Komárek, Jiří; Ventura, S.; Turicchia, S.; Komárková, Jaroslava; Mascalchi, C.; Soldati, E.
Roč. 158, č. 117 (2005), s. 265-278 ISSN 0342-1120. [Symposium of the International Association for Cyanophyte Research /16./. Luxembourg, 30.08.2004-03.09.2004] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6005309; GA AV ČR KSK6005114; GA MŠk(CZ) ME 653 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : Cyanobacteria * alkaline marshes * Central Amerika Subject RIV: EF - Botanics
Camporese, A; Balick, M J; Arvigo, R; Esposito, R G; Morsellino, N; De Simone, F; Tubaro, A
Twenty-one extracts from seven herbal drugs, Aristolochia trilobata (Aristolochiaceae) leaves and bark, Bursera simaruba (Burseraceae) bark, Guazuma ulmifolia (Sterculiaceae) bark, Hamelia patens (Rubiaceae) leaves and Syngonium podophyllum (Araceae) leaves and bark, used in traditional medicine of Belize (Central America) as deep and superficial wound healers, were evaluated for their anti-bacterial properties. Activity was tested against standard strains of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212. Almost all the extracts were able to inhibit the growth of one or more of the bacterial strains, except that of Enterococcus faecalis. For the first time an anti-microbial activity is reported for Aristolochia trilobata as well as for Syngonium podophyllum. The hexane extracts of Aristolochia trilobata leaves and bark were the most active extracts against Staphylococcus aureus (MIC=0.31 and 0.625mg/ml, respectively).
Lighty, R.G.; Russell, K.L.
Transect mapping and petrologic studies reveal a new depositional model and limited diagenesis of a well-exposed Pleistocene reef outcrop at Ambergris Cay, northern Belize. This emergent shelf-edge reef forms a rocky wave-washed headland at the northern terminus of the present-day 250 km long flourishing Belize Barrier Reef. Previously, the Belize reef outcrop was thought to extend southward in the subsurface beneath the modern barrier reef as a Pleistocene equivalent. The authors study indicate that this outcrop is a large, coral patch reef and not part of a barrier reef trend. Sixteen transects 12.5 m apart described in continuous cm increments from fore reef to back reef identified: extensive deposits of broken Acropora cervicornis; small thickets of A. palmata with small, oriented branches; and muddy skeletal sediments with few corals or reef rubble. Thin section and SEM studies show three phases of early submarine cementation: syntaxial and rosette aragonite; Mg-calcite rim cement and peloids; and colloidal Mg-calcite geopetal fill. Subaerial exposure in semi-arid northern Belize caused only minor skeletal dissolution, some precipitation of vadose whisker calcite, and no meteoric phreatic diagenesis. Facies geometry, coral assemblages, lack of rubble deposits, coralline algal encrustations and Millepora framework, and recognition of common but discrete submarine cements, all indicate that this Pleistocene reef was an isolated, coral-fringed sediment buildup similar to may large patch reefs existing today in moderate-energy shelf environments behind the modern barrier reef in central and southern Belize.
Allen, Aarin Conrad; Beck, Cathy A.; Bonde, Robert K.; Powell, James A.; Gomez, Nicole Auil
Belize contains important habitat for Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) and provides refuge for the highest known population density of this subspecies. As these animals face impending threats, knowledge of their dietary habits can be used to interpret resource utilization. The contents of 13 mouth, 6 digestive tract (stomach, duodenum and colon), and 124 fecal samples were microscopically examined using a modified point technique detection protocol to identify key plant species consumed by manatees at two important aggregation sites in Belize: Southern Lagoon and the Drowned Cayes. Overall, 15 different items were identified in samples from manatees in Belize. Five species of seagrasses (Halodule wrightii, Thalassia testudinum, Ruppia maritima, Syringodium filiforme, and Halophila sp.) made up the highest percentage of items. The red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle), was also identified as an important food item. Algae (Ulva sp., Chara sp., Lyngbya sp.) and invertebrates (sponges and diatoms) were also consumed. Variation in the percentage of seagrasses, other vascular plants, and algae consumption was analyzed as a 4-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) with main effects and interactions for locality, sex, size classification, and season. While sex and season did not influence diet composition, differences for locality and size classification were observed. These results suggest that analysis of diet composition of Antillean manatees may help to determine critical habitat and use of associated food resources which, in turn can be used to aid conservation efforts in Belize.
Mazzullo, S.J.; Anderson-Underwood, K.E.; Burke, C.D.; Bischoff, W.D. (Wichita State Univ., KS (United States))
Coral patch reefs are major components of Holocene platform carbonate facies systems in tropical and subtropical areas. The biotic composition, growth and relationship to sea level history, and diagenetic attributes of a representative Holocene patch reef ([open quotes]Elmer Reef[close quotes]) in the Mexico Rocks complex in northern Belize are described and compared to those of Holocene patch reefs in southern Belize. Elmer Reef has accumulated in shallow (2.5 m) water over the last 420 yr, under static sea level conditions. Rate of vertical construction is 0.3-0.5 m/100 yr, comparable to that of patch reefs in southern Belize. A pronounced coral zonation exists across Elmer Reef, with Monastrea annularis dominating on its crest and Acropora cervicornis occurring on its windward and leeward flanks. The dominance of Montastrea on Elmer Reef is unlike that of patch reefs in southern Belize, in which this coral assumes only a subordinate role in reef growth relative to that of Acropora palmata. Elmer Reef locally is extensively biodegraded and marine, fibrous aragonite and some bladed high-magnesium calcite cements occur throughout the reef section, partially occluding corallites and interparticle pores in associated sands. Patch reefs in southern Belize have developed as catch-up and keep-up reefs in a transgressive setting. In contrast, the dominant mode of growth of Elmer Reef, and perhaps other patch reefs in Mexico Rocks, appears to be one of lateral rather than vertical accretion. This style of growth occurs in a static sea level setting where there is only limited accommodation space because of the shallowness of the water, and such reefs are referred to as [open quotes]expansion reefs[close quotes]. 39 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.
Noninvasive individual and species identification of jaguars (Panthera onca), pumas (Puma concolor) and ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) in Belize, Central America using cross-species microsatellites and faecal DNA.
Wultsch, Claudia; Waits, Lisette P; Kelly, Marcella J
There is a great need to develop efficient, noninvasive genetic sampling methods to study wild populations of multiple, co-occurring, threatened felids. This is especially important for molecular scatology studies occurring in challenging tropical environments where DNA degrades quickly and the quality of faecal samples varies greatly. We optimized 14 polymorphic microsatellite loci for jaguars (Panthera onca), pumas (Puma concolor) and ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) and assessed their utility for cross-species amplification. Additionally, we tested their reliability for species and individual identification using DNA from faeces of wild felids detected by a scat detector dog across Belize in Central America. All microsatellite loci were successfully amplified in the three target species, were polymorphic with average expected heterozygosities of HE = 0.60 ± 0.18 (SD) for jaguars, HE = 0.65 ± 0.21 (SD) for pumas and HE = 0.70 ± 0.13 (SD) for ocelots and had an overall PCR amplification success of 61%. We used this nuclear DNA primer set to successfully identify species and individuals from 49% of 1053 field-collected scat samples. This set of optimized microsatellite multiplexes represents a powerful tool for future efforts to conduct noninvasive studies on multiple, wild Neotropical felids. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Bangs, Michael J
During a 9-month study (1995-1996) in Caledonia Village, northern Belize, anopheline mosquitoes collected off human-bait and from experimental huts were evaluated for their susceptibility and behavioral responses to DDT and deltamethrin...
Full Text Available Foraging habitats of juveniles of the Mayan cichlid, Cichlasoma urophthalmus (Günther, 1862, were investigated in two mangrove ponds located in Twin Cays offshore islet in Belize: Sink Hole pond (SH and Hidden Lake pond (HL. Sink Hole pond is a semiclosed body of water, whereas Hidden Lake pond is connected by a channel to adjacent seagrass beds that surround the islet. Gut contents of 21 juvenile C. urophthalmus (9.8-13.2 cm total length were analyzed, and five prey taxa were identified. In both mangrove ponds, C. urophthalmus were opportunistic carnivores and consumed primarily crustaceans. Plant material and detritus present in gut contents were most likely ingested incidentally when the fish foraged on small invertebrates. Carbon isotopic values of fish specimens from the two ponds were similar (mean ± SD of -19.2 ± 0.4‰ in SH and -19.4 ± 0.4‰ in HL, and were close to those of mangrove prey (mean ± SD = -20.2 ± 1.5‰, suggesting that this fish species forages in this habitat. Mixing models showed a higher contribution of mangrove food sources to the fish diet than seagrass food sources. This study reveals that young Mayan cichlids, inhabiting two Belize mangrove ponds, are generalists and opportunistic carnivores that forage on mangrove food sources and do not appear to move to adjacent seagrass beds to complement their diets. Understanding trophic linkages between aquatic consumers and food resources may contribute to better management of threatened coastal ecosystems.
This article reviews the literature on migration and HIV/AIDS in Mexico and Central America, including Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Panama. Most migrants travel to the US through Mexico. US-Mexico trade agreements created opportunities for increased risk of HIV transmission. The research literature focuses on Mexico. Most countries, with the exception of Belize and Costa Rica, are sending countries. Human rights of migrants are violated in transit and at destination. Migration policies determine migration processes. The Mexican-born population in the US is about 3% of US population and 8% of Mexico's population. About 22% arrived during 1992-97, and about 500,000 are naturalized US citizens. An additional 11 million have a Mexican ethnic background. Mexican migrants are usually economically active men who had jobs before leaving and were urban people who settled in California, Texas, Illinois, and Arizona. Most Mexican migrants enter illegally. Many return to Mexico. The main paths of HIV transmission are homosexual, heterosexual, and IV-drug-injecting persons. Latino migrants frequently use prostitutes, adopt new sexual practices including anal penetration among men, greater diversity of sexual partners, and use of injectable drugs.
Droxler, A. W.; Agar Cetin, A.; Bentley, S. J.
This study focuses on the last 1500 yr precipitation record archived in the mixed carbonate/siliciclastic sediments accumulated in the Belize Central Shelf Lagoon, part of the Yucatan Peninsula eastern continental margin, proximal to the land areas where the Mayan Civilization thrived and then abruptly collapsed. This study is mainly based upon the detailed analyses of cores, BZE-RH-SVC-58 and 68, retrieved in 30 and 19 m of water depth from Elbow Caye Lagoon and English Caye Channel, respectively. The core timeframe is well-constrained by AMS radiocarbon dating of benthic foraminifera, Quinqueloculina. Carbonate content was determined by carbonate bomb, particle size fractions with a Malvern Master Sizer 2000 particle size analyzer, and element (Ti, Si, K, Fe, Al, Ca, and Sr) counts via X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF). The variations of elements such as Ti and K counts, and Ti/Al in these two cores have recorded, in the past past 1500 years, the weathering rate variations of the adjacent Maya Mountain, defining alternating periods of high precipitation and droughts, linked to large climate fluctuations and extreme events, highly influenced by the ITCZ latitudinal migration. The CE 800-900 century just preceding the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), characterized by unusually low Ti counts and Ti/Al, is interpreted to represent a time of low precipitation and resulting severe droughts in the Yucatan Peninsula, contemporaneous with the Mayan Terminal Classic Collapse. High Ti counts and Ti/Al, although highly variable, during the MCA (CE 900-1350) are interpreted as an unusually warm period characterized by two 100-to-250 years-long intervals of higher precipitation when the number of tropical cyclones peaked. These two intervals of high precipitation during the MCA are separated by a century (CE 1000 -1100) of severe droughts and low tropical storm frequency coinciding with the collapse of Chichen Itza (CE 1040-1100). The Little Ice Age (CE 1350-1850), several centuries
The objective of this paper is to introduce the concept of biomass to energy issues and opportunities in Central America. In this region, made up of seven countries (Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama), the biomass sector has the potential to play a crucial role in alleviating the environmental and development predicaments faced by all economies of the region. This paper assesses the available biomass resources at the regional and country levels and gives an overview of the current utilization of biomass fuels. It also describes the overall context in which the biomass-to-energy initiatives are immersed. At the regional level, biomass energy consumption accounts for more than 50% of total energy consumption. In regard to the utilization of biomass for energy purposes, it is clear that Central America faces a critical juncture at two levels, both mainly in rural areas: in the productive sector and at the household level. The absence of sustainable development policies and practices has jeopardized the availability of biomass fuels, particularly wood. Firewood is an important source of energy for rural industries such as coffee processing, which is one of the largest productive activities in the region. This paper comments on some of the most successful technological innovations already in place in the region, for instance, the rapid development of co-generation projects by the sugar cane industry, especially in El Salvador and Guatemala, the substitution of coffee husks for firewood in coffee processing plants in Costa Rica and El Salvador and the sustainable use of pine forests for co-generation in Honduras. Only one out of every two inhabitants in Central America now has access to electricity from the public grid. Biomass fuels, mainly firewood but also, to a lesser extent, other crop residues such as corn stalks, are the main source of energy for cooking and heating by most of the population. (It is foreseen that by the end
Interracial Books for Children Bulletin, 1982
In order to provide information missing from elementary and secondary educational materials, briefly reviews the history, geography, and current political, economic, demographic, and social characteristics of El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua. Some information is also given about Costa Rica, Panama, and Belize.
This news brief reports that 66% of deforestation in Central America has happened in the past 40 years, based on World Conservation Union (WCU) data. Deforestation is expected to continue. The population of Central America and Mexico grew by 28% between 1977 and 1987. Growth is decreasing but remains high at 2.5% in all countries of the region except Panama. 29 million was the regional population in 1990; the projection is for 63 million by 2025. Population is migrating to urban centers. Forests declined by 13% and croplands increased from 4% to 13% of total land area and pasture land from 2% to 37%. There was an increase in unproductive land from 145 to 24%, i.e., 50% of El Salvador's land had soil degradation as does 30% of Guatemala's. In addition to deforestation and soil degradation, there has been soil erosion leading to sedimentation buildup near dam sites and in rivers, which diminishes hydroelectric power capability. Silting also affects groundwater resources, which impact on a safe drinking water supply. Population growth results in increased demand for fuelwood, urban land, and agricultural land. New techniques practiced widely are needed in order to meet the region's needs or demands. Slowing population growth buys time for adjusting to the necessary changes needed for sustaining the region's population. WCU urges conservation organizations to raise awareness about the role population plays in environmental degradation, and to support efforts to reduce birth rates. Women's status needs to be improved through income-generating projects, for instance, and cooperation is needed between conservation groups and organizations involved with improving maternal and child health.
Michael K Steinberg
Full Text Available Belize has emerged as an international leader in jaguar conservation through the creation of numerous protected areas that contain prime cat habitat and by strengthening conservation laws. For example, in 1984, Belize created the Cockscomb Basin Jaguar Preserve, the first special jaguar protection area in the Americas. In 1995, the government expanded Cockscomb by creating the adjacent Chiquibul National Park. In 2010, the government continued this commitment to jaguar conservation by creating the Labouring Creek Jaguar Corridor Wildlife Sanctuary in central Belize. As a result of these protected areas, Belize has been rightfully lauded as a leader in nature-based tourism and protected areas creation in Central America. However, outside national parks and communities that directly benefit from ecotourism, it is less clear how supportive rural residents are of cat conservation. It is also not clear if jaguars persist outside protected areas in locations such as southern Belize, where the environment has been significantly altered by human activities. Through interviews with Mayan hunters, this paper investigates the attitudes towards jaguars, human-jaguar conflicts, and potential community-based jaguar conservation in two Mayan villages in the Toledo District in southern Belize. Also, using indirect methods, the paper documents the presence/absence and other temporal/spatial aspects of jaguars in a heavily altered landscape in southern Belize.
Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, El Salvador, Honduras, Guatemala, Belize, southern Mexico and parts of Cuba and Jamaica are all seen in this image from NASA's Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The dominant feature of the northern part of Central America is the Sierra Madre Range, spreading east from Mexico between the narrow Pacific coastal plain and the limestone lowland of the Yucatan Peninsula. Parallel hill ranges sweep across Honduras and extend south, past the Caribbean Mosquito Coast to lakes Managua and Nicaragua. The Cordillera Central rises to the south, gradually descending to Lake Gatun and the Isthmus of Panama. A highly active volcanic belt runs along the Pacific seaboard from Mexico to Costa Rica.High-quality satellite imagery of Central America has, until now, been difficult to obtain due to persistent cloud cover in this region of the world. The ability of SRTM to penetrate clouds and make three-dimensional measurements has allowed the generation of the first complete high-resolution topographic map of the entire region. This map was used to generate the image.Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, red, and magenta, to white at the highest elevations.For an annotated version of this image, please select Figure 1, below: [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (Large image: 9 mB jpeg)Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect
This discussion of Central America focuses on the rapid growth of its population, its stagnating economy, and those countries that are socioeconomically advanced. Between 1950-85 the population of Central America tripled, from 9.1 million to 26. 4 million, due to marked mortality declines and the absence of off-setting fertility declines. The distribution of Central Americas's growing populations sets its population growth apart from that of other developing regions. Currently, almost half of all Central Americans live in cities. Although the average growth rate for Central American countries has fallen and is expected to drop further, the decline does not counterbalance the effect of the absolute rise in population numbers. The average annual growth rate of more than 3% annually in the 1960s fell to about 2.6% in recent years, but this decline is due primarily to socioeconomically advanced Costa Rica and Panama. Central America's age structure further complicates the population crisis. About 43% of Central Americans are under the age of 15. When the increasingly larger young population group enters it reproductive years, the potential for future growth (albeit the falling rate of population increase) is unparalleled. UN population projections show the region's population at 40 million by the year 2000. The 1973 oil crisis began a downward spiral for the buoyant post World War II Central American economy. Between 1950-79, real per capita income growth in Central America doubled, with Central American economies growing an average of 5.3% annually. By the early 1980s, overseas markets of the trade-dependent countries of Central America had dried up due to protectionism abroad and slumping basic commodity prices. These and other factors plunged Central America into its current economic malaise of falling real per capita income, rising unemployment, curtailed export led economic growth, and a rising cost of living. In general, economic growth in Central America
Full Text Available The Maya civilization of Central America prompts visions of mysterious stone temples now buried in tropical forest. It is commonly supposed to have collapsed suddenly in the ninth century AD, but some Maya settlements, such as Lamanai, survived into the colonial period. Here a new member of the Institute's academic staff gives a personal account of how working in Belize transformed her understanding of Maya civilization and its aftermath.
Roessingh, C.H.; Darwish, K.
Belize iss a relative small country in Central America, which is enclosed by Mexico in the north and by Guatemala in the west and south. The country has a multi-ethnic population consisting of, amongst others, Mestizos, Creoles, Garinagu, Maya's, Mennonites, Chinese and East Indian. One of the
Hunter, M.E.; Auil-Gomez, N. E.; Tucker, K.P.; Bonde, R.K.; Powell, J.; McGuire, P.M.
The Antillean subspecies of the West Indian manatee Trichechus manatus is found throughout Central and South America and the Caribbean. Because of severe hunting pressure during the 17th through 19th centuries, only small populations of the once widespread aquatic mammal remain. Fortunately, protections in Belize reduced hunting in the 1930s and allowed the country's manatee population to become the largest breeding population in the Wider Caribbean. However, increasing and emerging anthropogenic threats such as coastal development, pollution, watercraft collision and net entanglement represent challenges to this ecologically important population. To inform conservation and management decisions, a comprehensive molecular investigation of the genetic diversity, relatedness and population structure of the Belize manatee population was conducted using mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA. Compared with other mammal populations, a low degree of genetic diversity was detected (HE=0.455; NA=3.4), corresponding to the small population size and long-term exploitation. Manatees from the Belize City Cayes and Southern Lagoon system were genetically different, with microsatellite and mitochondrial FST values of 0.029 and 0.078, respectively (P≤0.05). This, along with the distinct habitats and threats, indicates that separate protection of these two groups would best preserve the region's diversity. The Belize population and Florida subspecies appear to be unrelated with microsatellite and mitochondrial FST values of 0.141 and 0.63, respectively (P≤0.001), supporting the subspecies designations and suggesting low vagility throughout the northern Caribbean habitat. Further monitoring and protection may allow an increase in the Belize manatee genetic diversity and population size. A large and expanding Belize population could potentially assist in the recovery of other threatened or functionally extinct Central American Antillean manatee populations.
Full Text Available – Terror in the Countryside. Campesino Responses to Political Violence in Guatemala, 1954-1985, by Rachel A. May. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Center for International Studies/Research in International Studies/Latin America Series #35, 2001. – La guerrilla fue mi camino. Epitafio para César Montes, by Julio César Macías. Guatemala: Piedra Santa/Colección Afluentes de Modernidad, 1999. – Testigo de conciencia (Periodismo de Opinión Documentado, by Marco A. Mérida. Guatemala: ARCASAVI, 2000. – Centroamérica 2002. Un nuevo modelo de desarrollo regional, edited by Klaus Bodemer and Eduardo Gamarra. Caracas: Nueva Sociedad, 2002. – Who Governs? Guatemala Five years After the Peace Accords, by Rachel Sieder, Megan Thomas, George Vickers and Jack Spence. Cambridge, Mass.: Hemispheric Initiatives/Washington Office on Latin America (WOLA, January 2002. – Pasos hacia una nueva convivencia: Democracia y participación en Centroamérica, edited by Ricardo Córdova Macías, Günther Maihold and Sabina Kurtenbach. San Salvador: FUNDAUNGO, Instituto de Estudios Iberoamericanos de Hamburgo and Instituto Iberoamericano de Berlin, 2001. – Los desafíos de la democracia en Centroamérica, by René Poitevin and Alexander Sequén-Mónchez. Guatemala: FLACSO, 2002. – Más allá de las elecciones: Diez años después de los acuerdos de paz, edited by Hector Dada Hirezi. San Salvador: FLACSO, 2002. – Guatemala, un proyecto inconcluso: La multiculturalidad, un paso hacia la democracia, by Hugo Cayzac. Guatemala: FLACSO, 2001. – La violencia en el contexto del posconflicto, según la percepción de comunidades urbanas pobres de Guatemala, by Caroline Moser and Cathy McIlwaine. Washington/Bogotá: Banco Mundial-Región de Latinoamérica y el Caribe/Tercer Mundo Editores, 2001. – El lado oscuro de la eterna primavera. Violencia, criminalidad y delincuencia en la postguerra, by Manolo Vela, Alexander Sequén-Mónchez and Hugo Antonio Solares
Roy A. Wong-McClure
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To report the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS as found by the Central American Diabetes Initiative (CAMDI study for five major Central American populations: Belize (national; Costa Rica (San José; Guatemala (Guatemala City; Honduras (Tegucigalpa; and Nicaragua (Managua. METHODS: Study data on 6 185 adults aged 20 years or older with anthropometric and laboratory determination of MetS from population-based surveys were analyzed. Overall, the survey response rate was 82.0%. MetS prevalence was determined according to criteria from the Adult Treatment Panel III of the National Cholesterol Education Program. The study's protocol was reviewed and approved by the bioethical committee of each country studied. RESULTS: The overall standardized prevalence of MetS in the Central American region was 30.3% (95% confidence interval (CI: 27.1-33.4. There was wide variability by gender and work conditions, with higher prevalence among females and unpaid workers. The standardized percentage of the population free of any component of MetS was lowest in Costa Rica (9.0%; CI: 6.5-11.4 and highest in Honduras (21.1%; CI: 16.4-25.9. CONCLUSIONS: Overall prevalence of MetS in Central America is high. Strengthening surveillance of chronic diseases and establishing effective programs for preventing cardiovascular diseases might reduce the risk of MetS in Central America.
Wesseling, Catharina; Aragón, Aurora; Morgado, Hugo; Elgstrand, Kaj; Hogstedt, Christer; Partanen, Timo
The 12.4 million economically active population (EAP) of the seven Central American countries includes a large informal sector. Social security covers only 14-60%. No surveillance of occupational safety and health (OSH) hazards or accidents exists. Extrapolating the incidence of occupational accidents among insured Costa Rican workers to the Central American EAP yields two million accidents yearly, still a gross underestimate. Occupational diseases are underreported, misdiagnosed, and not recognized as such. A number of regional OSH programs aim at modernization of the labor administrations and address the formal sector, in particular textile maquila, in connection with free trade agreements. The weak role of the ministries of health is expected to strengthen under the Pan American Health Organization OSH program. Employers largely influence new policies. Workers' influence on OSH policies has been weak, with only about 10% unionization rate and scarce resources and OSH knowledge. Informal workers, however, are getting organized. OSH research is underdeveloped and not linked to policy making. Construction, agriculture, and general un/underemployment are considered priorities for intervention. The informal sector needs to be included in national and regional OSH policies. Regional collaboration and international development support are of strategic importance to achieve sustainable improvement in OSH.
García-Morales, Alma Estrella; Elías-Gutiérrez, Manuel
Rotifer samples were obtained from 29 localities in northern Guatemala and central-southern Belize during March 2000 and June 2001. A total of 119 species were identified. Ten selected taxa are illustrated and commented: Euchlanis semicarinata, Lepadella apsicora, L. cryphaea, Lecane curvicornis f. lofuana, L. whitfordi, Monommata maculata, Scaridium bostjani, Trichocerca elongata f. braziliensis, and Z. hollaerti. The species Lepadella rhomboidula is a first record for the American Continent. The species are 71% cosmopolitan, 6 % tropicopolitan, and 4.2 % restricted to the subtropics. The Guatemala species number range was Petén-Itza lake (53 taxa), and Raxruja pool (three). La Democracia pool (49 taxa), and the Blue Hole sink-hole (six species) were the extremes in Belize. In total, 68 of the recorded taxa are new for Guatemala and 91 for Belize. Additionally, 47 species are registered by the first time in Central America. A comparison between these two countries and Mexico revealed that the south part of the latter conform a cluster with them, emphasizing the transitional character of this region between the Nearctics and the Neotropics. Furthermore, Guatemala and Belize have differences in species assemblages, as a response to the nature of their particular environments and topographical accidents.
Full Text Available Many coral reefs in the Caribbean experienced substantial changes in their benthic community composition during the last decades. This often resulted in phase shifts from scleractinian coral dominance to that by other benthic invertebrate or algae. However, knowledge about how the related role of coral-algae contacts may negatively affect corals is scarce. Therefore, benthic community composition, abundance of algae grazers, and the abundance and character of coral-algae contacts were assessed in situ at 13 Belizean reef sites distributed along a distance gradient to the Belizean mainland (12–70 km: Mesoamerican Barrier Reef (inshore, Turneffe Atoll (inner and outer midshore, and Lighthouse Reef (offshore. In situ surveys revealed significantly higher benthic cover by scleractinian corals at the remote Lighthouse Reef (26–29% when compared to the other sites (4–19%. The abundance of herbivorous fish and the sea urchin Diadema antillarum significantly increased towards the offshore reef sites, while the occurrence of direct coral-algae contacts consequently increased significantly with decreasing distance to shore. About 60% of these algae contacts were harmful (exhibiting coral tissue damage, pigmentation change, or overgrowth for corals (mainly genera Orbicella and Agaricia, particularly when filamentous turf algae were involved. These findings provide support to the hypothesis that (turf algae-mediated coral damage occurs in Belizean coastal, near-shore coral reefs.
savanna region ofSurinam. Documenta Med. Geogr. Trop.4: 171-174. Casas , M., D.N. Bown and M.H. Rodriguez. 1994. Intradomicillary pre-and postfeeding...adenosine diphosphate (ADP) or adenosine monophospate ( AMP ). Based on this infonnation, many researchers have incorporated ATP into the blood meal to serve
Wild, Christian; Jantzen, Carin; Kremb, Stephan Georg
Many coral reefs in the Caribbean experienced substantial changes in their benthic community composition during the last decades. This often resulted in phase shifts from scleractinian coral dominance to that by other benthic invertebrate or algae. However, knowledge about how the related role of coral-algae contacts may negatively affect corals is scarce. Therefore, benthic community composition, abundance of algae grazers, and the abundance and character of coral-algae contacts were assessed in situ at 13 Belizean reef sites distributed along a distance gradient to the Belizean mainland (12-70 km): Mesoamerican Barrier Reef (inshore), Turneffe Atoll (inner and outer midshore), and Lighthouse Reef (offshore). In situ surveys revealed significantly higher benthic cover by scleractinian corals at the remote Lighthouse Reef (26-29%) when compared to the other sites (4-19%). The abundance of herbivorous fish and the sea urchin Diadema antillarum significantly increased towards the offshore reef sites, while the occurrence of direct coral-algae contacts consequently increased significantly with decreasing distance to shore. About 60% of these algae contacts were harmful (exhibiting coral tissue damage, pigmentation change, or overgrowth) for corals (mainly genera Orbicella and Agaricia), particularly when filamentous turf algae were involved. These findings provide support to the hypothesis that (turf) algae-mediated coral damage occurs in Belizean coastal, near-shore coral reefs.
20: 98-271. Lourenco-de-Oliveira, R., Guimaraes, A. E., Arle, M., da Silva, T.F., Castro, M.G., Motta , M.A. and Deane, L.M. 1989. Anopheline...Med. 21: 559-566. Lourenco-de-Oliveira, R., Guimaraes, A. E., Arle, M., da Silva, T.F., Castro, M.G., Motta , M.A. and Deane, L.M. 1989...Plasmodium vivax sporozoite rates from Anopheles albimanus in southern Chiapas, Mexico. J. Parasitol. 80: 489-493. Ramsey, J.M., Bown, D.N., Aron
Many coral reefs in the Caribbean experienced substantial changes in their benthic community composition during the last decades. This often resulted in phase shifts from scleractinian coral dominance to that by other benthic invertebrate or algae. However, knowledge about how the related role of coral-algae contacts may negatively affect corals is scarce. Therefore, benthic community composition, abundance of algae grazers, and the abundance and character of coral-algae contacts were assessed in situ at 13 Belizean reef sites distributed along a distance gradient to the Belizean mainland (12–70 km): Mesoamerican Barrier Reef (inshore), Turneffe Atoll (inner and outer midshore), and Lighthouse Reef (offshore). In situ surveys revealed significantly higher benthic cover by scleractinian corals at the remote Lighthouse Reef (26–29%) when compared to the other sites (4–19%). The abundance of herbivorous fish and the sea urchin Diadema antillarum significantly increased towards the offshore reef sites, while the occurrence of direct coral-algae contacts consequently increased significantly with decreasing distance to shore. About 60% of these algae contacts were harmful (exhibiting coral tissue damage, pigmentation change, or overgrowth) for corals (mainly genera Orbicella and Agaricia), particularly when filamentous turf algae were involved. These findings provide support to the hypothesis that (turf) algae-mediated coral damage occurs in Belizean coastal, near-shore coral reefs.
project between the Department of Entomology, Walter Reed Army Institute of Re- search, Silver Spring, MD; the Division of Preven- tive Medicine and...Department of Preventive Medicine and Biometrics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD 20814. 6 Department of Environmental...September 7, 1990. Cleared area; ground pool (5.0 X 5.0 m) in recently cut mangrove swamp; water stagnant, pH 8.4, C 990; floating Lemna sp
Vail, V.; Moore, I.; Nadel, D.
Various methods of controlling the medfly are available and include the use of insecticides, bait sprays and the sterile insect technique (SIT). Each of these control strategies may be used alone or in sequence. With regard to the application of the SIT, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture through its Insect and Pest Control Section and Entomology Laboratory is in an excellent position to assist in containing the medfly in Central America. For the past 12 years, the laboratory has participated in all phases of medfly control by sterile insect releases in various climates. This involvement has included planning of medfly campaigns, development of pre-release techniques (bait spraying, trapping, etc.) and shipment and release of sterilized medflies. Small-scale field tests utilizing the SIT have been carried out by nine countries: Italy (Procida, Capri), Spain, Cyprus, Israel, Tunisia, Peru, Panama, Costa Rica and Nicaragua. Other field projects presently being counselled and serviced are located in Argentina, Venezuela and the Canary Islands. The research and development that are still needed to effectively stabilize and gain control of the medfly situation in Central America include: The development and use of effective quarantine procedures in various countries; Development of effective conventional medfly control procedures under the conditions found in Central America; Development of methods to determine the geographic origin of medflies introduced into new areas; Medfly mass production (viz. all aspects of rearing Central American strains); Assessing the performance (competitiveness, etc.) of various strains; Logistics, including the development of systems for releasing pre-adult stages; Genetic rearing methods: developmental research in this area is particularly promising since the preferential production of males would allow considerable savings in the rearing costs of medflies for release; Development of adequate surveillance
Full Text Available Scorpionism in the Americas occurs mainly in Mexico, northern South America and southeast Brazil. This article reviews the local scorpion fauna, available health statistics, and the literature to assess scorpionism in Central America. Notwithstanding its high toxicity in Mexico, most scorpion sting cases in Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica are produced by species in the genus Centruroides that are only mildly toxic to humans despite the existence of ion channel-active toxins in their venoms. Regional morbidity is low with the exception of Panama, where an incidence of 52 cases per 100,000 inhabitants was recorded for 2007, with 28 deaths from 1998 to 2006. Taxa belonging to the genus Tityus (also present in the Atlantic coast of Costa Rica are responsible for fatalities in Panama, with Tityus pachyurus being the most important species medically. Most Tityus species inhabiting Panama are also found in northern South America from which they probably migrated upon closure of the Panamanian isthmus in the Miocene era. Incorporation of Panama as part of the northern South American endemic area of scorpionism is thereby suggested based on the incidence of these accidents and the geographical distribution of Panamanian Tityus species.
Craig, P G; Bryan, J P; Miller, R E; Reyes, L; Hakre, S; Jaramillo, R; Krieg, R E
Little is known about the prevalence of infection with hepatitis viruses in Belize, Central America. We conducted a serologic survey among members of the Belize Defence Force (BDF), which is composed of the five major ethnic groups in Belize, to estimate prevalence rates of hepatitis A, B, and C among military-aged men and women in Belize. Of approximately 600 men and women in the BDF, 492 (82%) completed a questionnaire and blood collection. Antibody to hepatitis A was found in 94%, with similar rates by age, sex, rank, and ethnicity. Antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) was found in 31%. Rates of anti-HBc varied significantly among the ethnic groups with the lowest rates in Mestizo (5%) and Mayan Indians (9%), and significantly higher rates among Creoles (30%) and Garifuna (56%). Rates increased with increasing age from 28% in those 18-24 years old to 35% in those > or = 35 years old (P = 0.07, by chi-square test for trend). Hepatitis B surface antigen was found in 21 (4%) overall. Antibody to hepatitis C was found in two (0.4%). In this young healthy population, exposure to hepatitis A before the age of 18 is almost universal, while exposure to hepatitis B is related to age and ethnic origin.
OF STATE frOreej r1 Hon. V. H. Courtenay Belmopan 08-2167 MINISTER OF NATURAL 0 RESOURCS Hon. Florencio Marin Belmopan 08-2333 Permanent Secretary...0"C-unity Development 4. ZI’ER, Frederick Hopkins, Minister Belize Rural North Belize City Peoples United Party ’’-. of Works 5 . MARIN , Florencio...P/Health Fl)res, Sylvia Estella 5366 18th St. General & Midwifery Kings Park Lovell, Belle Claire 36 Iguana St. General & Midwifery Belize City Pike
Miranda, Gustavo Silva De; Giupponi, Alessandro Ponce De Leão; Wizen, Gil
Central America is rich in whip spider species, mainly of the genera Phrynus and Paraphrynus (Phrynidae), but also includes few registers of Charinus (Charinidae) with no description of taxa. In this paper two new species of Charinus from Belize are described and illustrated (Charinus belizensis sp. nov. and Charinus reddelli sp. nov.) being the first species named from Central America. New records of Charinus victori Armas, 2010 from Puerto Rico, a comparative table listing the differential characters of the Caribbean and Central American species, and a distributional map of those species are also provided.
Full Text Available Using panel data from Central America, this paper studies the determining factors of inflation and aggregate output fluctuations by estimating two Structural Vector Autoregressive (SVAR models. Price and output variables are included in one of the models, whereas M2 and the price of oil are additional variables in the other one. Findings of this study suggest that price is determined by the demand, while output seems to be influenced mainly by the supply shocks in that area. It was also evidenced that the price of oil does not have a significant impact on the general price level in that region.
Owen, Mark H; Inman, Kenneth A
.... Generally viewed as lagging in efforts to develop stable governments and self-sustaining economies, Mexico, Central America to include Panama and the Caribbean, henceforth Middle America, have in the...
This paper presents the development of renewable energy in Central America and the cooperation given by the European Comission in the promotion of renewable energy sources. Also discuss the current situation in energy demand in Central America and possible solutions linked to legislation that promotes the inversion of the private sector. The legal framework in each country of Central America is presented and its impact in the increasing of generation of energy through tax reductions, trading and prices
Blanco-Chao, R.; Pedoja, K.; Witt, C.; Martinod, J.; Husson, L.; Regard, V.; Audin, Laurence; Nexer, M.; Delcaillau, B.; Saillard, M.; Melnick, D.; Dumont, J.F.; Santana, E.; Navarrete, E.; Martillo, C.
The great variety of climatic conditions, tidal ranges and wave regimes of South and Central America act on a complex geology and tectonic framework. Many of the rock and cliffed coasts of South America are strongly controlled by the occurrence of extensive Cenozoic and Pleistocene sediments that crop out at the coast. Geology and the different uplift rates are a major factor in the whole coastal geomorphology of South and Central America, and consequently are a very important control of the ...
Energy sector developments in Central America and the Caribbean were discussed. Central America is composed of six small countries whose total population is 32 million. The Caribbean population is 20.5 million. Central America is generally poor in hydrocarbon reserves but the geological prospects in several of the countries are encouraging. The oil and petroleum products supply and demand picture, the main characteristics of the hydrocarbon market, structure of the oil industry, hydrocarbon market reforms, pricing issues and recent trend towards reforms in the electric power industry in Central America were discussed. An overview of the Inter-American Development Bank's (IDB) effort to provide technical assistance and loans to strengthen the energy sector development in Central America and the Caribbean was also given. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 23 figs
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:To evaluate prevalence of cardiovascular risk among adults 40 years and older using population-based samples from six Central American countries. METHODS: Risk factors were derived from a multi-national cross-sectional survey implemented in 2003-2006, which included a sample of 4 202 participants aged 40 years and older. Charts produced by the World Health Organization and the International Society of Hypertension for the Region of the Americas sub-region B were used to predict risk on the basis of factors including age, sex, blood pressure, total serum cholesterol, smoking status, and diabetes status. RESULTS: Overall, 85.9% of the population was classified as having 20% risk. More than 75% of those with a 30-40% risk had previously been identified by health services, and an additional 23% were identified during the study, suggesting they could be diagnosed by opportunistic screening for diabetes, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. Results of bivariate analysis showed that respondents who were male, older, obese and/or less educated had higher risk for cardiovascular events, but a multivariate analysis including education indicated highest risks for older, obese, and less educated females. CONCLUSIONS: Measuring cardiovascular disease risk identifies most cases of (or at risk for diabetes, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia among adults 40 years and older. This strategy can facilitate implementation of control programs and decrease disabilities and premature mortality.
Spruce, J.P.; Dowell, B.A.; Robbins, C.S.; Sader, S.A.; Doyle, Jamie K.; Schelhas, John
Central America offers a suite of neotropical habitats vital to overwintering migrant land birds. The recent decline of many forest dwelling avian migrants is believed to be related in part to neotropical deforestation and land use change. However, spatio-temporal trends in neotropical habitat availability and avian migrant habitat use are largely unknown. Such information is needed to assess the impact of agriculture conversion on migrant land birds. In response, the USDI Fish and Wildlife Service and the University of Maine began a cooperative study in 1988 which applies remote sensing and field surveys to determine current habitat availability and avian migrant habitat use. Study sites include areas in Belize, Costa Rica, Guatemala and southern Mexico. Visual assessment of Landsat TM imagery indicates southern Belize forests are fragmented by various agricultural systems. Shifting agriculture is predominant in some areas, while permanent agriculture (citrus and mixed animal crops) is the primary system in others. This poster focuses on efforts to monitor forest to agriculture conversion in southern Belize using remote sensing, field surveys and GIS techniques. Procedures and avian migrant use of habitat are summarized.
final_eng.pdf>; Internet accessed 12 November 2002. CEPAL, “Panorama Social de America Latina 2001-2002, Documento Informativo”; available from <http... America Report, No 2, December 1995; ”; available from <http://www.us.net/cip/dialogue/9512in02htm>. Internet accessed 20 January 2003. 24 Núñez, Joseph, A...Observatorio de Seguridad y Defensa en America Latina (OSAL), Instituto Universitario Ortega y Gasset. 38 Ibid. 26 BIBLIOGRAPHY Agosin, Manuel R., David
Full Text Available Chagas disease in Central America is known since 1913 when the first human case was reported in El Salvador. The other Central American countries reported their first cases between 1933 and 1967. On October 1997 was launched the Central American Initiative for Chagas Disease Control (IPCA. The objectives of this sub-regional Initiative are: (1 the elimination of Rhodnius prolixus in Central America; (2 the reduction of the domiciliary infestation of Triatoma dimidiata; and (3 the elimination of the transfusion transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi. Significant advancements being close to the elimination of R. prolixus in Central America and the control of the transfusion transmission has been a transcendent achievement for the sub-region. The main challenges that the IPCA will have in the close future are: developing effective strategies for control and surveillance of T. dimidiata; and surveillance of other emerging triatominae species like R. pallescens, T. nitida, and T. ryckmani.
Harrington, James J.
In Central America the Cold War support of the elites by the United States was designed to ward off the communist threat. At the same time social and economic demands by the working and middle classes created revolutionary movements in the face of rigid and violent responses by Central American governments. Issues of social justice pervaded the…
Rejmánková, E.; Komárek, Jiří; Komárková, Jaroslava
Roč. 10, - (2004), s. 189-199 ISSN 1366-9516 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114; GA AV ČR IAA6005308 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : cyanobacteria * Caribbean * wetlands Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.109, year: 2002
Sachs, Paige; Diaz Rodriguez, Gloria Alicia; Briceno, Ireneo; King, Russell; Achee, Nicole L; Grieco, John P
Anopheles darlingi is a major vector for malaria in Central and South America. Behavioral, ecological, genetic, and morphologic variability has been observed across its wide distribution. Recent studies have documented that 2 distinct genotypes exist for An. darlingi: a northern lineage (Belize, Guatemala, Colombia, Venezuela, and Panama) and a southern lineage (Amazonia and southern Brazil). In order to determine if these genotypes exhibited different behavioral traits, entrance and exit movement patterns between 2 field populations of An. darlingi that represented each genotype were evaluated using experimental huts. The Belize population exhibited bimodal entrance, with peak entry occurring between 7:00-8:00 p.m. and 5:00-6:00 a.m. and peak exiting occurring between 7:00-8:00 p.m. The Peru population exhibited unimodal entrance, with peak entry occurring between 10:00-11:00 p.m. and peak exiting occurring between 11:00-12:00 a.m. with a secondary smaller peak at 2:30 a.m. Entrance and exit behavioral patterns were significantly different between the Belize and Peru populations of An. darlingi (log-rank [Mantel-Cox] P < 0.001). Information from the present study will be used in the future to determine if there is a correlation between genotype and host-seeking behavior and can be used in the present for regional vector risk assessment.
Aguilera, Roberto F.
This paper estimates a cumulative supply curve for conventional oil in the Central and South American (CSA) region. The curve includes volumes from provinces not previously assessed by other organizations, as well as reserve growth. Volumes for the previously unassessed provinces are estimated using a variable shape distribution (VSD) model. Then the volumes are allocated to CSA countries based on each country's share of proved reserves. Figures provided by the cumulative supply curve are stock variables for all time, unlike the traditional supply curve where they are flow variables that can continue from one period to the next. In this study, the fixed stock approach is used since it provides practical information with respect to the concerns that some have expressed about oil scarcity in the near future. Results indicate that Central and South American oil is more abundant than often assumed, and can be produced at costs below current market oil prices, and substantially below mid-2008 prices.
Full Text Available The data described in this article is related to the review article “Medicinal plants used in the traditional management of diabetes and its sequelae in Central America: a review” (Giovannini et al., 2016 . We searched publications on the useful plants of Central America in databases and journals by using selected relevant keywords. We then extracted reported uses of medicinal plants within the disease categories: diabetes mellitus, kidney disease, urinary problems, skin diseases and infections, cardiovascular disease, sexual dysfunction, vision loss, and nerve damage. The following countries were included in our definition of Central America: Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama. Data were compiled in a bespoke Access database. Plant names from the published sources were validated against The Plant List (TPL, (The Plant List, 2013  and accepted names and synonyms were extracted. In total, the database includes 607 plant names obtained from the published sources which correspond to 537 plant taxa, 9271 synonyms and 1055 use reports.
...., Palm Beach Holding, Inc., RailAmerica Transportation Corp., Central Railroad Company of Indianapolis... requirements of 49 U.S.C. 11323-25, for RailAmerica, Inc. (RailAmerica); Palm Beach Holding, Inc. (Palm Beach... Acquisition, RailAmerica, Palm Beach, and RTC will indirectly control DTC, because Fortress's noncarrier...
Jun 21, 2016 ... Violence against women and female homicides or femicide, is escalating across Central America. And despite the efforts of women's organizations, human rights groups, regional governments, and civil society to stem these crimes, incidents of violence against women remain vastly underreported.
The United States (US) geothermal industry, the world's most technically proficient, has been unable to achieve penetration into the markets of the developing nations. This report details the findings of an industry Trade Mission to Central America, tasked with determining the reasons for this shortfall and with developing a US industry geothermal export strategy designed to achieve immediate and long-term export benefits
According to 2014 statistics, four out of the 10 countries with the highest homicide rates in the world are in Central America. The vast majority of victims of violence are young men between the ages of 15 and 24, some of whom also risk becoming perpetrators of violence. Access to jobs, in both formal and informal labour ...
Recent studies show that water shortages in Central America and the Caribbean will be aggravated by urban growth, high poverty rates, weak institutions, and insufficient investment in water and sanitation infrastructure. Extreme climatic events are expected to further threaten water supply as well as affect economic sectors ...
Giovannini, Peter; Howes, Melanie-Jayne R; Edwards, Sarah E
Globally 387 million people currently have diabetes and it is projected that this condition will be the 7th leading cause of death worldwide by 2030. As of 2012, its total prevalence in Central America (8.5%) was greater than the prevalence in most Latin American countries and the population of this region widely use herbal medicine. The aim of this study is to review the medicinal plants used to treat diabetes and its sequelae in seven Central American countries: Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama. We conducted a literature review and extracted from primary sources the plant use reports in traditional remedies that matched one of the following disease categories: diabetes mellitus, kidney disease, urinary problems, skin diseases and infections, cardiovascular disease, sexual dysfunctions, visual loss, and nerve damage. Use reports were entered in a database and data were analysed in terms of the highest number of use reports for diabetes management and for the different sequelae. We also examined the scientific evidence that might support the local uses of the most reported species. Out of 535 identified species used to manage diabetes and its sequelae, 104 species are used to manage diabetes and we found in vitro and in vivo preclinical experimental evidence of hypoglycaemic effect for 16 of the 20 species reported by at least two sources. However, only seven of these species are reported in more than 3 studies: Momordica charantia L., Neurolaena lobata (L.) R. Br. ex Cass., Tecoma stans (L.) Juss. ex Kunth, Persea americana Mill., Psidium guajava L., Anacardium occidentale L. and Hamelia patens Jacq. Several of the species that are used to manage diabetes in Central America are also used to treat conditions that may arise as its consequence such as kidney disease, urinary problems and skin conditions. This review provides an overview of the medicinal plants used to manage diabetes and its sequelae in Central America and of
..., agent, distributor or joint-venture partner. Participants will also be invited to networking events..., and joint venture partners in Costa Rica and, if requested, their choice of El Salvador, Honduras, Guatemala, Belize, and Nicaragua, laying the foundation for successful long-term ventures taking advantage...
Jaime Edwin Martínez Ventura
Full Text Available With the expansion of organized crime in Central America, the countries in this continental sub-region have enacted a great deal of internal legislation, and have ratified international treaties at the universal, regional and Central American level, particularly after the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime took effect in 2000.This abundance of laws is very positive, and is an expression of these Central American States’ intent to fulfill their supranational obligations and provide security for their inhabitants. However, it is also negative in that it has led to dispersion, dislocation, discrepancies and inaccuracies regarding the prevailing legal regulations, because national laws have been developed with different concepts, structures, approaches, scope and definitions.Despite these conditions that are adverse to legal harmonization, Central America can move forward with matching its legislation against organized crime. Actually, there already exists an extensive common legal framework in this area, expressed in the fact that most international treaties on Organized Crime have come into force at the universal, regional and subregional levels, ratified by all or most countriesPolitical will is the common denominator that should mediate all efforts of harmonization and alignment of legislation in Central America; it is essential for proposing steps that are based on a common strategy or program.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5377/rpsp.v1i2.1359
Aragón, Aurora; Partanen, Timo; Felknor, Sarah; Corriols, Marianela
This communication summarizes the available data on work-related determinants of health in Central America. The Central American working population is young and moving from agriculture toward industry and services. Ethnicity, gender, migration, subemployment and precarious work, informality, rural conditions, low-level educational, poverty, ubiquitous worksite health hazards, insufficient occupational health services, low labor inspection density, and weak unions define the constellation of social determinants of workers' health in Central America. Data are, however, scanty both for hazards and work-related illnesses and injuries. Governments and industries have the responsibility of opening decent work opportunities, especially for those facing multiple inequalities in social determinants of health. A first step would be the ratification and implementation of the ILO Convention (187) on occupational safety and health by the seven national governments of the region.
Castillo, M A
The author examines migratory movements and their causes in Mexico, Central and South America, and the Caribbean. Sections are included on migration trends, theoretical approaches, and methodological tools before the 1970s; the shift in migratory patterns after the 1980s; macrosocial variables as a general background of current international flows; and migration policies.
abstracts see "Abstracting Sientific ed Technical Reports of Defense-Sponsored RDT&3."""- %, -’ p 4 ,’ 0 0 ." .. ’ ..\\ a U.S. Q t$74-540-847102. ... % % F...Santa Monica, CA: Rand, 1982. 10 p. Q180 .Al R16 No. 6752 THE AMERICAS AT A CROSSROADS: REPORT OF THE INTER- AMERICAN DIALOGUE. Washington, DC: Woodrow...Wilson International Center for Scholars Latin American Program, 1983. 63 p. P1408 .A65 1983 Anderson, Thomas P. POLITICS IN CENTRAL AMERICA: GUATEMALA
Jose Luis Rocha
Full Text Available In opposition to optimistic visions that present remittances as an opportunity for developing countries, this paper shows they are part and parcel of a process of economic imperialism, whereby their use and final destinations are strictly conditioned. In order to go beyond a conception of remittances as epiphenomenon, and in order to trace the role they play, this paper focuses on the transnational strategies of capital. It finds that remittances enable an increase in foreign investment and import production by facilitating the rise of a new class of consumers in Central America. Remittances create and feed a purchasing power that would not exist in their absence. Factories, fast food restaurants, communications companies, banks, travel agencies, and supermarkets are opening new branches throughout Central America in order to benefit from transnational savings that would otherwise be used differently. In this way, remittances are conditioned and co-opted by transnational capitals strategies to sustain an ever growing market, with Central America more generally and once again potentially at risk of becoming characterized by enclave economies and chronic commercial deficits. The remittance-based economic model furthermore cannot be sustainable in the long run unless Central American countries keep exporting workers ad infinitum, something that is obviously not possible.
Rainwater, Thomas R.; Wu, Ted H.; Finger, Adam G.; Canas, Jaclyn E.; Yu Lu; Reynolds, Kevin D.; Coimbatore, Gopal; Barr, Brady; Platt, Steven G.; Cobb, George P.; Anderson, Todd A.; McMurry, Scott T.
Despite high animal diversity in the Neotropics and the largely unregulated use and disposal of pesticides and industrial chemicals in Central America, few data exist regarding accumulation of environmental contaminants in Central American wildlife. In this study we examined accumulation of metals and organochlorine (OC) pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica. Scutes from Morelet's crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) from two sites in northern Belize were analyzed for metals, and scutes from American crocodiles (C. acutus) from one site in Costa Rica were analyzed for metals and OC pesticides. All scutes (n = 25; one scute from each of 25 individuals) contained multiple contaminants. Mercury was the predominant metal detected, occurring in all scutes examined from both species. Other metals detected include cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. American crocodile scutes from Costa Rica contained multiple OC pesticides, including endrin, methoxychlor, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDT, all of which occurred in 100% of scutes analyzed (n = 6). Mean metal and OC concentrations varied in relation to those previously reported in crocodilian scutes from other localities in North, Central, and South America. OC concentrations in American crocodile scutes were generally higher than those previously reported for other Costa Rican wildlife. Currently, caudal scutes may serve as general, non-lethal indicators of contaminant accumulation in crocodilians and their areas of occurrence. However, a better understanding of the relationships between pollutant concentrations in scutes, internal tissues, and environmental matrices at sample collection sites are needed to improve the utility of scutes in future ecotoxicological investigations
Rainwater, Thomas R. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)]. E-mail: email@example.com; Wu, Ted H. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Finger, Adam G. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Canas, Jaclyn E. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Yu Lu [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Reynolds, Kevin D. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Coimbatore, Gopal [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Barr, Brady [National Geographic Channel, 1145 17th St. NW Washington, DC 20036 (United States); Platt, Steven G. [Department of Biology, Box C-64, Sul Ross State University, Alpine, TX 79832 (United States); Cobb, George P. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Anderson, Todd A. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); McMurry, Scott T. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)
Despite high animal diversity in the Neotropics and the largely unregulated use and disposal of pesticides and industrial chemicals in Central America, few data exist regarding accumulation of environmental contaminants in Central American wildlife. In this study we examined accumulation of metals and organochlorine (OC) pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica. Scutes from Morelet's crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) from two sites in northern Belize were analyzed for metals, and scutes from American crocodiles (C. acutus) from one site in Costa Rica were analyzed for metals and OC pesticides. All scutes (n = 25; one scute from each of 25 individuals) contained multiple contaminants. Mercury was the predominant metal detected, occurring in all scutes examined from both species. Other metals detected include cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. American crocodile scutes from Costa Rica contained multiple OC pesticides, including endrin, methoxychlor, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDT, all of which occurred in 100% of scutes analyzed (n = 6). Mean metal and OC concentrations varied in relation to those previously reported in crocodilian scutes from other localities in North, Central, and South America. OC concentrations in American crocodile scutes were generally higher than those previously reported for other Costa Rican wildlife. Currently, caudal scutes may serve as general, non-lethal indicators of contaminant accumulation in crocodilians and their areas of occurrence. However, a better understanding of the relationships between pollutant concentrations in scutes, internal tissues, and environmental matrices at sample collection sites are needed to improve the utility of scutes in future ecotoxicological investigations.
Wrathall, D.; McSweeney, K.; Nielsen, E.; Pearson, Z.
Narcotics trafficking and drug interdiction efforts have resulted in a well-documented social crisis in Central America, but more recently, has been tightly linked to environmental catastrophe and accelerated deforestation in transit zones. This talk will outline synthesis findings from multi-country, interdisciplinary research on cocaine trafficking as an engine of forest loss in Central America. During the "narco-boom" of the mid-2000s, we observed a geographical evolution of cocaine flows into Central America, and the transit of cocaine through new spaces, accompanied by specific patterns of social and environmental change in new nodes of transit. We coarsely estimated that the total amount of cocaine flowing through Central America increased from 70 metric tons in 2000 to 350 mt in 2012, implying that total cocaine trafficking revenue in the region increased from roughly 600 million dollars to 3.5 billion in that time. We describe the mechanism by which these locally captured cocaine rents resulted in a rapid conversion of forest into cattle pasture. Narco-traffickers are drawn to invest in the cattle economy, as a direct means of laundering and formalizing proceeds. Ranching is a land intensive activity, and new narco-enriched cattle pastures can be isolated from other forms forest loss solely by their spatial and temporal change characteristics. A preliminary forest change study in Honduras, for example, indicated that areas of accelerated deforestation were in close proximity to known narcotics trafficking routes and were thirteen times more extensive on average than other forest clearings. Deforested areas commonly appeared in isolated and biodiverse lowland tropical rainforest regions that often intersected with protected areas and indigenous reserves. We find that narco-deforestation is a readily identifiable signal of the extent and health of the cocaine economy. This talk will feature summaries of both ethnographic and land cover change we have observed
The United States (US) geothermal industry, the world's most technically proficient, has been unable to achieve penetration into the markets of the developing nations. This report details the findings of an industry Trade Mission to Central America, tasked with determining the reasons for this shortfall and with developing a US industry geothermal export strategy designed to achieve immediate and long-term export benefits.
The United States (US) geothermal industry, the world`s most technically proficient, has been unable to achieve penetration into the markets of the developing nations. This report details the findings of an industry Trade Mission to Central America, tasked with determining the reasons for this shortfall and with developing a US industry geothermal export strategy designed to achieve immediate and long-term export benefits.
Wesseling, Catharina; Corriols, Marianela; Bravo, Viria
The International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations has been for 20 years the most acknowledged international initiative for reducing negative impact from pesticide use in developing countries. We analyzed pesticide use and poisoning in Central America, particularly in Costa Rica and Nicaragua, and evaluated whether registration decisions are based on such data, in accordance with the FAO Code. Extensive use of very hazardous pesticides continues in Central America and so do poisonings with organophosphates, carbamates, endosulfan and paraquat as the main causative agents. Central American governments do not carry out or commission scientific risk assessments. Instead, guidelines from international agencies are followed for risk management through the registration process. Documentation of pesticide poisonings during several decades never induced any decision to ban or restrict a pesticide. However, based on the official surveillance systems, in 2000, the ministers of health of the seven Central American countries agreed to ban or restrict twelve of these pesticides. Now, almost 4 years later, restrictions have been implemented in El Salvador and in Nicaragua public debate is ongoing. Chemical and agricultural industries do not withdraw problematic pesticides voluntarily. In conclusion, the registration processes in Central America do not comply satisfactorily with the FAO Code. However, international regulatory guidelines are important in developing countries, and international agencies should strongly extend its scope and influence, limiting industry involvement. Profound changes in international and national agricultural policies, steering towards sustainable agriculture based on non-chemical pest management, are the only way to reduce poisonings
Kellogg, James N.; Dixon, Timothy H.
In January 1988, scientists from over 25 organizations in 13 countries and territories cooperated in the largest GPS campaign in the world to date. A total of 43 GPS receivers collected approximately 590 station-days of data in American Samoa, Australia, Canada, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, New Zealand, Norway, Panama, Sweden, United States, West Germany, and Venezuela. The experiment was entitled CASA Uno. Scientific goals of the project include measurements of strain in the northern Andes, subduction rates for the Cocos and Nazca plates beneath Central and South America, and relative motion between the Caribbean plate and South America. A second set of measurements are planned in 1991 and should provide preliminary estimates of crustal deformation and plate motion rates in the region.
and malaria transmission in the Upper Orinoco River , Southern Venezuela. Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 102:303-11 112. Maheu-Giroux M, Casapia M...transmission in remote areas of human occupation. Sites along the Mazan River , utilized by many laborers to fish, extract wood, and harvest palm leaves...include lagoons, lakes, swamps, and slow flowing rivers or streams (83; 171). Often larvae are associated with floating debris or detritus patches
Juan MUÑOZ PORTILLO
Full Text Available This paper analyses the adoption of education policies in Central America and Panama during the 2010 decade in three areas: the increase in education expenditure, curricular reforms and teacher recruitment and evaluation rules. The paper argues that greater foreign direct investment and more international trade are associated with the adoption of these policies. This, in turn, relates to the incentives produced by varieties of capitalism within the region. It is hypothesised that conservative governments under systems with stronger executive powers, have a preference for policy reform in teacher recruitment and evaluation. Historical factors contribute to explain policy change in Costa Rica and the statu quo in Guatemala.
Verónica De la Torre
Full Text Available This article suggests that high levels of violence and crime in the so called North Triangle of Central America (Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras, together with the incapacity of the state of enforcing the rule of law, are causing growing anxiety among the population and are attracting the support of the community to implement authoritarian measures to fight crime. The response of the governments of the region in the face of the rise of crime and public demand for security has been the policies of "iron fist", and the use of "populist punitiveness" as a strategy to gain the backing of an electorate deeply concerned by insecurity.
Julio Alberto Acuña Martínez
Full Text Available This research aims to identify in the normative documents of some political parties in Central America, which are in harmony with their political constitutions and international instruments, the provisions that promote education and culture of peace, and to assess its effectiveness. It is documentary and its analysis is based on deductive and comparative methods, it covers the period from 1984 to 2012. This work concludes that the legal and statutory bodies in the countries studied incorporate components of education and culture of effective peace for the past twenty years in which there has been alternation of power through elections.
Goff, S.; Goff, F.
The impacts of geothermal development projects are usually positive. However, without appropriate monitoring plans and mitigation actions firmly incorporated into the project planning process, there exists the potential for significant negative environmental impacts. The authors present five examples from Central America of environmental impacts associated with geothermal development activities. These brief case studies describe landslide hazards, waste brine disposal, hydrothermal explosions, and air quality issues. Improved Environmental Impact Assessments are needed to assist the developing nations of the region to judiciously address the environmental consequences associated with geothermal development
Anzaldo, Salvatore S.
Abstract The thirty-nine extant genera of Conoderinae known to occur in North America, Central America, and the Caribbean are reviewed based on external morphology. An identification key is provided along with diagnoses, distributions, species counts, and natural history information, when known, for each genus. Morphological character systems of importance for weevil classification are surveyed, potential relationships among the tribes and genera are discussed, and groups most in need of taxonomic and phylogenetic attention are identified. The following genera are transferred to new tribes: Acoptus LeConte, 1876 from the Lechriopini to the Othippiini (new placement) and the South American genus Hedycera Pascoe, 1870 from the Lechriopini to the Piazurini (new placement). Philides Champion, 1906 and Philinna Champion, 1906 are transferred from the Lechriopini to Conoderinae incertae sedis (new placement) although their placement as conoderines is uncertain. The species Copturomimus cinereus Heller, 1895 is designated as the type species of the genus Copturomimus Heller, 1895. PMID:28769729
Salvatore S. Anzaldo
Full Text Available The thirty-nine extant genera of Conoderinae known to occur in North America, Central America, and the Caribbean are reviewed based on external morphology. An identification key is provided along with diagnoses, distributions, species counts, and natural history information, when known, for each genus. Morphological character systems of importance for weevil classification are surveyed, potential relationships among the tribes and genera are discussed, and groups most in need of taxonomic and phylogenetic attention are identified. The following genera are transferred to new tribes: Acoptus LeConte, 1876 from the Lechriopini to the Othippiini (new placement and the South American genus Hedycera Pascoe, 1870 from the Lechriopini to the Piazurini (new placement. Philides Champion, 1906 and Philinna Champion, 1906 are transferred from the Lechriopini to Conoderinae incertae sedis (new placement although their placement as conoderines is uncertain. The species Copturomimus cinereus Heller, 1895 is designated as the type species of the genus Copturomimus Heller, 1895.
