os lados da fronteira. Trata-se de uma arquitetura habitacional que devém um elemento

  7. Sustaining Rainforest Plants, People and Global Health: A Model for Learning from Traditions in Holistic Health Promotion and Community Based Conservation as Implemented by Q’eqchi’ Maya Healers, Maya Mountains, Belize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Sanchez-Vindas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work showcases a model for holistic, sustainable healthcare in indigenous communities worldwide through the implementation of traditional healing practices. The implementation of this model promotes public health and community wellness while addressing crucially important themes such as in situ and ex situ conservation of medicinal plant resources and associated biodiversity, generational transmission of knowledge, and the preservation of biological and cultural diversity for future generations. Being envisaged and implemented by Q’eqchi’ Maya traditional healers of the southern Maya Mountains, Belize, this model can be replicated in other communities worldwide. A ethnobotany study in collaboration with these healers led to collection of 102 medicinal species from Itzama, their traditional healing cultural center and medicinal garden. Of these 102 species, 40 of prior reported 106 consensus study plants were present in the garden. There were 62 plants not previously reported growing in the garden as well. A general comparison of these plants was also made in relation to species reported in TRAMIL network, Caribbean Herbal Pharmacopoeia (CHP, the largest regional medicinal pharmacopoeia. A relative few species reported here were found in the CHP. However, the majority of the CHP plants are common in Belize and many are used by the nearby Mopan and Yucatec Maya. Since these 102 species are relied upon heavily in local primary healthcare, this Q’eqchi’ Maya medicinal garden represents possibilities toward novel sustainable, culturally relative holistic health promotion and community based conservation practices.

  8. Climate Projections for South America -discussion of mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Iracema

    2014-05-01

    While temperature is projected to increase, in the future, in the whole South America, with the highest values in central-north areas, precipitation projections show increases or reductions in specific regions. The mechanisms of these changes need to be understood in face of climate change scenarios and possible modifications in the regional meteorological systems behavior. Large areas of South America have a monsoon regime, which shows precipitation differences from winter to summer. Several systems, such as the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ), the Bolivian High and others, are part of this continental seasonal variability. Tropical areas close to the equator are influenced by the seasonality of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Other areas at higher latitudes have an extratropical regime, affected by transient synoptic systems, being more uniform during the year. Teleconnections, as ENSO, the Pacific South America (PSA) and the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) affect the variability of the regional systems and precipitation. Ensemble projections of precipitation analyzed in CMIP5 models for the analyzed period of AR5 [(2081-2100)-(1986-2005)]and regional models [(2071-2100)- (1961-1990)] show changes in several areas of South America. Increased precipitation over Southeastern, Northwestern and extreme Southwestern South America, as well as reduced precipitation in Amazonia, Northeast Brazil and Central Chile are projected under scenarios 4.5 and 8.5 by the majority of CMIP5, and regional models downscaled from scenario A1B from CMIP3. The role of changes in SST and in atmospheric circulation in the future projections, which affect the variability of the main systems over South America is discussed. Although there is medium confidence in PSA, SACZ and ITCZ changes, possible changes in the PSA pattern, including the wavetrain centers of action position and intensity, SACZ position and intensity, SAM phase variability and subtropical highs position and

  9. China-Latin America Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen Fryba; Silva Ramos Becard, Danielly

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses the research field of China-Latin American relations and suggests a broad and encompassing approach to the topic. It discusses the main themes and problem areas that analysts mostly emphasize in analyses of China-Latin America relations.......The article discusses the research field of China-Latin American relations and suggests a broad and encompassing approach to the topic. It discusses the main themes and problem areas that analysts mostly emphasize in analyses of China-Latin America relations....

  10. Fuglene. Audubon: Birds of America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlichtkrull, Torsten

    2010-01-01

    The Royal Library owns one of the most exceptional works in book history, an original edition of John James Audubon Birds of America. This edition, in a format called “double elephant folio” was published from 1827 to 1838. On basis of existing literature, this article briefly describes the work...... the Royal Library and the University Library, joined the library cooperation of the 1800’s on an equal standing with the other two libraries. The Classen’s Library and the library’s founder, industrialist JF Classen are described briefly in this article. Due to two library mergers the Birds of America...

