WorldWideScience

Sample records for beliefs principled possibilities

  1. The Structuring Principle: Political Socialization and Belief Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searing, Donald D.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Assesses the significance of data on childhood political learning to political theory by testing the structuring principle,'' considered one of the central assumptions of political socialization research. This principle asserts that basic orientations acquired during childhood structure the later learning of specific issue beliefs.'' The…

  2. Should the precautionary principle guide our actions or our beliefs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peterson, M.B.

    2007-01-01

    Two interpretations of the precautionary principle are considered. According to the normative (action-guiding) interpretation, the precautionary principle should be characterised in terms of what it urges doctors and other decision makers to do. According to the epistemic (belief-guiding)

  3. Beliefs and Expectations of Principles of Marketing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, Linda; Gonzalez, Gabriel

    2004-01-01

    Students were surveyed to determine their beliefs and expectations prior to taking their Principles of Marketing class. The students were surveyed on the first day of class before any introduction to the course. The students were asked eight open-ended questions to determine their knowledge and awareness about marketing as a field of study. The…

  4. Principle of least action; some possible generalizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broucke, R.

    1982-01-01

    In this article we draw the attention to an important variational principle in dynamics: the Maupertuis-Jacobi Least Action Principle (MJLAP). This principle compares varied paths with the same energy h. We give two new proofs of the MJLAP (Sections 3 and 8) as well as a new unified variational principle which contains both Hamilton's Principle (HP) and the MJLAP as particular cases (Sections 4 and 9). The article also shows several new methods for the construction of a Lagrangian for a conservative dynamical system. As an example, we illustrate the theory with the classical Harmonic Oscillator Problem (Section 10). Our method is based on the theory of changes of independent variables in a dynamical system. It indirectly shows how a change of independent variable affects the self-adjointness of a dynamical system (Sections 5, 6, 7). Our new Lagrangians contain an arbitrary constant α, whose meaning needs to be studied, eventually in relation to the concepts of quantification or gauge transformations. The two important values of the constant α are 1 (Hamilton's principle) and 1/2 (Maupertuis-Jacobi Least Action Principle)

  5. A possible human counterpart of the principle of increasing entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Y.; An, K.N.; Yang, G.; Huang, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    It is well-known that the principle of increasing entropy holds for isolated natural systems that contain non-adaptive molecules. Here we present, for the first time, an experimental evidence for a possible human counterpart of the principle in an isolated social system that involves adaptive humans. Our work shows that the human counterpart is valid even though interactions among humans in social systems are distinctly different from those among molecules in natural systems. Thus, it becomes possible to understand social systems from this natural principle, at least to some extent.

  6. Expert systems - basic principles and possible applications in nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cain, D.G.; Schmidt, F.

    1987-01-01

    One of the primary goals of the application of mathematical methods and computational techniques in reactor physics is the effective and accurate solution of the neutron diffusion equation under various conditions. To reach this goal still requires much skill, experience, knowledge and imagination as can be seen from various contributions at this and other conferences. Experts are necessary. Will expert systems replace them. We shall discuss this question by describing the basic principles of problem solving by expert systems as compared to problem solving by mathematical and computational methods. From this we shall identify areas of possible applications of the new techniques in nuclear energy and develop some thoughts on present limitations. As a result we conclude that expert systems will not be able to replace experts as long as the experts use the systems to improve their own expertise

  7. Is weak violation of the Pauli principle possible?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignat'ev, A.Yu.; Kuz'min, V.A.

    1987-01-01

    The question considered in the work is whether there are models which can account for small violation of the Pauli principle. A simple algebra is constructed for the creation-annihilation operators, which contains a parameter β and describe small violation of the Pauli principle (the Pauli principle is valid exactly for β=0). The commutation relations in this algebra are trilinear. A model is presented, basing upon this commutator algebra, which allows transitions violating the Pauli principle, their probability being suppressed by a factor of β 2 (even though the Hamiltonian does not contain small parameters)

  8. Is a weak violation of the Pauli principle possible?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignat'ev, A.Y.; Kuz'min, V.A.

    1987-01-01

    We examine models in which there is a weak violation of the Pauli principle. A simple algebra of creation and annihilation operators is constructed which contains a parameter β and describes a weak violation of the Pauli principle (when β = 0 the Pauli principle is satisfied exactly). The commutation relations in this algebra turn out to be trilinear. A model based on this algebra is described. It allows transitions in which the Pauli principle is violated, but the probability of these transitions is suppressed by the quantity β 2 (even though the interaction Hamiltonian does not contain small parameters)

  9. Teachers' Beliefs about the Possibilities and Limitations of Digital Games in Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavis, Catherine; Rowan, Leonie; Dezuanni, Michael; McGillivray, Christie; O'Mara, Joanne; Prestridge, Sarah; Stieler-Hunt, Colleen; Thompson, Roberta; Zagami, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Teachers' beliefs about what it is (or is not) possible to achieve with digital games in educational contexts will inevitably influence the decisions that they make about how, when, and for what specific purposes they will bring these games into their classrooms. They play a crucial role in both shaping and responding to the complex contextual…

  10. The Effect of Content Representation Design Principles on Users' Intuitive Beliefs and Use of E-Learning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Samarraie, Hosam; Selim, Hassan; Zaqout, Fahed

    2016-01-01

    A model is proposed to assess the effect of different content representation design principles on learners' intuitive beliefs about using e-learning. We hypothesized that the impact of the representation of course contents is mediated by the design principles of alignment, quantity, clarity, simplicity, and affordance, which influence the…

  11. Is small violation of the Pauli principle possible?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatiev, A.Yu.; Kuzmin, V.A.

    1987-02-01

    The Pauli exclusion principle is one of the most fundamental laws of nature. Yet the experiment shows that many fundamental laws are in fact not absolute, but only approximate, i.e. are valid only to a certain accuracy. At present, however, there are no answers to the question: ''To what accuracy is the Pauli principle valid?'' This is so because there are no models capable of describing small deviations from the exclusion principle. In the present paper we consider the problem of constructing such models. We have constructed the simplest algebra of the creation and annihilation operators with a parameter β which incorporates the small violations of the Pauli principle (for β=0 the Pauli principle holds absolutely true). The commutation relations in this model prove to be trilinear. We then present a model Hamiltonian based on the constructed algebra which describes the Pauli principle violating transitions i.e. transitions of two identical particles into the same state with the probability suppressed by a factor of β 2 (notwithstanding the fact that the Hamiltonian itself does not contain any small parameters). (author). 8 refs

  12. Ethical Principles in European regulation of biotechnology - possibilities and pitfalls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Berit Andersen; Nielsen, Linda

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to discribe, analyse and assess the varying methods of operationalising ethical principles within European regulation of biotechnology, with the inclusion of proposals for different tools and models for use in future regulation. The aim of the report is first...

  13. Beliefs about the Etiology of Homosexuality and about the Ramifications of Discovering Its Possible Genetic Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Jane P.; Pfeffer, Carla A.; Jayaratne, Toby Epstein; Feldbaum, Merle; Petty, Elizabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    Homosexuality is viewed by many as a social problem. As such, there has been keen interest in elucidating the origins of homosexuality among many scholars, from anthropologists to zoologists, psychologists to theologians. Research has shown that those who believe sexual orientation is inborn are more likely to have tolerant attitudes toward gay men and lesbians, whereas those who believe it is a choice have less tolerant attitudes. The current qualitative study used in-depth, open-ended telephone interviews with 42 White and 44 Black Americans to gain insight into the public's beliefs about the possible genetic origins of homosexuality. Along with etiological beliefs (and the sources of information used to develop those beliefs), we asked respondents to describe the benefits and dangers of scientists discovering the possible genetic basis for homosexuality. We found that although limited understanding and biased perspectives likely led to simplistic reasoning concerning the origins and genetic basis of homosexuality, many individuals appreciated complex and interactive etiological perspectives. These interactive perspectives often included recognition of some type of inherent aspect, such as a genetic factor(s), that served as an underlying predisposition that would be manifested after being influenced by other factors such as choice or environmental exposures. We also found that beliefs in a genetic basis for homosexuality could be used to support very diverse opinions, including those in accordance with negative eugenic agendas. PMID:17594974

  14. Possible test of the strong principle of equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brecher, K.

    1978-01-01

    We suggest that redshift determinations of X-ray and γ-ray lines produced near the surface of neutron stars which arise from different physical processes could provide a significant test of the strong principle of equivalence for strong gravitational fields. As a complement to both the high-precision weak-field solar-system experiments and the cosmological time variation searches, such observations could further test the hypothesis that physics is locally the same at all times and in all places

  15. Prospective Teachers' Educational Beliefs and Their Views about the Principles of Critical Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Çaglar; Kaya, Sinem

    2017-01-01

    The main idea behind this research is to determine prospective teachers' educational beliefs and their views about critical pedagogy. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to analyze the relationship between prospective teachers' educational beliefs and their views about critical pedagogy. In this study, "Educational Beliefs Scale"…

  16. Possibility of full-cooperation in curbing global warming: Procrastination tendency and new principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Y

    2001-07-01

    Global commons such as the global atmosphere have the characteristic, in addition to that of minimum contribution threshold, that whilst the preservation cost is immediate, the benefits belong to future generations. It is derived that, based on the ideas of present-biased preference and naive belief on future selves, full-cooperation to cut greenhouse gasses emissions is procrastinated until the game structure is fundamentally changed. Principles on the assignment of entitlement to the global common pool resources are reexamined, and a new incentive scheme for developing countries to join in cooperative actions is proposed (au)

  17. Possibility of full-cooperation in curbing global warming: Procrastination tendency and new principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Global commons such as the global atmosphere have the characteristic, in addition to that of minimum contribution threshold, that whilst the preservation cost is immediate, the benefits belong to future generations. It is derived that, based on the ideas of present-biased preference and naive belief on future selves, full-cooperation to cut greenhouse gasses emissions is procrastinated until the game structure is fundamentally changed. Principles on the assignment of entitlement to the global common pool resources are reexamined, and a new incentive scheme for developing countries to join in cooperative actions is proposed (au)

  18. Exploring Cramming: Student Behaviors, Beliefs, and Learning Retention in the Principles of Marketing Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Shelby H.; Munson, J. Michael

    2008-01-01

    Cramming for finals is common on college campuses, and many students seem to cram for their final in the Principles of Marketing course. This article addresses the question of defining and measuring a "cramming study strategy." Scales are developed to assess (a) cramming for courses in general and (b) cramming specifically in the Principles of…

  19. Possibility of experiments using radiation counters for test electron stability and Pauli principle violation in atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabash, A.S.

    1989-01-01

    Capabilities of modern radiation detectors for investigation into electron stability and possible violation of Pauli principle in atoms are discussed. For experimental searches of electron instability the following low-background devices are used: scintillation NaI-detectors, semiconducting detectors of enriched germanium, emission chamber, multisection proportional counter and low-temperature detectors. It is ascertained that using modern low-background devices applying the earlier enumerated detectors, it is possible to achieve sensitivity of the order of 10 24 -10 25 years for the electron lifetime relatively to its decay and Pauli principle violation in atoms. Experiments with sensitivity of ∼ 10 26 -10 27 can be realized in massive low-temperature detectors, developed for neutrino physics. 28 refs; 1 fig

  20. The Possible Role of Intuition in the Child's Epistemic Beliefs in the Piagetian Data Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickart, John

    2013-01-01

    U.S. schools teach predominately to the analytical, left-brain, which has foundations in behaviorism, and uses a mechanistic paradigm that influences epistemic beliefs of how learning takes place. This result is that learning is impeded. Using discourse analysis of a set of Piagetian children, this study re-analyzed Piaget's work. This study found…

  1. Students' Knowledge about Environmental Matters and Their Belief in their Own Action Possibilities- A Danish Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten; Mogensen, Finn

    2001-01-01

    In this study we examined the degree of success that Danish schools achieved en developing central elements of action competence regading environmental issues in the folkeskoler and gymnasier. The Study are based on a questionaire which 845 individuals replied; focus was on BOAP (students Belief...

  2. Possibilities of fast track surgery principles in the treatment of congenital urological anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bižić Marta R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Urogenital congenital anomalies are among the most common congenital anomalies and very frequent pathology in paediatric urology. Health care systems strive to shorten the duration and reduce the costs of hospitalization, while maintaining treatment effectiveness. Objective. To evaluate the duration of hospital stay of surgically treated patients with congenital urogenital anomalies and estimate the possibility of using fast track surgery principles in paediatric urology in the local settings of a developing country. Methods. Retrospective non-randomized study included 552 patients who had been surgically treated at the Urology Department of the University Children’s Hospital, during 2010. In line with their congenital anomalies, all patients were classified in one of four groups: I - upper urinary tract anomalies (252 patients; II - genital anomalies (164 patients; III - testicular anomalies (76 patients and IV - associated anomalies (60 patients. We analyzed the total duration of stay as well as preand post-operative stay in the hospital. Results. The average duration of hospitalization was 4.7±4.0 days. Patients with testicular anomalies stayed for the shortest period (2.3±1.9 days (p<0.01 and patients with associated anomalies stayed in the hospital the longest (6.5±4.7 days (p<0.01. Conclusion. Modern methods of surgical treatment allow reduction of hospitalization, financial savings to the healthcare system and greater comfort for patients. Our results showed that this is also possible to apply in our environment.

  3. Possible martensitic transformation in Heusler alloy Mn{sub 2}PdSn from first principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, L., E-mail: author.fenglin@tyut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Advanced Transducers and Intelligent Control System, Ministry of Education, Computational Condensed Matter Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Feng, X. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Transducers and Intelligent Control System, Ministry of Education, Computational Condensed Matter Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Liu, E.K.; Wang, W.H.; Wu, G.H. [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Hu, J.F.; Zhang, W.X. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Transducers and Intelligent Control System, Ministry of Education, Computational Condensed Matter Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China)

    2016-12-01

    The tetragonal distortion, electronic structure and magnetic property of Mn{sub 2}PdSn have been systematically investigated by first-principles calculations. The results indicate that the total energy of tetragonal martensitic phase is lower than cubic austenitic phase for Mn{sub 2}PdSn. The corresponding c/a ratio and energy difference are 1.23 and 41.62 meV/f.u., respectively. This suggests that there is a great possibility for martensitic transformation to occur in Mn{sub 2}PdSn with temperature decreasing. The electronic structure shows that there are sharp DOS peaks originating from p–d hybridization in the vicinity of Fermi level in the cubic phase. And these peaks disappear or become more flat in the martensitic phase. - Highlights: • The martensitic transformation is prone to occur with temperature decreasing in Mn{sub 2}PdSn. • Electronic structure and magnetic property of Mn{sub 2}PdSn are investigated. • Both the austenitic and martensitic phases of Mn{sub 2}PdSn are ferrimagnetic.

  4. Belief, hope and faith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Luis Claudio

    2004-12-01

    A case of hysteria is presented in order to create a frame of reference for the author's approach to the concepts of hope, belief and faith. A difference between hope as a 'sad passion' (which is here called regressive hope) and hope as a principle of mental functioning is established. The concept of hope will at first always be based on beliefs--either beliefs organised in the paranoid-schizoid position (called here fragmented and delusional beliefs)--or those organised from the depressive position (complex systems of beliefs, which end up being dogmatic); the latter typically occur in neurotics. It is suggested here that there is another possibility for hope, which is based on faith. The meaning of faith is considered here externally to the religious sense. The solid establishment of hope as a principle--based on faith--can be viewed as responsible for the opening up of creative potentials and as one of the main aims of analysis. Such an aim, however requires the establishment of a deep relationship, both in theory and in clinical practice, between the Kleinian question of the depressive position and the Freudian question of the Oedipus complex.

  5. Pedagogy of Possibility for EFL Learners: Principles, Application, and Course Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Sahragard

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study reports on the development of a reading comprehension course based on Critical Pedagogy principles, and the result of its application on EFL learners' reading comprehension competence, their motivation to read English materials, their democratic attitudes towards their English classrooms, and also their attitudes towards the critical course. The present study is, in fact, a step forward to scrutinize the outcomes of the beginning phases of a dissertation which was intended to develop a tentative model of Critical Pedagogy for English language teaching practice in Iran. Sixty one sophomore students (in two groups were the participants of the present study. One group was randomly assigned to the control group (n=31 who received instruction based on the conventional method of teaching reading comprehension practiced in most reading comprehension courses in Iran, while the other one made the experimental group (n=30 who received instruction based on the Critical Pedagogy course. Results of the statistical analyses comparing the participants' performance on pre- and post-tests regarding reading comprehension, a questionnaire on motivation, and a democratic attitude questionnaire which were administered before and after the treatment, besides the qualitative data from a semi-structured interview, suggested that despite some problem issues rising while practicing the principles of Critical Pedagogy, the developed course proved to have a significant positive impact on EFL learners’ reading comprehension ability, developing a positive democratic attitude towards their English classroom and also their motivation towards reading English materials. Students’ attitude towards the critical reading comprehension course was also discussed in terms of four emerging themes driven out of the qualitative data analysis. The most important message, however, may be the applicability of Critical Pedagogy principles in Iran, which had been reported

  6. Possible experiments to distinguish between different methods of treating the Pauli principle in nuclear potential models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolle, D.; Assenbaum, H.J.; Funck, C.; Langanke, K.

    1987-01-01

    The finite Pauli repulsion model of Walliser and Nakaichi-Maeda and the orthogonality condition model are two microscopically motivated potential models for the description of nuclear collisions which, however, differ from each other in the way they incorporate antisymmetrization effects into the nucleus-nucleus interaction. We have used α+α scattering at low energies as a tool to distinguish between the two different treatments of the Pauli principle. Both models are consistent with the presently available on-shell (elastic) and off-shell (bremsstrahlung) data. We suggest further measurements of α+α bremsstrahlung including the coplanar laboratory differential cross section in Harvard geometry at α-particle angles of around 27 0 and the γ-decay width of the 4 + resonance at E/sub c.m./ = 11.4 MeV, because in both cases the two models make significantly different predictions

  7. Emission tomography with positrons principle, physical performances of a ring detector and quantitative possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soussaline, F.; Plummer, D.; Todd Pokropek, A.E.; Loc'h, C.; Comar, D.

    1979-01-01

    Satisfactory qualitative and quantitative data in positron emission tomography requires the use of a well adapted tomographic system. A number of parameters have been identified which can be considered as the critical characteristics for evaluation and intercomparison of such systems. Using these the choice of a single slice ring positron camera could be justified by its physical performance, which is presented and discussed. Series of physical and mathematical simulations allow an appropriate knowledge of such a system, which has been in use for more than a year in a clinical environment. These studies aid to the interpretation of very interesting physiopathologic studies. In principle, a positron tomographic system permits measurement of absolute quantitative concentration values, which are essential for precise metabolic studies. The main sources of error comprising the calibration of the system, the tail effects and the precision for attenuation correction are analysed. When taking in account these errors, a precision of the order of 10% should be obtainable [fr

  8. Possible Approach to the Energy Policy Principles for the Sustainable Development in the Republic of Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekanic, I.

    1998-01-01

    The main problem of the contemporary energy policy is the equilibrium between the development or energy consumption growth and the environmental protection. Moreover, the conservation of natural resources, not only their exploitation, should be the primary goal of the natural resource management strategy. The article present the basic principles of the newly created natural resources management strategy, which includes energy policy changes towards energy conservation and rational energy use, environmental protection and optimisation of energy use related to the environment. The general system of environmental protection in energy industries is also included into energy policy, as well as the changes of the structure of energy use in favour of increased energy efficiency, and natural gas utilisation in the Republic of Croatia. (author)

  9. On possibility of superconductivity in SnSb: A first principle study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabhi, Shweta D. [Department of Physics, M. K. Bhavnagar University, Bhavnagar 364001 (India); Shrivastava, Deepika [Department of Physics, Barkatullah University, Bhopal 462026 (India); Jha, Prafulla K., E-mail: prafullaj@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, The M. S. University of Baroda, Vadodara 390002 (India); Sanyal, Sankar P. [Department of Physics, Barkatullah University, Bhopal 462026 (India)

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • Superconducting property of SnSb is predicted by ab-initio calculations. • Electronic properties of SnSb in RS phase shows metallic behaviour similar to SnAs. • Phonon dispersion confirms the dynamical stability of SnSb in RS phase. • Superconducting transition temperature is 3.1 K, slightly lower than that of SnAs. • Calculated thermodynamic properties are also reported. - Abstract: The electronic, phonon structure and superconducting properties of tin antimonide (SnSb) in rock-salt (RS) structure are calculated using first-principles density functional theory. The electronic band structure and density of states show metallic behavior. The phonon frequencies are positive throughout the Brillouin zone in rock-salt structure indicating its stability in that phase. Superconductivity of SnSb in RS phase is discussed in detail by calculating phonon linewidths, Eliashberg spectral function, electron-phonon coupling constant and superconducting transition temperature. SnSb is found to have a slightly lower T{sub C} (3.1 K), as compared to SnAs.

  10. Design principles and clinical possibilities with a new generation of radiation therapy equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruden, B P [Department of Hospital physics Karolinska institute, (Sudan)

    1997-12-31

    The main steps in the development of isocentric megavoltage external beam radiation therapy machines are briefly reviewed identifying three principal types or generations of equipment to date. The new fourth generation of equipment presented here is characterized by considerably increased flexibility in dose delivery through the use of scanned elementary electron and photon beams of very high quality. Furthermore, the wide energy range and the possibility of using high resolution multi leaf collimation with all beam modalities makes it possible to simplify irradiation techniques and increase the accuracy in dose delivery. The main design features are described including a dual magnet scanning system, a photon beam purging magnet, a helium atmosphere in the treatment head, a beam`s eye view video read-out system of the collimator setting and a radiotherapeutic computed tomography facility. Some of the clinical applications of this new type of radiation therapy machine are finally reviewed, such as the ease of performance, became flattening, beam filtering and compensation, and the simplification of many treatment techniques using the wide spectrum of high quality electron and photon beams. Finally, the interesting possibility of doing conformation and more general isocentric treatments with non-uniform beams using the multi leaf collimator and the scanning systems are demonstrated. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  11. A Principle of Intentionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Charles K

    2017-01-01

    The mainstream theories and models of the physical sciences, including neuroscience, are all consistent with the principle of causality. Wholly causal explanations make sense of how things go, but are inherently value-neutral, providing no objective basis for true beliefs being better than false beliefs, nor for it being better to intend wisely than foolishly. Dennett (1987) makes a related point in calling the brain a syntactic (procedure-based) engine. He says that you cannot get to a semantic (meaning-based) engine from there. He suggests that folk psychology revolves around an intentional stance that is independent of the causal theories of the brain, and accounts for constructs such as meanings, agency, true belief, and wise desire. Dennett proposes that the intentional stance is so powerful that it can be developed into a valid intentional theory. This article expands Dennett's model into a principle of intentionality that revolves around the construct of objective wisdom. This principle provides a structure that can account for all mental processes, and for the scientific understanding of objective value. It is suggested that science can develop a far more complete worldview with a combination of the principles of causality and intentionality than would be possible with scientific theories that are consistent with the principle of causality alone.

  12. Belief change

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Booth, R

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors present a brief overview of belief change, a research area concerned with the question of how a rational agent ought to change its mind in the face of new, possibly conflicting, information. The authors limit themselves...

  13. Phase stability, mechanical properties, hardness, and possible reactive routing of chromium triboride from first-principle investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Ming-Min; Kuang, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Zhen-Hua; Shao, Peng; Ding, Li-Ping; Huang, Xiao-Fen

    2013-01-01

    The first-principles calculations are employed to provide a fundamental understanding of the structural features and relative stability, mechanical and electronic properties, and possible reactive route for chromium triboride. The predicted new phase of CrB 3 belongs to the rhombohedral phase with R-3m symmetry and it transforms into a hexagonal phase with P-6m2 symmetry at 64 GPa. The mechanical and thermodynamic stabilities of CrB 3 are verified by the calculated elastic constants and formation enthalpies. Also, the full phonon dispersion calculations confirm the dynamic stability of predicted CrB 3 . Considering the role of metallic contributions, the calculated hardness values from our semiempirical method for rhombohedral and hexagonal phases are 23.8 GPa and 22.1 GPa, respectively. In addition, the large shear moduli, Young's moduli, low Poisson's ratios, and small B/G ratios indicate that they are potential hard materials. Relative enthalpy calculations with respect to possible constituents are also investigated to assess the prospects for phase formation and an attempt at high-pressure synthesis is suggested to obtain chromium triboride

  14. Possible origin of the discrepancy in Peierls stresses of fcc metals: First-principles simulations of dislocation mobility in aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ilgyou; Carter, Emily A.

    2013-08-01

    Dislocation motion governs the strength and ductility of metals, and the Peierls stress (σp) quantifies dislocation mobility. σp measurements carry substantial uncertainty in face-centered cubic (fcc) metals, and σp values can differ by up to two orders of magnitude. We perform first-principles simulations based on orbital-free density functional theory (OFDFT) to calculate the most accurate currently possible σp for the motion of (1)/(2)111 dislocations in fcc Al. We predict the σps of screw and edge dislocations (dissociated in their equilibrium state) to be 1.9×10-4G and 4.9×10-5G, respectively (G is the shear modulus). These values fall within the range of measurements from mechanical deformation tests (10-4-10-5G). OFDFT also finds a new metastable structure for a screw dislocation not seen in earlier simulations, in which a dislocation core on the glide plane does not dissociate into partials. The corresponding σp for this undissociated dislocation is predicted to be 1.1×10-2G, which agrees with typical Bordoni peak measurements (10-2-10-3G). The calculated σps for dissociated and undissociated screw dislocations differ by two orders of magnitude. The presence of undissociated, as well as dissociated, screw dislocations may resolve the decades-long mystery in fcc metals regarding the two orders of magnitude discrepancy in σp measurements.

  15. The precautionary principle and/or risk assessment in World Trade Organization decisions: a possible role for risk perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Bernard; Carruth, Russellyn S

    2004-04-01

    Risk analysis has been recognized and validated in World Trade Organization (WTO) decision processes. In recent years the precautionary principle has been proposed as an additional or alternative approach to standard risk assessment. The precautionary principle has also been advocated by some who see it as part of postmodern democracy in which more power is given to the public on health and safety matters relative to the judgments of technocrats. A more cynical view is that the precautionary principle is particularly championed by the European Community as a means to erect trade barriers. The WTO ruling against the European Community's trade barrier against beef from hormone-treated cattle seemed to support the use of risk assessment and appeared to reject the argument that the precautionary principle was a legitimate basis for trade barriers. However, a more recent WTO decision on asbestos contains language suggesting that the precautionary principle, in the form of taking into account public perception, may be acceptable as a basis for a trade barrier. This decision, if followed in future WTO trade disputes, such as for genetically modified foods, raises many issues central to the field of risk analysis. It is too early to tell whether the precautionary principle will become accepted in WTO decisions, either as a supplement or a substitute for standard risk assessment. But it would undermine the value of the precautionary principle if this principle were misused to justify unwarranted trade barriers.

  16. Possible Selves and Self-Regulatory Beliefs: Exploring the Relationship Between Health Selves, Health Efficacy, and Psychological Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dark-Freudeman, Alissa; West, Robin L

    2016-03-01

    The present study identified middle-aged (ages 40-64) and older individuals (ages 65-90) who reported a highly important possible self related to health. The relationship between age, physical health, health efficacy, and psychological well-being were examined among these individuals. We tested a model in which health efficacy predicted both positive and negative psychological well-being. For both age groups, self-reported health predicted health self-efficacy; however, the direct effects of health efficacy on both positive and negative psychological well-being were also significant. Higher levels of health efficacy were associated with higher levels of positive psychological well-being and lower levels of negative well-being, as predicted. Physical health indirectly predicted well-being through its impact on health self-efficacy for middle-aged and older individuals who valued their health highly. Overall, these results support the notion that health efficacy related to a most important health self is a predictor of psychological well-being in mid and late life. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Conditional Belief Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-19

    Rationality of a player is determined by comparing her actual expected payoff to her expected payoff when her strategy is changed , while her beliefs —and...reduced strategies, and it is possible that under such conditions, beliefs about other players’ reduced strategies change as well. Thus, independence...assumptions, whether they concern observability of moves or subjective beliefs of any other kind, can be all accommodated by changing the informational

  18. POSSIBILITIES TO CORRECT ACCOUNTING ERRORS IN THE CONTEXT OF COMPLYING WITH THE OPENING BALANCE SHEET INTANGIBILITY PRINCIPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PALIU – POPA LUCIA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There are still different views on the intangibility of the opening balance sheet at global level in the process of convergence and accounting harmonization. Fnding a total difference between the Anglo-Saxon accounting system and that of the Western European continental influence, in the sense that the former is less rigid in regard with the application of the principle of intangibility, whereas that of mainland inspiration apply the provisions of this principle in its entirety. Looking from this perspective and taking into account the major importance of the financial statements that are intended to provide information for all categories of users, ie both for managers and users external to the entity whose position does not allow them to request specific reports, we considered useful to conduct a study aimed at correcting the errors in the context of compliance with the opening balance sheet intangibility principle versus the need to adjust the comparative information on the financial position, financial performance and change in the financial position generated by the correction of the errors in the previous years. In this regard, we will perform a comparative analysis of the application of the intangibility principle both in the two major accounting systems and at international level and we will approach issues related to the correction of the errors in terms of the main differences between the provisions of the continental accounting regulations (represented by the European and national ones in our approach, Anglo-Saxon and those of the international referential on the opening balance sheet intangibility.

  19. Scandinavian belief in fate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åke Ström

    1967-02-01

    Full Text Available In point of principle, Christianity does not give room for any belief in fate. Astrology, horoscopes, divination, etc., are strictly rejected. Belief in fate never disappeared in Christian countries, nor did it in Scandinavia in Christian times. Especially in folklore we can find it at any period: People believed in an implacable fate. All folklore is filled up with this belief in destiny. Nobody can escape his fate. The future lies in the hands of fate, and the time to come takes its form according to inscrutable laws. The pre-Christian period in Scandinavia, dominated by pagan Norse religion, and the secularized epoch of the 20th century, however, show more distinctive and more widespread beliefs in fate than does the Christian period. The present paper makes a comparison between these forms of belief.

  20. The system of parliamentary government: The possibility of balance under the principle of the separation of powers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejić Irena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The minimum consensus in defining the concept of a parliamentary system is closely related to the presence of the responsible government in the system governed by the principle of the separation of powers, which is the essential characteristic of parliamentarism. A constitutional and political theory classify this system as a model of parliamentary government that is elected by Parliament and responsible to Parliament, which is the essence and the common denominator of this system. Moreover, all the modalities of the system develop in line with the relations established between the legislative and the executive authorities, i.e. between the head of state, the government and the parliament. Nowadays, there is no 'pure' model of the parliamentary government, for at least two reasons. First, modern constitutions set up instruments of rationalization and transfer the focus of the constitutional power either to the government or to the head of state, but in any case 'away from' the parliament. Second, political framework of modern parliamentarism significantly contributes to the situation where the constitutional instruments aimed at preserving the balance receive a new legal and political meaning; thus, they serve some functions other than those prescribed by the constitution.

  1. Suppressed Belief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komarine Romdenh-Romluc

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Moran’s revised conception of conscious belief requires us to reconceptualise suppressed belief. The work of Merleau-Ponty offers a way to do this. His account of motor-skills allows us to understand suppressed beliefs as pre-reflective ways of dealing with the world.

  2. A first-principles study of the possible magnetism of Rh in the Cu/Rh/Cu(001) system

    CERN Document Server

    Jang, Y R; Chang, C S; Cho, L H; Lee, J I

    1999-01-01

    Possible 4d magnetism of a Rh monolayer in a Cu/Rh/Cu(001) system is investigated using the full-potential linearized augmented-plane-wave (FLAPW) energy band method based on the local-spin-density approximation (LSDA). We have calculated the total energy of the Cu/Rh/Cu(001) system and have found that the Rh monolayer is ferromagnetic (FM) with a tiny magnetic moment. However, the total energy difference between the ferromagnetic and the paramagnetic states is found to be very small, and thus which state can be realized at room temperature is uncertain. The calculated charge densities and layer-projected density of states (LDOS) are presented and discussed in relation to the magnetic properties.

  3. Discussing the theological grounds of moral principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Jan C

    2005-01-01

    Discussing the theological beliefs that ground Catholic moral principles can make some people uncomfortable, even while others will appreciate it. But these reactions will sometimes be revealed not as the emotions they are, but as objections to the relative independence or dependence of morality on foundational beliefs. In the end, context should dictate whether one displays the theological beliefs that ground Catholic moral principles.

  4. Conscious Belief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pitt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tim Crane maintains that beliefs cannot be conscious because they persist in the absence of consciousness. Conscious judgments can share their contents with beliefs, and their occurrence can be evidence for what one believes; but they cannot be beliefs, because they don’t persist. I challenge Crane’s premise that belief attributions to the temporarily unconscious are literally true. To say of an unconscious agent that she believes that p is like saying that she sings well. To say she sings well is to say that when she sings, her singing is good. To say that she believes that p is (roughly to say that when she consciously considers the content that p she consciously affirms (believes it. I also argue that the phenomenal view of intentional content Crane appears to endorse prima facie commits him to the view, at least controversial, perhaps incoherent, that there is unconscious phenomenology (the intentional contents of unconscious beliefs.

  5. Safety Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Grinenko

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The offered material in the article is picked up so that the reader could have a complete representation about concept “safety”, intrinsic characteristics and formalization possibilities. Principles and possible strategy of safety are considered. A material of the article is destined for the experts who are taking up the problems of safety.

  6. The Place of Possibility in the sense of need in the Causality and its Compatibility or Incompatibility with the principle of grades or Personal Unity of Existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tooba Laele sahebi

    Full Text Available In the view of Islamic philosophers, famous definition for causality is "giving existence". The Molla Sadra believes that the Principle of causality with its branches constitutes a single body, and its acceptance is considered as postulate. Discussion about the criteria of neediness of effect to cause is considered branch of the general law of causality which is necessary in discussion of causal necessity. It is obvious that Molla Sadra 's view in determining the criteria for the neediness is the Possibility in the sense of need. as regards, this principle is itself a branch of the general principle of causality, and the Islamic philosophers think if someone refuses to accept a branch of causality, cannot believe in a causal system in the world. and as regards, the principle of cognation Is assumed to be identical with the intellectual rule of Al-vaheed(from The one will not be issued except the one and the principle of The impossibility of infinite regress are other important branches of the principle of causality; acceptance of this branches Required in duality in the outside world from mind and dividing existence to the cause and effect and grades in the reality of existence. But on the other hand, Molla Sadra talks about personal unity of existence and also considers it as the conclusion of his intellectual analysis, not as something merely mystical and has explicit expressions such as:«لیس لما سوی الواحد الحق وجود لا استقلالی ولا تعلقی بل وجوداتها لیس الا تطورات الحق باطواره و شئوناته بشئونه الذاتیه» In views of Professor Motahari and Professor Javadi Amoli which both are raised in Sadraism system, and the originality of existence and Possibility in the sense of need are assumed in it; these are the result of dual discussions of Molla Sadra . In the first standpoint(Professor Motahari is proposed a kind of existence That is completely dependent

  7. The Place of Possibility in the sense of need in the Causality and its Compatibility or Incompatibility with the principle of grades or Personal Unity of Existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kazem Elmisola

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In the view of Islamic philosophers, famous definition for causality is "giving existence" . The Molla Sadra believes that the Principle of causality with its branches constitutes a single body , and its acceptance is considered as postulate . Discussion about the criteria of neediness of effect to cause is considered branch of the general law of causality which is necessary in discussion of causal necessity. It is obvious that Molla Sadra 's view in determining the criteria for the neediness is the Possibility in the sense of need . as regards, this principle is itself a branch of the general principle of causality , and the Islamic philosophers think if someone refuses to accept a branch of causality, cannot believe in a causal system in the world . and as regards , the principle of cognation Is assumed to be identical with the intellectual rule of Al-vaheed( from The one will not be issued except the one and the principle of The impossibility of infinite regress are other important branches of the principle of causality acceptance of this branches Required in duality in the outside world from mind and dividing existence to the cause and effect and grades in the reality of existence . But on the other hand, Molla Sadra talks about personal unity of existence and also considers it as the conclusion of his intellectual analysis, not as something merely mystical and has explicit expressions such as :   «Ù„یس لما سوی الواحد الحق وØ‌ود لا استقلالی ولا تعلقی بل وØ‌وداتها لیس الا تطورات الحق باطواره و شئوناته بشئونه الذاتیه»   In views of Professor Motahari and Professor Javadi Amoli which both are raised in Sadraism system , and the originality of existence and

  8. The Place of Possibility in the sense of need in the Causality and its Compatibility or Incompatibility with the principle of grades or Personal Unity of Existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tooba Laele sahebi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available   In the view of Islamic philosophers, famous definition for causality is "giving existence" . The Molla Sadra believes that the Principle of causality with its branches constitutes a single body , and its acceptance is considered as postulate . Discussion about the criteria of neediness of effect to cause is considered branch of the general law of causality which is necessary in discussion of causal necessity. It is obvious that Molla Sadra 's view in determining the criteria for the neediness is the Possibility in the sense of need . as regards, this principle is itself a branch of the general principle of causality , and the Islamic philosophers think if someone refuses to accept a branch of causality, cannot believe in a causal system in the world . and as regards , the principle of cognation Is assumed to be identical with the intellectual rule of Al-vaheed( from The one will not be issued except the one and the principle of The impossibility of infinite regress are other important branches of the principle of causality acceptance of this branches Required in duality in the outside world from mind and dividing existence to the cause and effect and grades in the reality of existence . But on the other hand, Molla Sadra talks about personal unity of existence and also considers it as the conclusion of his intellectual analysis, not as something merely mystical and has explicit expressions such as :   «لیس لما سوی الواحد الحق وجود لا استقلالی ولا تعلقی بل وجوداتها لیس الا تطورات الحق باطواره و شئوناته بشئونه الذاتیه»   In views of Professor Motahari and Professor Javadi Amoli which both are raised in Sadraism system , and the originality of existence and Possibility in the sense of need are assumed in it these are the result of dual discussions of Molla Sadra . In the first standpoint( Professor Motahari is proposed a kind of existence That is

  9. On the constitutive laws of 1-D, two-fluid, two-phase flow models: possible mathematical forms, restrictions resulting from basic principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boure, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    From both the theoretical and the practical points of view, the problem of constitutive laws is part and parcel of the modeling problem. In particular, the necessity to restore in the model, through topological laws, some of the information lost during the usual averaging process is emphasized. A new void fraction topological law is proposed. The limitations of the current assumption of uniform pressure within each phase in any cross section are also illustrated. The importance of proximity effects (neighborhood and history effects, related to characteristic lengths and times) is brought out. It results in the importance of the mathematical form of the constitutive laws. Possible mathematical forms for the transfer laws are reviewed. The last part of the paper is devoted to some restrictions, which are imposed on the transfer terms because of some basic principles: Indifference to Galilean changes of frame and to some changes of origins, second law of thermodynamics and hypothesis of local thermodynamic equilibrium, closure constraints. Practical recommendations are formulated

  10. The constitutive laws of one-dimensional, two-fluid models for two-phase flows - Possible mathematical forms - Restrictions resulting from basic principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boure, Jean.

    1978-05-01

    From both the theoretical and the practical points of view, the problem of constitutive laws is a part and parcel of the modeling problem. In particular, the necessity to restore in the model, through topological laws, some of the information lost during the usual averaging process is emphasized. It is shown that the customary 'void fraction' topological law Psub(V)=Psub(L) should be proscribed whenever propagation phenomena are involved. A new void fraction topological law is proposed. The limitations of the current assumption of constant pressure within any phase in any cross section are also illustrated. The importance of proximity effects (neighborhood and history effects, related to characteristic lengths and times) is brought out. It results in the importance of the mathematical form of the constitutive laws. Various approaches to the constitutive law problem and possible mathematical forms for the transfer laws are reviewed. The simplest form (transfert terms as functions of the dependent variables only) may have some usefulness if interpretation of the results in terms of propagation phenomena is banned. A good compromise between the necessity to take proximity effects into account and to obtain a tractable set of equations is carried out when so called 'differential terms' are introduced in the transfer laws. The last part of the paper is devoted to some restrictions, which are imposed to the transfer terms because of some basic principles: indifference to Galilean changes of frame and to some changes of origins, second law of thermodynamics and assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium, closure constraints. Practical recommendations are formulated [fr

  11. First-principle investigations of the magnetic properties and possible martensitic transformation in Ni2MnX (X=Al, Ga, In, Si, Ge and Sn)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wei; Gao, She-Sheng; Meng, Yang

    2014-01-01

    The magnetic and electronic properties of Ni 2 MnX (X=Al, Ga, In, Si, Ge and Sn) Heusler alloys have been studied by using the first-principle projector augmented wave potential within the generalized gradient approximation. The possible non-modulated martensitic transformation in these six alloys has been investigated. Both austenitic and martensitic Ni 2 MnX (X=Al, Ga, In, Si, Ge and Sn) Heusler alloys are found to be ferromagnets. In martensitic phase, the energies minimum occurs at c/a=0.99 for Ni 2 MnX (X=Al, In, Ge and Sn), and the energy minimum occurs at c/a=1.02 for Ni 2 MnSi. But there is a negligible energy difference ΔE (<6 meV/cell) between the austenitic and martensitic phases for each alloy. Meanwhile, around c/a=1, an anomaly is observed in the E-c/a curve, which is related to a very slightly tetragonal distortion trend in Ni 2 MnX (X=Al, In, Si, Ge and Sn). The energy difference ΔE between the austenitic and martensitic phases for Ni 2 MnGa is as large as 99 meV/cell, so it is more likely to realize martensitic transformation in it. - Highlights: • Both austenitic and martensitic Ni 2 MnX alloys are found to be ferromagnets. • The energy difference between the martensitic and austenitic phases is negligible. • The total moment in martensitic phase is close to corresponding to austenitic phase

  12. Changing Conspiracy Beliefs through Rationality and Ridiculing

    OpenAIRE

    Orosz, Gábor; Krekó, Péter; Paskuj, Benedek; Tóth-Király, István; Bőthe, Beáta; Roland-Lévy, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Conspiracy theory (CT) beliefs can be harmful. How is it possible to reduce them effectively? Three reduction strategies were tested in an online experiment using general and well-known CT beliefs on a comprehensive randomly assigned Hungarian sample (N = 813): exposing rational counter CT arguments, ridiculing those who hold CT beliefs, and empathizing with the targets of CT beliefs. Several relevant individual differences were measured. Rational and ridiculing arguments were effective in re...

  13. The moderating role of rational beliefs in the relationship between irrational beliefs and posttraumatic stress symptomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Philip; Shevlin, Mark; Adamson, Gary; Boduszek, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT) assumes that rational beliefs act as cognitive protective factors against the development of psychopathology; however little empirical evidence exists regarding the nature of the possible protective effects that they offer. The current study investigates whether rational beliefs moderate the impact of irrational beliefs on posttraumatic stress symptomology (PTS). Three hundred and thirteen active law enforcement, military, and related emergency service personnel took part in the current study. Sequential moderated multiple regression analysis was employed to investigate: (i) the direct impact of irrational beliefs on PTS; (ii) the direct impact of rational beliefs on PTS; (iii) the moderating effects of rational beliefs in the relationship between irrational beliefs and PTS. The irrational beliefs predicted by REBT theory emerged as critical predictors of PTS symptomology, in particular Depreciation beliefs. Rational beliefs (Preferences, and Acceptance beliefs) had a direct, negative impact on levels of PTS, and Acceptance beliefs moderated the impact of Catastrophizing beliefs on PTS. Irrational beliefs are important cognitive vulnerability factors in symptoms of PTS, while rational beliefs (Acceptance) appear to have a protective role in the emergence of PTS symptoms, both directly and by moderating the impact of Catastrophizing beliefs.

  14. Integrating Principles Underlying Ancestral Spirits Belief in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , associated with ancestral spirits and its use as powerful therapeutic agent for influencing behavior or lifestyle changes. Explanatory models of attachment to ancestral spirits by living descendants are first discussed, followed by a discussion ...

  15. Changing Conspiracy Beliefs through Rationality and Ridiculing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosz, Gábor; Krekó, Péter; Paskuj, Benedek; Tóth-Király, István; Bőthe, Beáta; Roland-Lévy, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Conspiracy theory (CT) beliefs can be harmful. How is it possible to reduce them effectively? Three reduction strategies were tested in an online experiment using general and well-known CT beliefs on a comprehensive randomly assigned Hungarian sample ( N = 813): exposing rational counter CT arguments, ridiculing those who hold CT beliefs, and empathizing with the targets of CT beliefs. Several relevant individual differences were measured. Rational and ridiculing arguments were effective in reducing CT, whereas empathizing with the targets of CTs had no effect. Individual differences played no role in CT reduction, but the perceived intelligence and competence of the individual who conveyed the CT belief-reduction information contributed to the success of the CT belief reduction. Rational arguments targeting the link between the object of belief and its characteristics appear to be an effective tool in fighting conspiracy theory beliefs.

  16. Free will and paranormal beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogi, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Free will is one of the fundamental aspects of human cognition. In the context of cognitive neuroscience, various experiments on time perception, sensorimotor coordination, and agency suggest the possibility that it is a robust illusion (a feeling independent of actual causal relationship with actions) constructed by neural mechanisms. Humans are known to suffer from various cognitive biases and failures, and the sense of free will might be one of them. Here I report a positive correlation between the belief in free will and paranormal beliefs (UFO, reincarnation, astrology, and psi). Web questionnaires involving 2076 subjects (978 males, 1087 females, and 11 other genders) were conducted, which revealed significant positive correlations between belief in free will (theory and practice) and paranormal beliefs. There was no significant correlation between belief in free will and knowledge in paranormal phenomena. Paranormal belief scores for females were significantly higher than those for males, with corresponding significant (albeit weaker) difference in belief in free will. These results are consistent with the view that free will is an illusion which shares common cognitive elements with paranormal beliefs.

