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Sample records for beliefs predict collaborative

  1. Efficacy beliefs predict collaborative practice among intensive care unit nurses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Blanc, Pascale M.; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.; Salanova, Marisa; Llorens, Susana; Nap, Raoul E.

    2010-01-01

    P>Aim. This paper is a report of an investigation of whether intensive care nurses' efficacy beliefs predict future collaborative practice, and to test the potential mediating role of team commitment in this relationship. Background. Recent empirical studies in the field of work and organizational p

  2. Solar Insolation Prediction through Deep Belief Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Carlos Ruiz Cárdenas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The continued development of computational tools offers the possibility to execute processes with the ability to carry out activities more efficiently, exactness and precision. Between these tools there is the neural architecture, Deep Belief Network (DBN, designed to collaborate in the development of prediction technics to find information that allows to study the behavior of the natural phenomena, such as the solar insolation. This paper presents the obtained results when using the DBN architecture for solar insolation prediction, simulated through the programming tool Visual Studio C#, showing the deep level that this architecture has, how it affects the number of layers and neurons per layer in the training and the results to predict the desired values in 2014, with errors close to 2% and faster to training, respect to errors obtained through conventional methods for neural training, which are about 5% and take long periods of training.

  3. Collaborative Learning in Higher Education: Lecturers' Practices and Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Hei, Miranda Suzanna Angelique; Strijbos, Jan-Willem; Sjoer, Ellen; Admiraal, Wilfried

    2015-01-01

    Collaborative learning can, if designed and implemented properly, contribute to student learning outcomes and prepare them for teamwork. However, the design and implementation of collaborative learning in practice depend on beliefs of lecturers about teaching and learning in general, and collaborative learning in particular. One hundred and…

  4. Ontological confusions but not mentalizing abilities predict religious belief, paranormal belief, and belief in supernatural purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Marjaana; Svedholm-Häkkinen, Annika M; Lipsanen, Jari

    2015-01-01

    The current research tested the hypothesis that the abilities for understanding other people's minds give rise to the cognitive biases that underlie supernatural beliefs. We used structural equation modeling (N=2789) to determine the roles of various mentalizing tendencies, namely self-reported affective and cognitive empathy (i.e., mind reading), actual cognitive and affective empathic abilities, hyper-empathizing, and two cognitive biases (core ontological confusions and promiscuous teleology) in giving rise to supernatural beliefs. Support for a path from mentalizing abilities through cognitive biases to supernatural beliefs was weak. The relationships of mentalizing abilities with supernatural beliefs were also weak, and these relationships were not substantially mediated by cognitive biases. Core ontological confusions emerged as the best predictor, while promiscuous teleology predicted only a small proportion of variance. The results were similar for religious beliefs, paranormal beliefs, and for belief in supernatural purpose.

  5. CERAPP: Collaborative Estrogen Receptor Activity Prediction Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data from a large-scale modeling project called CERAPP (Collaborative Estrogen Receptor Activity Prediction Project) demonstrating using predictive computational...

  6. Gender differences in collaborative learning over online social networks: Epistemological beliefs and behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Y.-Y. Chan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Online social networks are popular venues for computer-supported collaborative work and computer-supported collaborative learning. Professionals within the same discipline, such as software developers, often interact over various social network sites for knowledge updates and collective understandings. The current study aims at gathering empirical evidences concerning gender differences in online social network beliefs and behaviors. A total of 53 engineering postgraduate students were engaged in a blogging community for collaborative learning. Participants’ beliefs about collaboration and nature of knowledge and knowing (i.e. epistemological beliefs are investigated. More specifically, social network analysis metrics including in-degree, out-degree, closeness centrality, and betweenness centrality are obtained from an 8-interval longitudinal SNA. Methodologically speaking, the current work puts forward mixed methods of longitudinal SNA and quantitative beliefs survey to explore online social network participants’ beliefs and behaviors. The study’s findings demonstrate significant gender differences in collaborative learning through online social networks, including (1 female engineering postgraduate students engage significantly more actively in online communications, (2 male engineering postgraduate students are more likely to be the potential controllers of information flows, and (3 gender differences exist in belief gains related to social aspects, but not individual's epistemic aspects. Overall, participants in both genders demonstrated enhanced beliefs in collaboration as well as the nature of knowledge and knowing.

  7. Illness Beliefs Predict Mortality in Patients with Diabetic Foot Ulcers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedhara, Kavita; Dawe, Karen; Miles, Jeremy N. V.; Wetherell, Mark A.; Cullum, Nicky; Dayan, Colin; Drake, Nicola; Price, Patricia; Tarlton, John; Weinman, John; Day, Andrew; Campbell, Rona; Reps, Jenna; Soria, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients’ illness beliefs have been associated with glycaemic control in diabetes and survival in other conditions. Objective We examined whether illness beliefs independently predicted survival in patients with diabetes and foot ulceration. Methods Patients (n = 169) were recruited between 2002 and 2007. Data on illness beliefs were collected at baseline. Data on survival were extracted on 1st November 2011. Number of days survived reflected the number of days from date of recruitment to 1st November 2011. Results Cox regressions examined the predictors of time to death and identified ischemia and identity beliefs (beliefs regarding symptoms associated with foot ulceration) as significant predictors of time to death. Conclusions Our data indicate that illness beliefs have a significant independent effect on survival in patients with diabetes and foot ulceration. These findings suggest that illness beliefs could improve our understanding of mortality risk in this patient group and could also be the basis for future therapeutic interventions to improve survival. PMID:27096609

  8. A Case Study Examining Change in Teacher Beliefs Through Collaborative Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaino, Katrin; Holbrook, Jack; Rannikmäe, Miia

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to explore the role of collaborative action research in eliciting change in teacher beliefs. The beliefs were those of five chemistry teachers in implementing a new teaching approach, geared to enhancing students' scientific and technological literacy (STL). The teacher beliefs were analysed based on Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behaviour (2005) by looking at the teacher's (a) attitude towards implementing STL modules, (b) perceived subjective norms, and (c) behavioural control regarding the new teaching approach. After an introductory year, when teachers familiarised themselves with the new approach, a collaborative action research project was initiated in the second year of the study, helping teachers to minimise or overcome initially perceived constraints when implementing STL modules in their classroom. The processes of teacher change and the course of the project were investigated by teacher interviews, teacher informal commentaries, and meeting records. The formation of positive beliefs towards a STL approach increased continuously, although its extent and character varied depending on the teacher. The close cooperation, in the format of collaborative action research and especially through teacher group reflections and perceived collegial support, did support teacher professional development including change in their beliefs towards the new teaching approach. Additionally, positive feedback gained from other teachers through running a two-day in-service course in year three helped to strengthen all five teachers' existing beliefs towards the new approach. The current research demonstrated that perceived constraints, where identified, can be meaningfully addressed by teachers, through undertaking collaborative action research.

  9. Metacognition Beliefs and General Health in Predicting Alexithymia in Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaei, Samaneh; Ranjbar Varandi, Shahryar; Hatami, Zohre; Gharechahi, Maryam

    2015-06-12

    The present study was conducted to investigate the role of metacognition beliefs and general health in alexithymia in Iranian students. This descriptive and correlational study included 200 participants of high schools students, selected randomly from students of two cities (Sari and Dargaz), Iran. Metacognitive Strategies Questionnaire (MCQ-30); the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and Farsi Version of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) were used for gathering the data. Using the Pearson's correlation method and regression, the data were analyzed. The findings indicated significant positive relationships between alexithymia and all subscales of general health. The highest correlation was between alexithymia and anxiety subscale (r=0.36, Pmetacognitive strategies. The highest significant negative relationship was seen between alexithymia and the sub-scale of risk uncontrollability (r=-0.359, P Metacognition beliefs predicted about 8% of the variance of alexithymia (β=-0.028, Pmetacognition beliefs and general health had important role in predicting of alexithymia in students.

  10. Folk beliefs about genetic variation predict avoidance of biracial individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia K Kang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available People give widely varying estimates for the amount of genetic overlap that exists between humans. While some laypeople believe that humans are highly genetically similar to one another, others believe that humans share very little genetic overlap. These studies examine how beliefs about genetic overlap affect neural and evaluative reactions to racially-ambiguous and biracial targets. In Study 1, we found that lower genetic overlap estimates predicted a stronger neural avoidance response to biracial compared to monoracial targets. In Study 2, we found that lower genetic overlap estimates predicted longer response times to classify biracial (versus monoracial faces into racial categories. In Study 3, we manipulated genetic overlap beliefs and found that participants in the low overlap condition explicitly rated biracial targets more negatively than those in the high overlap condition. Taken together, these data suggest that genetic overlap beliefs influence perceivers’ processing fluency and evaluation of biracial and racially-ambiguous individuals.

  11. Aggregation of Information and Beliefs in Prediction Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottaviani, Marco; Sørensen, Peter Norman

    We analyze a binary prediction market in which traders have heterogeneous prior beliefs and private information. Realistically, we assume that traders are allowed to invest a limited amount of money (or have decreasing absolute risk aversion). We show that the rational expectations equilibrium...... price underreacts to information. When favorable information to an event is available and is revealed by the market, the price increases and this forces optimists to reduce the number of assets they can (or want to) buy. For the market to equilibrate, the price must increase less than a posterior belief...

  12. A Collaborative Mechanism for Crowdsourcing Prediction Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Abernethy, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Machine Learning competitions such as the Netflix Prize have proven reasonably successful as a method of "crowdsourcing" prediction tasks. But these competitions have a number of weaknesses, particularly in the incentive structure they create for the participants. We propose a new approach, called a Crowdsourced Learning Mechanism, in which participants collaboratively "learn" a hypothesis for a given prediction task. The approach draws heavily from the concept of a prediction market, where traders bet on the likelihood of a future event. In our framework, the mechanism continues to publish the current hypothesis, and participants can modify this hypothesis by wagering on an update. The critical incentive property is that a participant will profit an amount that scales according to how much her update improves performance on a released test set.

  13. CERAPP: Collaborative estrogen receptor activity prediction project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Kamel; Abdelaziz, Ahmed; Rybacka, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Humans are exposed to thousands of man-made chemicals in the environment. Some chemicals mimic natural endocrine hormones and, thus, have the potential to be endocrine disruptors. Most of these chemicals have never been tested for their ability to interact with the estrogen receptor (ER......). Risk assessors need tools to prioritize chemicals for evaluation in costly in vivo tests, for instance, within the U.S. EPA Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program. oBjectives: We describe a large-scale modeling project called CERAPP (Collaborative Estrogen Receptor Activity Prediction Project...

  14. Implicit beliefs about ideal body image predict body image dissatisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Heider, Niclas; Spruyt, Adriaan; De Houwer, Jan

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether implicit measures of actual and ideal body image can be used to predict body dissatisfaction in young female adults. Participants completed two Implicit Relational Assessment Procedures (IRAPs) to examine their implicit beliefs concerning actual (e.g., I am thin) and desired ideal body image (e.g., I want to be thin). Body dissatisfaction was examined via self-report questionnaires and rating scales. As expected, differences in body dissatisfaction exerted a differential i...

  15. Implicit Beliefs about Ideal Body Image Predict Body Image Dissatisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Niclas eHeider; Adriaan eSpruyt; Jan eDe Houwer

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether implicit measures of actual and ideal body image can be used to predict body dissatisfaction in young female adults. Participants completed two Implicit Relational Assessment Procedures (IRAPs) to examine their implicit beliefs concerning actual (e.g., I am thin) and desired ideal body image (e.g., I want to be thin). Body dissatisfaction was examined via self-report questionnaires and rating scales. As expected, differences in body dissatisfaction exerted a differential i...

  16. Betting and Belief: Prediction Markets and Attribution of Climate Change

    CERN Document Server

    Nay, John J; Gilligan, Jonathan M

    2016-01-01

    Despite much scientific evidence, a large fraction of the American public doubts that greenhouse gases are causing global warming. We present a simulation model as a computational test-bed for climate prediction markets. Traders adapt their beliefs about future temperatures based on the profits of other traders in their social network. We simulate two alternative climate futures, in which global temperatures are primarily driven either by carbon dioxide or by solar irradiance. These represent, respectively, the scientific consensus and a hypothesis advanced by prominent skeptics. We conduct sensitivity analyses to determine how a variety of factors describing both the market and the physical climate may affect traders' beliefs about the cause of global climate change. Market participation causes most traders to converge quickly toward believing the "true" climate model, suggesting that a climate market could be useful for building public consensus.

  17. Influence of the Kansas Collaborative Research Network on teacher beliefs, instructional practices and technology integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Gary G.

    Student-centered inquiry has been advocated for a lengthy period of time, through various waves of reform, and in 1996 was included in the vision of the National Science Education Standards. In 1997, the United States Department of Education awarded Kansas City, Kansas Public Schools a Technology Innovation Challenge Grant to support the Kansas Collaborative Research Network (KanCRN), which was an attempt to fulfill this vision by engaging teachers and students in scientific inquiry. KanCRN supported inquiry by providing teachers of various disciplines with project-based professional development, on-line curriculum and research tools, mentors, materials and equipment. This study examines the influences of KanCRN interventions on teachers' beliefs, classroom practices, technology skill-efficacies, and the integration of technology into classroom practices. Background characteristics of teachers and the influence of contemporary school-based professional development also were included in the research in order to evaluate and compare their impact on participation in KanCRN and the teacher outcome variables. Survey data collected on participation in professional development, beliefs and teaching practices were analyzed using a process that included: (a) factor analysis to assure reliability of constructs, (b) generation of theoretical models, and (c) analysis of those models using structural equation analysis. Longitudinal data concerning teacher beliefs and practices also were examined with a paired-comparison t-test. Analysis of the structural models revealed that KanCRN had significant and positive influences on teachers': (a) beliefs about student inquiry abilities, (b) beliefs about authentic and engaging work, (c) self-efficacy in support of inquiry, (d) self-reported content expertise, (e) frequency of use of authentic/engaging classwork, (f) frequency of use of the research process, (g) frequency of use of project/problem-based learning, (h) technology self

  18. Collaborative development of predictive toxicology applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardy Barry

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OpenTox provides an interoperable, standards-based Framework for the support of predictive toxicology data management, algorithms, modelling, validation and reporting. It is relevant to satisfying the chemical safety assessment requirements of the REACH legislation as it supports access to experimental data, (Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship models, and toxicological information through an integrating platform that adheres to regulatory requirements and OECD validation principles. Initial research defined the essential components of the Framework including the approach to data access, schema and management, use of controlled vocabularies and ontologies, architecture, web service and communications protocols, and selection and integration of algorithms for predictive modelling. OpenTox provides end-user oriented tools to non-computational specialists, risk assessors, and toxicological experts in addition to Application Programming Interfaces (APIs for developers of new applications. OpenTox actively supports public standards for data representation, interfaces, vocabularies and ontologies, Open Source approaches to core platform components, and community-based collaboration approaches, so as to progress system interoperability goals. The OpenTox Framework includes APIs and services for compounds, datasets, features, algorithms, models, ontologies, tasks, validation, and reporting which may be combined into multiple applications satisfying a variety of different user needs. OpenTox applications are based on a set of distributed, interoperable OpenTox API-compliant REST web services. The OpenTox approach to ontology allows for efficient mapping of complementary data coming from different datasets into a unifying structure having a shared terminology and representation. Two initial OpenTox applications are presented as an illustration of the potential impact of OpenTox for high-quality and consistent structure

  19. Predicting Software Suitability Using a Bayesian Belief Network

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    Beaver, Justin M.; Schiavone, Guy A.; Berrios, Joseph S.

    2005-01-01

    The ability to reliably predict the end quality of software under development presents a significant advantage for a development team. It provides an opportunity to address high risk components earlier in the development life cycle, when their impact is minimized. This research proposes a model that captures the evolution of the quality of a software product, and provides reliable forecasts of the end quality of the software being developed in terms of product suitability. Development team skill, software process maturity, and software problem complexity are hypothesized as driving factors of software product quality. The cause-effect relationships between these factors and the elements of software suitability are modeled using Bayesian Belief Networks, a machine learning method. This research presents a Bayesian Network for software quality, and the techniques used to quantify the factors that influence and represent software quality. The developed model is found to be effective in predicting the end product quality of small-scale software development efforts.

  20. Implicit Beliefs about Ideal Body Image Predict Body Image Dissatisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niclas eHeider

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We examined whether implicit measures of actual and ideal body image can be used to predict body dissatisfaction in young female adults. Participants completed two Implicit Relational Assessment Procedures (IRAPs to examine their implicit beliefs concerning actual (e.g., I am thin and desired ideal body image (e.g., I want to be thin. Body dissatisfaction was examined via self-report questionnaires and rating scales. As expected, differences in body dissatisfaction exerted a differential influence on the two IRAP scores. Specifically, the implicit belief that one is thin was lower in participants who exhibited a high degree of body dissatisfaction than in participants who exhibited a low degree of body dissatisfaction. In contrast, the implicit desire to be thin (i.e., thin ideal body image was stronger in participants who exhibited a high level of body dissatisfaction than in participants who were less dissatisfied with their body. Adding further weight to the idea that both IRAP measures captured different underlying constructs, we also observed that they correlated differently with body mass index, explicit body dissatisfaction, and explicit measures of actual and ideal body image. More generally, these findings underscore the advantage of using implicit measures that incorporate relational information relative to implicit measures that allow for an assessment of associative relations only.

  1. Predicting Student Performance in a Collaborative Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Jennifer K.; Aleven, Vincent; Rummel, Nikol

    2015-01-01

    Student models for adaptive systems may not model collaborative learning optimally. Past research has either focused on modeling individual learning or for collaboration, has focused on group dynamics or group processes without predicting learning. In the current paper, we adjust the Additive Factors Model (AFM), a standard logistic regression…

  2. Belief Propagation and Bethe approximation for Traffic Prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Furtlehner, C; Lasgouttes, J M; Fortelle, Arnaud De La; Furtlehner, Cyril; Lasgouttes, Jean-Marc

    2007-01-01

    We define and study an inference algorithm based on "belief propagation" (BP) and the Bethe approximation. The idea is to encode into a graph an a priori information composed of correlations or marginal probabilities of variables, and to use a message passing procedure to estimate the actual state from some extra real-time information. This method is originally designed for traffic prediction and is particularly suitable in settings where the only information available is floating car data. We propose a discretized traffic description, based on the Ising model of statistical physics, in order to both reconstruct and predict the traffic in real time. General properties of BP are addressed in this context. In particular, a detailed study of stability is proposed with respect to the a priori data and the graph topology. The behavior of the algorithm is illustrated by numerical studies on a simple traffic toy model. How this approach can be generalized to encode superposition of many traffic patterns is discussed...

  3. Pre-Service Teachers' Science Teaching Self-Efficacy Beliefs: The Influence of a Collaborative Peer Microteaching Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinici, Ayhan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of my study was to explore the nature of changes in pre-service science teachers' (PSTs') self-efficacy beliefs toward science teaching through a mixed-methods approach. Thirty-six participants enrolled in a science methods course that included a collaborative peer microteaching ("Cope-M"). Participants' science teaching…

  4. Do Creativity Self-Beliefs Predict Literacy Achievement and Motivation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putwain, David W.; Kearsley, Rebecca; Symes, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Previous work has suggested that creativity self-beliefs show only small relations with academic achievement and may only be related to intrinsic, not extrinsic motivation. We set out to re-examine these relationships accounting for the multifaceted and process embedded nature of creativity self-beliefs and the full domain range of extrinsic…

  5. Do Creativity Self-Beliefs Predict Literacy Achievement and Motivation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putwain, David W.; Kearsley, Rebecca; Symes, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Previous work has suggested that creativity self-beliefs show only small relations with academic achievement and may only be related to intrinsic, not extrinsic motivation. We set out to re-examine these relationships accounting for the multifaceted and process embedded nature of creativity self-beliefs and the full domain range of extrinsic…

  6. Belief about nicotine selectively modulates value and reward prediction error signals in smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaosi; Lohrenz, Terry; Salas, Ramiro; Baldwin, Philip R.; Soltani, Alireza; Kirk, Ulrich; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Montague, P. Read

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about how prior beliefs impact biophysically described processes in the presence of neuroactive drugs, which presents a profound challenge to the understanding of the mechanisms and treatments of addiction. We engineered smokers’ prior beliefs about the presence of nicotine in a cigarette smoked before a functional magnetic resonance imaging session where subjects carried out a sequential choice task. Using a model-based approach, we show that smokers’ beliefs about nicotine specifically modulated learning signals (value and reward prediction error) defined by a computational model of mesolimbic dopamine systems. Belief of “no nicotine in cigarette” (compared with “nicotine in cigarette”) strongly diminished neural responses in the striatum to value and reward prediction errors and reduced the impact of both on smokers’ choices. These effects of belief could not be explained by global changes in visual attention and were specific to value and reward prediction errors. Thus, by modulating the expression of computationally explicit signals important for valuation and choice, beliefs can override the physical presence of a potent neuroactive compound like nicotine. These selective effects of belief demonstrate that belief can modulate model-based parameters important for learning. The implications of these findings may be far ranging because belief-dependent effects on learning signals could impact a host of other behaviors in addiction as well as in other mental health problems. PMID:25605923

  7. Belief about nicotine selectively modulates value and reward prediction error signals in smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaosi; Lohrenz, Terry; Salas, Ramiro; Baldwin, Philip R; Soltani, Alireza; Kirk, Ulrich; Cinciripini, Paul M; Montague, P Read

    2015-02-24

    Little is known about how prior beliefs impact biophysically described processes in the presence of neuroactive drugs, which presents a profound challenge to the understanding of the mechanisms and treatments of addiction. We engineered smokers' prior beliefs about the presence of nicotine in a cigarette smoked before a functional magnetic resonance imaging session where subjects carried out a sequential choice task. Using a model-based approach, we show that smokers' beliefs about nicotine specifically modulated learning signals (value and reward prediction error) defined by a computational model of mesolimbic dopamine systems. Belief of "no nicotine in cigarette" (compared with "nicotine in cigarette") strongly diminished neural responses in the striatum to value and reward prediction errors and reduced the impact of both on smokers' choices. These effects of belief could not be explained by global changes in visual attention and were specific to value and reward prediction errors. Thus, by modulating the expression of computationally explicit signals important for valuation and choice, beliefs can override the physical presence of a potent neuroactive compound like nicotine. These selective effects of belief demonstrate that belief can modulate model-based parameters important for learning. The implications of these findings may be far ranging because belief-dependent effects on learning signals could impact a host of other behaviors in addiction as well as in other mental health problems.

  8. The role of attitudes toward White privilege and religious beliefs in predicting social justice interest and commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Nathan R; McConnell, Elizabeth A; Suffrin, Rachael L

    2014-03-01

    The current study examines links among attitudes toward White privilege, religious beliefs, and social justice interest and commitment for White Christian students. Two distinct patterns of results emerged from a path analysis of 500 White Christian students. First, a willingness to confront White privilege was positively associated with the sanctification of social justice (i.e., attributing spiritual significance to working for social justice) and both were positively associated with social justice interest and commitment. Second, awareness of White privilege was negatively associated with religious conservatism, and religious conservatism was negatively associated with social justice interest. These patterns show that White privilege attitudes directly (i.e., willingness to confront White privilege) and indirectly (i.e., awareness of White privilege through religious conservatism) predicted social justice interest and commitment. Moreover, religious beliefs demonstrated opposite patterns of association with social justice interest and commitment such that the sanctification of social justice positively predicted social justice interest and commitment whereas religious conservatism negatively predicted social justice interest. Overall, findings demonstrate direct and indirect links between White privilege attitudes, religious beliefs, and social justice interest and commitment. Limitations and implications for future community psychology research and collaboration also are discussed.

  9. Predicting Stock Returns in the Capital Asset Pricing Model Using Quantile Regression and Belief Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Autchariyapanitkul, K; S Chanaim; Sriboonchitta, S; DENOEUX, T

    2014-01-01

    International audience; We consider an inference method for prediction based on belief functions in quantile regression with an asymmetric Laplace distribution. We apply this method to the capital asset pricing model to estimate the beta coefficient and measure volatility under various market conditions at given quantiles. Likelihood-based belief functions are constructed from historical data of the securities in the S&P500 market. The results give us evidence on the systematic risk, in the f...

  10. A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis of the Roles of Instructional Leadership, Teacher Collaboration, and Collective Efficacy Beliefs in Support of Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Roger; Goddard, Yvonne; Kim, Eun Sook; Miller, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Principals' instructional leadership may support the degree to which teachers work together to improve instruction, and together leadership and teacher collaboration may contribute to school effectiveness by strengthening collective efficacy beliefs. We found a significant direct effect of leadership on teacher collaboration. Further, leadership…

  11. Emergency medicine residents' beliefs about contributing to an online collaborative slideshow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Archambault, P.M.; Thanh, J.; Blouin, D.; Gagnon, S.; Poitras, J.; Fountain, R.M.; Fleet, R.; Bilodeau, A.; Belt, T.H. van de; Legare, F.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Collaborative writing applications (CWAs), such as the Google DocsTM platform, can improve skill acquisition, knowledge retention, and collaboration in medical education. Using CWAs to support the training of residents offers many advantages, but stimulating them to contribute remains

  12. Do Students' Beliefs about Knowledge and Knowing Predict Their Judgement of Texts' Trustworthiness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromso, Helge Ivar; Braten, Ivar; Britt, M. Anne

    2011-01-01

    We examined whether epistemic beliefs predict students' evaluation of documents. Undergraduates read two texts on climate change. Participants judged the trustworthiness of each text and then indicated the criteria for their rating. We found that readers who believe strongly in relying on personal interpretations rather than on authorities trusted…

  13. A performance prediction approach to enhance collaborative filtering performance

    OpenAIRE

    Bellogín, Alejandro; Castells, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    The final publication is available at Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-12275-0_34 Proceedings of 32nd European Conference on IR Research, ECIR 2010, Milton Keynes, UK, March 28-31, 2010. Performance prediction has gained increasing attention in the IR field since the half of the past decade and has become an established research topic in the field. The present work restates the problem in the area of Collaborative Filtering (CF), where it has barely been researched so fa...

  14. Prediction Markets and Beliefs about Climate: Results from Agent-Based Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, J. M.; John, N. J.; van der Linden, M.

    2015-12-01

    Climate scientists have long been frustrated by persistent doubts a large portion of the public expresses toward the scientific consensus about anthropogenic global warming. The political and ideological polarization of this doubt led Vandenbergh, Raimi, and Gilligan [1] to propose that prediction markets for climate change might influence the opinions of those who mistrust the scientific community but do trust the power of markets.We have developed an agent-based simulation of a climate prediction market in which traders buy and sell future contracts that will pay off at some future year with a value that depends on the global average temperature at that time. The traders form a heterogeneous population with different ideological positions, different beliefs about anthropogenic global warming, and different degrees of risk aversion. We also vary characteristics of the market, including the topology of social networks among the traders, the number of traders, and the completeness of the market. Traders adjust their beliefs about climate according to the gains and losses they and other traders in their social network experience. This model predicts that if global temperature is predominantly driven by greenhouse gas concentrations, prediction markets will cause traders' beliefs to converge toward correctly accepting anthropogenic warming as real. This convergence is largely independent of the structure of the market and the characteristics of the population of traders. However, it may take considerable time for beliefs to converge. Conversely, if temperature does not depend on greenhouse gases, the model predicts that traders' beliefs will not converge. We will discuss the policy-relevance of these results and more generally, the use of agent-based market simulations for policy analysis regarding climate change, seasonal agricultural weather forecasts, and other applications.[1] MP Vandenbergh, KT Raimi, & JM Gilligan. UCLA Law Rev. 61, 1962 (2014).

  15. Betting and Belief: Modeling the Impact of Prediction Markets on Public Attribution of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, J. M.; Nay, J. J.; van der Linden, M.

    2016-12-01

    Despite overwhelming scientific evidence and an almost complete consensus among scientists, a large fraction of the American public is not convinced that global warming is anthropogenic. This doubt correlates strongly with political, ideological, and cultural orientation. [1] It has been proposed that people who do not trust climate scientists tend to trust markets, so prediction markets might be able to influence their beliefs about the causes of climate change. [2] We present results from an agent-based simulation of a prediction market in which traders invest based on their beliefs about what drives global temperature change (here, either CO2 concentration or total solar irradiance (TSI), which is a popular hypothesis among many who doubt the dominant role of CO2). At each time step, traders use historical and observed temperatures and projected future forcings (CO2 or TSI) to update Bayesian posterior probability distributions for future temperatures, conditional on their belief about what drives climate change. Traders then bet on future temperatures by trading in climate futures. Trading proceeds by a continuous double auction. Traders are randomly assigned initial beliefs about climate change, and they have some probability of changing their beliefs to match those of the most successful traders in their social network. We simulate two alternate realities in which the global temperature is controlled either by CO2 or by TSI, with stochastic noise. In both cases traders' beliefs converge, with a large majority reaching agreement on the actual cause of climate change. This convergence is robust, but the speed with which consensus emerges depends on characteristics of the traders' psychology and the structure of the market. Our model can serve as a test-bed for studying how beliefs might evolve under different market structures and different modes of decision-making and belief-change. We will report progress on studying alternate models of belief-change. This

  16. Masculinity beliefs predict psychosocial functioning in African American prostate cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Lisa C; Keefe, Francis J; McKee, Daphne C; Waters, Sandra J; Moul, Judd W

    2012-09-01

    Research examining psychosocial functioning in African American prostate cancer survivors has been limited, in spite of documented higher mortality from prostate cancer and worse long-term physical and emotional outcomes from prostate cancer treatment reported by this group of survivors. In addition, the role of masculinity in psychosocial adjustment among prostate cancer survivors is not well understood. In this study, 59 African American prostate cancer survivors completed a questionnaire assessing masculinity beliefs related to self-reliance, emotional control, and dominance, as well as measures of psychosocial functioning (i.e., symptom distress, negative mood, and functional and social well-being). Results of regression analyses indicated that masculinity beliefs predicted negative mood, functional well-being, and social well-being, controlling for age, income, and medical comorbidities. The findings reported here, although preliminary, suggest that masculinity beliefs could be important therapeutic targets for improving the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral interventions for men adjusting to prostate cancer survivorship.

  17. Predictions of Actions and Their Justifications in False-Belief Tasks: The Role of Executive Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putko Adam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to examine whether children’s ability to justify their action predictions in terms of mental states is related, in a similar way as the ability to predict actions, to such aspects of executive function (EF as executive control and working memory. An additional objective was to check whether the frequency of different types of justifications made by children in false-belief tasks is associated with aforementioned aspects of EF, as well as language. The study included 59 children aged 3-4 years. The ability to predict actions and to justify these predictions was measured with false-belief tasks. Luria’s hand-game was used to assess executive control, and the Counting and Labelling dual-task was used to assess working memory capacity. Language development was controlled using an embedded syntax test. It was found that executive control was a significant predictor of the children’s ability to justify their action predictions in terms of mental states, even when age and language were taken into account. Results also indicated a relationship between the type of justification in the false-belief task and language development. With the development of language children gradually cease to justify their action predictions in terms of current location, and they tend to construct irrelevant justifications before they begin to refer to beliefs. Data suggest that executive control, in contrast to language, is a factor which affects the development of the children’s ability to justify their action predictions only in its later phase, during a shift from irrelevant to correct justifications.

  18. Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory in Predicting Water Saving Behaviors in Yazd, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Ghaneian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: People's behaviors and intentions about healthy behaviors depend on their beliefs, values, and knowledge about the issue. Various models of health education are used in deter-mining predictors of different healthy behaviors but their efficacy in cultural behaviors, such as water saving behaviors, are not studied. The study was conducted to explain water saving beha-viors in Yazd, Iran on the basis of Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory. Methods: The cross-sectional study used random cluster sampling to recruit 200 heads of households to collect the data. The survey questionnaire was tested for its content validity and reliability. Analysis of data included descriptive statistics, simple correlation, hierarchical multiple regression. Results: Simple correlations between water saving behaviors and Reasoned Action Theory and Health Belief Model constructs were statistically significant. Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory constructs explained 20.80% and 8.40% of the variances in water saving beha-viors, respectively. Perceived barriers were the strongest Predictor. Additionally, there was a sta-tistically positive correlation between water saving behaviors and intention. Conclusion: In designing interventions aimed at water waste prevention, barriers of water saving behaviors should be addressed first, followed by people's attitude towards water saving. Health Belief Model constructs, with the exception of perceived severity and benefits, is more powerful than is Reasoned Action Theory in predicting water saving behavior and may be used as a framework for educational interventions aimed at improving water saving behaviors.

  19. A New Adaptive Framework for Collaborative Filtering Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almosallam, Ibrahim A; Shang, Yi

    2008-06-01

    Collaborative filtering is one of the most successful techniques for recommendation systems and has been used in many commercial services provided by major companies including Amazon, TiVo and Netflix. In this paper we focus on memory-based collaborative filtering (CF). Existing CF techniques work well on dense data but poorly on sparse data. To address this weakness, we propose to use z-scores instead of explicit ratings and introduce a mechanism that adaptively combines global statistics with item-based values based on data density level. We present a new adaptive framework that encapsulates various CF algorithms and the relationships among them. An adaptive CF predictor is developed that can self adapt from user-based to item-based to hybrid methods based on the amount of available ratings. Our experimental results show that the new predictor consistently obtained more accurate predictions than existing CF methods, with the most significant improvement on sparse data sets. When applied to the Netflix Challenge data set, our method performed better than existing CF and singular value decomposition (SVD) methods and achieved 4.67% improvement over Netflix's system.

  20. Test Framing Generates a Stability Bias for Predictions of Learning by Causing People to Discount their Learning Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel, Robert; Hines, Jarrod C; Hertzog, Christopher

    2014-08-01

    People estimate minimal changes in learning when making predictions of learning (POLs) for future study opportunities despite later showing increased performance and an awareness of that increase (Kornell & Bjork, 2009). This phenomenon is conceptualized as a stability bias in judgments about learning. We investigated the malleability of this effect, and whether it reflected people's underlying beliefs about learning. We manipulated prediction framing to emphasize the role of testing vs. studying on memory and directly measured beliefs about multi-trial study effects on learning by having participants construct predicted learning curves before and after the experiment. Mean POLs were more sensitive to the number of study-test opportunities when performance was framed in terms of study benefits rather than testing benefits and POLs reflected pre-existing beliefs about learning. The stability bias is partially due to framing and reflects discounted beliefs about learning benefits rather than inherent belief in the stability of performance.

  1. Predicting Proenvironmental Behavior Cross-Nationally: Values, the Theory of Planned Behavior, and Value-Belief-Norm Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreg, Shaul; Katz-Gerro, Tally

    2006-01-01

    This article builds on Ajzen's theory of planned behavior and on Stern et al.'s value-belief-norm theory to propose and test a model that predicts proenvironmental behavior. In addition to relationships between beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors, we incorporate Inglehart's postmaterialist and Schwartz's harmony value dimensions as contextual…

  2. Generating highly accurate prediction hypotheses through collaborative ensemble learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsov, Nino; Pavlovski, Martin; Basnarkov, Lasko; Kocarev, Ljupco

    2017-03-01

    Ensemble generation is a natural and convenient way of achieving better generalization performance of learning algorithms by gathering their predictive capabilities. Here, we nurture the idea of ensemble-based learning by combining bagging and boosting for the purpose of binary classification. Since the former improves stability through variance reduction, while the latter ameliorates overfitting, the outcome of a multi-model that combines both strives toward a comprehensive net-balancing of the bias-variance trade-off. To further improve this, we alter the bagged-boosting scheme by introducing collaboration between the multi-model’s constituent learners at various levels. This novel stability-guided classification scheme is delivered in two flavours: during or after the boosting process. Applied among a crowd of Gentle Boost ensembles, the ability of the two suggested algorithms to generalize is inspected by comparing them against Subbagging and Gentle Boost on various real-world datasets. In both cases, our models obtained a 40% generalization error decrease. But their true ability to capture details in data was revealed through their application for protein detection in texture analysis of gel electrophoresis images. They achieve improved performance of approximately 0.9773 AUROC when compared to the AUROC of 0.9574 obtained by an SVM based on recursive feature elimination.

  3. Development of self-report scales measuring collaborative vs. directive support: Assessing beliefs and behaviors in carers of adults with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, Michel A; Geller, Josie; Iyar, Megumi

    2016-12-01

    Collaboration is more acceptable and likely to produce favorable outcomes when providing care to individuals with eating disorders compared to directive care. We developed two self-report instruments that assess the extent to which carers (e.g., family, friends) of individuals with eating disorders provide collaborative vs. directive support (Support Behaviors Scale; SBH) and the extent to which carers believe that such approaches are helpful (Support Beliefs Scale; SBL). Participants were mothers, fathers, partners, friends and siblings (N=141) of eating disorder patients in hospital or residential treatment. Confirmatory factor analyses were used to test measurement models comprising collaborative and directive approaches identified in previous research. A 19-item three-factor model exhibited best fit for each scale and included three distinct caregiving approaches: two that were collaborative (encouraging, concerned), and one that was directive. The scales exhibited acceptable internal consistency. Reported caregiving behaviors (SBH) were correlated with beliefs about caregiving (SBL). The scales can be used to assess caregiving stance and outcomes for interventions aimed at promoting collaboration in carers.

  4. The Nature and Predictive Value of Mothers' Beliefs Regarding Infants' and Toddlers' TV/Video Viewing: Applying the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaala, Sarah E

    2014-01-01

    Viewing television and video programming has become a normative behavior among US infants and toddlers. Little is understood about parents' decision-making about the extent of their young children's viewing, though numerous organizations are interested in reducing time spent viewing among infants and toddlers. Prior research has examined parents' belief in the educational value of TV/videos for young children and the predictive value of this belief for understanding infant/toddler viewing rates, though other possible salient beliefs remain largely unexplored. This study employs the integrative model of behavioral prediction (Fishbein & Ajzen, 2010) to examine 30 maternal beliefs about infants' and toddlers' TV/video viewing which were elicited from a prior sample of mothers. Results indicate that mothers tend to hold more positive than negative beliefs about the outcomes associated with young children's TV/video viewing, and that the nature of the aggregate set of beliefs is predictive of their general attitudes and intentions to allow their children to view, as well as children's estimated viewing rates. Analyses also uncover multiple dimensions within the full set of beliefs, which explain more variance in mothers' attitudes and intentions and children's viewing than the uni-dimensional index. The theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  5. Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Michelle L.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores collaboration between library media educators and regular classroom teachers. The article focuses on the context of the issue, positions on the issue, the impact of collaboration, and how to implement effective collaboration into the school system. Various books and professional journals are used to support conclusions…

  6. Negative feedback, beliefs and personal goals in prediction of dysfunctional emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Boris

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT demonstrates good results in evaluation therapy researches. However, some of its basic concepts, as well as theory as a whole itself, did not receive satisfactory empirical support so far, in comparison to other cognitive models (Beck, Lazarus etc.. Quasiexperimental study was designed to test the role that (1 negative feedback (A and (2 irrational beliefs (B both play in formation of dysfunctional negative emotions, in the context of significant personal goals (in our case value of potential award - G. ABC theoretical model received limited support: statistically significant three-times interaction A x B x G was found in predicting general negative emotional state, as well as anger. In contrast with that, ANOVA showed only main effect of irrational beliefs (as continuous variable to be significant in predicting emotions of anxiety and depression. Findings are discussed in the context of REBT theory of emotions, as well as their possible practical applications. Limitations of the study were also mentioned. .

  7. Causal beliefs about depression in different cultural groups – What do cognitive psychological theories of causal learning and reasoning predict?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    York eHagmayer

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive psychological research focusses on causal learning and reasoning while cognitive anthropological and social science research tend to focus on systems of beliefs. Our aim was to explore how these two types of research can inform each other. Cognitive psychological theories (causal model theory and causal Bayes nets were used to derive predictions for systems of causal beliefs. These predictions were then applied to lay theories of depression as a specific test case. A systematic literature review on causal beliefs about depression was conducted, including original, quantitative research. Thirty-six studies investigating 13 non-Western and 32 Western cultural groups were analysed by classifying assumed causes and preferred forms of treatment into common categories. Relations between beliefs and treatment preferences were assessed. Substantial agreement between cultural groups was found with respect to the impact of observable causes. Stress was generally rated as most important. Less agreement resulted for hidden, especially supernatural causes. Causal beliefs were clearly related to treatment preferences in Western groups, while evidence was mostly lacking for non-Western groups. Overall predictions were supported, but there were considerable methodological limitations. Pointers to future research, which may combine studies on causal beliefs with experimental paradigms on causal reasoning, are given.

  8. Causal beliefs about depression in different cultural groups-what do cognitive psychological theories of causal learning and reasoning predict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmayer, York; Engelmann, Neele

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive psychological research focuses on causal learning and reasoning while cognitive anthropological and social science research tend to focus on systems of beliefs. Our aim was to explore how these two types of research can inform each other. Cognitive psychological theories (causal model theory and causal Bayes nets) were used to derive predictions for systems of causal beliefs. These predictions were then applied to lay theories of depression as a specific test case. A systematic literature review on causal beliefs about depression was conducted, including original, quantitative research. Thirty-six studies investigating 13 non-Western and 32 Western cultural groups were analyzed by classifying assumed causes and preferred forms of treatment into common categories. Relations between beliefs and treatment preferences were assessed. Substantial agreement between cultural groups was found with respect to the impact of observable causes. Stress was generally rated as most important. Less agreement resulted for hidden, especially supernatural causes. Causal beliefs were clearly related to treatment preferences in Western groups, while evidence was mostly lacking for non-Western groups. Overall predictions were supported, but there were considerable methodological limitations. Pointers to future research, which may combine studies on causal beliefs with experimental paradigms on causal reasoning, are given.

  9. Prediction of near-term breast cancer risk using a Bayesian belief network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bin; Ramalingam, Pandiyarajan; Hariharan, Harishwaran; Leader, Joseph K.; Gur, David

    2013-03-01

    Accurately predicting near-term breast cancer risk is an important prerequisite for establishing an optimal personalized breast cancer screening paradigm. In previous studies, we investigated and tested the feasibility of developing a unique near-term breast cancer risk prediction model based on a new risk factor associated with bilateral mammographic density asymmetry between the left and right breasts of a woman using a single feature. In this study we developed a multi-feature based Bayesian belief network (BBN) that combines bilateral mammographic density asymmetry with three other popular risk factors, namely (1) age, (2) family history, and (3) average breast density, to further increase the discriminatory power of our cancer risk model. A dataset involving "prior" negative mammography examinations of 348 women was used in the study. Among these women, 174 had breast cancer detected and verified in the next sequential screening examinations, and 174 remained negative (cancer-free). A BBN was applied to predict the risk of each woman having cancer detected six to 18 months later following the negative screening mammography. The prediction results were compared with those using single features. The prediction accuracy was significantly increased when using the BBN. The area under the ROC curve increased from an AUC=0.70 to 0.84 (pbreast cancer risk than with a single feature.

  10. The neurobiology of schizotypy: fronto-striatal prediction error signal correlates with delusion-like beliefs in healthy people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlett, P R; Fletcher, P C

    2012-12-01

    Healthy people sometimes report experiences and beliefs that are strikingly similar to the symptoms of psychosis in their bizarreness and the apparent lack of evidence supporting them. An important question is whether this represents merely a superficial resemblance or whether there is a genuine and deep similarity indicating, as some have suggested, a continuum between odd but healthy beliefs and the symptoms of psychotic illness. We sought to shed light on this question by determining whether the neural marker for prediction error - previously shown to be altered in early psychosis--is comparably altered in healthy individuals reporting schizotypal experiences and beliefs. We showed that non-clinical schizotypal experiences were significantly correlated with aberrant frontal and striatal prediction error signal. This correlation related to the distress associated with the beliefs. Given our previous observations that patients with first episode psychosis show altered neural responses to prediction error and that this alteration, in turn, relates to the severity of their delusional ideation, our results provide novel evidence in support of the view that schizotypy relates to psychosis at more than just a superficial descriptive level. However, the picture is a complex one in which the experiences, though associated with altered striatal responding, may provoke distress but may nonetheless be explained away, while an additional alteration in frontal cortical responding may allow the beliefs to become more delusion-like: intrusive and distressing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Fatal Attractions: Attachment to Smartphones Predicts Anthropomorphic Beliefs and Dangerous Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodford, Jessica E; Kwan, Virginia S Y; Sobota, David S

    2017-05-01

    As technology's presence grows increasingly concrete in global societies, so too do our relationships with the devices we keep close at hand from day to day. Whereas research has, in the past, framed smartphone addiction in terms of possessional attachment, the present research hypothesizes that anxious smartphone attachment stems from human attachment, in which Anxiously attached individuals may be more likely to generalize their anxious attachment style to communication devices. In the present study, we found support for this hypothesis and showed that anxious smartphone attachment predicts (1) anthropomorphic beliefs, (2) reliance on-or "clinginess" toward-smartphones, and (3) a seemingly compulsive urge to answer one's phone, even in dangerous situations (e.g., while driving). Taken together, we seek to provide a theoretical framework and methodological tools to identify the sources of technology attachment and those most at risk of engaging in dangerous or inappropriate behaviors as a result of attachment to ever-present mobile devices.

  12. Multi-sensor Information Processing using Prediction Market-based Belief Aggregation

    CERN Document Server

    Jumadinova, Janyl

    2012-01-01

    We consider the problem of information fusion from multiple sensors of different types with the objective of improving the confidence of inference tasks, such as object classification, performed from the data collected by the sensors. We propose a novel technique based on distributed belief aggregation using a multi-agent prediction market to solve this information fusion problem. To monitor the improvement in the confidence of the object classification as well as to dis-incentivize agents from misreporting information, we have introduced a market maker that rewards the agents instantaneously as well as at the end of the inference task, based on the quality of the submitted reports. We have implemented the market maker's reward calculation in the form of a scoring rule and have shown analytically that it incentivizes truthful revelation or accurate reporting by each agent. We have experimentally verified our technique for multi-sensor information fusion for an automated landmine detection scenario. Our experi...