Hawkes, Corinna; Thow, Anne Marie
To identify potential impacts of the Central America-Dominican Republic-Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) on food consumption patterns associated with the nutrition transition, obesity, and diet-related chronic diseases. Examination of CAFTA-DR agreement to identify measures that have the potential to affect food availability and retail prices. CAFTA-DR includes agreements on tariffs, tariff-rate quotas (TRQs), and sanitary and phytosanitary regulations with direct implications for the availability and prices of various foods. Agreements on investment, services, and intellectual property rights (IPR) are also relevant because they create a business climate more conducive to long-term investment by the transnational food industry. Trade liberalization under CAFTA-DR is likely to increase availability and lower relative prices of two food groups associated with the nutrition transition: meat and processed foods. These outcomes are expected to occur as the direct result of increased imports from the United States and increased production by U.S. companies based in Central America, and the indirect result of increased domestic meat production (due to increased availability of cheaper animal feed) and increased production of processed foods by domestic companies (due to a more competitive market environment). CAFTA-DR is likely to further the nutrition transition in Central America by increasing the consumption of meat; highly processed foods; and new, non-traditional foods. The public health community should be more aware of the implications of trade agreements for dietary health. Governments and related stakeholders should assess the coherence between changes fostered by specific trade agreements with national policies on diet and nutrition.
Charleene Cortez Sosa
Full Text Available In recent years, the migration of Cuban population has taken new directions; this is mainly due to the migration policy flexibility adopted by the Cuban government and other Latin America governments, such as Ecuador, Grenada, Trinidad and Tobago, Dominican Republic, and Haiti, among others, by issuing visas in favorable conditions for the population. Although there are varied reasons to migrate, this population has traditionally migrated motivated by the United States Cuban Adjustment Act which grants administrative advantages for regularization; no other country of the continent offers this privilege. Due to their political exile condition, whoever arrives to the United States will easily have access to legal mechanisms for migrant regularization. Although there has been great work on migration in general terms, little has been addressed on the Cuban migration in the Central American region; possibly this is due to the difficulty to find quantitative information in this regard. The article aims to facilitate the understanding of migration in a context of flexibility and establishment of new relations between the Caribbean and Central America.
Lee, Kenneth [Western New England Univ., Springfield, MA (United States)
Our team was Team MASSCA (Massachusetts and Central America), which was a partnership of Western New England University (WNE) located in Massachusetts USA, The Technological University of Panama (UTP), and Central American Technological University (UNITEC) of Honduras. Together we had a group of 6 faculty members and approximately 30 undergraduate students. Our house is ‘The EASI’ House, which stands for Efficient, Affordable, Solar Innovation. The EASI house is rectangular with two bedrooms and one bath, and offers a total square footage of 680. Based on competition estimates, The EASI house costs roughly $121,000. The EASI house has a 5kW solar system. Faculty and students from all three institutions were represented at the competition in Irvine California. Team MASSCA did well considering this was our first entry in the Solar Decathlon competition. Team MASSCA won the following awards: First Place – Affordability Contest Second Place – Energy Balance Contest. The competition provided a great experience for our students (and faculty as well). This competition provided leadership, endurance, and technical knowledge/skills for our students, and was the single most important hands-on experience during their undergraduate years. We are extremely pleased with the awards we received. At the same time we have learned from our efforts and would do better if we were to compete in the future. Furthermore, as a result of our team’s Inter-Americas collaborative effort, UTP and WNE have partnered to form Team PANAMASS (PANAma and MASSachusetts) and have developed The 3 SMART House for the inaugural Solar Decathlon Latin America & Caribbean competition held in Colombia.
Strauch, W.; Devoli, G.
We performed a reconnaissance about Early Warning Systems (EWS) on Landslides (EWSL) in the countries of Central America. The advance of the EWSL began in the 1990-ies and accelerated dramatically after the regional disaster provoked by Hurricane Mitch in 1998. In the last decade, Early Warning Systems were intensely promoted by national and international development programs aimed on disaster prevention. Early Warning on landslides is more complicated than for other geological phenomena. But, we found information on more than 30 EWSL in the region. In practice, for example in planning, implementation and evaluation of development projects, it is often not clearly defined what exactly is an Early Warning System. Only few of the systems can be classified as true EWSL that means 1) being directly and solely aimed at persons living in the well-defined areas of greatest risk and 2) focusing their work on saving lives before the phenomenon impacts. There is little written information about the work of the EWSL after the initial phase. Even, there are no statistics whether they issued warnings, if the warnings were successful, how many people were evacuated, if there were few false alerts, etc.. Actually, we did not find a single report on a successful landslide warning issued by an EWSL. The lack of information is often due to the fact that communitarian EWSL are considered local structures and do not have a clearly defined position in the governmental hierarchy; there is little oversight and no qualified support and long-term support. The EWSL suffer from severe problems as lack of funding on the long term, low technical level, and insufficient support from central institutions. Often the EWSL are implemented by NGÓs with funding from international agencies, but leave the project alone after the initial phase. In many cases, the hope of the local people to get some protection against the landslide hazard is not really fulfilled. There is one case, where an EWSL with a
Andreani, L.; Gloaguen, R.
We use a geomorphic approach in order to unravel the recent evolution of the diffuse triple junction between the North American, Caribbean, and Cocos plates in northern Central America. The complex tectonic setting produced an intricate pattern of landscapes that we try to systemize using remote sensing tectonic geomorphology and available geological and geophysical data. We classify regions with specific relief characteristics and highlight uplifted relict landscapes in northern Central America. We also analyze the drainage network from the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains in order to extract information about potential vertical displacements. Our results suggest that most of the landscapes of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains are in transient stage. Topographic profiles and morphometric maps highlight elevated relict surfaces that are characterized by a low amplitude relief. The river longitudinal profiles display upper reaches witnessing these relict landscapes while lower segments characterized by multiple knickpoints, that adjust to new base-level conditions. These results backed by published GPS and seismotectonic data allow us to refine and extend existing geodynamic models of the triple junction. Relict landscapes are delimited by faults and thus result from a tectonic control. The topography of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas evolved as the result of (1) the inland migration of deformation related to the coupling between the Chiapas Massif and the Cocos fore-arc sliver, and (2) the compression along the northern tip of the Central America Volcanic Arc. Although most of the shortening between the Cocos fore-arc sliver and the North American plate is accommodated within the Sierra de Chiapas and Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, a small part may be still transmitted to the Maya Mountains and the Belize margin through a "rigid" Petén basin.
Rojas, W.; Camacho, E. I.; Marroquín, G.; Molina, E.; Talavera, E.; Benito, M. B.; Lindholm, C.
Central America (CA) is known as a seismically active region in which several historic destructive earthquakes have occurred. This fact has promoved the development of seismic hazard studies that provide necessary estimates for decision making and risk assessment efforts, requiring a complete and standardized seismic catalog. With this aim, several authors have contributed to the study of the historical seismicity of Central America (e.g. Grases, Feldaman; White y Harlow, 1993; White et al. 2004; Ambraseys y Adams, 2001; Peraldo y Montero, 1999), who complied historical data. A first catalogue was developed by Rojas (1993) that comprises the 1522 to 1993 period. This information was integrated in 2007, together with data from the International Seismological Centre (CASC) and the national catalogs of CA countries in a new regional catalogue. Since 2007 a continuous effort has been done in order to complete and update this CA earthquake catalog. In particular, two workshops were held in 2008 and 2011 in the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (Spain), joining experts from the different CA countries who worked each one in its own catalogue covering the entire region and the border with northwestern Colombia and southern Mexico. These national catalogues were later integrated in a common regional catalogue in SEISAN format. At this aim it was necessary to solve some problems, like to avoid duplicity of events, specially close to the boundaries, to consider the different scales of magnitude adopted by different countries, to take into account the completeness by the different national networks, etc. Some solutions were adopted for obtaining a homogenized catalogue to Mw, containing historical and instrumental events with Mw > 3.5 from 1522 up to 2011. The catalogue updated to December 2007 was the basis for the first regional hazard study carried out by Benito et al., (2011) as part of the collaborative RESIS II project under coordination of NORSAR. The ones updated to
Full Text Available Data on disparities in mortality within low and middle income countries are limited, with little published data from the Caribbean or Central America. Our aim was to investigate disparities in overall and cause specific premature adult mortality in the multi-ethnic middle income country of Belize.Mortality data from Belize 2008-2010 classified using the International Classification of Diseases 10 and the 2010 census stratified by age and ethnicity were used to calculate age, sex, and ethnic specific mortality rates for those 15-59 years, and life table analysis was used to estimate the probability of death between the ages of 15 and 59 (45q15.The probability of death among those aged 15 to 59 years was 18.1% (women 13.5%, men 22.7%. Creole and Garifuna ethnic groups have three times the 45q15 probability of death compared to Mayan and Mestizo groups (Creole 31.2%, Garifuna 31.1%, Mayan 10.2%, Mestizo 12.0%. This pattern of ethnic disparity existed in both sexes but was greater in men. The probability of death from injuries was 14.8% among Creole men, more than twice the rate of other ethnicities and peaks among young Creole men. These deaths are dominated by homicides and unspecified deaths involving firearms.Marked disparities in mortality between ethnic groups exist in this Central American/Caribbean country, from rates that are typical of high-income countries to those of low-income countries. The pattern of these extreme differences likely suggests that they reflect underlying social determinants rooted in the country's colonial past.
Guevara, Leo; Castro S, Rene [Instituto Centroamericano de Administracion de Empresas (INCAE) (Costa Rica)
There are analyzed in this working paper the following aspects: the Central America countries and their relations with the regional energy potencies -Mexico and Venezuela- and the impact they have in the energy supply. There are also explore the following aspects: the San Jose Agreement linked to the fossil fuels supply, the emerging scope boosted by Brazil and Colombia regarding to the alternative fuels. [Spanish] Este trabajo analiza los paises centroamericanos y sus relaciones con las potencias energeticas regionales como Mexico y Venezuela, y como estas impactan el suministro de energia en la region. Tambien se exploran mecanismos como el Pacto de San Jose, ligado al suministro de combustibles fosiles y las oportunidades emergentes impulsadas por Brasil y Colombia con combustibles alternativos.
Andreani, L.; Gloaguen, R.
We use a geomorphic approach in order to unravel the recent evolution of the diffuse triple junction between the North American, Caribbean, and Cocos plates in northern Central America. We intend to characterize and understand the complex tectonic setting that produced an intricate pattern of landscapes using tectonic geomorphology, as well as available geological and geophysical data. We classify regions with specific relief characteristics and highlight uplifted relict landscapes in northern Central America. We also analyze the drainage network from the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains in order to extract information about potential vertical displacements. Our results suggest that most of the landscapes of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains are in a transient stage. Topographic profiles and morphometric maps highlight elevated relict surfaces that are characterized by a low-amplitude relief. The river longitudinal profiles display upper reaches witnessing these relict landscapes. Lower reaches adjust to new base-level conditions and are characterized by multiple knickpoints. These results backed by published GPS and seismotectonic data allow us to refine and extend existing geodynamic models of the triple junction. Relict landscapes are delimited by faults and thus result from a tectonic control. The topography of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas evolved as the result of (1) the inland migration of deformation related to the coupling between the Chiapas Massif and the Cocos forearc sliver and (2) the compression along the northern tip of the Central American volcanic arc. Although most of the shortening between the Cocos forearc sliver and the North American Plate is accommodated within the Sierra de Chiapas and Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, a small part may be still transmitted to the Maya Mountains and the Belize margin through a "rigid" Petén Basin.
Between 4 and 7 October 1973, during a spell of unfavourable weather, 85 North American migratory birds were found dead on board a ship sailing between Costa Rica and Belize and in the roads of Belize. They were donated to the Institute of Taxonomic Zoology, University of Amsterdam, where they were
Meza, Amalia; Mendoza, Luciano; Clara, Bianchi
Diurnal variations in atmospheric integrated water vapor (IWV) are studied employing IWV estimates, with a 30 minutes sampling rate, derived from Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) observations during the period 2007-2013. The analysis was performed in 70 GNSS tracking sites (GPS + GLONASS) belonging to Central and South America, which have more than 5 years of data. The selected area involves different climate types, from polar to tropical, and diverse relieves, therefore the patterns of IWV diurnal variations are very different for each station. There are many processes that could induce diurnal variations in atmospheric water vapor (Dai et al, 1999 a,b), the most relevant causes are: surface evapotranspiration, atmospheric large-scale vertical motion, atmospheric low-level moisture convergence and precipitation and vertical mixing (which affects the vertical distribution of water vapor but does not affect the IWV). Firstly, our work study the main characteristics of the IWV diurnal cycle (and for surface temperature, T) obtained for all stations together, using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). First and second PCA modes highlight the global main behaviors of IWV variability for all stations. The first mode on IWV represent the 70% of the variability and could be related to the surface evapotranspiration, while the second mode (27 % of the variability) is practically in counter phase to T variability (its first mode represent the 97% of the variability), therefore this mode could be related to breeze regime. Then, every station is separately analyzed and seasonal and local variations (relative to the relives) are detected, these results spotlight, among other characteristics, the sea and mountain breeze regime. This presentation shows the first analysis of IWV diurnal cycle performed over Central and South America and another original characteristic is PCA technique employed to infer the results. Reference: Dai, A., K. E. Trenberth, and T. R. Karl
Farrell, T.A.; Marion, J.L.
Protected area visitation is an important component of ecotourism, and as such, must be sustainable. However, protected area visitation may degrade natural resources, particularly in areas of concentrated visitor activities like trails and recreation sites. This is an important concern in ecotourism destinations such as Belize and Costa Rica, because they actively promote ecotourism and emphasize the pristine qualities of their natural resources. Research on visitor impacts to protected areas has many potential applications in protected area management, though it has not been widely applied in Central and South America. This study targeted this deficiency through manager interviews and evaluations of alternative impact assessment procedures at eight protected areas in Belize and Costa Rica. Impact assessment procedures included qualitative condition class systems, ratings systems, and measurement-based systems applied to trails and recreation sites. The resulting data characterize manager perceptions of impact problems, document trail and recreation site impacts, and provide examples of inexpensive, efficient and effective rapid impact assessment procedures. Interview subjects reported a variety of impacts affecting trails, recreation sites, wildlife, water, attraction features and other resources. Standardized assessment procedures were developed and applied to record trail and recreation site impacts. Impacts affecting the study areas included trail proliferation, erosion and widening, muddiness on trails, vegetation cover loss, soil and root exposure, and tree damage on recreation sites. The findings also illustrate the types of assessment data yielded by several alternative methods and demonstrate their utility to protected area managers. The need for additional rapid assessment procedures for wildlife, water, attraction feature and other resource impacts was also identified.
Flores-Figueroa, Jose; Okhuysen, Pablo C.; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Dupont, Herbert L.; Libman, Michael D.; Keystone, Jay S.; Hale, Devon C.; Burchard, Gerd; Han, Pauline V.; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Freedman, David O.; Kain, Kevin C.; Gelman, Stephanie S.; Ward, Brian; Dick Maclean, J.; Jean Haulman, N.; Roesel, David; Jong, Elaine C.; Schwartz, Eli; Stauffer, William M.; Walker, Patricia F.; Kozarsky, Phyllis E.; Franco-Paredes, Carlos; Pandey, Prativa; Murphy, Holly; Loutan, Louis; Chappuis, François; McCarthy, Anne; Connor, Bradley A.; Chen, Lin H.; Wilson, Mary E.; Lynch, Michael W.; Licitra, Carmelo; Crespo, Antonio; Caumes, Eric; Pérignon, Alice; de Vries, Peter J.; Gadroen, Kartini; Nutman, Thomas B.; Klion, Amy D.; Hynes, Noreen; Bradley Sack, R.; McKenzie, Robin; Field, Vanessa; Gurtman, Alejandra; Coyle, Christina M.; Wittner, Murray; Parola, Philippe; Simon, Fabrice; Delmont, Jean; Leder, Karin; Torresi, Joseph; Brown, Graham; Jensenius, Mogens; Wang, Andy; MacDonald, Susan; López-Vélez, Rogelio; Antonio Perez Molina, Jose; Cahill, John D.; McKinley, George; Schlagenhauf, Patricia; Weber, Rainer; Steffen, Robert; Shaw, Marc; Hern, Annemarie; Perret, Cecilia; Valdivieso, Francisca; Valdez, Luis; Siu, Hugo; Carosi, Giampiero; Castelli, Francesco; Tachikawa, Natsuo; Kurai, Hanako; Sagara, Hiroko; Kass, Robert; Barnett, Elizabeth D.; McLellan, Susan; Holtom, Paul; Goad, Jeff; Anglim, Anne; Hagmann, Stefan; Henry, Michael; Miller, Andy O.; Ansdell, Vernon; Kato, Yasuyuki; Borwein, Sarah; Anderson, Nicole; Batchelor, Trish; Meisch, Dominique; Gkrania-Klotsas, Effrossyni; Doyle, Patrick; Ghesquiere, Wayne; Piper Jenks, Nancy; Kerr, Christine; Lian Lim, Poh; Piyaphanee, Watcharapong; Silachamroon, Udomsak; Mendelson, Marc; Vincent, Peter; Africa, South; Virk, Abinash; Sia, Irene
Mexico and Central America are important travel destinations for North American and European travelers. There is limited information on regional differences in travel related morbidity. We describe the morbidity among 4779 ill travelers returned from Mexico and Central America who were evaluated at
Darold P. Batzer; Susan E. Dietz-Brantley; Barbara E. Taylor; Adrienne E. DeBiase
Forested depressional wetlands are an important seasonal wetland type across eastern and central North America. Macroinvertebrates are crucial ecosystem components of most forested depressional wetlands, but community compositions can vary widely across the region. We evaluated variation in macroinvertebrate faunas across eastern and central North America using 5...
... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Papayas from Central America and Brazil. 319.56-25... § 319.56-25 Papayas from Central America and Brazil. The Solo type of papaya may be imported into the... shipment to the United States in one of the following locations: (1) Brazil: State of Espirito Santo; all...
...-AB84) Dominican Republic--Central America--United States Free Trade Agreement AGENCIES: Customs and... the Dominican Republic--Central America--United States Free Trade Agreement. DATES: Final rule... States Free Trade Agreement (``CAFTA-DR'' or ``Agreement''). The provisions of the CAFTA-DR were adopted...
This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Belize, a Central American country bordering Mexico to the north, Guatemala to the west and south, and the Caribbean Sea to the east. Although not an island nation, Belize is included in this energy snapshot series because it is a member of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM), an alliance of 15 Caribbean nations in the region.
Lei, A.; Werne, J. P.; Correa-Metrio, A.; Pérez, L.; Caballero, M.
The potential to use bacterial derived branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) to reconstruct mean annual air temperatures from soils sparked significant interest in the terrestrial paleoclimate community, where a high-fidelity paleotemperature proxy is desperately needed. While the source of brGDGTs remains unknown (but are potentially attributed to the highly diverse phylum Acidobacteria), much evidence points to the potential for these bacteria to live not only in the terrestrial environment but also in lake water and sediments as well. Though the application of brGDGTs to lacustrine reconstructions is promising, the initial applications of soil-based MBT/CBT proxy to lacustrine sediments typically resulted in lower temperatures than were reasonable, likely due to additions from lacustrine bacterial brGDGTs. Here, we present data from a suite of >100 lakes in Mexico and Central America, producing a regional core-top calibration different from those developed in other regions. Results indicate a significant role for regional differences in controlling the brGDGTs distribution, likely due to different brGDGT-producing microbial communities thriving under varying environmental conditions. Rigorous development of brGDGT based proxies will improve our understanding of the source and applicability of these biomarkers, and increase confidence in the accuracy of paleotemperature reconstructions to numerous lacustrine records in the region.
Harlan D. Shannon
Full Text Available In recent decades, numerous weather- and climate-related natural disasters have impacted North America, Central America, and the Caribbean, repeatedly demonstrating how vulnerable local agriculture is to extreme episodic events. Given this recent history, and expectations that the frequency and intensity of some episodic events will increase with climate change, it is becoming increasingly important for farmers to proactively manage weather and climate risks to agriculture to protect their livelihoods. Some farmers in this region already apply various strategies to help reduce weather and climate risks and uncertainties, including farming in multiple locations, diversifying crops and varieties, seeking alternative sources of income, and purchasing crop insurance. Such efforts often help farmers maintain a more stable income while also protecting and preserving the productivity of the land. Other farmers, however, have failed to implement basic risk management strategies despite the clear benefits. Reasons for these failures can be attributed to inadequate farmer education and training, a lack of tools to help facilitate the practical application of risk management concepts, and poor communications between the agrometeorological and farming communities. The agrometeorological community can help overcome these obstacles by building upon existing efforts that have successfully educated farmers about weather and climate risks to agriculture and have equipped farmers with the data, tools, and applications necessary to manage these risks. Farmer input is critical to preparing effective educational and training materials and developing user-friendly risk management tools. The agrometeorological community should solicit input from farmers regularly to ensure that farmers are obtaining the information necessary to effectively manage weather and climate risks to agriculture.
Serrano, Jorge A.
This statistical bulletin provides details on the universities belonging to the Federation of Private Universities of Central America and Panama (FUPAC): Central American University, Rafael Landivar University, Saint John's College, University of Santa Maria La Antigua, Jose Simeon Canas University, Doctor Mariano Galvez University, and the…
Son, Nguyen-Thanh; Chen, Chi-Farn; Chen, Cheng-Ru
Mangrove forests provide a wide range of socioeconomic and ecological services for coastal communities. Extensive aquaculture development of mangrove waters in many developing countries has constantly ignored services of mangrove ecosystems, leading to unintended environmental consequences. Monitoring the current status and distribution of mangrove forests is deemed important for evaluating forest management strategies. This study aims to delineate the density distribution of mangrove forests in the Gulf of Fonseca, Central America with Rapideye data using the support vector machines (SVM). The data collected in 2012 for density classification of mangrove forests were processed based on four different band combination schemes: scheme-1 (bands 1-3, 5 excluding the red-edge band 4), scheme-2 (bands 1-5), scheme-3 (bands 1-3, 5 incorporating with the normalized difference vegetation index, NDVI), and scheme-4 (bands 1-3, 5 incorporating with the normalized difference red-edge index, NDRI). We also hypothesized if the obvious contribution of Rapideye red-edge band could improve the classification results. Three main steps of data processing were employed: (1), data pre-processing, (2) image classification, and (3) accuracy assessment to evaluate the contribution of red-edge band in terms of the accuracy of classification results across these four schemes. The classification maps compared with the ground reference data indicated the slightly higher accuracy level observed for schemes 2 and 4. The overall accuracies and Kappa coefficients were 97% and 0.95 for scheme-2 and 96.9% and 0.95 for scheme-4, respectively.
Alma Estrella García-Morales
Full Text Available Rotifer samples were obtained from 29 localities in northern Guatemala and central-southern Belize during March 2000 and June 2001. A total of 119 species were identified. Ten selected taxa are illustrated and commented: Euchlanis semicarinata, Lepadella apsicora, L. cryphaea, Lecane curvicornis f. lofuana, L. whitfordi, Monommata maculata, Scaridium bostjani, Trichocerca elongata f. braziliensis, and T. hollaerti. The species Lepadella rhomboidula is a first record for the American Continent. The species are 71 % cosmopolitan, 6 % tropicopolitan, and 4.2 % restricted to the subtropics. The Guatemala species number range was Petén-itza lake (53 taxa, and Raxruja pool (three. La Democracia pool (49 taxa, and the Blue Hole sink-hole (six species were the extremes in Belize. in total, 68 of the recorded taxa are new for Guatemala and 91 for Belize. Additionally, 47 species are registered by the first time in Central America. A comparison between these two countries and Mexico revealed that the south part of the latter conform a cluster with them, emphasizing the transitional character of this region between the Nearctics and the Neotropics. Furthermore, Guatemala and Belize have differences in species assemblages, as a response to the nature of their particular environments and topographical accidents. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (2: 569-584. Epub 2007 June, 29.El análisis de muestras procedentes del norte de Guatemala y centro-sur de Belice, recolectadas en marzo de 2000 y junio de 2001, dio como resultado la presencia de 119 especies. Se presenta una breve descripción de diez taxones seleccionados con base en sus distribuciones restringidas en ciertos ámbitos de América y el viejo continente: Euchlanis semicarinata, Lepadella apsicora, L. cryphaea, Lecane curvicornis f. lofuana, L. whitfordi, Monommata maculata, Scaridium bostjani, Trichocerca elongata f. braziliensis,y T. hollaerti. Por primera vez se informa Lepadella rhomboidula en el continente
Nguyen, S. T.; Chen, C. F.; Chen, C. R.
Central America is one of the world's regions most vulnerable to negative effects of agricultural drought due to impacts of climate change. Famers in the region have been confronting risks of crop damages and production losses due to intense droughts throughout the growing seasons. Drought information is thus deemed vital for policymakers to assess their crop management strategies in tackling issues of food insecurity in the region. This study aimed to delineate drought-prone areas associated with cropped areas from eight-day MODIS data in 2016 using the commonly used temperature dryness vegetation index (TVDI), calculated based on the land surface temperature (LST) and enhanced vegetation index (EVI) data. The advantages of MODIS data for agricultural drought monitoring at a national/regional scale are that it has the spatial resolution (500 m-1 km) and relatively high temporal resolution of eight days, but the data are often contaminated by clouds. Detecting and reconstructing the data under cloud-affected areas are generally a challenging task without any robust methods up to date. In this study, we reconstructed the eight-day MODIS EVI and LST data for agricultural drought assessment using machine-learning approaches. The reconstructed data were then used for drought assessment. The TVDI results verified with the soil moisture active passive (SMAP) data showed that the correlation coefficient values (r) obtained for the apante season (December-March) were between -0.4 to -0.8, while the values for the primera season (April-August) and postrera season (September-November) were in ranges of 0 to -0.6 and -0.2 to -0.7, respectively. The larger area of very dry soil moisture was generally observed during the dry season (December-April) and declined in the rainy season (May-November). The cropping areas affected by severe and moderate droughts observed for the primera season were respectively 11,846 km2 and 60,557 km2, while the values for the postera season were 14
Public Health Implications of Alcohol Industry Corporate Social Responsibility Programs (Latin America). Researchers are raising growing concerns over the impact of corporate social responsibility (CSR) programs in the alcohol industry. View morePublic Health Implications of Alcohol Industry Corporate Social ...
Chavez, A. Orozco , E.G. Loyola and A. Martinez-Palomo. 1992b. Scanning election microscopic observations ofAnopheles albimanus (Diptera; Culicidae) eggs...source (Blak-ray Lampl\\ model UVL-56, UVP, San Gabriel , CAl, floor, walls and ceiling ofhuts were carefully inspected for position and numbers ofmarked
Oepartn:Rmt <:f Preventive Medicine and Bi001¢trii;s, Uniformed Seni~ Uuiven:ity of ·the Health Sdetleffi, 4301 fo0«s Bridge Rood , &the>du. MD 20814...the human mosquito biting rate under semi-field conditions. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 26:287-94 83. Kline DL. 2006. Traps and trapping techniques for...Entomology in Malaria Part II: Methods and Techniques . Geneva: World Health Organization 159. WHO. 2003. Insect Vectors and Human Health, World Health
burgdorferi Strains in a Bird-Tick Cryptic Cycle. Applied and Environmental Microbiology , 77(6), 1999–2007. 25. Hun, L., Troyo, A., Taylor, L., Barbieri...our regular inspiring phone chats. While writing this thesis, my recommendation letter from you is pinned to my wall; reminding me of the constant...flea and tick specimens from Northern Peru. Journal of Clinical Microbiology , 42: 4961-4967. 6. Brown, R.N., Lane, R.S. (1992). Lyme disease in
The prospects for petroleum exploration and environmental awareness in Belize are discussed. It is important that Belize seek and encourage foreign investment for its ongoing projects, including all upstream activities of the petroleum sector. Any investor willing to put capital into Belize`s economic and social development has a right to expect well-defined and reliable terms and conditions. Traditionally, the Government of Belize has encouraged foreign investment and has maintained a high level of hospitality to both foregin and local investors.
Ministry of Health, Ministry of Defense, Ministry of Education , non-governmental organizations, bilingual schools and a variety of community members...Per the guidance provided in Military Medical Ethics, “military exercises specifically in Latin America were to (1) improve readiness of armed...Strengthening regional and U.S. security in the Caribbean, Central, and South America requires active engagement through exercises and educational
Roderik F Viergever
Full Text Available BackgroundHuman trafficking is a crime that commonly results in acute and chronic physical and psychological harm. To foster more informed health sector responses to human trafficking, training sessions for health care providers were developed and pilot-tested in the Middle East, Central America and the Caribbean. This study presents the results of an investigation into what health care providers knew and needed to know about human trafficking as part of that training program.MethodsParticipants attended one of seven two-day training courses in Antigua and Barbuda, Belize, Costa Rica, Egypt, El Salvador, Guyana and Jordan. We assessed participants’ knowledge about human trafficking and opinions about appropriate responses in trafficking cases via questionnaires pre-training, and considered participant feedback about the training post-training. Results178 participants attended the trainings. Pre-training questionnaires were completed by 165 participants (93% and post-training questionnaires by 156 participants (88%. Pre-training knowledge about health and human trafficking appeared generally high for topics such as the international nature of trafficking and the likelihood of poor mental health outcomes among survivors. However, many participants had misconceptions about the characteristics of trafficked persons and a provider’s role in responding to cases of trafficking. The most valued training components included the Role of the Health Provider, Basic Definitions and Concepts and Health Consequences of Trafficking. DiscussionTraining health care providers on caring for trafficked persons has the potential to improve practitioners’ knowledge about human trafficking and its health consequences, and to increase safe practices when responding in cases of trafficking. This study provides lessons for the design of training programs on human trafficking that aim to help health care providers identify and refer victims, and provide care for
Viergever, Roderik F; West, Haley; Borland, Rosilyne; Zimmerman, Cathy
Human trafficking is a crime that commonly results in acute and chronic physical and psychological harm. To foster more informed health sector responses to human trafficking, training sessions for health care providers were developed and pilot-tested in the Middle East, Central America, and the Caribbean. This study presents the results of an investigation into what health care providers knew and needed to know about human trafficking as part of that training program. Participants attended one of seven two-day training courses in Antigua and Barbuda, Belize, Costa Rica, Egypt, El Salvador, Guyana, and Jordan. We assessed participants' knowledge about human trafficking and opinions about appropriate responses in trafficking cases via questionnaires pre-training, and considered participant feedback about the training post-training. 178 participants attended the trainings. Pre-training questionnaires were completed by 165 participants (93%) and post-training questionnaires by 156 participants (88%). Pre-training knowledge about health and human trafficking appeared generally high for topics such as the international nature of trafficking and the likelihood of poor mental health outcomes among survivors. However, many participants had misconceptions about the characteristics of trafficked persons and a provider's role in responding to cases of trafficking. The most valued training components included the "Role of the Health Provider," "Basic Definitions and Concepts," and "Health Consequences of Trafficking." Training health care providers on caring for trafficked persons has the potential to improve practitioners' knowledge about human trafficking and its health consequences, and to increase safe practices when responding in cases of trafficking. This study provides lessons for the design of training programs on human trafficking that aim to help health care providers identify and refer victims, and provide care for survivors.
Cesar, Carina; Koethe, John R; Giganti, Mark J; Rebeiro, Peter; Althoff, Keri N; Napravnik, Sonia; Mayor, Angel; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Wolff, Marcelo; Padgett, Denis; Sierra-Madero, Juan; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Sterling, Timothy R; Willig, James; Levison, Julie; Kitahata, Mari; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C; Moore, Richard D; McGowan, Catherine; Shepherd, Bryan E; Cahn, Pedro
Introduction Latinos living with HIV in the Americas share a common ethnic and cultural heritage. In North America, Latinos have a relatively high rate of new HIV infections but lower rates of engagement at all stages of the care continuum, whereas in Latin America antiretroviral therapy (ART) services continue to expand to meet treatment needs. In this analysis, we compare HIV treatment outcomes between Latinos receiving ART in North America versus Latin America. Methods HIV-positive adults initiating ART at Caribbean, Central and South America Network for HIV (CCASAnet) sites were compared to Latino patients (based on country of origin or ethnic identity) starting treatment at North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD) sites in the United States and Canada between 2000 and 2011. Cox proportional hazards models compared mortality, treatment interruption, antiretroviral regimen change, virologic failure and loss to follow-up between cohorts. Results The study included 8400 CCASAnet and 2786 NA-ACCORD patients initiating ART. CCASAnet patients were younger (median 35 vs. 37 years), more likely to be female (27% vs. 20%) and had lower nadir CD4 count (median 148 vs. 195 cells/µL, p<0.001 for all). In multivariable analyses, CCASAnet patients had a higher risk of mortality after ART initiation (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) 1.61; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.32 to 1.96), particularly during the first year, but a lower hazard of treatment interruption (AHR: 0.46; 95% CI: 0.42 to 0.50), change to second-line ART (AHR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.51 to 0.62) and virologic failure (AHR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.48 to 0.57). Conclusions HIV-positive Latinos initiating ART in Latin America have greater continuity of treatment but are at higher risk of death than Latinos in North America. Factors underlying these differences, such as HIV testing, linkage and access to care, warrant further investigation. PMID:26996992
Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis is an important public health problem in South-Central America and South Asia. A review of the differences in epidemiological and clinical attributes of cysticercosis and taeniasis in South Central America and India, respectively, is undertaken in the present communication. Intestinal taeniasis is hyperendemic in several American countries. In comparison, the prevalence of Taenia solium infestation is lower in India. The clinical manifestations in several American neurocysticercosis series comprise epilepsy, intracranial hypertension and meningeal - racemose cysticercosis, in roughly equal proportions. An overwhelming majority of the Indian subjects present with seizures. The commonest pathological substrate of the disorder in Indian patients is the solitary parenchymal degenerating cyst. The reasons for the predominance of solitary forms in India, and of multilesional forms in South Central America are discussed. The magnitude of Taenia solium infestation and the frequency of pork consumption in a given population appear to influence the quantum of cyst load in affected individuals.
Dec 8, 2015 ... An IDRC-supported study suggests that social exclusion, rather than poverty or income inequality, is the main underlying factor influencing Central American cities' vulnerability to violence. Researchers at the Latin American Faculty of Social Sciences (FLACSO) and American University observed that ...
Francisco Javier Gómez Díez
Full Text Available An analysis of how Central American Jesuit Universities have defined their mission, with a particular focus on the public declarations of their leading figures. The aim is to explain why this mission contradicts the objectives initially established by these universities, while pointing out the limits and contradictions involved.
Montes Osorio, Luis Rodolfo; Torres Salvador, Andres Fransisco; Jongschaap, Raymond Elmar Etienne; Azurdia Perez, Cesar Augusto; Berduo Sandoval, Julio Ernesto; Trindade, Luisa Miguel; Visser, Richard Gerardus Franciscus; van Loo, Eibertus Nicolaas
The main bottleneck to elevate jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) from a wild species to a profitable biodiesel crop is the low genetic and phenotypic variation found in different regions of the world, hampering efficient plant breeding for productivity traits. In this study, 182 accessions from Asia (91), Africa (35), South America (9) and Central America (47) were evaluated at genetic and phenotypic level to find genetic variation and important traits for oilseed production. Genetic variation was assessed with SSR (Simple Sequence Repeat), TRAP (Target Region Amplification Polymorphism) and AFLP (Amplified fragment length polymorphism) techniques. Phenotypic variation included seed morphological characteristics, seed oil content and fatty acid composition and early growth traits. Jaccard's similarity and cluster analysis by UPGM (Unweighted Paired Group Method) with arithmetic mean and PCA (Principle Component Analysis) indicated higher variability in Central American accessions compared to Asian, African and South American accessions. Polymorphism Information Content (PIC) values ranged from 0 to 0.65. In the set of Central American accessions. PIC values were higher than in other regions. Accessions from the Central American population contain alleles that were not found in the accessions from other populations. Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA; P Central American accessions showed very large genetic variation as assessed by DNA-marker variation compared to accessions from other regions. Central American accessions also showed the highest phenotypic variation and should be considered as the most important source for plant breeding. Some variation in early growth traits was found within a group of accessions from Asia and Africa, while these accessions did not differ in a single DNA-marker, possibly indicating epigenetic variation.
Background The main bottleneck to elevate jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) from a wild species to a profitable biodiesel crop is the low genetic and phenotypic variation found in different regions of the world, hampering efficient plant breeding for productivity traits. In this study, 182 accessions from Asia (91), Africa (35), South America (9) and Central America (47) were evaluated at genetic and phenotypic level to find genetic variation and important traits for oilseed production. Results Genetic variation was assessed with SSR (Simple Sequence Repeat), TRAP (Target Region Amplification Polymorphism) and AFLP (Amplified fragment length polymorphism) techniques. Phenotypic variation included seed morphological characteristics, seed oil content and fatty acid composition and early growth traits. Jaccard’s similarity and cluster analysis by UPGM (Unweighted Paired Group Method) with arithmetic mean and PCA (Principle Component Analysis) indicated higher variability in Central American accessions compared to Asian, African and South American accessions. Polymorphism Information Content (PIC) values ranged from 0 to 0.65. In the set of Central American accessions. PIC values were higher than in other regions. Accessions from the Central American population contain alleles that were not found in the accessions from other populations. Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA; P jatropha oil significantly differed (P < 0.05) between regions. Conclusions The pool of Central American accessions showed very large genetic variation as assessed by DNA-marker variation compared to accessions from other regions. Central American accessions also showed the highest phenotypic variation and should be considered as the most important source for plant breeding. Some variation in early growth traits was found within a group of accessions from Asia and Africa, while these accessions did not differ in a single DNA-marker, possibly indicating epigenetic variation. PMID:24666927
Rebollo, Jose; Puente, Margarita; Cabezas, Jose
This paper presents the diagnostic of the current situation on renewable energy in Central America, including socio-economical situation, with economical index, supply and demand of energy and planning of wind resources. The experience of Europe in the promotion for the market of renewable energy, discussing the policies and cooperation between private sector and the government is included. A list of potential projects of renewable energy in each country of Central America based on biomass, hydro power, wind and other energy sources for power generation is presented
Merino-Salazar, Pamela; Artazcoz, Lucía; Cornelio, Cecilia; Iñiguez, María José Itatí; Rojas, Marianela; Martínez-Iñigo, David; Vives, Alejandra; Funcasta, Lorena; Benavides, Fernando G
To describe working and employment conditions, and health status between non-agricultural employees with a written contract from Colombia, Argentina, Chile, Central America and Uruguay. We compared data from the first working condition surveys (WCS) of Colombia, Argentina, Chile, Central America and Uruguay. For comparative purposes, we selected a subsample of 15 241 non-agricultural employees aged 18-64 years and working with a written contract. We calculated prevalences and 95% CIs for the selected variables on working and employment conditions, and health status, separated by sex. Across all countries, at least 40% of women and 58% of men worked >40 hours a week. The most prevalent exposures were repetitive movements, followed by noise and manual handling, especially among men. Psychosocial exposures were very common among both sexes. Workers in Chile (33.4% of women and 16.6% of men) and Central America (24.3% of women and 19.1% of men) were more likely to report poor self-perceived health and were least likely to do so in Colombia (5.5% of women and 4.2% of men). The percentage of workers reporting occupational injuries was work and health in different Latin American countries, based on the national WCSs available. This allows for a better understanding of occupational health and could serve as a baseline for future research and surveillance of work and health in the Region. However, greater efforts are needed to improve WCSs comparability. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
L?pez, Augusto; C?ceres, Victor M
Abstract The Central America Field Epidemiology Training Program (CA FETP) is a public health capacity-building training programme aimed at developing high-caliber field epidemiologists at various levels of the public health system. It began in 2000 as part of the effort to rebuild public health infrastructure in six Central American and Caribbean countries following the devastation of Hurricanes Mitch and Georges in late 1998. Since then, the CA FETP has evolved from one regional training pr...
Zúniga-González, Carlos Alberto
This article aims the comparison of LSMS survey in Central American countries to increase current knowledge of survey methodologies and ensure the most efficient dissemination and utilization of the results. It will improve the availability, quality and relevance of agricultural data for policy and research in Central America. The criterion for this comparison consists of household survey data production, methodological validation/research, capacity building and dissemination. The...
... contains notices to the public of #0;the proposed issuance of rules and regulations. The purpose of these... the countries of Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama have..., has not been reviewed by the Office of Management and Budget. In accordance with 5 U.S.C. 603, we have...
Kout, J.; Vlasák, Josef
Roč. 81, č. 1 (2010), s. 9-14 ISSN 1870-3453 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : Polyporaceae * Poliporoid fungi * Belize * Guatemala Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.579, year: 2010
Rousseau, C; Drapeau, A
This study investigated the relationship of emotional disturbance and pre- and postmigration environment to the scholastic achievement of adolescent refugees of very different cultural backgrounds. One hundred fifty-two Central American and Cambodian students in six Canadian high schools, as well as their parents, were interviewed to assess the students' emotional problems (using the Youth Self-Report and Child Behavior Checklist) and to determine the pre- and postmigration family environment. The findings indicated that the relationship between the emotional problems and scholastic achievement of teenaged refugees was tenuous. It was concluded that a connection between young refugees' symptomatology and their functional capacity should not be assumed. Nonetheless, certain pre- and postmigration variables, particularly trauma experienced in the homeland, seem to be associated with the academic achievement of some refugees.
Apergis, Nicholas; Payne, James E.
This study extends the recent work of Ang (2007) [Ang, J.B., 2007. CO 2 emissions, energy consumption, and output in France. Energy Policy 35, 4772-4778] in examining the causal relationship between carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption, and output within a panel vector error correction model for six Central American countries over the period 1971-2004. In long-run equilibrium energy consumption has a positive and statistically significant impact on emissions while real output exhibits the inverted U-shape pattern associated with the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis. The short-run dynamics indicate unidirectional causality from energy consumption and real output, respectively, to emissions along with bidirectional causality between energy consumption and real output. In the long-run there appears to be bidirectional causality between energy consumption and emissions.
Irwin, Dan; Irving, Bill; Yeager, Carey
USAID/E-CAM and EGAT's Global Climate Change Team, in partnership with EPA, NASA, Oak Ridge National Lab, and the Central American Commission for Environment and Development (CCAD), have had a significant impact on the region's ability to monitor, mitigate, and adapt to environmental threats. Environmental decision-making tools and data are posted on a website (SERVIR: http://servir.nsstc.nasa.pov/home.html)that provides satellite and geographic data and maps to anybody with an Internet connection. The SERVIR program has been identified as the model for the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) - a major international effort to develop a 21st century system for environmental management and disaster response. In coordination with the USAID/EPA program, NASA has developed a GIs tool that enables countries to examine their forest cover and document changes on an annual basis. This information is used in calculating carbon emissions as part of greenhouse gas inventories, but also serves a valuable monitoring function. In addition, USAID/E-CAM and EGAT's Global Climate Change Team in collaboration with EPA are helping countries meet their obligations as signatories to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). EPA is assisting Central American governments to improve the quality of their greenhouse gas emission inventories reported to the UNFCCC through the development of tools and improvements in data quality. New EPA tools developed include software to automatically calculate greenhouse gas emissions for the agricultural and forestry sector inventories, determine key sources of greenhouse gas emissions, and document institutional arrangements. Several of these tools are state of the art and are comparable to tools currently used in the U.S.
The United States signed the Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) in August 2004 with five Central American countries (Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua) and the Dominican Republic.
In Central America, nearly 24,000 community-based organizations supply drinking water to rural and peri-urban residents. By delivering potable water, these organizations improve the health and welfare of millions, and play a key role in local economic development. Climate change in the region is resulting in higher ...
Martinez Garcia, Alejandro; Di Domenico, Maikon; Jörger, Katharina
on the prostomium. This first exploration of Protodrilus along the Caribbean coast of Central America revealed five new species (three described here), but not P. corderoi, a species described from Brazil and recorded at Dominica. The findings indicate a putative high diversity of Protodrilus species in the Western...
This grant will allow St Antony's College at the University of Oxford to establish a 2-year post doctoral position on Central America and the Caribbean under the leadership of Canadian historian, Margaret MacMillan. The position will be awarded to a scholar from the region, in keeping with IDRC's philosophy that developing ...
Alleyne, C; Sánchez, F
The intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has represented an important advance in human reproduction technology, improving the results in those couples with a very low probability of achieving pregnancy. Our aim is present the results of our first experience with ICSI and MESA in Panama, Central America and the Caribe.
Jansen, K.; Roquas, E.
The Faustian bargain, or 'pact with the devil', made by a person who exchanges human souls in order to obtain unattainable riches and power, is a widespread peasant narrative in Central and South America. The narrative expresses various overlapping meanings, of which a sudden increase in wealth and
Tello, Angelica M.; Castellon, Nancy E.; Aguilar, Alejandra; Sawyer, Cheryl B.
The United States has recently seen a significant increase in the number of unaccompanied minors from the Northern Triangle of Central America (i.e., El Salvador, Honduras, and Guatemala). These children and youth are refugees fleeing extreme poverty and gang violence. This study examined the narratives of 16 refugees from the Northern Triangle…
Brentlinger, Paula E; Hernán, Miguel A
Several armed conflicts took place in Central America during the last 3 decades of the 20th century. In this commentary, we discuss (1) studies describing the interrelationships among health, violence, and poverty during and after these conflicts and (2) some important lessons learned from these studies. We hope that those lessons help epidemiologists and others who must confront, and describe, similar situations elsewhere.
Full Text Available Book review: Vetter, H. 2005. Terralog. Turtles of the World. Vol. 3. Central and South America/Schildkröten der Welt Band 3. Mittel- und Südamerika: 1-128, color pictures 606 + 9. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, Germany.ISBN 3-930612-82-8; 29.7 x 20.8 cm
Schwarz, Winfried H.; Trieloff, Mario; Bollinger, Klemens; Gantert, Niklas; Fernandes, Vera A.; Meyer, Hans-Peter; Povenmire, Hal; Jessberger, Elmar K.; Guglielmino, Massimo; Koeberl, Christian
High resolution 40Ar-39Ar step heating dating of australites and indochinites, representing a large area of the Australasian strewn field, and more recently discovered tektite-like glasses from Central America (Belize) and Western Canada, were carried out. Precise plateau ages were obtained in all cases, yielding indistinguishable ages of 789 ± 9 ka for four australites, 783 ± 5 ka for four indochinites, 783 ± 17 ka for one Western Canadian and 769 ± 16 ka for one Belize impact glass. Concerning major elements and REEs, australites and the Western Canadian impact glass are indistinguishable. If the Western Canadian sample was transported by impact ejection and belongs to the Australasian strewn field, this implies extremely far ballistic transport of 9000 km distance, assuming a source crater in southern Asia. The distinct major element and REE composition of the Belize impact glass suggests formation in another separate impact event. We conclude that the Australasian/Western Canadian impact glasses formed 785 ± 7 ka ago in a single event and Belize impact glass in a separate event 769 ± 16 ka ago. The two impact events forming these two strewn fields occurred remarkably closely related in time, i.e., separated by <30 ka.
American Crocodiles (Crocodylus acutus) are large-bodied crocodylians broadly distributed throughout coastal and lowland wetlands in the Americas. Despite their being large, charismatic megafauna, the study of American Crocodile ecology is still lacking in many areas. As such we assessed the behavior and bioacoustics of American Crocodiles in Belize to address the paucity of data regarding these two facets of American Crocodile ecology. We conducted behavioral observations from three sites in the coastal zone of Belize. We categorized American Crocodile behavior and recorded activity duration for observed behaviors. In conjunction with behavioral data, we also assessed study sites to quantify the intensity of anthropogenic impact. Our results determined that American Crocodiles spent the highest proportional time performing maintenance activities to fulfill basic biological needs. However, the proportion of social and agonistic activities differed between sites, and was greater at sites with higher human disturbance. The results from this project establish activity-budgets for American Crocodiles in Belize as well as indicate adverse behavioral responses to anthropogenic impact which should be further considered in management decision making, as should bioacoustics. American Crocodiles, like most crocodylian species, have a repertoire of acoustic signals used to communicate intraspecifically and in interaction with their environment. Of the acoustic calls produced, distress calls play an important role in crocodile ecology, particularly for juvenile American Crocodiles. The distress call is produced to elicit a defense response from nearby conspecifics, enhancing the survivorship of young American Crocodiles. We recorded American Crocodile distress calls from three sites in the coastal zone of Belize. We recorded from captured hatchling, juvenile, sub-adult, and adult American Crocodiles. We measured temporal and spectral parameters of the calls to describe the
Fear of expropriation and increasing public scrutiny of the activities of multinational companies are forcing these companies to develop social programs in the countries where they operate. Frequently these programs are viewed as products of colonialism or as veiled attempts to dominate the nationals employed by these companies. The United Brands Company, which is involved in large scale banana production in several Central American countries, has adopted a program which seeks to reduce the paternalism which was associated with the operations of the United Fruit Company, the predecessor of the United Brands Company. A series of new programs emphasizing community self help projects were developed by a company-hired sociologist and initiated 4 years ago. In Panama, the projects were started by holding town meetings in which the citizens decided what projects to pursue. With company help the community has begun to build recreational and educational facilities and are also building new docks. The company is contributing $10 million annually to promote these projects. Other programs involve selling homes to workers for half the cost of constructing these homes and increasing efforts to put host country citizens into management positions. Home ownership is expected to stabilize the work force and increased opportunities for advancement are expected to increase productivity. Future plans include the construction of technical schools which will provide a pool of skilled technicians needed by the banana company.
Halsor, Sid P.; Rose, William I.
Four pairs of active volcanoes along the northern Central American volcanic front have erupted basalt-andesite magmas that show consistent intrapair behavioral and compositional differences. These differences are found in records of volcanic activity and complete major and minor element data on over 200 samples. From northwest to southeast along the volcanic front the four volcano pairs are Cerro Quemado-Santa María, Tolimán-Atitlán, Acatenango-Fuego, and Santa Ana-Izalco. The volcano pair relations help explain compositional differences, apart from those reflecting variation in crustal thickness of about 15 km along the volcanic front, providing insight into across-arc variations and closely spaced subvolcanic plumbing systems. Intravolcano pair spacing is less than 5 km compared with an average intervolcano spacing of 25 km along the entire volcanic front. Within each volcano pair, the seaward volcano has had more frequent historic activity, erupting magmas that are generally more mafic, lower in large ion lithophile elements and higher in Na2O/K2O than magmas erupted from its landward counterpart. Each paired volcano site lies in close proximity to a rhyolitic caldera, situated north or northeast of the volcano pair. However, rare earth element data at the Tolimán-Atitlán volcano pair imply that mixing between caldera rhyolite and the mafic magma of the paired volcanoes does not occur. Petrographie, isotopic, and other geochemical data from the Tolimán-Atitlán volcano pair suggest that separate but contemporaneous magma bodies beneath each volcano evolve and pass through the crust at different rates. Atitlán magmas are processed through the crust more efficiently and with greater frequency than Tollman magmas, which undergo longer periods of stagnation interrupted by mafic injection and rapid eruption. This relation appears to hold at the other paired volcano sites and is further evidence that closely spaced volcanoes, with similar subcrustal magma
Goff, F.E.; Truesdell, A.H.; Grigsby, C.O.; Janik, C.J.; Shevenell, L.A.; Paredes, J.R.; Gutierrez, J.W.; Trujillo, Jr.; Counce, D.A.
We conducted detailed hydrogeochemical investigations at six geothermal sites in western Honduras: Azacualpa, El Olivar, Pavana, Platanares, Sambo Creek, and San Ignacio. None of the sites is associated with Quaternary silicic volcanism, although El Olivar lies adjacent to a small Quaternary basalt field and Pavana is part of a belt of hot spring activity parallel to and 35 km east of the Central American volcanic arc. None of the sites contains acid-sulfate waters indicative of vapor-dominated conditions. Thermal fluids are characterized by pH between 7 and 10, Cl<125 mg/l, HCO/sub 3/>Cl, SO/sub 4/greater than or equal toCl, Bless than or equal to17 mg/l, Liless than or equal to4 mg/l, and Asless than or equal to1.25 mg/l. Stable isotope analyses of the water show that recharge to the geothermal systems generally occurs from areas of higher elevation adjacent to the sites. Tritium contents of apparently undiluted thermal fluids range from 0 to 0.4 T.U., indicating residence times of fluids in the systems of more than 500 y. Various geochemical indicators show that mixing of hot and cold end-member fluids occurs in the system at Platanares and, to a lesser degree, in the systems at San Ignacio and Azacualpa. No mixing is apparent in the fluids discharging at Pavana, Sambo Creek, or El Olivar. Boiling is the dominant process responsible for subtle geochemical variations at Azacualpa and, possibly, San Ignacio. Our best estimates of subsurface reservoir temperatures are 225/sup 0/C at Platanares, 190/sup 0/C at San Ignacio, 185/sup 0/C at Azacualpa, 155/sup 0/C at Sambo Creek, 150/sup 0/C at Pavana, and 120/sup 0/C at El Olivar. The estimated power output of the three hottest sites is 45 thermal megawatts at Platanares, 14 thermal megawatts at San Ignacio, and 13 thermal megawatts at Azacualpa.
Holland, M. B.; Imbach, P. A.; Bouroncle, C.; Donatti, C.; Leguia, E.; Martinez, M.; Medellin, C.; Saborio-Rodriguez, M.; Shamer, S.; Zamora, J.
One of the key challenges in developing adaptation strategies for smallholder farmers in developing countries is that of a data-poor environment, where spatially-explicit information about where the most vulnerable smallholder communities are located is lacking. Developing countries tend to lack consistent and reliable maps on agricultural land use, and have limited information available on smallholder adaptive capacity. We developed a novel participatory and expert mapping process to overcome these barriers and develop detailed national-scale maps that allow for a characterization of unique agricultural landscapes based on profiles of adaptive capacity for smallholder agriculture in each area. This research focuses specifically on the Central American nations of Costa Rica, Guatemala, and Honduras, where our focus is on coffee and basic grains as the two main cropping systems. Here we present the methodology and results of a series of in-depth interviews and participatory mapping sessions with experts working within the broader agricultural sector in each country. We held individual interviews and mapping sessions with approximately thirty experts from each country, and used a detailed survey instrument for each mapping session to both spatially identify distinct agricultural landscapes, and to further characterize each area based on specific farm practices and social context. The survey also included a series of questions to help us assess the relative adaptive capacity of smallholder agriculture within each landscape. After all expert mapping sessions were completed in each country we convened an expert group to assist in both validating and refining the set of landscapes already defined. We developed a characterization of adaptive capacity by aggregating indicators into main assets-based criteria (e.g. land tenure, access to credit, access to technical assistance, sustainable farm practices) derived from further expert weighting of indicators through an online
reconocerse como afrodescendientes tienen orígenes múltiples, constituidas o llegadas a Belice en circunstancias históricas muy diversas: esclavizados algunos, otros libres, urbanos o rurales, agricultores o asalariados, anglófonos o no, etc. Ante estas complejidades articuladas, el articulo busca interpretar las prácticas políticas observadas en materia de « gestión de la diversidad » (la colonial de « divide and rule », la neoliberal, la multicultural…. en dos aspectos que determinan los campos de autonomía – ideológica o territorial – del país y plantean las condiciones de existencia de la Nación y de los grupos que la componen: las políticas culturales y las regulaciones de tierras. El análisis muestra que las variaciones en las políticas implementadas se refieren menos a la composición étnica de la población que al posicionamiento de grupos sociales y gobiernos frente a fuerzas exógenas (el imperio colonial, las arenas transnacionales, la globalización de derechos autóctonos y endógenas (el paradigma desarrollista, la construcción de la Nación. Estas fuerzas diseñan en cada periodo, el campo de opciones políticas posibles. Palabras-clave: etnicidad, America Central, politicas públicas. --- Belize: public policies and management of ethnic pluralism Belize, an English-speaking country in Central America, is usually described in terms of its cultural diversity and in the multiplicity of their ethnic groups. However, this diversity is not a stable characteristic; it is not managed or interpreted in one single way. Their populations most susceptible to being recognized as African descent have multiple origins. These populations either have been assimilated completely or came to Belize in very different historical circumstances: some enslaved, some free, urban or rural, farmers or wage earner, Anglophone or not, etc. Given this complexity, the article seeks to interpret the political practices observed in the field of "diversity management
In spite of the extensive use of fire as an agricultural agent in Central America today, little is known of its history of biomass burning or agriculture. As an indicator of the burning practices on the adjacent land, a sedimentary record of carbonized particles sheds light on the trends in frequency and areal extent of biomass burning. This research focuses on a sediment core recovered from an anoxic site in the Pacific Ocean adjacent to the Central American Isthmus and reports a five-century record of charcoal deposition. The research illustrates that biomass burning has been an important ecological factor in the Pacific watershed of Central America at least during the past five centuries. Fluxes of charcoal have generally decreased toward the present suggesting a reduction in the charcoal source function. Perhaps, five centuries ago, the frequency of biomass burning was greater than it is today, larger areas were burned, or biomass per unit area of burned grassland was greater. The major type of biomass burned throughout this five-century period has been grass, as opposed to woods, indicating that any major deforestation of the Pacific watershed of Central America occurred prior to the Conquest
Full Text Available Abstract Background Central America has undergone extensive trade liberalization over the past two decades, and has recently signed a Free Trade Agreement with the United States. The region is also experiencing a dual burden of malnutrition with the growth of dietary patterns associated with the global 'nutrition transition'. This study describes the relationship between trade liberalization policies and food imports and availability, and draws implications for diet and health, using Central America as a case study region. Methods Changes in tariff and non-tariff barriers for each country were documented, and compared with time-series graphs of import, production and availability data to show the outcome of changes in trade policy in relation to food imports and food availability. Results Changes in trade policy in Central America have directly affected food imports and availability via three avenues. First, the lowering of trade barriers has promoted availability by facilitating higher imports of a wide range of foods. Second, trade liberalization has affected food availability through promoting domestic meat production. Third, reductions in barriers to investment appear to be critical in expansion of processed food markets. This suggests that changes in trade policies have facilitated rising availability and consumption of meat, dairy products, processed foods and temperate (imported fruits in Central America. Conclusion This study indicates that the policies of trade liberalization in Central American countries over the past two decades, particularly in relation to the United States, have implications for health in the region. Specifically, they have been a factor in facilitating the "nutrition transition", which is associated with rising rates of obesity and chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Given the significant cost of chronic disease for the health care system, individuals and the wider community, it is critical
Thow, Anne Marie; Hawkes, Corinna
Background Central America has undergone extensive trade liberalization over the past two decades, and has recently signed a Free Trade Agreement with the United States. The region is also experiencing a dual burden of malnutrition with the growth of dietary patterns associated with the global 'nutrition transition'. This study describes the relationship between trade liberalization policies and food imports and availability, and draws implications for diet and health, using Central America as a case study region. Methods Changes in tariff and non-tariff barriers for each country were documented, and compared with time-series graphs of import, production and availability data to show the outcome of changes in trade policy in relation to food imports and food availability. Results Changes in trade policy in Central America have directly affected food imports and availability via three avenues. First, the lowering of trade barriers has promoted availability by facilitating higher imports of a wide range of foods. Second, trade liberalization has affected food availability through promoting domestic meat production. Third, reductions in barriers to investment appear to be critical in expansion of processed food markets. This suggests that changes in trade policies have facilitated rising availability and consumption of meat, dairy products, processed foods and temperate (imported fruits) in Central America. Conclusion This study indicates that the policies of trade liberalization in Central American countries over the past two decades, particularly in relation to the United States, have implications for health in the region. Specifically, they have been a factor in facilitating the "nutrition transition", which is associated with rising rates of obesity and chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Given the significant cost of chronic disease for the health care system, individuals and the wider community, it is critical that preventive health
Roessingh, C.H.; Boersma, F.K.
This article addresses the entrepreneurial and organisational activities of a specific Mennonite group in Belize called the Kleine Gemeinde community of Spanish Lookout. Building upon Christian beliefs, agricultural skills and a strong working ethos, this group was able to build up a stable, local
Erkens, Roy H J; Chatrou, Lars W; Maas, Jan W; van der Niet, Timotheüs; Savolainen, Vincent
Several recent studies have suggested that a substantial portion of today's plant diversity in the Neotropics has resulted from the dispersal of taxa into that region rather than vicariance, but more data are needed to substantiate this claim. Guatteria (Annonaceae) is, with 265 species, the third largest genus of Neotropical trees after Inga (Fabaceae) and Ocotea (Lauraceae), and its widespread distribution and frequent occurrence makes the genus an excellent model taxon to study diversification patterns. This study reconstructed the phylogeny of Guatteria and inferred three major biogeographical events in the history of the genus: (1) a trans-oceanic Miocene migration from Central into South America before the closing of the Isthmus of Panama; (2) a major diversification of the lineage within South America; and (3) several migrations of South American lineages back into Central America via the closed Panamanian land bridge. Therefore, Guatteria is not an Amazonian centred-genus sensu Gentry but a major Miocene diversification that followed its dispersal into South America. This study provides further evidence that migration into the Neotropics was an important factor in the historical assembly of its biodiversity. Furthermore, it is shown that phylogenetic patterns are comparable to those found in Ocotea and Inga and that a closer comparison of these genera is desirable.
Full Text Available Historical shifts in global economic formations shape the strategies of resistance movements in the global South. Neoliberal forms of economic development over the past thirty years in Central America have weakened traditional actors sponsoring popular mobilization such as labor unions and rural cooperatives. At the same time, the free market reforms produced new threats to economic livelihood and well-being throughout the region. The neoliberal measures that have generated the greatest levels of mass discontent include rising prices, privatization, labor flexibility laws, mining projects, and free trade. This article analyzes the role of emerging anti-neoliberal political parties in alliance with popular movements in Central America. Countries with already existing strong anti-systemic parties in the initial phases of the global turn to neoliberalism in the late twentieth century resulted in more efficacious manifestations of social movement partyism in the twenty-first century resisting free market globalization.