  17. Free will and paranormal beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogi, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Free will is one of the fundamental aspects of human cognition. In the context of cognitive neuroscience, various experiments on time perception, sensorimotor coordination, and agency suggest the possibility that it is a robust illusion (a feeling independent of actual causal relationship with actions) constructed by neural mechanisms. Humans are known to suffer from various cognitive biases and failures, and the sense of free will might be one of them. Here I report a positive correlation between the belief in free will and paranormal beliefs (UFO, reincarnation, astrology, and psi). Web questionnaires involving 2076 subjects (978 males, 1087 females, and 11 other genders) were conducted, which revealed significant positive correlations between belief in free will (theory and practice) and paranormal beliefs. There was no significant correlation between belief in free will and knowledge in paranormal phenomena. Paranormal belief scores for females were significantly higher than those for males, with corresponding significant (albeit weaker) difference in belief in free will. These results are consistent with the view that free will is an illusion which shares common cognitive elements with paranormal beliefs. PMID:24765084

  18. Free will and paranormal beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken eMogi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Free will is one of the fundamental aspects of human cognition. In the context of cognitive neuroscience, various experiments on time perception, sensorimotor coordination, and agency suggest the possibility that it is a robust illusion (a feeling independent of actual causal relationship with actions constructed by neural mechanisms. Humans are known to suffer from various cognitive biases and failures, and the sense of free will might be one of them. Here I report a positive correlation between the belief in free will and paranormal beliefs (UFO, reincarnation, astrology, and psi. Web questionnaires involving 2076 subjects (978 males, 1087 females, and 11 other genders were conducted, which revealed significant positive correlations between belief in free will (theory and practice and paranormal beliefs. There was no significant correlation between belief in free will and knowledge in paranormal phenomena. Paranormal belief scores for females were significantly higher than those for males, with corresponding significant (albeit weaker difference in belief in free will. These results are consistent with the view that free will is an illusion which shares common cognitive elements with paranormal beliefs.

  19. Constitutional Principles and E-Government: An Opinion about Possible Effects of Federalism and the Separation of Powers on E-Government Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Paul T.

    2002-01-01

    Examines how Constitutional principles, specifically the doctrines of Federalism and the separation of powers, relate to e-government policies and practices. Suggests that the move toward e-government, with emphasis on the simplification of access to government information and services, must be considered with regard to Federalism and separation…

  20. Race Research and the Ethics of Belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anomaly, Jonathan

    2017-06-01

    On most accounts, beliefs are supposed to fit the world rather than change it. But believing can have social consequences, since the beliefs we form underwrite our actions and impact our character. Because our beliefs affect how we live our lives and how we treat other people, it is surprising how little attention is usually given to the moral status of believing apart from its epistemic justification. In what follows, I develop a version of the harm principle that applies to beliefs as well as actions. In doing so, I challenge the often exaggerated distinction between forming beliefs and acting on them. 1 After developing this view, I consider what it might imply about controversial research the goal of which is to yield true beliefs but the outcome of which might include negative social consequences. In particular, I focus on the implications of research into biological differences between racial groups.

  1. Law n. 13.015/2014: Amendment of Labor Magazine Feature and Possible offenses to Constitutional Principles of Due Process Legal Access to Jurisdiction and Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Henriques Zandona Freitas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This scientific article aims to study the reforms undertaken by the Law 13.015/2014 under the proposed amendments to the labor resources of magazines, and a growing demand in the edition of overviews by the Regionals Labors Court. At first, the theoretical basis, we analyze the prospects of the constitutional process model within the framework leveraged as a democratic state. After, it enters to the principle concept of due process of law, the access Jurisdiction and Effectiveness, doing, in a third moment, a brief survey and survey as the main proposals of changes made by Law n. 13.015/2014, demonstrating the likelihood that some provisions of this standard or not contradict principles and constitutional guarantees. Trough the deductive method and the bibliographic research this article has been written from a large conception to a small one. And as technical proceeding were used the theme analysis as a way of looking for a solution for the problem.

  2. The Judicialization of Health in Brazil: Guiding Principles, Organization as the Law 8.080/90, Possibilities and Limites of Jurisdiction in Actions of Free Medicine Provision

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Christina Zenkner; Natal dos Reis Carvalho Junior

    2016-01-01

    The theme of this paper deals with the increasing movement of judicialization of the right to health, characterized by the excess of judicial demands aiming at the obtaining of health treatments and medicines. A study was made on the right to health, its principles and health organization in Brazil in light of Law 8.080 / 90. It analyzed parameters for rationalization of the judicialization in the supply of medicines. He noted the need to adapt procedures and criteria, both administrative and...

  3. Belief change

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Booth, R

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available in the presence of Vacuity. 3.2 Partial meet theory contraction The preceding construction works equally well when B is taken to be a theory K. But in this case, since the input to contraction is a theory, we should expect the output to be a theory too... that is analogous to that of a belief set K in theory change. Intuitively, E is the ?current? set of expectations of the agent, and the plausible consequences of a sentence ? are those sentences ? for which ? |?? holds. The set of expectations E is not explicitly...

  4. Double preference relations for generalised belief change

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Booth, R

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Many belief change formalisms employ plausibility orderings over the set of possible worlds to determine how the beliefs of an agent ought to be modified after the receipt of a new epistemic input. While most such possible world semantics rely on a...

  5. The Judicialization of Health in Brazil: Guiding Principles, Organization as the Law 8.080/90, Possibilities and Limites of Jurisdiction in Actions of Free Medicine Provision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Christina Zenkner

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The theme of this paper deals with the increasing movement of judicialization of the right to health, characterized by the excess of judicial demands aiming at the obtaining of health treatments and medicines. A study was made on the right to health, its principles and health organization in Brazil in light of Law 8.080 / 90. It analyzed parameters for rationalization of the judicialization in the supply of medicines. He noted the need to adapt procedures and criteria, both administrative and judicial, to make public policies feasible in order to achieve satisfaction of the right to health.

  6. Monoparentalidade, pobreza e resiliência: entre as crenças dos profissionais e as possibilidades da convivência familiar Single-parenthood, poverty and resilience: the professional's beliefs and the possibilities of family life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angela Mattar Yunes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo apresenta um estudo comparativo entre as crenças de agentes comunitários de saúde sobre possibilidades de resiliência em famílias monoparentais e de baixa renda e as estratégias de enfrentamento das adversidades que emergem nas histórias de vida destas famílias. Tomou-se como base a noção de resiliência aplicada à Psicologia, que se refere aos processos que explicam a superação de adversidades. Foram entrevistados quatro agentes comunitários de saúde e quatro famílias monoparentais. As estratégias metodológicas foram: entrevistas semi-estruturadas, histórias de vida, entrevista reflexiva e a análise dos dados através da grounded-theory. Os resultados revelaram crenças pessimistas dos agentes comunitários sobre o funcionamento das famílias pobres, em contraposição aos fatores indicativos de resiliência constatados nas histórias de vida destas famílias. Os resultados sinalizam para a necessidade de transformar e adequar as percepções dos agentes sociais acerca de grupos que vivem situação de pobreza.This article presents a comparative study on the health community agent's beliefs about the possibilities of resilience in low-income single-parent families and the coping strategies of these families in adverse situations that emerge from their life stories. The notion of resilience as applied in Psychology was taken as reference, which refers to the processes that explains how people overcome adversities. Four health agents and four single parent families were interviewed. The methodological strategies to guide the data analysis were: open interviews, life stories, reflexive interviews and grounded-theory. The results showed that the community agents hold pessimist beliefs about the poor families functioning in opposition to the elements that indicate resilience in these families' life stories. The results point to the need of transforming and adjusting the social agent's perceptions on groups who

  7. Moral Beliefs and Cognitive Homogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevia Dolcini

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Emotional Perception Model of moral judgment intends to account for experientialism about morality and moral reasoning. In explaining how moral beliefs are formed and applied in practical reasoning, the model attempts to overcome the mismatch between reason and action/desire: morality isn’t about reason for actions, yet moral beliefs, if caused by desires, may play a motivational role in (moral agency. The account allows for two kinds of moral beliefs: genuine moral beliefs, which enjoy a relation to desire, and motivationally inert moral beliefs acquired in ways other than experience. Such etiology-based dichotomy of concepts, I will argue, leads to the undesirable view of cognition as a non-homogeneous phenomenon. Moreover, the distinction between moral beliefs and moral beliefs would entail a further dichotomy encompassing the domain of moral agency: one and the same action might possibly be either genuine moral, or not moral, if acted by individuals lacking the capacity for moral feelings, such as psychopaths.

  8. Mixmaster: fact and belief

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinzle, J Mark; Uggla, Claes

    2009-01-01

    We consider the dynamics towards the initial singularity of Bianchi type IX vacuum and orthogonal perfect fluid models with a linear equation of state. Surprisingly few facts are known about the 'Mixmaster' dynamics of these models, while at the same time most of the commonly held beliefs are rather vague. In this paper, we use Mixmaster facts as a base to build an infrastructure that makes it possible to sharpen the main Mixmaster beliefs. We formulate explicit conjectures concerning (i) the past asymptotic states of type IX solutions and (ii) the relevance of the Mixmaster/Kasner map for generic past asymptotic dynamics. The evidence for the conjectures is based on a study of the stochastic properties of this map in conjunction with dynamical systems techniques. We use a dynamical systems formulation, since this approach has so far been the only successful path to obtain theorems, but we also make comparisons with the 'metric' and Hamiltonian 'billiard' approaches.

  9. Comparative Law, Genetically Modified Organisms and the Precautionary Principle: (IM Possibilities of North American Law Contributions to the Brazilian System of Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Paschoal Teixeira de Castro Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper sets light onto how un(likely it is for the North-American Law to prove beneficial for the national system, specifically regarding issues as a balanced environment, the environmental principle of precaution, and the consequences resulting from research, planting, commoditization and consumption of genetically modified organisms. By means of analysis of each of the States executive and legislative scenarios, it presents the multiple approaches and understandings there are related to the use of biotechnology for the (undue efficacy and consistency of the existing efforts towards preserving a well balanced environment. This paper relies on a qualitative approach to assess the core elements involved, most specifically in what regards risk analysis and decision making at the light of the precaution principle. In order to achieve that, its necessary to appreciate legislative and administrative issues from both the United States of America and Brazil. The UN Declaration on the Human Environment, the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights, the Convention on Biological Diversity, and the Cartagena Protocol, along with the specialized doctrine, are also taken as objects of appreciation in the performance of such research.

  10. Cosmological principles. II. Physical principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, E.R.

    1974-01-01

    The discussion of cosmological principle covers the uniformity principle of the laws of physics, the gravitation and cognizability principles, and the Dirac creation, chaos, and bootstrap principles. (U.S.)

  11. Common principles and multiculturalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahedi, Farzaneh; Larijani, Bagher

    2009-01-01

    Judgment on rightness and wrongness of beliefs and behaviors is a main issue in bioethics. Over centuries, big philosophers and ethicists have been discussing the suitable tools to determine which act is morally sound and which one is not. Emerging the contemporary bioethics in the West has resulted in a misconception that absolute westernized principles would be appropriate tools for ethical decision making in different cultures. We will discuss this issue by introducing a clinical case. Considering various cultural beliefs around the world, though it is not logical to consider all of them ethically acceptable, we can gather on some general fundamental principles instead of going to the extremes of relativism and absolutism. Islamic teachings, according to the presented evidence in this paper, fall in with this idea.

  12. Common Principles and Multiculturalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahedi, Farzaneh; Larijani, Bagher

    2009-01-01

    Judgment on rightness and wrongness of beliefs and behaviors is a main issue in bioethics. Over centuries, big philosophers and ethicists have been discussing the suitable tools to determine which act is morally sound and which one is not. Emerging the contemporary bioethics in the West has resulted in a misconception that absolute westernized principles would be appropriate tools for ethical decision making in different cultures. We will discuss this issue by introducing a clinical case. Considering various cultural beliefs around the world, though it is not logical to consider all of them ethically acceptable, we can gather on some general fundamental principles instead of going to the extremes of relativism and absolutism. Islamic teachings, according to the presented evidence in this paper, fall in with this idea. PMID:23908720

  13. Common Principles and Multiculturalism

    OpenAIRE

    Zahedi, Farzaneh; Larijani, Bagher

    2009-01-01

    Judgment on rightness and wrongness of beliefs and behaviors is a main issue in bioethics. Over centuries, big philosophers and ethicists have been discussing the suitable tools to determine which act is morally sound and which one is not. Emerging the contemporary bioethics in the West has resulted in a misconception that absolute westernized principles would be appropriate tools for ethical decision making in different cultures. We will discuss this issue by introducing a clinical case. Con...

  14. Basic principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, P.D.

    1996-01-01

    Some basic explanations are given of the principles underlying the nuclear fuel cycle, starting with the physics of atomic and nuclear structure and continuing with nuclear energy and reactors, fuel and waste management and finally a discussion of economics and the future. An important aspect of the fuel cycle concerns the possibility of ''closing the back end'' i.e. reprocessing the waste or unused fuel in order to re-use it in reactors of various kinds. The alternative, the ''oncethrough'' cycle, discards the discharged fuel completely. An interim measure involves the prolonged storage of highly radioactive waste fuel. (UK)

  15. Belief Elicitation in Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanco, Mariana; Engelmann, Dirk; Koch, Alexander

    Belief elicitation in economics experiments usually relies on paying subjects according to the accuracy of stated beliefs in addition to payments for other decisions. Such incentives, however, allow risk-averse subjects to hedge with their stated beliefs against adverse outcomes of other decisions......-belief elicitation treatment using a financial investment frame, where hedging arguably would be most natural....

  16. Quantum-mechanical simulations for in vivo MR spectroscopy: Principles and possibilities demonstrated with the program NMRScopeB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starčuk, Zenon; Starčuková, Jana

    2017-07-15

    Current possibilities and limitations of the simulation of in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopic signals are demonstrated from the point of view of a simulation software user as well as its programmer. A brief review of the quantum-mechanical background addresses the specific needs of simulation implementation and in vivo MR spectroscopy in general. Practical application examples demonstrate how flexible simulation software, such as NMRScopeB, can be utilized not only for the preparation of metabolite basis signals for quantification of metabolite concentrations, but also in pulse sequence development, assessment of artifacts and analyzing mechanism leading to unexpected signal phenomena. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Dimensional cosmological principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, L.K.

    1985-01-01

    The dimensional cosmological principles proposed by Wesson require that the density, pressure, and mass of cosmological models be functions of the dimensionless variables which are themselves combinations of the gravitational constant, the speed of light, and the spacetime coordinates. The space coordinate is not the comoving coordinate. In this paper, the dimensional cosmological principle and the dimensional perfect cosmological principle are reformulated by using the comoving coordinate. The dimensional perfect cosmological principle is further modified to allow the possibility that mass creation may occur. Self-similar spacetimes are found to be models obeying the new dimensional cosmological principle

  18. A new approach to probabilistic belief change

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rens, G

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available One way for an agent to deal with uncertainty about its beliefs is to maintain a probability distribution over the worlds it believes are possible. A belief change operation may recommend some previously believed worlds to become impossible and some...

  19. Evolution of Religious Beliefs

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    Humans may be distinguished from all other animals in having beliefs about the causal interaction of physical objects. Causal beliefs are a developmental primitive in human children; animals, by contrast, have very few causal beliefs. The origin of human causal beliefs comes from the evolutionary advantage it gave in relation to complex tool making and use. Causal beliefs gave rise religion and mystical thinking as our ancestors wanted to know the causes of events that affected their lives.

  20. The base rate principle and the fairness principle in social judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jack; Banaji, Mahzarin R

    2016-07-05

    Meet Jonathan and Elizabeth. One person is a doctor and the other is a nurse. Who is the doctor? When nothing else is known, the base rate principle favors Jonathan to be the doctor and the fairness principle favors both individuals equally. However, when individuating facts reveal who is actually the doctor, base rates and fairness become irrelevant, as the facts make the correct answer clear. In three experiments, explicit and implicit beliefs were measured before and after individuating facts were learned. These facts were either stereotypic (e.g., Jonathan is the doctor, Elizabeth is the nurse) or counterstereotypic (e.g., Elizabeth is the doctor, Jonathan is the nurse). Results showed that before individuating facts were learned, explicit beliefs followed the fairness principle, whereas implicit beliefs followed the base rate principle. After individuating facts were learned, explicit beliefs correctly aligned with stereotypic and counterstereotypic facts. Implicit beliefs, however, were immune to counterstereotypic facts and continued to follow the base rate principle. Having established the robustness and generality of these results, a fourth experiment verified that gender stereotypes played a causal role: when both individuals were male, explicit and implicit beliefs alike correctly converged with individuating facts. Taken together, these experiments demonstrate that explicit beliefs uphold fairness and incorporate obvious and relevant facts, but implicit beliefs uphold base rates and appear relatively impervious to counterstereotypic facts.

  1. Folk-Economic Beliefs: An Evolutionary Cognitive Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Pascal; Petersen, Michael Bang

    2017-10-12

    The domain of "folk-economics" consists in explicit beliefs about the economy held by laypeople, untrained in economics, about such topics as e.g., the causes of the wealth of nations, the benefits or drawbacks of markets and international trade, the effects of regulation, the origins of inequality, the connection between work and wages, the economic consequences of immigration, or the possible causes of unemployment. These beliefs are crucial in forming people's political beliefs, and in shaping their reception of different policies. Yet, they often conflict with elementary principles of economic theory and are often described as the consequences of ignorance, irrationality or specific biases. As we will argue, these past perspectives fail to predict the particular contents of popular folk-economic beliefs and, as a result, there is no systematic study of the cognitive factors involved in their emergence and cultural success. Here we propose that the cultural success of particular beliefs about the economy is predictable if we consider the influence of specialized, largely automatic inference systems that evolved as adaptations to ancestral human small-scale sociality. These systems, for which there is independent evidence, include free-rider detection, fairness-based partner-choice, ownership intuitions, coalitional psychology, and more. Information about modern mass-market conditions activates these specific inference-systems, resulting in particular intuitions, e.g., that impersonal transactions are dangerous or that international trade is a zero-sum game. These intuitions in turn make specific policy proposals more likely than others to become intuitively compelling, and as a consequence exert a crucial influence on political choices.

  2. Bernoulli's Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Paul G.

    2004-01-01

    Some teachers have difficulty understanding Bernoulli's principle particularly when the principle is applied to the aerodynamic lift. Some teachers favor using Newton's laws instead of Bernoulli's principle to explain the physics behind lift. Some also consider Bernoulli's principle too difficult to explain to students and avoid teaching it…

  3. Principle for possible memory structures with extra high density by using the electron sharing mechanisms of atoms in an inflective orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengor, T.

    2014-10-01

    Both of the qualitative and quantitative knowledge of electromagnetic fields in the inter-atomic scale bring useful applications. From this point of view, bringing some possible new sights and solutions to atom-electron-photon-atom and/or molecule interactions is aimed in the near-field at inter atomic scale and their potential applications. The electron sharing processes between neighbor atoms are considered as an inflective surface system and an inflective guiding processes. The critical pass and transition structures are derived. The structures involving trigging that transition mechanisms may be suitable to design extra high density and fast data storage processes. The electron sharing processes between two near atomic system are modelled with gate mechanisms involving two distinct passages: continuous pass and discontinuous pass. Even if the stochastic processes are applicable at these cases theoretical approach putting an influence like inner and external dipole mechanisms fits best to the situation and provides almost deterministic scheme, which has potential to estimate some processes being able to design new electronics structures and devices. We call orbitron all of such structures and/or devices. The boundary value problem of atomic system sharing an electron in the way of electron passage model is formulated in inflective spherical coordinate system. The wave phenomenon is studied near spherically inflection points. The analytical essentials are derived for the solution of Helmholtz's equation when inflective boundaries are included. The evaluation is obtained by the extracted separation method. The results are given by using the spherically inflective wave series. The method is reshaped for the solution of Schrödinger equation.

  4. General family of preferential belief removal operators

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Booth, R

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Most belief change operators in the AGM tradition assume an underlying plausibility ordering over the possible worlds which is transitive and complete. A unifying structure for these operators, based on supplementing the plausibility ordering with a...

  5. Lucky Belief in Science Education - Gettier Cases and the Value of Reliable Belief-Forming Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Richard

    2018-05-01

    The conceptualisation of knowledge as justified true belief has been shown to be, at the very least, an incomplete account. One challenge to the justified true belief model arises from the proposition of situations in which a person possesses a belief that is both justified and true which some philosophers intuit should not be classified as knowledge. Though situations of this type have been imagined by a number of writers, they have come to be labelled Gettier cases. Gettier cases arise when a fallible justification happens to lead to a true belief in one context, a case of `lucky belief'. In this article, it is argued that students studying science may make claims that resemble Gettier cases. In some contexts, a student may make a claim that is both justified and true but which arises from an alternative conception of a scientific concept. A number of instances of lucky belief in topics in science education are considered leading to an examination of the criteria teachers use to assess students' claims in different contexts. The possibility of lucky belief leads to the proposal that, in addition to the acquisition of justified true beliefs, the development of reliable belief-forming processes is a significant goal of science education. The pedagogic value of various kinds of claims is considered and, it is argued, the criteria used to judge claims may be adjusted to suit the context of assessment. It is suggested that teachers should be alert to instances of lucky belief that mask alternative conceptions.

  6. Strategic Belief Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul

    While (managerial) beliefs are central to many aspects of strategic organization, interactive beliefs are almost entirely neglected, save for some game theory treatments. In an increasingly connected and networked economy, firms confront coordination problems that arise because of network effects....... The capability to manage beliefs will increasingly be a strategic one, a key source of wealth creation, and a key research area for strategic organization scholars.......While (managerial) beliefs are central to many aspects of strategic organization, interactive beliefs are almost entirely neglected, save for some game theory treatments. In an increasingly connected and networked economy, firms confront coordination problems that arise because of network effects...

  7. SPORT SCIENCE STUDENTS‟ BELIEFS ABOUT LANGUAGE LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvi Akhiriyah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available There are many reasons for students of Sport Science to use English. Yet, knowing the importance of learning English is sometimes not enough to encourage them to learn English well. Based on the experience in teaching them, erroneous belief seems to be held by many of them. It arouses curiosity about the beliefs which might be revealed to help the students to be successful in language learning. By investigating sport science students‘ beliefs about language learning, it is expected that types of the beliefs which they hold can be revealed. Understanding students‘ beliefs about language learning is essential because these beliefs can have possible consequences for second language learning and instruction. This study is expected to provide empirical evidence. The subjects of this study were 1st semester students majoring in Sport Science of Sport Science Faculty. There were 4 classes with 38 students in each class. There were approximately 152 students as the population of the study. The sample was taken by using random sampling. All members of the population received the questionnaire. The questionnaire which was later handed back to the researcher is considered as the sample. The instrument in this study is the newest version of Beliefs About Language Learning Inventory (BALLI, version 2.0, developed by Horwitz to asses the beliefs about learning a foreign language.

  8. Plan-Belief Revision in Jason

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Villadsen, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    When information is shared between agents of unknown reliability, it is possible that their belief bases become inconsistent. In such cases, the belief base must be revised to restore consistency, so that the agent is able to reason. In some cases the inconsistent information may be due to use of...... of incorrect plans. We extend work by Alechina et al. to revise belief bases in which plans can be dynamically added and removed. We present an implementation of the algorithm in the AgentSpeak implementation Jason....

  9. Descriptor revision belief change through direct choice

    CERN Document Server

    Hansson, Sven Ove

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a critical examination of how the choice of what to believe is represented in the standard model of belief change. In particular the use of possible worlds and infinite remainders as objects of choice is critically examined. Descriptors are introduced as a versatile tool for expressing the success conditions of belief change, addressing both local and global descriptor revision. The book presents dynamic descriptors such as Ramsey descriptors that convey how an agent’s beliefs tend to be changed in response to different inputs. It also explores sentential revision and demonstrates how local and global operations of revision by a sentence can be derived as a special case of descriptor revision. Lastly, the book examines revocation, a generalization of contraction in which a specified sentence is removed in a process that may possibly also involve the addition of some new information to the belief set.

  10. The principle of general tovariance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heunen, C.; Landsman, N.P.; Spitters, B.A.W.; Loja Fernandes, R.; Picken, R.

    2008-01-01

    We tentatively propose two guiding principles for the construction of theories of physics, which should be satisfied by a possible future theory of quantum gravity. These principles are inspired by those that led Einstein to his theory of general relativity, viz. his principle of general covariance

  11. Intention and Normative Belief

    OpenAIRE

    Chislenko, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    I defend the view that we act “under the guise of the good.” More specifically, I argue that an intention to do something is a belief that one ought to do it. I show how conflicts in intention and belief, as well as more complex impairments in these states, account for the central problem cases: akrasia in belief and intention, apparently unintelligible choices, and lack of motivation or accidie.

  12. Intensive Care Nurses’ Belief Systems Regarding the Health Economics: A Focused Ethnography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Abbas; Vafaee-Najar, Ali; Bakhshi, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Background: Health care beliefs can have an effect on the efficiency and effectiveness of nursing practices. Nevertheless, how belief systems impact on the economic performance of intensive care unit (ICU) nurses is not known. This study aimed to explore the ICU nurses’ beliefs and their effect on nurse’s: practices and behavior patterns regarding the health economics. Methods: In this study, a focused ethnography method was used. Twenty-four informants from ICU nurses and other professional individuals were purposively selected and interviewed. As well, 400 hours of ethnographic observations were used for data collection. Data analysis was performed using the methods described by Miles and Huberman (1994). Findings: Eight beliefs were found that gave meaning to ICU nurse’s practices regarding the health economics. 1. The registration of medications and supplies disrupt the nursing care; 2. Monitoring and auditing improve consumption; 3. There is a fear of possible shortage in the future; 4. Supply and replacement of equipment is difficult; 5. Higher prices lead to more accurate consumption; 6. The quality of care precedes the costs; 7. Clinical Guidelines are abundant but useful; and 8. Patient economy has priority over hospital economy. Maintaining the quality of patient care with least attention to hospital costs was the main focus of the beliefs formed up in the ICU regarding the health economics. Conclusions: ICU nurses’ belief systems have significantly shaped in relation to providing a high-quality care. Although high quality of care can lead to a rise in the effectiveness of nursing care, cost control perspective should also be considered in planning for improve the quality of care. Therefore, it is necessary to involve the ICU nurses in decision-making about unit cost management. They must become familiar with the principles of heath care economics and productivity by applying an effective cost management program. It may be optimal to implement the

  13. Intensive Care Nurses' Belief Systems Regarding the Health Economics: A Focused Ethnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Abbas; Vafaee-Najar, Ali; Bakhshi, Mahmoud

    2016-09-01

    Health care beliefs can have an effect on the efficiency and effectiveness of nursing practices. Nevertheless, how belief systems impact on the economic performance of intensive care unit (ICU) nurses is not known. This study aimed to explore the ICU nurses' beliefs and their effect on nurse's practices and behavior patterns regarding the health economics. In this study, a focused ethnography method was used. Twenty-four informants from ICU nurses and other professional individuals were purposively selected and interviewed. As well, 400 hours of ethnographic observations were used for data collection. Data analysis was performed using the methods described by Miles and Huberman (1994). Eight beliefs were found that gave meaning to ICU nurse's practices regarding the health economics. 1. The registration of medications and supplies disrupt the nursing care; 2.Monitoring and auditing improve consumption; 3.There is a fear of possible shortage in the future; 4.Supply and replacement of equipment is difficult; 5.Higher prices lead to more accurate consumption; 6.The quality of care precedes the costs; 7. Clinical Guidelines are abundant but useful; and 8.Patient economy has priority over hospital economy. Maintaining the quality of patient care with least attention to hospital costs was the main focus of the beliefs formed up in the ICU regarding the health economics. ICU nurses' belief systems have significantly shaped in relation to providing a high-quality care. Although high quality of care can lead to a rise in the effectiveness of nursing care, cost control perspective should also be considered in planning for improve the quality of care. Therefore, it is necessary to involve the ICU nurses in decision-making about unit cost management. They must become familiar with the principles of heath care economics and productivity by applying an effective cost management program. It may be optimal to implement the reforms in various aspects, such as the hospital

  14. Analytic thinking reduces belief in conspiracy theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Voracek, Martin; Stieger, Stefan; Tran, Ulrich S; Furnham, Adrian

    2014-12-01

    Belief in conspiracy theories has been associated with a range of negative health, civic, and social outcomes, requiring reliable methods of reducing such belief. Thinking dispositions have been highlighted as one possible factor associated with belief in conspiracy theories, but actual relationships have only been infrequently studied. In Study 1, we examined associations between belief in conspiracy theories and a range of measures of thinking dispositions in a British sample (N=990). Results indicated that a stronger belief in conspiracy theories was significantly associated with lower analytic thinking and open-mindedness and greater intuitive thinking. In Studies 2-4, we examined the causational role played by analytic thinking in relation to conspiracist ideation. In Study 2 (N=112), we showed that a verbal fluency task that elicited analytic thinking reduced belief in conspiracy theories. In Study 3 (N=189), we found that an alternative method of eliciting analytic thinking, which related to cognitive disfluency, was effective at reducing conspiracist ideation in a student sample. In Study 4, we replicated the results of Study 3 among a general population sample (N=140) in relation to generic conspiracist ideation and belief in conspiracy theories about the July 7, 2005, bombings in London. Our results highlight the potential utility of supporting attempts to promote analytic thinking as a means of countering the widespread acceptance of conspiracy theories. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. How do Epistemological Beliefs Affect Training Motivation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Molan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies show that human resources development through workplace training is one of the major investments in the workforce in today’s globalized and challenging market. As training motivation influences employees’ preparation for the workplace training, their respond to the programme, their learning outcome, their performance levels, and use of acquired knowledge and skills in their workplace it seems logical to investigate and determine antecedents of training motivation. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the concepts of epistemological beliefs, training motivation and the actual participation in the workplace training. We predicted that epistemological beliefs would have an effect on training motivation and actual participation on the workplace training and that there would be a positive relationship between the concepts, meaning that the more sophisticated epistemological beliefs would lead to higher motivation and participation. To test the epistemological beliefs, the Epistemic Belief Inventory (Schraw, Bendixen & Dunkle, 2002 was used and adjusted to the workplace setting. Then the results were compared to employees’ training motivation, which was measured with a questionnaire made by authors of the present study, and employees’ actual number of training hours annually. The results confirmed the relationship between the concepts as well as a significant predicting value of epistemological beliefs on motivation and actual participation. Epistemic Belief Inventory did not yield expected results reported by the authors of the instrument therefore the limitations, possible other interpretations and suggested further exploration are discussed.

  16. STATED VS. ENACTED BELIEFS: LOOKING AT PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS' PEDAGOGICAL BELIEFS THROUGH CLASSROOM INTERACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Fajardo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relationship between pedagogical beliefs and classroom practice. Two Colombian pre-service primary school language teachers in the final stage of their five-year training programme were the research participants. Interview and classroom observation were the methods used, and content analysis was the analytical approach. It is argued in this study that by comparing the stated beliefs (as articulated in interviews and enacted beliefs (as manifested in classroom interaction, it is possible to gain a fine-grained understanding of the relationship between beliefs and teaching practice. The findings suggested that while there were significant cases of coherence between beliefs and classroom action, there was also evidence of some incongruent relationships.

  17. Belief Functions: Theory and Applications - Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Belief Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Masson, Marie-Hélène

    2012-01-01

    The theory of belief functions, also known as evidence theory or Dempster-Shafer theory, was first introduced by Arthur P. Dempster in the context of statistical inference, and was later developed by Glenn Shafer as a general framework for modeling epistemic uncertainty. These early contributions have been the starting points of many important developments, including the Transferable Belief Model and the Theory of Hints. The theory of belief functions is now well established as a general framework for reasoning with uncertainty, and has well understood connections to other frameworks such as probability, possibility and imprecise probability theories.   This volume contains the proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Belief Functions that was held in Compiègne, France on 9-11 May 2012. It gathers 51 contributions describing recent developments both on theoretical issues (including approximation methods, combination rules, continuous belief functions, graphical models and independence concepts) an...

  18. Constructivism, Factoring, and Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauff, James V.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses errors made by remedial intermediate algebra students in factoring polynomials in light of student definitions of factoring. Found certain beliefs about factoring to logically imply many of the errors made. Suggests that belief-based teaching can be successful in teaching factoring. (16 references) (Author/MKR)

  19. Variational principles

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseiwitsch, B L

    2004-01-01

    This graduate-level text's primary objective is to demonstrate the expression of the equations of the various branches of mathematical physics in the succinct and elegant form of variational principles (and thereby illuminate their interrelationship). Its related intentions are to show how variational principles may be employed to determine the discrete eigenvalues for stationary state problems and to illustrate how to find the values of quantities (such as the phase shifts) that arise in the theory of scattering. Chapter-by-chapter treatment consists of analytical dynamics; optics, wave mecha

  20. Folk Beliefs of Cultural Changes in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi eXu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available For the last several decades, Chinese society has experienced transformative changes. How are these changes understood among Chinese people? To examine this question, Part 1 in this research solicited folk beliefs of cultural change from a group of Chinese participants in an open-ended format, and the generated folk beliefs were rated by another group of participants in Part 2 to gauge each belief’s level of agreement. Part 3 plotted the folk beliefs retained in Part 2 using the Google Ngram Viewer in order to infer the amount of intellectual interests that each belief has received cross-temporarily. These analyses suggested a few themes in Chinese folk beliefs of cultural change (1 rising perceived importance of materialism and individualism in understanding contemporary Chinese culture and Chinese psychology relative to those of the past (2 rising perceived importance of freedom, democracy and human rights and (3 enduring perceived importance of family relations and friendship as well as patriotism. Interestingly, findings from Parts 2 and 3 diverged somewhat, illuminating possible divergence between folk beliefs and intellectual interests especially for issues related to heritage of Confucianism.

  1. Maquet principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, R.B.; Stassi, J.; Karasick, D.

    1985-04-01

    Anterior displacement of the tibial tubercle is a well-accepted orthopedic procedure in the treatment of certain patellofemoral disorders. The radiologic appearance of surgical procedures utilizing the Maquet principle has not been described in the radiologic literature. Familiarity with the physiologic and biochemical basis for the procedure and its postoperative appearance is necessary for appropriate roentgenographic evaluation and the radiographic recognition of complications.

  2. Cosmological principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesson, P.S.

    1979-01-01

    The Cosmological Principle states: the universe looks the same to all observers regardless of where they are located. To most astronomers today the Cosmological Principle means the universe looks the same to all observers because density of the galaxies is the same in all places. A new Cosmological Principle is proposed. It is called the Dimensional Cosmological Principle. It uses the properties of matter in the universe: density (rho), pressure (p), and mass (m) within some region of space of length (l). The laws of physics require incorporation of constants for gravity (G) and the speed of light (C). After combining the six parameters into dimensionless numbers, the best choices are: 8πGl 2 rho/c 2 , 8πGl 2 rho/c 4 , and 2 Gm/c 2 l (the Schwarzchild factor). The Dimensional Cosmological Principal came about because old ideas conflicted with the rapidly-growing body of observational evidence indicating that galaxies in the universe have a clumpy rather than uniform distribution

  3. How Epistemological Beliefs Relate to Values and Gender Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessels, Ursula

    2013-01-01

    In response to the current literature on possible systematic differences in the epistemological beliefs of men and women and between members of different cultures, this paper examines the way psychological constructs associated with gender (i.e. gender orientation) and culture (i.e. values) are related to individual's epistemological beliefs.…

  4. Belief Change in Reasoning Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Yi

    2007-01-01

    The capability of changing beliefs upon new information in a rational and efficient way is crucial for an intelligent agent. Belief change therefore is one of the central research fields in Artificial Intelligence (AI) for over two decades. In the AI literature, two different kinds of belief change operations have been intensively investigated: belief update, which deal with situations where the new information describes changes of the world; and belief revision, which assumes the world is st...

  5. Itch Management: General Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misery, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Like pain, itch is a challenging condition that needs to be managed. Within this setting, the first principle of itch management is to get an appropriate diagnosis to perform an etiology-oriented therapy. In several cases it is not possible to treat the cause, the etiology is undetermined, there are several causes, or the etiological treatment is not effective enough to alleviate itch completely. This is also why there is need for symptomatic treatment. In all patients, psychological support and associated pragmatic measures might be helpful. General principles and guidelines are required, yet patient-centered individual care remains fundamental. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. The Virtue of Principle Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersoff, Donald N.

    1996-01-01

    Presents arguments against adopting virtue ethics as a guiding concept in developing counseling guidelines: (1) virtue ethics is irrelevant in the resolution of most ethics cases; (2) virtue and principle ethics overlap; (3) principle ethics are more suited to acting and deciding; (4) the emphasis on virtue ethics increases the possibility of…

  7. The association between reality-based beliefs and indirectly experienced traumatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiri, Shimon; Wexler, Isaiah D; Schwartz, Isabella; Kadari, Michal; Kreitler, Shulamith

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the association between belief types and the magnitude of indirect traumatization. Specific types of beliefs were defined in terms of the cognitive orientation theory, which is a cognitive-motivational approach to the understanding, predicting, and changing of behaviors. Belief types that were analyzed included beliefs about self, general beliefs, beliefs about norms, and goal beliefs as they relate to personal growth. Study participants included 38 rescuers (body handlers), 37 nurses, and 31 rehabilitation workers who treated injured civilians that had been exposed to politically motivated violence. The Cognitive Orientation for Posttraumatic Growth Scale was used to assess beliefs about personal growth. The Revised Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Inventory was administered to evaluate indirect traumatization. The results indicate that three of the four belief types related to personal growth were associated with the level of indirect traumatization. Optimistic and positive beliefs about self and general beliefs were associated with a lower level of indirect traumatization symptomatology, suggesting that these types of beliefs may counteract indirect traumatization. On the other hand, stronger goal beliefs were associated with greater indirect traumatization. The negative association between positive goal beliefs and indirect trauma may be related to the gap the individual perceives between the hoped-for ideals and the trauma-stricken reality. These results indicate the importance of cognitive beliefs and their possible role in determining the response to indirect traumatization.

  8. Principles of musical acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Hartmann, William M

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Musical Acoustics focuses on the basic principles in the science and technology of music. Musical examples and specific musical instruments demonstrate the principles. The book begins with a study of vibrations and waves, in that order. These topics constitute the basic physical properties of sound, one of two pillars supporting the science of musical acoustics. The second pillar is the human element, the physiological and psychological aspects of acoustical science. The perceptual topics include loudness, pitch, tone color, and localization of sound. With these two pillars in place, it is possible to go in a variety of directions. The book treats in turn, the topics of room acoustics, audio both analog and digital, broadcasting, and speech. It ends with chapters on the traditional musical instruments, organized by family. The mathematical level of this book assumes that the reader is familiar with elementary algebra. Trigonometric functions, logarithms and powers also appear in the book, but co...

  9. Expectations and Beliefs in Science Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Gitte

    2016-01-01

    communication practices, it is argued that deep beliefs may constitute drivers of hype that are particularly difficult to deal with. To participants in science communication, the discouragement of hype, viewed as a practical–ethical challenge, can be seen as a learning exercise that includes critical attention......; gene therapy was not universally hyped. Against that background, attention is directed towards another area of variation in the material: different basic assumptions about science and scientists. Exploring such culturally rooted assumptions and beliefs and their possible significance to science...

  10. The extended reciprocity: Strong belief outperforms persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Shun

    2017-05-21

    The existence of cooperation is a mysterious phenomenon and demands explanation, and direct reciprocity is one key potential explanation for the evolution of cooperation. Direct reciprocity allows cooperation to evolve for cooperators who switch their behavior on the basis of information about the opponent's behavior. Here, relevant to direct reciprocity is information deficiency. When the opponent's last move is unknown, how should players behave? One possibility is to choose cooperation with some default probability without using any further information. In fact, our previous paper (Kurokawa, 2016a) examined this strategy. However, there might be beneficial information other than the opponent's last move. A subsequent study of ours (Kurokawa, 2017) examined the strategy which uses the own last move when the opponent's last move is unknown, and revealed that referring to the own move and trying to imitate it when information is absent is beneficial. Is there any other beneficial information else? How about strong belief (i.e., have infinite memory and believe that the opponent's behavior is unchanged)? Here, we examine the evolution of strategies with strong belief. Analyzing the repeated prisoner's dilemma game and using evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) analysis against an invasion by unconditional defectors, we find the strategy with strong belief is more likely to evolve than the strategy which does not use information other than the opponent player's last move and more likely to evolve than the strategy which uses not only the opponent player's last move but also the own last move. Strong belief produces the extended reciprocity and facilitates the evolution of cooperation. Additionally, we consider the two strategies game between strategies with strong belief and any strategy, and we consider the four strategies game in which unconditional cooperators, unconditional defectors, pessimistic reciprocators with strong belief, and optimistic reciprocators with

  11. A Pilot Study of the Epistemological Beliefs of Students in Industrial-Technical Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinn, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of the epistemological beliefs of apprentices in the commercial engineering sector is of interest for vocational training, both from the point of view of optimising vocational didactic processes as well as in terms of communicating suitable knowledge based beliefs about principles and performance in the commercial engineering…

  12. Understanding travelers’ behavior in provision of travel information : a Bayesian belief approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parvaneh, Z.; Arentze, T.A.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Individuals make their decisions considering their past experiences and their beliefs about the possible outcomes of the decision. That is to say individuals have beliefs about outcomes of an event. These beliefs about the outcomes of an event are not constant. Each time an individual receives

  13. Zymography Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkesman, Jeff; Kurz, Liliana

    2017-01-01

    Zymography, the detection, identification, and even quantification of enzyme activity fractionated by gel electrophoresis, has received increasing attention in the last years, as revealed by the number of articles published. A number of enzymes are routinely detected by zymography, especially with clinical interest. This introductory chapter reviews the major principles behind zymography. New advances of this method are basically focused towards two-dimensional zymography and transfer zymography as will be explained in the rest of the chapters. Some general considerations when performing the experiments are outlined as well as the major troubleshooting and safety issues necessary for correct development of the electrophoresis.

  14. A general family of preferential belief removal operators

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Booth, R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Most belief change operators in the AGM tradition assume an underlying plausibility ordering over the possible worlds which is transitive and complete. A unifying structure for these operators, based on supplementing the plausibility ordering with a...

  15. Attitudes, beliefs, uncertainty and risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenhalgh, Geoffrey [Down Park Place, Crawley Down (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    There is now unmistakable evidence of a widening split within the Western industrial nations arising from conflicting views of society; for and against change. The argument is over the benefits of 'progress' and growth. On one side are those who seek more jobs, more production and consumption, higher standards of living, an ever-increasing GNP with an increasing globalisation of production and welcome the advances of science and technology confident that any temporary problems that arise can be solved by further technological development - possible energy shortages as a growing population increases energy usage can be met by nuclear power development; food shortages by the increased yields of GM crops. In opposition are those who put the quality of life before GNP, advocate a more frugal life-style, reducing needs and energy consumption, and, pointing to the harm caused by increasing pollution, press for cleaner air and water standards. They seek to reduce the pressure of an ever-increasing population and above all to preserve the natural environment. This view is associated with a growing uncertainty as the established order is challenged with the rise in status of 'alternative' science and medicine. This paper argues that these conflicting views reflect instinctive attitudes. These in turn draw support from beliefs selected from those which uncertainty offers. Where there is scope for argument over the truth or validity of a 'fact', the choice of which of the disputed views to believe will be determined by a value judgement. This applies to all controversial social and political issues. Nuclear waste disposal and biotechnology are but two particular examples in the technological field; joining the EMU is a current political controversy where value judgements based on attitudes determine beliefs. When, or if, a controversy is finally resolved the judgement arrived at will be justified by the belief that the consequences of the course chosen will be more favourable

  16. Attitudes, beliefs, uncertainty and risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenhalgh, Geoffrey [Down Park Place, Crawley Down (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    There is now unmistakable evidence of a widening split within the Western industrial nations arising from conflicting views of society; for and against change. The argument is over the benefits of 'progress' and growth. On one side are those who seek more jobs, more production and consumption, higher standards of living, an ever-increasing GNP with an increasing globalisation of production and welcome the advances of science and technology confident that any temporary problems that arise can be solved by further technological development - possible energy shortages as a growing population increases energy usage can be met by nuclear power development; food shortages by the increased yields of GM crops. In opposition are those who put the quality of life before GNP, advocate a more frugal life-style, reducing needs and energy consumption, and, pointing to the harm caused by increasing pollution, press for cleaner air and water standards. They seek to reduce the pressure of an ever-increasing population and above all to preserve the natural environment. This view is associated with a growing uncertainty as the established order is challenged with the rise in status of 'alternative' science and medicine. This paper argues that these conflicting views reflect instinctive attitudes. These in turn draw support from beliefs selected from those which uncertainty offers. Where there is scope for argument over the truth or validity of a 'fact', the choice of which of the disputed views to believe will be determined by a value judgement. This applies to all controversial social and political issues. Nuclear waste disposal and biotechnology are but two particular examples in the technological field; joining the EMU is a current political controversy where value judgements based on attitudes determine beliefs. When, or if, a controversy is finally resolved the judgement arrived at will be justified by the belief that the consequences of the course

  17. Attitudes, beliefs, uncertainty and risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalgh, Geoffrey

    2001-01-01

    There is now unmistakable evidence of a widening split within the Western industrial nations arising from conflicting views of society; for and against change. The argument is over the benefits of 'progress' and growth. On one side are those who seek more jobs, more production and consumption, higher standards of living, an ever-increasing GNP with an increasing globalisation of production and welcome the advances of science and technology confident that any temporary problems that arise can be solved by further technological development - possible energy shortages as a growing population increases energy usage can be met by nuclear power development; food shortages by the increased yields of GM crops. In opposition are those who put the quality of life before GNP, advocate a more frugal life-style, reducing needs and energy consumption, and, pointing to the harm caused by increasing pollution, press for cleaner air and water standards. They seek to reduce the pressure of an ever-increasing population and above all to preserve the natural environment. This view is associated with a growing uncertainty as the established order is challenged with the rise in status of 'alternative' science and medicine. This paper argues that these conflicting views reflect instinctive attitudes. These in turn draw support from beliefs selected from those which uncertainty offers. Where there is scope for argument over the truth or validity of a 'fact', the choice of which of the disputed views to believe will be determined by a value judgement. This applies to all controversial social and political issues. Nuclear waste disposal and biotechnology are but two particular examples in the technological field; joining the EMU is a current political controversy where value judgements based on attitudes determine beliefs. When, or if, a controversy is finally resolved the judgement arrived at will be justified by the belief that the consequences of the course chosen will be more favourable

  18. Islamic Beliefs and Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefein, Naim A.

    1981-01-01

    To help social studies classroom teachers present a realistic picture of the Middle Eastern religion of Islam, this article presents an overview of major beliefs and religious practices of Moslems. Information is presented on religious fundamentals, Islam's relationship to Judaism and Christianity, the development of Islam, the role of women, and…

  19. Dissociation, Paranormal Belief, and Quality of Life in Older People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tungshan Chou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of religiosity in current health-related literature is mostly based on the traditional Christian belief system. It has been argued that such a measurement approach may misrepresent the true degree of religiosity in Taiwanese people. In this study, religiosity was measured in two ways: self-reported religion type and a qualitatively derived index of religious piety based on principles as suggested by Gries, Su, and Schak to be used in the Taiwanese context. Their effects on dissociation, paranormal belief, and quality of life were juxtaposed for comparison. In addition, the beneficial effect of religious piety was examined in the framework of McClenon’s ritual healing theory. A total of 266 healthy older adults across Taiwan were interviewed by four trained assistants over a 4-month period. Factor scores were used to represent the dissociative tendencies (depersonalization/derealization, forgetfulness, amnesia, and psychological absorption and paranormal belief facets (precognition, psi power, other forms of life, traditional religious belief, superstition, and telepathy. The results showed that older people of high religious piety display better quality of life profiles than their counterparts in the low religious piety group. The effects of self-reported religion type were mainly seen with paranormal beliefs compatible with their religious beliefs, whereas the effects of religious piety were more pronounced in relation to quality of life than dissociation and paranormal belief. The beneficial advantage of dissociation hypothesized by ritual healing theory did not receive empirical support in the nonclinical sample of this study.

