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Sample records for beliefs including perceived

  1. Perceived local enforcement, personal beliefs,and underage drinking: an assessment of moderating and main effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Paschall, Mallie J; Grube, Joel W

    2009-01-01

    Strategies to enforce underage drinking laws are aimed at reducing youth access to alcohol from commercial and social sources and deterring its possession and use. However, the processes through which enforcement strategies may affect underage drinking are not well understood. This study examined three possible processes by which perceived enforcement of underage drinking laws and personal beliefs (perceived alcohol availability, perceived harm, and personal disapproval of alcohol use) may influence alcohol use among adolescents. Survey data were obtained from 20,747 adolescents (48.3% males) in 115 school districts who participated in the 2006 Oregon Healthy Teens survey. Linear regression analyses were conducted to examine possible interactive and main effects of perceived enforcement and personal beliefs on past-30-day alcohol use. Analyses were adjusted for clustering of observations within school districts and included student demographics and age of alcohol use initiation as covariates. Statistically significant interaction effects on past-30-day alcohol use were found for perceived police enforcement and the three personal beliefs variables, indicating weaker associations between personal beliefs and past-30-day alcohol use at higher levels of perceived enforcement. Main effects of perceived enforcement and personal beliefs variables were also observed in the presence of interaction effects. Evidence for a moderating effect of perceived local enforcement on the relationships between personal beliefs and drinking behaviors suggests that the combination of individually focused prevention programs and local enforcement of underage drinking laws may have the greatest impact on underage drinking.

  2. Beliefs and perceived norms concerning body image among African-American and Latino teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Cristina S; Peters, Ronald Joseph; Johnson, Regina Jones; Kelder, Steven H; Jefferson, Troy

    2010-09-01

    Focus groups, utilizing the Theory of Planned Behavior, examined the beliefs and perceived norms regarding body image in a sample of urban African-American and Latino teenagers (N = 83, 18-19 years old) from Texas. Cultural eating (behavioral belief) explained the acceptance and tolerance of overweight. Popularity of hip-hop fashion and limited income explicated peer and familial normative beliefs, respectively. Thinness equated HIV infection in African-Americans (parental normative belief). Barriers to healthy eating and active living (control beliefs) included willpower, laziness, fast food, and excessive work. Findings can guide the development and implementation of culturally appropriate obesity interventions for African-American and Latino adolescents.

  3. Belief in a Just World Lowers Perceived Intention of Corruption: The Mediating Role of Perceived Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Bao-yu; Liu, Xiao-xiao; Kou, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Corruption can be unfair and detrimental to societies; however, little is known regarding how individuals perceive corruption. We aim to understand how psychological factors, such as lay belief of the world, influence perceived intention of corruptive behavior. As corruption undermines justice, we hypothesize that belief in a just world to others (BJW-others) reduces perceived intention of corruptive behaviors. We conducted two correlational studies and one experimental study in China. Using hypothetical scenarios, perception toward bribery taking and nepotistic practices were assessed. In Study 1 and Study 2, we consistently found that BJW-others negatively predicted perceived intention of corruption, and this pattern was mediated by perceived likelihood of punishment. We further replicate this result in Study 3 by priming BJW-others, demonstrating its causal effect. The results indicate that BJW as one lay belief can be important in influencing people’s attitudes toward corruption. Implications for future research and anti-corruption policies are also discussed. PMID:24835428

  4. Belief in a just world lowers perceived intention of corruption: the mediating role of perceived punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Bao-Yu; Liu, Xiao-Xiao; Kou, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Corruption can be unfair and detrimental to societies; however, little is known regarding how individuals perceive corruption. We aim to understand how psychological factors, such as lay belief of the world, influence perceived intention of corruptive behavior. As corruption undermines justice, we hypothesize that belief in a just world to others (BJW-others) reduces perceived intention of corruptive behaviors. We conducted two correlational studies and one experimental study in China. Using hypothetical scenarios, perception toward bribery taking and nepotistic practices were assessed. In Study 1 and Study 2, we consistently found that BJW-others negatively predicted perceived intention of corruption, and this pattern was mediated by perceived likelihood of punishment. We further replicate this result in Study 3 by priming BJW-others, demonstrating its causal effect. The results indicate that BJW as one lay belief can be important in influencing people's attitudes toward corruption. Implications for future research and anti-corruption policies are also discussed.

  5. Belief in a just world lowers perceived intention of corruption: the mediating role of perceived punishment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Yu Bai

    Full Text Available Corruption can be unfair and detrimental to societies; however, little is known regarding how individuals perceive corruption. We aim to understand how psychological factors, such as lay belief of the world, influence perceived intention of corruptive behavior. As corruption undermines justice, we hypothesize that belief in a just world to others (BJW-others reduces perceived intention of corruptive behaviors. We conducted two correlational studies and one experimental study in China. Using hypothetical scenarios, perception toward bribery taking and nepotistic practices were assessed. In Study 1 and Study 2, we consistently found that BJW-others negatively predicted perceived intention of corruption, and this pattern was mediated by perceived likelihood of punishment. We further replicate this result in Study 3 by priming BJW-others, demonstrating its causal effect. The results indicate that BJW as one lay belief can be important in influencing people's attitudes toward corruption. Implications for future research and anti-corruption policies are also discussed.

  6. Believing and perceiving: authorship belief modulates sensory attenuation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Desantis

    Full Text Available Sensory attenuation refers to the observation that self-generated stimuli are attenuated, both in terms of their phenomenology and their cortical response compared to the same stimuli when generated externally. Accordingly, it has been assumed that sensory attenuation might help individuals to determine whether a sensory event was caused by themselves or not. In the present study, we investigated whether this dependency is reciprocal, namely whether sensory attenuation is modulated by prior beliefs of authorship. Participants had to judge the loudness of auditory effects that they believed were either self-generated or triggered by another person. However, in reality, the sounds were always triggered by the participants' actions. Participants perceived the tones' loudness attenuated when they believed that the sounds were self-generated compared to when they believed that they were generated by another person. Sensory attenuation is considered to contribute to the emergence of people's belief of authorship. Our results suggest that sensory attenuation is also a consequence of prior belief about the causal link between an action and a sensory change in the environment.

  7. Perceived parental beliefs about the causes of success in sport: relationship to athletes' achievement goals and personal beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sally A; Kavussanu, Maria; Tank, Kari M; Wingate, Jason M

    2004-02-01

    This study examined the relationship between perceived parental beliefs and young athletes' achievement goal orientations and personal beliefs about the causes of success in sport. Participants were 183 male and female athletes, 11-18 years old, involved in team sports. Athletes completed the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire, the Beliefs about the Causes of Sport Success Questionnaire, and two modified versions of the latter inventory to assess their perceptions of their parents' beliefs. Canonical correlation analysis revealed that perceived parental beliefs were related to goal orientations and personal beliefs in a conceptually coherent fashion. Thus, the perceived parental belief that effort leads to success in sport was related to athletes' task orientation and personal belief that effort causes sport success. In contrast, the perceived parental beliefs that superior ability, external factors, and using deceptive tactics are precursors to success in sport corresponded to athletes' ego orientation and the same personal beliefs. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for understanding the socialization experiences of young athletes.

  8. Perceived Social Support and Early Adolescents' Achievement : The Mediational Roles of Motivational Beliefs and Emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, Wondimu; Minnaert, Alexander; van der Werf, Greetje; Kuyper, Hans

    Although a bulk of literature shows that perceived social support (PSS) influences academic achievement, the mechanisms through which this effect operates received little empirical attention. The present study examined the multiple mediational effects of motivational beliefs (competence beliefs and

  9. Pre-service teachers’ perceived value of general pedagogical knowledge for practice: Relations with epistemic beliefs and source beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosman, Tom; Rueß, Julia; Syring, Marcus; Schneider, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Pre-service teachers tend to devalue general pedagogical knowledge (GPK) as a valid source for deriving successful teaching practices. The present study investigated beliefs about knowledge sources and epistemic beliefs as predictors for students’ perceived value of GPK. Three pre-registered hypotheses were tested. We expected beliefs that GPK originates from scientific sources to entail a devaluation of GPK (Hypothesis 1). Concerning epistemic beliefs, we expected absolute beliefs to positively, and multiplistic beliefs to negatively predict pre-service teachers’ perceived practical value of GPK (Hypothesis 2). Finally, we expected relationships between epistemic beliefs and pre-service teachers’ perceived practical value of GPK to be confounded by epistemic trustworthiness, perceived topic-specific consistency and topic-specific familiarity (Hypothesis 3). In a study using a split plot design, 365 pre-service teachers were presented with four texts on different educational research topics. For each topic, three text versions were constructed. Even though they were invariant in content, these versions varied in a way that the results were allegedly generated by a practitioner, an expert or by means of a scientific study. Unexpectedly, results showed that research findings allegedly generated by means of a scientific study were associated with a higher perceived value of (topic-specific) GPK for practice (Hypothesis 1). As expected, the perceived value of GPK for practice was predicted by topic-specific multiplism and domain-specific absolutism (Hypothesis 2). These predictive effects were confounded by expertise evaluations of the source and the consistency of prior beliefs with the presented research results (Hypothesis 3). In summary, our results suggest that source beliefs might not be responsible for the devaluation of GPK, but that beliefs on the nature and structure of GPK (i.e., epistemic beliefs) might play an even more important role in this respect

  10. Pre-service teachers' perceived value of general pedagogical knowledge for practice: Relations with epistemic beliefs and source beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merk, Samuel; Rosman, Tom; Rueß, Julia; Syring, Marcus; Schneider, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Pre-service teachers tend to devalue general pedagogical knowledge (GPK) as a valid source for deriving successful teaching practices. The present study investigated beliefs about knowledge sources and epistemic beliefs as predictors for students' perceived value of GPK. Three pre-registered hypotheses were tested. We expected beliefs that GPK originates from scientific sources to entail a devaluation of GPK (Hypothesis 1). Concerning epistemic beliefs, we expected absolute beliefs to positively, and multiplistic beliefs to negatively predict pre-service teachers' perceived practical value of GPK (Hypothesis 2). Finally, we expected relationships between epistemic beliefs and pre-service teachers' perceived practical value of GPK to be confounded by epistemic trustworthiness, perceived topic-specific consistency and topic-specific familiarity (Hypothesis 3). In a study using a split plot design, 365 pre-service teachers were presented with four texts on different educational research topics. For each topic, three text versions were constructed. Even though they were invariant in content, these versions varied in a way that the results were allegedly generated by a practitioner, an expert or by means of a scientific study. Unexpectedly, results showed that research findings allegedly generated by means of a scientific study were associated with a higher perceived value of (topic-specific) GPK for practice (Hypothesis 1). As expected, the perceived value of GPK for practice was predicted by topic-specific multiplism and domain-specific absolutism (Hypothesis 2). These predictive effects were confounded by expertise evaluations of the source and the consistency of prior beliefs with the presented research results (Hypothesis 3). In summary, our results suggest that source beliefs might not be responsible for the devaluation of GPK, but that beliefs on the nature and structure of GPK (i.e., epistemic beliefs) might play an even more important role in this respect

  11. Pre-service teachers' perceived value of general pedagogical knowledge for practice: Relations with epistemic beliefs and source beliefs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Merk

    Full Text Available Pre-service teachers tend to devalue general pedagogical knowledge (GPK as a valid source for deriving successful teaching practices. The present study investigated beliefs about knowledge sources and epistemic beliefs as predictors for students' perceived value of GPK. Three pre-registered hypotheses were tested. We expected beliefs that GPK originates from scientific sources to entail a devaluation of GPK (Hypothesis 1. Concerning epistemic beliefs, we expected absolute beliefs to positively, and multiplistic beliefs to negatively predict pre-service teachers' perceived practical value of GPK (Hypothesis 2. Finally, we expected relationships between epistemic beliefs and pre-service teachers' perceived practical value of GPK to be confounded by epistemic trustworthiness, perceived topic-specific consistency and topic-specific familiarity (Hypothesis 3. In a study using a split plot design, 365 pre-service teachers were presented with four texts on different educational research topics. For each topic, three text versions were constructed. Even though they were invariant in content, these versions varied in a way that the results were allegedly generated by a practitioner, an expert or by means of a scientific study. Unexpectedly, results showed that research findings allegedly generated by means of a scientific study were associated with a higher perceived value of (topic-specific GPK for practice (Hypothesis 1. As expected, the perceived value of GPK for practice was predicted by topic-specific multiplism and domain-specific absolutism (Hypothesis 2. These predictive effects were confounded by expertise evaluations of the source and the consistency of prior beliefs with the presented research results (Hypothesis 3. In summary, our results suggest that source beliefs might not be responsible for the devaluation of GPK, but that beliefs on the nature and structure of GPK (i.e., epistemic beliefs might play an even more important role in this

  12. Turkish Prospective Middle School Mathematics Teachers' Beliefs and Perceived Self-Efficacy Beliefs Regarding the Use of Origami in Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Okan; Isiksal-Bostan, Mine

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate beliefs and perceived self-efficacy beliefs of Turkish prospective elementary mathematics teachers in using origami in mathematics education. Furthermore, gender differences in their beliefs and perceived self-efficacy beliefs were investigated. Data for the current study was collected via Origami in…

  13. Empowerment variables for rehabilitation clients on perceived beliefs concerning work quality of life domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschopp, Molly K; Frain, Michael P; Bishop, Malachy

    2009-01-01

    This article describes and presents an initial analysis of variables generally associated with empowerment towards perceived beliefs concerning quality of life work domains for individuals with disabilities. The model examines the domains of importance, satisfaction, control and degree of interference of disability that an individual feels towards work. The internet based study used results from 70 individuals with disabilities in varying aspects of work. The variables composing empowerment that correlated strongly with the work domains include: self-advocacy, self-efficacy, perceived stigma, and family resiliency as measured through coping. Quality of Life concerning work was measured through the DSC-C a domain specific QOL instrument.

  14. Perceived Influence of Parenting Styles over Irrational Belief in Romantic Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardogan, Mehmet Emin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate if perceived parenting styles have any influence on irrational belief in romantic relations among university students. To determine the students' irrational belief in romantic relations "Belief Inventory in Relations" by Kalkan and to determine their perception for parenting styles "Scale of…

  15. Studying Abroad: Understanding the Relationships among Beliefs, Perceived Value, and Behavioral Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Weiling; King, Kristen; Carnes, Lana

    2015-01-01

    Increased globalization highlights the importance of encouraging university students to participate in an international experience. In this study, the authors investigate how behavioral belief, subjective belief, and control belief influence students' perceived value and intention to study abroad. The authors further examine the moderation effects…

  16. Competence Beliefs and Perceived Ability Evaluations: How Do They Contribute to Intrinsic Motivation and Achievement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiberger, Verena; Steinmayr, Ricarda; Spinath, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    To study the role of students' competence beliefs and their perceived teachers' ability evaluations for intrinsic motivation and achievement in math, 459 second graders from 27 German classrooms were examined. Students provided self-reports on their intrinsic motivation, competence beliefs and perceived teachers' ability evaluations in math.…

  17. Health communication, genetic determinism, and perceived control: the roles of beliefs about susceptibility and severity versus disease essentialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Roxanne; Kahl, Mary L; Ndiaye, Khadidiatou; Traeder, Tara

    2012-08-01

    This research examined the lay public's beliefs about genes and health that might be labeled deterministic. The goals of this research were to sort through the divergent and contested meanings of genetic determinism in an effort to suggest directions for public health genomic communication. A survey conducted in community-based settings of 717 participants included 267 who self-reported race as African American and 450 who self-reported race as Caucasian American. The survey results revealed that the structure of genetic determinism included 2 belief sets. One set aligned with perceived threat, encompassing susceptibility and severity beliefs linked to genes and health. The other set represents beliefs about biological essentialism linked to the role of genes for health. These concepts were found to be modestly positively related. Threat beliefs predicted perceived control over genes. Public health efforts to communicate about genes and health should consider effects of these messages for (a) perceived threat relating to susceptibility and severity and (b) perceptions of disease essentialism. Perceived threat may enhance motivation to act in health protective ways, whereas disease essentialist beliefs may contribute to a loss of motivation associated with control over health.

  18. When ingroups aren't "In": perceived political belief similarity moderates religious ingroup favoritism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlee Beth Hawkins

    Full Text Available Motivated thinking leads people to perceive similarity between the self and ingroups, but under some conditions, people may recognize that personal beliefs are misaligned with the beliefs of ingroups. In two focal experiments and two replications, we find evidence that perceived belief similarity moderates ingroup favoritism. As part of a charity donation task, participants donated money to a community charity or a religious charity. Compared to non-religious people, Christians favored religious charities, but within Christians, conservative Christians favored religious charities more than liberal Christians did. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the perceived political beliefs of the charity accounted for the differences in ingroup favoritism between liberal and conservative Christians. While reporting little awareness of the influence of ideology, Christian conservatives favored religious charities because they perceived them as conservative and liberal Christians favored the community charity because they perceived it as liberal.