  13. Soliciting scientific information and beliefs in predictive modeling and adaptive management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, P. D.; Voinov, A. A.; Shapiro, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    Post-normal science requires public engagement and adaptive corrections in addressing issues with high complexity and uncertainty. An adaptive management framework is presented for the improved management of natural resources and environments through a public participation process. The framework solicits the gathering and transformation and/or modeling of scientific information but also explicitly solicits the expression of participant beliefs. Beliefs and information are compared, explicitly discussed for alignments or misalignments, and ultimately melded back together as a "knowledge" basis for making decisions. An effort is made to recognize the human or participant biases that may affect the information base and the potential decisions. In a separate step, an attempt is made to recognize and predict the potential "winners" and "losers" (perceived or real) of any decision or action. These "winners" and "losers" include present human communities with different spatial, demographic or socio-economic characteristics as well as more dispersed or more diffusely characterized regional or global communities. "Winners" and "losers" may also include future human communities as well as communities of other biotic species. As in any adaptive management framework, assessment of predictions, iterative follow-through and adaptation of policies or actions is essential, and commonly very difficult or impossible to achieve. Recognizing beforehand the limits of adaptive management is essential. More generally, knowledge of the behavioral and economic sciences and of ethics and sociology will be key to a successful implementation of this adaptive management framework. Knowledge of biogeophysical processes will also be essential, but by definition of the issues being addressed, will always be incomplete and highly uncertain. The human dimensions of the issues addressed and the participatory processes used carry their own complexities and uncertainties. Some ideas and principles are

  14. Using Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) modelling for rapid source term prediction. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knochenhauer, M.; Swaling, V.H.; Dedda, F.D.; Hansson, F.; Sjoekvist, S.; Sunnegaerd, K. [Lloyd' s Register Consulting AB, Sundbyberg (Sweden)

    2013-10-15

    The project presented in this report deals with a number of complex issues related to the development of a tool for rapid source term prediction (RASTEP), based on a plant model represented as a Bayesian belief network (BBN) and a source term module which is used for assigning relevant source terms to BBN end states. Thus, RASTEP uses a BBN to model severe accident progression in a nuclear power plant in combination with pre-calculated source terms (i.e., amount, composition, timing, and release path of released radio-nuclides). The output is a set of possible source terms with associated probabilities. One major issue has been associated with the integration of probabilistic and deterministic analyses are addressed, dealing with the challenge of making the source term determination flexible enough to give reliable and valid output throughout the accident scenario. The potential for connecting RASTEP to a fast running source term prediction code has been explored, as well as alternative ways of improving the deterministic connections of the tool. As part of the investigation, a comparison of two deterministic severe accident analysis codes has been performed. A second important task has been to develop a general method where experts' beliefs can be included in a systematic way when defining the conditional probability tables (CPTs) in the BBN. The proposed method includes expert judgement in a systematic way when defining the CPTs of a BBN. Using this iterative method results in a reliable BBN even though expert judgements, with their associated uncertainties, have been used. It also simplifies verification and validation of the considerable amounts of quantitative data included in a BBN. (Author)

  15. Improving the Prediction Accuracy of Multicriteria Collaborative Filtering by Combination Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiranto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on developing the multicriteria collaborative filtering algorithmfor improving the prediction accuracy. The approaches applied were user-item multirating matrix decomposition, the measurement of user similarity using cosine formula and multidimensional distance, individual criteria weight calculation, and rating prediction for the overall criteria by a combination approach. Results of the study show variation in multicriteria collaborative filtering algorithm, which was used for improving the document recommender system with the two following characteristics. First, the rating prediction for four individual criteria using collaborative filtering algorithm by a cosine-based user similarity and a multidimensional distance-based user similarity. Second, the rating prediction for the overall criteria using a combination algorithms. Based on the results of testing, it can be concluded that a variety of models developed for the multicriteria collaborative filtering systems had much better prediction accuracy than for the classic collaborative filtering, which was characterized by the increasingly smaller values of Mean Absolute Error. The best accuracy was achieved by the multicriteria collaborative filtering system with multidimensional distance-based similarity.

  16. Does the Dark Triad of personality predict corrupt intention? The mediating role of belief in good luck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanhuan eZhao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The current study is the first attempt to examine the association between the Dark Triad of personality (i.e., Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy and corruption through a mediator – belief in good luck. Based on Ajzen’s theory of planned behavior, we assumed that individuals with Dark Triad would be more likely to engage in corruption as a result of belief in good luck. In Study 1, a set of hypothetical scenarios was used to assess the bribe-offering intention and the corresponding belief in good luck. Results indicated that while the Dark Triad of personality positively predicted bribe-offering intention, it was mediated by the belief in good luck in bribe-offering. In Study 2, we presented participants with some hypothetical scenarios of bribe-taking and the corresponding belief in good luck. Findings revealed that the Dark Triad of personality was positively related to bribe-taking intention; the relationship between narcissism and bribe-taking intention, and that between psychopathy and bribe-taking intention was mediated by the belief in good luck in penalty-avoidance. However, this belief in good luck did not mediate the relationship between Machiavellianism and bribe-taking intention. These results hold while controlling for demographic variables, dispositional optimism, and self-efficacy. Taken together, this study extended previous research by providing evidence that belief in good luck may be one of the reasons explaining why people with Dark Triad are more likely to engage in corruption regardless of the potential outcomes. Theoretical and practical implications were discussed.

  17. Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Meme; Pryor, Boori Monty

    2000-01-01

    Describes, in the words of two Australian authors (one Aboriginal and one European-Australian), how they work together when they write books together, and how their collaboration goes beyond the two of them. (SR)

  18. Required Collaborative Work in Online Courses: A Predictive Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Marlene A.; Kellogg, Deborah L.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a predictive model that assesses whether a student will have greater perceived learning in group assignments or in individual work. The model produces correct classifications 87.5% of the time. The research is notable in that it is the first in the education literature to adopt a predictive modeling methodology using data…

  19. Using PoF models to predict system reliability considering failure collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiguo Zeng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Existing Physics-of-Failure-based (PoF-based system reliability prediction methods are grounded on the independence assumption, which overlooks the dependency among the components. In this paper, a new type of dependency, referred to as failure collaboration, is introduced and considered in reliability predictions. A PoF-based model is developed to describe the failure behavior of systems subject to failure collaboration. Based on the developed model, the Bisection-based Reliability Analysis Method (BRAM is exploited to calculate the system reliability. The developed methods are applied to predicting the reliability of a Hydraulic Servo Actuator (HSA. The results demonstrate that the developed methods outperform the traditional PoF-based reliability prediction methods when applied to systems subject to failure collaboration.

  20. Using Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) modelling for Rapid Source Term Prediction. RASTEP Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knochenhauer, M.; Swaling, V.H.; Alfheim, P. [Scandpower AB, Sundbyberg (Sweden)

    2012-09-15

    The project is connected to the development of RASTEP, a computerized source term prediction tool aimed at providing a basis for improving off-site emergency management. RASTEP uses Bayesian belief networks (BBN) to model severe accident progression in a nuclear power plant in combination with pre-calculated source terms (i.e., amount, timing, and pathway of released radio-nuclides). The output is a set of possible source terms with associated probabilities. In the NKS project, a number of complex issues associated with the integration of probabilistic and deterministic analyses are addressed. This includes issues related to the method for estimating source terms, signal validation, and sensitivity analysis. One major task within Phase 1 of the project addressed the problem of how to make the source term module flexible enough to give reliable and valid output throughout the accident scenario. Of the alternatives evaluated, it is recommended that RASTEP is connected to a fast running source term prediction code, e.g., MARS, with a possibility of updating source terms based on real-time observations. (Author)

  1. Using Gaze Patterns to Predict Task Intent in Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Ming eHuang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In everyday interactions, humans naturally exhibit behavioral cues, such as gaze and head movements, that signal their intentions while interpreting the behavioral cues of others to predict their intentions. Such intention prediction enables each partner to adapt their behaviors to the intent of others, serving a critical role in joint action where parties work together to achieve a common goal. Among behavioral cues, eye gaze is particularly important in understanding a person's attention and intention. In this work, we seek to quantify how gaze patterns may indicate a person's intention. Our investigation was contextualized in a dyadic sandwich-making scenario in which a worker'' prepared a sandwich by adding ingredients requested by a customer.'' In this context, we investigated the extent to which the customers' gaze cues serve as predictors of which ingredients they intend to request. Predictive features were derived to represent characteristics of the customers' gaze patterns. We developed a support vector machine-based (SVM-based model that achieved 76% accuracy in predicting the customers' intended requests based solely on gaze features. Moreover, the predictor made correct predictions approximately 1.8 seconds before the spoken request from the customer. We further analyzed several episodes of interactions from our data to develop a deeper understanding of the scenarios where our predictor succeeded and failed in making correct predictions. These analyses revealed additional gaze patterns that may be leveraged to improve intention prediction. This work highlights gaze cues as a significant resource for understanding human intentions and informs the design of real-time recognizers of user intention for intelligent systems, such as assistive robots and ubiquitous devices, that may enable more complex capabilities and improved user experience.

  2. The organization of irrational beliefs in posttraumatic stress symptomology: testing the predictions of REBT theory using structural equation modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Philip; Shevlin, Mark; Adamson, Gary; Boduszek, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This study directly tests a central prediction of rational emotive behaviour therapy (REBT) that has received little empirical attention regarding the core and intermediate beliefs in the development of posttraumatic stress symptoms. A theoretically consistent REBT model of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was examined using structural equation modelling techniques among a sample of 313 trauma-exposed military and law enforcement personnel. The REBT model of PTSD provided a good fit of the data, χ(2) = 599.173, df = 356, p < .001; standardized root mean square residual = .05 (confidence interval = .04-.05); standardized root mean square residual = .04; comparative fit index = .95; Tucker Lewis index = .95. Results demonstrated that demandingness beliefs indirectly affected the various symptom groups of PTSD through a set of secondary irrational beliefs that include catastrophizing, low frustration tolerance, and depreciation beliefs. Results were consistent with the predictions of REBT theory and provides strong empirical support that the cognitive variables described by REBT theory are critical cognitive constructs in the prediction of PTSD symptomology. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The Bicycle Helmet Attitudes Scale: Using the Health Belief Model to Predict Helmet Use among Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Thomas P.; Ross, Lisa Thomson; Rahman, Annalise; Cataldo, Shayla

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined bicycle helmet attitudes and practices of college undergraduates and developed the Bicycle Helmet Attitudes Scale, which was guided by the Health Belief Model (HBM; Rosenstock, 1974, in Becker MH, ed. "The Health Belief Model and Personal Health Behavior". Thorofare, NJ: Charles B. Slack; 1974:328-335) to predict…

  4. Do Mother's Metacognitions, Beliefs, and Behaviors Predict Child Anxiety-Related Metacognitions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lønfeldt, Nicole N.; Esbjørn, Barbara H.; Normann, Nicoline; Breinholst, Sonja; Francis, Sarah E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Recent research suggests that adults and children with anxiety disorders have a particular set of metacognitive beliefs and strategies. Knowing whether parents' metacognitions, beliefs and behaviors are associated with their children's metacognitions is important for understanding how anxiety-related metacognitions and clinical anxiety…

  5. The Bicycle Helmet Attitudes Scale: Using the Health Belief Model to Predict Helmet Use among Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Thomas P.; Ross, Lisa Thomson; Rahman, Annalise; Cataldo, Shayla

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined bicycle helmet attitudes and practices of college undergraduates and developed the Bicycle Helmet Attitudes Scale, which was guided by the Health Belief Model (HBM; Rosenstock, 1974, in Becker MH, ed. "The Health Belief Model and Personal Health Behavior". Thorofare, NJ: Charles B. Slack; 1974:328-335) to predict…

  6. The Role of Religious Beliefs and Behaviors in Predicting Underage Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brechting, Emily H.; Brown, Tamara L.; Salsman, John M.; Sauer, Shannon E.; Holeman, Virginia T.; Carlson, Charles R.

    2010-01-01

    Religious beliefs have consistently emerged as significantly and inversely related to alcohol use. This article seeks further understanding of this relationship by exploring the role of religious behaviors in this relationship in three ways. First, we aim to determine whether the relationship between religious beliefs and alcohol use differs with…

  7. Expanded health belief model predicts diabetes self-management in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wdowik, M J; Kendall, P A; Harris, M A; Auld, G

    2001-01-01

    An instrument was designed to determine relationships between constructs of the Expanded Health Belief Model and to identify characteristics of college students who successfully manage their diabetes. The Diabetes College Scale was developed to measure attitudes and behaviors pertinent to diabetes management and college life. It was tested for content validity, test-retest reliability, and internal consistency. Data were collected from college students using a cross-sectional design. Campus health care providers were invited via electronic mail to administer the survey to students with Type I diabetes. Ninety-eight questionnaires were mailed to interested providers, of which 86 (88%) were returned. Mean scores for attitude constructs, seven behaviors, and two outcomes were measured. Twenty-six experts established content validity. Instrument reliability was evaluated using paired t-tests, Cronbach's alpha, and correlation coefficients. Correlation coefficients and stepwise multiple regression analysis evaluated relationships among variables measured. Intention and emotional response were strong predictors of exercise, whereas health importance and intention were predictive of testing blood sugar. Situational factors and emotional response were substantial barriers to optimal diabetes self-care. College health care providers should address these areas in providing services to this population. Additional testing of the instrument is also recommended.

  8. Prediction of maize phenotype based on whole-genome single nucleotide polymorphisms using deep belief networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmatia, H.; Kusuma, W. A.; Hasibuan, L. S.

    2017-05-01

    Selection in plant breeding could be more effective and more efficient if it is based on genomic data. Genomic selection (GS) is a new approach for plant-breeding selection that exploits genomic data through a mechanism called genomic prediction (GP). Most of GP models used linear methods that ignore effects of interaction among genes and effects of higher order nonlinearities. Deep belief network (DBN), one of the architectural in deep learning methods, is able to model data in high level of abstraction that involves nonlinearities effects of the data. This study implemented DBN for developing a GP model utilizing whole-genome Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) as data for training and testing. The case study was a set of traits in maize. The maize dataset was acquisitioned from CIMMYT’s (International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center) Global Maize program. Based on Pearson correlation, DBN is outperformed than other methods, kernel Hilbert space (RKHS) regression, Bayesian LASSO (BL), best linear unbiased predictor (BLUP), in case allegedly non-additive traits. DBN achieves correlation of 0.579 within -1 to 1 range.

  9. Applying the Health Belief Model in Predicting Breast Cancer Screening Behavior of Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoudiyekta

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Breast cancer is the most common cancer among Iranian women. However, early detection of this cancer leads to a timely treatment and better prognosis, which significantly improves the survival rate in patients. Objectives The purpose of this study was to predict the breast cancer screening behavior of women who referred to health centers in Dezful, Iran, using the health belief model (HBM. Patients and Methods This descriptive-analytical study was conducted on 226 women who were selected with cluster sampling method from those referred to Dezful health centers. Data collection tool was a researcher made questionnaire based on the constructs of the HBM. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software and through methods of descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, and regression. Results According to the findings of the study, the knowledge and performance of women were poor, and there was a significant relationship between women’s performance and variables of knowledge, perceived sensitivity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, self-efficacy, and cues to action. In addition, variables of knowledge (P = 0.001, perceived sensitivity (P = 0.022, and self-efficacy (P = 0.001 were predictors of performance in women participating in this study. Conclusions Poor knowledge and performance of women indicates a crucial need for formal educational programs to sensitize women regarding the importance of breast cancer screening. These educational programs should consider factors affecting breast cancer screening behaviors.

  10. Death beliefs, superstitious beliefs and health anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Abigail; Wells, Adrian

    2002-03-01

    The present study explored the association between beliefs about death, superstitious beliefs, and health anxiety. It was hypothesized that negative beliefs about death and superstitious beliefs would be positively correlated with health anxiety. Conversely, positive beliefs about death were hypothesized to be negatively correlated with health anxiety. A cross-sectional, correlational and multiple regression design was adopted. A sample of 106 Roman Catholics and 197 Atheists completed a questionnaire measuring aspects of health anxiety, spiritual beliefs, and control variables consisting of demographics. Negative beliefs about death and superstitious beliefs were related to health anxiety within both the Roman Catholic and Atheist samples. The expected negative relationship between positive beliefs about death and health anxiety was not supported in either sample. Multiple regression analyses indicated that death beliefs and superstitious beliefs, in combination with background variables, significantly predicted health anxiety in the Roman Catholic sample. For Atheists, although death and superstitious beliefs were identified as significant predictors, when considered with other variables, the additional variance accounted for was not significant. Negative beliefs about death and superstitious beliefs appear to be positively associated with health anxiety. These types of beliefs may have the potential to offer a useful addition to cognitive-behavioural models of health anxiety.

  11. Collaborative Research: Separating Forced and Unforced Decadal Predictability in Models and Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tippett, Michael K. [Columbia University

    2014-04-09

    This report is a progress report of the accomplishments of the research grant “Collaborative Research: Separating Forced and Unforced Decadal Predictability in Models and Observa- tions” during the period 1 May 2011- 31 August 2013. This project is a collaborative one between Columbia University and George Mason University. George Mason University will submit a final technical report at the conclusion of their no-cost extension. The purpose of the proposed research is to identify unforced predictable components on decadal time scales, distinguish these components from forced predictable components, and to assess the reliability of model predictions of these components. Components of unforced decadal predictability will be isolated by maximizing the Average Predictability Time (APT) in long, multimodel control runs from state-of-the-art climate models. Components with decadal predictability have large APT, so maximizing APT ensures that components with decadal predictability will be detected. Optimal fingerprinting techniques, as used in detection and attribution analysis, will be used to separate variations due to natural and anthropogenic forcing from those due to unforced decadal predictability. This methodology will be applied to the decadal hindcasts generated by the CMIP5 project to assess the reliability of model projections. The question of whether anthropogenic forcing changes decadal predictability, or gives rise to new forms of decadal predictability, also will be investigated.

  12. Beliefs about the Potential Impacts of Exploiting Non-Timber Forest Products Predict Voluntary Participation in Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas Brites, Alice; Morsello, Carla

    2017-06-01

    Harvesting and trading non-timber forest products is advocated as a win-win strategy for conservation and development, yet it can produce negative ecological and socioeconomic impacts. Hence, monitoring exploitation outcomes is essential, and participatory monitoring has been suggested to be the most suitable approach. Among possible approaches, participatory monitoring is preferred because it is likely to increase people's awareness and beliefs regarding impacts or potential impacts, thus inducing behavioral changes, although the evidence in this regard is contradictory. We therefore evaluated whether people's beliefs about the potential ecological and socioeconomic impacts of non-timber forest product exploitation increased their likelihood of volunteering to monitor. We studied a community of forest inhabitants in the Brazilian Amazon who harvested and traded a commercially important non-timber forest product. Two methods of data gathering were employed: (i) a survey of 166 adults (51 households) to evaluate people's beliefs and their stated intention to engage in four different monitoring tasks and (ii) four pilot monitoring tasks to evaluate who actually participated. Based on mixed-effects regressions, the results indicated that beliefs regarding both types of impacts could predict participation in certain tasks, although gender, age and schooling were occasionally stronger predictors. On average, people had stronger beliefs about potential socioeconomic impacts than about potential ecological impacts, with the former also predicting participation in ecological data gathering. This finding reinforces the importance of monitoring both types of impacts to help achieve the win-win outcomes originally proposed by non-timber forest product trade initiatives.

  13. A Bayesian Belief Network framework to predict SOC stock change: the Veneto region (Italy) case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Ferro, Nicola; Quinn, Claire Helen; Morari, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    A key challenge for soil scientists is predicting agricultural management scenarios that combine crop productions with high standards of environmental quality. In this context, reversing the soil organic carbon (SOC) decline in croplands is required for maintaining soil fertility and contributing to mitigate GHGs emissions. Bayesian belief networks (BBN) are probabilistic models able to accommodate uncertainty and variability in the predictions of the impacts of management and environmental changes. By linking multiple qualitative and quantitative variables in a cause-and-effect relationships, BBNs can be used as a decision support system at different spatial scales to find best management strategies in the agroecosystems. In this work we built a BBN to model SOC dynamics (0-30 cm layer) in the low-lying plain of Veneto region, north-eastern Italy, and define best practices leading to SOC accumulation and GHGs (CO2-equivalent) emissions reduction. Regional pedo-climatic, land use and management information were combined with experimental and modelled data on soil C dynamics as natural and anthropic key drivers affecting SOC stock change. Moreover, utility nodes were introduced to determine optimal decisions for mitigating GHGs emissions from croplands considering also three different IPCC climate scenarios. The network was finally validated with real field data in terms of SOC stock change. Results showed that the BBN was able to model real SOC stock changes, since validation slightly overestimated SOC reduction (+5%) at the expenses of its accumulation. At regional level, probability distributions showed 50% of SOC loss, while only 17% of accumulation. However, the greatest losses (34%) were associated with low reduction rates (100-500 kg C ha-1 y-1), followed by 33% of stabilized conditions (-100 < SOC < 100 kg ha-1 y-1). Land use management (especially tillage operations and soil cover) played a primary role to affect SOC stock change, while climate conditions

  14. Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory in Predicting Water Saving Behaviors in Yazd, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Taghi Ghaneian; Mahdieh Momayyezi; Mohammad Ali Morowatisharifabad

    2012-01-01

    Background: People's behaviors and intentions about healthy behaviors depend on their beliefs, values, and knowledge about the issue. Various models of health education are used in deter-mining predictors of different healthy behaviors but their efficacy in cultural behaviors, such as water saving behaviors, are not studied. The study was conducted to explain water saving beha-viors in Yazd, Iran on the basis of Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory. Methods: The cross-sectional stud...

  15. On the Interface Between Automated Predictive Demand Planning Techniques and Humans in Collaborative Planning Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schorsch, Timm; Wallenburg, Carl Marcus; Wieland, Andreas

    of these techniques. The underlying case of this paper refers to collaborative supply chain processes that are predestinated for integrating new big data and predictive analytics techniques. By building a theoretical framework for deriving sound hypothesis and introducing and testing the experimental design...

  16. Control beliefs can predict the ability to up-regulate sensorimotor rhythm during neurofeedback training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias eWitte

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Technological progress in computer science and neuroimaging has resulted in many approaches that aim to detect brain states and translate them to an external output. Studies from the field of brain-computer interfaces and neurofeedback have validated the coupling between brain signals and computer devices; however a cognitive model of the processes involved remains elusive. Psychological parameters usually play a moderate role in predicting the performance of brain-computer interface (BCI and neurofeedback (NF users. The concept of a locus of control, i.e. whether one’s own action is determined by internal or external causes, may help to unravel inter-individual performance capacities. Here, we present data from twenty healthy participants who performed a feedback task based on EEG recordings of the sensorimotor rhythm (SMR. One group of ten participants underwent ten training sessions where the amplitude of the SMR was coupled to a vertical feedback bar. The other group of ten participants participated in the same task but relied on sham feedback. Our analysis revealed that a locus of control score focusing on control beliefs with regard to technology negatively correlated with the power of SMR. These preliminary results suggest that participants whose confidence in control over technical devices is high might consume additional cognitive resources. This higher effort in turn may interfere with brain states of relaxation as reflected in the SMR. As a consequence, one way to improve control over brain signals in neurofeedback paradigms may be to explicitly instruct users not to force mastery but instead to aim at a state of effortless relaxation.

  17. Registered dietitian's personal beliefs and characteristics predict their teaching or intention to teach fresh vegetable food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, Gina; LeJeune, Jeffery; Belury, Martha A; Medeiros, Lydia C

    2011-04-01

    The Theory of Planned Behavior was used to determine if dietitians personal characteristics and beliefs about fresh vegetable food safety predict whether they currently teach, intend to teach, or neither currently teach nor intend to teach food safety information to their clients. Dietitians who participated in direct client education responded to this web-based survey (n=327). The survey evaluated three independent belief variables: Subjective Norm, Attitudes, and Perceived Behavioral Control. Spearman rho correlations were completed to determine variables that correlated best with current teaching behavior. Multinomial logistical regression was conducted to determine if the belief variables significantly predicted dietitians teaching behavior. Binary logistic regression was used to determine which independent variable was the better predictor of whether dietitians currently taught. Controlling for age, income, education, and gender, the multinomial logistical regression was significant. Perceived behavioral control was the best predictor of whether a dietitian currently taught fresh vegetable food safety. Factors affecting whether dietitians currently taught were confidence in fresh vegetable food safety knowledge, being socially influenced, and a positive attitude toward the teaching behavior. These results validate the importance of teaching food safety effectively and may be used to create more informed food safety curriculum for dietitians.

  18. Does self-love or self-hate predict conspiracy beliefs? Narcissism, self-esteem and the endorsement of conspiracy theories

    OpenAIRE

    Cichocka, Aleksandra; Marchlewska, Marta; Golec de Zavala, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Across three studies, we examined the role of self-evaluation in predicting conspiracy beliefs. Previous research linked the endorsement of conspiracy theories to low self-esteem. We propose that conspiracy theories should rather be appealing to individuals with exaggerated feelings of self-love, such as narcissists, due to their paranoid tendencies. In Study 1 general conspiracist beliefs were predicted by high individual narcissism but low self-esteem. Study 2 demonstrated that these effect...

  19. Designing a Collaborative Visual Analytics Tool for Social and Technological Change Prediction.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Pak C.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Lu, Ning; Scott, Michael J.; Mackey, Patrick S.; Foote, Harlan P.; Correia, James; Taylor, Zachary T.; Xu, Jianhua; Unwin, Stephen D.; Sanfilippo, Antonio P.

    2009-09-01

    We describe our ongoing efforts to design and develop a collaborative visual analytics tool to interactively model social and technological change of our society in a future setting. The work involves an interdisciplinary team of scientists from atmospheric physics, electrical engineering, building engineering, social sciences, economics, public policy, and national security. The goal of the collaborative tool is to predict the impact of global climate change on the U.S. power grids and its implications for society and national security. These future scenarios provide critical assessment and information necessary for policymakers and stakeholders to help formulate a coherent, unified strategy toward shaping a safe and secure society. The paper introduces the problem background and related work, explains the motivation and rationale behind our design approach, presents our collaborative visual analytics tool and usage examples, and finally shares the development challenge and lessons learned from our investigation.

  20. An optimized item-based collaborative filtering recommendation algorithm based on item genre prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, De-Jia

    2009-07-01

    With the fast development of Internet, many systems have emerged in e-commerce applications to support the product recommendation. Collaborative filtering is one of the most promising techniques in recommender systems, providing personalized recommendations to users based on their previously expressed preferences in the form of ratings and those of other similar users. In practice, with the adding of user and item scales, user-item ratings are becoming extremely sparsity and recommender systems utilizing traditional collaborative filtering are facing serious challenges. To address the issue, this paper presents an approach to compute item genre similarity, through mapping each item with a corresponding descriptive genre, and computing similarity between genres as similarity, then make basic predictions according to those similarities to lower sparsity of the user-item ratings. After that, item-based collaborative filtering steps are taken to generate predictions. Compared with previous methods, the presented collaborative filtering employs the item genre similarity can alleviate the sparsity issue in the recommender systems, and can improve accuracy of recommendation.

  1. Obesity-related beliefs predict weight loss after an 8-week low-calorie diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wamsteker, E.W.; Geenen, R.; Iestra, J.A.; Larsen, J.K.; Zelissen, P.M.J.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether beliefs about the cause, consequences, time line, and control of obesity are predictors of the amount of weight loss after an 8-week, low-calorie diet consisting of meal replacements. Forty-eight women and 18 men, mean age=45.9 (range=23 to 73

  2. Predicting Perceptions of Date Rape: An Examination of Perpetrator Motivation, Relationship Length, and Gender Role Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelone, David J.; Mitchell, Damon; Lucente, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to examine the influence of multiple offender motivations (including no indication of a motivation), relationship length, and gender role beliefs on perceptions of a male-on-female date rape. A sample of 348 U.S. college students read a brief vignette depicting a date rape and completed a questionnaire regarding…

  3. Exploring the Role of Future Perspective in Predicting Turkish University Students' Beliefs about Global Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Deniz; Teksöz, Gaye; Ertepinar, Hamide

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that limited understanding about causes and its potential impacts of climate change and fault beliefs by people across different countries of the world including Turkey is a real challenge. Acceptance of climate change as a real threat, believing its existence, and knowing causes and consequences are very significant for…

  4. How Do Teachers' Beliefs Predict Children's Interest in Math from Kindergarten to Sixth Grade?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadyaya, Katja; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated to what extent teachers' beliefs about children's achievement contribute to the development of children's math interest. In addition, the extent to which other possible predictors, such as performance in math, gender, and race/ethnicity would contribute to the development of children's math interest was examined.…

  5. Role of Family Background, Student Behaviors, and School-Related Beliefs in Predicting High School Dropout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Alyssa K.; Bonitz, Verena S.

    2015-01-01

    The authors' purpose was to test a parsimonious model derived from social cognitive career theory (R. W. Lent, S. D. Brown, & G. Hackett, 1994) and expectancy value theory (J. S. Eccles & A. Wigfield, 2002) that integrates groups of variables (demographic background, student behaviors, and school-related beliefs) with the goal of…

  6. Predicting Perceptions of Date Rape: An Examination of Perpetrator Motivation, Relationship Length, and Gender Role Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelone, David J.; Mitchell, Damon; Lucente, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to examine the influence of multiple offender motivations (including no indication of a motivation), relationship length, and gender role beliefs on perceptions of a male-on-female date rape. A sample of 348 U.S. college students read a brief vignette depicting a date rape and completed a questionnaire regarding…

  7. Obesity-related beliefs predict weight loss after an 8-week low-calorie diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wamsteker, E.W.; Geenen, R.; Iestra, J.A.; Larsen, J.K.; Zelissen, P.M.J.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether beliefs about the cause, consequences, time line, and control of obesity are predictors of the amount of weight loss after an 8-week, low-calorie diet consisting of meal replacements. Forty-eight women and 18 men, mean age=45.9 (range=23 to 73 years

  8. Implicit Gender Stereotypes and Essentialist Beliefs Predict Preservice Teachers' Tracking Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nürnberger, Miriam; Nerb, Josef; Schmitz, Florian; Keller, Johannes; Sütterlin, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which differences in implicit and explicit math--language gender stereotypes, and essentialist beliefs among preservice teachers affect tracking recommendations for math/science versus language-oriented secondary schools. Consistent with expectations, the results suggest that student's gender influences…

  9. Obesity-related beliefs predict weight loss after an 8-week low-calorie diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wamsteker, E.W.; Geenen, R.; Iestra, J.A.; Larsen, J.K.; Zelissen, P.M.J.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether beliefs about the cause, consequences, time line, and control of obesity are predictors of the amount of weight loss after an 8-week, low-calorie diet consisting of meal replacements. Forty-eight women and 18 men, mean age=45.9 (range=23 to 73 years

  10. Using the Health Belief Model to Predict Bystander Behavior among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blavos, Alexis A.; Glassman, Tavis; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Diehr, Aaron; Deakins, Bethany

    2014-01-01

    This investigation used the Health Belief Model (HBM) to examine perceived barriers and benefits college students hold concerning medical amnesty. Researchers employed a cross-sectional research design with 369 students completing the survey (97% response rate). A path analysis revealed that college students are more likely to seek help during an…

  11. Contested collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    1995-01-01

    support patterns of work activities, social groups, and personal beliefs. In these situations, design is fundamentally an interactive process that requires communication among users, designers, and developers. However, communication among these groups is often difficult although of paramount importance...... to design outcomes. Through a qualitative analysis of a house, expert system, and telecommunications network architecture and management system design situations, a descriptive model of design that characterizes communication among users, designers, and developers as they create an artifact was developed....... The model describes design phases, roles, themes, and intergroup communication networks as they evolve throughout the design process and characterizes design as a process of "contested collaboration". It is a first step towards a predictive design model that suggests strategies which may help participants...

  12. On the incremental validity of irrational beliefs to predict subjective well-being while controlling for personality factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spörrle, Matthias; Strobel, Maria; Tumasjan, Andranik

    2010-11-01

    This research examines the incremental validity of irrational thinking as conceptualized by Albert Ellis to predict diverse aspects of subjective well-being while controlling for the influence of personality factors. Rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT) argues that irrational beliefs result in maladaptive emotions leading to reduced well-being. Although there is some early scientific evidence for this relation, it has never been investigated whether this connection would still persist when statistically controlling for the Big Five personality factors, which were consistently found to be important determinants of well-being. Regression analyses revealed significant incremental validity of irrationality over personality factors when predicting life satisfaction, but not when predicting subjective happiness. Results are discussed with respect to conceptual differences between these two aspects of subjective well-being.

  13. Direct-to-consumer advertising of predictive genetic tests: a health belief model based examination of consumer response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Brent L; Ramakrishnan, Shravanan; Perri, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising of predictive genetic tests (PGTs) has added a new dimension to health advertising. This study used an online survey based on the health belief model framework to examine and more fully understand consumers' responses and behavioral intentions in response to a PGT DTC advertisement. Overall, consumers reported moderate intentions to talk with their doctor and seek more information about PGTs after advertisement exposure, though consumers did not seem ready to take the advertised test or engage in active information search. Those who perceived greater threat from the disease, however, had significantly greater behavioral intentions and information search behavior.

  14. Health beliefs affect the correct replacement of daily disposable contact lenses: Predicting compliance with the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livi, Stefano; Zeri, Fabrizio; Baroni, Rossella

    2017-02-01

    To assess the compliance of Daily Disposable Contact Lenses (DDCLs) wearers with replacing lenses at a manufacturer-recommended replacement frequency. To evaluate the ability of two different Health Behavioural Theories (HBT), The Health Belief Model (HBM) and The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), in predicting compliance. A multi-centre survey was conducted using a questionnaire completed anonymously by contact lens wearers during the purchase of DDCLs. Three hundred and fifty-four questionnaires were returned. The survey comprised 58.5% females and 41.5% males (mean age 34±12years). Twenty-three percent of respondents were non-compliant with manufacturer-recommended replacement frequency (re-using DDCLs at least once). The main reason for re-using DDCLs was "to save money" (35%). Predictions of compliance behaviour (past behaviour or future intentions) on the basis of the two HBT was investigated through logistic regression analysis: both TPB factors (subjective norms and perceived behavioural control) were significant (pbehaviour and future intentions) and perceived benefit (only for past behaviour) as significant factors (pmodel show that the involvement of persons socially close to the wearers (subjective norms) and the improvement of the procedure of behavioural control of daily replacement (behavioural control) are of paramount importance in improving compliance. With reference to the HBM, it is important to warn DDCLs wearers of the severity of a contact-lens-related eye infection, and to underline the possibility of its prevention. Copyright © 2016 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Legitimating Racial Discrimination: Emotions, Not Beliefs, Best Predict Discrimination in a Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Talaska, Cara A.; Fiske, Susan T.; Chaiken, Shelly

    2008-01-01

    Investigations of racial bias have emphasized stereotypes and other beliefs as central explanatory mechanisms and as legitimating discrimination. In recent theory and research, emotional prejudices have emerged as another, more direct predictor of discrimination. A new comprehensive meta-analysis of 57 racial attitude-discrimination studies finds a moderate relationship between overall attitudes and discrimination. Emotional prejudices are twices as closely related to racial discrimination as...

  16. Predicting self-care practices and glycaemic control using health belief model (HBM) in patients with insulin-treated diabetes in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Aris, Aishairma

    2016-01-01

    Background: The practice of diabetes self-care plays an important role in glycaemic control. However, not all patients with insulin-treated diabetes engage in their self-care activities. Although there is evidence that self-care practices in patients with insulin-treated diabetes can be understood and predicted by health beliefs proposed by Health Belief Model (HBM), little is known about adult patients due to several methodological weaknesses of previous studies. Furthermore, knowledge is la...

  17. Bigger data, collaborative tools and the future of predictive drug discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekins, Sean; Clark, Alex M.; Swamidass, S. Joshua; Litterman, Nadia; Williams, Antony J.

    2014-10-01

    Over the past decade we have seen a growth in the provision of chemistry data and cheminformatics tools as either free websites or software as a service commercial offerings. These have transformed how we find molecule-related data and use such tools in our research. There have also been efforts to improve collaboration between researchers either openly or through secure transactions using commercial tools. A major challenge in the future will be how such databases and software approaches handle larger amounts of data as it accumulates from high throughput screening and enables the user to draw insights, enable predictions and move projects forward. We now discuss how information from some drug discovery datasets can be made more accessible and how privacy of data should not overwhelm the desire to share it at an appropriate time with collaborators. We also discuss additional software tools that could be made available and provide our thoughts on the future of predictive drug discovery in this age of big data. We use some examples from our own research on neglected diseases, collaborations, mobile apps and algorithm development to illustrate these ideas.

  18. Predicting performance and performance satisfaction: mindfulness and beliefs about the ability to deal with social barriers in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecharz, Jan; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Scholz, Urte; Schwarzer, Ralf; Siekanska, Malgorzata; Cieslak, Roman

    2014-05-01

    This research investigates the role of beliefs about the ability to deal with specific social barriers and its relationships to mindfulness, football performance, and satisfaction with one's own and team performance. Study 1 aimed at eliciting these social barriers. Study 2 tested (i) whether self-efficacy referring to social barriers would predict performance over and above task-related self-efficacy and collective efficacy and (ii) the mediating role of self-efficacy to overcome social barriers in the relationship between mindfulness and performance. Participants were football (soccer) players aged 16-21 years (Study 1: N=30; Study 2: N=101, longitudinal sample: n=88). Study 1 resulted in eliciting 82 social barriers referring to team, peer leadership, and coaches. Study 2 showed that task-related self-efficacy and collective efficacy explained performance satisfaction at seven-month follow-up, whereas self-efficacy referring to social barriers explained shooting performance at seven-month follow-up. Indirect associations between mindfulness and performance were found with three types of self-efficacy referring to social barriers, operating as parallel mediators. Results provide evidence for the role of beliefs about the ability to cope with social barriers and show a complex interplay between different types of self-efficacy and collective efficacy in predicting team sport performance.

  19. A comparative study: classification vs. user-based collaborative filtering for clinical prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Hao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recommender systems have shown tremendous value for the prediction of personalized item recommendations for individuals in a variety of settings (e.g., marketing, e-commerce, etc.. User-based collaborative filtering is a popular recommender system, which leverages an individuals’ prior satisfaction with items, as well as the satisfaction of individuals that are “similar”. Recently, there have been applications of collaborative filtering based recommender systems for clinical risk prediction. In these applications, individuals represent patients, and items represent clinical data, which includes an outcome. Methods Application of recommender systems to a problem of this type requires the recasting a supervised learning problem as unsupervised. The rationale is that patients with similar clinical features carry a similar disease risk. As the “Big Data” era progresses, it is likely that approaches of this type will be reached for as biomedical data continues to grow in both size and complexity (e.g., electronic health records. In the present study, we set out to understand and assess the performance of recommender systems in a controlled yet realistic setting. User-based collaborative filtering recommender systems are compared to logistic regression and random forests with different types of imputation and varying amounts of missingness on four different publicly available medical data sets: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, 2011-2012 on Obesity, Study to Understand Prognoses Preferences Outcomes and Risks of Treatment (SUPPORT, chronic kidney disease, and dermatology data. We also examined performance using simulated data with observations that are Missing At Random (MAR or Missing Completely At Random (MCAR under various degrees of missingness and levels of class imbalance in the response variable. Results Our results demonstrate that user-based collaborative filtering is consistently inferior

  20. A comparative study: classification vs. user-based collaborative filtering for clinical prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Fang; Blair, Rachael Hageman

    2016-12-08

    Recommender systems have shown tremendous value for the prediction of personalized item recommendations for individuals in a variety of settings (e.g., marketing, e-commerce, etc.). User-based collaborative filtering is a popular recommender system, which leverages an individuals' prior satisfaction with items, as well as the satisfaction of individuals that are "similar". Recently, there have been applications of collaborative filtering based recommender systems for clinical risk prediction. In these applications, individuals represent patients, and items represent clinical data, which includes an outcome. Application of recommender systems to a problem of this type requires the recasting a supervised learning problem as unsupervised. The rationale is that patients with similar clinical features carry a similar disease risk. As the "Big Data" era progresses, it is likely that approaches of this type will be reached for as biomedical data continues to grow in both size and complexity (e.g., electronic health records). In the present study, we set out to understand and assess the performance of recommender systems in a controlled yet realistic setting. User-based collaborative filtering recommender systems are compared to logistic regression and random forests with different types of imputation and varying amounts of missingness on four different publicly available medical data sets: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, 2011-2012 on Obesity), Study to Understand Prognoses Preferences Outcomes and Risks of Treatment (SUPPORT), chronic kidney disease, and dermatology data. We also examined performance using simulated data with observations that are Missing At Random (MAR) or Missing Completely At Random (MCAR) under various degrees of missingness and levels of class imbalance in the response variable. Our results demonstrate that user-based collaborative filtering is consistently inferior to logistic regression and random forests with different

  1. Predicting iron-fortified soy sauce consumption intention: application of the theory of planned behavior and health belief model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xinying; Guo, Yan; Wang, Sisun; Sun, Jing

    2006-01-01

    To identify variables that significantly predict the intention of iron ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (NaFeEDTA)-fortified soy sauce (FeSS) consumption. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey, based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Health Belief Model (HBM), was administered, and a multistage, stratified sampling method was carried out to select study samples. Urban and rural areas in Guizhou province, China. 636 women from rural areas and 454 from urban areas completed 1090 eligible questionnaires. Women's knowledge of FeSS; perceived severity and susceptibility of iron deficiency (ID) or iron deficiency anemia (IDA); and attitudes toward behavior, control beliefs, barriers, cues, intention to buy FeSS, health value, and health behavior identity factors were measured. A path analysis was conducted to test the goodness of fit of the model and to modify the model. Scale and factor analyses were conducted to verify the scale's reliability and construct validity. The alpha level was set at .05. The model explained 35% to 55% of the variance of behavioral intention. FeSS knowledge directly and indirectly affected the intention to buy FeSS. The behavioral intention was also impacted by women's health value and perception of perceived susceptibility and severity of IDA through the behavior identity and attitudes toward behavior. Cues, as an external factor, greatly affected the intention. The external control belief was a weak factor affecting intention. Integrated TPB and HBM explained the behavioral intention of FeSS consumption among women in Guizhou, China. Nutrition education should emphasize behavioral attitudes and identity, and improve knowledge of FeSS and perception of ID and IDA, which would relieve anxiety about FeSS.

  2. Can illness beliefs, from the common-sense model, prospectively predict adherence to self-management behaviours? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aujla, N; Walker, M; Sprigg, N; Abrams, K; Massey, A; Vedhara, K

    2016-08-01

    To determine whether people's beliefs about their illness, conceptualised by the common sense model (CSM), can prospectively predict adherence to self-management behaviours (including, attendance, medication, diet and exercise) in adults with acute and chronic physical illnesses. Electronic databases were searched in September 2014, for papers specifying the use of the 'CSM' in relation to 'self-management', 'rehabilitation' and 'adherence' in the context of physical illness. Six hundred abstracts emerged. Data from 52 relevant studies were extracted. Twenty-one studies were meta-analysed, using correlation coefficients in random effects models. The remainder were descriptively synthesised. The effect sizes for individual illness belief domains and adherence to self-management behaviours ranged from .04 to .13, indicating very weak, predictive relationships. Further analysis revealed that predictive relationships did not differ by the: type of self-management behaviour; acute or chronic illness; or duration of follow-up. Individual illness belief domains, outlined by the CSM, did not predict adherence to self-management behaviours in adults with physical illnesses. Prospective relationships, controlling for past behaviour, also did not emerge. Other factors, including patients' treatment beliefs and inter-relationships between individual illness beliefs domains, may have influenced potential associations with adherence to self-management behaviours.

  3. Competition and Collaboration in Cooperative Coevolution of Elman Recurrent Neural Networks for Time-Series Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Rohitash

    2015-12-01

    Collaboration enables weak species to survive in an environment where different species compete for limited resources. Cooperative coevolution (CC) is a nature-inspired optimization method that divides a problem into subcomponents and evolves them while genetically isolating them. Problem decomposition is an important aspect in using CC for neuroevolution. CC employs different problem decomposition methods to decompose the neural network training problem into subcomponents. Different problem decomposition methods have features that are helpful at different stages in the evolutionary process. Adaptation, collaboration, and competition are needed for CC, as multiple subpopulations are used to represent the problem. It is important to add collaboration and competition in CC. This paper presents a competitive CC method for training recurrent neural networks for chaotic time-series prediction. Two different instances of the competitive method are proposed that employs different problem decomposition methods to enforce island-based competition. The results show improvement in the performance of the proposed methods in most cases when compared with standalone CC and other methods from the literature.

  4. An Agent-Based Fuzzy Collaborative Intelligence Approach for Predicting the Price of a Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toly Chen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Predicting the price of a dynamic random access memory (DRAM product is a critical task to the manufacturer. However, it is not easy to contend with the uncertainty of the price. In order to effectively predict the price of a DRAM product, an agent-based fuzzy collaborative intelligence approach is proposed in this study. In the agent-based fuzzy collaborative intelligence approach, each agent uses a fuzzy neural network to predict the DRAM price based on its view. The agent then communicates its view and forecasting results to other agents with the aid of an automatic collaboration mechanism. According to the experimental results, the overall performance was improved through the agents’ collaboration.

  5. Predicting human papillomavirus vaccine uptake in young adult women: comparing the health belief model and theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerend, Mary A; Shepherd, Janet E

    2012-10-01

    Although theories of health behavior have guided thousands of studies, relatively few studies have compared these theories against one another. The purpose of the current study was to compare two classic theories of health behavior-the Health Belief Model (HBM) and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB)-in their prediction of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. After watching a gain-framed, loss-framed, or control video, women (N = 739) ages 18-26 completed a survey assessing HBM and TPB constructs. HPV vaccine uptake was assessed 10 months later. Although the message framing intervention had no effect on vaccine uptake, support was observed for both the TPB and HBM. Nevertheless, the TPB consistently outperformed the HBM. Key predictors of uptake included subjective norms, self-efficacy, and vaccine cost. Despite the observed advantage of the TPB, findings revealed considerable overlap between the two theories and highlighted the importance of proximal versus distal predictors of health behavior.

  6. Application of the Extended Health Control Belief Model to Predict Hepatitis A and B Vaccinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Grace L; Nguyen, Hannah H; Singh-Carlson, Savitri; Fisher, Dennis G; Odell, Anne; Xandre, Pamela

    2016-09-01

    Adult vaccination compliance rates vary according to sample and type of vaccine administered (influenza, pneumococcal). This study looked at vaccination of a community sample of low-income, minority adults. Nurses offered free vaccination for hepatitis A and B in the form of the combined Twinrix vaccine to adults on a walk-in basis. In addition to dosing information, participants completed the Risk Behavior Assessment, the Coping Strategies Indicator and the Cardiovascular Risk Assessment. Skaff's extended Health Belief Model was used as the theoretical framework. Count regression was used to model receipt of one, two, or three doses. The majority of participants were male with a mean age of 40 years. The distribution of doses was: 173 individuals (27.6%) received one dose only, 261 (41.7%) received two doses, and 191 (30.5%) received three doses of vaccine. The multivariate count regression model including being male, having previously been told by a health care provider that one has syphilis, having severe negative emotions, and perceived social support were associated with participants' receiving fewer doses of hepatitis vaccine. A greater problem-solving score was associated with a higher number of vaccine doses received. Despite free vaccinations offered in an easily accessible community setting, the majority of participants failed to complete the hepatitis vaccine series. More effort is needed to get adult men to participate in hepatitis vaccination clinics. Additional research is necessary to understand barriers other than cost to adults receiving vaccination. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The Prediction Approach for Periodontitis Using Collaborative Filtering Method in Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SULAIGAL FEMINA.A

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Big data is a term for data sets that are so large or complex that traditional data processing applications are inadequate. We have proposed „the prediction approach‟ in big data which is usually based totally at the decision making or clinical acumen aspect of a Dentist. Collaborative filtering is a „facts Mining method‟ in which data is fed into the machine which analysis it using certain parameters and offer resultant outcomes which helps in the future prediction of the disease, which in this case is Periodontitis. This will help in making decisions by examining or analyzing the whole disorder and plan the treatment to prevent its occurrence in future. It is by far the most specialized and latest technology used in Dentistry to prevent the disease occurrence in advance before it arise and create treatment strategies for future prevention of the disease. This method could be tested with the huge collection of ancient statistics of dental diseases to check the effectiveness of the technique and based on the generated end result; precision of prediction can be executed in future.