Agricultural andVeterinaryEntomology,Gaines- ville, FL. 6 Naval Medical Research Unit Ð 6, Entomology Program, Lima, Peru . 7 Corresponding author, e...under Þeld conditions over 12 h postapplication against Ultrathon (34%DEET) in Belize, South Carolina, and Peru . Ultrathon was se- lected as the...open and forested areas. The island is surrounded by Archers Creek, the Beau- fortRiver, PortRoyal Sound, and theBroadRiver. The city of Charleston
Nestor-Arriola, Jorge Ismael; Toledo-Hernández, Víctor Hugo
Five new species of the genus Brachiacantha Dejean (Coccinellidae) from Mexico and Central America are described and illustrated. The species B. angulata sp. nov., B. truncata sp. nov., B. brevicuspidata sp. nov. and B. robustihamata sp. nov. are consistent with the dentipes group. The species B. brevihamata sp. nov. is consistent with the fifth group of Leng (1911); the species shares some characteristics with South American species.
Gatica López, Gustavo Adolfo
This article discusses why the situation of migration for Central American children and young people to the United States of America and the declared humanitarian crisis should begin with a review of the structural conditions affecting the population in the region. The poor public social investment in children and adolescents as well as the various forms of violence perpetrated against them in the region are two very indispensable elements for this analysis. By not considering these elements ...
Oglesby, R. J.; Erickson, D. J.; Hernandez, J. L.; Irwin, D.
Central America covers a relatively small area, but is topographically very complex, has long coast-lines, large inland bodies of water, and very diverse land cover which is both natural and human-induced. As a result, Central America is plagued by hydrologic extremes, especially major flooding and drought events, in a region where many people still barely manage to eke out a living through subsistence. Therefore, considerable concern exists about whether these extreme events will change, either in magnitude or in number, as climate changes in the future. To address this concern, we have used global climate model simulations of future climate change to drive a regional climate model centered on Central America. We use the IPCC `business as usual' scenario 21st century run made with the NCAR CCSM3 global model to drive the regional model MM5 at 12 km resolution. We chose the `business as usual' scenario to focus on the largest possible changes that are likely to occur. Because we are most interested in near-term changes, our simulations are for the years 2010, 2015, and 2025. A long `present-day run (for 2005) allows us to distinguish between climate variability and any signal due to climate change. Furthermore, a multi-year run with MM5 forced by NCEP reanalyses allows an assessment of how well the coupled global-regional model performs over Central America. Our analyses suggest that the coupled model does a credible job simulating the current climate and hydrologic regime, though lack of sufficient observations strongly complicates this comparison. The suite of model runs for the future years is currently nearing completion, and key results will be presented at the meeting.
Maldonado, Tito; Rutgersson, Anna; Alfaro, Eric; Amador, Jorge; Claremar, Björn
The midsummer drought (MSD) in Central America is characterised in order to create annual indexes representing the timing of its phases (start, minimum and end), and other features relevant for MSD forecasting such as the intensity and the magnitude. The MSD intensity is defined as the minimum rainfall detected during the MSD, meanwhile the magnitude is the total precipitation divided by the total days between the start and end of the MSD. It is shown that the MSD extends al...
is on such ideals as " socialistA Strong Supporter of solidarity," Castro is known to charge many of these Communist Expansion countries for Cuban...Nacion Internacional (San Jose, Costa !Pop Rica), November 20-24, 1983. 19. This speech was carried in Spanish in its entirety in La Prensa (San Pedro...Salvador, on July 8, 1984. on Central America, prepared for the Presi- dent. Henry A. Kissinger, Chairman. Washing- 45. La Nacion Internacional (San Jose
Rojas, Marianela; Gimeno, David; Vargas-Prada, Sergio; Benavides, Fernando G
Examine the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain (MSP) in the six Spanish-speaking countries of Central America using a single standardized instrument, the First Survey on Working Conditions and Health in Central America in workers from all manual and non-manual labor sectors, using social security coverage as an indicator of formal versus informal employment. The workers (n = 12 024) were surveyed in their homes. The age-adjusted prevalence of MSP during the previous month was calculated for pain in the back (upper, or cervical; middle, or thoracic; and lower, or lumbar) and arm joints (shoulder, elbow, and wrist). Prevalence was estimated by sex, occupation (manual or non-manual), economic sector (agriculture, industry, or services), and social security coverage. Poisson regression models were used to calculate the prevalence rates and 95% confidence intervals, with stratification by country and anatomical site. By sites, the age-adjusted prevalence of cervical-dorsal MSP was the highest, especially in El Salvador (47.8%) and Nicaragua (45.9%), and lumbar MSP was less prevalent, especially in Panama (12.8%) and Guatemala (14.8%). After additional adjustments, the prevalence of MSP was higher in women and manual workers for all the sites and in all the countries. There were no differences in MSP in terms of social security coverage or sector of economic activity. The high prevalence of MSP in Central America, regardless of sector of activity or social security coverage, indicates that the prevention of MSP should be a priority in occupational health programs in low- and middle-income countries, especially for women and manual workers.
Full Text Available This article presents a historical review of the lobster and conch fisheries in Belize, Central America. In terms of yield and value, these are the main wild-caught targets of the national fisheries, a small-scale commercial fishery of around 3000 fishermen. Data were collected during interviews with key informants involved with the fisheries and through literature and archive research. The goal was to study how the fishing industry has responded to environmental signals from these resources and from their ecosystems and ecosystem dynamics. National yields for both lobster and conch have been relatively stable, however, individuals' yields have been declining despite increased effort since the 1980s. This study concludes that the use of fossil fuel-based technology and organizational change, with the establishment of fishermen's cooperatives, have masked environmental signals. This masking, together with economic incentives, has led to the "pathology of resource use." As a symptom of this pathology, four forms of sequential exploitation in these fisheries were identified. A major conclusion is that social resilience may not confer ecological resilience. The development of the cooperatives was needed in order to improve equity in the industry. Before their impacts could be assessed, this organizational change, together with new technology, led to very important and rapid changes in the industry. Together with existing regulations that allow de facto open access to lobster and conch, these changes resulted in a short-term boom that has resulted in the pathology of resource use, with over-capitalization and dependence on maintained yields, regardless of environmental feedback.
Kirby, Stephen H.
The observation that southeastern Central America is a hotspot for orchid diversity has long been known and confirmed by recent systematic studies and checklists. An analysis of the geographic and elevation distribution demonstrates that the most widespread species of “core” Maxillariinae are all adapted to life near sea level, whereas the most narrowly endemic species are largely distributed in wet highland environments. Drier, hotter lowland gaps exist between these cordilleras and evidently restrict the dispersal of the species adapted to wetter, cooler conditions. Among the recent generic realignments of “core” Maxillariinae based on molecular phylogenetics, the Camaridium clade is easily the most prominent genus in Central America and is largely restricted to the highlands of Costa Rica and Panama, indicating that this region is the ancestral home of this genus and that its dispersal limits are drier, lowland cordilleran gaps. The mountains of Costa Rica and Panama are among the geologically youngest topographic features in the Neotropics, reflecting the complex and dynamic interactions of numerous tectonic plates. From consideration of the available geological evidence, I conclude that the rapid growth of the mountain ranges in Costa Rica and Panama during the late Cenozoic times created, in turn, very rapid ranges in ecological life zones and geographic isolation in that part of the isthmus. Thus, I suggest that these recent geologic events were the primary drivers for accelerated orchid evolution in southeastern Central America.
Arritt, R. W.
We use results from a regional climate model to investigate the influence of land-atmosphere coupling on climate of the Central America and Caribbean. Previous studies using global climate models have found evidence of strong land-atmosphere coupling in parts of this region. Although the region's complex coastlines and topography have the potential to modify land-atmosphere coupling through their influence on surface fluxes and precipitation, these terrain features are represented coarsely if at all in global models. Here we better resolve the complex terrain of Central America by using 25 and 50 km grid spacing in a regional climate model (RegCM4). Simulations over the Central America and Caribbean domain of the Coordinated Regional climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) with ERA-Interim reanalysis boundary conditions for 1989-2009 are used to calculate multiple diagnostic measures of land-atmosphere coupling. Land-atmosphere coupling "hot spots" are found to differ in both location and magnitude from those obtained using global models. Location and intensity of these "hot spots" vary depending on model physics and spatial resolution.
Lungo Ucles, M
In the 1980s, urbanization in Central America was increasing compared to the three previous decades. By 1990, the urban population reached 42% in Guatemala, 44% in El Salvador, 43% in Honduras, 59% in Nicaragua, 53% in Costa Rica, and 54% in Panama. The urban population increased mostly in the largest cities, in contrast to Latin America, where secondary cities grew fastest. This trend was particularly true in Managua and San Salvador because of the military conflicts. The only exception was Honduras, where the second city underwent stronger growth. The urban population comprised 51.7% women and 48.3% men in Central America. The segregation and polarization of social classes was also increasing because of increased poverty and unemployment during the 1980s. This was partly caused by the increasing privatization of public services, decentralization, and the reinforcement of local governments, which all ensued from the structural readjustment programs of the International Monetary Fund. This neoliberal model of economic development in the short run resulted in increased poverty and unemployment for the urban populations. In 1982, the informal sector represented 29% of the total employment in Central America, and its share reached 40% in Managua and San Salvador. Urban unemployment increased from 2.2% in 1980 to 12% in 1988 in Guatemala; from 8.8% to 13.1% in Honduras; and from 10.4% to 20.8% in Panama. In the political arena, the process of democratization was underway, with civil presidents taking power and promoting privatization and deregulation of the economy. There was a close relationship between the urban social structure, the economy, and politics in the region. In Costa Rica, during the Arias administration between 1986 and 1990, a program was implemented creating 80,000 new homes, and in El Salvador there was an increasing demand to find a negotiated solution to the military conflict. These new political and economic perspectives could lead to genuine
Kangas, Patrick; Shave, Mary; Shave, Paul
The economic inputs and outputs for the Possum Point Biological Station in Belize during 1990 1992 are described to illustrate some aspects of an ecotourism operation. Eight hundred fifty-four people in 59 groups visited Possum Point during the study period to tour rain forests, estuaries, and coral reefs. The economic input to Possum Point from these groups increased from 74,552 in 1990 to 166,268 in 1992. Outputs were for license fees, capital improvements, goods and services, labor, fossil fuels, and development of a historic sugar mill site. An annual donation was also made to a scholarship fund for local Belizean students. The net cash balance of income and outputs changed from negative (-6678) in 1990 to positive (+4811) in 1992, suggesting development of the economic operation. Possum Point meets the economic criteria for ecotourism by feeding back some tourist monies for community and environmental support, particularly donations for the sugar mill site and the scholarship fund. Most of the outputs from Possum Point (about 80%) were retained in the local economy through employment and purchases, which have a positive influence on the local community. We conclude that ecotourism operations, such as Possum Point, offer important sustainable development opportunities for Belize.
Full Text Available This article looks to analyze the preparation process the Belizean police force goes through with the objective of training the officers for duty. It also has the purpose of detailing the entrails the officers have to confront in their way up the corporate ladder as they develop into a professional police officer. Seen from a regional objectivity, Belize has been singled out to be in the center of numerous regional and hemispherical security problems; it is facing several of the same security challenges as its neighbors and explains the use of armed forces at the service of the public safety and the necessity to upgrade their law enforcement tactics and practices. The country also participates in many several mutual support instruments designed to assist and receive preparation and instruction from other nation’s police bodies. An example of that international aid came in a report from 2008 entitled "Review of the Belize Department" written by a Jamaican consultant in which the Police Plan elaborated in 2006 was analyzed and critiqued pointed out the strong and weak points of that project.
Amalia Nivón Bolán
Full Text Available The 19th Century pedagogical congresses carried out in Cuba and Central America were led by teachers and officials involved in the educational policy of primary education, and aware of the need to adjust the education’s foundation in order to react to the moment’s reality. This piece analyses the special conditions in Cuba and Central America that cause the reform of the primary education grounds that prevailed in schools during the Colony in the 18th and 19th Centuries. It also describes the protagonists in the educational practice elite that influenced the restruturing of the school system, knowledge and learning techniques, as well as the teachers’ educational or occupational profile. In addition, it outlines the economic circumstances and the political view of the groups of intellectuals trained in a context that inherited the legacy of the colonial conditions of racism and defense of agricultural and industrial work, and defined by abolitionist and pro-independence struggles. The study was conducted from the UNESCO Memory of the First Central Pedagogical Congress and current research that relate to the Cuban Congress 1884, to identify educational activities and careers of influential intellectuals in shaping Cuban and Central American educational systems at sundown nineteenth century.
Taylor, Zachary P.; Horn, Sally P.; Finkelstein, David B.
Archeological and paleoenvironmental records from southern Central America attribute population collapse to the Spanish Conquest about 500 years ago. Paleoclimate records from the circum-Caribbean have shown evidence of severe, regional droughts that contributed to the collapse of the Mayan Civilization, but there are few records of these droughts in southern Central America and no records of their effects on prehistoric populations in the region. Here we present a high-resolution lake sediment record of prehistoric agricultural activities using bulk sediment stable carbon isotopes from Laguna Zoncho, Costa Rica. We find isotopic evidence that agriculture was nearly absent from the watershed approximately 220 years prior to the Spanish arrival in Costa Rica and identify two distinct periods of agricultural decline, 1150-970 and 860-640 cal yr BP, which correspond to severe droughts in central Mexico. We attribute decreases in agriculture to a weakened Central American monsoon, which would have shortened the growing season at Laguna Zoncho, reduced crop yields, and negatively affected prehistoric populations.
Dawson, D.K.; Robbins, C.S.; Sauer, J.R.
We used mist nets and point counts to sample bird populations in 61 sites in Belize during January-March of 1987-1991. Sites were classified as forest, second growth, woody agricultural crops (citrus, mango, cacao, and cashew), or non-woody agricultural crops (rice and sugar cane). We evaluated patterns of occurence of wintering temperate migrant bird species in these habitats. Mist net captures of 22 of 31 migrant species differed significantly among habitats. Of these, 13 species were captured more frequently in the agricultural habitats. American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla), Black-and-white Warbler (Mniotilta varia), and Magnolia Warbler (Dendroica magnolia) were among the species captured most frequently in woody agricultural habitats; captures of Common Yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas), Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea), and Northern (lcterus galbula) and Orchard orioles (I. spur/anus) were highest in the non-woody agricultural sites. We relate these occurrence patterns to trends in breeding populations in North America. While count data provide a wide picture of winter habitat distribution of migrants, more intensive work is necessary to assess temporal and geographic variation of migrant bird use of agricultural habitats.
Pita, G. L.; Gunasekera, R.; Ishizawa, O. A.
Hurricane and tropical storm activity in Central America has consistently caused over the past decades thousands of casualties, significant population displacement, and substantial property and infrastructure losses. As a component to estimate future potential losses, we present a new regional probabilistic hurricane hazard model for Central America. Currently, there are very few openly available hurricane hazard models for Central America. This resultant hazard model would be used in conjunction with exposure and vulnerability components as part of a World Bank project to create country disaster risk profiles that will assist to improve risk estimation and provide decision makers with better tools to quantify disaster risk. This paper describes the hazard model methodology which involves the development of a wind field model that simulates the gust speeds at terrain height at a fine resolution. The HURDAT dataset has been used in this study to create synthetic events that assess average hurricane landfall angles and their variability at each location. The hazard model also then estimates the average track angle at multiple geographical locations in order to provide a realistic range of possible hurricane paths that will be used for risk analyses in all the Central-American countries. This probabilistic hurricane hazard model is then also useful for relating synthetic wind estimates to loss and damage data to develop and calibrate existing empirical building vulnerability curves. To assess the accuracy and applicability, modeled results are evaluated against historical events, their tracks and wind fields. Deeper analyses of results are also presented with a special reference to Guatemala. The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed in this paper are entirely those of the authors. They do not necessarily represent the views of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/World Bank and its affiliated organizations, or those of the
Amado Salvador Peña
Full Text Available The Central American countries: Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama are in transition from a dietary culture based mainly on maize to a wheat-containing diet. Several other changes are occurring, such as a decrease of parasitic and infectious diseases. The environmental changes permit a prediction of an increase of celiac disease and other autoimmune diseases such as type I diabetes and thyroid disease in these genetically heterogeneous countries. At present, celiac disease and gluten-related disorders are considered to be of no relevance at the level of public health in these nations. This review documents the presence of celiac disease in Central America. It draws attention to some of the challenges in planning systematic studies in the region since up until recently celiac disease was unknown. The aim of this review is to disseminate knowledge obtained with preliminary data, to stimulate clinical and basic scientists to study these diseases in Central America and to alert authorities responsible for the planning of education and health, to find possibilities to avoid a rise in these disorders before the epidemics start, as has occurred in the Mediterranean countries.
T.J. Baroni; N. Bocsusis; D.J. Lodge; D.L. Lindner
A new species, Pleurocollybia imbricata, is described from the Maya Mountains of Belize and a new combination in Pleurocollybia is proposed. A key to the known species of Pleurocollybia is also provided.
A biomedical survey of stool specimens from 82% of the population (n=672) of S villages in Toledo District, Belize were examined by the formalin-ethyl acetate concentration technique for the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections...
Tanner, J.G.; Shedlock, K.M.
The growth of megacities in seismically active regions around the world often includes the construction of seismically unsafe buildings and infrastructures due to an insufficient knowledge of existing seismic hazard and/or economic constraints. Minimization of the loss of life, property damage, and social and economic disruption due to earthquakes depends on reliable estimates of seismic hazard. We have produced a suite of seismic hazard estimates for Mexico, the Caribbean, and Central and South America. One of the preliminary maps in this suite served as the basis for the Caribbean and Central and South America portion of the Global Seismic Hazard Map (GSHM) published in 1999, which depicted peak ground acceleration (pga) with a 10% chance of exceedance in 50 years for rock sites. Herein we present maps depicting pga and 0.2 and 1.0 s spectral accelerations (SA) with 50%, 10%, and 2% chances of exceedance in 50 years for rock sites. The seismicity catalog used in the generation of these maps adds 3 more years of data to those used to calculate the GSH Map. Different attenuation functions (consistent with those used to calculate the U.S. and Canadian maps) were used as well. These nine maps are designed to assist in global risk mitigation by providing a general seismic hazard framework and serving as a resource for any national or regional agency to help focus further detailed studies required for regional/local needs. The largest seismic hazard values in Mexico, the Caribbean, and Central and South America generally occur in areas that have been, or are likely to be, the sites of the largest plate boundary earthquakes. High hazard values occur in areas where shallow-to-intermediate seismicity occurs frequently. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sesnie, Steven E.; Tellman, Beth; Wrathall, David; McSweeney, Kendra; Nielsen, Erik; Benessaiah, Karina; Wang, Ophelia; Rey, Luis
A growing body of evidence suggests that criminal activities associated with drug trafficking networks are a progressively important driver of forest loss in Central America. However, the scale at which drug trafficking represents a driver of forest loss is not presently known. We estimated the degree to which narcotics trafficking may contribute to forest loss using an unsupervised spatial clustering of 15 spatial and temporal forest loss patch metrics developed from global forest change data. We distinguished anomalous forest loss from background loss patches for each country exhibiting potential ‘narco-capitalized’ signatures which showed a statistically significant dissimilarity from other patches in terms of size, timing, and rate of forest loss. We also compared annual anomalous forest loss with the number of cocaine shipments and volume of cocaine seized, lost, or delivered at country- and department-level. For Honduras, results from linear mixed effects models showed a highly significant relationship between anomalous forest loss and the timing of increased drug trafficking (F = 9.90, p = 0.009) that also differed significantly from temporal patterns of background forest loss (t-ratio = 2.98, p = 0.004). Other locations of high forest loss in Central America showed mixed results. The timing of increased trafficking was not significantly related to anomalous forest loss in Guatemala and Nicaragua, but significantly differed in patch size compared to background losses. We estimated that cocaine trafficking could account for between 15% and 30% of annual national forest loss in these three countries over the past decade, and 30% to 60% of loss occurred within nationally and internationally designated protected areas. Cocaine trafficking is likely to have severe and lasting consequences in terms of maintaining moist tropical forest cover in Central America. Addressing forest loss in these and other tropical locations will require a stronger
Full Text Available Central and South America offer an opportunity to resolve some of the current controversies that surround the epidemiology of celiac disease. Through a concerted action which brings together clinicians, researchers and patients there is an opportunity to establish robust data sets which will allow detailed analysis of environmental and genetic factors. In this review available data from the continent together with data from Spain and Italy are drawn together to give a current picture in the hope that it will stimulate further research.
Calderon-Ezquerro, Maria del Carmen; Martinez-Lopez, Benjamin; Cabos Narvaez, William David; Sein, Dmitry
In this work, some meteorological variables from a regional climate model are used to characterize the dispersion of coffee rust (a fungal disease) from Central America to Mexico, during the 20 Century. The climate model consists of the regional atmosphere model REMO coupled to the MPIOM global ocean model with increased resolution in the Atlantic Ocean. Lateral atmospheric and upper oceanic boundary conditions outside the coupled domain were prescribed using both ERA-40 and ERA-Interim reanalysis data. In addition to the historical simulation, a projection of the evolution of the coffee rust for the 21 Century was obtained from a REMO run using MPIESM data for the lateral forcing.
Full Text Available The midsummer drought (MSD in Central America is characterised in order to create annual indexes representing the timing of its phases (start, minimum and end, and other features relevant for MSD forecasting such as the intensity and the magnitude. The MSD intensity is defined as the minimum rainfall detected during the MSD, meanwhile the magnitude is the total precipitation divided by the total days between the start and end of the MSD. It is shown that the MSD extends along the Pacific coast, however, a similar MSD structure was detected also in two stations in the Caribbean side of Central America, located in Nicaragua. The MSD intensity and magnitude show a negative relationship with Niño 3.4 and a positive relationship with the Caribbean low-level jet (CLLJ index, however for the Caribbean stations the results were not statistically significant, which is indicating that other processes might be modulating the precipitation during the MSD over the Caribbean coast. On the other hand, the temporal variables (start, minimum and end show low and no significant correlations with the same indexes.The results from canonical correlation analysis (CCA show good performance to study the MSD intensity and magnitude, however, for the temporal indexes the performance is not satisfactory due to the low skill to predict the MSD phases. Moreover, we find that CCA shows potential predictability of the MSD intensity and magnitude using sea surface temperatures (SST with leading times of up to 3 months. Using CCA as diagnostic tool it is found that during June, an SST dipole pattern upon the neighbouring waters to Central America is the main variability mode controlling the inter-annual variability of the MSD features. However, there is also evidence that the regional waters are playing an important role in the annual modulation of the MSD features. The waters in the PDO vicinity might be also controlling the rainfall during the MSD, however, exerting an
Garay Romero, Ingrid Carolina; Cabero Dieguez, Valentin
Desertification is a complex problem and not only represents terrestrial ecosystems degradation. Today, it is well known that this process is linked to environmental deterioration as well as to economic and social factors, producing relevant impact in food security, poverty, migration and imbalance in many countries. Desertification perception analysis is essential in the design of the policies to fight this problem. Perception analysis in Central America is a very controversial issue and should be part of administration instruments and application strategies such as international agreements that will be included in public policies of the different States.
alkaloid, quinine , was responsible for curing malaria . During the First World War, the Germans fearing the loss of quinine supply for their troops...The Epidemiology of Malaria in Belize, 1989 -1999 by Shilpa Hakre A dissertation submitted to the Faculty of the Department of Preventive Medicine...copyrighted material in the dissertation manuscript entitled: "The Epidemiology of Malaria in Belize, 1989-1999" is appropriately acknowledged and
Leduc, Guillaume; Vidal, Laurence; Tachikawa, Kazuyo; Rostek, Frauke; Sonzogni, Corinne; Beaufort, Luc; Bard, Edouard
Moisture transport from the Atlantic to the Pacific ocean across Central America leads to relatively high salinities in the North Atlantic Ocean and contributes to the formation of North Atlantic Deep Water. This deep water formation varied strongly between Dansgaard/Oeschger interstadials and Heinrich events-millennial-scale abrupt warm and cold events, respectively, during the last glacial period. Increases in the moisture transport across Central America have been proposed to coincide with northerly shifts of the Intertropical Convergence Zone and with Dansgaard/Oeschger interstadials, with opposite changes for Heinrich events. Here we reconstruct sea surface salinities in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean over the past 90,000 years by comparing palaeotemperature estimates from alkenones and Mg/Ca ratios with foraminiferal oxygen isotope ratios that vary with both temperature and salinity. We detect millennial-scale fluctuations of sea surface salinities in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean of up to two to four practical salinity units. High salinities are associated with the southward migration of the tropical Atlantic Intertropical Convergence Zone, coinciding with Heinrich events and with Greenland stadials. The amplitudes of these salinity variations are significantly larger on the Pacific side of the Panama isthmus, as inferred from a comparison of our data with a palaeoclimate record from the Caribbean basin. We conclude that millennial-scale fluctuations of moisture transport constitute an important feedback mechanism for abrupt climate changes, modulating the North Atlantic freshwater budget and hence North Atlantic Deep Water formation.
Hilton, D. R.; Barry, P. H.; Ramirez, C. J.; Kulongoski, J. T.; Patel, B. S.; Virrueta, C.; Blackmon, K.
The subduction of carbon to the deep mantle via subduction zones is interrupted by outputs via the fore-arc, volcanic front, and back-arc regions. Whereas output fluxes for arc and back-arc locales are well constrained for the Central America Volcanic Arc (CAVA) [1-2], the fore-arc flux via cold seeps and ground waters is poorly known. We present new He and CO2 data (isotopes and relative abundances) for the volcanic front and inner fore-arc of western Panama to complement on-going studies of fore-arc C-fluxes in Costa Rica [3-4] and to determine tectonic controls on the fore-arc C-outgassing fluxes. Helium isotope (3He/4He) values at Baru, La Yeguada, and El Valle volcanoes are high (5-8RA), consistent with results for other Central America volcanoes. However, CO2/3He values are variable (from > 1012 to Baru has an arc-like δ13C of - 4‰, whereas the other volcanoes have δ13C Baru volcano. The transition from orthogonal subduction of the Cocos Plate to oblique subduction of the Nazca Plate, relative to the common over-riding Caribbean Plate, is the major impediment to slab degassing towards the southern terminus of the CAVA.  Shaw et al., 2003, EPSL;  De Leeuw et al., 2007, EPSL;  Furi et al, 2010, G-cubed;  Hilton et al. 2014, Fall AGU.
Wesseling, Catharina; Aragón, Aurora; Elgstrand, Kaj; Flores, Reinaldo; Hogstedt, Christer; Partanen, Timo
In 2003, the university-based Program on Work and Health in Central America, SALTRA, was launched to build national and regional capacities in occupational safety and health with the goal of preventing and reducing poverty in Central America. SALTRA has implemented 20 projects including action projects in priority sectors (e.g., construction, sugarcane, hospitals, migrant coffee workers); strengthening of surveillance (occupational health profiles, carcinogenic exposures, fatal injuries and pesticides); a participatory model for training and risk monitoring by workers; building occupational health capacity for professionals, employers, and workers, with collaborating networks between the countries; strengthening of universities in work, environment, and health; studies of serious occupational and environmental situations; communication channels; and continued efforts to raise political awareness. SALTRA has placed issues of workers' health on political, business, and academic agendas throughout the region and has laid the foundations for achieving substantial future improvements in health conditions of all workers in the region. External evaluators envisioned SALTRA as an innovative development model.
Alarid-Escudero, Fernando; Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G; Fernández, Bertha; Galárraga, Omar
To quantify the costs and benefits of three HIV prevention interventions in migrants in Central America: voluntary counseling and testing, treatment of sexually transmitted infections, and condom distribution. The methods were: a) identification and quantification of costs; b) quantification of benefits, defined as the potential savings in antiretroviral treatment of HIV cases prevented; and c) estimation of the cost-benefit ratio. The model estimated that 9, 21 and 8 cases of HIV were prevented by voluntary counseling and testing, treatment for sexually transmitted infections and condom distribution per 10 000 migrants, respectively. In Panama, condom distribution and treatment for sexually transmitted infections had a return of US$131/USD and US$69.8/USD. Returns in El Salvador were US$2.0/USD and US$42.3/USD in voluntary counseling and testing and condom distribution, respectively. The potential savings on prevention have a large variation between countries. Nevertheless, the cost-benefit estimates suggest that the HIV prevention programs in Central America can potentially result in monetary savings in the long run.
La Sorte, Frank A; Fink, Daniel; Blancher, Peter J; Rodewald, Amanda D; Ruiz-Gutierrez, Viviana; Rosenberg, Kenneth V; Hochachka, Wesley M; Verburg, Peter H; Kelling, Steve
Understanding the susceptibility of highly mobile taxa such as migratory birds to global change requires information on geographic patterns of occurrence across the annual cycle. Neotropical migrants that breed in North America and winter in Central America occur in high concentrations on their non-breeding grounds where they spend the majority of the year and where habitat loss has been associated with population declines. Here, we use eBird data to model weekly patterns of abundance and occurrence for 21 forest passerine species that winter in Central America. We estimate species' distributional dynamics across the annual cycle, which we use to determine how species are currently associated with public protected areas and projected changes in climate and land-use. The effects of global change on the non-breeding grounds is characterized by decreasing precipitation, especially during the summer, and the conversion of forest to cropland, grassland, or peri-urban. The effects of global change on the breeding grounds are characterized by increasing winter precipitation, higher temperatures, and the conversion of forest to peri-urban. During spring and autumn migration, species are projected to encounter higher temperatures, forests that have been converted to peri-urban, and increased precipitation during spring migration. Based on current distributional dynamics, susceptibility to global change is characterized by the loss of forested habitats on the non-breeding grounds, warming temperatures during migration and on the breeding grounds, and declining summer rainfall on the non-breeding grounds. Public protected areas with low and medium protection status are more prevalent on the non-breeding grounds, suggesting that management opportunities currently exist to mitigate near-term non-breeding habitat losses. These efforts would affect more individuals of more species during a longer period of the annual cycle, which may create additional opportunities for species to
Orozco, Allan; Morera, Jessica; Jiménez, Sergio; Boza, Ricardo
Today, Bioinformatics has become a scientific discipline with great relevance for the Molecular Biosciences and for the Omics sciences in general. Although developed countries have progressed with large strides in Bioinformatics education and research, in other regions, such as Central America, the advances have occurred in a gradual way and with little support from the Academia, either at the undergraduate or graduate level. To address this problem, the University of Costa Rica's Medical School, a regional leader in Bioinformatics in Central America, has been conducting a series of Bioinformatics workshops, seminars and courses, leading to the creation of the region's first Bioinformatics Master's Degree. The recent creation of the Central American Bioinformatics Network (BioCANET), associated to the deployment of a supporting computational infrastructure (HPC Cluster) devoted to provide computing support for Molecular Biology in the region, is providing a foundational stone for the development of Bioinformatics in the area. Central American bioinformaticians have participated in the creation of as well as co-founded the Iberoamerican Bioinformatics Society (SOIBIO). In this article, we review the most recent activities in education and research in Bioinformatics from several regional institutions. These activities have resulted in further advances for Molecular Medicine, Agriculture and Biodiversity research in Costa Rica and the rest of the Central American countries. Finally, we provide summary information on the first Central America Bioinformatics International Congress, as well as the creation of the first Bioinformatics company (Indromics Bioinformatics), spin-off the Academy in Central America and the Caribbean.
Kareem M. Usher
Full Text Available La petite nation de Belize est nichée au cœur de l’Amérique Centrale, bordée au nord par le Mexique, à l'ouest et au sud par le Guatemala ; la mer Caraïbe constituant sa frontière orientale. Situé sur la trajectoire des cyclones tropicaux atlantiques, le pays est exposé aux catastrophes atmosphériques. Parmi les plus notables dans l’histoire de Bélize : l'ouragan de 1931 et l'ouragan Hattie qui ont fait 275 victimes et causé des dommages évalués à plus de 1 milliard de dollars. En réponse, le pays a mis en place diverses politiques responsables et inédites visant la réduction des risques afin de sauvegarder sa population et de protéger l’essor du tourisme. Malgré ces efforts, la majorité des populations côtières demeure vulnérable aux ouragans et aux inondationsThe small nation of Belize is nestled on the Central American Continent bounded on its north by Mexico, the west and south by Guatemala and the Caribbean Sea on its eastern border. Located in the path of Atlantic Tropical Cyclones, the country is susceptible to atmospheric disasters. Most notably are the Hurricane of 1931 and Hurricane Hattie which claimed 275 lives and caused damages in excess of US$1 Billion. Consequently, Belize has implemented several responsible and original mitigation policies to safeguard its population and protect the bourgeoning tourism industry. In spite of those efforts, most of its coastal populations remain vulnerable to hurricanes and floods.
Chen, C. F.; Nguyen, S. T.; Chen, C. R.; Chiang, S. H.; Chang, L. Y.; Khin, L. V.
Drought is one of the most frequent and costliest natural disasters, which imposes enormous effects to human societies and ecosystems. Agricultural drought is referred to an interval of time, such as weeks or months, when the soil moisture supply of a region consistently falls below the appropriate moisture supply leading to negative impacts on agricultural production. Millions of households in Central America were dependent upon major food crops, including maize, beans, and sorghum, for their daily subsistence. In recent years, impacts of climate change through global warming in forms of higher temperature and widespread rainfall deficits have however triggered severe drought during the primera cropping season (April-August) in the study region, causing profound impacts on agriculture, crop production losses, increased market food prices, as well as food security issues. This study focuses on investigating agricultural droughts for cropland of Central America using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. We processed the data for a normal year 2013 and an abnormal year 2014 using a simple vegetation health index (VHI) that is developed based on the temperature condition index (TCI) and vegetation condition index (VCI). The VHI results were validated using the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) precipitation data and temperature vegetation dryness index (TVDI) that is developed based on the empirical analysis of TCI and VCI data. The correlation coefficients (r) obtained by comparisons between the VHI data and the AMSR2 precipitation and TVDI data were higher than 0.62 and -0.61, respectively. The severe drought was intensive during the dry season (January-April) and likely backed to normal conditions in May with the onset of rainy season. The larger area of serve drought was observed for the 2014 primera season, especially during April-July. When investigating the cultivated areas affected by severe drought in the primera
López, Augusto; Cáceres, Victor M
The Central America Field Epidemiology Training Program (CA FETP) is a public health capacity-building training programme aimed at developing high-caliber field epidemiologists at various levels of the public health system. It began in 2000 as part of the effort to rebuild public health infrastructure in six Central American and Caribbean countries following the devastation of Hurricanes Mitch and Georges in late 1998. Since then, the CA FETP has evolved from one regional training programme managed by CDC to several national FETPs with each country assuming ownership of its domestic programme. The curriculum is competency-based, and is divided into a three-tiered training pyramid that corresponds to the needs at the local, district and central levels of the health system. Trainees at each tier spend about 20% of their time in the classroom and 80% in the field implementing what they have learned while being mentored by graduates of the programme. FETP trainees have responded to multiple natural disasters and conducted hundreds of investigations including surveillance evaluations, outbreak responses and planned studies. Also graduates of the CA FETP are assuming influential positions in their respective ministries. As countries meet the challenge of institutionalizing their programmes, the CA FETP concept will increasingly be recognized as a model for sustainable public health capacity development.
Cáceres Victor M
Full Text Available Abstract The Central America Field Epidemiology Training Program (CA FETP is a public health capacity-building training programme aimed at developing high-caliber field epidemiologists at various levels of the public health system. It began in 2000 as part of the effort to rebuild public health infrastructure in six Central American and Caribbean countries following the devastation of Hurricanes Mitch and Georges in late 1998. Since then, the CA FETP has evolved from one regional training programme managed by CDC to several national FETPs with each country assuming ownership of its domestic programme. The curriculum is competency-based, and is divided into a three-tiered training pyramid that corresponds to the needs at the local, district and central levels of the health system. Trainees at each tier spend about 20% of their time in the classroom and 80% in the field implementing what they have learned while being mentored by graduates of the programme. FETP trainees have responded to multiple natural disasters and conducted hundreds of investigations including surveillance evaluations, outbreak responses and planned studies. Also graduates of the CA FETP are assuming influential positions in their respective ministries. As countries meet the challenge of institutionalizing their programmes, the CA FETP concept will increasingly be recognized as a model for sustainable public health capacity development.
Leyva-Flores, René; Aracena-Genao, Belkis; Serván-Mori, Edson
Estimate the magnitude of the association between population mobility, measured by net migration rate (NMR), and HIV prevalence in Central America and Mexico. Using time series models, based on public information from UNAIDS, UNDP, ECLAC, and the World Bank for the period 1990-2009, this association was studied in individuals aged 15-49 years, and adjusted for socioeconomic factors (education, unemployment, life expectancy, and income). NMR was negative in all countries except Costa Rica and Panama. Unadjusted results of the model show a positive association and that NMR can explain 6% of recorded HIV prevalence. When socioeconomic cofactors are included by country (education, health, and income), the magnitude increases to 9% (PCentral America and Mexico, although large gaps persist among countries. The modest association observed between population mobility and HIV prevalence is conditioned by the socioeconomic status of the countries studied. Information availability limited the study's ability to establish the existence of this association with greater certainty. Accordingly, based on available information, it is not possible to affirm that migration plays a key role in the spread of HIV.
Kito, T.; Korenaga, J.
Recent tomographic images imply that subducted slabs may penetrate into the lower mantle in some regions. However the behavior of the subducted materials around and below the mantle transition zone remains poorly understood. In order to investigate the fate of the subducted slab beneath central America, we have analyzed broadband teleseismic data from intermediate- and deep-earthquakes in south America recorded at several Californian seismic networks. To suppress artifacts and obtain a high resolution image, we have applied seismic migration method called Slowness Back azimuth Weighted Migration (SBWM) which utilizes not only travel time but also slowness and back azimuth information in the wavefield. We have observed reflected/scattered waves from heterogeneities associated with subduction processes. The migrated seismic energy has then been evaluated using the jackknife algorithm to determine statistically significant seismic signals. The observed reflected seismic waves can be explained by the subducted former oceanic lithosphere (MORB) in the deep mantle, which provides independent evidence for slab penetration into the lower mantle and mass transportation across the mantle transition zone, at least in this region.
Gutiérrez-García, Tania Anaid; Vázquez-Domínguez, Ella
Results from genetic and geologic studies can be combined to elucidate some general patterns of the biogeographic and evolutionary history of Central America (CA) and of its biota. Based on an ample review of geologic, biogeographic and genetic studies, our aim was to examine how common genetic patterns can be linked with geologic processes. Considering information about geologic and tectonic evolution of CA, we subdivided the region into four tectonic blocks: Maya, Chortis, Chorotega and Chocó. Species exchange between North/South America and CA encompasses three events: a first migration during the Late Cretaceous-Early Paleocene, a second through a terrestrial corridor preceding the formation of the Isthmus of Panama (IP), and the third involving a major dispersion through the IP. Such events caused similar genetic differentiation patterns and left a signature on the diversification of extant taxa, which we propose as three evolutionary groups: 1) Mayan, characterized by marked genetic structure and divergence, multiple refugia and formation of cryptic species; 2) Mid-CA, defined by high differentiation at the population level and between highland and lowlands, associated with intense volcanic activity; 3) Panamian, distinguished by migration from north to south and vice versa via de IP, with markedly high species divergence and speciation.
Jesse Guite Hastings
Full Text Available Motivated by biogeography and a desire for alignment with the funding priorities of donors, the twenty-first century has seen big international NGOs shifting towards a large-scale conservation approach. This shift has meant that even before stakeholders at the national and local scale are involved, conservation programmes often have their objectives defined and funding allocated. This paper uses the experiences of Conservation International′s Marine Management Area Science (MMAS programme in Belize and Panama to explore how to build participation at the national and local scale while working within the bounds of the current conservation paradigm. Qualitative data about MMAS was gathered through a multi-sited ethnographic research process, utilising document review, direct observation, and semi-structured interviews with 82 informants in Belize, Panama, and the United States of America. Results indicate that while a large-scale approach to conservation disadvantages early national and local stakeholder participation, this effect can be mediated through focusing engagement efforts, paying attention to context, building horizontal and vertical partnerships, and using deliberative processes that promote learning. While explicit consideration of geopolitics and local complexity alongside biogeography in the planning phase of a large-scale conservation programme is ideal, actions taken by programme managers during implementation can still have a substantial impact on conservation outcomes.
José Domingo Carrillo Padilla
Full Text Available The article aims to know the relationships established between the militants of the armed movements. Also want to be aware of the relationship model that prevailed. To achieve the proposed objectives, leave aside the narratives that glorify the armed movements, prevents build heroes to taste, rather, is a narrative of the adventures and the loving sinventuras who sought by weapons, to relieve the power ruler in Central America in the second half of the 20th century. The relationships established between the militants of the armed movements, regulated by traditional institutions such as marriage and free joints. In this article, because the nature of the sources this was said, emphasis in heterosexual affective relationships. There is know in the same way, homosexual relations between the guerrillas. Taboo because it means to infringe against the virility of men in arms and the model of femininity established by society. Son amores that even they dare not speak its name.
Grisard Edmundo C
Full Text Available Trypanosoma rangeli is a hemoflagelate parasite that infects domestic and sylvatic animals, as well as man, in Central and South America. T. rangeli has an overlapping distribution with T. cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, sharing several animal reservoirs and triatomine vectors. We have isolated T. rangeli strains in the State of Santa Catarina, in southern Brazil, which dramatically increased the distribution area of this parasite. This brief review summarizes several studies comparing T. rangeli strains isolated in Santa Catarina with others isolated in Colombia, Honduras and Venezuela. The different methods used include indirect immunofluorescence and western blot assays, lectin agglutination, isoenzyme electrophoresis and random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, triatomine susceptibility, in vitro cell infection assays, and mini-exon gene analysis.
Alvarado Umanzor, R A
"After [reviewing] the demographic and historical backgrounds as well as the situation in each individual country in the area, the author concludes that migrations in Central America have been originated and influenced mainly by social and economic causes, as well as by social-political conflicts in the area, the latter affecting especially El Salvador, Nicaragua, Guatemala and Panama. Although bringing some relief to the families through remittances of money earned abroad, the general effects are negative for countries of origin, due to the loss of labor [and] ruptures in family relations. On the other hand, they significantly influence labor markets in the countries of destination, such as Costa Rica, Honduras, Mexico and the United States. The countries in the area must now prepare themselves to receive many of those migrants back home." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt
Full Text Available In an attempt to link the international dimension with the local one, this article lays out an approach to the situation of Spanish decentralised international cooperation in the area of municipalism and decentralisation in the countries of Central America. In the firstplace, it offers a characterisation of the current state of Spanish decentralised cooperation in order to thus frame the cooperation actions carried out by the Barcelona Provincial Council; the UIM (Unión Iberoamericana de Municipios together with CEMCI (Centro de Estudios Municipales y de Cooperación Internacional; and the Confederación de Fondos de Cooperación y Solidaridad. Finally, it describes bankruptcies and it recovers some of the achievements ofthis kind of cooperation specifically in reference to the field of municipalism.
Molnia, Bruce; Hallam, Cheryl A.
Between October 27 and November 1, 1998, Central America was devastated by Hurricane Mitch. Following a humanitarian relief effort, one of the first informational needs was complete aerial photographic coverage of the storm ravaged areas so that the governments of the affected countries, the U.S. agencies planning to provide assistance, and the international relief community could come to the aid of the residents of the devastated area. Between December 4 and 19, 1998 an Open Skies aircraft conducted five successful missions and obtained more than 5,000 high-resolution aerial photographs and more than 15,000 video images. The aerial data are being used by the Reconstruction Task Force and many others who are working to begin rebuilding and to help reduce the risk of future destruction.
In this report, the fifth in a series describing the geothermal power plants of the world, the countries of Mexico and of Central America are studied. The geothermal plants are located in areas of recent and active volcanism; the resources are of the liquid-dominated type. Details are given about the plants located at Cerro Prieto in Mexico and at Ahuachapan in El Salvador. In both cases, attention is paid to the geologic nature of the fields, the well programs, geofluid characteristics, energy conversion systems, materials of construction, effluent handling systems, economic factors and plant operating experience. Exploration and development activities are described for other promising geothermal areas in Mexico and El Salvador, along with those in the countries of Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Guatemala, Honduras, and Panama.
Campbell, J A; Smith, E N
A new species of green, prehensile-tailed pitviper of the genus Bothriechis is described from the Atlantic slopes of eastern Guatemala and western Honduras. This species appears to be most closely related to B. bicolor of the Pacific versant of Chiapas (Mexico) and Guatemala. Several other species of Bothriechis occur on the Atlantic versant of northern Central America, including two montane species, B. aurifer and B. marchi but, with one possible exception, these are not known to be sympatric with the new species and occur in different mountain ranges. The widespread B. schlegelii occurs up to at least 900 m on the Sierra de Caral, where the lowest elevation recorded for the new species is 885 m.
Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo; Matamoros, Wilfredo A; Kreiser, Brian R; Caspeta-Mandujano, Juan Manuel; Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F
This paper provides the first report of the invasive Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934, in Honduras. The cestode was found in Profundulus portillorum (Cyprinodontiformes: Profundulidae), which represents a new host record, and which is a member of a genus faced with a variety of conservation challenges, now potentially complicated by the presence of this pathogenic cestode. Nearly complete sequence data from the ITS-1 5.8S and ITS-2 regions corroborate the determination based on morphological characteristics. Several species of carp were introduced to Honduras for aquaculture purposes in the early 1980s and the presence of the Asian fish tapeworm in Honduras may be related to these introductions. In addition, this report documents the currently known geographical distribution of this parasite in Central America, first recorded from Panamá and now from Honduras. © G. Salgado-Maldonado et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2015.
Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Swaminathan, Rajaraman; Brenner, Hermann; Chen, Kexin; Chia, Kee Seng; Chen, Jian Guo; Law, Stephen C K; Ahn, Yoon-Ok; Xiang, Yong Bing; Yeole, Balakrishna B; Shin, Hai Rim; Shanta, Viswanathan; Woo, Ze Hong; Martin, Nimit; Sumitsawan, Yupa; Sriplung, Hutcha; Barboza, Adolfo Ortiz; Eser, Sultan; Nene, Bhagwan M; Suwanrungruang, Krittika; Jayalekshmi, Padmavathiamma; Dikshit, Rajesh; Wabinga, Henry; Esteban, Divina B; Laudico, Adriano; Bhurgri, Yasmin; Bah, Ebrima; Al-Hamdan, Nasser
Population-based cancer survival data, a key indicator for monitoring progress against cancer, are not widely available from countries in Africa, Asia, and Central America. The aim of this study is to describe and discuss cancer survival in these regions. Survival analysis was done for 341 658 patients diagnosed with various cancers from 1990 to 2001 and followed up to 2003, from 25 population-based cancer registries in 12 countries in sub-Saharan Africa (The Gambia, Uganda), Central America (Costa Rica), and Asia (China, India, Pakistan, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, South Korea, Thailand, Turkey). 5-year age-standardised relative survival (ASRS) and observed survival by clinical extent of disease were determined. For cancers in which prognosis depends on stage at diagnosis, survival was highest in China, South Korea, Singapore, and Turkey and lowest in Uganda and The Gambia. 5-year ASRS ranged from 76-82% for breast cancer, 63-79% for cervical cancer, 71-78% for bladder cancer, and 44-60% for large-bowel cancers in China, Singapore, South Korea, and Turkey. Survival did not exceed 22% for any cancer site in The Gambia; in Uganda, survival did not exceed 13% for any cancer site except breast (46%). Variations in survival correlated with early detection initiatives and level of development of health services. The wide variation in cancer survival between regions emphasises the need for urgent investments in improving awareness, population-based cancer registration, early detection programmes, health-services infrastructure, and human resources. Association for International Cancer Research (AICR; St Andrews, UK), Association pour la Recherche sur le Cancer (ARC, Villejuif, France), and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (Seattle, USA). Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Elliott, John E; Kirk, David A; Elliott, Kyle H; Dorzinsky, Jessica; Lee, Sandi; Inzunza, Ernesto Ruelas; Cheng, Kimberly M T; Scheuhammer, Tony; Shaw, Patrick
Mercury (Hg) is a global contaminant of aquatic food chains. Aquatic birds, such as the osprey (Pandion haliaetus), with migratory populations breeding in Canada and the northern United States and wintering in the Central and South America, can be exposed to mercury on both the breeding and wintering ranges. We examined Hg levels in 14 fish taxa from 24 osprey wintering sites identified from satellite telemetry. Our main goal was to determine whether fish species that feature in the diet of overwintering and resident fish-eating birds reached toxicity thresholds for Hg. Mean Hg levels in fish whole carcasses ranged from a high of 0.18 µg g(-1) (wet weight) in Scomberomorus sierra to a low of 0.009 µg g(-1) in Catostomidae. Average Hg levels were within published toxicity threshold values in forage fish for only two sites in Mexico (Puerto Vallarta and San Blas Estuary), and all were marine species, such as mackerel (Scomberomorus sierra), sea catfish (Ariopus spp.), and sardinas species (Centropomus spp.). Except for one sample from Nicaragua, sea catfish from Puerto Morazan, none of the fish from sites in Central America had Hg levels which exceeded the thresholds. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling revealed geographical differences in Hg levels with significant pairwise differences between sites along the Pacific Ocean (Mexico) versus the Bay of Campeche, partly due to differences in species composition of sampled fish (and species distributions). Hg increased with trophic level, as assessed by nitrogen stable isotope ratios (δ(15)N but not δ(13)C), in freshwater and marine, but not estuarine, environments. Hg concentrations in forage fish do not account for the elevated Hg reported for many osprey populations on the breeding grounds, thus primary sources of contamination appear to be in the north.
Alonso-Henar, Jorge; Alvarez-Gomez, José Antonio; Jesús Martinez-Diaz, José
The Central American Volcanic Arc (CAVA) is located at the western margin of the Caribbean plate, over the Chortís Block, spanning from Guatemala to Costa Rica. The CAVA is associated to the subduction of the Cocos plate under the Caribbean plate at the Middle America Trench. Our study is focused in the Salvadorian CAVA segment, which is tectonically characterized by the presence of the El Salvador Fault Zone (ESFZ), part of the western boundary of a major block forming the Caribbean plate (the Chortis Block). The structural evolution of the western boundary of the Chortis Block, particularly in the CAVA crossing El Salvador remains unknown. We have done a kinematic analysis from seismic and fault slip data and combined our results with a review of regional previous studies. This approach allowed us to constrain the tectonic evolution and the forces that control the deformation in northern Central America. Along the active volcanic arc we identified active transtensional deformation. On the other hand, we have identified two deformation phases in the back arc region: A first one of transpressional wrenching close to simple shearing (Miocene); and a second one characterized by almost E-W extension. Our results reveal a change from transpressional to transtensional shearing coeval with a migration of the volcanism towards the trench in Late Miocene times. This strain change could be related with a coupled to decoupled transition on the Cocos - Caribbean subduction interface, which could be related to a slab roll-back of the Cocos Plate beneath the Chortis Block. The combination of different degrees of coupling on the subduction interface, together with a constant relative eastward drift of the Caribbean Plate, control the deformation style along the western boundary of the Chortis Block.
K. M. Shedlock
Full Text Available Minimization of the loss of life, property damage, and social and economic disruption due to earthquakes depends on reliable estimates of seismic hazard. National, state, and local governments, decision makers, engineers, planners, emergency response organizations, builders, universities, and the general public require seismic hazard estimates for land use planning, improved building design and construction (including adoption of building construction codes, emergency response preparedness plans, economic forecasts, housing and employment decisions, and many more types of risk mitigation. The seismic hazard map of North and Central America and the Caribbean is the concatenation of various national and regional maps, involving a suite of approaches. The combined maps and documentation provide a useful regional seismic hazard framework and serve as a resource for any national or regional agency for further detailed studies applicable to their needs. This seismic hazard map depicts Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA with a 10% chance of exceedance in 50 years. PGA, a short-period ground motion parameter that is proportional to force, is the most commonly mapped ground motion parameter because current building codes that include seismic provisions specify the horizontal force a building should be able to withstand during an earthquake. This seismic hazard map of North and Central America and the Caribbean depicts the likely level of short-period ground motion from earthquakes in a fifty-year window. Short-period ground motions effect short-period structures (e.g., one-to-two story buildings. The highest seismic hazard values in the region generally occur in areas that have been, or are likely to be, the sites of the largest plate boundary earthquakes.
Hutko, A. R.; Lay, T.; Revenaugh, J.
We use thousands of seismograms from South and Central American earthquakes recorded by western North American seismic networks to image the lowermost mantle beneath Central America using a 3D Kirchhoff migration scheme. P wave studies of the deep mantle often rely on some form of stacking of many records in order to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of weak phases generated by deep structure, such as reflections off of the D" discontinuity. These methods, however, often assume one-dimensional structure, which is at odds with the evidence for significant heterogeneity. Kirchhoff migration is a three-dimensional stacking method that allows interactions with structure off of the source-receiver plane, thus imaging a much larger volume and avoiding false projections of scattered arrivals onto specular reflectors. The D" discontinuity beneath Central America has been readily observed in S wave studies and may be the result of the shear wave velocity increase associated with the recently discovered perovskite to post-perovskite phase transition. This phase transition is expected to have weaker effects on P wave velocities than on S wave velocities and the sharpness of this transition is unknown. We observe structures consistent with a discontinuity about 200 km above the core-mantle boundary (CMB). The fact that this is seen at all in short period data suggests that its boundary must be less than 10 to 20 km thick, while observation with broadband data exclude the possibility of it being a thin layer or lamella. Whether the discontinuity is co-located for both P and S waves is difficult to resolve given uncertainties in the long-scale velocity heterogeneity. In addition, both broadband and short period P wave data sets reveal a sharp out-of-plane scatterer, which may be located close to the CMB. The short period data also indicate reflectivity about 400 km above the CMB, well above the aforementioned D" discontinuity, and similar reflectivity is observed under the
Hutko, A.; Lay, T.; Revenaugh, J.
We use tens of thousands of seismograms from South and Central American earthquakes recorded by western North American seismic networks to image the lowermost mantle beneath Central America using a 3D Kirchhoff migration method. P wave studies of the deep mantle often rely on some form of stacking of many records in order to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of weak phases generated by deep structure, such as reflections off of the D" discontinuity. These methods, however, often assume one-dimensional structure, which is at odds with the evidence for significant heterogeneity. Kirchhoff migration is a three-dimensional stacking method that allows interactions with structure outside of the source-receiver plane, thus illuminating a much larger volume. The D" discontinuity beneath Central America has been readily observed in S wave studies and may be the result of the shear wave velocity increase associated with the recently discovered perovskite to post-perovskite phase transition. This phase transition is expected to have weaker effects on P wave velocities than on S wave velocities and the sharpness of this transition is unknown. Using data at post-critical distances, we observe structures consistent with a P velocity discontinuity about 200 km above the core-mantle boundary (CMB). Observing this using short period data suggests that the boundary must be less than a few 10s of km thick, while observation with lower frequency broadband data exclude the possibility of it being a thin layer. Whether this discontinuity is co-located for both P and S waves is difficult to resolve. Both the broadband and the short period P wave data sets also reveal a sharp out-of-plane scatterer, which may be located close to the CMB. The short period data also indicate reflectivity about 400 km above the CMB, well above the D" discontinuity, and similar reflectivity is observed under the Central Pacific. This feature appears to be more consistent with a discontinuity than a scatterer
The document reproduces the text of an agreement by exchange of letters with Belize in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean. The agreement was approved by the Board of Governors on 18 March 1997 and entered into force on that date
Full Text Available The horizontal and vertical structure of unusually warm and dry spells (WDS over the central parts of South America during the winter and post-winter months (JJAS are studied. During WDS the mean temperature and humidity anomalies over central Brazil are about +4.1°C and −13.2%, respectively. The mean duration of WDS is 11 days and their mean frequency is less than one per year during the months of JJAS. Apparently, WDS have no preference for the phase of ENSO. Widespread and persistent subsidence in the middle troposphere is observed in tropical Brazil during WDS, which renders the lower tropospheric air warm and dry. The negative anomalies of the specific humidity are observed to be associated with the subsidence regions. A strong, slow moving ridge in the eastern South Pacific and a low-pressure center in northern Argentina are important surface characteristics during the WDS. A more detailed investigation of two specific WDS events, a strong event (August–September 1999 and a moderate one (June 2002, shows a blocking-like situation in the 500-hPa geopotential and surface pressure fields in the Pacific. The South Atlantic subtropical high somewhat approaches the continent. Strong northerlies over the central and eastern parts of Brazil are also observed in the lower troposphere. During WDS the regional circulation acquires summertime characteristics, except for the absence of precipitation, and the circulation in the meridional plane is in the opposite sense from the Hadley circulation. A frontal system, supported by a 500-hPa trough, advances into central Brazil, causing the dissipation of the anomalous situation.
Catalogo General de Universidades, 1970-1971: Federacion de Universidades Privadas de America Central y Panama (General Catalog of Universities, 1970-1971: Federation of Private Universities of Central America and Panama).
Federacion de Universidades Privadas de America Central y Panama, Guatemala City (Guatemala).
This document contains the 1970-1971 catalogues of five universities belonging to the Federation of Private Universities of Central America and Panama (FUPAC). The catalogues provide information on university administrators and staff, historical background, admission requirements, degree programs, scholarships, and courses. The catalogues included…
Avalos, D.; Gomez, R.
The model of geoidal heights for Mexico, named GGM10, is presented as a geodetic tool to support vertical positioning in the context of regional height system unification. It is a purely gravimetric solution computed by the Stokes-Helmert technique in resolution of 2.5 arc minutes. This product from the Instituto Nacional de Estadistica y Geografia (INEGI) is released together with a series of 10 gravimetric models which add to the improvements in description of the gravity field. In the recent years, the INEGI joined the initiative of the U.S. National Geodetic Survey and the Canada's Geodetic Survey Division to promote the regional height system unification. In an effort to further improve the compatibility among national geoid models in the region, the INEGI has begun to champion a network of specialists that includes national representatives from Central America and the Caribbean. Through the opening of opportunities for training and more direct access to international agreements and discussions, the tropical region is gaining participation. Now a significantly increased number of countries is pushing for a future North and Central American geoid-based vertical datum as support of height system unification.eoidal height in Mexico, mapped from the model GGM10.
Caserta, Salvatore; Madsen, Mikael Rask
This article is a commentary on two of the latest decisions of the Caribbean Court of Justice (CCJ), Tomlinson v. Belize, and Tomlinson v. Trinidad and Tobago. In these two cases, the CCJ was called to rule over the legality under the Treaty of Chaguaramas of the Immigration Acts of Belize and Tr......, such as freedom of movement in the CARICOM and indirect and direct effect of Community Law. We argue that these two rulings are important new steps for the CCJ with regard to consolidating its position as an authoritative supranational court....
Francisco Javier Haro Navejas
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the Official Development Aid (AOD that has as its source Taiwan and as its destination Central America. It has three basic aims: Firstly, there is a huge bibliographic vacuum on the topic of these pages. Beginning filling it is an academic need. Even some intellectuals feel that they should lean against either Beijing or Taipei, that if they write on Taiwan they should defend or attack one of the contending parties. Here it is seen that a study close to objectivity is possible. Secondly, most of the research in International Relations has been focused on topics related with power itself or with just elements related with hard power. AOD is both hard and soft power, therefore this paper shades light to the dark side partially viewing international relations from a theoretical perspective were interactions help to construct identities and cooperation is an essential variable of world politics. Finally, it will be seen below that the Taiwanese cooperativeeconomic actions are helpful to the progress of poor parts of the Central American region and are helpful to create domestic markets with strong links with the world market deepening the economic integration both regional and global. Aid from Taiwan and some other countries, mainly through the transmission of know how, could be of assistance in surmounting huge troubles. Aid is vital because some of Central American’s problems are being exported mainly to México and the United States under the form, just to give an example, of Mara Salvatrucha gangs source of violence and drug trafficking. It is not meaningless to stress that Taiwanese ODA is by far not enough and is very small in the international context.
García-Nava, Héctor; Esquivel-Trava, Bernardo; Ocampo-Torres, Francisco J.
Proper planning of maritime activities strongly depends on the prior knowledge of wave characteristics. In particular, knowledge of wave climate and its variability is essential for offshore and coastal operations and engineering projects. This work describes the wave climate and its variability in the Pacific region off Mexico and Central America (PMCA) based on a 19 years wave hindcast. It is found that the variability of the wave height is dominated by changes of the swell arriving from the North Pacific and of the waves generated in the Gulfs of Tehuantepec and Papagayo. The highest waves in PMCA region are associated with the occurrence of tropical storms however; tropical storms are so sparse in time and space that have little influence in the long-term mean. An analysis of the correlation of the monthly anomaly of wave height with several climate indices suggests that the major source of variability in PMCA region is El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). It is also suggested that, through the Pacific-North America teleconnection, ENSO modifies the storms characteristics over the North Pacific and causes changes in the waves arriving into PMCA region. In PMCA region wave height exhibits a negative trend almost everywhere. Notwithstanding, trends are only statistically significant in regions dominated by swell from the North Pacific, with decreasing rates between -1 to -3 cm.yr-1. This study suggests that the variability of the waves conditions over the North Pacific are related to changes of the strength and position of the Aleutian Low which are evidenced by the behaviour of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. If this is the case, the observed negative trends are expected to be part of a multi-decadal oscillation rather than a long-term behaviour.
Morell, Kristin D.; Fisher, Donald M.; Gardner, Thomas W.
Subduction of the right-lateral Panama Fracture Zone, along the convergent margin of Central America creates abrupt lateral variations in convergence rate, obliquity, and subducting crustal thickness at its intersection with the Middle America Trench. This intersection, known as the Panama (CO-NZ-CA) Triple Junction, is migrating to the southeast at a rate of 55 mm/yr, and currently coincides with the lateral termination of the Fila Costeña Thrust Belt in the inner forearc of the overriding plate. Mapping in the inner forearc in the area that straddles the subducting Panama Fracture Zone reveals that Cocos-Caribbean convergence west of the triple junction leads to the development of an inner forearc thrust belt inboard of the colliding Cocos Ridge, while little deformation is evident inboard of Nazca-Caribbean convergence, east of the triple junction. This results in the lateral termination of the Fila Costeña Thrust Belt in the region of the forearc that projects over the Panama Fracture Zone, where four out of five mapped thrust faults tip out and are buried by lahars. Three new balanced cross-sections indicate a steep gradient in shortening from the center of the thrust belt to its southeastern termination. The short-term history of the inner forearc recorded in the landscape and topography of the Fila Costeña is consistent with the southeastward migration of the thrust belt and the Panama Triple Junction throughout the past ˜ 3 Ma, with evidence for the growth of a new topographic divide and reorganization of stream channel networks.