  19. When Ingroups Aren’t “In”: Perceived Political Belief Similarity Moderates Religious Ingroup Favoritism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Carlee Beth; Nosek, Brian A.

    2012-01-01

    Motivated thinking leads people to perceive similarity between the self and ingroups, but under some conditions, people may recognize that personal beliefs are misaligned with the beliefs of ingroups. In two focal experiments and two replications, we find evidence that perceived belief similarity moderates ingroup favoritism. As part of a charity donation task, participants donated money to a community charity or a religious charity. Compared to non-religious people, Christians favored religious charities, but within Christians, conservative Christians favored religious charities more than liberal Christians did. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the perceived political beliefs of the charity accounted for the differences in ingroup favoritism between liberal and conservative Christians. While reporting little awareness of the influence of ideology, Christian conservatives favored religious charities because they perceived them as conservative and liberal Christians favored the community charity because they perceived it as liberal. PMID:23251406

  20. Exploring Prospective EFL Teachers' Perceived Self-Efficacy and Beliefs on English Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genç, Gülten; Kulusakli, Emine; Aydin, Savas

    2016-01-01

    Learners' perceived self-efficacy and beliefs on English language learning are important in education. Taking into consideration the important impact of individual variables on language learning, this study seeks to highlight the relationship between Turkish EFL learners' beliefs about language learning and their sense of self-efficacy. The…

  1. Student-Perceived Mothers' and Fathers' Beliefs, Mathematics and English Motivations, and Career Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarides, Rebecca; Watt, Helen M G

    2017-12-01

    According to Eccles and Jacobs' (1986) parent socialization model, parents' gendered ability and value beliefs influence girls' and boys' interpretations of those beliefs, and hence students' domain-specific valuing of tasks and competence beliefs and subsequent career plans. Studies have rarely analyzed how both student-perceived mothers' and fathers' beliefs affect girls' and boys' task values, success expectancies, and career plans across domains. This study analyzed survey data of 459 students (262 boys) assessed through Grades 9, 10, and 11 from three coeducational secondary schools in Sydney, Australia. Longitudinal structural equation models revealed gendered value transmission pathways for girls in mathematics. Although mathematics test scores did not vary statistically significantly, girls reported statistically significantly lower mothers' ability beliefs for them in mathematics than boys at Time 1, which led to their statistically significantly lower mathematics intrinsic value at Time 2 and mathematics-related career plans at Time 3. Such gendered pathways did not occur in English. Matched same-gender effects and gendered pathways in parent socialization processes were evident; perceived mothers' value beliefs were more strongly related to girls' than boys' importance values in English. Student-perceived fathers' ability beliefs positively predicted boys', not girls', importance value in mathematics. Implications for educational practice emphasize the need to target girls' and boys' interest when aiming to enhance their mathematical career motivations. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2017 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  2. The Role of Perceived Stress and Health Beliefs on College Students' Intentions to Practice Mindfulness Meditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizer, Carol Ann; Fagan, Mary Helen; Kilmon, Carol; Rath, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Background: Understanding why individuals decide to participate in mindfulness-based practices can aid in the development of effective health promotion outreach efforts. Purpose: This study investigated the role of health beliefs and perceived stress on the intention to practice mindfulness meditation among undergraduate college students. Methods:…

  3. Perceived Problem Solving Skills: As a Predictor of Prospective Teachers' Scientific Epistemological Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temel, Senar

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to determine the level of perceived problem solving skills of prospective teachers and the relations between these skills and their scientific epistemological beliefs. The study was conducted in the fall semester of 2015-2016 academic year. Prospective teachers were applied Problem Solving Inventory which was developed by Heppner…

  4. Physical Activity Enjoyment, Perceived Barriers, and Beliefs Among Adolescents With and Without Intellectual Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanish, Heidi I; Curtin, Carol; Must, Aviva; Phillips, Sarah; Maslin, Melissa; Bandini, Linda G

    2016-01-01

    Youths with intellectual disabilities (ID) exhibit low levels of physical activity, but the underlying contributors to behavior are unclear. We compared physical activity enjoyment, perceived barriers, beliefs, and self-efficacy among adolescents with ID and typically developing (TD) adolescents. A questionnaire was administered to 38 adolescents with ID (mean age, 16.8 years) and 60 TD adolescents (mean age, 15.3 years). Of the original 33 questionnaire items, 23 met the test-retest reliability criteria and were included in the group comparisons. Fewer adolescents with ID reported that they have someone with whom to do physical activity (64% vs 93%: P physical activities were too hard to learn (41% vs 0%; P physical activity would be good for their health (92% vs 100%; P = .05). More adolescents with ID reported a dislike of individual physical activities (P = .02). A large percentage of adolescents with ID (84%) responded that they were good at doing physical activities, but the difference between groups was only of borderline significance (95% of TD adolescents, P = .06). Adolescents shared many of the same perceptions about physical activity, but some important differences between groups were identified.

  5. Are Cultural Values and Beliefs Included in U.S. Based HIV Interventions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Gail E.; Williams, John K.; Gupta, Arpana; Malebranche, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the extent to which current U.S. based HIV/AIDS prevention and risk reduction interventions address and include aspects of cultural beliefs in definitions, curricula, measures and related theories that may contradict current safer sex messages. Method A comprehensive literature review was conducted to determine which published HIV/AIDS prevention and risk reduction interventions incorporated aspects of cultural beliefs. Results This review of 166 HIV prevention and risk reduction interventions, published between 1988 and 2010, identified 34 interventions that varied in cultural definitions and the integration of cultural concepts. Conclusion HIV interventions need to move beyond targeting specific populations based upon race/ethnicity, gender, sexual, drug and/or risk behaviors and incorporate cultural beliefs and experiences pertinent to an individual’s risk. Theory based interventions that incorporate cultural beliefs within a contextual framework are needed if prevention and risk reduction messages are to reach targeted at risk populations. Implications for the lack of uniformity of cultural definitions, measures and related theories are discussed and recommendations are made to ensure that cultural beliefs are acknowledged for their potential conflict with safer sex skills and practices. PMID:21884721

  6. Are cultural values and beliefs included in U.S. based HIV interventions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Gail E; Williams, John K; Gupta, Arpana; Malebranche, Dominique

    2012-11-01

    To determine the extent to which current United States based human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) prevention and risk reduction interventions address and include aspects of cultural beliefs in definitions, curricula, measures and related theories that may contradict current safer sex messages. A comprehensive literature review was conducted to determine which published human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) prevention and risk reduction interventions incorporated aspects of cultural beliefs. This review of 166 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and risk reduction interventions, published between 1988 and 2010, identified 34 interventions that varied in cultural definitions and the integration of cultural concepts. human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) interventions need to move beyond targeting specific populations based upon race/ethnicity, gender, sexual, drug and/or risk behaviors and incorporate cultural beliefs and experiences pertinent to an individual's risk. Theory based interventions that incorporate cultural beliefs within a contextual framework are needed if prevention and risk reduction messages are to reach targeted at risk populations. Implications for the lack of uniformity of cultural definitions, measures and related theories are discussed and recommendations are made to ensure that cultural beliefs are acknowledged for their potential conflict with safer sex skills and practices. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Are cultural values and beliefs included in U.S. based HIV interventions?

    OpenAIRE

    Wyatt, GE; Williams, JK; Gupta, A; Malebranche, D

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the extent to which current United States based human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) prevention and risk reduction interventions address and include aspects of cultural beliefs in definitions, curricula, measures and related theories that may contradict current safer sex messages. Method: A comprehensive literature review was conducted to determine which published human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (H...

  8. Culture as common sense: perceived consensus versus personal beliefs as mechanisms of cultural influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xi; Tam, Kim-Pong; Morris, Michael W; Lee, Sau-Lai; Lau, Ivy Yee-Man; Chiu, Chi-Yue

    2009-10-01

    The authors propose that culture affects people through their perceptions of what is consensually believed. Whereas past research has examined whether cultural differences in social judgment are mediated by differences in individuals' personal values and beliefs, this article investigates whether they are mediated by differences in individuals' perceptions of the views of people around them. The authors propose that individuals who perceive that traditional views are culturally consensual (e.g., Chinese participants who believe that most of their fellows hold collectivistic values) will themselves behave and think in culturally typical ways. Four studies of previously well-established cultural differences found that cultural differences were mediated by participants' perceived consensus as much as by participants' personal views. This held true for cultural differences in the bases of compliance (Study 1), attributional foci (Study 2), and counterfactual thinking styles (Study 3). To tease apart the effect of consensus perception from other possibly associated individual differences, in Study 4, the authors experimentally manipulated which of 2 cultures was salient to bicultural participants and found that judgments were guided by participants' perception of the consensual view of the salient culture. 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Perceived importance of fuel characteristics and its match with consumer beliefs about biofuels in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van de Velde, Liesbeth; Verbeke, Wim; Buysse, Jeroen; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido; Popp, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Consumer consciousness concerning the environment has increased and become a major factor in purchasing behaviour. Consumer research to understand and influence the adoption of green technologies and products is therefore important. This paper investigates the beliefs of Belgian consumers concerning the use of biofuels and identifies four consumer segments based on the perceived importance of different fuel characteristics. To convince the performance-oriented consumers to use biofuels, information about these fuels has to stress their quality and performance standards. The society-oriented cluster attaches great importance to environmental friendliness, odour, production origin, the opportunity to decrease energy dependency and job creation. To persuade the environment-oriented consumers low odour, beneficial environmental influence and quality assurance of biofuels have to be emphasized. The convenience-oriented consumers will be the most difficult to persuade to use biofuels. They need to be convinced that every vehicle can drive with biofuel blends without the need for engine modifications. Concerns relating to the price and perceived low availability of biofuels at fuel stations are major obstacles for all consumers involved in this study. (author)

  10. Lifestyle issues for colorectal cancer survivors--perceived needs, beliefs and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Annie S; Steele, Robert; Coyle, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    As survival rates for patients treated with colorectal cancer (CRC) increase, it is important to consider the short- and long-term self-management needs. The current work aimed to explore perceived patient needs for advice on diet, activity and beliefs about the role of lifestyle for reducing disease recurrence. Forty colorectal cancer survivors, aged between 27 and 84, participated in six focus groups in community locations in the UK. The findings suggest that CRC survivors would welcome guidance on diet in the immediate posttreatment period to alleviate symptoms and fears about food choices. Many participants actively sought lifestyle advice but experienced confusion, mixed messages, culturally inappropriate guidance and uncertainty about evidence of benefit. There was scepticism over the role of diet and physical activity as causes of cancer, in part because people believed their lifestyles had been healthy and could not see how reinstating healthy behaviours would reduce future disease risk. The sense of changing lifestyle to 'stack the odds in their favour' (against recurrence) appeared a more meaningful concept than prevention per se. Those people who had made or maintained dietary changes highlighted the importance of these to contributing to wellbeing and a sense of control in their life. A dogmatic approach to lifestyle change may lead to perceptions of victim blaming and stigmatisation. Personalised, evidence informed, guidance on lifestyle choices does appear to be a much needed part of care planning and should be built in to survivorship programmes.

  11. Beliefs and social norms about sildenafil citrate (Viagra) misuse and perceived consequences among Houstonian teenage males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Ronald J; Johnson, Regina J; Kelder, Steve; Meshack, Angela F; Jefferson, Troy

    2007-09-01

    In the current study, a qualitative approach was used to investigate relevant beliefs and norms associated with sildenafil citrate (Viagra) consumption, initiation, and perceived consequences. Focus groups were conducted with 43 young men aged 18 and 19 years who identified themselves as lifetime sildenafil citrate users. The majority of focus group participants believed that "curiosity" and "peer pressure" contributed to their initial use. Most revealed that they first heard about sildenafil citrate from television advertisements, family members, friends, or sporting events, and they were able to obtain the drug from their friends and family members or they stole it from their father or grandfather. These findings may highlight the relative importance of exposure to prescription drug messages among those to whom the message is not specifically targeted, that is, young men. It is possible that the sildenafil citrate television messages are recalled by not only older male audiences but also by teenagers and younger men, producing similar cognitive processing and curiosity in both age cohorts.

  12. Sport ability beliefs, 2 x 2 achievement goals, and intrinsic motivation: the moderating role of perceived competence in sport and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C K John; Liu, Woon Chia; Lochbaum, Marc R; Stevenson, Sarah J

    2009-06-01

    We examined whether perceived competence moderated the relationships between implicit theories, 2 x 2 achievement goals, and intrinsic motivation for sports and physical activity. We placed 309 university students into high and moderate perceived competence groups. When perceived competence was high, entity beliefs did not predict the performance-avoidance goal; yet when perceived competence was moderately low, entity beliefs did predict this goal. The mastery-avoidance goal had no relationship with intrinsic motivation when perceived competence was high, but had a significant negative relationship when perceived competence was moderately low. Our findings highlight the importance of reexamining the role of perceived competence when studying implicit beliefs and the 2 x 2 achievement goals.

  13. When Does Perceived Susceptibility to Skin Cancer Influence Indoor Tanning? The Moderating Role of Two Risk Perception Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcioppolo, Nick

    2016-11-01

    Previous research has demonstrated an inconsistent relationship between perceived susceptibility to skin cancer and indoor tanning. The current study explored potential moderators of this relationship to better understand how risk perceptions can impact indoor tanning intentions and behavior. A national online survey (N = 267) was administered in the United States to establish the relationship between perceived susceptibility to skin cancer, cancer fatalism, and external risk attribution beliefs on indoor tanning intentions and behavior. Results revealed significant 3-way interactions among these risk perceptions on both intentions and behavior that run contrary to much of the published research on perceived susceptibility and health behavior. These findings suggest that the relationship between perceived susceptibility to skin cancer and indoor tanning is conditional on other risk perceptions. These results are discussed in terms of their theoretical and practical implications.

  14. The relation between perceived parental involvement and academic achievement: the roles of Taiwanese students' academic beliefs and filial piety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Wen; Ho, Hsiu-Zu

    2012-01-01

    The excellent academic performance among East-Asian students has drawn international attention from educators and psychologists. However, the process that underlies student academic achievement for this particular group has rarely been documented. The present study examines how the relation between perceived parental involvement and Taiwanese students' academic achievement is mediated by student academic beliefs (i.e., beliefs about effort, academic self-concept, and perceived control). The study further explores whether this mediating effect varies with types of filial piety. Participants were 468 first-year students from colleges and universities in Taiwan. Multiple-group mediating models were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). Results indicated that, for the Taiwanese sample, students' academic beliefs mediated the relation between perceived parental involvement and academic achievement. Furthermore, the mediational effect was significant for the reciprocal filial type, but not for the authoritarian filial type. The importance of the quality of the parent-child relationship and the internalization process related to children's assumptions of their parents' educational values indicate the need for a contextual view when examining predictors of student academic achievement.

  15. The impact of societal cultural values and individual social beliefs on the perceived effectiveness of managerial influence strategies: a meso approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fu, P.P.; Kennedy, J.C.; Tata, J.; Yukl, G.; Bond, M.H.; Peng, T.K.; Srinivas, E.S.; Howell, J.P.; Prieto, L.; Koopman, P.L.; Boonstra, J.J.; Pasa, S.; Lacassagne, M.F.; Higashide, H.; Cheosakul, A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a 12-nation study designed to test empirically the relationships between societal cultural values, individual social beliefs, and the perceived effectiveness of different influence strategies. The relationships between three types of broad influence strategy

  16. Multilingualism, Perceived Positive Language Interaction (PPLI), and Learner Beliefs: What Do Turkish Students Believe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Amy S.; Aslan, Erhan

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the interface between learner beliefs and multilingualism in the under-researched English as a Foreign Language (EFL) context of Turkey. The study investigates the underlying constructs of a modified Beliefs about Language Learning Inventory (BALLI) completed by 168 EFL learners in Turkey using an exploratory factor analysis…

  17. Perceived Threat, Risk Perception, and Efficacy Beliefs Related to SARS and Other (Emerging) Infectious Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Zwart, Onno; Veldhuijzen, Irene; Elam, Gillian

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To study the levels of perceived threat, perceived severity, perceived vulnerability, response efficacy, and self-efficacy for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and eight other diseases in five European and three Asian countries. METHOD: A computer-assisted phone survey was conduc......PURPOSE: To study the levels of perceived threat, perceived severity, perceived vulnerability, response efficacy, and self-efficacy for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and eight other diseases in five European and three Asian countries. METHOD: A computer-assisted phone survey...... was conducted among 3,436 respondents. The questionnaire focused on perceived threat, vulnerability, severity, response efficacy, and self-efficacy related to SARS and eight other diseases. RESULTS: Perceived threat of SARS in case of an outbreak in the country was higher than that of other diseases. Perceived...... vulnerability of SARS was at an intermediate level and perceived severity was high compared to other diseases. Perceived threat for SARS varied between countries in Europe and Asia with a higher perceived severity of SARS in Europe and a higher perceived vulnerability in Asia. Response efficacy and self...