  8. Measuring and prediction mediction adherence using dispensing data and patient beliefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geers, H.C.J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Medication adherence can be subdivided into drug initiation, drug taking compliance and (non)persistence. Objective of this thesis was to (1) investigate whether measurement methods and reporting of adherence influenced outcomes, (2) predict poor drug taking compliance and nonpersistenc

  9. Predicting Binge Drinking in College Students: Rational Beliefs, Stress, or Loneliness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yixin; Feeley, Thomas Hugh

    2015-01-01

    We proposed a conceptual model to predict binge-drinking behavior among college students, based on the theory of planned behavior and the stress-coping hypothesis. A two-wave online survey was conducted with predictors and drinking behavior measured separately over 2 weeks' time. In the Wave 1 survey, 279 students at a public university in the…

  10. Predicting South Korean University Students' Happiness through Social Support and Efficacy Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Diane Sookyoung; Padilla, Amado M.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the adversity and coping experiences of 198 South Korean university students and takes a cultural lens in understanding how social and individual factors shape their happiness. Hierarchical linear regression analyses suggest that Korean students' perceptions of social support significantly predicted their happiness,…

  11. Predicting Binge Drinking in College Students: Rational Beliefs, Stress, or Loneliness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yixin; Feeley, Thomas Hugh

    2015-01-01

    We proposed a conceptual model to predict binge-drinking behavior among college students, based on the theory of planned behavior and the stress-coping hypothesis. A two-wave online survey was conducted with predictors and drinking behavior measured separately over 2 weeks' time. In the Wave 1 survey, 279 students at a public university in the…

  12. Predicting South Korean University Students' Happiness through Social Support and Efficacy Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Diane Sookyoung; Padilla, Amado M.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the adversity and coping experiences of 198 South Korean university students and takes a cultural lens in understanding how social and individual factors shape their happiness. Hierarchical linear regression analyses suggest that Korean students' perceptions of social support significantly predicted their happiness,…

  13. Use of a Bayesian Belief Network to Predict the Impacts of Commercializing Non-timber Forest Products on Livelihoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk W. te Velde

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Commercialization of non-timber forest products (NTFPs has been widely promoted as a means of sustainably developing tropical forest resources, in a way that promotes forest conservation while supporting rural livelihoods. However, in practice, NTFP commercialization has often failed to deliver the expected benefits. Progress in analyzing the causes of such failure has been hindered by the lack of a suitable framework for the analysis of NTFP case studies, and by the lack of predictive theory. We address these needs by developing a probabilistic model based on a livelihood framework, enabling the impact of NTFP commercialization on livelihoods to be predicted. The framework considers five types of capital asset needed to support livelihoods: natural, human, social, physical, and financial. Commercialization of NTFPs is represented in the model as the conversion of one form of capital asset into another, which is influenced by a variety of socio-economic, environmental, and political factors. Impacts on livelihoods are determined by the availability of the five types of assets following commercialization. The model, implemented as a Bayesian Belief Network, was tested using data from participatory research into 19 NTFP case studies undertaken in Mexico and Bolivia. The model provides a novel tool for diagnosing the causes of success and failure in NTFP commercialization, and can be used to explore the potential impacts of policy options and other interventions on livelihoods. The potential value of this approach for the development of NTFP theory is discussed.

  14. Nomograms for predicting survival and recurrence in patients with adenoid cystic carcinoma. An international collaborative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganly, Ian; Amit, Moran; Kou, Lei; Palmer, Frank L.; Migliacci, Jocelyn; Katabi, Nora; Yu, Changhong; Kattan, Michael W.; Binenbaum, Yoav; Sharma, Kanika; Naomi, Ramer; Abib, Agbetoba; Miles, Brett; Yang, Xinjie; Lei, Delin; Bjoerndal, Kristine; Godballe, Christian; Mücke, Thomas; Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich; Fliss, Dan; Eckardt, André M.; Chiara, Copelli; Sesenna, Enrico; Ali, Safina; Czerwonka, Lukas; Goldstein, David P.; Gil, Ziv; Patel, Snehal G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Due to the rarity of adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC), information on outcome is based upon small retrospective case series. The aim of our study was to create a large multiinstitutional international dataset of patients with ACC in order to design predictive nomograms for outcome. Methods ACC patients managed at 10 international centers were identified. Patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics were recorded and an international collaborative dataset created. Multivariable competing risk models were then built to predict the 10 year recurrence free probability (RFP), distant recurrence free probability (DRFP), overall survival (OS) and cancer specific mortality (CSM). All predictors of interest were added in the starting full models before selection, including age, gender, tumor site, clinical T stage, perineural invasion, margin status, pathologic N-status, and M-status. Stepdown method was used in model selection to choose predictive variables. An external dataset of 99 patients from 2 other institutions was used to validate the nomograms. Findings Of 438 ACC patients, 27.2% (119/438) died from ACC and 38.8% (170/438) died of other causes. Median follow-up was 56 months (range 1–306). The nomogram for OS had 7 variables (age, gender, clinical T stage, tumor site, margin status, pathologic N-status and M-status) with a concordance index (CI) of 0.71. The nomogram for CSM had the same variables, except margin status, with a concordance index (CI) of 0.70. The nomogram for RFP had 7 variables (age, gender, clinical T stage, tumor site, margin status, pathologic N status and perineural invasion) (CI 0.66). The nomogram for DRFP had 6 variables (gender, clinical T stage, tumor site, pathologic N-status, perineural invasion and margin status) (CI 0.64). Concordance index for the external validation set were 0.76, 0.72, 0.67 and 0.70 respectively. Interpretation Using an international collaborative database we have created the first nomograms which

  15. Optimal Belief Approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Leike, Reimar H

    2016-01-01

    In Bayesian statistics probability distributions express beliefs. However, for many problems the beliefs cannot be computed analytically and approximations of beliefs are needed. We seek a ranking function that quantifies how "embarrassing" it is to communicate a given approximation. We show that there is only one ranking under the requirements that (1) the best ranked approximation is the non-approximated belief and (2) that the ranking judges approximations only by their predictions for actual outcomes. We find that this ranking is equivalent to the Kullback-Leibler divergence that is frequently used in the literature. However, there seems to be confusion about the correct order in which its functional arguments, the approximated and non-approximated beliefs, should be used. We hope that our elementary derivation settles the apparent confusion. We show for example that when approximating beliefs with Gaussian distributions the optimal approximation is given by moment matching. This is in contrast to many su...

  16. Predicting Binge Drinking in College Students: Rational Beliefs, Stress, or Loneliness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yixin; Feeley, Thomas Hugh

    2015-01-01

    We proposed a conceptual model to predict binge-drinking behavior among college students, based on the theory of planned behavior and the stress-coping hypothesis. A two-wave online survey was conducted with predictors and drinking behavior measured separately over 2 weeks' time. In the Wave 1 survey, 279 students at a public university in the United States answered questions assessing key predictors and individual characteristics. In the Wave 2 survey, 179 participants returned and reported their drinking behavior over 2 weeks' time. After conducting a negative binomial regression, we found that more favorable attitude toward drinking and less perceived control of drinking at Wave 1 were associated with more binge drinking at Wave 2; subjective norm at Wave 1 was not a significant predictor of binge drinking at Wave 2; students with higher stress at Wave 1 engaged in more binge drinking at Wave 2, but those with higher loneliness did not. Implications of findings are discussed.

  17. Predicting human papillomavirus vaccine uptake in young adult women: Comparing the Health Belief Model and Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerend, Mary A.; Shepherd, Janet E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Although theories of health behavior have guided thousands of studies, relatively few studies have compared these theories against one another. Purpose The purpose of the current study was to compare two classic theories of health behavior—the Health Belief Model (HBM) and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB)—in their prediction of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. Methods After watching a gain-framed, loss-framed, or control video, women (N=739) ages 18–26 completed a survey assessing HBM and TPB constructs. HPV vaccine uptake was assessed ten months later. Results Although the message framing intervention had no effect on vaccine uptake, support was observed for both the TPB and HBM. Nevertheless, the TPB consistently outperformed the HBM. Key predictors of uptake included subjective norms, self-efficacy, and vaccine cost. Conclusions Despite the observed advantage of the TPB, findings revealed considerable overlap between the two theories and highlighted the importance of proximal versus distal predictors of health behavior. PMID:22547155

  18. The predictive relationship between beliefs, attitudes, intentions and secondary school mathematics learning: a theory of reasoned action approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwich, B; Jaeger, M

    1989-11-01

    This study investigated how attitudes and intentions about learning mathematics might be related to subsequent mathematics learning and achievement using the Ajzen and Fishbein theory of reasoned action. The sample consisted of 142 boys and girls between 12 and 14 years old in a large inner city comprehensive school who were assessed in a follow-up design over a nine-month period. Beliefs about the outcomes of learning, attitudes to learning, perceptions of significant others' prescriptions about learning, intentions to engage in learning behaviours, self and teacher reported learning behaviour and mathematics achievement were assessed at both stages. Regression analysis suggested that while the expectancy-value components of attitude did relate to learning behaviour intentions, perceived prescriptions did not relate to intentions. There was a weak relationship between the two measures of learning behaviour, but with neither measure did intention independently predict future behaviour once prior behaviour was taken into account. The best predictor of subsequent mathematics achievement was prior achievement, though teacher-reported learning behaviour did have an independent relationship with subsequent achievement. The findings are discussed in terms of the assessment of learning behaviours, the relevance of the behaviour intention construct for repeated multiple behaviours and future work on how affective variables might be related to cognitive achievements.

  19. Collaborative Science: Human Sensor Networks for Real-time Natural Disaster Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halem, M.; Yesha, Y.; Aulov, O.; Martineau, J.; Brown, S.; Conte, T.; CenterHybrid Multicore Productivity Research

    2010-12-01

    We have implemented a ‘Human Sensor Network’ as a real time collaborative science data observing system by collecting and integrating the vast untapped information potential of digital social media data sources occurring during the oil spill situation arising from the Macondo well in the Gulf of Mexico. We collected, and archived blogs, Twitter status updates (aka tweets), photographs posted to Flicker, and videos posted to YouTube related to the Gulf oil spill and processed the meta data, text, and photos to extract quantitative physical data such as locations and estimates of the severity and dispersion of oil being collected on the beaches and marshes, frequencies of observations of tar ball sightings, correlations of sightings from different media, numbers of dead or distressed animals, trends, etc. These data were then introduced into the NOAA operational Gnome oil spill predictive model as time dependent boundary conditions employing a 2-D variational data assimilation scheme. The three participating institutions employed a distributed cloud computing system for the processing and model executions. In this presentation, we conducted preliminary forecast impact tests of the Gnome model with and without the use of social media data using a 2-D variational data assimilation technique. The 2-D VAR is used to adjust the state variables of the model by recursively minimizing the differences between oil spill predictions reaching locations across the entire coastlines of the Gulf of Mexico and the estimated positions of oil derived from analyzed social media data. Ensemble forecasts will be performed to provide estimates of the rates of oil and surface oil distributions emanating from the Deepwater Horizon. We display the derived predictions from the photos and animations from Flicker, YouTube, and extracted content from tweets and blogs in a dynamic representation on very large tiled walls of LCDs at the UCSD Cal IT2 visualization facility. We describe the

  20. A mixed methods exploration of the team and organizational factors that may predict new graduate nurse engagement in collaborative practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Kathryn A; Baxter, Pamela E; Ploeg, Jenny; Jack, Susan M

    2014-03-01

    Although engagement in collaborative practice is reported to support the role transition and retention of new graduate (NG) nurses, it is not known how to promote collaborative practice among these nurses. This mixed methods study explored the team and organizational factors that may predict NG nurse engagement in collaborative practice. A total of 514 NG nurses from Ontario, Canada completed the Collaborative Practice Assessment Tool. Sixteen NG nurses participated in follow-up interviews. The team and organizational predictors of NG engagement in collaborative practice were as follows: satisfaction with the team (β = 0.278; p = 0.000), number of team strategies (β = 0.338; p = 0.000), participation in a mentorship or preceptorship experience (β = 0.137; p = 0.000), accessibility of manager (β = 0.123; p = 0.001), and accessibility and proximity of educator or professional practice leader (β = 0.126; p = 0.001 and β = 0.121; p = 0.002, respectively). Qualitative analysis revealed the team facilitators to be respect, team support and face-to-face interprofessional interactions. Organizational facilitators included supportive leadership, participation in a preceptorship or mentorship experience and time. Interventions designed to facilitate NG engagement in collaborative practice should consider these factors.

  1. Quantitative Approach to Collaborative Learning: Performance Prediction, Individual Assessment, and Group Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen, Ling; Ruta, Dymitr; Powell, Leigh; Hirsch, Benjamin; Ng, Jason

    2016-01-01

    The benefits of collaborative learning, although widely reported, lack the quantitative rigor and detailed insight into the dynamics of interactions within the group, while individual contributions and their impacts on group members and their collaborative work remain hidden behind joint group assessment. To bridge this gap we intend to address…

  2. Quantitative Approach to Collaborative Learning: Performance Prediction, Individual Assessment, and Group Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen, Ling; Ruta, Dymitr; Powell, Leigh; Hirsch, Benjamin; Ng, Jason

    2016-01-01

    The benefits of collaborative learning, although widely reported, lack the quantitative rigor and detailed insight into the dynamics of interactions within the group, while individual contributions and their impacts on group members and their collaborative work remain hidden behind joint group assessment. To bridge this gap we intend to address…

  3. Breast Health Belief System Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-08-01

    advantages: cultural and geographic familiarity, interinstitutional collaboration , and cost effectiveness in terms of controlling per diem and travel...providers of the significance of beliefs on health practices. Collaborators in this study included Georgia State, Albany State, Fort Valley State, and...Georgia counties. As the map on the following pages shows, many of Georgia’s southern counties are in economic decline. Collaborators are Georgia

  4. Suppressed Belief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komarine Romdenh-Romluc

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Moran’s revised conception of conscious belief requires us to reconceptualise suppressed belief. The work of Merleau-Ponty offers a way to do this. His account of motor-skills allows us to understand suppressed beliefs as pre-reflective ways of dealing with the world.

  5. Predicting Turkish Preservice Elementary Teachers' Orientations to Teaching Science with Epistemological Beliefs, Learning Conceptions, and Learning Approaches in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Elif Adibelli; Deniz, Hasan; Topçu, Mustafa Sami

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated to what extent Turkish preservice elementary teachers' orientations to teaching science could be explained by their epistemological beliefs, conceptions of learning, and approaches to learning science. The sample included 157 Turkish preservice elementary teachers. The four instruments used in the study were School…

  6. Parents' Emotion-Related Beliefs, Behaviours, and Skills Predict Children's Recognition of Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Vanessa L.; Halberstadt, Amy G.; Lozada, Fantasy T.; Craig, Ashley B.

    2015-01-01

    Children who are able to recognize others' emotions are successful in a variety of socioemotional domains, yet we know little about how school-aged children's abilities develop, particularly in the family context. We hypothesized that children develop emotion recognition skill as a function of parents' own emotion-related beliefs,…

  7. Men's and Women's Health Beliefs Differentially Predict Coronary Heart Disease Incidence in a Population-Based Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korin, Maya Rom; Chaplin, William F.; Shaffer, Jonathan A.; Butler, Mark J.; Ojie, Mary-Jane; Davidson, Karina W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine gender differences in the association between beliefs in heart disease preventability and 10-year incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) in a population-based sample. Methods: A total of 2,688 Noninstitutionalized Nova Scotians without prior CHD enrolled in the Nova Scotia Health Study (NSHS95) and were followed for 10…

  8. Latino Maternal Literacy Beliefs and Practices Mediating Socioeconomic Status and Maternal Education Effects in Predicting Child Receptive Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Acosta, Sandra; Davis, Heather; Pollard-Durodola, Sharolyn; Saenz, Laura; Soares, Denise; Resendez, Nora; Zhu, Leina

    2017-01-01

    Research Findings: This study investigated the association between Mexican American maternal education and socioeconomic status (SES) and child vocabulary as mediated by parental reading beliefs, home literacy environment (HLE), and parent-child shared reading frequency. As part of a larger study, maternal reports of education level, SES, HLE, and…

  9. How Do Teachers' Beliefs Predict Children's Interest in Math from Kindergarten to Sixth Grade?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadyaya, Katja; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated to what extent teachers' beliefs about children's achievement contribute to the development of children's math interest. In addition, the extent to which other possible predictors, such as performance in math, gender, and race/ethnicity would contribute to the development of children's math…

  10. Predicting Occupational Considerations: A Comparison of Self-Efficacy Beliefs, Outcome Expectations, and Person-Environment Congruence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Paul A., Jr.; Leuwerke, Wade C.

    2000-01-01

    Regression analysis of data from 93 college students showed that self-efficacy beliefs and outcome expectations are more powerful predictors of occupations considered than person-environment congruence. Congruence alone is a weak predictor of occupational considerations. Social Cognitive Career Theory and Holland's Theory of Career Choice…

  11. Collaborative Research. Separating Forced and Unforced Decadal Predictability in Models and Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DelSole, Timothy [George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (United States)

    2015-08-31

    The purpose of the proposed research was to identify unforced predictable components on decadal time scales, distinguish these components from forced predictable components, and to assess the reliability of model predictions of these components. The question of whether anthropogenic forcing changes decadal predictability, or gives rise to new forms of decadal predictability, also will be

  12. International note: Prediction of mathematics work ethic and performance from behavioral, normative, and control beliefs among Qatari adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Abdelfattah, Faisal; Mahasneh, Randa Ali; Khine, Myint Swe; Welch, Anita G; Melkonian, Michael; Al Nuaimi, Samira Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Over half-a-million adolescents take part in each cycle of the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA). Yet often, researchers and policy makers across the globe tend to focus their attention primarily on the academic trajectories of adolescents hailing from highly successful education systems. Hence, a vast majority of the adolescent population who regionally and globally constitute the 'long tail of underachievement' often remain unnoticed and underrepresented in the growing literature on adolescents' academic trajectories. The present study, therefore, explored the relations of dispositions toward mathematics, subjective norms in mathematics, and perceived control of success in mathematics to mathematics work ethic as well as mathematics performance; and the mediational role of mathematics work ethic in the association between dispositional, normative, and control beliefs and mathematics performance among adolescents in one of the lowest performing education systems, Qatar. Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses revealed that Qatari adolescents' dispositional, normative, and control beliefs about mathematics were significantly associated with their mathematics work ethic and mathematics performance, and mathematics work ethic significantly mediated the relationship between dispositional, normative, and control beliefs about mathematics and mathematics performance. However, multi-group SEM analyses indicated that these relationships were not invariant across the gender and the SES groups.

  13. The Freedom to Pursue Happiness: Belief in Free Will Predicts Life Satisfaction and Positive Affect among Chinese Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunkai; Wang, Song; Zhao, Yajun; Kong, Feng; Li, Jingguang

    2016-01-01

    A small amount of research has examined the association between the belief in free will and subjective well-being (SWB) among Western laypersons from individualist cultures. However, no study has examined this association among participants from collectivist cultures (e.g., Eastern Asian cultures). Therefore, in this study, we explored this association among two large, independent cohorts of Chinese adolescents (N1 = 1,660; N2 = 639; high school students). The belief in free will was measured by a self-reported questionnaire (Cohorts 1 and 2) and a two-alternative forced choice question regarding the existence of free will (Cohort 2). SWB included cognitive well-being (life satisfaction) and affective well-being (positive and negative affect) in both cohorts. Data analyses indicated that a stronger belief in free will was consistently associated with higher life satisfaction and positive affect in both cohorts. Our investigation provides evidence supporting the cultural generality of the positive effects of believing in free will on SWB.

  14. The predictive effect of fear-avoidance beliefs on low back pain among newly qualified health care workers with and without previous low back pain: a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jette Nygaard; Albertsen, Karen; Borg, Vilhelm;

    2009-01-01

    Health care workers have a high prevalence of low back pain (LBP). Although physical exposures in the working environment are linked to an increased risk of LBP, it has been suggested that individual coping strategies, for example fear-avoidance beliefs, could also be important in the development...... and maintenance of LBP. Accordingly, the main objective of this study was to examine (1) the association between physical work load and LBP, (2) the predictive effect of fear-avoidance beliefs on the development of LBP, and (3) the moderating effect of fear-avoidance beliefs on the association between physical...

  15. Conscious Belief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pitt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tim Crane maintains that beliefs cannot be conscious because they persist in the absence of consciousness. Conscious judgments can share their contents with beliefs, and their occurrence can be evidence for what one believes; but they cannot be beliefs, because they don’t persist. I challenge Crane’s premise that belief attributions to the temporarily unconscious are literally true. To say of an unconscious agent that she believes that p is like saying that she sings well. To say she sings well is to say that when she sings, her singing is good. To say that she believes that p is (roughly to say that when she consciously considers the content that p she consciously affirms (believes it. I also argue that the phenomenal view of intentional content Crane appears to endorse prima facie commits him to the view, at least controversial, perhaps incoherent, that there is unconscious phenomenology (the intentional contents of unconscious beliefs.

  16. Do attitudes toward societal structure predict beliefs about free will and achievement? Evidence from the Indian caste system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Mahesh; Dunham, Yarrow; Hicks, Catherine M; Barner, David

    2016-01-01

    Intuitive theories about the malleability of intellectual ability affect our motivation and achievement in life. But how are such theories shaped by the culture in which an individual is raised? We addressed this question by exploring how Indian children's and adults' attitudes toward the Hindu caste system--and its deterministic worldview--are related to differences in their intuitive theories. Strikingly, we found that, beginning at least in middle school and continuing into adulthood, individuals who placed more importance on caste were more likely to adopt deterministic intuitive theories. We also found a developmental change in the scope of this relationship, such that in children, caste attitudes were linked only to abstract beliefs about personal freedom, but that by adulthood, caste attitudes were also linked to beliefs about the potential achievement of members of different castes, personal intellectual ability, and personality attributes. These results are the first to directly relate the societal structure in which a person is raised to the specific intuitive theories they adopt.

  17. Factors Predicting Fecal Occult Blood Testing among Residents of Bushehr, Iran, Based on the Health Belief Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghobadi Dashdebi, Kamel; Noroozi, Azita; Tahmasebi, Rahim

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a major cause of mortality worldwide. Fecal occult blood testing has proven a very effective screening tool for early detection and mortality reduction. The aim of this study was to determine predictors factors related to fecal occult blood testing using the Health Belief Model method among residents of Bushehr, Iran. A cross sectional study was performed on a sample of 600 men and women more than 50 years of age. The sample was selected by a convenience method from patients referred to public and private laboratories throughout the city. Each subject filled out a questionnaire which was designed and developed based on Health Belief Model constructs. Statistical analysis was conducted using ANOVA, T-test, chi-square test, and logistic regression. Fecal occult blood tests were performed on 179 (29.8%) out of 600 subjects, of which 95 patients (58.1%) did a periodic examination test and 84 patients (46.9%) had a doctor's advice for testing. According to the logistic regression model, the perceived barriers (P=0.0, Exp(B)= 0.3), perceived benefits (P occult blood testing among subjects.The results showed that reducing people's perception of barriers to testing, increasing perceived benefits of screening, and reinforcing self efficacy can have major effect in increasing the rate of fecal occult blood screening for colorectal cancer prevention.

  18. Beliefs about optimal age and screening frequency predict breast screening adherence in a prospective study of female relatives from the Ontario Site of the Breast Cancer Family Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritvo Paul

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although few studies have linked cognitive variables with adherence to mammography screening in women with family histories of breast and/or ovarian cancer, research studies suggest cognitive phenomena can be powerful adherence predictors. Methods This prospective study included 858 women aged 30 to 71 years from the Ontario site of the Breast Cancer Family Registry with at least one first-degree relative diagnosed with breast and/or ovarian cancer. Data on beliefs about breast cancer screening and use of mammography were obtained from annual telephone interviews spanning three consecutive years. Self-reported mammogram dates were confirmed with medical imaging reports. Associations between beliefs about breast cancer screening and adherence with annual mammography were estimated using polytomous logistic regression models corrected for familial correlation. Models compared adherers (N = 329 with late-screeners (N = 382 and never-screeners (N = 147. Results Women who believed mammography screening should occur annually were more likely to adhere to annual screening recommendations than women who believed it should happen less often (OR: 5.02; 95% CI: 2.97-8.49 for adherers versus late-screeners; OR: 6.82; 95% CI: 3.29-14.16 for adherers versus never-screeners. Women who believed mammography screening should start at or before age 50 (rather than after (OR: 9.72; 95% CI: 3.26-29.02 were significantly more likely to adhere when compared with never-screeners. Conclusions Study results suggest that women with a family history of breast cancer should be strongly communicated recommendations about initial age of screening and screening intervals as related beliefs significantly predict adequate adherence.

  19. Predicting Heart Failure With Preserved and Reduced Ejection Fraction : The International Collaboration on Heart Failure Subtypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, Jennifer E; Enserro, Danielle; Brouwers, Frank P; Kizer, Jorge R; Shah, Sanjiv J; Psaty, Bruce M; Bartz, Traci M; Santhanakrishnan, Rajalakshmi; Lee, Douglas S; Chan, Cheeling; Liu, Kiang; Blaha, Michael J; Hillege, Hans L; van der Harst, Pim; van Gilst, Wiek H; Kop, Willem J; Gansevoort, Ron T; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Gardin, Julius M; Levy, Daniel; Gottdiener, John S; de Boer, Rudolf A; Larson, Martin G

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is a prevalent and deadly disease, and preventive strategies focused on at-risk individuals are needed. Current HF prediction models have not examined HF subtypes. We sought to develop and validate risk prediction models for HF with preserved and reduced ejection fract

  20. Predicting Heart Failure With Preserved and Reduced Ejection Fraction : The International Collaboration on Heart Failure Subtypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, Jennifer E.; Enserro, Danielle; Brouwers, Frank P.; Kizer, Jorge R.; Shah, Sanjiv J.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Bartz, Traci M.; Santhanakrishnan, Rajalakshmi; Lee, Douglas S.; Chan, Cheeling; Liu, Kiang; Blaha, Michael J.; Hillege, Hans L.; van der Harst, Pim; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Kop, Willem J.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Gardin, Julius M.; Levy, Daniel; Gottdiener, John S.; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Larson, Martin G.

    2016-01-01

    Background-Heart failure (HF) is a prevalent and deadly disease, and preventive strategies focused on at-risk individuals are needed. Current HF prediction models have not examined HF subtypes. We sought to develop and validate risk prediction models for HF with preserved and reduced ejection fracti

  1. DRA/NASA/ONERA Collaboration on Icing Research. Part 2; Prediction of Airfoil Ice Accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, William B.; Gent, R. W.; Guffond, Didier

    1997-01-01

    This report presents results from a joint study by DRA, NASA, and ONERA for the purpose of comparing, improving, and validating the aircraft icing computer codes developed by each agency. These codes are of three kinds: (1) water droplet trajectory prediction, (2) ice accretion modeling, and (3) transient electrothermal deicer analysis. In this joint study, the agencies compared their code predictions with each other and with experimental results. These comparison exercises were published in three technical reports, each with joint authorship. DRA published and had first authorship of Part 1 - Droplet Trajectory Calculations, NASA of Part 2 - Ice Accretion Prediction, and ONERA of Part 3 - Electrothermal Deicer Analysis. The results cover work done during the period from August 1986 to late 1991. As a result, all of the information in this report is dated. Where necessary, current information is provided to show the direction of current research. In this present report on ice accretion, each agency predicted ice shapes on two dimensional airfoils under icing conditions for which experimental ice shapes were available. In general, all three codes did a reasonable job of predicting the measured ice shapes. For any given experimental condition, one of the three codes predicted the general ice features (i.e., shape, impingement limits, mass of ice) somewhat better than did the other two. However, no single code consistently did better than the other two over the full range of conditions examined, which included rime, mixed, and glaze ice conditions. In several of the cases, DRA showed that the user's knowledge of icing can significantly improve the accuracy of the code prediction. Rime ice predictions were reasonably accurate and consistent among the codes, because droplets freeze on impact and the freezing model is simple. Glaze ice predictions were less accurate and less consistent among the codes, because the freezing model is more complex and is critically

  2. Segmenting by risk perceptions: predicting young adults' genetic-belief profiles with health and opinion-leader covariates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rachel A; Greenberg, Marisa; Parrott, Roxanne L

    2014-01-01

    With a growing interest in using genetic information to motivate young adults' health behaviors, audience segmentation is needed for effective campaign design. Using latent class analysis, this study identifies segments based on young adults' (N = 327) beliefs about genetic threats to their health and personal efficacy over genetic influences on their health. A four-class model was identified. The model indicators fit the risk perception attitude framework (Rimal & Real, 2003), but the covariates (e.g., current health behaviors) did not. In addition, opinion leader qualities covaried with one profile: Those in this profile engaged in fewer preventative behaviors and more dangerous treatment options, and also liked to persuade others, making them a particularly salient group for campaign efforts. The implications for adult-onset disorders, like alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, are discussed.

  3. Prediction of breast self-examination in a sample of Iranian women: an application of the Health Belief Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghamolaei Teamur

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iranian women, many of whom live in small cities, have limited access to mammography and clinical breast examinations. Thus, breast self examination (BSE becomes an important and necessary approach to detecting this disease in its early stages in order to limit its resultant morbidity and mortality. This study examined constructs arising from the Health Belief Model as predictors of breast self examination behavior in a sample of women living in Bandar Abbas, Iran. Methods This study was conducted in eight health centers located in Bandar Abbas, Iran. The sample consisted of 240 eligible women who were selected from referrals to the centers. The inclusion criteria were as follows: aged 30 years and over; and able to read and write Farsi. Women with breast cancer, who were pregnant, or breast feeding, were excluded from the study. Data were collected by using a self administered questionnaire which included demographic characteristics and Champion's Health Belief Model Scale. This instrument measures the concepts of disease susceptibility (3 items, seriousness (6 items, benefits (4 items, barriers (8 items and self-efficacy (10 items. Results The subjects' mean age was 37.2 (SD = 6.1 years. Just under a third of the subjects (31.7% had performed BSE in the past and 7.1% of them performed it at least monthly. Perceived benefits and perceived self-efficacy of the women who performed BSE were significantly higher compared with women who did not practice BSE (p 2 = 0.52. Conclusion Findings from this study indicated that perceived barriers and perceived self-efficacy could be predictors of BSE behavior among the sample of women. Therefore, BSE training programs that emphasize self-efficacy and address perceived barriers are recommended.

  4. Loneliness and Irrational Beliefs among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoglund, Collette L.; Collison, Brooke B.

    1989-01-01

    Investigated relationship between loneliness and irrational beliefs among 236 college students who completed the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) Loneliness Scale and the Irrational Beliefs Test (IBT). Results revealed three specific irrational beliefs (Dependency, Anxious Overconcern, and Frustration Reactivity) to be predictive of…

  5. Nomograms for predicting survival and recurrence in patients with adenoid cystic carcinoma. An international collaborative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganly, Ian; Amit, Moran; Kou, Lei;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Due to the rarity of adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC), information on outcome is based upon small retrospective case series. The aim of our study was to create a large multiinstitutional international dataset of patients with ACC in order to design predictive nomograms for outcome. METH...

  6. The moderating role of rational beliefs in the relationship between irrational beliefs and posttraumatic stress symptomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Philip; Shevlin, Mark; Adamson, Gary; Boduszek, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT) assumes that rational beliefs act as cognitive protective factors against the development of psychopathology; however little empirical evidence exists regarding the nature of the possible protective effects that they offer. The current study investigates whether rational beliefs moderate the impact of irrational beliefs on posttraumatic stress symptomology (PTS). Three hundred and thirteen active law enforcement, military, and related emergency service personnel took part in the current study. Sequential moderated multiple regression analysis was employed to investigate: (i) the direct impact of irrational beliefs on PTS; (ii) the direct impact of rational beliefs on PTS; (iii) the moderating effects of rational beliefs in the relationship between irrational beliefs and PTS. The irrational beliefs predicted by REBT theory emerged as critical predictors of PTS symptomology, in particular Depreciation beliefs. Rational beliefs (Preferences, and Acceptance beliefs) had a direct, negative impact on levels of PTS, and Acceptance beliefs moderated the impact of Catastrophizing beliefs on PTS. Irrational beliefs are important cognitive vulnerability factors in symptoms of PTS, while rational beliefs (Acceptance) appear to have a protective role in the emergence of PTS symptoms, both directly and by moderating the impact of Catastrophizing beliefs.

  7. Erosion of belief and disbelief: effects of religiosity and negative affect on beliefs in the paranormal and supernatural.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, R; Miller, J P

    2001-04-01

    The authors investigated the effects of religiosity and negative affect on beliefs in the paranormal and supernatural among 94 undergraduate students enrolled in psychology classes at a small, private U.S. university. They hypothesized that religiosity would predict differential beliefs in the supernatural versus the paranormal but that negative affect would attenuate these beliefs. In addition, the authors predicted that belief in the supernatural and negative affect would interact to predict belief in the paranormal. Overall, the results were consistent with predictions. The religious participants were skeptical of paranormal phenomena but were accepting of supernatural phenomena. In addition, increased reports of negative affect over the preceding year appeared to attenuate belief in the supernatural for the religious participants. By contrast, for the nonreligious participants, increased belief in both the supernatural and paranormal was predicted when reports of negative affect were high. Finally, the interaction of supernatural belief and negative affect significantly predicted belief in the paranormal.

  8. Collaborative Mother-Toddler Communication and Theory of Mind Development at Age 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Jihyun; Hsu, Hui-Chin

    2014-09-01

    Focusing on social pragmatics, this longitudinal study investigated the contribution of mother-toddler collaborative communication to theory of mind (ToM) development at age 4. At age 2½, 78 toddlers' (42 boys) and their mothers were observed during pretend play. At age 4, children were tested using 4 false belief understanding tasks. Both mothers and toddlers engaged in more collaborative (inform, guide/request, and support/confirm) than non-collaborative communication acts. Other-focused collaborative acts of support/confirm by mothers and toddlers predicted children's false belief understanding, even after controlling for 5 covariates. In addition, as active agents in their own ToM development, the contribution of toddlers' collaborative acts to false belief understanding was independent of their mothers. Finally, the way toddlers and their mothers co-constructing their communication mattered. Only when toddlers engaged in high levels of collaborative acts, the mothers' high levels of collaborative acts demonstrated a positive effect on children's ToM development. The applied implications of these findings were discussed.

  9. Collaborative Mother-Toddler Communication and Theory of Mind Development at Age 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Jihyun; Hsu, Hui-Chin

    2014-01-01

    Focusing on social pragmatics, this longitudinal study investigated the contribution of mother-toddler collaborative communication to theory of mind (ToM) development at age 4. At age 2½, 78 toddlers’ (42 boys) and their mothers were observed during pretend play. At age 4, children were tested using 4 false belief understanding tasks. Both mothers and toddlers engaged in more collaborative (inform, guide/request, and support/confirm) than non-collaborative communication acts. Other-focused collaborative acts of support/confirm by mothers and toddlers predicted children’s false belief understanding, even after controlling for 5 covariates. In addition, as active agents in their own ToM development, the contribution of toddlers’ collaborative acts to false belief understanding was independent of their mothers. Finally, the way toddlers and their mothers co-constructing their communication mattered. Only when toddlers engaged in high levels of collaborative acts, the mothers’ high levels of collaborative acts demonstrated a positive effect on children’s ToM development. The applied implications of these findings were discussed. PMID:25132699

  10. In cognitive therapy for depression, early focus on maladaptive beliefs may be especially efficacious for patients with personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, John R; Webb, Christian A; DeRubeis, Robert J

    2016-04-01

    Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and a comorbid personality disorder (PD) have been found to exhibit relatively poor outcomes in cognitive therapy (CT) and other treatments. Adaptations of CT focusing heavily on patients' core beliefs have yielded promising findings in the treatment of PD. However, there have been no investigations that have specifically tested whether increased focus on maladaptive beliefs contributes to CT's efficacy for these patients. CT technique use from an early CT session was assessed for 59 patients (33 without PD, 26 with PD-predominantly Cluster C) who participated in a randomized controlled trial for moderate to severe MDD. Scores were calculated for directive CT techniques (CT-Concrete) and a set of belief-focused items (CT-Belief) as rated by the Collaborative Study Process Rating Scale. Robust regressions were conducted to estimate relations between scores on each of these measures and change in depressive and PD symptoms. A PD status by CT-Belief use interaction tested the hypothesis that therapist use of CT-Belief techniques would exhibit a stronger association with symptom change in the PD group relative to the non-PD group. As hypothesized, a significant interaction between PD status and use of CT-Belief techniques emerged in the prediction of depressive and PD symptom change. Among PD patients, higher early CT-Belief interventions were found to predict significantly greater improvement. CT-Belief use did not predict greater symptom change among those without PD. Early focus on CT-Belief interventions may facilitate changes in depression and PD symptoms for patients with MDD-PD comorbidity. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Ocean Observing Public-Private Collaboration to Improve Tropical Storm and Hurricane Predictions in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, R.; Leung, P.; McCall, W.; Martin, K. M.; Howden, S. D.; Vandermeulen, R. A.; Kim, H. S. S.; Kirkpatrick, B. A.; Watson, S.; Smith, W.

    2016-02-01

    In 2008, Shell partnered with NOAA to explore opportunities for improving storm predictions in the Gulf of Mexico. Since, the collaboration has grown to include partners from Shell, NOAA National Data Buoy Center and National Center for Environmental Information, National Center for Environmental Prediction, University of Southern Mississippi, and the Gulf of Mexico Coastal Ocean Observing System. The partnership leverages complementary strengths of each collaborator to build a comprehensive and sustainable monitoring and data program to expand observing capacity and protect offshore assets and Gulf communities from storms and hurricanes. The program combines in situ and autonomous platforms with remote sensing and numerical modeling. Here we focus on profiling gliders and the benefits of a public-private partnership model for expanding regional ocean observing capacity. Shallow and deep gliders measure ocean temperature to derive ocean heat content (OHC), along with salinity, dissolved oxygen, fluorescence, and CDOM, in the central and eastern Gulf shelf and offshore. Since 2012, gliders have collected 4500+ vertical profiles and surveyed 5000+ nautical miles. Adaptive sampling and mission coordination with NCEP modelers provides specific datasets to assimilate into EMC's coupled HYCOM-HWRF model and 'connect-the-dots' between well-established Eulerian metocean measurements by obtaining (and validating) data between fixed stations (e.g. platform and buoy ADCPs) . Adaptive sampling combined with remote sensing provides satellite-derived OHC validation and the ability to sample productive coastal waters advected offshore by the Loop Current. Tracking coastal waters with remote sensing provides another verification of estimate Loop Current and eddy boundaries, as well as quantifying productivity and analyzing water quality on the Gulf coast, shelf break and offshore. Incorporating gliders demonstrates their value as tools to better protect offshore oil and gas assets

  12. LIGO: The strong belief

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2016-01-01

    Twenty years of designing, building and testing a number of innovative technologies, with the strong belief that the endeavour would lead to a historic breakthrough. The Bulletin publishes an abstract of the Courier’s interview with Barry Barish, one of the founding fathers of LIGO.   The plots show the signals of gravitational waves detected by the twin LIGO observatories at Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington. (Image: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab) On 11 February, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo collaborations published a historic paper in which they showed a gravitational signal emitted by the merger of two black holes. These results come after 20 years of hard work by a large collaboration of scientists operating the two LIGO observatories in the US. Barry Barish, Linde Professor of Physics, Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology and former Director of the Global Design Effort for the Internat...

  13. First-Year Students’ Initial Motivational Beliefs at University: Predicted by Motivational Beliefs Derived from Within and Out-of-School Experience and Malleable Regardless of the Extent of Students’ Out-of-School Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorges, Julia

    2017-01-01

    The present study tested how academic self-concept of ability (ASC) and intrinsic task value (ITV) transpose onto novel university programs that depart from traditional subject areas within the framework of expectancy-value theory. The study focused on two potential sources of information used to anticipate one’s ASC and ITV regarding new learning content (here: business administration). First, students’ experiences from secondary school, especially their ASCs and ITVs established in a school subject they consider similar to business administration—mathematics—should predict their business administration-specific ASC and ITV. Second, students may have gained relevant experience in out-of-school settings such as internships with business companies or commercial vocational training prior to entering higher education. ASC and ITV developed from out-of-school experiences was hypothesized to predict students’ business administration-specific ASC and ITV as well. However, the likely mismatch between anticipated and actual experience with new contents should lead to revisions of ASC and ITV after entering university reflected in a presumably lower stability compared to secondary school settings. In addition, the extent of students’ out-of-school experience might act as a moderator. Data were collected from 341 first-year students in higher education in Germany before they began their study program and again 3–4 months later. Confirmatory factor analyses support the discriminant validity of the measures used in the study. Results from structural equation modeling show that students’ ASC/ITV derived from relevant out-of-school experience make an important contribution to their initial business administration-specific ASC and ITV beyond their mathematics-specific ASC/ITV. Furthermore, both business administration-specific ASC and ITV showed significantly lower stability coefficients over the initial study phase than research from secondary school indicating

  14. Belief change

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Booth, R

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors present a brief overview of belief change, a research area concerned with the question of how a rational agent ought to change its mind in the face of new, possibly conflicting, information. The authors limit themselves...

  15. Parental and child health beliefs and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dielman, T E; Leech, S; Becker, M H; Rosenstock, I M; Horvath, W J; Radius, S M

    1982-01-01

    Personal interviews concerning health beliefs and behaviors were conducted with a parent and child in each of 250 households. Index scores were constructed for parental and child health beliefs, and these scores were entered, along with demographic variables, in a series of multiple regression analyses predicting child health beliefs and behaviors. The age of the child was the variable most highly associated with three of four child health behaviors and four of six child health beliefs. The children's snacking between meals and cigarette smoking were related to several parental behaviors and, to a lesser extent, parental health beliefs. The children's health beliefs were less predictable than were their health behaviors, and the observed significant relationships were with parental health beliefs and demographics. The implications for the design of health education programs are discussed.

  16. A Collaborative Location Based Travel Recommendation System through Enhanced Rating Prediction for the Group of Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Logesh; Vairavasundaram, Subramaniyaswamy

    2016-01-01

    Rapid growth of web and its applications has created a colossal importance for recommender systems. Being applied in various domains, recommender systems were designed to generate suggestions such as items or services based on user interests. Basically, recommender systems experience many issues which reflects dwindled effectiveness. Integrating powerful data management techniques to recommender systems can address such issues and the recommendations quality can be increased significantly. Recent research on recommender systems reveals an idea of utilizing social network data to enhance traditional recommender system with better prediction and improved accuracy. This paper expresses views on social network data based recommender systems by considering usage of various recommendation algorithms, functionalities of systems, different types of interfaces, filtering techniques, and artificial intelligence techniques. After examining the depths of objectives, methodologies, and data sources of the existing models, the paper helps anyone interested in the development of travel recommendation systems and facilitates future research direction. We have also proposed a location recommendation system based on social pertinent trust walker (SPTW) and compared the results with the existing baseline random walk models. Later, we have enhanced the SPTW model for group of users recommendations. The results obtained from the experiments have been presented.

  17. A Collaborative Location Based Travel Recommendation System through Enhanced Rating Prediction for the Group of Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logesh Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid growth of web and its applications has created a colossal importance for recommender systems. Being applied in various domains, recommender systems were designed to generate suggestions such as items or services based on user interests. Basically, recommender systems experience many issues which reflects dwindled effectiveness. Integrating powerful data management techniques to recommender systems can address such issues and the recommendations quality can be increased significantly. Recent research on recommender systems reveals an idea of utilizing social network data to enhance traditional recommender system with better prediction and improved accuracy. This paper expresses views on social network data based recommender systems by considering usage of various recommendation algorithms, functionalities of systems, different types of interfaces, filtering techniques, and artificial intelligence techniques. After examining the depths of objectives, methodologies, and data sources of the existing models, the paper helps anyone interested in the development of travel recommendation systems and facilitates future research direction. We have also proposed a location recommendation system based on social pertinent trust walker (SPTW and compared the results with the existing baseline random walk models. Later, we have enhanced the SPTW model for group of users recommendations. The results obtained from the experiments have been presented.

  18. Collaborative filtering algorithm with stepwise prediction%分步预测的协同过滤算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖明波; 郑鑫炜

    2015-01-01

    The collaborative filtering recommendation algorithm has the problem of data sparseness.In order to solve this problem,this paper put forward a new algorithm with stepwise prediction.It firstly preprocessed the scoring matrix:rearranged the location of the matrix elements to concentrate the values to the left upper corner and filled part of user’s missing data when it scored too less projects.Then it extracted a subsystem with high data density from scoring matrix and filled the missing va-lues by trust-based collaborative filtering algorithm.Finally it achieved stepwise prediction by constantly adding new user or new project.The experimental results on MovieLens demonstrate that the new algorithm can effectively alleviate the data sparseness problem and improve the accuracy.%针对数据稀疏性问题,对协同过滤推荐算法作了改进,提出分步预测的算法。算法先对评分矩阵作预处理,重新排列矩阵元素的位置,使评分数据集中到矩阵左上角,并对评分数过少的用户进行部分填充;然后再提取一个数据密度较高的子系统,用基于信任的算法填充其缺失值;最后通过不断向子系统里添加新用户、新项目的方法实现分步预测的目的。通过在 MovieLens 数据集上的实验结果表明,新算法可以有效地缓解数据稀疏性问题,提高系统的推荐精度。

  19. Cognitive biases explain religious belief, paranormal belief, and belief in life's purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Aiyana K; Norenzayan, Ara

    2013-11-01

    Cognitive theories of religion have postulated several cognitive biases that predispose human minds towards religious belief. However, to date, these hypotheses have not been tested simultaneously and in relation to each other, using an individual difference approach. We used a path model to assess the extent to which several interacting cognitive tendencies, namely mentalizing, mind body dualism, teleological thinking, and anthropomorphism, as well as cultural exposure to religion, predict belief in God, paranormal beliefs and belief in life's purpose. Our model, based on two independent samples (N=492 and N=920) found that the previously known relationship between mentalizing and belief is mediated by individual differences in dualism, and to a lesser extent by teleological thinking. Anthropomorphism was unrelated to religious belief, but was related to paranormal belief. Cultural exposure to religion (mostly Christianity) was negatively related to anthropomorphism, and was unrelated to any of the other cognitive tendencies. These patterns were robust for both men and women, and across at least two ethnic identifications. The data were most consistent with a path model suggesting that mentalizing comes first, which leads to dualism and teleology, which in turn lead to religious, paranormal, and life's-purpose beliefs. Alternative theoretical models were tested but did not find empirical support.

  20. The prediction of undergraduates’ self-regulation strategies, motivational beliefs, attitudes towards English, and speaking anxiety on foreign language classroom anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehtap Bademcioglu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Individual differences are considered as important factors in the language learning process. Apart from individual differences, affective factors such as attitudes and motivation of individuals and their anxiety levels which affect the individuals’ language learning directly or indirectly are also believed as significant impacts in this process. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to examine the relationship between self-regulation strategies, motivational beliefs, attitudes, speaking anxiety and foreign language classroom anxiety and to investigate the predictive power of these variables for foreign language classroom anxiety. The relational model was used in the current study. The research group included 320 male (65.6 % and 168 female (34.4 % English preparatory students at Istanbul Technical University. Attitudes toward English Lesson Scale, Foreign Language Speaking Anxiety Questionnaire, The Motivational Strategies for Learning Questionnaire, and Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale were used as the data collection tool. The statistical methods used for analyses were correlation and multiple regression. The findings indicated that there is a significant positive correlation between foreign language classroom anxiety and self-regulation, test anxiety, and foreign language speaking anxiety. Also, there is significant negative correlation between foreign language classroom anxiety and self-efficacy intrinsic value perception, and attitude towards English. Moreover, self-efficacy, test anxiety, attitude towards English, and foreign language speaking anxiety are predictors of the university students’ foreign language classroom anxiety.

  1. The roles of maternal mind-mindedness and infant security of attachment in predicting preschoolers' understanding of visual perspective taking and false belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laranjo, Jessica; Bernier, Annie; Meins, Elizabeth; Carlson, Stephanie M

    2014-09-01

    This study is a follow-up to a previous study that examined two aspects of mother-child relationships-mothers' mind-mindedness and infant attachment security-in relation to toddlers' early manifestations of theory of mind understanding at 2 years of age. The current study aimed to assess the same two aspects of mother-child relationships in relation to children's (N=59) theory of mind performance at 4 years of age. Results of the current study confirmed and expanded on relations observed at 2 years. Mothers' use of appropriate mind-related comments specifically during toy-based free play at 12 months of age predicted preschoolers' understanding of false belief and Level 2 visual perspective taking over and above earlier perspective-taking abilities. Furthermore, more securely attached boys, but not girls, performed better on a task requiring Level 2 visual perspective taking. The similarity of results across the two time points suggests the reliability of associations among mothers' use of mind-related comments during toy-based play, boys' attachment security, and children's subsequent social understanding. The current results also suggest that maternal mind-mindedness may be most relevant to children's social cognition when assessed in toy-based play contexts.