  11. Algunos Animales de Latino America = Some Animals of Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kathryn F. B.

    Developed by the Latin American Culture Studies Project for educators of elementary level children, these materials are designed to teach students the Spanish and English names of animals found in Latin America. The lesson includes coloring sheets, duplicating masters, fact sheets, the card game Maymayguashi, and directions for preparation. (DB)

  12. Rapid evolution of distinct Helicobacter pylori subpopulations in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhail, Jane; Kato, Ikuko; Suzuki, Rumiko; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Sheppard, Samuel K.; Falush, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    For the last 500 years, the Americas have been a melting pot both for genetically diverse humans and for the pathogenic and commensal organisms associated with them. One such organism is the stomach-dwelling bacterium Helicobacter pylori, which is highly prevalent in Latin America where it is a major current public health challenge because of its strong association with gastric cancer. By analyzing the genome sequence of H. pylori isolated in North, Central and South America, we found evidence for admixture between H. pylori of European and African origin throughout the Americas, without substantial input from pre-Columbian (hspAmerind) bacteria. In the US, strains of African and European origin have remained genetically distinct, while in Colombia and Nicaragua, bottlenecks and rampant genetic exchange amongst isolates have led to the formation of national gene pools. We found three outer membrane proteins with atypical levels of Asian ancestry in American strains, as well as alleles that were nearly fixed specifically in South American isolates, suggesting a role for the ethnic makeup of hosts in the colonization of incoming strains. Our results show that new H. pylori subpopulations can rapidly arise, spread and adapt during times of demographic flux, and suggest that differences in transmission ecology between high and low prevalence areas may substantially affect the composition of bacterial populations. PMID:28231283

  13. Language Documentation in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchetto, Bruna; Rice, Keren

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades, the documentation of endangered languages has advanced greatly in the Americas. In this paper we survey the role that international funding programs have played in advancing documentation in this part of the world, with a particular focus on the growth of documentation in Brazil, and we examine some of the major opportunities…

  14. Individualist America and Today's Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerry, Peter

    1991-01-01

    Reviews James Fallows's "More Like Us: Making America Great Again," a book conceived while he resided in Japan. Fallows stresses the virtues of individualism and competition. He advocates workfare, education vouchers, and generous immigration levels. He pays little attention, however, to the institutions that nurture and temper individualism. (DM)

  15. America's Consumerocracy: No Safe Haven

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daily, Nancy Lee; Swain, Letitia Price; Huysman, Mary; Tarrant, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Recently the authors completed a course designed to expand and deepen their knowledge about America's consumerocracy and the methods that give it the immense power it has. As a result of their reading and shared thinking in this course, Teaching Adolescents in a Consumer Society, they feel strongly motivated and better prepared to craft…

  16. Student Discipline in Colonial America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, John R.

    The basis for the severe discipline imposed on school children in colonial America, especially in the Puritan colonies, was the belief in original sin. The child was regarded as being born in sin and thus depraved and prone to sin. The purpose of education was to enable children to read the Bible and thus change the behavior which otherwise would…

  17. Brain Injury Association of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Only) 1-800-444-6443 Welcome to the Brain Injury Association of America (BIAA) Brain injury is not an event or an outcome. ... misunderstood, under-funded neurological disease. People who sustain brain injuries must have timely access to expert trauma ...

  18. Language Politics in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalan, Kanavillil

    2005-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to take stock of the politics of language as it has been playing out in Latin America, ever since the countries in this region were colonized by European powers, mainly Spain and Portugal. Linguistic imperialism is by no means a new phenomenon in this part of the world. In more recent times, the relentless advance of…

  19. A Record of Environmental Change in Caribbean Coral Reefs: Sclerochronology and Geochemistry of O. faveolata as a Paleoclimate Proxy at Coral Gardens and Rocky Point, Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCorte, I. A.; Greer, L.; Wirth, K. R.; Flowers Falls, E.; Lescinsky, H.; Doss, W. C.