  18. Measuring personal beliefs and perceived norms about intimate partner violence: Population-based survey experiment in rural Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander C Tsai

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS conducted throughout sub-Saharan Africa indicate there is widespread acceptance of intimate partner violence, contributing to an adverse health risk environment for women. While qualitative studies suggest important limitations in the accuracy of the DHS methods used to elicit attitudes toward intimate partner violence, to date there has been little experimental evidence from sub-Saharan Africa that can be brought to bear on this issue.We embedded a randomized survey experiment in a population-based survey of 1,334 adult men and women living in Nyakabare Parish, Mbarara, Uganda. The primary outcomes were participants' personal beliefs about the acceptability of intimate partner violence and perceived norms about intimate partner violence in the community. To elicit participants' personal beliefs and perceived norms, we asked about the acceptability of intimate partner violence in five different vignettes. Study participants were randomly assigned to one of three survey instruments, each of which contained varying levels of detail about the extent to which the wife depicted in the vignette intentionally or unintentionally violated gendered standards of behavior. For the questions about personal beliefs, the mean (standard deviation number of items where intimate partner violence was endorsed as acceptable was 1.26 (1.58 among participants assigned to the DHS-style survey variant (which contained little contextual detail about the wife's intentions, 2.74 (1.81 among participants assigned to the survey variant depicting the wife as intentionally violating gendered standards of behavior, and 0.77 (1.19 among participants assigned to the survey variant depicting the wife as unintentionally violating these standards. In a partial proportional odds regression model adjusting for sex and village of residence, with participants assigned to the DHS-style survey variant as the referent group, participants assigned the

  19. Differences in knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and perceived risks regarding colorectal cancer screening among Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese sub-groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, T Domi; Carney, Patricia A; Lee-Lin, Frances; Mori, Motomi; Chen, Zunqiu; Leung, Holden; Lau, Christine; Lieberman, David A

    2014-04-01

    Asian ethnic subgroups are often treated as a single demographic group in studies looking at cancer screening and health disparities. To evaluate knowledge and health beliefs associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) and CRC screening among Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese subgroups, a survey assessed participants' demographic characteristics, healthcare utilization, knowledge, beliefs, attitudes associated with CRC and CRC screening. Exploratory factor analysis identified six factors accounting >60 % of the total variance in beliefs and attitudes. Cronbach's alpha coefficients assessed internal consistency. Differences among Asian subgroups were assessed using a Chi square, Fisher's exact, or Kruskal-Wallis test. Pearson's correlation coefficient assessed an association among factors. 654 participants enrolled: 238 Chinese, 217 Korean, and 199 Vietnamese. Statistically significant differences existed in demographic and health care provider characteristics, knowledge, and attitude/belief variables regarding CRC. These included knowledge of CRC screening modalities, reluctance to discuss cancer, belief that cancer is preventable by diet and lifestyle, and intention to undergo CRC screening. Chinese subjects were more likely to use Eastern medicine (52 % Chinese, 25 % Korean, 27 % Vietnamese; p Vietnamese; p Vietnamese subjects were less likely to consider CRC screening (95 % Chinese, 95 % Korean, 80 % Vietnamese; p < 0.0001). Important differences exist in knowledge, attitudes, and health beliefs among Asian subgroups. Understanding these differences will enable clinicians to deliver tailored, effective health messages to improve CRC screening and other health behaviors.

  20. Serious physical violence among Arab-Palestinian adolescents: The role of exposure to neighborhood violence, perceived ethnic discrimination, normative beliefs, and, parental communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massarwi, Adeem Ahmad; Khoury-Kassabri, Mona

    2017-01-01

    This study adopted a social-ecological perspective to exploring perpetration of serious physical violence against others among Arab-Palestinian adolescents. A total of 3178 adolescents (aged 13-18) completed anonymous, structured, self-report questionnaire, which included selected items from several instruments that measured variables relating to the constructs examined in the study. We explored the association of individual characteristics (age, gender, normative beliefs about violence, and perceived ethnic discrimination), familial characteristics (parent-adolescent communication and socioeconomic status), and contextual characteristics (exposure to community violence in the neighborhood) with perpetration of serious physical violence against others. A moderation-mediation model was tested, and 28.4% of the adolescents reported that they had perpetrated serious physical violence against others at least once during the month preceding the study. The findings also show that exposure of youth to violence in their neighborhood correlated significantly and positively with their perpetration of serious physical violence against others. A similar trend was revealed with respect to personal perceptions of ethnic discrimination. These correlations were mediated by the adolescents' normative beliefs about violence. Furthermore, the correlation of direct exposure to violence in the neighborhood and normative beliefs about violence with perpetration of serious physical violence against others was stronger among adolescents who have poor communication with their parents than among those who have strong parental communication. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Measuring personal beliefs and perceived norms about intimate partner violence: Population-based survey experiment in rural Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Alexander C; Kakuhikire, Bernard; Perkins, Jessica M; Vořechovská, Dagmar; McDonough, Amy Q; Ogburn, Elizabeth L; Downey, Jordan M; Bangsberg, David R

    2017-05-01

    Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted throughout sub-Saharan Africa indicate there is widespread acceptance of intimate partner violence, contributing to an adverse health risk environment for women. While qualitative studies suggest important limitations in the accuracy of the DHS methods used to elicit attitudes toward intimate partner violence, to date there has been little experimental evidence from sub-Saharan Africa that can be brought to bear on this issue. We embedded a randomized survey experiment in a population-based survey of 1,334 adult men and women living in Nyakabare Parish, Mbarara, Uganda. The primary outcomes were participants' personal beliefs about the acceptability of intimate partner violence and perceived norms about intimate partner violence in the community. To elicit participants' personal beliefs and perceived norms, we asked about the acceptability of intimate partner violence in five different vignettes. Study participants were randomly assigned to one of three survey instruments, each of which contained varying levels of detail about the extent to which the wife depicted in the vignette intentionally or unintentionally violated gendered standards of behavior. For the questions about personal beliefs, the mean (standard deviation) number of items where intimate partner violence was endorsed as acceptable was 1.26 (1.58) among participants assigned to the DHS-style survey variant (which contained little contextual detail about the wife's intentions), 2.74 (1.81) among participants assigned to the survey variant depicting the wife as intentionally violating gendered standards of behavior, and 0.77 (1.19) among participants assigned to the survey variant depicting the wife as unintentionally violating these standards. In a partial proportional odds regression model adjusting for sex and village of residence, with participants assigned to the DHS-style survey variant as the referent group, participants assigned the survey variant

  2. Is the Belief in Meritocracy Palliative for Members of Low Status Groups? Evidence for a Benefit for Self-Esteem and Physical Health via Perceived Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Shannon K.; Wellman, Joseph D.; Cosley, Brandon; Saslow, Laura; Epel, Elissa

    2013-01-01

    Consensually held ideologies may serve as the cultural “glue” that justifies hierarchical status differences in society (e.g. Augustinos, 1998). Yet to be effective these beliefs need to be embraced by low-status groups. Why would members of low-status groups endorse beliefs that justify their relative disadvantage? We propose that members of low-status groups in the United States may benefit from some system-justifying beliefs (such as the belief in meritocracy) to the extent that these beliefs emphasize the perception of control over future outcomes. In 2 studies, among women, lower-SES women, and women of color, we found a positive relationship between the belief in meritocracy and well-being (self-esteem and physical health) that was mediated by perceived control. Members of low-status groups may benefit from some system-justifying beliefs to the extent that these beliefs, like the belief in meritocracy, emphasize the perception of control over future outcomes. PMID:24039310

  3. Association between Perceived Value and Self-Medication with Antibiotics: An Observational Study Based on Health Belief Model Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annisa N. Insany

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available High prevalence of self medication with antibiotics can increase the probability of irrational use of antibiotics which may lead antibiotics resistance. Thus, shifting of behavior is required to minimize the irrational use of antibiotics. This study was aimed to determine the association between public perceived value and self-medication with antibiotics which can be used to develop an intervention model in order to reduce the practice of self-medication with antibiotics. An observational study was conducted during the period of November–December 2014.The subjects were patients who visit primary health care facilities in Bandung. A structured-interview that has been validated was used to investigate the association between perceived value and self-medication behavior based on the Health Belief Model theory (perceived susceptibility, benefits, barrier, and cues to action. Approximately 506 respondents were drawn randomly from 43 community healthcare centers and 8 pharmacies. Data was analyzed by using descriptive statistics and logistic regression (CI 95%, α = 5%. Validity and reliability of the questionnaire were shown with a correlation coefficient of >0.3 and a cronbach-alpha value of 0.719, respectively. We found that 29.45% of respondents practiced self-medication with antibiotics over the last six months. Additionally, there was no significant association between the perceived susceptibility, benefits, barrier, and cues to action with self-medication behavior (p>0.05. Easiness to access antibiotics without prescription was presumed as a factor that contribute to self-medication with antibiotics, therefore strict regulation in antibiotics use is very needed as a basic intervention to decrease self-medication with antibiotic.

  4. "It's not smoke. It's not tar. It's not 4000 chemicals. Case closed": Exploring attitudes, beliefs, and perceived social norms of e-cigarette use among adult users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Blair N; Johnson, Sarah E; Tessman, Greta K; Tworek, Cindy; Alexander, Jennifer; Dickinson, Denise M; Rath, Jessica; Green, Kerry M

    2016-02-01

    Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is rapidly increasing among adults in the U.S. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore consumer perceptions about e-cigarettes, including knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and perceived social norms. A total of 14 focus groups (N=116) were conducted with current adult e-cigarette users in five U.S. cities from March through May, 2014. Focus groups were segmented by age (young adults aged 18-29 and older adults aged 30 and older) as well as by e-cigarette use status (exclusive e-cigarette users and non-exclusive e-cigarette users). Focus group discussions lasted approximately 60-min and were audio-recorded and transcribed; data were analyzed using a phenomenological approach. Participants expressed many positive attitudes towards e-cigarettes and simultaneously reported a lack of information and knowledge about the products. Focus group participants overwhelmingly felt as though the ingredients of e-cigarettes were likely less harmful than conventional cigarettes. Additionally, many described positive reactions from family and friends, especially when e-cigarettes were used in place of conventional cigarettes. Findings from this qualitative study provide insight into consumer knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about e-cigarettes increasing our understanding of why and how they are being used. Such information will help provide insight into the potential public health impact of these emerging products. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. Understanding Farmers’ Forecast Use from Their Beliefs, Values, Social Norms, and Perceived Obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qi; Pytlik Zillig, Lisa M.; Lynne, Gary D.; Tomkins, Alan J.; Waltman, William J.; Hayes, Michael J.; Hubbard, Kenneth G.; Artikov, Ikrom; Hoffman, Stacey J.; Wilhite, Donald A.

    2006-09-01

    Although the accuracy of weather and climate forecasts is continuously improving and new information retrieved from climate data is adding to the understanding of climate variation, use of the forecasts and climate information by farmers in farming decisions has changed little. This lack of change may result from knowledge barriers and psychological, social, and economic factors that undermine farmer motivation to use forecasts and climate information. According to the theory of planned behavior (TPB), the motivation to use forecasts may arise from personal attitudes, social norms, and perceived control or ability to use forecasts in specific decisions. These attributes are examined using data from a survey designed around the TPB and conducted among farming communities in the region of eastern Nebraska and the western U.S. Corn Belt. There were three major findings: 1) the utility and value of the forecasts for farming decisions as perceived by farmers are, on average, around 3.0 on a 0 7 scale, indicating much room to improve attitudes toward the forecast value. 2) The use of forecasts by farmers to influence decisions is likely affected by several social groups that can provide “expert viewpoints” on forecast use. 3) A major obstacle, next to forecast accuracy, is the perceived identity and reliability of the forecast makers. Given the rapidly increasing number of forecasts in this growing service business, the ambiguous identity of forecast providers may have left farmers confused and may have prevented them from developing both trust in forecasts and skills to use them. These findings shed light on productive avenues for increasing the influence of forecasts, which may lead to greater farming productivity. In addition, this study establishes a set of reference points that can be used for comparisons with future studies to quantify changes in forecast use and influence.

  6. Teachers' Beliefs, Perceived Practice and Actual Classroom Practice in Relation to Traditional (Teacher-Centered) and Constructivist (Learner-Centered) Teaching (Note 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaymakamoglu, Sibel Ersel

    2018-01-01

    This study explored the EFL teachers' beliefs, perceived practice and actual classroom practice in relation to Traditional (teacher-centered) and Constructivist (learner-centered) teaching in Cyprus Turkish State Secondary Schools context. For this purpose, semi-structured interviews and structured observations were employed with purposively…

  7. Perceived discrimination and sexual precursor behaviors in Mexican American preadolescent girls: The role of psychological distress, sexual attitudes, and marianismo beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Delida; Whittaker, Tiffany A; Hamilton, Emma; Zayas, Luis H

    2016-07-01

    This study explored the relation between perceived discrimination and sexual precursor behaviors among 205 Mexican American preadolescent middle school girls. In addition, this study examined whether psychological distress and sexual attitudes mediated and whether marianismo beliefs moderated this relation. A categorical confirmatory factor analysis (CCFA) of the Marianismo Beliefs Scale (MBS) was conducted to test the factor structure with a preadolescent Mexican American population (ages 11-14). A path analysis of analytic models was then performed to examine the hypothesized relations between perceived discrimination, psychological distress, sexual attitudes, marianismo beliefs, and sexual precursor behaviors. Results of the CCFA did not support the original 5-factor structure of the MBS for preadolescent Latina girls. However, a revised version of the MBS indicated an acceptable model fit, and findings from the path analysis indicated that perceived discrimination was both directly and indirectly linked to sexual precursor behaviors via psychological distress. Marianismo was not found to moderate the relation between perceived discrimination and sexual risk behaviors, however certain marianismo pillars were significantly negatively linked with sexual attitudes and precursor behaviors. This study underscores the importance of psychological distress in the perceived discrimination and sexual precursor link as well as the compensatory aspects of marianismo against sexual precursor behaviors in Mexican American preadolescent girls. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. African-American and Latina Women Seeking Public Health Services: Cultural Beliefs regarding Pregnancy, including Medication-taking Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Dalia Sanchez, MD, MCP, MHA, PhD

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to describe cultural beliefs and medication-taking-behavior about pregnancy in African-American and Latina women. Design: qualitative study using phenomenological methodology; face-to-face, semi structured interviews and focus group. Thematic analysis was done to obtain themes consistent with the research objective. Setting: Maricopa County, Arizona, Department of Public-health Programs, November 2008 through April 2009.Participants: women seeking public-health services in the greater Phoenix, Arizona.Results: fifteen adult women representing two ethnic groups (seven African-Americans and eight Latinas participated. Themes derived from the interview data included: “The Dilemma: To Become or Not to Become Pregnant;” “The Ideal Stress-free World: Support System;” “Changing Worlds: Wanting Dependency;” and “The Health care System: Disconnection from Pregnancy to Postpartum.”Conclusions: based on the cultural themes: 1. pregnancies were not planned; 2. healthy life-style changes were not likely to occur during pregnancy; 3. basic facts about the biology of sexual intercourse and pregnancy were not understood, and there was no usage of any preconceptional or prenatal medications; and 4. professional health care was not desired or considered necessary (except during delivery. These cultural beliefs can contribute to negative birth outcomes, and need to be considered by pharmacists and other health-care providers. The information gained from this study can guide the implementation of educational programs developed by pharmacists that are more sensitive to the cultural beliefs and points of view of these particular women. Such programs would thus be more likely to be favorably received and utilized.

  9. Factors influencing pursuit of hearing evaluation: Enhancing the health belief model with perceived burden from hearing loss on communication partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Kristine A; Modeste, Naomi; Lee, Jerry; Roberts, Rhonda; Saunders, Gabrielle H; Witsell, David L

    2016-07-01

    There is limited application of health behavior-based theoretical models in hearing healthcare, yet other fields utilizing these models have shown their value in affecting behavior change. The health belief model (HBM) has demonstrated appropriateness for hearing research. This study assessed factors that influence an individual with suspected hearing loss to pursue clinical evaluation, with a focus on perceived burden of hearing loss on communication partners, using the HBM as a framework. Cross-sectional design collecting demographics along with three validated hearing-loss related questionnaires. Patients from Duke University Medical Center Otolaryngology Clinic aged 55-75 years who indicated a communication partner had expressed concern about their hearing. A final sample of 413 completed questionnaire sets was achieved. The HBM model construct 'cues to action' was a significant (p loss on communication partners was a significant (p model fit when added to the HBM: 72.0% correct prediction when burden is added versus 66.6% when not (p models in hearing healthcare is warranted.