  20. Teacher Beliefs and Technology Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, ChanMin; Kim, Min Kyu; Lee, Chiajung; Spector, J. Michael; DeMeester, Karen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory mixed methods study was to investigate how teacher beliefs were related to technology integration practices. We were interested in how and to what extent teachers' (a) beliefs about the nature of knowledge and learning, (b) beliefs about effective ways of teaching, and (c) technology integration practices were…

  1. Underestimating belief in climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, John T.

    2018-03-01

    People are influenced by second-order beliefsbeliefs about the beliefs of others. New research finds that citizens in the US and China systematically underestimate popular support for taking action to curb climate change. Fortunately, they seem willing and able to correct their misperceptions.

  2. Core principles of evolutionary medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunspan, Daniel Z; Nesse, Randolph M; Barnes, M Elizabeth; Brownell, Sara E

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background and objectives Evolutionary medicine is a rapidly growing field that uses the principles of evolutionary biology to better understand, prevent and treat disease, and that uses studies of disease to advance basic knowledge in evolutionary biology. Over-arching principles of evolutionary medicine have been described in publications, but our study is the first to systematically elicit core principles from a diverse panel of experts in evolutionary medicine. These principles should be useful to advance recent recommendations made by The Association of American Medical Colleges and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute to make evolutionary thinking a core competency for pre-medical education. Methodology The Delphi method was used to elicit and validate a list of core principles for evolutionary medicine. The study included four surveys administered in sequence to 56 expert panelists. The initial open-ended survey created a list of possible core principles; the three subsequent surveys winnowed the list and assessed the accuracy and importance of each principle. Results Fourteen core principles elicited at least 80% of the panelists to agree or strongly agree that they were important core principles for evolutionary medicine. These principles over-lapped with concepts discussed in other articles discussing key concepts in evolutionary medicine. Conclusions and implications This set of core principles will be helpful for researchers and instructors in evolutionary medicine. We recommend that evolutionary medicine instructors use the list of core principles to construct learning goals. Evolutionary medicine is a young field, so this list of core principles will likely change as the field develops further. PMID:29493660

  3. The Principle of General Tovariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heunen, C.; Landsman, N. P.; Spitters, B.

    2008-06-01

    We tentatively propose two guiding principles for the construction of theories of physics, which should be satisfied by a possible future theory of quantum gravity. These principles are inspired by those that led Einstein to his theory of general relativity, viz. his principle of general covariance and his equivalence principle, as well as by the two mysterious dogmas of Bohr's interpretation of quantum mechanics, i.e. his doctrine of classical concepts and his principle of complementarity. An appropriate mathematical language for combining these ideas is topos theory, a framework earlier proposed for physics by Isham and collaborators. Our principle of general tovariance states that any mathematical structure appearing in the laws of physics must be definable in an arbitrary topos (with natural numbers object) and must be preserved under so-called geometric morphisms. This principle identifies geometric logic as the mathematical language of physics and restricts the constructions and theorems to those valid in intuitionism: neither Aristotle's principle of the excluded third nor Zermelo's Axiom of Choice may be invoked. Subsequently, our equivalence principle states that any algebra of observables (initially defined in the topos Sets) is empirically equivalent to a commutative one in some other topos.

  4. PRINCIPLES OF CONTENT FORMATION EDUCATIONAL ELECTRONIC RESOURCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О Ю Заславская

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers modern possibilities of information and communication technologies for the design of electronic educational resources. The conceptual basis of the open educational multimedia system is based on the modular architecture of the electronic educational resource. The content of the electronic training module can be implemented in several versions of the modules: obtaining information, practical exercises, control. The regularities in the teaching process in modern pedagogical theory are considered: general and specific, and the principles for the formation of the content of instruction at different levels are defined, based on the formulated regularities. On the basis of the analysis, the principles of the formation of the electronic educational resource are determined, taking into account the general and didactic patterns of teaching.As principles of the formation of educational material for obtaining information for the electronic educational resource, the article considers: the principle of methodological orientation, the principle of general scientific orientation, the principle of systemic nature, the principle of fundamentalization, the principle of accounting intersubject communications, the principle of minimization. The principles of the formation of the electronic training module of practical studies in the article include: the principle of systematic and dose based consistency, the principle of rational use of study time, the principle of accessibility. The principles of the formation of the module for monitoring the electronic educational resource can be: the principle of the operationalization of goals, the principle of unified identification diagnosis.

  5. Information and Heterogeneous Beliefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Qin, Zhenjiang

    2014-01-01

    In an incomplete market with heterogeneous prior beliefs, we show public information can have a substantial impact on the ex ante cost of capital, trading volume, and investor welfare. The Pareto effcient public information system is the system enjoying the maximum ex ante cost of capital...... and the maximum expected abnormal trading volume. Imperfect public information increases the gains-to-trade based on heterogeneously updated posterior beliefs. In an exchange economy, this leads to higher growth in the investors' certainty equivalents and, thus, a higher equilibrium interest rate, whereas the ex...... ante risk premium is unaffected by the informativeness of the public information system. Similar results are obtained in a production economy, but the impact on the ex ante cost of capital is dampened compared to the exchange economy due to welfare improving reductions in real investments to smooth...

  6. False belief understanding in Cantonese-speaking children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardif, Twila; Wellman, Henry M; Cheung, Kar Man

    2004-11-01

    The present study investigates the performance of 96 Cantonese-speaking three- to five-year-old preschoolers on three false belief tasks - a deceptive object, a change of location, and an unexpected contents task encompassing a variety of task factors. Most importantly, the research examines the possibility that false belief performance depends on specific linguistic factors such as the type of verb used in the test question--an explicitly false vs. a neutral belief verb. Cantonese was chosen as particularly useful for examining this question because it explicitly codes belief status as either neutral (nam5) or false (ji5wai4), and because it offers additional linguistic and cultural contrasts to research conducted on false belief with children learning English and other Indo-European languages. As expected, a strong age effect was found, as well as a significant advantage for children who received the explicit false belief (ji5wai4) wording and for those who were asked to explain rather than predict the protagonist's actions. Interestingly, there was also a strong task difference with children performing better on the deceptive object task than on the other two false belief tasks. We argue that these results point both to universal trajectories in theory of mind development and to interesting, but localized, effects of language and culture on children's false belief understanding.

  7. Quantum principles in field interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirkov, D.V.

    1986-01-01

    The concept of quantum principle is intruduced as a principle whosee formulation is based on specific quantum ideas and notions. We consider three such principles, viz. those of quantizability, local gauge symmetry, and supersymmetry, and their role in the development of the quantum field theory (QFT). Concerning the first of these, we analyze the formal aspects and physical contents of the renormalization procedure in QFT and its relation to ultraviolet divergences and the renorm group. The quantizability principle is formulated as an existence condition of a self-consistent quantum version with a given mechanism of the field interaction. It is shown that the consecutive (from a historial point of view) use of these quantum principles puts still larger limitations on possible forms of field interactions

  8. Ontological confusions but not mentalizing abilities predict religious belief, paranormal belief, and belief in supernatural purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Marjaana; Svedholm-Häkkinen, Annika M; Lipsanen, Jari

    2015-01-01

    The current research tested the hypothesis that the abilities for understanding other people's minds give rise to the cognitive biases that underlie supernatural beliefs. We used structural equation modeling (N=2789) to determine the roles of various mentalizing tendencies, namely self-reported affective and cognitive empathy (i.e., mind reading), actual cognitive and affective empathic abilities, hyper-empathizing, and two cognitive biases (core ontological confusions and promiscuous teleology) in giving rise to supernatural beliefs. Support for a path from mentalizing abilities through cognitive biases to supernatural beliefs was weak. The relationships of mentalizing abilities with supernatural beliefs were also weak, and these relationships were not substantially mediated by cognitive biases. Core ontological confusions emerged as the best predictor, while promiscuous teleology predicted only a small proportion of variance. The results were similar for religious beliefs, paranormal beliefs, and for belief in supernatural purpose. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Laughter as Hope Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus Domingues da Silva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The work aims to establish a parallel between the concept of laughter and the Hope Principle of Ernst Bloch, differentiating their relationship between the pursuit of individual happiness, said to be ideological, deceptive and precarious, and the pursuit of collective happiness, altruistic, that despite utopian it is also true and real, just for being selfless and real because, as a collective expression, indicating concretely and politically, is a real possibility.Keywords: Laughter, Hope Principle, Ernest Bloch, altruism.

  10. Does the relativity principle violate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barashenkov, V.S.

    1994-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental data about a possible existence in Nature of some preferred reference frame with a violation of the principle of relativity are considered. The Einstein's and Lorentz's points of view are compared. Although some experiments are known which, in opinion of their authors, indicate the relativity principle violation persuasive evidences supporting this conclusion are absent for the present. The proposals of new experiments in this region, particularly with electron spin precession, are discussed. 55 refs., 4 figs

  11. Apocalypse soon? Dire messages reduce belief in global warming by contradicting just-world beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Matthew; Willer, Robb

    2011-01-01

    Though scientific evidence for the existence of global warming continues to mount, in the United States and other countries belief in global warming has stagnated or even decreased in recent years. One possible explanation for this pattern is that information about the potentially dire consequences of global warming threatens deeply held beliefs that the world is just, orderly, and stable. Individuals overcome this threat by denying or discounting the existence of global warming, and this process ultimately results in decreased willingness to counteract climate change. Two experiments provide support for this explanation of the dynamics of belief in global warming, suggesting that less dire messaging could be more effective for promoting public understanding of climate-change research.

  12. Economic Beliefs and Party Preference

    OpenAIRE

    Michael W.M. Roos; Andreas Orland

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a questionnaire study used to explore the economic understanding, normative positions along the egalitarian-libertarian spectrum, and the party preferences of a large student sample. The aim of the study is both to find socio-economic determinants of normative and positive beliefs and to explore how beliefs about the economy influence party support. We find that positive beliefs of lay people differ systematically from those of economic experts. Positive beli...

  13. Expanding Uncertainty Principle to Certainty-Uncertainty Principles with Neutrosophy and Quad-stage Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Yuhua

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The most famous contribution of Heisenberg is uncertainty principle. But the original uncertainty principle is improper. Considering all the possible situations (including the case that people can create laws and applying Neutrosophy and Quad-stage Method, this paper presents "certainty-uncertainty principles" with general form and variable dimension fractal form. According to the classification of Neutrosophy, "certainty-uncertainty principles" can be divided into three principles in different conditions: "certainty principle", namely a particle’s position and momentum can be known simultaneously; "uncertainty principle", namely a particle’s position and momentum cannot be known simultaneously; and neutral (fuzzy "indeterminacy principle", namely whether or not a particle’s position and momentum can be known simultaneously is undetermined. The special cases of "certain ty-uncertainty principles" include the original uncertainty principle and Ozawa inequality. In addition, in accordance with the original uncertainty principle, discussing high-speed particle’s speed and track with Newton mechanics is unreasonable; but according to "certaintyuncertainty principles", Newton mechanics can be used to discuss the problem of gravitational defection of a photon orbit around the Sun (it gives the same result of deflection angle as given by general relativity. Finally, for the reason that in physics the principles, laws and the like that are regardless of the principle (law of conservation of energy may be invalid; therefore "certaintyuncertainty principles" should be restricted (or constrained by principle (law of conservation of energy, and thus it can satisfy the principle (law of conservation of energy.

  14. Homo economicus belief inhibits trust.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziqiang Xin

    Full Text Available As a foundational concept in economics, the homo economicus assumption regards humans as rational and self-interested actors. In contrast, trust requires individuals to believe partners' benevolence and unselfishness. Thus, the homo economicus belief may inhibit trust. The present three experiments demonstrated that the direct exposure to homo economicus belief can weaken trust. And economic situations like profit calculation can also activate individuals' homo economicus belief and inhibit their trust. It seems that people's increasing homo economicus belief may serve as one cause of the worldwide decline of trust.

  15. Homo Economicus Belief Inhibits Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Ziqiang; Liu, Guofang

    2013-01-01

    As a foundational concept in economics, the homo economicus assumption regards humans as rational and self-interested actors. In contrast, trust requires individuals to believe partners’ benevolence and unselfishness. Thus, the homo economicus belief may inhibit trust. The present three experiments demonstrated that the direct exposure to homo economicus belief can weaken trust. And economic situations like profit calculation can also activate individuals’ homo economicus belief and inhibit their trust. It seems that people’s increasing homo economicus belief may serve as one cause of the worldwide decline of trust. PMID:24146907

  16. The gauge principle vs. the equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, S.J. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Within the context of field theory, it is argued that the role of the equivalence principle may be replaced by the principle of gauge invariance to provide a logical framework for theories of gravitation

  17. Tests and prospects of new physics at very high energy. Beyond the standard basic principles, and beyond conventional matter and space-time. On the possible origin of Quantum Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Mestres, Luis

    2015-05-01

    Recent results and announcements by Planck and BICEP2 have led to important controversies in the fields of Cosmology and Particle Physics. As new ideas and alternative approaches can since then more easily emerge, the link between the Mathematical Physics aspects of theories and the interpretation of experimental results becomes more direct. This evolution is also relevant for Particle Physics experiments at very high energy, where the interpretation of data on the highest-energy cosmic rays remains a major theoretical and phenomenological challenge. Alternative particle physics and cosmology can raise fundamental questions such as that of the structure of vacuum and space-time. In particular, the simplified description of the physical vacuum contained in standard quantum field theory does not necessarily correspond to reality at a deeper level, and similarly for the relativistic space-time based on four real variables. In a more general approach, the definition itself of vacuum can be a difficult task. The spinorial space-time (SST) we suggested in 1996-97 automatically incorporates a local privileged space direction (PSD) for each comoving observer, possibly leading to a locally anisotropic vacuum structure. As the existence of the PSD may have been confirmed by Planck, and a possible discovery of primordial B-modes in the polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) may turn out to contain new evidence for the SST, we explore other possible implications of this approach to space-time. The SST structure can naturally be at the origin of Quantum Mechanics at distance scales larger than the fundamental one if standard particles are dealt with as vacuum excitations. We also discuss possible implications of our lack of knowledge of the structure of vacuum, as well as related theoretical, phenomenological and cosmological uncertainties. Pre-Big Bang scenarios and new ultimate constituents of matter (including superbradyons) are crucial open subjects

  18. Tests and prospects of new physics at very high energy. Beyond the standard basic principles, and beyond conventional matter and space-time. On the possible origin of Quantum Mechanics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez-Mestres Luis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent results and announcements by Planck and BICEP2 have led to important controversies in the fields of Cosmology and Particle Physics. As new ideas and alternative approaches can since then more easily emerge, the link between the Mathematical Physics aspects of theories and the interpretation of experimental results becomes more direct. This evolution is also relevant for Particle Physics experiments at very high energy, where the interpretation of data on the highest-energy cosmic rays remains a major theoretical and phenomenological challenge. Alternative particle physics and cosmology can raise fundamental questions such as that of the structure of vacuum and space-time. In particular, the simplified description of the physical vacuum contained in standard quantum field theory does not necessarily correspond to reality at a deeper level, and similarly for the relativistic space-time based on four real variables. In a more general approach, the definition itself of vacuum can be a difficult task. The spinorial space-time (SST we suggested in 1996-97 automatically incorporates a local privileged space direction (PSD for each comoving observer, possibly leading to a locally anisotropic vacuum structure. As the existence of the PSD may have been confirmed by Planck, and a possible discovery of primordial B-modes in the polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB may turn out to contain new evidence for the SST, we explore other possible implications of this approach to space-time. The SST structure can naturally be at the origin of Quantum Mechanics at distance scales larger than the fundamental one if standard particles are dealt with as vacuum excitations. We also discuss possible implications of our lack of knowledge of the structure of vacuum, as well as related theoretical, phenomenological and cosmological uncertainties. Pre-Big Bang scenarios and new ultimate constituents of matter (including superbradyons are

  19. Equivalence principles and electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, W.-T.

    1977-01-01

    The implications of the weak equivalence principles are investigated in detail for electromagnetic systems in a general framework. In particular, it is shown that the universality of free-fall trajectories (Galileo weak equivalence principle) does not imply the validity of the Einstein equivalence principle. However, the Galileo principle plus the universality of free-fall rotation states does imply the Einstein principle.

  20. Science teachers' beliefs about teaching and reform: Case studies from a restructured high school

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Elizabeth A.

    A qualitative research study of the beliefs of three science teachers about teaching and educational reform was carried out at a restructured high school belonging to the Coalition of Essential Schools (CES), a nationally prominent restructuring movement. One problem of educational reform is to sustain change in the science classroom. A new wave of reform is shifting the focus away from curriculum changes and towards professionalism of teachers empowered to restructure schools. The beliefs of the teachers are key to decisions made in the classroom. The teachers and staff of Metro High School adopted the Ten Common Principles of CES as their guide to restructuring and sustaining change. Changes included increased authority for teachers in shared decision making, increased staff time for professional development, grouping students heterogeneously, grouping students and faculty in teams for extended time periods, and organizing instruction around small group and individual student study (student-centered). The theoretical framework centers on the constructivist theory of learning, particularly Vygotsky's socio-cultural model, and Bakhtin's dialogic function of language. Nespor's belief system model was used to describe the four characteristic features of beliefs: episodic memories, alternativity, existential presumption, and evaluative loading. My research questions were: What memories of teaching have influenced the teachers? What are the teachers' beliefs about the learning environment? What are the teachers' beliefs about their students? What are the teachers' beliefs about student activities? Interviews were the primary data source for the case studies of the three teachers, with additional data from lesson plans, photo-voice, and other artifacts. The teachers shared many common beliefs including that strong peer support is necessary for reform. The teachers' beliefs allied themselves to the majority of the common principles of CES, especially personalization and

  1. My beliefs of my peers' beliefs: exploring the gendered nature of social norms in adolescent romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzog, Jodie L; Rowley, Rochelle Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Dating violence in adolescent relationships is a growing social problem in the United States. A majority of adolescents have dated by the time they finish high school and these experiences have an impact on their relationship trajectories as adults. Although more and more prevention efforts are aimed at reducing teen dating violence and/or teaching adolescents about healthy relationships, very few of these efforts investigate discrepancies in descriptive and injunctive norms associated with adolescent dating. This pilot study adds to the existing literature by investigating the dating norms of early and mid-adolescents to aid in tailoring prevention efforts among this population. One hundred eighty-seven middle and high school student leaders from public schools in the Midwest completed an annual relationship survey. Findings suggest that participants did not support unhealthy relationship norms overall. However, two patterns of discrepancies emerged: one between participant attitudes (descriptive norms) and their perceptions of peer attitudes (injunctive norms), and another between perceptions participants hold about their male versus female peers' beliefs. Results imply the development of pluralistic ignorance occurs during adolescence and that perceptions of peer norms are in line with the principles of hegemonic masculinity. Implications for possible prevention initiatives and future research directions are noted.

  2. Violence-Related Attitudes and Beliefs: Scale Construction and Psychometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Pamela A.; Anastasio, Phyllis A.

    2006-01-01

    The 50-item Violence-Related Attitudes and Beliefs Scale (V-RABS) includes three subscales measuring possible causes of violent behavior (environmental influences, biological influences, and mental illness) and four subscales assessing possible controls of violent behavior (death penalty, punishment, prevention, and catharsis). Each subscale…

  3. Belief update as social choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Benthem, J.; Girard, P.; Roy, O.; Marion, M.

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic epistemic-doxastic logics describe the new knowledge or new beliefs indexBelief of agents after some informational event has happened. Technically, this requires an update rule that turns a doxastic-epistemic modelM(recording the current information state of the agents) and a dynamic ‘event

  4. Assessment of Religious Beliefs Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiver, Christopher M.; O'Brien, Eugene M.

    1993-01-01

    Notes that religion may be source of spiritual strength or source of conflict and guilt. Outlines importance of assessing religious beliefs of clients for treatment purposes and provides format for counselor to use. Says that, because counselors may be unaware of clients' individual perspectives, it is important to evaluate client's belief system…

  5. Playing with knowledge and belief

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiutek, V.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis contributes to the development of Soft Dynamic Epistemic Logic (Soft DEL). Soft DEL has been introduced to deal with a number of informational phenomena, including belief revision. The work in this thesis extends the scope of Soft DEL to belief contraction, providing as such a framework

  6. Comparing strengths of beliefs explicitly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghosh, S.; de Jongh, D.

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by a similar use in provability logic, formulas p > B q and p ≥ B q are introduced in the existing logical framework for discussing beliefs to express that the strength of belief in p is greater than (or equal to) that in q. Besides its usefulness in studying the properties of the concept

  7. Equilibria in social belief removal

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Booth, R

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In studies of multi-agent interaction, especially in game theory, the notion of equilibrium often plays a prominent role. A typical scenario for the belief merging problem is one in which several agents pool their beliefs together to form a...

  8. Politics of climate change belief

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Donald Trump's actions during the election and his first weeks as US president-elect send a strong message about his belief in climate change, or lack thereof. However, these actions may reflect polarization of climate change beliefs, not climate mitigation behaviour.

  9. Fermat principle for a nonstationary medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronovich, A G; Godin, O A

    2003-07-25

    One possible formulation of a variational principle of the Fermat type for systems with time-dependent parameters is suggested. In a stationary case, it reduces to the Mopertui-Lagrange least-action principle. A class of Hamiltonians (dispersion relations) is indicated, for which the variational principle reduces to the Fermat principle in a general nonstationary case. Hamiltonians that are homogeneous functions of momenta are in this category. For the important case of nondispersive waves (corresponding to Hamiltonians being homogeneous function of momenta order 1) the Fermat principle fully determines the geometry of the rays. Equations relating the variation of signal frequency with the rate of change of propagation time are established.

  10. LIGO: The strong belief

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2016-01-01

    Twenty years of designing, building and testing a number of innovative technologies, with the strong belief that the endeavour would lead to a historic breakthrough. The Bulletin publishes an abstract of the Courier’s interview with Barry Barish, one of the founding fathers of LIGO.   The plots show the signals of gravitational waves detected by the twin LIGO observatories at Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington. (Image: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab) On 11 February, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo collaborations published a historic paper in which they showed a gravitational signal emitted by the merger of two black holes. These results come after 20 years of hard work by a large collaboration of scientists operating the two LIGO observatories in the US. Barry Barish, Linde Professor of Physics, Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology and former Director of the Global Design Effort for the Internat...

  11. Against Motivational Efficacy of Beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungbae Park

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Danielle Bromwich (2010 argues that a belief is motivationally efficacious in that, other things being equal, it disposes an agent to answer a question in accordance with that belief. I reply that what we are disposed to do is largely determined by our genes, whereas what we believe is largely determined by stimuli from the environment. We have a standing and default disposition to answer questions honestly, ceteris paribus, even before we are exposed to environmental stimuli. Since this standing and default disposition is innate, and our beliefs have their source in environmental stimuli, our beliefs cannot be the source of the disposition. Moreover, a recent finding in neuroscience suggests that motivation is extrinsic to belief.

  12. [Parental beliefs on medication and satisfaction with child healthcare].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Castillo, Antonio; Vílchez-Lara, María José

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore a possible significant relationship between parental beliefs about medication and satisfaction with the medical care their children receive in two different healthcare settings. The study included a total of 1,517 parents whose children were being treated either in pediatric primary care or pediatric emergency centers in eastern Andalusia. Of these, 489 were men and 1,028 women. The research instruments used were the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ) and the Scale of Satisfaction with Health Care Services. Our results indicate that high levels of negative beliefs about medication were significantly associated with lower levels of parent satisfaction with healthcare received. Satisfaction with pediatric healthcare depends on aspects relating to the healthcare system, but certainly personal psychological and social variables like beliefs and parent’s previous expectations may play an important role too.

  13. The 4th Thermodynamic Principle?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero Garcia, Jose de la Luz; Novoa Blanco, Jesus Francisco

    2007-01-01

    It should be emphasized that the 4th Principle above formulated is a thermodynamic principle and, at the same time, is mechanical-quantum and relativist, as it should inevitably be and its absence has been one of main the theoretical limitations of the physical theory until today.We show that the theoretical discovery of Dimensional Primitive Octet of Matter, the 4th Thermodynamic Principle, the Quantum Hexet of Matter, the Global Hexagonal Subsystem of Fundamental Constants of Energy and the Measurement or Connected Global Scale or Universal Existential Interval of the Matter is that it is possible to be arrived at a global formulation of the four 'forces' or fundamental interactions of nature. The Einstein's golden dream is possible

  14. Cognitive biases explain religious belief, paranormal belief, and belief in life's purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Aiyana K; Norenzayan, Ara

    2013-11-01

    Cognitive theories of religion have postulated several cognitive biases that predispose human minds towards religious belief. However, to date, these hypotheses have not been tested simultaneously and in relation to each other, using an individual difference approach. We used a path model to assess the extent to which several interacting cognitive tendencies, namely mentalizing, mind body dualism, teleological thinking, and anthropomorphism, as well as cultural exposure to religion, predict belief in God, paranormal beliefs and belief in life's purpose. Our model, based on two independent samples (N=492 and N=920) found that the previously known relationship between mentalizing and belief is mediated by individual differences in dualism, and to a lesser extent by teleological thinking. Anthropomorphism was unrelated to religious belief, but was related to paranormal belief. Cultural exposure to religion (mostly Christianity) was negatively related to anthropomorphism, and was unrelated to any of the other cognitive tendencies. These patterns were robust for both men and women, and across at least two ethnic identifications. The data were most consistent with a path model suggesting that mentalizing comes first, which leads to dualism and teleology, which in turn lead to religious, paranormal, and life's-purpose beliefs. Alternative theoretical models were tested but did not find empirical support. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Psychodynamic psychotherapy, religious beliefs, and self-disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, J G

    1998-01-01

    The intersection of psychodynamic psychotherapy and religious beliefs may present technical challenges for the psychotherapists; particularly if patients request to know more about the therapist's religious beliefs. Contrary to a recent technical recommendation for therapists to self-disclose personal religious beliefs when asked to do so, I suggest that such a request is complex and requires a thoughtful grounding in psychotherapeutic theory. Disclosing personal beliefs to patients runs the risk of being off-task as well as holding oneself out as an exemplar for the patient. Rather than adopt a formulaic response to requests for information, to deepen the understanding of the patient and the work of therapy, the therapist needs a complex understanding based on a careful diagnostic assessment of the patient, as well as an assessment of the current status of the psychotherapeutic venture. The workings of patients' particular transferences are often evident in requests for personal information and require careful evaluation and consideration. Likewise, countertransference elements may influence the type of response offered by the therapist. Using ethical principles as a guide is different from using them as a rule. The nexus of religious belief, psychosocial context, psychotherapy, and self-disclosure provides a potentially rich source of understanding when explored in the psychotherapeutic situation.

  16. PREP advertisement features affect smokers' beliefs regarding potential harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, A A; Tang, K Z; Tuller, M D; Cappella, J N

    2008-09-01

    The Institute of Medicine report on potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) recommends that advertising and labelling be regulated to prevent explicitly or implicitly false or misleading claims. Belief that a product is less harmful may increase use or prevent smoking cessation. To determine the effect of altering advertisement features on smokers' beliefs of the harm exposure from a PREP. A Quest advertisement was digitally altered using computer software and presented to participants using web-based television recruitment contracted through a survey company. 500 current smokers completed demographic and smoking history questions, were randomised to view one of three advertisement conditions, then completed eight items assessing their beliefs of the harmfulness of the product. Advertisement conditions included the original, unaltered advertisement; a "red" condition where the cigarette packages were digitally altered to the colour red, implying increased harm potential; and a "no text" condition where all text was removed to reduce explicit product information. Polytomous logistic regression, using "incorrect," "unsure" and "correct" as outcomes, and advertisement type and covariates as predictors, was used for analyses. Participants randomised to the "no text" advertisement were less likely to be incorrect in their beliefs that Quest cigarettes are lower in tar, less addictive, less likely to cause cancer, have fewer chemicals, are healthier and make smoking safer. Smokers can form false beliefs about the harmfulness of PREP products based on how the PREPs are marketed. Careful examination must be undertaken to provide empirical evidence to better formulate regulatory principles of PREP advertising.

  17. Recursive belief manipulation and second-order false-beliefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben; Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Polyanskaya, Irina

    2016-01-01

    it indicate that a more fundamental *conceptual change* has taken place? In this paper we extend Braüner's hybrid-logical analysis of first-order false-belief tasks to the second-order case, and argue that our analysis supports a version of the conceptual change position.......The literature on first-order false-belief is extensive, but less is known about the second-order case. The ability to handle second-order false-beliefs correctly seems to mark a cognitively significant step, but what is its status? Is it an example of *complexity only* development, or does...

  18. Demonstrating Fermat's Principle in Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paleiov, Orr; Pupko, Ofir; Lipson, S. G.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate Fermat's principle in optics by a simple experiment using reflection from an arbitrarily shaped one-dimensional reflector. We investigated a range of possible light paths from a lamp to a fixed slit by reflection in a curved reflector and showed by direct measurement that the paths along which light is concentrated have either…

  19. Belief-Based Equilibria in the Repeated Prisoners' Dilemma with Private Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    V. Bhaskar; Ichiro Obara

    2000-01-01

    We analyze the infinitely repeated prisoners' dilemma with imperfect private monitoring and discounting. The main contribution of this paper is to construct ``belief-based'' strategies, where a player's continuation strategy is a function only of his beliefs. This simplifies the analysis considerably, and allows us to explicitly construct sequential equilibria for such games, thus enabling us to invoke the one-step deviation principle of dynamic programming. By doing so, we prove that one can...

  20. Chinese business students’ changes in beliefs and strategy use in a constructively aligned PBL course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Ke; Zhang, Jie; Du, Xiangyun

    2017-01-01

    This study adopted a longitudinal retrospective case study approach to investigate Chinese business students’ transitional learning experience in a problem-based learning (PBL) course with innovative assessment practices. The study focused on students’ beliefs and strategy use in a constructively...... that align social constructivist learning principles with students’ beliefs and strategies. The results also highlight the importance of developing appropriate assessment rubrics to enhance student engagement with PBL learning for improved outcomes....

  1. Belief attribution despite verbal interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgeot d'Arc, Baudouin; Ramus, Franck

    2011-05-01

    False-belief (FB) tasks have been widely used to study the ability of individuals to represent the content of their conspecifics' mental states (theory of mind). However, the cognitive processes involved are still poorly understood, and it remains particularly debated whether language and inner speech are necessary for the attribution of beliefs to other agents. We present a completely nonverbal paradigm consisting of silent animated cartoons in five closely related conditions, systematically teasing apart different aspects of scene analysis and allowing the assessment of the attribution of beliefs, goals, and physical causation. In order to test the role of language in belief attribution, we used verbal shadowing as a dual task to inhibit inner speech. Data on 58 healthy adults indicate that verbal interference decreases overall performance, but has no specific effect on belief attribution. Participants remained able to attribute beliefs despite heavy concurrent demands on their verbal abilities. Our results are most consistent with the hypothesis that belief attribution is independent from inner speech.

  2. Reincarnation Revisited: Question format and the distribution of belief in reincarnation in survey research

    OpenAIRE

    Siegers, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Comparing frequency of belief in reincarnation from different international survey projects (RAMP, EVS, ISSP) reveals differences of about 15 to 20 percent depending on the specific question format. If single binary questions are used, then belief in reincarnation is more often reported than if a forced-choice question is used which offers respondents alternatives to belief in reincarnation (e.g. resurrection). One possible explanation for this result is that respondents confuse reincarnation...

  3. Extreme Overvalued Beliefs: How Violent Extremist Beliefs Become "Normalized".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Tahir

    2018-01-12

    Extreme overvalued beliefs (EOB) are rigidly held, non-deusional beliefs that are the motive behind most acts of terrorism and mass shootings. EOBs are differentiated from delusions and obsessions. The concept of an overvalued idea was first described by Wernicke and later applied to terrorism by McHugh. Our group of forensic psychiatrists (Rahman, Resnick, Harry) refined the definition as an aid in the differential diagnosis seen in acts of violence. The form and content of EOBs is discussed as well as group effects, conformity, and obedience to authority. Religious cults such as The People's Temple, Heaven's Gate, Aum Shinrikyo, and Islamic State (ISIS) and conspiracy beliefs such as assassinations, moon-hoax, and vaccine-induced autism beliefs are discussed using this construct. Finally, some concluding thoughts on countering violent extremism, including its online presence is discussed utilizing information learned from online eating disorders and consumer experience.

  4. An exploration of the relationship between teacher beliefs and practices: Lessons from a self-study of a fourth- and fifth-grade science teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Shelley Sha'ron

    2007-12-01

    This study was an investigation of the relationship between teacher beliefs and teaching practices. The relationship was explored to address reported inconsistencies among teacher beliefs, teaching practices and reform goals reported over the past 30 years. A self-study methodology was employed to collect data in a fourth-grade (n = 12) and a fifth-grade (n = 7) class at a private elementary school. Data were collected using a reflective journal and the Traditional Versus Inquiry-Based Classroom Behaviors instrument. Self-data were triangulated with critical judgment data from focus groups and interviews with students, parents, and a peer teacher observer. Data were collected and analyzed in four segments: (a) teacher beliefs, (b) teaching practices, (c) congruency between teacher beliefs and teaching practices, and (d) factors that influence congruency. Teacher beliefs were listed at the start of the school year and analyzed in narrative format. Teaching practices were recorded in the journal and analyzed through coding. The relationship between beliefs and practices was explored on two levels, following Haney & McArthur's (2002) modified theory of planned behavior. First, congruency between beliefs and practices was determined, yielding beliefs that were either central (congruent with practices) or peripheral (incongruent with practices) to the author's belief system. Second, congruency between central beliefs and two categories of teaching principles was determined, yielding three subdivisions: constructivist core (congruent with constructivist principles), emerging core (congruent with general principles) and conflict core (incongruent with constructivist principles) beliefs. Data analysis showed 16 central beliefs (those congruent with practice) in operation. The study finding was that teacher beliefs and practices were largely congruent for this one teacher. This contrasted most published reports. Coupling application of the TPB and modified TPB, congruence

  5. Two Types of Belief Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hegarty

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Ascriptions of belief and other doxastic propositional attitudes are commonly interpreted as quantifying over a set of possible worlds constituting doxastic alternatives for the belief experiencer. Katz (2000, 2003, 2008 has argued that belief predicates and other stative attitude predicates, along with stative predicates generally, lack a Davidsonian event argument and therefore do not report on any eventuality (event or state. Hacquard (2010, in contrast, assumes that all attitude ascriptions describe an event corresponding to the mental state of the attitude experiencer. The present investigation suggests that the strengths of doxastic predicates can be modeled by generalized quantifiers over the doxastic alternative set, permitting us to formulate and test predictions based on standard interactions of these quantifiers with negation when these ascriptions are negated. This provides a middle ground between Katz and Hacquard, whereby some belief ascriptions are interpreted as nothing more than a quantified condition over a doxastic alternative set, while others attribute a Davidsonian belief state to the experiencer. In the latter case, the condition involving quantification over doxastic alternatives is an essential content condition which serves to individuate the eventuality described by the belief report, and to identify it across possible worlds.ReferencesCappelli, G. 2007. “I reckon I know how Leonardo da Vinci must have felt...” Epistemicity, Evidentiality and English Verbs of Cognitive Attitude. Pari: Pari Publishing.Carlson, G. 1998. ‘Thematic roles and the individuation of events’. In S. Rothstein (ed. ‘Events and Grammar’, 35–51. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.Davidson, D. 1980[1967]. ‘The Logical Form of Action Sentences’. In N. Rescher (ed. ‘The Logic of Decision and Action’, 81–95. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. Reprinted in Davidson, D., Essays on Actions and Events, pp. 105

  6. The Relationship among Pre-Service EFL Teachers' Beliefs about Language Learning, Pedagogical Beliefs, and Beliefs about ICT Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inayati, Dian; Emaliana, Ive

    2017-01-01

    This paper elucidates the relationship among pre-service teachers' beliefs about language learning, pedagogical beliefs, and beliefs about ICT Integration through survey methodology. This study employed a quantitative approach, particularly a correlational relationship to investigate the relationships among beliefs about language learning,…

  7. Future possibilities at ISOLDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, H.

    1991-01-01

    The performance of the ISOLDE facility at CERN is summarized and recently achieved target/ion-source and separator improvements are presented. New ion source principles being tested include multistep laser ionization, bunched surface ionization, and ECR ion source. The prospects for the high-resolution separator ISOLDE-3 are described. The possibilities of a new ISOLDE installation at the PS Booster at CERN are presented together with the planned features of the new facility. Add-on devices to improve the performance that are presently being discussed are an electrostatic sector field, an electron beam ion stripper, and a high voltage platform for energy boosting. (author) 7 refs.; 5 figs

  8. Exploring the Principles and Practices of One Teacher of L2 Speaking: the Importance of Reflecting on Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Thomas S. C.; Vos, Rebecca

    2018-01-01

    Teacher principles encompass a teacher's stated assumptions, beliefs, and conceptions about acquiring and teaching a second language (L2). Due to the complex and diversified nature of how principles take form, an individual teacher's principles will influence their judgements, perceptions and instructional decisions, thus affecting the outcome of…

  9. [Principles of PET].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuthien-Baumann, B

    2018-05-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a procedure in nuclear medicine, which is applied predominantly in oncological diagnostics. In the form of modern hybrid machines, such as PET computed tomography (PET/CT) and PET magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) it has found wide acceptance and availability. The PET procedure is more than just another imaging technique, but a functional method with the capability for quantification in addition to the distribution pattern of the radiopharmaceutical, the results of which are used for therapeutic decisions. A profound knowledge of the principles of PET including the correct indications, patient preparation, and possible artifacts is mandatory for the correct interpretation of PET results.

  10. Principles & practice of physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mazur, Eric; Dourmashkin, Peter A; Pedigo, Daryl; Bieniek, Ronald J

    2015-01-01

    Putting physics first Based on his storied research and teaching, Eric Mazur's Principles & Practice of Physics builds an understanding of physics that is both thorough and accessible. Unique organization and pedagogy allow you to develop a true conceptual understanding of physics alongside the quantitative skills needed in the course. *New learning architecture: The book is structured to help you learn physics in an organized way that encourages comprehension and reduces distraction.*Physics on a contemporary foundation: Traditional texts delay the introduction of ideas that we now see as unifying and foundational. This text builds physics on those unifying foundations, helping you to develop an understanding that is stronger, deeper, and fundamentally simpler.*Research-based instruction: This text uses a range of research-based instructional techniques to teach physics in the most effective manner possible. The result is a groundbreaking book that puts physics first, thereby making it more accessible to...

  11. Does stigma predict a belief in dealing with depression alone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Kathleen M; Crisp, Dimity A; Jorm, Anthony F; Christensen, Helen

    2011-08-01

    Community surveys indicate that many people with depressive disorders do not obtain professional help and that a preference for self-reliance is an important factor in this treatment gap. The current study sought to investigate whether stigmatising attitudes predict a belief in the helpfulness of dealing with depression without external assistance. Data were collected as part of a national household survey of 2000 Australian adults aged 18 years and above. Participants were presented with either a vignette depicting depression (n=1001) or a vignette depicting depression with suicidal ideation (n=999) and asked if it would be helpful or harmful to deal alone with the problem. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine if belief in dealing with depression alone was predicted by personal stigma, perceived stigma or sociodemographic characteristics. Higher levels of personal stigma independently predicted a belief in the helpfulness of dealing alone with both depression and depression with suicidal ideation. By contrast, lower levels of perceived stigma were associated with a belief in the helpfulness of dealing alone with depression without suicidal ideation. Personal stigma is associated with a belief in the helpfulness of self-reliance in coping with depression. Public health programs should consider the possibility that a belief in self-reliance is partly attributable to stigma. The findings also point to the potential importance of providing evidence-based self-help programs for those who believe in self-care. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Paranormal belief and attributional style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, R T; Whisnand, E A

    2000-06-01

    52 college students completed Tobacyk's 1988 Revised Paranormal Belief Scale and Peterson, Semmel, von Baeyer, Abramson, Metalsky, and Seligman's 1982 Attributional Style Questionnaire. Analysis showed significantly higher depressive attributional styles among high scorers on paranormal phenomena than low scorers.

  13. Breast Health Belief Systems Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Mary

    1999-01-01

    .... The hypothesis underlying this research is that a breast health promotion approach that is based in specific belief systems among three disparate African American rural populations of low socioeconomic status (SES...

  14. Young Adolescents' Beliefs Concerning Menstruation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Anne E.; Ruble, Diane N.

    1978-01-01

    A sample of 54 young adolescent girls (both pre- and postmenarcheal) and boys responded to a questionnaire assessing evaluative attitudes toward menstruation, expected symptomatology, perceived effects on moods and activities, and sources of information for these beliefs. (Author/JMB)

  15. Children's beliefs about parental divorce

    OpenAIRE

    Dovydaitienė, Miglė

    2001-01-01

    This article investigates children's beliefs about parental divorce and attitudes toward environment and people. Children's believes about parental divorce is evaluated in a sample 8 through 10-year children whose parents had been separated for about 3 years. Attitudes toward environment and people between children of separated as well as intact families are compared. We also examined the relation of children's beliefs about parental divorce and attitudes toward environment and people. The me...

  16. The Impact of Self Beliefs on Post-Secondary Transitions: The Moderating Effects of Institutional Selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Diane Cardenas

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between self beliefs, institutional characteristics, and college student persistence. More specifically, this study sought to understand whether self-efficacy beliefs, both academic self-efficacy and social self-efficacy, play a role in college persistence. Further, the possible moderating…

  17. Synchronic Etymologies of Ethnonyms as Cause of the Traditional Belief in Monstrous Races.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittlin, Curt J.

    A psychological basis for belief in human monsters is provided by the possibility of human aberrations, instinctive human fear and fascination for such prodigies, and the existence of barbaric tales ridiculing foreigners. The role of language as a cause for such belief is investigated, specifically in terms of folk etymologies for more or less…

  18. Beliefs on Learning and Teaching Language Components: The Case of Iranian EAP and EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsi, Gholamreza

    2017-01-01

    The present study intended to investigate the possible difference between EAP and EFL learners' beliefs concerning learning and teaching of language components, namely, vocabulary, pronunciation and grammar. Furthermore, this study examined the association between EAP and EFL learners' beliefs and their language components' development. To this…

  19. Metaphysics of the principle of least action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terekhovich, Vladislav

    2018-05-01

    Despite the importance of the variational principles of physics, there have been relatively few attempts to consider them for a realistic framework. In addition to the old teleological question, this paper continues the recent discussion regarding the modal involvement of the principle of least action and its relations with the Humean view of the laws of nature. The reality of possible paths in the principle of least action is examined from the perspectives of the contemporary metaphysics of modality and Leibniz's concept of essences or possibles striving for existence. I elaborate a modal interpretation of the principle of least action that replaces a classical representation of a system's motion along a single history in the actual modality by simultaneous motions along an infinite set of all possible histories in the possible modality. This model is based on an intuition that deep ontological connections exist between the possible paths in the principle of least action and possible quantum histories in the Feynman path integral. I interpret the action as a physical measure of the essence of every possible history. Therefore only one actual history has the highest degree of the essence and minimal action. To address the issue of necessity, I assume that the principle of least action has a general physical necessity and lies between the laws of motion with a limited physical necessity and certain laws with a metaphysical necessity.