    2015-12-01

    Over the last several decades, Acropora cervicornis has seen a massive die-off in the Caribbean. (Aronson and Precht 2001; Gardner et al., 2003; Greer et al., 2009). The potential causes of decline in A. cervicornis in the Caribbean include: extremes in sea surface temperatures (SST), ocean acidification, eutrophication, white-band disease, storm disturbances, and other anthropogenic disturbances. Contrary to the regional decline in A. cervicornis, Coral Gardens on the Belize Barrier Reef has an Acropora sp. population that appears to be thriving. Through a combination of sclerochronology, stable isotope analysis, and in situ sensor data, this work capitilizes on the opportunity to study reef conditions in a site where micro-environmental conditions appear to be favorable for healthy A. cervicornis coral growth. We use cores from two Orbicella faveolata colonies located within Acropora stands, as A. cervicornis does not reveal annual banding. We compare two cores from one O. faveolata colony at Coral Gardens, first cored in 2011 and again in 2014, to one O. faveolata core at near-by Rocky Point, where A. cervicornis is much less abundant. These cores were x-radiographed in order to expose the annual banding and sampled for stable oxygen and carbon isotope analysis (10-15 samples/cm). We show that, although there are no significant differences in the range of the δ18O and δ13C signature between Rocky Point and Coral Gardens, there is a clear difference in the stress histories at these locations as inferred from linear extension rates (LER's) and annual banding patterns. Rocky Point averages a LER of 10.5±1.4 mm/year (n = 29) over a 30 year record and Coral Gardens averages 9.1±1.2 mm/year (n = 70) from ~1953 - 2001, and averages 6.2±1.6 mm/year (n = 36) from coral years 2001-2014 after an inferred stress-banding event. This is in contrast to the observed overall health of A. cervicornis at the two locations. The inferred stress-banding event is currently

  20. Metamorphic evolution and U-Pb zircon SHRIMP geochronology of the Belizário ultramafic amphibolite, Encantadas Complex, southernmost Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léo A. Hartmann

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The integrated investigation of metamorphism and zircon U-Pb SHRIMP geochronology of the Belizário ultramafic amphibolite from southernmost Brazil leads to a better understanding of the processes involved in the generation of the Encantadas Complex. Magmatic evidence of the magnesian basalt or pyroxenite protolith is only preserved in cores of zircon crystals, which are dated at 2257 ± 12 Ma. Amphibolite facies metamorphism M1 formed voluminous hornblende in the investigated rock possibly at 1989 ± 21 Ma. This ultramafic rock was re-metamorphosed at 702±21 Ma during a greenschist facies eventM2; the assemblage actinolite + oligoclase + microcline + epidote + titanite + monazite formed by alteration of hornblende. The metamorphic events are probably related to the Encantadas Orogeny (2257±12 Ma and Camboriú Orogeny (~ 1989 Ma of the Trans-Amazonian Cycle, followed by an orogenic event (702±21 Ma of the Brasiliano Cycle. The intervening cratonic period (2000-700 Ma corresponds to the existence of the Supercontinent Atlantica, known regionally as the Rio de la Plata Craton.O entendimento dos processos evolutivos do Complexo Encantadas no sul do Brasil foi aperfeiçoado através do estudo integrado do metamorfismo de um anfibolito ultramáfico e da geocronologia U-Pb SHRIMP de zircão. Os núcleos herdados de alguns cristais de zircão tem idades em torno de 2257 ±12 Ma e constituem a única evidência preservada do protólito ígneo, que pode ter sido um basalto magnesiano ou um piroxenito. O metamorfismo M de fácies anfibolito formou abundante hornblenda na amostra investigada, possivelmente há 1989 ±21 Ma. Esta rocha ultramáfica foi re-metamorfizada talvez há cerca de 702 ±21 Ma durante um evento M de fácies xistos verdes do metamorfismo regional. Durante o evento M, a hornblenda foi recristalizada e formou a assembléia actinolita + oligoclásio + microclínio + epidoto + titanita + monazita. Estes eventos foram a manifesta