  10. Awareness of tobacco advertising, perceived harms of smoking, and beliefs about tobacco control among a sample of Shanghainese in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, PinPin; Qian, Haihong; Wang, Fan; Sun, Shaojing; Nehl, Eric J; Wong, Frank Y

    2013-10-01

    This study aims to examine beliefs among residents of Shanghai, China concerning tobacco advertising and control policies concurrent with new restrictions on tobacco use and advertising in the city. A total of 518 residents of Shanghai completed a telephone interview survey. We found that 51% of participants had seen or heard of the Zhonghua cigarette brand's 'Love China' tobacco ad campaign in the past 2 years, 59% believed that the campaign would influence people to buy this specific cigarette brand as a gift, and 30% believed that it would encourage smoking. More than 75% of respondents would support legislation banning tobacco advertising in all public places, and 88% would support legislation prohibiting smoking in all public places. Multivariate analyses indicated that those who were female, more than 50 years, have accepted college and above education, and perceived greater benefits to smoking cessation were more likely to support banning tobacco advertising and prohibiting smoking in public places. Non-smokers were more likely to support prohibiting smoking in public places. The findings suggest that although tobacco advertising is widely prevalent in Shanghai, it is disliked by the public. Respondents showed high levels of support for tobacco control policies.

  11. Effects of Leisure Education Programme Including Sportive Activities on Perceived Freedom in Leisure of Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertuzun, Ezgi

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this experimental study is to determine the effect of leisure education programme including sportive activities on the perceived freedom in leisure of adolescents with mild intellectual disabilities. The research was designed with an experimental group (n = 37) and a control group (n = 34), and was conducted among a total of 71…

  12. CONCEPT ANALYSIS OF PERCEIVED CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardiyono Mardiyono

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Perceived control is a personality characteristic that contributes psychological adjustment. It was derived from various theories, so that definitions of perceived control were ambiguous meaning. Disclosing concept of perceived control is required.Objective. The analysis aims to identify definition and use of perceived control, examine the basic attributes of perceived control, and the measurements of perceived control.Method. Databases searched for electronic journals and books that were published from 1994 to 2010 were analyzed.Result. Perceived control is personal belief that refers to controllability on behalf of one’s self and ability to control threats or events. The use of perceived control includes maternal, pediatric, medical, surgical, psychiatric, community nursing, and pain management. Perceived control was composed of two dimensions: belief about controllability and belief about ability to control to threats.Conclusion. Instrument of Anxiety Control Questionnaire most closely corresponds to two dimensions: belief about controllability and ability to control. Defining attributes and dimensions of perceived control are useful for developing tool.Keywords: perceived control, controllability, ability to control, and agency

  13. Knowledge of, beliefs about, and perceived barriers to the use of the emergency contraception pill among women aged 18-51 in Nova Scotia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whelan AM

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate women in Nova Scotia (NS, Canada with respect to their knowledge of, beliefs about, and perceptions of barriers to accessing emergency contraception pills (ECP.Methods: A random digit dialing approach was used to survey a representative sample of NS women aged 18-51. Analyses described the knowledge, beliefs, and perceived barriers associated with ECP access among participants. Particular focus was given to differences between younger (age 18-31 and older (age 32-51 women.Results: The survey response rate of 49% achieved the desired sample size of 770. Overall, women in NS appeared to be poorly informed about ECP with regards to effectiveness, proper timing of administration, how it works, as well as how to access Plan B®. Younger women (age 18-31 were significantly more likely than older women (age 32-51 to know that ECP does not always prevent pregnancy (p<0.01, that it can be taken more than 12 hours after unprotected intercourse (p<0.01, and that it is available without a prescription in pharmacies (p<0.01. Thirty percent of women agreed that ECP will cause an abortion, with older women (p<0.01 being more likely than younger women to agree. Cost and lack of privacy in pharmacies were identified as potential barriers to access.Conclusions: Lack of knowledge and the perception that ECP causes an abortion may influence a woman’s ability to consider ECP as an option should she find herself at risk of an unplanned pregnancy. To address this, efforts should be made to educate women (including older women about ECP and its availability in pharmacies.

  14. Observing the World Through Your Own Lenses – The Role of Perceived Adaptability for Epistemological Beliefs About the Development of Scientific Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronny Scherer

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Students are exposed to vast amounts of information and knowledge that is rapidly changing. This exposure requires them to be adaptive, that is, to constantly adjust their thinking, behavior, and even their affect to successfully solve information-rich and knowledge-lean problems. Considering these developments, the purpose of the present study is twofold: First, it is aimed at exploring the link between students’ beliefs about their adaptability in an ever-changing world and their beliefs about the changing nature of scientific knowledge, thus linking two educationally relevant belief systems. Second, this study further explores validity issues related to the well-established and commonly used “Epistemological Beliefs about the Development of Scientific Knowledge (EBDE” scale. Performing structural equation modeling on a large-scale data set of 1,662 Norwegian tenth-grade students, we estimated the correlations among different aspects of adaptability (i.e., cognitive-behavioral and affective-emotional adaptability and EBDE. Moving beyond these correlations, we tested whether students’ perceived adaptability had an impact on the functioning of EBDE items by means of moderated factor analysis. Our analyses revealed that adaptability was associated with sophisticated EBDE in science, and the EB scale functioned differently with respect to different adaptability scores. The results of this study indicate that students perceive the development of scientific knowledge through the lenses of their own adaptability. Furthermore, the differential functioning of the EBDE scale challenges its validity.

  15. Predicting depression from illness severity in cardiovascular disease patients: self-efficacy beliefs, illness perception, and perceived social support as mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, A; Steca, P; Pozzi, R; Monzani, D; D'Addario, M; Villani, A; Rella, V; Giglio, A; Malfatto, G; Parati, G

    2014-04-01

    Many studies have investigated the relationships between cardiovascular diseases and patients' depression; nevertheless, few is still known as regard the impact of illness severity on depression and whether psychosocial variables mediate this association. The aim of this study is to investigate the putative mediating role of illness representations, self-efficacy beliefs, and perceived social support on the relationship between illness severity and depression. A total of 75 consecutive patients with cardiovascular disease (80 % men; mean age = 65.44, SD = 10.20) were enrolled in an Italian hospital. Illness severity was measured in terms of left ventricular ejection fraction, whereas psychological factors were assessed using self-report questionnaires. The relationship between left ventricular ejection fraction and depression was mediated by identity illness perception, self-efficacy beliefs in managing cardiac risk factors, and perceived social support. The treatment of depression in cardiovascular disease patients may therefore benefit from a psychological intervention focused on patients' illness representations, self-efficacy beliefs, and their perceived social support.

  16. On the Need to Include National Culture as a Central Issue in E-Commerce Trust Beliefs

    OpenAIRE

    David Gefen; Tsipi Heart Heart

    2006-01-01

    Trust and trust beliefs (trustworthiness) are key to e-commerce success but depend, to a large extent, on culture. With e-commerce being an international phenomenon, understanding the cross-cultural aspects of trust creation is therefore arguably required although mostly ignored by current research which deals almost exclusively with the U.S. This exploratory study examines whether definitions of trust beliefs as conceptualized and verified in the U.S. apply in Israel which differs markedly i...

  17. Employee's perceived exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, passive smoking risk beliefs and attitudes towards smoking: a case study in a university setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duaso, M J; De Irala, J; Canga, N

    2006-02-01

    Despite the growing literature on workplace smoking policies, few studies have focused on the implementation of such policies in university settings. Smoking in the workplace is still very common in many countries, including Spain. While the law is about to change and more non-smoking policies are to be implemented, it is not clear what kind of restrictions Spanish workers would find acceptable. This study investigated perceived exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), passive smoking risks beliefs and attitudes towards smoking at the University of Navarra (Spain). A questionnaire was sent by E-mail to 641 randomly selected employees and a response rate of 70.4% was obtained. The survey results suggest that 27.3% of the university employees were smokers and 26.6% were exposed to ETS on a daily basis. The majority of respondents (81.7%) supported a restrictive non-smoking policy. Acceptance among active smokers was significantly lower (59.2 versus 89.3%). Smoking prohibition with the provision of smoking areas was the most favored option (46.9%). Results suggest that employees are ready to restrict smoking in the university, but there was not enough support for a total ban. Employers considering adopting a ban on smoking should be encouraged to conduct a similar survey to identify potential barriers to policy implementation.

  18. Parent-child conflict and psychological maladjustment: a mediational analysis with reciprocal filial belief and perceived threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Kuang-Hui; Tsao, Wei-Chun; Chen, Wei-Wen

    2010-04-01

    Empirical research has shown that parent-child conflict is positively related to poor adjustment in adolescents; however, the underlying processes have not been adequately examined. To explore the possible mediating pathways, reciprocal filial belief and perceived threat were chosen to represent two likely mechanisms accounting for how parent-child conflict harms adolescents' perceptions of their relationship with their parents and their self-perceptions within their cognitive-appraisal framework. The former operates by attenuating children's affection towards their parents and the latter by lowering their self-perceptions. This study also distinguishes internalizing from externalizing problems in order to examine whether lower reciprocal filial belief more strongly mediates the relation between conflict with parents and adolescents' externalizing problems and whether perceived threat more strongly mediates the relation between conflict with parents and adolescents' internalizing problems. Hypotheses are as follows: (1) the more parent-child conflict adolescents report, the less reciprocal filial belief they recognize, which, in turn, leads to more maladjustments, especially externalizing ones; (2) the more parent-child conflicts adolescents report, the more threat they perceive, which, in turn, leads to more maladjustments, especially internalizing ones. Participants consisted of 603 Taiwanese adolescents (226 males and 377 females) aged 15 to 19 (average age = 16.95; SD = 0.78). Structural equation modelling analyses confirmed the hypotheses. However, the three direct effects of conflict on internalizing problems, aggression, and deviant behaviour were still significant. In addition, a greater effect of the paternal than the maternal role on the link between conflict and attenuated reciprocal filial belief, and between perceived threat and internalizing problems, was identified. Implications for understanding the mediation processes responsible for all indirect

  19. The Mediation Effects of Dysfunctional Beliefs and Emotional Regulation on Children's Perceived Parental Conflict and Internalizing and Externalizing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-yeon; Wesbecher, Kristen; Lee, Mihwa; Lee, Jeeyon

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the mediational effects of dysfunctional beliefs and difficulties in emotional regulation on children's perception of interparental conflict and subsequent internalizing and externalizing problems. The participants in this study were 335 fifth grade elementary school students in Korea. We hypothesized that…

  20. The Impact of Gender, Perceived Female Isolation and Beliefs in Traditional Roles for Women on Job Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Lizabeth A.; And Others

    Past research has detailed conflicting results in investigations of sex differences and job satisfaction. To explain sex differences and job satisfaction within the framework of subtle treatment discrimination (a situation variable) and beliefs about roles for women (a person variable), 1578 employees of a large corporation completed demographic…

  1. Beliefs about Alcohol and the College Experience as Moderators of the Effects of Perceived Drinking Norms on Student Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Lizabeth A.; Novak, Katherine B.

    2010-01-01

    Many students view the abuse of alcohol as integral to the student role. Thus, they feel entitled to drink heavily without sanction. OLS regression was used to assess the extent to which these beliefs about alcohol and the college experience moderate the effects of descriptive and injunctive campus drinking norms on students' levels of alcohol…

  2. Attitudes, beliefs, and perceived norms about corporal punishment and related training needs among members of the "American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Catherine A; Fleckman, Julia M; Lee, Shawna J

    2017-09-01

    Hitting children for disciplinary purposes (i.e., spanking or corporal punishment [CP]) is a strong risk factor for child physical abuse and is highly prevalent in the U.S. Yet, little is currently known about the relevant attitudes, beliefs, or training needs of key professionals who often advise parents regarding child discipline strategies. A survey of the American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children (APSAC) membership, comprised of mental health professionals, physicians, child welfare professionals, and other professionals in the child maltreatment field, was conducted to assess attitudes, beliefs, perceived norms, training needs, and motivations to change norms regarding CP (N=571, response rate=51%). Most respondents agreed that spanking is a bad disciplinary technique (82%), is harmful for children (74%), and leads to negative outcomes (M=3.0, SD=0.6) more frequently than positive outcomes (M=2.1, SD=0.6; t=20.8; p<0.0001) for children. Professionals reported perceiving that their colleagues' level of endorsement of CP (M=2.4, SD=1.0) was higher than their own (M=1.9, SD=1.0; t(568)=-10.7, p<0.0001) though still below the midpoint. Professionals reported high levels of preparedness to effectively advise parents on non-physical child discipline strategies, but reported perceiving lower levels of preparedness amongst their colleagues. They reported highly valuing giving such advice to parents and being very motivated to participate in activities designed to change social norms regarding CP. Most APSAC members are poised to change these norms and, in doing so, to help reduce rates of child physical abuse in the U.S. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Theory of Planned Behavior including self-stigma and perceived barriers explain help-seeking behavior for sexual problems in Iranian women suffering from epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chung-Ying; Oveisi, Sonia; Burri, Andrea; Pakpour, Amir H

    2017-03-01

    To apply the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and the two additional concepts self-stigma and perceived barriers to the help-seeking behavior for sexual problems in women with epilepsy. In this 18-month follow-up study, TPB elements, including attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and behavioral intention along with self-stigma and perceived barriers in seeking help for sexual problems were assessed in n=818 women with epilepsy (94.0% aged ≤40years). The basic TPB model (model 1) and the TPB model additionally including self-stigma and perceived barriers (Model 2) were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). Both SEM models showed satisfactory model fits. According to model, attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intention explained 63.1% of the variance in help-seeking behavior. Variance was slightly higher (64.5%) when including self-stigma and perceived barriers (model 2). In addition, the fit indices of the models were better highlighting the importance of self-stigma and perceived barriers in help-seeking behavior for sexual problems. Theory of Planned Behavior is useful in explaining help-seeking behavior for sexual problems in women with epilepsy. Self-stigma and perceived barriers are additional factors that should be considered in future interventions aiming to adopt TPB to improve help-seeking behavior for sexual problems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Does Everyone Benefit Equally from Self-Efficacy Beliefs? The Moderating Role of Perceived Social Support on Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagci, Sabahat Cigdem

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated whether perceived goal support from family and friends may moderate the relationship between academic self-efficacy and motivational outcomes among early adolescent students recruited from a low-middle socio-economic status (SES) background school in Turkey (N = 319, [X-bar][subscript age] = 13.13, SD = 0.80). Self-report…

  5. Intention to adopt clinical decision support systems in a developing country: effect of Physician’s perceived professional autonomy, involvement and belief: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambasivan Murali

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computer-based clinical decision support systems (CDSS are regarded as a key element to enhance decision-making in a healthcare environment to improve the quality of medical care delivery. The concern of having new CDSS unused is still one of the biggest issues in developing countries for the developers and implementers of clinical IT systems. The main objectives of this study are to determine whether (1 the physician’s perceived professional autonomy, (2 involvement in the decision to implement CDSS and (3 the belief that CDSS will improve job performance increase the intention to adopt CDSS. Four hypotheses were formulated and tested. Methods A questionnaire-based survey conducted between July 2010 and December 2010. The study was conducted in seven public and five private hospitals in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Before contacting the hospitals, necessary permission was obtained from the Ministry of Health, Malaysia and the questionnaire was vetted by the ethics committee of the ministry. Physicians working in 12 hospitals from 10 different specialties participated in the study. The sampling method used was stratified random sampling and the physicians were stratified based on the specialty. A total of 450 physicians were selected using a random number generator. Each of these physicians was given a questionnaire and out of 450 questionnaires, 335 (response rate – 74% were returned and 309 (69% were deemed usable. Results The hypotheses were tested using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. Salient results are: (1 Physicians’ perceived threat to professional autonomy lowers the intention to use CDSS (p Conclusion The proposed model with the three main constructs (physician’s professional characteristic, involvement and belief explains 47% of the variance in the intention to use CDSS. This is significantly higher than the models addressed so far. The results will have a major impact in implementing CDSS in developing

  6. Discourse versus practice: are traditional practices and beliefs in pregnancy and childbirth included or excluded in the Ecuadorian health care system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Carlos Andres; Waters, William F; Kuhlmann, Anne Sebert

    2017-03-01

    Traditional beliefs, knowledge and practices are formally integrated into the Ecuadorian health system. We sought to understand whether they are integrated in practice. Qualitative data were collected in two rural parishes in the central highlands of Ecuador through four focus group discussions (30 participants), eight key informant interviews, three participatory exercises (24 participants), structured observations of health facilities and analysis of official documents. We found different levels of integration, coexistence, tolerance, and intolerance of traditional health beliefs and practices in health facilities. One parish has undergone dramatic social and cultural transformation, and the role of traditional birth attendants is limited. In the other parish, traditional indigenous norms and values persist, and traditional birth attendants are sought during pregnancy and childbirth. The degree to which traditional birth attendants, indigenous women and their families are included or excluded from public health services depends largely on decisions taken by local health professionals. Formal policies in Ecuador stipulate that health care should be intercultural, but the role of traditional birth attendants is not necessarily incorporated in practice. The integration of culturally-informed beliefs and practices is critical for providing appropriate health services to members of vulnerable populations. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Self-perceived oral malodour among periodontal patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    tooth brushing, worry about oral malodour and belief that artificial teeth are inevitable in old age. ... dental treatment reported less self-perceived oral malodour. Participants that .... body hygiene including oral hygiene in comparison with their ...