  20. Principle, possibilities and applications of gamma activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelmann, C.

    1978-01-01

    The various photonuclear reactions suitable for analytical purposes, their specificity and their performances are reviewed. The influence of the experimental irradiation conditions on the theoretical detection limits permitted and on the relative importance of competitive nuclear reactions liable to interfere is examined, with special reference to the determination of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. It is shown that these parasitic effects of nuclear origin may be eliminated by the choice of the maximum irradiation energy. Examples are given of applications relative to trace determinations of light elements, especially carbon, nitrogen and oxygen, in metals or semi-conductors and to instrumental multi-element analyses of biological materials, atmospheric sampling filters and above all agricultural products [fr

  1. Attitudes and beliefs as verbal behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Guerin, Bernard

    1994-01-01

    Attitudes and beliefs are analyzed as verbal behavior. It is argued that shaping by a verbal community is an essential part of the formation and maintenance of both attitudes and beliefs, and it is suggested that verbal communities mediate the important shift in control from events in the environment (attitudes and beliefs as tacts) to control by other words (attitudes and beliefs as intraverbals). It appears that both attitudes and beliefs are constantly being socially negotiated through aut...

  2. Radiation protection principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail Bahari

    2007-01-01

    The presentation outlines the aspects of radiation protection principles. It discussed the following subjects; radiation hazards and risk, the objectives of radiation protection, three principles of the system - justification of practice, optimization of protection and safety, dose limit

  3. Principles of project management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The basic principles of project management as practiced by NASA management personnel are presented. These principles are given as ground rules and guidelines to be used in the performance of research, development, construction or operational assignments.

  4. Modeling cognition as querying a database of labeled beliefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelink, A.

    2006-01-01

    One of the most important conditions for an agent to ensure that it selects the right plans for fulfilling its goals, is that its knowledge about its own status and that of the world is consistent, and as correct as possible. The knowledge of an agent is referred to as its belief set. The common

  5. Belief Importance in Expectancy-Value Models of Attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pligt, J.; de Vries, N.K.

    1998-01-01

    In this study, 312 respondents were asked to indicate their attitude toward smoking and their smoking behavior. Attitudes were assessed by a direct attitude measure (4 items) and a series of 15 belief statements about the possible consequences of smoking. Next, respondents were asked to select the 3

  6. Intelligence, Belief in the Paranormal, Knowledge of Probability and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart-Hamilton, Ian; Nayak, Laxman; Priest, Lee

    2006-01-01

    In young adults, preparedness to accept improbable events as planned rather than due to chance is predictive of the level of belief in the paranormal, possibly underpinned by lower intelligence levels (Musch and Ehrenberg, 2002). The present study, using a sample of 73 older participants aged 60-84 years failed to find any relationship between…

  7. Does Religious Belief Promote Prosociality? A Critical Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galen, Luke W.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous authors have suggested that religious belief has a positive association, possibly causal, with prosocial behavior. This article critiques evidence regarding this "religious prosociality" hypothesis from several areas of the literature. The extant literature on religious prosociality is reviewed including domains of charity,…

  8. Setting Overweight adults in motion: the role of health beliefs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MSc Annemieke van Nunen; PhD Ad Vingerhoets; MD E.J.M. Wouters; PhD Rinie Geenen

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Health beliefs of overweight adults who did and did not enter an exercise program were compared to identify possible factors that hamper people to increase physical exercise. Method: Participants (n = 116, 78 women and 38 men) were overweight adults without comorbidities. Self-report

  9. The certainty principle (review)

    OpenAIRE

    Arbatsky, D. A.

    2006-01-01

    The certainty principle (2005) allowed to conceptualize from the more fundamental grounds both the Heisenberg uncertainty principle (1927) and the Mandelshtam-Tamm relation (1945). In this review I give detailed explanation and discussion of the certainty principle, oriented to all physicists, both theorists and experimenters.

  10. Quantum Action Principle with Generalized Uncertainty Principle

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Jie

    2013-01-01

    One of the common features in all promising candidates of quantum gravity is the existence of a minimal length scale, which naturally emerges with a generalized uncertainty principle, or equivalently a modified commutation relation. Schwinger's quantum action principle was modified to incorporate this modification, and was applied to the calculation of the kernel of a free particle, partly recovering the result previously studied using path integral.

  11. Quantum correlations are tightly bound by the exclusivity principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Bin

    2013-06-28

    It is a fundamental problem in physics of what principle limits the correlations as predicted by our current description of nature, based on quantum mechanics. One possible explanation is the "global exclusivity" principle recently discussed in Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 060402 (2013). In this work we show that this principle actually has a much stronger restriction on the probability distribution. We provide a tight constraint inequality imposed by this principle and prove that this principle singles out quantum correlations in scenarios represented by any graph. Our result implies that the exclusivity principle might be one of the fundamental principles of nature.

  12. Scaling Irrational Beliefs in the General Attitude and Belief Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay R. Owings

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurate measurement of key constructs is essential to the continued development of Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT. The General Attitude and Belief Scale (GABS, a contemporary inventory of rational and irrational beliefs based on current REBT theory, is one of the most valid and widely used instruments available, and recent research has continued to improve its psychometric standing. In this study of 544 students, item response theory (IRT methods were used (a to identify the most informative item in each irrational subscale of the GABS, (b to determine the level of irrationality represented by each of those items, and (c to suggest a condensed form of the GABS for further study with clinical populations. Administering only the most psychometrically informative items to clients could result in economies of time and effort. Further research based on the scaling of items could clarify the specific patterns of irrational beliefs associated with particular clinical syndromes.

  13. The nonholonomic variational principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupkova, Olga [Department of Algebra and Geometry, Faculty of Science, Palacky University, Tomkova 40, 779 00 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Department of Mathematics, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria 3086 (Australia)], E-mail: krupkova@inf.upol.cz

    2009-05-08

    A variational principle for mechanical systems and fields subject to nonholonomic constraints is found, providing Chetaev-reduced equations as equations for extremals. Investigating nonholonomic variations of the Chetaev type and their properties, we develop foundations of the calculus of variations on constraint manifolds, modelled as fibred submanifolds in jet bundles. This setting is appropriate to study general first-order 'nonlinear nonitegrable constraints' that locally are given by a system of first-order ordinary or partial differential equations. We obtain an invariant constrained first variation formula and constrained Euler-Lagrange equations both in intrinsic and coordinate forms, and show that the equations are the same as Chetaev equations 'without Lagrange multipliers', introduced recently by other methods. We pay attention to two possible settings: first, when the constrained system arises from an unconstrained Lagrangian system defined in a neighbourhood of the constraint, and second, more generally, when an 'internal' constrained system on the constraint manifold is given. In the latter case a corresponding unconstrained system need not be a Lagrangian, nor even exist. We also study in detail an important particular case: nonholonomic constraints that can be alternatively modelled by means of (co)distributions in the total space of the fibred manifold; in nonholonomic mechanics this happens whenever constraints affine in velocities are considered. It becomes clear that (and why) if the distribution is completely integrable (= the constraints are semiholonomic), the principle of virtual displacements holds and can be used to obtain the constrained first variational formula by a more or less standard procedure, traditionally used when unconstrained or holonomic systems are concerned. If, however, the constraint is nonintegrable, no significant simplifications are available. Among others, some properties of nonholonomic

  14. The ecology of religious beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botero, Carlos A.; Gardner, Beth; Kirby, Kathryn R.; Bulbulia, Joseph; Gavin, Michael C.; Gray, Russell D.

    2014-01-01

    Although ecological forces are known to shape the expression of sociality across a broad range of biological taxa, their role in shaping human behavior is currently disputed. Both comparative and experimental evidence indicate that beliefs in moralizing high gods promote cooperation among humans, a behavioral attribute known to correlate with environmental harshness in nonhuman animals. Here we combine fine-grained bioclimatic data with the latest statistical tools from ecology and the social sciences to evaluate the potential effects of environmental forces, language history, and culture on the global distribution of belief in moralizing high gods (n = 583 societies). After simultaneously accounting for potential nonindependence among societies because of shared ancestry and cultural diffusion, we find that these beliefs are more prevalent among societies that inhabit poorer environments and are more prone to ecological duress. In addition, we find that these beliefs are more likely in politically complex societies that recognize rights to movable property. Overall, our multimodel inference approach predicts the global distribution of beliefs in moralizing high gods with an accuracy of 91%, and estimates the relative importance of different potential mechanisms by which this spatial pattern may have arisen. The emerging picture is neither one of pure cultural transmission nor of simple ecological determinism, but rather a complex mixture of social, cultural, and environmental influences. Our methods and findings provide a blueprint for how the increasing wealth of ecological, linguistic, and historical data can be leveraged to understand the forces that have shaped the behavior of our own species. PMID:25385605

  15. Relation between Belief and Performance in Perceptual Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drugowitsch, Jan; Moreno-Bote, Rubén; Pouget, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    In an uncertain and ambiguous world, effective decision making requires that subjects form and maintain a belief about the correctness of their choices, a process called meta-cognition. Prediction of future outcomes and self-monitoring are only effective if belief closely matches behavioral performance. Equality between belief and performance is also critical for experimentalists to gain insight into the subjects' belief by simply measuring their performance. Assuming that the decision maker holds the correct model of the world, one might indeed expect that belief and performance should go hand in hand. Unfortunately, we show here that this is rarely the case when performance is defined as the percentage of correct responses for a fixed stimulus, a standard definition in psychophysics. In this case, belief equals performance only for a very narrow family of tasks, whereas in others they will only be very weakly correlated. As we will see it is possible to restore this equality in specific circumstances but this remedy is only effective for a decision-maker, not for an experimenter. We furthermore show that belief and performance do not match when conditioned on task difficulty – as is common practice when plotting the psychometric curve – highlighting common pitfalls in previous neuroscience work. Finally, we demonstrate that miscalibration and the hard-easy effect observed in humans' and other animals' certainty judgments could be explained by a mismatch between the experimenter's and decision maker's expected distribution of task difficulties. These results have important implications for experimental design and are of relevance for theories that aim to unravel the nature of meta-cognition. PMID:24816801

  16. The influence of initial beliefs on judgments of probability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Erica C; Lagnado, David A

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate whether experimentally induced prior beliefs affect processing of evidence including the updating of beliefs under uncertainty about the unknown probabilities of outcomes and the structural, outcome-generating nature of the environment. Participants played a gambling task in the form of computer-simulated slot machines and were given information about the slot machines' possible outcomes without their associated probabilities. One group was induced with a prior belief about the outcome space that matched the space of actual outcomes to be sampled; the other group was induced with a skewed prior belief that included the actual outcomes and also fictional higher outcomes. In reality, however, all participants sampled evidence from the same underlying outcome distribution, regardless of priors given. Before and during sampling, participants expressed their beliefs about the outcome distribution (values and probabilities). Evaluation of those subjective probability distributions suggests that all participants' judgments converged toward the observed outcome distribution. However, despite observing no supporting evidence for fictional outcomes, a significant proportion of participants in the skewed priors condition expected them in the future. A probe of the participants' understanding of the underlying outcome-generating processes indicated that participants' judgments were based on the information given in the induced priors and consequently, a significant proportion of participants in the skewed condition believed the slot machines were not games of chance while participants in the control condition believed the machines generated outcomes at random. Beyond Bayesian or heuristic belief updating, priors not only contribute to belief revision but also affect one's deeper understanding of the environment.

  17. Relation between belief and performance in perceptual decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drugowitsch, Jan; Moreno-Bote, Rubén; Pouget, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    In an uncertain and ambiguous world, effective decision making requires that subjects form and maintain a belief about the correctness of their choices, a process called meta-cognition. Prediction of future outcomes and self-monitoring are only effective if belief closely matches behavioral performance. Equality between belief and performance is also critical for experimentalists to gain insight into the subjects' belief by simply measuring their performance. Assuming that the decision maker holds the correct model of the world, one might indeed expect that belief and performance should go hand in hand. Unfortunately, we show here that this is rarely the case when performance is defined as the percentage of correct responses for a fixed stimulus, a standard definition in psychophysics. In this case, belief equals performance only for a very narrow family of tasks, whereas in others they will only be very weakly correlated. As we will see it is possible to restore this equality in specific circumstances but this remedy is only effective for a decision-maker, not for an experimenter. We furthermore show that belief and performance do not match when conditioned on task difficulty--as is common practice when plotting the psychometric curve--highlighting common pitfalls in previous neuroscience work. Finally, we demonstrate that miscalibration and the hard-easy effect observed in humans' and other animals' certainty judgments could be explained by a mismatch between the experimenter's and decision maker's expected distribution of task difficulties. These results have important implications for experimental design and are of relevance for theories that aim to unravel the nature of meta-cognition.

  18. Pacifist approaches to conflict resolution: an overview of the principled pacifism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira, Gilberto Carvalho de

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article explores pacifist approaches to conflict resolution based on principles, justifying the pacifist standard grounded in actors' belief systems (spiritual and ethical principles. This article gives a brief overview of the history of the main traditions that shape the debate on pacifism and non-violence, highlighting the central references of principled pacifism (Mahatma Ghandi and Martin Luther King and its main techniques and methods of conflict resolution.

  19. Aggregation of Information and Beliefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottaviani, Marco; Sørensen, Peter Norman

    In a binary prediction market in which risk-neutral traders have heterogeneous prior beliefs and are allowed to invest a limited amount of money, the static rational expectations equilibrium price is demonstrated to underreact to information. This effect is consistent with a favorite-longshot bias......, and is more pronounced when prior beliefs are more heterogeneous. Relaxing the assumptions of risk neutrality and bounded budget, underreaction to information also holds in a more general asset market with heterogeneous priors, provided traders have decreasing absolute risk aversion. In a dynamic asset market...

  20. Teachers’ Beliefs versus Learners’ Beliefs in Grammar Teaching: Harmonizing Teaching and Learning for Adult Learners’ Improved Proficiency in English

    OpenAIRE

    Iftikhar Ahmad; Muhammad Sabboor Hussain; Noor Raha Mohd Radzuan

    2017-01-01

    The study tends to explore the possible reforms to raise the proficiency level of the adult English as Foreign Language (EFL) learners. With this end in view, it investigates non-native EFL teachers’ beliefs in relation to adult learners’ beliefs in teaching grammar to university students in the Saudi Arabian EFL context. It finds out the harmony and disharmony between the teachers at the giving end and the taught at the receiving end to create a culture of awareness and to build a better tea...

  1. Teachers’ Beliefs and Their Belief Change in an Intercultural Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Li

    of teaching in a new context and in their early years of the teaching careers of CFL teachers in the Danish context. It has been shown that the multifaceted beliefs that CFL teachers hold are based on their personal experience, shaped by context, and mediated by their classroom practices. The educational...

  2. General family of preferential belief removal operators - [Workshop on LORI-II

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Booth, R

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Most belief change operators in the AGM tradition assume an underlying plausibility ordering over the possible worlds which is transitive and complete. A unifying structure for these operators, based on supplementing the plausibility ordering with a...

  3. DNA motif elucidation using belief propagation

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Ka-Chun; Chan, Tak-Ming; Peng, Chengbin; Li, Yue; Zhang, Zhaolei

    2013-01-01

    Protein-binding microarray (PBM) is a high-throughout platform that can measure the DNA-binding preference of a protein in a comprehensive and unbiased manner. A typical PBM experiment can measure binding signal intensities of a protein to all the possible DNA k-mers (k = 8 ?10); such comprehensive binding affinity data usually need to be reduced and represented as motif models before they can be further analyzed and applied. Since proteins can often bind to DNA in multiple modes, one of the major challenges is to decompose the comprehensive affinity data into multimodal motif representations. Here, we describe a new algorithm that uses Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) and can derive precise and multimodal motifs using belief propagations. We describe an HMM-based approach using belief propagations (kmerHMM), which accepts and preprocesses PBM probe raw data into median-binding intensities of individual k-mers. The k-mers are ranked and aligned for training an HMM as the underlying motif representation. Multiple motifs are then extracted from the HMM using belief propagations. Comparisons of kmerHMM with other leading methods on several data sets demonstrated its effectiveness and uniqueness. Especially, it achieved the best performance on more than half of the data sets. In addition, the multiple binding modes derived by kmerHMM are biologically meaningful and will be useful in interpreting other genome-wide data such as those generated from ChIP-seq. The executables and source codes are available at the authors' websites: e.g. http://www.cs.toronto.edu/?wkc/kmerHMM. 2013 The Author(s).

  4. DNA motif elucidation using belief propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ka-Chun; Chan, Tak-Ming; Peng, Chengbin; Li, Yue; Zhang, Zhaolei

    2013-09-01

    Protein-binding microarray (PBM) is a high-throughout platform that can measure the DNA-binding preference of a protein in a comprehensive and unbiased manner. A typical PBM experiment can measure binding signal intensities of a protein to all the possible DNA k-mers (k=8∼10); such comprehensive binding affinity data usually need to be reduced and represented as motif models before they can be further analyzed and applied. Since proteins can often bind to DNA in multiple modes, one of the major challenges is to decompose the comprehensive affinity data into multimodal motif representations. Here, we describe a new algorithm that uses Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) and can derive precise and multimodal motifs using belief propagations. We describe an HMM-based approach using belief propagations (kmerHMM), which accepts and preprocesses PBM probe raw data into median-binding intensities of individual k-mers. The k-mers are ranked and aligned for training an HMM as the underlying motif representation. Multiple motifs are then extracted from the HMM using belief propagations. Comparisons of kmerHMM with other leading methods on several data sets demonstrated its effectiveness and uniqueness. Especially, it achieved the best performance on more than half of the data sets. In addition, the multiple binding modes derived by kmerHMM are biologically meaningful and will be useful in interpreting other genome-wide data such as those generated from ChIP-seq. The executables and source codes are available at the authors' websites: e.g. http://www.cs.toronto.edu/∼wkc/kmerHMM.

  5. DNA motif elucidation using belief propagation

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Ka-Chun

    2013-06-29

    Protein-binding microarray (PBM) is a high-throughout platform that can measure the DNA-binding preference of a protein in a comprehensive and unbiased manner. A typical PBM experiment can measure binding signal intensities of a protein to all the possible DNA k-mers (k = 8 ?10); such comprehensive binding affinity data usually need to be reduced and represented as motif models before they can be further analyzed and applied. Since proteins can often bind to DNA in multiple modes, one of the major challenges is to decompose the comprehensive affinity data into multimodal motif representations. Here, we describe a new algorithm that uses Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) and can derive precise and multimodal motifs using belief propagations. We describe an HMM-based approach using belief propagations (kmerHMM), which accepts and preprocesses PBM probe raw data into median-binding intensities of individual k-mers. The k-mers are ranked and aligned for training an HMM as the underlying motif representation. Multiple motifs are then extracted from the HMM using belief propagations. Comparisons of kmerHMM with other leading methods on several data sets demonstrated its effectiveness and uniqueness. Especially, it achieved the best performance on more than half of the data sets. In addition, the multiple binding modes derived by kmerHMM are biologically meaningful and will be useful in interpreting other genome-wide data such as those generated from ChIP-seq. The executables and source codes are available at the authors\\' websites: e.g. http://www.cs.toronto.edu/?wkc/kmerHMM. 2013 The Author(s).

  6. Agents' beliefs and economic regimes polarization in interacting markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalli, F.; Naimzada, A. K.; Pecora, N.; Pireddu, M.

    2018-05-01

    In the present paper, a model of a market consisting of real and financial interacting sectors is studied. Agents populating the stock market are assumed to be not able to observe the true underlying fundamental, and their beliefs are biased by either optimism or pessimism. Depending on the relevance they give to beliefs, they select the best performing strategy in an evolutionary perspective. The real side of the economy is described within a multiplier-accelerator framework with a nonlinear, bounded investment function. We study the effect of market integration, in particular, of the financialization of the real market. We show that strongly polarized beliefs in an evolutionary framework can introduce multiplicity of steady states, which, consisting in enhanced or depressed levels of income, reflect and reproduce the optimistic or pessimistic nature of the agents' beliefs. The polarization of these steady states, which coexist with an unbiased steady state, positively depends on that of the beliefs and on their relevance. Moreover, with a mixture of analytical and numerical tools, we show that such static characterization is inherited also at the dynamical level, with possibly complex attractors that are characterized by endogenously fluctuating pessimistic and optimistic prices and levels of national income, with the effect of having several coexisting business cycles. This framework, when stochastic perturbations are included, is able to account for stylized facts commonly observed in real financial markets, such as fat tails and excess volatility in the returns distributions, as well as bubbles and crashes for stock prices.

  7. Beliefs Underlying Messages of Anti-Cancer-Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuhara, Tsuyoshi; Ishikawa, Hirono; Okada, Masahumi; Kato, Mio; Kiuchi, Takahiro

    2018-02-26

    Background: Cancer screening rates are lower in Japan than in Western countries. Meanwhile, anti-cancer-screening activists take to the internet to spread their messages that cancer screening has little or no efficacy, poses substantial health risks such as side effects from radiation exposure, and that people should forgo cancer screening. We applied a qualitative approach to explore the beliefs underlying the messages of anti-cancer-screening websites, by focusing on perceived value the beliefs provided to those who held them. Methods: We conducted online searches using Google Japan and Yahoo! Japan, targeting websites we classified as “pro,” “anti,” or “neutral” depending on their claims. We applied a dual analytic approach- inductive thematic analysis and deductive interpretative analysis- to the textual data of the anti websites. Results: Of the 88 websites analyzed, five themes that correspond to beliefs were identified: destruction of common knowledge, denial of standard cancer control, education about right cancer control, education about hidden truths, and sense of superiority that only I know the truth. Authors of anti websites ascribed two values (“safety of people” and “self-esteem”) to their beliefs. Conclusion: The beliefs of authors of anti-cancer-screening websites were supposed to be strong. It would be better to target in cancer screening promotion not outright screening refusers but screening hesitant people who are more amenable to changing their attitudes toward screening. The possible means to persuade them were discussed. Creative Commons Attribution License

  8. Objective Bayesianism and the Maximum Entropy Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Williamson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective Bayesian epistemology invokes three norms: the strengths of our beliefs should be probabilities; they should be calibrated to our evidence of physical probabilities; and they should otherwise equivocate sufficiently between the basic propositions that we can express. The three norms are sometimes explicated by appealing to the maximum entropy principle, which says that a belief function should be a probability function, from all those that are calibrated to evidence, that has maximum entropy. However, the three norms of objective Bayesianism are usually justified in different ways. In this paper, we show that the three norms can all be subsumed under a single justification in terms of minimising worst-case expected loss. This, in turn, is equivalent to maximising a generalised notion of entropy. We suggest that requiring language invariance, in addition to minimising worst-case expected loss, motivates maximisation of standard entropy as opposed to maximisation of other instances of generalised entropy. Our argument also provides a qualified justification for updating degrees of belief by Bayesian conditionalisation. However, conditional probabilities play a less central part in the objective Bayesian account than they do under the subjective view of Bayesianism, leading to a reduced role for Bayes’ Theorem.

  9. The Relationships among Chinese Practicing Teachers' Epistemic Beliefs, Pedagogical Beliefs and Their Beliefs about the Use of ICT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Feng; Chai, Ching Sing; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Lee, Min-Hsien

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationships among practicing teachers' epistemic beliefs, pedagogical beliefs and their beliefs about the use of ICT through survey methodology. Participants were 396 high school practicing teachers from mainland China. The path analysis results analyzed via structural equation modelling technique indicated…

  10. Biomechanics principles and practices

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, Donald R

    2014-01-01

    Presents Current Principles and ApplicationsBiomedical engineering is considered to be the most expansive of all the engineering sciences. Its function involves the direct combination of core engineering sciences as well as knowledge of nonengineering disciplines such as biology and medicine. Drawing on material from the biomechanics section of The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, Fourth Edition and utilizing the expert knowledge of respected published scientists in the application and research of biomechanics, Biomechanics: Principles and Practices discusses the latest principles and applicat

  11. Fusion research principles

    CERN Document Server

    Dolan, Thomas James

    2013-01-01

    Fusion Research, Volume I: Principles provides a general description of the methods and problems of fusion research. The book contains three main parts: Principles, Experiments, and Technology. The Principles part describes the conditions necessary for a fusion reaction, as well as the fundamentals of plasma confinement, heating, and diagnostics. The Experiments part details about forty plasma confinement schemes and experiments. The last part explores various engineering problems associated with reactor design, vacuum and magnet systems, materials, plasma purity, fueling, blankets, neutronics

  12. Witchcraft Beliefs and Witch Hunts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, N.B.J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes an interdisciplinary explanation of the cross-cultural similarities and evolutionary patterns of witchcraft beliefs. It argues that human social dilemmas have led to the evolution of a fear system that is sensitive to signs of deceit and envy. This was adapted in the evolutionary

  13. Heterogeneous Beliefs and Climate Catastrophes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiseleva, T.

    2016-01-01

    We study how heterogeneous beliefs about the causes and extent of global warming affect local mitigation and adaptation strategies and therefore global climate dynamics. Local policies are determined by expectations of policy makers about future climate. There are three types of expectations: strong

  14. Resilience: It Begins with Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truebridge, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Educators' beliefs are powerful, affecting not only their pedagogical practices, but also student efficacy and success. The academic achievement of any particular student may rely greatly on whether the teacher believes that student has the ability to succeed. This article affirms the imperative for administrators and educators to spend time…

  15. Astrology Beliefs among Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarman, Hannah; Impey, Chris; Buxner, Sanlyn; Antonellis, Jessie

    2011-01-01

    A survey of the science knowledge and attitudes toward science of nearly 10000 undergraduates at a large public university over a 20-year period included several questions addressing student beliefs in astrology and other forms of pseudoscience. The results from our data reveal that a large majority of students (78%) considered astrology "very" or…

  16. Negligent Rape and Reasonable Beliefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    2008-01-01

    practice such defences are often acknowledged if the belief is reasonable by some general standard, even when this standard does not pertain to the rules currently governing the practice of intercourse in Denmark. As a result it has often been argued that the notion of negligent rape should be introduced...

  17. Machiavellian Beliefs and Social Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hair, Dan; Cody, Michael J.

    1987-01-01

    Replicates previous findings of separate Machiavellian belief constructs (Deceit, Flatter, Immorality, and Cynicism). Indicates that different constructs predict selection of compliance-gaining strategies; for example, actors who scored high on Immorality used more referent influence on superiors. Discusses implications of this study concerning a…

  18. Alcohol on Campus and Possible Liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, E. T.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews laws and court cases relating to alcohol and possible civil and criminal liability. Suggests a number of risk management principles, including knowledge of the law, policies forbidding hazing, fostering alcohol awareness, and discipline. (JAC)

  19. PREP advertisement features affect smokers’ beliefs regarding potential harm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Andrew A; Tang, Kathy Z; Tuller, Michael D; Cappella, Joseph N

    2014-01-01

    Background The Institute of Medicine report on potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) recommends that advertising and labelling be regulated to prevent explicitly or implicitly false or misleading claims. Belief that a product is less harmful may increase use or prevent smoking cessation. Objective To determine the effect of altering advertisement features on smokers’ beliefs of the harm exposure from a PREP. Methods A Quest advertisement was digitally altered using computer software and presented to participants using web-based television recruitment contracted through a survey company. 500 current smokers completed demographic and smoking history questions, were randomised to view one of three advertisement conditions, then completed eight items assessing their beliefs of the harmfulness of the product. Advertisement conditions included the original, unaltered advertisement; a “red” condition where the cigarette packages were digitally altered to the colour red, implying increased harm potential; and a “no text” condition where all text was removed to reduce explicit product information. Polytomous logistic regression, using “incorrect,” “unsure” and “correct” as outcomes, and advertisement type and covariates as predictors, was used for analyses. Results Participants randomised to the “no text” advertisement were less likely to be incorrect in their beliefs that Quest cigarettes are lower in tar, less addictive, less likely to cause cancer, have fewer chemicals, healthier and make smoking safer. Conclusions Smokers can form false beliefs about the harmfulness of PREP products based on how the PREPs are marketed. Careful examination must be undertaken to provide empirical evidence to better formulate regulatory principles of PREP advertising. PMID:18768457

  20. Database principles programming performance

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neil, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Database: Principles Programming Performance provides an introduction to the fundamental principles of database systems. This book focuses on database programming and the relationships between principles, programming, and performance.Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of database design principles and presents a comprehensive introduction to the concepts used by a DBA. This text then provides grounding in many abstract concepts of the relational model. Other chapters introduce SQL, describing its capabilities and covering the statements and functions of the programmi

  1. Principles of ecotoxicology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walker, C. H

    2012-01-01

    "Now in its fourth edition, this exceptionally accessible text provides students with a multidisciplinary perspective and a grounding in the fundamental principles required for research in toxicology today...

  2. A Matter of Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinson, Kenneth H., Jr.; Lovett, Helen T.; Price, R. Wayne

    2004-01-01

    School principals are often faced with difficult decisions that challenge both their moral beliefs and ethical behaviors. Personal relationships and political associations can create an even greater challenge and level of frustration for building level administrators when attempting to carry out duties as moral agents and acting in "loco…

  3. Illness causal beliefs in Turkish immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimidis Steven

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People hold a wide variety of beliefs concerning the causes of illness. Such beliefs vary across cultures and, among immigrants, may be influenced by many factors, including level of acculturation, gender, level of education, and experience of illness and treatment. This study examines illness causal beliefs in Turkish-immigrants in Australia. Methods Causal beliefs about somatic and mental illness were examined in a sample of 444 members of the Turkish population of Melbourne. The socio-demographic characteristics of the sample were broadly similar to those of the Melbourne Turkish community. Five issues were examined: the structure of causal beliefs; the relative frequency of natural, supernatural and metaphysical beliefs; ascription of somatic, mental, or both somatic and mental conditions to the various causes; the correlations of belief types with socio-demographic, modernizing and acculturation variables; and the relationship between causal beliefs and current illness. Results Principal components analysis revealed two broad factors, accounting for 58 percent of the variation in scores on illness belief scales, distinctly interpretable as natural and supernatural beliefs. Second, beliefs in natural causes were more frequent than beliefs in supernatural causes. Third, some causal beliefs were commonly linked to both somatic and mental conditions while others were regarded as more specific to either somatic or mental disorders. Last, there was a range of correlations between endorsement of belief types and factors defining heterogeneity within the community, including with demographic factors, indicators of modernizing and acculturative processes, and the current presence of illness. Conclusion Results supported the classification of causal beliefs proposed by Murdock, Wilson & Frederick, with a division into natural and supernatural causes. While belief in natural causes is more common, belief in supernatural causes

  4. Illness causal beliefs in Turkish immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minas, Harry; Klimidis, Steven; Tuncer, Can

    2007-07-24

    People hold a wide variety of beliefs concerning the causes of illness. Such beliefs vary across cultures and, among immigrants, may be influenced by many factors, including level of acculturation, gender, level of education, and experience of illness and treatment. This study examines illness causal beliefs in Turkish-immigrants in Australia. Causal beliefs about somatic and mental illness were examined in a sample of 444 members of the Turkish population of Melbourne. The socio-demographic characteristics of the sample were broadly similar to those of the Melbourne Turkish community. Five issues were examined: the structure of causal beliefs; the relative frequency of natural, supernatural and metaphysical beliefs; ascription of somatic, mental, or both somatic and mental conditions to the various causes; the correlations of belief types with socio-demographic, modernizing and acculturation variables; and the relationship between causal beliefs and current illness. Principal components analysis revealed two broad factors, accounting for 58 percent of the variation in scores on illness belief scales, distinctly interpretable as natural and supernatural beliefs. Second, beliefs in natural causes were more frequent than beliefs in supernatural causes. Third, some causal beliefs were commonly linked to both somatic and mental conditions while others were regarded as more specific to either somatic or mental disorders. Last, there was a range of correlations between endorsement of belief types and factors defining heterogeneity within the community, including with demographic factors, indicators of modernizing and acculturative processes, and the current presence of illness. Results supported the classification of causal beliefs proposed by Murdock, Wilson & Frederick, with a division into natural and supernatural causes. While belief in natural causes is more common, belief in supernatural causes persists despite modernizing and acculturative influences. Different

  5. Order effects in research on paranormal belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, R Thomas

    2002-04-01

    Measures of paranormal belief and emotional intelligence were given a group of 72 college students using Tobacyk's Revised Paranormal Belief Scale and Schutte, Malouff, Hall, Haggerty, Cooper, Golden, and Dornheim's Emotional Intelligence Scale. Order effects indicated that participants who took the Paranormal Belief Scale first had lower emotional intelligence scores than those who took the Emotional Intelligence Scale first. The study demonstrates the importance of taking order effects into account when conducting research on paranormal belief.

  6. Folk beliefs of cultural changes in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yi; Hamamura, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    For the last several decades, Chinese society has experienced transformative changes. How are these changes understood among Chinese people? To examine this question, Part 1 in this research solicited folk beliefs of cultural change from a group of Chinese participants in an open-ended format, and the generated folk beliefs were rated by another group of participants in Part 2 to gage each belief's level of agreement. Part 3 plotted the folk beliefs retained in Part 2 using the Google Ngram V...

  7. Applying bioethical principles to human biomonitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison Myron

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bioethical principles are widely used as a normative framework in areas of human research and medical care. In recent years there has been increasing formalization of their use in public health decisions. The "traditional bioethical principles" are applied in this discussion to the important issue human biomonitoring for environmental exposures. They are: (1 Autonomy – Also known as the "respect for humans" principle, people understand their own best interests; (2 Beneficence – "do good" for people; (3 Nonmaleficence – "do no harm"; (4 Justice – fair distribution of benefits and costs (including risks to health across stakeholders. Some of the points made are: (1 There is not a single generic bioethical analysis applicable to the use of human biomonitoring data, each specific use requires a separate deliberation; (2 Using unidentified, population-based biomonitoring information for risk assessment or population surveillance raises fewer bioethical concerns than personally identified biomonitoring information such as employed in health screening; (3 Companies should proactively apply normative bioethical principles when considering the disposition of products and by-products in the environment and humans; (4 There is a need for more engagement by scholars on the bioethical issues raised by the use of biomarkers of exposure; (5 Though our scientific knowledge of biology will continue to increase, there will always be a role for methods or frameworks to resolve substantive disagreements in the meaning of this data that are matters of belief rather than knowledge.

  8. Applying bioethical principles to human biomonitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison Myron

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bioethical principles are widely used as a normative framework in areas of human research and medical care. In recent years there has been increasing formalization of their use in public health decisions. The "traditional bioethical principles" are applied in this discussion to the important issue human biomonitoring for environmental exposures. They are: (1 Autonomy – Also known as the "respect for humans" principle, people understand their own best interests; (2 Beneficence – "do good" for people; (3 Nonmaleficence – "do no harm"; (4 Justice – fair distribution of benefits and costs (including risks to health across stakeholders. Some of the points made are: (1 There is not a single generic bioethical analysis applicable to the use of human biomonitoring data, each specific use requires a separate deliberation; (2 Using unidentified, population-based biomonitoring information for risk assessment or population surveillance raises fewer bioethical concerns than personally identified biomonitoring information such as employed in health screening; (3 Companies should proactively apply normative bioethical principles when considering the disposition of products and by-products in the environment and humans; (4 There is a need for more engagement by scholars on the bioethical issues raised by the use of biomarkers of exposure; (5 Though our scientific knowledge of biology will continue to increase, there will always be a role for methods or frameworks to resolve substantive disagreements in the meaning of this data that are matters of belief rather than knowledge.

  9. Korean Americans' Beliefs about Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Young Lee, PhD, RN

    2013-06-01

    Conclusion: Results show the critical need for in-depth understanding of unique health and cultural beliefs about CRC screening in KAs. These beliefs could be useful for future intervention strategies to change health and cultural beliefs in order to increase CRC screening participation in KAs.

  10. Losing Belief, While Keeping Up the Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Søren Harnow

    2013-01-01

    While arguing that many cognitive states do indeed have a characteristic phenomenology, I find reasons for exempting beliefs from the program of cognitive phenomenology. Examining the complex relationship between beliefs and various kinds of conscious experience shows that belief is a messy conce...

  11. Well-Founded Belief and Perceptual Justification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broncano-Berrocal, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    According to Alan Millar, justified beliefs are well-founded beliefs. Millar cashes out the notion of well-foundedness in terms of having an adequate reason to believe something and believing it for that reason. To make his account of justified belief compatible with perceptual justification he...

  12. Forward induction reasoning and correct beliefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perea y Monsuwé, Andrés

    2017-01-01

    All equilibrium concepts implicitly make a correct beliefs assumption, stating that a player believes that his opponents are correct about his first-order beliefs. In this paper we show that in many dynamic games of interest, this correct beliefs assumption may be incompatible with a very basic form

  13. Islamic Cultures: Health Care Beliefs and Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Charles

    1996-01-01

    Presents an overview of Islamic health care beliefs and practices, noting health-related social and spiritual issues, fundamental beliefs and themes in Islam, health care beliefs and practices common among Muslims, and health-affecting social roles among Muslims. Cultural, religious, and social barriers to health care and ways to reduce them are…

  14. Changing Preservice Teachers' Beliefs about Motivating Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Sarah; Schreiber, Jim; Moss, Connie

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effects of an educational psychology course on students' beliefs about motivating students. After providing opportunities to engage in systematic intentional inquiry of their beliefs about teaching and learning, we expected that students' beliefs would become more soundly based in theory and research. Following several classes on…

  15. APPLYING THE PRINCIPLES OF ACCOUNTING IN

    OpenAIRE

    NAGY CRISTINA MIHAELA; SABĂU CRĂCIUN; ”Tibiscus” University of Timişoara, Faculty of Economic Science

    2015-01-01

    The application of accounting principles (accounting principle on accrual basis; principle of business continuity; method consistency principle; prudence principle; independence principle; the principle of separate valuation of assets and liabilities; intangibility principle; non-compensation principle; the principle of substance over form; the principle of threshold significance) to companies that are in bankruptcy procedure has a number of particularities. Thus, some principl...

  16. The principle of vulnerability and its potential applications in bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demény Enikő

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The principle of vulnerability is a specific principle within European Bioethics. On the one hand, vulnerability expresses human limits and frailty on the other hand it represents moral and ethical action principles. In this paper a discussion on the relationship between the concepts of autonomy, vulnerability and responsibility is proposed and presentation of some possible applications of the principle of vulnerability within bioethics. In conclusion, some potential benefits of applying the principle of vulnerability as well as possible difficulties in its application are highlighted.

  17. The genetic difference principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, Colin

    2004-01-01

    In the newly emerging debates about genetics and justice three distinct principles have begun to emerge concerning what the distributive aim of genetic interventions should be. These principles are: genetic equality, a genetic decent minimum, and the genetic difference principle. In this paper, I examine the rationale of each of these principles and argue that genetic equality and a genetic decent minimum are ill-equipped to tackle what I call the currency problem and the problem of weight. The genetic difference principle is the most promising of the three principles and I develop this principle so that it takes seriously the concerns of just health care and distributive justice in general. Given the strains on public funds for other important social programmes, the costs of pursuing genetic interventions and the nature of genetic interventions, I conclude that a more lax interpretation of the genetic difference principle is appropriate. This interpretation stipulates that genetic inequalities should be arranged so that they are to the greatest reasonable benefit of the least advantaged. Such a proposal is consistent with prioritarianism and provides some practical guidance for non-ideal societies--that is, societies that do not have the endless amount of resources needed to satisfy every requirement of justice.

  18. The principle of equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unnikrishnan, C.S.

    1994-01-01

    Principle of equivalence was the fundamental guiding principle in the formulation of the general theory of relativity. What are its key elements? What are the empirical observations which establish it? What is its relevance to some new experiments? These questions are discussed in this article. (author). 11 refs., 5 figs

  19. The Dutch premium principle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heerwaarden, A.E.; Kaas, R.

    1992-01-01

    A premium principle is derived, in which the loading for a risk is the reinsurance loading for an excess-of-loss cover. It is shown that the principle is well-behaved in the sense that it results in larger premiums for risks that are larger in stop-loss order or in stochastic dominance.

  20. A new computing principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatmi, H.A.; Resconi, G.

    1988-01-01

    In 1954 while reviewing the theory of communication and cybernetics the late Professor Dennis Gabor presented a new mathematical principle for the design of advanced computers. During our work on these computers it was found that the Gabor formulation can be further advanced to include more recent developments in Lie algebras and geometric probability, giving rise to a new computing principle

  1. The anthropic principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, B.J.

    1982-01-01

    The anthropic principle (the conjecture that certain features of the world are determined by the existence of Man) is discussed with the listing of the objections, and is stated that nearly all the constants of nature may be determined by the anthropic principle which does not give exact values for the constants but only their orders of magnitude. (J.T.)

  2. Nonlinear optics principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Chunfei

    2017-01-01

    This book reflects the latest advances in nonlinear optics. Besides the simple, strict mathematical deduction, it also discusses the experimental verification and possible future applications, such as the all-optical switches. It consistently uses the practical unit system throughout. It employs simple physical images, such as "light waves" and "photons" to systematically explain the main principles of nonlinear optical effects. It uses the first-order nonlinear wave equation in frequency domain under the condition of “slowly varying amplitude approximation" and the classical model of the interaction between the light and electric dipole. At the same time, it also uses the rate equations based on the energy-level transition of particle systems excited by photons and the energy and momentum conservation principles to explain the nonlinear optical phenomenon. The book is intended for researchers, engineers and graduate students in the field of the optics, optoelectronics, fiber communication, information tech...

  3. Track formation. Principles and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monnin, M.

    1978-01-01

    The principles and technical aspects of track formation in insulating solids are first described. The characteristics of dialectic track detection are discussed from the technical point of view: the nature of the detectors, the chemical treatment, the sensitivity and the environmental conditions of use. The applications are reviewed. The principle of each type of applied research is described and then the applications are listed. When used as a detector, nuclear tracks can provide valuable information in a number of fields: element content determination and wrapping, imaging, radiation dosimetry, environmental studies, technological uses and miscellaneous other applications. The track-formation process can also be used for making well-defined holes; this method allows other applications which are also described. Finally, some possible future applications are mentioned. (author)

  4. Beliefs about work and beliefs about groupwork: Exploring the relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Cullen, John G.

    2013-01-01

    Smrt & Karau’s (2011) finding that the Protestant Work Ethic (PWE) influences individual behaviour towards groups, emphasized that individuals who have a stronger PWE are less likely to socially loaf. This note aims to contribute to this research by exploring the influence which a key component of the PWE, the vocation, has on individual beliefs about groupwork. An online questionnaire based on Wrzesniewski et al.’s (1997) research on personal relationships to work and Karau & Elsaid’s (200...

  5. Mach's holographic principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoury, Justin; Parikh, Maulik

    2009-01-01

    Mach's principle is the proposition that inertial frames are determined by matter. We put forth and implement a precise correspondence between matter and geometry that realizes Mach's principle. Einstein's equations are not modified and no selection principle is applied to their solutions; Mach's principle is realized wholly within Einstein's general theory of relativity. The key insight is the observation that, in addition to bulk matter, one can also add boundary matter. Given a space-time, and thus the inertial frames, we can read off both boundary and bulk stress tensors, thereby relating matter and geometry. We consider some global conditions that are necessary for the space-time to be reconstructible, in principle, from bulk and boundary matter. Our framework is similar to that of the black hole membrane paradigm and, in asymptotically anti-de Sitter space-times, is consistent with holographic duality.

  6. Variational principles in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Basdevant, Jean-Louis

    2007-01-01

    Optimization under constraints is an essential part of everyday life. Indeed, we routinely solve problems by striking a balance between contradictory interests, individual desires and material contingencies. This notion of equilibrium was dear to thinkers of the enlightenment, as illustrated by Montesquieu’s famous formulation: "In all magistracies, the greatness of the power must be compensated by the brevity of the duration." Astonishingly, natural laws are guided by a similar principle. Variational principles have proven to be surprisingly fertile. For example, Fermat used variational methods to demonstrate that light follows the fastest route from one point to another, an idea which came to be known as Fermat’s principle, a cornerstone of geometrical optics. Variational Principles in Physics explains variational principles and charts their use throughout modern physics. The heart of the book is devoted to the analytical mechanics of Lagrange and Hamilton, the basic tools of any physicist. Prof. Basdev...

  7. Introducing the modified paranormal belief scale: distinguishing between classic paranormal beliefs, religious paranormal beliefs and conventional religiosity among undergraduates in Northern Ireland and Wales

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Emyr; Francis, Leslie J.; Lewis, Christopher Alan

    2009-01-01

    Previous empirical studies concerned with the association between paranormal beliefs and conventional religiosity have produced conflicting evidence. Drawing on Rice's (2003) distinction between classic paranormal beliefs and religious paranormal beliefs, the present study proposed a modified form of the Tobacyk Revised Paranormal Belief Scale to produce separate scores for these two forms of paranormal belief, styled 'religious paranormal beliefs' and 'classic paranormal beliefs'. Data provi...