  2. Predicting User Acceptance of Collaborative Technologies: An Extension of the Technology Acceptance Model for E-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Ronnie; Vogel, Doug

    2013-01-01

    Collaborative technologies support group work in project-based environments. In this study, we enhance the technology acceptance model to explain the factors that influence the acceptance of Google Applications for collaborative learning. The enhanced model was empirically evaluated using survey data collected from 136 students enrolled in a…

  3. Nursing students' beliefs about poverty and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutter, Linda I; Sword, Wendy; Meagher-Stewart, Donna; Rideout, Elizabeth

    2004-11-01

    This paper examines baccalaureate nursing students' beliefs about the relationship between poverty and health, and the factors that influence these beliefs. The relationship between poverty and health is well established, and poverty remains a persistent problem in many industrialized nations. Nurses' understanding of how poverty influences health will affect how they interact with individual clients as well as the strategies they employ to address poverty-related issues. No studies have examined nursing students' understandings of how poverty influences health and the factors that influence that understanding. A cross-sectional survey of a random sample (n = 740) of basic baccalaureate nursing students was conducted in three Canadian universities in 2000. Students completed a 59-item questionnaire eliciting data on demographic variables, personal and educational exposure to poverty, beliefs about the relationship between poverty and health (myth, drift, behavioural, structural), and attitudes to poverty. Students were most likely to adhere to a structural explanation of the relationship between poverty and health. Very little of the variance in myth and drift explanations was accounted for by course or personal exposure, programme level, age, and attitudes toward poverty. Greater course exposure and more positive attitudes toward the poor predicted support for the structural explanation. Support for the behavioural explanation was influenced by attitudes toward the poor and, to a lesser extent, by course exposure, age, and programme level. Students would benefit from greater exposure to poverty through coursework that emphasizes the structural factors contributing to poverty and its negative health consequences. Classroom experience should be complemented with clinical placements that provide students with opportunities to interact with families living in poverty and to work collaboratively with others to address the causes and consequences of poverty at community

  4. Response Generation in Collaborative Negotiation

    CERN Document Server

    Chu-Carroll, J; Chu-Carroll, Jennifer; Carberry, Sandra

    1995-01-01

    In collaborative planning activities, since the agents are autonomous and heterogeneous, it is inevitable that conflicts arise in their beliefs during the planning process. In cases where such conflicts are relevant to the task at hand, the agents should engage in collaborative negotiation as an attempt to square away the discrepancies in their beliefs. This paper presents a computational strategy for detecting conflicts regarding proposed beliefs and for engaging in collaborative negotiation to resolve the conflicts that warrant resolution. Our model is capable of selecting the most effective aspect to address in its pursuit of conflict resolution in cases where multiple conflicts arise, and of selecting appropriate evidence to justify the need for such modification. Furthermore, by capturing the negotiation process in a recursive Propose-Evaluate-Modify cycle of actions, our model can successfully handle embedded negotiation subdialogues.

  5. Collaboration 'Engineerability'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolfschoten, Gwendolyn L.; de Vreede, Gert-Jan; Briggs, Robert O.; Sol, Henk G.

    2010-01-01

    Collaboration Engineering is an approach to create sustained collaboration support by designing collaborative work practices for high-value recurring tasks, and transferring those designs to practitioners to execute for themselves without ongoing support from collaboration professionals. A key assum

  6. Intuition, affect, and peculiar beliefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boden, M.T.; Berenbaum, H.; Topper, M.

    2012-01-01

    Research with college students has found that intuitive thinking (e.g., using hunches to ascribe meaning to experiences) and positive affect interactively predict ideas of reference and odd/magical beliefs. We investigated whether these results would generalize to a diverse community sample of adult

  7. Belief Elicitation in Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanco, Mariana; Engelmann, Dirk; Koch, Alexander

    Belief elicitation in economics experiments usually relies on paying subjects according to the accuracy of stated beliefs in addition to payments for other decisions. Such incentives, however, allow risk-averse subjects to hedge with their stated beliefs against adverse outcomes of other decisions......-belief elicitation treatment using a financial investment frame, where hedging arguably would be most natural....

  8. RELIGION AND FOLK BELIEFS

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa SEVER

    2011-01-01

    Folk beliefs, transmitted from generation to generation since the transfer from pre-writing and not included in any divine religion, but his side continued vitality of beliefs. Folk beliefs that have traditional as well as the local folk beliefs, include beliefs and practices, and personal features, divide two main types as a magic and experiential people’s beliefs. In this study we’ll focus on the qualities, differences and functions in everyday life of divine religion and folk beliefs and f...

  9. Elevating Prediction Accuracy in Trust-aware Collaborative Filtering Recommenders through T-index Metric and TopTrustee lists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zarghami, Alireza; Fazeli, Soude; Dokoohaki, Nima; Matskin, Mihhail

    2010-01-01

    The growing popularity of Social Networks raises the important issue of trust. Among many systems which have realized the impact of trust, Recommender Systems have been the most influential ones. Collaborative Filtering Recommenders take advantage of trust relations between users for generating more

  10. 关联规则评分预测的协同过滤推荐算法%Collaborative Filtering Recommendation Algorithm Based on Association Rule Score Prediction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王竹婷

    2016-01-01

    协同过滤算法是目前应用于电子商务个性化推荐系统中的一种最成功的推荐算法。为缓解因数据稀疏性问题导致的算法推荐质量下降,将关联规则分析引入协同过滤算法中,预测部分未评分项目的评分值,再运用传统的基于用户的协同过滤算法实施推荐。实验结果表明:与传统的协同过滤算法相比,采用关联规则预测评分可以一定程度提高算法推荐质量。%Collaborative filtering algorithm is one of the most successful recommendation algorithms ap-plied to the personalized recommendation system of E-commerce.In order to alleviate the problem of the algorithm recommendation quality decline that caused by the data sparse,the association rule anal-ysis is introduced into the collaborative filtering algorithm,which predicts the item ratings of the non rating items,and then uses the traditional user_based collaborative filtering algorithm to implement the recommendation.The experimental results show that compared with the traditional collaborative filte-ring algorithm,the algorithm uses association rules to predict the item ratings can improve the recom-mended quality.

  11. Study Drugs and Academic Integrity: The Role of Beliefs about an Academic Honor Code in the Prediction of Nonmedical Prescription Drug Use for Academic Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisinger, Kelsy B.; Rutledge, Patricia C.; Conklin, Sarah M.

    2016-01-01

    The role of beliefs about academic integrity in college students' decisions to use nonmedical prescription drugs (NMPDs) in academic settings was examined. In Spring 2012 the authors obtained survey data from 645 participants at a small, undergraduate, private liberal arts institution in the Northeastern United States. A broadcast e-mail message…

  12. The Predictive Power of the Self-Efficacy Beliefs of Physical Education Candidate Teachers on Their Attitudes towards the Assessment and Evaluation in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varol, Yaprak Kalemoglu

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the research is to examine relationship between self-efficacy beliefs and attitudes for assessment and evaluation of physical education candidate teachers. In this research, the relational model has been used. Study group consists of 86 women (48%), 93 men (52%) and total 179 physical education teacher candidates (M[subscript age] =…

  13. Evolution of Religious Beliefs

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    Humans may be distinguished from all other animals in having beliefs about the causal interaction of physical objects. Causal beliefs are a developmental primitive in human children; animals, by contrast, have very few causal beliefs. The origin of human causal beliefs comes from the evolutionary advantage it gave in relation to complex tool making and use. Causal beliefs gave rise religion and mystical thinking as our ancestors wanted to know the causes of events that affected their lives.

  14. The role of television viewing and direct experience in predicting adolescents' beliefs about the health risks of fast-food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Cristel Antonia; Buhrau, Denise

    2015-09-01

    Fast-food advertising abounds on television (TV), and programs targeting youth often display fast-food consumption but rarely with any negative consequences. Cultivation research maintains that cumulative exposure to TV influences audiences' views of and beliefs about the real world. Thus, the amount of TV adolescents watch is likely to bias their views of the consequences of eating fast food. This research posits that this relationship varies as a function of adolescents' actual experience with fast food. Two cross-sectional surveys conducted in the cultivation research tradition assess the relationship between the amount of adolescents' regular exposure to TV and their beliefs about the risks and benefits of eating fast food. Teenage children of members of online panels reported hours of TV viewing, beliefs about the consequences of eating fast food, and their frequency of fast-food consumption. In both studies, beliefs about health risks of fast-food consumption vary as a function of the amount of TV watched. Heavy TV viewers have less negative and more positive beliefs about the consequences of fast-food consumption than light viewers. As direct experience with fast food increases, the relationship between TV viewing and risk perceptions weakens, but the relationship between TV viewing and positive perceptions strengthens. These moderated relationships remain when we control for physical activity (Study 1) and the density of fast-food restaurants in respondents' geographical area (Study 2). Given the role of TV viewing in biasing perceptions of the consequences of eating fast food, public health researchers and practitioners should carefully monitor and perhaps regulate the amount of fast-food advertising on TV and the content of TV programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The role of television viewing and direct experience in predicting adolescents’ beliefs about the health risks of fast-food consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Cristel Antonia; Buhrau, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Background Fast-food advertising abounds on television (TV), and programs targeting youth often display fast-food consumption but rarely with any negative consequences. Cultivation research maintains that cumulative exposure to TV influences audiences’ views of and beliefs about the real world. Thus, the amount of TV adolescents watch is likely to bias their views of the consequences of eating fast food. This research posits that this relationship varies as a function of adolescents’ actual experience with fast food. Method Two cross-sectional surveys conducted in the cultivation research tradition assess the relationship between the amount of adolescents’ regular exposure to TV and their beliefs about the risks and benefits of eating fast food. Teenage children of members of online panels reported hours of TV viewing, beliefs about the consequences of eating fast food, and their frequency of fast-food consumption. Results In both studies, beliefs about health risks of fast-food consumption vary as a function of the amount of TV watched. Heavy TV viewers have less negative and more positive beliefs about the consequences of fast-food consumption than light viewers. As direct experience with fast food increases, the relationship between TV viewing and risk perceptions weakens, but the relationship between TV viewing and positive perceptions strengthens. These moderated relationships remain when we control for physical activity (Study 1) and the density of fast-food restaurants in respondents’ geographical area (Study 2). Conclusion Given the role of TV viewing in biasing perceptions of the consequences of eating fast food, public health researchers and practitioners should carefully monitor and perhaps regulate the amount of fast-food advertising on TV and the content of TV programs. PMID:26009205

  16. Aggregation of Information and Beliefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottaviani, Marco; Sørensen, Peter Norman

    In a binary prediction market in which risk-neutral traders have heterogeneous prior beliefs and are allowed to invest a limited amount of money, the static rational expectations equilibrium price is demonstrated to underreact to information. This effect is consistent with a favorite-longshot bias......, and is more pronounced when prior beliefs are more heterogeneous. Relaxing the assumptions of risk neutrality and bounded budget, underreaction to information also holds in a more general asset market with heterogeneous priors, provided traders have decreasing absolute risk aversion. In a dynamic asset market...

  17. The ecology of religious beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botero, Carlos A.; Gardner, Beth; Kirby, Kathryn R.; Bulbulia, Joseph; Gavin, Michael C.; Gray, Russell D.

    2014-01-01

    Although ecological forces are known to shape the expression of sociality across a broad range of biological taxa, their role in shaping human behavior is currently disputed. Both comparative and experimental evidence indicate that beliefs in moralizing high gods promote cooperation among humans, a behavioral attribute known to correlate with environmental harshness in nonhuman animals. Here we combine fine-grained bioclimatic data with the latest statistical tools from ecology and the social sciences to evaluate the potential effects of environmental forces, language history, and culture on the global distribution of belief in moralizing high gods (n = 583 societies). After simultaneously accounting for potential nonindependence among societies because of shared ancestry and cultural diffusion, we find that these beliefs are more prevalent among societies that inhabit poorer environments and are more prone to ecological duress. In addition, we find that these beliefs are more likely in politically complex societies that recognize rights to movable property. Overall, our multimodel inference approach predicts the global distribution of beliefs in moralizing high gods with an accuracy of 91%, and estimates the relative importance of different potential mechanisms by which this spatial pattern may have arisen. The emerging picture is neither one of pure cultural transmission nor of simple ecological determinism, but rather a complex mixture of social, cultural, and environmental influences. Our methods and findings provide a blueprint for how the increasing wealth of ecological, linguistic, and historical data can be leveraged to understand the forces that have shaped the behavior of our own species. PMID:25385605

  18. Web-based collaborative decision support services for river runoff and flood risk prediction in the Oak Ridge Moraine Area, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Cheng, Qiuming

    2006-10-01

    River runoff is highly related to the precipitation events and the land use characteristics. It is an important component in the hydrologic cycle because of its relationship to issues such as flood and water quantity. The Oak Ridge Moraine (ORM) Area, Southern Ontario has always been faced with the impacts of extreme hydrological events. Flood not only has an impact on the ORM economical, social well-being and particularly public safety, but also exacerbates major environmental problems. Prediction of flood is a complex system of which involves variable factors including climate condition, basin attributes, land use/cover types and ground water discharge. The application of flood prediction model requires the efficient management of large spatial and temporal datasets, which involves data acquisition, storage, and processing, as well as manipulation, reporting and display results. The complexity of flood prediction makes it difficult for individual organization to deal effectively with decision-making. Difficulty in linking data, analysis tools and models across organization is one of the barriers to be overcome in developing integrated river runoff and flood risks prediction system. Therefore, it is required to develop a standardized framework for Web-based Collaborative Decision Support Services (WCDSS), supporting information exchange and knowledge and model sharing from different organizations on the web. Such a WCDSS supply both metadata services, geo-data services and geo-processing services to help collaborative decision-making, not only support distributed data sharing and services, but also support distributed model sharing and services. This paper develop a WCDSS that provides a comprehensive environment for on-line river runoff and flood risk prediction, integrating information retrieval, analysis and model analysis for information sharing and decision-making support. Such a SDSS will improve understanding of the environmental, planning and management

  19. The prediction of undergraduates’ self-regulation strategies, motivational beliefs, attitudes towards English, and speaking anxiety on foreign language classroom anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    BADEMCIOGLU, Mehtap; Karatas, Hakan; Ergin, Atilla

    2017-01-01

    Individual differences are considered as important factors in the language learning process. Apart from individual differences, affective factors such as attitudes and motivation of individuals and their anxiety levels which affect the individuals’ language learning directly or indirectly are also believed as significant impacts in this process. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to examine the relationship between self-regulation strategies, motivational beliefs, attitudes, speak...

  20. Predicting depression from illness severity in cardiovascular disease patients: self-efficacy beliefs, illness perception, and perceived social support as mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, A; Steca, P; Pozzi, R; Monzani, D; D'Addario, M; Villani, A; Rella, V; Giglio, A; Malfatto, G; Parati, G

    2014-04-01

    Many studies have investigated the relationships between cardiovascular diseases and patients' depression; nevertheless, few is still known as regard the impact of illness severity on depression and whether psychosocial variables mediate this association. The aim of this study is to investigate the putative mediating role of illness representations, self-efficacy beliefs, and perceived social support on the relationship between illness severity and depression. A total of 75 consecutive patients with cardiovascular disease (80 % men; mean age = 65.44, SD = 10.20) were enrolled in an Italian hospital. Illness severity was measured in terms of left ventricular ejection fraction, whereas psychological factors were assessed using self-report questionnaires. The relationship between left ventricular ejection fraction and depression was mediated by identity illness perception, self-efficacy beliefs in managing cardiac risk factors, and perceived social support. The treatment of depression in cardiovascular disease patients may therefore benefit from a psychological intervention focused on patients' illness representations, self-efficacy beliefs, and their perceived social support.

  1. MMORPG escapism predicts decreased well-being: examination of gaming time, game realism beliefs, and online social support for offline problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, Lukasz D; Drążkowski, Dariusz

    2014-05-01

    Massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) escapists are individuals who indulge in the MMORPG environment to avoid real world problems. Though a relationship between escapism and deteriorated well-being has been established, little is known about particular pathways that mediate this relationship. In the current study, we examined this topic by testing an integrative model of MMORPG escapism, which includes game realism beliefs, gaming time, offline social support, and online social support for offline problems. MMORPG players (N=1,056) completed measures of escapist motivation, game realism beliefs, social support, well-being, and reported gaming time. The tested structural equation model had a good fit to the data. We found that individuals with escapist motivation endorsed stronger game realism beliefs and spent more time playing MMORPGs, which, in turn, increased online support but decreased offline social support. Well-being was favorably affected by both online and offline social support, although offline social support had a stronger effect. The higher availability of online social support for offline problems did not compensate for the lower availability of offline support among MMORPG escapists. Understanding the psychological factors related to depletion of social resources in MMORPG players can help optimize MMORPGs as leisure activities.

  2. Estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria for prediction of cardiovascular outcomes: a collaborative meta-analysis of individual participant data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matsushita, K.; Coresh, J.; Sang, Y.; Chalmers, J.; Fox, C.; Guallar, E.; Jafar, T.; Jassal, S.K.; Landman, G.W.; Muntner, P.; Roderick, P.; Sairenchi, T.; Schottker, B.; Shankar, A.; Shlipak, M.; Tonelli, M.; Townend, J.; Zuilen, A. van; Yamagishi, K.; Yamashita, K.; Gansevoort, R.; Sarnak, M.; Warnock, D.G.; Woodward, M.; Arnlov, J.; Wetzels, J.F.M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The usefulness of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria for prediction of cardiovascular outcomes is controversial. We aimed to assess the addition of creatinine-based eGFR and albuminuria to traditional risk factors for prediction of cardiovascular risk with a

  3. Estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria for prediction of cardiovascular outcomes : a collaborative meta-analysis of individual participant data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matsushita, Kunihiro; Coresh, Josef; Sang, Yingying; Chalmers, John; Fox, Caroline; Guallar, Eliseo; Jafar, Tazeen; Jassal, Simerjot K.; Landman, Gijs W. D.; Muntner, Paul; Roderick, Paul; Sairenchi, Toshimi; Schoettker, Ben; Shankar, Anoop; Shlipak, Michael; Tonelli, Marcello; Townend, Jonathan; van Zuilen, Arjan; Yamagishi, Kazumasa; Yamashita, Kentaro; Gansevoort, Ron; Sarnak, Mark; Warnock, David G.; Woodward, Mark; Arnlov, Johan; de Zeeuw, Dick

    Background The usefulness of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria for prediction of cardiovascular outcomes is controversial. We aimed to assess the addition of creatinine-based eGFR and albuminuria to traditional risk factors for prediction of cardiovascular risk with a

  4. Estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria for prediction of cardiovascular outcomes : a collaborative meta-analysis of individual participant data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matsushita, Kunihiro; Coresh, Josef; Sang, Yingying; Chalmers, John; Fox, Caroline; Guallar, Eliseo; Jafar, Tazeen; Jassal, Simerjot K.; Landman, Gijs W. D.; Muntner, Paul; Roderick, Paul; Sairenchi, Toshimi; Schoettker, Ben; Shankar, Anoop; Shlipak, Michael; Tonelli, Marcello; Townend, Jonathan; van Zuilen, Arjan; Yamagishi, Kazumasa; Yamashita, Kentaro; Gansevoort, Ron; Sarnak, Mark; Warnock, David G.; Woodward, Mark; Arnlov, Johan; de Zeeuw, Dick

    2015-01-01

    Background The usefulness of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria for prediction of cardiovascular outcomes is controversial. We aimed to assess the addition of creatinine-based eGFR and albuminuria to traditional risk factors for prediction of cardiovascular risk with a meta-

  5. Estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria for prediction of cardiovascular outcomes: a collaborative meta-analysis of individual participant data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matsushita, K.; Coresh, J.; Sang, Y.; Chalmers, J.; Fox, C.; Guallar, E.; Jafar, T.; Jassal, S.K.; Landman, G.W.; Muntner, P.; Roderick, P.; Sairenchi, T.; Schottker, B.; Shankar, A.; Shlipak, M.; Tonelli, M.; Townend, J.; Zuilen, A. van; Yamagishi, K.; Yamashita, K.; Gansevoort, R.; Sarnak, M.; Warnock, D.G.; Woodward, M.; Arnlov, J.; Wetzels, J.F.M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The usefulness of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria for prediction of cardiovascular outcomes is controversial. We aimed to assess the addition of creatinine-based eGFR and albuminuria to traditional risk factors for prediction of cardiovascular risk with a meta

  6. Young children's attribution of action to beliefs and desires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, K; Wellman, H

    1989-08-01

    When and how children understand beliefs and desires is central to whether they are ever childhood realists and when they evidence a theory of mind. Adults typically construe human action as resulting from an actor's beliefs and desires, a mentalistic interpretation that represents a common and fundamental form of psychological explanation. We investigated children's ability to do likewise. In Experiment 1, 60 subjects were asked to explain why story characters performed simple actions, such as looking under a piano for a kitten. Both preschoolers and adults gave predominantly psychological explanations, attributing the actions to the actor's beliefs and desires. Even 3-year-olds attributed actions to beliefs and false beliefs, demonstrating an understanding of belief not evident in previous research. In Experiment 2, 24 3-year-olds were tested further on their understanding of false belief. They were given both false belief prediction and explanation tasks. Children performed well on explanation taks, attributing an anomalous action to the actor's false belief, even when they failed to predict correctly what action would follow from a false belief. We concluded that 3-year-olds and adults share a fundamentally similar construal of human action in terms of beliefs and desires, even false beliefs.

  7. Peirce on Educational Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Torill

    2005-01-01

    This article contends that Charles Sanders Peirce (1839-1914) may enhance our understanding of educational beliefs and that Peirce's logic may be a tool to distinguish between a dogmatic and a pragmatic justification of such beliefs. The first part of the article elaborates on Peirce's comprehension of beliefs as mediated, socially situated and…

  8. How do Epistemological Beliefs Affect Training Motivation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Molan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies show that human resources development through workplace training is one of the major investments in the workforce in today’s globalized and challenging market. As training motivation influences employees’ preparation for the workplace training, their respond to the programme, their learning outcome, their performance levels, and use of acquired knowledge and skills in their workplace it seems logical to investigate and determine antecedents of training motivation. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the concepts of epistemological beliefs, training motivation and the actual participation in the workplace training. We predicted that epistemological beliefs would have an effect on training motivation and actual participation on the workplace training and that there would be a positive relationship between the concepts, meaning that the more sophisticated epistemological beliefs would lead to higher motivation and participation. To test the epistemological beliefs, the Epistemic Belief Inventory (Schraw, Bendixen & Dunkle, 2002 was used and adjusted to the workplace setting. Then the results were compared to employees’ training motivation, which was measured with a questionnaire made by authors of the present study, and employees’ actual number of training hours annually. The results confirmed the relationship between the concepts as well as a significant predicting value of epistemological beliefs on motivation and actual participation. Epistemic Belief Inventory did not yield expected results reported by the authors of the instrument therefore the limitations, possible other interpretations and suggested further exploration are discussed.

  9. Strategic Belief Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul

    While (managerial) beliefs are central to many aspects of strategic organization, interactive beliefs are almost entirely neglected, save for some game theory treatments. In an increasingly connected and networked economy, firms confront coordination problems that arise because of network effects....... The capability to manage beliefs will increasingly be a strategic one, a key source of wealth creation, and a key research area for strategic organization scholars.......While (managerial) beliefs are central to many aspects of strategic organization, interactive beliefs are almost entirely neglected, save for some game theory treatments. In an increasingly connected and networked economy, firms confront coordination problems that arise because of network effects...

  10. Predicting H1N1 vaccine uptake and H1N1-related health beliefs: the role of individual difference in consideration of future consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Xiaoli; Kim, Jarim

    2014-01-01

    This research examines the influence of individual difference in consideration of future consequences on H1N1 vaccine uptake and H1N1-related health beliefs (i.e., perceived susceptibility to and severity of the H1N1 flu, perceived efficacy and safety of the H1N1 vaccine, and perceived self-efficacy in obtaining the H1N1 vaccine). A survey of 411 college students showed that consideration of future consequences had no direct effect on vaccine uptake, but higher consideration of future consequences was associated with greater perceived severity of the flu, higher perceived effectiveness of the vaccine, and greater perceived self-efficacy. Additional analysis suggested that consideration of future consequences had a significant indirect effect on vaccine uptake through perceived vaccine efficacy. Results of the study also revealed gender and racial differences in some of the H1N1-related health beliefs. Implications of the findings for vaccine risk communication are discussed.

  11. Collaboration and E-collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razmerita, Liana; Kirchner, Kathrin

    2015-01-01

    Understanding student’s perception of collaboration and how collaboration is supported by ICT is important for its efficient use in the classroom. This article aims to investigate how students perceive collaboration and how they use new technologies in collaborative group work. Furthermore, it tr...

  12. Collaborative Proposal: Improving Decadal Prediction of Arctic Climate Variability and Change Using a Regional Arctic System Model (RASM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maslowski, Wieslaw [Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA (United States)

    2016-10-17

    This project aims to develop, apply and evaluate a regional Arctic System model (RASM) for enhanced decadal predictions. Its overarching goal is to advance understanding of the past and present states of arctic climate and to facilitate improvements in seasonal to decadal predictions. In particular, it will focus on variability and long-term change of energy and freshwater flows through the arctic climate system. The project will also address modes of natural climate variability as well as extreme and rapid climate change in a region of the Earth that is: (i) a key indicator of the state of global climate through polar amplification and (ii) which is undergoing environmental transitions not seen in instrumental records. RASM will readily allow the addition of other earth system components, such as ecosystem or biochemistry models, thus allowing it to facilitate studies of climate impacts (e.g., droughts and fires) and of ecosystem adaptations to these impacts. As such, RASM is expected to become a foundation for more complete Arctic System models and part of a model hierarchy important for improving climate modeling and predictions.

  13. Beliefs about God and mental health among American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silton, Nava R; Flannelly, Kevin J; Galek, Kathleen; Ellison, Christopher G

    2014-10-01

    This study examines the association between beliefs about God and psychiatric symptoms in the context of Evolutionary Threat Assessment System Theory, using data from the 2010 Baylor Religion Survey of US Adults (N = 1,426). Three beliefs about God were tested separately in ordinary least squares regression models to predict five classes of psychiatric symptoms: general anxiety, social anxiety, paranoia, obsession, and compulsion. Belief in a punitive God was positively associated with four psychiatric symptoms, while belief in a benevolent God was negatively associated with four psychiatric symptoms, controlling for demographic characteristics, religiousness, and strength of belief in God. Belief in a deistic God and one's overall belief in God were not significantly related to any psychiatric symptoms.

  14. Mentalizing deficits constrain belief in a personal God.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norenzayan, Ara; Gervais, Will M; Trzesniewski, Kali H

    2012-01-01

    Religious believers intuitively conceptualize deities as intentional agents with mental states who anticipate and respond to human beliefs, desires and concerns. It follows that mentalizing deficits, associated with the autistic spectrum and also commonly found in men more than in women, may undermine this intuitive support and reduce belief in a personal God. Autistic adolescents expressed less belief in God than did matched neuro-typical controls (Study 1). In a Canadian student sample (Study 2), and two American national samples that controlled for demographic characteristics and other correlates of autism and religiosity (Study 3 and 4), the autism spectrum predicted reduced belief in God, and mentalizing mediated this relationship. Systemizing (Studies 2 and 3) and two personality dimensions related to religious belief, Conscientiousness and Agreeableness (Study 3), failed as mediators. Mentalizing also explained the robust and well-known, but theoretically debated, gender gap in religious belief wherein men show reduced religious belief (Studies 2-4).

  15. Belief Elicitation in Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanco, Mariana; Engelmann, Dirk; Koch, Alexander

    Belief elicitation in economics experiments usually relies on paying subjects according to the accuracy of stated beliefs in addition to payments for other decisions. Such incentives, however, allow risk-averse subjects to hedge with their stated beliefs against adverse outcomes of other decisions...... in the experiment. This raises two questions: (i) can we trust the existing belief elicitation results, (ii) can we avoid potential hedging confounds? Our results instill confidence regarding both issues. We propose an experimental design that eliminates hedging opportunities, and use this to test for the empirical...

  16. A prospective study predicting the outcome of chronic low back pain and physical therapy: the role of fear-avoidance beliefs and extraspinal pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloma S.A. Feitosa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To identify the prognostic factors for conventional physical therapy in patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP. Methods: Prospective observational study. Participants: One hundred thirteen patients with CLBP selected at the Spinal Disease Outpatient Clinic. Main outcome measures: Pain intensity was scored using the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS, and function was measured using the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ. Results: The Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire work subscale results (FABQ-work; odds ratio [OR] = 0.27, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.13–0.56, p < 0.001 and extraspinal pain (OR = 0.35, 95% CI 0.17–0.74, p = 0.006 were independently associated with a decreased response to conventional physical therapy for CLBP. Conclusion: We identified high FABQ-work and extraspinal pain scores as key determinants of a worse response to physical therapy among CLBP patients, supporting the need for a special rehabilitation program for this subgroup.

  17. Exploring learners' beliefs about science reading and scientific epistemic beliefs, and their relations with science text understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang-Ying; Chang, Cheng-Chieh; Chen, Li-Ling; Chen, Yi-Chun

    2016-07-01

    The main purpose of this study was to explore learners' beliefs about science reading and scientific epistemic beliefs, and how these beliefs were associating with their understanding of science texts. About 400 10th graders were involved in the development and validation of the Beliefs about Science Reading Inventory (BSRI). To find the effects of reader beliefs and epistemic beliefs, a new group of 65 10th grade students whose reader and epistemic beliefs were assessed by the newly developed BSRI and an existing SEB questionnaire were invited to take part in a science reading task. Students' text understanding in terms of concept gain and text interpretations was collected and analyzed. By the correlation analysis, it was found that when students had stronger beliefs about meaning construction based on personal goals and experiences (i.e. transaction beliefs), they produced more thematic and critical interpretations of the content of the test article. The regression analysis suggested that students SEBs could predict concept gain as a result of reading. Moreover, among all beliefs examined in the study, transaction beliefs stood out as the best predictor of overall science-text understanding.

  18. Collaborative experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Thomas Bøtker

    Literature review: Collaborative experience has been shown to have a positive effect on the collaborative outcome in general (Anand & Khanna, 2000; Kale, Dyer & Singh, 2002). Furthermore, it has been linked to the ability to exploit the network of the firm for learning (Powell, Koput and Smith...... experience was largest the higher the hypothesized ambiguity. Theoretically contribution: This research project aims at contributing to existing literature by arguing, that collaborative experience is a moderating variable which moderates the effects on collaborative outcome from the level of complexity......, that the largest effects from collaborative experience is from recent collaborative experience, since knowledge depreciates when it is not used. Methodologically contribution: The research project studies the dyad and aims at introducing, to this field of research, an established way of collecting data, a new...

  19. Working Collaboratively

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holder, Anna; Lovett, George

    2009-01-01

    Working collaboratively is arguably an essential skill in architectural practice as the complexity of contemporary projects involves multiple agents in the conception, construction and use of architecture. This has been emphasised by recent government rhetoric. Mass collaboration has been...... identified as a transformative global force of the last decade, most notably in knowledge and information publishing, communication and creation. This paper presents a structured conversation on changing understandings of collaboration, and the realities of collaborative methodology in architectural work....... Ideas of the platforms and structures necessary to support ‘creative’ collaborations are advanced and tested, and a vocabulary of key terms is developed. The conversation extends to reflect on the role of the architecture profession in supporting or enabling collaboration in architectural works....

  20. Emergency medicine residents' beliefs about contributing to a Google DocsTM presentation: a survey protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Archambault

    2011-07-01

    Conclusion To our knowledge, this study will be the first to use a theory based framework to identify healthcare trainees' salient beliefs concerning their decision whether to contribute to an online collaborative writing project using Google DocsTM.

  1. Patterns of Change in Collaboration Are Associated with Baseline Characteristics and Predict Outcome and Dropout Rates in Treatment of Multi-Problem Families. A Validation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egon Bachler

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study validates the Multi-Problem Family (MPF-Collaboration Scale, which measures the progress of goal directed collaboration of patients in the treatment of families with MPF and its relation to drop-out rates and treatment outcome.Method: Naturalistic study of symptom and competence-related changes in children of ages 4–18 and their caregivers.Setting: Integrative, structural outreach family therapy.Measures: The data of five different groups of goal directed collaboration (deteriorating collaboration, stable low collaboration, stable medium collaboration, stable high collaboration, improving collaboration were analyzed in their relation to treatment expectation, individual therapeutic goals (ITG, family adversity index, severity of problems and global assessment of a caregiver’s functioning, child, and relational aspects.Results: From N = 810 families, 20% displayed stable high collaboration (n = 162 and 21% had a pattern of improving collaboration. The families with stable high or improving collaboration rates achieved significantly more progress throughout therapy in terms of treatment outcome expectancy (d = 0.96; r = 0.43, reaching ITG (d = 1.17; r = 0.50, family adversities (d = 0.55; r = 0.26, and severity of psychiatric symptoms (d = 0.31; r = 0.15. Furthermore, families with stable high or improving collaboration maintained longer treatments and had a bigger chance of finishing the therapy as planned. The odds of having a stable low or deteriorating collaboration throughout treatment were significantly higher for subjects who started treatment with low treatment expectation or high family-related adversities.Conclusion: The positive outcomes of homebased interventions for multi-problem families are closely related to “stable high” and an “improving” collaboration as measured with the MPF-Collaboration Scale. Patients who fall into these groups have a high treatment outcome expectancy and reduce

  2. Patterns of Change in Collaboration Are Associated with Baseline Characteristics and Predict Outcome and Dropout Rates in Treatment of Multi-Problem Families. A Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachler, Egon; Fruehmann, Alexander; Bachler, Herbert; Aas, Benjamin; Nickel, Marius; Schiepek, Guenter K.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The present study validates the Multi-Problem Family (MPF)-Collaboration Scale), which measures the progress of goal directed collaboration of patients in the treatment of families with MPF and its relation to drop-out rates and treatment outcome. Method: Naturalistic study of symptom and competence-related changes in children of ages 4–18 and their caregivers. Setting: Integrative, structural outreach family therapy. Measures: The data of five different groups of goal directed collaboration (deteriorating collaboration, stable low collaboration, stable medium collaboration, stable high collaboration, improving collaboration) were analyzed in their relation to treatment expectation, individual therapeutic goals (ITG), family adversity index, severity of problems and global assessment of a caregiver’s functioning, child, and relational aspects. Results: From N = 810 families, 20% displayed stable high collaboration (n = 162) and 21% had a pattern of improving collaboration. The families with stable high or improving collaboration rates achieved significantly more progress throughout therapy in terms of treatment outcome expectancy (d = 0.96; r = 0.43), reaching ITG (d = 1.17; r = 0.50), family adversities (d = 0.55; r = 0.26), and severity of psychiatric symptoms (d = 0.31; r = 0.15). Furthermore, families with stable high or improving collaboration maintained longer treatments and had a bigger chance of finishing the therapy as planned. The odds of having a stable low or deteriorating collaboration throughout treatment were significantly higher for subjects who started treatment with low treatment expectation or high family-related adversities. Conclusion: The positive outcomes of homebased interventions for multi-problem families are closely related to “stable high” and an “improving” collaboration as measured with the MPF-Collaboration Scale. Patients who fall into these groups have a high treatment outcome expectancy and reduce

  3. Using the Health Belief Model for Bulimia Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grodner, Michele

    1991-01-01

    Discusses application of the Health Belief Model to the prevention of bulimia, describing each model component. The article considers the individual's beliefs about bulimia and bulimic-like behaviors as a means of predicting the likelihood of behavior change to prevent clinically diagnosable bulimia. (SM)

  4. Organizational Conspiracy Beliefs: Implications for Leadership Styles and Employee Outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prooijen, van Jan-Willem; Vries, de Reinout E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Belief in conspiracy theories about societal events is widespread among citizens. The extent to which conspiracy beliefs about managers and supervisors matter in the micro-level setting of organizations has not yet been examined, however. We investigated if leadership styles predict conspira

  5. Irrational Beliefs and Test Anxiety in Turkish School Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyacioglu, Nur; Kucuk, Leyla

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive and correlational study was to determine the extent to which irrational beliefs of students in early adolescents predict test anxiety. The study sample consisted of 557 students recruited from primary schools in Turkey. The Irrational Beliefs Scale for Adolescents (IBS-A) and the Test Anxiety scale were used as…

  6. Using the Health Belief Model for Bulimia Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grodner, Michele

    1991-01-01

    Discusses application of the Health Belief Model to the prevention of bulimia, describing each model component. The article considers the individual's beliefs about bulimia and bulimic-like behaviors as a means of predicting the likelihood of behavior change to prevent clinically diagnosable bulimia. (SM)

  7. A Study on Collaborative Operation Methods between New Energy Type Dispersed Power Supply System and SMES by Modified Euler Type Moving Average Prediction Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monai, Toshiharu; Takano, Ichiro; Nishikawa, Hisao; Sawada, Yoshio

    In this paper, the modified Euler type Moving Average Prediction (EMAP) model is proposed in order to operate a dispersed power supply system using new energy in autonomous mode. Furthermore, EMAP model is applied to operate a new type dispersed power supply system consisting of a large scale photovoltaic system (PV), a fuel cell (FC) as well as a small scale superconducting magnetic energy storage system (SMES). This distributed power supply system can meet the multi-quality electric power requirements of customers, and ensures voltage stability and UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply) function as well. Each sub-system of this distributed power supply contributes to the above-mentioned system performance with its own excellent characteristics. Moreover, response characteristics of this system are confirmed with simulation by software PSIM, and, under collaborative operation methods by EMAP model, the required capacity of SMES to compensate the fluctuation of both PV output and load demand is examined by the simulation using software MATLAB/Simulink.

  8. The influence of social niche on cultural niche construction: modelling changes in belief about marriage form in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipatov, Mikhail; Brown, Melissa J.; Feldman, Marcus W.

    2011-01-01

    With introduction of social niche effects into a model of cultural change, the frequency of a practice cannot predict the frequency of its underlying belief. The combination of a general model with empirical data from a specific case illustrates the importance of collaboration between modellers and field researchers, and identifies the type of quantitative data necessary for analysing case studies. Demographic data from colonial-period household registers in Taiwan document a shift in marriage form within 40 years, from a mixture of uxorilocal marriages and virilocal marriages to the latter's dominance. Ethnographic data indicate marriage-related beliefs, costs, ethnic effects and colonial policies as well as the importance of horizontal cultural transmission. We present a formal model for the effects of moral beliefs about marriage and a population economic index on the decline of uxorilocal marriage. We integrate empirical marriage rates and an estimated economic index to produce five projections of the historical frequencies of one belief. These projections demonstrate how economic development may affect a cultural niche. They also indicate the need for future research on the relationship between wealth and cultural variability, the motivational force of cultural versus social factors, and the process of cultural niche construction. PMID:21320903

  9. Collaborative experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Thomas Bøtker

    sample of firms, an establish way of measuring the outcome of product development and a new way of measuring experience. Where the previous research in this field primarily uses secondary databases, this research project collects primary data by an online questionnaire to the NPD manager from one......, that the largest effects from collaborative experience is from recent collaborative experience, since knowledge depreciates when it is not used. Methodologically contribution: The research project studies the dyad and aims at introducing, to this field of research, an established way of collecting data, a new...... of the new product development as a performance measure. Finally, where previous research primarily has used the number of collaborations as a measure of collaborative experience, this research includes the recency in the measure of collaborative experience. Results: Since data has not yet been collected...

  10. Collaborative Prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Marcel; Horst, Willem

    2014-01-01

    of the prototyping process, the actual prototype was used as a tool for communication or development, thus serving as a platform for the cross-fertilization of knowledge. In this way, collaborative prototyping leads to a better balance between functionality and usability; it translates usability problems into design......This paper presents an inductive study that shows how collaborative prototyping across functional, hierarchical, and organizational boundaries can improve the overall prototyping process. Our combined action research and case study approach provides new insights into how collaborative prototyping...... can provide a platform for prototype-driven problem solving in early new product development (NPD). Our findings have important implications for how to facilitate multistakeholder collaboration in prototyping and problem solving, and more generally for how to organize collaborative and open innovation...

  11. Collaborative Prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Marcel; Horst, Willem

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an inductive study that shows how collaborative prototyping across functional, hierarchical, and organizational boundaries can improve the overall prototyping process. Our combined action research and case study approach provides new insights into how collaborative prototyping...... constraints in involving the appropriate stakeholders at the right time. The paper specifically elaborates on the role of users in collaborative prototyping, which is important in order to cover all phases of the problem-solving cycle but triggers an interesting challenge due to the “reverse empathy...... can provide a platform for prototype-driven problem solving in early new product development (NPD). Our findings have important implications for how to facilitate multistakeholder collaboration in prototyping and problem solving, and more generally for how to organize collaborative and open innovation...

  12. Trusting Beliefs: A Functional Measurement Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidotto, Giulio; Massidda, Davide; Noventa, Stefano; Vicentini, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Trust is a fundamental aspect of everyday life. Several authors define trust as the wish to depend on another entity and split the concept of trust into several interconnected components such as trusting beliefs (e.g., benevolence, competence, honesty, and predictability), trusting intentions, trusting behaviors, disposition to trust, and…

  13. Differences in beliefs and currency risk premiums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beber, A.; Breedon, F.; Buraschi, A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the importance of heterogeneous beliefs for the dynamics of asset prices. We focus on currency markets, where the absence of short-selling constraints allows us to perform sharper tests of theoretical predictions. Using a unique data set with detailed information on foreign-exchan

  14. Reducing conspiracy theory beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanov Ana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to look at possible ways to reduce beliefs in conspiracy theories and increase the intention to have a fictitious child vaccinated. One hundred and sixty participants answered an online questionnaire. Three groups were used. The control group did not read any text prior to answering whereas the two experimental groups read either only debunking information or information about the motives of the conspiracists and the fallacy in their reasoning in addition to the debunking paragraph. The second experimental manipulation was effective in reducing medical conspiracy theories beliefs, but not belief in conspiracy theories in general. Neither intervention was effective in increasing the likelihood to have a fictitious child vaccinated. Those not intending to vaccinate a fictitious child endorsed conspiracy theories to a greater degree. A positive correlation between beliefs in conspiracy theories and the experiential/intuitive information processing system was found.

  15. Teaching Beliefs and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asch, Rosalie L.

    1976-01-01

    Attempts to bring into clearer perspective how art teaching beliefs relate to attitudes and methodology concerning evaluation. Also shows how some common evaluation pitfalls can be avoided without compromising art learning and quality. (Author/RK)

  16. Canadian Teachers' and Principals' Beliefs about Inclusive Education as Predictors of Effective Teaching in Heterogeneous Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanovich, Paula J.; Jordan, Anne

    1998-01-01

    Used teacher beliefs and attitudes, principal beliefs and school norms, and teacher efficacy to predict effective teaching in heterogeneous classrooms. Found that the strongest predictors of effective teaching were: (1) the subjective school norm operationalized by the principal's attitudes and beliefs about heterogeneous classroom and report of…

  17. Beliefs about Knowledge, Knowing, and Learning: Differences across Knowledge Types in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muis, Krista R.; Gierus, Bogusia

    2014-01-01

    The authors examined whether students' epistemic and learning beliefs varied across different knowledge types in physics. On the basis of various beliefs frameworks, the authors predicted that individuals' beliefs would vary within a domain across the same content when presented conceptually versus procedurally. Participants were 81 high…

  18. Epistemic Beliefs and Achievement Goal Orientations: Relations between Constructs versus Personal Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madjar, Nir; Weinstock, Michael; Kaplan, Avi

    2017-01-01

    Research has found students' epistemic beliefs to predict their achievement goal orientations. Much of this research emerged from the dimensional approach of epistemic beliefs, which hypothesized a relationship between particular independent dimensions of epistemic beliefs with different achievement goals. Research in this approach has primarily…

  19. The Interplay between Parental Beliefs about Children's Emotions and Parental Stress Impacts Children's Attachment Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelter, Rebecca L.; Halberstadt, Amy G.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how parental beliefs about children's emotions and parental stress relate to children's feelings of security in the parent-child relationship. Models predicting direct effects of parental beliefs and parental stress, and moderating effects of parental stress on the relationship between parental beliefs and children's…

  20. Physical Education Teachers' Beliefs and Intentions toward Teaching Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Mihye; Block, Martin E.

    2011-01-01

    The Theory of Planned Behavior (TpB) measures the effect that individuals' behavioral belief, normative belief, and control beliefs have on their intentions to perform a specific behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine: (a) whether the TpB could predict physical educators' intentions and (b) whether physical educators' intentions and…

  1. Salient Beliefs of Pre-Service Primary School Teachers Underlying an Attitude "Liking or Disliking Physics"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapucu, S.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the salient beliefs of pre-service primary school teachers (PPSTs) about why they like or dislike physics and to explore whether these beliefs predict their teaching beliefs about physics. A total of 267 PPSTs (Male = 137, Female = 130) participated in the study. Qualitative data analyses were used and the…

  2. Mental health, belief deficit compensation, and paranormal beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumaker, J F

    1987-09-01

    The present study examined the relationship between religious and nonreligious paranormal beliefs and mental health, as well as the possibility that nonreligious subjects compensate for a lack of identification with traditional religion by increased nonreligious paranormal beliefs. Subjects were 80 undergraduates categorized as religious or nonreligious on the basis of scores on the Traditional Religion subscale of the Paranormal Belief Scale. Religious subjects had significantly higher total paranormal belief scores than nonreligious subjects. Those adopting religious paranormal beliefs were actually somewhat more likely to adopt other nonreligious paranormal beliefs. The failure of nonreligious subjects to compensate fully for this traditional religious belief deficit was reflected in their mental health ratings on the Langer's Mental Health Scale (Langer, 1962). Paranormal beliefs were found to be negatively correlated with reported symptoms of psychopathology, supporting the formulation that paranormal beliefs may serve to ensure psychic integrity by acting as "self-serving cognitive biases."

  3. Collaborative Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and communities 13.Embedding social values in tourism management: Community currencies as laboratories of social entrepreneurship? Rita Cannas 14.Improvising Economy: Everyday encounters and tourism consumption Gunnar Thór Jóhannesson and Katrín Anna Lund 15.Community and connection: Exploring the outcomes......This book employs an interdisciplinary, cross-sectoral lens to explore the collaborative dynamics that are currently disrupting, re-creating and transforming the production and consumption of tourism. House swapping, ridesharing, voluntourism, couchsurfing, dinner hosting, social enterprise...... collaborative economy and tourism Dianne Dredge and Szilvia Gyimóthy PART I - Theoretical explorations 2.Definitions and mapping the landscape in the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy and Dianne Dredge 3.Business models of the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy 4.Responsibility and care...

  4. Collaborative tools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. Manickam

    2007-01-01

    @@ A successful next generation fusion experiment, such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project, will need experimentalists, theorists, and computational scientists to collaborate efficiently, to understand the overwhelming amount of information from experiments, codes, and theory.

  5. Collaborative Appropriation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller, Michael; Neureiter, Katja; Verdezoto, Nervo;

    2016-01-01

    Previous workshops and papers have examined how individual users adopt and adapt technologies to meet their own local needs, by “completing design through use.” However, there has been little systematic study of how groups of people engage collaboratively in these activities. This workshop opens ...... a discussion for these under-studied forms of collaborative appropriation, using a broad range of perspectives including empirical data, design explorations, research, and critique....