  8. The effect of using in computer skills on teachers’ perceived self-efficacy beliefs towards technology integration, attitudes and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badrie Mohammad Nour ELDaou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The current study analyzesthe relationship between the apparentteacher’s Self-efficacyand attitudes towardsintegrating technology into classroom teaching, self-evaluation reportsand computer performance results. Pre-post measurement of the Computer Technology Integration Survey (CTIS (Wang et al, 2004 was used to determine theconfidence level with of 60 science teachers and 12 mixed-major teachers enrolled at the Lebanese University, Faculty of Education in the academic year 2011-2012. Pre –post measurement onteachers’attitudes towards usingtechnologywas examined using an opened and a closed questionnaire.Teachers’ performance was measured by means of their Activeinspire projects results using active boards after their third practice of training in computer skills and Activeinspire program. To accumulate data on teachers’ self-report, this study uses Robert Reasoner's five components: feeling of security, feeling of belonging, feeling of identity, feeling of goal, and self-actualization which teachers used to rate themselves (Reasoner,1983. The study acknowledged probable impacts of computer training skills on teachers ‘self-evaluation report, effectiveness of computer technology skills, and evaluations of self-efficacy attitudes toward technology integration. Pearson correlation revealed a strong relationship r= 0.99 between the perceived self-efficacy towards technology incorporation and teachers’ self-evaluation report. Also, the findings of this research revealed that 82.7% of teachers earned high computer technology scores on their Activeinspire projects and 33.3% received excellent grades on computer performance test. Recommendations and potential research were discussed

  9. The Effect of Using in Computer Skills on Teachers’ Perceived Self-Efficacy Beliefs Towards Technology Integration, Attitudes and Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badrie Mohammad Nour EL-Daou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study analyzes the relationship between the apparent teacher’s Self-efficacy and attitudes towards integrating technology into classroom teaching, self- evaluation reports and computer performance results. Pre-post measurement of the Computer Technology Integration Survey (CTIS (Wang et al,2004 was used to determine the confidence level with of 60 science teachers and 12 mixed-major teachers enrolled at the Lebanese University, Faculty of Education in the academic year 2011-2012. Pre –post measurement on teachers’ attitudes towards using technology was examined using an opened and a closed questionnaire. Teachers’ performance was measured by means of their Activeinspire projects results using active boards after their third practice of training in computer skills and Activeinspire program. To accumulate data on teachers’ self-report, this study uses Robert Reasoner's five components: feeling of security, feeling of belonging, feeling of identity, feeling of goal, and self-actualization which teachers used to rate themselves (Reasoner,1983. The study acknowledged probable impacts of computer training skills on teachers ‘self-evaluation report, effectiveness of computer technology skills, and evaluations of self-efficacy attitudes toward technology integration. Pearson correlation revealed a strong relationship r = 0.99 between the perceived self-efficacy towards technology incorporation and teachers’ self-evaluation report. Also, the findings of this research revealed that 82.7% of teachers earned high computer technology scores on their Activeinspire projects and 33.3% received excellent grades on computer performance test. Recommendations and potential research were discussed.

  10. The influence of nurse home visits, including provision of 3 months of contraceptives and contraceptive counseling, on perceived barriers to contraceptive use and contraceptive use self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnick, Alan L; Rdesinski, Rebecca E; Creach, E Dawn; Choi, Dongseok; Harvey, S Marie

    2008-01-01

    To identify the influence of a community health nurse (CHN) home visit on perceived barriers to contraceptive access and contraceptive use self-efficacy. We enrolled 103 women into two groups in a randomized trial evaluating the influence of contraceptive dispensing and family planning counseling during home visits on perceived barriers to accessing contraceptives and contraceptive use self-efficacy. Both groups received counseling by a CHN about sexually transmitted disease and pregnancy prevention, and a resource card listing phone numbers of family planning clinics. After randomization, the CHN dispensed three months of hormonal contraception to the intensive intervention group and advised the minimal intervention group to schedule an appointment at a family planning clinic. Data collection at baseline and 12 months included demographic, reproductive and other health-related information as well as quantitative assessments of information on perceived barriers to contraceptive access and contraceptive use self-efficacy. The mean age of participants was 24.7 years. Three-fourths had household incomes under $25,000. We found significant reductions in three perceived barriers to contraceptive access for both groups, as well as significant increases in two measures of contraceptive use self-efficacy at twelve months compared to baseline. Nurse home visits involving family planning counseling might be effective in reducing perceived barriers to contraceptive access and increasing contraceptive use self-efficacy.

  11. A Cross-Cultural Study on Behaviors When Death Is Approaching in East Asian Countries: What Are the Physician-Perceived Common Beliefs and Practices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shao-Yi; Suh, Sang-Yeon; Morita, Tatsuya; Oyama, Yasuhiro; Chiu, Tai-Yuan; Koh, Su Jin; Kim, Hyun Sook; Hwang, Shinn-Jang; Yoshie, Taeko; Tsuneto, Satoru

    2015-09-01

    The primary aim of this study was to explore common beliefs and practices when death is approaching in East-Asian countries. A cross-sectional survey was performed involving palliative care physicians in Japan, Korea, and Taiwan. Measurement outcomes were physician-perceived frequencies of the following when patient death was approaching: (1) reluctance to take part in end-of-life discussions, (2) role of family members, (3) home death, and (4) circumstances surrounding death. A total of 505, 211, and 207 responses were obtained from Japanese, Korea, and Taiwan physicians, respectively. While 50% of the Japanese physicians reported that they often or very often experienced families as being reluctant to discuss end-of-life issues, the corresponding figures were 59% in Korea and 70% in Taiwan. Two specific reasons to avoid end-of-life discussion, "bad things happen after you say them out loud" and "a bad life is better than a good death" were significantly more frequently observed in Taiwan. Prioritizing the oldest of the family in breaking bad news and having all family members present at the time of death were significantly more frequently observed in Korea and Taiwan. Half of Taiwanese physicians reported they often or very often experienced the patients/family wanted to go back home to die because the soul would not be able to return from the hospital. In all countries, more than 70% of the physicians reported certain family members were expected to care for the patient at home. At the time of death, while no Japanese physicians stated that they often experienced patients wanted a religious person to visit, the corresponding figure in Korean and Taiwan was about 40%. Uncovered expression of emotion was significantly frequently observed in Korean and Taiwan, and 42% of the Japanese physicians reported family members cleaned the dead body of the patient themselves. There seem to be significant intercountry differences in beliefs and practices when death is

  12. The association between reality-based beliefs and indirectly experienced traumatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiri, Shimon; Wexler, Isaiah D; Schwartz, Isabella; Kadari, Michal; Kreitler, Shulamith

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the association between belief types and the magnitude of indirect traumatization. Specific types of beliefs were defined in terms of the cognitive orientation theory, which is a cognitive-motivational approach to the understanding, predicting, and changing of behaviors. Belief types that were analyzed included beliefs about self, general beliefs, beliefs about norms, and goal beliefs as they relate to personal growth. Study participants included 38 rescuers (body handlers), 37 nurses, and 31 rehabilitation workers who treated injured civilians that had been exposed to politically motivated violence. The Cognitive Orientation for Posttraumatic Growth Scale was used to assess beliefs about personal growth. The Revised Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Inventory was administered to evaluate indirect traumatization. The results indicate that three of the four belief types related to personal growth were associated with the level of indirect traumatization. Optimistic and positive beliefs about self and general beliefs were associated with a lower level of indirect traumatization symptomatology, suggesting that these types of beliefs may counteract indirect traumatization. On the other hand, stronger goal beliefs were associated with greater indirect traumatization. The negative association between positive goal beliefs and indirect trauma may be related to the gap the individual perceives between the hoped-for ideals and the trauma-stricken reality. These results indicate the importance of cognitive beliefs and their possible role in determining the response to indirect traumatization.

  13. Intergenerational differences in acculturation experiences, food beliefs and perceived health risks among refugees from the Horn of Africa in Melbourne, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Alyce; Renzaho, Andre

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the differences in acculturation experiences between parent and adolescent refugees from the Horn of Africa in Melbourne, Australia and to explore food beliefs and perceived health risks from an intergenerational perspective. Qualitative cross-sectional study involving a combination of semi-structured one-on-one interviews and focus group discussions. North-West suburbs of Melbourne, Australia. Eritrean, Ethiopian, Somali and Sudanese refugees. Using a purposeful sampling technique, twelve semi-structured face-to-face interviews (nine adults and three adolescents) and four in-depth focus groups (two with adolescents each containing six participants and two with adults one containing six participants and the other ten participants) were carried out. Thus overall data were obtained on fifteen adolescents and twenty-five parents. Qualitative analysis identified differences between parents and adolescents in relation to lifestyle, diet and physical activity. Views regarding health consequences of their changed diets also differed. Parental feeding practices encompassed a variety of methods and were enforced in an attempt by parents to control their children's dietary behaviours and prevent their drift away from traditional eating habits. These findings call for more research to contextualise dietary acculturation among refugee youth and the impact of migration on parenting styles and feeding practices in communities from the Horn of Africa. Preventive health programmes with Horn of Africa refugees need to acknowledge the effect of acculturation on diet and physical activity levels and a socio-cultural framework needs to be developed with respect to the importance and influence of the family environment.

  14. The influence of uncertain map features on risk beliefs and perceived ambiguity for maps of modeled cancer risk from air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Jeffrey D.

    2012-01-01

    Maps are often used to convey information generated by models, for example, modeled cancer risk from air pollution. The concrete nature of images, such as maps, may convey more certainty than warranted for modeled information. Three map features were selected to communicate the uncertainty of modeled cancer risk: (a) map contours appeared in or out of focus, (b) one or three colors were used, and (c) a verbal-relative or numeric risk expression was used in the legend. Study aims were to assess how these features influenced risk beliefs and the ambiguity of risk beliefs at four assigned map locations that varied by risk level. We applied an integrated conceptual framework to conduct this full factorial experiment with 32 maps that varied by the three dichotomous features and four risk levels; 826 university students participated. Data was analyzed using structural equation modeling. Unfocused contours and the verbal-relative risk expression generated more ambiguity than their counterparts. Focused contours generated stronger risk beliefs for higher risk levels and weaker beliefs for lower risk levels. Number of colors had minimal influence. The magnitude of risk level, conveyed using incrementally darker shading, had a substantial dose-response influence on the strength of risk beliefs. Personal characteristics of prior beliefs and numeracy also had substantial influences. Bottom-up and top-down information processing suggest why iconic visual features of incremental shading and contour focus had the strongest visual influences on risk beliefs and ambiguity. Variations in contour focus and risk expression show promise for fostering appropriate levels of ambiguity. PMID:22985196

  15. Physiotherapists' attitudes toward circuit class therapy and 7 day per week therapy is influenced by normative beliefs, past experience, and perceived control: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kessel, Gisela; Hillier, Susan; English, Coralie

    2017-11-01

    Attitudes are recognized as influencing research implementation. However, little is known about the process by which physiotherapists' attitudes and beliefs shape their use of 7-day per week therapy and circuit class therapy research findings. Understanding beliefs may assist in addressing barriers to research uptake. Fifteen physiotherapists from six rehabilitation centers who ranged in seniority, experience, and education levels consented to be interviewed. The transcribed interviews were analyzed using a qualitative content analysis drawing on the Theory of Planned Behavior. Participants felt that they had autonomy in adopting new approaches when the evidence was supported by social norms. Participants believed that 7-day per week therapy delivers a seamless service that increases physiotherapy time, which helps maintain patient improvement, but needs to accommodate patient choice and expectations. Circuit class therapy was viewed positively as it provides more physiotherapy time, increases patient social interaction, and motivation. However, this was qualified by a belief that patients would not receive individualized, quality of movement focused therapy, particularly for patients with limited capacities. Implementation of a new approach depends on the past experience, coherence with individual beliefs regarding important elements of therapy content, and opportunities to control barriers to implementation.

  16. [A mental health awareness anti-stigma program including user-trainers has a significant impact on knowledge, beliefs and attitudes of job centre professionals in Paris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouet, E; Moineville, M; Favriel, S; Leriche, P; Greacen, T

    2014-04-01

    Developing programs and actions to fight stigma and discrimination against people living with mental disorders is a priority both internationally and in France. Involving mental health service users in these anti-stigma programs has proved to be a key element for effective programs. The present study evaluates the impact of user-trainers in an anti-stigma campaign with job counselors on their knowledge, beliefs, and desire for social distance with regard to mental illness and the mentally ill. Eighty-nine professionals participated in eight mental health awareness days from December 2008 to June 2009. Each training day was built around two pedagogical units: firstly, a psychiatrist providing a theoretical overview of mental illness and care and secondly, user-trainers describing their point of view on mental illness and exchanging with participants. A questionnaire administered at the beginning and at the end of the mental health awareness day assessed the impact of the day on participants' knowledge, beliefs, and desire for social distance. Answers to open questions were evaluated using thematic qualitative analysis. The intervention had statistically significant positive effects on all three training objectives: knowledge, beliefs and desire for social distance. Analysis of qualitative data confirmed participants' need for information and training with regard to providing support to clients with mental health problems; participants frequently attributed their improved self-confidence at the end of the day with regard to providing job coaching for this population group to the presence of user-trainers. A mental health awareness day using mental health service users and psychiatrists as trainers had significant positive effects in terms of reducing stigma with regard to people with mental illness. Further research is needed to understand whether the impact of such awareness approaches can be maintained in everyday professional practice over time. Copyright © 2013

  17. Young Adolescents' Beliefs Concerning Menstruation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Anne E.; Ruble, Diane N.

    1978-01-01

    A sample of 54 young adolescent girls (both pre- and postmenarcheal) and boys responded to a questionnaire assessing evaluative attitudes toward menstruation, expected symptomatology, perceived effects on moods and activities, and sources of information for these beliefs. (Author/JMB)

  18. Gendered Cultural Identities: The Influences of Family and Privacy Boundaries, Subjective Norms, and Stigma Beliefs on Family Health History Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Soo Jung

    2017-05-25

    This study investigates the effects of cultural norms on family health history (FHH) communication in the American, Chinese, and Korean cultures. More particularly, this study focuses on perceived family boundaries, subjective norms, stigma beliefs, and privacy boundaries, including age and gender, that affect people's FHH communication. For data analyses, hierarchical multiple regression and logistic regression methods were employed. The results indicate that participants' subjective norms, stigma beliefs, and perceived family/privacy boundaries were positively associated with current FHH communication. Age- and gender-related privacy boundaries were negatively related to perceived privacy boundaries, however. Finally, the results show that gendered cultural identities have three-way interaction effects on two associations: (1) between perceived family boundaries and perceived privacy boundaries and (2) between perceived privacy boundaries and current FHH communication. The findings have meaningful implications for future cross-cultural studies on the roles of family systems, subjective norms, and stigma beliefs in FHH communication.

  19. Testing a biopsychosocial model of the basic birth beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preis, Heidi; Chen, Rony; Eisner, Michal; Pardo, Joseph; Peled, Yoav; Wiznitzer, Arnon; Benyamini, Yael

    2018-03-01

    Women perceive what birth is even before they are pregnant for the first time. Part of this conceptualization is the basic belief about birth as a medical and natural process. These two separate beliefs are pivotal in the decision-making process about labor and birth. Adapting Engel's biopsychosocial framework, we explored the importance of a wide range of factors which may contribute to these beliefs among first-time mothers. This observational study included 413 primiparae ≥24 weeks' gestation, recruited in medical centers and in natural birth communities in Israel. The women completed a questionnaire which included the Birth Beliefs Scale and a variety of biopsychosocial characteristics such as obstetric history, birth environment, optimism, health-related anxiety, and maternal expectations. Psychological dispositions were more related to the birth beliefs than the social or biomedical factors. Sociodemographic characteristics and birth environment were only marginally related to the birth beliefs. The basic belief that birth is a natural process was positively related to optimism and to conceiving spontaneously. Beliefs that birth is a medical process were related to pessimism, health-related anxiety, and to expectations that an infant's behavior reflects mothering. Expectations about motherhood as being naturally fulfilling were positively related to both beliefs. Psychological factors seem to be most influential in the conceptualization of the beliefs. It is important to recognize how women interpret the messages they receive about birth which, together with their obstetric experience, shape their beliefs. Future studies are recommended to understand the evolution of these beliefs, especially within diverse cultures. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Symbolic Beliefs as Barriers to Responsible Environmental Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurin, Richard R.; Fortner, Rosane W.