  8. Free love? On the relation between belief in free will, determinism, and passionate love.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudesseul, Jordane; Lantian, Anthony; Cova, Florian; Bègue, Laurent

    2016-11-01

    Is love possible if we are not free? Some philosophers consider that true love is necessarily free, while others think that the nature of love makes it incompatible with a certain type of freedom. Here, we explored the relationship between feelings of passionate love, belief in free will and determinism across three online studies. In Study 1 (N=257), participants who believed strongly in free will (or determinism) expressed stronger passionate love. In Study 2 (N=305), we again found a positive association between belief in free will (or determinism) and passionate love, although the passionate love-determinism relationship seems more conditional. Finally, Study 3 (N=309) confirmed the relationship between belief in free will and passionate love but not between belief in determinism and passionate love. These findings, along with a meta-analysis, suggest that both beliefs in free will and determinism are compatible with passionate love. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Public knowledge and beliefs about depression among urban and rural Chinese in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Phik-Wern; Furnham, Adrian

    2012-09-01

    The study compared knowledge and beliefs about depression among urban and rural Chinese in a Malaysian sample. A total of 409 participants were asked to identify cases of depression varying in intensity from two vignettes and rate their beliefs regarding a list of possible causes and treatments for depression. The urban Chinese were more likely to identify depression as the problem in the vignette. Beliefs about causes of depression were factored into five components, whereas beliefs about treatment for depression factored into four components. The results indicated that the causes most strongly endorsed were stress and pressure, and standard treatments rated the highest as treatments for depression. Overall, depression literacy was moderate for Chinese Malaysians. The results are discussed in relation to Chinese cultural beliefs about depression. Limitations of this preliminary study were acknowledged. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Belief revision and delusions: how do patients with schizophrenia take advice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariia Kaliuzhna

    Full Text Available The dominant cognitive model that accounts for the persistence of delusional beliefs in schizophrenia postulates that patients suffer from a general deficit in belief revision. It is generally assumed that this deficit is a consequence of impaired reasoning skills. However, the possibility that such inflexibility affects the entire system of a patient's beliefs has rarely been empirically tested. Using delusion-neutral material in a well-documented advice-taking task, the present study reports that patients with schizophrenia: 1 revise their beliefs, 2 take into account socially provided information to do so, 3 are not overconfident about their judgments, and 4 show less egocentric advice-discounting than controls. This study thus shows that delusional patients' difficulty in revising beliefs is more selective than had been previously assumed. The specificities of the task and the implications for a theory of delusion formation are discussed.

  11. Belief revision and delusions: how do patients with schizophrenia take advice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliuzhna, Mariia; Chambon, Valérian; Franck, Nicolas; Testud, Bérangère; Van der Henst, Jean-Baptiste

    2012-01-01

    The dominant cognitive model that accounts for the persistence of delusional beliefs in schizophrenia postulates that patients suffer from a general deficit in belief revision. It is generally assumed that this deficit is a consequence of impaired reasoning skills. However, the possibility that such inflexibility affects the entire system of a patient's beliefs has rarely been empirically tested. Using delusion-neutral material in a well-documented advice-taking task, the present study reports that patients with schizophrenia: 1) revise their beliefs, 2) take into account socially provided information to do so, 3) are not overconfident about their judgments, and 4) show less egocentric advice-discounting than controls. This study thus shows that delusional patients' difficulty in revising beliefs is more selective than had been previously assumed. The specificities of the task and the implications for a theory of delusion formation are discussed.

  12. Symbiotic architecture: Redefinition of recycling design principles

    OpenAIRE

    Milan Šijaković; Ana Perić

    2018-01-01

    The study seeks to examine the possibility of implementing the biological concept of symbiosis into the field of architecture for redefining the design principles of architectural recycling. Through an in-depth analysis of the biological concept of symbiosis (i.e., a close and often long-term interaction between two or more different biological species and the criteria that govern the differentiation between symbiotic associations), three redefined design principles of recycling—commensalism,...

  13. Large scale inhomogeneities and the cosmological principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukacs, B.; Meszaros, A.

    1984-12-01

    The compatibility of cosmologic principles and possible large scale inhomogeneities of the Universe is discussed. It seems that the strongest symmetry principle which is still compatible with reasonable inhomogeneities, is a full conformal symmetry in the 3-space defined by the cosmological velocity field, but even in such a case, the standard model is isolated from the inhomogeneous ones when the whole evolution is considered. (author)

  14. A qualitative study of recently bereaved people's beliefs about death: implications for bereavement care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Peter; Holloway, Margaret; Adamson, Susan

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the beliefs of recently bereaved people about death and to explore the implications of these beliefs for bereavement care. Little is known about recently bereaved people's beliefs about death, although there is evidence that these beliefs may have an impact on health. The funeral provides an opportunity for bereaved people to reflect on their beliefs about death. A qualitative approach. This paper describes one aspect of an interdisciplinary study of the spirituality of contemporary funerals. We obtained access to 46 funerals through funeral directors and other contacts, and interviewed principal mourners to explore their beliefs. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. Three themes emerged that reflected the beliefs and experiences of bereaved people. The first theme describes people's understanding of death in terms of five positions: religious, dualist, eco-spiritualist, materialist and death-as-transition. The second theme addresses a range of views about the possibility of life after death: resurrection, reuniting and reincarnation. The third theme describes ways in which people felt that their relationship with the deceased person continues after death: continuity as sense of presence and continuity as memory, legacy and love. Some people were reluctant to express a firm view about death. People express a spectrum of beliefs about death. Their beliefs are infrequently linked to formal religious or spiritual perspectives but seem to have an important role in coping with bereavement. This is a unique study illustrating the complexity of bereaved people's beliefs about death. The study provides a research-based framework within which to understand contemporary beliefs about death, and contributes to our understanding of how health professionals can support recently bereaved people. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Narcissism and belief in the paranormal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Chris A; Morgan, Claire L

    2002-04-01

    The present study was designed to assess whether the relationship between narcissistic personality and paranormal belief identified by Tobacyk and Mitchell earlier could be replicated with a general population and to see whether the effect could be found with a narrower definition of paranormal beliefs that focuses only on belief in psychic phenomena. 75 participants completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and two measures of paranormal belief, the Paranormal Belief Scale and the Australian Sheep-Goat Scale. There was no correlation between narcissism and Paranormal Belief Scale scores, but narcissism and Australian Sheep-Goat Scale scores were significantly positively correlated. Of the three subscales to the Australian Sheep-Goat measure, scores for narcissism correlated with belief in ESP and PK but not in Life after death. These relationships were interpreted in terms of need for control.

  16. Belief in reciprocity in a Chinese sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Jianxin

    2012-08-01

    Belief in reciprocity refers to a personally internalized faith in the reciprocity norm: that people will return positive and negative interactions or favors in kind. The current study aims to examine the relationship between belief in reciprocity and altruism among a Chinese sample. The Personal Norm of Reciprocity Scale, Trait Forgiveness Scale, Prosocial Tendency Measure, and Altruism Scale were used to assess extent of belief in reciprocity, forgiveness, and prosocial motivation, respectively, among 204 Chinese undergraduates. The results indicated that belief in reciprocity was a partially negative, but not neutral, reciprocity norm for Chinese people. Specifically, belief in reciprocity was positively related to negative reciprocity, but not significantly related to positive reciprocity. Moreover, belief in reciprocity was negatively related to both prosocial tendency and altruistic motivation. The results also indicated that forgiveness largely mediated the effect of belief in reciprocity on altruism. Finally, the implications and limitations of the current study were discussed.

  17. Limitations of Boltzmann's principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavenda, B.H.

    1995-01-01

    The usual form of Boltzmann's principle assures that maximum entropy, or entropy reduction, occurs with maximum probability, implying a unimodal distribution. Boltzmann's principle cannot be applied to nonunimodal distributions, like the arcsine law, because the entropy may be concave only over a limited portion of the interval. The method of subordination shows that the arcsine distribution corresponds to a process with a single degree of freedom, thereby confirming the invalidation of Boltzmann's principle. The fractalization of time leads to a new distribution in which arcsine and Cauchy distributions can coexist simultaneously for nonintegral degrees of freedom between √2 and 2

  18. Biomedical engineering principles

    CERN Document Server

    Ritter, Arthur B; Valdevit, Antonio; Ascione, Alfred N

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Modeling of Physiological ProcessesCell Physiology and TransportPrinciples and Biomedical Applications of HemodynamicsA Systems Approach to PhysiologyThe Cardiovascular SystemBiomedical Signal ProcessingSignal Acquisition and ProcessingTechniques for Physiological Signal ProcessingExamples of Physiological Signal ProcessingPrinciples of BiomechanicsPractical Applications of BiomechanicsBiomaterialsPrinciples of Biomedical Capstone DesignUnmet Clinical NeedsEntrepreneurship: Reasons why Most Good Designs Never Get to MarketAn Engineering Solution in Search of a Biomedical Problem

  19. Modern electronic maintenance principles

    CERN Document Server

    Garland, DJ

    2013-01-01

    Modern Electronic Maintenance Principles reviews the principles of maintaining modern, complex electronic equipment, with emphasis on preventive and corrective maintenance. Unfamiliar subjects such as the half-split method of fault location, functional diagrams, and fault finding guides are explained. This book consists of 12 chapters and begins by stressing the need for maintenance principles and discussing the problem of complexity as well as the requirements for a maintenance technician. The next chapter deals with the connection between reliability and maintenance and defines the terms fai

  20. [Bioethics of principles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Soba Díez del Corral, Juan José

    2008-01-01

    Bioethics emerges about the tecnological problems of acting in human life. Emerges also the problem of the moral limits determination, because they seem exterior of this practice. The Bioethics of Principles, take his rationality of the teleological thinking, and the autonomism. These divergence manifest the epistemological fragility and the great difficulty of hmoralñ thinking. This is evident in the determination of autonomy's principle, it has not the ethical content of Kant's propose. We need a new ethic rationality with a new refelxion of new Principles whose emerges of the basic ethic experiences.

  1. Principles of dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, Rodney

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Dynamics presents classical dynamics primarily as an exemplar of scientific theory and method. This book is divided into three major parts concerned with gravitational theory of planetary systems; general principles of the foundations of mechanics; and general motion of a rigid body. Some of the specific topics covered are Keplerian Laws of Planetary Motion; gravitational potential and potential energy; and fields of axisymmetric bodies. The principles of work and energy, fictitious body-forces, and inertial mass are also looked into. Other specific topics examined are kinematics

  2. Hamilton's principle for beginners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun, J L

    2007-01-01

    I find that students have difficulty with Hamilton's principle, at least the first time they come into contact with it, and therefore it is worth designing some examples to help students grasp its complex meaning. This paper supplies the simplest example to consolidate the learning of the quoted principle: that of a free particle moving along a line. Next, students are challenged to add gravity to reinforce the argument and, finally, a two-dimensional motion in a vertical plane is considered. Furthermore these examples force us to be very clear about such an abstract principle

  3. Developing principles of growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Fleck, Emma

    of the principles of growth among women-owned firms. Using an in-depth case study methodology, data was collected from women-owned firms in Denmark and Ireland, as these countries are similar in contextual terms, e.g. population and business composition, dominated by micro, small and medium-sized enterprises....... Extending on principles put forward in effectuation theory, we propose that women grow their firms according to five principles which enable women’s enterprises to survive in the face of crises such as the current financial world crisis....

  4. Identification and evaluation of the salient physical activity beliefs of colorectal cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speed-Andrews, Amy E; McGowan, Erin L; Rhodes, Ryan E; Blanchard, Chris M; Culos-Reed, S Nicole; Friedenreich, Christine M; Courneya, Kerry S

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) has been associated with lower risk of disease recurrence and longer survival in colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors; however, less than one-third of CRC survivors are meeting PA guidelines. Interventions to promote PA in CRC survivors need to understand the most critical beliefs that influence PA behavior. The objective of this study was to examine the strength of associations between the most common PA beliefs of CRC survivors and motivational constructs from the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) as well as PA behavior. Colorectal cancer survivors (n = 600) residing in Alberta, Canada, completed self-report questionnaires assessing medical and demographic variables, PA beliefs, constructs from the TPB, and PA behavior. Colorectal cancer survivors identified improved fitness (69.5%), family members (67.3%), and medical/health problems (8.8%) as the most prevalent behavioral, normative, and control beliefs, respectively. All PA beliefs were significantly correlated with all TPB constructs and PA. Physical activity interventions for CRC survivors should target many salient beliefs including behavioral, normative, and control beliefs. Insights into the salient beliefs for PA in CRC survivors can guide nurses in developing successful strategies to promote PA in this population and likely improve quality of life and possibly disease outcomes.

  5. Vaccinology: principles and practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrow, John

    2012-01-01

    ... principles to implementation. This is an authoritative textbook that details a comprehensive and systematic approach to the science of vaccinology focusing on not only basic science, but the many stages required to commercialize...

  6. On the invariance principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moller-Nielsen, Thomas [University of Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    Physicists and philosophers have long claimed that the symmetries of our physical theories - roughly speaking, those transformations which map solutions of the theory into solutions - can provide us with genuine insight into what the world is really like. According to this 'Invariance Principle', only those quantities which are invariant under a theory's symmetries should be taken to be physically real, while those quantities which vary under its symmetries should not. Physicists and philosophers, however, are generally divided (or, indeed, silent) when it comes to explaining how such a principle is to be justified. In this paper, I spell out some of the problems inherent in other theorists' attempts to justify this principle, and sketch my own proposed general schema for explaining how - and when - the Invariance Principle can indeed be used as a legitimate tool of metaphysical inference.

  7. Principles of applied statistics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cox, D. R; Donnelly, Christl A

    2011-01-01

    .... David Cox and Christl Donnelly distil decades of scientific experience into usable principles for the successful application of statistics, showing how good statistical strategy shapes every stage of an investigation...

  8. Minimum entropy production principle

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maes, C.; Netočný, Karel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 7 (2013), s. 9664-9677 ISSN 1941-6016 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : MINEP Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/Minimum_entropy_production_principle

  9. Global ethics and principlism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John-Stewart

    2011-09-01

    This article examines the special relation between common morality and particular moralities in the four-principles approach and its use for global ethics. It is argued that the special dialectical relation between common morality and particular moralities is the key to bridging the gap between ethical universalism and relativism. The four-principles approach is a good model for a global bioethics by virtue of its ability to mediate successfully between universal demands and cultural diversity. The principle of autonomy (i.e., the idea of individual informed consent), however, does need to be revised so as to make it compatible with alternatives such as family- or community-informed consent. The upshot is that the contribution of the four-principles approach to global ethics lies in the so-called dialectical process and its power to deal with cross-cultural issues against the background of universal demands by joining them together.

  10. What motivates a conspiracy theory? Birther beliefs, partisanship, liberal-conservative ideology, and anti-Black attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasek, Josh; Stark, Tobias H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/335996701; Krosnick, Jon A.; Tompson, Trevor

    2015-01-01

    Despite the release of his birth certificate, some Americans express continued skepticism over whether Barack Obama was born in the United States. This study examined two possible causes of birther beliefs: that Republicans and conservatives, whose ideological beliefs and policy preferences led to

  11. How Students' Epistemological Beliefs in the Domain of Physics and Their Conceptual Change Are Related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaymak, Ercan; Ogan-Bekiroglu, Feral

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine high school students' epistemological beliefs in the domain of physics and to explore and explain the possible relationship between their beliefs and their conceptual change in physics by taking the students' learning strategies into account. A multi-case study design was used for the research…

  12. Microprocessors principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Debenham, Michael J

    1979-01-01

    Microprocessors: Principles and Applications deals with the principles and applications of microprocessors and covers topics ranging from computer architecture and programmed machines to microprocessor programming, support systems and software, and system design. A number of microprocessor applications are considered, including data processing, process control, and telephone switching. This book is comprised of 10 chapters and begins with a historical overview of computers and computing, followed by a discussion on computer architecture and programmed machines, paying particular attention to t

  13. Electrical and electronic principles

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, S A

    1991-01-01

    Electrical and Electronic Principles, 2, Second Edition covers the syllabus requirements of BTEC Unit U86/329, including the principles of control systems and elements of data transmission. The book first tackles series and parallel circuits, electrical networks, and capacitors and capacitance. Discussions focus on flux density, electric force, permittivity, Kirchhoff's laws, superposition theorem, arrangement of resistors, internal resistance, and powers in a circuit. The text then takes a look at capacitors in circuit, magnetism and magnetization, electromagnetic induction, and alternating v

  14. Microwave system engineering principles

    CERN Document Server

    Raff, Samuel J

    1977-01-01

    Microwave System Engineering Principles focuses on the calculus, differential equations, and transforms of microwave systems. This book discusses the basic nature and principles that can be derived from thermal noise; statistical concepts and binomial distribution; incoherent signal processing; basic properties of antennas; and beam widths and useful approximations. The fundamentals of propagation; LaPlace's Equation and Transmission Line (TEM) waves; interfaces between homogeneous media; modulation, bandwidth, and noise; and communications satellites are also deliberated in this text. This bo

  15. Electrical and electronic principles

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, SA

    1988-01-01

    Electrical and Electronic Principles, 3 focuses on the principles involved in electrical and electronic circuits, including impedance, inductance, capacitance, and resistance.The book first deals with circuit elements and theorems, D.C. transients, and the series circuits of alternating current. Discussions focus on inductance and resistance in series, resistance and capacitance in series, power factor, impedance, circuit magnification, equation of charge, discharge of a capacitor, transfer of power, and decibels and attenuation. The manuscript then examines the parallel circuits of alternatin

  16. Remark on Heisenberg's principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguez, G.

    1988-01-01

    Application of Heisenberg's principle to inertial frame transformations allows a distinction between three commutative groups of reciprocal transformations along one direction: Galilean transformations, dual transformations, and Lorentz transformations. These are three conjugate groups and for a given direction, the related commutators are all proportional to one single conjugation transformation which compensates for uniform and rectilinear motions. The three transformation groups correspond to three complementary ways of measuring space-time as a whole. Heisenberg's Principle then gets another explanation [fr

  17. Laterality of pain: modulation by placebo and participants' paranormal belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemenz, Caroline; Regard, Marianne; Brugger, Peter; Emch, Oliver

    2009-09-01

    To investigate the effects of placebo and paranormal belief on the laterality of pain perception. The right hemisphere is dominantly involved in both the mediation of pain sensation and the belief in paranormal phenomena. We set out to assess a possible influence of long-term belief systems on placebo analgesia in response to unilateral nociceptive stimuli. Forty healthy participants (20 high and 20 low believers as indexed by the Magical Ideation Scale) underwent a placebo analgesia study measuring stimulus detection, pain threshold, and pain tolerance by electrostimulation on the right and left hand. Placebo treatment consisted of the application of a sham cream on the hands. Placebo had a positive influence on pain perception in the 3 variables. Enhanced pain sensitivity for the left side was only found for the disbelievers. Placebo treatment resulted in a double dissociation: in believers, it increased tolerance exclusively on the left side, in disbelievers on the right side. Our results confirm laterality effects in pain perception. However, only disbelievers conformed to the expected higher left-sided sensitivity. Placebo effects were dissociated between believers and disbelievers suggesting that short-term reactions to a placebo are modulated by a person's long-term belief system.

  18. Challenging the bioethical application of the autonomy principle within multicultural societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    This article critically re-examines the application of the principle of patient autonomy within bioethics. In complex societies such as those found in North America and Europe health care professionals are increasingly confronted by patients from diverse ethnic, cultural, and religious backgrounds. This affects the relationship between clinicians and patients to the extent that patients' deliberations upon the proposed courses of treatment can, in various ways and to varying extents, be influenced by their ethnic, cultural, and religious commitments. The principle of patient autonomy is the main normative constraint imposed upon medical treatment. Bioethicists typically appeal to the principle of patient autonomy as a means for generally attempting to resolve conflict between patients and clinicians. In recent years a number of bioethicists have responded to the condition of multiculturalism by arguing that the autonomy principle provides the basis for a common moral discourse capable of regulating the relationship between clinicians and patients in those situations where patients' beliefs and commitments do or may contradict the ethos of biomedicine. This article challenges that claim. I argue that the precise manner in which the autonomy principle is philosophically formulated within such accounts prohibits bioethicists' deployment of autonomy as a core ideal for a common moral discourse within multicultural societies. The formulation of autonomy underlying such accounts cannot be extended to simply assimilate individuals' most fundamental religious and cultural commitments and affiliations per se. I challenge the assumption that respecting prospective patients' fundamental religious and cultural commitments is necessarily always compatible with respecting their autonomy. I argue that the character of some peoples' relationship with their cultural or religious community acts to significantly constrain the possibilities for acting autonomously. The implication is

  19. Basic safety principles for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear power plant safety requires a continuing quest for excellence. All individuals concerned should constantly be alert to opportunities to reduce risks to the lowest practicable level. The quest, however, is most likely to be fruitful if it is based on an understanding of the underlying objectives and principles of nuclear safety, and the way in which its aspects are interrelated. This report is an attempt to provide a logical framework for such an understanding. The proposed objectives and principles of nuclear safety are interconnected and must be taken as a whole; they do not constitute a menu from which selection can be made. The report takes account of current issues and developments. It includes the concept of safety objectives and the use of probabilistic safety assessment. Reliability targets for safety systems are discussed. The concept of a 'safety culture' is crucial. Attention has been paid to the need for planning for accident management. The report contains objectives and principles. The objectives state what is to be achieved; the principles state how to achieve it. In each case, the basic principle is stated as briefly as possible. The accompanying discussion comments on the reasons for the principle and its importance, as well as exceptions, the extent of coverage and any necessary clarification. The discussion is as important as the principle it augments. 4 figs

  20. Journalism as Justified True Belief

    OpenAIRE

    Lisboa, Sílvia; Benetti, Marcia

    2015-01-01

    If it is important to think of journalism as a form of knowledge, then how does it become knowledge? How does this process work? In order to answer this question, this article proposes a new understanding of journalism as a subject; presenting it as a justified true belief. We think of journalism being based on pillars of truth and justification, conditions necessary in order for Epistemology to grant it the status of knowledge. We address the concept of truth and show how journalistic report...

  1. Graduates beliefs about career management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić Lepa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Career management is increasingly becoming an individuals' matter, despite the various activities organized by the different institutions to support career development and planning. An exploratory survey was conducted to determine what kind of beliefs graduates have about career management. Results indicate that graduates are aware of the importance of university knowledge for getting a job, the importance of knowledge and investment in education for positioning in the labor market, so they give priority to development opportunities that business brings opposed to the material rewards.

  2. Testing the Pauli Exclusion Principle for Electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marton, J; Berucci, C; Cargnelli, M; Ishiwatari, T; Bartalucci, S; Bragadireanu, M; Curceanu, C; Guaraldo, C; Iliescu, M; Pietreanu, D; Piscicchia, K; Ponta, T; Vidal, A Romero; Scordo, A; Sirghi, D L; Bertolucci, S; Matteo, S Di; Egger, J-P; Laubenstein, M; Milotti, E

    2013-01-01

    One of the fundamental rules of nature and a pillar in the foundation of quantum theory and thus of modern physics is represented by the Pauli Exclusion Principle. We know that this principle is extremely well fulfilled due to many observations. Numerous experiments were performed to search for tiny violation of this rule in various systems. The experiment VIP at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory is searching for possible small violations of the Pauli Exclusion Principle for electrons leading to forbidden X-ray transitions in copper atoms. VIP is aiming at a test of the Pauli Exclusion Principle for electrons with high accuracy, down to the level of 10 −29 – 10 −30 , thus improving the previous limit by 3–4 orders of magnitude. The experimental method, results obtained so far and new developments within VIP2 (follow-up experiment at Gran Sasso, in preparation) to further increase the precision by 2 orders of magnitude will be presented

  3. Equivalence Principle, Higgs Boson and Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Francaviglia

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We discuss here possible tests for Palatini f(R-theories together with their implications for different formulations of the Equivalence Principle. We shall show that Palatini f(R-theories obey the Weak Equivalence Principle and violate the Strong Equivalence Principle. The violations of the Strong Equivalence Principle vanish in vacuum (and purely electromagnetic solutions as well as on short time scales with respect to the age of the universe. However, we suggest that a framework based on Palatini f(R-theories is more general than standard General Relativity (GR and it sheds light on the interpretation of data and results in a way which is more model independent than standard GR itself.

  4. General principles of radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easson, E.C.

    1985-01-01

    The daily practice of any established branch of medicine should be based on some acceptable principles. This chapter is concerned with the general principles on which the radiotherapy of the Manchester school is based. Though many radiotherapists in other centres would doubtless accept these principles, there are sufficiently wide differences in practice throughout the world to suggest that some therapists adhere to a fundamentally different philosophy. The authors believe it is important, especially for those beginning their formal training in radiotherapy, to subscribe to an internally consistent school of thought, employing methods of treatment for each type of lesion in each anatomical site that are based on accepted principles and subjected to continuous rigorous scrutiny to test their effectiveness. Not only must each therapeutic technique be evaluated, but the underlying principles too must be questioned if and when this seems indicated. It is a feature of this hospital that similar lesions are all treated by the same technique, so long as statistical evidence justifies such a policy. All members of the staff adhere to the accepted policy until or unless reliable reasons are adduced to change this policy

  5. The traveltime holographic principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yunsong; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2015-01-01

    Fermat's interferometric principle is used to compute interior transmission traveltimes τpq from exterior transmission traveltimes τsp and τsq. Here, the exterior traveltimes are computed for sources s on a boundary B that encloses a volume V of interior points p and q. Once the exterior traveltimes are computed, no further ray tracing is needed to calculate the interior times τpq. Therefore this interferometric approach can be more efficient than explicitly computing interior traveltimes τpq by ray tracing. Moreover, the memory requirement of the traveltimes is reduced by one dimension, because the boundary B is of one fewer dimension than the volume V. An application of this approach is demonstrated with interbed multiple (IM) elimination. Here, the IMs in the observed data are predicted from the migration image and are subsequently removed by adaptive subtraction. This prediction is enabled by the knowledge of interior transmission traveltimes τpq computed according to Fermat's interferometric principle. We denote this principle as the `traveltime holographic principle', by analogy with the holographic principle in cosmology where information in a volume is encoded on the region's boundary.

  6. Ethical principles of scientific communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranov G. V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available the article presents the principles of ethical management of scientific communication. The author approves the priority of ethical principle of social responsibility of the scientist.

  7. Application of the principle of similarity fluid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, R.C.; Sengers, J.V.

    1979-01-01

    Possible applications of the principle of similarity to fluid mechanics is described and illustrated. In correlating thermophysical properties of fluids, the similarity principle transcends the traditional corresponding states principle. In fluid mechanics the similarity principle is useful in correlating flow processes that can be modeled adequately with one independent variable (i.e., one-dimensional flows). In this paper we explore the concept of transforming the conservation equations by combining similarity principles for thermophysical properties with those for fluid flow. We illustrate the usefulness of the procedure by applying such a transformation to calculate two phase critical mass flow through a nozzle

  8. Equilibria in social belief removal [Journal article

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Booth, R

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available removal function >i, which tells it how to remove any given sentence from its belief set. In this paper we view >i as a unary function on the set L of non- tautologous sentences, i.e., agents are never required to remove >. The result of removing 2 L... from i?s belief set is denoted by >i( ). We assume i?s initial belief set can always be recaptured from >i alone by just removing the (b) (1) (A) contradiction, i.e., i?s initial belief set is >i(?). We call any n-tuple (>i)i2A of removal functions a...

  9. Core principles of evolutionary medicine: A Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunspan, Daniel Z; Nesse, Randolph M; Barnes, M Elizabeth; Brownell, Sara E

    2018-01-01

    Evolutionary medicine is a rapidly growing field that uses the principles of evolutionary biology to better understand, prevent and treat disease, and that uses studies of disease to advance basic knowledge in evolutionary biology. Over-arching principles of evolutionary medicine have been described in publications, but our study is the first to systematically elicit core principles from a diverse panel of experts in evolutionary medicine. These principles should be useful to advance recent recommendations made by The Association of American Medical Colleges and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute to make evolutionary thinking a core competency for pre-medical education. The Delphi method was used to elicit and validate a list of core principles for evolutionary medicine. The study included four surveys administered in sequence to 56 expert panelists. The initial open-ended survey created a list of possible core principles; the three subsequent surveys winnowed the list and assessed the accuracy and importance of each principle. Fourteen core principles elicited at least 80% of the panelists to agree or strongly agree that they were important core principles for evolutionary medicine. These principles over-lapped with concepts discussed in other articles discussing key concepts in evolutionary medicine. This set of core principles will be helpful for researchers and instructors in evolutionary medicine. We recommend that evolutionary medicine instructors use the list of core principles to construct learning goals. Evolutionary medicine is a young field, so this list of core principles will likely change as the field develops further.

  10. Ethical principles and theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, R C

    1993-01-01

    Ethical theory about what is right and good in human conduct lies behind the issues practitioners face and the codes they turn to for guidance; it also provides guidance for actions, practices, and policies. Principles of obligation, such as egoism, utilitarianism, and deontology, offer general answers to the question, "Which acts/practices are morally right?" A re-emerging alternative to using such principles to assess individual conduct is to center normative theory on personal virtues. For structuring society's institutions, principles of social justice offer alternative answers to the question, "How should social benefits and burdens be distributed?" But human concerns about right and good call for more than just theoretical responses. Some critics (eg, the postmodernists and the feminists) charge that normative ethical theorizing is a misguided enterprise. However, that charge should be taken as a caution and not as a refutation of normative ethical theorizing.

  11. When fast logic meets slow belief: Evidence for a parallel-processing model of belief bias

    OpenAIRE

    Trippas, Dries; Thompson, Valerie A.; Handley, Simon J.

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments pitted the default-interventionist account of belief bias against a parallel-processing model. According to the former, belief bias occurs because a fast, belief-based evaluation of the conclusion pre-empts a working-memory demanding logical analysis. In contrast, according to the latter both belief-based and logic-based responding occur in parallel. Participants were given deductive reasoning problems of variable complexity and instructed to decide whether the conclusion was ...

  12. Associative processing and paranormal belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianotti, L R; Mohr, C; Pizzagalli, D; Lehmann, D; Brugger, P

    2001-12-01

    In the present study we introduce a novel task for the quantitative assessment of both originality and speed of individual associations. This 'BAG' (Bridge-the-Associative-Gap) task was used to investigate the relationships between creativity and paranormal belief. Twelve strong 'believers' and 12 strong 'skeptics' in paranormal phenomena were selected from a large student population (n > 350). Subjects were asked to produce single-word associations to word pairs. In 40 trials the two stimulus words were semantically indirectly related and in 40 other trials the words were semantically unrelated. Separately for these two stimulus types, response commonalities and association latencies were calculated. The main finding was that for unrelated stimuli, believers produced associations that were more original (had a lower frequency of occurrence in the group as a whole) than those of the skeptics. For the interpretation of the result we propose a model of association behavior that captures both 'positive' psychological aspects (i.e., verbal creativity) and 'negative' aspects (susceptibility to unfounded inferences), and outline its relevance for psychiatry. This model suggests that believers adopt a looser response criterion than skeptics when confronted with 'semantic noise'. Such a signal detection view of the presence/absence of judgments for loose semantic relations may help to elucidate the commonalities between creative thinking, paranormal belief and delusional ideation.

  13. Metaphor as a tool for analyzing beliefs (in terms of teacher's sense of his/her work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bochaver A. A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present review contains the description of foreign studies concerning teachers' beliefs of their professional experience, the possibility to reflect on these beliefs and to modify them. Metaphor is regarded to be the constructs under which people organize their ideas and beliefs so it is the main object of analysis in the majority of studies. Metaphor analysis makes it possible to disclose interrelations between the roles of a teacher and a student and the teacher's idea of an ultimate goal of teaching in general. Metaphors are the «input points» in the history of teachers' beliefs. They disclose what these beliefs originate from, who influences them and what they result in. Metaphors can be effective tools in elaboration of prevention programs aimed at prophylaxis of professional burnout and providing teachers' self-actualization.

  14. Two Principles of good elderly care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Hanne Marlene; Eskelinen, Leena; Boll Hansen, Eigil

    ) which is a possibility for the elderly to choose a private provider. Stressing the self-determination of the elderly and the help provided as service is potentially at odds with one of the existing principles of elderly care, namely the professional principle of help-to-self help. It aims at activating...... the elderly person to manage as much as possible themselves and is based upon a socio-pedagogical culture, where the professional is teaching elderly people about the proper behavior. It’s based upon a formal knowledge of aging and upon different techniques to motivate and involve the elderly....... These are clearly different logics. However, no research has so far studied how these concepts are translated from a national to the municipal level to groups of home helpers and to individual home helpers. And how are these principles played out in different contexts of private firms and public providers...

  15. Mechanical engineering principles

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, John

    2014-01-01

    A student-friendly introduction to core engineering topicsThis book introduces mechanical principles and technology through examples and applications, enabling students to develop a sound understanding of both engineering principles and their use in practice. These theoretical concepts are supported by 400 fully worked problems, 700 further problems with answers, and 300 multiple-choice questions, all of which add up to give the reader a firm grounding on each topic.The new edition is up to date with the latest BTEC National specifications and can also be used on undergraduate courses in mecha

  16. Principles of Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, Max; Wolf, Emil

    1999-10-01

    Principles of Optics is one of the classic science books of the twentieth century, and probably the most influential book in optics published in the past forty years. This edition has been thoroughly revised and updated, with new material covering the CAT scan, interference with broad-band light and the so-called Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction theory. This edition also details scattering from inhomogeneous media and presents an account of the principles of diffraction tomography to which Emil Wolf has made a basic contribution. Several new appendices are also included. This new edition will be invaluable to advanced undergraduates, graduate students and researchers working in most areas of optics.

  17. Electrical principles 3 checkbook

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, J O

    2013-01-01

    Electrical Principles 3 Checkbook aims to introduce students to the basic electrical principles needed by technicians in electrical engineering, electronics, and telecommunications.The book first tackles circuit theorems, single-phase series A.C. circuits, and single-phase parallel A.C. circuits. Discussions focus on worked problems on parallel A.C. circuits, worked problems on series A.C. circuits, main points concerned with D.C. circuit analysis, worked problems on circuit theorems, and further problems on circuit theorems. The manuscript then examines three-phase systems and D.C. transients

  18. Principles of statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Bulmer, M G

    1979-01-01

    There are many textbooks which describe current methods of statistical analysis, while neglecting related theory. There are equally many advanced textbooks which delve into the far reaches of statistical theory, while bypassing practical applications. But between these two approaches is an unfilled gap, in which theory and practice merge at an intermediate level. Professor M. G. Bulmer's Principles of Statistics, originally published in 1965, was created to fill that need. The new, corrected Dover edition of Principles of Statistics makes this invaluable mid-level text available once again fo

  19. Representing Uncertainty by Probability and Possibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of uncertain parameters. Monte Carlo simulation is readily used for practical calculations. However, an alternative approach is offered by possibility theory making use of possibility distributions such as intervals and fuzzy intervals. This approach is well suited to represent lack of knowledge or imprecision......Uncertain parameters in modeling are usually represented by probability distributions reflecting either the objective uncertainty of the parameters or the subjective belief held by the model builder. This approach is particularly suited for representing the statistical nature or variance...

  20. Belief in complementary and alternative medicine is related to age and paranormal beliefs in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Bulck, Jan; Custers, Kathleen

    2010-04-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is widespread, even among people who use conventional medicine. Positive beliefs about CAM are common among physicians and medical students. Little is known about the beliefs regarding CAM among the general public. Among science students, belief in CAM was predicted by belief in the paranormal. In a cross-sectional study, 712 randomly selected adults (>18 years old) responded to the CAM Health Belief Questionnaire (CHBQ) and a paranormal beliefs scale. CAM beliefs were very prevalent in this sample of adult Flemish men and women. Zero-order correlations indicated that belief in CAM was associated with age (r = 0.173 P paranormal belief (r = 0.365 P paranormal. Paranormal beliefs accounted for 14% of the variance of the CAM beliefs (regression coefficient: 0.376; 95%: CI 0.30-0.44). The level of education (regression coefficient: 0.06; 95% CI: -0.014-0.129) and social desirability (regression coefficient: -0.023; 95% CI: -0.048-0.026) did not make a significant contribution to the explained variance (paranormal beliefs.

  1. Posttraumatic Maladaptive Beliefs Scale: Evolution of the Personal Beliefs and Reactions Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Dawne S.; Shipherd, Jillian C.; Resick, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    The Posttraumatic Maladaptive Beliefs Scale (PMBS) was developed to measure maladaptive beliefs about current life circumstances that may occur following trauma exposure. This scale assesses maladaptive beliefs within three domains: (a) Threat of Harm, (b) Self-Worth and Judgment, and (c) Reliability and Trustworthiness of Others. Items for the…

  2. Do Humans Have Two Systems to Track Beliefs and Belief-Like States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apperly, Ian A.; Butterfill, Stephen A.

    2009-01-01

    The lack of consensus on how to characterize humans' capacity for belief reasoning has been brought into sharp focus by recent research. Children fail critical tests of belief reasoning before 3 to 4 years of age (H. Wellman, D. Cross, & J. Watson, 2001; H. Wimmer & J. Perner, 1983), yet infants apparently pass false-belief tasks at 13 or 15…

  3. Sythesis of MCMC and Belief Propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Sungsoo [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (South Korea); Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Shin, Jinwoo [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (South Korea)

    2016-05-27

    Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) and Belief Propagation (BP) are the most popular algorithms for computational inference in Graphical Models (GM). In principle, MCMC is an exact probabilistic method which, however, often suffers from exponentially slow mixing. In contrast, BP is a deterministic method, which is typically fast, empirically very successful, however in general lacking control of accuracy over loopy graphs. In this paper, we introduce MCMC algorithms correcting the approximation error of BP, i.e., we provide a way to compensate for BP errors via a consecutive BP-aware MCMC. Our framework is based on the Loop Calculus (LC) approach which allows to express the BP error as a sum of weighted generalized loops. Although the full series is computationally intractable, it is known that a truncated series, summing up all 2-regular loops, is computable in polynomial-time for planar pair-wise binary GMs and it also provides a highly accurate approximation empirically. Motivated by this, we first propose a polynomial-time approximation MCMC scheme for the truncated series of general (non-planar) pair-wise binary models. Our main idea here is to use the Worm algorithm, known to provide fast mixing in other (related) problems, and then design an appropriate rejection scheme to sample 2-regular loops. Furthermore, we also design an efficient rejection-free MCMC scheme for approximating the full series. The main novelty underlying our design is in utilizing the concept of cycle basis, which provides an efficient decomposition of the generalized loops. In essence, the proposed MCMC schemes run on transformed GM built upon the non-trivial BP solution, and our experiments show that this synthesis of BP and MCMC outperforms both direct MCMC and bare BP schemes.

  4. A Simple Scheme for Belief Propagation Decoding of BCH and RS Codes in Multimedia Transmissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Baldi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Classic linear block codes, like Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH and Reed-Solomon (RS codes, are widely used in multimedia transmissions, but their soft-decision decoding still represents an open issue. Among the several approaches proposed for this purpose, an important role is played by the iterative belief propagation principle, whose application to low-density parity-check (LDPC codes permits to approach the channel capacity. In this paper, we elaborate a new technique for decoding classic binary and nonbinary codes through the belief propagation algorithm. We focus on RS codes included in the recent CDMA2000 standard, and compare the proposed technique with the adaptive belief propagation approach, that is able to ensure very good performance but with higher complexity. Moreover, we consider the case of long BCH codes included in the DVB-S2 standard, for which we show that the usage of “pure” LDPC codes would provide better performance.

  5. Deliberate normative agents : principles and architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dignum, F.P.M.; Castelfranchi, C.; Jonker, C.; Treur, J.; Jennings, N.R.; Lespérance, Y.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper norms are assumed to be useful in agent societies. It is claimed that not only following norms, but also the possibility of ‘intelligent’ norm violation can be useful. Principles for agents that are able to behave deliberatively on the basis of explicitly represented norms are

  6. Applying Scientific Principles to Resolve Student Misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yue

    2012-01-01

    Misconceptions about sinking and floating phenomena are some of the most challenging to overcome (Yin 2005), possibly because explaining sinking and floating requires students to understand challenging topics such as density, force, and motion. Two scientific principles are typically used in U.S. science curricula to explain sinking and floating:…

  7. Variational principles for nonlinear piezoelectric materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Ramos, R.; Guinovart-Diaz, R. [Universidad de la Habana, Facultad de Matematica y Computacion, Vedado, Habana (Cuba); Pobedria, B.E. [Moscow State University M. V. Lomonosov, Composites Department, Moscow (Russian Federation); Padilla, P. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Investigaciones en Matematicas Aplicadas y en Sistemas (IIMAS), Cd. Universitaria, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Bravo-Castillero, J. [Universidad de la Habana, Facultad de Matematica y Computacion, Vedado, Habana (Cuba); Campus Estado de Mexico. Division de Arquitectura e Ingenieria, Instituto Tecnologico de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Atizapan de Zaragoza, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Maugin, G.A. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie. Case 162, UMR 7607 CNRS, Laboratoire de Modelisation en Mecanique, Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2004-12-01

    In the present paper, we consider the behavior of nonlinear piezoelectric materials by generalization for this case of the Hashin-Shtrikman variational principles. The new general formulation used here differs from others, because, it gives the possibility to evaluate the upper and lower Hashin-Shtrikman bounds for specific physical nonlinearities of piezoelectric materials. Geometrical nonlinearities are not considered. (orig.)

  8. Trading by Quantum Rules - Quantum Anthropic Principle

    OpenAIRE

    Piotrowski, E. W.; Sladkowski, J.

    2002-01-01

    This is a short review of the background and recent development in quantum game theory and its possible application in economics and finance. The intersection of science and society is discussed and Quantum Anthropic Principle is put forward. The review is addressed to non-specialists.

  9. Patient compliance in hypertension: role of illness perceptions and treatment beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, S; Walker, A; MacLeod, M J

    2004-09-01

    Despite many years of study, questions remain about why patients do or do not take medicines and what can be done to change their behaviour. Hypertension is poorly controlled in the UK and poor compliance is one possible reason for this. Recent questionnaires based on the self-regulatory model have been successfully used to assess illness perceptions and beliefs about medicines. This study was designed to describe hypertensive patients' beliefs about their illness and medication using the self-regulatory model and investigate whether these beliefs influence compliance with antihypertensive medication. We recruited 514 patients from our secondary care population. These patients were asked to complete a questionnaire that included the Beliefs about Medicines and Illness Perception Questionnaires. A case note review was also undertaken. Analysis shows that patients who believe in the necessity of medication are more likely to be compliant (odds ratio (OR)) 3.06 (95% CI 1.74-5.38), Pcompliance influence it indirectly. The self-regulatory model is useful in assessing patients health beliefs. Beliefs about specific medications and about hypertension are predictive of compliance. Information about health beliefs is important in achieving concordance and may be a target for intervention to improve compliance.

  10. The Straight-Down Belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Michael; And Others

    Through everyday experience people acquire knowledge about how moving objects behave. For example, if a rock is thrown up into the air, it will fall back to earth. Research has shown that people's ideas about why moving objects behave as they do are often quite inconsistent with the principles of classical mechanics. In fact, many people hold a…

  11. Beliefs and environmental behavior: the moderating effect of emotional intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Luzón, Maria Carmen; Calvo-Salguero, Antonia; Salinas, Jose Maria

    2014-12-01

    Recent decades have seen a proliferation of studies aiming to explain how pro-environmental behavior is shaped by attitudes, values and beliefs. In this study, we have included an aspect in our analysis that has been rarely touched upon until now, that is, the intelligent use of emotions as a possible component of pro-environmental behavior. We applied the Trait Meta Mood Scale-24 (TMMS-24) and the New Environmental Paradigm scale to a sample of 184 male and female undergraduate students. We also carried out correlation and hierarchical regression analyses of blocks. The results show the interaction effects of the system of environmental beliefs and the dimensions of emotional intelligence on glass recycling attitudes, intentions and behavior. The results are discussed from the perspective of research on how the management of emotions guides thought and behavior. © 2014 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The Principles of Readability

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBay, William H.

    2004-01-01

    The principles of readability are in every style manual. Readability formulas are in every writing aid. What is missing is the research and theory on which they stand. This short review of readability research spans 100 years. The first part covers the history of adult literacy studies in the U.S., establishing the stratified nature of the adult…

  13. Principles of electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, Melvin

    1972-01-01

    This advanced undergraduate- and graduate-level text by the 1988 Nobel Prize winner establishes the subject's mathematical background, reviews the principles of electrostatics, then introduces Einstein's special theory of relativity and applies it throughout the book in topics ranging from Gauss' theorem and Coulomb's law to electric and magnetic susceptibility.

  14. Principles of Bridge Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Nowak, Andrzej S.

    The paper gives a brief introduction to the basic principles of structural reliability theory and its application to bridge engineering. Fundamental concepts like failure probability and reliability index are introduced. Ultimate as well as serviceability limit states for bridges are formulated......, and as an example the reliability profile and a sensitivity analyses for a corroded reinforced concrete bridge is shown....

  15. The Idiom Principle Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siyanova-Chanturia, Anna; Martinez, Ron

    2015-01-01

    John Sinclair's Idiom Principle famously posited that most texts are largely composed of multi-word expressions that "constitute single choices" in the mental lexicon. At the time that assertion was made, little actual psycholinguistic evidence existed in support of that holistic, "single choice," view of formulaic language. In…

  16. The Pauli Exclusion Principle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    his exclusion principle, the quantum theory was a mess. Moreover, it could ... This is a function of all the coordinates and 'internal variables' such as spin, of all the ... must remain basically the same (ie change by a phase factor at most) if we ...

  17. The traveltime holographic principle

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Y.; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2014-01-01

    Fermat's interferometric principle is used to compute interior transmission traveltimes τpq from exterior transmission traveltimes τsp and τsq. Here, the exterior traveltimes are computed for sources s on a boundary B that encloses a volume V of interior points p and q. Once the exterior traveltimes are computed, no further ray tracing is needed to calculate the interior times τpq. Therefore this interferometric approach can be more efficient than explicitly computing interior traveltimes τpq by ray tracing. Moreover, the memory requirement of the traveltimes is reduced by one dimension, because the boundary B is of one fewer dimension than the volume V. An application of this approach is demonstrated with interbed multiple (IM) elimination. Here, the IMs in the observed data are predicted from the migration image and are subsequently removed by adaptive subtraction. This prediction is enabled by the knowledge of interior transmission traveltimes τpq computed according to Fermat's interferometric principle. We denote this principle as the ‘traveltime holographic principle’, by analogy with the holographic principle in cosmology where information in a volume is encoded on the region's boundary.