  6. Integrating the Beliefs of Dewey, Lewin, and Rogers into a Rationale for Effective Group Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Richard W.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a rationale for effective group leadership grounded in John Withall's articulation of selected beliefs of John Dewey, Kurt Lewin, and Carl Rogers. Teachers and administrators need more and better preparation in collaborative inquiry. Knowledge and skills in collaborative inquiry should undergird the successful functioning of groups of…

  7. Logic and belief across the lifespan: the rise and fall of belief inhibition during syllogistic reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Neys, Wim; Van Gelder, Elke

    2009-01-01

    Popular reasoning theories postulate that the ability to inhibit inappropriate beliefs lies at the heart of the human reasoning engine. Given that people's inhibitory capacities are known to rise and fall across the lifespan, we predicted that people's deductive reasoning performance would show similar curvilinear age trends. A group of children (12-year-olds), young adults (20-year-olds), and older adults (65+-year-olds) were presented with a classic syllogistic reasoning task and a decision-making questionnaire. Results indicated that on syllogisms where beliefs and logic conflicted, reasoning performance showed the expected curvilinear age trend: Reasoning performance initially increased from childhood to early adulthood but declined again in later life. On syllogisms where beliefs and logic were consistent and sound reasoning did not require belief inhibition, however, age did not affect performance. Furthermore, across the lifespan we observed that the better people were at resisting intuitive temptations in the decision-making task, the less they were biased by their beliefs on the conflict syllogisms. As with the effect of age, one's ability to override intuitions in the decision-making task did not mediate reasoning performance on the no-conflict syllogisms. Results lend credence to the postulated central role of inhibitory processing in those situations where beliefs and logic conflict.

  8. Aquatic Instructors' Beliefs Toward Inclusion: The Theory of Planned Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conatser, Phillip; Block, Martin; Gansneder, Bruce

    2002-04-01

    The purpose was to (a) examine aquatic instructors' beliefs (female, n = 82; male, n = 29) about teaching swimming to individuals with disabilities in inclusive settings and (b) test the theory of planned behavior model (Ajzen, 1985, 1988, 2001). Aquatic instructors from 25 states representing 122 cities across the U.S. participated in this study. The instrument, named Aquatic Instructors' Beliefs Toward Inclusion (AIBTI), was an extended version of the Physical Educators' Attitudes Toward Teaching Individuals with Disabilities- Swim (Conatser, Block, & Lepore, 2000). A correlated t test showed aquatic instructors' beliefs (attitudes toward the behavior, normative beliefs, perceived behavioral control, intention, behavior) were significantly more favorable toward teaching aquatics to individuals with mild disabilities than individuals with severe disabilities. Stepwise multiple regression showed perceived behavioral control and attitude significantly predicted intention, and intention predicted instructors' inclusive behavior for both disability groups. Further, results indicated the theory of planned behavior predicts aquatic instructors' behavior better than the theory of reasoned action.

  9. Belief functions on lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Grabisch, Michel

    2008-01-01

    We extend the notion of belief function to the case where the underlying structure is no more the Boolean lattice of subsets of some universal set, but any lattice, which we will endow with a minimal set of properties according to our needs. We show that all classical constructions and definitions (e.g., mass allocation, commonality function, plausibility functions, necessity measures with nested focal elements, possibility distributions, Dempster rule of combination, decomposition w.r.t. simple support functions, etc.) remain valid in this general setting. Moreover, our proof of decomposition of belief functions into simple support functions is much simpler and general than the original one by Shafer.

  10. Symptom dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder and obsessive beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trinette Cordeiro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD is a heterogeneous condition with a few major symptom dimensions. These symptom dimensions are thought to have unique clinical and neurobiological correlates. There seems to be a specific relation between OCD symptom dimensions and obsessive beliefs, but the findings are not consistent across studies. There is also a paucity of literature from culturally diverse settings. One of the reasons for the varied findings could be due to the method employed in measuring OCD symptoms. Materials and Methods: In this study, we examined the relation between symptom dimensions and obsessive beliefs using the Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale and the Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire respectively in 75 patients with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition OCD. Results: Perfectionism predicted both aggressive and symmetry dimensions whereas responsibility beliefs predicted sexual and religious dimensions. Conclusions: The findings suggest that certain obsessive beliefs predicted certain OCD symptom dimensions, but results are not entirely consistent with the published literature suggesting the possibility of cross-cultural variations. That the symptom dimensions have unique belief domains support the argument that symptom dimensions could be targeted to reduce the heterogeneity in etiological and treatment studies of OCD. Therapeutic interventions may have to aim at modifying unique belief domains underlying certain symptom dimensions rather than having generic cognitive-behavioral strategies.

  11. Symptom Dimensions in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Obsessive Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Trinette; Sharma, Mahendra P.; Thennarasu, Kandavel; Reddy, Y. C. Janardhan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a heterogeneous condition with a few major symptom dimensions. These symptom dimensions are thought to have unique clinical and neurobiological correlates. There seems to be a specific relation between OCD symptom dimensions and obsessive beliefs, but the findings are not consistent across studies. There is also a paucity of literature from culturally diverse settings. One of the reasons for the varied findings could be due to the method employed in measuring OCD symptoms. Materials and Methods: In this study, we examined the relation between symptom dimensions and obsessive beliefs using the Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale and the Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire respectively in 75 patients with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition OCD. Results: Perfectionism predicted both aggressive and symmetry dimensions whereas responsibility beliefs predicted sexual and religious dimensions. Conclusions: The findings suggest that certain obsessive beliefs predicted certain OCD symptom dimensions, but results are not entirely consistent with the published literature suggesting the possibility of cross-cultural variations. That the symptom dimensions have unique belief domains support the argument that symptom dimensions could be targeted to reduce the heterogeneity in etiological and treatment studies of OCD. Therapeutic interventions may have to aim at modifying unique belief domains underlying certain symptom dimensions rather than having generic cognitive-behavioral strategies. PMID:26702171

  12. Collaborative Improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltoft, Rasmus

    The thesis data have been collected in the EU-sponsored project: Collaborative Improvement Tool for the Extended Manufacturing Enterprise, CO-IMPROVE. In this project four universities (Denmark, Ireland, Italy, and The Netherlands), two software vendors (Greece and Sweden) and three companies (De...... learn how to improve operations in (hopefully) a win-win like manner through collaboration.......The thesis data have been collected in the EU-sponsored project: Collaborative Improvement Tool for the Extended Manufacturing Enterprise, CO-IMPROVE. In this project four universities (Denmark, Ireland, Italy, and The Netherlands), two software vendors (Greece and Sweden) and three companies...... (Denmark, Italy and The Netherlands) each with three to five suppliers were involved. The CO-IMPROVE project and the thesis is based on “action research” and “action learning”. The main aim of the whole project is through actual involvement and actions make the researchers, companies and selected suppliers...

  13. Interprofessional Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn Prentice

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this hermeneutic phenomenological study, we examined the experience of interprofessional collaboration from the perspective of nursing and medical students. Seventeen medical and nursing students from two different universities participated in the study. We used guiding questions in face-to-face, conversational interviews to explore students’ experience and expectations of interprofessional collaboration within learning situations. Three themes emerged from the data: the great divide, learning means content, and breaking the ice. The findings suggest that the experience of interprofessional collaboration within learning events is influenced by the natural clustering of shared interests among students. Furthermore, the carry-forward of impressions about physician–nurse relationships prior to the educational programs and during clinical placements dominate the formation of new relationships and acquisition of new knowledge about roles, which might have implications for future practice.

  14. Collaborative Improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltoft, Rasmus

    -called Extended Manufacturing Enterprises (EMEs). In effect, the battlefield of competition is increasingly moving from the level of individual firms to that of EMEs. Consequently, new approaches must be developed not only to enhance the business performance of EMEs, but also, in particular, the inter-organisational......Many companies have gradually moved from vertically aligned operations to horizontally aligned operations, a change implying that co-ordination is shifting from the hierarchy to the market place with emphasis on collaboration with other companies. One form of collaboration with companies is so...

  15. Maternal HIV serostatus, mother-daughter sexual risk communication and adolescent HIV risk beliefs and intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederbaum, Julie A; Hutchinson, M Katherine; Duan, Lei; Jemmott, Loretta S

    2013-09-01

    Daughters of HIV-positive women are often exposed to the same factors that placed their mothers at risk. This cross-sectional study (N = 176 dyads) examined HIV status, parent-teen sexual risk communication (PTSRC), and daughters' abstinence and condom use beliefs and intentions. Maternal HIV status was not associated with PTSRC. Path analyses show that maternal depression was associated with PTSRC behavioral and normative beliefs; relationship satisfaction was associated with PTSRC normative and control beliefs. Control beliefs were solely predictive of maternal PTSRC intention. PTSRC was associated with adolescent behavioral and normative beliefs. Abstinence beliefs were associated with abstinence intentions; condom beliefs were associated with condom use intentions. Relationship satisfaction was associated with adolescent control beliefs about both abstinence and condom use. There is a need for interventions that help HIV-positive mothers recognize their daughter's HIV risk and provide them with relationship building and parent process skills to help reduce these risks.

  16. Scientific faith: Belief in science increases in the face of stress and existential anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Miguel; Newheiser, Anna-Kaisa; Kahane, Guy; de Toledo, Zoe

    2013-11-01

    Growing evidence indicates that religious belief helps individuals to cope with stress and anxiety. But is this effect specific to supernatural beliefs, or is it a more general function of belief - including belief in science? We developed a measure of belief in science and conducted two experiments in which we manipulated stress and existential anxiety. In Experiment 1, we assessed rowers about to compete (high-stress condition) and rowers at a training session (low-stress condition). As predicted, rowers in the high-stress group reported greater belief in science. In Experiment 2, participants primed with mortality (vs. participants in a control condition) reported greater belief in science. In both experiments, belief in science was negatively correlated with religiosity. Thus, some secular individuals may use science as a form of "faith" that helps them to deal with stressful and anxiety-provoking situations.

  17. Probabilistic dynamic belief revision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltag, A.; Smets, S.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the discrete (finite) case of the Popper-Renyi theory of conditional probability, introducing discrete conditional probabilistic models for knowledge and conditional belief, and comparing them with the more standard plausibility models. We also consider a related notion, that of safe

  18. Information and Heterogeneous Beliefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Qin, Zhenjiang

    2014-01-01

    In an incomplete market with heterogeneous prior beliefs, we show public information can have a substantial impact on the ex ante cost of capital, trading volume, and investor welfare. The Pareto effcient public information system is the system enjoying the maximum ex ante cost of capital and the...

  19. Logic and Belief across the Lifespan: The Rise and Fall of Belief Inhibition during Syllogistic Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Neys, Wim; Van Gelder, Elke

    2009-01-01

    Popular reasoning theories postulate that the ability to inhibit inappropriate beliefs lies at the heart of the human reasoning engine. Given that people's inhibitory capacities are known to rise and fall across the lifespan, we predicted that people's deductive reasoning performance would show similar curvilinear age trends. A group of children…

  20. Varieties of Belief and Probability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J.N. van Eijck (Jan); S. Ghosh; J. Szymanik

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractFor reasoning about uncertain situations, we have probability theory, and we have logics of knowledge and belief. How does elementary probability theory relate to epistemic logic and the logic of belief? The paper focuses on the notion of betting belief, and interprets a language for

  1. Collaborative Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Debora

    2014-01-01

    This practitioner research study investigates the power of multimodal texts within a real-world context and argues that a participatory culture focused on literary arts offers marginalized high school students opportunities for collaborative design and authoring. Additionally, this article invites educators to rethink the at-risk label. This…

  2. Cognitive neuropsychiatry and delusional belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coltheart, Max

    2007-08-01

    Cognitive neuropsychiatry is a new field of cognitive psychology which seeks to learn more about the normal operation of high-level aspects of cognition such as belief formation, reasoning, decision making, theory of mind, and pragmatics by studying people in whom such processes are abnormal. So far, the high-level cognitive process most widely studied in cognitive neuropsychiatry has been belief formation, investigated by examining people with delusional beliefs. This paper describes some of the forms of delusional belief that have been examined from this perspective and offers a general two-deficit cognitive-neuropsychiatric account of delusional belief.

  3. Valence-Dependent Belief Updating: Computational Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmanovic, Bojana; Rigoux, Lionel

    2017-01-01

    People tend to update beliefs about their future outcomes in a valence-dependent way: they are likely to incorporate good news and to neglect bad news. However, belief formation is a complex process which depends not only on motivational factors such as the desire for favorable conclusions, but also on multiple cognitive variables such as prior beliefs, knowledge about personal vulnerabilities and resources, and the size of the probabilities and estimation errors. Thus, we applied computational modeling in order to test for valence-induced biases in updating while formally controlling for relevant cognitive factors. We compared biased and unbiased Bayesian models of belief updating, and specified alternative models based on reinforcement learning. The experiment consisted of 80 trials with 80 different adverse future life events. In each trial, participants estimated the base rate of one of these events and estimated their own risk of experiencing the event before and after being confronted with the actual base rate. Belief updates corresponded to the difference between the two self-risk estimates. Valence-dependent updating was assessed by comparing trials with good news (better-than-expected base rates) with trials with bad news (worse-than-expected base rates). After receiving bad relative to good news, participants' updates were smaller and deviated more strongly from rational Bayesian predictions, indicating a valence-induced bias. Model comparison revealed that the biased (i.e., optimistic) Bayesian model of belief updating better accounted for data than the unbiased (i.e., rational) Bayesian model, confirming that the valence of the new information influenced the amount of updating. Moreover, alternative computational modeling based on reinforcement learning demonstrated higher learning rates for good than for bad news, as well as a moderating role of personal knowledge. Finally, in this specific experimental context, the approach based on reinforcement

  4. Valence-Dependent Belief Updating: Computational Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojana Kuzmanovic

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available People tend to update beliefs about their future outcomes in a valence-dependent way: they are likely to incorporate good news and to neglect bad news. However, belief formation is a complex process which depends not only on motivational factors such as the desire for favorable conclusions, but also on multiple cognitive variables such as prior beliefs, knowledge about personal vulnerabilities and resources, and the size of the probabilities and estimation errors. Thus, we applied computational modeling in order to test for valence-induced biases in updating while formally controlling for relevant cognitive factors. We compared biased and unbiased Bayesian models of belief updating, and specified alternative models based on reinforcement learning. The experiment consisted of 80 trials with 80 different adverse future life events. In each trial, participants estimated the base rate of one of these events and estimated their own risk of experiencing the event before and after being confronted with the actual base rate. Belief updates corresponded to the difference between the two self-risk estimates. Valence-dependent updating was assessed by comparing trials with good news (better-than-expected base rates with trials with bad news (worse-than-expected base rates. After receiving bad relative to good news, participants' updates were smaller and deviated more strongly from rational Bayesian predictions, indicating a valence-induced bias. Model comparison revealed that the biased (i.e., optimistic Bayesian model of belief updating better accounted for data than the unbiased (i.e., rational Bayesian model, confirming that the valence of the new information influenced the amount of updating. Moreover, alternative computational modeling based on reinforcement learning demonstrated higher learning rates for good than for bad news, as well as a moderating role of personal knowledge. Finally, in this specific experimental context, the approach based on

  5. Information and Heterogeneous Beliefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Qin, Zhenjiang

    2014-01-01

    In an incomplete market with heterogeneous prior beliefs, we show public information can have a substantial impact on the ex ante cost of capital, trading volume, and investor welfare. The Pareto effcient public information system is the system enjoying the maximum ex ante cost of capital...... ante risk premium is unaffected by the informativeness of the public information system. Similar results are obtained in a production economy, but the impact on the ex ante cost of capital is dampened compared to the exchange economy due to welfare improving reductions in real investments to smooth...... and the maximum expected abnormal trading volume. Imperfect public information increases the gains-to-trade based on heterogeneously updated posterior beliefs. In an exchange economy, this leads to higher growth in the investors' certainty equivalents and, thus, a higher equilibrium interest rate, whereas the ex...

  6. Patient Belief in Miracles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidt, Niels Christian

    2011-01-01

    Faith and hope in divine healing figure in most religious traditions. This chapter looks at faith in healing miracles and explores how following that faith may involve both risks and advantages. On the one hand, it may imply a risk by camouflaging a deferring attitude as when patients decline...... medical treatment on the basis of their belief in Divine intervention. On the other hand, faith in miracles forms an important part of a well-integrated religiosity by inspiring hope and so helping patients to find meaning and initiative in situations in which they might otherwise be tempted to give up....... Against the backdrop of such considerations, the chapter provides recommendations for health professionals and relatives as how to handle patient belief in miracles in practice....

  7. Assessing superstitious belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnall, Neil; Parker, Andrew; Munley, Gary

    2009-04-01

    The current study evaluated the psychometric properties of Wiseman and Watt's (2004) negative and positive superstitious belief items. The original items were compared with a modified, reworded set of items which emphasized each item's relation with either good or bad luck, and standard psychometric analyses were done. Modifying the items did not improve their psychometric properties; there was a negligible effect on Cronbach alpha, and Positive Item 3 continued to perform poorly. Confirmatory factor analysis, using the maximum likelihood method, suggested that a two-factor solution was preferable to a one-factor solution for both the original and modified items and that the problematic item should be discounted. It was concluded that the items require development and refinement before firm conclusions can be made about the factorial structure of superstitious belief. These results should also be tested further using Rasch methods.

  8. Patient Belief in Miracles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidt, Niels Christian

    2011-01-01

    Faith and hope in divine healing figure in most religious traditions. This chapter looks at faith in healing miracles and explores how following that faith may involve both risks and advantages. On the one hand, it may imply a risk by camouflaging a deferring attitude as when patients decline...... medical treatment on the basis of their belief in Divine intervention. On the other hand, faith in miracles forms an important part of a well-integrated religiosity by inspiring hope and so helping patients to find meaning and initiative in situations in which they might otherwise be tempted to give up....... Against the backdrop of such considerations, the chapter provides recommendations for health professionals and relatives as how to handle patient belief in miracles in practice....

  9. Strong commitment to traditional Protestant religious beliefs is negatively related to beliefs in paranormal phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillstrom, E L; Strachan, M

    2000-02-01

    Numerous studies have yielded small, negative correlations between measures of paranormal and "traditional religious beliefs". This may partly reflect opinions of Christians in the samples who take biblical sanctions against many "paranormal" activities seriously. To test this, 391 college students (270 women and 121 men) rated their beliefs in various paranormal phenomena and were classified as Believers, Nominal Believers, and Nonbelievers on the strength of their self-rated commitment to key biblical (particularly Protestant) doctrines. As predicted, Believers were significantly less likely than Nominal Believers or Nonbelievers to endorse reincarnation, contact with the dead, UFOs, telepathy, prophecy, psychokinesis, or healing, while the beliefs of Nominal Believers were similar to those of Nonbelievers. Substantial percentages of Nominal and Nonbelievers (30-50%) indicated at least moderate acceptance of the paranormal phenomena surveyed.

  10. Belief in astrology inventory: development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chico, Eliseo; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano

    2006-12-01

    After the paper by Mayo, White, and Eysenck in 1978, a considerable number of papers studied the so-called sun-sign-effect predicted by astrology: people born with the sun in a positive sign are supposed to be extraverted, and those with the sun in a negative sign are supposed to be introverted. In these papers, researchers used ad hoc questionnaires with a few questions related to belief, knowledge, experience, or attitude toward astrology. However, an appropriate inventory with known psychometric properties has yet to be developed to assess the belief in astrology. In the present paper, the Belief in Astrology Inventory is presented with some psychometric data. The participants were 743 undergraduates studying Psychology and Social Sciences at a university in Spain. Correlation of scores on Belief in Astrology and Extraversion was small but significant (r = .22; r2 = .04) for positive sun-sign participants. This value accounts for negligible common variance. Women had significandy higher scores on the inventory than men.

  11. Bisimulation and expressivity for conditional belief, degrees of belief, and safe belief

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel Birkegaard; Bolander, Thomas; van Ditmarsch, Hans;

    2016-01-01

    Plausibility models are Kripke models that agents use to reason about knowledge and belief, both of themselves and of each other. Such models are used to interpret the notions of conditional belief, degrees of belief, and safe belief. The logic of conditional belief contains that modality and also...... the knowledge modality, and similarly for the logic of degrees of belief and the logic of safe belief. With respect to these logics, plausibility models may contain too much information. A proper notion of bisimulation is required that characterises them. We define that notion of bisimulation and prove...... the required characterisations: on the class of image-finite and preimage-finite models (with respect to the plausibility relation), two pointed Kripke models are modally equivalent in either of the three logics, if and only if they are bisimilar. As a result, the information content of such a model can...

  12. Constructivist Instructional Practices and Teacher Beliefs Related to Secondary Science Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Adrienne Fleurette

    The purpose of this mixed method research study was to examine the constructivist beliefs and instructional practices of secondary science teachers. The research also explored situations that impacted whether or not student centered instruction occurred. The study revealed science teachers held constructive beliefs pertaining to student questioning of the learning process and student autonomy in interacting with other learners. Teachers held the least constructivist beliefs pertaining to student teacher collaboration on lesson design. Additionally, teacher beliefs and practice were not congruent due to instructional practices being deemed less constructivist than reported. The study found that curricular demands, teacher perceptions about students, inadequate laboratory resources, and the lack of teacher understanding about the components of constructivist instruction inhibited student centered instruction. The results of this study led to six recommendations that can be implemented by school districts in collaboration with science teachers to promote constructivist instruction.

  13. Prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Sornette, Didier

    2010-01-01

    This chapter first presents a rather personal view of some different aspects of predictability, going in crescendo from simple linear systems to high-dimensional nonlinear systems with stochastic forcing, which exhibit emergent properties such as phase transitions and regime shifts. Then, a detailed correspondence between the phenomenology of earthquakes, financial crashes and epileptic seizures is offered. The presented statistical evidence provides the substance of a general phase diagram for understanding the many facets of the spatio-temporal organization of these systems. A key insight is to organize the evidence and mechanisms in terms of two summarizing measures: (i) amplitude of disorder or heterogeneity in the system and (ii) level of coupling or interaction strength among the system's components. On the basis of the recently identified remarkable correspondence between earthquakes and seizures, we present detailed information on a class of stochastic point processes that has been found to be particu...

  14. Collaborative Care

    OpenAIRE

    コラボレイティブケア研究科

    2005-01-01

    本書を著したHornbyは英国のソーシャルワーカーである。彼女は1983年に「Collaboration in social work(Journal of social work practice,1.1)」を発表し、ソーシャルワークでの職種間の連携の重要性について報告している。さらに1993年に発刊した本書では、同一機関内の人間関係 ...

  15. Timeline Collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohøj, Morten; Borchorst, Nikolaj Gandrup; Bouvin, Niels Olof

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores timelines as a web-based tool for collaboration between citizens and municipal caseworkers. The paper takes its outset in a case study of planning and control of parental leave; a process that may involve surprisingly many actors. As part of the case study, a web-based timeline......, CaseLine, was designed. This design crosses the boundaries between leisure and work, in ways that are different from what is often seen in current HCI. The timeline has several roles on these boundaries: It is a shared planning and visualization tool that may be used by parents and caseworkers alone......, and beyond this case....

  16. Charting the Eccles' expectancy-value model from mothers' beliefs in childhood to youths' activities in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpkins, Sandra D; Fredricks, Jennifer A; Eccles, Jacquelynne S

    2012-07-01

    The Eccles' expectancy-value model posits that a cascade of mechanisms explain associations between parents' beliefs and youths' achievement-related behaviors. Specifically, parents' beliefs predict parents' behaviors; in turn, parents' behaviors predict youths' motivational beliefs, and youths' motivational beliefs predict their behaviors. This investigation focused on testing this model with mothers in sports, music, math, and reading over a 12-year period. Data were drawn from mother, youth, and teacher questionnaires collected as part of Childhood and Beyond Study (92% European American; N = 723). Mothers' beliefs in sports, music, and math positively predicted their behaviors in these areas 1 year later, which predicted youths' self-concepts of ability and values (i.e., their motivational beliefs) in these domains 1 year later. Adolescents' motivational beliefs predicted time spent in organized sport activities, playing music, and reading after school measured 4 years later as well as the number of math courses taken in high school. Furthermore, except in reading, mothers' behaviors mediated the relations between mothers' and youths' beliefs, and youths' beliefs mediated the relations between mothers' behaviors and youths' behaviors. Although there were mean-level differences in several indicators based on child gender, in most cases the relations among these indicators did not significantly vary by child gender. This study highlights the processes by which mothers' beliefs during their children's childhood can predict children's activities in adolescence.

  17. The role of beliefs on learning about homosexuality in a college course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, James; Kennison, Shelia; Byrd-Craven, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The present research investigated how personal beliefs about homosexuality influence learning in a college course. We tested students in introductory psychology over material on the science of homosexuality by Simon LeVay (2010). All students reported information about their typical academic habits and the extent to which homosexuality was consistent with their beliefs and values. The results showed that students' personal beliefs were related to academic behaviors (e.g., reading assignments, skipping class) and retention of the course material. The results also showed that students' recall of course material six weeks later was predicted by the extent to which they reported studying information that is inconsistent with their beliefs for an exam and then forgetting it. Students who reported the material to be inconsistent with their beliefs engaged in selective forgetting of the material on homosexuality. The results provide evidence that personal beliefs can reduce the retention of belief-inconsistent information in a college course.

  18. Child overweight in general practice - parents' beliefs and expectations - a questionnaire survey study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Merethe K; Christensen, Bo; Søndergaard, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Care for overweight children in general practice involves collaboration with parents. Acknowledging the parents' frames of references is a prerequisite for successful management. We therefore aimed to analyse parental beliefs about the presumed causes and consequences of overweight in children an...... and expectations towards the GP. Moreover, we aimed at comparing the beliefs and expectations of parents of non-overweight children (NOWC) and parents of overweight children (OWC)....

  19. Child overweight in general practice – parents’ beliefs and expectations – a questionnaire survey study

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Merethe K; Christensen, Bo; Søndergaard, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Background Care for overweight children in general practice involves collaboration with parents. Acknowledging the parents’ frames of references is a prerequisite for successful management. We therefore aimed to analyse parental beliefs about the presumed causes and consequences of overweight in children and expectations towards the GP. Moreover, we aimed at comparing the beliefs and expectations of parents of non-overweight children (NOWC) and parents of overweight children (OWC). Methods A ...

  20. Managing security risks for inter-organisational information systems: a multiagent collaborative model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Nan; Wu, Harris; Li, Minqiang; Wu, Desheng; Chen, Fuzan; Tian, Jin

    2016-09-01

    Information sharing across organisations is critical to effectively managing the security risks of inter-organisational information systems. Nevertheless, few previous studies on information systems security have focused on inter-organisational information sharing, and none have studied the sharing of inferred beliefs versus factual observations. In this article, a multiagent collaborative model (MACM) is proposed as a practical solution to assess the risk level of each allied organisation's information system and support proactive security treatment by sharing beliefs on event probabilities as well as factual observations. In MACM, for each allied organisation's information system, we design four types of agents: inspection agent, analysis agent, control agent, and communication agent. By sharing soft findings (beliefs) in addition to hard findings (factual observations) among the organisations, each organisation's analysis agent is capable of dynamically predicting its security risk level using a Bayesian network. A real-world implementation illustrates how our model can be used to manage security risks in distributed information systems and that sharing soft findings leads to lower expected loss from security risks.

  1. Using Collaborative Engineering to Inform Collaboration Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Lynne P.

    2012-01-01

    Collaboration is a critical competency for modern organizations as they struggle to compete in an increasingly complex, global environment. A large body of research on collaboration in the workplace focuses both on teams, investigating how groups use teamwork to perform their task work, and on the use of information systems to support team processes ("collaboration engineering"). This research essay presents collaboration from an engineering perspective ("collaborative engineering"). It uses examples from professional and student engineering teams to illustrate key differences in collaborative versus collaboration engineering and investigates how challenges in the former can inform opportunities for the latter.

  2. Using Collaborative Engineering to Inform Collaboration Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Lynne P.

    2012-01-01

    Collaboration is a critical competency for modern organizations as they struggle to compete in an increasingly complex, global environment. A large body of research on collaboration in the workplace focuses both on teams, investigating how groups use teamwork to perform their task work, and on the use of information systems to support team processes ("collaboration engineering"). This research essay presents collaboration from an engineering perspective ("collaborative engineering"). It uses examples from professional and student engineering teams to illustrate key differences in collaborative versus collaboration engineering and investigates how challenges in the former can inform opportunities for the latter.

  3. Collaborative Environments. Considerations Concerning Some Collaborative Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela I. MUNTEAN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available It is obvious, that all collaborative environments (workgroups, communities of practice, collaborative enterprises are based on knowledge and between collaboration and knowledge management there is a strong interdependence. The evolution of information systems in these collaborative environments led to the sudden necessity to adopt, for maintaining the virtual activities and processes, the latest technologies/systems, which are capable to support integrated collaboration in business services. In these environments, portal-based IT platforms will integrate multi-agent collaborative systems, collaborative tools, different enterprise applications and other useful information systems.

  4. Slav beliefs on changelings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radenković Ljubinko R.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Beliefs and legends that certain mythological creatures - fairies, witches, the devil, (vile, veštice, đavo, boginka, mamuna, baenik, domovoj, leshi etc. can take away the child from the mother and exchange it for its own in the image of the abducted child, are widespread with the West and East Slavs, while with the South Slavs they are found only in the northern parts, in Pannonia. Such demonic child is most often called: podmeče (with the Serbs, podvršće (with the Croats, podmenek (with the Slovenians, odmienjec (with the Poles, odminok (with the Ukrainians, obmen (with the Russians, etc. According to the folk beliefs, a changeling differs from the other children by its sluggish growth, voraciousness, and persistent desire to harm or spite other members of the household. Slav legends mention the ways of stealing the human and planting the demonic child (a, recognizing the demonic child (b, and disposing of it and restoring the rightful child (c. In order to prevent the demon from exchanging her child, the mother must observe certain rules of conduct during pregnancy and in the 40 days following the childbirth. Certain measures of magical protection are also undertaken, as: placing sharp iron objects near the nursing woman, then brooms, leaving the candle to burn all night, burning frankincense in her presence, sprinkling her with holy water, etc. The legends on changelings were most probably adopted by the Slavs from the neighboring western peoples (Germans, and included in the already present beliefs that the birth of a child is a gift from the other world, and that the mother must take great care of the gift and be grateful for it. Otherwise, the one bestowing the gift may take it away as well.

  5. Using Cloud-Computing Applications to Support Collaborative Scientific Inquiry: Examining Pre-Service Teachers' Perceived Barriers to Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donna, Joel D.; Miller, Brant G.

    2013-01-01

    Technology plays a crucial role in facilitating collaboration within the scientific community. Cloud-computing applications, such as Google Drive, can be used to model such collaboration and support inquiry within the secondary science classroom. Little is known about pre-service teachers' beliefs related to the envisioned use of collaborative,…

  6. Belief in a Just World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Kilinc

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Belief in a just world hypothesis is defined as the belief that the world is a just place where people generally get what they deserve. It states that individuals have a need to believe that they live in a just world; they believe in a world where people get what they deserve and where people deserve what they get. Individuals believe that who work hard or who perform good acts obtain rewards for their actions, while the sinners and the laggards receive punishments instead. Similarly, individuals want to believe that positive outcomes, whether money, success, or happiness, are obtained only by good people and, conversely, that negative outcomes only happen to bad persons. Justice beliefs have been hypothesized as adaptive for dealing with day-to-day stres. Just world beliefs protect individuals from the daily negative psychological consequences of living in what is realistically an unjust world. In addition, just world beliefs are thought to enhance feelings of security to the extent that if the individual satisfies the conditions for being "good," he or she is protected from injustice. The belief in a just world, like other positive illusions, should contribute to the maintenance of one's mental health. Belief in a just world's is discussed in two ways: personal belief in a just world's answers the question “how much justly is the world to me?”, whereas the belief in a just world's in general answers the question “how much justly is the world?”

  7. Homo economicus belief inhibits trust.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziqiang Xin

    Full Text Available As a foundational concept in economics, the homo economicus assumption regards humans as rational and self-interested actors. In contrast, trust requires individuals to believe partners' benevolence and unselfishness. Thus, the homo economicus belief may inhibit trust. The present three experiments demonstrated that the direct exposure to homo economicus belief can weaken trust. And economic situations like profit calculation can also activate individuals' homo economicus belief and inhibit their trust. It seems that people's increasing homo economicus belief may serve as one cause of the worldwide decline of trust.

  8. Homo economicus belief inhibits trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Ziqiang; Liu, Guofang

    2013-01-01

    As a foundational concept in economics, the homo economicus assumption regards humans as rational and self-interested actors. In contrast, trust requires individuals to believe partners' benevolence and unselfishness. Thus, the homo economicus belief may inhibit trust. The present three experiments demonstrated that the direct exposure to homo economicus belief can weaken trust. And economic situations like profit calculation can also activate individuals' homo economicus belief and inhibit their trust. It seems that people's increasing homo economicus belief may serve as one cause of the worldwide decline of trust.

  9. A formal approach to aggregated belief formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelink, A.; Klein, M.C.A.; Treur, J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces a formal method to aggregate over basic beliefs, in order to deduce aggregated or complex beliefs as often used in applications. Complex beliefs can represent several things, such as a belief about a period in which other beliefs held or the minimal or maximal certainty with wh

  10. The appreciation of the spiritual in mental illness: a qualitative study of beliefs among clergy in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavey, Gerard

    2010-09-01

    Clergy in the UK continue to provide health and social care services. However, collaboration between mental health services and clergy may be problematic, particularly in the resolution of conflicting beliefs and therapeutic modalities. For example, belief in demonic possession and other supernatural causes of mental illness, which are contentious among secular medical practitioners, remain prevalent in many ethnoreligious communities. Thus, interpretations of illness by clergy within health systems may be crucial to appropriate intervention for people with mental illness. However, clergy conceptualizations of suffering also reveal something about the secularization within religious institutions through the despiritualization of particular phenomena. This paper on Christian clergy beliefs and attitudes to supernatural explanations, describes how the negotiation of such beliefs are complex and often equivocal among mainstream clergy but integral to the Pentecostal churches and evangelical clergy in the mainstream, institutional churches. These beliefs and their implications for collaboration with psychiatry are discussed in the context of a rapidly changing religious and cultural landscape.

  11. Adolescent beliefs about the acceptability of dating violence: does violent behavior change them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Victoria; Jouriles, Ernest N; McDonald, Renee; Rosenfield, David

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the interplay between teens' beliefs about the acceptability of dating violence and dating violence perpetration. The final sample included 82 teens aged 14 to 17 years. Families were recruited from truancy courts and juvenile probation and victim services offices. Teens participated in a baseline and a follow-up assessment spaced 3 months apart. At each assessment, teens reported on their beliefs about dating violence acceptability and their dating violence perpetration. Dating violence perpetration at baseline predicted beliefs accepting of violence at follow-up, after accounting for baseline levels of beliefs. Beliefs at baseline, however, did not predict dating violence perpetration at follow-up. Dating violence perpetration may lead to beliefs more accepting of such violence.

  12. Unpacking the Complex Relationship between Beliefs, Practice, and Change Related to Inquiry-Based Instruction of One Science Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebak, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    This case study examines the complex relationship between beliefs, practice, and change related to inquiry-based instruction of one science teacher teaching in a high-poverty urban school. This study explores how video-supported collaboration with peers can provide the catalyst for change. Transcribed collaborative dialogue sessions, written…

  13. Unpacking the Complex Relationship between Beliefs, Practice, and Change Related to Inquiry-Based Instruction of One Science Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebak, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    This case study examines the complex relationship between beliefs, practice, and change related to inquiry-based instruction of one science teacher teaching in a high-poverty urban school. This study explores how video-supported collaboration with peers can provide the catalyst for change. Transcribed collaborative dialogue sessions, written…

  14. Recursive belief manipulation and second-order false-beliefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben; Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Polyanskaya, Irina

    2016-01-01

    The literature on first-order false-belief is extensive, but less is known about the second-order case. The ability to handle second-order false-beliefs correctly seems to mark a cognitively significant step, but what is its status? Is it an example of *complexity only* development, or does it in...

  15. Middle school science inquiry: Connecting experiences and beliefs to practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Karen Elizabeth

    A major education reform effort today involves the teaching and learning of inquiry science. This case study research examined connections between background experiences and teacher beliefs and the role they played in the implementation of scientific inquiry within four middle school classrooms. The research questions guiding this study included: (a) identifying how teachers' background and experiences related to the use of scientific inquiry-based practice, (b) identification of teacher self-reported characteristics of scientific inquiry, (c) identification of the ways in which teachers' self-reported beliefs related to the use of scientific inquiry-based practice, (d) determine the extent that self-reported teaching scientific inquiry behaviors were consistent with observed behaviors in practice and (e) identify how teachers implemented a scientific inquiry-based approach into their instructional practice. Across the cases, the findings revealed four major experiences that influenced teacher beliefs regarding inquiry-based teaching: (a) opportunities for doing science, (b) influences of the teacher education program primarily with respect to positive science role models, (c) teaching experiences and school expectations and (d) the personality of the individuals. Major themes regarding teaching beliefs regarding characteristics of inquiry-based practice, reported by the participants, included: (a) student-centered instruction, (b) learning by doing, (c) real world applications, (d) integration, (e) collaboration and (f) communicating scientific ideas. Findings also revealed that teacher beliefs and practice aligned except in the area of communicating scientific ideas. Participants did not identify communication as a belief regarding inquirybased practice, but observed practice found communicating scientific ideas played a minor role. Implications from the findings are significant as science educators continue to understand the influence of background experiences

  16. Empacho in four Latino groups: a study of intra- and inter-cultural variation in beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, S C; Pachter, L M; Trotter, R T; Baer, R D

    1993-04-01

    It is usually impossible to know if reported differences between cultures are due to cultural differences or due to a difference in the methods used to study the cultures. This paper describes a collaborative, multisite study using a shared methodology to study intra- and inter-cultural variation in beliefs. A series of standard interview schedules were used to study Latin American beliefs about empacho in Guatemala, Mexico, and in the United States (Mexican-Americans and Puerto Ricans). Results showed consistency in beliefs about empacho both within and between the four samples.

  17. Collaborative Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerdrum Pedersen, Esben Rahbek; Netter, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore barriers and opportunities for business models based on the ideas of collaborative consumption within the fashion industry. Design/methodology/approach – The analysis is based on a multiple-case study of Scandinavian fashion libraries – a new......, clothes-sharing concept that has emerged as a fashion niche within the last decade. Findings – It is concluded that fashion libraries offers interesting perspectives, e.g. by allowing people to experiment with styles without having to pay the full cost and becoming a meeting place for young designers...... and end consumers. However, at present fashion libraries remain a small-scale phenomenon with difficulties reaching the mainstream market, not least due to limited financial and human resources as well as conventional fashion consumption patterns. Research limitations/implications – The study is limited...

  18. Collaborative Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerdrum Pedersen, Esben Rahbek; Netter, Sarah

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore barriers and opportunities for business models based on the ideas of collaborative consumption within the fashion industry. Design/methodology/approach: The analysis is based on a multiple-­‐‑case study of Scandinavian fashion libraries – a new......, clothes-­‐‑sharing concept that has emerged as a fashion niche within the last decade. Findings: It is concluded that fashion libraries offers interesting perspectives, e.g. by allowing people to experiment with styles without having to pay the full cost and becoming a meeting place for young designers...... and end consumers. However, at present fashion libraries remain a small-­‐‑scale phenomenon with difficulties reaching the mainstream market, not least due to limited financial and human resources as well as conventional fashion consumption patterns. Research limitations/implications: The study is limited...

  19. Technology collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Jacob [Halliburton (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to present Halliburton's Brazilian technology center. Halliburton has technology centers in the United States, Saudi Arabia, India, Singapore and Brazil, all of which aim at delivering accelerated innovation in the oil sector. The technology centers engage in research and development activities with the help of various universities and in collaboration with the customer or supplier. The Halliburton Brazil technology center provides its customers with timely research and development solutions for enhancing recovery and mitigating reservoir uncertainty; they are specialized in finding solutions for pre- and post-salt carbonate drilling and in the enhancement of production from mature fields. This presentation showcased the work carried out by the Halliburton Brazil technology center to help customers develop their deepwater field activities.

  20. Proactive Assessment for Collaboration Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa L. Ju

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study describes a government–academia–industry joint training project that produces Vietnamese midlevel technical managers. To ensure collaboration success, a proactive assessment methodology was developed as a supplement to the conventional project management practices. In the postproject feedback, the funding agencies acknowledged that the project fulfilled its contractual obligations and achieved its objectives. The implementing university was pleased as it broke ground in this type of collaboration in Taiwan. The industrial partners, however, were not so sure about the effectiveness of this collaborative training endeavor because there were many skirmishes between company supervisors and Vietnamese interns caused by the interns’ self-interested perception and expectation. Consequently, a theoretical framework for predicting internship acceptance and preventing unfavorable perceptions was proposed to strengthen the proactive assessment methodology. Collaboration research, funding agencies, academia, and industry could all benefit from this study.

  1. Different Forces, Same Consequence: Conscientiousness and Competence Beliefs are Independent Predictors of Academic Effort and Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Trautwein, Ulrich; Lüdtke, Oliver; Roberts, Brent W.; Schnyder, Inge; Niggli, Alois

    2015-01-01

    Conscientiousness and domain-specific competence beliefs are known to be highly important predictors of academic effort and achievement. Given their basis in distinct research traditions, however, these constructs have rarely been examined simultaneously. Three studies with 571, 415, and 1,535 students, respectively, found a moderate association between conscientiousness and competence beliefs, but competence beliefs meaningfully predicted both conscientiousness and academic effort, irrespect...

  2. Developing resident learning profiles: Do scientific evidence epistemology beliefs, EBM self-efficacy beliefs and EBM skills matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Nancy J.

    This study investigated resident scientific evidence epistemology beliefs, evidence based medicine (EBM) self-efficacy beliefs, and EBM skills. A convenience sample of fifty-one residents located in six U.S. based residency programs completed an online instrument. Hofer's epistemology survey questionnaire was modified to test responses based on four types of scientific evidence encountered in medical practice (Clinical Trial Phase 1, Clinical Trial Phase 3, Meta-analysis and Qualitative). It was hypothesized that epistemology beliefs would differ based on the type of scientific evidence considered. A principal components analysis produced a two factor solution that was significant across type of scientific evidence suggesting that when evaluating epistemology beliefs context does matter. Factor 1 is related to the certainty of research methods and the certainty of medical conclusions and factor 2 denotes medical justification. For each type of scientific evidence, both factors differed on questions comprising the factor structure with significant differences found for the factor 1 and 2 questions. A justification belief case problem using checklist format was triangulated with the survey results, and as predicted the survey and checklist justification z scores indicated no significant differences, and two new justification themes emerged. Modified versions of Finney and Schraw's statistical self-efficacy and skill instruments produced expected significant EBM score correlations with unexpected results indicating that the number of EBM and statistics courses are not significant for EBM self-efficacy and skill scores. The study results were applied to the construction of a learning profile that provided residents belief and skill feedback specific to individual learning needs. The learning profile design incorporated core values related to 'Believer' populations that focus on art, harmony, tact and diplomacy. Future research recommendations include testing context

  3. Free will and paranormal beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogi, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Free will is one of the fundamental aspects of human cognition. In the context of cognitive neuroscience, various experiments on time perception, sensorimotor coordination, and agency suggest the possibility that it is a robust illusion (a feeling independent of actual causal relationship with actions) constructed by neural mechanisms. Humans are known to suffer from various cognitive biases and failures, and the sense of free will might be one of them. Here I report a positive correlation between the belief in free will and paranormal beliefs (UFO, reincarnation, astrology, and psi). Web questionnaires involving 2076 subjects (978 males, 1087 females, and 11 other genders) were conducted, which revealed significant positive correlations between belief in free will (theory and practice) and paranormal beliefs. There was no significant correlation between belief in free will and knowledge in paranormal phenomena. Paranormal belief scores for females were significantly higher than those for males, with corresponding significant (albeit weaker) difference in belief in free will. These results are consistent with the view that free will is an illusion which shares common cognitive elements with paranormal beliefs. PMID:24765084

  4. Politics of climate change belief

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Donald Trump's actions during the election and his first weeks as US president-elect send a strong message about his belief in climate change, or lack thereof. However, these actions may reflect polarization of climate change beliefs, not climate mitigation behaviour.

  5. Free will and paranormal beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken eMogi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Free will is one of the fundamental aspects of human cognition. In the context of cognitive neuroscience, various experiments on time perception, sensorimotor coordination, and agency suggest the possibility that it is a robust illusion (a feeling independent of actual causal relationship with actions constructed by neural mechanisms. Humans are known to suffer from various cognitive biases and failures, and the sense of free will might be one of them. Here I report a positive correlation between the belief in free will and paranormal beliefs (UFO, reincarnation, astrology, and psi. Web questionnaires involving 2076 subjects (978 males, 1087 females, and 11 other genders were conducted, which revealed significant positive correlations between belief in free will (theory and practice and paranormal beliefs. There was no significant correlation between belief in free will and knowledge in paranormal phenomena. Paranormal belief scores for females were significantly higher than those for males, with corresponding significant (albeit weaker difference in belief in free will. These results are consistent with the view that free will is an illusion which shares common cognitive elements with paranormal beliefs.

  6. Epistemological Beliefs and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslantas, Halis Adnan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the relationship between teacher candidates' epistemological beliefs and academic achievement. The participants of the study were 353 teacher candidates studying their fourth year at the Education Faculty. The Epistemological Belief Scale was used which adapted to Turkish through reliability and validity work by…

  7. Bulimic Beliefs: Food for Thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Barbara G.; Anderson, Wayne P.

    1989-01-01

    Contends that individuals suffering from bulimia nervosa share characteristic pattern of thinking which must be understood if effective treatment is to take place. Presents these beliefs, gathered by clinical experience and literature review, in format describing each belief, discussing common causes for its development, and suggesting therapeutic…

  8. Free will and paranormal beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogi, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Free will is one of the fundamental aspects of human cognition. In the context of cognitive neuroscience, various experiments on time perception, sensorimotor coordination, and agency suggest the possibility that it is a robust illusion (a feeling independent of actual causal relationship with actions) constructed by neural mechanisms. Humans are known to suffer from various cognitive biases and failures, and the sense of free will might be one of them. Here I report a positive correlation between the belief in free will and paranormal beliefs (UFO, reincarnation, astrology, and psi). Web questionnaires involving 2076 subjects (978 males, 1087 females, and 11 other genders) were conducted, which revealed significant positive correlations between belief in free will (theory and practice) and paranormal beliefs. There was no significant correlation between belief in free will and knowledge in paranormal phenomena. Paranormal belief scores for females were significantly higher than those for males, with corresponding significant (albeit weaker) difference in belief in free will. These results are consistent with the view that free will is an illusion which shares common cognitive elements with paranormal beliefs.

  9. Belief update as social choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Benthem, J.; Girard, P.; Roy, O.; Marion, M.

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic epistemic-doxastic logics describe the new knowledge or new beliefs indexBelief of agents after some informational event has happened. Technically, this requires an update rule that turns a doxastic-epistemic modelM(recording the current information state of the agents) and a dynamic ‘event

  10. Religious beliefs and entrepreneurship among Dutch protestants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Rietveld (Niels); E. van Burg (Elco)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractReligious beliefs affect the economic behavior of individuals. The aim of this study is to investigate the relation between religious beliefs and entrepreneurship. Empirical evidence that entrepreneurship rates differ among religions suggests that religious beliefs influence the pursuit

  11. Religious beliefs and entrepreneurship among Dutch protestants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Rietveld (Niels); E. van Burg (Elco)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractReligious beliefs affect the economic behavior of individuals. The aim of this study is to investigate the relation between religious beliefs and entrepreneurship. Empirical evidence that entrepreneurship rates differ among religions suggests that religious beliefs influence the pursuit

  12. Collaborative information seeking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten

    2008-01-01

    , the activities involved in information seeking are often performed by varying subgroups of actors. Consequently, collaborative grounding is necessary to share information among collaborating actors and, thereby, establish and maintain the common ground necessary for their collaborative work. By focusing......Since common ground is pivotal to collaboration, this paper proposes to define collaborative information seeking as the combined activity of information seeking and collaborative grounding. While information-seeking activities are necessary for collaborating actors to acquire new information...... on the collaborative level, collaborative information seeking aims to avoid both individual reductionism and group reductionism, while at the same time recognizing that only some information and understanding need be shared....