    2002-01-01

    Presents an exploratory study that investigates how environmental beliefs relate to self-reported environmental behaviors. Includes a student sample (N=110) which was administered a 208-item instrument. Reports that based on survey results, most of the sample perceived themselves as environmentally aware and differed only in strength of attitudes.…

  1. A Scoping Review of Maternal and Child Health Clinicians Attitudes, Beliefs, Practice, Training and Perceived Self-Competence in Environmental Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamin Daddy Massaquoi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Clinicians regularly assess, diagnose and manage illnesses which are directly or indirectly linked to environmental exposures. Yet, various studies have identified gaps in environmental assessment in routine clinical practice. This review assessed clinicians’ environmental health practices, attitudes and beliefs, and competencies and training. Relevant articles were sought using a systematic search strategy using five databases, grey literature and a hand search. Search strategies and protocols were developed using tailored mesh terms and keywords. 43 out of 11,291 articles were eligible for inclusion. Clinicians’ attitudes and beliefs towards environmental health and routine clinical practice were generally positive, with most clinicians believing that environmental hazards affect human health. However, with the exception of tobacco smoke exposure, environmental health assessment was infrequently part of routine clinical practice. Clinicians’ self-competence in environmental assessment was reported to be inadequate. Major challenges were the time required to complete an assessment, inadequate training and concerns about negative patients’ responses. Clinicians have strong positive attitudes and beliefs about the importance of environmental health assessments. However, more concerted and robust strategies will be needed to support clinicians in assuming their assessment and counselling roles related to a wider range of environmental hazards.

  2. Pre-Service Teachers' Knowledge of Phonemic Awareness: Relationship to Perceived Knowledge, Self-Efficacy Beliefs, and Exposure to a Multimedia-Enhanced Lecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinussen, Rhonda; Ferrari, Julia; Aitken, Madison; Willows, Dale

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relations among perceived and actual knowledge of phonemic awareness (PA), exposure to PA instruction during practicum, and self-efficacy for teaching PA in a sample of 54 teacher candidates (TCs) enrolled in a 1-year Bachelor of Education program in a Canadian university. It also assessed the effects of a brief…

  3. The Prevalence of Neuromyths in Community College: Examining Community College Students' Beliefs in Learning Styles and Impacts on Perceived Academic Locus of Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palis, Leila Ann

    2016-01-01

    It was not known if and to what extent there was a relationship between the degree to which community college students believed that learning was enhanced when teachers tailored instruction to individual learning styles and student perceived academic locus of control (PAC). Learning styles theory and locus of control theory formed the theoretical…

  4. Training First-Year College Students to Intervene in Alcohol-Related Emergencies: Addressing Bystander Beliefs and Perceived Consequences of Intervening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthenien, Amber M.; Neighbors, Clayton; Rosa, Juliana

    2017-01-01

    A bystander program to increase knowledge and self-efficacy for intervening in alcohol-related emergencies, and increase the ratio of perceived benefits to barriers for intervening, was evaluated. Incoming first-year students participated in small group motivational interviewing sessions. Surveys were emailed two weeks before scheduled…

  5. Perceived Risk of Harm from Marijuana Use among Youth in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danseco, Evangeline R.; Kingery, Paul M.; Coggeshall, Mark

    1999-01-01

    Reviews studies that examined perceived risk or beliefs about harmful effects associated with marijuana use. Perceived risk was construed as consisting of at least four areas (physical harm; parental disapproval; peer disapproval; fear of arrest). Perception of risk varied with several factors including age and gender. Secondary data analysis was…

  6. The training value and constraints of established beliefs within teacher training: what is not seen but is perceived in the classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Oliver Vera

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The present article is a reflection on the value of beliefs in both initial and in-service teacher training, and the constraints that they may entail for learning and change. It is framed within the investigation on teachers’ thoughts and focuses on the construction of professional knowledge from the training-innovation relation taking an ecological perspective of knowledge. The concept of belief is defined as an affective and emotional personal dimension, intimately bound to one’s own culture that is manifested in the context in which we are immersed and of which we form part, which in turn exerts an influence on us and on what we do. It is argued that there is a need to take training in this dimension into account in order to promote autonomy as well as professional knowledge self-regulation. Significant constraints which can be overcome are pointed out: not to allow for variation, not to provide arguments, not to promote security to keep on advancing.

  7. Intraindividual variability in cognitive performance in three groups of older adults: cross-domain links to physical status and self-perceived affect and beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Esther; MacDonald, Stuart W S; Hunter, Michael; Moll, Alex; Hultsch, David F

    2002-11-01

    Intraindividual variability of physical status and affect/beliefs as well as their relations with cognition were examined in 3 groups of older adults: healthy elderly, individuals with a nonneurological health-related disturbance (arthritis) and people with neurological compromise (dementia). The findings showed that greater inconsistency in physical performance was observed in groups characterized by central nervous system dysfunction. By contrast, fluctuations in affect appeared to reflect other more transient sources, such as pain. In general, increased inconsistency in non-cognitive domains was associated with poorer cognitive function. There were cross-domain links between inconsistency in physical functioning and fluctuations in cognitive performance, although the nature of the links depended largely upon the neurological status of the individuals. Considered together, the result indicated that measures of cognitive as well as physical variability are important behavioral markers of neurological integrity.

  8. Suppressed Belief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komarine Romdenh-Romluc

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Moran’s revised conception of conscious belief requires us to reconceptualise suppressed belief. The work of Merleau-Ponty offers a way to do this. His account of motor-skills allows us to understand suppressed beliefs as pre-reflective ways of dealing with the world.

  9. A Case Study Examining Change in Teacher Beliefs Through Collaborative Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaino, Katrin; Holbrook, Jack; Rannikmäe, Miia

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to explore the role of collaborative action research in eliciting change in teacher beliefs. The beliefs were those of five chemistry teachers in implementing a new teaching approach, geared to enhancing students' scientific and technological literacy (STL). The teacher beliefs were analysed based on Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behaviour (2005) by looking at the teacher's (a) attitude towards implementing STL modules, (b) perceived subjective norms, and (c) behavioural control regarding the new teaching approach. After an introductory year, when teachers familiarised themselves with the new approach, a collaborative action research project was initiated in the second year of the study, helping teachers to minimise or overcome initially perceived constraints when implementing STL modules in their classroom. The processes of teacher change and the course of the project were investigated by teacher interviews, teacher informal commentaries, and meeting records. The formation of positive beliefs towards a STL approach increased continuously, although its extent and character varied depending on the teacher. The close cooperation, in the format of collaborative action research and especially through teacher group reflections and perceived collegial support, did support teacher professional development including change in their beliefs towards the new teaching approach. Additionally, positive feedback gained from other teachers through running a two-day in-service course in year three helped to strengthen all five teachers' existing beliefs towards the new approach. The current research demonstrated that perceived constraints, where identified, can be meaningfully addressed by teachers, through undertaking collaborative action research.

  10. Analyzing Sexual Health-Related Beliefs Among Couples in Marriage Based on the Health Belief Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Barati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sexual health is the integrity between mind, emotions, and body, and any disorder leading to discoordination, can be associated with sexual dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate the beliefs of couples attending marriage counseling centers toward sexual health based on the health belief model. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional descriptive study was performed on 400 couples referring to marriage counseling centers of Hamadan recruited with a random sampling method. The participants completed a self-administered questionnaire including demographic characteristics, knowledge and health belief model constructs. Data analysis was performed using SPSS-16 software, by Pearson’s coefficient correlation, independent T-test, and one-way ANOVA. Results: Couples had a moderate knowledge of sexual health. In addition, perceived susceptibility and severity of the consequences of unsafe sexual behavior among couples were not satisfactory however, perceived benefits and barriers were reported in a relatively good level. Internet and friends were the most important sources for sexual health information. Conclusion: Promoting knowledge and beliefs toward sexual health by preparing training packages based on the needs of couples and removing obstacles to have normal sexual behavior are necessary.

  11. Conscious Belief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pitt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tim Crane maintains that beliefs cannot be conscious because they persist in the absence of consciousness. Conscious judgments can share their contents with beliefs, and their occurrence can be evidence for what one believes; but they cannot be beliefs, because they don’t persist. I challenge Crane’s premise that belief attributions to the temporarily unconscious are literally true. To say of an unconscious agent that she believes that p is like saying that she sings well. To say she sings well is to say that when she sings, her singing is good. To say that she believes that p is (roughly to say that when she consciously considers the content that p she consciously affirms (believes it. I also argue that the phenomenal view of intentional content Crane appears to endorse prima facie commits him to the view, at least controversial, perhaps incoherent, that there is unconscious phenomenology (the intentional contents of unconscious beliefs.

  12. Changing Conspiracy Beliefs through Rationality and Ridiculing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosz, Gábor; Krekó, Péter; Paskuj, Benedek; Tóth-Király, István; Bőthe, Beáta; Roland-Lévy, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Conspiracy theory (CT) beliefs can be harmful. How is it possible to reduce them effectively? Three reduction strategies were tested in an online experiment using general and well-known CT beliefs on a comprehensive randomly assigned Hungarian sample ( N = 813): exposing rational counter CT arguments, ridiculing those who hold CT beliefs, and empathizing with the targets of CT beliefs. Several relevant individual differences were measured. Rational and ridiculing arguments were effective in reducing CT, whereas empathizing with the targets of CTs had no effect. Individual differences played no role in CT reduction, but the perceived intelligence and competence of the individual who conveyed the CT belief-reduction information contributed to the success of the CT belief reduction. Rational arguments targeting the link between the object of belief and its characteristics appear to be an effective tool in fighting conspiracy theory beliefs.

  13. Perceived Risks and Normative Beliefs as Explanatory Models for College Student Alcohol Involvement: An Assessment of a Campus with Conventional Alcohol Control Policies and Enforcement Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Todd F.; Thombs, Dennis L.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a multivariate assessment of college student drinking motivations at a campus with conventional alcohol control policies and enforcement practices, including the establishment and dissemination of alcohol policies and the use of warnings to arouse fear of sanctions. Two explanatory models were compared:…

  14. Effects of a Cancer Prevention Advertisement on Beliefs and Knowledge about Cancer Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kye, Su Yeon; Yoo, Jisu; Lee, Min Hee; Jun, Jae Kwan

    2015-01-01

    Outcome-expectation beliefs and knowledge may ultimately influence behavior for cancer prevention. The aims of this study were to measure changes in knowledge and beliefs about cancer prevention before and after viewing a television advertisement and identify the factors affecting receptivity to its messages. A one-group pretest-posttest design was used in this study of 1,000 individuals aged 20 to 65 years who were recruited online in November 2014. The outcome variables included cancer prevention beliefs based on the Health Belief Model (five items) and knowledge about risk factors for cancer (seven items). Perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits, and self-efficacy increased significantly and their perceived severity and perceived barriers decreased significantly, after participants viewed the television advertisement. Correct responses to questions about risk factors also increased significantly, except for smoking. The main factors affecting changes in the outcome variables were age, interest in cancer prevention, social network, satisfaction with the ad, and pretest scores. Television advertisements with positive frameworks can be an efficient channel of improving beliefs and knowledge about cancer prevention in a short period. The continuous development of intervention materials that consider the demographics, needs, and satisfaction of the target group will be necessary for future studies.

  15. Science Teacher Beliefs and Classroom Practice Related to Constructivism in Different School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savasci, Funda; Berlin, Donna F.

    2012-01-01

    Science teacher beliefs and classroom practice related to constructivism and factors that may influence classroom practice were examined in this cross-case study. Data from four science teachers in two schools included interviews, demographic questionnaire, Classroom Learning Environment Survey (preferred/perceived), and classroom observations and…

  16. Explicating perceived barriers to mammography for the USCREEN project: concerns about breast implants, faith violations, and perceived recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jakob D; Ratcliff, Chelsea; Weaver, Jeremy; Krakow, Melinda M; Payton, William; Loewen, Sherrie

    2015-11-01

    In line with the health belief model, perceived barriers have proven to be a key determinant of intentions to screen for breast cancer. The standard measure of perceived barriers to breast cancer screening is an 11 item scale developed by Victoria Champion. However, perceived barriers emerge and change over time, and Champion's perceived barriers scale was last revised in 1999. Moreover, the original scale did not address barriers which may be more pronounced in particular populations, such as congruity of action with faith. As part of the Utah Screening Project, a sample of women 40-74 (N = 341, Mage = 51.19, SD = 8.11) were recruited from four Utah counties in 2014 to complete a survey. The results revealed that the four new perceived barrier items explained 6.4 % of intentions to screen, above and beyond other predictors. In addition to barriers identified in past research, the current study identified several novel barriers including (a) concerns about negative effects to breast implants, (b) perceived conflict with faith, and the (c) perception that mammography is no longer recommended. The new perceived barriers items are useful to researchers interested in exploring barriers not addressed by the original instrument. The barriers also suggest potential belief-based targets and channels (e.g., plastic surgery clinics, faith-based interventions) for delivering mammography interventions.

  17. All this grassroots, real life knowledge: Comparing perceived with realised concerns of including non-academic evaluators in societal impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derrick, G.E.; Samuel, G.S.

    2016-07-01

    New research assessment frameworks that include societal impact criteria, also require the inclusion on non-academic evaluators (users) as part of the assessment panels. Little research has been conducted on how these user evaluators are received by traditionally academic-led panels, and how their presence influences evaluation outcomes. This is especially the case for evaluations including societal impact criteria. This article uses a mixed-methods approach to explore academic-evaluator concerns about the inclusion of user-evaluators in the assessment process. In addition, it explores how their involvement, influenced the outcomes of the evaluation process. (Author)

  18. The Effects of a Family Support Program Including Respite Care on Parenting Stress and Family Quality of Life Perceived by Primary Caregivers of Children with Disabilities in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Minjung; Park, Jiyeon

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a family support program was carried out for primary caregivers of children with disabilities. The program included respite care, recreation programs, counseling, and social support coordination based on individual needs of each family. In order to verify the intervention effects, parenting stress and family quality of life were…

  19. Individual differences and the development of perceived control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, E A; Zimmer-Gembeck, M J; Connell, J P

    1998-01-01

    Research on individual differences demonstrates that children's perceived control exerts a strong effect on their academic achievement and that, in turn, children's actual school performance influences their sense of control. At the same time, developmental research shows systematic age-graded changes in the processes that children use to regulate and interpret control experiences. Drawing on both these perspectives, the current study examines (1) age differences in the operation of beliefs-performance cycles and (2) the effects of these cycles on the development of children's perceived control and classroom engagement from the third to the seventh grade. Longitudinal data on about 1,600 children were collected six times (every fall and spring) over 3 consecutive school years, including children's reports of their perceived control and individual interactions with teachers; teachers' reports of each student's engagement in class; and, for a subset of students, grades and achievement tests. Analyses of individual differences and individual growth curves (estimated using hierarchical linear modeling procedures) were consistent, not only with a cyclic model of context, self, action, and outcomes, but also with predictors of individual development over 5 years from grade 3 to grade 7. Children who experienced teachers as warm and contingent were more likely to develop optimal profiles of control; these beliefs supported more active engagement in the classroom, resulting in better academic performance; success in turn predicted the maintenance of optimistic beliefs about the effectiveness of effort. In contrast, children who experienced teachers as unsupportive were more likely to develop beliefs that emphasized external causes; these profiles of control predicted escalating classroom disaffection and lower scholastic achievement; in turn, these poor performances led children to increasingly doubt their own capacities and to believe even more strongly in the power of

  20. A Systematic Review of Osteoporosis Health Beliefs in Adult Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine M. McLeod

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is major public health concern affecting millions of older adults worldwide. A systematic review was carried out to identify the most common osteoporosis health beliefs in adult men and women from descriptive and intervention studies. The Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale (OHBS and Osteoporosis Self-efficacy Scale (OSES evaluate osteoporosis health beliefs, including perceived susceptibility and seriousness, benefits, barriers, and self-efficacy of calcium and exercise, and health motivation, and their relationship to preventive health behaviours. A comprehensive search of studies that included OHBS and OSES subscale scores as outcomes was performed. Fifty full-text articles for citations were reviewed based on inclusion criteria. Twenty-two articles met the inclusion criteria. Greater perceived seriousness, benefits, self-efficacy, health motivation, and fewer barriers were the most common health-belief subscales in men and women. Few studies were interventions (n=6 and addressed osteoporosis health beliefs in men (n=8. Taking health beliefs into consideration when planning and conducting education interventions may be useful in both research and practice for osteoporosis prevention and management; however, more research in this area is needed.

  1. Belief change

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Booth, R

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors present a brief overview of belief change, a research area concerned with the question of how a rational agent ought to change its mind in the face of new, possibly conflicting, information. The authors limit themselves...