  18. The Bohr Correspondence Principle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Deepak Dhar. Keywords. Correspondence principle, hy- drogen atom, Kepler orbit. Deepak Dhar works at the. Tata Institute of Funda- mental Research,. Mumbai. His research interests are mainly in the area of statistical physics. We consider the quantum-mechanical non-relati- vistic hydrogen atom. We show that for bound.

  19. Fundamental Safety Principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelmalik, W.E.Y.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a summary of the IAEA Safety Standards Series publication No. SF-1 entitled F UDAMENTAL Safety PRINCIPLES p ublished on 2006. This publication states the fundamental safety objective and ten associated safety principles, and briefly describes their intent and purposes. Safety measures and security measures have in common the aim of protecting human life and health and the environment. These safety principles are: 1) Responsibility for safety, 2) Role of the government, 3) Leadership and management for safety, 4) Justification of facilities and activities, 5) Optimization of protection, 6) Limitation of risks to individuals, 7) Protection of present and future generations, 8) Prevention of accidents, 9)Emergency preparedness and response and 10) Protective action to reduce existing or unregulated radiation risks. The safety principles concern the security of facilities and activities to the extent that they apply to measures that contribute to both safety and security. Safety measures and security measures must be designed and implemented in an integrated manner so that security measures do not compromise safety and safety measures do not compromise security.

  20. Principles of Protocol Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Robin

    This is a new and updated edition of a book first published in 1994. The book introduces the reader to the principles used in the construction of a large range of modern data communication protocols, as used in distributed computer systems of all kinds. The approach taken is rather a formal one...

  1. The traveltime holographic principle

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Y.

    2014-11-06

    Fermat\\'s interferometric principle is used to compute interior transmission traveltimes τpq from exterior transmission traveltimes τsp and τsq. Here, the exterior traveltimes are computed for sources s on a boundary B that encloses a volume V of interior points p and q. Once the exterior traveltimes are computed, no further ray tracing is needed to calculate the interior times τpq. Therefore this interferometric approach can be more efficient than explicitly computing interior traveltimes τpq by ray tracing. Moreover, the memory requirement of the traveltimes is reduced by one dimension, because the boundary B is of one fewer dimension than the volume V. An application of this approach is demonstrated with interbed multiple (IM) elimination. Here, the IMs in the observed data are predicted from the migration image and are subsequently removed by adaptive subtraction. This prediction is enabled by the knowledge of interior transmission traveltimes τpq computed according to Fermat\\'s interferometric principle. We denote this principle as the ‘traveltime holographic principle’, by analogy with the holographic principle in cosmology where information in a volume is encoded on the region\\'s boundary.

  2. Fermat's Principle Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, R. V.

    1991-01-01

    A principle is presented to show that, if the time of passage of light is expressible as a function of discrete variables, one may dispense with the more general method of the calculus of variations. The calculus of variations and the alternative are described. The phenomenon of mirage is discussed. (Author/KR)

  3. Principles of economics textbooks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Poul Thøis

    2012-01-01

    Has the financial crisis already changed US principles of economics textbooks? Rather little has changed in individual textbooks, but taken as a whole ten of the best-selling textbooks suggest rather encompassing changes of core curriculum. A critical analysis of these changes shows how individual...

  4. How psychotic-like are paranormal beliefs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cella, Matteo; Vellante, Marcello; Preti, Antonio

    2012-09-01

    Paranormal beliefs and Psychotic-like Experiences (PLE) are phenotypically similar and can occur in individuals with psychosis but also in the general population; however the relationship of these experiences for psychosis risk is largely unclear. This study investigates the association of PLE and paranormal beliefs with psychological distress. Five hundred and three young adults completed measures of paranormal beliefs (Beliefs in the Paranormal Scale), psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire), delusion (Peters et al. Delusions Inventory), and hallucination (Launay-Slade Hallucination Scale) proneness. The frequency and intensity of PLE was higher in believers in the paranormal compared to non-believers, however psychological distress levels were comparable. Regression findings confirmed that paranormal beliefs were predicted by delusion and hallucination-proneness but not psychological distress. The use of a cross-sectional design in a specific young adult population makes the findings exploratory and in need of replication with longitudinal studies. The predictive value of paranormal beliefs and experiences for psychosis may be limited; appraisal or the belief emotional salience rather than the belief per se may be more relevant risk factors to predict psychotic risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Criminalising defamation of religion and belief

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noorloos, L.A.

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with the role of criminal law in dealing with defamatory expressions about religion or belief. Defamation of religion and belief is a form of indirect defamation ‘via identification’ which, as the discussion about the Dutch group defamation law shows, stretches up the notion of

  6. relationship between patients' beliefs about their antihypertensives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    effects of their medication, suggesting a high counter-balancing effect of this belief on their ... patients have positive belief regarding the efficacy of their ... Divorced. Widow. 11. 100. 5. 11. 9. 79. 4. 8. Religion. Muslim. Christian. 108. 19. 85. 15.

  7. Investigating Teachers' Personal Visions and Beliefs: Implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigating Teachers' Personal Visions and Beliefs: Implications for Quality in Language Teacher Education. ... attitude, focus and performance. The growing influence of constructivism in teacher education and the increase in the amount of research into teacher cognition has put the notion of beliefs and vision into central ...

  8. Using Bayesian belief networks in adaptive management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.B. Nyberg; B.G. Marcot; R. Sulyma

    2006-01-01

    Bayesian belief and decision networks are relatively new modeling methods that are especially well suited to adaptive-management applications, but they appear not to have been widely used in adaptive management to date. Bayesian belief networks (BBNs) can serve many purposes for practioners of adaptive management, from illustrating system relations conceptually to...

  9. The product of capacities and belief functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendon, Ebbe; Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen; Sloth, Birgitte

    1996-01-01

    Capacities (monotone, non-additive set functions) have been suggested to describe situations of uncertainty. We examine the question of how to define the product of two independent capacities. In particular, for the product of two belief functions (totally monotone capacities), there is a unique...... minimal product belief function. This is characterized in several ways...

  10. 116 THE IGALA TRADITIONAL RELIGIOUS BELIEF SYSTEM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ike Odimegwu

    supreme God called Ọjọ, but that it is a function of intercourse between ..... other deities at the same time; implicit monotheism,. i.e. a belief in a supreme deity yet no definite denial of other gods; and lastly, explicit monotheism, a belief in a ...

  11. Teachers' Beliefs about Neuroscience and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambo, Debby; Zambo, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Information from neuroscience is readily available to educators, yet instructors of educational psychology and related fields have not investigated teachers' beliefs regarding this information. The purpose of this survey study was to uncover the beliefs 62 teachers held about neuroscience and education. Results indicate there were three types of…

  12. The product of capacities and belief functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendon, Ebbe; Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen; Sloth, Birgitte

    1996-01-01

    Capacities (monotone, non-additive set functions) have been suggested to describe situations of uncertainty. We examine the question of how to define the product of two independent capacities. In particular, for the product of two belief functions (totally monotone capacities), there is a unique...... minimal product belief function. This is characterized in several ways....

  13. The Hot Hand Belief and Framing Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMahon, Clare; Köppen, Jörn; Raab, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Recent evidence of the hot hand in sport--where success breeds success in a positive recency of successful shots, for instance--indicates that this pattern does not actually exist. Yet the belief persists. We used 2 studies to explore the effects of framing on the hot hand belief in sport. We looked at the effect of sport experience and…

  14. Academic Optimism: An Individual Teacher Belief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngidi, David P.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, academic optimism as an individual teacher belief was investigated. Teachers' self-efficacy beliefs were measured using the short form of the Teacher Sense of Efficacy Scale. One subtest from the Omnibus T-Scale, the faculty trust in clients subtest, was used to measure teachers' trust in students and parents. One subtest from the…

  15. Are Teacher Beliefs Gender-Related?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraker - de Pauw, Emmy; van Wesel, F.; Verwijmeren, Thijs; Denessen, Eddie; Krabbendam, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    Teacher beliefs influence student behaviour and learning outcomes. Little is known about the role of specific teacher characteristics (e.g., gender and teaching domain) in the formation of these beliefs. In the current study, three versions of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) were used to assess

  16. Are teacher beliefs gender-related?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraker-Pauw, E. de; Wesel, F. van; Verwijmeren, T.; Denessen, E.J.P.G.; Krabbendam, L.

    2016-01-01

    Teacher beliefs influence student behaviour and learning outcomes. Little is known about the role of specific teacher characteristics (e.g., gender and teaching domain) in the formation of these beliefs. In the current study, three versions of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) were used to assess

  17. Total Evidence, Uncertainty and A Priori Beliefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bewersdorf, Benjamin; Felline, Laura; Ledda, Antonio; Paoli, Francesco; Rossanese, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    Defining the rational belief state of an agent in terms of her initial or a priori belief state as well as her total evidence can help to address a number of important philosophical problems. In this paper, I discuss how this strategy can be applied to cases in which evidence is uncertain. I argue

  18. Cultural Beliefs about Autism in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riany, Yulina Eva; Cuskelly, Monica; Meredith, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Cultural beliefs about parenting have an important influence on parenting behaviours, including considerations about appropriate ways to parent children with autism. Although Indonesia has one of the largest and most ethnically diverse populations in the world, little is known about cultural beliefs regarding children with autism within Indonesian…

  19. Lay belief in biopolitics and political prejudice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suhay, E; Brandt, M.J.; Proulx, T.

    2017-01-01

    Building on psychological research linking essentialist beliefs about human differences with prejudice, we test whether lay belief in the biological basis of political ideology is associated with political intolerance and social avoidance. In two studies of American adults (Study 1: N = 288, Study

  20. Changing Professional Practice Requires Changing Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Patricia L.; Nelson, Sarah W.

    2009-01-01

    Creating schools that are culturally responsive and successful with all students requires doing basic work with educators to uncover their beliefs about children. If school leaders believe, like many people do, that changed behavior will result in changed beliefs, they are mistaken. Leaders must be proactive in identifying what teachers believe…

  1. The cost of believing emotions are uncontrollable: Youths' beliefs about emotion predict emotion regulation and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Brett Q; Lwi, Sandy J; Gentzler, Amy L; Hankin, Benjamin; Mauss, Iris B

    2018-04-05

    As humans, we have a unique capacity to reflect on our experiences, including emotions. Over time, we develop beliefs about the nature of emotions, and these beliefs are consequential, guiding how we respond to emotions and how we feel as a consequence. One fundamental belief concerns the controllability of emotions: Believing emotions are uncontrollable (entity beliefs) should reduce the likelihood of trying to control emotional experiences using effective regulation strategies like reappraisal; this, in turn, could negatively affect core indices of psychological health, including depressive symptoms. This model holds particular relevance during youth, when emotion-related beliefs first develop and stabilize and when maladaptive beliefs could contribute to emerging risk for depression. In the present investigation, a pilot diary study (N = 223, aged 21-60) demonstrated that entity beliefs were associated with using reappraisal less in everyday life, even when controlling for possible confounds (i.e., self-efficacy, pessimism, stress exposure, stress reactivity). Then, two studies examined whether entity beliefs and associated impairments in reappraisal may set youths on a maladaptive trajectory: In a cross-sectional study (N = 136, aged 14-18), youths with stronger entity beliefs experienced greater depressive symptoms, and this link was mediated by lower reappraisal. This pattern was replicated and extended in a longitudinal study (N = 227, aged 10-18), wherein youth- and parent-reported depressive symptoms were assessed 18 months after assessing beliefs. These results suggest that entity beliefs about emotion constitute a risk factor for depression that acts via reappraisal, adding to the growing literature on emotion beliefs and their consequences for self-regulation and health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Journalism as Justified True Belief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Lisboa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available If it is important to think of journalism as a form of knowledge, then how does it become knowledge? How does this process work? In order to answer this question, this article proposes a new understanding of journalism as a subject; presenting it as a justified true belief. We think of journalism being based on pillars of truth and justification, conditions necessary in order for Epistemology to grant it the status of knowledge. We address the concept of truth and show how journalistic reports are justified to the public as well as consider the central role of credibility in this process. We add to the epistemic conception by using concepts of discourse that help to understand how journalism provides evidence through its intentions, its authority and its ability. This evidence acts like a guide for the reader towards forming opinions on journalistic reports and recognizing journalism as a form of knowledge.

  3. Motivational beliefs, values, and goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, Jacquelynne S; Wigfield, Allan

    2002-01-01

    This chapter reviews the recent research on motivation, beliefs, values, and goals, focusing on developmental and educational psychology. The authors divide the chapter into four major sections: theories focused on expectancies for success (self-efficacy theory and control theory), theories focused on task value (theories focused on intrinsic motivation, self-determination, flow, interest, and goals), theories that integrate expectancies and values (attribution theory, the expectancy-value models of Eccles et al., Feather, and Heckhausen, and self-worth theory), and theories integrating motivation and cognition (social cognitive theories of self-regulation and motivation, the work by Winne & Marx, Borkowski et al., Pintrich et al., and theories of motivation and volition). The authors end the chapter with a discussion of how to integrate theories of self-regulation and expectancy-value models of motivation and suggest new directions for future research.

  4. Unifying generative and discriminative learning principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strickert Marc

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recognition of functional binding sites in genomic DNA remains one of the fundamental challenges of genome research. During the last decades, a plethora of different and well-adapted models has been developed, but only little attention has been payed to the development of different and similarly well-adapted learning principles. Only recently it was noticed that discriminative learning principles can be superior over generative ones in diverse bioinformatics applications, too. Results Here, we propose a generalization of generative and discriminative learning principles containing the maximum likelihood, maximum a posteriori, maximum conditional likelihood, maximum supervised posterior, generative-discriminative trade-off, and penalized generative-discriminative trade-off learning principles as special cases, and we illustrate its efficacy for the recognition of vertebrate transcription factor binding sites. Conclusions We find that the proposed learning principle helps to improve the recognition of transcription factor binding sites, enabling better computational approaches for extracting as much information as possible from valuable wet-lab data. We make all implementations available in the open-source library Jstacs so that this learning principle can be easily applied to other classification problems in the field of genome and epigenome analysis.

  5. Paranormal belief, schizotypy, and Body Mass Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergovich, Andreas; Willinger, Ulrike; Arendasy, Martin

    2005-06-01

    There are indications that subjects with schizotypal personality have a lower Body Mass Index. Also schizotypal personality is linked to a higher incidence of paranormal belief. In this study we examined whether low Body Mass Index is also linked to paranormal belief. In a pilot study 48 students of psychology (85.4% women) between the ages of 20 and 27 years were administered a questionnaire assessing weight, height, and paranormal belief. Analysis suggested an association between belief in paranormal phenomena and low Body Mass Index. In a follow-up study with 300 subjects and equal sex distribution, the relationship was examined under control of schizotypy. The results for Body Mass Index could not be confirmed; however, paranormal belief was heavily associated with the cognitive-perceptual component of schizotypy.

  6. Normative beliefs and sexual risk in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Ding, Ying Ying; Wu, Zunyou; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Guo, Sam

    2011-08-01

    We examined normative beliefs about multiple sexual partners and social status in China and their association with risky sexual behaviors and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Self-reported and biological markers of sexual risk were examined among 3,716 market vendors from a city in eastern China. Men who were older or with less education believed having multiple sexual partners was linked to higher social status. Adjusting for demographic characteristics, normative beliefs were significantly associated with having multiple sexual partners, while having multiple sexual partners was significantly associated with STIs. Normative beliefs regarding sexual behaviors may play an important role in individual risk behaviors. Future HIV/STI interventions must address community beliefs about the positive meaning of sexual risks, particularly among men with traditional beliefs about gender roles.

  7. Indonesian teachers' epistemological beliefs and inclusive education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehy, Kieron; Budiyanto; Kaye, Helen; Rofiah, Khofidotur

    2017-01-01

    A growing number of children with intellectual disabilities attend inclusive schools in Indonesia. Previous research has suggested that teachers' type of school and experience influences their beliefs about inclusive education. This research collected questionnaire data from 267 Indonesian teachers and compared the responses from those working in inclusive, special and regular schools regarding their epistemological and pedagogical beliefs. The results showed that teachers in inclusive schools expressed stronger social constructivist beliefs than those in other schools. However, it was teachers' epistemological beliefs, rather than their type of school or experience, which were the significant predictor of their beliefs about inclusive education. The findings suggest that international epistemological research needs to have a more nuanced view of constructivist models of learning to better understand and inform how inclusive pedagogy is being enacted in different contexts.

  8. A belief-based evolutionarily stable strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xinyang; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Qi; Deng, Yong; Mahadevan, Sankaran

    2014-11-21

    As an equilibrium refinement of the Nash equilibrium, evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) is a key concept in evolutionary game theory and has attracted growing interest. An ESS can be either a pure strategy or a mixed strategy. Even though the randomness is allowed in mixed strategy, the selection probability of pure strategy in a mixed strategy may fluctuate due to the impact of many factors. The fluctuation can lead to more uncertainty. In this paper, such uncertainty involved in mixed strategy has been further taken into consideration: a belief strategy is proposed in terms of Dempster-Shafer evidence theory. Furthermore, based on the proposed belief strategy, a belief-based ESS has been developed. The belief strategy and belief-based ESS can reduce to the mixed strategy and mixed ESS, which provide more realistic and powerful tools to describe interactions among agents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Perceived local enforcement, personal beliefs,and underage drinking: an assessment of moderating and main effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Paschall, Mallie J; Grube, Joel W

    2009-01-01

    Strategies to enforce underage drinking laws are aimed at reducing youth access to alcohol from commercial and social sources and deterring its possession and use. However, the processes through which enforcement strategies may affect underage drinking are not well understood. This study examined three possible processes by which perceived enforcement of underage drinking laws and personal beliefs (perceived alcohol availability, perceived harm, and personal disapproval of alcohol use) may influence alcohol use among adolescents. Survey data were obtained from 20,747 adolescents (48.3% males) in 115 school districts who participated in the 2006 Oregon Healthy Teens survey. Linear regression analyses were conducted to examine possible interactive and main effects of perceived enforcement and personal beliefs on past-30-day alcohol use. Analyses were adjusted for clustering of observations within school districts and included student demographics and age of alcohol use initiation as covariates. Statistically significant interaction effects on past-30-day alcohol use were found for perceived police enforcement and the three personal beliefs variables, indicating weaker associations between personal beliefs and past-30-day alcohol use at higher levels of perceived enforcement. Main effects of perceived enforcement and personal beliefs variables were also observed in the presence of interaction effects. Evidence for a moderating effect of perceived local enforcement on the relationships between personal beliefs and drinking behaviors suggests that the combination of individually focused prevention programs and local enforcement of underage drinking laws may have the greatest impact on underage drinking.

  10. Extremum principles for irreversible processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillert, M.; Agren, J.

    2006-01-01

    Hamilton's extremum principle is a powerful mathematical tool in classical mechanics. Onsager's extremum principle may play a similar role in irreversible thermodynamics and may also become a valuable tool. His principle may formally be regarded as a principle of maximum rate of entropy production but does not have a clear physical interpretation. Prigogine's principle of minimum rate of entropy production has a physical interpretation when it applies, but is not strictly valid except for a very special case

  11. Test Performance Related Dysfunctional Beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recep TÜTÜNCÜ

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Examinations by using tests are very frequently used in educational settings and successful studying before the examinations is a complex matter to deal with. In order to understand the determinants of success in exams better, we need to take into account not only emotional and motivational, but also cognitive aspects of the participants such as dysfunctional beliefs. Our aim is to present the relationship between candidates’ characteristics and distorted beliefs/schemata just before an examination. Method: The subjects of the study were 30 female and 30 male physicians who were about to take the medical specialization exam (MSE in Turkey. Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS and Young Schema Questionnaire Short Form (YSQ-SF were applied to the subjects. The statistical analysis was done using the F test, Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, chi-square test and spearman’s correlation test. Results: It was shown that some of the DAS and YSQ-SF scores were significantly higher in female gender, in the group who could not pass the exam, who had repetitive examinations, who had their first try taking an examination and who were unemployed at the time of the examination. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that candidates seeking help before MSE examination could be referred for cognitive therapy or counseling even they do not have any psychiatric diagnosis due to clinically significant cognitive distortion. Measurement and treatment of cognitive distortions that have negative impact on MSE performance may improve the cost-effectiveness and mental well being of the young doctors.

  12. Exploring epistemological beliefs of bilingual Filipino preservice teachers in the Filipino and English languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Allan B I

    2008-03-01

    In this study, the author investigated the epistemological beliefs of 864 bilingual Filipino preservice teachers using Filipino and English versions of the Schommer Epistemological Questionnaire (M. Schommer, 1998). The author conducted confirmatory factor analyses to determine the dimensions and structure of the epistemological beliefs. The results revealed two factors: Simple Learning and Structured Learning. The same factors were found using the Filipino and English versions of the questionnaire. The author discusses the results in terms of how they contribute to the growing evidence regarding the possible problems with particular multidimensional theories and quantitative measures of epistemological beliefs. The results also indicate how the specific epistemological beliefs of the Filipino preservice teachers may reflect features of the Philippine educational system and its tensions regarding pedagogy.

  13. Religious beliefs are factual beliefs: Content does not correlate with context sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Neil

    2017-04-01

    Neil Van Leeuwen argues that religious beliefs are not factual beliefs: typically, at least, they are attitudes of a different type. He argues that they exhibit much more sensitivity to context than factual beliefs: outside of contexts in which they are salient, they do not govern behaviour or inference, or provide background assumptions for cognition. This article surveys a large range of data to show that the kind of context sensitivity that Van Leeuwen thinks is the province of religious beliefs does not correlate with belief content. Beliefs about matters of fact beyond the theological realm exhibit this kind of sensitivity too. Conversely, theological and supernatural beliefs often guide behaviour across contexts. It is the intuitiveness of representations across contexts that predicts context (in)sensitivity, and intuitiveness is powerfully influenced by processing fluency. Fluency, in turn, is sensitive to cues that vary across contexts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Uncertainty Relations and Possible Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregg Jaeger

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The uncertainty principle can be understood as a condition of joint indeterminacy of classes of properties in quantum theory. The mathematical expressions most closely associated with this principle have been the uncertainty relations, various inequalities exemplified by the well known expression regarding position and momentum introduced by Heisenberg. Here, recent work involving a new sort of “logical” indeterminacy principle and associated relations introduced by Pitowsky, expressable directly in terms of probabilities of outcomes of measurements of sharp quantum observables, is reviewed and its quantum nature is discussed. These novel relations are derivable from Boolean “conditions of possible experience” of the quantum realm and have been considered both as fundamentally logical and as fundamentally geometrical. This work focuses on the relationship of indeterminacy to the propositions regarding the values of discrete, sharp observables of quantum systems. Here, reasons for favoring each of these two positions are considered. Finally, with an eye toward future research related to indeterminacy relations, further novel approaches grounded in category theory and intended to capture and reconceptualize the complementarity characteristics of quantum propositions are discussed in relation to the former.

  15. Possible people, complaints, and the distinction between genetic planning and genetic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, James J

    2011-07-01

    Advances in the understanding of genetics have led to the belief that it may become possible to use genetic engineering to manipulate the DNA of humans at the embryonic stage to produce certain desirable traits. Although this currently cannot be done on a large scale, many people nevertheless object in principle to such practices. Most often, they argue that genetic enhancements would harm the children who were engineered, cause societal harms, or that the risks of perfecting the procedures are too high to proceed. However, many of these same people do not have serious objections to what is called 'genetic planning' procedures (such as the selection of sperm donors with desirable traits) that essentially have the same ends. The author calls the view that genetic engineering enhancements are impermissible while genetic planning enhancements are permissible the 'popular view', and argues that the typical reasons people give for the popular view fail to distinguish the two practices. This paper provides a principle that can salvage the popular view, which stresses that offspring from genetic engineering practices have grounds for complaint because they are identical to the pre-enhanced embryo, whereas offspring who are the result of genetic planning have no such grounds.

  16. On the correspondence between quantum and classical variational principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, D.E.; Dodin, I.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Classical variational principles can be deduced from quantum variational principles via formal reparameterization of the latter. It is shown that such reparameterization is possible without invoking any assumptions other than classicality and without appealing to dynamical equations. As examples, first principle variational formulations of classical point-particle and cold-fluid motion are derived from their quantum counterparts for Schrödinger, Pauli, and Klein–Gordon particles

  17. Higher-order gravity and the classical equivalence principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accioly, Antonio; Herdy, Wallace

    2017-11-01

    As is well known, the deflection of any particle by a gravitational field within the context of Einstein’s general relativity — which is a geometrical theory — is, of course, nondispersive. Nevertheless, as we shall show in this paper, the mentioned result will change totally if the bending is analyzed — at the tree level — in the framework of higher-order gravity. Indeed, to first order, the deflection angle corresponding to the scattering of different quantum particles by the gravitational field mentioned above is not only spin dependent, it is also dispersive (energy-dependent). Consequently, it violates the classical equivalence principle (universality of free fall, or equality of inertial and gravitational masses) which is a nonlocal principle. However, contrary to popular belief, it is in agreement with the weak equivalence principle which is nothing but a statement about purely local effects. It is worthy of note that the weak equivalence principle encompasses the classical equivalence principle locally. We also show that the claim that there exists an incompatibility between quantum mechanics and the weak equivalence principle, is incorrect.

  18. The Origins of Belief Representation: Monkeys Fail to Automatically Represent Others’ Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Alia; Santos, Laurie R.

    2014-01-01

    Young infants’ successful performance on false belief tasks has led several researchers to argue that there may be a core knowledge system for representing the beliefs of other agents, emerging early in human development and constraining automatic belief processing into adulthood. One way to investigate this purported core belief representation system is to examine whether non-human primates share such a system. Although non-human primates have historically performed poorly on false belief tasks that require executive function capacities, little work has explored how primates perform on more automatic measures of belief processing. To get at this issue, we modified Kovács et al. (2010)’s test of automatic belief representation to examine whether one non-human primate species—the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta)—is automatically influenced by another agent’s beliefs when tracking an object’s location. Monkeys saw an event in which a human agent watched an apple move back and forth between two boxes and an outcome in which one box was revealed to be empty. By occluding segments of the apple’s movement from either the monkey or the agent, we manipulated both the monkeys’ belief (true or false) and agent’s belief (true or false) about the final location of the apple. We found that monkeys looked longer at events that violated their own beliefs than at events that were consistent with their beliefs. In contrast to human infants, however, monkeys’ expectations were not influenced by another agent’s beliefs, suggesting that belief representation may be an aspect of core knowledge unique to humans. PMID:24374209

  19. Anthropology, cultural relativism and principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Manuel Conderana Cerrillo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available There exists the risk that axiological relativism make educational tasks impossible to perform. This article intends to answer the question of how this risk could be avoided: Is it possible to support the fact that there are certain issues which could be accepted as valid by any culture? Could this fact be achieved without mena- cing the so called legitimate cultural diversity due to human freedom? Professor María García Amilbury offers an answer which stands upon the Aristotelic idea of a «natural» telos of mankind. Once the deficiencies of the Aristotelic argument have been uncove- red, an alternative answer coming from the «ethic intuitionism» theory is considered by the author. Key words: Gnoseologic cultural relativism, Axiologic cultural relativism, Ethical intuitionism, Ethical principles

  20. An inconclusive study comparing the effect of concrete and abstract descriptions of belief-inconsistent information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Katherine A; Clément, Richard

    2018-01-01

    Linguistic bias is the differential use of linguistic abstraction (as defined by the Linguistic Category Model) to describe the same behaviour for members of different groups. Essentially, it is the tendency to use concrete language for belief-inconsistent behaviours and abstract language for belief-consistent behaviours. Having found that linguistic bias is produced without intention or awareness in many contexts, researchers argue that linguistic bias reflects, reinforces, and transmits pre-existing beliefs, thus playing a role in belief maintenance. Based on the Linguistic Category Model, this assumes that concrete descriptions reduce the impact of belief-inconsistent behaviours while abstract descriptions maximize the impact of belief-consistent behaviours. However, a key study by Geschke, Sassenberg, Ruhrmann, and Sommer [2007] found that concrete descriptions of belief-inconsistent behaviours actually had a greater impact than abstract descriptions, a finding that does not fit easily within the linguistic bias paradigm. Abstract descriptions (e.g. the elderly woman is athletic) are, by definition, more open to interpretation than concrete descriptions (e.g. the elderly woman works out regularly). It is thus possible that abstract descriptions are (1) perceived as having less evidentiary strength than concrete descriptions, and (2) understood in context (i.e. athletic for an elderly woman). In this study, the design of Geschke et al. [2007] was modified to address this possibility. We expected that the differences in the impact of concrete and abstract descriptions would be reduced or reversed, but instead we found that differences were largely absent. This study did not support the findings of Geschke et al. [2007] or the linguistic bias paradigm. We encourage further attempts to understand the strong effect of concrete descriptions for belief-inconsistent behaviour.

  1. An inconclusive study comparing the effect of concrete and abstract descriptions of belief-inconsistent information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A Collins

    Full Text Available Linguistic bias is the differential use of linguistic abstraction (as defined by the Linguistic Category Model to describe the same behaviour for members of different groups. Essentially, it is the tendency to use concrete language for belief-inconsistent behaviours and abstract language for belief-consistent behaviours. Having found that linguistic bias is produced without intention or awareness in many contexts, researchers argue that linguistic bias reflects, reinforces, and transmits pre-existing beliefs, thus playing a role in belief maintenance. Based on the Linguistic Category Model, this assumes that concrete descriptions reduce the impact of belief-inconsistent behaviours while abstract descriptions maximize the impact of belief-consistent behaviours. However, a key study by Geschke, Sassenberg, Ruhrmann, and Sommer [2007] found that concrete descriptions of belief-inconsistent behaviours actually had a greater impact than abstract descriptions, a finding that does not fit easily within the linguistic bias paradigm. Abstract descriptions (e.g. the elderly woman is athletic are, by definition, more open to interpretation than concrete descriptions (e.g. the elderly woman works out regularly. It is thus possible that abstract descriptions are (1 perceived as having less evidentiary strength than concrete descriptions, and (2 understood in context (i.e. athletic for an elderly woman. In this study, the design of Geschke et al. [2007] was modified to address this possibility. We expected that the differences in the impact of concrete and abstract descriptions would be reduced or reversed, but instead we found that differences were largely absent. This study did not support the findings of Geschke et al. [2007] or the linguistic bias paradigm. We encourage further attempts to understand the strong effect of concrete descriptions for belief-inconsistent behaviour.

  2. Principles and procedures in forensic toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, John F

    2012-09-01

    The principles and procedures employed in a modern forensic toxicology lab are detailed in this review. Aspects of Behavioral and Postmortem toxicology, including certification of analysts and accreditation of labs, chain of custody requirements, typical testing services provided, rationale for specimen selection, and principles of quality assurance are discussed. Interpretation of toxicology results in postmortem specimens requires the toxicologist and pathologist to be cognizant of drug-drug interactions, drug polymorphisms and pharmacogenomics, the gross signs of toxic pathology, postmortem redistribution, confirmation of systemic toxicity in suspected overdoses, the possibility of developed tolerance, and the effects of decomposition on drug concentration.

  3. Electron microscopy - principles of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This 8 minute programme explains the nature of the possible radiation hazard in Electron Microscopy and outlines the ways in which modern equipment is designed and made so that in normal use the worker is not exposed to radiation. The interlock principle is explained and illustrated by an example from the field of X-ray crystallography. By filming machines while they were dismantled for servicing, details of several internal safety devices have been included. In this way workers who normally use the equipment as a 'black box' get some insight into the principles and practice of radiation protection in the field. (author)

  4. Safety principles for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuorinen, A.

    1993-01-01

    The role and purpose of safety principles for nuclear power plants are discussed. A brief information is presented on safety objectives as given in the INSAG documents. The possible linkage is discussed between the two mentioned elements of nuclear safety and safety culture. Safety culture is a rather new concept and there is more than one interpretation of the definition given by INSAG. The defence in depth is defined by INSAG as a fundamental principle of safety technology of nuclear power. Discussed is the overall strategy for safety measures, and features of nuclear power plants provided by the defence-in-depth concept. (Z.S.) 7 refs

  5. Principles of geodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Scheidegger, Adrian E

    1982-01-01

    Geodynamics is commonly thought to be one of the subjects which provide the basis for understanding the origin of the visible surface features of the Earth: the latter are usually assumed as having been built up by geodynamic forces originating inside the Earth ("endogenetic" processes) and then as having been degrad­ ed by geomorphological agents originating in the atmosphere and ocean ("exogenetic" agents). The modem view holds that the sequence of events is not as neat as it was once thought to be, and that, in effect, both geodynamic and geomorphological processes act simultaneously ("Principle of Antagonism"); however, the division of theoretical geology into the principles of geodynamics and those of theoretical geomorphology seems to be useful for didactic purposes. It has therefore been maintained in the present writer's works. This present treatise on geodynamics is the first part of the author's treatment of theoretical geology, the treatise on Theoretical Geomorphology (also published by the Sprin...

  6. Principles of systems science

    CERN Document Server

    Mobus, George E

    2015-01-01

    This pioneering text provides a comprehensive introduction to systems structure, function, and modeling as applied in all fields of science and engineering. Systems understanding is increasingly recognized as a key to a more holistic education and greater problem solving skills, and is also reflected in the trend toward interdisciplinary approaches to research on complex phenomena. The subject of systems science, as a basis for understanding the components and drivers of phenomena at all scales, should be viewed with the same importance as a traditional liberal arts education. Principles of Systems Science contains many graphs, illustrations, side bars, examples, and problems to enhance understanding. From basic principles of organization, complexity, abstract representations, and behavior (dynamics) to deeper aspects such as the relations between information, knowledge, computation, and system control, to higher order aspects such as auto-organization, emergence and evolution, the book provides an integrated...

  7. Principles of Mobile Communication

    CERN Document Server

    Stüber, Gordon L

    2012-01-01

    This mathematically rigorous overview of physical layer wireless communications is now in a third, fully revised and updated edition. Along with coverage of basic principles sufficient for novice students, the volume includes plenty of finer details that will satisfy the requirements of graduate students aiming to research the topic in depth. It also has a role as a handy reference for wireless engineers. The content stresses core principles that are applicable to a broad range of wireless standards. Beginning with a survey of the field that introduces an array of issues relevant to wireless communications and which traces the historical development of today’s accepted wireless standards, the book moves on to cover all the relevant discrete subjects, from radio propagation to error probability performance and cellular radio resource management. A valuable appendix provides a succinct and focused tutorial on probability and random processes, concepts widely used throughout the book. This new edition, revised...

  8. Principles of mathematical modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Dym, Clive

    2004-01-01

    Science and engineering students depend heavily on concepts of mathematical modeling. In an age where almost everything is done on a computer, author Clive Dym believes that students need to understand and "own" the underlying mathematics that computers are doing on their behalf. His goal for Principles of Mathematical Modeling, Second Edition, is to engage the student reader in developing a foundational understanding of the subject that will serve them well into their careers. The first half of the book begins with a clearly defined set of modeling principles, and then introduces a set of foundational tools including dimensional analysis, scaling techniques, and approximation and validation techniques. The second half demonstrates the latest applications for these tools to a broad variety of subjects, including exponential growth and decay in fields ranging from biology to economics, traffic flow, free and forced vibration of mechanical and other systems, and optimization problems in biology, structures, an...

  9. Principles of Stellar Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Glindemann, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade, stellar interferometry has developed from a specialist tool to a mainstream observing technique, attracting scientists whose research benefits from milliarcsecond angular resolution. Stellar interferometry has become part of the astronomer’s toolbox, complementing single-telescope observations by providing unique capabilities that will advance astronomical research. This carefully written book is intended to provide a solid understanding of the principles of stellar interferometry to students starting an astronomical research project in this field or to develop instruments and to astronomers using interferometry but who are not interferometrists per se. Illustrated by excellent drawings and calculated graphs the imaging process in stellar interferometers is explained starting from first principles on light propagation and diffraction wave propagation through turbulence is described in detail using Kolmogorov statistics the impact of turbulence on the imaging process is discussed both f...

  10. Principles of Fourier analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Howell, Kenneth B

    2001-01-01

    Fourier analysis is one of the most useful and widely employed sets of tools for the engineer, the scientist, and the applied mathematician. As such, students and practitioners in these disciplines need a practical and mathematically solid introduction to its principles. They need straightforward verifications of its results and formulas, and they need clear indications of the limitations of those results and formulas.Principles of Fourier Analysis furnishes all this and more. It provides a comprehensive overview of the mathematical theory of Fourier analysis, including the development of Fourier series, "classical" Fourier transforms, generalized Fourier transforms and analysis, and the discrete theory. Much of the author''s development is strikingly different from typical presentations. His approach to defining the classical Fourier transform results in a much cleaner, more coherent theory that leads naturally to a starting point for the generalized theory. He also introduces a new generalized theory based ...

  11. Principles of mobile communication

    CERN Document Server

    Stüber, Gordon L

    2017-01-01

    This mathematically rigorous overview of physical layer wireless communications is now in a 4th, fully revised and updated edition. The new edition features new content on 4G cellular systems, 5G cellular outlook, bandpass signals and systems, and polarization, among many other topics, in addition to a new chapters on channel assignment techniques. Along with coverage of fundamentals and basic principles sufficient for novice students, the volume includes finer details that satisfy the requirements of graduate students aiming to conduct in-depth research. The book begins with a survey of the field, introducing issues relevant to wireless communications. The book moves on to cover relevant discrete subjects, from radio propagation, to error probability performance, and cellular radio resource management. An appendix provides a tutorial on probability and random processes. The content stresses core principles that are applicable to a broad range of wireless standards. New examples are provided throughout the bo...

  12. Principles of photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jia-Ming

    2016-01-01

    With this self-contained and comprehensive text, students will gain a detailed understanding of the fundamental concepts and major principles of photonics. Assuming only a basic background in optics, readers are guided through key topics such as the nature of optical fields, the properties of optical materials, and the principles of major photonic functions regarding the generation, propagation, coupling, interference, amplification, modulation, and detection of optical waves or signals. Numerous examples and problems are provided throughout to enhance understanding, and a solutions manual containing detailed solutions and explanations is available online for instructors. This is the ideal resource for electrical engineering and physics undergraduates taking introductory, single-semester or single-quarter courses in photonics, providing them with the knowledge and skills needed to progress to more advanced courses on photonic devices, systems and applications.

  13. Adjusting Beliefs via Transformed Fuzzy Priors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanadamrongaksorn, T.; Sirikanchanarak, D.; Sirisrisakulchai, J.; Sriboonchitta, S.

    2018-02-01

    Instead of leaving a decision to a pure data-driven system, intervention and collaboration by human would be preferred to fill the gap that machine cannot perform well. In financial applications, for instance, the inference and prediction during structural changes by critical factors; such as market conditions, administrative styles, political policies, etc.; have significant influences to investment strategies. With the conditions differing from the past, we believe that the decision should not be made by only the historical data but also with human estimation. In this study, the updating process by data fusion between expert opinions and statistical observations is thus proposed. The expert’s linguistic terms can be translated into mathematical expressions by the predefined fuzzy numbers and utilized as the initial knowledge for Bayesian statistical framework via the possibility-to-probability transformation. The artificial samples on five scenarios were tested in the univariate problem to demonstrate the methodology. The results showed the shifts and variations appeared on the parameters of the distributions and, as a consequence, adjust the degrees of belief accordingly.

  14. Public beliefs that may affect biomass development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draper, H.M.

    1993-01-01

    The Tennessee River chip mill controversy involves the expansion of the pulp and paper industry rather than the biomass energy industry; however, the concerns expressed by environmentalists are likely to be the same for biomass projects that propose use of privately-owned land. It may be incorrect to assume that private landowners will have more flexibility in forest management techniques than public agencies. In fact, when faced with a potentially large new demand source for wood, environmentalists will try to stop the project while pushing for stringent regulation of harvesting. This paper describes and analyzes beliefs about forest management (related to biomass energy) taken from the 1,200 letters and 200 public hearing statements received by TVA on the chip mill environmental impact statement. The chip mill controversy suggests that there is a potential for strong coalitions to form to stop new biomass demand sources. As much as possible, the biomass industry will need to anticipate and address land management issues. New concepts such as landscape ecology and ecosystem management should be considered. Even so, increased use of non-dedicated biomass resources will require more public acceptance of the concept that ecosystems and their biomass resources can tolerate increased levels of management

  15. Principles of (Behavioral) Economics

    OpenAIRE

    David Laibson; John A. List

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral economics has become an important and integrated component of modern economics. Behavioral economists embrace the core principles of economics—optimization and equilibrium—and seek to develop and extend those ideas to make them more empirically accurate. Behavioral models assume that economic actors try to pick the best feasible option and those actors sometimes make mistakes. Behavioral ideas should be incorporated throughout the first-year undergraduate course. Instructors should...

  16. Principles of fluid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreider, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    This book is an introduction on fluid mechanics incorporating computer applications. Topics covered are as follows: brief history; what is a fluid; two classes of fluids: liquids and gases; the continuum model of a fluid; methods of analyzing fluid flows; important characteristics of fluids; fundamentals and equations of motion; fluid statics; dimensional analysis and the similarity principle; laminar internal flows; ideal flow; external laminar and channel flows; turbulent flow; compressible flow; fluid flow measurements

  17. Principles of electrical safety

    CERN Document Server

    Sutherland, Peter E

    2015-01-01

    Principles of Electrical Safety discusses current issues in electrical safety, which are accompanied by series' of practical applications that can be used by practicing professionals, graduate students, and researchers. .  Provides extensive introductions to important topics in electrical safety Comprehensive overview of inductance, resistance, and capacitance as applied to the human body Serves as a preparatory guide for today's practicing engineers

  18. The uncertainty principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, Hans.

    1991-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the uncertainty principle (UP). The UP is one of the most characteristic points of differences between quantum and classical mechanics. The starting point of this thesis is the work of Niels Bohr. Besides the discussion the work is also analyzed. For the discussion of the different aspects of the UP the formalism of Davies and Ludwig is used instead of the more commonly used formalism of Neumann and Dirac. (author). 214 refs.; 23 figs

  19. PREFERENCE, PRINCIPLE AND PRACTICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsgaard, Morten; Bro, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Legitimacy has become a central issue in journalism, since the understanding of what journalism is and who journalists are has been challenged by developments both within and outside the newsrooms. Nonetheless, little scholarly work has been conducted to aid conceptual clarification as to how jou...... distinct, but interconnected categories*preference, principle, and practice. Through this framework, historical attempts to justify journalism and journalists are described and discussed in the light of the present challenges for the profession....

  20. Advertisement without Ethical Principles?

    OpenAIRE

    Wojciech Słomski

    2007-01-01

    The article replies to the question, whether the advertisement can exist without ethical principles or ethics should be the basis of the advertisement. One can say that the ethical opinion of the advertisement does not depend on content and the form of advertising content exclusively, but also on recipientís consciousness. The advertisement appeals to the emotions more than to the intellect, thus restricting the area of conscious and based on rational premises choice, so it is morally bad. It...

  1. General Principles Governing Liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyners, P.

    1998-01-01

    This paper contains a brief review of the basic principles which govern the special regime of liability and compensation for nuclear damage originating on nuclear installations, in particular the strict and exclusive liability of the nuclear operator, the provision of a financial security to cover this liability and the limits applicable both in amount and in time. The paper also reviews the most important international agreements currently in force which constitute the foundation of this special regime. (author)

  2. The Principle of Proportionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Morten; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper

    2005-01-01

    Recent policy initiatives within the harmonization of European company laws have promoted a so-called "principle of proportionality" through proposals that regulate mechanisms opposing a proportional distribution of ownership and control. We scrutinize the foundation for these initiatives...... in relationship to the process of harmonization of the European capital markets.JEL classifications: G30, G32, G34 and G38Keywords: Ownership Structure, Dual Class Shares, Pyramids, EU companylaws....

  3. The Maquet principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, R.B.; Stassi, J.; Karasick, D.

    1985-01-01

    Anterior displacement of the tibial tubercle is a well-accepted orthopedic procedure in the treatment of certain patellofemoral disorders. The radiologic appearance of surgical procedures utilizing the Maquet principle has not been described in the radiologic literature. Familiarity with the physiologic and biochemical basis for the procedure and its postoperative appearance is necessary for appropriate roentgenographic evaluation and the radiographic recognition of complications. (orig.)

  4. Principles of lake sedimentology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janasson, L.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive outline on the basic sedimentological principles for lakes, and focuses on environmental aspects and matters related to lake management and control-on lake ecology rather than lake geology. This is a guide for those who plan, perform and evaluate lake sedimentological investigations. Contents abridged: Lake types and sediment types. Sedimentation in lakes and water dynamics. Lake bottom dynamics. Sediment dynamics and sediment age. Sediments in aquatic pollution control programmes. Subject index

  5. Principles of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Nils J

    1980-01-01

    A classic introduction to artificial intelligence intended to bridge the gap between theory and practice, Principles of Artificial Intelligence describes fundamental AI ideas that underlie applications such as natural language processing, automatic programming, robotics, machine vision, automatic theorem proving, and intelligent data retrieval. Rather than focusing on the subject matter of the applications, the book is organized around general computational concepts involving the kinds of data structures used, the types of operations performed on the data structures, and the properties of th

  6. Economic uncertainty principle?

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Harin

    2006-01-01

    The economic principle of (hidden) uncertainty is presented. New probability formulas are offered. Examples of solutions of three types of fundamental problems are reviewed.; Principe d'incertitude économique? Le principe économique d'incertitude (cachée) est présenté. De nouvelles formules de chances sont offertes. Les exemples de solutions des trois types de problèmes fondamentaux sont reconsidérés.