Full Text Available Two new genera of Riodinidae (Insecta: Lepidoptera are described, Neoapodemia Trujano-Ortega, gen. n. (Neoapodemia nais (W. H. Edwards, 1876, comb. n., N. chisosensis Freeman, 1964, comb. n. and Plesioarida Trujano-Ortega & García-Vázquez, gen. n. (Plesioarida palmerii palmerii (W. H. Edwards, 1870, comb. n., P. palmerii arizona (Austin, , comb. n., P. palmerii australis (Austin, , comb. n., P. hepburni hepburni (Godman & Salvin, 1886, comb. n., P. hepburni remota (Austin, 1991, comb. n., P. murphyi (Austin, , comb. n., P. hypoglauca hypoglauca (Godman & Salvin, 1878, comb. n., P. hypoglauca wellingi (Ferris, 1985, comb. n., P. walkeri (Godman & Salvin, 1886, comb. n., P. selvatica (De la Maza & De la Maza, 2017, comb. n.. Neoapodemia Trujano-Ortega, gen. n. is distributed in the southwestern USA and northeastern Mexico, while Plesioarida Trujano-Ortega & García-Vázquez, gen. n. is present from the southern USA to Central America. Species of these genera were previously classified as Apodemia C. Felder & R. Felder but molecular and morphological evidence separate them as new taxa. Morphological diagnoses and descriptions are provided for both new genera, including the main distinctive characters from labial palpi, prothoracic legs, wing venation and genitalia, as well as life history traits. A molecular phylogeny of one mitochondrial gene (COI and two nuclear genes (EF-1a and wg are also presented of most species of Apodemia, Neoapodemia Trujano-Ortega, gen. n., Plesioarida Trujano-Ortega & García-Vázquez, gen. n., and sequences of specimens from all tribes of Riodinidae. We compare the characters of Apodemia, Neoapodemia Trujano-Ortega, gen. n. and Plesioarida Trujano-Ortega & García-Vázquez, gen. n. and discuss the differences that support the description of these new taxa. This is a contribution to the taxonomy of the Riodinidae of North America of which the generic diversity is greater than previously recognized.
Steinhoff, Daniel F.; Monaghan, Andrew J.; Clark, Martyn P.
Due to the importance that the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) has on rainfall over the tropical Americas, future changes in ENSO characteristics and teleconnections are important for regional hydroclimate. Projected changes to the ENSO mean state and characteristics, and the resulting impacts on rainfall anomalies over Central America, Colombia, and Ecuador during the twenty-first century are explored for several forcing scenarios using a suite of coupled atmosphere-ocean global climate models (AOGCMs) from the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Mean-state warming of eastern tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures, drying of Central America and northern Colombia, and wetting of southwest Colombia and Ecuador are consistent with previous studies that used earlier versions of the AOGCMs. Current and projected future characteristics of ENSO (frequency, duration, amplitude) show a wide range of values across the various AOGCMs. The magnitude of ENSO-related rainfall anomalies are currently underestimated by most of the models, but the model ensembles generally simulate the correct sign of the anomalies across the seasons around the peak ENSO effects. While the models capture the broad present-day ENSO-related rainfall anomalies, there is not a clear sense of projected future changes in the precipitation anomalies.
Imbach, P. A.; Georgiou, S.; Calderer, L.; Coto, A.; Nakaegawa, T.; Chou, S. C.; Lyra, A. A.; Hidalgo, H. G.; Ciais, P.
Central America is among the world's most vulnerable regions to climate variability and change. Country economies are highly dependent on the agricultural sector and over 40 million people's rural livelihoods directly depend on the use of natural resources. Future climate scenarios show a drier outlook (higher temperatures and lower precipitation) over a region where rural livelihoods are already compromised by water availability and climate variability. Previous efforts to validate modelling of the regional hydrology have been based on high resolution (1 km2) equilibrium models (Imbach et al., 2010) or using dynamic models (Variable Infiltration Capacity) with coarse climate forcing (0.5°) (Hidalgo et al., 2013; Maurer et al., 2009). We present here: (i) validation of the hydrological outputs from high-resolution simulations (10 km2) of a dynamic vegetation model (Orchidee), using 7 different sets of model input forcing data, with monthly runoff observations from 182 catchments across Central America; (ii) the first assessments of the region's hydrological variability using the historical simulations (iii) an estimation of the time of emergence of the climate change signal (under the SRES emission scenarios) on the water balance. We found model performance to be comparable with that from studies in other world regions (Yang et al. 2016) when forced with high resolution precipitation data (monthly values at 5 km2, Funk et al. (2015)) and the Climate Research Unit (CRU 3.2, Harris et al. (2014)) dataset of meteorological parameters. Validation results showed a Pearson correlation coefficient ≈ 0.6, general underestimation of runoff of ≈ 60% and variability close to observed values (ratio of standard deviations of ≈ 0.7). Maps of historical runoff are presented to show areas where high runoff variability follows high mean annual runoff, with opposite trends over the Caribbean. Future scenarios show large areas where future maximum water availability will
Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Holm-Denoma, Christopher S.; Jones, James V.; Aleinikoff, John N.; Mortensen, James K.
We report eight new U-Pb detrital zircon ages for quartzose metasedimentary rocks from four lithotectonic units of parautochthonous North America in east-central Alaska: the Healy schist, Keevy Peak Formation, and Sheep Creek Member of the Totatlanika Schist in the northern Alaska Range, and the Butte assemblage in the northwestern Yukon-Tanana Upland. Excepting 1 of 3 samples from the Healy schist, all have dominant detrital zircon populations of 1.9–1.8 Ga and a subordinate population of 2.7–2.6 Ga. Three zircons from Totatlanika Schist yield the youngest age of ca. 780 Ma. The anomalous Healy schist sample has abundant 1.6–0.9 Ga detrital zircon, as well as populations at 2.0–1.8 Ga and 2.7–2.5 Ga that overlap the ages from the rest of our samples; it has a minimum age population of ca. 1007 Ma.Detrital zircon age populations from all but the anomalous sample are statistically similar to those from (1) other peri-Laurentian units in east-central Alaska; (2) the Snowcap assemblage in Yukon, basement of the allochthonous Yukon-Tanana terrane; (3) Neoproterozoic to Ordovician Laurentian passive margin strata in southern British Columbia, Canada; and (4) Proterozoic Laurentian Sequence C strata of northwestern Canada. Recycling of zircon from the Paleoproterozoic Great Bear magmatic zone in the Wopmay orogen and its Archean precursors could explain both the Precambrian zircon populations and arc trace element signatures of our samples. Zircon from the anomalous Healy schist sample resembles that in Nation River Formation and Adams Argillite in eastern Alaska, suggesting recycling of detritus in those units.
Michael A. Castellano; James M. Trappe; D. Jean Lodge
A new semi-hypogeous, sequestrate genus and species in the Basidiomycota is described from the Maya Mountains of Belize, where it was fruiting in association with Coccoloba belizensis. Mayamontana coccolobae is characterized by small, bright orange basidiomata with a friable, loculate, red-orange to red gleba and bilaterally...
Cerón, Alejandro; Godoy, Angelina Snodgrass
Globalization of intellectual property (IP) protection for medicines has been advancing during the past decade. Countries are obliged to adapt their legislation as a requirement of their membership to the World Trade Organization or as a condition of being part of international trade agreements. There is a growing recognition that, in low-income countries, stronger IP protection is a barrier to access to medicines. At the same time, the number of low-income countries writing national legislation to protect IP for pharmaceutical products is growing worldwide, but little research has been done on the ways in which this process is happening at the national level. This paper aims to contribute to the understanding of the implementation of IP legislation at the national level by providing a comparative analysis of the countries that are part of the United States-Dominican Republic-Central America Free Trade Agreement (DR-CAFTA). The analysis shows three trends. First, countries have often implemented stronger IP protection than required by trade agreements. Second, some countries have adopted IP protection before signing the trade agreements. Third, the process of ratification of DR-CAFTA increased public debate around these issues, which in some cases led to IP legislation that considers public health needs. These trends suggest that industrialized countries and the pharmaceutical industry are using more tactics than just trade agreements to push for increased IP protection and that the process of national legislation is a valid arena for confronting public health needs to those of the industry.
Alonso-Henar, Jorge; Jesús Martínez-Díaz, José; Álvarez-Gómez, José Antonio
It is considered that the study of the recent topography development, and the use of geomorphological indexes are good tools for the quantification of the active tectonics. We have used quantitative geomorphology in order to improve our understanding of the recent activity and tectonic evolution of the El Salvador Fault Zone (ESFZ); an E-W oriented strike-slip fault zone that extends 150 km through El Salvador (Martínez-Díaz et al. 2004). Previous studies propose a transtensive tectonic regime at the Central America Volcanic Arc in El Salvador, which induces relative vertical motions on the faults within El Salvador Fault Zone (i.e. Álvarez-Gómez et al., 2008, Cáceres et al. 2005,). This relative vertical displacement can be quantified with the use of hypsometry as a geomorphological character. The morphometric analysis done contributes to a better understanding of the ESFZ. We have defined km scale tectonic block relative displacements that may be useful to constrain the strain distribution along the ESFZ, length of segments with homogeneous vertical movements and lateral relay of active structures. This study supports the hypothesis of a recent migration in the maximum shortening direction, and the accomodation of the current deformation through the reactivation of pre-existing structures inherited from a previous tectonic frame. A similar tectonic evolution as described Weinberg (1992) in Nicaragua, is interpreted from the results of this study.
Mentler, Axel; Wriessnig, Karin; Ottner, Franz; Schomakers, Jasmin; Benavides González, Álvaro; Cisne Contreras, José Dolores; Querol Lipcovich, Daniel
Cerro el Castillo is located in the NW of Nicaragua, Central America, close to the border of Honduras (Provincia Central de las Cordilleras) at 1000-1200m above sea level. In this region, small and medium-sized farms are agroforestry systems with mangos, avocados, coffee, papayas, bananas, strawberries, maize, pumpkins, beans and other vegetables. The production systems are strongly linked to facilities for raising small domestic animals and cows. Main regional agricultural production problems are steep slopes, soil erosion, varying precipitation and distribution, water management and the unstable family income. An investigation of topsoil properties with comparable management systems showed on small scales significant differences in key values of soil chemistry and mineralogy. The outline of the analytical parameters included determination of pH, electrical conductivity (EC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), organic carbon (TOC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total nitrogen (TN) and dissolved nitrogen (DN) in soil solution, and plant available nutrients (P and K). The soil's mineralogical composition was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. The area is a highly weathered karst landscape within a tropical limestone region displaying different amounts of volcanic pyroclastic parent material. The dominant Nitisoils and Andosols show degraded argic and andic horizons along the upper half of the mountainside. The pH values in the topsoil are moderate from pH 5.0 to 5.6. The upland topsoil is decalcified and the amount of plant available phosphorous is very low with significant low Ca concentration at the sorption complex. The mineralogical composition points to the high weathering intensity of this area (high content of kaolinite and a lower concentration of potassium and plagioclase feldspars and andesite). Along the upper half of the mountain, the soil profiles show wider C:N ratios and lower amounts of organic matter. Topsoil at lower altitude and with a lower
Full Text Available According to the liberal peace-building paradigm the termination of war is a window of opportunity for fundamental change. Central America has been one of the first laboratories of international policies promoting the threefold transformation process of pacification, democratization and economic liberalization. Although none of the postwar countries (Nicaragua, El Salvador, Guatemala slipped back into war, serious deficits abound that can neither be explained as mere consequences of war nor as ‘normal’ developmental problems. The paper introduces an analytical framework locating these problems at the intersection between external influences, societal foundations, consequences of war and violence as well as peace-building. The comparative analysis of the three transformation processes – democratization, market economy and pacification – shows how path dependent patterns remain dominant while reform processes are fragile. This allows for an explanation of common features as well as differences inside the region. Resumen: ¿Por qué es tan difícil la construcción de una paz liberal? Algunas lecciones de América CentralDe acuerdo al paradigma liberal sobre la construcción de la paz, el fin de una guerra abre un abanico de oportunidades para introducir cambios fundamentales. América Central fue uno de los primeros laboratorios donde se aplicaron políticas internacionales que fomentaban el triple proceso de transformación compuesto por la pacificación, la democratización y la liberalización económica. Aunque ninguna de las sociedades de posguerra (Nicaragua, El Salvador, Guatemala volvió a recaer en ella, abundan graves deficiencias que no se pueden explicar ni como meras consecuencias del conflicto ni como problemas ‘normales’ de países en desarrollo. El artículo define un marco analítico que localiza estos problemas en la intersección de influencias externas, bases sociales, consecuencias de la guerra y violencia as
Álvarez-Gómez, J. A.; Aniel-Quiroga, Í.; Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, O. Q.; Larreynaga, J.; González, M.; Castro, M.; Gavidia, F.; Aguirre-Ayerbe, I.; González-Riancho, P.; Carreño, E.
El Salvador is the smallest and most densely populated country in Central America; its coast has an approximate length of 320 km, 29 municipalities and more than 700 000 inhabitants. In El Salvador there were 15 recorded tsunamis between 1859 and 2012, 3 of them causing damages and resulting in hundreds of victims. Hazard assessment is commonly based on propagation numerical models for earthquake-generated tsunamis and can be approached through both probabilistic and deterministic methods. A deterministic approximation has been applied in this study as it provides essential information for coastal planning and management. The objective of the research was twofold: on the one hand the characterization of the threat over the entire coast of El Salvador, and on the other the computation of flooding maps for the three main localities of the Salvadorian coast. For the latter we developed high-resolution flooding models. For the former, due to the extension of the coastal area, we computed maximum elevation maps, and from the elevation in the near shore we computed an estimation of the run-up and the flooded area using empirical relations. We have considered local sources located in the Middle America Trench, characterized seismotectonically, and distant sources in the rest of Pacific Basin, using historical and recent earthquakes and tsunamis. We used a hybrid finite differences-finite volumes numerical model in this work, based on the linear and non-linear shallow water equations, to simulate a total of 24 earthquake-generated tsunami scenarios. Our results show that at the western Salvadorian coast, run-up values higher than 5 m are common, while in the eastern area, approximately from La Libertad to the Gulf of Fonseca, the run-up values are lower. The more exposed areas to flooding are the lowlands in the Lempa River delta and the Barra de Santiago Western Plains. The results of the empirical approximation used for the whole country are similar to the results
Vargas-Rodriguez, Yalma L; Platt, William J; Urbatsch, Lowell E; Foltz, David W
Geological events in the latter Cenozoic have influenced the distribution, abundance and genetic structure of tree populations in temperate and tropical North America. The biogeographical history of temperate vegetation that spans large ranges of latitude is complex, involving multiple latitudinal shifts that might have occurred via different migration routes. We determined the regional structuring of genetic variation of sugar maple (Acer saccharum subsp. saccharum) and its only subspecies in tropical America (Acer saccharum subsp. skutchii) using nuclear and chloroplast data. The studied populations span a geographic range from Maine, USA (46°N), to El Progreso, Guatemala (15°N). We examined genetic subdivisions, explored the locations of ancestral haplotypes, analyzed genetic data to explore the presence of a single or multiple glacial refugia, and tested whether genetic lineages are temporally consistent with a Pleistocene or older divergence. Nuclear and chloroplast data indicated that populations in midwestern USA and western Mexico were highly differentiated from populations in the rest of the sites. The time of the most recent common ancestor of the western Mexico haplotype lineage was dated to the Pliocene (5.9 Ma, 95% HPD: 4.3-7.3 Ma). Splits during the Pleistocene separated the rest of the phylogroups. The most frequent and widespread haplotype occurred in half of the sites (Guatemala, eastern Mexico, southeastern USA, and Ohio). Our data also suggested that multiple Pleistocene refugia (tropics-southeastern USA, midwestern, and northeastern USA), but not western Mexico (Jalisco), contributed to post-glacial northward expansion of ranges. Current southern Mexican and Guatemalan populations have reduced population sizes, genetic bottlenecks and tend toward homozygosity, as indicated using nuclear and chloroplast markers. The divergence of western Mexican populations from the rest of the sugar maples likely resulted from orographic and volcanic barriers
Nearly 70 new Rb-Sr isochron ages and many K-Ar conventional ages have been determined between 1975 and 1980 on Proterozoic sedimentary or metasedimentary sequences in western and Central Africa and South America. Some stratigraphic results have been established: (1) five formations have been dated of the Lower Proterozoic; (2) a long sedimentation gap occurs, mainly in western Africa and in some regions of Central Africa and South America between nearly 1600 and 1100 Ma; (3) the upper Riphean assemblages of stromatolites have been dated and compared to those of the Eurasian craton; (4) two main glacial events have been dated, the first one placed at ca. 950 Ma, the second during the Vendian, at ca. 650-620 Ma; (5) it can be stated that, when applied to Precambrian sequences, all stratigraphic methods must be used together. (Auth.)
Ingo S. Wehrtmann
Full Text Available Freshwater crabs are an important component of the fauna of limnic environments, and out of the two true freshwater crab families present in the Neotropics, Pseudothelphusidae is the most diverse. Considering the lack of information regarding reproductive features of neotropical freshwater crabs, we studied, for the first time, the fecundity and the presence of juveniles carried by females of two pseudothelphusids from the Amazon region - Kingsleya latifrons (Randall, 1840 and Kingsleya ytupora Magalhães, 1986 - and one from Central America - Potamocarcinus magnus (Rathbun, 1896. The two Kingsleya species produced relatively few (56-114 and large eggs (1.9-3.7 mm, typical for species with an abbreviated or direct development. Recently produced eggs were substantially larger in K. latifrons (mean 2.83 mm when compared to those of K. ytupora (mean 1.87 mm; however, at the end of the embryogenesis, mean egg diameter was similar in both species. Therefore, it is assumed that hatchlings in both species should have a similar size. A brief description of attached juveniles of K. ytupora is provided. The number of juveniles varied between 30 (K. ytupora and 179 (P. magnus; two size groups of juveniles were found, which indicates that the offspring cling to their mother for a prolonged period of time. There was no significant loss of eggs and juveniles; it is assumed that parental care diminishes the loss of their offspring. We compiled the available information of reproductive aspects from freshwater crabs: egg diameter was in the range of 2-3 mm, independent of female size and fecundity, and reported egg number varied between 9 and 417 eggs.
Mueller, Gabriela V. [Centro de Investigaciones Cientificas y Transferencia de Tecnologia a la Produccion, Diamante (CICYTTTP-CONICET), Diamante, Entre Rios (Argentina); Berri, Guillermo J. [Servicio Meteorologico Nacional - CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina)
Generalized frosts (GF) in central-southern South America have a strong impact due to their spatial extension, and they are especially important when they become persistent. This paper aims at identifying the atmospheric circulation features that determine the extreme GF persistence, i.e. very persistent and without persistence, and the differences between them, during the 1961-1990 winters. Since the GF without persistence group outnumbers the other one, two subgroups are composed with events selected from winters with maximum and minimum frequency of GF occurrence, respectively. Additionally, the individual event of July 1988 within the very persistent GF group is analyzed due to its exceptional persistence. GF persistence is mainly conditioned by two large-scale dynamic factors. One is the Rossby wave train propagation across the Pacific Ocean, and the other one is the location with respect to the continent and the magnitude of the confluence in the jet entrance region in subtropical latitudes. A predominantly meridional Rossby wave train propagation with a confluence region to the west of the continent prior to the event favors GF with intermediate (null) persistence depending on the greater (lesser) jet acceleration. This is conditioned by the magnitude of the confluence, which, in turn, depends on the disposition of the wave train propagation pattern. Instead, an essentially zonal propagation with a confluence region to the east of the continent favors the GF persistence for several days, yet if there is no confluence the event does not persist. The greatest persistence of an event combines the confluence/diffluence of the jet entrance/exit region, which depends on the disposition with respect to the continent of the zonally propagating Rossby wave trains. (orig.)
Portillo, C. A.; Cao, G.; Smith, V.
Neotropical dry forests (TDF) have experienced an unprecedented deforestation that is leading to the loss of tropical biodiversity at a rapid pace, but information on deforestation dynamics in TDF is scarce. In this study, we present a sub-continental and national level assessment of TDF loss patterns in Mexico and Central America at high spatial and temporal resolution using remote sensing and GIS technologies. We used the Global Forest Change (GFC) dataset published by Hansen et al. (2013) which shows results from time-series analysis of Landsat images in characterizing global forest extent and change from 2000 through 2013. We analyzed forest loss within and around mapped TDF cover mapped by Portillo-Quintero et al. 2010. In order to minimize errors in source data, we overlaid a 25 x 25 km grid on top of the regional dataset and conducted a cell by cell and country by country inspection at multiple scales using high resolution ancillary data. We identified trends in the clustering of space-time TDF deforestation data using ArcGIS, categorizing trends in: new, consecutive, intensifying, persistent, diminishing, sporadic, oscillating and historical hotspots (high frequency of deforestation events) and cold spots (low frequency of deforestation). In general, the region is experiencing less frequent deforestation events with a higher number of intensifying and new cold spots across TDF landscapes. However, an important number of intensifying and persistent hotspots exist so no general trend in forest loss was detected for the period 2001-2013, except for El Salvador which shows a significant decreasing trend in forest loss. Mexico, Nicaragua, Honduras and Guatemala are the major sources of intensifying, persistent and new deforestation hot spots. These were identified in the southern pacific coast and the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico, northwestern Guatemala, both western and eastern Honduras and around Lake Nicaragua in Nicaragua.
Cano, Enio B.; Schuster, Jack C.; Morrone, Juan J.
Abstract A phylogenetic morphological analysis of the genus Ogyges Kaup, distributed in Nuclear Central America, from Chiapas, Mexico, to northwestern Nicaragua was undertaken. Five species of Proculejus Kaup, distributed north of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in Mexico, were selected as outgroup. Ogyges was recovered as monophyletic with three species groups: championi, laevissimus, and crassulus. Each species group shows a distinct, generally allopatric distribution. The O. championi species group, with ten species, is distributed in the Maya block, more specifically in the mountainous system north of the Motozintla-Comaltitlán fault in Chiapas, and north of the dry valleys of the Cuilco and Motagua rivers in Guatemala. The two remaining species groups are distributed in the Chortis block. The O. laevissimus species group, including seven species, ranges mostly along the Pacific Volcanic Chain from Guatemala to El Salvador, and from southeastern Honduras to the northwestern area of Nicaragua. The O. crassulus species group, with ten species, is distributed from northeastern Guatemala (Merendón) to northern Honduras. The Isthmus of Tehuantepec in Mexico, the Motagua-Cuilco and Motozintla-Comaltitlán sutures zones in Chiapas and Guatemala, the lowland valleys of Colón and Comalí rivers between Nicaragua and Honduras (or, perhaps, the northern suture of the Siuna Terrane in Nicaragua), the Guayape fault system in Honduras, and the intricate dry valleys of Ulúa-Chamelecón-Olancho in Honduras, are hypothesized to have acted as barriers that affected the geographical distribution of Ogyges, as well as probably other montane organisms. PMID:29674874
Jonathan A Campbell
Full Text Available A new species of green, prehensile-tailed pitviper of the genus Bothriechis is described from the Atlantic slopes of eastern Guatemala and western Honduras. This species appears to be most closely related to B. bicolor of the Pacific versant of Chiapas (Mexico and Guatemala. Several other species of Bothriechis occur on the Atlantic versant of northern Central America, including two montane species, B. aurifer and B. marchi but, with one possible exception, these are not known to be sympatric with the new species and occur in different mountain ranges. The widespread B. schlegelii occurs up to at least 900 m on the Sierra de Caral, where the lowest elevation recorded for the new species is 885 m.Se describe una nueva especie de víbora de foseta, verde, arborícola y de cola prensil, del género Bothriechis. Esta nueva especie se encuentra en las laderas boscosas de la vertiente Atlántica del Este de Guatemala y el Oeste de Honduras, y al parecer está cercanamente relacionada a B. bicolor, de la vertiente Pacífica de Chiapas (México y Guatemala. Algunas otras especies de Bothriechis también habitan la vertiente Atlántica del norte de Centro América, incluyendo dos especies montanas, B. aurifer y B. marchi. Sin embargo, estas dos especies no ocurren en simpatría con la nueva especie, e incluso, habitan distintos sistemas montañosos. La especie de distribución más amplia, B. schlegelii, sí ocurre en simpatría con la nueva especie en la Sierra de Caral, a 900 m sobre el nivel del mar.
Rodriguez Rojas, R
This article, based on personal experiences with a network of organizations of small and medium agricultural producers in Central America, aims to present the views of peasant organizations concerning agrarian problems in the region. The 3 major sections of work define the place of peasant agriculture in the traditional agrarian structure and the new problems resulting from the structural adjustment programs of the 1980s; separately describe the new peasant movements emerging in Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama, identifying common themes an efforts at international collaboration; and explore the positions of the peasant organizations on the optimal strategies for agricultural development and agrarian change. Agriculture remains the backbone of the Central American economies. But because the economic model in the region is 1 of accumulation characterized by dependency, concentration of capital, and social marginalization, the agrarian structure is at the basis of social tensions. Efforts to develop peasant agriculture and to give small producers access to marketing and credit services have been weak and sporadic. The new peasant movements are less inclined than those of the past to employ tactics of confrontation in their efforts to secure access to land and better working conditions. The new movement is the expression of small market producers sometimes grouped into associations who are oriented to production of basic foodstuffs for the internal market. A new concern with adaptation and negotiation is evident. The new organizations have in common a belief in their ability to propose new solutions to regional problems. Their views are founded on a positive assessment of the ability of peasant agriculture to produce food and add dynamism to the regional economy after barriers to credit, technological progress, and modernization in general are removed. Signs of increased cooperation are evident between peasant organizations and other groups
Garnero, E. J.; Thomas, C.; Lay, T.
In this study we use a wavefield migration technique to infer D" reflectance and topography in a densely sampled region just west of Central America beneath the Cocos plate. High quality broadband waveforms from seismic networks in California of 13 deep focus South American earthquakes are instrument and source wavelet deconvolved to displacement, aligned on ScS as a reference phase, then studied for coherency of energy between ScS and S. A search for potential lowermost mantle reflector locations is achieved by migrating the wavefield for each earthquake to each node of a 3D grid of potential reflector locations, with spacing every 1 deg laterally and 10 km vertically (with ranges: -2 to 18 deg N; -100 to -80 deg E, 2200 to 2888 km depth). Grouping our data into densely sampled latitudinal bins resulted in 41 clusters of bounce points between 0 and 15 deg N. The migrated images for all bounce point clusters show an abrupt increase in velocity that is thickest to the north in our study area (up to 300 km and greater) and dramatically reduces to as thin as 100 km thick in the south. We also see evidence for the main positive velocity increase being underlain by a negative velocity discontinuity in the northern half of our study region, though this feature is not visible in all migrations. These results are compatible with the general picture from simpler 1D studies (which indicate a thicker high velocity D" layer to the north beneath the neighboring Central American and Caribbean than that to the south) but demonstrate increased complexity at shorter scale lengths. The thickening of the D" layer to the north coincides with inference for higher velocities there implied by ScS-S and S-SKS differential travel time residuals. Evidence for out of plane reflections is also visible in some migrated images. Such strong topographical variations (~200 km change over several hundred km laterally) are likely intimately coupled to overlying mantle currents related to subduction
Alonso-Castro, Angel Josabad; Domínguez, Fabiola; Ruiz-Padilla, Alan Joel; Campos-Xolalpa, Nimsi; Zapata-Morales, Juan Ramón; Carranza-Alvarez, Candy; Maldonado-Miranda, Juan Jose
The consumption of medicinal plants has notably increased over the past two decades. People consider herbal products as safe because of their natural origin, without taking into consideration whether these plants contain a toxic principle. This represents a serious health problem. A bibliographic search was carried out using published scientific material on native plants from Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean, which describe the ethnobotanical and toxicological information of medicin...
Zamora, Dulce María Bustamante; Hernández, Marianela Menes; Torres, Nuria; Zúniga, Concepción; Sosa, Wilfredo; de Abrego, Vianney; Escobar, María Carlota Monroy
The interruption of vectorial transmission of Chagas disease by Triatoma dimidiata in central America is a public health challenge that cannot be resolved by insecticide application alone. In this study, we collected information on previously known household risk factors for infestation in 11 villages and more than 2,000 houses in Guatemala, Honduras, and El Salvador, and we constructed multivariate models and used multimodel inference to evaluate their importance as predictors of infestation...
Kirby, Stephen H.
The observation that southeastern Central America is a hotspot for orchid diversity has long been known and confirmed by recent systematic studies and checklists. An analysis of the geographic and elevation distribution demonstrates that the most widespread species of “core” Maxillariinae are all adapted to life near sea level, whereas the most narrowly endemic species are largely distributed in wet highland environments. Drier, hotter lowland gaps exist between these cordilleras and evidently restrict the dispersal of the species adapted to wetter, cooler conditions. Among the recent generic realignments of “core” Maxillariinae based on molecular phylogenetics, the Camaridium clade is easily the most prominent genus in Central America and is largely restricted to the highlands of Costa Rica and Panama, indicating that this region is the ancestral home of this genus and that its dispersal limits are drier, lowland cordilleran gaps. The mountains of Costa Rica and Panama are among the geologically youngest topographic features in the Neotropics, reflecting the complex and dynamic interactions of numerous tectonic plates. From consideration of the available geological evidence, I conclude that the rapid growth of the mountain ranges in Costa Rica and Panama during the late Cenozoic times created, in turn, very rapid ranges in ecological life zones and geographic isolation in that part of the isthmus. Thus, I suggest that these recent geologic events were the primary drivers for accelerated orchid evolution in southeastern Central America.
Bennett-Martin, Paulita; Visaggi, Christy C; Hawthorne, Timothy L
Monitoring of marine debris (also known as marine litter) is an essential step in the process to eradicate ecological dangers in marine ecosystems caused by humans. This study examines marine debris in the Caribbean country of Belize using geographic information systems (GIS) to develop (1) a detailed data library for use on handheld Global Positioning System (GPS) units and tablets with mobile mapping applications for deployment in the field and (2) a freely available, online mapping portal to share data with Belizeans to encourage future citizen science efforts. Four diverse communities were targeted ranging from larger more populated towns, to smaller villages across central and southern Belize: San Pedro, Caye Caulker, Punta Gorda, and Monkey River. Fieldwork was conducted over 1 month, during which data points were collected in 50-m surveys followed by debris cleanup and removal. Features in our database included material, quantity, item, brand, and condition. Over 6000 pieces of debris were recorded in GIS for further analysis, and 299 gal of debris were removed from the shores of Belize. The most abundant form of debris observed was plastic (commonly bottles) across all locations; plastic comprised 77.6 % of all debris items observed. Through GIS, a detailed snapshot understanding of debris patterns across multiple settings in Belize was documented. Ongoing collaborations with local organizations in Belize have demonstrated significant interest and utility for such GIS approaches in analyzing and managing marine debris. The data, methodology, visual representations, and online mapping platform resulting from this research are a first step in directly supporting local Belizean community advocacy and policy, while contributing to larger institutional strategies for addressing marine debris issues in the Caribbean.
Full Text Available Abstract Our knowledge of fossil crustaceans from the tropics has increased considerably during recent decades, thanks to novel findings and the re-examination of museum specimens. However, several previous records have been misidentified, numerous museum specimens have never been reported, and many new discoveries are yet to be published. Here, we present a detailed, up-to-date, and revised checklist for every marine, terrestrial, or freshwater fossil decapod crustacean occurrence from tropical America known to us, including their age, geographic occurrences, and related literature. We recognize the occurrence of at least 32 superfamilies, 69 families, 190 genera, and 415 species of brachyurans (‘true’ crabs, and anomurans (‘false’ crabs, hermit crabs, squat lobsters, and allies, several of them previously unknown. The checklist comprises records from three main geographic regions: 1 northern South America (Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela; 2 Central America and southern North America (Belize, Costa Rica, Honduras, Panama, Mexico, southern and central Florida; and 3 the Caribbean Islands + Bermuda (Anguilla, Antigua, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Bermuda, Bonaire, Cuba, Curaçao, Dominican Republic, The Grenadines, Haiti, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Saint Bartélemy, Saint Martin, Trinidad. Previous findings, new occurrences, and the revised systematic placement for several problematic/misidentified records, indicate that the fossil record of anomurans and brachyurans in tropical America is more diverse than previously envisioned, with a considerable degree of endemism at the genus- and species-levels.
Styron, Richard; Pagani, Marco; Garcia, Julio
The region encompassing Central America and the Caribbean is tectonically complex, defined by the Caribbean plate's interactions with the North American, South American and Cocos plates. Though active deformation over much of the region has received at least cursory investigation the past 50 years, the area is chronically understudied and lacks a modern, synoptic characterization. Regardless, the level of risk in the region - as dramatically demonstrated by the 2010 Haiti earthquake - remains high because of high-vulnerability buildings and dense urban areas home to over 100 million people, who are concentrated near plate boundaries and other major structures. As part of a broader program to study seismic hazard worldwide, the Global Earthquake Model Foundation is currently working to quantify seismic hazard in the region. To this end, we are compiling a database of active faults throughout the region that will be integrated into similar models as recently done in South America. Our initial compilation hosts about 180 fault traces in the region. The faults show a wide range of characteristics, reflecting the diverse styles of plate boundary and plate-margin deformation observed. Regional deformation ranges from highly localized faulting along well-defined strike-slip faults to broad zones of distributed normal or thrust faulting, and from readily-observable yet slowly-slipping structures to inferred faults with geodetically-measured slip rates >10 mm/yr but essentially no geomorphic expression. Furthermore, primary structures such as the Motagua-Polochic Fault Zone (the strike-slip plate boundary between the North American and Caribbean plates in Guatemala) display strong along-strike slip rate gradients, and many other structures are undersea for most or all of their length. A thorough assessment of seismic hazard in the region will require the integration of a range of datasets and techniques and a comprehensive characterization of epistemic uncertainties driving
Saborio-Rodriguez, M.; Alpizar, F.; Harvey, C.; Martinez, R.; Vignola, R.; Viguera, B.; Capitan, T.
Extreme weather events, which are expected to increase in magnitude and frequency due to climate change, are one of the main threats for smallholder farmers in Central America. Using a rich dataset from carefully selected subsistence farm households, we explore the determinants and severity of food insecurity resulting from extreme hydrometeorological hazards. In addition, we analyze farmerś coping strategies. Our analysis sheds light over food insecurity as an expression of vulnerability in a region that is expected to be increasingly exposed to extreme events and in a population already stressed by poverty and lack of opportunities. Regarding food insecurity, multivariate analyses indicate that education, having at least one migrant in the household, labor allocation, number of plots, and producing coffee are determinants of the probability of experiencing lack of food after an extreme weather event. Once the household is lacking food, the duration of the episode is related to access to credit, number of plots, producing coffee, ownership of land and gender of the head of the household. This results are in line with previous literature on the determinants of food insecurity in particular, and vulnerability, in general. Our dataset also allows us to analyze coping strategies. Households experiencing lack of food after an extreme weather event report mainly changes in their habits, as decreasing the amount of food consumed (54%) and modifying their diet (35%). A low proportion of household (between 10% and 15%, depending on the nature of the event) use their assets, by redirecting their savings, migrating, and selling items from the house. Asking money or food from family and friends or from an organization is reported for 4% of the households. This general results are connected to the specific coping strategies related to damages in crops, which are explored in detail. Our results indicate that there are patterns among the household experiencing lack of food
Garcés, Ana; Garcés, Miguel; Barnoya, Joaquin; Cabrera, Maynor; Sandoval, Rosa; Orozco, Juan Guillermo; Chaloupka, Frank J
As stated in Article 6 of Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), increasing tobacco prices through higher taxes is one of the most effective interventions to reduce tobacco use and to encourage smokers to quit. The potential for tax increases on tobacco products in Central America is ample. We aim to synthesize the current tobacco taxes situation and highlight research needs to strengthen taxation. In May 2012, a workshop was carried out with representatives from each Central American country to analyze the tobacco tax situation in each country and to identify key research gaps with experts in the field. Tobacco taxes in Central America fall far short of the levels recommended by FCTC. Moreover, the legal framework is complex and creates barriers for higher taxes that require further research and political will. Top research priorities are an in-depth analysis of tobacco tax legislation, impact of tax and price policies, analysis of costs associated to health care of tobacco-related diseases and lost productivity, and the feasibility of approaches to increasing tobacco taxes in certain contexts. An additional area of research is the interrelationship between human rights and tobacco control. Central American countries would benefit from increasing excise taxes on tobacco products. The lack of available data and research to counteract tobacco industry arguments are significant obstacles. Active leadership of civil society in support of the partnership of chronic disease interventions is vital in order to obtain tax increases on tobacco products.
Full Text Available Basic aspects of the reproductive biology are largely unknown for most tropical tree species, although they are important elements to understand the impacts of anthropogenic activities as logging and forest fragmentation on these populations. In this study, data are presented on leaf and reproductive phenology, fruit production and seedling demography of a population of an endemic tree species of Southern Central America, Caryocar costaricense. This species has been affected by selective logging and forest fragmentation of its habitat. Phenology was studied by observation of 15-22 tree crowns during two reproductive periods (2003 and 2005. Circular plots were established around 11 adult trees to count the number of fallen fruits and seedlings during three years (2003, 2004, 2005. Although reproductive phenology is restricted to the short dry season in this species, seed germination occurred year-round. Fruit and seedling production shows a strong inter-individual variation within the study populations, with two large trees producing nearly 50%-70% of the fruits and seedlings during two years. Most of the seeds that fall beneath the tree crown are covered by litterfall or removed by fauna. We found evidence that many of these seeds become part of a seed bank in the forest floor. Because of the observed reproductive dominance of few large trees in these populations, we propose that selective logging on reproductive trees can severely impact the recruitment of this species. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (3: 771-780. Epub 2009 September 30.Los aspectos básicos de la biología reproductiva de árboles tropicales son en su mayoría desconocidos, aunque son conocimientos esenciales para entender el impacto de actividades antropogénicas como la tala selectiva y la fragmentación de bosques. En este estudio se presentan datos sobre la fenología foliar y reproductiva, la producción de frutos, y la demografía de plántulas de una población de Caryocar
Alexandre P. Marceniuk
Full Text Available The ariid genus Cathorops includes species that occur mainly in estuarine and freshwater habitats of the eastern and western coasts of southern Mexico, Central and South America. The species of Cathorops from the Mesoamerica (Atlantic slope and Caribbean Central America are revised, and three new species are described: C. belizensis from mangrove areas in Belize; C. higuchii from shallow coastal areas and coastal rivers in the Central American Caribbean, from Honduras to Panama; and C. kailolae from río Usumacinta and lago Izabal basins in Mexico and Guatemala. Additionally, C. aguadulce, from the río Papaloapan basin in Mexico, and C. melanopus from the río Motagua basin in Guatemala and Honduras, are redescribed and their geographic distributions are revised.
Junguito Bonnet Roberto
Full Text Available This article describes the origin and evolution of the central banks of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, and Venezuela, and analyzes their respective institutional structures. It also studies the contribution of the central bank to stabilization and the problems for maintaining this independence into the future.Este artículo describe el origen y la evolución de los Bancos Centrales de Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Colombia, México y Venezuela, y analiza sus respectivas estructruras institucionales. También estudia la contribución de la banca central a la estabilización y los problemas para que esta independencia se mantenga en el futuro.
Hauser, Frances E; Ilves, Katriina L; Schott, Ryan K; Castiglione, Gianni M; López-Fernández, Hernán; Chang, Belinda S W
Cichlids encompass one of the most diverse groups of fishes in South and Central America, and show extensive variation in life history, morphology, and colouration. While studies of visual system evolution in cichlids have focussed largely on the African rift lake species flocks, Neotropical cichlids offer a unique opportunity to investigate visual system evolution at broader temporal and geographic scales. South American cichlid colonization of Central America has likely promoted accelerated rates of morphological evolution in Central American lineages as they encountered reduced competition, renewed ecological opportunity, and novel aquatic habitats. To investigate whether such transitions have influenced molecular evolution of vision in Central American cichlids, we sequenced the dim-light rhodopsin gene in 101 Neotropical cichlid species, spanning the diversity of the clade. We find strong evidence for increased rates of evolution in Central American cichlid rhodopsin relative to South American lineages, and identify several sites under positive selection in rhodopsin that likely contribute to adaptation to different photic environments. We expressed a Neotropical cichlid rhodopsin protein invitro for the first time, and found that while its spectral tuning properties were characteristic of typical vertebrate rhodopsin pigments, the rate of decay of its active signalling form was much slower, consistent with dim light adaptation in other vertebrate rhodopsins. Using site-directed mutagenesis combined with spectroscopic assays, we found that a key amino acid substitution present in some Central American cichlids accelerates the rate of decay of active rhodopsin, which may mediate adaptation to clear water habitats. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Lozier, Matthew; Turcios-Ruiz, Reina Maria; Noonan, Gary; Ordunez, Pedro
SYNOPSIS Over the last two decades, experts have reported a rising number of deaths caused by chronic kidney disease (CKD) along the Pacific coast of Central America, from southern Mexico to Costa Rica. However, this specific disease is not associated with traditional causes of CKD, such as aging, diabetes, or hypertension. Rather, this disease is a chronic interstitial nephritis termed chronic kidney disease of nontraditional etiology (CKDnT). According to the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) mortality database, there are elevated rates of deaths related to kidney disease in many of these countries, with the highest rates being reported in El Salvador and Nicaragua. This condition has been identified in certain agricultural communities, predominantly among male farmworkers. Since CKD surveillance systems in Central America are under development or nonexistent, experts and governmental bodies have recommended creating standardized case definitions for surveillance purposes to monitor and characterize this epidemiological situation. A group of experts from Central American ministries of health, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and PAHO held a workshop in Guatemala to discuss CKDnT epidemiologic case definitions. In this paper, we propose that CKD in general be identified by the standard definition internationally accepted and that a suspect case of CKDnT be defined as a person age diseases, and other well-known causes of CKD. A probable case of CKDnT is defined as a suspect case with the same findings confirmed three or more months later.
Alonso-Castro, Angel Josabad; Domínguez, Fabiola; Zapata-Morales, Juan Ramón; Carranza-Álvarez, Candy
Obesity is a worldwide medical concern. New ethnobotanical information regarding the antiobesity effect of medicinal plants has been obtained in the last 30 years in response to socio-demographic changes and high-fat diets became common. This review provides a summary of medicinal plants used in Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean for the empirical treatment of obesity in terms of ethnobotany, toxicity, pharmacology, conservation status, trade and chemistry. Bibliographic investigation was performed by analyzing recognized books, undergraduate and postgraduate theses and peer-reviewed scientific articles, consulting worldwide accepted scientific databases from the last four decades. Medicinal plants used for the treatment of obesity were classified in two categories: (1) plants with pharmacological evidence and (2) plants without pharmacological evidence. A total of 139 plant species, belonging to 61 families, native to Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean that are used for the empirical treatment of obesity were recorded. From these plants, 33 were investigated in scientific studies, and 106 plants lacked scientific investigation. Medicinal plants were experimentally studied in vitro (21 plants) and in vivo (16 plants). A total of 4 compounds isolated from medicinal plants used for the empirical treatment of obesity have been tested in vitro (2 compounds) and in vivo (4 compounds) studies. No clinical trials on obese subjects (BMI>30 kg/m(2)) have been performed using the medicinal plants cited in this review. There are no herbal-based products approved in Mexico for the treatment of obesity. There are a limited number of scientific studies published on medicinal plants from Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean used for the treatment of obesity. This review highlights the need to perform pharmacological, phytochemical, toxicological and ethnobotanical studies with medicinal flora to obtain new antiobesity agents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland
Greenhouse tomato productions in North America have suffered from several high profile viroid disease outbreaks in recent years. In this presentation, I will summarize and briefly describe each of these viroid disease outbreak and their relationship. What are viroids and their transmission through ...
Pan- 63, CH, 19 (CR 162) (flying in cacao planta - ama) made this study possible. One of us tion, 1100 h, hot, humid, cloudy). PANAMA. (JLP) gratefully...Middle America" 7. Costa Rica (CR). distribucion geografica y su importancia en Mosq. Syst. 9:237-287. salud publica. Tesis, licenciado en biologia
Perlack, R.D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Jones, H.G. (Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (USA)); Garcia, A. III (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (USA). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering); Flores, E. (Flores (Edgar), Guatemala City (Guatemala))
Oak Ridge National Laboratory was requested by the Regional Office for Central America and Panama to conduct a mid-term evaluation of the Cares Project, which is being implemented by the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association. This evaluation was conducted over a three week period by a four person team. Overall, the project has had numerous successes and is highly valued by local counterpart utilities and USAID Missions. Notwithstanding the significant results of the project, changes can be made in certain operating procedures and in the direction of some programmatic activities that can lead to an even more effective project.
José L. Linares
Full Text Available Se registra por primera vez para Centroamérica Ulmus ismaelis Todzia et Panero (Ulmaceae, se proporciona una detallada redescripción de la especie tal como existe en la región y se comentan aspectos del hábitat y fenología.Ulmus ismaelis Todzia et Panero (Ulmaceae is recorded for the first time from Central America. A detailed redescription of the species, as it exists in the region, and aspects of its habitat and phenology are provided.
Garcia, Melissa; Chismark, Elisabeth A; Mosby, Terezie; Day, Sara W
A culturally appropriate nutrition education pamphlet was developed and validated for low-literacy caregivers in Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala. The pamphlet was developed after a preliminary survey of pediatric oncology nurses in the 3 countries to assess the need for education materials, caregiver literacy levels, and local eating habits. Experts in nutrition and low-literacy patient education and pediatric oncology nurses validated the pamphlet's content and design. The pamphlet was validated positively and has been circulated to pediatric oncology caregivers in Central America.
Garcia, Melissa; Chismark, Elisabeth A.; Mosby, Terezie; Day, Sara
Background A culturally appropriate nutrition education pamphlet was developed and validated for low-literacy caregivers in Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala. Methods The pamphlet was developed after a preliminary survey of pediatric oncology nurses in the 3 countries to assess the need for education materials, caregiver literacy levels, and local eating habits. Experts in nutrition and low-literacy patient education and nurses validated the pamphlet’s content and design. Results and Conclusions Nurses expressed the need for nutrition-related pamphlets in developing countries. The pamphlet was validated positively by experts and nurses and has been circulated to pediatric oncology caregivers in Central America. PMID:20300913
Alonso-Castro, Angel Josabad; Domínguez, Fabiola; Ruiz-Padilla, Alan Joel; Campos-Xolalpa, Nimsi; Zapata-Morales, Juan Ramón; Carranza-Alvarez, Candy; Maldonado-Miranda, Juan Jose
The consumption of medicinal plants has notably increased over the past two decades. People consider herbal products as safe because of their natural origin, without taking into consideration whether these plants contain a toxic principle. This represents a serious health problem. A bibliographic search was carried out using published scientific material on native plants from Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean, which describe the ethnobotanical and toxicological information of medicinal plants empirically considered to be toxic. A total of 216 medicinal plants belonging to 77 families have been reported as toxic. Of these plants, 76 had been studied, and 140 plants lacked studies regarding their toxicological effects. The toxicity of 16 plants species has been reported in clinical cases, particularly in children. From these plants, deaths have been reported with the consumption of Chenopodium ambrosioides , Argemone mexicana , and Thevetia peruviana . In most of the cases, the principle of the plant responsible for the toxicity is unknown. There is limited information about the toxicity of medicinal plants used in Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean. More toxicological studies are necessary to contribute information about the safe use of the medicinal plants cited in this review.
Angel Josabad Alonso-Castro
Full Text Available The consumption of medicinal plants has notably increased over the past two decades. People consider herbal products as safe because of their natural origin, without taking into consideration whether these plants contain a toxic principle. This represents a serious health problem. A bibliographic search was carried out using published scientific material on native plants from Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean, which describe the ethnobotanical and toxicological information of medicinal plants empirically considered to be toxic. A total of 216 medicinal plants belonging to 77 families have been reported as toxic. Of these plants, 76 had been studied, and 140 plants lacked studies regarding their toxicological effects. The toxicity of 16 plants species has been reported in clinical cases, particularly in children. From these plants, deaths have been reported with the consumption of Chenopodium ambrosioides, Argemone mexicana, and Thevetia peruviana. In most of the cases, the principle of the plant responsible for the toxicity is unknown. There is limited information about the toxicity of medicinal plants used in Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean. More toxicological studies are necessary to contribute information about the safe use of the medicinal plants cited in this review.
Full Text Available The bacterium Xylella fastidiosa is a plant pathogen with a history of economically damaging introductions of subspecies to regions where its other subspecies are native. Genetic evidence is presented demonstrating the introduction of two new taxa into Central America and their introgression into the native subspecies, X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa. The data are from 10 genetic outliers detected by multilocus sequence typing (MLST of isolates from Costa Rica. Six (five from oleander, one from coffee defined a new sequence type (ST53 that carried alleles at six of the eight loci sequenced (five of the seven MLST loci diagnostic of the South American subspecies Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca which causes two economically damaging plant diseases, citrus variegated chlorosis and coffee leaf scorch. The two remaining loci of ST53 carried alleles from what appears to be a new South American form of X. fastidiosa. Four isolates, classified as X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa, showed a low level of introgression of non-native DNA. One grapevine isolate showed introgression of an allele from X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca while the other three (from citrus and coffee showed introgression of an allele with similar ancestry to the alleles of unknown origin in ST53. The presence of X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca in Central America is troubling given its disease potential, and establishes another route for the introduction of this economically damaging subspecies into the US or elsewhere, a threat potentially compounded by the presence of a previously unknown form of X. fastidiosa.
Zamora, Dulce María Bustamante; Hernández, Marianela Menes; Torres, Nuria; Zúniga, Concepción; Sosa, Wilfredo; de Abrego, Vianney; Escobar, María Carlota Monroy
The interruption of vectorial transmission of Chagas disease by Triatoma dimidiata in central America is a public health challenge that cannot be resolved by insecticide application alone. In this study, we collected information on previously known household risk factors for infestation in 11 villages and more than 2,000 houses in Guatemala, Honduras, and El Salvador, and we constructed multivariate models and used multimodel inference to evaluate their importance as predictors of infestation in the region. The models had moderate ability to predict infested houses (sensitivity, 0.32–0.54) and excellent ability to predict noninfested houses (specificity higher than 0.90). Predictive ability was improved by including random village effects and presence of signs of infestation (insect feces, eggs, and exuviae) as fixed effects. Multimodel inference results varied depending on factors included, but house wall materials (adobe, bajareque, and palopique) and signs of infestation were among the most important predictive factors. Reduced models were not supported suggesting that all factors contributed to predictions. Previous knowledge and information from this study show that we have evidence to prioritize rural households for improvement to prevent house infestation with Triatoma dimidiata in Central America. House improvement will most likely have other health co-benefits. PMID:25870430
Bustamante Zamora, Dulce María; Hernández, Marianela Menes; Torres, Nuria; Zúniga, Concepción; Sosa, Wilfredo; de Abrego, Vianney; Monroy Escobar, María Carlota
The interruption of vectorial transmission of Chagas disease by Triatoma dimidiata in central America is a public health challenge that cannot be resolved by insecticide application alone. In this study, we collected information on previously known household risk factors for infestation in 11 villages and more than 2,000 houses in Guatemala, Honduras, and El Salvador, and we constructed multivariate models and used multimodel inference to evaluate their importance as predictors of infestation in the region. The models had moderate ability to predict infested houses (sensitivity, 0.32-0.54) and excellent ability to predict noninfested houses (specificity higher than 0.90). Predictive ability was improved by including random village effects and presence of signs of infestation (insect feces, eggs, and exuviae) as fixed effects. Multimodel inference results varied depending on factors included, but house wall materials (adobe, bajareque, and palopique) and signs of infestation were among the most important predictive factors. Reduced models were not supported suggesting that all factors contributed to predictions. Previous knowledge and information from this study show that we have evidence to prioritize rural households for improvement to prevent house infestation with Triatoma dimidiata in Central America. House improvement will most likely have other health co-benefits. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
Nunney, Leonard; Ortiz, Beatriz; Russell, Stephanie A; Ruiz Sánchez, Rebeca; Stouthamer, Richard
The bacterium Xylella fastidiosa is a plant pathogen with a history of economically damaging introductions of subspecies to regions where its other subspecies are native. Genetic evidence is presented demonstrating the introduction of two new taxa into Central America and their introgression into the native subspecies, X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa. The data are from 10 genetic outliers detected by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of isolates from Costa Rica. Six (five from oleander, one from coffee) defined a new sequence type (ST53) that carried alleles at six of the eight loci sequenced (five of the seven MLST loci) diagnostic of the South American subspecies Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca which causes two economically damaging plant diseases, citrus variegated chlorosis and coffee leaf scorch. The two remaining loci of ST53 carried alleles from what appears to be a new South American form of X. fastidiosa. Four isolates, classified as X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa, showed a low level of introgression of non-native DNA. One grapevine isolate showed introgression of an allele from X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca while the other three (from citrus and coffee) showed introgression of an allele with similar ancestry to the alleles of unknown origin in ST53. The presence of X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca in Central America is troubling given its disease potential, and establishes another route for the introduction of this economically damaging subspecies into the US or elsewhere, a threat potentially compounded by the presence of a previously unknown form of X. fastidiosa.
Murtishaw, Scott; Sathaye, Jayant; Galitsky, Christina; Dorion,Kristel
The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) andthe Center for Sustainable Development in the Americas (CSDA) conductedtechnical studies and organized two training workshops to developcapacity in Central America for the evaluation of climate changeprojects. This paper describes the results of two baseline case studiesconducted for these workshops, one for the power sector and one for thecement industry, that were devised to illustrate certain approaches tobaseline setting. Multiproject baseline emission rates (BERs) for themain Guatemalan electricity grid were calculated from 2001 data. Inrecent years, the Guatemalan power sector has experienced rapid growth;thus, a sufficient number of new plants have been built to estimateviable BERs. We found that BERs for baseload plants offsetting additionalbaseload capacity ranged from 0.702 kgCO2/kWh (using a weighted averagestringency) to 0.507 kgCO2/kWh (using a 10th percentile stringency),while the baseline for plants offsetting load-followingcapacity is lowerat 0.567 kgCO2/kWh. For power displaced from existing load-followingplants, the rate is higher, 0.735 kgCO2/kWh, as a result of the age ofsome plants used for meeting peak loads and the infrequency of their use.The approved consolidated methodology for the Clean Development Mechanismyields a single rate of 0.753 kgCO2/kWh. Due to the relatively smallnumber of cement plants in the region and the regional nature of thecement market, all of Central America was chosen as the geographicboundary for setting cement industry BERs. Unfortunately, actualoperations and output data were unobtainable for most of the plants inthe region, and many data were estimated. Cement industry BERs rangedfrom 205 kgCO2 to 225 kgCO2 per metric ton of cement.
Nash, W A
Outside of abstinence, correct and consistent condom use is the single most effective tool to prevent the transmission human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This is particularly true in countries such as Belize where incidence rates remain high. Women are physiologically at higher risk for HIV, and many feel powerless to insist on condom use. Although nurses are in a position to promote condom use, variables that influence this decision are not clearly understood. In this study, we examined variables that influence a nurses' self-efficacy to promote and teach condom use to women specifically to reduce their HIV risk. Data related to self-efficacy, vicarious experience related to condom use promotion and a nurse's sexual relationship power were collected from nurses practising in Belize (n = 60). These data were cross-sectional and collected at the annual nurses' conference. Both years of nursing education and positive vicarious experience promoting and teaching condom use to women were positively correlated to their self-efficacy to do so. Vicarious experience was significantly correlated to self-efficacy in a subgroup of nurses with lower sexual relationship power but not in those with higher sexual relationship power. When designing HIV continuing education programmes for nurses in Belize, it is important to consider level of nursing education and access to vicarious experience such as mentoring and role modelling. An additional factor to consider is the influence that a nurse's power in her own primary sexual relationship may play in the formation of her self-efficacy. © 2011 The Author. International Nursing Review © 2011 International Council of Nurses.
Raúl Arístides Pérez Aguilar
Full Text Available A series of words that arrived in the Mexican border with Belize during the first half of the XVIII century with Canarian colonizers whom were brought by the governor of Yucatán to populate the village of Salamanca de Bacalar in order to built a fortress to stop the English advance in the region. It is about verbs, nouns and adjectives that became embedded within certain blocks of the material life of the society from Bacalar made of indios, mestizos and Spanish whom their percentages allowed the ingrainment and diffusion of these voices which until today still have a peculiar vitality on both sides of the river.
Edorta CAMINO ESTURO
Full Text Available The dynamics of Central American students’ mobility is characterized by one-way mobility to the Western countries, as centers of hegemonic knowledge, especially the United States. However, there has been an increase in academic mobility to Cuba, which suggests the emergence of an alternative space and a counterbalance to this trend. Instead, mobility towards the Central American region is domestic and peripheral, with more intraregional than foreign contributions, standing on the sidelines of university centers of scientific production.
Culicidae). Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 120 (3557): 122 pp. Carpenter , S.J. and W.J. LaCasse . 1955. Mosquitoes of North America (north of Mexico). Univ...specimens HONC- 30G, GUA 118-l 1, and GUA 118-27 were similar to the distinctive form of this structure described by Carpenter and La Casse (1955) and...specimens from Virginia examined by Bram. Larvae and adults closely resembled descriptions by Carpenter and La Casse (1955) and by Bohart and Washino (1978
Caleb D McMahan
Full Text Available The distributions of many Northern Hemisphere organisms have been influenced by fluctuations in sea level and climatic conditions during Pleistocene interglacial periods. These cycles are associated with range contraction and refugia for northern-distributed organisms as a response to glaciers. However, lower sea levels in the tropics and sub-tropics created available habitat for expansion of the ranges of freshwater organisms. The goal of this study was to use ecological niche modeling to test the hypothesis of north to south range expansion of Vieja maculicauda associated with Pleistocene glacial cycles. Understanding the biogeography of this widespread species may help us better understand the geology and interconnectivity of Central American freshwaters. Occurrence data for V. maculicauda was based on georeferencing of all museum records of specimens recovered from FishNet2. General patterns of phylogeographic structure were assessed with mtDNA. Present day niche models were generated and subsequently projected onto paleoclimatic maps of the region during the Last Interglacial, Last Glacial Maximum, and mid-Holocene. Phylogenetic analysis of mtDNA sequence data showed no phylogeographic structure throughout the range of this widespread species. Present day niche models were congruent with the observed distribution of V. maculicauda in Central America. Results showed a lack of suitable freshwater habitat in northern Central America and Mexico during the Last Interglacial, with greatest range expansion during the Last Glacial Maximum and mid-Holocene. Results support the hypothesis of a north to south range expansion of V. maculicauda associated with glacial cycles. The wide distribution of this species compared to other closely related cichlids indicates the latter did not respond to the degree of V. maculicauda in expansion of their distributions. Future work aimed at comparisons with other species and modeling of future climatic scenarios
Full Text Available SYNOPSIS Over the last two decades, experts have reported a rising number of deaths caused by chronic kidney disease (CKD along the Pacific coast of Central America, from southern Mexico to Costa Rica. However, this specific disease is not associated with traditional causes of CKD, such as aging, diabetes, or hypertension. Rather, this disease is a chronic interstitial nephritis termed chronic kidney disease of nontraditional etiology (CKDnT. According to the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO mortality database, there are elevated rates of deaths related to kidney disease in many of these countries, with the highest rates being reported in El Salvador and Nicaragua. This condition has been identified in certain agricultural communities, predominantly among male farmworkers. Since CKD surveillance systems in Central America are under development or nonexistent, experts and governmental bodies have recommended creating standardized case definitions for surveillance purposes to monitor and characterize this epidemiological situation. A group of experts from Central American ministries of health, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, and PAHO held a workshop in Guatemala to discuss CKDnT epidemiologic case definitions. In this paper, we propose that CKD in general be identified by the standard definition internationally accepted and that a suspect case of CKDnT be defined as a person age < 60 years with CKD, without type 1 diabetes mellitus, hypertensive diseases, and other well-known causes of CKD. A probable case of CKDnT is defined as a suspect case with the same findings confirmed three or more months later.
Monacci, Natalie M.; Meier-Grünhagen, Ursula; Finney, Bruce P.; Behling, Hermann; Wooller, Matthew J.
This study examines a sediment core (SR-63) from a mangrove ecosystem along the Sibun River in Belize, which is subject to both changes in sea-level and in the characteristics of the river's drainage basin. Radiocarbon dates from the core show a decreased sedimentation rate from ~ 6 ka to 1 cal ka BP and a marked change in lithology from primarily mangrove peat to fluvial-derived material at ~ 2.5 cal ka BP. Changes in the sedimentation rates observed in mangrove ecosystems offshore have previously been attributed to changes in relative sea-level and the rate of sea-level rise. Pollen analyses show a decreased abundance of Rhizophora (red mangrove) pollen and an increased abundance of Avicennia (black mangrove) pollen and non-mangrove pollen coeval with the decreased sedimentation rates. Elemental ratios ([N:C] a) and stable isotope analyses (δ 15N and δ 13C) show that changes in the composition of the organic material are also coeval with the change in lithology. The decrease in sedimentation rate at the site of core SR-63 and at offshore sites supports the idea that regional changes in hydrology occurred during the Holocene in Belize, influencing both mainland and offshore mangrove ecosystems.
Full Text Available The genus Mahanarva Distant, 1909 (Hemiptera: Cercopoidea: Cercopidae currently includes two subgenera: Mahanarva Distant, 1909 with 38 species and six subspecies, and Ipiranga Fennah, 1968 with nine species. The Manaharva species are all from the Americas, and a few species are important pests in pasture grasses and sugarcane. There are no reports of any Manaharva species from North America, including Mexico and areas to the north. Here, a new species is described from Mexico and a key to the species of Mahanarva from Central America and Mexico is proposed.
Full Text Available The author claims that the 1980s saw the emergence of Latin America as a subject within the international system. The first signs of this new dynamic were seen in the Latin American solidarity during the War of the Malvinas and in these countries’ coordinated efforts before the debt crisis and its negotiations. The definitive push came about as a result of the attempts to create a regional solution, thus paving the way for a qualitative leap forward to take place in the foreign policies of Latin American countries. By the 1990s, this tendency would lead towards the creation of a regional security system based on cooperation and shared sovereignties, secured frameworks of regional economic integration, and the consolidation of the processes of political transition.
Tamay-Segovia, Paulino; Alejandre-Aguilar, Ricardo; Martínez, Fernando; Villalobos, Guiehdani; de la Serna, Francisco J Zavala-Díaz; de la Torre, Patricia; Laclette, Juan Pedro; Blum-Domínguez, Selene; Espinoza, Bertha
Triatoma dimidiata is the only reported Chagas disease vector in Campeche, Mexico. The purpose of this study was to determine the genetic variability of vectors from Campeche coastal and rain forest areas and establish a phylogenetic relationship with other T. dimidiata populations by analyzing the internal transcribed spacer-2 (ITS-2) region. The sequence length of samples from Campeche ranged from 469 to 478 basepairs. The ITS-2 variability among the populations enabled us to classify them into two clades with an 18-22 nucleotide difference. The genetic distance (0.042) between them confirms this divergence. Phylogenetic analysis of gene genealogies confirmed these two clades. Furthermore, the population genetic analyses showed two groups with little genetic similarity or migration between them. One group was associated with the tropical forest area and the other group was associated with a mainly coastal distribution. This correlation was also observed when T. dimidiata from other regions of Mexico and Central America were analyzed.