  2. Playing with knowledge and belief

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiutek, V.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis contributes to the development of Soft Dynamic Epistemic Logic (Soft DEL). Soft DEL has been introduced to deal with a number of informational phenomena, including belief revision. The work in this thesis extends the scope of Soft DEL to belief contraction, providing as such a framework

  3. Science Teacher Beliefs and Classroom Practice Related to Constructivism in Different School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savasci, Funda; Berlin, Donna F.

    2012-02-01

    Science teacher beliefs and classroom practice related to constructivism and factors that may influence classroom practice were examined in this cross-case study. Data from four science teachers in two schools included interviews, demographic questionnaire, Classroom Learning Environment Survey (preferred/perceived), and classroom observations and documents. Using an inductive analytic approach, results suggested that the teachers embraced constructivism, but classroom observations did not confirm implementation of these beliefs for three of the four teachers. The most preferred constructivist components were personal relevance and student negotiation; the most perceived component was critical voice. Shared control was the least preferred, least perceived, and least observed constructivist component. School type, grade, student behavior/ability, curriculum/standardized testing, and parental involvement may influence classroom practice.

  4. Relationship between observational learning and health belief with physical activity among adolescents girl in Isfahan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostamian, Marzieh; Kazemi, Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    Physical activities among adolescents affects health during pubescence and adolescence and decrease in physical activities among adolescents has become a global challenge. The aim of the present study was to define the relation between the level of physical activity among adolescent girls and their health beliefs as personal factor and level of observational learning as environmental factor. The present study was a cross-sectional study that was conducted on 400 students aged from 11 to 19 years in Isfahan, Iran. Information regarding the duration of physical activity with moderate/severe intensity was measured in four dimensions of leisure time (exercising and hiking), daily activities, and transportation-related activities using the International Physical Activity questionnaire. Health belief structures included perceived sensitivity, intensity of perceived threat, perceived benefits, and barriers and self-efficacy; observational learning was measured using a researcher-made questionnaire. Results showed that perceived barriers, observational learning, and level of self-efficacy were related to the level of physical activity in all dimensions. In addition, the level of physical activity at leisure time, transportation, and total physical activity were dependent on the intensity of perceived threats ( P < 0.05). This study showed that the intensity of perceived threats, perceived barriers and self-efficacy structures, and observational learning are some of the factors related to physical activity among adolescent girls, and it is possible that by focusing on improving these variables through interventional programs physical activity among adolescent girls can be improved.

  5. Belief change

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Booth, R

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available in the presence of Vacuity. 3.2 Partial meet theory contraction The preceding construction works equally well when B is taken to be a theory K. But in this case, since the input to contraction is a theory, we should expect the output to be a theory too... that is analogous to that of a belief set K in theory change. Intuitively, E is the ?current? set of expectations of the agent, and the plausible consequences of a sentence ? are those sentences ? for which ? |?? holds. The set of expectations E is not explicitly...

  6. Correlates of Couples’ Perceived Similarity at the Initiation Stage and Currently

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Sprecher

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Although prior research (Montoya, Horton, & Kirchner, 2008 has indicated that perceived similarity is more important than actual similarity as a predictor of satisfaction and attraction, there is a lack of research on factors associated with couples’ perceptions of similarity in their relationship. In the present study, a sample of couples (both partners provided ratings of the degree to which they perceived similarity in six areas (background characteristics, attitudes and beliefs, leisure pursuits and interests, communication style, personality, and physical attributes for two stages in their relationship: currently and at the initiation stage (viewed retrospectively. The couples perceived greater similarity for the current stage of their relationship than for the beginning stage of their relationship. Factors found to be associated with perceived similarity included positive social network reactions, overlap in social networks (predictor of current perceived similarity only, perceived compatibility, and satisfaction and commitment (examined only for current perceived similarity. Of the various types of perceived similarity considered in this study, similarity in attitudes and beliefs was most consistently associated with the various predictor variables. Implications of these results for enhancing couple relationships are discussed.

  7. Health beliefs and practices related to cancer screening among Arab Muslim women in an urban community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Khlood Faik

    2012-01-01

    In this exploratory study I investigated the participation status in breast and cervical cancer screening of a group of American immigrant Arab Muslim women (AMW). Perceived knowledge of and barriers to screening participation, relationships among demographic variables, health practice and beliefs, and self-reports of traditionalism and acculturation also are studied. Factors including religious and cultural beliefs, economic concerns, and modesty and embarrassment were considered. To reach the goals of Healthy People 2010 (HP 2010), an effective and meaningful educational initiative to raise awareness about breast and cervical cancer of AMW will require specific interventions consistent with their cultural and religious traditions.

  8. Undergraduates' Attitudes Toward Science and Their Epistemological Beliefs: Positive Effects of Certainty and Authority Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulmer, Gavin W.

    2014-02-01

    Attitudes toward science are an important aspect of students' persistence in school science and interest in pursuing future science careers, but students' attitudes typically decline over the course of formal schooling. This study examines relationships of students' attitudes toward science with their perceptions of science as inclusive or non-religious, and their epistemological beliefs about epistemic authority and certainty. Data were collected using an online survey system among undergraduates at a large, public US university (n = 582). Data were prepared using a Rasch rating scale model and then analyzed using multiple-regression analysis. Gender and number of science and mathematics courses were included as control variables, followed by perceptions of science, then epistemological beliefs. Findings show that respondents have more positive attitudes when they perceive science to be inclusive of women and minorities, and when they perceive science to be incompatible with religion. Respondents also have more positive attitudes toward science when they believe scientific knowledge is uncertain, and when they believe knowledge derives from authority. Interpretations of these findings and implications for future research are discussed.

  9. Folk Beliefs of Cultural Changes in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi eXu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available For the last several decades, Chinese society has experienced transformative changes. How are these changes understood among Chinese people? To examine this question, Part 1 in this research solicited folk beliefs of cultural change from a group of Chinese participants in an open-ended format, and the generated folk beliefs were rated by another group of participants in Part 2 to gauge each belief’s level of agreement. Part 3 plotted the folk beliefs retained in Part 2 using the Google Ngram Viewer in order to infer the amount of intellectual interests that each belief has received cross-temporarily. These analyses suggested a few themes in Chinese folk beliefs of cultural change (1 rising perceived importance of materialism and individualism in understanding contemporary Chinese culture and Chinese psychology relative to those of the past (2 rising perceived importance of freedom, democracy and human rights and (3 enduring perceived importance of family relations and friendship as well as patriotism. Interestingly, findings from Parts 2 and 3 diverged somewhat, illuminating possible divergence between folk beliefs and intellectual interests especially for issues related to heritage of Confucianism.

  10. Illness causal beliefs in Turkish immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimidis Steven

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People hold a wide variety of beliefs concerning the causes of illness. Such beliefs vary across cultures and, among immigrants, may be influenced by many factors, including level of acculturation, gender, level of education, and experience of illness and treatment. This study examines illness causal beliefs in Turkish-immigrants in Australia. Methods Causal beliefs about somatic and mental illness were examined in a sample of 444 members of the Turkish population of Melbourne. The socio-demographic characteristics of the sample were broadly similar to those of the Melbourne Turkish community. Five issues were examined: the structure of causal beliefs; the relative frequency of natural, supernatural and metaphysical beliefs; ascription of somatic, mental, or both somatic and mental conditions to the various causes; the correlations of belief types with socio-demographic, modernizing and acculturation variables; and the relationship between causal beliefs and current illness. Results Principal components analysis revealed two broad factors, accounting for 58 percent of the variation in scores on illness belief scales, distinctly interpretable as natural and supernatural beliefs. Second, beliefs in natural causes were more frequent than beliefs in supernatural causes. Third, some causal beliefs were commonly linked to both somatic and mental conditions while others were regarded as more specific to either somatic or mental disorders. Last, there was a range of correlations between endorsement of belief types and factors defining heterogeneity within the community, including with demographic factors, indicators of modernizing and acculturative processes, and the current presence of illness. Conclusion Results supported the classification of causal beliefs proposed by Murdock, Wilson & Frederick, with a division into natural and supernatural causes. While belief in natural causes is more common, belief in supernatural causes

  11. Illness causal beliefs in Turkish immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minas, Harry; Klimidis, Steven; Tuncer, Can

    2007-07-24

    People hold a wide variety of beliefs concerning the causes of illness. Such beliefs vary across cultures and, among immigrants, may be influenced by many factors, including level of acculturation, gender, level of education, and experience of illness and treatment. This study examines illness causal beliefs in Turkish-immigrants in Australia. Causal beliefs about somatic and mental illness were examined in a sample of 444 members of the Turkish population of Melbourne. The socio-demographic characteristics of the sample were broadly similar to those of the Melbourne Turkish community. Five issues were examined: the structure of causal beliefs; the relative frequency of natural, supernatural and metaphysical beliefs; ascription of somatic, mental, or both somatic and mental conditions to the various causes; the correlations of belief types with socio-demographic, modernizing and acculturation variables; and the relationship between causal beliefs and current illness. Principal components analysis revealed two broad factors, accounting for 58 percent of the variation in scores on illness belief scales, distinctly interpretable as natural and supernatural beliefs. Second, beliefs in natural causes were more frequent than beliefs in supernatural causes. Third, some causal beliefs were commonly linked to both somatic and mental conditions while others were regarded as more specific to either somatic or mental disorders. Last, there was a range of correlations between endorsement of belief types and factors defining heterogeneity within the community, including with demographic factors, indicators of modernizing and acculturative processes, and the current presence of illness. Results supported the classification of causal beliefs proposed by Murdock, Wilson & Frederick, with a division into natural and supernatural causes. While belief in natural causes is more common, belief in supernatural causes persists despite modernizing and acculturative influences. Different

  12. Health belief model and reasoned action theory in predicting water saving behaviors in yazd, iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Momayyezi, Mahdieh; Ghaneian, Mohammad Taghi

    2012-01-01

    People's behaviors and intentions about healthy behaviors depend on their beliefs, values, and knowledge about the issue. Various models of health education are used in deter¬mining predictors of different healthy behaviors but their efficacy in cultural behaviors, such as water saving behaviors, are not studied. The study was conducted to explain water saving beha¬viors in Yazd, Iran on the basis of Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory. The cross-sectional study used random cluster sampling to recruit 200 heads of households to collect the data. The survey questionnaire was tested for its content validity and reliability. Analysis of data included descriptive statistics, simple correlation, hierarchical multiple regression. Simple correlations between water saving behaviors and Reasoned Action Theory and Health Belief Model constructs were statistically significant. Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory constructs explained 20.80% and 8.40% of the variances in water saving beha-viors, respectively. Perceived barriers were the strongest Predictor. Additionally, there was a sta¬tistically positive correlation between water saving behaviors and intention. In designing interventions aimed at water waste prevention, barriers of water saving behaviors should be addressed first, followed by people's attitude towards water saving. Health Belief Model constructs, with the exception of perceived severity and benefits, is more powerful than is Reasoned Action Theory in predicting water saving behavior and may be used as a framework for educational interventions aimed at improving water saving behaviors.

  13. Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory in Predicting Water Saving Behaviors in Yazd, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Ghaneian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: People's behaviors and intentions about healthy behaviors depend on their beliefs, values, and knowledge about the issue. Various models of health education are used in deter-mining predictors of different healthy behaviors but their efficacy in cultural behaviors, such as water saving behaviors, are not studied. The study was conducted to explain water saving beha-viors in Yazd, Iran on the basis of Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory. Methods: The cross-sectional study used random cluster sampling to recruit 200 heads of households to collect the data. The survey questionnaire was tested for its content validity and reliability. Analysis of data included descriptive statistics, simple correlation, hierarchical multiple regression. Results: Simple correlations between water saving behaviors and Reasoned Action Theory and Health Belief Model constructs were statistically significant. Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory constructs explained 20.80% and 8.40% of the variances in water saving beha-viors, respectively. Perceived barriers were the strongest Predictor. Additionally, there was a sta-tistically positive correlation between water saving behaviors and intention. Conclusion: In designing interventions aimed at water waste prevention, barriers of water saving behaviors should be addressed first, followed by people's attitude towards water saving. Health Belief Model constructs, with the exception of perceived severity and benefits, is more powerful than is Reasoned Action Theory in predicting water saving behavior and may be used as a framework for educational interventions aimed at improving water saving behaviors.

  14. Machismo sustains health and illness beliefs of Mexican American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobralske, Mary

    2006-08-01

    To inform nurse practitioners (NPs) about Mexican American men's health and illness beliefs and the ways in which these are influenced by their masculine identity and how they view themselves as men in their culture. The data sources used were based on a selected review of the literature about Mexican American men's health and illness beliefs and the concept of machismo. Several studies, including the author's study on Mexican American men's healthcare-seeking beliefs and behaviors and experience in providing primary health care to men across cultures, contributed new data. The meaning of manhood in the Mexican American culture is critical in understanding how men perceive health and illness and what they do when they are ill. Machismo enhances men's awareness of their health because they have to be healthy to be good fathers, husbands, brothers, sons, workers, and community members. Pain and disability are motivating factors in finding ways to regain their health. Men's health beliefs across cultures need further investigation by nurse researchers and NPs. How culture influences healthcare delivery to men should be better understood. If NPs are aware of men's views on masculinity, they are better prepared to understand and assist men in becoming more aware of their health status and to seek health care when appropriate.

  15. The connection between dysfunctional relationship beliefs and dyadic adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Severina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the connection between dyadic adjustment and dysfunctional relationship beliefsthat are discussed in the contemporary cognitive-behavioural perspective. Given the nature of personal relationships, the study included intrapersonal and interpersonal approach. The intrapersonal approach suggests that one's perception of dyadic adjustment is determined by one's own personality characteristics, while the interpersonal approach suggests that one's partner's characteristics have influence, too. Accordingly, it was assumed that people perceive their marriages as less adjusted if they themselves and their partner have more pronounced dysfunctional beliefs. The sample consisted of 100 married couples from Serbia aged 20-64 years (M=41.8. The participants completed the Relationship Beliefs Questionnaire and the Dyadic Adjustment Scale. Significant intrapersonal effects of relationship beliefs on theperceived dyadic adjustment were found for both genders. Expected intrapersonal effects were found only in the female sample. Additionally, unexpected positive effects of certain groups of relationship beliefs(e.g. romantic idealism were found.

  16. Beliefs, Barriers, and Preferences of European Overweight Women to Adopt a Healthier Lifestyle in Pregnancy to Minimize Risk of Developing Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsma, Judith G M; Van Leeuwen, Karen M.; Oostdam, Nicolette

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. We explored beliefs, perceived barriers, and preferences regarding lifestyle changes among overweight European pregnant women to help inform the development of future lifestyle interventions in the prevention of gestational diabetes mellitus. Methods. An explorative mixed methods, two....... Women preferred to obtain detailed information about their personal risk. The health of their baby was a major motivating factor. Perceived barriers for physical activity included pregnancy-specific issues such as tiredness and experiencing physical complaints. Insufficient time was a barrier more...