  7. Principled Missing Data Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Kyle M; Little, Todd D

    2018-04-01

    We review a number of issues regarding missing data treatments for intervention and prevention researchers. Many of the common missing data practices in prevention research are still, unfortunately, ill-advised (e.g., use of listwise and pairwise deletion, insufficient use of auxiliary variables). Our goal is to promote better practice in the handling of missing data. We review the current state of missing data methodology and recent missing data reporting in prevention research. We describe antiquated, ad hoc missing data treatments and discuss their limitations. We discuss two modern, principled missing data treatments: multiple imputation and full information maximum likelihood, and we offer practical tips on how to best employ these methods in prevention research. The principled missing data treatments that we discuss are couched in terms of how they improve causal and statistical inference in the prevention sciences. Our recommendations are firmly grounded in missing data theory and well-validated statistical principles for handling the missing data issues that are ubiquitous in biosocial and prevention research. We augment our broad survey of missing data analysis with references to more exhaustive resources.

  8. Extended Heisenberg principle: Tentative analysis of its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golbbiewski, A.; Witko, M.

    1988-01-01

    The paper examines the extension of the Heisenberg principle for a larger number of simultaneously discussed observables. The possibilities of the extended Heisenberg principle are discussed for evaluation of the average value of the square of the selected operator and for evaluation of the standard deviation of the selected operator

  9. Application of the double-contingency principle within BNFL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strafford, P.I.D.

    1995-01-01

    Historically, the double-contingency principle has been used for criticality assessment within British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL). This paper outlines what is understood by the double-contingency principle to illustrate how it is applied in criticality safety assessments and to highlight various problem areas that are encountered and, where possible, how they might be solved

  10. The double-contingency principle: An historical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knief, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    Standard ANSI/ANS-8.1 states the double contingency principle as: Process designs should, in general, incorporate sufficient factors of safety to require at least two unlikely, independent, and concurrent changes in process conditions before a criticality accident is possible. This paper presents a perspective on the double contingency principle

  11. Anders Breivik: Extreme Beliefs Mistaken for Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Tahir; Resnick, Phillip J; Harry, Bruce

    2016-03-01

    The case of Anders Breivik, who committed mass murder in Norway in 2011, stirred controversy among forensic mental health experts. His bizarrely composed compendium and references to himself as the "Knights Templar" raised concerns that he had a psychotic mental illness. Beliefs such as Mr. Breivik's that precede odd, unusual, or extremely violent behavior present a unique challenge to the forensic evaluator, who sometimes struggles to understand those beliefs. Psychotic disorder frequently is invoked to characterize odd, unusual, or extreme beliefs, with a classification that has evolved over time. However, the important concept of overvalued idea, largely ignored in American psychiatry, may better characterize these beliefs in some cases. We discuss the definitions of delusion and overvalued ideas in the context of Anders Breivik's rigidly held extreme beliefs. We also review the British definition of overvalued idea and discuss McHugh's construct, to introduce the term "extreme overvalued belief" as an aid in sharpening the forensic evaluator's conceptualization of these and similar beliefs. © 2016 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  12. The hot hand belief and framing effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMahon, Clare; Köppen, Jörn; Raab, Markus

    2014-09-01

    Recent evidence of the hot hand in sport-where success breeds success in a positive recency of successful shots, for instance-indicates that this pattern does not actually exist. Yet the belief persists. We used 2 studies to explore the effects of framing on the hot hand belief in sport. We looked at the effect of sport experience and task on the perception of baseball pitch behavior as well as the hot hand belief and free-throw behavior in basketball. Study 1 asked participants to designate outcomes with different alternation rates as the result of baseball pitches or coin tosses. Study 2 examined basketball free-throw behavior and measured predicted success before each shot as well as general belief in the hot hand pattern. The results of Study 1 illustrate that experience and stimulus alternation rates influence the perception of chance in human performance tasks. Study 2 shows that physically performing an act and making judgments are related. Specifically, beliefs were related to overall performance, with more successful shooters showing greater belief in the hot hand and greater predicted success for upcoming shots. Both of these studies highlight that the hot hand belief is influenced by framing, which leads to instability and situational contingencies. We show the specific effects of framing using accumulated experience of the individual with the sport and knowledge of its structure and specific experience with sport actions (basketball shots) prior to judgments.

  13. Are essentialist beliefs associated with prejudice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, Nick; Rothschild, Louis; Ernst, Donald

    2002-03-01

    Gordon Allport (1954) proposed that belief in group essences is one aspect of the prejudiced personality, alongside a rigid, dichotomous and ambiguity-intolerant cognitive style. We examined whether essentialist beliefs-beliefs that a social category has a fixed, inherent, identity-defining nature-are indeed associated in this fashion with prejudice towards black people, women and gay men. Allport's claim, which is mirrored by many contemporary social theorists, received partial support but had to be qualified in important respects. Essence-related beliefs were associated strongly with anti-gay attitudes but only weakly with sexism and racism, and they did not reflect a cognitive style that was consistent across stigmatized categories. When associations with prejudice were obtained, only a few specific beliefs were involved, and some anti-essentialist beliefs were associated with anti-gay attitudes. Nevertheless, the powerful association that essence-related beliefs had with anti-gay attitudes was independent of established prejudice-related traits, indicating that they have a significant role to play in the psychology of prejudice.

  14. Belief and Investing: Preferences and Attitudes of the Faithful

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Brimble1

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This Australian study seeks to better understand the disparity between the positive attitudes towards Socially Responsible Investing (SRI and the level of investment in SRI (Saulwick &Associates 2001; Watmore & Bradley 2001; Williams 2007; Arjalies 2010, by examining both the attitudes to SRI and the investment choices that are made. It is hypothesised that those who are more committed to religious belief principles are more likely to invest in SRI.To test this 322 people from two large Queensland organisations were surveyed in relation to their investment attitudes and preferences. Results show that those who are more religious are no more likely to invest in SRI, and that the level of importance placed on SRI and financial criteria are similar in most instances for the more and less religious. In addition, women who are religious place more importance on conservative general investment criteria than less ornon-religious women.

  15. A textbook of belief dynamics solutions to exercises

    CERN Document Server

    Hansson, Sven Ove

    1999-01-01

    The mid-1980s saw the discovery of logical tools that make it possible to model changes in belief and knowledge in entirely new ways. These logical tools turned out to be applicable to both human beliefs and to the contents of databases. Philosophers, logicians, and computer scientists have contributed to making this interdisciplinary field one of the most exciting in the cognitive scientists - and one that is expanding rapidly. This, the first textbook in the new area, contains both discursive chapters with a minimum of formalism and formal chapters in which proofs and proof methods are presented. Using different selections from the formal sections, according to the author's detailed advice, allows the book to be used at all levels of university education. A supplementary volume contains solutions to the 210 exercises. The volume's unique, comprehensive coverage means that it can also be used by specialists in the field of belief dynamics and related areas, such as non-monotonic reasoning and knowledge repre...

  16. Game Design Principles based on Human Error

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Zaffari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper displays the result of the authors’ research regarding to the incorporation of Human Error, through design principles, to video game design. In a general way, designers must consider Human Error factors throughout video game interface development; however, when related to its core design, adaptations are in need, since challenge is an important factor for fun and under the perspective of Human Error, challenge can be considered as a flaw in the system. The research utilized Human Error classifications, data triangulation via predictive human error analysis, and the expanded flow theory to allow the design of a set of principles in order to match the design of playful challenges with the principles of Human Error. From the results, it was possible to conclude that the application of Human Error in game design has a positive effect on player experience, allowing it to interact only with errors associated with the intended aesthetics of the game.

  17. Principles of Economic Rationality in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivalan, Marion; Winter, York; Nachev, Vladislav

    2017-12-12

    Humans and non-human animals frequently violate principles of economic rationality, such as transitivity, independence of irrelevant alternatives, and regularity. The conditions that lead to these violations are not completely understood. Here we report a study on mice tested in automated home-cage setups using rewards of drinking water. Rewards differed in one of two dimensions, volume or probability. Our results suggest that mouse choice conforms to the principles of economic rationality for options that differ along a single reward dimension. A psychometric analysis of mouse choices further revealed that mice responded more strongly to differences in probability than to differences in volume, despite equivalence in return rates. This study also demonstrates the synergistic effect between the principles of economic rationality and psychophysics in making quantitative predictions about choices of healthy laboratory mice. This opens up new possibilities for the analyses of multi-dimensional choice and the use of mice with cognitive impairments that may violate economic rationality.

  18. Dilaton cosmology and the modified uncertainty principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumder, Barun

    2011-01-01

    Very recently Ali et al. (2009) proposed a new generalized uncertainty principle (with a linear term in Plank length which is consistent with doubly special relativity and string theory. The classical and quantum effects of this generalized uncertainty principle (termed as modified uncertainty principle or MUP) are investigated on the phase space of a dilatonic cosmological model with an exponential dilaton potential in a flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker background. Interestingly, as a consequence of MUP, we found that it is possible to get a late time acceleration for this model. For the quantum mechanical description in both commutative and MUP framework, we found the analytical solutions of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation for the early universe and compare our results. We have used an approximation method in the case of MUP.

  19. The principle of the Fermionic projector

    CERN Document Server

    Finster, Felix

    2006-01-01

    The "principle of the fermionic projector" provides a new mathematical framework for the formulation of physical theories and is a promising approach for physics beyond the standard model. This book begins with a brief review of relativity, relativistic quantum mechanics, and classical gauge theories, emphasizing the basic physical concepts and mathematical foundations. The external field problem and Klein's paradox are discussed and then resolved by introducing the fermionic projector, a global object in space-time that generalizes the notion of the Dirac sea. At the mathematical core of the book is a precise definition of the fermionic projector and the use of methods of hyperbolic differential equations for detailed analysis. The fermionic projector makes it possible to formulate a new type of variational principle in space-time. The mathematical tools are developed for the analysis of the corresponding Euler-Lagrange equations. A particular variational principle is proposed that gives rise to an effective...

  20. The principle of equivalence and the Trojan asteroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orellana, R.; Vucetich, H.

    1986-05-01

    An analysis of the Trojan asteroids motion has been carried out in order to set limits to possible violations to the principle of equivalence. Preliminary results, in agreement with general relativity, are reported. (author)

  1. Osteoporosis Knowledge and Beliefs Among Jordanian Men at Karak City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diala Altwalbeh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder in which the bones become weak, brittle, and more likely to break. This disease is excessively prevalent among women, but it may also affect the male individuals. There is a lack of studies, which have assessed men’s knowledge and beliefs in Jordan about osteoporosis. Thus, this study aims to explore the level of knowledge and health beliefs regarding osteoporosis among Jordanian men at Karak city. Method: A descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted after recruiting 88 men, who attended a primary healthcare centre at Karak city. Men’s knowledge of osteoporosis was assessed using two instruments; “The Facts on Osteoporosis Quiz” and the “Male Osteoporosis Knowledge Quiz”. Osteoporosis health beliefs were assessed using the “Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale”. Results: Most of the selected participants reported that they have heard about osteoporosis before. The main source of osteoporosis information was mass media (43.18%, which was followed by family members or friends (25%. The studied sample scored a mean of 9.02 out of 26 with a range of 3 to 16, reflecting 34.70% of the maximum possible score. The selected participants had a low perceived susceptibility, moderate perceived seriousness, high perceived benefits of exercise and calcium intake, low perceived barriers to calcium intake compared to moderate perceived barrier to exercise, and moderate perceived health motivation. Conclusion: Educational interventions are required to increase men’s awareness about the seriousness of osteoporosis and its impact in later life. Healthcare providers should focus more on increased awareness level about osteoporosis.

  2. Reading LGBT-Themed Literature with Young People: What's Possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Caroline T.; Blackburn, Mollie V.

    2009-01-01

    The authors' belief that using LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender)-themed literature in schools is possible and necessary, coupled with students' sense that either it cannot or is not being done, prompted them to write this article. While the authors are sympathetic with students' perspectives, and agree that examples are limited, such…

  3. A Subjective Logic Formalisation of the Principle of Polyrepresentation for Information Needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger; Schütze, Hinrich

    2010-01-01

    of the principle of Polyrepresentation, a theoretical framework for reasoning about different representations arising from interactive information retrieval in a given context. Although the principle of Polyrepresentation has received attention from many researchers, not much empirical work has been done based...... on it. One reason may be that it has not yet been formalised mathematically. In this paper we propose an up-to-date and flexible mathematical formalisation of the principle of Polyrepresentation for information needs. Specifically, we apply Subjective Logic to model different representations...... of information needs as beliefs marked by degrees of uncertainty. We combine such beliefs using different logical operators, and we discuss these combinations with respect to different retrieval scenarios and situations. A formal model is introduced and discussed, with illustrative applications to the modelling...

  4. Efficiency principles of consulting entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Moroz Yustina S.; Drozdov Igor N.

    2015-01-01

    The article reviews the primary goals and problems of consulting entrepreneurship. The principles defining efficiency of entrepreneurship in the field of consulting are generalized. The special attention is given to the importance of ethical principles of conducting consulting entrepreneurship activity.

  5. Algorithmic Principles of Mathematical Programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faigle, Ulrich; Kern, Walter; Still, Georg

    2002-01-01

    Algorithmic Principles of Mathematical Programming investigates the mathematical structures and principles underlying the design of efficient algorithms for optimization problems. Recent advances in algorithmic theory have shown that the traditionally separate areas of discrete optimization, linear

  6. Equivalence principle violations and couplings of a light dilaton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damour, Thibault; Donoghue, John F.

    2010-01-01

    We consider possible violations of the equivalence principle through the exchange of a light 'dilaton-like' scalar field. Using recent work on the quark-mass dependence of nuclear binding, we find that the dilaton-quark-mass coupling induces significant equivalence-principle-violating effects varying like the inverse cubic root of the atomic number - A -1/3 . We provide a general parametrization of the scalar couplings, but argue that two parameters are likely to dominate the equivalence-principle phenomenology. We indicate the implications of this framework for comparing the sensitivities of current and planned experimental tests of the equivalence principle.

  7. On the surprising rigidity of the Pauli exclusion principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, O.W.

    1989-01-01

    I review recent attempts to construct a local quantum field theory of small violations of the Pauli exclusion principle and suggest a qualitative reason for the surprising rigidity of the Pauli principle. I suggest that small violations can occur in our four-dimensional world as a consequence of the compactification of a higher-dimensional theory in which the exclusion principle is exactly valid. I briefly mention a recent experiment which places a severe limit on possible violations of the exclusion principle. (orig.)

  8. The Playtime Principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sifa, Rafet; Bauckhage, Christian; Drachen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    be derived from this large-scale analysis, notably that playtime as a function of time, across the thousands of games in the dataset, and irrespective of local differences in the playtime frequency distribution, can be modeled using the same model: the Wei bull distribution. This suggests...... that there are fundamental properties governing player engagement as it evolves over time, which we here refer to as the Playtime Principle. Additionally, the analysis shows that there are distinct clusters, or archetypes, in the playtime frequency distributions of the investigated games. These archetypal groups correspond...

  9. Complex Correspondence Principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, Carl M.; Meisinger, Peter N.; Hook, Daniel W.; Wang Qinghai

    2010-01-01

    Quantum mechanics and classical mechanics are distinctly different theories, but the correspondence principle states that quantum particles behave classically in the limit of high quantum number. In recent years much research has been done on extending both quantum and classical mechanics into the complex domain. These complex extensions continue to exhibit a correspondence, and this correspondence becomes more pronounced in the complex domain. The association between complex quantum mechanics and complex classical mechanics is subtle and demonstrating this relationship requires the use of asymptotics beyond all orders.

  10. Principles of chemical kinetics

    CERN Document Server

    House, James E

    2007-01-01

    James House's revised Principles of Chemical Kinetics provides a clear and logical description of chemical kinetics in a manner unlike any other book of its kind. Clearly written with detailed derivations, the text allows students to move rapidly from theoretical concepts of rates of reaction to concrete applications. Unlike other texts, House presents a balanced treatment of kinetic reactions in gas, solution, and solid states. The entire text has been revised and includes many new sections and an additional chapter on applications of kinetics. The topics covered include quantitative rela

  11. RFID design principles

    CERN Document Server

    Lehpamer, Harvey

    2012-01-01

    This revised edition of the Artech House bestseller, RFID Design Principles, serves as an up-to-date and comprehensive introduction to the subject. The second edition features numerous updates and brand new and expanded material on emerging topics such as the medical applications of RFID and new ethical challenges in the field. This practical book offers you a detailed understanding of RFID design essentials, key applications, and important management issues. The book explores the role of RFID technology in supply chain management, intelligent building design, transportation systems, military

  12. Principles of meteoritics

    CERN Document Server

    Krinov, E L

    1960-01-01

    Principles of Meteoritics examines the significance of meteorites in relation to cosmogony and to the origin of the planetary system. The book discusses the science of meteoritics and the sources of meteorites. Scientists study the morphology of meteorites to determine their motion in the atmosphere. The scope of such study includes all forms of meteorites, the circumstances of their fall to earth, their motion in the atmosphere, and their orbits in space. Meteoric bodies vary in sizes; in calculating their motion in interplanetary space, astronomers apply the laws of Kepler. In the region of

  13. Principles of Uncertainty

    CERN Document Server

    Kadane, Joseph B

    2011-01-01

    An intuitive and mathematical introduction to subjective probability and Bayesian statistics. An accessible, comprehensive guide to the theory of Bayesian statistics, Principles of Uncertainty presents the subjective Bayesian approach, which has played a pivotal role in game theory, economics, and the recent boom in Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. Both rigorous and friendly, the book contains: Introductory chapters examining each new concept or assumption Just-in-time mathematics -- the presentation of ideas just before they are applied Summary and exercises at the end of each chapter Discus

  14. Principles of speech coding

    CERN Document Server

    Ogunfunmi, Tokunbo

    2010-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly apparent that all forms of communication-including voice-will be transmitted through packet-switched networks based on the Internet Protocol (IP). Therefore, the design of modern devices that rely on speech interfaces, such as cell phones and PDAs, requires a complete and up-to-date understanding of the basics of speech coding. Outlines key signal processing algorithms used to mitigate impairments to speech quality in VoIP networksOffering a detailed yet easily accessible introduction to the field, Principles of Speech Coding provides an in-depth examination of the

  15. On Weak Markov's Principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohlenbach, Ulrich Wilhelm

    2002-01-01

    We show that the so-called weak Markov's principle (WMP) which states that every pseudo-positive real number is positive is underivable in E-HA + AC. Since allows one to formalize (atl eastl arge parts of) Bishop's constructive mathematics, this makes it unlikely that WMP can be proved within...... the framework of Bishop-style mathematics (which has been open for about 20 years). The underivability even holds if the ine.ective schema of full comprehension (in all types) for negated formulas (in particular for -free formulas) is added, which allows one to derive the law of excluded middle...

  16. Principles of quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    George, David V

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Quantum Chemistry focuses on the application of quantum mechanics in physical models and experiments of chemical systems.This book describes chemical bonding and its two specific problems - bonding in complexes and in conjugated organic molecules. The very basic theory of spectroscopy is also considered. Other topics include the early development of quantum theory; particle-in-a-box; general formulation of the theory of quantum mechanics; and treatment of angular momentum in quantum mechanics. The examples of solutions of Schroedinger equations; approximation methods in quantum c

  17. Principles of thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufman, Myron

    2002-01-01

    Ideal for one- or two-semester courses that assume elementary knowledge of calculus, This text presents the fundamental concepts of thermodynamics and applies these to problems dealing with properties of materials, phase transformations, chemical reactions, solutions and surfaces. The author utilizes principles of statistical mechanics to illustrate key concepts from a microscopic perspective, as well as develop equations of kinetic theory. The book provides end-of-chapter question and problem sets, some using Mathcad™ and Mathematica™; a useful glossary containing important symbols, definitions, and units; and appendices covering multivariable calculus and valuable numerical methods.

  18. Principles of fluorescence techniques

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence techniques are being used and applied increasingly in academics and industry. The Principles of Fluorescence Techniques course will outline the basic concepts of fluorescence techniques and the successful utilization of the currently available commercial instrumentation. The course is designed for students who utilize fluorescence techniques and instrumentation and for researchers and industrial scientists who wish to deepen their knowledge of fluorescence applications. Key scientists in the field will deliver theoretical lectures. The lectures will be complemented by the direct utilization of steady-state and lifetime fluorescence instrumentation and confocal microscopy for FLIM and FRET applications provided by leading companies.

  19. Sustainable development and the nature of environmental legal principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Verschuuren

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, “things” lawyers call “principles” of environmental law will be discussed from a theoretical perspective. Three fundamental questions are answered: 1. Where does the high moral value that is usually attributed principles come from? 2. What is the exact difference between a principle and a legal rule, and between a principle and a policy? 3. What is the relationship between a principle and more concrete legal rules and policies? It is argued that principles of environmental law receive their high moral value from the ideal of sustainable development. An ideal is a value that is explicit, implicit or latent in the law, or the public and moral culture of a society or group that usually cannot be fully realised, and that partly transcends contingent, historical formulations, and implementations in terms of rules and principles. Principles form a necessary link between directly applicable and enforceable environmental legal rules and the underlying ideal. They are a necessary medium for ideals to find their way into concrete rules and can be used to bridge the gap between the morality of duty and the morality of aspiration. Because of their basis in (written or unwritten law and their possible direct and intense influence on legal rules concerning activities that may harm the environment, they must be placed within the morality of duty: a bridgehead within the morality of duty reaching out for the morality of aspiration. From the general function of principles of forming a beachhead in the morality of duty, nine more concrete functions can be derived. These functions principles, both of a substantive and of a procedural nature, have, make it possible to distinguish them from legal rules. It must be acknowledged, however, that there is no very strict separation between principles on one side and rules on the other: environmental norms can be placed on a sliding scale with rules on one side and principles on the other side

  20. The precautionary principle and pharmaceutical risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callréus, Torbjörn

    2005-01-01

    Although it is often vigorously contested and has several different formulations, the precautionary principle has in recent decades guided environmental policy making in the face of scientific uncertainty. Originating from a criticism of traditional risk assessment, the key element of the precautionary principle is the justification for acting in the face of uncertain knowledge about risks. In the light of its growing invocation in various areas that are related to public health and recently in relation to drug safety issues, this article presents an introductory review of the main elements of the precautionary principle and some arguments conveyed by its advocates and opponents. A comparison of the characteristics of pharmaceutical risk management and environmental policy making (i.e. the setting within which the precautionary principle evolved), indicates that several important differences exist. If believed to be of relevance, in order to avoid arbitrary and unpredictable decision making, both the interpretation and possible application of the precautionary principle need to be adapted to the conditions of pharmaceutical risk management.

  1. The Alara principle in backfitting Borssele

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leurs, C.J.

    1998-01-01

    An extensive backfitting program, the Modifications Project, was carried out at the Borssele Nuclear Power Station. It involved sixteen modifications to technical systems. The scope of activities, and the dose rates encountered in places where work was to be performed, made it obvious from the outset that a high collective dose had to be anticipated. As a consequence, radiation protection within the project was organized in such a way that applicable radiation protection principles were applied in all phases of the project. From the point of view of radiation protection, the Modifications Project had to be subdivided into three phases, i.e., a conceptual design phase in which mainly the justification principle was applied; the engineering phase in which the Alara principle was employed; the execution phase in which management of the (internal) dose limits had to be observed in addition to the Alara principle. Throughout all project phases, radiation protection considerations and results were documented in so-called Alara reports and radiation protection checklists. As a result of the strictest possible observance of radiation protection principles in all phases of the project, a collective dose of 2505 mSv was achieved, which stands for a reduction by a factor of 4 compared to the very first estimate. In view of the scope and complex nature of the activities involved, and the radiation levels in the Borssele Nuclear Power Station, this is an excellent result. (orig.) [de

  2. Subjective Belief Distributions and the Characterization of Economic Literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Girolamo, Amalia; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten

    2015-01-01

    the confidence that an individual has about their knowledge of some fact. We consider literacy across several financial and economic domains. We find considerable demographic heterogeneity in the degree of literacy. We also measure the degree of consistency within a sample about their knowledge, even when......We characterize the literacy of an individual in a domain by their elicited subjective belief distribution over the possible responses to a question posed in that domain. By eliciting the distribution, rather than just the answers to true/false or multiple choice questions, we can directly measure...

  3. The antecedents and belief-polarized effects of thought confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Hsuan-Yi; Lien, Nai-Hwa; Liang, Kuan-Yu

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates 2 possible antecedents of thought confidence and explores the effects of confidence induced before or during ad exposure. The results of the experiments indicate that both consumers' dispositional optimism and spokesperson attractiveness have significant effects on consumers' confidence in thoughts that are generated after viewing the advertisement. Higher levels of thought confidence will influence the quality of the thoughts that people generate, lead to either positively or negatively polarized message processing, and therefore induce better or worse advertising effectiveness, depending on the valence of thoughts. The authors posit the belief-polarization hypothesis to explain these findings.

  4. Exploring Change in Pre-service Teachers' Beliefs about English Language Learning and Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kylah Clark-Goff

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The beliefs a teacher carries into the classroom are a strong predictor of behaviour and, thus, have educational implications. With more English Language Learners (ELLs worldwide, in mainstream classrooms in English speaking countries and in content-based classes in other countries around the globe than ever before, it is essential that preservice teachers’ beliefs about these students are understood and, when possible, altered to ensure positive and productive educational experiences. This study examined the initial language learning beliefs and attitudes toward ELLs among 354 pre-service teachers in a large public university and compared it to their beliefs after their ESL related coursework. The findings demonstrate beliefs about ELLs can be changed, influencing preservice teachers’ practices in future classrooms. Survey data collected before and after specific coursework revealed a significant shift in preservice teachers’ beliefs, indicating more alignment with current research and sound educational practice. Semi-structured focus-group interviews provided supporting evidence. These findings suggest pre-service teachers need evidence-based coursework in language development and language learning processes to overcome misconceptions regarding ELLs.

  5. Assessing students' beliefs, emotions and causal attribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: academic emotion; belief; causal attribution; statistical validation; students' conceptions of learning ... Sadi & Lee, 2015), through their effect on motivation and learning strategies .... to understand why they may or may not be doing.

  6. Hierarchies of belief and interim rationalizability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey C. Ely

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In games with incomplete information, conventional hierarchies of belief are incomplete as descriptions of the players' information for the purposes of determining a player's behavior. We show by example that this is true for a variety of solution concepts. We then investigate what is essential about a player's information to identify behavior. We specialize to two player games and the solution concept of interim rationalizability. We construct the universal type space for rationalizability and characterize the types in terms of their beliefs. Infinite hierarchies of beliefs over conditional beliefs, which we call Delta-hierarchies, are what turn out to matter. We show that any two types in any two type spaces have the same rationalizable sets in all games if and only if they have the same Delta-hierarchies.

  7. Relationship between patients' beliefs about their antihypertensives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... patients' beliefs about their antihypertensives and adherence in a secondary hospital in ... The study was a cross-sectional study on hypertensive patients in General ... were effective in protecting them from the effects of high blood pressure.

  8. The role of beliefs in teacher agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biesta, Gert; Priestley, Mark; Robinson, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    ’s Curriculum for Excellence – in order to explore these questions. We focus on teachers’ beliefs in order to get a sense of the individual and collective discourses that inform teachers’ perceptions, judgements and decision-making and that motivate and drive teachers’ action. While the research suggests...... that beliefs play an important role in teachers’ work, an apparent mismatch between teachers’ individual beliefs and values and wider institutional discourses and cultures, and a relative lack of a clear and robust professional vision of the purposes of education indicate that the promotion of teacher agency...... does not just rely on the beliefs that individual teachers bring to their practice, but also requires collective development and consideration....

  9. The Making of Paranormal Belief: History, Discourse Analysis and the Object of Belief

    OpenAIRE

    White, Lewis

    2013-01-01

    The present study comprises a discursive analysis of a cognitive phenomenon, paranormal beliefs. A discursive psychological approach to belief highlights that an important component of the cognitivist work has been how the object of paranormal belief has been defined in formal study. Using discourse analysis, as developed as a method in the history of psychology, this problem is explored through analysis of published scales. The findings highlight three rhetorical themes that are deployed in ...

  10. Fermat and the Minimum Principle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arguably, least action and minimum principles were offered or applied much earlier. This (or these) principle(s) is/are among the fundamental, basic, unifying or organizing ones used to describe a variety of natural phenomena. It considers the amount of energy expended in performing a given action to be the least required ...

  11. Fundamental Principle for Quantum Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2002-01-01

    We propose the principle, the law of statistical balance for basic physical observables, which specifies quantum statistical theory among all other statistical theories of measurements. It seems that this principle might play in quantum theory the role that is similar to the role of Einstein's relativity principle.

  12. Principles for School Drug Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Lois

    2004-01-01

    This document presents a revised set of principles for school drug education. The principles for drug education in schools comprise an evolving framework that has proved useful over a number of decades in guiding the development of effective drug education. The first edition of "Principles for Drug Education in Schools" (Ballard et al.…

  13. Language Learner Beliefs from an Attributional Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Gabillon, Zehra

    2013-01-01

    International audience; This qualitative study, aimed to analyze eight French-speaking learners' beliefs about English and English language learning. The data were obtained via semi-structured interviews. The study drew on Weiner's attribution theory of achievement motivation and Bandura's self-efficacy theory. The novelty about this research is the employment of an attributional analysis framework to study and explain the learners' stated beliefs about English and English language learning.

  14. Principles to establish a culture of the radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tovar M, V. M.

    2013-10-01

    The term of Culture of the Radiological Protection means the way in which the radiological protection is founded, regulated, managed, preserved and perceived in the job places, with the use of the ionizing radiations, in the industry, in medicine and in any daily activity that reflects the activities, beliefs, perceptions, goals and values that all the involved parts concern in relation to the radiological protection. The principles to establish a culture of the radiological protection that should be established by the professionals of the radiological protection, following the recommendations of the International Radiological Protection Association (IRPA) are presented. (author)

  15. Principles of Mechanical Excavation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lislerud, A.

    1997-12-01

    Mechanical excavation of rock today includes several methods such as tunnel boring, raiseboring, roadheading and various continuous mining systems. Of these raiseboring is one potential technique for excavating shafts in the repository for spent nuclear fuel and dry blind boring is promising technique for excavation of deposition holes, as demonstrated in the Research Tunnel at Olkiluoto. In addition, there is potential for use of other mechanical excavation techniques in different parts of the repository. One of the main objectives of this study was to analyze the factors which affect the feasibility of mechanical rock excavation in hard rock conditions and to enhance the understanding of factors which affect rock cutting so as to provide an improved basis for excavator performance prediction modeling. The study included the following four main topics: (a) phenomenological model based on similarity analysis for roller disk cutting, (b) rock mass properties which affect rock cuttability and tool life, (c) principles for linear and field cutting tests and performance prediction modeling and (d) cutter head lacing design procedures and principles. As a conclusion of this study, a test rig was constructed, field tests were planned and started up. The results of the study can be used to improve the performance prediction models used to assess the feasibility of different mechanical excavation techniques at various repository investigation sites. (orig.)

  16. THE RESPONSIBILITY PRINCIPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena ANGHEL

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available "I'm wishing Law this: all legal obligations sholud be executed with the scrupulosity with which moral obligations are being performed by those people who feel bound by them ...", so beautifully portraited by Nicolae Titulescu`s words1. Life in the society means more than a simple coexistence of human beings, it actually means living together, collaborating and cooperating; that is why I always have to relate to other people and to be aware that only by limiting my freedom of action, the others freedom is feasible. Neminem laedere should be a principle of life for each of us. The individual is a responsible being. But responsibility exceeds legal prescriptions. Romanian Constitution underlines that I have to exercise my rights and freedoms in good faith, without infringing the rights and freedoms of others. The legal norm, developer of the constitutional principles, is endowed with sanction, which grants it exigibility. But I wonder: If I choose to obey the law, is my decision essentially determined only due of the fear of punishment? Is it not because I am a rational being, who developed during its life a conscience towards values, and thus I understand that I have to respect the law and I choose to comply with it?

  17. Principles of Mechanical Excavation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lislerud, A. [Tamrock Corp., Tampere (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    Mechanical excavation of rock today includes several methods such as tunnel boring, raiseboring, roadheading and various continuous mining systems. Of these raiseboring is one potential technique for excavating shafts in the repository for spent nuclear fuel and dry blind boring is promising technique for excavation of deposition holes, as demonstrated in the Research Tunnel at Olkiluoto. In addition, there is potential for use of other mechanical excavation techniques in different parts of the repository. One of the main objectives of this study was to analyze the factors which affect the feasibility of mechanical rock excavation in hard rock conditions and to enhance the understanding of factors which affect rock cutting so as to provide an improved basis for excavator performance prediction modeling. The study included the following four main topics: (a) phenomenological model based on similarity analysis for roller disk cutting, (b) rock mass properties which affect rock cuttability and tool life, (c) principles for linear and field cutting tests and performance prediction modeling and (d) cutter head lacing design procedures and principles. As a conclusion of this study, a test rig was constructed, field tests were planned and started up. The results of the study can be used to improve the performance prediction models used to assess the feasibility of different mechanical excavation techniques at various repository investigation sites. (orig.). 21 refs.

  18. Plural religious beliefs: A Comparison between the Dutch and white ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concept of religious beliefs is distilled from the perspective of one's belief in God. With regard to this belief in God we propose to distinguish between two dimensions: The personal versus the a-personal character of God and his transcendent versus his immanent nature. This leaves us with a plurality of beliefs in God.

  19. Proposing an Operational Definition of Science Teacher Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutner, Todd L.; Markman, Arthur B.

    2016-01-01

    Much research has shown that a science teacher's beliefs are related to their teaching practice. This line of research has often defined "belief" epistemologically. That is, beliefs are often defined relative to other mental constructs, such as knowledge, dispositions, or attitudes. Left unspecified is the role beliefs play in cognition…

  20. Explaining body size beliefs in anorexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadsby, Stephen

    2017-11-01

    Cognitive neuropsychiatry has had much success in providing theoretical models for the causal origins of many delusional beliefs. Recently, it has been suggested that some anorexia nervosa patients' beliefs about their own body size should be considered delusions. As such, it seems high time the methods of cognitive neuropsychiatry were turned to modelling the false body size beliefs of anorexics. In this paper, I adopt an empiricist approach to modelling the causal origins of false body size beliefs in anorexia. Within the background of cognitive neuropsychiatry, empiricist models claim that abnormal beliefs are grounded by abnormal experiences bearing similar content. I discuss the kinds of abnormal experiences of body size anorexics suffer from which could ground their false beliefs about body size. These oversized experiences come in three varieties: false self-other body comparisons, spontaneous mental imagery of a fat body and distorted perception of affordances. Further theoretical and empirical research into the oversized experiences which anorexics suffer from presents a promising avenue for understanding and treating the disorder.

  1. Mental Rotation in False Belief Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jiushu; Cheung, Him; Shen, Manqiong; Wang, Ruiming

    2018-05-01

    This study examines the spontaneous use of embodied egocentric transformation (EET) in understanding false beliefs in the minds of others. EET involves the participants mentally transforming or rotating themselves into the orientation of an agent when trying to adopt his or her visuospatial perspective. We argue that psychological perspective taking such as false belief reasoning may also involve EET because of what has been widely reported in the embodied cognition literature, showing that our processing of abstract, propositional information is often grounded in concrete bodily sensations which are not apparently linked to higher cognition. In Experiment 1, an agent placed a ball into one of two boxes and left. The ball then rolled out and moved either into the other box (new box) or back into the original one (old box). The participants were to decide from which box they themselves or the agent would try to recover the ball. Results showed that false belief performance was affected by increased orientation disparity between the participants and the agent, suggesting involvement of embodied transformation. In Experiment 2, false belief was similarly induced and the participants were to decide if the agent would try to recover the ball in one specific box. Orientation disparity was again found to affect false belief performance. The present results extend previous findings on EET in visuospatial perspective taking and suggest that false belief reasoning, which is a kind of psychological perspective taking, can also involve embodied rotation, consistent with the embodied cognition view. Copyright © 2018 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  2. Diabetes screening anxiety and beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, T C; Davies, M J; Farooqi, A M; Jarvis, J; Tringham, J R; Khunti, K

    2005-11-01

    This study assesses the impact of screening for diabetes on anxiety levels in an ethnically mixed population in the UK, and explores whether beliefs about Type 2 diabetes account for these anxiety levels. This cross-sectional study recruited individuals who were identified at high risk of developing diabetes through general practitioners' (GPs) lists or through public media recruitment. Participants completed an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Between blood tests, participants completed the Spielberger State Anxiety Scale Short Form, the Emotional Stability Scale of the Big Five Inventory 44 and three scales from the Diabetes Illness Representations Questionnaire, revised for this study. Of the 1339 who completed the OGTT and questionnaire booklet, 54% were female, with 21% from an Asian background. Forty-five per cent of participants reported little to moderate amounts of anxiety at screening (mean 35.2; sd = 11.6). There was no significant effect of family history of diabetes, ethnic group or recruitment method on anxiety. The only variable significantly associated (negatively) with anxiety was the personality trait of emotional stability. Of responders, 64% and 61% agreed that diabetes was caused by diet or hereditary factors, respectively. Only 155 individuals (12%) agreed that diabetes was serious, shortens life and causes complications. The results of this study replicate that of previous studies, indicating that screening for diabetes does not induce significant anxiety. Bivariate analysis indicated that individuals who perceived diabetes to be serious, life shortening and resulting in complications had higher anxiety scores, the personality trait of emotional stability being the strongest predictor of anxiety.

  3. A survey of variational principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewins, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    In this article survey of variational principles has been given. Variational principles play a significant role in mathematical theory with emphasis on the physical aspects. There are two principals used i.e. to represent the equation of the system in a succinct way and to enable a particular computation in the system to be carried out with greater accuracy. The survey of variational principles has ranged widely from its starting point in the Lagrange multiplier to optimisation principles. In an age of digital computation, these classic methods can be adapted to improve such calculations. We emphasize particularly the advantage of basic finite element methods on variational principles. (A.B.)

  4. Mach's principle and rotating universes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, D.H.

    1990-01-01

    It is shown that the Bianchi 9 model universe satisfies the Mach principle. These closed rotating universes were previously thought to be counter-examples to the principle. The Mach principle is satisfied because the angular momentum of the rotating matter is compensated by the effective angular momentum of gravitational waves. A new formulation of the Mach principle is given that is based on the field theory interpretation of general relativity. Every closed universe with 3-sphere topology is shown to satisfy this formulation of the Mach principle. It is shown that the total angular momentum of the matter and gravitational waves in a closed 3-sphere topology universe is zero

  5. A survey of variational principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewins, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The survey of variational principles has ranged widely from its starting point in the Lagrange multiplier to optimisation principles. In an age of digital computation, these classic methods can be adapted to improve such calculations. We emphasize particularly the advantage of basing finite element methods on variational principles, especially if, as maximum and minimum principles, these can provide bounds and hence estimates of accuracy. The non-symmetric (and hence stationary rather than extremum principles) are seen however to play a significant role in optimisation theory. (Orig./A.B.)

  6. A snapshot in time: Beliefs and practices of a pre-service mathematics teacher through the lens of changing contexts and situations

    OpenAIRE

    Lyn Webb; Paul Webb

    2008-01-01

    For the last decade research on teachers’ beliefs has made a distinction between mathematics teachers’ professed and attributed beliefs  (practice)  and studies have either found some or no correlation between the two. In this paper we  investigate the beliefs and practices of a novice teacher and conclude that inconsistency between beliefs and practices may be an observer’s perspective that is not necessarily shared by the teacher, and that the view that there is a possible disjuncture does ...

  7. Influences on Understanding and Belief About the Origin of Species in Chinese and American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Erin Irene

    Although beliefs about origins and evolutionary knowledge have been considered independent, research has suggested that both are influenced by cognitive constraints of psychological essentialism and teleology. Most research supporting these claims has been conducted with children from Western cultures; little is known about the psychological processes underpinning beliefs and knowledge about the natural world outside Western contexts or during adolescence. Claims about the universality of beliefs, knowledge, and the possible relationship between should be made after examining samples that differ in theoretically relevant ways from a typical Western sample, such as a Chinese sample in which religious explanations are rare or an adolescent sample in which brain development promotes the coordination of conflicting information. To examine how belief and knowledge are related in Western- and non-Western samples, as well as the factors that predict both independently, 238 Chinese (M = 15.85 years old, SD = .85 years; 36.6% male) and 277 American adolescents (M = 15.80 years, SD = 1.34 years; 51.6% male) were recruited from their high schools to participate. Adolescents completed a survey measuring beliefs about the origin of living and non-living exemplars, evolutionary knowledge, and variables that were likely to influence belief and knowledge such as science preference, epistemology, psychological essentialism, teleological reasoning, and religious beliefs. American adolescents were more creationist than Chinese adolescents. Chinese adolescents displayed more sophisticated evolutionary knowledge than American adolescents although overall performance was low. Finally, there was no relationship between belief and knowledge for American adolescents yet there was a small, positive relationship for Chinese adolescents such that adolescents who believed in creation also tended to demonstrate more evolutionary knowledge. Additional analyses employed mediation techniques to

  8. In Asian americans, is having a family member diagnosed with cancer associated with fatalistic beliefs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolee Polek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cancer can evoke long-held cultural beliefs which either facilitate or impede efforts to expand the health literacy of families. Among these beliefs is fatalism which holds that controlling ones′ outcome is not possible, and that ones′ outcome is predestined. Some fatalistic beliefs are broadly held within the Asian American (AA community and may be challenged or reinforced by the experience of having a family member diagnosed with cancer. This study evaluated the relationship between having a family member diagnosed with cancer and selected demographics in AAs on fatalistic beliefs. Methods: Data from 519 AA subjects from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Health Information Trends Survey were used to complete a secondary analysis. Descriptive statistics characterize fatalistic beliefs. Four models using four questions assessed fatalistic beliefs as dependent variables and independent variables of having or not having a family member diagnosed with cancer, completing college or not, sex, and age were assessed using ordinal regression. Results: All of the fatalistic beliefs examined were endorsed by large portions of the subjects. When considering the role of being exposed to having a family member with cancer, it was associated with an increase in the likelihood in a belief that one is likely to get cancer, and everything can cause cancer. Being exposed to a family member diagnosed with cancer was not significantly associated with believing, there was little one could do to control their cancer risk. This belief was broadly rejected. While the belief that there are so many different recommendations about preventing cancer, it is hard to know what to do, was broadly endorsed and not associated with having a family member diagnosed with cancer. Conclusions: The major practice implications within oncology nursing suggest the importance in assessing cancer health literacy and providing corrective knowledge in families

  9. Foundations of gravitation theory: the principle of equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haugan, M.P.

    1978-01-01

    A new framework is presented within which to discuss the principle of equivalence and its experimental tests. The framework incorporates a special structure imposed on the equivalence principle by the principle of energy conservation. This structure includes relations among the conceptual components of the equivalence principle as well as quantitative relations among the outcomes of its experimental tests. One of the most striking new results obtained through use of this framework is a connection between the breakdown of local Lorentz invariance and the breakdown of the principle that all bodies fall with the same acceleration in a gravitational field. An extensive discussion of experimental tests of the equivalence principle and their significance is also presented. Within the above framework, theory-independent analyses of a broad range of equivalence principle tests are possible. Gravitational redshift experiments. Doppler-shift experiments, the Turner-Hill and Hughes-Drever experiments, and a number of solar-system tests of gravitation theories are analyzed. Application of the techniques of theoretical nuclear physics to the quantitative interpretation of equivalence principle tests using laboratory materials of different composition yields a number of important results. It is found that current Eotvos experiments significantly demonstrate the compatibility of the weak interactions with the equivalence principle. It is also shown that the Hughes-Drever experiment is the most precise test of local Lorentz invariance yet performed. The work leads to a strong, tightly knit empirical basis for the principle of equivalence, the central pillar of the foundations of gravitation theory

  10. False Belief Reasoning in Adults with and without Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Similarities and Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Sommer

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A central diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD is the qualitative impairment in reciprocal social interaction and a prominent hypotheses that tried to explain this impairment is the Theory of Mind (ToM deficit hypotheses. On a behavioral level the critical test for having a ToM, the understanding of false beliefs (FB, is often used for testing ToM abilities in individuals with ASD. Investigating the neural underpinnings several neuroimaging studies revealed a network of areas involved in FB reasoning in neurotypical individuals. For ASD individuals the neural correlates of false belief processing are largely unknown. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and an adapted unexpected transfer task, that makes it possible to distinguish between the computation of diverging beliefs and the selection of a belief-associated response, we investigated a group of adult high-functioning individuals with ASD (N = 15 and an age and IQ matched group of neurotypical adults (NT; N = 15. On the behavioral level we found no group differences. On the neural level, results were two-fold: In the story phase, in which participants had to compute whether the character's belief is congruent or incongruent to their own belief, there were no differences between neurotypical participants and those diagnosed with ASD. But, in the subsequent question phase, participants with ASD showed increased activity in the bilateral anterior prefrontal cortex, the left posterior frontal cortex, the left superior temporal gyrus, and the left temporoparietal area. These results suggest that during the story phase in which the participants processed observable actions the neural correlates do not differ between adult individuals with ASD and NT individuals. But in the question phase in which participants had to infer an unobservable mental state results revealed neural differences between the two groups. Possibly, these subtle neural processing differences may

  11. THE EQUALITY PRINCIPLE REQUIREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA ANDRIŢOI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The problem premises and the objectives followed: the idea of inserting the equality principle between the freedom and the justice principles is manifested in positive law in two stages, as a general idea of all judicial norms and as requirement of the owner of a subjective right of the applicants of an objective law. Equality in face of the law and of public authorities can not involve the idea of standardization, of uniformity, of enlisting of all citizens under the mark of the same judicial regime, regardless of their natural or socio-professional situation. Through the Beijing Platform and the position documents of the European Commission we have defined the integrative approach of equality as representing an active and visible integration of the gender perspective in all sectors and at all levels. The research methods used are: the conceptualist method, the logical method and the intuitive method necessary as means of reasoning in order to argue our demonstration. We have to underline the fact that the system analysis of the research methods of the judicial phenomenon doesn’t agree with “value ranking”, because one value cannot be generalized in rapport to another. At the same time, we must fight against a methodological extremism. The final purpose of this study is represented by the reaching of the perfecting/excellence stage by all individuals through the promotion of equality and freedom. This supposes the fact that the existence of a non-discrimination favourable frame (fairness represents a means and a condition of self-determination, and the state of perfection/excellency is a result of this self-determination, the condition necessary for the obtaining of this nondiscrimination frame for all of us and in conditions of freedom for all individuals, represents the same condition that promotes the state of perfection/excellency. In conclusion we may state the fact that the equality principle represents a true catalyst of the

  12. Humanist Principles Underlying Philosophy of Argument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Boger

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This discussion reviews the thinking of some prominent philosophers of argument to extract principles common to their thinking. It shows that a growing concern with dialogical pragmatics is better appreciated as a part of applied ethics than of applied epistemology. The discussion concludes by indicating a possible consequence for philosophy of argument and invites further discussion by asking whether argumentation philosophy has an implicit, underlying moral, or even political, posture.