Cuadra-Hernández, Silvia Magali; Leyva-Flores, René; Hernández-Rosete, Daniel; Bronfman-Pertzovsky, Mario N
To analyze the inclusion of human rights in HIV/AIDS norms in Mexico and Central America for the 1993-2000 period. Norms and regulations for HIV/AIDS prevention and control in this region were analyzed. A constructivist perspective of judiciary subsystems and human rights was used as a reference framework, to establish categories of analysis with significance codes based on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. During the study period, human rights were included within a vigorous legislative activity for HIV/AIDS transmission prevention. In some cases (as in the Panama Law and the Honduras Proposal) there were passages of law violating the right to non-discrimination and privacy. These laws lead to either of two conflicting paths: one ensuring human rights, and another increasing the vulnerability of some groups. The authors emphasize the importance of gaining a new understanding of social subjects and epidemiological surveillance, based on norms that incorporate human rights issues.
Ribalaygua, Jaime; Gaitán, Emma; Pórtoles, Javier; Monjo, Robert
A two-step statistical downscaling method has been reviewed and adapted to simulate twenty-first-century climate projections for the Gulf of Fonseca (Central America, Pacific Coast) using Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) climate models. The downscaling methodology is adjusted after looking for good predictor fields for this area (where the geostrophic approximation fails and the real wind fields are the most applicable). The method's performance for daily precipitation and maximum and minimum temperature is analysed and revealed suitable results for all variables. For instance, the method is able to simulate the characteristic cycle of the wet season for this area, which includes a mid-summer drought between two peaks. Future projections show a gradual temperature increase throughout the twenty-first century and a change in the features of the wet season (the first peak and mid-summer rainfall being reduced relative to the second peak, earlier onset of the wet season and a broader second peak).
This exploratory discussion of migration policy in Central America focuses on actual procedures in a multisectoral framework that assumes economic integration and sustainable development. The article follows the following format: the author's perspective and general approach to the problems of migration policy and integrated development, an analysis and review of the inadequacies of concepts and methodologies and the need for strengthening Central America's policies, arguments for changing present development strategies, and suggestions for regional economic integration. New policies must be equitable, sustainable, and suitable for agricultural frontier areas at the present level of economic integration. The further development of practical and concrete solutions in the region is based on the current groundwork. New policies should emphasize community participation, a grassroots approach rather than a top-down one, and an alternative model. An alternative system which promotes and facilitates the vertical development of small and medium farmers needs both a Rural Communal Financing System and a System for Communal Marketing to eliminate all speculative economic practices which impede small farmers from making a profit. Buffer zones in the frontier agricultural areas are required. Small farms need to gradually improve farming practices rather than to transfer miraculous technologies. A number of forest products could be collected and commercialized for various purposes, if the knowledgeable indigenous population is informed and involved in participatory research on the technical and ethnological culture and action programs. Many sectors are involved, problems are complex, and the speed of change is very rapid in the region. An approach that seeks to relate sustainable development, economic integration, and migration policy must incorporate the perspective of integrated development and a structural analysis of poverty. The approach suggested in this article would
Valdez, Elizabeth Salerno; Valdez, Luis A; Sabo, Samantha
Since October 2013, US Customs and Border Patrol has apprehended 15,979 families on the Southwest Border of the US. Daily, migrating women and children from Mexico and Central America that qualify for humanitarian parole are released from immigration detention to a humanitarian aid organization in Southern Arizona. After several days in detention facilities, these families arrive tired, hungry, dehydrated, and with minimal direction regarding their final destination, and adherence to the parameters of their parole. Project helping hands (PHHs) utilizes a network of volunteers to provide the women and children with food, water, clothing, hygiene products, hospitality, and legal orientation. The aim of this assessment was to document the experiences of families granted humanitarian parole through the lens of structural vulnerability. Here, we apply qualitative methods to elicit PHH lead volunteer perspectives regarding the migration experience of migrating families. Using inductive analysis, we found six major themes emerged from the qualitative data: reasons for leaving, experience on the journey, dehumanization in detention, family separation, vulnerability, and resiliency. These findings elucidate the different physical and psychological distresses that migrating families from Mexico and Central America experience before, during and after their arrival at the US-Mexico border. We posit that these distresses are a result of, or exacerbated by, structural vulnerability. Structural vulnerability has life-long health implications for a sub-population of young mothers and their children. The number of migrating families who have experienced traumatic events before and during their migration experience continues to expand and thus warrants consideration of mental health surveillance and intervention efforts for these families. More public health research is needed to better understand and combat the health challenges of this growing population.
Elizabeth Salerno Valdez
Full Text Available Since October 2013, US Customs and Border Patrol (USCBP has apprehended 15,979 families on the Southwest Border of the United States. Daily, migrating women and children from Mexico and Central America that qualify for humanitarian parole are released from immigration detention to a humanitarian aid organization in Southern Arizona. After several days in detention facilities, these families arrive tired, hungry, dehydrated, and with minimal direction regarding their final destination, and adherence to the parameters of their parole. Project Helping Hands (PHH utilizes a network of volunteers to provide the women and children with food, water, clothing, hygiene products, hospitality, and legal orientation. The aim of this assessment was to document the experiences of families granted humanitarian parole through the lens of structural vulnerability. Here we apply qualitative methods to elicit PHH lead volunteer perspectives regarding the migration experience of migrating families. Using inductive analysis, we found six major themes emerged from the qualitative data: reasons for leaving, experience on the journey, dehumanization in detention, family separation, vulnerability, and resiliency.These findings elucidate the different physical and psychological distresses that migrating families from Mexico and Central America experience before, during and after their arrival at the US-Mexico border. We posit that these distresses are a result of, or exacerbated by, structural vulnerability. Structural vulnerability has life-long health implications for a sub-population of young mothers and their children. The number of migrating families who have experienced traumatic events before, and during their migration experience continues to expand and thus warrants consideration of mental health surveillance and intervention efforts for these families. More public health research is needed to better understand and combat the health challenges of this growing
Full Text Available Southern Mexico and Central America have many water bodies of different morphology and water chemistry with an interesting zooplankton fauna, originating from North or South America. A set of 63 samples, taken in 2005 and 2008, from water bodies of the Yucatan Peninsula karst, Belize and Guatemala, were studied for the content of calanoid copepods. Old and recent literature was used to determine animals to species level. Drawings were prepared with a microscope and a camera lucida. A total of 32 samples with totally six species contained calanoid copepods: one estuarine pseudodiaptomid and five freshwater diaptomids. Pseudodiaptomus marshi was found at different salinities. It is confirmed that the commonest diaptomids in the Yucatan Peninsula are Arctodiaptomus dorsalis and Mastigodiaptomus nesus. The former was also recorded from Lake Amatitlan. Mastigodiaptomus nesus is as widespread as A. dorsalis but it is absent from the Lake Peten area in Guatemala. Mastigodiaptomus reidae was found in two shallow habitats, these specimens differ from those from the type locality by having a set of peculiar large spine-like processes on the last thoracic and the urosome segments of the females. Leptodiaptomus siciloides was found only in Lake Ayarza with high salinity. Prionodiaptomus colombiensis occurred in the highlands of Guatemala in Lago de Güija and in the Peten area in Laguna Sacpuy. We contributed with our occurrence records to a better knowledge of the geographic distribution of some calanoid copepods. Morphological findings in some species are of value for taxonomic differentiation between species.El sur de México y América Central tienen varios cuerpos de agua con diferente morfología, composición química y una interesante fauna de zooplancton procedente de América del Norte o del Sur. Un grupo de 63 muestras, fueron tomadas en 2005 y 2008 para conocer la cantidad de copépodos calanoides en los cuerpos de agua del karst Península de
Rainforest understory beetles of the Neotropics: Mizotrechus Bates 1872, a generic synopsis with descriptions of new species from Central America and northern South America (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Perigonini
Full Text Available Information on the single previously described species, Mizotrechus novemstriatus Bates 1872 (type locality: Brazil – Amazonas, Tefé, is updated and 17 new species for the genus from Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panamá, Colombia, Venezuela, and Guyane are described. The species records in the literature and on determined specimens in some collections of M. novemstriatus Bates from Central America are not that species; currently, M. novemstriatus is known only from its type locality in Amazonian Brazil. For the new species described, their known general distributions are as follows: Mizotrechus batesi sp. n. (Guyane, Mizotrechus bellorum sp. n. (Guyane, Mizotrechus brulei sp. n. (Guyane, Mizotrechus belevedere sp. n. (Guyane, Mizotrechus costaricensis sp. n. (Costa Rica, Mizotrechus dalensi sp. n. (Guyane, Mizotrechus edithpiafae sp. n. (provenance unknown, Mizotrechus fortunensis sp. n. (Panamá, Mizotrechus gorgona. sp. n. (Colombia, Mizotrechus grossus sp. n. (Guyane, Mizotrechus jefe sp. n. (Panamá, Mizotrechus marielaforetae sp. n. (Guyane, Mizotrechus minutus sp. n. (Guyane, Mizotrechus neblinensis sp. n. (Guyane, Venezuela, Mizotrechus poirieri sp. n. (Guyane, and Mizotrechus woldai sp. n. (Panamá. Long-term use of flight intercept traps in Guyane provided so many new species that apparently the use of FITs is the way to collect adults of this taxon, previously known from very few specimens. Many more species of this genus can be expected to be discovered throughout the Neotropics; the present contribution is a preliminary synopsis with identification key and adult images of all known species. Likely numerous species are yet to be discovered throughout tropical climes.
Kelly, J A; Somlai, A M; Benotsch, E G; Amirkhanian, Y A; Fernandez, M I; Stevenson, L Y; Sitzler, C A; McAuliffe, T L; Brown, K D; Opgenorth, K M
This study assessed the programmes, resources, and needs of HIV-prevention nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in 75 countries in Africa, Central/Eastern Europe and Central Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean. Multiple databases and expert recommendations were used to identify one major HIV-prevention NGO in the capital or a large city in each country, and in-depth interviews were conducted with each NGO Director. Most NGOs are carrying out their programmes with minimal funding and few regularly employed personnel. Most are highly dependent on international donors, but reliance on small grants with short funding periods limits programme development capacity. HIV-prevention activities varied by region, with African NGOs most likely to use peer education and community awareness events; Eastern European NGOs most likely to offer needle exchange; Latin American NGOs to have resource centres and offer risk reduction programmes; and Caribbean organizations to use mass education approaches. Across regions, NGOs most often targeted the general public and youth, although specialized at-risk groups were the additional focus of attention in some regions. Limited funding, governmental indifference or opposition, AIDS stigma, and social discomfort discussing sex were often cited as barriers to new HIV-prevention programmes. NGOs are critical service providers. However, their funding, programmes, and resource capacities must be strengthened if NGOs are to realize their full potential in HIV prevention.
Godoy, Angelina Snodgrass; Cerón, Alejandro
The intellectual property rules inscribed in the Central American Free Trade Agreement have generated concern about access to medicines. We examined the implementation of the new intellectual property regime by tracking the policies and practices in place across 4 Central American countries. Although all 4 were responding to the same requirements under the agreement, their implementation of intellectual property rules differed. Not only were institutional practices different, but the lists of drugs to which intellectual property protection was applied varied in both volume and content. We also found that even without the influence of intellectual property, drug pricing in the region was often unpredictable and that lower cost was not the only motivation driving governments' purchasing decisions.
Karl, T.R.; Heim, R.R. Jr.
The consistency of the predictions of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) with observed data are discussed, with reference to statistical models and Monte-Carlo simulation. Climate change projections for North America predict increases of temperature of 2-4 degree C by 2030. Analysis of the climate record over the last 95 years has failed to indicate statistically significant changes. Statistical models using auto-regressive moving-average techniques have been developed to calculate the likelihood that the greenhouse signal may have been masked by natural climate variability, and have indicated that there is a high probability that changes have been masked. However, some projections, such as the increase in ratio of winter to summer precipitation, should have been detected. The probability of not detecting temperature changes as large as projected range from 5% for large temperature increases to 65% for smaller increases, depending on the scenario. These results suggest that the projections of large increases in temperature of 3-4 degree C are inconsistent with past observation. It will likely take 15-20 years beyond 1990 before summer temperature increases would be detected, and over 40 years before summer precipitation decreases would be detected, assuming IPCC projections are basically correct. 13 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs
Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Weaver, Jean N.
Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 19 billion barrels of oil and 83 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas resources in 10 geologic provinces of Mexico, Guatemala, and Belize.
Richard A. Belisle
The University of Mississippi and the American Universities International Program (AUIP) enjoy vast educational opportunities in Belize. Bounded by Mexico on the north, Guatemala on the west and south, and the Caribbean Sea on the east, Belizeâs 22,960 km2 of topography range from sea level to 3,688 ft. This variation in altitude and the tropical...
Poelchau, Monica F; Hamrick, J L
Landscape genetic studies use spatially explicit population genetic information to determine the physical and environmental causes of population genetic structure on regional scales. Comparative studies that identify common barriers to gene flow across multiple species within a community are important to both understand the evolutionary trajectories of populations and prioritize habitat conservation. Here, we use a comparative landscape genetic approach to ask whether gradients in temperature or precipitation seasonality structure genetic variation across three codistributed tree species in Central America, or whether a simpler (geographic distance) or more complex, species-specific environmental niche model is necessary to individually explain population genetic structure. Using descriptive statistics and causal modelling, we find that different factors best explain genetic distance in each of the three species: environmental niche distance in Bursera simaruba, geographic distance in Ficus insipida and historical barriers to gene flow or cryptic reproductive barriers for Brosimum alicastrum. This study confirms suggestions from previous studies of Central American tree species that imply that population genetic structure of trees in this region is determined by complex interactions of both historical and current barriers to gene flow. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Lachniet, Matthew S.; Johnson, Leah; Asmerom, Yemane; Burns, Stephen J.; Polyak, Victor; Patterson, William P.; Burt, Lindsay; Azouz, April
We present a high-resolution terrestrial archive of Central American rainfall over the period 100-24 and 8.1-6.5 ka, based on δ 18O time series from U-series dated stalagmites collected from a cave on the Pacific Coast of Costa Rica. Our results indicate substantial δ 18O variability on millennial to orbital time scales that is interpreted to reflect rainfall variations over the cave site. Correlations with other paleoclimate proxy records suggest that the rainfall variations are forced by sea surface temperatures (SST) in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans in a fashion analogous to the modern climate cycle. Higher rainfall is associated with periods of a warm tropical North Atlantic Ocean and large SST gradients between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Rainfall variability is likely linked to the intensity and/or latitudinal position of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ). Periods of higher rainfall in Costa Rica are also associated with an enhanced sea surface salinity gradient on either side of the isthmus, suggesting greater freshwater export from the Atlantic Basin when the ITCZ is stronger and/or in a more northerly position. Further, wet periods in Central America coincide with high deuterium excess values in Greenland ice, suggesting a direct link between low latitude SSTs, tropical rainfall, and moisture delivery to Greenland. Our results indicate that a stronger tropical hydrological cycle during warm periods and large inter-ocean SST gradients enhanced the delivery of low latitude moisture to Greenland.
Barbosa, Larissa de Souza Noel Simas; Bogdanov, Dmitrii; Vainikka, Pasi; Breyer, Christian
Power systems for South and Central America based on 100% renewable energy (RE) in the year 2030 were calculated for the first time using an hourly resolved energy model. The region was subdivided into 15 sub-regions. Four different scenarios were considered: three according to different high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission grid development levels (region, country, area-wide) and one integrated scenario that considers water desalination and industrial gas demand supplied by synthetic natural gas via power-to-gas (PtG). RE is not only able to cover 1813 TWh of estimated electricity demand of the area in 2030 but also able to generate the electricity needed to fulfil 3.9 billion m3 of water desalination and 640 TWhLHV of synthetic natural gas demand. Existing hydro dams can be used as virtual batteries for solar and wind electricity storage, diminishing the role of storage technologies. The results for total levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) are decreased from 62 €/MWh for a highly decentralized to 56 €/MWh for a highly centralized grid scenario (currency value of the year 2015). For the integrated scenario, the levelized cost of gas (LCOG) and the levelized cost of water (LCOW) are 95 €/MWhLHV and 0.91 €/m3, respectively. A reduction of 8% in total cost and 5% in electricity generation was achieved when integrating desalination and power-to-gas into the system.
Barbosa, Larissa de Souza Noel Simas; Bogdanov, Dmitrii; Vainikka, Pasi; Breyer, Christian
Power systems for South and Central America based on 100% renewable energy (RE) in the year 2030 were calculated for the first time using an hourly resolved energy model. The region was subdivided into 15 sub-regions. Four different scenarios were considered: three according to different high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission grid development levels (region, country, area-wide) and one integrated scenario that considers water desalination and industrial gas demand supplied by synthetic natural gas via power-to-gas (PtG). RE is not only able to cover 1813 TWh of estimated electricity demand of the area in 2030 but also able to generate the electricity needed to fulfil 3.9 billion m3 of water desalination and 640 TWhLHV of synthetic natural gas demand. Existing hydro dams can be used as virtual batteries for solar and wind electricity storage, diminishing the role of storage technologies. The results for total levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) are decreased from 62 €/MWh for a highly decentralized to 56 €/MWh for a highly centralized grid scenario (currency value of the year 2015). For the integrated scenario, the levelized cost of gas (LCOG) and the levelized cost of water (LCOW) are 95 €/MWhLHV and 0.91 €/m3, respectively. A reduction of 8% in total cost and 5% in electricity generation was achieved when integrating desalination and power-to-gas into the system. PMID:28329023
Estefan, Lianne Fuino; Ports, Katie A; Hipp, Tracy
Unaccompanied children (UC) migrating to the USA from the Central American countries of El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras are an underserved population at high risk for health, academic, and social problems. These children experience trauma, violence, and other risk factors that are shared among several types of interpersonal violence. The trauma and violence experienced by many unaccompanied children, and the subsequent implications for their healthy development into adulthood, indicate the critical need for a public health approach to prevention and intervention. This paper provides an overview of the violence experienced by unaccompanied children along their migration journey, the implications of violence and trauma for the health and well-being of the children across their lifespan, prevention and intervention approaches for UC resettled in the USA, and suggestions for adapted interventions to best address the unique needs of this vulnerable population.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to contribute to knowledge of 'transnational' youth gangs in the Central American region, through an analysis of the mutually constitutive processes of identity, space and place production. It is argued that insights into gangs gained through analyzing their spatial dynamics and practices, and discussing ways in which these dynamics and processes connect the local and global scales, offer useful knowledge concerning the functioning of these gangs in a field still lacking in–depth academic research. Drawing on over a decade of direct research with young people in the region, the paper finds that poor understanding of gangs inevitably leads to ineffective, counterproductive interventions, and demonstrates that the geographies of maras are a fundamental –and still neglected– aspect of their development and transformation.
Yuan, Huaiyu; French, Scott; Cupillard, Paul; Romanowicz, Barbara
The EarthScope TA deployment has provided dense array coverage throughout the continental US and with it, the opportunity for high resolution 3D seismic velocity imaging of both lithosphere and asthenosphere in the continent. Building upon our previous long-period waveform tomographic modeling in North America, we present a higher resolution 3D isotropic and radially anisotropic shear wave velocity model of the North American lithospheric mantle, constructed tomographically using the spectral element method for wavefield computations and waveform data down to 40 s period. The new model exhibits pronounced spatial correlation between lateral variations in seismic velocity and anisotropy and major tectonic units as defined from surface geology. In the center of the continent, the North American craton exhibits uniformly thick lithosphere down to 200-250 km, while major tectonic sutures of Proterozoic age visible in the surface geology extend down to 100-150 km as relatively narrow zones of distinct radial anisotropy, with Vsv >Vsh. Notably, the upper mantle low velocity zone is present everywhere under the craton between 200 and 300 km depth. East of the continental rift margin, the lithosphere is broken up into a series of large, somewhat thinner (150 km) high velocity blocks, which extend laterally 200-300 km offshore into the Atlantic Ocean. Between the craton and these deep-rooted blocks, we find a prominent narrow band of low velocities that roughly follows the southern and eastern Laurentia rift margin and extends into New England. We suggest that the lithosphere along this band of low velocities may be thinned due to the combined effects of repeated rifting processes and northward extension of the hotspot related Bermuda low-velocity channel across the New England region. We propose that the deep rooted high velocity blocks east of the Laurentia margin represent the Proterozoic Gondwanian terranes of pan-African affinity, which were captured during the Rodinia
Full Text Available Background Zika virus (ZIKV transmission has been reported in 67 countries/territories in the Oceania region and the Americas since 2015, prompting the World Health Organization (WHO to declare ZIKV as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern in February 2016, due to its strong association with medical complications such as microcephaly and Guillain–Barré Syndrome (GBS. However, a substantial gap in knowledge still exists regarding differing temporal pattern and potential of transmission of ZIKV in different regions of the world. Methods We use a phenomenological model to ascertain the temporal patterns and transmission potential of ZIKV in various countries/territories, by fitting the model to Zika case data from Yap Island and French Polynesia in the Oceania region and 11 countries/territories with confirmed case data, namely, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Puerto Rico, Saint Martin, and Suriname, to pinpoint the waves of infections in each country/territory and to estimate the respective basic reproduction number R0. Results Six of these time series datasets resulted in statistically significant model fit of at least one wave of reported cases, namely that of French Polynesia, Colombia, Puerto Rico, Guatemala, Suriname and Saint Martin. However, only Colombia and Guatemala exhibited two waves of cases while the others had only one wave. Temporal patterns of the second wave in Colombia and the single wave in Suriname are very similar, with the respective turning points separated by merely a week. Moreover, the mean estimates of R0 for Colombia, Guatemala and Suriname, all land-based populations, range between 1.05 and 1.75, while the corresponding mean estimates for R0 of island populations in French Polynesia, Puerto Rico and Saint Martin are significantly lower with a range of 5.70–6.89. We also fit the Richards model to Zika case data from six main archipelagos in French
Verbeek, T.; Arjadi, R.; Vendrik, J. J.; Burger, H.; Berger, M. Y.
Background: Around the world, maternal psychopathology during pregnancy is associated with a range of negative consequences for mother and child. Nevertheless, in Central America the magnitude of this public health problem is still unknown. The objective of this first explorative study was to
Viergever, R.F.; West, H.; Borland, R.; Zimmerman, C.
BACKGROUND: Human trafficking is a crime that commonly results in acute and chronic physical and psychological harm. To foster more informed health sector responses to human trafficking, training sessions for health care providers were developed and pilot-tested in the Middle East, Central America,
Discovery of new Ohbayashinema spp. (nematoda: heligomosomoidea) in Ochotona princeps and O. cansus (lagomorpha: ochotonidae) from western North America and central Asia, with considerations of historical biogeography
Three new species of Ohbayashinema (Nematoda, Heligmosomoidea) are described from localities in western North America and central Asia. Two of these species, Ohbayashinema nearctica n. sp and O. aspeira n. sp. are parasitic in American pika, Ochotona princeps. Ohbayashinema nearctica is differentiat...
O U.S. Geological Survey recentemente completou estimativas de possíveis recursos de petróleo e gás em 130 áreas petrolíferas pré-determinadas no mundo (USGS, 2000). Vinte e três destas áreas ficam na América do Sul, na América Central, e no Caribe (fig. 1). Os resultados estão apresentados na tabela 1. Nas 23 áreas, estimamos um total de 105 BBO e um total de 487 TCFG. A região composta de América Central mais América do Sul ficou em terceiro lugar no mundo em termos de possíveis recursos de petróleo e gás. No primeiro lugar ficou o Oriente Médio e no segundo lugar ficou a antiga União Soviética (USGS, 2000). As áreas com maiores probabilidades de encontrar depósitos gigantes de petróleo e gás se localizam nas áreas do Oceano Atlântico começando com a Bacia de Santos no sul até a Bacia Guyana-Suriname no norte. As possibilidades de existirem depósitos gigantes são maiores nas áreas submersas do mar até profundidades de 3,600 m. Diversos depósitos gigantes de petróleo foram descobertos no mar na Bacia de Campos e ainda podem serem encontrados depósitos similares na Bacia de Campos e suas imediações.
Eppler, D.B.; Heiken, G.; Wohletz, K.; Flores, W.; Paredes, J.R.; Duffield, W.A.
The Pavana geothermal area is located in southern Honduras near the Gulf of Fonseca. This region is underlain by late Tertiary volcanic rocks. Within ranges near the geothermal manifestations, the rock sequences is characterized by intermediate to mafic laharic breccias and lavas overlain by silicic tuffs and lavas, which are in turn overlain by intermediate to mafic breccias, lavas, and tuffs. The nearest Quaternary volcanoes are about 40 km to the southwest, where the chain of active Central American volcanoes crosses the mouth of the Gulf of Fonseca. Structure of the Pavana area is dominated by generally northwest-trending, southwest-dipping normal faults. This structure is topographically expressed as northwest-trending escarpments that bound blocks of bedrock separated by asymmetric valleys that contain thin alluvial deposits. Thermal waters apparently issue from normal faults and are interpreted as having been heated during deep circulation along fault zones within a regional environment of elevated heat flow. Natural outflow from the main thermal area is about 3000 l/min of 60/sup 0/C water. Geothermometry of the thermal waters suggests a reservoir base temperature of about 150/sup 0/C.
Pagán, Israel; Holguín, Africa
The Caribbean and Central America are among the regions with highest HIV-1B prevalence worldwide. Despite of this high virus burden, little is known about the timing and the migration patterns of HIV-1B in these regions. Migration is one of the major processes shaping the genetic structure of virus populations. Thus, reconstruction of epidemiological network may contribute to understand HIV-1B evolution and reduce virus prevalence. We have investigated the spatio-temporal dynamics of the HIV-1B epidemic in The Caribbean and Central America using 1,610 HIV-1B partial pol sequences from 13 Caribbean and 5 Central American countries. Timing of HIV-1B introduction and virus evolutionary rates, as well as the spatial genetic structure of the HIV-1B populations and the virus migration patterns were inferred. Results revealed that in The Caribbean and Central America most of the HIV-1B variability was generated since the 80 s. At odds with previous data suggesting that Haiti was the origin of the epidemic in The Caribbean, our reconstruction indicated that the virus could have been disseminated from Puerto Rico and Antigua. These two countries connected two distinguishable migration areas corresponding to the (mainly Spanish-colonized) Easter and (mainly British-colonized) Western islands, which indicates that virus migration patterns are determined by geographical barriers and by the movement of human populations among culturally related countries. Similar factors shaped the migration of HIV-1B in Central America. The HIV-1B population was significantly structured according to the country of origin, and the genetic diversity in each country was associated with the virus prevalence in both regions, which suggests that virus populations evolve mainly through genetic drift. Thus, our work contributes to the understanding of HIV-1B evolution and dispersion pattern in the Americas, and its relationship with the geography of the area and the movements of human populations.
Guevara-Murua, Alvaro; Williams, Caroline A.; Hendy, Erica J.; Imbach, Pablo
The management of hydrological extremes and impacts on society is inadequately understood because of the combination of short-term hydrological records, an equally short-term assessment of societal responses and the complex multi-directional relationships between the two over longer timescales. Rainfall seasonality and inter-annual variability on the Pacific coast of Central America is high due to the passage of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Here we reconstruct hydrological variability and demonstrate the potential for assessing societal impacts by drawing on documentary sources from the cities of Santiago de Guatemala (now Antigua Guatemala) and Guatemala de la Asunción (now Guatemala City) over the period from 1640 to 1945. City and municipal council meetings provide a rich source of information dating back to the beginning of Spanish colonisation in the 16th century. We use almost continuous sources from 1640 AD onwards, including > 190 volumes of Actas de Cabildo and Actas Municipales (minutes of meetings of the city and municipal councils) held by the Archivo Histórico de la Municipalidad de Antigua Guatemala (AHMAG) and the Archivo General de Centro América (AGCA) in Guatemala City. For this 305-year period (with the exception of a total of 11 years during which the books were either missing or damaged), information relating to Catholic rogation ceremonies and reports of flooding events and crop shortages were used to classify the annual rainy season (May to October) on a five-point scale from very wet to very dry. In total, 12 years of very wet conditions, 25 years of wetter than usual conditions, 34 years of drier conditions and 21 years of very dry conditions were recorded. An extended drier period from the 1640s to the 1740s was identified and two shorter periods (the 1820s and the 1840s) were dominated by dry conditions. Wetter conditions dominated the 1760s-1810s and possibly record more
Rico Arce, María de Lourdes
Full Text Available The genus Albizia is economically and environmentally important because many elements are multipurpose trees. A taxonomic study of 12 Central American and Mexican Albizia species is presented. Identification keys, illustrations and ecological information are provided together with some taxonomic comments. Distribution maps and conservation status are given for each native species in the area. Three epithets are lectotypyfied and three new name combinations are made. An interactive identification electronic key is available from the authors if requested. Full specimen records are available at www.kew.org/herbcat .El género Albizia tiene importancia económica y ecológica porque en su mayoría está integrado por árboles con usos múltiples. Se presenta un estudio taxonómico para 12 especies con distribución en México y Centro América, se incluyen claves para la identificación de las especies, ilustraciones, mapas de distribución, estados de conservación de las especies nativas del área y comentarios ecológicos y taxonómicos. Se formaliza la lectipificacion de tres epítetos y se proponen tres nuevas combinaciones. Una clave electrónica interactiva para la identificación de las especies se puede solicitar a los autores. Finalmente el conjunto completo de los ejemplares de herbario puede ser consultado en el sitio Web de los Jardines Reales de Kew: www.kew.org/herbcat.
Navarrete, M; Rossi, E; Brivio, E; Carrillo, J M; Bonilla, M; Vasquez, R; Peña, A; Fu, L; Martinez, R; Espinoza, C M Pacheco; Lacayo, L F Baez; Rodriguez, H; Batista, R; Barr, R; Howard, S C; Ribeiro, R C; Masera, G; Biondi, A; Conter, V; Valsecchi, M G
Five Asociación de Hemato-Oncología de Centroamérica (AHOPCA) countries have used an adapted BFM-based protocol for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). In the AHOPCA-ALL 2008 protocol, patients were stratified by age, white blood cell count, immunophenotype, central nervous system involvement, day 8 prednisone response, and morphologic bone marrow response to induction therapy. Patients at Standard Risk (SR) received a three-drug induction regimen, a reinduction phase, and maintenance with protracted intrathecal therapy. Those at Intermediate (IR) and High Risk (HR) received, in addition, daunorubicin during induction therapy, a consolidation phase and two or three reinduction phases respectively. From August 2008 through July 2012, 1,313 patients were enrolled: 353 in SR, 548 in IR, 412 in HR. During induction therapy, 3.0% of patients died, 2.7% abandoned treatment, 1.1% had resistant ALL, and 93.2% achieved morphological complete remission (CR). Deaths and abandonment in first CR occurred in 2.7% and in 7.0% of patients, respectively. The relapse rate at a median observation time of 2.1 years was 15.0%. At 3 years, the event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS), with abandonment considered as an event, were 59.4% (SE 1.7) and 68.2% (SE 1.6). Three-year EFS was 68.5% (SE 3.0), 62.1% (SE 2.6), and 47.8% (SE 3.2) for SR, IR, and HR groups. Adolescents had a significantly higher relapse rate (P = 0.001). This experience shows that common international studies are feasible in lower-middle income countries. Toxic deaths, abandonment of treatment, and relapses remain major obstacles to the successful treatment. Alternative treatment strategies may be beneficial. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Reiss, M. C.; Rümpker, G.; Wölbern, I.
We investigate the anisotropic properties of the fore-arc region of the central Andean margin between 17-25°S by analyzing shear-wave splitting from teleseismic and local earthquakes from the Nazca slab. With partly over ten years of recording time, the data set is uniquely suited to address the long-standing debate about the mantle flow field at the South American margin and in particular whether the flow field beneath the slab is parallel or perpendicular to the trench. Our measurements suggest two anisotropic layers located within the crust and mantle beneath the stations, respectively. The teleseismic measurements show a moderate change of fast polarizations from North to South along the trench ranging from parallel to subparallel to the absolute plate motion and, are oriented mostly perpendicular to the trench. Shear-wave splitting measurements from local earthquakes show fast polarizations roughly aligned trench-parallel but exhibit short-scale variations which are indicative of a relatively shallow origin. Comparisons between fast polarization directions from local earthquakes and the strike of the local fault systems yield a good agreement. To infer the parameters of the lower anisotropic layer we employ an inversion of the teleseismic waveforms based on two-layer models, where the anisotropy of the upper (crustal) layer is constrained by the results from the local splitting. The waveform inversion yields a mantle layer that is best characterized by a fast axis parallel to the absolute plate motion which is more-or-less perpendicular to the trench. This orientation is likely caused by a combination of the fossil crystallographic preferred orientation of olivine within the slab and entrained mantle flow beneath the slab. The anisotropy within the crust of the overriding continental plate is explained by the shape-preferred orientation of micro-cracks in relation to local fault zones which are oriented parallel to the overall strike of the Andean range. Our
Rasmussen, Kristin; Palacios, Daniel M; Calambokidis, John; Saborío, Marco T; Dalla Rosa, Luciano; Secchi, Eduardo R; Steiger, Gretchen H; Allen, Judith M; Stone, Gregory S
We report on a wintering area off the Pacific coast of Central America for humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) migrating from feeding areas off Antarctica. We document seven individuals, including a mother/calf pair, that made this migration (approx. 8300km), the longest movement undertaken by any mammal. Whales were observed as far north as 11 degrees N off Costa Rica, in an area also used by a boreal population during the opposite winter season, resulting in unique spatial overlap between Northern and Southern Hemisphere populations. The occurrence of such a northerly wintering area is coincident with the development of an equatorial tongue of cold water in the eastern South Pacific, a pattern that is repeated in the eastern South Atlantic. A survey of location and water temperature at the wintering areas worldwide indicates that they are found in warm waters (21.1-28.3 degrees C), irrespective of latitude. We contend that while availability of suitable reproductive habitat in the wintering areas is important at the fine scale, water temperature influences whale distribution at the basin scale. Calf development in warm water may lead to larger adult size and increased reproductive success, a strategy that supports the energy conservation hypothesis as a reason for migration.
Mcbride, M J
This article analyzes the complex political environment of US immigration and refugee policies in which tensions exist, especially with regard to Central America and the Caribbean. Recommendations for managing it more effectively in the future are discussed. Several western countries, including the US, have implemented stricter restriction policies as a result of the perceived threats to their economies and cultural homogeneity. In general, US immigration policy has addressed both economic concerns and domestic pressures, whereas US refugee policy has reflected foreign policy concerns. As a result of these policies, there has been an increasing number of immigrants from Mexico, as well as huge numbers of refugees from Cuba and Nicaragua. Yet, there has been limited acceptance of asylum seekers from Haiti, El Salvador and Guatemala. Among the policies passed by the US Congress to reduce illegal immigration and limit assistance to legal immigrants were the Welfare Reform Act, Illegal Immigration Reform, Immigration Responsibility Act of 1996, and the Proposition 187 movement. Revisions in the procedures of the Immigration and Naturalization Service were also made.
Penot, P; Balavoine, S; Leplatois, A; Brichler, S; Leparc-Goffart, I; Alloui, A-C; Flusin, O; Guilleminot, J; Amellou, M; Molina, J-M
The favorable season for Aedes albopictus circulation has started in Europe and may lead to autochthonous transmission of Zika virus. Health care providers should be familiar with evocative clinical presentations and able to give updated information to women of reproductive age infected by Zika virus. We report five laboratory-confirmed Zika virus infections imported to metropolitan France from Central and South America between January and April, 2016. The five young women were not connected and not pregnant; common presentation combined a rash with persistent arthralgia. Zika virus was identified by RT-PCR from serum or urines, between two and eight days after the onset of the symptoms. As the duration of potential materno-foetal infectivity is still unknown, we were unable to answer with certitude to the patients' questions about the time interval to respect before attempting a pregnancy: one of them became pregnant one month after the diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
Gray, Floyd; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Ludington, Stephen; Zürcher, Lukas; Nelson, Carl E.; Robinson, Gilpin R.; Miller, Robert J.; Moring, Barry C.
Mineral resource assessments provide a synthesis of available information about distributions of mineral deposits in the Earth’s crust. The U.S. Geological Survey prepared a probabilistic mineral resource assessment of undiscovered resources in porphyry copper deposits in Central America and the Caribbean Basin in collaboration with geoscientists from academia and the minerals industry. The purpose of the study was to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within 1 kilometer of the surface at a scale of 1:1,000,000; (2) provide a database of known porphyry copper deposits and significant prospects; (3) estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within the permissive tracts; and (4) provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper, molybdenum, gold, and silver that could be contained in undiscovered deposits. The assessment was done using a three-part mineral resource assessment based on established mineral deposit models. Permissive tracts were delineated based primarily on distributions of mapped igneous rocks related to magmatic arcs that formed in tectonic settings associated with convergent plate margins. Five permissive tracts were delineated: the Early Cretaceous through Eocene Santiago tract, the Late Cretaceous through Oligocene Chortis tract, the Paleocene through Oligocene Darién tract, the Miocene and Pliocene Cocos tract, and the Eocene to Holocene Lesser Antilles tract. These tracts range in size from about 3,000 to about 204,000 square kilometers.
Springer, G. S.; Rowe, H. D.; Cocina, F. G.; Hardt, B.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R. L.
Global Warming is expected to bring about substantive changes in global precipitation patterns, which will lead to altered stream hydrologies. The directions and magnitudes of streamflow changes can be inferred from climate projections, but changes in stream architecture and base level are open questions. We address base level response to climate change by reconstructing river behavior during the mid- to late Holocene, including the Hypsithermal when peak Holocene temperatures were achieved. We reconstruct the climate of the Greenbrier River watershed of the central Appalachian Mountains of North America using the stable isotope geochemistry of a stalagmite, cave sediments, and published pollen data. Independently, we construct a history of base level position using cave sediments deposited by the river. Stalagmite values of δ18O and δ13C are heavy during the Hypsithermal, which pollen results indicate was warm and dry compared to the rest of the Holocene. Cave sediments deposited by the Greenbrier River record base level as having been below the cave during the early and late Holocene, but above the cave during the Hypsithermal. The mid-Holocene base level rise is attributed to infilling of the channel with as much as 4 m of sediment, presumably a response to changes in storm frequency and stream hydrology. Global Warming will cause temperatures to exceed those of the Hypsithermal. Flood zones will extend to higher elevations and flood risks and vulnerabilities will increase dramatically if Appalachian rivers respond to Global Warming as the Greenbrier River did to the Hypsithermal.
Martínez-Castro, Daniel; Vichot-Llano, Alejandro; Bezanilla-Morlot, Arnoldo; Centella-Artola, Abel; Campbell, Jayaka; Giorgi, Filippo; Viloria-Holguin, Cecilia C.
A sensitivity study of the performance of the RegCM4 regional climate model driven by the ERA Interim reanalysis is conducted for the Central America and Caribbean region. A set of numerical experiments are completed using four configurations of the model, with a horizontal grid spacing of 25 km for a period of 6 years (1998-2003), using three of the convective parameterization schemes implemented in the model, the Emanuel scheme, the Grell over land-Emanuel over ocean scheme and two configurations of the Tiedtke scheme. The objective of the study is to investigate the ability of each configuration to reproduce different characteristics of the temperature, circulation and precipitation fields for the dry and rainy seasons. All schemes simulate the general temperature and precipitation patterns over land reasonably well, with relatively high correlations compared to observation datasets, though in specific regions there are positive or negative biases, greater in the rainy season. We also focus on some circulation features relevant for the region, such as the Caribbean low level jet and sea breeze circulations over islands, which are simulated by the model with varied performance across the different configurations. We find that no model configuration assessed is best performing for all the analysis criteria selected, but the Tiedtke configurations, which include the capability of tuning in particular the exchanges between cloud and environment air, provide the most balanced range of biases across variables, with no outstanding systematic bias emerging.
Calinger, Kellen M; Queenborough, Simon; Curtis, Peter S
Shifting flowering phenology with rising temperatures is occurring worldwide, but the rarity of co-occurring long-term observational and temperature records has hindered the evaluation of phenological responsiveness in many species and across large spatial scales. We used herbarium specimens combined with historic temperature data to examine the impact of climate change on flowering trends in 141 species collected across 116,000 km(2) in north-central North America. On average, date of maximum flowering advanced 2.4 days °C(-1), although species-specific responses varied from - 13.5 to + 7.3 days °C(-1). Plant functional types exhibited distinct patterns of phenological responsiveness with significant differences between native and introduced species, among flowering seasons, and between wind- and biotically pollinated species. This study is the first to assess large-scale patterns of phenological responsiveness with broad species representation and is an important step towards understanding current and future impacts of climate change on species performance and biodiversity. © 2013 The Authors. Ecology Letters published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and CNRS.
Full Text Available We examined 308 specimens of the Indo-Pacific blenniid Omobranchus punctatus deposited in four museum collections, and analyzed data on their collection locations to assess its invasion on the Atlantic coast of Central and South America. This species occurs in shoreline estuarine and marine habitats in the Indo-West Pacific. Previous sampling and recent records in the Tropical West Atlantic from 1930 to 2004 produced 20 records for: Panamá, Colombia, Venezuela, Trinidad and Brazil. In this work, we provide data on 17 new records for the Gulfs of Venezuela and Paria in Venezuela, as well as four records for Maranhão and Pará states in NE Brazil. The temporal pattern of collections (1930 - 2009 and the proximity of most localities to ports and zones of ship traffic indicate that O. punctatus was initially introduced to the Atlantic by ships travelling from India to Trinidad. Within Brazil the introduction is linked to shipping connected to petroleum platforms. In Maranhão and Pará the introduction may have occurred as a result of fish sheltering in fouling on hulls of ships moving between ports around the mouth of the Amazon River. Alternatively, the spread of this species along of the American coast may reflect the expansion of the range of O. puntactus through larval dispersal in northward flowing currents. We recommend monitoring of this introduced species, and studies of its ecology in West Atlantic areas.
Streptococcus iniae, the etiological agent of streptococcosis in fish, is an important pathogen of cultured and wild fish worldwide. During the last decade outbreaks of streptococcosis have occurred in a wide range of cultured and wild fish in the Americas and Caribbean islands. To gain a better und...
Sulca, J. C.; Vuille, M. F.; Roundy, P. E.; Trasmonte, G.; Silva, Y.; Takahashi, K.
The Mantaro basin (MB) is located in the central Peruvian Andes. Occasionally, cold episodes are observed during austral summer (January-March), that strongly damage crops. However, little is known about the causes and impacts of such cold episodes. The main goal of this study is thus to characterize cold episodes in the MB and assess their large-scale circulation and teleconnections over South America (SA) during austral summer. To identify cold events in the MB daily minimum temperature (Tmin) for the period 1958-2014 from Huayao station, located within the MB was used. A cold episode is defined when daily minimum temperature drops below its 10-percentile for at least one day. Additionally, to study the sensitivity between physical mechanisms associated with cold episodes and temperature, cold episodes are classified in three groups: Weak cold episodes (7.5 ≤ Tmin ≤ 10 percentile), strong cold episodes (Tmin ≤ 2.5 percentile), but excluding the 9 coldest events (Tmin ≤ 0 ͦ C), henceforth referred to as extraordinary cold episodes. Several gridded reanalysis were used to characterize the large-scale circulation, cloud cover and rainfall over SA associated with these events. Weak and strong cold episodes in the MB are mainly associated with a weakening of the Bolivian High-Nordeste Low system by tropical-extratropical interactions. Both types of cold episodes are associated with westerly wind anomalies at mid- and upper-tropospheric levels aloft the Peruvian Central Andes, which inhibit the influx of humid air masses from the lowlands to the east and hence limit the development of cloud cover (e.g., positive OLR anomalies over MB). The resulting clear sky conditions cause nighttime temperatures to drop, leading to cold extremes below 10-percentile. Simultaneously, northeastern Brazil (NEB) registers negative OLR anomalies, strong convection and enhanced cloud cover because displacement of the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ) toward the northeast of
Boore, David; Campbell, Kenneth W.
Adjustment factors are provided for converting ground‐motion intensity measures between central and eastern North America (CENA) sites with different reference‐rock site conditions (VS30=760, 2000, and 3000 m/s) for moment magnitudes ranging from 2 to 8, rupture distances ranging from 2 to 1200 km, Fourier amplitude spectra (FAS) for frequencies ranging from 0.01 to 100 Hz, response spectra for periods ranging from 0.01 to 10.0 s, peak ground acceleration, and peak ground velocity. The adjustment factors are given for a wide range of the site diminution parameters (κ0) for sites with VS30=760 m/s and for a κ0 of 0.006 s for two harder rock sites. Fourteen CENA velocity profiles with VS30 values within a factor of 1.1 of 760 m/s were used to derive average FAS amplification factors as a function of frequency, which were then used in simulations of peak ground‐motion parameters and response spectra to derive the adjustment factors. The amplification function differs from that used in western North America (e.g., Campbell and Boore, 2016) in having a peak near 9 Hz, due to the resonance of motions in the relatively thin low‐velocity material over hard rock that characterizes many CENA sites with VS30 near 760 m/s. We call these B/C sites, because this velocity marks the boundary between National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program site classes B and C (Building Seismic Safety Council, 2004). The adjustments for short‐period motions are sensitive to the value of κ0, but there are very few if any determinations of κ0 for CENA B/C sites. For this reason, we determined κ0 from multiple recordings at Pinyon Flat Observatory (PFO), California, which has a velocity‐depth profile similar to those of CENA B/C sites. The PFO and other results from the literature suggest that appropriate values of κ0 for CENA B/C sites are expected to lie between 0.01 and 0.03 s.
Boore, David; Campbell, Kenneth W.
Adjustment factors are provided for converting ground‐motion intensity measures between central and eastern North America (CENA) sites with different reference‐rock site conditions (VS30=760, 2000, and 3000 m/s) for moment magnitudes ranging from 2 to 8, rupture distances ranging from 2 to 1200 km, Fourier amplitude spectra (FAS) for frequencies ranging from 0.01 to 100 Hz, response spectra for periods ranging from 0.01 to 10.0 s, peak ground acceleration, and peak ground velocity. The adjustment factors are given for a wide range of the site diminution parameters (κ0) for sites with VS30=760 m/s and for a κ0 of 0.006 s for two harder rock sites. Fourteen CENA velocity profiles with VS30 values within a factor of 1.1 of 760 m/s were used to derive average FAS amplification factors as a function of frequency, which were then used in simulations of peak ground‐motion parameters and response spectra to derive the adjustment factors. The amplification function differs from that used in western North America (e.g., Campbell and Boore, 2016) in having a peak near 9 Hz, due to the resonance of motions in the relatively thin low‐velocity material over hard rock that characterizes many CENA sites with VS30 near 760 m/s. We call these B/C sites, because this velocity marks the boundary between National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program site classes B and C (Building Seismic Safety Council, 2004). The adjustments for short‐period motions are sensitive to the value of κ0, but there are very few if any determinations of κ0 for CENA B/C sites. For this reason, we determined κ0from multiple recordings at Pinyon Flat Observatory (PFO), California, which has a velocity‐depth profile similar to those of CENA B/C sites. The PFO and other results from the literature suggest that appropriate values of κ0 for CENA B/C sites are expected to lie between 0.01 and 0.03 s.
Bevan, Andrew; Jobbová, Eva; Helmke, Christophe
This paper suggests the existence of non-random, directional patterns in the location of housemounds across the Late Classic Maya settlement landscape at Baking Pot, Belize, and then explores the wider implications of this patterning in the central Maya lowlands. It introduces an anisotropic method...
the root causes of gang violence, which include poverty, joblessness , and the social exclusion of at-risk youth , are addressed in a holistic manner...the Mara Salvatrucha (MS-13). The 18th Street gang was formed by Mexican immigrants in the Rampart section of Los Angeles in the 1960s, youth who were...populations; growing youth populations facing stagnant job markets; and an absence of political will to fight crime in a holistic manner. Some
This report presents the results of an analysis of the biofuel markets in El Salvador, Panama, Costa Rica and Honduras. The aim of this report is to provide insight in the current situation and the expected developments in these markets and thus to provide investors with an image of the opportunities that could be present in this sector. An attempt has been made to provide a clear overview of this sector in the countries concerned. Due to a lack of data this has not been fully accomplished in some cases. [mk] [nl
Carrao, Hugo; Barbosa, Paulo; Vogt, Jürgen
the intra-annual variability of precipitation in estimating the severity of events that can impact on seasonal activities. The MDSI is standardized in space and time, and considers the relative monthly precipitation deficits and the seasonal influence of precipitation regimes in the meteorological drought severity computation. In this study, the calculation of the MDSI is performed with monthly precipitation totals from the Full Data Reanalysis Monthly Product Version 6.0 of the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC). This dataset provides a global analysis at 0.5 dd latitude/longitude grid spacing of monthly precipitation over land from operational in situ rain gauges collected between January 1901 and December 2010. Using the MDSI, we estimated the severity of drought events that occurred in the past 100 years in Africa and South-Central America, and produced drought hazard maps based on the probability of exceedance the median historical severity. Overall, results indicate that drought hazard is high for semiarid areas, such as Northeastern and Southern South America, as well as Eastern and Southwestern Africa. Since available water resources in semiarid areas are already insufficient to permanently meet the demands of human activities, the outcomes highlight the aggravated risk for food security and confirm the need for the implementation of disaster mitigation measures in those regions.
Berri, Guillermo J.; Inzunza, Juan B.
The low-level jet (LLJ) in the central region of South America is studied. This LLJ is generated by the daily cycle of convergence and divergence east of the Andes Mountains. We use the 1973-1974 radiosonde and pilot balloon data set from the upper air weather stations, Salta and Resistencia, in northern Argentina to select 10 LLJ cases and another 10 NoLLJ cases (when the LLJ is not present). We use the University of Utah Mesoscale Model to simulate these situations in order to obtain a high-resolution low-level wind field. These model predictions are then used to calculate the meridional water vapour transport across a vertical cross-section, along 26°S in central South America. The results reveal that the LLJs are a very effective mechanism for the poleward water vapour transport.
Smith, Nicholas G; Dukes, Jeffrey S
Leaf canopy carbon exchange processes, such as photosynthesis and respiration, are substantial components of the global carbon cycle. Climate models base their simulations of photosynthesis and respiration on an empirical understanding of the underlying biochemical processes, and the responses of those processes to environmental drivers. As such, data spanning large spatial scales are needed to evaluate and parameterize these models. Here, we present data on four important biochemical parameters defining leaf carbon exchange processes from 626 individuals of 98 species at 12 North and Central American sites spanning ~53° of latitude. The four parameters are the maximum rate of Rubisco carboxylation (V cmax ), the maximum rate of electron transport for the regeneration of Ribulose-1,5,-bisphosphate (J max ), the maximum rate of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase carboxylation (V pmax ), and leaf dark respiration (R d ). The raw net photosynthesis by intercellular CO 2 (A/C i ) data used to calculate V cmax , J max , and V pmax rates are also presented. Data were gathered on the same leaf of each individual (one leaf per individual), allowing for the examination of each parameter relative to others. Additionally, the data set contains a number of covariates for the plants measured. Covariate data include (1) leaf-level traits (leaf mass, leaf area, leaf nitrogen and carbon content, predawn leaf water potential), (2) plant-level traits (plant height for herbaceous individuals and diameter at breast height for trees), (3) soil moisture at the time of measurement, (4) air temperature from nearby weather stations for the day of measurement and each of the 90 d prior to measurement, and (5) climate data (growing season mean temperature, precipitation, photosynthetically active radiation, vapor pressure deficit, and aridity index). We hope that the data will be useful for obtaining greater understanding of the abiotic and biotic determinants of these important biochemical
Hofmann, Erich P; Townsend, Josiah H
Recent studies have begun to reveal the complex evolutionary and biogeographic histories of mainland anoles in Central America, but the origins and relationships of many taxa remain poorly understood. One such group is the Anolis (Norops) crassulus species subgroup, which contains ten morphologically similar highland taxa, the majority of which have restricted distributions. The nominal taxon A. crassulus has a disjunct distribution from Chiapas, Mexico, through Guatemala, in the highlands of El Salvador, and in the Chortís Highlands of Honduras. We test the relationships of these species using multiple mitochondrial and nuclear loci in concatenated and multispecies coalescent frameworks, in an effort to both resolve long-standing taxonomic confusion and present new insights into the evolution and biogeography of these taxa. Sequences of multiple mitochondrial and nuclear loci were generated for eight of the ten species of the Anolis crassulus species subgroup. We analyzed phylogenetic relationships and estimated divergence times and ancestral ranges of the subgroup, recovering a monophyletic subgroup within Anolis. Within the nominal taxon Anolis crassulus, we recovered multiple genetically distinct lineages corresponding to allopatric populations, and show that the Chortís Highland lineage split from the others over 13 MYA. Additionally, distinct mitochondrial lineages are present within the taxa A. heteropholidotus and A. morazani, and importantly, samples of A. crassulus and A. sminthus previously used in major anole phylogenetic analyses are not recovered as conspecific with those taxa. We infer a Chortís Highland origin for the ancestor of this subgroup, and estimate cladogenesis of this subgroup began approximately 22 MYA. Our results provide new insights into the evolution, biogeography, and timing of diversification of the Anolis crassulus species subgroup. The disjunctly distributed Anolis crassulus sensu lato represents several morphologically
Geldmacher, J.; Martens, U.; Hoernle, K.; Hauff, F.; Bogaard, P.; Kluegel, A.
The igneous forearc basement along the Pacific coast of northern Central America (between southern Mexico and Costa Rica) comprises a highly tectonized accretionary assemblage of igneous and ultramafic rocks. Volcanic and gabbroic rocks with primitive arc geochemical signatures formed between ~100 and ~180 Ma and are interpreted to have originated by arc magmatism resulting from subduction of the Pacific/Farallon plate. Additionally, the forearc contains geochemically enriched ocean island basalt (OIB)-like units that are interpreted as accreted seamounts and islands of a 100 to ~220 Ma old hotspot track, which most likely originated from a long-extinct hotspot located in the Pacific. Based on their combined Pb, Nd, Hf isotopic compositions an affiliation of these isotopically strongly enriched rocks with the Caribbean Large Igneous Province or the Galápagos hotspot appears unlikely. Rocks of similar age and geochemistry are exposed in the Santa Elena Peninsula of Costa Rica, suggesting that the same type of forearc basement is accreted to the continental Chortis block all the way from southern Mexico to Costa Rica. In contrast, gabbroic rocks of the Motagua suture zone in central Guatemala (El Tambor accretionary complex) show depleted MORB signatures and have igneous ages of ~130Ma. These MOR Gabbros were accreted on the current northern margin of the Chortis block during subduction of proto-Caribbean crust. In contrast, geochemistry of gabbros and diorites of the Sierra de Santa Cruz (SSC) indicate medium to high K-series arc affinity and their Ar/Ar ages range from ~75 to 130 Ma. The SSC is interpreted as the western extension of the early Cuban arc that collided with the Maya block in the latest Cretaceous. Arc-derived volcanic clasts were subsequently shed into the Paleocene Sepur Formation of the Maya block. No evidence of accretion of OIB-like material was found in the Motagua suture or the SSC so far. These new data suggest that proto-Caribbean crust
P. Heyneman, Stephen; Todoric-Bebic, Sanja
This paper summarizes the experience in meeting the challenges of social cohesion — and hence economic development — in countries such as Africa, Asia, Latin America, Europe and Central Asia. The relations between education and social cohesion in the different regions above mentioned are also analized. The authors discuss mainly ethnic and public corruption problems linked to social cohesion: and consider that the social cohesion is at the heart of each nation's education system, as much...
Vasconcelos, Ana Caroline Oliveira; Giupponi, Alessandro Ponce De Leão; Ferreira, Rodrigo Lopes
A new species of the genus Charinus Simon, 1892 is described from caves in the Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. This is the first record of the genus for the state. This paper presents a map of the Charinus species distribution in Brazil with new records and a map of potential distribution of the genus in South and Central Americas. An updated key for Charinus species from Brazil is also presented.
Minty, C.D. [Natural History Museum, London (United Kingdom); Sutton, D.A.; Rogers, A.D.F.; Bateman, R.M.; Penn, M.; Stafford, P.J.; Sanders, L.M. (eds.)
The Natural Museum of History in London conducted a wildlife impact assessment of the proposed Macal River Upper Storage Facility (MRUSF) in Belize, Central America. The area contains a rare and discrete floral floodplain habitat (riparian shrubland) which acts as a conduit and critical habitat for resident and non-resident fauna and avifauna. In addition, the entire profile of the floodplain habitat of the watershed is important to the sustenance and population viability of a unique Scarlet Macaw subspecies, providing the last remaining habitat for a small population of about 60 to 100 individual birds. Other species have also been identified as regionally, nationally or globally significant. The proposed Chalillo Dam would be constructed on the Macal River Valley, approximately 5 km upstream from Guacamallo Bridge. If the project goes ahead, much of the area will be permanently flooded. The reservoir would flood up to an elevation of 400 m above the mean sea level. This report presented three options. The first option is not to build the Chalillo dam. This would leave the natural riparian habitat biologically rich and ecologically functional. The second option is to choose an alternative site, such as damming one or more of the many tributaries in the Mountain Pine Ridge. The third option is to proceed as planned, but it has been made clear that it will not be possible to mitigate against the long-term impacts on the biodiversity of the catchment, particularly those associated with habitat loss. The MRUSF is likely to cause 80 per cent of the riparian shrubland to be lost and numerous individual animals to die. In addition, it was predicted that the impacts of the project will be much greater in the surrounding areas, reaching much beyond the localized area of the dam and its impoundment. The most obvious option to avoid profound impacts is to not construct the dam. It was emphasized that this option should be seriously considered, particularly if costs outweigh
Canché-Estrada, Idalia Arely; Ortiz-Díaz, Juan Javier; Tun-Garrido, Juan
Environmental heterogeneity of Belize and southern Mexico savannahs as well as their geographical location suggest that these plant communities share floristic elements, making them conducive to a phytogeographical analysis. The aim of this study was to analyse the floristic affinities of nine savannahs of Belize and southern Mexico and to explain the similarities and differences amongst them. A binary data matrix containing 915 species was built based on the authors' own collections and on nine floristic lists already published. A second data matrix, consisting of 113 species representing trees, was also used since most literature on neotropical savannahs has focused on this life form. In addition, the ten most species-rich families as well as the characteristic species present in more than five savannahs were analysed. Floristic similarities were calculated using the Jaccard index. Dendrograms obtained in both types of analysis showed clusters with low similarity values, corresponding to geographic locations formed by the savannahs of Belize-Tabasco and the Yucatan Peninsula. The floristic affinities of the savannahs may be explained in terms of heterogeneity in climate and physiography. The Yucatan Peninsula and Belize-Tabasco groups have differences in climate type and the amount of rainfall. In addition, the Yucatan Peninsula savannahs are established at the bottom of karstic valleys, while the Belize and Tabasco savannahs develop on extensive flatlands. The savannahs of Oaxaca have the same climate type and amount of rainfall as those of the Yucatan Peninsula but they are distributed along peaks and the slopes of shale hills. Fabaceae and Poaceae mainly dominated the local floras with 121 and 116 species each; remarkably, Melastomataceae was absent in the Yucatan Peninsula and Oaxaca. Nine species occurred in five to seven savannahs, confirming that they are widespread in both Belize and southern Mexico, and the Neotropics. Geographic location and floristic
Warshaw, Erin M; Zug, Kathryn A; Belsito, Donald V; Fowler, Joseph F; DeKoven, Joel G; Sasseville, Denis; Maibach, Howard I; Mathias, C G Toby; DeLeo, Vincent A; Taylor, James S; Fransway, Anthony F; Marks, James G; Pratt, Melanie D; Zirwas, Matthew J; Geier, Johannes; Uter, Wolfgang
Synthetic fragrances and natural essential oils (EOs) are used in perfumery and found in various cosmetics. Essential oils are also increasingly used to promote wellness. In previous studies, the sensitization potential of some EOs has been identified; however, the current prevalence of sensitivity is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to determine frequency of positive patch-test reactions to EOs tested in the baseline series, along with 3 fragrance markers (FMs) (fragrance mix I, fragrance mix II, and Myroxylon pereirae), in consecutive patients in the US/Canadian North American Contact Dermatitis Group (NACDG) (2009-2014) and the central European, trinational Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK) (2010-2014). This study used a retrospective analysis of patch-test results and relevant demographic/clinical data collected electronically by the networks, obtained with Santalum album 10% petrolatum (pet) (IVDK only); Cananga odorata 2% (NACDG) and 10% (IVDK) pet; Jasminum species 2% (NACDG) and 5% (IVDK) pet; Mentha piperita 2% pet; Melaleuca alternifolia, oxidized (tea tree oil), 5% pet; and Lavandula angustifolia 2% pet (latter 3 NACDG only). Overall, 62,354 patients were tested to 3 FMs and EOs (NACDG, 13,398; IVDK, 48,956); 11,568 (18.6%) reacted to at least 1 FM or EO, whereas 857 (1.4%) reacted to 1 or more EOs but none of the 3 FMs. For both the NACDG and IVDK populations, individuals who were positive to 1 or more of the 9 study allergens were significantly less likely to be male, have occupational skin disease, or have hand involvement and significantly more likely to have leg dermatitis and be 40 years and older (P's ≤ 0.005). Prevalence rates for EOs were as follows: S. album, 1.4% IVDK; C. odorata, 1.1% NACDG and 2.4% IVDK; Jasminum species, 0.7% NACDG and 1.4% IVDK; M. piperita, 0.9% NACDG; L. angustifolia, 0.3% NACDG; and M. alternifolia, 0.3% NACDG. Of the 140 NACDG patients who reacted to 1 or more of the 5 NACDG EOs but
Irwin, Adele; Greer, Lisa; Humston, Robert; Devlin-Durante, Meghann; Cabe, Paul; Lescinsky, Halard; Wirth, Karl; Allen Curran, H.; Baums, Iliana B.