  13. Multibiometrics Belief Fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Kisku, Dakshina Ranjan; Gupta, Phalguni

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a multimodal biometric system through Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) for face and ear biometrics with belief fusion of the estimated scores characterized by Gabor responses and the proposed fusion is accomplished by Dempster-Shafer (DS) decision theory. Face and ear images are convolved with Gabor wavelet filters to extracts spatially enhanced Gabor facial features and Gabor ear features. Further, GMM is applied to the high-dimensional Gabor face and Gabor ear responses separately for quantitive measurements. Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm is used to estimate density parameters in GMM. This produces two sets of feature vectors which are then fused using Dempster-Shafer theory. Experiments are conducted on multimodal database containing face and ear images of 400 individuals. It is found that use of Gabor wavelet filters along with GMM and DS theory can provide robust and efficient multimodal fusion strategy.

  14. Counting Belief Propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Kersting, Kristian; Natarajan, Sriraam

    2012-01-01

    A major benefit of graphical models is that most knowledge is captured in the model structure. Many models, however, produce inference problems with a lot of symmetries not reflected in the graphical structure and hence not exploitable by efficient inference techniques such as belief propagation (BP). In this paper, we present a new and simple BP algorithm, called counting BP, that exploits such additional symmetries. Starting from a given factor graph, counting BP first constructs a compressed factor graph of clusternodes and clusterfactors, corresponding to sets of nodes and factors that are indistinguishable given the evidence. Then it runs a modified BP algorithm on the compressed graph that is equivalent to running BP on the original factor graph. Our experiments show that counting BP is applicable to a variety of important AI tasks such as (dynamic) relational models and boolean model counting, and that significant efficiency gains are obtainable, often by orders of magnitude.

  15. COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH: TOWARDS ADVANCED UNDERSTANDING AND PREDICTIVE CAPABILITY OF CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE ARCTIC USING A HIGH-RESOLUTION REGIONAL ARCTIC CLIMATE SYSTEM MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutowski, William J.

    2013-02-07

    The motivation for this project was to advance the science of climate change and prediction in the Arctic region. Its primary goals were to (i) develop a state-of-the-art Regional Arctic Climate system Model (RACM) including high-resolution atmosphere, land, ocean, sea ice and land hydrology components and (ii) to perform extended numerical experiments using high performance computers to minimize uncertainties and fundamentally improve current predictions of climate change in the northern polar regions. These goals were realized first through evaluation studies of climate system components via one-way coupling experiments. Simulations were then used to examine the effects of advancements in climate component systems on their representation of main physics, time-mean fields and to understand variability signals at scales over many years. As such this research directly addressed some of the major science objectives of the BER Climate Change Research Division (CCRD) regarding the advancement of long-term climate prediction.

  16. Different forces, same consequence: conscientiousness and competence beliefs are independent predictors of academic effort and achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautwein, Ulrich; Lüdtke, Oliver; Roberts, Brent W; Schnyder, Inge; Niggli, Alois

    2009-12-01

    Conscientiousness and domain-specific competence beliefs are known to be highly important predictors of academic effort and achievement. Given their basis in distinct research traditions, however, these constructs have rarely been examined simultaneously. Three studies with 571, 415, and 1,535 students, respectively, found a moderate association between conscientiousness and competence beliefs. Both conscientiousness and competence beliefs meaningfully predicted academic effort, irrespective of how academic effort was measured (single-measurement questionnaire or diary data). The associations of competence beliefs with academic effort were highly domain specific, whereas conscientiousness was predictive of academic effort across a wide range of academic subjects. Conscientiousness and competence beliefs were also associated with academic achievement. Figural and verbal reasoning ability, although associated with academic achievement, only loosely predicted academic effort.

  17. Oblivious Collaboration

    CERN Document Server

    Afek, Yehuda; Feige, Uriel; Gafni, Eli; Linial, Nati; Sudakov, Benny

    2011-01-01

    Communication is a crucial ingredient in every kind of collaborative work. But what is the least possible amount of communication required for a given task? We formalize this question by introducing a new framework for distributed computation, called {\\em oblivious protocols}. We investigate the power of this model by considering two concrete examples, the {\\em musical chairs} task $MC(n,m)$ and the well-known {\\em Renaming} problem. The $MC(n,m)$ game is played by $n$ players (processors) with $m$ chairs. Players can {\\em occupy} chairs, and the game terminates as soon as each player occupies a unique chair. Thus we say that player $P$ is {\\em in conflict} if some other player $Q$ is occupying the same chair, i.e., termination means there are no conflicts. By known results from distributed computing, if $m \\le 2n-2$, no strategy of the players can guarantee termination. However, there is a protocol with $m = 2n-1$ chairs that always terminates. Here we consider an oblivious protocol where in every time step ...

  18. Individual teacher learning in a context of collaboration in teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meirink, Jacobiene Albertina

    2007-01-01

    In this study we aimed to examine teacher learning within a context of collaboration in interdisciplinary teams. Five interdisciplinary teams were studied for a period of one year. Data was collected on what and how the teachers learned, by means of examining changes in beliefs and by asking

  19. Individual teacher learning in a context of collaboration in teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meirink, Jacobiene Albertina

    2007-01-01

    In this study we aimed to examine teacher learning within a context of collaboration in interdisciplinary teams. Five interdisciplinary teams were studied for a period of one year. Data was collected on what and how the teachers learned, by means of examining changes in beliefs and by asking teacher

  20. As crenças ambientais de trabalhadores provenientes de empresa certificada por SGA podem predizer comportamentos pró-ambientais fora da empresa? Can the environmental beliefs of workers from environmental certified companies predict their environmental behavior outside the organization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Bolzan de Campos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A implantação e utilização de Sistemas de Gestão Ambiental (SGA requer das empresas uma nova postura, uma mudança ambiental, sobretudo, na rotina de seus trabalhadores, em suas crenças ambientais e em seus comportamentos pró-ambientais fora da empresa. O presente artigo visa analisar as diferenças nas crenças ambientais, considerando a estrutura dicotômica antropocentrismo x ecocentrismo, em três grupos de trabalhadores brasileiros: provenientes de empresas certificadas por SGA (n = 232, não certificadas (n = 153 e não certificadas com política ambiental (n = 169. Ao mesmo tempo, se verificou o potencial preditor das crenças ambientais sobre os comportamentos pró-ambientais. Os resultados apontam que os trabalhadores que são de empresas não certificadas e não certificadas com política ambiental apresentam pontuações mais elevadas de crenças ambientais de tipo antropocêntricas. Além disto, se constatou que ser de uma empresa certificada e possuir crenças ecocêntricas são variáveis que possuem efeito explicativo sobre alguns fatores do comportamento pró-ambiental.The implementation and utilization of Environmental Management Systems (EMS requires new approach for the companies, and an environmental change, even in their workers routine, environmental beliefs and in their environmental behaviors outside the company. This paper aims to analyze the differences between the environmental beliefs, considering the dichotomy anthropocentrism x ecocentrism structure in three groups of Brazilian workers: from companies certified by an EMS (n = 232, non certified (n = 153 and non certified with environmental policy (n = 169. At the same time, we verified the potential of prediction of the environmental beliefs over the environmental behaviors. The results points out that the workers from companies non certified and non certified with environmental policy mostly presented high level of anthropocentric beliefs. Furthermore, being

  1. Managing collaborative design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sebastian, R.

    2007-01-01

    Collaborative design has been emerging in building projects everywhere. The more complex a building project becomes, the closer and more intensive collaboration between the design actors is required. This research focuses on collaborative design in the conceptual architecture design phase,

  2. Co-Located Single Display Collaborative Learning for Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Florencia; Nussbaum, Miguel; Weitz, Juan F.; Lopez, Ximena; Mena, Javiera; Torres, Alex

    2013-01-01

    The benefits of collaborative learning are well documented. However, most of the research has been done with children beyond the ages of early childhood. This could be due to the common and erroneous belief that young children have not developed the capacity to work collaboratively toward a given aim. In this paper we show how small group…

  3. Co-Located Single Display Collaborative Learning for Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Florencia; Nussbaum, Miguel; Weitz, Juan F.; Lopez, Ximena; Mena, Javiera; Torres, Alex

    2013-01-01

    The benefits of collaborative learning are well documented. However, most of the research has been done with children beyond the ages of early childhood. This could be due to the common and erroneous belief that young children have not developed the capacity to work collaboratively toward a given aim. In this paper we show how small group…

  4. Collaborative Service Arrangements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Søren; J. May, Peter

    2007-01-01

    in particular differs among collaborators. Our modeling of the influence of collaboration on perceived employment outcomes suggests that these impacts are relatively minor. They are greater when there is active involvement of municipal employment managers in fostering cooperative relationships...... with collaborators. In short, collaboration requires a healthy and active relationship to foster improved outcomes. These findings have implications for future research about collaborative service delivery concerning the measurement of collaboration, different bases for it, and potential impacts....

  5. Collaborative Service Arrangements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    J. May, Peter; Winter, Søren

    in particular differs among collaborators. Our modeling of the influence of collaboration on perceived employment outcomes suggests that these impacts are relatively minor. They are greater when there is active involvement of municipal employment managers in fostering cooperative relationships...... with collaborators. In short, collaboration requires a healthy and active relationship to foster improved outcomes. These findings have implications for future research about collaborative service delivery concerning the measurement of collaboration, different bases for it, and potential impacts....

  6. Collaborative Service Arrangements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    J. May, Peter; Winter, Søren

    While much of prior research on collaboration addresses the service delivery network as a whole, we address collaborative relationships between one type of organization—municipal employment services—and a range of governmental and non-governmental partners for employment services in Denmark...... with collaborators. In short, collaboration requires a healthy and active relationship to foster improved outcomes. These findings have implications for future research about collaborative service delivery concerning the measurement of collaboration, different bases for it, and potential impacts....

  7. Understanding Support from School Counselors as Predictors of Mexican American Adolescents' College-Going Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Javier Cavazos; Flamez, Brande; Sparrow, Gregory Scott; Lerma, Eunice

    2016-01-01

    The impact of high school counselors' support on Mexican American adolescents' college-going beliefs was examined. We used a quantitative, predictive design to explore predictors of Mexican American adolescents' college-going beliefs. Perceptions of accessibility and expectations from school counselors positively impacted college-going beliefs…

  8. Lifespan Aging and Belief Reasoning: Influences of Executive Function and Social Cue Decoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Louise H.; Bull, Rebecca; Allen, Roy; Insch, Pauline; Burr, Kirsty; Ogg, Will

    2011-01-01

    Older adults often perform poorly on Theory of Mind (ToM) tests that require understanding of others' beliefs and intentions. The course and specificity of age changes in belief reasoning across the adult lifespan is unclear, as is the cause of the age effects. Cognitive and neuropsychological models predict that two types of processing might…

  9. Memory and Belief in the Transmission of Counterintuitive Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Aiyana K; Henrich, Joseph; Norenzayan, Ara

    2016-09-01

    Cognitive scientists have increasingly turned to cultural transmission to explain the widespread nature of religion. One key hypothesis focuses on memory, proposing that that minimally counterintuitive (MCI) content facilitates the transmission of supernatural beliefs. We propose two caveats to this hypothesis. (1) Memory effects decrease as MCI concepts become commonly used, and (2) people do not believe counterintuitive content readily; therefore additional mechanisms are required to get from memory to belief. In experiments 1-3 (n = 283), we examined the relationship between MCI, belief, and memory. We found that increased tendencies to anthropomorphize predicted poorer memory for anthropomorphic-MCI content. MCI content was found less believable than intuitive content, suggesting different mechanisms are required to explain belief. In experiment 4 (n = 70), we examined the non-content-based cultural learning mechanism of credibility-enhancing displays (CREDs) and found that it increased participants' belief in MCI content, suggesting this type of learning can better explain the transmission of belief.

  10. Belief in Food Addiction and Obesity-Related Policy Support.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica M Schulte

    Full Text Available This study examines whether belief in the food addiction construct is associated with support for obesity-related policies (e.g., restrictions on foods served in schools and workplace cafeterias, subsidies on fruits and vegetables, while simultaneously examining other factors associated with policy support (e.g., political party affiliation.Cross-sectional.Online Community.200 individuals were recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk.Participants (n = 193 responded to three questions about belief in food addiction and a measure evaluating support for 13 obesity-related policy initiatives. Individuals also completed the modified Yale Food Addiction Scale (mYFAS, self-reported height and weight, and provided demographic information (age, gender, race, political party affiliation.Belief in food addiction was significantly associated with greater support for obesity-related initiatives, even when accounting for the significant associations of age, gender, and political party. Belief in food addiction and political party both had moderate effect sizes for predicting support for obesity-related policy. There was an interaction between age and belief in food addiction, with significant associations with policy support for both younger and older individuals, though the effect was larger for younger participants.The current study provides evidence that belief in food addiction is associated with increased obesity-related policy support, comparable to the influence of one's political party. Growing evidence for the role of an addictive process in obesity may have important implications for public support of obesity-related policy initiatives.

  11. Supernatural beliefs, natural kinds, and conceptual structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, S J

    1992-11-01

    This article presents cross-cultural evidence in support of the notion that adults' natural kind concepts are theory based but may be informed by knowledge/belief systems other than the biological. Three groups of subjects from western Nigeria--rural, urban, and elite--participated in the study. Subjects heard stories describing alterations of appearance; that is, one natural kind was made to resemble another in both ritual and nonritual contexts. Subjects then were required to judge the identity of the altered item and to give an explanation for the category judgment. It was predicted that subjects would make more nonpreservation-of-identity category judgments supported by supernatural explanations in the ritual contexts and that subjects' use of supernatural explanations would reflect the extent of their engagement with the supernatural. The first prediction was borne out; the second prediction was only partially supported. Discussion of the results emphasizes the importance of exploring the role of sociocultural factors in conceptual structure.

  12. Healthy eating beliefs and intentions of mothers and their adult children: An intergenerational transmission perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumodhee, Dayyanah; Payne, Nicola

    2016-12-01

    This study examined the possible intergenerational transmission of eating beliefs and intentions between 60 mothers and their adult children. Maternal restrictive feeding practices were correlated with mothers' own healthy eating attitudes and subjective norms, and with their adult children's subjective norms. Mothers' beliefs and intentions were correlated with their adult children. Adult children's intentions to eat healthily were predicted by their attitudes and perceived behavioural control, and also by their mothers' intentions and perceived behavioural control. Mothers' own beliefs and intentions may be involved in shaping their children's beliefs and intentions into adulthood but their child feeding practices may have less of an influence.

  13. Collaboration rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Philip; Wolf, Bob

    2005-01-01

    Corporate leaders seeking to boost growth, learning, and innovation may find the answer in a surprising place: the Linux open-source software community. Linux is developed by an essentially volunteer, self-organizing community of thousands of programmers. Most leaders would sell their grandmothers for workforces that collaborate as efficiently, frictionlessly, and creatively as the self-styled Linux hackers. But Linux is software, and software is hardly a model for mainstream business. The authors have, nonetheless, found surprising parallels between the anarchistic, caffeinated, hirsute world of Linux hackers and the disciplined, tea-sipping, clean-cut world of Toyota engineering. Specifically, Toyota and Linux operate by rules that blend the self-organizing advantages of markets with the low transaction costs of hierarchies. In place of markets' cash and contracts and hierarchies' authority are rules about how individuals and groups work together (with rigorous discipline); how they communicate (widely and with granularity); and how leaders guide them toward a common goal (through example). Those rules, augmented by simple communication technologies and a lack of legal barriers to sharing information, create rich common knowledge, the ability to organize teams modularly, extraordinary motivation, and high levels of trust, which radically lowers transaction costs. Low transaction costs, in turn, make it profitable for organizations to perform more and smaller transactions--and so increase the pace and flexibility typical of high-performance organizations. Once the system achieves critical mass, it feeds on itself. The larger the system, the more broadly shared the knowledge, language, and work style. The greater individuals' reputational capital, the louder the applause and the stronger the motivation. The success of Linux is evidence of the power of that virtuous circle. Toyota's success is evidence that it is also powerful in conventional companies.

  14. Collaborative outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmarti-Vila, Lydia; García-Matos, Marta; Beduini, Federica; Carrasco, Silvia

    2016-09-01

    Many research projects and scientific initiatives multiple their impact and relevance through collaborations. It is the contact and exchange with others that often brings a scientist's work to the next level. The same happens with outreach: sharing activities, concepts, materials and knowhow may lead to greater impact, more innovative, inspirational ideas with enough potential to create pioneering outreach activities. A good example for this is the FP7 European project "GoPhoton!", an initiative of ECOP (European Centres of Outreach in Photonics) that ran through 2014 and 2015 and finished at the beginning of 2016 and was directed at the general public, young minds as well as current and future entrepreneurs. This project was based on the idea of sharing activities - which is at the core of ECOP's identity- already existing in other nodes (institutions within the project), or created within GoPhoton! The main concept was the effective leverage of local links such as the networks of educators and professionals in general, industrial clusters, museums, universities, governmental and non-governmental organizations, all from a Pan-European perspective possible through ECOP. This has resulted in over 200 events impacting over two million people. The sharing of activities across institutions that have different resources, facilities, and cultural environments is not straightforward. One of the biggest challenges for the consortium was to be able to extract the concept and identity of each activity, so that it could be realistically adapted to each local context. A crucial point was being able to effectively use the knowhow gained from a partner's activity, in a way that the essence of the activity remained untainted across the participating nodes, while still triggering innovation locally.

  15. Teachers’ Beliefs and Their Belief Change in an Intercultural Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Li

    culture in which the teacher has been educated affects how they interpret students, teaching and their teacher role. The study of CFL teachers teaching in intercultural contexts makes a connection between context, cultural issues, individual experience, teacher belief and teaching concerns, and it helps...... of teaching in a new context and in their early years of the teaching careers of CFL teachers in the Danish context. It has been shown that the multifaceted beliefs that CFL teachers hold are based on their personal experience, shaped by context, and mediated by their classroom practices. The educational...... in an intercultural context in relation to the factors shaping teacher belief and how belief is changed to better suit the context. It also gives inspiration for the design of effective teacher preparation, development and training programs for CFL teachers in global contexts by addressing their prior experience...

  16. Beliefs and conceptions. Complementary perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuensanta Hernández Pina

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The beliefs and conceptions of teaching and learning held by teachers is a research topic which could mean a step forward in our understanding of important factors for improving the quality of Education. For over two decades, a number of researchers have achieved results through studies which offer a corpus of solid knowledge about beliefs and conceptions of teaching and learning which has resulted in establishing new andinteresting interpretations of that relationship. In this paper, we present the ideas about beliefs and conceptions held by a group of researches about teaching and learning.

  17. Optimal waist circumference cut-off points and ability of different metabolic syndrome criteria for predicting diabetes in Japanese men and women: Japan Epidemiology Collaboration on Occupational Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Huanhuan; Kurotani, Kayo; Sasaki, Naoko; Murakami, Taizo; Shimizu, Chii; Shimizu, Makiko; Nakagawa, Tohru; Honda, Toru; Yamamoto, Shuichiro; Okazaki, Hiroko; Nagahama, Satsue; Uehara, Akihiko; Yamamoto, Makoto; Tomita, Kentaro; Imai, Teppei; Nishihara, Akiko; Kochi, Takeshi; Eguchi, Masafumi; Miyamoto, Toshiaki; Hori, Ai; Kuwahara, Keisuke; Akter, Shamima; Kashino, Ikuko; Kabe, Isamu; Liu, Weiping; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Kunugita, Naoki; Dohi, Seitaro

    2016-03-03

    We sought to establish the optimal waist circumference (WC) cut-off point for predicting diabetes mellitus (DM) and to compare the predictive ability of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) criteria of the Joint Interim Statement (JIS) and the Japanese Committee of the Criteria for MetS (JCCMS) for DM in Japanese. Participants of the Japan Epidemiology Collaboration on Occupational Health Study, who were aged 20-69 years and free of DM at baseline (n = 54,980), were followed-up for a maximum of 6 years. Time-dependent receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to determine the optimal cut-off points of WC for predicting DM. Time-dependent sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for the prediction of DM were compared between the JIS and JCCMS MetS criteria. During 234,926 person-years of follow-up, 3180 individuals developed DM. Receiver operating characteristic analysis suggested that the most suitable cut-off point of WC for predicting incident DM was 85 cm for men and 80 cm for women. MetS was associated with 3-4 times increased hazard for developing DM in men and 7-9 times in women. Of the MetS criteria tested, the JIS criteria using our proposed WC cut-off points (85 cm for men and 80 cm for women) had the highest sensitivity (54.5 % for men and 43.5 % for women) for predicting DM. The sensitivity and specificity of the JCCMS MetS criteria were ~37.7 and 98.9 %, respectively. Data from the present large cohort of workers suggest that WC cut-offs of 85 cm for men and 80 cm for women may be appropriate for predicting DM for Japanese. The JIS criteria can detect more people who later develop DM than does the JCCMS criteria.

  18. Paranormal belief, experience, and the Keirsey Temperament Sorter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, J; Williams, C

    2000-06-01

    121 college students completed the Anomalous Experience Inventory and the Keirsey Temperament Sorter. Multiple regression analyses provided significant models predicting both Paranormal Experience and Belief; the main predictors were the other subscales of the Anomalous Experience Inventory with the Keirsey variables playing only a minor role.

  19. Intelligence, Belief in the Paranormal, Knowledge of Probability and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart-Hamilton, Ian; Nayak, Laxman; Priest, Lee

    2006-01-01

    In young adults, preparedness to accept improbable events as planned rather than due to chance is predictive of the level of belief in the paranormal, possibly underpinned by lower intelligence levels (Musch and Ehrenberg, 2002). The present study, using a sample of 73 older participants aged 60-84 years failed to find any relationship between…

  20. Belief Revision and Verisimilitude Based on Preference and Truth Orderings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renardel de Lavalette, Gerard R.; Zwart, Sjoerd D.

    2011-01-01

    In this rather technical paper we establish a useful combination of belief revision and verisimilitude according to which better theories provide better predictions, and revising with more verisimilar data results in theories that are closer to the truth. Moreover, this paper presents two alternativ

  1. Components of the Belief Gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilie Gaziano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge gap research focuses on education as an indicator of socioeconomic status (SES. Belief gap research centers on ideology as potentially more powerful than education in comparing sociopolitical groups with scientifically established knowledge and groups with opposing beliefs accepted on faith. This study examined the relationship between education and ideology to understand belief gaps better. The study used 2008 American National Election Study (ANES data to compare conservatives, moderates, and liberals by education on religiosity, child rearing values, opinionation, need for cognition, orientation toward politics, and mass media access and use. Although liberals tended to be more educated than conservatives overall, better-educated conservatives had the highest household incomes and were a much larger group. No known knowledge gap studies have reported results on one group characterized by high education and an opposing group distinguished by a different indicator of SES. Reformulations of the belief gap hypothesis are offered.

  2. Traditional beliefs and electromagnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin A. Ross

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The author proposes that a wide range of traditional beliefs and practices may provide clues to real electromagnetic field interactions in the biosphere. For instance, evil eye beliefs may be a cultural elaboration of the sense of being stared at, which in turn may have a basis in real electromagnetic emissions through the eye. Data to support this hypothesis are presented. Other traditional beliefs such as remote sensing of game and the importance of connection to the Earth Mother may also contain a kernel of truth. A series of testable scientific hypotheses concerning traditional beliefs and electromagnetic fields is presented. At this stage, the theory does not have sufficient evidence to be accepted as proven; its purpose is to stimulate thought and research

  3. Paranormal belief and attributional style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, R T; Whisnand, E A

    2000-06-01

    52 college students completed Tobacyk's 1988 Revised Paranormal Belief Scale and Peterson, Semmel, von Baeyer, Abramson, Metalsky, and Seligman's 1982 Attributional Style Questionnaire. Analysis showed significantly higher depressive attributional styles among high scorers on paranormal phenomena than low scorers.

  4. Irrational beliefs and marital conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, A T; de Beer, Z C

    1998-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that the major irrational evaluative beliefs postulated by Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy are related to marital conflict, 15 married couples participated in a thought-listing procedure. During this procedure, three idiosyncratic scenes portraying marital conflict and three control scenes free of conflict were identified for and presented to each member of the dyad. Analysis indicated that the conflict-portraying scenes were associated with significantly more irrational evaluative beliefs and significantly fewer rational cognitions than the control scenes.

  5. Two Types of Belief Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hegarty

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Ascriptions of belief and other doxastic propositional attitudes are commonly interpreted as quantifying over a set of possible worlds constituting doxastic alternatives for the belief experiencer. Katz (2000, 2003, 2008 has argued that belief predicates and other stative attitude predicates, along with stative predicates generally, lack a Davidsonian event argument and therefore do not report on any eventuality (event or state. Hacquard (2010, in contrast, assumes that all attitude ascriptions describe an event corresponding to the mental state of the attitude experiencer. The present investigation suggests that the strengths of doxastic predicates can be modeled by generalized quantifiers over the doxastic alternative set, permitting us to formulate and test predictions based on standard interactions of these quantifiers with negation when these ascriptions are negated. This provides a middle ground between Katz and Hacquard, whereby some belief ascriptions are interpreted as nothing more than a quantified condition over a doxastic alternative set, while others attribute a Davidsonian belief state to the experiencer. In the latter case, the condition involving quantification over doxastic alternatives is an essential content condition which serves to individuate the eventuality described by the belief report, and to identify it across possible worlds.ReferencesCappelli, G. 2007. “I reckon I know how Leonardo da Vinci must have felt...” Epistemicity, Evidentiality and English Verbs of Cognitive Attitude. Pari: Pari Publishing.Carlson, G. 1998. ‘Thematic roles and the individuation of events’. In S. Rothstein (ed. ‘Events and Grammar’, 35–51. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.Davidson, D. 1980[1967]. ‘The Logical Form of Action Sentences’. In N. Rescher (ed. ‘The Logic of Decision and Action’, 81–95. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. Reprinted in Davidson, D., Essays on Actions and Events, pp. 105

  6. Teacher design knowledge and beliefs for technology enhanced learning materials in early literacy: Four portraits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschman, F.B.; McKenney-Jensh, Susan E.; Pieters, Julius Marie; Voogt, Joke

    2015-01-01

    Teacher engagement in the design of technology-rich learning material is beneficial to teacher learning and may create a sense of ownership, both of which are conducive to bringing about innovation with technology. During collaborative design, teachers draw on various types of knowledge and beliefs:

  7. Teacher design knowledge and beliefs for technology enhanced learning materials in early literacy: Four portraits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschman, Ferry; McKenney, Susan; Pieters, Jules; Voogt, Joke

    2016-01-01

    Teacher engagement in the design of technology-rich learning material is beneficial to teacher learning and may create a sense of ownership, both of which are conducive to bringing about innovation with technology. During collaborative design, teachers draw on various types of knowledge and beliefs:

  8. Teacher design knowledge and beliefs for technology enhanced learning materials in early literacy: Four portraits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschman, F.; McKenney, S.; Pieters, J.M.; Voogt, J.

    2015-01-01

    Teacher engagement in the design of technology-rich learning material is beneficial to teacher learning and may create a sense of ownership, both of which are conducive to bringing about innovation with technology. During collaborative design, teachers draw on various types of knowledge and beliefs:

  9. Gender moderates the impact of need for structure on social beliefs: implications for ethnocentrism and authoritarianism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmelmeier, Markus

    2010-06-01

    The present research examines the interplay between individual differences in need for structure, social beliefs, and gender. It is well documented that need for structure, that is, a preference for structure and simplicity in one's thinking, predicts authoritarianism and ethnocentrism. Further, women tend to score lower in authoritarianism and ethnocentrism than men. Although there seem to be no gender differences in need for structure, the present research hypothesizes that the association between need for structure and social beliefs is stronger for men than for women. This hypothesis comes from the observation that, all else being equal, men tend to think more about the domain of beliefs such as authoritarianism and ethnocentrism, which should strengthen the relationship between men's cognitive needs and their social beliefs. The hypothesis is also motivated by the finding that, more than men, women often give priority to caring and compassion when forming beliefs about outgroups. This should weaken the link between women's cognitive needs and their social beliefs. Three studies conducted in the USA (n = 398) and one study conducted in Germany (n = 112) examined whether gender moderated the influence of need for structure on authoritarianism and racism. Using a variety of measures, need for structure predicted authoritarianism and racism for men, but not for women. The discussion focuses on the implications of the present findings for the relationship between cognitive orientations and social beliefs. It is argued that research on cognitive orientation and social beliefs needs to take gender into account to improve its accuracy of prediction.

  10. The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center: A Collaborative Model for Accelerating Research into Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, S. J.; Lapenta, W.; Jedlovec, G.; Dodge, J.; Bradshaw, T.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center in Huntsville, Alabama was created to accelerate the infusion of NASA earth science observations, data assimilation and modeling research into NWS forecast operations and decision-making. The principal focus of experimental products is on the regional scale with an emphasis on forecast improvements on a time scale of 0-24 hours. The SPoRT Center research is aligned with the regional prediction objectives of the US Weather Research Program dealing with 0-1 day forecast issues ranging from convective initiation to 24-hr quantitative precipitation forecasting. The SPoRT Center, together with its other interagency partners, universities, and the NASA/NOAA Joint Center for Satellite Data Assimilation, provides a means and a process to effectively transition NASA Earth Science Enterprise observations and technology to National Weather Service operations and decision makers at both the global/national and regional scales. This paper describes the process for the transition of experimental products into forecast operations, current products undergoing assessment by forecasters, and plans for the future.

  11. Contested collaboration: A descriptive model of intergroup communication in information system design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, D.H.

    1995-01-01

    support patterns of work activities, social groups, and personal beliefs. In these situations, design is fundamentally an interactive process that requires communication among users, designers, and developers. However, communication among these groups is often difficult although of paramount importance...... to design outcomes. Through a qualitative analysis of a house, expert system, and telecommunications network architecture and management system design situations, a descriptive model of design that characterizes communication among users, designers, and developers as they create an artifact was developed....... The model describes design phases, roles, themes, and intergroup communication networks as they evolve throughout the design process and characterizes design as a process of ''contested collaboration.'' It is a first step towards a predictive design model that suggests strategies which may help participants...

  12. Intrinsic motivation towards sports in Singaporean students: the role of sport ability beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C K John; Biddle, Stuart J H

    2003-09-01

    This study investigated determinants of active lifestyles in Singaporean university students. Using confirmatory factor analysis, a measure of lay beliefs concerning athletic ability was confirmed. Other results confirmed hypotheses that beliefs reflecting that athletic ability can be developed over time (incremental beliefs) predict an achievement task (self-referenced) orientation, while beliefs reflecting that athletic ability is relatively stable (entity beliefs) predict an ego (other-person, comparative) orientation. Goal orientations directly affect perceived competence which, in turn, influence intrinsic motivation to be physically active. A task orientation had a direct link to intrinsic motivation. Results suggest that intrinsic motivation towards sport and physical activity might be enhanced through interventions that focus on self-referenced and self-improvement notions of ability as well as perceived competence.

  13. Biases in intuitive reasoning and belief in complementary and alternative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Marjaana

    2011-03-01

    Very little is known about the reasoning underlying beliefs in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). This study examined whether CAM beliefs can be better explained with intuitive reasoning, paranormal beliefs and ontological confusions of physical, biological and mental phenomena than with 12 variables that have typically been used to explore the popularity of CAM, namely gender, education, income, age, health, desire to control treatment, satisfaction with conventional medicine and world view (unconventional, feministic, environmentalist, exotical and natural). A representative sample of Finnish people (N = 1092) participated in the study. The results showed that intuitive thinking, paranormal beliefs and ontological confusions predicted 34% of the variation in CAM beliefs, whereas the 12 other variables increased the prediction only by 4%. The results help to explain individual, cultural and situational differences in the popularity of CAM and to differentiate between CAM statements that can be scientifically examined from those that cannot.

  14. Religious beliefs and entrepreneurship among Dutch protestants

    OpenAIRE

    Rietveld, Niels; van Burg, Elco

    2013-01-01

    textabstractReligious beliefs affect the economic behavior of individuals. The aim of this study is to investigate the relation between religious beliefs and entrepreneurship. Empirical evidence that entrepreneurship rates differ among religions suggests that religious beliefs influence the pursuit of entrepreneurship. However, how and which specific religious beliefs play a role in this relationship remains unknown. Therefore, we study the relation between two key religious beliefs and entre...

  15. Efficient Decoding of Turbo Codes with Nonbinary Belief Propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Lestable

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach to decode turbo codes using a nonbinary belief propagation decoder. The proposed approach can be decomposed into two main steps. First, a nonbinary Tanner graph representation of the turbo code is derived by clustering the binary parity-check matrix of the turbo code. Then, a group belief propagation decoder runs several iterations on the obtained nonbinary Tanner graph. We show in particular that it is necessary to add a preprocessing step on the parity-check matrix of the turbo code in order to ensure good topological properties of the Tanner graph and then good iterative decoding performance. Finally, by capitalizing on the diversity which comes from the existence of distinct efficient preprocessings, we propose a new decoding strategy, called decoder diversity, that intends to take benefits from the diversity through collaborative decoding schemes.

  16. Application of Health Belief Model\\'s constructs for predicting regular consumption of folic acid supplements in pregnant women referred to Borazjan’s health centers in 2014-15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohre kafaee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the most common disorders in pregnancy is Folic Acid deficiency and its complications. The aim of this study was to examine the predictors of regular use of folic acid supplements based on HBM in pregnant women referred to Borazjan’s health centers. Material and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 228 pregnant women or women with planning of pregnancy referred to health centers of Borazjan with random sampling method evaluated. Data was collected with questionnaire in 4 parts included demographic characteristics, knowledge, health belief model constructs and questions about folic acid supplement use. Data was analyzed by SPSS software with using appropriate statistical tests. Results: The mean age of samples was 27.4±5.41. 144 patients (63.2% consumed Folic Acid pills regularly, and 84 patients (36.8% had irregular use. The awareness of folic acid in 22.8% of women was good, 59.6%  and 17.5% of samples had intermediate and poor awareness, respectively. The perceived barriers (P<0.001, perceived benefits (P=0.002 and self-efficacy (P<0.001 had relation with consumption of folic acid and among demographic variables, only education level (P=0.04 had relation with the consumption of pills. In logistic regression perceived barriers was only predictor. Age and educational level had indirect effect in regular consume pill. Conclusion: Perceived barriers was strongest predictors of folic acid use, therefore intervention based on health belief model, with emphasis on reducing barriers is necessary for improving the use of this medicine during pregnancy.

  17. The Role of Trauma-Specific Irrational Beliefs and Sociodemographic Risk Factors in Posttraumatic Stress Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Hyland, Philip; Shevlin, Mark; Adamson, Gary; Boduszek, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress responses have been linked to a range of social-cognitive and sociodemographic factors. Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy suggests that responding to a traumatic life event with a set of irrational beliefs should play a crucial role in predicting the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD: Ellis, 2001). The current study assessed the role of trauma-specific irrational beliefs in the prediction of clinically relevant posttraumatic stress responses, while contr...

  18. Relation between belief and performance in perceptual decision making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Drugowitsch

    Full Text Available In an uncertain and ambiguous world, effective decision making requires that subjects form and maintain a belief about the correctness of their choices, a process called meta-cognition. Prediction of future outcomes and self-monitoring are only effective if belief closely matches behavioral performance. Equality between belief and performance is also critical for experimentalists to gain insight into the subjects' belief by simply measuring their performance. Assuming that the decision maker holds the correct model of the world, one might indeed expect that belief and performance should go hand in hand. Unfortunately, we show here that this is rarely the case when performance is defined as the percentage of correct responses for a fixed stimulus, a standard definition in psychophysics. In this case, belief equals performance only for a very narrow family of tasks, whereas in others they will only be very weakly correlated. As we will see it is possible to restore this equality in specific circumstances but this remedy is only effective for a decision-maker, not for an experimenter. We furthermore show that belief and performance do not match when conditioned on task difficulty--as is common practice when plotting the psychometric curve--highlighting common pitfalls in previous neuroscience work. Finally, we demonstrate that miscalibration and the hard-easy effect observed in humans' and other animals' certainty judgments could be explained by a mismatch between the experimenter's and decision maker's expected distribution of task difficulties. These results have important implications for experimental design and are of relevance for theories that aim to unravel the nature of meta-cognition.

  19. Scaling Irrational Beliefs in the General Attitude and Belief Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay R. Owings

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurate measurement of key constructs is essential to the continued development of Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT. The General Attitude and Belief Scale (GABS, a contemporary inventory of rational and irrational beliefs based on current REBT theory, is one of the most valid and widely used instruments available, and recent research has continued to improve its psychometric standing. In this study of 544 students, item response theory (IRT methods were used (a to identify the most informative item in each irrational subscale of the GABS, (b to determine the level of irrationality represented by each of those items, and (c to suggest a condensed form of the GABS for further study with clinical populations. Administering only the most psychometrically informative items to clients could result in economies of time and effort. Further research based on the scaling of items could clarify the specific patterns of irrational beliefs associated with particular clinical syndromes.

  20. The free will inventory: measuring beliefs about agency and responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadelhoffer, Thomas; Shepard, Jason; Nahmias, Eddy; Sripada, Chandra; Ross, Lisa Thomson

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we present the results of the construction and validation of a new psychometric tool for measuring beliefs about free will and related concepts: The Free Will Inventory (FWI). In its final form, FWI is a 29-item instrument with two parts. Part 1 consists of three 5-item subscales designed to measure strength of belief in free will, determinism, and dualism. Part 2 consists of a series of fourteen statements designed to further explore the complex network of people's associated beliefs and attitudes about free will, determinism, choice, the soul, predictability, responsibility, and punishment. Having presented the construction and validation of FWI, we discuss several ways that it could be used in future research, highlight some as yet unanswered questions that are ripe for interdisciplinary investigation, and encourage researchers to join us in our efforts to answer these questions.

  1. Effects of community-based collaborative group characteristics on social capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Cheryl L; Fernandez-Gimenez, Maria E

    2009-10-01

    Recent research suggests that community-based collaboration may build social capital-defined as trust, norms of reciprocity, and networks. Social capital may improve a group's ability to collaborate, manage risk, innovate, and adapt to change. We used mail surveys of group participants and key informant interviews to assess whether the following collaborative group characteristics affected social capital built within 10 collaborative groups in northwest Colorado: perceived success, conflict, activeness, stakeholder diversity, previous collaboration experience, similar values and beliefs, group size, group age, and initial social capital. Perceived success and initial levels of social capital were the strongest predictors of current levels of and changes in social capital over time. Collaboration experience negatively influenced current levels of trust. Our results suggest that collaborative groups may need to consider the outcomes of collaborative interactions in order to build social capital.

  2. Abductive inference and delusional belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coltheart, Max; Menzies, Peter; Sutton, John

    2010-01-01

    Delusional beliefs have sometimes been considered as rational inferences from abnormal experiences. We explore this idea in more detail, making the following points. First, the abnormalities of cognition that initially prompt the entertaining of a delusional belief are not always conscious and since we prefer to restrict the term "experience" to consciousness we refer to "abnormal data" rather than "abnormal experience". Second, we argue that in relation to many delusions (we consider seven) one can clearly identify what the abnormal cognitive data are which prompted the delusion and what the neuropsychological impairment is which is responsible for the occurrence of these data; but one can equally clearly point to cases where this impairment is present but delusion is not. So the impairment is not sufficient for delusion to occur: a second cognitive impairment, one that affects the ability to evaluate beliefs, must also be present. Third (and this is the main thrust of our paper), we consider in detail what the nature of the inference is that leads from the abnormal data to the belief. This is not deductive inference and it is not inference by enumerative induction; it is abductive inference. We offer a Bayesian account of abductive inference and apply it to the explanation of delusional belief.

  3. Control beliefs are related to smoking prevention in prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemola, Sakari; Meyer-Leu, Yvonne; Samochowiec, Jakub; Grob, Alexander

    2013-10-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is one of the most important avoidable health risks for the unborn child. Gynaecologists and midwives play a fundamental role in the prevention of smoking during pregnancy. However, a large number of health care practitioners still do not address smoking in pregnant patients. We examined whether gynaecologists and midwives engage in screening and counselling of pregnant women and conducting interventions to prevent smoking during pregnancy. Further, we examined the role of gynaecologists' and midwives' control beliefs. Control beliefs involve efficacy expectations--the practitioner's confidence in his capacity to conduct prevention efforts adequately--and outcome expectations--the practitioner's expectation that such prevention efforts are successful in general. A total of 486 gynaecologists and 366 midwives completed a questionnaire on screening of smoking, counselling and other interventions they conduct to prevent smoking during pregnancy. Moreover, gynaecologists and midwives rated their control beliefs regarding their influence on pregnant patients' smoking habits. The majority of gynaecologists and midwives reported screening all pregnant patients regarding smoking, explaining the risks and recommending smoking cessation. By contrast, only a minority engages in more extensive prevention efforts. Strong control beliefs were predictive of a higher likelihood of screening and counselling, as well as of engaging in more extensive interventions. The findings point to the importance of strengthening gynaecologists' and midwives' control beliefs by professional education and training on smoking prevention. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Belief Reasoning and Emotion Understanding in Balanced Bilingual and Language-Dominant Mexican American Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, Amy A; Gasquoine, Philip G

    2016-01-01

    Belief reasoning and emotion understanding were measured among 102 Mexican American bilingual children ranging from 4 to 7 years old. All children were tested in English and Spanish after ensuring minimum comprehension in each language. Belief reasoning was assessed using 2 false and 1 true belief tasks. Emotion understanding was measured using subtests from the Test for Emotion Comprehension. The influence of family background variables of yearly income, parental education level, and number of siblings on combined Spanish and English vocabulary, belief reasoning, and emotion understanding was assessed by regression analyses. Age and emotion understanding predicted belief reasoning. Vocabulary and belief reasoning predicted emotion understanding. When the sample was divided into language-dominant and balanced bilingual groups on the basis of language proficiency difference scores, there were no significant differences on belief reasoning or emotion understanding. Language groups were demographically similar with regard to child age, parental educational level, and family income. Results suggest Mexican American language-dominant and balanced bilinguals develop belief reasoning and emotion understanding similarly.

  5. Towards the collaborative hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prætorius, Thim; Hasle, Peter; Edwards, Kasper;

    2015-01-01

    of the collaborative hospital concern the creation of an appropriate balance between standardization and local autonomy, shared purpose centred around providing the best possible care, and use of enabling structures that sustain the new ways of collaborative work. The chapter builds on the theoretical framework...... for the collaborative hospital as new organizational form which is better equipped to respond to the challenges facing modern hospitals. The collaborative hospital is an ambidextrous organization that opens for pursuing both exploration and exploitation within the same organizational structure. The basic principles...... of the collaborative organization which is used for a discussion of theoretical and empirical aspects of the collaborative hospital....

  6. Distinguishing spirituality from other constructs: not a matter of well-being but of belief in supernatural spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Marjaana; Blomqvist, Sandra; Takada, Mikito

    2012-02-01

    We developed a new Spirituality Scale and tested the argument that the defining attribute of spirituality is belief in supernatural spirits. Study 1 (N = 1931) showed that religiosity and beliefs pertinent to supernatural spirits predicted most of the variation in spirituality. Study 2 (N = 848) showed that the stronger belief in supernatural spirits, the more the person experienced subjective spirituality; that belief in supernatural spirits had higher predictive value of spirituality than religiosity, paranormal beliefs, or values; and that most of the relationship between religiosity and spirituality could be explained through belief in supernatural spirits. Study 3 (N = 972) showed that mental or physical health, social relationships, or satisfaction in marriage or work were not associated with spirituality. In turn, finding life purposeful and inner peace in dealing with spiritual experiences correlated with spirituality. The results highlight the importance of differentiating spirituality from other psychological constructs.

  7. Belief Revision and Argumentation Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falappa, Marcelo Alejandro; Kern-Isberner, Gabriele; Simari, Guillermo Ricardo

    Belief revision is the process of changing beliefs to adapt the epistemic state of an agent to a new piece of information. The logical formalization of belief revision is a topic of research in philosophy, logic, and in computer science, in areas such as databases or artificial intelligence. On the other hand, argumentation is concerned primarily with the evaluation of claims based on premises in order to reach conclusions. Both provide basic and substantial techniques for the art of reasoning, as it is performed by human beings in everyday life situations and which goes far beyond logical deduction. Reasoning, in this sense, makes possible to deal successfully with problems in uncertain, dynamic environments and has been promoting the development of human societies.

  8. Collaborative Contracting in Projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suprapto, M.

    2016-01-01

    Project practitioners have increasingly recognized the importance of collaborative relationships to ensure successful executions of projects. However, the ability to sustain and consistenly drive real collaborative attitudes and behavior for achieving the desired outcomes remains of enduring practic

  9. Collaborative Contracting in Projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suprapto, M.

    2016-01-01

    Project practitioners have increasingly recognized the importance of collaborative relationships to ensure successful executions of projects. However, the ability to sustain and consistenly drive real collaborative attitudes and behavior for achieving the desired outcomes remains of enduring

  10. Global Collaborative STEM Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meabh Kelly, Susan; Smith, Walter

    2016-04-01

    Global Collaborative STEM Education, as the name suggests, simultaneously supports two sets of knowledge and skills. The first set is STEM -- science, technology, engineering and math. The other set of content knowledge and skills is that of global collaboration. Successful global partnerships require awareness of one's own culture, the biases embedded within that culture, as well as developing awareness of the collaborators' culture. Workforce skills fostered include open-mindedness, perseverance when faced with obstacles, and resourceful use of technological "bridges" to facilitate and sustain communication. In respect for the 2016 GIFT Workshop focus, Global Collaborative STEM Education projects dedicated to astronomy research will be presented. The projects represent different benchmarks within the Global Collaborative STEM Education continuum, culminating in an astronomy research experience that fully reflects how the global STEM workforce collaborates. To facilitate wider engagement in Global Collaborative STEM Education, project summaries, classroom resources and contact information for established international collaborative astronomy research projects will be disseminated.

  11. Collaboration in Agricultural Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Roland L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Theme articles discuss environment, food, agriculture, and renewal resources as they relate to science education, learning partnerships, collaboration in Kyrghyzstan, leadership development, opportunities for collaboration, networking, and the creation of a shared course between agribusiness and biology. (JOW)

  12. Collaboration in Agricultural Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Roland L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Theme articles discuss environment, food, agriculture, and renewal resources as they relate to science education, learning partnerships, collaboration in Kyrghyzstan, leadership development, opportunities for collaboration, networking, and the creation of a shared course between agribusiness and biology. (JOW)

  13. Beliefs About Pharmaceutical Medicines and Natural Remedies Explain Individual Variation in Placebo Analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkinson, Andrew; Chapman, Sarah C E; Horne, Rob

    2017-08-01

    This study examined whether placebo responses were predicted by a theoretical model of specific and general treatment beliefs. Using a randomized crossover, experimental design (168 healthy individuals) we assessed whether responses to a cold pressor task were influenced by 2 placebo creams described as pharmaceutical versus natural. We assessed whether placebo responses were predicted by pretreatment beliefs about the treatments (placebo) and by beliefs about the pain. The efficacy of pharmaceutical as well as natural placebos in reducing pain intensity was predicted by aspects of pain catastrophizing including feelings of helplessness (pharmaceutical: B = .03, P natural: B = .02, P natural: B = .05, P natural: B = .16, P natural placebo were informed by general background beliefs about holistic treatments. Our findings show that treatment beliefs influence the placebo effect suggesting that they may offer an additional approach for understanding the placebo effect. Placebo effects contribute to responses to active analgesics. Understanding how beliefs about different types of treatment influence placebo analgesia may be useful in understanding variations in treatment response. Using the cold pressor paradigm we found that placebo analgesia was influenced by beliefs about natural remedies, pharmaceutical medicines, and about pain. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Implicit beliefs of ability, approach-avoidance goals and cognitive anxiety among team sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenling, Andreas; Hassmén, Peter; Holmström, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    People's implicit beliefs of ability have been suggested as an antecedent of achievement goal adoption, which has in turn been associated with behavioural, cognitive and affective outcomes. This study examined a conditional process model with team sport athletes' approach-avoidance achievement goals as mediators between their implicit beliefs of sport ability and sport-related cognitive anxiety. We expected gender to moderate the paths from implicit beliefs of ability to approach-avoidance goals and from approach-avoidance goals to cognitive anxiety. Team sport athletes with a mean age of 20 years (163 females and 152 males) responded to questionnaires about their implicit beliefs of sport ability, approach-avoidance goals and sport-related cognitive anxiety. Incremental beliefs, gender and the interaction between them predicted mastery-approach goals. Gender also predicted mastery-avoidance goals, with females reporting higher levels than males. Mastery-avoidance goals, gender and the interaction between them predicted cognitive anxiety, with females reporting higher levels of anxiety than males. Entity beliefs positively predicted performance-avoidance goals and the interaction between performance-approach and gender predicted anxiety. The indirect effects also showed gender differences in relation to performance-approach goals. Taken together, our results suggest that coaches trying to create a facilitating climate for their male and female athletes may be wise to consider their athletes' anxiety and achievement goal patterns as these may affect both the athletes' well-being and performance.