  13. Food ionization: principles, nutritional aspects and detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffi, J.

    1992-01-01

    This document reviews the possible applications of ionizing radiations in the food industry, pointing out the principles of the treatment and its consequences on the nutritionnal value of the product. The last part gives the present status of the researches about the identification of irradiated foodstuffs and of the concerted action sponsored by the Community Bureau of Reference from the Commission of the European Communities

  14. The lachrymatory principle of Petiveria alliacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubec, Roman; Kim, Seokwon; Musah, Rabi A

    2003-05-01

    The lachrymatory principle of Petiveria alliacea has been isolated from a fresh homogenate of the root. Its structure and geometric configuration have been determined as (Z)-thiobenzaldehyde S-oxide by means of NMR, IR, MALDI-MS and by comparison with an authentic compound obtained by synthesis. This unique compound represents only the third naturally occurring sulfine (thiocarbonyl S-oxide) to be reported. Its formation and possible subsequent rearrangements are discussed. Its antibacterial and antifungal activities are also reported.

  15. Gravity, God and Ghosts? Parents' Beliefs in Science, Religion, and the Paranormal and the Encouragement of Beliefs in Their Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braswell, Gregory S.; Rosengren, Karl S.; Berenbaum, Howard

    2012-01-01

    Using a questionnaire, the present study examined parents' beliefs regarding the development of children's beliefs about science, religion, and the paranormal. The study also investigated parental encouragement of children's beliefs, as well as parents' own beliefs within these domains. Results revealed that parents make distinctions between…

  16. Effects of Epistemological Beliefs and Topic-Specific Beliefs on Undergraduates' Cognitive and Strategic Processing of Dual-Positional Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardash, CarolAnne M.; Howell, Karen L.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates effects of epistemological beliefs and topic-specific beliefs on undergraduates' (N=40) cognitive and strategic processing of a dual-positional text. Findings reveal that epistemological beliefs about the speed of learning affected the overall number of cognitive processes exhibited, whereas topic-specific beliefs interacted with the…

  17. When fast logic meets slow belief: Evidence for a parallel-processing model of belief bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippas, Dries; Thompson, Valerie A; Handley, Simon J

    2017-05-01

    Two experiments pitted the default-interventionist account of belief bias against a parallel-processing model. According to the former, belief bias occurs because a fast, belief-based evaluation of the conclusion pre-empts a working-memory demanding logical analysis. In contrast, according to the latter both belief-based and logic-based responding occur in parallel. Participants were given deductive reasoning problems of variable complexity and instructed to decide whether the conclusion was valid on half the trials or to decide whether the conclusion was believable on the other half. When belief and logic conflict, the default-interventionist view predicts that it should take less time to respond on the basis of belief than logic, and that the believability of a conclusion should interfere with judgments of validity, but not the reverse. The parallel-processing view predicts that beliefs should interfere with logic judgments only if the processing required to evaluate the logical structure exceeds that required to evaluate the knowledge necessary to make a belief-based judgment, and vice versa otherwise. Consistent with this latter view, for the simplest reasoning problems (modus ponens), judgments of belief resulted in lower accuracy than judgments of validity, and believability interfered more with judgments of validity than the converse. For problems of moderate complexity (modus tollens and single-model syllogisms), the interference was symmetrical, in that validity interfered with belief judgments to the same degree that believability interfered with validity judgments. For the most complex (three-term multiple-model syllogisms), conclusion believability interfered more with judgments of validity than vice versa, in spite of the significant interference from conclusion validity on judgments of belief.

  18. Formal and Informal Normative Beliefs Regarding Purchasing and Using Condoms

    OpenAIRE

    樋口, 匡貴; 中村, 菜々子

    2009-01-01

    Properly using condoms is one of the most effective types of protection against HIV. To clarify the contents of normative beliefs regarding purchasing and using condoms, 390 undergraduate student volunteers were surveyed. The exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed that both males and females held two types of normative beliefs, namely formal normative beliefs and informal normative beliefs, regarding purchasing and using condoms. Formal normative beliefs were concerned with the...

  19. Teachers' Beliefs on Foreign Language Teaching Practices in Early Childhood Education: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Caner

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine whether teacher beliefs would play a role in their actual practices while teaching target language in early phases of primary education, principally, in kindergarten and first grades in a state school. As it is a very broad research area, the researchers exclusively analyzed teaching practices and teaching activities of two teachers and their beliefs about teaching English to young children within the frame of early childhood education principles. One of the data gathering instruments in this case study was a questionnaire that inquires the participants beliefs related to the classroom practices and how these beliefs influence their classroom practices in early childhood education. In addition to the questionnaire, semi structured interviews with participants were held to examine their beliefs in detail. Finally, in order to see whether participants’ beliefs matched with their actual practices in their classrooms or not, the sample courses of the participants were observed and video-recorded for triangulation for the data. The classroom observations of the courses as well as video recordings of those courses were also examined by the researchers, and the findings were verified by another co-rater in order to increase the trustworthiness of the data. The analysis of responses of participants to the questionnaire, video-recorded classroom observations and interviews were presented qualitatively in the findings section. The results showed that both of the teachers took into account how their students could learn best with regards to their age, level and interest through using different activities and materials suitable for teaching English to young learners. It was also observed that teachers placed room for repetition, role-play, singing songs, picture drawings and coloring in their classes with young learners

  20. No-Hypersignaling Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Arno, Michele; Brandsen, Sarah; Tosini, Alessandro; Buscemi, Francesco; Vedral, Vlatko

    2017-07-01

    A paramount topic in quantum foundations, rooted in the study of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox and Bell inequalities, is that of characterizing quantum theory in terms of the spacelike correlations it allows. Here, we show that to focus only on spacelike correlations is not enough: we explicitly construct a toy model theory that, while not contradicting classical and quantum theories at the level of spacelike correlations, still displays an anomalous behavior in its timelike correlations. We call this anomaly, quantified in terms of a specific communication game, the "hypersignaling" phenomena. We hence conclude that the "principle of quantumness," if it exists, cannot be found in spacelike correlations alone: nontrivial constraints need to be imposed also on timelike correlations, in order to exclude hypersignaling theories.

  1. Principles of Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Svelto, Orazio

    2010-01-01

    This new Fifth Edition of Principles of Lasers incorporates corrections to the previous edition. The text’s essential mission remains the same: to provide a wide-ranging yet unified description of laser behavior, physics, technology, and current applications. Dr. Svelto emphasizes the physical rather than the mathematical aspects of lasers, and presents the subject in the simplest terms compatible with a correct physical understanding. Praise for earlier editions: "Professor Svelto is himself a longtime laser pioneer and his text shows the breadth of his broad acquaintance with all aspects of the field … Anyone mastering the contents of this book will be well prepared to understand advanced treatises and research papers in laser science and technology." (Arthur L. Schawlow, 1981 Nobel Laureate in Physics) "Already well established as a self-contained introduction to the physics and technology of lasers … Professor Svelto’s book, in this lucid translation by David Hanna, can be strongly recommended for...

  2. Principles of asymmetric synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Gawley, Robert E; Aube, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    The world is chiral. Most of the molecules in it are chiral, and asymmetric synthesis is an important means by which enantiopure chiral molecules may be obtained for study and sale. Using examples from the literature of asymmetric synthesis, this book presents a detailed analysis of the factors that govern stereoselectivity in organic reactions. After an explanation of the basic physical-organic principles governing stereoselective reactions, the authors provide a detailed, annotated glossary of stereochemical terms. A chapter on "Practical Aspects of Asymmetric Synthesis" provides a critical overview of the most common methods for the preparation of enantiomerically pure compounds, techniques for analysis of stereoisomers using chromatographic, spectroscopic, and chiroptical methods. The authors then present an overview of the most important methods in contemporary asymmetric synthesis organized by reaction type. Thus, there are four chapters on carbon-carbon bond forming reactions, one chapter on reductions...

  3. Principles of modern physics

    CERN Document Server

    Saxena, A K

    2014-01-01

    Principles of Modern Physics, divided into twenty one chapters, begins with quantum ideas followed by discussions on special relativity, atomic structure, basic quantum mechanics, hydrogen atom (and Schrodinger equation) and periodic table, the three statistical distributions, X-rays, physics of solids, imperfections in crystals, magnetic properties of materials, superconductivity, Zeeman-, Stark- and Paschen Back- effects, Lasers, Nuclear physics (Yukawa's meson theory and various nuclear models), radioactivity and nuclear reactions, nuclear fission, fusion and plasma, particle accelerators and detectors, the universe, Elementary particles (classification, eight fold way and quark model, standard model and fundamental interactions), cosmic rays, deuteron problem in nuclear physics, and cathode ray oscilloscope. NEW TO THE FOURTH EDITION: The CO2 Laser Theory of magnetic moments on the basis of shell model Geological dating Laser Induced fusion and laser fusion reactor. Hawking radiation The cosmological red ...

  4. Emulsion Science Basic Principles

    CERN Document Server

    Leal-Calderon, Fernando; Schmitt, Véronique

    2007-01-01

    Emulsions are generally made out of two immiscible fluids like oil and water, one being dispersed in the second in the presence of surface-active compounds.They are used as intermediate or end products in a huge range of areas including the food, chemical, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, paint, and coating industries. Besides the broad domain of technological interest, emulsions are raising a variety of fundamental questions at the frontier between physics and chemistry. This book aims to give an overview of the most recent advances in emulsion science. The basic principles, covering aspects of emulsions from their preparation to their destruction, are presented in close relation to both the fundamental physics and the applications of these materials. The book is intended to help scientists and engineers in formulating new materials by giving them the basics of emulsion science.

  5. Principles of Bioenergetics

    CERN Document Server

    Skulachev, Vladimir P; Kasparinsky, Felix O

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Bioenergetics summarizes one of the quickly growing branches of modern biochemistry. Bioenergetics concerns energy transductions occurring in living systems and this book pays special attention to molecular mechanisms of these processes. The main subject of the book is the "energy coupling membrane" which refers to inner membranes of intracellular organelles, for example, mitochondria and chloroplasts. Cellular cytoplasmic membranes where respiratory and photosynthetic energy transducers, as well as ion-transporting ATP-synthases (ATPases) are also part of this membrane. Significant attention is paid to the alternative function of mitochondria as generators of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that mediate programmed death of cells (apoptosis and necrosis) and organisms (phenoptosis). The latter process is considered as a key mechanism of aging which may be suppressed by mitochondria-targeted antioxidants.

  6. Dynamical principles in neuroscience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabinovich, Mikhail I.; Varona, Pablo; Selverston, Allen I.; Abarbanel, Henry D. I.

    2006-01-01

    Dynamical modeling of neural systems and brain functions has a history of success over the last half century. This includes, for example, the explanation and prediction of some features of neural rhythmic behaviors. Many interesting dynamical models of learning and memory based on physiological experiments have been suggested over the last two decades. Dynamical models even of consciousness now exist. Usually these models and results are based on traditional approaches and paradigms of nonlinear dynamics including dynamical chaos. Neural systems are, however, an unusual subject for nonlinear dynamics for several reasons: (i) Even the simplest neural network, with only a few neurons and synaptic connections, has an enormous number of variables and control parameters. These make neural systems adaptive and flexible, and are critical to their biological function. (ii) In contrast to traditional physical systems described by well-known basic principles, first principles governing the dynamics of neural systems are unknown. (iii) Many different neural systems exhibit similar dynamics despite having different architectures and different levels of complexity. (iv) The network architecture and connection strengths are usually not known in detail and therefore the dynamical analysis must, in some sense, be probabilistic. (v) Since nervous systems are able to organize behavior based on sensory inputs, the dynamical modeling of these systems has to explain the transformation of temporal information into combinatorial or combinatorial-temporal codes, and vice versa, for memory and recognition. In this review these problems are discussed in the context of addressing the stimulating questions: What can neuroscience learn from nonlinear dynamics, and what can nonlinear dynamics learn from neuroscience?

  7. Dynamical principles in neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, Mikhail I.; Varona, Pablo; Selverston, Allen I.; Abarbanel, Henry D. I.

    2006-10-01

    Dynamical modeling of neural systems and brain functions has a history of success over the last half century. This includes, for example, the explanation and prediction of some features of neural rhythmic behaviors. Many interesting dynamical models of learning and memory based on physiological experiments have been suggested over the last two decades. Dynamical models even of consciousness now exist. Usually these models and results are based on traditional approaches and paradigms of nonlinear dynamics including dynamical chaos. Neural systems are, however, an unusual subject for nonlinear dynamics for several reasons: (i) Even the simplest neural network, with only a few neurons and synaptic connections, has an enormous number of variables and control parameters. These make neural systems adaptive and flexible, and are critical to their biological function. (ii) In contrast to traditional physical systems described by well-known basic principles, first principles governing the dynamics of neural systems are unknown. (iii) Many different neural systems exhibit similar dynamics despite having different architectures and different levels of complexity. (iv) The network architecture and connection strengths are usually not known in detail and therefore the dynamical analysis must, in some sense, be probabilistic. (v) Since nervous systems are able to organize behavior based on sensory inputs, the dynamical modeling of these systems has to explain the transformation of temporal information into combinatorial or combinatorial-temporal codes, and vice versa, for memory and recognition. In this review these problems are discussed in the context of addressing the stimulating questions: What can neuroscience learn from nonlinear dynamics, and what can nonlinear dynamics learn from neuroscience?

  8. Fault Management Guiding Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, Marilyn E.; Friberg, Kenneth H.; Fesq, Lorraine; Barley, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    Regardless of the mission type: deep space or low Earth orbit, robotic or human spaceflight, Fault Management (FM) is a critical aspect of NASA space missions. As the complexity of space missions grows, the complexity of supporting FM systems increase in turn. Data on recent NASA missions show that development of FM capabilities is a common driver for significant cost overruns late in the project development cycle. Efforts to understand the drivers behind these cost overruns, spearheaded by NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD), indicate that they are primarily caused by the growing complexity of FM systems and the lack of maturity of FM as an engineering discipline. NASA can and does develop FM systems that effectively protect mission functionality and assets. The cost growth results from a lack of FM planning and emphasis by project management, as well the maturity of FM as an engineering discipline, which lags behind the maturity of other engineering disciplines. As a step towards controlling the cost growth associated with FM development, SMD has commissioned a multi-institution team to develop a practitioner's handbook representing best practices for the end-to-end processes involved in engineering FM systems. While currently concentrating primarily on FM for science missions, the expectation is that this handbook will grow into a NASA-wide handbook, serving as a companion to the NASA Systems Engineering Handbook. This paper presents a snapshot of the principles that have been identified to guide FM development from cradle to grave. The principles range from considerations for integrating FM into the project and SE organizational structure, the relationship between FM designs and mission risk, and the use of the various tools of FM (e.g., redundancy) to meet the FM goal of protecting mission functionality and assets.

  9. Psychics, aliens, or experience? Using the Anomalistic Belief Scale to examine the relationship between type of belief and probabilistic reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prike, Toby; Arnold, Michelle M; Williamson, Paul

    2017-08-01

    A growing body of research has shown people who hold anomalistic (e.g., paranormal) beliefs may differ from nonbelievers in their propensity to make probabilistic reasoning errors. The current study explored the relationship between these beliefs and performance through the development of a new measure of anomalistic belief, called the Anomalistic Belief Scale (ABS). One key feature of the ABS is that it includes a balance of both experiential and theoretical belief items. Another aim of the study was to use the ABS to investigate the relationship between belief and probabilistic reasoning errors on conjunction fallacy tasks. As expected, results showed there was a relationship between anomalistic belief and propensity to commit the conjunction fallacy. Importantly, regression analyses on the factors that make up the ABS showed that the relationship between anomalistic belief and probabilistic reasoning occurred only for beliefs about having experienced anomalistic phenomena, and not for theoretical anomalistic beliefs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Possibilities of psychoprophylaxis in epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilikiewicz, A

    1976-01-01

    The psychiatrist should be given also their share in the prevetion of epilepsy by means of raising the psychiatric culture of the society and teaching the population the principles of mental hygiene and psychoprophylaxia. The possibilities of psychiatry in prophylactic management of patients with developed epilepsy include: 1. Energetic measures for controlling attacks which has many psychoprophylactic aspects. 2. Prevention of psychotraumatizing situations leading to secondary neurotic, psychotic and other reactions and behaviour disorders of the type of homilopathy and sociopathy, 3. Counteracting the development of mental and social disability in epileptics. Treatment of epilepsy should be conducted from its very beginning in cooperation with psychiatrists and therapeutic psychologists. The probems of prophylaxis cannot be separated from prophylactic treatment, psychotherapy sociotherapy and rehabilitation.

  11. Beliefs in Miraculous Healings, Religiosity and Meaning in Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Pawlikowski

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Throughout centuries, many interpretations of miraculous healings have been offered by philosophers, theologians, physicians and psychologists. Different approaches to miracles originate from the differences in understanding of causative factors, concepts of nature and the relationship between God and nature. Despite many skeptical arguments, a vast majority of people (approximately 70% in modern Western societies share a belief in miracles and millions of sick people pilgrimage to sanctuaries seeking their occurrence. The aim of the research was to describe the social perception of miraculous healings, and the relationship between beliefs in miraculous healings, religiosity and meaning in life. A survey was conducted on a group of 178 respondents aged 18 to 30 (M = 21.5; SD = 2.31, 90% Catholics. The obtained results show that it is possible to describe the perception of miraculous healings in category of the essence of the causative factors (natural/supranatural and definiteness (defined/undefined. The majority (88% of the respondents believed in miracles and most frequently associated them with God's action/intervention, less often with the still undiscovered possibilities of the human organism or the nature, and the least with medical biases. Respondents with stronger religiosity more often understood miraculous healings as an act of God than the activity of unspecified supernatural powers. Moreover, higher religiosity and understanding of miraculous healings as an effect of the supernatural specified determinant was connected with higher meaning in life.

  12. Paranormal beliefs and religiosity: Chinese version of the Revised Paranormal Belief Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiah, Yung-Jong; Tam, Wai-Cheong Carl; Wu, Ming-Hsun; Chang, Frances

    2010-10-01

    This paper reports an initial study investigating the relations of paranormal beliefs with religiosity in a Chinese sample, as well as the development of a Chinese version of the Revised Paranormal Belief Scale and a test of its psychometric properties with 310 college students (5.5% Christians, 21.3% Buddhists, 61% believers in traditional Chinese religions, and 12% atheists). The reliability and validity of the Chinese version were satisfactory. In general, traditional Chinese religious believers had higher scores on paranormal belief than did Christians and atheists, and the mean total score of the Chinese participants was higher than previously reported in a Western sample. It was concluded that the greater involvement of practitioners of traditional Chinese religions in activities emphasizing paranormal experiences might contribute to their greater paranormal belief, especially as compared to the minority Christian group. The results are consistent with the idea that Christianity may offer the least support for paranormal belief.

  13. Paranormal beliefs of Latvian college students: a Latvian version of the revised paranormal belief scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utinans, A; Ancane, G; Tobacyk, J J; Boyraz, G; Livingston, M M; Tobacyk, J S

    2015-02-01

    A Latvian version of the Revised Paranormal Belief Scale (RPBS) was completed by 229 Latvian university students. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed six relatively independent factors labeled Magical Abilities, Psychokinesis, Traditional Religious Belief, Superstition, Spirit Travel, and Extraordinary Life Forms. Based on the motivational-control model, it was hypothesized that the societal stressors affecting Latvian society during the last 50 yr. have led to a reduced sense of personal control which, in turn, has resulted in increased endorsement of paranormal beliefs to re-establish a sense of control. The motivational-control hypothesis was not supported. Results indicated that (except for Traditional Religious Belief in women), the majority of these students were disbelievers in paranormal phenomena. As hypothesized, Latvian women reported significantly greater paranormal belief than men.

  14. Age and recovery from brain injury: legal opinions, clinical beliefs and experimental evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David A; Rose, F D; Brooks, B M; Eyers, S

    2003-01-01

    Despite considerable scientific evidence to the contrary, many medical practitioners maintain that children recover from brain injury better than adults. This belief, which is commonly referred to as the "Kennard Principle", has important ramifications for personal injury compensation claims in which the amount of financial damages claimed is partly based on medical experts' prognoses for recovery and long-term outcome. The present study investigated whether legal practitioners' beliefs are consistent with those of medical practitioners. Lawyers were asked to estimate their confidence in consultant neurologists' estimates of recovery in four clinically-based but fictitious case studies which differed only in the reported age of the patient. The lawyers showed more confidence in estimates which coincided with the Kennard Principle than those which did not. These results support previous findings in showing widespread belief that "younger is better" in recovery from brain injury. In consequence, it is likely that financial compensation for children with brain injury is currently being underestimated in litigation, thereby prejudicing the long-term outcome of the child.

  15. Possibilities, advantages and disadvantages of application FEM in nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankovic, D.

    1997-01-01

    Possibilities of applying the finite element method in nuclear technology are shown in this paper. It has an example of application numerical procedure in fluid mechanics and description of its basic principles. (author)

  16. Shared leadership and group identification in healthcare: The leadership beliefs of clinicians working in interprofessional teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Craig; Mason, Barbara

    2017-05-01

    Despite the proposed benefits of applying shared and distributed leadership models in healthcare, few studies have explored the leadership beliefs of clinicians and ascertained whether differences exist between professions. The current article aims to address these gaps and, additionally, examine whether clinicians' leadership beliefs are associated with the strength of their professional and team identifications. An online survey was responded to by 229 healthcare workers from community interprofessional teams in mental health settings across the East of England. No differences emerged between professional groups in their leadership beliefs; all professions reported a high level of agreement with shared leadership. A positive association emerged between professional identification and shared leadership in that participants who expressed the strongest level of profession identification also reported the greatest agreement with shared leadership. The same association was demonstrated for team identification and shared leadership. The findings highlight the important link between group identification and leadership beliefs, suggesting that strategies that promote strong professional and team identifications in interprofessional teams are likely to be conducive to clinicians supporting principles of shared leadership. Future research is needed to strengthen this link and examine the leadership practices of healthcare workers.

  17. Functional neuroimaging of belief, disbelief, and uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Sam; Sheth, Sameer A; Cohen, Mark S

    2008-02-01

    The difference between believing and disbelieving a proposition is one of the most potent regulators of human behavior and emotion. When one accepts a statement as true, it becomes the basis for further thought and action; rejected as false, it remains a string of words. The purpose of this study was to differentiate belief, disbelief, and uncertainty at the level of the brain. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study the brains of 14 adults while they judged written statements to be "true" (belief), "false" (disbelief), or "undecidable" (uncertainty). To characterize belief, disbelief, and uncertainty in a content-independent manner, we included statements from a wide range of categories: autobiographical, mathematical, geographical, religious, ethical, semantic, and factual. The states of belief, disbelief, and uncertainty differentially activated distinct regions of the prefrontal and parietal cortices, as well as the basal ganglia. Belief and disbelief differ from uncertainty in that both provide information that can subsequently inform behavior and emotion. The mechanism underlying this difference appears to involve the anterior cingulate cortex and the caudate. Although many areas of higher cognition are likely involved in assessing the truth-value of linguistic propositions, the final acceptance of a statement as "true" or its rejection as "false" appears to rely on more primitive, hedonic processing in the medial prefrontal cortex and the anterior insula. Truth may be beauty, and beauty truth, in more than a metaphorical sense, and false propositions may actually disgust us.

  18. Linking unfounded beliefs to genetic dopamine availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmack, Katharina; Rössler, Hannes; Sekutowicz, Maria; Brandl, Eva J.; Müller, Daniel J.; Petrovic, Predrag; Sterzer, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Unfounded convictions involving beliefs in the paranormal, grandiosity ideas or suspicious thoughts are endorsed at varying degrees among the general population. Here, we investigated the neurobiopsychological basis of the observed inter-individual variability in the propensity toward unfounded beliefs. One hundred two healthy individuals were genotyped for four polymorphisms in the COMT gene (rs6269, rs4633, rs4818, and rs4680, also known as val158met) that define common functional haplotypes with substantial impact on synaptic dopamine degradation, completed a questionnaire measuring unfounded beliefs, and took part in a behavioral experiment assessing perceptual inference. We found that greater dopamine availability was associated with a stronger propensity toward unfounded beliefs, and that this effect was statistically mediated by an enhanced influence of expectations on perceptual inference. Our results indicate that genetic differences in dopaminergic neurotransmission account for inter-individual differences in perceptual inference linked to the formation and maintenance of unfounded beliefs. Thus, dopamine might be critically involved in the processes underlying one's interpretation of the relationship between the self and the world. PMID:26483654

  19. Linking unfounded beliefs to genetic dopamine availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina eSchmack

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Unfounded convictions involving beliefs in the paranormal, grandiosity ideas or suspicious thoughts are endorsed at varying degrees among the general population. Here, we investigated the neurobiopsychological basis of the observed inter-individual variability in the propensity towards unfounded beliefs. 109 healthy individuals were genotyped for four polymorphisms in the COMT gene (rs6269, rs4633, rs4818 and rs4680, also known as val158met that define common functional haplotypes with substantial impact on synaptic dopamine degradation, completed a questionnaire measuring unfounded beliefs, and took part in a behavioural experiment assessing perceptual inference. We found that greater dopamine availability was associated with a stronger propensity towards unfounded beliefs, and that this effect was mediated by an enhanced influence of expectations on perceptual inference. Our results indicate that genetic differences in dopaminergic neurotransmission account for inter-individual differences in perceptual inference linked to the formation and maintenance of unfounded beliefs. Thus, dopamine might be critically involved in the processes underlying one's interpretation of the relationship between the self and the world.

  20. [The precautionary principle: advantages and risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubiana, M

    2001-04-01

    The extension of the precautionary principle to the field of healthcare is the social response to two demands of the population: improved health safety and the inclusion of an informed public in the decision-making process. The necessary balance between cost (treatment-induced risk) and benefit (therapeutic effect) underlies all healthcare decisions. An underestimation or an overestimation of cost, i.e. risk, is equally harmful in public healthcare. A vaccination should be prescribed when its beneficial effect outweighs its inevitable risk. Mandatory vaccination, such as in the case of the Hepatitis B virus, is a health policy requiring some courage because those who benefit will never be aware of its positive effect while those who are victims of the risk could resort to litigation. Defense against such accusations requires an accurate assessment of risk and benefit, which underlines the importance of expertise. Even within the framework of the precautionary principle, it is impossible to act without knowledge, or at least a plausible estimation, of expected effects. Recent affairs (blood contamination, transmissible spongiform encephalitis by growth hormone, and new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease) illustrate that in such cases the precautionary principle would have had limited impact and it is only when enough knowledge was available that effective action could be taken. Likewise, in current debates concerning the possible risks of electromagnetic fields, cellular phones and radon, research efforts must be given priority. The general public understands intuitively the concept of cost and benefit. For example, the possible health risks of oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy were not ignored, but the public has judged that their advantages justify the risk. Estimating risk and benefit and finding a balance between risk and preventive measures could help avoid the main drawbacks of the precautionary principle, i.e. inaction and refusal of

  1. False belief reasoning in the brain: An ERP study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Understanding others mind and interpersonal interaction are the cognitive basis of successful social interactions. People’s mental states and behaviors rely on their holding beliefs for self and others. To investigate the neural substrates of false belief reasoning, the 32 channels event-related potentials (ERP) of 14 normal adults were measured while they understood false-belief and true belief used de-ceptive appearance task. After onset of the false-belief or true-belief questions, N100, P200 and late negative component (LNC) were elicited at centro-frontal sites. Compared with true belief, false belief reasoning elicited significant declined LNC in the time window from 400 to 800 ms. The source analysis of difference wave (False minus True) showed a dipole located in the middle cingulated cortex. These findings show that false belief reasoning probably included inhibitive process.

  2. False belief reasoning in the brain: An ERP study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Understanding others mind and interpersonal interaction are the cognitive basis of successful social interactions. People's mental states and behaviors rely on their holding beliefs for self and others. To investigate the neural substrates of false belief reasoning, the 32 channels event-related potentials (ERP) of 14 normal adults were measured while they understood false-belief and true belief used deceptive appearance task. After onset of the false-belief or true-belief questions, N100, P200 and late negative component (LNC) were elicited at centro-frontal sites. Compared with true belief, false belief reasoning elicited significant declined LNC in the time window from 400 to 800 ms. The source analysis of difference wave (False minus True) showed a dipole located in the middle cingulated cortex. These findings show that false belief reasoning probably included inhibitive process.

  3. Pedagogical Principles in Online Teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beckmann, Suzanne C.; Uth Thomsen, Thyra; von Wallpach, Sylvia

    of the seven pedagogical principles that govern the teaching at our university. We also present a case study that illustrates how both opportunities and challenges were met in two “first-mover” fully online courses during Fall 2014. The experiences from this case study are discussed in terms of to what extent...... they met the pedagogical principles and observations unrelated to the pedagogical principle are shared....

  4. General Quantum Interference Principle and Duality Computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long Guilu

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we propose a general principle of quantum interference for quantum system, and based on this we propose a new type of computing machine, the duality computer, that may outperform in principle both classical computer and the quantum computer. According to the general principle of quantum interference, the very essence of quantum interference is the interference of the sub-waves of the quantum system itself. A quantum system considered here can be any quantum system: a single microscopic particle, a composite quantum system such as an atom or a molecule, or a loose collection of a few quantum objects such as two independent photons. In the duality computer, the wave of the duality computer is split into several sub-waves and they pass through different routes, where different computing gate operations are performed. These sub-waves are then re-combined to interfere to give the computational results. The quantum computer, however, has only used the particle nature of quantum object. In a duality computer, it may be possible to find a marked item from an unsorted database using only a single query, and all NP-complete problems may have polynomial algorithms. Two proof-of-the-principle designs of the duality computer are presented: the giant molecule scheme and the nonlinear quantum optics scheme. We also propose thought experiment to check the related fundamental issues, the measurement efficiency of a partial wave function.

  5. Rasch scaling paranormal belief and experience: structure and semantics of Thalbourne's Australian Sheep-Goat Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Rense; Thalbourne, Michael A

    2002-12-01

    Research on the relation between demographic variables and paranormal belief remains controversial given the possible semantic distortions introduced by item and test level biases. We illustrate how Rasch scaling can be used to detect such biases and to quantify their effects, using the Australian Sheep-Goal Scale as a substantive example. Based on data from 1.822 respondents, this test was Rasch scalable, reliable, and unbiased at the test level. Consistent with other research in which unbiased measures of paranormal belief were used, extremely weak age and sex effects were found (partial eta2 = .005 and .012, respectively).

  6. Great Lakes Literacy Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Manzo, Lyndsey

    2011-03-01

    Lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, Ontario, and Erie together form North America's Great Lakes, a region that contains 20% of the world's fresh surface water and is home to roughly one quarter of the U.S. population (Figure 1). Supporting a $4 billion sport fishing industry, plus $16 billion annually in boating, 1.5 million U.S. jobs, and $62 billion in annual wages directly, the Great Lakes form the backbone of a regional economy that is vital to the United States as a whole (see http://www.miseagrant.umich.edu/downloads/economy/11-708-Great-Lakes-Jobs.pdf). Yet the grandeur and importance of this freshwater resource are little understood, not only by people in the rest of the country but also by many in the region itself. To help address this lack of knowledge, the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Great Lakes, supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, developed literacy principles for the Great Lakes to serve as a guide for education of students and the public. These “Great Lakes Literacy Principles” represent an understanding of the Great Lakes' influences on society and society's influences on the Great Lakes.

  7. Advertisement without Ethical Principles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Słomski

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The article replies to the question, whether the advertisement can exist without ethical principles or ethics should be the basis of the advertisement. One can say that the ethical opinion of the advertisement does not depend on content and the form of advertising content exclusively, but also on recipients consciousness. The advertisement appeals to the emotions more than to the intellect, thus restricting the area of conscious and based on rational premises choice, so it is morally bad. It is not that the moral evil immanently underlines the advertisement, but it concerns the mechanisms which cause that the advertisement turns out to be effective. The only admissible form of the advertisement would be the reliable full information about the advantages and flaws of the concrete advertised product. The only admissible form of the advertisement would be the reliable full information about the advantages and defects of the concrete advertised product. The most serious difficulty connected with the ethical opinion of the advertisement is the fact that the advertisement is the indispensable link of the present economy, and everyone who accepts the free market and perceives the positives of the economic growth, should also accept the advertisement. The advertisement constitutes the element of the economic activity, so in consequence the responsibility first of all lies with enterprises for its far-reaching results.

  8. Principles of Bioremediation Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, E. L.

    2001-12-01

    Although microorganisms have successfully and spontaneously maintained the biosphere since its inception, industrialized societies now produce undesirable chemical compounds at rates that outpace naturally occurring microbial detoxification processes. This presentation provides an overview of both the complexities of contaminated sites and methodological limitations in environmental microbiology that impede the documentation of biodegradation processes in the field. An essential step toward attaining reliable bioremediation technologies is the development of criteria which prove that microorganisms in contaminated field sites are truly active in metabolizing contaminants of interest. These criteria, which rely upon genetic, biochemical, physiological, and ecological principles and apply to both in situ and ex situ bioremediation strategies include: (i) internal conservative tracers; (ii) added conservative tracers; (iii) added radioactive tracers; (iv) added isotopic tracers; (v) stable isotopic fractionation patterns; (vi) detection of intermediary metabolites; (vii) replicated field plots; (viii) microbial metabolic adaptation; (ix) molecular biological indicators; (x) gradients of coreactants and/or products; (xi) in situ rates of respiration; (xii) mass balances of contaminants, coreactants, and products; and (xiii) computer modeling that incorporates transport and reactive stoichiometries of electron donors and acceptors. The ideal goal is achieving a quantitative understanding of the geochemistry, hydrogeology, and physiology of complex real-world systems.

  9. Quantum principles and particles

    CERN Document Server

    Wilcox, Walter

    2012-01-01

    QUANTUM PRINCIPLESPerspective and PrinciplesPrelude to Quantum MechanicsStern-Gerlach Experiment Idealized Stern-Gerlach ResultsClassical Model AttemptsWave Functions for Two Physical-Outcome CaseProcess Diagrams, Operators, and Completeness Further Properties of Operators/ModulationOperator ReformulationOperator RotationBra-Ket Notation/Basis StatesTransition AmplitudesThree-Magnet Setup Example-CoherenceHermitian ConjugationUnitary OperatorsA Very Special OperatorMatrix RepresentationsMatrix Wave Function RecoveryExpectation ValuesWrap Up ProblemsFree Particles in One DimensionPhotoelectric EffectCompton EffectUncertainty Relation for PhotonsStability of Ground StatesBohr ModelFourier Transform and Uncertainty RelationsSchrödinger EquationSchrödinger Equation ExampleDirac Delta FunctionsWave Functions and ProbabilityProbability CurrentTime Separable SolutionsCompleteness for Particle StatesParticle Operator PropertiesOperator RulesTime Evolution and Expectation ValuesWrap-UpProblemsSome One-Dimensional So...

  10. The iceberg principles

    CERN Document Server

    Spencer-Devlin, Marni

    2013-01-01

    The Iceberg Principles connect spirituality and science in a way that proves that the energy, which is the substance of the Universe, really is Love - not sweet, syrupy, candy-and-roses kind of love but the most powerful force in the Universe. Love without expression is meaningless. This is why the Big Bang was the only logical outcome. Love had to become reflected in dimensionality. With the Big Bang a 4:96 ratio was created between the dimensional and non-dimensional realms. This ratio between visibility and invisibility the ratio of an iceberg also applies to human beings. Only four percent of who we are is visible. Our physical DNA describes us but it does not define us. What defines us are our characteristics, our gifts, and talents - the spiritual DNA. This is invisible but makes up ninety-six percent of who we are. Our talents are not accidental; our life purpose is to express them. Just as the Universe emerges into dimensionality, constantly creating galaxies at millions of miles a minute, we are al...

  11. Principles of alternative gerontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilinski, Tomasz; Bylak, Aneta; Zadrag-Tecza, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Surveys of taxonomic groups of animals have shown that contrary to the opinion of most gerontologists aging is not a genuine trait. The process of aging is not universal and its mechanisms have not been widely conserved among species. All life forms are subject to extrinsic and intrinsic destructive forces. Destructive effects of stochastic events are visible only when allowed by the specific life program of an organism. Effective life programs of immortality and high longevity eliminate the impact of unavoidable damage. Organisms that are capable of agametic reproduction are biologically immortal. Mortality of an organism is clearly associated with terminal specialisation in sexual reproduction. The longevity phenotype that is not accompanied by symptoms of senescence has been observed in those groups of animals that continue to increase their body size after reaching sexual maturity. This is the result of enormous regeneration abilities of both of the above-mentioned groups. Senescence is observed when: (i) an organism by principle switches off the expression of existing growth and regeneration programs, as in the case of imago formation in insect development; (ii) particular programs of growth and regeneration of progenitors are irreversibly lost, either partially or in their entirety, in mammals and birds. “We can't solve problems by using the same kind of thinking we used when we created them.” (Ascribed to Albert Einstein) PMID:27017907

  12. Experimental toxicology: the basic principles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anderson, Diana; Conning, D. M

    1988-01-01

    Principles and methods are discussed in detail, covering experimental design, biochemical issues, animal husbandry, species differences, immunological issues, carcinogenesis, reproductive approaches...

  13. Using Principles of Programmed Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Harry

    1971-01-01

    Although programmed instruction in accounting is available, it is limited in scope and in acceptance. Teachers, however, may apply principles of programming to the individualizing of instruction. (Author)

  14. Fundamental principles of quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugajski, S.

    1980-01-01

    After introducing general versions of three fundamental quantum postulates - the superposition principle, the uncertainty principle and the complementarity principle - the question of whether the three principles are sufficiently strong to restrict the general Mackey description of quantum systems to the standard Hilbert-space quantum theory is discussed. An example which shows that the answer must be negative is constructed. An abstract version of the projection postulate is introduced and it is demonstrated that it could serve as the missing physical link between the general Mackey description and the standard quantum theory. (author)

  15. Examining Belief and Confidence in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Dan W.; Averbeck, Bruno B.; Frith, Chris D.; Shergill, Sukhwinder S.

    2018-01-01

    Background People with psychoses often report fixed, delusional beliefs that are sustained even in the presence of unequivocal contrary evidence. Such delusional beliefs are the result of integrating new and old evidence inappropriately in forming a cognitive model. We propose and test a cognitive model of belief formation using experimental data from an interactive “Rock Paper Scissors” game. Methods Participants (33 controls and 27 people with schizophrenia) played a competitive, time-pressured interactive two-player game (Rock, Paper, Scissors). Participant’s behavior was modeled by a generative computational model using leaky-integrator and temporal difference methods. This model describes how new and old evidence is integrated to form both a playing strategy to beat the opponent and provide a mechanism for reporting confidence in one’s playing strategy to win against the opponent Results People with schizophrenia fail to appropriately model their opponent’s play despite consistent (rather than random) patterns that can be exploited in the simulated opponent’s play. This is manifest as a failure to weigh existing evidence appropriately against new evidence. Further, participants with schizophrenia show a ‘jumping to conclusions’ bias, reporting successful discovery of a winning strategy with insufficient evidence. Conclusions The model presented suggests two tentative mechanisms in delusional belief formation – i) one for modeling patterns in other’s behavior, where people with schizophrenia fail to use old evidence appropriately and ii) a meta-cognitive mechanism for ‘confidence’ in such beliefs where people with schizophrenia overweight recent reward history in deciding on the value of beliefs about the opponent. PMID:23521846

  16. Beliefs underlying Women's intentions to consume alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydon, Helen M; Obst, Patricia L; Lewis, Ioni

    2016-07-13

    Changing trends demonstrate that women, in a number of economically-developed countries, are drinking at higher levels than ever before. Exploring key targets for intervention, this study examined the extent to which underlying beliefs in relation to alcohol consumption predicted intentions to drink in three different ways (i.e. low risk drinking, frequent drinking and binge drinking). Utilizing a prospective design survey, women (N = 1069), aged 18-87 years, completed a questionnaire measuring their beliefs and intentions regarding alcohol consumption. Then, two weeks later, 845 of the original sample, completed a follow-up questionnaire reporting their engagement in the drinking behaviors. A mixed design ANOVA was conducted to examine potential differences between women of different age groups (18-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55 years and above) and their intentions to engage in the three different drinking behaviors. Based upon The Theory of Planned Behavior, critical beliefs analyses were carried out to identify key determinants underlying intentions to engage in the three different drinking behaviors. Significant effects of age were found in relation to frequent and binge drinking. The critical beliefs analyses revealed that a number of behavioral, control and normative beliefs were significant predictors of intentions. These beliefs varied according to age group and drinking behavior. Previously unidentified key factors that influence women's decisions to drink in certain ways have been established. Overall, future interventions and public policy may be better tailored so as to address specific age groups and drinking behaviors.

  17. Deontological principles in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlov, A.S.

    1988-01-01

    Deontological aspects of radiotherapeutic treatment of oncologic patients are presented. It is shown, that recently radiography has developed essentially and has become the radical treatment of malignant tumors. Specification of problems concerning therapeutic complex of every type, as well as, accounting and prevention of possible side-effects are actual now. Radiologist knowledge about patients mental state is an important factor. The necessity to concern the problems of general mental atmosphere in radiological institution is considered

  18. Cosmic rays and tests of fundamental principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Mestres, Luis

    2011-03-01

    It is now widely acknowledged that cosmic rays experiments can test possible new physics directly generated at the Planck scale or at some other fundamental scale. By studying particle properties at energies far beyond the reach of any man-made accelerator, they can yield unique checks of basic principles. A well-known example is provided by possible tests of special relativity at the highest cosmic-ray energies. But other essential ingredients of standard theories can in principle be tested: quantum mechanics, uncertainty principle, energy and momentum conservation, effective space-time dimensions, hamiltonian and lagrangian formalisms, postulates of cosmology, vacuum dynamics and particle propagation, quark and gluon confinement, elementariness of particles…Standard particle physics or string-like patterns may have a composite origin able to manifest itself through specific cosmic-ray signatures. Ultra-high energy cosmic rays, but also cosmic rays at lower energies, are probes of both "conventional" and new Physics. Status, prospects, new ideas, and open questions in the field are discussed.

  19. Cosmic rays and tests of fundamental principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Mestres, Luis

    2011-01-01

    It is now widely acknowledged that cosmic rays experiments can test possible new physics directly generated at the Planck scale or at some other fundamental scale. By studying particle properties at energies far beyond the reach of any man-made accelerator, they can yield unique checks of basic principles. A well-known example is provided by possible tests of special relativity at the highest cosmic-ray energies. But other essential ingredients of standard theories can in principle be tested: quantum mechanics, uncertainty principle, energy and momentum conservation, effective space-time dimensions, hamiltonian and lagrangian formalisms, postulates of cosmology, vacuum dynamics and particle propagation, quark and gluon confinement, elementariness of particles... Standard particle physics or string-like patterns may have a composite origin able to manifest itself through specific cosmic-ray signatures. Ultra-high energy cosmic rays, but also cosmic rays at lower energies, are probes of both 'conventional' and new Physics. Status, prospects, new ideas, and open questions in the field are discussed.

  20. Smoking beliefs and behavior among youth in Malaysia and Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Carla M; Hammond, David; Fong, Geoffrey T; Borland, Ron; Omar, Maizurah; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Awang, Rahmat; Driezen, Pete; Thompson, Mary

    2009-01-01

    To characterize smoking beliefs among Thai and Malaysian youth and to examine associations with gender, antismoking media exposure, and smoking status. Nationally representative samples of youth completed self-administered questionnaires. A substantial proportion of youth reported positive beliefs about smoking. Those reporting positive beliefs were more likely to be susceptible to smoking. Youth who noticed antismoking media were less likely to report positive beliefs about smoking. As in Western countries, beliefs about smoking held by youth in Southeast Asia are associated with smoking status. Antismoking media may be an important means of targeting beliefs about smoking among youth.