The corals Acropora palmata and A. cervicornis are important Caribbean reef-builders that have faced significant mortality in recent decades. While many studies have focused on the recent demise of these species, data from areas where Acropora spp. have continued to thrive are limited. Understanding the genetic diversity, recruitment, and temporal continuity of healthy populations of these threatened Acropora spp. and the hybrid they form (" Acropora prolifera") may provide insights into the demographic processes governing them. We studied three reef sites with abundant A. cervicornis, A. palmata, and hybrid Acropora populations offshore of Ambergris Caye, Belize at Coral Gardens, Manatee Channel, and Rocky Point. Samples were collected from all three Acropora taxa. We used microsatellite markers to determine: (1) genotypic diversity; (2) dominant reproductive mode supporting local recruitment; (3) minimum and maximum genet age estimates for all three acroporids; and (4) the history of hybrid colonization at these sites. We found that Acropora populations were highly clonal with local recruitment primarily occurring through asexual fragmentation. We also estimated the ages of 10 Acropora genets using recent methodology based on somatic mutation rates from genetic data. Results indicate minimum ages of 62-409 yr for A. cervicornis, 187-561 yr for A. palmata, and 156-281 yr for the Acropora hybrids at these sites. Our data indicate that existing A. cervicornis, A. palmata, and Acropora hybrid genets persisted during the 1980s Caribbean-wide Acropora spp. collapse, suggesting that these sites have been a refuge for Caribbean Acropora corals. Additionally, our data suggest that formation of extant hybrid Acropora genets pre-dates the widespread collapse of the parent taxa.
Aguirre G., J. A.
Full Text Available Protected areas and national parks are becoming one of the most important forms of land use in Central America. All the projections made by the World Tourism Organization seems to agree that by 2010 Central America, maybe receiving between eight and ten millions tourists, a figure that is almost twice what the region is receiving today. A study was conducted base on 369 direct field surveys conducted in three Central American communities: Bagazit gateway community to Palo Verde National Park, Costa Rica, Nindiri, gateway community to Volcan Masaya National Park, Nicaragua and Portobelo, gateway community to Por-tobelo National Park, Panama. The study found that relative to the socio-demographic variables, that there were no significance differences at the 95% probability level in all four variables, age, sex, education and monthly income of the family. Educational level seems to be the socio-demographic variables affecting more the state of relations. The perception variable being has taken into account in the decision that affects the communities and responsibility to help with community problems are present in two of the three models. The perception variables related to tourism, feel trained to take care of the tourist and existence of businesses that can caters to tourist seem to be key elements in the community perception about the state of relation. Tourism related economic activities and community participation in park decisions are today and will be in the future essential elements in the shaping of community/park relations in Central America as tourism becomes a major economic sector in the region economy.
van Thiel, P. P. A. M.; Zeegelaar, J. E.; van Gool, T.; Faber, W. R.; Kager, P. A.
Skin lesions occur frequently in travelers to tropical countries. Military personnel acquire skin lesions regularly during jungle training as did Dutch troops who trained in the jungle of Belize in 1998, 2004 and 2009, in an area endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis. Demographic and clinical data
Bennett-Martin, P. A.; Longobardi, P.
The accumulation of non-organic debris from humans is a growing environmental concern in coastal Belize. This study used a variety of methods to inventory and categorize debris types, to assess the spatial distribution of debris and used GIS to catalog and analyze data. Marine debris included glass, metal, styrofoam, fishing debris, and plastics. Plastics were the most abundant marine debris observed, and are a common pollutant in the marine ecosystem throughout Belize. The study also used ethnographic techniques engaging members of three coastal communities to assess practices for managing the debris. In 2015, we worked with over 146 individuals in different capacities in the communities of Belize City, Blackbird Caye, and Caye Caulker to determine their involvement and activities with marine debris. The participatory observation process discovered a network of individuals who are committed to managing and reducing waste, especially plastic pollution. This research establishes a baseline framework for participatory monitoring and adaptive governance for addressing coastal marine debris issues at varying scales: individuals, communities, NGOs, and government. These data allow for use of critical cartographic representations that will be beneficial to coastal communities of Belize for awareness and governance purposes related to future management of marine debris issues.
Marine recreational tourism is one of a number of threats to the Belize Barrier Reef but, conversely, represents both a motivation and source of resources for its conservation. The growth of tourism in Belize has resulted in the fact that many coastal communities are in varying stages of a socio-economic shift from dependence on fishing to dependence on tourism. In a nation becoming increasingly dependent on the health of its coral reef ecosystems for economic prosperity, a shift from extractive uses to their preservation is both necessary and logical. Through examining local perception data in five coastal communities in Belize, each attracting different levels of coral reef related tourism, this analysis is intended to explore the relationship between tourism development and local coral reef conservation awareness and support. The results of the analysis show a positive correlation between tourism development and coral reef conservation awareness and support in the study communities. The results also show a positive correlation between tourism development and local perceptions of quality of life, a trend that is most likely the source of the observed relationship between tourism and conservation. The study concludes that, because the observed relationship may be dependent on continued benefits from tourism as opposed to a perceived crisis in coral reef health, Belize must pay close attention to tourism impacts in the future. Failure to do this could result in a destructive feedback loop that would contribute to the degradation of the reef and, ultimately, Belize’s diminished competitiveness in the ecotourism market.
Ojakangas, Richard W.; Dickas, Albert B.
The Midcontinent Rift System (MRS) of central North America is a 1.1-Ga, 2500-km long structural feature that has been interpreted as a triple-junction rift developed over a mantle plume. As much as 20 km of subaerial lava flows, mainly flood basalts, are overlain by as much as 10 km of sedimentary rocks that are mostly continental fluvial red beds. This rock sequence, known as the Keweenawan Supergroup, has been penetrated by a few deep boreholes in the search for petroleum. In this paper, two deep boreholes in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan are described in detail for the first time. Both the Amoco Production #1-29R test, herein referred to as the St. Amour well, and the nearby Hickey Creek well drilled by Cleveland Cliffs Mining Services, were 100% cored. The former is 7238 ft (2410 m) deep and the latter is 5345 ft (1780 m) deep. The entirety of the stratigraphic succession of the Hickey Creek core correlates very well with the upper portion of the St. Amour core, as determined by core description and point-counting of 43 thin sections selected out of 100 studied thin sections. Two Lower Paleozoic units and two Keweenawan red bed units—the Jacobsville Sandstone and the underlying Freda Sandstone—are described. The Jacobsville is largely a feldspatholithic sandstone and the Freda is largely a lithofeldspathic sandstone. Below the Freda, the remaining footage of the St. Amour core consists of a thick quartzose sandstone unit that overlies a heterogenous unit of intercalated red bed units of conglomerate, sandstone, siltstone, and shale; black shale; individual basalt flows; and a basal ignimbritic rhyolite. This lower portion of the St. Amour core presents an enigma, as it correlates very poorly with other key boreholes located to the west and southwest. While a black shale sequence is similar to the petroleum-bearing Nonesuch Formation farther west, there is no conglomerate unit to correlate with the Copper Harbor Conglomerate. Other key boreholes are
Amadio, Massimo, Comp.; And Others
Global society is polarized between the modern capitalist sector and the marginal sector, which is composed of indigenous, poor, and ethnic, tribal people. The problems of education for groups in Latin America, key issues in planning to meet their needs, and strategies to resolve them, are the focus of this publication. Nine papers provide a…
Full Text Available This article makes a comparative analysis of the experiences of the independent central bank in Latin America and Europe. After reviewing the problems and theories of central bank autonomy, it studies the recent evolution of the Latin American central bank in comparison with the European central bank, high lights the perverse effects of the reforms, and shows that their objective is more the stability of the financial system than the stability of prices. Finally, it describes the tests to which the new Latin American central banks have been subjected and the effects on their credibility. It concludes that these entities have had to correct and pay for the incoherences and errors of the market, and that their independence or autonomy depends on their continuing to ful fill this role, not only for economíc or monetary reasons but for the needs of political and social democracy.Este artículo hace un análisis comparativo de las experiencias de la banca central independiente en América Latina y Europa. Después de revisar los problemas y las teorías de la autonompia de los bancos centrales, estudia la reciente evolución de la banca central latinoamericana en comparación con la europea, destaca los efectos perversos de estas reformas u muestra que sus objetivo es más la estabilidad del sistema financiero que la de los precios. Finalmente, describe las pruebas a que han sido sometidos los nuevos bancos centrales latinomaericanos y los efectos de sus credibilidad. Concluye que estas entidades han tenido que corregir y pagar las incoherencias y los errrores del mercado, y que su 'independencia' o autonomía depende de que sigan cumpliendo con ese papel no sólo por razones económicas o monetarias sino por las necesidades de la democracia política y social.
34 encomienda " (7:155) system which divided the land of Latin America among its settlers, to include all the Indians living on the land as the subjects and labor...all subservient to the crown in Spain. Problems with the Indians acceptance of the encomienda system and internal strife prompted a change in 1570...and stagnation. Spanish rule nearly destroyed the Indian race with its encomienda slave system, but forced upon the area its lasting heritage of tongue
Pinto-Sánchez, Nelsy Rocío; Ibáñez, Roberto; Madriñán, Santiago; Sanjur, Oris I; Bermingham, Eldredge; Crawford, Andrew J
The completion of the land bridge between North and South America approximately 3.5-3.1 million years ago (Ma) initiated a tremendous biogeographic event called the Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI), described principally from the mammalian fossil record. The history of biotic interchange between continents for taxonomic groups with poor fossil records, however, is not well understood. Molecular and fossil data suggest that a number of plant and animal lineages crossed the Isthmus of Panama well before 3.5 Ma, leading biologists to speculate about trans-oceanic dispersal mechanisms. Here we present a molecular phylogenetic analysis of the frog genus Pristimantis based on 189 individuals of 137 species, including 71 individuals of 31 species from Panama and Colombia. DNA sequence data were obtained from three mitochondrial (COI, 12S, 16S) and two nuclear (RAG-1 and Tyr) genes, for a total of 4074 base pairs. The resulting phylogenetic hypothesis showed statistically significant conflict with most recognized taxonomic groups within Pristimantis, supporting only the rubicundus Species Series, and the Pristimantis myersi and Pristimantis pardalis Species Groups as monophyletic. Inference of ancestral areas based on a likelihood model of geographic range evolution via dispersal, local extinction, and cladogenesis (DEC) suggested that the colonization of Central America by South American Pristimantis involved at least 11 independent events. Relaxed-clock analyses of divergence times suggested that at least eight of these invasions into Central America took place prior to 4 Ma, mainly in the Miocene. These findings contribute to a growing list of molecular-based biogeographic studies presenting apparent temporal conflicts with the traditional GABI model. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Schobelock, J.; Stamps, D. S.; Pagani, M.; Garcia, J.; Styron, R. H.
The Caribbean and Central America region (CCAR) undergoes the entire spectrum of earthquake types due to its complex tectonic setting comprised of transform zones, young oceanic spreading ridges, and subductions along its eastern and western boundaries. CCAR is, therefore, an ideal setting in which to study the impacts of long-term tectonic deformation on the distribution of present-day seismic activity. In this work, we develop a continuous tectonic strain rate model based on inter-seismic geodetic data and compare it with known active faults and earthquake focal mechanism data. We first create a 0.25o x 0.25o finite element mesh that is comprised of block geometries defined in previously studies. Second, we isolate and remove transient signals from the latest open access community velocity solution from UNAVCO, which includes 339 velocities from COCONet and TLALOCNet GNSS data for the Caribbean and Central America, respectively. In a third step we define zones of deformation and rigidity by creating a buffer around the boundary of each block that varies depending on the size of the block and the expected deformation zone based on locations of GNSS data that are consistent with rigid block motion. We then assign each node within the buffer a 0 for the deforming areas and a plate index outside the buffer for the rigid. Finally, we calculate a tectonic strain rate model for CCAR using the Haines and Holt finite element approach to fit bi-cubic Bessel splines to the the GNSS/GPS data assuming block rotation for zones of rigidity. Our model of the CCAR is consistent with compression along subduction zones, extension across the mid-Pacific Rise, and a combination of compression and extension across the North America - Caribbean plate boundary. The majority of CCAR strain rate magnitudes range from -60 to 60 nanostrains/yr. Modeling results are then used to calculate expected faulting behaviors that we compare with mapped geologic faults and seismic activity.
In Marks and Spencer v BNP Paribas, the Supreme Court restated the law on the implication of terms in fact, rejecting the previously authoritative approach taken by Lord Hoffmann in Attorney General of Belize v Belize Telecom Ltd. This article examines two major departures from Belize in Lord Neuberger’s leading judgment: the treatment of implication as a process separate from interpretation, and a return to the ‘traditional tests’ for the implication of terms. It argues that these are retrog...
Mazzotti, Frank J.; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Brandt, Laura A.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Hart, Kristen; Jeffery, Brian; McMurry, Scott T.; Platt, Steven G.; Rainwater, Thomas R.; Vinci, Joy
Body condition factors have been used as an indicator of health and well-being of crocodilians. We evaluated body condition of Morelet's Crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) in northern Belize in relation to biotic (size, sex, and habitat) and abiotic (location, water level, and air temperature) factors. We also tested the hypothesis that high water levels and warm temperatures combine or interact to result in a decrease in body condition. Size class, temperature, and water level explained 20% of the variability in condition of Morelet's Crocodiles in this study. We found that adult crocodiles had higher condition scores than juveniles/subadults but that sex, habitat, and site had no effect. We confirmed our hypothesis that warm temperatures and high water levels interact to decrease body condition. We related body condition of Morelet's Crocodiles to natural fluctuations in air temperatures and water levels in northern Belize, providing baseline conditions for population and ecosystem monitoring.
Uzwiak, Beth A; Curran, Siobhan
Belizean health policy supports a primary health care (PHC) strategy of universal access, community participation, and multisectoral collaboration. The principals of PHC were a key part of Belize's emergent national identity and built on existing community-based health strategies. Ethnographic research in western Belize, however, reveals that ongoing health reform is removing providers from participatory arenas. In this article, we foreground a particular moment in Belizean health history--the rise and demise of multisectoral collaboration--to question what can constitute meaningful community participation in the midst of health reform. Many allied health providers continue to believe in the potential of PHC to alleviate the structural causations of poor health and to invest in PHC despite a lack of state support. This means that providers, the majority women, are palliating the consequences of neoliberal reform; it also means that they provide spaces of contestation to the consumer "logic" of this reform. © 2015 by the American Anthropological Association.
Healy, Paul F.; Helmke, Christophe G.B.; Awe, Jaime J.
Survey and excavations of mounds on the outskirts of the site of Pacbitun in western Belize provide insights to the ancient Maya settlement pattern at this medium-sized regional center. This research employed two methods: analysis of structural remains from four separate 1000 m transect surveys...... to have been about 5000-6000 persons. This population estimate is compared with several coeval lowland Maya centers, and found to be reasonable for a medium-sized, Late Classic Maya center....
Dickerson, Patricia Wood
The intraplate Ancestral Rocky Mountains of western North America extend from British Columbia, Canada, to Chihuahua, Mexico, and formed during Early Carboniferous through Early Permian time in response to continent-continent collision of Laurentia with Gondwana—the conjoined masses of Africa and South America, including Yucatán and Florida. Uplifts and flanking basins also formed within the Laurentian Midcontinent. On the Gondwanan continent, well inboard from the marginal fold belts, a counterpart structural array developed during the same period. Intraplate deformation began when full collisional plate coupling had been achieved along the continental margin; the intervening ocean had been closed and subduction had ceased—that is, the distinction between upper versus lower plates became moot. Ancestral Rockies deformation was not accompanied by volcanism. Basement shear zones that formed during Mesoproterozoic rifting of Laurentia were reactivated and exerted significant control on the locations, orientations, and modes of displacement on late Paleozoic faults. Ancestral Rocky Mountain uplifts extend as far south as Chihuahua and west Texas (28° to 33°N, 102° to 109°W) and include the Florida-Moyotes, Placer de Guadalupe-Carrizalillo, Ojinaga-Tascotal and Hueco Mountain blocks, as well as the Diablo and Central Basin Platforms. All are cored with Laurentian Proterozoic crystalline basement rocks and host correlative Paleozoic stratigraphic successions. Pre-late Paleozoic deformational, thermal, and metamorphic histories are similar as well. Southern Ancestral Rocky Mountain structures terminate along a line that trends approximately N 40°E (present coordinates), a common orientation for Mesoproterozoic extensional structures throughout southern to central North America. Continuing Tien Shan intraplate deformation (Central Asia) has created an analogous array of uplifts and basins in response to the collision of India with Eurasia, beginning in late
Davis, Rolan; Nadin-Davis, Susan A; Moore, Michael; Hanlon, Cathleen
Across North America the skunk acts as a reservoir for several rabies virus variants. Some of these variants are geographically restricted in range as is the case for the California skunk variant and two distinct variants present in Mexico. In contrast the North Central and South Central skunk rabies viruses are dispersed in overlapping ranges over large areas of the Midwestern region of the United States with the former extending into southern parts of the Canadian prairies. Despite this extensive range, there has been only very limited molecular characterization of these two viral variants. This study has examined the genetic diversity of the rabies viruses associated with North American skunks, with particular emphasis on the South Central skunk variant which was found to comprise three distinct geographically restricted groups of viruses that could in some cases be further sub-divided. The phylogenetic relationships of these groups and sub-groups allowed us to infer the likely direction of spread of these variants in some instances. Patterns of amino acid replacement of North American skunk-associated rabies viruses for both the nucleoprotein and glycoprotein products are also examined. These patterns reflect the virus phylogeny but no amino acid residues associated specifically with the skunk host were identified. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The institute, established in 1968, is a multinational organization for education in management at the post-graduate level. Its library, with five staff members, now has 4,000 volumes and receives 300 periodical publications: it should eventually become a Central American business and economic management information and research center. (Author/SJ)
Valiente, Orfilio Ernesto
In 1965, the Jesuit-run Central American University (UCA) was launched in El Salvador as the wealthy family's educational alternative to the increasingly leftist National University. But within a decade, the UCA would shift its focus to the inequalities and injustice experienced by the country's popular majorities and to its own role as society's…
Woodman, Neal; Stephens, Ryan B.
Small-eared shrews (Mammalia, Soricidae) of the New World genus Cryptotis are distributed from eastern North America to the northern Andes of South America. One well-defined clade in this genus is the Central American Cryptotis mexicana group, whose members are set off from other species in the genus by their variably broader fore feet and more elongate and broadened fore claws. Two species in the C. mexicana group, Cryptotis goodwini Jackson and Cryptotis griseoventris Jackson, inhabit highlands in Guatemala and southern Mexico and are presumed to be sister species whose primary distinguishing feature is the larger body size of C. goodwini. To better characterize these species and confirm the identification of recently-collected specimens, we obtained digital X-ray images of the manus from large series of dried skins of both species. Measurements of the metacarpals and phalanges successfully separated most specimens of C. goodwini and C. griseoventris. These measurements also show that the fore feet of C. griseoventris from Chiapas, Mexico, are morphologically distinct from those of members of the species inhabiting Guatemala. Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyses indicate that fore foot characters are more conservative within species of the C. mexicana group than are cranio-mandibular characters. Patterns of evolution of fore foot characters that superficially appear to be linear gradations are actually more complex, illustrating individual evolutionary trajectories.
Full Text Available Three new species of Neuroterus Hartig, 1840 (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini are described from Panama and Costa Rica: Neuroterus elvisi sp. n., Neuroterus pulchrigalla sp. n., and Neuroterus glandiphilus sp. n. The new species are the first of the genus Neuroterus recorded from Central America and the Neotropical region. The new species induce galls on Quercus bumelioides Liebm. (Fagaceae, sect. Quercus, White Oaks. Additional evidence of the presence of other unidentified species of Neuroterus in the sampled area is presented. Diagnostic morphological characters, gall descriptions, distributions, host plant and other biological data of the new species are given and discussed. http://urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:48D0C1E1-1D0C-40D8-B890-FFC85AE7A213
Full Text Available Background/Objective: There is a dearth of research examining the linkages between violence and HIV risk behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM, including those who identify as transgender women (TW, particularly in Central America where violence is widespread. In this paper, we use population-based survey results to independently examine the correlations between physical, emotional and sexual violence and HIV risk behavior among MSM populations in five countries in Central America. Design: As part of USAID's Combination Prevention for HIV program in Central America, PASMO conducted population based surveys using respondent-driven sampling (RDS in nine cities in Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. Initial seeds were recruited using the following criteria: individuals who represented subgroups of MSM by self-identification (homosexual vs. heterosexual or bisexual vs. transgender, social economic strata, and by sex work practices. This study examines the association between violence and 1 HIV risk behaviors relevant to the study populations; 2 protective behaviors; and 3 reported STIs. Individualized RDS estimator weights for each outcome variable were calculated using RDSAT software, and logistic regression analysis was used to determine associations between different forms of violence and the outcome variables. Results: MSM who experienced physical violence were more likely to be engaged in transactional sex (OR: 1.76 [1.42–2.18], have multiple partners in the past 30 days (OR: 1.37 [1.09–1.71], and have engaged in sex under the influence of alcohol or drugs (OR: 1.51 [1.24–1.83]. Both physical violence and psychological/verbal violence were also associated with reporting STI symptoms or diagnosis within the past 12 months (OR: 1.72 [1.34–2.21] and 1.80 [1.45–2.23]. The effects of violence on the outcomes were observed after controlling for other risk factors. Transgender women were 3.9 times more likely
Belize is a well-forested area of 22,960 square kilometers. Its capital is Belmopan. The country is generally flat north of the capital city. The flat, swampy Caribbean Coast of Belize gradually ascends to the low peaks of the Maya and Cockscomb Mountains (elevation to 1,120 meters). The area south of the Maya Mountains is much more rugged than the area to the north. The country is drained by seventeen rivers, the chief ones being the Belize, Hondo, New, Sibun, Monkey and Moho. There is 'hurricane danger in the July-October period. Belize has reportedly been surveyed by Gamma Ray Spectrometer for phosphates which probably would have contained sufficient uranium to be detectable. The survey traversed about 1,000 line kms along major north-south and east-west roads as well as many secondary roads and trails. The uranium readings ranged from 0. to 9.9 ppm with a uranium content of 1-2 ppm in the limestone areas and 2-7 ppm in the alluvium-covered areas. The U/Th ratio varied from 0.11 to 1.65. A recent traverse across the Mountain Pine Ridge batholith gave one reading as high as 36 ppm but the average was about 9-10 ppm. The upper 1000-3000 feet of core and cuttings from nine deep oil wells were checked for phosphates and uranium. Most of the core and cuttings were almost pure limestones. The P 2 0 3 content was less than 0.05 percent and no uranium was detected. It is very doubtful that any significant uranium occurrences will be found in the sediments surrounding the Maya Mountain uplift. However, there is a slight chance that uranium might occur in the granites and pegmatites in the Maya Mountains. The potential of Belize is estimated to be in the less than 1.000 tonnes uranium range, considering the restricted range, of geologic environments encountered there
Kemeny, L; Amaya, M; Cetkovska, P; Rajatanavin, N; Lee, W-R; Szumski, A; Marshall, L; Mahgoub, E Y; Aldinç, E
Psoriasis prevalence and characteristics in Asia, Central Europe, and Latin America have not been thoroughly investigated and there are no large trials for biologic treatments for patients from these regions. The goal of this analysis was to report clinical response to anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha treatment in these patients. Patients from Argentina, Czech Republic, Hungary, Mexico, Taiwan, and Thailand (N=171) were included in this subset analysis of the PRISTINE trial. Patients with stable moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis were blinded and randomized to receive etanercept 50 mg once weekly (QW) or biweekly (BIW) for 12 weeks, followed by 12 weeks of open-label QW treatment with etanercept 50 mg through week 24 (QW/QW vs. BIW/QW). Concomitant methotrexate (≤20 mg/week) and mild topical corticosteroids or other agents were permitted at the physician's discretion, in accordance with therapeutic practice. As early as week 8, 26.7 % in the etanercept QW group and 44.0 % in the BIW group achieved Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) 75. At weeks 12 and 24, respectively, PASI 75 increased to 39.5 % and 62.8 % in the QW/QW group and 66.7 % and 83.3 % in the BIW/QW group. PASI 75 was significantly different between treatment groups from week 8 through the end of study (pAsia, Central Europe, and Latin America. A more rapid response was observed in patients who received BIW treatment for the first 12 weeks which was sustained after reducing to QW dosing for the subsequent 12 weeks. Response rates were similar to those observed in the overall PRISTINE population. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00663052 .
Valdez, Elizabeth Salerno; Valdez, Luis A.; Sabo, Samantha
Since October 2013, US Customs and Border Patrol has apprehended 15,979 families on the Southwest Border of the US. Daily, migrating women and children from Mexico and Central America that qualify for humanitarian parole are released from immigration detention to a humanitarian aid organization in Southern Arizona. After several days in detention facilities, these families arrive tired, hungry, dehydrated, and with minimal direction regarding their final destination, and adherence to the parameters of their parole. Project helping hands (PHHs) utilizes a network of volunteers to provide the women and children with food, water, clothing, hygiene products, hospitality, and legal orientation. The aim of this assessment was to document the experiences of families granted humanitarian parole through the lens of structural vulnerability. Here, we apply qualitative methods to elicit PHH lead volunteer perspectives regarding the migration experience of migrating families. Using inductive analysis, we found six major themes emerged from the qualitative data: reasons for leaving, experience on the journey, dehumanization in detention, family separation, vulnerability, and resiliency. These findings elucidate the different physical and psychological distresses that migrating families from Mexico and Central America experience before, during and after their arrival at the US–Mexico border. We posit that these distresses are a result of, or exacerbated by, structural vulnerability. Structural vulnerability has life-long health implications for a sub-population of young mothers and their children. The number of migrating families who have experienced traumatic events before and during their migration experience continues to expand and thus warrants consideration of mental health surveillance and intervention efforts for these families. More public health research is needed to better understand and combat the health challenges of this growing population. PMID:26157791
Mattioli, Michele; Renzulli, Alberto; Agostini, Samuele; Lucidi, Roberto
Isla El Tigre volcano is located in the Gulf of Fonseca (Honduras) along the Central America volcanic front, where a significant change in the strike of the volcanic chain is observed. The studied samples of this poorly investigated volcano are mainly subalkaline basic to intermediate lavas (basalts and basaltic andesites) and subordinate subalkaline/alkaline transitional basalts, both having the typical mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of arc volcanic rocks. On the basis of petrographic and geochemical features, two groups of rocks have been distinguished. Lavas from the main volcanic edifice are highly porphyritic and hy-qz normative, and have lower MgO contents ( 5 wt.%), are ol-hy normative and show lower HFSE depletions relative to LILE and LREE, with lower Ba/La, Ba/Nb and Zr/Nb ratios. This suggests that mantle-derived magmas were not produced by the same process throughout the activity of the volcano. The bulk rock geochemistry and 87Sr/86Sr (0.70373-0.70382), 143Nd/144Nd (0.51298-0.51301), 206Pb/204Pb (18.55-18.58), 207Pb/204Pb (15.54-15.56) and 208Pb/204Pb (38.23-38.26) isotopic data of Isla El Tigre compared with the other volcanoes of the Gulf of Fonseca and all available literature data for Central America suggests that this stratovolcano was mainly built by mantle-derived melts driven by slab-derived fluid-flux melting, while magmas erupted through its parasitic cones have a clear signature of decompression melting with minor slab contribution. The coexistence of these two different mantle melting generation processes is likely related to the complex geodynamic setting of the Gulf of Fonseca, where the volcanic front changes direction by ca. 30° and two fundamental tectonic structures of the Chortis continental block, mainly the N-S Honduras Depression and the NE-SW Guayape Fault Zone, cross each other.
Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: The Political and Economic Environment; Natural Resources; The Financial Situation; Argentina; Belize; Bolivia; Brazil; Chile; Columbia; Costa Rica; Ecuador; El Salvador; French Guyana; Guatemala; Guyana; Honduras; Nicaragua; Panama; Paraguay; Peru; Surinam; Uruguay; Venezuela. (Author)
Prado, Andrea M; Pearson, Andy A; Bertelsen, Nathan S
Interprofessional education is increasingly recognized as essential for health education worldwide. Although effective management, innovation, and entrepreneurship are necessary to improve health systems, business schools have been underrepresented in global health education. Central America needs more health professionals trained in health management and innovation to respond to health disparities, especially in rural communities. This paper explores the impact of the Health Innovation Fellowship (HIF), a new training program for practicing health professionals offered jointly by the Central American Healthcare Initiative and INCAE Business School, Costa Rica. Launched in 2014, HIF's goal is to create a network of highly trained interdisciplinary health professionals in competencies to improve health of Central American communities through better health management. The program's fellows carried out innovative healthcare projects in their local regions. The first three annual cohorts (total of 43 fellows) represented all health-related professions and sectors (private, public, and civil society) from six Central American countries. All fellows attended four 1-week, on-site modular training sessions, received ongoing mentorship, and stayed connected through formal and informal networks and webinars through which they exchange knowledge and support each other. CAHI stakeholders supported HIF financially. Impact evaluation of the three-year pilot training program is positive: fellows improved their health management skills and more than 50% of the projects found either financial or political support for their implementation. HIF's strengths include that both program leaders and trainees come from the Global South, and that HIF offers a platform to collaborate with partners in the Global North. By focusing on promoting innovation and management at a top business school in the region, HIF constitutes a novel capacity-building effort within global health education. HIF
Amauri de Jesús Miranda Guerra
Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio analítico, comparativo de casos y controles en la aldea Hattieville, en Belice, Centro América, desde septiembre de 2003 hasta abril de 2004. El universo de estudio quedó constituido por 82 pacientes cardiópatas, y los controles fueron 246 de la misma comunidad sin cardiopatía. Los métodos utilizados fueron la entrevista y la observación documental, y las variables estudiadas fueron: la edad, el sexo, los factores de riesgo y la cantidad de factores de riesgo. El análisis y procesamiento de la información se realizó utilizando una base de datos y el paquete estadístico SPSS, el promedio y el porcentaje fueron las frecuencias relativas utilizadas como medidas de resumen, y el análisis estadístico se realizó con la prueba de independencia X2 y odds ratio. Los factores de riesgo identificados en el grupo estudio fueron: los antecedentes patológicos familiares, la hipertensión arterial y la obesidad, con el 74,39 %, el 64,63 % y el 57,31 % respectivamente; y en el grupo control, la diabetes mellitus, los antecedentes patológicos familiares y la obesidad con el 44,71 %, el 33,33 % y el 31,70 %. En el grupo estudio se identificó también la presencia de 3 factores de riesgo en 42 pacientes para un 51,21 %, y 4 o más en el 34,15 %. Se concluyó que la hipertensión arterial, el hábito de fumar, el sedentarismo, la obesidad, la hipercolesterolemia y los antecedentes patológicos familiares constituyen factores de riesgo importantes para el desarrollo de enfermedades cardiovasculares en la población de Hattieville, y el tiempo y la intensidad de exposición al factor de riesgo favorecieron el desarrollo de la enfermedad.A comparative and analytical case-control study was conducted in Hattieville village in Belize , Central America , from September 2003 to April 2004. The study included 82 patients suffering from heart disease and 246 controls from the same community but without heart disease. The methods used
Strikis, N. M.; Cruz, F. W.; Cheng, H.; Karmann, I.; Vuille, M.; Edwards, R.; Wang, X.; Paula, M. S.; Novello, V. F.; Auler, A.
A paleoprecipitation reconstruction based on high resolution and well-dated speleothem oxygen isotope records shows that the monsoon precipitation over central eastern Brazil underwent to strong variations on millennial to multi-centennial time-scales during the Holocene. This new record indicates that abrupt events of increase in monsoon precipitation are correlated to Bond events 6, 5 and 4 and also with 8.2 ky event during the early and mid-Holocene, with a mean amplitude of 1.5 % (PDB). The pacing and structure of such events are general consistent with variations in solar activity suggested by atmospheric Δ14 C records. In the late-Holocene, abrupt events of increase in monsoon precipitation peaking at 3.2, 2.7 and 2.3 ky B.P. are approximately synchronous with periods of low solar minima. In this regard, the most prominent event occurred during the late Holocene occurred at ~2.7 ky B.P. In addition, these positive anomalies of the precipitation recorded in central eastern Brazil are also in good agreement with variations in Titicaca lake level. The good correspondence between the speleothem and marine records imply that the variations in the north Atlantic sea surface temperature is the main forcing for abrupt millennial to multi-centennial precipitations variation within the region under influence of South American Monsoon.
Benavides, Fernando G; Wesseling, Catharina; Delclos, George L; Felknor, Sarah; Pinilla, Javier; Rodrigo, Fernando
To describe the survey methodology and initial general findings of the first Central American Survey of Working Conditions and Health. A representative sample of 12,024 workers was interviewed at home in Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama. Questionnaire items addressed worker demographics, employment conditions, occupational risk factors and self-perceived health. Overall, self-employment (37%) is the most frequent type of employment, 8% of employees lack a work contract and 74% of the workforce is not covered by social security. These percentages are higher in Guatemala, Honduras and El Salvador, and lower in Costa Rica, Panama and Nicaragua. A third of the workforce works more than 48 h per week, regardless of gender; this is similar across countries. Women and men report frequent or usual exposures to high ambient temperature (16% and 25%, respectively), dangerous tools and machinery (10%, 24%), work on slippery surfaces (10%, 23%), breathing chemicals (12.1%, 18%), handling toxic substances (5%, 12.1%), heavy loads (6%, 20%) and repetitive movements (43%, 49%). Two-thirds of the workforce perceive their health as being good or very good, and slightly more than half reports having good mental health. The survey offers, for the first time, comparable data on the work and health status of workers in the formal and informal economy in the six Spanish-speaking Central American countries, based on representative national samples. This provides a benchmark for future monitoring of employment and working conditions across countries. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Correa-Mora, F.; DeMets, C.; Alvarado, D.; Turner, H. L.; Mattioli, G.; Hernandez, D.; Pullinger, C.; Rodriguez, M.; Tenorio, C.
We invert GPS velocities from 32 sites in El Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua to estimate the rate of long-term forearc motion and distributions of interseismic coupling across the Middle America subduction zone offshore from these countries and faults in the Salvadoran and Nicaraguan volcanic arcs. A 3-D finite element model is used to approximate the geometries of the subduction interface and strike-slip faults in the volcanic arc and determine the elastic response to coupling across these faults. The GPS velocities are best fit by a model in which the forearc moves 14-16 mmyr-1 and has coupling of 85-100 per cent across faults in the volcanic arc, in agreement with the high level of historic and recent earthquake activity in the volcanic arc. Our velocity inversion indicates that coupling across the potentially seismogenic areas of the subduction interface is remarkably weak, averaging no more than 3 per cent of the plate convergence rate and with only two poorly resolved patches where coupling might be higher along the 550-km-long segment we modelled. Our geodetic evidence for weak subduction coupling disagrees with a seismically derived coupling estimate of 60 +/- 10 per cent from a published analysis of earthquake damage back to 1690, but agrees with three other seismologic studies that infer weak subduction coupling from 20th century earthquakes. Most large historical earthquakes offshore from El Salvador and western Nicaragua may therefore have been intraslab normal faulting events similar to the Mw 7.3 1982 and Mw 7.7 2001 earthquakes offshore from El Salvador. Alternatively, the degree of coupling might vary with time. The evidence for weak coupling indirectly supports a recently published hypothesis that much of the Middle American forearc is escaping to the west or northwest away from the Cocos Ridge collision zone in Costa Rica. Such a hypothesis is particularly attractive for El Salvador, where there is little or no convergence obliquity to drive the
Full Text Available During the twentieth century, the countries of Central America were characterized by remarkably different political regimes: military-authoritarianism in Guatemala and El Salvador, progressive democracy in Costa Rica and traditional-authoritarianism in Honduras and Nicaragua. This article explains these contrasting regime outcomes by exploring the agrarian and state-building reforms pursued by political leaders during the nineteenth– and early twentieth century liberal reform period. Based on differences in the transformation of state and class structures, three types of liberalism are identified: radical liberalism in Guatemala and El Salvador, reformist liberalism in Costa Rica and aborted liberalism in Honduras and Nicaragua. It is argued that these types of liberalism set the Central American countries on contrasting paths of political development, culminating in diverse regime outcomes.Durante el siglo XX, los países de América Central se caracterizaron por tener regímenes políticos muy diferentes: el autoritarismo militar en Guatemala y El Salvador; la democracia progresista en Costa Rica y el autoritarismo tradicional en Honduras y Nicaragua. Este artículo explica los resultados de estos distintos regímenes mediante la exploración de las reformas agrarias y de la construcción del Estado llevadas a cabo por los líderes políticos durante el siglo XIX y principios del periodo de reformas liberales del siglo XX. Basándose en las diferencias de la transformación del Estado y de las estructuras de clases, se pueden identificar tres tipos de liberalismo: liberalismo radical en Guatemala y El Salvador; liberalismo reformista en Costa Rica y liberalismo frustrado en Honduras y Nicaragua. Se argumenta que estos tipos de liberalismo condujeron a los países de América Central a caminos contrarios al desarrollo político, culminando así en regímenes con resultados diversos.
Deborah P. Shutt
Full Text Available As South and Central American countries prepare for increased birth defects from Zika virus outbreaks and plan for mitigation strategies to minimize ongoing and future outbreaks, understanding important characteristics of Zika outbreaks and how they vary across regions is a challenging and important problem. We developed a mathematical model for the 2015/2016 Zika virus outbreak dynamics in Colombia, El Salvador, and Suriname. We fit the model to publicly available data provided by the Pan American Health Organization, using Approximate Bayesian Computation to estimate parameter distributions and provide uncertainty quantification. The model indicated that a country-level analysis was not appropriate for Colombia. We then estimated the basic reproduction number to range between 4 and 6 for El Salvador and Suriname with a median of 4.3 and 5.3, respectively. We estimated the reporting rate to be around 16% in El Salvador and 18% in Suriname with estimated total outbreak sizes of 73,395 and 21,647 people, respectively. The uncertainty in parameter estimates highlights a need for research and data collection that will better constrain parameter ranges.
Wahl, Eugene R.; Diaz, Henry F.; Ohlwein, Christian
We present a reconstruction of mean summer temperature for the northern Midwest of the USA based on lacustrine pollen records from three different lakes in Wisconsin. The results suggest a relatively warm period during the earlier part of the record (~ 1200-1500 CE) followed by a cooler Little Ice Age (~ 1500-1900) and a subsequent warming to modern conditions. The reconstructed modern summer mean temperature is in good agreement with observations, and the decades of the 1930s to 1950s appear to be the warmest such period in the proxy record (through 1974). Analyses of circulation features associated with the warmest summers in the recent climate record suggest a prevalence of continental ridging accompanied by generally dry conditions during these warm summers in the Midwest. Drought reconstruction using the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and tree-ring records as predictors also yield relatively dry conditions in medieval times for the central US. As reported in a number of recent studies, possible forcing mechanisms include La Niña-like conditions in the equatorial Pacific and warmer than average waters in the tropical Indo-western Pacific Ocean possibly coupled to a positive mode of the AMO/NAO North Atlantic circulation pattern.
Felder, Darryl L; Robles, Rafael
Two new species of intertidal ghost shrimp are described from coastal Central American habitats of the eastern Pacific Ocean, bringing the total known membership of the genus to 18 species. Lepidophthalmus natesi sp. nov. from Colombia and Nicaragua shares with Lepidophthalmus panamensis sp. nov. from Colombia and Panama the lack of extensive ventral pleomere armor, especially in lacking a median ventral sclerite on the second pleomere. The absence of this plate is also a character of the eastern Pacific species L. rafai Felder & Manning, 1998, but the two new species differ from it in telson shape. Ventral armor including this plate is present in Lepidophthalmus bocourti (A. Milne-Edwards, 1870) and L. eiseni Holmes, 1904 which occur sympatrically with L. natesi sp. nov. in eastern Pacific tropical estuaries. As also known for at least L. bocourti, L. natesi sp. nov. invades and densely colonizes penaeid shrimp aquaculture ponds in regional estuarine settings. Individuals of L. panamensis sp. nov. are of smaller body size but also may be densely concentrated, especially in clayey substrates including those adjacent to intertidal rocks. Despite their similarities in the pleon and shape of the telson, the species can be readily separated by dentition of the cheliped fingers, relative length of the minor chela fingers, the second pleopod appendix of mature males, and egg size. The large eggs of L. panamensis sp. nov. suggest extremely abbreviated development. Characteristic coloration is described for both new species.
Padilha, Antonio L.; Alves, Livia R.; Silva, Graziela B. D.; Espinosa, Karen V.
We describe here an analysis of the H-component of the geomagnetic field recorded in several temporary stations operating simultaneously in the central-eastern region of Brazil during nighttime pulsation events in 1994 and the sudden commencement of the St. Patrick's Day magnetic storm in 2015. A significant amplification in the amplitude of the geomagnetic variations is consistently observed in one of these stations. Magnetovariational analysis indicates that the amplification factor is period dependent with maximum amplitude around 100 s. Integrated magnetotelluric (MT) and geomagnetic depth soundings (GDS) have shown that this station is positioned just over a huge 1200-km-long crustal conductor (estimated bulk conductivity greater than 1 S/m). We propose that the anomalous signature of the geomagnetic field at this station is due to the high reflection coefficient of the incident electromagnetic wave at the interface with the very good conductor and by skin effects damping the electromagnetic wave in the conducting layers overlying the conductor. There are some indication from the GDS data that the conductor extends southward beneath the sediments of the Pantanal Basin. In this region is being planned the installation of a new geomagnetic observatory, but its preliminary data suggest anomalous geomagnetic variations. We understand that a detailed MT survey must be carried out around the chosen observatory site to evaluate the possible influence of induced currents on the local geomagnetic field.[Figure not available: see fulltext.
Full Text Available The management of hydrological extremes and impacts on society is inadequately understood because of the combination of short-term hydrological records, an equally short-term assessment of societal responses and the complex multi-directional relationships between the two over longer timescales. Rainfall seasonality and inter-annual variability on the Pacific coast of Central America is high due to the passage of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ and the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO. Here we reconstruct hydrological variability and demonstrate the potential for assessing societal impacts by drawing on documentary sources from the cities of Santiago de Guatemala (now Antigua Guatemala and Guatemala de la Asunción (now Guatemala City over the period from 1640 to 1945. City and municipal council meetings provide a rich source of information dating back to the beginning of Spanish colonisation in the 16th century. We use almost continuous sources from 1640 AD onwards, including > 190 volumes of Actas de Cabildo and Actas Municipales (minutes of meetings of the city and municipal councils held by the Archivo Histórico de la Municipalidad de Antigua Guatemala (AHMAG and the Archivo General de Centro América (AGCA in Guatemala City. For this 305-year period (with the exception of a total of 11 years during which the books were either missing or damaged, information relating to Catholic rogation ceremonies and reports of flooding events and crop shortages were used to classify the annual rainy season (May to October on a five-point scale from very wet to very dry. In total, 12 years of very wet conditions, 25 years of wetter than usual conditions, 34 years of drier conditions and 21 years of very dry conditions were recorded. An extended drier period from the 1640s to the 1740s was identified and two shorter periods (the 1820s and the 1840s were dominated by dry conditions. Wetter conditions dominated the 1760s–1810s and
Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Rosenfield, Robert N.; Bielefeldt, John; Murphy, Robert K.; Stewart, Andrew C.; Stout, William C.; Driscoll, Timothy G.; Bozek, Michael A.; Sloss, Brian L.; Talbot, Sandra L.
Cooper's Hawk (Accipiter cooperii) populations breeding in the northern portion of the species' range exhibit variation in morphological traits that conforms to predictions based on differences in prey size, tree stand density, and migratory behavior. We examined genetic structure and gene flow and compared divergence at morphological traits (PST) and genetic markers (FST) to elucidate mechanisms (selection or genetic drift) that promote morphological diversification among Cooper's Hawk populations. Cooper's Hawks appear to conform to the genetic pattern of an east-west divide. Populations in British Columbia are genetically differentiated from north-central populations (Wisconsin, Minnesota, and North Dakota; pairwise microsatellite FST= 0.031-0.050; mitochondrial DNA ΦST = 0.177-0.204), which suggests that Cooper's Hawks were restricted to at least two Pleistocene glacial refugia. The strength of the Rocky Mountains—Great Plains area as a barrier to dispersal is further supported by restricted gene-flow rates between British Columbia and other sampled breeding populations. Divergence in morphological traits (PST) was also observed across study areas, but with British Columbia and North Dakota differentiated from Wisconsin and Minnesota, a pattern not predicted on the basis of FST and ΦST interpopulation estimates. Comparison of PSTand FSTestimates suggests that heterogeneous selection may be acting on Cooper's Hawks in the northern portion of their distribution, which is consistent with hypotheses that variation in prey mass and migratory behavior among populations may be influencing overall body size and wing chord. We were unable to distinguish between the effects of genetic drift and selection on tail length in the study populations.
Barido, Diego Ponce de Leon; Johnston, Josiah; Moncada, Maria V.; Callaway, Duncan; Kammen, Daniel M.
The global carbon emissions budget over the next decades depends critically on the choices made by fast-growing emerging economies. Few studies exist, however, that develop country-specific energy system integration insights that can inform emerging economies in this decision-making process. High spatial- and temporal-resolution power system planning is central to evaluating decarbonization scenarios, but obtaining the required data and models can be cost prohibitive, especially for researchers in low, lower-middle income economies. Here, we use Nicaragua as a case study to highlight the importance of high-resolution open access data and modeling platforms to evaluate fuel-switching strategies and their resulting cost of power under realistic technology, policy, and cost scenarios (2014-2030). Our results suggest that Nicaragua could cost-effectively achieve a low-carbon grid (≥80%, based on non-large hydro renewable energy generation) by 2030 while also pursuing multiple development objectives. Regional cooperation (balancing) enables the highest wind and solar generation (18% and 3% by 2030, respectively), at the least cost (US127 MWh-1). Potentially risky resources (geothermal and hydropower) raise system costs but do not significantly hinder decarbonization. Oil price sensitivity scenarios suggest renewable energy to be a more cost-effective long-term investment than fuel oil, even under the assumption of prevailing cheap oil prices. Nicaragua’s options illustrate the opportunities and challenges of power system decarbonization for emerging economies, and the key role that open access data and modeling platforms can play in helping develop low-carbon transition pathways.
Correa-Metrio, Alexander; Bush, Mark B.; Cabrera, Kenneth R.; Sully, Shannon; Brenner, Mark; Hodell, David A.; Escobar, Jaime; Guilderson, Tom
Glacial-interglacial climate cycles are known to have triggered migrations and reassortments of tropical biota. Although long-term precessionally-driven changes in temperature and precipitation have been demonstrated using tropical sediment records, responses to abrupt climate changes, e.g. the cooling of Heinrich stadials or warmings of the deglaciation, are poorly documented. The best predictions of future forest responses to ongoing warming will rely on evaluating the influences of both abrupt and long-term climate changes on past ecosystems. A sedimentary sequence recovered from Lake Petén-Itzá, Guatemalan lowlands, provided a natural archive of environmental history. Pollen and charcoal analyses were used to reconstruct the vegetation and climate history of the area during the last 86,000 years. We found that vegetation composition and air temperature were strongly influenced by millennial-scale changes in the North Atlantic Ocean. Whereas Greenland warm interstadials were associated with warm and relatively wet conditions in the Central American lowlands, cold Greenland stadials, especially those associated with Heinrich events, caused extremely dry and cold conditions. Even though the vegetation seemed to have been highly resilient, plant associations without modern analogs emerged mostly following sharp climate pulses of either warmth or cold, and were paralleled by exceptionally high rates of ecological change. Although pulses of temperature change are evident in this 86,000-year record none matched the rates projected for the 21st Century. According to our findings, the ongoing rapid warming will cause no-modern-analog communities, which given the improbability of returning to lower-than-modern CO2 levels, anthropogenic barriers to migration, and increased anthropogenic fires, will pose immense threats to the biodiversity of the region.
Petrone, A.; Preti, F.
The use of Soil Bio-Engineering techniques in Developing countries is a relevant issue for Disaster mitigation, environmental restoration and poverty reduction. Research on authochtonal plants suitable for this kind of works and on economic efficiency is essential for the divulgation of this Discipline. The present paper is focused on this two issues related to the realization of various typologies of Soil Bio-engineering works in the Humid tropic of Nicaragua. In the area of Río Blanco, located in the Department of Matagalpa, Soil bio-engineering installations were built in several sites. The particular structures built were: drainages with live fascine mattress, a live palisade, a vegetated live crib wall for riverbank protection, a vegetative covering made of a metallic net and biotextile coupled with a live palisade made of bamboo. In order to evaluate the suitability of the various plants used in the works, monitorings were performed, one in the live palisade alongside an unpaved road and the other on the live crib wall along a riverbank, collecting survival rate and morphological parameters data. Concerning the economic efficiency we proceed to a financial analysis of the works and once the unit price was obtained, we converted the amount in EPP Dollars (Equal Purchasing Power) in order to compare the Nicaraguan context with the Italian one. Among the used species we found that Madero negro (Gliricidia sepium) and Roble macuelizo (Tabebuia rosea) are adequate for Soil-bioengineering measure on slopes while Helequeme (Erythrina fusca) reported a successful behaviour only in the crib wall for riverbank protection. In the comparison of the costs in Nicaragua and in Italy, the unit price reduction for the central American country ranges between 1.5 times (for the vegetative covering) and almost 4 times (for the fascine mattress) if it's used the EPP dollar exchange rate. Thus, a conclusion can be reached with regard to hydrological-risk mitigating actions
Johnston, Rory; Crooks, Valorie A; Cerón, Alejandro; Labonté, Ronald; Snyder, Jeremy; Núñez, Emanuel O; Flores, Walter G
Many governments and health care providers worldwide are enthusiastic to develop medical tourism as a service export. Despite the popularity of this policy uptake, there is relatively little known about the specific local factors prospectively motivating and informing development of this sector. To identify common social, economic, and health system factors shaping the development of medical tourism in three Central American and Caribbean countries and their health equity implications. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted in Mexico, Guatemala, and Barbados with 150 health system stakeholders. Participants were recruited from private and public sectors working in various fields: trade and economic development, health services delivery, training and administration, and civil society. Transcribed interviews were coded using qualitative data management software, and thematic analysis was used to identify cross-cutting issues regarding the drivers and inhibitors of medical tourism development. Four common drivers of medical tourism development were identified: 1) unused capacity in existing private hospitals, 2) international portability of health insurance, vis-a-vis international hospital accreditation, 3) internationally trained physicians as both marketable assets and industry entrepreneurs, and 4) promotion of medical tourism by public export development corporations. Three common inhibitors for the development of the sector were also identified: 1) the high expense of market entry, 2) poor sector-wide planning, and 3) structural socio-economic issues such as insecurity or relatively high business costs and financial risks. There are shared factors shaping the development of medical tourism in Central America and the Caribbean that help explain why it is being pursued by many hospitals and governments in the region. Development of the sector is primarily being driven by public investment promotion agencies and the private health sector seeking
Johnston, Rory; Crooks, Valorie A.; Cerón, Alejandro; Labonté, Ronald; Snyder, Jeremy; Núñez, Emanuel O.; Flores, Walter G.
Background Many governments and health care providers worldwide are enthusiastic to develop medical tourism as a service export. Despite the popularity of this policy uptake, there is relatively little known about the specific local factors prospectively motivating and informing development of this sector. Objective To identify common social, economic, and health system factors shaping the development of medical tourism in three Central American and Caribbean countries and their health equity implications. Design In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted in Mexico, Guatemala, and Barbados with 150 health system stakeholders. Participants were recruited from private and public sectors working in various fields: trade and economic development, health services delivery, training and administration, and civil society. Transcribed interviews were coded using qualitative data management software, and thematic analysis was used to identify cross-cutting issues regarding the drivers and inhibitors of medical tourism development. Results Four common drivers of medical tourism development were identified: 1) unused capacity in existing private hospitals, 2) international portability of health insurance, vis-a-vis international hospital accreditation, 3) internationally trained physicians as both marketable assets and industry entrepreneurs, and 4) promotion of medical tourism by public export development corporations. Three common inhibitors for the development of the sector were also identified: 1) the high expense of market entry, 2) poor sector-wide planning, and 3) structural socio-economic issues such as insecurity or relatively high business costs and financial risks. Conclusion There are shared factors shaping the development of medical tourism in Central America and the Caribbean that help explain why it is being pursued by many hospitals and governments in the region. Development of the sector is primarily being driven by public investment promotion
Bargues, María Dolores; Klisiowicz, Debora R.; Gonzalez-Candelas, Fernando; Ramsey, Janine M.; Monroy, Carlota; Ponce, Carlos; Salazar-Schettino, Paz María; Panzera, Francisco; Abad-Franch, Fernando; Sousa, Octavio E.; Schofield, Christopher J.; Dujardin, Jean Pierre; Guhl, Felipe; Mas-Coma, Santiago
Background Among Chagas disease triatomine vectors, the largest genus, Triatoma, includes species of high public health interest. Triatoma dimidiata, the main vector throughout Central America and up to Ecuador, presents extensive phenotypic, genotypic, and behavioral diversity in sylvatic, peridomestic and domestic habitats, and non-domiciliated populations acting as reinfestation sources. DNA sequence analyses, phylogenetic reconstruction methods, and genetic variation approaches are combined to investigate the haplotype profiling, genetic polymorphism, phylogeography, and evolutionary trends of T. dimidiata and its closest relatives within Triatoma. This is the largest interpopulational analysis performed on a triatomine species so far. Methodology and Findings Triatomines from Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Cuba, Colombia, Ecuador, and Brazil were used. Triatoma dimidiata populations follow different evolutionary divergences in which geographical isolation appears to have had an important influence. A southern Mexican–northern Guatemalan ancestral form gave rise to two main clades. One clade remained confined to the Yucatan peninsula and northern parts of Chiapas State, Guatemala, and Honduras, with extant descendants deserving specific status. Within the second clade, extant subspecies diversity was shaped by adaptive radiation derived from Guatemalan ancestral populations. Central American populations correspond to subspecies T. d. dimidiata. A southern spread into Panama and Colombia gave the T. d. capitata forms, and a northwestern spread rising from Guatemala into Mexico gave the T. d. maculipennis forms. Triatoma hegneri appears as a subspecific insular form. Conclusions The comparison with very numerous Triatoma species allows us to reach highly supported conclusions not only about T. dimidiata, but also on different, important Triatoma species groupings and their evolution. The very large intraspecific genetic variability found in T
María Dolores Bargues
Full Text Available Among Chagas disease triatomine vectors, the largest genus, Triatoma, includes species of high public health interest. Triatoma dimidiata, the main vector throughout Central America and up to Ecuador, presents extensive phenotypic, genotypic, and behavioral diversity in sylvatic, peridomestic and domestic habitats, and non-domiciliated populations acting as reinfestation sources. DNA sequence analyses, phylogenetic reconstruction methods, and genetic variation approaches are combined to investigate the haplotype profiling, genetic polymorphism, phylogeography, and evolutionary trends of T. dimidiata and its closest relatives within Triatoma. This is the largest interpopulational analysis performed on a triatomine species so far.Triatomines from Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Cuba, Colombia, Ecuador, and Brazil were used. Triatoma dimidiata populations follow different evolutionary divergences in which geographical isolation appears to have had an important influence. A southern Mexican-northern Guatemalan ancestral form gave rise to two main clades. One clade remained confined to the Yucatan peninsula and northern parts of Chiapas State, Guatemala, and Honduras, with extant descendants deserving specific status. Within the second clade, extant subspecies diversity was shaped by adaptive radiation derived from Guatemalan ancestral populations. Central American populations correspond to subspecies T. d. dimidiata. A southern spread into Panama and Colombia gave the T. d. capitata forms, and a northwestern spread rising from Guatemala into Mexico gave the T. d. maculipennis forms. Triatoma hegneri appears as a subspecific insular form.The comparison with very numerous Triatoma species allows us to reach highly supported conclusions not only about T. dimidiata, but also on different, important Triatoma species groupings and their evolution. The very large intraspecific genetic variability found in T. dimidiata sensu lato has never
Full Text Available Background: Many governments and health care providers worldwide are enthusiastic to develop medical tourism as a service export. Despite the popularity of this policy uptake, there is relatively little known about the specific local factors prospectively motivating and informing development of this sector. Objective: To identify common social, economic, and health system factors shaping the development of medical tourism in three Central American and Caribbean countries and their health equity implications. Design: In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted in Mexico, Guatemala, and Barbados with 150 health system stakeholders. Participants were recruited from private and public sectors working in various fields: trade and economic development, health services delivery, training and administration, and civil society. Transcribed interviews were coded using qualitative data management software, and thematic analysis was used to identify cross-cutting issues regarding the drivers and inhibitors of medical tourism development. Results: Four common drivers of medical tourism development were identified: 1 unused capacity in existing private hospitals, 2 international portability of health insurance, vis-a-vis international hospital accreditation, 3 internationally trained physicians as both marketable assets and industry entrepreneurs, and 4 promotion of medical tourism by public export development corporations. Three common inhibitors for the development of the sector were also identified: 1 the high expense of market entry, 2 poor sector-wide planning, and 3 structural socio-economic issues such as insecurity or relatively high business costs and financial risks. Conclusion: There are shared factors shaping the development of medical tourism in Central America and the Caribbean that help explain why it is being pursued by many hospitals and governments in the region. Development of the sector is primarily being driven by public
Macq, Jean; Martiny, Patrick; Villalobos, Luis Bernardo; Solis, Alejandro; Miranda, Jose; Mendez, Hilda Cecilia; Collins, Charles
Several national health systems in Latin America initiated health reforms to counter widespread criticisms of low equity and efficiency. For public purchasing agencies, these reforms often consisted in contracting external providers for primary care provision. This paper intends to clarify both the complex and intertwined issues characterizing such contracting as well as health system performances within the context of four Central American countries. It results from a European Commission financed project lead between 2002 and 2005, involving participants from Costa Rica, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Salvador, United Kingdom, Netherlands and Belgium, whose aim was to promote exchanges between these participants. The findings presented in this paper are the results of a two stage process: (a) the design of an initial analytical framework, built upon findings from the literature, interlinking characteristics of contractual relation with health systems performances criteria and (b) the use of that framework in four case studies to identify cross-cutting issues. This paper reinforces two pivotal findings: (a) contracting requires not only technical, but also political choices and (b) it cannot be considered as a mechanical process. The unpredictability of its evolution requires a flexible and reactive approach. This should be better assimilated by national and international organizations involved in health services provision, so as to progressively come out of dogmatic approaches in deciding to initiate contractual relation with external providers for primary care provision.
Central America is one of the regions of the world that will suffer the impact of climate change much more than others. The adoption of clear rules on the use of transboundary aquifers and on the need to preserve these groundwater reservoirs from serious pollution by the various states in the region is absolutely essential. Despite the lack of any bilateral or regional frameworks to rule on this issue, many general regulations have been adopted within the international framework of the United Nations that are applicable to shared surface and groundwater resources as well as to transboundary aquifers. The case of the Las Crucitas project in Costa Rica, halted by domestic tribunals thanks to the decisive action of its civilian society, reflects a clear lack of technical information concerning aquifers in Costa Rica, and probably in many other states in the region, despite the very valuable efforts being undertaken by the OAS and UNESCO under the aegis of the ISARM project for the Latin American region.
Vargas-Lombardo, Miguel; Jipsion, Armando; Vejarano, Rafael; Camargo, Ismael; Alvarez, Humberto; Mora, Elena Villalba; Ruíz, Ernestina Menasalva
Health indicators express remarkable gaps between health systems at a world-wide level. Countries of the entire world are overflowed by the need of new strategies, methodologies and technologies to better serve the millions of patients, who demand better medical attention. The present archaic and ephemerally systematized systems widen the gap even more than the quality of medical services that should be provided for the millions of diabetic patients. It is therefore necessary to develop highly familiar environments with diabetic patients and their care needs. A Holistic, Interactive and Persuasive ICT model to facilitate self care of patients with diabetes (hIPAPD), is proposed as an innovative technological development in Panama to health optimized treatment for diabetic patients. Three health centers located in the District of Aguadulce, Province of Cocle, located on Panama's Pacific Coast, were selected to validate the model; the area presents extremely poor population, mostly with one daily meal, without any health insurance and with a high illiteracy rate. A series of experiences in the application and validation process are presented and analyzed in order to confirm the application, value and contribution of ICTs in health care in poor regions of Central America.
How did people in preIndustrial ancient civilizations produce and distribute bulk items, such as salt, needed for everyday use by their large urban populations? This report focuses on the ancient Maya who obtained quantities of salt at cities in the interior of the Yucatan peninsula of Mexico, Belize, and Guatemala in an area where salt is scarce. I report the discovery of 41 Late Classic Maya saltworks (anno Domini 600-900) in Punta Ycacos Lagoon on the south coast of Belize, including one with the first-known ancient Maya canoe paddle. The discoveries add important empirical information for evaluating the extent of surplus salt production and river transport during the height of Late Classic civilization in the southern Maya lowlands. The discovery of the saltworks indicates that there was extensive production and distribution of goods and resources outside the cities in the interior of the Yucatan. The discovery of a wooden canoe paddle from one of the Punta Ycacos saltworks, Ka'k' Naab', ties the production of salt to its inland transport by rivers and documents the importance of canoe trade between the coast and the interior during the Late Classic. Archaeological discovery of multiple saltworks on the Belizean coast represents surplus production of salt destined largely for the inland Peten Maya during their Late Classic peak, underscoring the importance of non-state-controlled workshop production in preIndustrial societies.
Roberts, D R; Paris, J F; Manguin, S; Harbach, R E; Woodruff, R; Rejmankova, E; Polanco, J; Wullschleger, B; Legters, L J
Use of multispectral satellite data to predict arthropod-borne disease trouble spots is dependent on clear understandings of environmental factors that determine the presence of disease vectors. A blind test of remote sensing-based predictions for the spatial distribution of a malaria vector, Anopheles pseudopunctipennis, was conducted as a follow-up to two years of studies on vector-environmental relationships in Belize. Four of eight sites that were predicted to be high probability locations for presence of An. pseudopunctipennis were positive and all low probability sites (0 of 12) were negative. The absence of An. pseudopunctipennis at four high probability locations probably reflects the low densities that seem to characterize field populations of this species, i.e., the population densities were below the threshold of our sampling effort. Another important malaria vector, An. darlingi, was also present at all high probability sites and absent at all low probability sites. Anopheles darlingi, like An. pseudopunctipennis, is a riverine species. Prior to these collections at ecologically defined locations, this species was last detected in Belize in 1946.
Roessingh, C.H.; Nuijten, M.