  15. The Relationships among Chinese Practicing Teachers' Epistemic Beliefs, Pedagogical Beliefs and Their Beliefs about the Use of ICT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Feng; Chai, Ching Sing; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Lee, Min-Hsien

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationships among practicing teachers' epistemic beliefs, pedagogical beliefs and their beliefs about the use of ICT through survey methodology. Participants were 396 high school practicing teachers from mainland China. The path analysis results analyzed via structural equation modelling technique indicated…

  16. Experiences of Collaborative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahneman, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    The author's personal history of the research that led to his recognition in economics is described, focusing on the process of collaboration and on the experience of controversy. The author's collaboration with Amos Tversky dealt with 3 major topics: judgment under uncertainty, decision making, and framing effects. A subsequent collaboration,…

  17. Trust repertoires for collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, Lars

    little about how such processes develop and how trust, understood as “confident positive expectations” (Lewicki et al. 1998) to collaborative activities, arises out of collaboration. The paper contributes by showing how trust and collaboration are intertwined. The main finding is that a facilitator can...

  18. Changing Conspiracy Beliefs through Rationality and Ridiculing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Orosz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Conspiracy theory (CT beliefs can be harmful. How is it possible to reduce them effectively? Three reduction strategies were tested in an online experiment using general and well-known CT beliefs on a comprehensive randomly assigned Hungarian sample (N = 813: exposing rational counter CT arguments, ridiculing those who hold CT beliefs, and empathizing with the targets of CT beliefs. Several relevant individual differences were measured. Rational and ridiculing arguments were effective in reducing CT, whereas empathizing with the targets of CTs had no effect. Individual differences played no role in CT reduction, but the perceived intelligence and competence of the individual who conveyed the CT belief-reduction information contributed to the success of the CT belief reduction. Rational arguments targeting the link between the object of belief and its characteristics appear to be an effective tool in fighting conspiracy theory beliefs.

  19. Beliefs in moral luck: When and why blame hinges on luck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lench, Heather C; Domsky, Darren; Smallman, Rachel; Darbor, Kathleen E

    2015-05-01

    Belief in moral luck is represented in judgements that offenders should be held accountable for intent to cause harm as well as whether or not harm occurred. Scores on a measure of moral luck beliefs predicted judgements of offenders who varied in intent and the outcomes of their actions, although judgements overall were not consistent with abstract beliefs in moral luck. Prompting participants to consider alternative outcomes, particularly worse outcomes, reduced moral luck beliefs. Findings suggest that some people believe that offenders should be punished based on the outcome of their actions. Furthermore, prompting counterfactuals decreased judgements consistent with moral luck beliefs. The results have implications for theories of moral judgement as well as legal decision making. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  20. Beliefs of chinese physical educators on teaching students with disabilities in general physical education classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijuan; Qi, Jing; Wang, Lin

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the behavioral beliefs of physical education (PE) teachers about teaching students with disabilities in their general PE (GPE) classes and to identify the factors that contribute to their beliefs. A total of 195 PE teachers from a region in eastern China were surveyed. Results of the Physical Educators' Attitudes Toward Teaching Individuals With Disabilities-III survey indicate that although some teachers felt that including students with disabilities in GPE classes provides benefit for them, they were concerned about the practical difficulties of teaching students with disabilities in GPE classes, the lack of support, and the possible rejection of students with disabilities by their peers. Moreover, the behavioral beliefs of teachers vary according to the disability conditions of the students. Results show that there is no significant effect of demographic factors on the beliefs of PE teachers. Quality of experience predicts positive beliefs. The study has important implication for teacher training, provision of equipment, and support from teacher assistants.

  1. How Much Do Metamemory Beliefs Contribute to the Font-Size Effect in Judgments of Learning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Hu

    Full Text Available Evidence shows that the font size of study items significantly influences judgments of learning (JOLs and that people's JOLs are generally higher for larger words than for smaller words. Previous studies have suggested that font size influences JOLs in a belief-based way. However, few studies have directly examined how much people's beliefs contribute to the font-size effect in JOLs. This study investigated the degree to which font size influenced JOLs in a belief-based way. In Experiment 1, one group of participants (learners studied words with different font sizes and made JOLs, whereas another group of participants (observers viewed the learners' study phase and made JOLs for the learners. In Experiment 2, participants made both JOLs and belief-based recall predictions for large and small words. Our results suggest that metamemory beliefs play an important role in the font-size effect in JOLs.

  2. Understanding Suicide Terrorism: Premature Dismissal of the Religious-Belief Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Liddle

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We comment on work by Ginges, Hansen, and Norenzayan (2009, in which they compare two hypotheses for predicting individual support for suicide terrorism: the religious-belief hypothesis and the coalitional-commitment hypothesis. Although we appreciate the evidence provided in support of the coalitional-commitment hypothesis, we argue that their method of testing the religious-belief hypothesis is conceptually flawed, thus calling into question their conclusion that the religious-belief hypothesis has been disconfirmed. In addition to critiquing the methodology implemented by Ginges et al., we provide suggestions on how the religious-belief hypothesis may be properly tested. It is possible that the premature and unwarranted conclusions reached by Ginges et al. may deter researchers from examining the effect of specific religious beliefs on support for terrorism, and we hope that our comments can mitigate this possibility.

  3. Astrology Beliefs among Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarman, Hannah; Impey, Chris; Buxner, Sanlyn; Antonellis, Jessie

    2011-01-01

    A survey of the science knowledge and attitudes toward science of nearly 10000 undergraduates at a large public university over a 20-year period included several questions addressing student beliefs in astrology and other forms of pseudoscience. The results from our data reveal that a large majority of students (78%) considered astrology "very" or…

  4. Witchcraft Beliefs and Witch Hunts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, N.B.J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes an interdisciplinary explanation of the cross-cultural similarities and evolutionary patterns of witchcraft beliefs. It argues that human social dilemmas have led to the evolution of a fear system that is sensitive to signs of deceit and envy. This was adapted in the evolutionary

  5. Resilience: It Begins with Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truebridge, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Educators' beliefs are powerful, affecting not only their pedagogical practices, but also student efficacy and success. The academic achievement of any particular student may rely greatly on whether the teacher believes that student has the ability to succeed. This article affirms the imperative for administrators and educators to spend time…

  6. Witchcraft Beliefs and Witch Hunts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, N.B.J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes an interdisciplinary explanation of the cross-cultural similarities and evolutionary patterns of witchcraft beliefs. It argues that human social dilemmas have led to the evolution of a fear system that is sensitive to signs of deceit and envy. This was adapted in the evolutionary

  7. Astrology Beliefs among Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarman, Hannah; Impey, Chris; Buxner, Sanlyn; Antonellis, Jessie

    2011-01-01

    A survey of the science knowledge and attitudes toward science of nearly 10000 undergraduates at a large public university over a 20-year period included several questions addressing student beliefs in astrology and other forms of pseudoscience. The results from our data reveal that a large majority of students (78%) considered astrology "very" or…

  8. Order effects in research on paranormal belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, R Thomas

    2002-04-01

    Measures of paranormal belief and emotional intelligence were given a group of 72 college students using Tobacyk's Revised Paranormal Belief Scale and Schutte, Malouff, Hall, Haggerty, Cooper, Golden, and Dornheim's Emotional Intelligence Scale. Order effects indicated that participants who took the Paranormal Belief Scale first had lower emotional intelligence scores than those who took the Emotional Intelligence Scale first. The study demonstrates the importance of taking order effects into account when conducting research on paranormal belief.

  9. Development of the Beliefs About Yoga Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Sohl, Stephanie J.; Schnur, Julie B.; Daly, Leslie; Suslov, Kathryn; Montgomery, Guy H.

    2011-01-01

    Beliefs about yoga may influence participation in yoga and outcomes of yoga interventions. There is currently no scale appropriate for assessing these beliefs in the general U.S. population. This study took the first steps in developing and validating a Beliefs About Yoga Scale (BAYS) to assess beliefs about yoga that may influence people’s engagement in yoga interventions. Items were generated based on previously published research about perceptions of yoga and reviewed by experts within the...

  10. Everyday beliefs about food and health

    OpenAIRE

    Saher, Marieke

    2006-01-01

    The series of studies addresses several everyday beliefs about food and health from the perspective of everyday thinking and paranormal beliefs. They are "you are what you eat" beliefs, attitudes towards genetically modified and organic foods, and belief in alternative medicine. The survey studies included from 239 to 3261 Finnish participants. It was found that food consumption can have far-stretching consequences for the impressions of the eater in a "you are what you eat" manner. The ...

  11. Illness causal beliefs in Turkish immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Klimidis Steven; Minas Harry; Tuncer Can

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background People hold a wide variety of beliefs concerning the causes of illness. Such beliefs vary across cultures and, among immigrants, may be influenced by many factors, including level of acculturation, gender, level of education, and experience of illness and treatment. This study examines illness causal beliefs in Turkish-immigrants in Australia. Methods Causal beliefs about somatic and mental illness were examined in a sample of 444 members of the Turkish population of Melbo...

  12. Trust repertoires for collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, Lars

    This case study analyses the role of trust in a public private innovation network that involved a private consultancy company as a facilitator. We know that collaboration is a important for innovation, and that collaboration across organizational boundaries is not a trivial issue. But we know very...... little about how such processes develop and how trust, understood as “confident positive expectations” (Lewicki et al. 1998) to collaborative activities, arises out of collaboration. The paper contributes by showing how trust and collaboration are intertwined. The main finding is that a facilitator can...

  13. Changing Preservice Teachers' Beliefs about Motivating Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Sarah; Schreiber, Jim; Moss, Connie

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effects of an educational psychology course on students' beliefs about motivating students. After providing opportunities to engage in systematic intentional inquiry of their beliefs about teaching and learning, we expected that students' beliefs would become more soundly based in theory and research. Following several classes on…

  14. Religious beliefs and entrepreneurship among Dutch protestants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietveld, C.A.; Burg, van J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Religious beliefs are known to correlate with a wide range of socio-economic behaviors. The aim of this study is to investigate the relation between religious beliefs and entrepreneurship. Empirical evidence that entrepreneurship rates differ among religions suggests that religious beliefs influence

  15. Understanding Children's Epistemic Beliefs in Elementary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn Brownlee, Jo; Curtis, Elizabeth; Spooner-Lane, Rebecca; Feucht, Florian

    2017-01-01

    Research shows that the beliefs individuals hold about knowledge and knowing (epistemic beliefs) influence learning approaches and outcomes. However, little is known about the nature of children's epistemic beliefs and how best to measure these. In this pilot study, 11 Australian children (in Grade 4 or Grade 6) were asked to "draw, write and…

  16. An Investigation on English Teachers’ Teaching Beliefs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The teaching repertoire of any individual teacher is an amalgam of beliefs,knowledge and assumptions.Teaching beliefs are considered particularly powerful by some researchers.This article aims to investigate English teachers’ teaching beliefs,which will contribute to the cultivation of qualified English teachers.

  17. Well-Founded Belief and Perceptual Justification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broncano-Berrocal, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    According to Alan Millar, justified beliefs are well-founded beliefs. Millar cashes out the notion of well-foundedness in terms of having an adequate reason to believe something and believing it for that reason. To make his account of justified belief compatible with perceptual justification he a...

  18. Losing Belief, While Keeping Up the Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Søren Harnow

    2013-01-01

    While arguing that many cognitive states do indeed have a characteristic phenomenology, I find reasons for exempting beliefs from the program of cognitive phenomenology. Examining the complex relationship between beliefs and various kinds of conscious experience shows that belief is a messy conce...

  19. Religious beliefs and entrepreneurship among Dutch protestants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietveld, C.A.; Burg, van J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Religious beliefs are known to correlate with a wide range of socio-economic behaviors. The aim of this study is to investigate the relation between religious beliefs and entrepreneurship. Empirical evidence that entrepreneurship rates differ among religions suggests that religious beliefs influence

  20. BELIEF Project: the Portal and the Digital Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoppi, F.; Calabro, G.

    2007-07-01

    BELIEF (Bringing Europes eLectronic Infrastructures to Expanding Frontiers) Project aim to create a platform where eInfrastructures providers and users can collaborate and exchange knowledge, which will help ensure that eInfrastructures are developed and used effectively worldwide, filling the gap separating the Research Infrastructure providers from the users, and thus contribute to the emergence of a competitive knowledge-based economy. To create this synergy of multi-disciplinary Research Infrastructure communities, BELIEF created a one-stop-shop for eInfrastructures communities providing online a Digital Library (DL) and a Portal with a search and contact facility, case studies, a discussion forum, eInfrastructures publications. Offline, it has organised events including brainstorming, networking workshops and international conferences and publications, since BELIEFs values are firmly rooted in international cooperation to the emerging economies, particularly of Latin America and India. The Portal and the DL are key parts of this project. There was an opportunity to provide a ready and common source of information on eInfrastructures, both for the users wanting to find out the supply, and for the providers wanting to extend user base and develop their systems. The Portal and the DL respond to this demand by supplying to researchers documentation that matches their search criteria precisely, according to their interest and professional profile. (Author)

  1. Introducing the modified paranormal belief scale: distinguishing between classic paranormal beliefs, religious paranormal beliefs and conventional religiosity among undergraduates in Northern Ireland and Wales

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Emyr; Francis, Leslie J.; Lewis, Christopher Alan

    2009-01-01

    Previous empirical studies concerned with the association between paranormal beliefs and conventional religiosity have produced conflicting evidence. Drawing on Rice's (2003) distinction between classic paranormal beliefs and religious paranormal beliefs, the present study proposed a modified form of the Tobacyk Revised Paranormal Belief Scale to produce separate scores for these two forms of paranormal belief, styled 'religious paranormal beliefs' and 'classic paranormal beliefs'. Data provi...

  2. A Bayesian Framework for False Belief Reasoning in Children: A Rational Integration of Theory-Theory and Simulation Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, Nobuhiko; Inui, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Two apparently contrasting theories have been proposed to account for the development of children's theory of mind (ToM): theory-theory and simulation theory. We present a Bayesian framework that rationally integrates both theories for false belief reasoning. This framework exploits two internal models for predicting the belief states of others: one of self and one of others. These internal models are responsible for simulation-based and theory-based reasoning, respectively. The framework further takes into account empirical studies of a developmental ToM scale (e.g., Wellman and Liu, 2004): developmental progressions of various mental state understandings leading up to false belief understanding. By representing the internal models and their interactions as a causal Bayesian network, we formalize the model of children's false belief reasoning as probabilistic computations on the Bayesian network. This model probabilistically weighs and combines the two internal models and predicts children's false belief ability as a multiplicative effect of their early-developed abilities to understand the mental concepts of diverse beliefs and knowledge access. Specifically, the model predicts that children's proportion of correct responses on a false belief task can be closely approximated as the product of their proportions correct on the diverse belief and knowledge access tasks. To validate this prediction, we illustrate that our model provides good fits to a variety of ToM scale data for preschool children. We discuss the implications and extensions of our model for a deeper understanding of developmental progressions of children's ToM abilities.

  3. The value of nurses' tailored communication when discussing medicines: exploring the relationship between satisfaction, beliefs and adherence.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linn, A.J.; Weert, J.C.M. van; Dijk, L. van; Horne, R.; Smit, E.G.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies of various populations and settings link patient-provider communication or beliefs to medication adherence. A better understanding of this interplay may help to improve patient-centred communication. To predict adherence, this study used the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire and

  4. Gender Differences in Osteoporosis Health Beliefs and Knowledge and Their Relation to Vigorous Physical Activity in University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammage, Kimberley L.; Gasparotto, Jennifer; Mack, Diane E.; Klentrou, Panagiota

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this cross-sectional investigation was to examine (1) gender differences in osteoporosis-related knowledge and beliefs and (2) if these beliefs could predict vigorous physical activity behavior in university students. Participants: Male (n = 176) and female (n = 351) university students participated in the study. Methods:…

  5. Ability Beliefs, Task Value, and Performance as a Function of Race in a Dart-Throwing Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zan; Kosma, Maria; Harrison, Louis, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines differences in self-efficacy, expectancy-related beliefs, task value, and performance in a dart-throwing task as a function of race among diverse college students using the expectancy-value model and self-efficacy theory. It also examines the predictive contributions of these beliefs on task performance within each racial…

  6. Identifying Affirmative Beliefs about English Language Learning: Self-Perceptions of Thai Learners with Different Language Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tuntiga; Rajprasit, Krich

    2015-01-01

    Theoretically, beliefs about English language learning have a psychological factor, such as predicting the rate of success or failure among learners in the classroom context. However, learners with different levels of language proficiency may perceive such beliefs in a different way, which may lead to the development of special needs, in terms of…

  7. Domain-Specific Antecedents of Parental Psychological Control and Monitoring: The Role of Parenting Beliefs and Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.; Daddis, Christopher

    2002-01-01

    Examined effects of domain-differentiated beliefs about legitimate parental authority, and ratings of restrictive parental control and adolescent- and mother- reported psychological and behavioral control. Found that domain-specific parenting beliefs and ratings predicted adolescent-reported maternal psychological control and parental monitoring.…

  8. The Relationships among Sources of Teacher Pedagogical Beliefs, Teaching Experiences, and Student Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Mellati

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Teachers’ beliefs are derived from various sources such as experiences and personality (Kennedy, 1997; Donaghue, 2003; Ellis, 2008, childhood learning experiences (Rokeach, 1968, teaching experiences (Zeichner and Tabachnick, 1981, and folk pedagogy (Bruner, 1996. The relationship of these sources and learners’ outcomes are under question; therefore, this study investigated the relationships among sources of teacher pedagogical beliefs, teaching experiences, and student outcomes. The researchers classified these sources into two categories “Experienced Pedagogical Beliefs” and “Educational Pedagogical Beliefs”. To conduct this study, 150 Iranian ELT instructors had been chosen randomly. Their students’ scores were also used in data analysis. A beliefs’ questionnaire and interview were employed to elicit instructors’ sources of pedagogical beliefs. The results suggested that a significant proportion of the total variations in learners’ outcomes were predicted by teachers’ sources of pedagogical beliefs and teachers’ teaching experiences. The implications for improving the quality of teacher education programs were also discussed. Keywords: Teacher beliefs, sources of teacher beliefs, teacher education programs, experienced pedagogical beliefs, educational pedagogical beliefs

  9. A comparison of lay-beliefs about autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; Buck, Claire

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of the two studies was to compare lay beliefs regarding the aetiology and treatment of autism (study 1) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) (study 2). It was hypothesised that beliefs about autism would be based primarily on a biomedical theory while beliefs regarding OCD primarily on psychological notions of cause and cure. Parents' interviews were conducted in study 1 and revealed that, as hypothesised, parents hold predominantly biomedical views about autism. Participants (n = 92) completed both questionnaires that involved rating a range of theories of aetiology and treatment approaches for each disorder. Statistical analysis confirmed that lay beliefs about autism were primarily biomedical and beliefs about OCD were primarily psychological. Multiple regression analyses indicated that a range of individual difference factors (religiousness, interest in mental illness, age and knowledge of autism) predicted beliefs about the importance of some of the five factors derived from factor analysis of belief statements. The relevance of investigating lay beliefs of aetiology and treatment of psychiatric disorders for clinical practice is also highlighted.

  10. CERAPP: Collaborative Estrogen Receptor Activity Prediction Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humans potentially are exposed to thousands of man-made chemicals in the environment. Some chemicals mimic natural endocrine hormones and, thus, have the potential to be endocrine disruptors. Many of these chemicals never have been tested for their ability to interact with the es...

  11. Prosociality: the contribution of traits, values, and self-efficacy beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Alessandri, Guido; Eisenberg, Nancy

    2012-06-01

    The present study examined how agreeableness, self-transcendence values, and empathic self-efficacy beliefs predict individuals' tendencies to engage in prosocial behavior (i.e., prosociality) across time. Participants were 340 young adults, 190 women and 150 men, age approximately 21 years at Time 1 and 25 years at Time 2. Measures of agreeableness, self-transcendence, empathic self-efficacy beliefs, and prosociality were collected at 2 time points. The findings corroborated the posited paths of relations, with agreeableness directly predicting self-transcendence and indirectly predicting empathic self-efficacy beliefs and prosociality. Self-transcendence mediated the relation between agreeableness and empathic self-efficacy beliefs. Empathic self-efficacy beliefs mediated the relation of agreeableness and self-transcendence to prosociality. Finally, earlier prosociality predicted agreeableness and empathic self-efficacy beliefs assessed at Time 2. The posited conceptual model accounted for a significant portion of variance in prosociality and provides guidance to interventions aimed at promoting prosociality.

  12. Are parental gender role beliefs a predictor of change in sexual communication in a prevention program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale McKee, Laura; Forehand, Rex; Miller, Kim S; Whitaker, Daniel J; Long, Nicholas; Armistead, Lisa

    2007-07-01

    This study examined if pre-intervention maternal gender role beliefs predict change in sexual communication in a sexual risk behavior prevention program designed to increase parent-pre-adolescent communication about sex. A sample of 281 African American fourth and fifth graders and their mothers participated in the five-session program and completed computerized questionnaires at baseline, postintervention, and 6-month follow-up. Based on mother report, more egalitarian maternal gender role beliefs predicted greater increases in parent-pre-adolescent communication about sex at postintervention. Based on pre-adolescent report, similar findings emerged at the 6-month follow-up, but only for boys. The relationship of maternal gender role beliefs to changes in sexual communication was not accounted for by maternal comfort with sexual communication with their pre-adolescents. The implications of maternal gender role beliefs in a prevention program designed to increase communication about sexual topics are considered.

  13. The relationship between beliefs about sleep and adherence to behavioral treatment combined with meditation for insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvengros, Jamie A; Crawford, Megan R; Manber, Rachel; Ong, Jason C

    2015-01-01

    This study examined beliefs about sleep, as measured by the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep (DBAS) scale, as predictors of adherence to 3 specific insomnia treatment recommendations: restriction of time spent in bed, maintenance of a consistent rise time, and completion of daily meditation practice. Higher DBAS scores predicted poorer adherence to restriction of time spent in bed and to maintenance of a prescribed rise time. DBAS scores were not associated with completion of daily meditation. These preliminary findings suggest that pre-treatment beliefs about sleep may impact patient engagement with behavioral recommendations regarding time in bed and consistent rise time during treatment for insomnia.

  14. Modifying and Pilot Testing the Pap Smear Belief Questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly Ackerson; Lisa Stines Doane; Robert McNutt; Yuanyuan Shao

    2014-01-01

    This study is a report on modifications and pilot testing of a measurement tool to predict Pap testing based on the Interaction Model of Client Health Behavior. Women have been found to avoid routine cervical cancer screening (CCS) due to personal influencing factors. For this study, the Pap Smear Belief Questionnaire (PSBQ) was modified by adding items and evaluated through content validity index (CVI = .89) and cogni...

  15. Beliefs about volunteerism, volunteering intention, volunteering behavior, and purpose in life among Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Ben M F; Shek, Daniel T L

    2009-09-01

    The relationships among beliefs about volunteerism, volunteering intention, volunteering behavior, and purpose in life were examined in this study. A total of 5,946 participants completed a series of scales, including the Revised Personal Functions of Volunteerism Scale, Volunteering Intention Scale, and Purpose in Life Scale. The results showed that participants whose purpose in life had different levels also had varied prosocial beliefs about volunteerism, volunteering intention, and volunteering behavior. Purpose in life was associated more strongly with prosocial value function than with other types of beliefs (except understanding function). When different beliefs are grouped, the correlation between purpose in life and other-serving beliefs was higher than that between purpose in life and self-serving beliefs. Purpose in life was also associated with volunteering intention and behavior. Path analyses showed that purpose in life predicted volunteering behavior via beliefs and intention. While other-serving beliefs predicted volunteering behavior directly, self-serving beliefs did not have such direct effect.

  16. Beliefs about Volunteerism, Volunteering Intention, Volunteering Behavior, and Purpose in Life among Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben M. F. Law

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationships among beliefs about volunteerism, volunteering intention, volunteering behavior, and purpose in life were examined in this study. A total of 5,946 participants completed a series of scales, including the Revised Personal Functions of Volunteerism Scale, Volunteering Intention Scale, and Purpose in Life Scale. The results showed that participants whose purpose in life had different levels also had varied prosocial beliefs about volunteerism, volunteering intention, and volunteering behavior. Purpose in life was associated more strongly with prosocial value function than with other types of beliefs (except understanding function. When different beliefs are grouped, the correlation between purpose in life and other-serving beliefs was higher than that between purpose in life and self-serving beliefs. Purpose in life was also associated with volunteering intention and behavior. Path analyses showed that purpose in life predicted volunteering behavior via beliefs and intention. While other-serving beliefs predicted volunteering behavior directly, self-serving beliefs did not have such direct effect.

  17. Associations between belief in conspiracy theories and the maladaptive personality traits of the personality inventory for DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Weis, Laura; Lay, Alixe; Barron, David; Furnham, Adrian

    2016-02-28

    Conspiracy theories can be treated as both rational narratives of the world as well as outcomes of underlying maladaptive traits. Here, we examined associations between belief in conspiracy theories and individual differences in personality disorders. An Internet-based sample (N=259) completed measures of belief in conspiracy theories and the 25 facets of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5). Preliminary analyses showed no significant differences in belief in conspiracy theories across participant sex, ethnicity, and education. Regression analyses showed that the PID-5 facets of Unusual Beliefs and Experiences and, to a lesser extent, Suspiciousness, significantly predicted belief in conspiracy theories. These findings highlight a role for maladaptive personality traits in understanding belief in conspiracy theories, but require further investigation.

  18. The role of need for closure in essentialist entitativity beliefs and prejudice: an epistemic needs approach to racial categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roets, Arne; Van Hiel, Alain

    2011-03-01

    The present research investigates how people's general epistemic motives may inspire essentialist beliefs about racial groups and racism. In three studies, we focus particularly on essentialist entitativity (EE, referring to beliefs about the uniformity, informativeness, and inherent core of racial groups), probing into its relationships with epistemic need for closure (NFC) and prejudice. In Study 1, we develop an EE scale, empirically distinguish it from the naturalness component of essentialism and non-EE beliefs, and establish its predictive utility for explaining racial prejudice. Study 2 provides experimental evidence for the causal effect of NFC on EE beliefs. Study 3 demonstrates in three different samples that EE beliefs mediate the relationship between dispositional NFC and racial prejudice. It is argued that EE beliefs about racial groups are an expression of motivated social cognition, serving people's seizing needs for quick and easy social judgment.

  19. Instrumenting Beliefs in Threshold Public Goods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Angela C M; Spraggon, John M; Denny, Matthew J

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the causal impact of beliefs on contributions in Threshold Public Goods (TPGs) is particularly important since the social optimum can be supported as a Nash Equilibrium and best-response contributions are a function of beliefs. Unfortunately, investigations of the impact of beliefs on behavior are plagued with endogeneity concerns. We create a set of instruments by cleanly and exogenously manipulating beliefs without deception. Tests indicate that the instruments are valid and relevant. Perhaps surprisingly, we fail to find evidence that beliefs are endogenous in either the one-shot or repeated-decision settings. TPG allocations are determined by a base contribution and beliefs in a one shot-setting. In the repeated-decision environment, once we instrument for first-round allocations, we find that second-round allocations are driven equally by beliefs and history. Moreover, we find that failing to instrument prior decisions overstates their importance.

  20. Beliefs about language development: construct validity evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Mavis L; Fu, Qiong; Smith, Everett V

    2012-01-01

    Understanding language development is incomplete without recognizing children's sociocultural environments, including adult beliefs about language development. Yet there is a need for data supporting valid inferences to assess these beliefs. The current study investigated the psychometric properties of data from a survey (MODeL) designed to explore beliefs in the popular culture, and their alignment with more formal theories. Support for the content, substantive, structural, generalizability, and external aspects of construct validity of the data were investigated. Subscales representing Behaviorist, Cognitive, Nativist, and Sociolinguistic models were identified as dimensions of beliefs. More than half of the items showed a high degree of consensus, suggesting culturally-transmitted beliefs. Behaviorist ideas were most popular. Bilingualism and ethnicity were related to Cognitive and Sociolinguistic beliefs. Identifying these beliefs may clarify the nature of child-directed speech, and enable the design of language intervention programs that are congruent with family and cultural expectations.

  1. Narcissism and belief in the paranormal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Chris A; Morgan, Claire L

    2002-04-01

    The present study was designed to assess whether the relationship between narcissistic personality and paranormal belief identified by Tobacyk and Mitchell earlier could be replicated with a general population and to see whether the effect could be found with a narrower definition of paranormal beliefs that focuses only on belief in psychic phenomena. 75 participants completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and two measures of paranormal belief, the Paranormal Belief Scale and the Australian Sheep-Goat Scale. There was no correlation between narcissism and Paranormal Belief Scale scores, but narcissism and Australian Sheep-Goat Scale scores were significantly positively correlated. Of the three subscales to the Australian Sheep-Goat measure, scores for narcissism correlated with belief in ESP and PK but not in Life after death. These relationships were interpreted in terms of need for control.

  2. When Brain Death Belies Belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanke, Greg; Rady, Mohamed Y; Verheijde, Joseph L

    2016-12-01

    The case of Jahi McMath has reignited a discussion concerning how society should define death. Despite pronouncing McMath brain dead based on the American Academy of Neurology criteria, the court ordered continued mechanical ventilation to accommodate the family's religious beliefs. Recent case law suggests that the potential for a successful challenge to the neurologic criteria of death provisions of the Uniform Determination of Death Act are greater than ever in the majority of states that have passed religious freedom legislation. As well, because standard ethical claims regarding brain death are either patently untrue or subject to legitimate dispute, those whose beliefs do not comport with the brain death standard should be able to reject it.

  3. Belief bias and relational reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Maxwell J; Sykes, Elizabeth D A

    2003-01-01

    When people evaluate categorical syllogisms, they tend to reject unbelievable conclusions and accept believable ones irrespective of their validity. Typically, this effect is particularly marked for invalid conclusions that are possible, but do not necessarily follow, given the premises. However, smaller believability effects can also be detected for other types of conclusion. Three experiments are reported here, in which an attempt was made to determine whether belief bias effects can manifest themselves on the relational inference task. Subjects evaluated the validity of conclusions such as William the Conqueror was king after the Pyramids were built (temporal task) or Manchester is north of Bournemouth (spatial task) with respect to their premises. All of the major findings for equivalent categorical syllogism tasks were replicated. However, the overall size of the main effect of believability appears to be related to task presentation, a phenomenon not previously identified for categorical syllogisms and which current theories of belief bias have difficulty explaining.

  4. Outcome Knowledge and False Belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghrear, Siba E; Birch, Susan A J; Bernstein, Daniel M

    2016-01-01

    Virtually every social interaction involves reasoning about the perspectives of others, or 'theory of mind (ToM).' Previous research suggests that it is difficult to ignore our current knowledge when reasoning about a more naïve perspective (i.e., the curse of knowledge). In this Mini Review, we discuss the implications of the curse of knowledge for certain aspects of ToM. Particularly, we examine how the curse of knowledge influences key measurements of false belief reasoning. In closing, we touch on the need to develop new measurement tools to discern the mechanisms involved in the curse of knowledge and false belief reasoning, and how they develop across the lifespan.

  5. Outcome knowledge and false belief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siba eGhrear

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Virtually every social interaction involves reasoning about the perspectives of others, or ‘theory of mind’. Previous research suggests that it is difficult to ignore our current knowledge when reasoning about a more naïve perspective (i.e., the curse of knowledge. In this Mini Review, we discuss the implications of the curse of knowledge for certain aspects of theory of mind. Particularly, we examine how the curse of knowledge influences key measurements of false belief reasoning. In closing, we touch on the need to develop new measurement tools to discern the mechanisms involved in the curse of knowledge and false belief reasoning, and how they develop across the lifespan.

  6. Healthy eating beliefs and intentions of mothers and their adult children: an intergenerational transmission perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Sumodhee, Dayyanah; Payne, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    This study examined possible intergenerational transmission of eating beliefs and intentions between 60 mothers and their adult children. Maternal restrictive feeding practices were correlated with mothers' own healthy eating attitudes and subjective norms and with their adult children's subjective norms. Mothers’ beliefs and intentions were correlated with their adult children’s. Adult children's intentions to eat healthily were predicted by their attitudes and PBC, and also by their mothers...

  7. The Relationship between Beliefs about Sleep and Adherence to Behavioral Treatment Combined with Meditation for Insomnia

    OpenAIRE

    Cvengros, Jamie A.; Crawford, Megan; Manber, Rachel; Ong, Jason C.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined beliefs about sleep, as measured by the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep (DBAS) scale, as predictors of adherence to three specific insomnia treatment recommendations: restriction of time spent in bed, maintenance of a consistent rise time, and completion of daily meditation practice. Higher DBAS scores predicted poorer adherence to restriction of time spent in bed and to maintenance of a prescribed rise time. DBAS scores were not associated with comp...

  8. Outcome knowledge and false belief

    OpenAIRE

    Siba eGhrear; Susan eBirch; Daniel eBernstein

    2016-01-01

    Virtually every social interaction involves reasoning about the perspectives of others, or ‘theory of mind’. Previous research suggests that it is difficult to ignore our current knowledge when reasoning about a more naïve perspective (i.e., the curse of knowledge). In this Mini Review, we discuss the implications of the curse of knowledge for certain aspects of theory of mind. Particularly, we examine how the curse of knowledge influences key measurements of false belief reasoning. In closi...

  9. Beliefs of subfertile Saudi women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jaroudi, Dania H

    2010-04-01

    To assess the beliefs of infertile Saudi women and acquire information on alternative medicine usage by infertility patients. Between February 2008 and January 2009 a cross-sectional survey was performed in a tertiary hospital. Fifty-one patients attending the Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility Medicine Department, Women's Specialized Hospital, King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia were interviewed at random. They were asked questions pertaining to their beliefs and alternative therapies used to treat their infertility. Information was entered into an Excel sheet, and statistical analysis was carried out. Eighteen (35.3%) women believed their infertility was the result of the evil eye, and 13 (25.5%) believed it was due to envy. The first choice when the women realized they had difficulty conceiving were du'a (supplications) (n=23; 45.1%), visiting a doctor (n=22; 43.1%), and reading Qur'an (n=5; 9.8%), although most (n=37; 72.5%) ultimately turned to the Qur'an as a remedy. Herbal medicine was used by 35 (68.6%) patients. We believe healthcare professionals should consider the personal beliefs and alternatives that subfertile women resort to.

  10. The Collaborative Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Marlowe

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Collaboration has become an important goal in modern ventures, across the spectrum of commercial, social, and intellectual activities, sometimes as a mediating factor, and sometimes as a driving, foundational principle. Research, development, social programs, and ongoing ventures of all sorts benefit from interactions between teams, groups, and organizations, across intellectual disciplines and across facets and features of the inquiry, product, entity, or activity under consideration. We present a survey of the state of collaboration and collaborative enterprise, in the context of papers and presentations at the International Symposium on Collaborative Enterprises 2011 (CENT 2011, and the extended papers appearing in this special issue.

  11. Staging Collaborative Innovation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe; Clausen, Christian

    Organisations are currently challenged by demands for increased collaborative innovation internally as well as with external and new entities - e.g. across the value chain. The authors seek to develop new approaches to managing collaborative innovative processes in the context of open innovation...... and public private innovation partnerships. Based on a case study of a collaborative design process in a large electronics company the paper points to the key importance of staging and navigation of collaborative innovation process. Staging and navigation is presented as a combined activity: 1) to translate...

  12. Belief in luck or in skill: which locks people into gambling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kun; Tang, Hui; Sun, Yue; Huang, Gui-Hai; Rao, Li-Lin; Liang, Zhu-Yuan; Li, Shu

    2012-09-01

    According to the social axioms framework, people's beliefs about how the world functions (i.e., internal or external locus of control) are related to their social behaviors. Previous researchers have attempted to relate locus of control to gambling behavior, but the results have not been clear-cut. The present study speculated that the effects of perceived control (i.e., belief in luck and belief in skill) on gambling behavior are domain-specific and vary with the type of gambling. A total of 306 adult Macau residents ranging in age from 18 to 65 with casino gambling experience were recruited by going door to door. Empirical data on gambling frequency and perceived control relating to 13 types of gambling were collected. Our results demonstrated that the effects of belief in luck or skill on gambling behavior varied across different gambling categories. Specifically, for football lottery, Chinese lottery, and baccarat, it was not belief in skill but rather belief in luck that was a positive significant predictor of gambling frequency. Only for slot machines and stud poker did belief in skill significantly predict gambling frequency. For the remaining eight gambling categories, neither belief in luck nor belief in skill could predict gambling frequency. Our findings indicate that neither internal nor external locus of control can consistently explain people's gambling behaviors. Instead, which factor plays a greater role in a person's gambling behavior is dependent on the gambling type. Therefore, the finding that not all gambles are created equal might be a promising avenue for further research and treatment approaches.

  13. The mediating role of secondary beliefs: enhancing the understanding of emotional responses and illness perceptions in arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, James; Lindner, Helen; Sciacchitano, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Chronic illnesses are a significant issue across many health professional domains, becoming an increasing burden on limited and costly resources. The current study investigated the relationship between secondary beliefs and emotional responses, beyond the relationship accounted for by illness perceptions, using the framework of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy. Sixty-five adults with arthritis participated in the questionnaire-based study. Multivariate analysis found that different emotional representations of the illness were significantly predicted by the individual's secondary belief, above and beyond that predicted by the cognitive representation of their illness alone. The study found that individuals who utilized an achievement secondary belief experienced feelings of worry, whereas individuals who used an approval orientation to understand their arthritis experienced emotions such as depression, being upset, anger, anxiety, and fear. No significant pattern emerged for individuals who used a comfort secondary belief to understand their arthritis. These findings are in line with the theory of secondary beliefs, as articulated by Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy.

  14. Relations Among Cultural Learning Beliefs, Self-Regulated Learning, and Academic Achievement for Low-Income Chinese American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bempechat, Janine; Li, Jin; Ronfard, Samuel

    2016-12-16

    This mixed-methods study of urban low-income, English-proficient Chinese American, second-generation 15-year-olds (conducted in 2004; N = 32) examined the relation among the virtue model of learning communicated by parents and adolescents' learning beliefs, self-regulated learning (SRL) behaviors, and academic achievement. Analysis of in-depth individual interviews revealed that for these adolescents, perceptions of family educational socialization predicted students' endorsement of their culture's virtue-oriented learning beliefs and that adolescents' endorsement of these learning beliefs predicted their academic achievement. Importantly, adolescents' reported that use of SRL strategies mediated the relationship between their endorsement of virtue-oriented learning beliefs and their academic achievement. Findings are discussed in the context of further research linking cultural learning beliefs, SRL, and children's academic achievement.

  15. A Study of the Effects of a LSC Project on Scientists' Teaching Practices and Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballone-Duran, Lena; Czerniak, Charlene M.; Haney, Jodi J.

    2005-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of a local systemic change (LSC) project on scientists’ practices and beliefs about teaching and learning. A mixed-method design was implemented that consisted of a series of interviews and the administration of the Classroom Learning Environment Survey (paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching, Anaheim, CA, 1994). Results from this study suggest that collaborative opportunities afforded by this model program have positively influenced scientists’ beliefs about teaching elementary science and may be impacting some of the scientists’ pedagogical and curricular practices in their general education courses. Many scientists have developed new collaborative projects, all intended to improve science education at the graduate and undergraduate level, and are beginning to understand the complexity of science education reform.

  16. Demographic influences on environmental value orientations and normative beliefs about national forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerry J. Vaske; Maureen P. Donnelly; Daniel R. Williams; Sandra Jonker

    2001-01-01

    Using the cognitive hierarchy as the theoretical foundation, this article examines the predictive influence of individuals' demographic characteristics on environmental value orientations and normative beliefs about national forest management. Data for this investigation were obtained from a random sample of Colorado residents (n = 960). As predicted by theory, a...

  17. Hand hygiene performance and beliefs among public university employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedman-Smith, Maggie; DuBois, Cathy L Z; Grey, Scott F

    2015-10-01

    The workplace is an important location to access community members, and employers have a direct interest in employee well-being. A survey administered to a random sample of employees at a Midwestern US university tested the ability of a model informed by the theory of planned behavior to predict hand hygiene practices and beliefs using structural equation modeling. Questions demonstrated acceptable validity and reliability. Constructs predicted self-reported hand hygiene behaviors, and hand hygiene behaviors reduced the odds of reporting sickness from respiratory tract and gastrointestinal infections. The findings support multi-modal hand hygiene improvement interventions. © The Author(s) 2013.

  18. The Collaborative Leader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Carolyn Grubbs

    1998-01-01

    Uses the Los Angeles Partners Advocating Student Success, an interinstitutional educational reform effort, as a case study in collaboration. Discusses the role of the president, and contends that collaboration provides community colleges with new opportunities to promote access and enhance the educational success of underserved students by…

  19. Collaboration in teacher teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, P.

    2011-01-01

    In order to deal with innovations and the associated complexity of work, ongoing collaboration between teachers has become more important in secondary education. Teacher collaboration is one of the factors that contribute to the successful implementation of innovations in secondary schools. However,

  20. Corrections for collaborators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1953-01-01

    In the ”Directions and Hints” for collaborators in Flora Malesiana, which has been forwarded to all collaborators, two corrections should be made, viz: 1) p. 12; Omit the explanatory notes under Jamaica Plain, Mass., and Cambridge, Mass. 2) p. 13; Add as number 12a; Stockholm, Paleobotaniska Avdelni

  1. Enabling distributed collaborative science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hudson, T.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Maglaughlin, K.

    2000-01-01

    To enable collaboration over distance, a collaborative environment that uses a specialized scientific instrument called a nanoManipulator is evaluated. The nanoManipulator incorporates visualization and force feedback technology to allow scientists to see, feel, and modify biological samples being...... studied with an Atomic Force Microscope....

  2. Sensemaking in collaborative networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peronard, Jean-Paul; Brix, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    be redesigned to strengthen the collaboration between companies. To enable this discussion we delve into the sensemaking literature and theory from loosely coupled systems. Our discussion leads to the development of the Balanced Activity System (BAS) model. The paper’s key contribution is the prescriptive BAS...... model that can be used strategically in collaborative networks to redesign or create new joint activities....

  3. Toward Collaboration Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Bertrand; Pea, Roy

    2014-01-01

    We describe preliminary applications of network analysis techniques to eye-tracking data collected during a collaborative learning activity. This paper makes three contributions: first, we visualize collaborative eye-tracking data as networks, where the nodes of the graph represent fixations and edges represent saccades. We found that those…

  4. Collaboration in teacher teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, P.

    2011-01-01

    In order to deal with innovations and the associated complexity of work, ongoing collaboration between teachers has become more important in secondary education. Teacher collaboration is one of the factors that contribute to the successful implementation of innovations in secondary schools. However,

  5. Enabling distributed collaborative science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hudson, T.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Maglaughlin, K.

    2000-01-01

    To enable collaboration over distance, a collaborative environment that uses a specialized scientific instrument called a nanoManipulator is evaluated. The nanoManipulator incorporates visualization and force feedback technology to allow scientists to see, feel, and modify biological samples bein...

  6. Collaborative augmented reality environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Büscher, Monika; Christensen, Michael; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes Manufaktur, a prototype of a concept and infrastructure that goes beyond the classical CVE systems toward a collaborative augmented reality environment, where users? documents and objects appear as live representations in a 3D workspace. Manufaktur supports collaborative...

  7. Learning words from speakers with false beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papafragou, Anna; Fairchild, Sarah; Cohen, Matthew L; Friedberg, Carlyn

    2016-06-21

    During communication, hearers try to infer the speaker's intentions to be able to understand what the speaker means. Nevertheless, whether (and how early) preschoolers track their interlocutors' mental states is still a matter of debate. Furthermore, there is disagreement about how children's ability to consult a speaker's belief in communicative contexts relates to their ability to track someone's belief in non-communicative contexts. Here, we study young children's ability to successfully acquire a word from a speaker with a false belief; we also assess the same children's success on a traditional false belief attribution task. We show that the ability to consult the epistemic state of a speaker during word learning develops between the ages of three and five. We also show that false belief understanding in word-learning contexts proceeds similarly to standard belief-attribution contexts when the tasks are equated. Our data offer evidence for the development of mind-reading abilities during language acquisition.

  8. Nurse-patient collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Dorthe; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Groefte, Thorbjoern

    2013-01-01

    at three intensive care units and one general respiratory ward in Denmark. Results: Succeeding emerged as the nurses’ main concern in the nurse-patient collaboration during non-invasive ventilation treatment. Four collaborative typologies emerged as processing their main concern: (1) twofold oriented......Objectives: This paper provides a theoretical account of nurses’ collaboration with patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease during non-invasive ventilation treatment in hospital. Background: Despite strong evidence for the effect of non-invasive ventilation treatment, success remains...... a huge challenge. Nurse-patient collaboration may be vital for treatment tolerance and success. A better understanding of how nurses and patients collaborate during non-invasive ventilation may therefore contribute to improvement in treatment success. Design: A constant comparative classical grounded...

  9. Nurse–patient collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Dorthe; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Grøfte, Thorbjørn;

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This paper provides a theoretical account of nurses’ collaboration with patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease during non-invasive ventilation treatment in hospital. Background: Despite strong evidence for the effect of non-invasive ventilation treatment, success remains...... a huge challenge. Nurse-patient collaboration may be vital for treatment tolerance and success. A better understanding of how nurses and patients collaborate during non-invasive ventilation may therefore contribute to improvement in treatment success. Design: A constant comparative classical grounded...... at three intensive care units and one general respiratory ward in Denmark. Results: Succeeding emerged as the nurses’ main concern in the nurse-patient collaboration during non-invasive ventilation treatment. Four collaborative typologies emerged as processing their main concern: (1) twofold oriented...

  10. On Coordinating Collaborative Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Imine, Abdessamad

    2010-01-01

    A collaborative object represents a data type (such as a text document) designed to be shared by a group of dispersed users. The Operational Transformation (OT) is a coordination approach used for supporting optimistic replication for these objects. It allows the users to concurrently update the shared data and exchange their updates in any order since the convergence of all replicas, i.e. the fact that all users view the same data, is ensured in all cases. However, designing algorithms for achieving convergence with the OT approach is a critical and challenging issue. In this paper, we propose a formal compositional method for specifying complex collaborative objects. The most important feature of our method is that designing an OT algorithm for the composed collaborative object can be done by reusing the OT algorithms of component collaborative objects. By using our method, we can start from correct small collaborative objects which are relatively easy to handle and incrementally combine them to build more ...