This study explores the underexposed possibilities of starting and running a business by Mennonite women in the Kleine Gemeinde community of Blue Creek, Belize. The paper is the result of ethnographic fieldwork research combined with a literature study. We address the changing role of Kleine
Graven, Michael; Allen, Peter; Smith, Ian; MacDonald, Noni E
Belize deployed a country-wide fully integrated patient centred health information system with eight embedded disease management algorithms and simple analytics in 2007 for $4 (Cad)/citizen. This study evaluated BHIS uptake by health care workers, and pre and post BHIS deployment mortality in selected areas and public health care expenditures. BHIS encounter data were compared to encounter data from required Ministry of Health reports from licensed health care entities. De-identified vital statistics death data for the eight BHIS protocol disease domains and three non-protocol domains were compared from 2005 to 2011. Belize population data came from the Statistical Institute of Belize (2005-2009) and from Belize census (2010) and estimate (2011). Public health system expenditures were compared by fiscal years (2000-2012). BHIS captured over 90% healthcare encounters by year one, 95% by year two. Mortality rates decreased in the eight BHIS protocol domains (each 2005 vs. 2011, all p<0.02) vs. an increase or little change in the three domains without protocols. Hypertension related deaths dropped from 1st cause of death in 2003 to 9th by 2010. Public expenditures on healthcare steadily rose until 2009 but then declined slightly for the next 3 years. For modest investment, BHIS was well accepted nationwide and following deployment, mortality in the eight BHIS disease management algorithm domains declined significantly and expenditures on public healthcare stabilized. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Caro-Vega, Yanink; Belaunzarán-Zamudio, Pablo F; Crabtree-Ramírez, Brenda E; Shepherd, Bryan E; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Wolff, Marcelo; Pape, Jean W; Padgett, Denis; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; McGowan, Catherine C; Sierra-Madero, Juan G
Abstract Background Efavirenz (EFV) and boosted protease inhibitors (bPIs) are still the preferred options for firstline antiretroviral regimens (firstline ART) in Latin America and have comparable short-term efficacy. We assessed the long-term durability and outcomes of patients receiving EFV or bPIs as firstline ART in the Caribbean, Central and South America network for HIV epidemiology (CCASAnet). Methods We included ART-naïve, HIV-positive adults on EFV or bPIs as firstline ART in CCASAnet between 2000 and 2016. We investigated the time from starting until ending firstline ART according to changes of third component for any reason, including toxicity and treatment failure, death, and/or loss to follow-up. Use of a third-line regimen was a secondary outcome. Kaplan-Meier estimators of composite end points were generated. Crude cumulative incidence of events and adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) were estimated accounting for competing risk events. Results We included 14 519 patients: 12 898 (89%) started EFV and 1621 (11%) bPIs. The adjusted median years on firstline ART were 4.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.4–4.7) on EFV and 3.8 (95% CI, 3.8–4.0) on bPI (P < .001). Cumulative incidence of firstline ART ending at 10 years of follow-up was 32% (95% CI, 31–33) on EFV and 44% (95% CI, 39–48) on bPI (aHR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.78–0.97). The cumulative incidence rates of third-line initiation in the bPI-based group were 6% (95% CI, 2.4–9.6) and 2% (95% CI, 1.4–2.2) among the EFV-based group (P < .01). Conclusions Durability of firstline ART was longer with EFV than with bPIs. EFV-based regimens may continue to be the preferred firstline regimen for our region in the near future due to their high efficacy, relatively low toxicity (especially at lower doses), existence of generic formulations, and affordability for national programs. PMID:29527539
Ponce, Carlos; Ponce, Elisa; Vinelli, Elizabeth; Montoya, Alberto; de Aguilar, Vilma; Gonzalez, Antonio; Zingales, Bianca; Rangel-Aldao, Rafael; Levin, Mariano J.; Esfandiari, Javan; Umezawa, Eufrosina S.; Luquetti, Alejandro O.; da Silveira, José Franco
In this study we compared the performance of the Chagas Stat-Pak rapid immunochromatographic test with a standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the serodiagnosis of Chagas' disease in Central America. Out of 3,400 blood donor samples, 156 (4.6%) were positive in both assays. Three sera out of 2,084 samples from reference laboratories were negative with the rapid test but positive with the ELISA (99.8% agreement). Agreement of 100% between the two tests was observed with 339 additional sera from patients with cardiopathies and 175 sera from potential blood donors in emergency surgical cases occurring on weekends or at night. In conclusion, Chagas Stat-Pak showed 99.6% and 99.9% sensitivity and specificity, respectively, when assayed with 5,998 serum samples. It is a sensitive and specific alternative to the ELISA, as required in medical emergencies and blood screenings in Central America. PMID:16207963
Wolff, Marcelo; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Cortés, Claudia; Rebeiro, Peter; Cesar, Carina; Cardoso, Sandra Wagner; Pape, Jean W.; Padgett, Denis; Sierra-Madero, Juan; Echevarria, Juan; McGowan, Catherine C.
Background HIV-infected persons in lower income countries may experience high rates of antiretroviral therapy (ART) change, particularly due to toxicity or other non-failure reasons. Few reports address patient outcomes after these modifications. Methods HIV-infected adults from 7 Caribbean, Central and South America network (CCASAnet) clinical cohorts who modified > or = 1 drug from first ART regimen (ART-1) for any reason thereby starting a second regimen (ART-2) were included. Results 5,565 ART-naïve HAART initiators started ART-2 after a median of 9.8 months on ART-1; 39% changed to ART-2 due to toxicity and 11% due to failure. Median follow-up after starting ART-2 was 2.9 years; 45% subsequently modified ART-2. Cumulative incidences of death at 1, 3, and 5 years after starting ART-2 were 5.1%, 8.4% and 10.5%, respectively. In adjusted analyses, death was associated with older age, clinical AIDS, lower CD4 at ART-2 start, earlier calendar year, and starting ART-2 because of toxicity (adjusted hazard ratio[aHR]=1.5 vs. failure, 95% confidence interval[CI]=1.0–2.1). Cumulative incidences of VF after 1, 3, and 5 years were 9%, 19%, and 25%. In adjusted analyses, VF was associated with younger age, earlier calendar year, lower CD4 at start of ART-2, and starting ART-2 because of failure (aHR=2.1 vs. toxicity, 95% CI=1.5–2.8). Conclusions Among patients modifying first ART regimen, risks of subsequent modifications, mortality, and virologic failure were high. Access to improved antiretrovirals in the region is needed to improve initial treatment success. PMID:26761273
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Over the last 20 years, many reports have described an excess of cases of chronic kidney disease (CKD in the Pacific coastal area of Central America, mainly affecting male farmworkers and signaling a serious public health problem. Most of these cases are not associated with traditional risk factors for CKD, such as aging, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. This CKD of nontraditional causes (CKDnT might be linked to environmental and/or occupational exposure or working conditions, limited access to health services, and poverty. In response to a resolution approved by the Directing Council of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO in 2013, PAHO, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Latin American Society of Nephrology and Hypertension (SLANH organized a consultation process in order to expand knowledge on the epidemic of CKDnT and to develop appropriate surveillance instruments. The Clinical Working Group from SLANH was put in charge of finding a consensus definition of a confirmed clinical case of CKDnT. The resulting definition establishes mandatory criteria and exclusion criteria necessary for classifying a case of CKDnT. The definition includes a combination of universally accepted definitions of CKD and the main clinical manifestations of CKDnT. Based on the best available evidence, the Clinical Working Group also formulated general recommendations about clinical management that apply to any patient with CKDnT. Adhering to the definition of a confirmed clinical case of CKDnT and implementing it appropriately is expected to be a powerful instrument for understanding the prevalence of the epidemic, evaluating the results of interventions, and promoting appropriate advocacy and planning efforts.
Ferreiro, Alejandro; Álvarez-Estévez, Guillermo; Cerdas-Calderón, Manuel; Cruz-Trujillo, Zulma; Mena, Elio; Reyes, Marina; Sandoval-Diaz, Mabel; Sánchez-Polo, Vicente; Valdés, Régulo; Ordúnez, Pedro
Over the last 20 years, many reports have described an excess of cases of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the Pacific coastal area of Central America, mainly affecting male farmworkers and signaling a serious public health problem. Most of these cases are not associated with traditional risk factors for CKD, such as aging, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. This CKD of nontraditional causes (CKDnT) might be linked to environmental and/or occupational exposure or working conditions, limited access to health services, and poverty. In response to a resolution approved by the Directing Council of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) in 2013, PAHO, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Latin American Society of Nephrology and Hypertension (SLANH) organized a consultation process in order to expand knowledge on the epidemic of CKDnT and to develop appropriate surveillance instruments. The Clinical Working Group from SLANH was put in charge of finding a consensus definition of a confirmed clinical case of CKDnT. The resulting definition establishes mandatory criteria and exclusion criteria necessary for classifying a case of CKDnT. The definition includes a combination of universally accepted definitions of CKD and the main clinical manifestations of CKDnT. Based on the best available evidence, the Clinical Working Group also formulated general recommendations about clinical management that apply to any patient with CKDnT. Adhering to the definition of a confirmed clinical case of CKDnT and implementing it appropriately is expected to be a powerful instrument for understanding the prevalence of the epidemic, evaluating the results of interventions, and promoting appropriate advocacy and planning efforts.
Katharine M. Donato
Full Text Available In light of rising numbers of unaccompanied minors at the Mexico-US border in 2014, this article examines child migration from Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Costa Rica, and Nicaragua. Using data from the Mexican and Latin American Migration Projects that permit us to go beyond simple descriptive analysis about children apprehended at the border, we investigate the extent to which children from these countries: (1 enter without legal authorization to do so; (2 are more likely to cross the border now than in the past; and (3 are tied to their parents’ migration. In theory, if immigration and refugee protections worked well for children and offered them legal pathways to reunify with their families, then we would expect low levels of unauthorized entry and no dramatic shifts over time. However, our examination of child migration shows that it is strongly linked to unauthorized entry, period of entry, and parents’ US experience.The findings show that the migration of children is closely linked to their parents’ migration history. Although the overall likelihood of a Mexican child making a first US trip is quite low, it is practically non-existent for children whose parents have no US experience. Thus, the increase in child migration from Central America, and the continued high levels of child migration from Mexico result from widespread migration networks and the United States’ long-standing reliance on the children’s parents as immigrant workers. The findings suggest that these children need protection in the form of family reunification and permanent legal status.
Goulet, C. A.; Abrahamson, N. A.; Al Atik, L.; Atkinson, G. M.; Bozorgnia, Y.; Graves, R. W.; Kuehn, N. M.; Youngs, R. R.
The Next Generation Attenuation project for Central and Eastern North America (CENA), NGA-East, is a major multi-disciplinary project coordinated by the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER). The project was co-sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). NGA-East involved a large number of participating researchers from various organizations in academia, industry and government and was carried-out as a combination of 1) a scientific research project and 2) a model-building component following the NRC Seismic Senior Hazard Analysis Committee (SSHAC) Level 3 process. The science part of the project led to several data products and technical reports while the SSHAC component aggregated the various results into a ground motion characterization (GMC) model. The GMC model consists in a set of ground motion models (GMMs) for median and standard deviation of ground motions and their associated weights, combined into logic-trees for use in probabilistic seismic hazard analyses (PSHA). NGA-East addressed many technical challenges, most of them related to the relatively small number of earthquake recordings available for CENA. To resolve this shortcoming, the project relied on ground motion simulations to supplement the available data. Other important scientific issues were addressed through research projects on topics such as the regionalization of seismic source, path and attenuation of motions, the treatment of variability and uncertainties and on the evaluation of site effects. Seven working groups were formed to cover the complexity and breadth of topics in the NGA-East project, each focused on a specific technical area. This presentation provides an overview of the NGA-East research project and its key products.
Reisinger, H.; Reuter, A.; Dulle, H.
establishment of regional spot and contracts market comprising 6 Central American countries; 3. the introduction of a retail market, allowing auto generation for industrial consumers; 4. the introduction of a renewable and rural electrification support scheme; 5. the introduction of the stochastic planning tool Bit-Energy.CEL for making offers for the spot market less predictable and more flexible. The proposed paper will show more details on the history of market liberalisation in Central America, summarise ongoing activities for improving market efficiency and explain in more detail which role Bit-Energy.CEL plays in this process. (author)
Firestone, Rebecca; Rivas, Jorge; Lungo, Susana; Cabrera, Alejandra; Ruether, Susan; Wheeler, Jennifer; Vu, Lung
package. However, those reached are able to practice HIV prevention. Combination prevention is a promising approach in Central America, requiring expansion in coverage and intensity.
Climate Impacts of Deforestation/Land-Use Changes in Central South America in the PRECIS Regional Climate Model: Mean Precipitation and Temperature Response to Present and Future Deforestation Scenarios
Canziani, Pablo O.; Carbajal Benitez, Gerardo
Deforestation/land-use changes are major drivers of regional climate change in central South America, impacting upon Amazonia and Gran Chaco ecoregions. Most experimental and modeling studies have focused on the resulting perturbations within Amazonia. Using the Regional Climate Model PRECIS, driven by ERA-40 reanalysis and ECHAM4 Baseline model for the period 1961–2000 (40-year runs), potential effects of deforestation/land-use changes in these and other neighboring ecoregions are evaluated....
Marcelletti, Simone; Scortichini, Marco
Xylella fastidiosa, a xylem-limited bacterium transmitted by xylem-fluid-feeding Hemiptera insects, causes economic losses of both woody and herbaceous plant species. A Xyl. fastidiosa subsp. pauca strain, namely CoDiRO, was recently found to be associated with the 'olive quick decline syndrome' in southern Italy (i.e. Apulia region). Recently, some Xyl. fastidiosa strains intercepted in France from Coffea spp. plant cuttings imported from Central and South America were characterized. The introduction of infected plant material from Central America in Apulia was also postulated even though an ad hoc study to confirm this hypothesis is lacking. In the present study, we assessed the complete and draft genome of 27 Xyl. fastidiosa strains. Through a genome-wide approach, we confirmed the occurrence of three subspecies within Xyl. fastidiosa, namely fastidiosa, multiplex and pauca, and demonstrated the occurrence of a genetic clonal complex of four Xyl. fastidiosa strains belonging to subspecies pauca which evolved in Central America. The CoDiRO strain displayed 13 SNPs when compared with a strain isolated in Costa Rica from Coffea sp. and 32 SNPs when compared with two strains obtained from Nerium oleander in Costa Rica. These results support the close relationships of the two strains. The four strains in the clonal complex contain prophage-like genes in their genomes. This study strongly supports the possibility of the introduction of Xyl. fastidiosa in southern Italy via coffee plants grown in Central America. The data also stress how the current global circulation of agricultural commodities potentially threatens the agrosystems worldwide.
Hernández-Ortiz, Vicente; Dzul-Cauich, José F
Neotraginops mexicanus n. sp. is described and illustrated based on specimens from Mexico and Belize, representing the second known species for the genus. Additional records for Odinia coronata Sabrosky from Mexico and Nicaragua are provided.
Healy, Paul F.; Helmke, Christophe G.B.; Awe, Jaime J.
Survey and excavations of mounds on the outskirts of the site of Pacbitun in western Belize provide insights to the ancient Maya settlement pattern at this medium-sized regional center. This research employed two methods: analysis of structural remains from four separate 1000 m transect surveys....... An estimate of 200 persons for the resident elite population of the Epicenter of Pacbitun is offered. Initial settlement occurred in the Epicenter of the site during the Middle Preclassic period (900-300 B.C.), with a population rise through time until the final phase of the Late Classic period (A.D. 700......-900), when density reached 550 persons (Periphery Zone). The impact on settlement size and distribution of topography, soils, water resources, and intensive agriculture (hillside terracing) is addressed and found to be significant. At the time of florescence, the population of the 9 sq km site is estimated...
Martinez Güingla, Rodney
ODINCARSA was set up primarily as a mechanism for assessing the current and potential state of development of national data centers and to create the means for mutual capacity building in South America and the Caribbean. It further sought to develop a cooperation network for managing and exchanging oceanographic data and information within these regions. ODINCARSA is a network which is integrated by 19 IOC Member States: Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Brazil, Colombia, Chile, Cuba, ...
Flys, Tamara; González, Rosalba; Sued, Omar; Suarez Conejero, Juana; Kestler, Edgar; Sosa, Nestor; McKenzie-White, Jane; Monzón, Irma Irene; Torres, Carmen-Rosa; Page, Kathleen
Background Current educational strategies to integrate HIV care into primary medical care in Central America have traditionally targeted managers or higher-level officials, rather than local health care workers (HCWs). We developed a complementary online and on-site interactive training program to reach local HCWs at the primary care level in underserved communities. Methods The training program targeted physicians, nurses, and community HCWs with limited access to traditional onsite training in Panama, Nicaragua, Dominican Republic, and Guatemala. The curriculum focused on principles of HIV care and health systems using a tutor-supported blended educational approach of an 8-week online component, a weeklong on-site problem-solving workshop, and individualized project-based interventions. Results Of 258 initially active participants, 225 (225/258 = 87.2%) successfully completed the online component and the top 200 were invited to the on-site workshop. Of those, 170 (170/200 = 85%) attended the on-site workshop. In total, 142 completed all three components, including the project phase. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation instruments included knowledge assessments, reflexive essays, and acceptability surveys. The mean pre and post-essay scores demonstrating understanding of social determinants, health system organization, and integration of HIV services were 70% and 87.5%, respectively, with an increase in knowledge of 17.2% (p<0.001). The mean pre- and post-test scores evaluating clinical knowledge were 70.9% and 90.3%, respectively, with an increase in knowledge of 19.4% (p<0.001). A survey of Likert scale and open-ended questions demonstrated overwhelming participant satisfaction with course content, structure, and effectiveness in improving their HIV-related knowledge and skills. Conclusion This innovative curriculum utilized technology to target HCWs with limited access to educational resources. Participants benefited from technical skills acquired
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Current educational strategies to integrate HIV care into primary medical care in Central America have traditionally targeted managers or higher-level officials, rather than local health care workers (HCWs. We developed a complementary online and on-site interactive training program to reach local HCWs at the primary care level in underserved communities. METHODS: The training program targeted physicians, nurses, and community HCWs with limited access to traditional onsite training in Panama, Nicaragua, Dominican Republic, and Guatemala. The curriculum focused on principles of HIV care and health systems using a tutor-supported blended educational approach of an 8-week online component, a weeklong on-site problem-solving workshop, and individualized project-based interventions. RESULTS: Of 258 initially active participants, 225 (225/258=87.2% successfully completed the online component and the top 200 were invited to the on-site workshop. Of those, 170 (170/200=85% attended the on-site workshop. In total, 142 completed all three components, including the project phase. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation instruments included knowledge assessments, reflexive essays, and acceptability surveys. The mean pre and post-essay scores demonstrating understanding of social determinants, health system organization, and integration of HIV services were 70% and 87.5%, respectively, with an increase in knowledge of 17.2% (p<0.001. The mean pre- and post-test scores evaluating clinical knowledge were 70.9% and 90.3%, respectively, with an increase in knowledge of 19.4% (p<0.001. A survey of Likert scale and open-ended questions demonstrated overwhelming participant satisfaction with course content, structure, and effectiveness in improving their HIV-related knowledge and skills. CONCLUSION: This innovative curriculum utilized technology to target HCWs with limited access to educational resources. Participants benefited from technical skills
Carol J. Palmer
Full Text Available We report on our investigation of a malaria outbreak in Honduras, Central America, in January 1997. We tested 202 patients with fever and chills using thin and thick blood film microscopy. Sixteen patients lived in the city and the rest lived in rural areas. A total of 95 samples (47% were positive for malaria parasites. Seventy-nine percent (63/80 of the rural patients were infected with Plasmodium vivax and 21% (17/80 were infected with P. falciparum. In the urban area, all 15 infected patients had P. vivax malaria and none showed evidence of P. falciparum. Since previous reports indicate that falciparum malaria accounts for only 2% of the overall malaria infections in Honduras, the results reported here suggest that there is a dramatic increase in falciparum malaria in the area of Honduras investigated in this study.Notificamos los resultados de un estudio de un brote de malaria que se produjo en Honduras, Centroamérica, en enero de 1997. Sometimos a examen microscópico frotis delgados y frotis gruesos de la sangre de 202 pacientes con fiebre y escalofríos. Dieciséis pacientes eran habitantes de la zona urbana y el resto de la zona rural. Un total de 95 especímenes (47% fueron positivos a parásitos de la malaria. Setenta y ocho por ciento (62/80 de los pacientes del área rural estaban infestados con Plasmodium vivax y 22% (17/80 con P. falciparum. En la zona urbana, todos los 15 pacientes que estaban infestados tenían P. vivax y en ninguno se detectó P. falciparum. Ya que según informes previos la malaria de tipo falciparum representa solamente 2% de todos los casos de malaria en Honduras, nuestros resultados sugieren que hay un gran incremento del número de casos de malaria falciparum en la zona de Honduras en que se llevó a cabo esta investigación.
Discovery of new Ohbayashinema spp. (Nematoda: Heligmosomoidea) in Ochotona princeps and Ochotona cansus (Lagomorpha: Ochotonidae) from western North America and Central Asia, with considerations of historical biogeography.
Durette-Desset, M-C; Galbreath, K E; Hoberg, E P
Three new species of Ohbayashinema (Nematoda, Heligmosomoidea) are described from localities in western North America and central Asia. Two of these species, Ohbayashinema nearctica n. sp. and Ohbayashinema aspeira n. sp., are parasitic in American pika, Ochotona princeps. Ohbayashinema nearctica is differentiated from the 5 known species of the genus parasitic in Ochotonidae from the Old World by very long spicules and an oblique axis of orientation for the ridges composing the synlophe. Ohbayashinema aspeira, described only from females, is similar to Oh. nearctica based on the number of cuticular ridges at the mid-body. It is mainly differentiated by an uncoiled anterior extremity and by near equal dimensions of the vestibule and the uterus. The third species, Ohbayashinema patriciae n. sp., is parasitic in Gansu pika, Ochotona cansus , from China. It is similar to Ohbayashinema erbaevae parasitic in Ochotona dauurica from Buriatia and Ohbayashinema ochotoni in Ochotona macrotis from Nepal, based on the length of the spicules and the ratio of spicule length to body length. It differs from the former species by possessing a smaller number of cuticular ridges and in the comparative length of the vestibule and infundibulum. Related to Oh. ochotoni by an identical number of cuticular ridges at the mid-body, it differs from this species in having smaller ridges in the dorsal rather than ventral field and in the dimensions of the dorsal ray where rays 9 are less than rays 10. Species of Ohbayashinema appear to be host-specific among the Ochotonidae but had not been previously reported in pikas from the Nearctic. Although much remains to be demonstrated about the diversity for helminths in pikas, it is apparent that factors associated with the assembly and structure of parasite faunas have been complex, involving episodic processes for geographic and host colonization along with coevolutionary mechanisms. Understanding the historical factors, particularly climate
Sokolov, Igor M; Kavanaugh, David H
Our review recognizes 15 species of the integripennis species group of Geocharidius from Nuclear Central America, include three species previously described (Geocharidiusgimlii Erwin, Geocharidiusintegripennis (Bates) and Geocharidiuszullinii Vigna Taglianti) and 12 described here as new. They are: Geocharidiusandersoni sp. n. (type locality: Chiapas, Chiapas Highlands, Cerro Huitepec) and Geocharidiusvignatagliantii sp. n. (type locality: Chiapas, Motozintla, Sierra Madre de Chiapas, Benito Juárez) from Mexico; Geocharidiusantigua sp. n. (type locality: Sacatepéquez, 5 km SE of Antigua), Geocharidiusbalini sp. n. (type locality: Suchitepéquez, 4 km S of Volcan Atitlán), Geocharidiuserwini sp. n. (type locality: Quiché Department, 7 km NE of Los Encuentros), Geocharidiusjalapensis sp. n. (type locality: Jalapa Department, 4 km E of Mataquescuintla), Geocharidiuslonginoi, sp. n. (type locality: El Progreso Department, Cerro Pinalón), and Geocharidiusminimus sp. n. (type locality: Sacatepéquez Department, 5 km SE of Antigua) from Guatemala; and Geocharidiuscelaquensis sp. n. (type locality: Lempira Department, Celaque National Park), Geocharidiuscomayaguanus sp. n. (type locality: Comayagua Department, 18 km ENE of Comayagua), Geocharidiusdisjunctus sp. n. (type locality: Francisco Morazán, La Tigra National Park), and Geocharidiuslencanus sp. n. (type locality: Lempira Department, Celaque National Park) from Honduras. For all members of the group, adult structural characters, including male and female genitalia, are described, and a taxonomic key for all members of the integripennis species group is presented based on these characters. Behavioral and biogeographical aspects of speciation in the group are discussed, based on the morphological analysis. In all cases of sympatry, pairs of closely related species show greater differences in sizes than pairs of more remotely related species. Integripennis group species occupy six different montane areas at
Full Text Available Our review recognizes 15 species of the integripennis species group of Geocharidius from Nuclear Central America, include three species previously described (G. gimlii Erwin, G. integripennis (Bates and G. zullinii Vigna Taglianti and 12 described here as new. They are: G. andersoni sp. n. (type locality: Chiapas, Chiapas Highlands, Cerro Huitepec and G. vignatagliantii sp. n. (type locality: Chiapas, Motozintla, Sierra Madre de Chiapas, Benito Juárez from Mexico; G. antigua sp. n. (type locality: Sacatepéquez, 5 km SE of Antigua, G. balini sp. n. (type locality: Suchitepéquez, 4 km S of Volcan Atitlán, G. erwini sp. n. (type locality: Quiché Department, 7 km NE of Los Encuentros, G. jalapensis sp. n. (type locality: Jalapa Department, 4 km E of Mataquescuintla, G. longinoi, sp. n. (type locality: El Progreso Department, Cerro Pinalón, and G. minimus sp. n. (type locality: Sacatepéquez Department, 5 km SE of Antigua from Guatemala; and G. celaquensis sp. n. (type locality: Lempira Department, Celaque National Park, G. comayaguanus sp. n. (type locality: Comayagua Department, 18 km ENE of Comayagua, G. disjunctus sp. n. (type locality: Francisco Morazán, La Tigra National Park, and G. lencanus sp. n. (type locality: Lempira Department, Celaque National Park from Honduras. For all members of the group, adult structural characters, including male and female genitalia, are described, and a taxonomic key for all members of the integripennis species group is presented based on these characters. Behavioral and biogeographical aspects of speciation in the group are discussed, based on the morphological analysis. In all cases of sympatry, pairs of closely related species show greater differences in sizes than pairs of more remotely related species. Integripennis group species occupy six different montane areas at elevations above 1300m, with no species shared among them. Major faunal barriers in the region limiting present species distributions
Full Text Available Three new species of the genus Carychium O.F. Müller, 1773, Carychium hardiei Jochum & Weigand, sp. n., Carychium belizeense Jochum & Weigand, sp. n. and Carychium zarzaae Jochum & Weigand, sp. n. are described from the Southeastern United States, Belize and Panama, respectively. In two consecutive molecular phylogenetic studies of worldwide members of Carychiidae, the North and Central American morphospecies Carychium mexicanum Pilsbry, 1891 and Carychium costaricanum E. von Martens, 1898 were found to consist of several evolutionary lineages. Although the related lineages were found to be molecularly distinct from the two nominal species, the consequential morphological and taxonomic assessment of these lineages is still lacking. In the present paper, the shells of these uncovered Carychium lineages are assessed by comparing them with those of related species, using computer tomography for the first time for this genus. The interior diagnostic characters are emphasized, such as columellar configuration in conjunction with the columellar lamella and their relationship in context of the entire shell. These taxa are morphologically described and formally assigned their own names.
Dekker, Annette M.; Amick, Ashley E.; Scholcoff, Cecilia; Doobay-Persaud, Ashti
Background Non-communicable diseases, including diabetes mellitus and hypertension, continue to disproportionately burden low- and middle-income countries. However, little research has been done to establish current practices and management of chronic disease in these settings. The objective of this study was to examine current clinical management and identify potential gaps in care of patients with diabetes mellitus and hypertension in the district of Toledo, Belize. Methods The study used a...
Bowser, Diana M; Figueroa, Ramon; Natiq, Laila; Okunogbe, Adeyemi
Over the last 10 years, Belize has implemented a National Health Insurance (NHI) program that uses performance-based contracts with both public and private facilities to improve financial sustainability, efficiency and service provision. Data were collected at the facility, district and national levels in order to assess trends in financial sustainability, efficiency payments, year-end bonuses and health system and health outcomes. A difference-in-difference approach was used to assess the difference in technical efficiency between private and public facilities. The results show that per capita spending on services provided by the NHI program has decreased over the period 2006-2009 from BZ$177 to BZ$136. The private sector has achieved higher levels of technical efficiency, but lower percentages of efficiency and year-end bonus payments. Districts with contracts through the NHI program showed greater improvements in facility births, nurse density, reducing maternal mortality, diabetes deaths and morbidity from bronchitis, emphysema and asthma than districts without contracts over the period 2006-2010. This preliminary assessment of Belize's pay-for-performance system provides some positive results, however further research is needed to use the lessons learned from Belize to implement similar reforms in other systems.
Rubin, Olivier; Rossing, Tine
The Latin American region is particularly prone to climate-related natural hazards. However, this article argues that natural hazards are only partly to blame for the region's vulnerability to natural disasters with quantitative evidence suggesting instead that income per capita and inequality...... are main determinants of natural disaster mortality in Latin America. Locally, the region's poor are particularly susceptible to climate-related natural hazards. As a result of their limited access to capital, adaptation based on social assets constitutes an effective coping strategy. Evidence from Bolivia...... and Belize illustrates the importance of social assets in protecting the most vulnerable against natural disasters....
Kingsley, C.; Bhattacharya, A.; Hangsterfer, A.; Carilli, J.; Field, D. B.
Caribbean coral reefs are some of the most threatened marine ecosystems in the world. Research appears to suggest that environmental stressors of local origin, such as sediment run off, can reduce the resilience of these reefs to global threats such as ocean warming. Sedimentation can stunt coral growth, reduce its resilience, and it is possible that trapped material could render coral skeletons brittle (personal discussions). Material trapped in coral skeletons can provide information on the sources of particulate matter in the ocean ecosystem. Despite the importance of quantifying sources and types of materials trapped in corals, the research community is yet to fully develop techniques that allow accurate representation of trapped matter, which is potentially a major source of metal content in reef building coral skeletons. The dataset presented here explores the usefulness of X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), a widely used tool in environmental studies (but generally not in corals), to estimate metal content in coral cores collected from four locations near Belize, with varying degrees of impact from coastal processes. The coral cores together cover a period of 1862-2006. Trace, major, and minor metal content from these cores have been well-studied using solution-based ICP-MS, providing us with the unique opportunity to test the efficacy of XRF technique in characterizing metal content in these coral cores. We have measured more than 50 metals using XRF every two millimeters along slabs removed from the middle of a coral core to characterize materials present in coral skeletons. We compared the results from XRF to solution-based ICP-MS - that involves dissolving subsamples of coral skeleton to measure metal content. Overall, it appears that the non-destructive XRF technique is a viable supplement in determining sediment and metal content in coral cores, and may be particularly helpful for assessing resistant phases such as grains of sediment that are not fully
A questão do banimento internacional das minas terrestres: novos atores na segurança internacional e os casos das Américas Central e do Sul The international ban on landmines: new actors in international security and the cases of Central America and South America
James Augusto Pires Tibúrcio
Full Text Available O principal instrumento jurídico internacional destinado a banir o uso, a produção e as transferências internacionais de minas terrestres antipessoais é o Tratado de Ottawa, aprovado em 1997 e que, em junho de 2011, possuía 156 Estados signatários. No processo que conduziu à sua aprovação, diversas organizações da sociedade civil, em vários países, desempenharam papel de destaque por meio de uma forte pressão exercida sobre alguns governos nacionais, promovendo uma campanha de amplo impacto midiático e que obteve apoio de algumas celebridades, especialmente de Diana, princesa de Gales. O presente artigo tem como objetivo discutir a questão do banimento das minas terrestres antipessoais a partir dessa perspectiva, demonstrando que, em alguns temas com consequências humanitárias negativas muito evidentes, é possível que os governos reajam positivamente às pressões da sociedade civil. Ademais, também se analisa como o problema das minas terrestres antipessoais foi enfrentado na América Central e na América do Sul, destacando-se, ainda, o papel do Brasil no apoio às ações de desminagem nestas regiões.The main international legal instrument for banning the use, production and international transfers of antipersonnel landmines is the Ottawa Treaty, approved in 1997, which in June 2011 had 156 signatory states. In the process leading to its approval, several civil society organizations, in many countries, played a prominent role through heavy pressure on some governments, promoting a campaign of huge media impact with support from some celebrities, notably Diana, Princess of Wales. This paper shows that in some areas with very obvious negative humanitarian consequences, it is possible that governments react positively to civil society pressures. Furthermore, this paper also examines how the problem of antipersonnel landmines has been tackled in Central and South America, also touching on Brazil's role in supporting the
Implications of the Central America-Dominican Republic-Free Trade Agreement for the nutrition transition in Central America Implicaciones del Tratado de Libre Comercio entre Centroamérica y República Dominicana sobre la transición alimentaria en Centroamérica
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To identify potential impacts of the Central America-Dominican Republic-Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR on food consumption patterns associated with the nutrition transition, obesity, and diet-related chronic diseases. METHODS: Examination of CAFTA-DR agreement to identify measures that have the potential to affect food availability and retail prices. RESULTS: CAFTA-DR includes agreements on tariffs, tariff-rate quotas (TRQs, and sanitary and phytosanitary regulations with direct implications for the availability and prices of various foods. Agreements on investment, services, and intellectual property rights (IPR are also relevant because they create a business climate more conducive to long-term investment by the transnational food industry. Trade liberalization under CAFTA-DR is likely to increase availability and lower relative prices of two food groups associated with the nutrition transition: meat and processed foods. These outcomes are expected to occur as the direct result of increased imports from the United States and increased production by U.S. companies based in Central America, and the indirect result of increased domestic meat production (due to increased availability of cheaper animal feed and increased production of processed foods by domestic companies (due to a more competitive market environment. CONCLUSIONS: CAFTA-DR is likely to further the nutrition transition in Central America by increasing the consumption of meat; highly processed foods; and new, non-traditional foods. The public health community should be more aware of the implications of trade agreements for dietary health. Governments and related stakeholders should assess the coherence between changes fostered by specific trade agreements with national policies on diet and nutrition.OBJETIVOS: Identificar el posible impacto del Tratado de Libre Comercio entre Centroamérica y República Dominicana (TLCCA-RD sobre el patrón de consumo de alimentos
Rainwater, Thomas R.; Selcer, Kyle W.; Nespoli, Lisa M.; Finger, Adam G.; Ray, David A.; Platt, Steven G.; Smith, Philip N.; Densmore, Llewellyn D.; Anderson, Todd A.; McMurry, Scott T.
Vitellogenin induction has been widely used as a biomarker of endocrine disruption in wildlife, but few studies have investigated its use in wild reptiles living in contaminated habitats. This study examined vitellogenin induction in Morelet's crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) from wetlands in northern Belize contaminated with organochlorine (OC) pesticides. Vitellogenin was measured in 381 crocodile plasma samples using a vitellogenin ELISA previously developed for this species. Vitellogenin was detected in nine samples, all from adult females sampled during the breeding season. Males and juvenile females did not contain detectable levels of vitellogenin; however, many of these animals contained OC pesticides in their caudal scutes, confirming contaminant exposure. The lack of a vitellogenic response in these animals may be attributable to several factors related to the timing and magnitude of exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals and should not be interpreted as an absence of other contaminant-induced biological responses. - Wild crocodiles living in habitats polluted with organochlorine pesticides did not exhibit contaminant-induced vitellogenin induction in blood plasma
van Thiel, P P A M; Zeegelaar, J E; van Gool, T; Faber, W R; Kager, P A
Skin lesions occur frequently in travelers to tropical countries. Military personnel acquire skin lesions regularly during jungle training as did Dutch troops who trained in the jungle of Belize in 1998, 2004 and 2009, in an area endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis. Demographic and clinical data were collected retrospectively. Diagnostic investigations for cutaneous leishmaniasis included Giemsa stain, culture, PCR and NASBA and histopathology of biopsies. Treatment of leishmaniasis was with sodium stibogluconate, given intravenously or intralesionally, the latter with cryotherapy. In 1998 and 2004 cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania mexicana infection was diagnosed in 25 persons out of 99 (attack rate 25.2%) and 14 persons out of 80 (attack rate 17.5%) respectively. In 2009 cutaneous leishmaniasis was not acquired. Skin problems were common during and after jungle training. Cutaneous leishmaniasis was important in the first two cohorts but not observed in the third cohort. Factors that could have played a role in the absence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the third cohort include variability in transmission and availability of better preventive measures and adherence to these. Sodium stibogluconate treatment, intralesional or intravenous, was effective. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
McKee, K.L.; Faulkner, P.L.
The substrate beneath mangrove forests in the Pelican Cays complex is predominately peat composed mainly of mangrove roots. Leaves and wood account for less than 20% of the peat mass. At Cat Cay, the depth of the peat ranges from 0.2 m along the shoreline to 1.65 m in the island center, indicating that the island has expanded horizontally as well as vertically through below-ground, biogenic processes. Mangrove roots thus play a critical role in the soil formation, vertical accretion, and stability of these mangrove cays. The species composition of fossil roots changes markedly with depth: Rhizophora mangle (red mangrove) was the initial colonizer on a coral base, followed by Avicennia germinans (black mangrove), which increased in abundance and expanded radially from the center of the island. The center of the Avicennia stand ultimately died, leaving an unvegetated, shallow pond. The peat thus retains a record of mangrove development, succession, and deterioration in response to sea-level change and concomitant hydroedaphic conditions controlling dispersal, establishment, growth, and mortality of mangroves on oceanic islands in Belize.
Rainwater, Thomas R. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health and Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409-1163 (United States)], E-mail: email@example.com; Selcer, Kyle W. [Department of Biological Sciences, Bayer School of Natural and Environmental Sciences, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA 15282 (United States)], E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Nespoli, Lisa M. [Department of Biological Sciences, Bayer School of Natural and Environmental Sciences, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA 15282 (United States)], E-mail: email@example.com; Finger, Adam G. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health and Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409-1163 (United States)], E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Ray, David A. [Department of Biological Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)], E-mail: email@example.com; Platt, Steven G. [Department of Biology, P.O. Box C-64, Sul Ross State University, Alpine, TX 79832 (United States)], E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Smith, Philip N. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health and Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409-1163 (United States)], E-mail: email@example.com; Densmore, Llewellyn D. [Department of Biological Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)], E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Anderson, Todd A. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health and Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409-1163 (United States)], E-mail: email@example.com; McMurry, Scott T. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health and Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409-1163 (United States)], E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Vitellogenin induction has been widely used as a biomarker of endocrine disruption in wildlife, but few studies have investigated its use in wild reptiles living in contaminated habitats. This study examined vitellogenin induction in Morelet's crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) from wetlands in northern Belize contaminated with organochlorine (OC) pesticides. Vitellogenin was measured in 381 crocodile plasma samples using a vitellogenin ELISA previously developed for this species. Vitellogenin was detected in nine samples, all from adult females sampled during the breeding season. Males and juvenile females did not contain detectable levels of vitellogenin; however, many of these animals contained OC pesticides in their caudal scutes, confirming contaminant exposure. The lack of a vitellogenic response in these animals may be attributable to several factors related to the timing and magnitude of exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals and should not be interpreted as an absence of other contaminant-induced biological responses. - Wild crocodiles living in habitats polluted with organochlorine pesticides did not exhibit contaminant-induced vitellogenin induction in blood plasma.
Wu, Ted H. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775-6160 (United States); Canas, Jaclyn E. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Rainwater, Thomas R. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, PO Box 764, Jefferson, TX 75657 (United States); Platt, Steven G. [Department of Math and Science, Oglala Lakota College, 490 Piya Wiconi Road, Kyle, SD, 57752 (United States); McMurry, Scott T. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Anderson, Todd A. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)]. E-mail: email@example.com
Seven complete clutches of Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) eggs were collected in northern Belize and examined for organochlorine (OC) pesticide residues. The primary OC detected, p,p-DDE, was found in every egg analyzed (n = 175). Other OCs detected included p,p-DDT, p,p-DDD, methoxychlor, aldrin, and endosulfan I. Concentrations of individual OCs ranged from 4 ppb (ng chemical/g egg wet weight) to greater than 500 ppb. A statistical evaluation of p,p-DDE levels in three complete clutches was used to derive the minimum number of eggs needed from a clutch to precisely determine the mean p,p-DDE concentration representative of that clutch. Sample sizes of 8 (80% confidence level) and 11 (90% confidence level) were determined to yield an accurate estimate of contaminant levels in a full clutch of eggs. The statistically recommended sample size of 11 eggs (at 90% confidence level) was successfully tested on the four additional clutches. -- Sampling the non-viable eggs of a clutch can provide a statistically reasonable estimation of both the organochlorine contaminant distribution and concentrations in that clutch.
Rützler, Klaus; Piantoni, Carla; Van Soest, Rob W M; Díaz, M Cristina
The Caribbean barrier reef near Carrie Bow Cay, Belize, has been a focus of Smithsonian Institution (Washington) reef and mangrove investigations since the early 1970s. Systematics and biology of sponges (Porifera) were addressed by several researchers but none of the studies dealt with cryptic habitats, such as the shaded undersides of coral rubble, reef crevices, and caves, although a high species diversity was recognized and samples were taken for future reference and study. This paper is the result of processing samples taken between 1972 and 2012. In all, 122 species were identified, 14 of them new (including one new genus). The new species are Tetralophophora (new genus) mesoamericana, Geodia cribrata, Placospongia caribica, Prosuberites carriebowensis, Timea diplasterina, Timea oxyasterina, Rhaphidhistia belizensis, Wigginsia curlewensis, Phorbas aurantiacus, Myrmekioderma laminatum, Niphates arenata, Siphonodictyon occultum, Xestospongia purpurea, and Aplysina sciophila. We determined that about 75 of the 122 cryptic sponge species studied (61%) are exclusive members of the sciophilic community, 47 (39 %) occur in both, light-exposed and shaded or dark habitats. Since we estimate the previously known sponge population of Carrie Bow reefs and mangroves at about 200 species, the cryptic fauna makes up 38 % of total diversity.
References to obeah pregnancy are widespread in southern Belize, where the belief in supernatural forces combines with Catholic teaching to create a conservative reproductive climate in which illegitimate pregnancy, reproductive misfortunes and maternal death are located in a discourse of shame. Obeah pregnancy is said to result when spiritual forces are unleashed through malicious human intent, causing bodily changes that resemble pregnancy. Death of the woman, however, usually occurs before prenatal confirmation; thus it is often unclear if an obeah pregnancy is a viable pregnancy or some other biomedical - or metaphysical - condition. This paper provides a case study of Petrona, whose story is unique in that she does not die from her purported obeah pregnancy; rather, she lives to bear the consequences of her reproductive behaviours that resulted in the stillbirth of a full-term foetus. Petrona was a traditional birth attendant who is trained to uphold biomedical antenatal protocols. Arguing that Petrona was not adequately educated to fulfill her own prenatal obligations, health care personnel sanctioned Petrona's midwifery practice and left her to process her 'shameful' situation. Ultimately, Petrona's story complicates the culturally disengaged narratives of maternal health and highlights the schism between medical knowledge and socioculturally influenced embodied experience.
Full Text Available Ground penetrating radar (GPR surveys provide distinct advantages for archaeological prospection in ancient, complex, urban Maya sites, particularly where dense foliage or modern debris may preclude other remote sensing or geophysical techniques. Unidirectional GPR surveys using a 500 MHz shielded antenna were performed at the Middle Preclassic Maya site of Pacbitun, Belize. The survey in 2012 identified numerous linear and circular anomalies between 1 m and 2 m deep. Based on these anomalies, one 1 m × 4 m unit and three smaller units were excavated in 2013. These test units revealed a curved plaster surface not previously found at Pacbitun. Post-excavation, GPR data were reprocessed to best match the true nature of excavated features. Additional GPR surveys oriented perpendicular to the original survey confirmed previously detected anomalies and identified new anomalies. The excavations provided information on the sediment layers in the survey area, which allowed better identification of weak radar reflections of the surfaces of a burnt, Middle Preclassic temple in the northern end of the survey area. Additional excavations of the area in 2014 and 2015 revealed it to be a large square structure, which was named El Quemado.
Full Text Available Although the role of the U.S. in supporting the anti-democratic, counter-revolutionary movements, governments, and dictatorships that flourished in Latin America from the 1960s to the 1990s is well known, this article examines the support provided to the U.S. by other countries. Principally this support was provided by Israel and the United Kingdom, but other countries were also involved, such as South Africa, Taiwan, France, and even Saudi Arabia. The article argues that a clear material framework underlies the assistance given by these countries. It also identifies a number of cultural and historical reasons why anti-democratic governments in Latin America found particular political empathy in Israel.
Bhattacharya, T.; Beach, T.; Wahl, D.
In the lowland Maya area, pollen records provide important insights into the impact of past human populations and climate change on tropical ecosystems. Despite a long history of regional paleoecological research, few studies have characterized the palynological signatures of lowland ecosystems, a fact which lowers confidence in ecological inferences made from palynological data. We sought to verify whether we could use pollen spectra to reliably distinguish modern ecosystem types in the Maya lowlands of Central America. We collected 23 soil and sediment samples from eight ecosystem types, including upland, riparian, secondary, and swamp (bajo) forests; pine savanna; and three distinct wetland communities. We analyzed pollen spectra with non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS), and found significant compositional differences in ecosystem types' pollen spectra. Forested sites had spectra dominated by Moraceae/Urticaceae pollen, while non-forested sites had significant portions of Poaceae, Asteraceae, and Amaranthaceae pollen. Upland, bajo, and riparian forest differed in representation of Cyperaceae, Bactris-type, and Combretaceae/Melastomataceae pollen. High percentages of pine (Pinus), oak (Quercus), and the presence of Byrsonima characterized pine savanna. Despite its limited sample size, this study provides one of the first statistical analyses of modern pollen rain in the Maya lowlands. Our results show that pollen assemblages can accurately reflect differences between ecosystem types, which may help refine interpretations of pollen records from the Maya area. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.
Assessment of clinical efficacy and safety in a randomized double-blind study of etanercept and sulfasalazine in patients with ankylosing spondylitis from Eastern/Central Europe, Latin America, and Asia.
Damjanov, Nemanja; Shehhi, Waleed Al; Huang, Feng; Kotak, Sameer; Burgos-Vargas, Ruben; Shirazy, Khalid; Bananis, Eustratios; Szumski, Annette; Llamado, Lyndon J Q; Mahgoub, Ehab
Despite the demonstrated efficacy of etanercept for the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis (AS), sulfasalazine is often prescribed, especially in countries with limited access to biologic agents. The objective of this subset analysis of the ASCEND trial was to compare the efficacy of etanercept and sulfasalazine in treating patients with AS from Asia, Eastern/Central Europe, and Latin America. A total of 287 patients, 190 receiving etanercept 50 mg once weekly and 97 receiving sulfasalazine 3 g daily, from eight countries were included in this subset analysis. Differences in disease activity and patient-reported outcomes assessing health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) parameters in response to treatment were analyzed using the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test for categorical efficacy endpoints and analysis of covariance model for continuous variables. At week 16, a significantly greater proportion of patients receiving etanercept achieved ASAS20 (79.0 %) compared with patients receiving sulfasalazine (61.9 %; p = 0.002). At week 16, treatment with etanercept also resulted in significantly better responses than sulfasalazine for ASAS40 (64.7 vs. 35.1 %; p Asia, Central/Eastern Europe, and Latin America.
The use of pesticides for the control of pests of agriculture and vectors of human and animal diseases in the countries of Central America is the highest per capita and one of the most intense in the world. There are reports of acute toxicity and chronic effects among farm workers. There are also reports that pesticide residues in food frequently exceed the Codex Alimentarius Commission's maximum residue levels (MRLs) and shipments of foodstuffs have been rejected by importing countries due to the presence of excessive residues of pesticides. Pesticides are also implicated in the contamination of continental and coastal waters. The indiscriminate use of pesticides would be expected to also aggravate pest problems by adversely affecting populations of beneficial arthropods and causing the development of resistance in pest populations. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture initiated a co-ordinated research project in 1992 to generate information on residues of pesticides in the environment, their persistence under local conditions and effect on local species of beneficial arthropods in agricultural and adjacent areas in the countries of Central America. Such information could be used in the implementation of legislation to control the distribution and use of pesticides and the development and application of integrated pest management programmes. Scientists from Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama and the United States of America participated in this project. This TECDOC reports on the accomplishments of the project and includes the papers presented at the final Research Co-ordination Meeting held in Panama City, Panama, 20-24 April 1998
Ferreira, Marcos C
El Niño South Oscillation (ENSO) is one climatic phenomenon related to the inter-annual variability of global meteorological patterns influencing sea surface temperature and rainfall variability. It influences human health indirectly through extreme temperature and moisture conditions that may accelerate the spread of some vector-borne viral diseases, like dengue fever (DF). This work examines the spatial distribution of association between ENSO and DF in the countries of the Americas during 1995-2004, which includes the 1997-1998 El Niño, one of the most important climatic events of 20(th) century. Data regarding the South Oscillation index (SOI), indicating El Niño-La Niña activity, were obtained from Australian Bureau of Meteorology. The annual DF incidence (AIy) by country was computed using Pan-American Health Association data. SOI and AIy values were standardised as deviations from the mean and plotted in bars-line graphics. The regression coefficient values between SOI and AIy (rSOI,AI) were calculated and spatially interpolated by an inverse distance weighted algorithm. The results indicate that among the five years registering high number of cases (1998, 2002, 2001, 2003 and 1997), four had El Niño activity. In the southern hemisphere, the annual spatial weighted mean centre of epidemics moved southward, from 6° 31' S in 1995 to 21° 12' S in 1999 and the rSOI,AI values were negative in Cuba, Belize, Guyana and Costa Rica, indicating a synchrony between higher DF incidence rates and a higher El Niño activity. The rSOI,AI map allows visualisation of a graded surface with higher values of ENSO-DF associations for Mexico, Central America, northern Caribbean islands and the extreme north-northwest of South America.
Marcos C. Ferreira
Full Text Available El Niño South Oscillation (ENSO is one climatic phenomenon related to the inter-annual variability of global meteorological patterns influencing sea surface temperature and rainfall variability. It influences human health indirectly through extreme temperature and moisture conditions that may accelerate the spread of some vector-borne viral diseases, like dengue fever (DF. This work examines the spatial distribution of association between ENSO and DF in the countries of the Americas during 1995-2004, which includes the 1997-1998 El Niño, one of the most important climatic events of 20th century. Data regarding the South Oscillation index (SOI, indicating El Niño-La Niña activity, were obtained from Australian Bureau of Meteorology. The annual DF incidence (AIy by country was computed using Pan-American Health Association data. SOI and AIy values were standardised as deviations from the mean and plotted in bars-line graphics. The regression coefficient values between SOI and AIy (rSOI,AI were calculated and spatially interpolated by an inverse distance weighted algorithm. The results indicate that among the five years registering high number of cases (1998, 2002, 2001, 2003 and 1997, four had El Niño activity. In the southern hemisphere, the annual spatial weighted mean centre of epidemics moved southward, from 6° 31' S in 1995 to 21° 12' S in 1999 and the rSOI,AI values were negative in Cuba, Belize, Guyana and Costa Rica, indicating a synchrony between higher DF incidence rates and a higher El Niño activity. The rSOI,AI map allows visualisation of a graded surface with higher values of ENSO-DF associations for Mexico, Central America, northern Caribbean islands and the extreme north-northwest of South America.
IBACOS researched the constructability and viability issues of using high performance windows as one component of a larger approach to building houses that achieve the Building America 70% energy savings target.
M. James C. Crabbe
Full Text Available Sustainability science can, through capacity building, allow for integrated stakeholder management of the vital Caribbean marine ecosystems. We did a capacity building exercise in two major coral reef areas in Southern Belize. The key outcome was a six-month personal/professional action plan developed by each participant about tactics for leading, educating and supporting issues regarding sustainable development and tactics for collaboration to influence policy decisions. Our results can be applied across the Caribbean. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (Suppl. 3: 287-291. Epub 2014 September 01.
adeloupe, 1964-1966. S Cova Garcia, Pablo, Division de Endemias Rurales, Ministerio de Sanidad y Asistencia Social , Mara- cay, Venezuela...Central America. Diaz Najerra , Alfonso, Laboratorio de En tomologia, Instituto de Salubridad y Enfermedades Trop- icales.— Mosquitoes of Mexico , loan of...Saneamiento Ambiental. Minister io de Sanidad y Asistencia Social , Caracas , Venezuela. — Organization of topotypic survey of mosquitoes in Vene zuela
Wanek, Wolfgang; Hofmann, Julia; Feller, Ilka C.
SummaryBulk precipitation, throughfall and stemflow were collected to study anthropogenic effects on above-ground nutrient cycling in an off-shore mangrove forest ( Rhizophora mangle L.) on Twin Cays, Belize. Samples were collected in a nitrogen limited fringe and phosphorus limited dwarf zone, and from an adjacent nitrogen fertilized fringe and a phosphorus fertilized dwarf zone. Inorganic cations and anions, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON) were analysed. Throughfall represented 84% of precipitation volume. Sea salt ions (Cl -, Na +, SO42- and Mg 2+) and DOC accounted for the highest proportion of solutes in rainwater, throughfall and stemflow in R. mangle stands. Non-marine sources dominated the flux of DON, DOC, NO3-, NH4+, and inorganic P (P i) in bulk precipitation and throughfall and partially contributed to Ca 2+ and K +. Deposition ratios (throughfall deposition:bulk deposition) showed that inorganic NH4+, and less so P i were retained in the canopy of R. mangle from throughfall while all other solutes increased. Canopy leaching contributed in increasing order to net throughfall of Ca 2+, Cl -, SO42-/K, Mg 2+ and Na + but dry deposition dominated the net throughfall flux during the investigated period. Fertilizer treatment and zone did only slightly affect solute concentrations of hot-water extracts of leaves, of throughfall and stemflow in stands of similar stature. While litterfall and primary production have previously been shown to increase substantially upon nutrient enrichment of mangroves we therefore conclude that fertilization, as a surrogate of anthropogenic eutrophication, may not increase nutrient leaching from mangrove canopies, and thus may only have a minor effect on soluble organic matter cycling and inputs into mangrove food webs.
Lee, R.Y.; Porubsky, W.P.; Feller, Ilka C.; McKee, K.L.; Joye, S.B.
Seasonal variability in biogeochemical signatures was used to elucidate the dominant pathways of soil microbial metabolism and elemental cycling in an oligotrophic mangrove system. Three interior dwarf mangrove habitats (Twin Cays, Belize) where surface soils were overlain by microbial mats were sampled during wet and dry periods of the year. Porewater equilibration meters and standard biogeochemical methods provided steady-state porewater profiles of pH, chloride, sulfate, sulfide, ammonium, nitrate/nitrite, phosphate, dissolved organic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus, reduced iron and manganese, dissolved inorganic carbon, methane and nitrous oxide. During the wet season, the salinity of overlying pond water and shallow porewaters decreased. Increased rainwater infiltration through soils combined with higher tidal heights appeared to result in increased organic carbon inventories and more reducing soil porewaters. During the dry season, evaporation increased both surface water and porewater salinities, while lower tidal heights resulted in less reduced soil porewaters. Rainfall strongly influenced inventories of dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen, possibly due to more rapid decay of mangrove litter during the wet season. During both times of year, high concentrations of reduced metabolites accumulated at depth, indicating substantial rates of organic matter mineralization coupled primarily to sulfate reduction. Nitrous oxide and methane concentrations were supersaturated indicating considerable rates of nitrification and/or incomplete denitrification and methanogenesis, respectively. More reducing soil conditions during the wet season promoted the production of reduced manganese. Contemporaneous activity of sulfate reduction and methanogenesis was likely fueled by the presence of noncompetitive substrates. The findings indicate that these interior dwarf areas are unique sites of nutrient and energy regeneration and may be critical to the overall persistence
Full Text Available Triatoma dimidiata, currently the major Central American vector of Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite that causes Chagas disease, inhabits caves throughout the region. This research investigates the possibility that cave dwelling T. dimidiata might transmit the parasite to humans and links the blood meal sources of cave vectors to cultural practices that differ among locations.We determined the blood meal sources of twenty-four T. dimidiata collected from two locations in Guatemala and one in Belize where human interactions with the caves differ. Blood meal sources were determined by cloning and sequencing PCR products amplified from DNA extracted from the vector abdomen using primers specific for the vertebrate 12S mitochondrial gene. The blood meal sources were inferred by ≥ 99% identity with published sequences. We found 70% of cave-collected T. dimidiata positive for human DNA. The vectors had fed on 10 additional vertebrates with a variety of relationships to humans, including companion animal (dog, food animals (pig, sheep/goat, wild animals (duck, two bat, two opossum species and commensal animals (mouse, rat. Vectors from all locations fed on humans and commensal animals. The blood meal sources differ among locations, as well as the likelihood of feeding on dog and food animals. Vectors from one location were tested for T. cruzi infection, and 30% (3/10 tested positive, including two positive for human blood meals.Cave dwelling Chagas disease vectors feed on humans and commensal animals as well as dog, food animals and wild animals. Blood meal sources were related to human uses of the caves. We caution that just as T. dimidiata in caves may pose an epidemiological risk, there may be other situations where risk is thought to be minimal, but is not.
Rubin, Oliver; Rossing, Tine
The Latin American region is particularly prone to climate-related natural hazards. However, this article argues that natural hazards are only partly to blame for the region's vulnerability to natural disasters with quantitative evidence suggesting instead that income per capita and inequality are main determinants of natural disaster mortality in Latin America. Locally, the region's poor are particularly susceptible to climate-related natural hazards. As a result of their limited access to capital, adaptation based on social assets constitutes an effective coping strategy. Evidence from Bolivia and Belize illustrates the importance of social assets in protecting the most vulnerable against natural disasters.
Forbes, Kirstie E; Foster, P
Belize, hosting one of the British Army's overseas training areas, provides access to challenging terrain and austere environments, which allows the delivery of training to soldiers on survival and combat within the jungle environment. A 26-year-old infanteer on exercise in Belize presented with progressive bilateral dry, painful, oedematous hands, secondary to the harsh environmental conditions of the jungle and inadequate drying of his hands resulting in his inability to perform his combat duties. The symptoms completely resolved with drying, emollient application and analgesia. While there are no reported cases of immersion hand, comparisons can be made with the well-reported warm weather immersion foot. This case highlights the importance of force preparation and soldier education for units deploying to the jungle. Simple preventive measures, including adequate 'wet-dry' drills and use of emollients can reduce the prevalence of immersion hand, a preventable condition, which can have a significant impact on the overall combat effectiveness of the unit. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Alfonso Chacón Mata
Full Text Available This paper focuses on the need of studying the main foundations of the United Nations International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families that entered into force in 2003. To accomplish this purpose, first, ILO regulations on migrant population and labor relations will be reviewed; then, the tool will be deeply analyzed; finally, the article will conclude with the essential evaluations the Committee on Migrant Workers carried out for some countries of the Central America region, signatories of the Convention. It is worth noting that Costa Rica does not currently take part in this tool; but even so the other countries participating in it have already received high valued effects and implications, especially El Salvador and Guatemala, as it is going to be analyzed in this paper.
Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is native to the South American rainforest but it was domesticated in Mesoamerica. The relic Criollo cocoa in Belize has been well known in the premium chocolate market for its high-quality. Knowledge of genetic diversity in this variety is essential for efficient conserva...
Falavigna da Rocha, Carlos Eduardo
Neocyclops (Protoneocyclops) ferrarii sp. n. is described from Candy’s Pond, Twin Cays, Belize. It is morphologically closest to N. (P.) wellsi Petkovski, 1986 from Mozambique and N. (P.) herbsti Petkovski, 1986 from the Red Sea. Pediger 1 in Neocyclops is distinct although reduced and often
Parham, Leda; de Rivera, Ivette Lorenzana; Murillo, Wendy; Naver, Lars; Largaespada, Natalia; Albert, Jan; Karlsson, Annika C
Antiretroviral therapy has had a great impact on the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1. However, development of drug resistance, which could be subsequently transmitted to the child, is a major concern. In Honduras and Belize the prevalence of drug resistance among HIV-1-infected children remains unknown. A total of 95 dried blood spot samples was obtained from HIV-1-infected, untreated children in Honduras and Belize born during 2001 to 2004, when preventive antiretroviral therapy was often suboptimal and consisted of monotherapy with nevirapine or zidovudine. Partial HIV-1 pol gene sequences were successfully obtained from 66 children (Honduras n=55; Belize n=11). Mutations associated with drug resistance were detected in 13% of the Honduran and 27% of the Belizean children. Most of the mutations detected in Honduras (43%) and all mutations detected in Belize were associated with resistance to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, which was expected from the wide use of nevirapine to prevent MTCT during the study period. In addition, although several mothers reported that they had not received antiretroviral therapy, mutations associated with resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors were found in Honduras. This suggests prior and unreported use of these drugs, or that these women had been infected with resistant virus. The present study demonstrates, for the first time, the presence of drug resistance-associated mutations in HIV-1-infected Honduran and Belizean children.
Suite, M; Polson, K
This is a case report of cutaneous myiasis due to Dermatobia hominis in a female physician who had travelled to Belize. Cutaneous myiasis is endemic in Central and South America but is seldom reported from the Caribbean islands.
Runkel, Anthony C.; Miller, J.F.; McKay, R.M.; Palmer, A.R.; Taylor, John F.
Well-known difficulties in applying sequence stratigraphic concepts to deposits that accumulated across slowly subsiding cratonic interior regions have limited our ability to interpret the history of continental-scale tectonism, oceanographic dynamics of epeiric seas, and eustasy. We used a multi-disciplinary approach to construct a high-resolution stratigraphic framework for lower Paleozoic strata in the cratonic interior of North America. Within this framework, these strata proved readily amenable to modern sequence stratigraphic techniques that were formulated based on successions along passive margins and in foreland basins, settings markedly different from the cratonic interior. Parasequences, parasequence stacking patterns, systems tracts, maximum flooding intervals, and sequence-bounding unconformities can be confidently recognized in the cratonic interior using mostly standard criteria for identification. The similarity of cratonic interior and foreland basin successions in size, geometry, constituent facies, and local stacking patterns of nearshore parasequences is especially striking. This similarity indicates that the fundamental processes that establish shoreface morphology and determine the stratal expression of retreat and progradation were likewise generally the same, despite marked differences in tectonism, physiography, and bathymetry between the two settings. Our results do not support the widespread perception that Paleozoic cratonic interior successions are so anomalous in stratal geometries, and constitute such a poor record of time, that they are poorly suited for modern sequence stratigraphic analyses. The particular arrangement of stratal elements in the cratonic interior succession we studied is no more anomalous or enigmatic than the variability in architecture that sets all sedimentary successions apart from one another. Thus, Paleozoic strata of the cratonic interior are most appropriately considered as a package that belongs in a
Soni, P. Sarita, Ed.