  11. OGC Collaborative Platform undercover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, G.; Arctur, D. K.; Bermudez, L. E.

    2012-12-01

    The mission of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) is to serve as a global forum for the collaboration of developers and users of spatial data products and services, and to advance the development of international standards for geospatial interoperability. The OGC coordinates with over 400 institutions in the development of geospatial standards. OGC has a dedicated staff supported by a Collaborative Web Platform to enable sophisticated and successful coordination among its members. Since its origins in the early 1990s, the OGC Collaborative Web Platform has evolved organically to be the collaboration hub for standards development in the exchange of geospatial and related types of information, among a global network of thousands of technical, scientific and management professionals spanning numerous disparate application domains. This presentation describes the structure of this collaboration hub, the relationships enabled (both among and beyond OGC members), and how this network fits in a broader ecosystem of technology development and information standards organizations.

  12. Theoretical foundations for collaboration engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolfschoten, G.L.

    2007-01-01

    Collaboration is often presented as the solution to numerous problems in business and society. However, collaboration is challenging, and collaboration support is not an off-the-shelf-product. This research offers theoretical foundations for Collaboration Engineering. Collaboration Engineering is an

  13. Patterns of adolescents' beliefs about fighting and their relation to behavior and risk factors for aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Albert D; Bettencourt, Amie; Mays, Sally; Kramer, Alison; Sullivan, Terri; Kliewer, Wendy

    2012-07-01

    This study examined adolescents' patterns of beliefs about aggression, and how these patterns relate to aggressive and prosocial behavior, and to risk factors associated with aggression. A sample of 477 sixth graders from two urban schools and a school in a nearby county completed measures of beliefs, behavior, and individual, peer and parental factors associated with aggression. Teacher ratings of participants' behavior and emotion regulation were also obtained. The urban sample was 84% African American; the county school was in a rural fringe area with a student population that was 45% Caucasian and 40% African American. Latent class analysis of items on a beliefs measure supported hypotheses predicting three groups: (a) a Beliefs Against Fighting (BAGF) group that opposed the use of aggression (31% of the sample); (b) a Fighting is Sometimes Necessary (FSNEC) group that endorsed beliefs that fighting is sometimes necessary or inevitable (41%), and (c) a Beliefs Supporting Fighting (BSUPF) group that supported aggression across multiple contexts (28%). Differences across groups were found on race/ethnicity and family structure, but not on gender. Significant differences were also found such that the FSNEC group fell between levels of the BAGF and BSUPF groups on most measures. In contrast, the FSNEC and BAGF groups both differed from the BSUPF group, but not from each other on measures of empathy, perceived effectiveness of nonviolence and aggression, and parental messages supporting nonviolence. These differences suggest the need for tailoring prevention approaches for subgroups of adolescents who differ in their patterns of beliefs.

  14. The world network of scientific collaborations between cities: domestic or international dynamics?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maisonobe, M.; Eckert, D.; Grossetti, M.; Jégou, L.; Milard, B.

    2016-07-01

    Earlier publication (Grossetti et al., 2014) has established that we are attending a decreasing concentration of scientific activities within “world-cities”. Given that more and more cities and countries are contributing to the world production of knowledge, this article analyzes the evolution of the world network of collaborations both at the domestic and international levels during the 2000s. Using data from the Science Citation Index Expanded, scientific authors’ addresses are geo-localized and grouped by urban areas. Our data suggests that interurban collaborations within countries have increased together with international linkages. In most countries, domestic collaborations have increased faster than international collaborations. Even among the top collaborating cities, sometimes referred to as “world cities”, the share of domestic collaborations is gaining momentum. Our results suggest that, contrary to common beliefs about the globalization process, national systems of research have been strengthening during the 2000s. (Author)

  15. Meteor Beliefs Project: Seven years and counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBeath, A.; Drobnock, G. J.; Gheorghe, A. D.

    2010-04-01

    The Meteor Beliefs Project's seventh anniversary is celebrated with an eclectic mixture of meteor beliefs from the 1799 Leonids in Britain, the folkloric link between meteors and wishing in some Anglo-American sources, how a meteoric omen came to feature in Nathaniel Hawthorne's 1850 novel The Scarlet Letter, and a humorous item from the satirical magazine Punch in 1861, all helping to show how meteor beliefs can be transformed by different parts of society.

  16. Social learning theory and the Health Belief Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstock, I M; Strecher, V J; Becker, M H

    1988-01-01

    The Health Belief Model, social learning theory (recently relabelled social cognitive theory), self-efficacy, and locus of control have all been applied with varying success to problems of explaining, predicting, and influencing behavior. Yet, there is conceptual confusion among researchers and practitioners about the interrelationships of these theories and variables. This article attempts to show how these explanatory factors may be related, and in so doing, posits a revised explanatory model which incorporates self-efficacy into the Health Belief Model. Specifically, self-efficacy is proposed as a separate independent variable along with the traditional health belief variables of perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers. Incentive to behave (health motivation) is also a component of the model. Locus of control is not included explicitly because it is believed to be incorporated within other elements of the model. It is predicted that the new formulation will more fully account for health-related behavior than did earlier formulations, and will suggest more effective behavioral interventions than have hitherto been available to health educators.

  17. Attitudes, beliefs, uncertainty and risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenhalgh, Geoffrey [Down Park Place, Crawley Down (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    There is now unmistakable evidence of a widening split within the Western industrial nations arising from conflicting views of society; for and against change. The argument is over the benefits of 'progress' and growth. On one side are those who seek more jobs, more production and consumption, higher standards of living, an ever-increasing GNP with an increasing globalisation of production and welcome the advances of science and technology confident that any temporary problems that arise can be solved by further technological development - possible energy shortages as a growing population increases energy usage can be met by nuclear power development; food shortages by the increased yields of GM crops. In opposition are those who put the quality of life before GNP, advocate a more frugal life-style, reducing needs and energy consumption, and, pointing to the harm caused by increasing pollution, press for cleaner air and water standards. They seek to reduce the pressure of an ever-increasing population and above all to preserve the natural environment. This view is associated with a growing uncertainty as the established order is challenged with the rise in status of 'alternative' science and medicine. This paper argues that these conflicting views reflect instinctive attitudes. These in turn draw support from beliefs selected from those which uncertainty offers. Where there is scope for argument over the truth or validity of a 'fact', the choice of which of the disputed views to believe will be determined by a value judgement. This applies to all controversial social and political issues. Nuclear waste disposal and biotechnology are but two particular examples in the technological field; joining the EMU is a current political controversy where value judgements based on attitudes determine beliefs. When, or if, a controversy is finally resolved the judgement arrived at will be justified by the belief that the consequences of the course

  18. Graduates beliefs about career management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić Lepa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Career management is increasingly becoming an individuals' matter, despite the various activities organized by the different institutions to support career development and planning. An exploratory survey was conducted to determine what kind of beliefs graduates have about career management. Results indicate that graduates are aware of the importance of university knowledge for getting a job, the importance of knowledge and investment in education for positioning in the labor market, so they give priority to development opportunities that business brings opposed to the material rewards.

  19. Disengagement beliefs in smokers: do they influence the effects of a tailored persuasive message advocating smoking cessation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, A

    2009-09-01

    Disengagement beliefs function to reduce cognitive dissonance and a number of predictions with regard to disengagement beliefs have been tested and verified. However, the influence of disengagement beliefs on persuasion has not been studied yet. In a field-experiment, 254 smokers were randomly assigned to a persuasive message condition or a no-information control condition. First, it was assessed to what extent disengagement beliefs influenced persuasion. In smokers with low adherence to disengagement beliefs, quitting activity (attempting to quit) in the control condition was high, but this was not further increased by persuasive information on the negative outcomes of smoking. In contrast, smokers who strongly adhered to disengagement beliefs showed low quitting activity in the control condition, but significantly more quitting activity when they received the persuasive message. Second, it was studied what smokers do when they experience negative affect caused by the persuasive message. The results show that in smokers who strongly adhered to disengagement beliefs, negative affect was associated with less quitting activity. Although these results show that quitting activity as assessed at 2 and 8 months follow-ups was influenced by disengagement beliefs, point prevalence seven-day quitting was not. This study shows that adherence to disengagement beliefs is a relevant individual difference in understanding effects of smoking cessation interventions.

  20. ANALISIS BELIEF MATEMATIK SISWA TINGKAT SMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulan Izzatul Himmah

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to describe grade VII students’ mathematics beliefs, and to know its affect towards students’ problem solving skill. This is a descriptive study with combination of kuantitative and cualitative approach which carried out students of grade VIII SMP Eka Sakti. Data was obtained by quisioner, interview, and test. The result shows that (1 percentage of students mathematics beliefs belongs to very high, high, low, and very low level simultaneously is 12,82%, 74,36%, 12,82%, and 0%; (2 beliefs in math education 71,79%, 17,95%, 10,26%, and 0,00%; (3 belief in  41,03%, 46,15%,  12,82%, and 0,00%; (4 beliefs in social context is 17,95%, 12,82 %, 69,23%, dan 0,00%; (5 correlation coefficient between mathematics belief and problem solving skill is 0,531 with contribution as much as 28,2%. Thus students’ mathematics beliefs affect students’ problem solving skill and each student has different level of mathematics belief. Keywords: mathematics belief, problem solving skill.

  1. THE EPISTEMOLOGICAL BELIEFS OF DISTANCE EDUCATION STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral GUVEN

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The researchers have mostly emphasized the epistemological beliefs which were considered as significant in learning process along with the desire to reveal the nature of learning. Epistemological belief is defined as the “individuals’ subjective beliefs about what information means and how knowing and learning occur”. It is a fact that the teachers’ epistemological beliefs have important effect on the students’ learning process. Teachers are the models for the students with both their patterns of behavior and learning approaches. The aim of this study was to determine the epistemological beliefs of the students attending to pre-school education and English language teaching departments in distance education, besides it was attempted to investigate these beliefs in terms of certain variables, namely, gender, department and grade that the students attend, and their academic achievement level, lastly the education level of their parents. The study was conducted through a descriptive method and 697 pre-service teachers composed the sampling of the study. To collect data, “Epistemological Belief Scale”, which was developed by Schommer (1990 and adapted to Turkish by Deryakulu and Büyüköztürk (2002, was used. As a result, it was obtained that the epistemological beliefs of the students in distance education developed at low level. Additionally, it was found that the epistemological beliefs of the pre-service teachers differed in terms of gender, department, grade, academic achievement, education level of parents.

  2. An Operational Approach to Belief Revision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉平; 李未

    1996-01-01

    A deduction system,called RE-proof system,is constructed for generating the revisions of first order belief sets.When a belief set is rejected by a given fact,all maximal subsets of the belief set consistent with the fact can be deduced from the proof system.The soundness and completeness of the RE-proof system are proved,which imply that there exists a resolution method to decide whether a revision retains a maximal subset of a belief set.

  3. Probabilistic relevance ranking for collaborative filtering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.; Robertson, S.; De Vries, A.P.; Reinders, M.J.T.

    2008-01-01

    Collaborative filtering is concerned with making recommendations about items to users. Most formulations of the problem are specifically designed for predicting user ratings, assuming past data of explicit user ratings is available. However, in practice we may only have implicit evidence of user pre

  4. Communication Skills, Cultural Sensitivity, and Collaboration in an Experiential Language Village Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Allen; Minami, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses five college students' experiences in a simulated full-immersion, Arabic-speaking language village and the impact of that experience on learners' beliefs about the power of collaborative learning, the critical importance of cultural awareness, the efficacy of learning languages within a functioning community of practice, and…

  5. Cross-Cultural Collaboration in Special Teacher Education: An Arena for Facilitating Reflection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormnaes, Siri

    2008-01-01

    The present study explored how cross-cultural collaboration involving university lecturers from Norway (the North) and Egypt (the South), and student-teachers from Egypt, can be an arena for facilitating student-teachers' reflection and for challenging student-teachers' preconceived beliefs and perspectives about disability and education. The…

  6. Effects of Collaborative Online Learning on EFL Learners' Writing Performance and Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Hung-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the effects of collaborative writing instruction on undergraduate nursing students' writing performance and self-efficacy beliefs within an online learning system. A single-group experimental study utilized two instruments, the NCEEC (National College Entrance Examination Center) writing grading criteria (the SRCT) and a…

  7. Integrating Physical Activity, Coach Collaboration, and Life Skill Development in Youth: School Counselors' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Laura; Cook, Amy; Scherer, Alexandra; Greenspan, Scott; Silva, Meghan Ray; Cadet, Melanie; Maki, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Given the social, emotional, and academic benefits of physical activity related to youth development (Hellison, 2011), coupled with the minimal research regarding how school counselors can use physical activity for life skill development, this article focuses on school counselors' beliefs about collaborating with coaches and using physical…

  8. Low self-esteem and positive beliefs about smoking: a destructive combination for male college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Willie J; Perrotte, Jessica K; Baumann, Michael R; Garza, Raymond T

    2015-07-01

    Men exhibit higher rates of smoking relative to women (CDC, 2014). Given the associated health and socio-economic consequences, it would be valuable to explore the psychological factors underlying this variance. We contend that positive beliefs about smoking influence this difference, and that self-esteem moderates these beliefs. As part of a multi-institutional collaborative study funded by the American Legacy Foundation, 445 participants who reported being either steady or occasional smokers completed a series of questionnaires assessing their beliefs and behaviors involving smoking as well as several dispositional variables. Moderated mediation was used to test for conditional indirect effects. The total, indirect, and direct effects of gender were significant for individuals with lower, but not higher self-esteem. Males with lower self-esteem exhibited more positive beliefs and smoking behavior than females with lower self-esteem. No differences between males and females with higher self-esteem were observed. The gender gap in smoking behavior appears to occur primarily among individuals with lower self-esteem. It is a particularly detrimental risk factor for males, as it is related to higher positive views about smoking and increased tobacco consumption. These results highlight the importance of developing multifaceted gender specific belief-based preventative interventions to address smoking related behaviors. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Belief in life-after-death, beliefs about the world, and psychiatric symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannelly, Kevin J; Ellison, Christopher G; Galek, Kathleen; Silton, Nava R

    2012-09-01

    Data from the 2010 Baylor Religion Survey were analyzed by structural equation modeling (SEM) to test five hypotheses: (1) that religious commitment is positively related to belief in life-after-death; that belief in life-after-death is (2) positively related to belief in an equitable world, and (3) negatively related to belief in a cynical world; (4) that belief in a cynical world has a pernicious association with psychiatric symptoms; and (5) that belief in an equitable world has a salubrious association with psychiatric symptoms. As hypothesized, religious commitment was positively related to belief in life-after-death (β = .74). In turn, belief in life-after-death was negatively associated with belief in a cynical world (β = -.16) and positively associated with belief in an equitable world (β = .36), as hypothesized. SEM further confirmed that belief in a cynical world had a significant pernicious association with all five classes of psychiatric symptoms (β's = .11 to .30). Belief in an equitable world had a weaker and less consistent salubrious association with psychiatric symptoms. The results are discussed in the context of ETAS theory.

  10. Investigating the Relationships among PSTs' Teaching Beliefs: Are Epistemological Beliefs Central?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahçivan, Eralp

    2016-01-01

    The present case study explored the teaching belief systems of pre-service science teachers (PSTs), including epistemological beliefs, self-efficacy beliefs, conceptions of science learning and teaching and pedagogical content knowledge. Based on their epistemological scores, three PSTs who were categorised as exhibiting naïve, moderately…

  11. Pre-Service Teachers' Personal Epistemic Beliefs and the Beliefs They Assume Their Pupils to Have

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebmann, Karin; Schloemer, Tobias; Berding, Florian; Luttenberger, Silke; Paechter, Manuela

    2015-01-01

    In their workaday life, teachers are faced with multiple complex tasks. How they carry out these tasks is also influenced by their epistemic beliefs and the beliefs they assume their pupils hold. In an empirical study, pre-service teachers' epistemic beliefs and those they assume of their pupils were investigated in the setting of teacher…

  12. Posttraumatic Maladaptive Beliefs Scale: Evolution of the Personal Beliefs and Reactions Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Dawne S.; Shipherd, Jillian C.; Resick, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    The Posttraumatic Maladaptive Beliefs Scale (PMBS) was developed to measure maladaptive beliefs about current life circumstances that may occur following trauma exposure. This scale assesses maladaptive beliefs within three domains: (a) Threat of Harm, (b) Self-Worth and Judgment, and (c) Reliability and Trustworthiness of Others. Items for the…

  13. Energy Efficiency Collaboratives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Michael [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Bryson, Joe [US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Collaboratives for energy efficiency have a long and successful history and are currently used, in some form, in more than half of the states. Historically, many state utility commissions have used some form of collaborative group process to resolve complex issues that emerge during a rate proceeding. Rather than debate the issues through the formality of a commission proceeding, disagreeing parties are sent to discuss issues in a less-formal setting and bring back resolutions to the commission. Energy efficiency collaboratives take this concept and apply it specifically to energy efficiency programs—often in anticipation of future issues as opposed to reacting to a present disagreement. Energy efficiency collaboratives can operate long term and can address the full suite of issues associated with designing, implementing, and improving energy efficiency programs. Collaboratives can be useful to gather stakeholder input on changing program budgets and program changes in response to performance or market shifts, as well as to provide continuity while regulators come and go, identify additional energy efficiency opportunities and innovations, assess the role of energy efficiency in new regulatory contexts, and draw on lessons learned and best practices from a diverse group. Details about specific collaboratives in the United States are in the appendix to this guide. Collectively, they demonstrate the value of collaborative stakeholder processes in producing successful energy efficiency programs.

  14. Mere Civility, or Genuine Forgiveness? Prosocial Consequences of Belief in Free Will

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick C. Carmody

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent empirical findings suggest that greater belief in free will predicts positive behavioral outcomes, such as lowered aggression, decreased cheating, bettered work performance, and improved learning. To expand on this research, the current investigation re-examines the link between stronger belief in free will and pro-social behavior in the context of transgressions in interpersonal relationships. Taking into account that one’s philosophical beliefs can fluctuate in strength and across time, we conducted a daily diary survey of 85 undergraduates who reported interpersonal offenses for 14 days. Data were analyzed with a multi-level approach. We found that believing more strongly in free will was associated with greater decisional forgiveness, but was unrelated to emotional forgiveness. Higher levels of belief in scientific determinism, on the other hand, were related to greater emotional forgiveness. These relationships were not mediated by relationship attributions.

  15. Social vigilantism: measuring individual differences in belief superiority and resistance to persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucier, Donald A; Webster, Russell J

    2010-01-01

    Social vigilantism (SV) is an enduring individual difference that assesses the tendency of individuals to impress and propagate their "superior" beliefs onto others to correct others' more "ignorant" opinions. After establishing a reliable measure of SV, three studies showed that SV was associated with greater expressions of belief superiority (whether reacting to others holding dissimilar or similar beliefs) and greater resistance to persuasion (via increased rates of counterarguing and greater attitude stability after persuasion appeals) even after controlling for relevant individual differences (narcissism, dogmatism, psychological reactance, and need for cognition), as well as attitude importance and extremity. Thus, SV predicts expressions of belief superiority and resistance to persuasion above and beyond characteristics of the attitude and individual difference variables previously studied in the attitude literature. SV is a meaningful construct in increasing the understanding of persuasion, attitude resistance, and attitude dissemination that can be applied in a variety of psychological domains.

  16. General beliefs about the world as defensive mechanisms against death anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Victoria Ka-Ying; Bond, Michael Harris; Ng, Timmy Sze Wing

    Death ideation and death anxiety represent the cognitive and affective dimensions of death attitudes, respectively. General beliefs about the world are proposed to be useful defensive mechanisms protecting persons against the death anxiety provoked by death ideation. SEM is employed to test the proposed mediation model, using a sample of 133 Hong Kong Chinese university students. Results showed that death ideation was significantly and inversely linked to belief in social cynicism, reward for application, and fate control. Moreover, higher levels of belief in fate control and lower levels of religiosity predicted greater death anxiety. Only belief in fate control partially mediated the relationship between death ideation and death anxiety. Discussion focused on how social axioms serve as useful defensive mechanisms against death anxiety.

  17. The Impact of Explicit Teaching of Methodological Aspects of Physics on Scientistic Beliefs and Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korte, Stefan; Berger, Roland; Hänze, Martin

    2017-05-01

    We assessed the impact of teaching methodological aspects of physics on students' scientistic beliefs and subject interest in physics in a repeated-measurement design with a total of 142 students of upper secondary physics classes. Students gained knowledge of methodological aspects from the pre-test to the post-test and reported reduced scientistic beliefs, both from their own views and from their presumed prototypical physicists' views. We found no direct impact of teaching on students' subject interest in physics. As path analysis indicates, this result can be traced back to opposing paths: Lower scientistic beliefs of students attenuate subject interest while lower presumed scientistic beliefs that they hold of physicists foster subject interest. This finding is in accordance with the self-to-prototype matching theory that predicts an impact of the overlap between students' self-image and their prototypical image on subject interest in physics.

  18. Fear of the dark: interactive effects of beliefs about danger and ambient darkness on ethnic stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Mark; Park, Justin H; Mueller, Annette

    2003-05-01

    Two studies examined effects of ambient darkness and chronic beliefs about danger on activation of stereotypes about Blacks. Chronic beliefs were measured by a Belief in a Dangerous World (BDW) questionnaire. In Study, 1, participants in either a dimly lit or dark room saw photos of Black men and rated the extent to which specific traits described the cultural stereotype of Blacks. In Study 2, participants in either a well-lit or dark room completed reaction-time tasks assessing implicit associations between Blacks and evaluative attributes. Separate measures assessed stereotypes connoting danger versus those that are merely derogatory. Results revealed BDW x Darkness interactions on activation of danger-relevant stereotypes: BDW positively predicted activation in dark but not in light conditions. It appears that chronic beliefs about danger can facilitate activation of functionally relevant stereotypes, but this effect occurs primarily under circumstances (such as darkness) that heuristically suggest vulnerability to harm. Conceptual implications are discussed.

  19. Relation of career beliefs to career indecision among distance education adult college students in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Huiling; Herr, Edwin L

    2002-06-01

    This study constructed a predictive model of career indecision for adult college students participating in distance education by using a sample of 178 adult college students in Taiwan's Open University. The stepwise regression analysis of the career indecision scale, using sex, age, and 20 subscores of the Career Beliefs Checklist as predictor variables, yielded four variables (age and three major core career beliefs. Self-sufficiency, External Influences, and Self-advocacy) as significantly contributing to the reported variance in the Career Indecision score of the Career Decision Scale. A Pearson product-moment correlation matrix described the relationships between the Career Indecision score and the 20 subscores of the Career Beliefs Checklist, age, and sex. Recommendations for incorporating career beliefs into career education courses are offered.

  20. Religious Belief, Motivation and Moral Commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zahra khazaei

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There are two different approaches followed by moral philosophers regarding the motivational role of moral belief. Having restricted the motivating reasons to belief, the internalists consider the relationship between belief and ethical commitment necessary and believe that moral judgmentis inherentlymotivating. While theexternalists by regarding the belief and desire as reasons for action,they believe that the relationship between belief and actin is not necessary. Therefore, the weakness of will is possible, that is, the agent can acts against his best judgment. Now we put religious belief instead of moral judgment and ask about the motivational role of religious beliefs , that is , what is the relationship between religious beliefs and moral commitment? Are religious beliefs sufficient for moral action? Are they inherently motivating? Considering the impact of religious beliefs on committing ethical acts as necessary or contingent may have various and valuable consequences for the believers in different religions. The purpose of this article is to investigate such psychological relationship between religion and moralityand to seek the motivating influence of religious beliefs. The article tries to analyze the relation between the religious belief and ethical commitment and responds to this question that whether religious beliefs are the necessary and sufficientcondition for committing moral action , or they are just necessary conditions or neither necessary nor sufficient.If they are essential, what other elements can be complementary to religious beliefs? In other words, what other elements can substitute religious belief? To answer these questions, the present study will firstly investigate the stimulating influence of ethical beliefs and then will analyze the two approaches of internalism and externalism in ethics and finally will conclude that the approach of externalism is much closer to the reality. The article then will explain the

  1. Religious Belief, Motivation and Moral Commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zahra khazaei

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There are two different approaches followed by moral philosophers regarding the motivational role of moral belief. Having restricted the motivating reasons to belief, the internalists consider the relationship between belief and ethical commitment necessary and believe that moral judgmentis inherentlymotivating. While theexternalists by regarding the belief and desire as reasons for action,they believe that the relationship between belief and actin is not necessary. Therefore, the weakness of will is possible, that is, the agent can acts against his best judgment. Now we put religious belief instead of moral judgment and ask about the motivational role of religious beliefs , that is , what is the relationship between religious beliefs and moral commitment? Are religious beliefs sufficient for moral action? Are they inherently motivating? Considering the impact of religious beliefs on committing ethical acts as necessary or contingent may have various and valuable consequences for the believers in different religions. The purpose of this article is to investigate such psychological relationship between religion and moralityand to seek the motivating influence of religious beliefs. The article tries to analyze the relation between the religious belief and ethical commitment and responds to this question that whether religious beliefs are the necessary and sufficientcondition for committing moral action , or they are just necessary conditions or neither necessary nor sufficient.If they are essential, what other elements can be complementary to religious beliefs? In other words, what other elements can substitute religious belief? To answer these questions, the present study will firstly investigate the stimulating influence of ethical beliefs and then will analyze the two approaches of internalism and externalism in ethics and finally will conclude that the approach of externalism is much closer to the reality. The article then will explain the

  2. Child overweight in general practice – parents’ beliefs and expectations – a questionnaire survey study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Care for overweight children in general practice involves collaboration with parents. Acknowledging the parents’ frames of references is a prerequisite for successful management. We therefore aimed to analyse parental beliefs about the presumed causes and consequences of overweight in children and expectations towards the GP. Moreover, we aimed at comparing the beliefs and expectations of parents of non-overweight children (NOWC) and parents of overweight children (OWC). Methods A cross-sectional survey. Data were obtained from a questionnaire exploring parents’ beliefs and expectations regarding overweight in children. The questionnaires were completed by parents following their child’s participation in the five-year preventive child health examination (PCHE). Parental agreement upon statements concerning beliefs and expectations regarding overweight in children was measured on a Likert scale. Differences in levels of agreement between parents of non-overweight children and parents of overweight children were analysed using Chi-squared test and Fisher’s exact test. Results Parents of 879 children completed and returned questionnaires. Around three fourths of the parents agreed that overweight was a health problem. A majority of parents (93%) agreed that the GP should call attention to overweight in children and offer counselling on diet and exercise. Almost half of the parents expected a follow-up programme. Parents of overweight children seemed to agree less upon some of the proposed causes of overweight, e.g. inappropriate diet and lack of exercise. These parents also had stronger beliefs about overweight disappearing by itself as the child grows up. Conclusions According to parental beliefs and expectations, general practice should have an important role to play in the management of child overweight. Moreover, our findings suggest that GPs should be aware of the particular beliefs that parents of overweight children may have regarding causes

  3. Child overweight in general practice - parents' beliefs and expectations - a questionnaire survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Merethe K; Christensen, Bo; Søndergaard, Jens

    2013-10-11

    Care for overweight children in general practice involves collaboration with parents. Acknowledging the parents' frames of references is a prerequisite for successful management. We therefore aimed to analyse parental beliefs about the presumed causes and consequences of overweight in children and expectations towards the GP. Moreover, we aimed at comparing the beliefs and expectations of parents of non-overweight children (NOWC) and parents of overweight children (OWC). A cross-sectional survey. Data were obtained from a questionnaire exploring parents' beliefs and expectations regarding overweight in children. The questionnaires were completed by parents following their child's participation in the five-year preventive child health examination (PCHE).Parental agreement upon statements concerning beliefs and expectations regarding overweight in children was measured on a Likert scale. Differences in levels of agreement between parents of non-overweight children and parents of overweight children were analysed using Chi-squared test and Fisher's exact test. Parents of 879 children completed and returned questionnaires. Around three fourths of the parents agreed that overweight was a health problem. A majority of parents (93%) agreed that the GP should call attention to overweight in children and offer counselling on diet and exercise. Almost half of the parents expected a follow-up programme. Parents of overweight children seemed to agree less upon some of the proposed causes of overweight, e.g. inappropriate diet and lack of exercise. These parents also had stronger beliefs about overweight disappearing by itself as the child grows up. According to parental beliefs and expectations, general practice should have an important role to play in the management of child overweight. Moreover, our findings suggest that GPs should be aware of the particular beliefs that parents of overweight children may have regarding causes of overweight in their child.

  4. Collaborative Learning in the Cloud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchner, Kathrin; Razmerita, Liana

    2015-01-01

    This present study aims to investigate how students perceive collaboration and identifies associated technologies used to collaborate. In particular we aim to address the following research questions: What are the factors that impact satisfaction with collaboration? How do these factors differ...... in different collaborative settings? Based on data from 75 students from Denmark and Germany, the article identifies collaborative practices and factors that impact positively and negatively satisfaction with collaboration....

  5. ALEVISM AS A HETERODOX BELIEF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Zeki DUMAN

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article contains an effort for a sociological assessment of an Alevi identity. Here, first the theological pillars of the Alevi belief and the historical and cultural reality of these pillars, and in detail the identities of Turkish Alevis and their criticizing behaviour against the Sunni tradition are mentioned. The historical/cultural conflicts between Alevi and Sunni sects demonstrate that Alevism is not only a heterodox cult of sect, but also a life practice containing strong customs and legacies historically, having its own values, rituals and beliefs. However, it can be said that the Alevis living in Turkey, despite their efforts to present themselves with a religious identity, they try to exhibit an existence by their opposition concept, manners towards the current political order, political choices and initiatives; apart from this religious identity. What this existence includes, especially the historical roots of Alevism, its cultural identity, religious phenomena and most importantly their political expectations constitute the main subjects of this article.

  6. Dimensions of children's health beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dielman, T E; Leech, S L; Becker, M H; Rosenstock, I M; Horvath, W J; Radius, S M

    1980-01-01

    Health beliefs interviews were conducted with 250 children aged 6-17 years. A factor analysis of the items resulted in six correlated factors which were interpreted as 1) specific health concerns, 2) general health concerns, 3) perceived parental concern, 4) perceived general susceptibility, 5) perceived susceptibility to specific conditions, and 6) perceived seriousness of and susceptibility to disease. Factor scores were computed and two-way analyses of variance (by age and sex of child) were conducted on six sets of factor scores. No significant sex differences or sex by age interaction effects were noted. Younger children scored significantly higher on "specific health concerns" and "perceived general susceptibility," while older children scored significantly higher on "perceived parental concern." Tests of differences among variances showed a tendency for the variability to be greater among younger children. The results are interpreted as providing partial support for a model of children's health beliefs and as a basis for further operationalization of concepts which are central to an understanding of motivated health behavior. Implications for practice are discussed.

  7. Associative processing and paranormal belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianotti, L R; Mohr, C; Pizzagalli, D; Lehmann, D; Brugger, P

    2001-12-01

    In the present study we introduce a novel task for the quantitative assessment of both originality and speed of individual associations. This 'BAG' (Bridge-the-Associative-Gap) task was used to investigate the relationships between creativity and paranormal belief. Twelve strong 'believers' and 12 strong 'skeptics' in paranormal phenomena were selected from a large student population (n > 350). Subjects were asked to produce single-word associations to word pairs. In 40 trials the two stimulus words were semantically indirectly related and in 40 other trials the words were semantically unrelated. Separately for these two stimulus types, response commonalities and association latencies were calculated. The main finding was that for unrelated stimuli, believers produced associations that were more original (had a lower frequency of occurrence in the group as a whole) than those of the skeptics. For the interpretation of the result we propose a model of association behavior that captures both 'positive' psychological aspects (i.e., verbal creativity) and 'negative' aspects (susceptibility to unfounded inferences), and outline its relevance for psychiatry. This model suggests that believers adopt a looser response criterion than skeptics when confronted with 'semantic noise'. Such a signal detection view of the presence/absence of judgments for loose semantic relations may help to elucidate the commonalities between creative thinking, paranormal belief and delusional ideation.

  8. Belief Contexts and Epistemic Possibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hylarie Kochiras

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Although epistemic possibility figures in several debates, those debates have had relatively little contact with one another. G. E. Moore focused squarely upon analyzing epistemic uses of the phrase, ‘It’s possible that p’, and in doing so he made two fundamental assumptions. First, he assumed that epistemic possibility statements always express the epistemic position of a community, as opposed to that of an individual speaker. Second, he assumed that all epistemic uses of ‘It’s possible that p’ are analyzable in terms of knowledge, not belief. A number of later theorists, including Keith DeRose, provide alternative accounts of epistemic possibility, while retaining Moore’s two assumptions. Neither assumption has been explicitly challenged, but Jaakko Hintikka’s analysis provides a basis for doing so. Drawing upon Hintikka’s analysis, I argue that some epistemic possibility statements express only the speaker’s individual epistemic state, and that contra DeRose, they are not degenerate community statements but a class in their own right. I further argue that some linguistic contexts are belief- rather than knowledge-based, and in such contexts, what is possible for a speaker depends not upon what she knows, but upon what she believes.

  9. Collaborative Policy Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Boch Waldorff, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Governments all over the Western world currently face wicked problems that call for policy innovation. A new strand of research in public innovation points to collaboration between public authorities and relevant and affected stakeholders as an important driver of public innovation. A case study...... and policy ideas produced in collaborative governance arenas are not diffused to the formal political institutions of representative democracy because the participating politicians only to a limited extent function as boundary spanners between the collaborative governance arena and the decision making arenas...

  10. Innovation and network collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesting, Peter; Müller, Sabine; Jørgensen, Frances

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) can benefit from network collaboration by enhancing opportunities for innovation. Managing the necessary collaboration to benefit from network participation may however be particularly challenging for SMEs due to their size...... and their inherent shortage of resources. In this paper, we propose that human resource management (HRM) practices may provide a means by which SMEs can increase their innovation capacity through network collaboration. Following a brief presentation of the relevant literature on networks, and innovation in networks...

  11. Collaboration in experiential therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdondini, Lucia; Elliott, Robert; Shearer, Joan

    2012-02-01

    We offer a view of the nature and role of client-therapist collaboration in experiential psychotherapy, focusing on Gestalt and emotion-focused therapy (EFT). We distinguish between the necessary condition of mutual trust (the emotional bond between client and therapist) and effective collaboration (regarding the goals and tasks of therapy). Using a case study of experiential therapy for social anxiety, we illustrate how the development of collaboration can be both complex and pivotal for therapeutic success, and how it can involve client and therapist encountering one another through taking risks by openly and nonjudgementally disclosing difficult experiences in order to enrich and advance the work.

  12. Writing as collaborative inquiry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth; Pedersen, Christina Hee; Novak, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In our presentation we strive to disturb and unravel the romantic discourses of collaboration, dialogue and empowerment in relation to qualitative inquiry. For more than two years we (five Danish and Czech researchers) have been exploring the complex obstructions, difficulties and potentials...... involved in collaborative knowledge production across difference (including age, professional position, life situation, nation). We tell about our experiences with how collaboration can lead toward re-invention of our research practices and methods, as well as our own subjectivities, through involvement...

  13. Collaboration in Augmented Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Lukosch, S.; Billinghurst, M; Alem, L.; Kiyokawa, K.

    2015-01-01

    Augmented Reality (AR) is a technology that allows users to view and interact in real time with virtual images seamlessly superimposed over the real world. AR systems can be used to create unique collaborative experiences. For example, co-located users can see shared 3D virtual objects that they interact with, or a user can annotate the live video view of a remote worker, enabling them to collaborate at a distance. The overall goal is to augment the face-to-face collaborative experience, or t...

  14. Designing collaborative policy innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Annika; Sørensen, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Recent approaches to enhancing public innovation suffer from two shortcomings: They overemphasize competition as a driver of innovation and overlook the fact that public sector innovation involves policy innovation as well as service innovation. Drawing on governance research and innovation theory......, the chapter investigates the extent to which and how collaboration between politicians and relevant stakeholders can spur the formulation, implementation and diffusion of new innovative policies. A case study of a process of collaborative policy innovation in a Danish municipality shows that collaborative...... policy arenas do contribute to policy innovation but also that the degree to which they do so depends on the institutional design of these arenas....

  15. Collaboration during visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolmson, Kelly A; Reynolds, Michael G; Smilek, Daniel

    2007-08-01

    Two experiments examine how collaboration influences visual search performance. Working with a partner or on their own, participants reported whether a target was present or absent in briefly presented search displays. We compared the search performance of individuals working together (collaborative pairs) with the pooled responses of the individuals working alone (nominal pairs). Collaborative pairs were less likely than nominal pairs to correctly detect a target and they were less likely to make false alarms. Signal detection analyses revealed that collaborative pairs were more sensitive to the presence of the target and had a more conservative response bias than the nominal pairs. This pattern was observed even when the presence of another individual was matched across pairs. The results are discussed in the context of task-sharing, social loafing and current theories of visual search.

  16. Configurable Project Collaboration Portal

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SplashNote Systems is proposing to develop a more effective and innovative approach to project collaboration in distributed teams. The proposed system uniquely gives...

  17. Providers’ perspectives on collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Bruner

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Changes in models of health care are required to better meet the needs of diverse, underserved patient populations. Collaboration among providers is one way to promote accessible, comprehensive and continuous care in healthcare organizations. This paper describes the quantitative findings from two time points that examined providers' views of collaboration among a sample of diverse personnel (e.g. clinical nurses, social workers, dental providers, mental health providers, clerical staff, medical assistants, public health staff, and administrators within a federally qualified nurse managed health care centre in the United States. Methods: The quantitative arm of a mixed-method study is presented in this paper. Two instruments, the Collaboration and Satisfaction About Care Decisions Scale and the University of the West of England Interprofessional Questionnaire (comprised of 4 subscales-Communication and Teamwork Scale, Interprofessional Learning Scale, Interprofessional Interaction Scale, and Interprofessional Relationships Scale were administered to providers at baseline and three to eight months following six same discipline focus group discussions on collaboration, in order to evaluate whether participating in the focus group discussions changed providers' views of collaboration. A summary of the focus group data which were published elsewhere is additionally summarized to help provide insight to the quantitative findings. Thirty-nine staff participated. Results: Paired t-tests revealed that only one scale out of the five, Collaboration and Satisfaction About Care Decisions Scale (33.97 at time one and 37.45 at time two, significantly and positively changed after the focus group discussion (p=0.046. Providers' views on collaboration ranged from positive to moderate views of collaboration; most measures revealed a non-significant improvement after the focus group discussions. Staff with some graduate school reported the greatest

  18. Drivers of Collaborative Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weihe, Gudrid

    Drawing upon extant alliance literature, this article substantiates the argument that we need to look beyond mere structural and formative aspects of cooperation in order to fully understand the performance antecedents of public-private partnerships. Currently, scholarly work on operational...... processes and behavioural dimensions is practically non-existent. This article tries to remedy the current gap in the literature by reviewing research findings on interfirm collaboration (alliances). On that basis a conceptual framework for analyzing partnership processes is developed. Finally......, the antecedents of collaborative advantage are theoretically examined, and the organizational competences contributing to collaborative success are identified. The conclusion is that operational processes and social dynamics are vital drivers of collaborative advantage. Another significant conclusion...

  19. Indico: CERN Collaboration Hub

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Indico development is also moving towards a broader collaboration where other institutes, hosting their own Indico instance, can contribute to the project in order make it a better and more complete tool.

  20. Collaborative software development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, M. de; Visser, E.; Visser, J.M.W.

    2001-01-01

    We present an approach to collaborative software development where obtaining components and contributing components across organizational boundaries are explicit phases in the development process. A lightweight generative infrastructure supports this approach with an online package base, and several

  1. EPA Collaboration with Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States and Israel focus on scientific and technical collaboration to protect the environment, by exchanging scientific and technical information, arranging visits of scientific personnel, cooperating in scientific symposia and workshops, etc.

  2. Providers’ perspectives on collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Bruner

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Changes in models of health care are required to better meet the needs of diverse, underserved patient populations. Collaboration among providers is one way to promote accessible, comprehensive and continuous care in healthcare organizations. This paper describes the quantitative findings from two time points that examined providers' views of collaboration among a sample of diverse personnel (e.g. clinical nurses, social workers, dental providers, mental health providers, clerical staff, medical assistants, public health staff, and administrators within a federally qualified nurse managed health care centre in the United States.Methods: The quantitative arm of a mixed-method study is presented in this paper. Two instruments, the Collaboration and Satisfaction About Care Decisions Scale and the University of the West of England Interprofessional Questionnaire (comprised of 4 subscales-Communication and Teamwork Scale, Interprofessional Learning Scale, Interprofessional Interaction Scale, and Interprofessional Relationships Scale were administered to providers at baseline and three to eight months following six same discipline focus group discussions on collaboration, in order to evaluate whether participating in the focus group discussions changed providers' views of collaboration. A summary of the focus group data which were published elsewhere is additionally summarized to help provide insight to the quantitative findings. Thirty-nine staff participated.Results: Paired t-tests revealed that only one scale out of the five, Collaboration and Satisfaction About Care Decisions Scale (33.97 at time one and 37.45 at time two, significantly and positively changed after the focus group discussion (p=0.046. Providers' views on collaboration ranged from positive to moderate views of collaboration; most measures revealed a non-significant improvement after the focus group discussions. Staff with some graduate school reported the greatest

  3. EPA Collaboration with Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    For the last four years, EPA has been collaborating with Morocco on environmental governance through the Middle East Partnership Initiative (MEPI). Initial work with Morocco focused on water pollution from the textile industry.

  4. CMS Collaboration Board Meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    Hoch, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The first CMS Collaboration Board meeting of the year (2013) provided an opportunity to thank Teresa Rodrigo, Matthias Kasemann and Randy Ruchti, the 2011-12 CB Chair, Deputy Chair and Secretary, respectively.

  5. Novice teachers’ classroom management self efficacy beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Türkay Nuri Tok

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine novice teachers’ classrom management self efficacy beliefs as well as the extent to which these beliefs change according to independent variables. This research which aims to determine novice teachers’ classroom management self efficacy beliefs is a survey type research. The participants of the study are 85 novice teachers on duty in their first year in Hatay Province in Turkey. Classroom Management Self-Efficacy Convictions Scale that is internally consistent and valid in measuring classroom management self-efficacy beliefs of prospective teachers devised by Çetin (2013 was used in the study. There is not any statistically significant difference in terms of school of graduation and classroom management efficacy belief and result expectation sub-dimension. There is not any statistically significant difference in classroom management efficacy belief and result expectation sub-dimension. In terms of gender, there is not any statistically significant difference in the result expectation sub-dimension but there is a statistically significant difference in classroom management efficacy belief. Male novice teachers have higher level of classroom management efficacy beliefs than female novice teachers.

  6. Total Evidence, Uncertainty and A Priori Beliefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bewersdorf, Benjamin; Felline, Laura; Ledda, Antonio; Paoli, Francesco; Rossanese, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    Defining the rational belief state of an agent in terms of her initial or a priori belief state as well as her total evidence can help to address a number of important philosophical problems. In this paper, I discuss how this strategy can be applied to cases in which evidence is uncertain. I argue

  7. Belief biases and volatility of assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei-Sun, Wen-Zou, Hui

    2014-10-01

    Based on an overlapping generation model, this paper introduces the noise traders with belief biases and rational traders. With an equilibrium analysis, this paper examines the volatility of risky asset. The results show that the belief biases, the probability of economy state, and the domain capability are all the factors that have effects on the volatility of the market.

  8. Rationality and Belief in Learning Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tony

    2016-01-01

    This paper argues that rationality and belief are mutually formative dimensions of school mathematics, where each term is more politically embedded than often depicted in the field of mathematics education research. School mathematics then presents not so much rational mathematical thought distorted by irrational beliefs but rather a particular…

  9. Criminalising defamation of religion and belief

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noorloos, L.A.

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with the role of criminal law in dealing with defamatory expressions about religion or belief. Defamation of religion and belief is a form of indirect defamation ‘via identification’ which, as the discussion about the Dutch group defamation law shows, stretches up the notion of

  10. Lay belief in biopolitics and political prejudice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suhay, E; Brandt, M.J.; Proulx, T.

    2017-01-01

    Building on psychological research linking essentialist beliefs about human differences with prejudice, we test whether lay belief in the biological basis of political ideology is associated with political intolerance and social avoidance. In two studies of American adults (Study 1: N = 288, Study

  11. Cultural Beliefs about Autism in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riany, Yulina Eva; Cuskelly, Monica; Meredith, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Cultural beliefs about parenting have an important influence on parenting behaviours, including considerations about appropriate ways to parent children with autism. Although Indonesia has one of the largest and most ethnically diverse populations in the world, little is known about cultural beliefs regarding children with autism within Indonesian…

  12. Professional Preparation: Multicultural Health Beliefs in Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Linda Sue

    1982-01-01

    A course dealing with the health beliefs of Hispanics, American Indians, and Anglo Americans was developed at the University of New Mexico. An ethnically diverse class visited different cultural settings in the Southwest to study beliefs about religion, nutrition, folk medicine, and other customs affecting health practices. (PP)

  13. Advanced EFL Learners' Beliefs about Pronunciation Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghazo, Sharif M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores EFL learners' beliefs about English pronunciation teaching and aims to provide insights into current teaching practices of English pronunciation at both college and university levels. To this end, the study sought to elicit the beliefs of a group of 71 third- and fourth-year EFL learners majoring in English at a university…

  14. High School Students' Beliefs about Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brett D.; Byrd, C. Noel; Lusk, Danielle

    2009-01-01

    We implemented a sequential mixed methods design using parallel samples to answer our general research question: What are high school students' definitions of intelligence and implicit beliefs about the malleability of intelligence? We surveyed 9th and 11th grade students who responded to questions about their intelligence beliefs on open- and…

  15. Criminalising defamation of religion and belief

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noorloos, L.A.

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with the role of criminal law in dealing with defamatory expressions about religion or belief. Defamation of religion and belief is a form of indirect defamation ‘via identification’ which, as the discussion about the Dutch group defamation law shows, stretches up the notion of ‘g

  16. Inferring Beliefs as Subjectively Imprecise Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.;

    2012-01-01

    We propose a method for estimating subjective beliefs, viewed as a subjective probability distribution. The key insight is to characterize beliefs as a parameter to be estimated from observed choices in a well-defined experimental task and to estimate that parameter as a random coefficient. The e...... probabilities are indeed best characterized as probability distributions with non-zero variance....

  17. Investigating University Students' Beliefs about Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohebi, Sanaz Ghobadi; Khodadady, Ebrahim

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate beliefs students usually held about language learning, based on the Beliefs About Language Learning Inventory (BALLI) questionnaire (Horwitz, 1988). For this purpose, 423 University learners of English in Iran were selected. Running descriptive statistics and the scree plot test, five factors were extracted:…

  18. Beliefs about Language Learning: The Horwitz Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, Patricia S.

    Research on beliefs about second language learning based on a model designed by Elaine Horwitz is reviewed. The model is incorporated in the Beliefs About Language Learning Inventory (BALLI) developed for students of English as a Second Language, college students of commonly taught languages (French, German, Spanish), and college teachers of…

  19. The Hot Hand Belief and Framing Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMahon, Clare; Köppen, Jörn; Raab, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Recent evidence of the hot hand in sport--where success breeds success in a positive recency of successful shots, for instance--indicates that this pattern does not actually exist. Yet the belief persists. We used 2 studies to explore the effects of framing on the hot hand belief in sport. We looked at the effect of sport experience and…

  20. Diversity of Students' Beliefs about Biological Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clores, Michael A.; Limjap, Auxencia A.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the beliefs about biological evolution held by college freshman students in one Catholic university in the Philippines. After 4 weeks of constructivist-inspired instruction, interviews and journal entries revealed that the students have diverse beliefs about the theory of evolution. They posited…