This serial issue features 6 members of the Indiana University System faculty who have focused their research on Latin America, past and present. The first article, "A Literature of Their Own," highlights Darlene Sadlier's research on Brazilian women's fiction and poetry that has led to an interest in the interplay of Brazilian and…
Greenfield, Gerald Michael
Notes the problematical elements of diversity within Latin America, establishes priorities for the social studies curriculum, and reviews what should be taught about its geography, resources, people, religion, customs, economics, politics, history, and international relationships. Lists Latin American Studies programs and published instructional…
Intended for those involved in American social service and educational communities, this book addresses the widespread problem of illiteracy in the United States and the social consequences of this problem. Following an introduction, the chapters in the first section of the book discuss the growing crisis of illiterate America, specifically, the…
Focuses on how political attitudes have been influenced by American history textbooks at various times throughout history. Excerpts from traditional and revisionist textbooks are presented, with emphasis on "America Revised" by Frances FitzGerald. Journal available from Harper's Magazine Co., 2 Park Ave., New York, NY 10016. (DB)
Gondra, José María
On November 16, 1989 the world was shocked by the news of the assassination of six Jesuits at the campus of the Universidad Centro Americana José Simeón Cañas (UCA) in San Salvador, El Salvador. Among those murdered by government soldiers was Ignacio Martín-Baró, a PhD in social psychology from the University of Chicago who at that time was the Vice-Rector for Academic Affairs and Vice-President of the Interamerican Society of Psychology (SIP). Drawing on Martín-Baró's published writings and non-published academic papers and correspondence, this article traces the evolution of the Spanish-born Jesuit who became a leading authority among Latin American social psychologists. In particular, it analyzes his project of becoming a clinical psychologist under the influence of psychoanalysis, his critical social psychology aimed to "de-ideologize" the oppressed social classes of El Salvador, and his ultimate project of a psychology of liberation for Latin America. Martín-Baró's work came to a tragic end just when it began to bear fruit, but it stands as a testimony to a lifetime committed to the human values of democracy, social justice and service to society's poorest and most neglected.
Justin H Baumann
Full Text Available Coral reefs are increasingly threatened by global and local anthropogenic stressors such as rising seawater temperature, nutrient enrichment, sedimentation, and overfishing. Although many studies have investigated the impacts of local and global stressors on coral reefs, we still do not fully understand how these stressors influence coral community structure, particularly across environmental gradients on a reef system. Here, we investigate coral community composition across three different temperature and productivity regimes along a nearshore-offshore gradient on lagoonal reefs of the Belize Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System (MBRS. A novel metric was developed using ultra-high-resolution satellite-derived estimates of sea surface temperatures (SST to classify reefs as exposed to low (lowTP, moderate (modTP, or high (highTP temperature parameters over 10 years (2003 to 2012. Coral species richness, abundance, diversity, density, and percent cover were lower at highTP sites relative to lowTP and modTP sites, but these coral community traits did not differ significantly between lowTP and modTP sites. Analysis of coral life history strategies revealed that highTP sites were dominated by hardy stress-tolerant and fast-growing weedy coral species, while lowTP and modTP sites consisted of competitive, generalist, weedy, and stress-tolerant coral species. Satellite-derived estimates of Chlorophyll-a (chl-a were obtained for 13-years (2003-2015 as a proxy for primary production. Chl-a concentrations were highest at highTP sites, medial at modTP sites, and lowest at lowTP sites. Notably, thermal parameters correlated better with coral community traits between site types than productivity, suggesting that temperature (specifically number of days above the thermal bleaching threshold played a greater role in defining coral community structure than productivity on the MBRS. Dominance of weedy and stress-tolerant genera at highTP sites suggests that corals
Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Pradhan, Pranil Man Singh
Article 20 of the World Health Organisation Framework Convention on Tobacco Control calls for a cross-country surveillance of tobacco use through population-based surveys. We aimed to provide country-level prevalence estimates for current smoking and current smokeless tobacco use and to assess social determinants of smoking. Data from Demographic and Health Surveys done between 2005 and 2012, among men and women from nine North African, Central and West Asian countries and six Latin American and Caribbean countries were analyzed. Weighted country-level prevalence rates were estimated for 'current smoking' and 'current use of smokeless tobacco (SLT) products' among men and women. In each country, social determinants of smoking among men and women were assessed by binary logistic regression analyses by including men's and women's sampling weights to account for the complex survey design. Prevalence of smoking among men was higher than 40% in Armenia (63.1%), Moldova (51.1%), Ukraine (52%), Azerbaijan (49.8 %), Kyrgyz Republic (44.3 %) and Albania (42.52%) but the prevalence of smoking among women was less than 10% in most countries except Ukraine (14.81%) and Jordan (17.96%). The prevalence of smokeless tobacco use among men and women was less than 5% in all countries except among men in the Kyrgyz Republic (10.6 %). Smoking was associated with older age, lower education and poverty among men and higher education and higher wealth among women. Smoking among both men and women was associated with unskilled work, living in urban areas and being single. Smoking among men was very high in Central and West Asian countries. Social pattern of smoking among women that was different from men in education and wealth should be considered while formulating tobacco control policies in some Central and West Asian countries.
Giampetruzzi, Annalisa; Saponari, Maria; Loconsole, Giuliana; Boscia, Donato; Savino, Vito Nicola; Almeida, Rodrigo P P; Zicca, Stefania; Landa, Blanca B; Chacón-Diaz, Carlos; Saldarelli, Pasquale
Xylella fastidiosa is a plant-pathogenic bacterium recently introduced in Europe that is causing decline in olive trees in the South of Italy. Genetic studies have consistently shown that the bacterial genotype recovered from infected olive trees belongs to the sequence type ST53 within subspecies pauca. This genotype, ST53, has also been reported to occur in Costa Rica. The ancestry of ST53 was recently clarified, showing it contains alleles that are monophyletic with those of subsp. pauca in South America. To more robustly determine the phylogenetic placement of ST53 within X. fastidiosa, we performed a comparative analysis based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and the study of the pan-genome of the 27 currently public available whole genome sequences of X. fastidiosa. The resulting maximum-parsimony and maximum likelihood trees constructed using the SNPs and the pan-genome analysis are consistent with previously described X. fastidiosa taxonomy, distinguishing the subsp. fastidiosa, multiplex, pauca, sandyi, and morus. Within the subsp. pauca, the Italian and three Costa Rican isolates, all belonging to ST53, formed a compact phylotype in a clade divergent from the South American pauca isolates, also distinct from the recently described coffee isolate CFBP8072 imported into Europe from Ecuador. These findings were also supported by the gene characterization of a conjugative plasmid shared by all the four ST53 isolates. Furthermore, isolates of the ST53 clade possess an exclusive locus encoding a putative ATP-binding protein belonging to the family of histidine kinase-like ATPase gene, which is not present in isolates from the subspecies multiplex, sandyi, and pauca, but was detected in ST21 isolates of the subspecies fastidiosa from Costa Rica. The clustering and distinctiveness of the ST53 isolates supports the hypothesis of their common origin, and the limited genetic diversity among these isolates suggests this is an emerging clade within subsp
Weller, Errin Teresa
This dissertation presents the results of the remote sensing and artifact re-analysis of the archaeological site of Barton Ramie, Belize. The site was the focus of Dr. Gordon R. Willey's innovative archaeological program in the Belize River Valley to study ancient Maya settlement, environment, and population in 1954-1956. Through the use of artifact analysis combined with the examination of high-resolution Worldview-1 imagery and a Geographic Information System (GIS)-based spatial analysis, I consider how the inhabitants of Barton Ramie forged community functioning and identity. I focus on the range of intra-site diversity including differential access to labor, goods, land, and the activities evidenced in households and non-domestic structures. Using a community theory framework, emphasizing the many practices that tied the community together, I underscore the variability expressed in architectural elaboration, sumptuary goods, ritual, and specialization. That variability has profound implications for understanding community diversity and economic, social, and ritual functioning. High-resolution panchromatic Worldview-1 satellite imagery successfully detected the remains of Barton Ramie settlement. Surface archaeology has been largely destroyed due to extensive agricultural activities in recent decades. GIS analysis and ground-truthing determined that mound size is the primary factor enabling detection of ancient features. The confirmation of features in an intensively plowed environment has implications including settlement, survey, and population for other disturbed environments. I argue that the Barton Ramie community developed from a complex interaction of networks and practices. These include activities at the household level, articulation between households to form sub-communities (or neighborhoods), and a larger imagined community of the Barton Ramie polity. Individual households articulated to form seven discrete sub-communities, bounded by landscape
Lutz, Manfred A; Lovato, Pedro; Cuesta, Genaro
In Central American countries, the economic burden of tobacco has not been assessed. In Costa Rica, a study demonstrated that tobacco-related diseases represent high costs for the health care system. The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of varenicline compared with other existing strategies for smoking cessation within a 10-year time horizon in an adult population cohort from Central American and Caribbean countries using the health care payer's perspective. The Benefits of Smoking Cessation on Outcomes simulation model was used for an adult cohort in Costa Rica (n = 2 474 029), Panama (n = 2 249 676), Nicaragua (n = 3 639 948), El Salvador (n = 4 537 803), and the Dominican Republic (n = 6 528 125) (N = 19 429 581). Smoking cessation therapies compared were varenicline (0.5-2 mg/day) versus bupropion (300 mg/day), nicotine replacement therapy (5-15 mg/day), and unaided cessation. Effectiveness measures were: life-years (LYs) gained and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained. Resource use and cost data were obtained from a country's Ministry of Health and/or Social Security Institutions (2008-2010). The model used a 5% discount rate for costs (expressed in 2010 US$) and health outcomes. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted and acceptability curves were constructed. Varenicline reduced smoking-related morbidity, mortality, and health care costs in each country included in the study. Accumulatively, mortality in the varenicline arm was reduced by 1190, 1538, and 2902 smoking-related deaths compared with bupropion, nicotine replacement therapy, and unaided cessation, respectively. The net average cost per additional quitter showed that varenicline was cost-saving when compared with competing alternatives. Regarding LYs and QALYs gained in 10 years, varenicline obtained the greatest number of QALYs and LYs in each country, while unaided cessation obtained the fewest. Cost-effectiveness analyses in all 5 countries showed that
Alonso-Henar, Jorge; Schreurs, Guido; Martinez-Díaz, José Jesús; Álvarez-Gómez, José Antonio; Villamor, Pilar
The El Salvador Fault Zone (ESFZ) is an active, approximately 150 km long and 20 km wide, segmented, dextral strike-slip fault zone within the Central American Volcanic Arc striking N100°E. Although several studies have investigated the surface expression of the ESFZ, little is known about its structure at depth and its kinematic evolution. Structural field data and mapping suggest a phase of extension, at some stage during the evolution of the ESFZ. This phase would explain dip-slip movements on structures that are currently associated with the active, dominantly strike slip and that do not fit with the current tectonic regime. Field observations suggest trenchward migration of the arc. Such an extension and trenchward migration of the volcanic arc could be related to slab rollback of the Cocos plate beneath the Chortis Block during the Miocene/Pliocene. We carried out 4-D analog model experiments to test whether an early phase of extension is required to form the present-day fault pattern in the ESFZ. Our experiments suggest that a two-phase tectonic evolution best explains the ESFZ: an early pure extensional phase linked to a segmented volcanic arc is necessary to form the main structures. This extensional phase is followed by a strike-slip dominated regime, which results in intersegment areas with local transtension and segments with almost pure strike-slip motion. The results of our experiments combined with field data along the Central American Volcanic Arc indicate that the slab rollback intensity beneath the Chortis Block is greater in Nicaragua and decreases westward to Guatemala.
Full Text Available Two of three species previously classified in Calosota Curtis (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae from the Neotropical region are transferred to Eupelminae. Calosota eneubulus (Walker from Galapagos Islands is transferred to Eupelmus Dalman as Eupelmus (Eupelmus eneubulus (Walker, comb. n., and Calosota silvai (Brèthes from Chile is transferred to Brasema Cameron as Brasema silvai comb. n. Calosota cecidobius (Kieffer from Argentina is retained in Calosota, with reservation, as an unrecognized species. The species of Calosota from the New World excluding South America are revised. Eleven species are recognized, including the seven newly described species Calosota albipalpus sp. n. (Costa Rica, Mexico, USA, Venezuela, Calosota bicolorata sp. n. (USA, Calosota elongata sp. n. (USA, Calosota longivena sp. n. (USA, Calosota panamaensis sp. n. (Panama, Calosota setosa sp. n. (Bahamas, Dominican Republic, USA, and Calosota speculifrons sp. n. (Costa Rica, USA. The 11 regional species and the Palaearctic species Calosota vernalis Curtis are keyed and illustrated. Calosota vernalis is not known to occur in the New World but is included in the key and diagnosed because it has been intercepted in quarantine in Canada. Calosota pseudotsugae Burks is placed in synonymy under Calosota acron (Walker, syn. n., and Calosota kentra Burks, Calosota montana Burks and Calosota septentrionalis Hedqvist are placed in synonymy under Calosota aestivalis Curtis syn. n. Calosota modesta Bolívar y Pieltain is removed from synonymy under Calosota viridis Masi, stat. rev., and Calosota viridis, Calosota matritensis Bolívar y Pieltain, and Calosota coerulea Nikol’skaya are placed in synonymy under Calosota metallica (Gahan, syn. n. Calosota grylli Erdös is confirmed as a separate species from Calosota metallica based on features of both sexes. It is suggested that Calosota ariasi Bolívar y Pieltain may be a synonym of Calosota aestivalis, Calosota bolivari Askew may be a synonym
Kenrick W. Williams
Full Text Available Co-management of protected areas has been recognized as a viable option to sustainably manage ecosystems. This collaborative approach actively engages civil society in the protected areas governance processes. Attempts at co-management, however, have not been uniformly successful; whereas the governance of some initiatives succeed and become strong and sustainable, others become weak or fail over time. In this paper, we provide a nuanced application of Ostrom’s multi-tier SES framework to carry out a systematic analysis of representative cases of co-management in Belize. This novel approach allows us to avoid the common problem of overstating the explanatory power of individual variables, while enabling us to tease out the interrelationships among critical process and contextual variables that may influence co-management outcomes. Our findings show that strong co-management is associated with a multiplicity of variables, including information sharing, conflict resolution, investments, self-organization, and networking. Contextual conditions inclusive of strong leadership, social capital, and high levels of dependence on resources for daily livelihoods seem to have influenced these processes over time. The presence of cross-scale and cross-level networks also seems to be important in influencing co-management outcomes. Our study contributes to the further development of Ostrom’s multi-tier SES framework by proposing the addition of five new third-tier variables. We advance some key lessons in the analysis of co-management outcomes and offer some policy recommendations to improve protected areas co-management policy and practice in Belize.
Winer, Rachel A; Bennett, Eleanor; Murillo, Illouise; Schuetz-Mueller, Jan; Katz, Craig L
Belize trained psychiatric nurse practitioners (PNPs) in the early 1990s to provide mental health services throughout the country. Despite overwhelming success, the program is limited by lack of monitoring, evaluation, and surveillance. To promote quality assurance, we developed a chart audit tool to monitor mental healthcare delivery compliance for initial psychiatric assessment notes completed by PNPs. After reviewing the Belize Health Information System electronic medical record system, we developed a clinical audit tool to capture 20 essential components for initial assessment clinical notes. The audit tool was then piloted for initial assessment notes completed during July through September of 2013. One hundred and thirty-four initial psychiatric interviews were audited. The average chart score among all PNPs was 9.57, ranging from 3 to 15. Twenty-three charts-or 17.2%-had a score of 14 or higher and met a 70% compliance benchmark goal. Among indicators most frequently omitted included labs ordered and named (15.7%) and psychiatric diagnosis (21.6%). Explicit statement of medications initiated with dose and frequency occurred in 47.0% of charts. Our findings provide direction for training and improvement, such as emphasizing the importance of naming labs ordered, medications and doses prescribed, and psychiatric diagnoses in initial assessment clinical notes. We hope this initial assessment helps enhance mental health delivery compliance by prompting creation of BHIS templates, development of audits tools for revisit follow-up visits, and establishment of corrective actions for low-scoring practitioners. These efforts may serve as a model for implementing quality assurance programming in other low resource settings.
Dekker, Annette M; Amick, Ashley E; Scholcoff, Cecilia; Doobay-Persaud, Ashti
Non-communicable diseases, including diabetes mellitus and hypertension, continue to disproportionately burden low- and middle-income countries. However, little research has been done to establish current practices and management of chronic disease in these settings. The objective of this study was to examine current clinical management and identify potential gaps in care of patients with diabetes mellitus and hypertension in the district of Toledo, Belize. The study used a mixed methodology to assess current practices and identify gaps in diabetes mellitus and hypertension care. One hundred and twenty charts of the general clinic population were reviewed to establish disease epidemiology. One hundred and seventy-eight diabetic and hypertensive charts were reviewed to assess current practices. Twenty providers completed questionnaires regarding diabetes mellitus and hypertension management. Twenty-five individuals with diabetes mellitus and/or hypertension answered a questionnaire and in-depth interview. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus and hypertension was 12%. Approximately 51% (n = 43) of patients with hypertension were at blood pressure goal and 26% (n = 21) diabetic patients were at glycemic goal based on current guidelines. Of the patients with uncontrolled diabetes, 49% (n = 29) were on two oral agents and only 10% (n = 6) were on insulin. Providers stated that barriers to appropriate management include concerns prescribing insulin and patient health literacy. Patients demonstrated a general understanding of the concept of chronic illness, however lacked specific knowledge regarding disease processes and self-management strategies. This study provides an initial overview of diabetes mellitus and hypertension management in a diverse patient population in rural Belize. Results indicate areas for future investigation and possible intervention, including barriers to insulin use and opportunities for lifestyle-specific disease education for
Exceptional Parent, 1974
The Statement of the Spina Bifida Association of America (SBAA) explains SB as a malformation of the central nervous system, reports the formation of SBAA in 1974, explains SBAA's emphasis on local chapter organization, and describes SBAA services, including a bimonthly publication, public education efforts, and research validation projects. (GW)
McConnell-Farmer, Judith Lynne; Cook, Pamela R.; Farmer, M. W.
Early childhood education (ECE) provision is becoming a growing priority. During the past twenty years, Latin America has shown a growing recognition in the provision of educational programs for young children, birth to age eight, is essential. Urban and rural populations intimated in 2009, that many countries utilizing equitable access to…
Benjamim Bley de Brito Neves
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Magmatic arcs are an essential part of crust-forming events in planet Earth evolution. The aim of this work was to describe an early Ediacaran magmatic arc (ca. 635-580 Ma exposed in the northernmost portion of the Transversal Zone, central subprovince of Borborema Province, northeast Brazil. Our research took advantage of several syntheses by different authors, including theses and dissertations, carried out on magmatic rocks of the study area for the last 30 years. The ca. 750 km long and up to 140 km wide arc, trending ENE-WSW, is preserved to the south of the Patos Lineament, between 35º15' and 42º30'W and 7º15' and 8ºS. About 90 different stocks and batholiths of I-type granitic rocks were mapped along this orogenic zone, preferentially intruding low-grade schists of the Cryogenian-Ediacaran Piancó-Alto Brígida (SPAB belt. Three igneous supersuites are recognized: a epidote-bearing granodiorites and tonalites ("Conceição" type; b high-K calc-alkaline granites ("Itaporanga" type; c biotite granodiorites of trondhjemite affinity ("Serrita" type. A fourth group of peralkalic and shoshonitic rocks occurs to the south of the previous ones, reflecting special tectonic conditions. NNE-SSW trending Paleoproterozoic fold belts, surrounding Archean nuclei, characterize the continental part of the northern lower plate. The oceanic fraction of this lower plate was recycled by subduction and scarce remnants of which may be seen either within the enclosing low-grade schists or as xenoliths within the arc intrusions. The upper continental plate presents WSW-ENE structural trends and is composed of Neoproterozoic fold belts and Paleoproterozoic reworked basement inliers. Available data bear clear evidence of an Ediacaran magmatic arc built at the northern portion of the Transversal Zone in the Borborema Province, northeast Brazil.
Full Text Available Recientes investigaciones realizadas con muestras procedentes de sitios arqueológicos de las Sierras Centrales han propuesto diversas hipótesis para explicar los procesos de poblamiento humano ocurridos en la región. Debido a su carácter de área geográfica intermedia, las poblaciones asentadas en esta región fueron vinculadas con otras procedentes del área andina, y más recientemente, con poblaciones de las regiones de Cuyo, Litoral y sur del país. Para el presente estudio se seleccionó una muestra de 38 individuos masculinos procedentes de diversos sitios arqueológicos de las provincias de Córdoba y San Luis. Esta muestra se comparó, mediante diversas técnicas de análisis (cluster análisis, componentes principales, con poblaciones procedentes de otras regiones del país y Sudamérica publicadas en la literatura, con el objetivo de establecer relaciones biológicas y analizar así posibles vías de poblamiento de la región. Se trabajó con 24 variables morfométricas, pero a los fines comparativos se emplearon aquellas que hubieran sido analizadas en las poblaciones seleccionadas. Los resultados ponen de manifiesto que la serie Córdoba presenta mayor similitud con poblaciones del sur del país, más precisamente de Chubut, y no con poblaciones andinas o de la zona de Cuyo, como se ha postulado. Por otra parte, cuando se la compara con otras poblaciones de Sudamérica, Córdoba ocupa una posición cercana a poblaciones del sur de Brasil, sugiriendo una posible vía de acceso desde el Este. Se discute la influencia de la selección de variables en la definición de las agrupaciones biológicas.
Lederman, Leon M.
As Director of Fermilab, starting in 1979, I began a series of meetings with scientists in Latin America. The motivation was to stir collaboration in the field of high energy particle physics, the central focus of Fermilab. In the next 13 years, these Pan American Symposia stirred much discussion of the use of modern physics, created several groups to do collaborative research at Fermilab, and often centralized facilities and, today, still provides the possibility for much more productive North-South collaboration in research and education. In 1992, I handed these activities over to the AAAS, as President. This would, I hoped, broaden areas of collaboration. Such collaboration is unfortunately very sensitive to political events. In a rational world, it would be the rewards, cultural and economic, of collaboration that would modulate political relations. We are not there yet
Pleurodese nos derrames pleurais malignos: um inquérito entre médicos em países da América do Sul e Central Pleurodesis for malignant pleural effusions: a survey of physicians in South and Central America
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A pleurodese é uma alternativa eficaz no controle dos derrames pleurais malignos, mas existem controvérsias a respeito de sua indicação e técnica. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar como é realizada a pleurodese em países da América do Sul e Central. MÉTODOS: Profissionais que realizam pleurodese responderam um questionário sobre critérios de indicação para pleurodese, técnicas utilizadas e desfechos. RESULTADOS: Nossa amostra envolveu 147 profissionais no Brasil, 49 em outros países da América do Sul e 36 em países da América Central. Mais de 50% dos participantes realizavam pleurodese somente se confirmada a malignidade no derrame pleural. Entretanto, escalas de dispneia e de status de performance eram raramente utilizadas para indicar o procedimento. Aproximadamente 75% dos participantes no Brasil e na América Central preferiam realizar a pleurodese somente no caso de recidiva do derrame, e a expansão pulmonar deveria variar de 90% a 100%. O talco slurry foi o agente mais utilizado, instilado via drenos de calibre intermediário. A toracoscopia foi realizada em menos de 25% dos casos. Febre e dor torácica foram os efeitos adversos mais comuns, e empiema ocorreu em OBJECTIVE: Pleurodesis is an effective alternative for the control of malignant pleural effusions. However, there is as yet no consensus regarding the indications for the procedure and the techniques employed therein. The objective of this study was to evaluate how pleurodesis is performed in South and Central America. METHODS: Professionals who perform pleurodesis completed a questionnaire regarding the indications for the procedure, the techniques used therein, and the outcomes obtained. RESULTS: Our sample comprised 147 respondents in Brazil, 49 in other South American countries, and 36 in Central America. More than 50% of the respondents reported performing pleurodesis only if pleural malignancy had been confirmed. However, scores on dyspnea and
Climate impacts of deforestation/land-use changes in Central South America in the PRECIS regional climate model: mean precipitation and temperature response to present and future deforestation scenarios.
Canziani, Pablo O; Carbajal Benitez, Gerardo
Deforestation/land-use changes are major drivers of regional climate change in central South America, impacting upon Amazonia and Gran Chaco ecoregions. Most experimental and modeling studies have focused on the resulting perturbations within Amazonia. Using the Regional Climate Model PRECIS, driven by ERA-40 reanalysis and ECHAM4 Baseline model for the period 1961-2000 (40-year runs), potential effects of deforestation/land-use changes in these and other neighboring ecoregions are evaluated. Current 2002 and estimated 2030 land-use scenarios are used to assess PRECIS's response during 1960-2000. ERA-40 and ECHAM4 Baseline driven runs yield similar results. Precipitation changes for 2002 and 2030 land-use scenarios, while significant within deforested areas, do not result in significant regional changes. For temperature significant changes are found within deforested areas and beyond, with major temperature enhancements during winter and spring. Given the current climate, primary effects of deforestation/land-use changes remain mostly confined to the tropical latitudes of Gran Chaco, and Amazonia.
Charles C. Kolb
Full Text Available The Cotsen Institute's Director of Publications is archaeologist Marilyn Beaudry-Corbett, herself a specialist on the production and distribution of archaeological ceramics in Mesoamerica and Central America and a scholar of complex society economic organization. Her colleague and the co-editor of this volume, Ellen Hardy, is a Research Associate at The Cotsen Institute and an expert on mortuary customs of the Nicoya region. Theodore (Ted Gutman (1909-1997 was a longtime supporter of the Institute at UCLA worked on a number of translation projects, several of which are presented here. He was the translator of Karl Sapper's Verapaz im 16. und 17. jahrhundert, which appeared as The Verapaz in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries: A Contribution to the Historical Geography and Ethnography of Northeastern Guatemala (Los Angeles, University of California, Institute of Archaeology, Occasional Paper 13, 1985. The contributors to the volume's narrative include, in addtion to Beaudry-Corbett and Hardy, nine other anthropologists who are recognized experts on the region and subject matter.
Takeuchi, Noel Y.; Walsh, Michael T; Bonde, Robert K.; Powell, James A.; Bass, Dean A.; Gaspard, Joseph C.; Barber, David S.
The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) is exposed to a number of anthropogenic influences, including metals, as they inhabit shallow waters with close proximity to shore. While maintaining homeostasis of many metals is crucial for health, there is currently no baseline reference range that can be used to make clinical and environmental decisions for this endangered species. In this study, whole blood samples from 151 manatees were collected during health assessments performed in Florida and Belize from 2008 through 2011. Whole blood samples (n = 37) from managed care facilities in Florida and Belize from 2009 through 2011 were also used in this study. The concentrations of 17 metals in whole blood were determined, and the data were used to derive a baseline reference range. Impacts of capture location, age, and sex on whole blood metal concentrations were examined. Location and age were related to copper concentrations as values were significantly higher in habitats near urban areas and in calves. Copper may also be a husbandry concern as concentrations were significantly higher in managed manatees (1.17 ± 0.04 ppm) than wild manatees (0.73 ± 0.02 ppm). Zinc (11.20 ± 0.30 ppm) was of special interest as normal concentrations were two to five times higher than other marine mammal species. Arsenic concentrations were higher in Belize (0.43 ± 0.07 ppm), with Placencia Lagoon having twice the concentration of Belize City and Southern Lagoon. Selenium concentrations were lower (0.18 ± 0.09 ppm) than in other marine mammal species. The lowest selenium concentrations were observed in rehabilitating and managed manatees which may warrant additional monitoring in managed care facilities. The established preliminary baseline reference range can be used by clinicians, biologists, and managers to monitor the health of West Indian manatees.
Chicas, S D; Omine, K; Ford, J B; Sugimura, K; Yoshida, K
Understanding the trans-boundary deforestation history and patterns in protected areas along the Belize-Guatemala border is of regional and global importance. To assess deforestation history and patterns in our study area along a section of the Belize-Guatemala border, we incorporated multi-temporal deforestation rate analysis and spatial metrics with survey results. This multi-faceted approach provides spatial analysis with relevant insights from local stakeholders to better understand historic deforestation dynamics, spatial characteristics and human perspectives regarding the underlying causes thereof. During the study period 1991-2014, forest cover declined in Belize's protected areas: Vaca Forest Reserve 97.88%-87.62%, Chiquibul National Park 99.36%-92.12%, Caracol Archeological Reserve 99.47%-78.10% and Colombia River Forest Reserve 89.22%-78.38% respectively. A comparison of deforestation rates and spatial metrics indices indicated that between time periods 1991-1995 and 2012-2014 deforestation and fragmentation increased in protected areas. The major underlying causes, drivers, impacts, and barriers to bi-national collaboration and solutions of deforestation along the Belize-Guatemala border were identified by community leaders and stakeholders. The Mann-Whitney U test identified significant differences between leaders and stakeholders regarding the ranking of challenges faced by management organizations in the Maya Mountain Massif, except for the lack of assessment and quantification of deforestation (LD, SH: 18.67, 23.25, U = 148, p > 0.05). The survey results indicated that failure to integrate buffer communities, coordinate among managing organizations and establish strong bi-national collaboration has resulted in continued ecological and environmental degradation. The information provided by this research should aid managing organizations in their continued aim to implement effective deforestation mitigation strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier
analizar el Mecanismo de Diálogo y Concertación de Tuxtla-Gutiérrez y sus tres ámbitos de operación: 1. El ámbito político. 2. El ámbito del desarrollo. 3. El ámbito de la cooperación técnica regional. 4. El ámbito económico, comercial y financiero.Mexico as well as Brazil (first decade of 2000 started to release geo-economic and geo-political projections about their unmediated surroundings (their region of belonging and their mediated surroundings (their neighboring region, besides playing major political roles in their far surroundings (the Latin American and Caribbean region and their remote surroundings (the American continent. As a result, we have proposed and developed the idea that such situations and realities are those of processes of constitution of States with "sub-hegemonic" roles, with their respective functions of "sub-hegemony". We therefore ask the following question: Why are both Mexico and Brazil defining "sub-hegemonic" roles? Are such roles and functions possible within a continental space where a "superpower" exerts unquestionable "supremacy" besides seeking to redefine its "hegemony" (the one now undergoing a crisis? In order to work on the theme of Mexico's geopolitical relations with Central America, we have carried out four approximations: Mexico's current stance; historical background of the relations; process of institutionalization of cooperation; and field of action of the relations. Besides, the work is concluded with some ideas about Mexico's geopolitical view. The approximation to Mexico's structural stance in the world and in the American Continent seeks to highlight realities in its condition of semiperipheral and "sub-hegemonic" country. The historical approximation leads to the 1980s and the 1990s, when the background for Mexico's cooperation with Central America is established and that cooperation is started and strengthened. The institutional approximation, focused on the 1990s and the early 2000s, approaches the field of
The traditional view of colonization of the Americas as a migration across Beringia and subsequent dispersal southward following the last glacial maximum is being increasingly questioned. In North America, archaeological links to Siberia are tenuous and genetic data are more consistent with an earlier entry of people into the Americas, from Central rather than Northeast Siberia. An entry of populations into the Americas prior to the last glacial maximum forces a reconsideration not only of ti...
Shaw, C A; McDonald, H G
A right metacarpal III represents the first North American record of the giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla). Recovered in northwestern Sonora, Mexico, with a rich vertebrate fauna of early Pleistocene (Irvingtonian) age, it belongs to a cohort of large mammals that dispersed from South America to North America along a savanna corridor. Presumably habitat and climatic changes have subsequently driven this mammalian family more than 3000 kilometers back into Central America from its former expansion into temperate North America.
RUSSIA FOREIGN POLICY IN LATIN AMERICA — CASE STUDY OF NICARAGUA A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and...MAY 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Russia Foreign Policy In Latin America — Case Study Of Nicaragua 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...open arctic channel in the North and in reviving diplomatic contacts and military exercises in Latin America. In Central America specifically, Russia
Goldfarb, L. A.; Kingsley, C.; Urbalejo, A. A.; Hangsterfer, A.; Gee, J. S.; Carilli, J.; Feinberg, J. M.; Mitra, R.; Bhattacharya, A.; Field, D.
Caribbean coral reefs are some of the most threatened marine ecosystems in the world. Research suggest that environmental stressors of local origin, such as sediment run off, can reduce the resilience of these reefs to global threats such as ocean warming. Material trapped in coral skeletons can provide information on the sources of particulate matter in the ocean ecosystem. Despite the importance of quantifying sources and types of materials trapped in corals, the research community is yet to fully develop techniques that allow accurate representation of trapped matter, which is potentially a major source of metal content in reef building coral skeletons. The dataset presented here is a progress and combination of two works presented at American Geophysical Union 2016 Fall Meeting; In this research, we explore the efficacy of X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), a widely used tool in environmental studies (but generally not in corals), to estimate detrital metal content in coral cores collected from four locations near Belize, with varying degrees of impact from coastal processes. Four coral cores together cover a period of 1862-2006. Trace, major and minor metal content from these cores have been well-studied using solution-based ICP-MS, providing us with the unique opportunity to test the efficacy of XRF technique in characterizing metal content in these coral cores. We have measured more than 50 metals using XRF every two millimeters along slabs removed from the middle of a coral core spanning to characterize materials present in coral skeletons. We compare the results from XRF to elemental concentrations reported from solution-based ICP-MS. Furthermore, we also compare our XRF data to magnetic measurements we have made in these same coral cores. Overall, it appears that the non-destructive XRF technique is a viable supplement to the ICP-MS in determining sediment and metal content in coral cores, and may be particularly helpful for assessing resistant phases such as
some time ago. But the sheer brutality of the Guatemalan regime is another insurgent asset: poverty, neglect and then repression politicized the...of the insurgent right lies in their ability to sow sheer terror. Thay can enforce complicity, in a limited fashion at least. Beyond this, however...Rossi, Ernest E. and Piano , Jack C. The Latin American Political Dictionary. Santa Barbara, Calif., 1980. Ryan, John Morris, et. al. Area Handbook
Full Text Available A partir de la revisión morfológica de 499 ejemplares adultos y datos bibliográficos se actualizó la identidad y la distribución precisa de las especies del género Hydrophilus Geoffroy, 1762 que habitan en México y Centroamérica. Se presenta a H. (Dibolocelus purpuracens Régimbart, 1901 como nuevo registro para México. Las especies más ampliamente distribuidas son H. (H. ensifer Brullé, 1837 en 5 países y las Antillas e H. (H. insularis Castelnau, 1840 en 4 países y las Antillas. Los países con mayor riqueza fueron México con 5 especies, y Nicaragua y Costa Rica con 3 especies. En México el estado con mayor riqueza es Veracruz, y en Nicaragua los departamentos de León y Río San Juan. Se presenta una clave ilustrada para el reconocimiento de las especies.The taxonomy and precise distribution of the species of the genus Hydrophilus Geoffroy, 1762 from Mexico and Central America are reviewed, based on the morphological study of499 adult specimens, descriptions and literature records. Hydrophilus (Dibolocelus purpuracens Régimbart, 1901 is recorded for the first time for Mexico. Species with widest distribution are H. (H. ensifer Brullé, 1837 cited from 5 countries and in the Antilles, and H. (H. insularis Castelnau, 1840 cited from 4 countries and the Antilles. The richest countries are Mexico with 5 species, and Costa Rica and Nicaragua with 3 species. The highest species richness is recorded for the state of Veracruz, Mexico, and from the departments of León and Río San Juan, Nicaragua. An illustrated key to the species is included.
Taylor, D.S.; Reyier, E.A.; Davis, W.P.; McIvor, C.C.
We investigated the effects of mangrove cutting on fish assemblages in Twin Cays, Belize, in two habitat types. We conducted visual censuses at two sites in adjoining undisturbed/disturbed (30%–70% of shoreline fringe removed) sub-tidal fringing Rhizophora mangle Linnaeus, 1753. Observers recorded significantly more species and individuals in undisturbed sites, especially among smaller, schooling species (e.g., atherinids, clupeids), where densities were up to 200 times greater in undisturbed habitat. Multivariate analyses showed distinct species assemblages between habitats at both sites. In addition, extensive trapping with wire minnow traps within the intertidal zone in both undisturbed and disturbed fringing and transition (landward) mangrove forests was conducted. Catch rates were low: 638 individuals from 24 species over 563 trap-nights. Trap data, however, indicated that mangrove disturbance had minimal effect on species composition in either forest type (fringe/transition). Different results from the two methods (and habitat types) may be explained by two factors: (1) a larger and more detectable species pool in the subtidal habitat, with visual "access" to all species, and (2) the selective nature of trapping. Our data indicate that even partial clearing of shoreline and more landward mangroves can have a significant impact on local fish assemblages.
Anderson-Fye, Eileen P
Eating disorders have been associated with developing nations undergoing rapid social transition, including participation in a global market economy and heavy media exposure. San Andrés, Belize, a community with many risk factors associated with the cross-cultural development of eating disorders, has shown remarkable resistance to previously documented patterns, despite a local focus on female beauty. Drawing on longitudinal person-centered ethnography with adolescent girls, this article examines why this community appears exceptional in light of the literature. First, community beauty and body image ideals and practices are explicated. Then, a protective ethnopsychology is proposed as a key mediating factor of the rapid socio-cultural change among young women. Finally, possible nascent cases of eating disordered behavior are discussed in light of their unique phenomenology: that is, having to do more with economic opportunity in the tourism industry and less with personal distress or desire for thinness. Close, meaning-centered examination of eating and body image practices may aid understanding and prevention of eating disorders among adolescents undergoing rapid social change in situations of globalization and immigration.
The PACARDO research project: youthful drug involvement in Central America and the Dominican Republic Proyecto de investigación PACARDO: el consumo de drogas entre la juventud en Centroamérica y la República Dominicana
Catherine M. Dormitzer
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the occurrence and school-level clustering of drug involvement among school-attending adolescent youths in each of seven countries in Latin America, drawing upon evidence from the PACARDO research project, a multinational collaborative epidemiological research study. METHODS: During 1999-2000, anonymous self-administered questionnaires on drug involvement and related behaviors were administered to a cross-sectional, nationally representative sample that included a total of 12 797 students in the following seven countries: Costa Rica (n= 1 702, the Dominican Republic (n= 2 023, El Salvador (n= 1 628, Guatemala (n= 2 530, Honduras (n= 1 752, Nicaragua (n= 1 419, and Panama (n= 1 743. (The PACARDO name concatenates PA for Panamá,CA for Centroamérica,and RDO for República Dominicana. Estimates for exposure opportunity and actual use of alcohol, tobacco, inhalants, marijuana, cocaine (crack/coca paste, amphetamines and methamphetamines, tranquilizers, ecstasy, and heroin were assessed via responses about questions on age of first chance to try each drug, and first use. Logistic regression models accounting for the complex survey design were used to estimate the associations of interest. RESULTS: Cumulative occurrence estimates for alcohol, tobacco, inhalants, marijuana, and illegal drug use for the overall sample were, respectively: 52%, 29%, 5%, 4%, and 5%. In comparison to females, males were more likely to use alcohol, tobacco, inhalants, marijuana, and illegal drugs; the odds ratio estimates were 1.3, 2.1, 1.6, 4.1, and 3.2, respectively. School-level clustering was noted in all countries for alcohol and tobacco use; it was also noted in Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Panama for illegal drug use. CONCLUSIONS: This report sheds new light on adolescent drug experiences in Panama, the five Spanish-heritage countries of Central America, and the Dominican Republic, and presents the first estimates of school
Lindsay, G N
As government increasingly recognizes its own obligations to support and provide family planning as a health and social measure, serious questions are raised as to the proper role for Planned Parenthood World Federation as a private organization. Federal programs both at home and abroad tend to make private fundraising more difficult, whatever the role of this organization may be. Contrary to common impression, experience thus far indicates that the existence of governmental programs does not decrease demands on Planned Parenthood as a private agency. A wide gap also exists between public acceptance, which has been realized, and public conviction, which still has not been accepted. Only those who feel distress at the vision of an all-encompassing megalopolis, only those with concern for the qualify of life in the crowd, and only those who see finite limits of resources recognize that the US must someday plan a halt to population growth. As the gap between the developed and the underdeveloped world widens, economists point out that the US, with less than 6% of the world's population, already consumes some 50% of the world's available raw materials. Business and government leaders are beginning to understand the rate at which an industrial and affluent society consumes the world's substance and threatens the environment. If the assumption is correct that the population explosion constitutes a major threat to life on earth, then America's own attitudes and actions at home, as well as abroad and in the developing countries, are vital. In the next few years Planned Parenthood faces the task of converting the tide of public acceptance into one of conviction and effective action on a giant scale both at home and abroad. In its effort, Planned Parenthood has continued to expand its own service functions. It now has 157 local affiliates with an additional 30 in the organizational stage. In 1967 Planned Parenthood affiliates operated 470 family planning centers, 71 more than
both licit and illicit networks. Traditional territorial security concerns declined in the Americas following the end of the Cold War, and NAFTA in...Central America, and the Caribbean in the 1980s into the United States and Mexico in the last decade. This dynamic has fostered substantial illicit...deepen economic ties and liberalize regimes, privileging development over security.12 Similarly, trade, fostered through NAFTA , has shaped and affected
Esselman, P.C.; Freeman, Mary C.; Pringle, C.M.
Linkages between geology and fish assemblages have been inferred in many regions throughout the world, but no studies have yet investigated whether fish assemblages differ across geologies in Mesoamerica. The goals of our study were to: 1) compare physicochemical conditions and fish-assemblage structure across 2 geologic types in headwaters of the Monkey River Basin, Belize, and 2) describe basin-scale patterns in fish community composition and structure for the benefit of conservation efforts. We censused headwater-pool fishes by direct observation, and assessed habitat size, structure, and water chemistry to compare habitat and fish richness, diversity, evenness, and density between streams in the variably metamorphosed sedimentary geologic type typical of 80% of Belize's Maya Mountains (the Santa Rosa Group), and an anomalous extrusive geologic formation in the same area (the Bladen Volcanic Member). We also collected species-presence data from 20 sites throughout the basin for analyses of compositional patterns from the headwaters to the top of the estuary. Thirty-nine fish species in 21 families were observed. Poeciliids were numerically dominant, making up 39% of individuals captured, followed by characins (25%), and cichlids (20%). Cichlidae was the most species-rich family (7 spp.), followed by Poeciliidae (6 spp.). Habitat size and water chemistry differed strongly between geologic types, but habitat diversity did not. Major fish-assemblage differences also were not obvious between geologies, despite a marked difference in the presence of the aquatic macrophyte, Marathrum oxycarpum (Podostemaceae), which covered 37% of the stream bottom in high-nutrient streams draining the Santa Rosa Group, and did not occur in the low-P streams draining the Bladen Volcanic Member. Correlation analyses suggested that distance from the sea and amount of cover within pools are important to fish-assemblage structure, but that differing abiotic factors may influence
McClanahan, T.; Karnauskas, M.
Benthic cover, current strengths, and fish abundance and diversity were examined on 150 lagoonal patch reefs and mapped to determine their distribution, inter-relationships, and relationship to the fisheries closure in Glovers Reef Atoll. Current strength was highest at both the northern and southern ends of the atoll and largely controlled by local wind and weakly by tidal forcing. Benthic functional group distributions varied throughout the atoll and had distinct areas of dominance. In contrast, dominance of coral species was weaker, reflecting the lost cover and zonation of Acropora, Porites, and Montastraea that were reported in the 1970s. Hard and soft corals dominated the windward rim, while the central and leeward lagoon had lower current strengths and sea grass and fleshy green algae were relatively more abundant. Brown erect algae were relatively more common in the north and calcifying green and red algae the southern ends of the atoll. Only Montastraea- Agaricia agaricites distributions were similar to reports from the 1970s with high relative dominance in the southern and northeast atoll. The central-northern zone, which was described as an Acropora zone in the 1970s, was not recognizable, and Porites porites, P. astreoides, Millepora alcicornis, and Favia fragum were the most abundant species during this survey . Hard and soft coral cover abundance declined away from the reef rim and tidal channels and was associated with fast seawater turnover and high surgeonfish abundance. Consequently, the windward rim area has retained the most original and persistent hard-soft coral and surgeonfish community and is considered a priority for future management, if the goal is to protect coral from fishing impacts.
Black, Jan Knippers
There is a growing unacknowledged reality to the oneness of America. Latin America is increasingly sharing not only the blessings of U.S.-style modernization, but its demons as well. Also, many problems that have long plagued Latin America, e.g., indebtedness and militarism, are becoming more apparent in the United States. (RM)
Central America, as where mean temperatures are relatively warm throughout the year de- so spite seasonal rainfall changes. 75 Elevation, solar angle...November 1982 Control Hidalgo Anos.1952-1963, Republica de Nicaragua, Ministerio de Formento Y O0.PP, Comision Nacional de Energia . Craig, Richard A., The
Full Text Available Climate-smart agriculture (CSA is proposed as a necessity, as the agricultural sector will need to adapt to resist future climatic change, to which high emissions from the sector contribute significantly. This study, which is an exploratory case study based on qualitative interviews and field observations, investigates the barriers to making a CSA-adjustment in maize production among Maya communities in southern Belize. The adjustment is alley cropping, which is a low-input adjustment that has the potential to result in both adaptation and mitigation benefits, and furthermore, to enhance food security. The findings show that a CSA-adjustment in small-scale maize production in Maya villages in southern Belize is possible in principle, though several barriers can make the overall climate-smart objective difficult to implement in practice. The barriers are of a proximate and indirect nature, exist at different spatial scales, and involve various levels of governance. The barriers are shown to be land tenure, market access, and changes in the traditional culture, however, these barriers are not homogenous across the villages in the region. To break down the barriers an overall district-level strategy is possible, but the toolbox should contain a wide variety of approaches. These could happen, for instance, through alterations to land tenure and the land taxation system nationally, enhancement of the agricultural extension system to ease access to knowledge and input at the district level, and support to a less complex governance structure at the village level.
Giovanni Garro Monge
Full Text Available In the last decade, the adoption of Genetically Modified Crops (GMC has increased in stages worldwide. The worldwide total area planted with biotech crops reached 148 million hectares by 2010, also increasing the number of farmers around the world who decided to produce crops with this technology. At the regional level there are different responses of government agencies by generating rules and regu- lations according to the reality of these countries. In Central America, countries with greater partici- pation in the development and cultivation of food biotechnology techniques are Guatemala (papa- ya, Honduras (beans and maize and Costa Rica (cotton, soybean and pineapple, placing the latter two in the 29 countries with more GMO planting crops worldwide in 2010. Some of the countries of the region have implemented governance structures for the regulation through technical committees on Biosafety. The most important characteristics in terms of trade continue to be those that confer herbicide tolerance or pest resistance. But notice the incur- sion of new products that contain changes in their content, which are emerging as an alternative with great perspectives in the region. These experiences of culture and Biosafety regula- tion at the regional level could be a successful and progressive development of agricultural and food biotechnology in the near future.En la última década, la adopción de Cultivos Genéticamente Modificados (CGM se ha incre- mentado de forma escalonada a nivel mundial. El área sembrada con cultivos biotecnológicos llegó a un total de 148 millones de hectáreas en 2010, aumentando también el número de agricultores que decidieron producir este tipo de cultivos. A nivel regional, se producen respuestas diversas de los órganos gubernamentales mediante reglamen- tos y normativas acordes con la realidad local. En Centroamérica, los países con mayor participación en el desarrollo y cultivo de alimentos utilizando t
Establishment of a new genus for Parastenocaris itica (Copepoda, Harpacticoida from El Salvador, Central America, with discussion of the Parastenocaris fontinalis and P. proserpina groups Proposta de um novo gênero para Parastenocaris itica (Copepoda, Harpacticoida de El Salvador, América Central e discussão dos grupos Parastenocaris fontinalis e P. proserpina
Paulo Henrique C. Corgosinho
Full Text Available A new genus of Parastenocarididae is described from the Neotropical region. Iticocaris gen. nov. is established to include Parastenocaris itica Noodt, 1962. Iticocaris gen. nov. is defined by the following characters: 1 male leg 3 with 2-segmented exopod; 2 first exopodal segment short and rectangular; 3 thumb hypertrophic, longer than the second exopodal segment and inserted on the distal edge of exopod segment 1, occupying the whole distal margin; 4 exopod 2 or apophysis strongly sclerotized, articulated with the exopod segment 1 on its inner margin and curved against the thumb, forming a strong forceps; 5 leg 4 endopod without dimorphism in shape and size vs. minor dimorphism in ornamentation; 6 leg 5 with three setae and 7 lack of the anterolateral furcal seta II. The new genus is monotypic, represented by Iticocaris itica (Noodt, 1962 comb. nov., from El Salvador, Central America. A close relationship is hypothesized between I. itica and the genus Brasilibathynellocaris Jakobi, 1972, the males of which both share the forceps-like elongated apophysis.Um novo gênero de Parastenocarididae é proposto para a Região Neotropical para incluir Parastenocaris itica Noodt, 1962. Iticocaris gen. nov. é diagnosticado pela presença dos seguintes caracteres: 1 toracópodo 3 do macho com exópodo bissegmentado; 2 primeiro segmento exopodal curto e retangular; 3 "thumb" hipertrófico, mais longo que o segundo segmento do exópodo e inserido na margem distal do exópodo 1, ocupando toda a margem distal do segmento; 4 exópodo 2 ou apófise fortemente esclerotizado, articulado com o exópodo 1 em sua margem interna e curvado contra o "thumb", formando um forte fórceps; 5 endópodo do toracópodo 4 sem dimorfismo sexual quanto à forma e tamanho vs. discreto dimorfismo quanto à ornamentação; 6 toracópodo 5 com três cerdas e 7 furca sem a cerda anterolateral II. O novo gênero é monotípico, sendo representado por Iticocaris itica (Noodt, 1962 comb
Domínguez-Castro, Fernando; Vaquero, José Manuel; Gallego, María Cruz; Farrona, Ana María Marín; Antuña-Marrero, Juan Carlos; Cevallos, Erika Elizabeth; Herrera, Ricardo García; de La Guía, Cristina; Mejía, Raúl David; Naranjo, José Manuel; Del Rosario Prieto, María; Ramos Guadalupe, Luis Enrique; Seiner, Lizardo; Trigo, Ricardo Machado; Villacís, Marcos
This paper provides early instrumental data recovered for 20 countries of Latin-America and the Caribbean (Argentina, Bahamas, Belize, Brazil, British Guiana, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, France (Martinique and Guadalupe), Guatemala, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Puerto Rico, El Salvador and Suriname) during the 18th and 19th centuries. The main meteorological variables retrieved were air temperature, atmospheric pressure, and precipitation, but other variables, such as humidity, wind direction, and state of the sky were retrieved when possible. In total, more than 300,000 early instrumental data were rescued (96% with daily resolution). Especial effort was made to document all the available metadata in order to allow further post-processing. The compilation is far from being exhaustive, but the dataset will contribute to a better understanding of climate variability in the region, and to enlarging the period of overlap between instrumental data and natural/documentary proxies.
Domínguez-Castro, Fernando; Vaquero, José Manuel; Gallego, María Cruz; Farrona, Ana María Marín; Antuña-Marrero, Juan Carlos; Cevallos, Erika Elizabeth; Herrera, Ricardo García; de la Guía, Cristina; Mejía, Raúl David; Naranjo, José Manuel; Del Rosario Prieto, María; Ramos Guadalupe, Luis Enrique; Seiner, Lizardo; Trigo, Ricardo Machado; Villacís, Marcos
This paper provides early instrumental data recovered for 20 countries of Latin-America and the Caribbean (Argentina, Bahamas, Belize, Brazil, British Guiana, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, France (Martinique and Guadalupe), Guatemala, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Puerto Rico, El Salvador and Suriname) during the 18th and 19th centuries. The main meteorological variables retrieved were air temperature, atmospheric pressure, and precipitation, but other variables, such as humidity, wind direction, and state of the sky were retrieved when possible. In total, more than 300,000 early instrumental data were rescued (96% with daily resolution). Especial effort was made to document all the available metadata in order to allow further post-processing. The compilation is far from being exhaustive, but the dataset will contribute to a better understanding of climate variability in the region, and to enlarging the period of overlap between instrumental data and natural/documentary proxies.
Full Text Available This thesis first took an overall look at the relationship between Asia and Central and South America. Meanwhile, this thesis studied the growth potential of these two continents and the rapid growth trend compared with other areas. Based on these, this thesis emphasized the necessity of the cooperation between Asia and Central and South America, which has been alienated for a long period. Upon studying of this thesis, the reader will track the connection of the overseas investment strategy of Korea to the domestic and overseas economic factors while analyzing its motivation and feature, etc. Also, it analyzes Korea's future investment in Central and South America as comparing with the strategies of Japan and Taiwan. Besides, in this thesis the author is trying to get future-oriented experiences from the analyses in areas such as trade, investment experience, culture difference and personnel exchange, and the prospect of the relationship between Korea and Central and South America. This thesis brought forward the 'blueprint' about promoting the cooperation between Asia and Central and South America, such as to organize the meeting for the new setting summit conference of Asian and Central American leaders, to add members from Central and South America countries to the MERCOSUR of APEC, to expand items in order to promote mutual-communication.
Analyzes reviewers' assessments of all publications on Latin American education included in the "Handbook of Latin American Studies" since 1969. Compares publications on education in South America with those relating to Central America and the Caribbean. Concludes that although the quality of research has been uneven, progress is being…
Andereck, Mary E.; Dixon, Clifton V., Jr.
The purpose of this study was to quantitatively analyze the Latin American content of contemporary world geography textbooks published for United States secondary schools. A preliminary review of the literature indicated that Latin America was generally omitted from world geography texts, Central America was given minimal attention, and…
United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY. United States Committee.
This annotated bibliography of materials on Latin America is intended for children to age 14. South and Central America, Mexico, and the French, English, and Spanish speaking areas of the Caribbean are covered. Listings are by country and include history books, geography books, fiction, nonfiction, poetry, and folklore books. Some works in Spanish…
Lichter, Daniel T.
This article highlights the new racial and ethnic diversity in rural America, which may be the most important but least anticipated population shift in recent demographic history. Ethnoracial change is central to virtually every aspect of rural America over the foreseeable future: agro-food systems, community life, labor force change, economic…
Duration. 24 months. IDRC Officer. Smith, Matthew. Total funding. CA$ 482,841. Country(s). North and Central America, South America. Project Leader. Carlos Gregorio. Project Leader. Carlos Gregorio. Institution. Instituto de Investigación para la Justicia - Asociación Civil. Institution Country. Argentina. Institution Website.
Tamir, Jeremy; Haik, Josef; Orenstein, Arie; Schwartz, Eli
Dermatobia hominis is the most common cause of myiasis in Central and South America, affecting mammals and humans, causing nonhealing furuncle-like lesions. During the years 1994 to 1999, 14 Israeli travelers returning from South America were diagnosed with D hominis myiasis. The approach consists of correct diagnosis and a proper removal of the larvae, after which the patients heal with no complications.
IDRC Officer. Smith, Matthew. Total funding. CA$ 850,300. Country(s). North and Central America, South America, West Indies. Project Leader. Miguel Porrúa. Institution. General Secretariat of the Organization of American States. Institution Country. United States. Institution Website. http://www.oas.org. Outputs. Reports.
Elia Kazan's 1963 film, America America is a tribute to the immigrant experience of his own forebears, and has relevance to the refugee crisis of today. In stark black and white cinematography, the film provides insight into the refugee-immigrant experience, personified in Stavros, a young man longing for freedom, obsessed with an idealized America. His hope and innocence cannot safeguard him. His memories of his happy childhood and loving family create idealizing transferences to a world of others who manipulate and betray him as he undertakes his quest. Eventually he too learns to manipulate and betray, unconsciously identifying with the aggressor. History will offer ethical challenges, the black and white cinematography mirroring the black and white perception of good and bad, the shades of grey evoking a maturation of understanding.
Cruz, Christopher A
..., and a sympathetic population filled with anti-American sentiment, the Islamic terrorist threat is very real in South America and should be a major security concern for the United States. While U.S. Central Command (CENTCOM...
Peterson, James A.
Petroleum deposits in southeastern Mexico and Guatemala occur in two main basinal provinces, the Gulf Coast Tertiary basin area, which includes the Reforma and offshore Campeche Mesozoic fields, and the Peten basin of eastern Chiapas State (Mexico) and Guatemala. Gas production is mainly from Tertiary sandstone reservoirs of Miocene age. Major oil production, in order of importance, is from Cretaceous, Paleocene, and Jurassic carbonate reservoirs in the Reforma and offshore Campeche areas. Several small oil fields have been discovered in Cretaceous carbonate reservoirs in west-central Guatemala, and one major discovery has been reported in northwestern Guatemala. Small- to medium-sized oil accumulations also occur in Miocene sandstone reservoirs on salt structures in the Isthmus Saline basin of western Tabasco State, Mexico. Almost all important production is in salt structure traps or on domes and anticlines that may be related to deep-seated salt structures. Some minor oil production has occurred in Cretaceous carbonate reservoirs in a buried overthrust belt along the west flank of the Veracruz basin. The sedimentary cover of Paleozoic through Tertiary rocks ranges in thickness from about 6,000 m (20,000 ft) to as much as 12,000 m (40,000 ft) or more in most of the region. Paleozoic marine carbonate and clastic rocks 1,000 to 2,000 m (3,300 to 6,500 ft) thick overlie the metamorphic and igneous basement in part of the region; Triassic through Middle Jurassic red beds and evaporite deposits, including halite, apparently are present throughout the region, deposited in part in a Triassic graben system. Upper Jurassic (Oxfordian) through Cretaceous rocks make up the bulk of the Mesozoic regional carbonate bank complex, which dominates most of the area. Tertiary marine and continental clastic rocks, some of deep water origin, 3,000 to 10,000 m (10,000 to 35,000 ft) thick, are present in the coastal plain Tertiary basins. These beds grade eastward into a carbonate
Marcelo B. Labruna
Full Text Available Data on genus and infectious by Rickettsia were retrospectively compiled from the critical review literature regarding all countries in Latin America, Caribbean islands, Portugal and Spain. We considered all Rickettsia records reported for human and/or animal hosts, and/or invertebrate hosts considered being the vector. In a few cases, when no direct detection of a given Rickettsia group or species was available for a given country, the serologic method was considered. A total of 13 Rickettsia species have been recorded in Latin America and the Caribbean. The species with the largest number of country confirmed records were Rickettsia felis (9 countries, R. prowazekii (7 countries, R. typhi (6 countries, R. rickettsii (6 countries, R. amblyommii (5 countries, and R. parkeri (4 countries. The rickettsial records for the Caribbean islands (West Indies were grouped in only one geographical area. Both R. bellii, R. akari, and Candidatus ‘R. andeane’ have been recorded in only 2 countries each, whereas R. massiliae, R. rhipicephali, R.monteiroi, and R. africae have each been recorded in a single country (in this case, R. africae has been recorded in nine Caribbean Islands. For El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua, no specific Rickettsia has been reported so far, but there have been serological evidence of human or/and animal infection. The following countries remain without any rickettsial records: Belize, Venezuela, Guyana, Surinam, and Paraguay. In addition, except for a few islands, many Caribbean islands remain without records. A total of 12 Rickettsia species have been reported in Spain and Portugal: R. conorii, R. helvetica, R. monacensis, R. felis, R. slovaca, R. raoultii, R. sibirica, R. aeschlimannii, R. rioja, R. massiliae, R. typhi, and R. prowazekii. Amongst these Rickettsia species reported in Spain and Portugal, only R. prowazekii, R. typhi, R. felis, and R. massiliae have also been reported in Latin America. This study summarizes
Behavioral problems and tobacco use among adolescents in Central America and the Dominican Republic Problemas conductuales y consumo de tabaco en adolescentes de Centroamérica y la República Dominicana
Full Text Available Objectives. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between behavioral problems and tobacco use among adolescent students in six countries of Central America and in the Dominican Republic. Methods. Data were drawn from a multinational collaborative study that included questionnaire surveys of between 451 and 1 170 school-attending adolescents in each of the seven countries studied. Assessments were based on an adapted, Spanish-language version of the Drug Use Screening Inventory (DUSI. The conditional form of logistic regression was employed for analysis, matching students on type of school and area, with further statistical adjustments for sex, age, and selected risk factors. Results. Occurrence of tobacco use was observed to vary dramatically from country to country. Nonetheless, for the combined group of countries, the estimated odds of tobacco use in youths at the highest levels of behavioral problems was more than five times that for youths at the lowest levels, after controlling for sex, age, lack of participation in recreational activities, level of irritability, and levels of problems with school, family, and mental health. Country- specific analyses show that youths at the highest levels of behavioral problems have a consistently greater occurrence of tobacco use as compared to youths at the lowest levels of behavioral problems. Conclusions. These findings are concordant with prior studies on tobacco use among adolescents with behavioral problems. Although the magnitude of observed associations varied according to the country of residence, the strength of these associations and their significance by conventional standards were observed in nearly all the countries sampled. This is the first study in these seven countries on potentially causal relationships such as these. More research is needed to augment our knowledge regarding the observed cross-country differences and ultimately to develop, implement, and evaluate
Calvo-Gonzalez, Oscar; Castaneda, R. Andres; Farfan, Maria Gabriela; Reyes, German; Sousa, Liliana D.
This paper shows evidence that suggests the economic slowdown in Latin America and the Caribbean has already translated into slowing social gains, including decelerating poverty reduction, stagnating growth of the middle class, and lower income growth. The countries of South America outperformed Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean in poverty reduction during the decade up to 2012. B...
Luckey, George W. A.
This bulletin is divided into two parts: (1) South America; and (2) Mexico, Cuba, and Central America. The countries included under the term "Latin America" are so extensive and important, and the effects of the World War, direct and indirect, on all systems of education have been so disturbing, that one is at a loss to know how best to…
Sujet: TRADITIONAL MEDICINE, MEDICINAL PLANTS, INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE, SMALL ENTERPRISES. Région: Belize, North and Central America, South America. Programme: Fondements pour l'innovation. Financement total : CA$ 49,270.00. Projet Itzama : développement durable d'une communauté autochtone ...
Abernethy, Bob; Chandra, Subrato; Baden, Steven; Cummings, Jim; Cummings, Jamie; Beal, David; Chasar, David; Colon, Carlos; Dutton, Wanda; Fairey, Philip; Fonorow, Ken; Gil, Camilo; Gordon, Andrew; Hoak, David; Kerr, Ryan; Peeks, Brady; Kosar, Douglas; Hewes, Tom; Kalaghchy, Safvat; Lubliner, Mike; Martin, Eric; McIlvaine, Janet; Moyer, Neil; Liguori, Sabrina; Parker, Danny; Sherwin, John; Stroer, Dennis; Thomas-Rees, Stephanie; Daniel, Danielle; McIlvaine, Janet
This report summarizes the work conducted by the Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership (BAIHP - www.baihp.org) during the final b