  17. Sexual-Reproductive Health Belief Model of college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Simbar

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Sexual- reproductive health of youth is one of the most unknown aspects of our community, while the world, including our country is faced with the risk of AIDS spreading. The aim of this study was to describe Health Belief Model (HBM of the students about sexual-reproductive health behaviors and evaluate the ability of the model in predicting related behaviors. By using quota sampling, 1117 male and female students of Qazvin Medical Science and International universities were included in the study in 1991. A self-completed questionnaire was prepared containing close questions based on HBM components including perceived threats (susceptibility and severity of related diseases, perceived reproductive benefits and barriers and self efficacy of youth about reproductive health. A total of 645 of participants were female and 457 were male (Mean age 21.4±2.4 and 22.7±3.5, respectively. The Health Belief Model of the students showed that they perceived a moderate threat for AIDS and venereal diseases and their health outcomes. Most of them perceived the benefits of reproductive health behaviors. They believed that the ability of youth in considering reproductive health is low or moderate. However, they noted to some barriers for spreading of reproductive health in youth including inadequacy of services. Boys felt a higher level of threat for acquiring the AIDS and venereal diseases in compare to girls, but girls had a higher knowledge about these diseases and their complications. The Health Belief Model of the students with premarital intercourse behavior was not significantly different with the students without this behavior (Mann-Withney, P<0.05. Female students and the students without the history of premarital intercourse had significantly more positive attitude towards abstinence, comparing to male students and students with the history of premarital intercourse, respectively (Mann-Withney, P<0.05. Seventy five percent of students believed in

  18. Medication adherence beliefs of U.S community pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witry, Matthew J

    2018-05-01

    There is increasing attention on the role of community pharmacists in improving medication adherence. There is a need to better understand pharmacist attitudes and experiences related to this role. To assess community pharmacist perceptions of patient reasons for non-adherence, characterize the adherence beliefs of community pharmacists, and test if there are demographic predictors of pharmacists' self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and role beliefs related to intervening on medication non-adherence. A cross-sectional survey was mailed using a 4-contact approach to 1000 pharmacists practicing in 5 Midwestern U.S. States. The survey included seven domains to address the study objectives. Descriptive statistics were calculated for demographic items, coefficient alphas tested the internal consistency of scales, and multiple regression was used to test the relationship between demographics and scale means. There were 261 usable responses giving a 29% response rate. Pharmacists perceived forgetting and instructions changing without a new prescription to be the most common reasons for late refills. A minority of pharmacists agreed that non-adherence involves a deliberate decision or that negative medication beliefs were common reasons for late refills. Pharmacists were confident, had positive outcome expectations, and positive role beliefs related to interacting with patients who have adherence issues. Barriers to adherence intervention included difficulties with follow-up and documentation. Also, over half of the pharmacists reported that discussing adherence makes patients defensive. Pharmacists had positive attitudes toward intervening on medication non-adherence although barriers to intervention are present. Pharmacists perceived non-intentional reasons for late refills to be more prevalent than intentional reasons. Pharmacists may benefit from additional non-adherence communication training and support targeted at identifying a broader range of non

  19. Organizational Conspiracy Beliefs: Implications for Leadership Styles and Employee Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Prooijen, Jan-Willem; de Vries, Reinout E

    2016-01-01

    Belief in conspiracy theories about societal events is widespread among citizens. The extent to which conspiracy beliefs about managers and supervisors matter in the micro-level setting of organizations has not yet been examined, however. We investigated if leadership styles predict conspiracy beliefs among employees in the context of organizations. Furthermore, we examined if such organizational conspiracy beliefs have implications for organizational commitment and turnover intentions. We conducted a survey among a random sample of the US working population ( N  = 193). Despotic, laissez-faire, and participative leadership styles predicted organizational conspiracy beliefs, and the relations of despotic and laissez-faire leadership with conspiracy beliefs were mediated by feelings of job insecurity. Furthermore, organizational conspiracy beliefs predicted, via decreased organizational commitment, increased turnover intentions. Organizational conspiracy beliefs matter for how employees perceive their leaders, how they feel about their organization, and whether or not they plan to quit their jobs. A practical implication, therefore, is that it would be a mistake for managers to dismiss organizational conspiracy beliefs as innocent rumors that are harmless to the organization. Three novel conclusions emerge from this study. First, organizational conspiracy beliefs occur frequently among employees. Second, participative leadership predicts decreased organizational conspiracy beliefs; despotic and laissez-faire leadership predict increased organizational conspiracy beliefs due to the contribution of these destructive leadership styles to an insecure work environment. Third, organizational conspiracy beliefs harm organizations by influencing employee commitment and, indirectly, turnover intentions.

  20. Extreme Overvalued Beliefs: How Violent Extremist Beliefs Become "Normalized".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Tahir

    2018-01-12

    Extreme overvalued beliefs (EOB) are rigidly held, non-deusional beliefs that are the motive behind most acts of terrorism and mass shootings. EOBs are differentiated from delusions and obsessions. The concept of an overvalued idea was first described by Wernicke and later applied to terrorism by McHugh. Our group of forensic psychiatrists (Rahman, Resnick, Harry) refined the definition as an aid in the differential diagnosis seen in acts of violence. The form and content of EOBs is discussed as well as group effects, conformity, and obedience to authority. Religious cults such as The People's Temple, Heaven's Gate, Aum Shinrikyo, and Islamic State (ISIS) and conspiracy beliefs such as assassinations, moon-hoax, and vaccine-induced autism beliefs are discussed using this construct. Finally, some concluding thoughts on countering violent extremism, including its online presence is discussed utilizing information learned from online eating disorders and consumer experience.

  1. Multifaceted Impact of Self-Efficacy Beliefs on Academic Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandura, Albert; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Analyzed the psychosocial influences through which efficacy beliefs affect academic achievement. Found that parents' sense of academic efficacy and aspirations for their children, children's beliefs in their efficacy to regulate their own learning and academic attainments, children's perceived social efficacy and ability to manage peer pressure,…

  2. "Mathematics Is Like a Lion": Elementary Students' Beliefs about Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovits, Zvia; Forgasz, Helen

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the beliefs of elementary school students about mathematics and about themselves as mathematics learners. The participants, Israeli grade 4 and grade 6 students, completed questionnaires. Using an "animal metaphor" to tap beliefs, some students perceived mathematics as difficult and complicated, while…

  3. Belief Elicitation in Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanco, Mariana; Engelmann, Dirk; Koch, Alexander

    Belief elicitation in economics experiments usually relies on paying subjects according to the accuracy of stated beliefs in addition to payments for other decisions. Such incentives, however, allow risk-averse subjects to hedge with their stated beliefs against adverse outcomes of other decisions......-belief elicitation treatment using a financial investment frame, where hedging arguably would be most natural....

  4. Good-parent beliefs of parents of seriously ill children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feudtner, Chris; Walter, Jennifer K; Faerber, Jennifer A; Hill, Douglas L; Carroll, Karen W; Mollen, Cynthia J; Miller, Victoria A; Morrison, Wynne E; Munson, David; Kang, Tammy I; Hinds, Pamela S

    2015-01-01

    Parents' beliefs about what they need to do to be a good parent when their children are seriously ill influence their medical decisions, and better understanding of these beliefs may improve decision support. To assess parents' perceptions regarding the relative importance of 12 good-parent attributes. A cross-sectional, discrete-choice experiment was conducted at a children's hospital. Participants included 200 parents of children with serious illness. Ratings of 12 good-parent attributes, with subsequent use of latent class analysis to identify groups of parents with similar ratings of attributes, and ascertainment of whether membership in a particular group was associated with demographic or clinical characteristics. The highest-ranked good-parent attribute was making sure that my child feels loved, followed by focusing on my child's health, making informed medical care decisions, and advocating for my child with medical staff. We identified 4 groups of parents with similar patterns of good-parent-attribute ratings, which we labeled as: child feels loved (n=68), child's health (n=56), advocacy and informed (n=55), and spiritual well-being (n=21). Compared with the other groups, the child's health group reported more financial difficulties, was less educated, and had a higher proportion of children with new complex, chronic conditions. Parents endorse a broad range of beliefs that represent what they perceive they should do to be a good parent for their seriously ill child. Common patterns of how parents prioritize these attributes exist, suggesting future research to better understand the origins and development of good-parent beliefs among these parents. More important, engaging parents individually regarding what they perceive to be the core duties they must fulfill to be a good parent may enable more customized and effective decision support.

  5. Evolution of Religious Beliefs

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    Humans may be distinguished from all other animals in having beliefs about the causal interaction of physical objects. Causal beliefs are a developmental primitive in human children; animals, by contrast, have very few causal beliefs. The origin of human causal beliefs comes from the evolutionary advantage it gave in relation to complex tool making and use. Causal beliefs gave rise religion and mystical thinking as our ancestors wanted to know the causes of events that affected their lives.

  6. Beliefs about unmet interpersonal needs mediate the relation between conflictual family relations and borderline personality features in young adult females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalpakci, Allison; Venta, Amanda; Sharp, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Central to most theories of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is the notion that the family environment interacts with genetically-based vulnerabilities to influence the development of BPD, with particular attention given to risk conferred by conflictual familial relations. However, the extent to which family conflict may relate to the development of BPD via related interpersonal beliefs is currently unknown. This study sought to test the hypothesis that the concurrent relation between conflictual family relations and borderline features in female college students is explained by beliefs associated with real or perceived unmet interpersonal needs (captured by Joiner's [2005] Interpersonal Psychological Theory, specifically thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness). The sample included 267 female undergraduates ages 18-25 years (M = 20.86; SD = 1.80). Level of borderline personality features, unmet interpersonal needs, and family conflict were assessed. Bivariate analyses revealed significant relations between both thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness, conflictual family relations, and borderline features. Multivariate analyses revealed that thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness both mediated the relation between family conflict and borderline personality features, thus supporting a multiple mediation model. This cross-sectional study is a preliminary step towards confirming the broad theoretical hypothesis that conflictual family relations relate to beliefs about thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness, which, in turn, relate to borderline personality pathology. Limitations and areas of future research are discussed.

  7. The influence of tobacco countermarketing ads on college students' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy-Hoefer, Rebecca; Hyland, Andrew; Rivard, Cheryl

    2010-01-01

    To determine which antitobacco messages were perceived effective in changing college students' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about tobacco use. College students (n = 1,020) were surveyed before and after viewing 4 30-second antitobacco advertisements in 1 of 3 theme categories-social norms, health consequences, or tobacco industry manipulation. An independent samples t test was used to test for differences in the mean responses to the knowledge, attitude, and belief questions at posttest by smoking status and gender. Health consequences ads significantly increased overall knowledge and negative attitudes and beliefs. Findings from this study may help health educators who work in college settings and other young adult settings to include media messages as part of a comprehensive tobacco control program.

  8. The Development and Validation of the Perceived Academic Underachievement Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Kate E.; Adelson, Jill L.

    2017-01-01

    Academic competence beliefs have been widely studied. However, conceptual and measurement efforts have not yet been directed toward understanding perceived underachievement (feeling that one's accomplishments fall below perceived capability). We conducted two studies in order to develop and examine validity evidence for the Perceived Academic…

  9. Perceived behavioral control as a potential precursor of walking three times a week: Patient's perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Background Behavior change theories can identify people’s main motivations to engage in recommended health practices and thus provide better tools to design interventions, particularly human centered design interventions. Objectives This study had two objectives: (a) to identify salient beliefs about walking three times a week for 30 minutes nonstop among patients with hypertension in a low-resource setting and, (b) to measure the relationships among intentions, attitudes, perceived social pressure and perceived behavioral control about this behavior. Methods Face-to-face interviews with 34 people living with hypertension were conducted in September-October 2011 in Lima, Peru, and data analysis was performed in 2015. The Reasoned Action Approach was used to study the people’s decisions to walk. We elicited people’s salient beliefs and measured the theoretical constructs associated with this behavior. Results Results pointed at salient key behavioral, normative and control beliefs. In particular, perceived behavioral control appeared as an important determinant of walking and a small set of control beliefs were identified as potential targets of health communication campaigns, including (not) having someone to walk with, having work or responsibilities, or having no time. Conclusions This theory-based study with a focus on end-users provides elements to inform the design of an intervention that would motivate people living with hypertension to walk on a regular basis in low-resource settings. PMID:29451917

  10. Economic versus belief-based models: Shedding light on the adoption of novel green technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girod, Bastien; Mayer, Sebastian; Nägele, Florian

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the determinants for the adoption of novel green consumer technologies is important to effectively foster their diffusion. Energy and environmental science literature often takes an approach based on economic variables such as objectively measureable household and technology characteristics. Increasingly, also subjective variables based on personal belief are considered. On the basis of a survey about the intention to adopt an exemplary novel green consumer technology (intelligent thermostats), we contribute to the clarification of the explanatory power of these two approaches. We first compare the economic model to the belief-based model and second, investigate how beliefs about the green technology are influenced by personal environmental norms and innovativeness. Our evaluation shows that the belief-based model explains considerably higher variance in the intention to adopt. Thereby the perceived hedonic satisfaction, usefulness, habit and facilitating conditions reveal as key determinants. Moreover, environmental norms show lower impact than personal innovativeness. In the discussion we consolidate these findings and point to the risk of omitted variable bias when selectively including belief-based variables in adoption models. Our findings suggest that policies can effectively accelerate the early market diffusion of green consumer technologies by incentivizing retailers to introduce and market such technologies. - Highlights: • Adoption of a green consumer technology (energy-saving thermostats) is evaluated. • Subjective beliefs about the technology show higher impact than objective measures. • Key beliefs relate to pleasure, usefulness, habits and facilitating conditions. • Personal innovativeness is more relevant for adoption than environmental norms. • Isolated use of belief-based adoption determinants can lead to omitted variable bias.

  11. Connecting the dots: Illusory pattern perception predicts belief in conspiracies and the supernatural

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Karen M.; De Inocencio, Clara

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A common assumption is that belief in conspiracy theories and supernatural phenomena are grounded in illusory pattern perception. In the present research we systematically tested this assumption. Study 1 revealed that such irrational beliefs are related to perceiving patterns in randomly generated coin toss outcomes. In Study 2, pattern search instructions exerted an indirect effect on irrational beliefs through pattern perception. Study 3 revealed that perceiving patterns in chaotic but not in structured paintings predicted irrational beliefs. In Study 4, we found that agreement with texts supporting paranormal phenomena or conspiracy theories predicted pattern perception. In Study 5, we manipulated belief in a specific conspiracy theory. This manipulation influenced the extent to which people perceive patterns in world events, which in turn predicted unrelated irrational beliefs. We conclude that illusory pattern perception is a central cognitive mechanism accounting for conspiracy theories and supernatural beliefs. PMID:29695889

  12. Connecting the dots: Illusory pattern perception predicts belief in conspiracies and the supernatural.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Prooijen, Jan-Willem; Douglas, Karen M; De Inocencio, Clara

    2018-04-01

    A common assumption is that belief in conspiracy theories and supernatural phenomena are grounded in illusory pattern perception. In the present research we systematically tested this assumption. Study 1 revealed that such irrational beliefs are related to perceiving patterns in randomly generated coin toss outcomes. In Study 2, pattern search instructions exerted an indirect effect on irrational beliefs through pattern perception. Study 3 revealed that perceiving patterns in chaotic but not in structured paintings predicted irrational beliefs. In Study 4, we found that agreement with texts supporting paranormal phenomena or conspiracy theories predicted pattern perception. In Study 5, we manipulated belief in a specific conspiracy theory. This manipulation influenced the extent to which people perceive patterns in world events, which in turn predicted unrelated irrational beliefs. We conclude that illusory pattern perception is a central cognitive mechanism accounting for conspiracy theories and supernatural beliefs.

  13. Psychics, aliens, or experience? Using the Anomalistic Belief Scale to examine the relationship between type of belief and probabilistic reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prike, Toby; Arnold, Michelle M; Williamson, Paul

    2017-08-01

    A growing body of research has shown people who hold anomalistic (e.g., paranormal) beliefs may differ from nonbelievers in their propensity to make probabilistic reasoning errors. The current study explored the relationship between these beliefs and performance through the development of a new measure of anomalistic belief, called the Anomalistic Belief Scale (ABS). One key feature of the ABS is that it includes a balance of both experiential and theoretical belief items. Another aim of the study was to use the ABS to investigate the relationship between belief and probabilistic reasoning errors on conjunction fallacy tasks. As expected, results showed there was a relationship between anomalistic belief and propensity to commit the conjunction fallacy. Importantly, regression analyses on the factors that make up the ABS showed that the relationship between anomalistic belief and probabilistic reasoning occurred only for beliefs about having experienced anomalistic phenomena, and not for theoretical anomalistic beliefs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Modeling the impact of normative beliefs in the context of online buying: Direct and moderating effects

    OpenAIRE

    Iconaru Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Normative beliefs tend to play a significant role in the context of online buying, having both direct and moderating effects. The results of the structural equation modeling indicate a direct effect of normative beliefs on the intention to buy online. Also, the magnitude of the relationship between online trust and perceived risk depends on the level of normative beliefs, showing that the effect of online trust on perceived risk varies as a function of the level of the moderator variable. Thi...

  15. Beliefs about penis size: validation of a scale for men ashamed about their penis size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, David; Eshkevari, Ertimiss; Read, Julie; Miles, Sarah; Troglia, Andrea; Phillips, Rachael; Echeverria, Lina Maria Carmona; Fiorito, Chiara; Wylie, Kevan; Muir, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    No measures are available for understanding beliefs in men who experience shame about the perceived size of their penis. Such a measure might be helpful for treatment planning, and measuring outcome after any psychological or physical intervention. Our aim was to validate a newly developed measure called the Beliefs about Penis Size Scale (BAPS). One hundred seventy-three male participants completed a new questionnaire consisting of 18 items to be validated and developed into the BAPS, as well as various other standardized measures. A urologist also measured actual penis size. The BAPS was validated against six psychosexual self-report questionnaires as well as penile size measurements. Exploratory factor analysis reduced the number of items in the BAPS from 18 to 10, which was best explained by one factor. The 10-item BAPS had good internal consistency and correlated significantly with measures of depression, anxiety, body image quality of life, social anxiety, erectile function, overall satisfaction, and the importance attached to penis size. The BAPS was not found to correlate with actual penis size. It was able to discriminate between those who had concerns or were dissatisfied about their penis size and those who were not. This is the first study to develop a scale for measurement of beliefs about penis size. It may be used as part of an assessment for men who experience shame about the perceived size of their penis and as an outcome measure after treatment. The BAPS measures various manifestations of masculinity and shame about their perceived penis size including internal self-evaluative beliefs; negative evaluation by others; anticipated consequences of a perceived small penis, and extreme self-consciousness. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  16. Human values and beliefs and concern about climate change: a Bayesian longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prati, Gabriele; Pietrantoni, Luca; Albanesi, Cinzia

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of human values on beliefs and concern about climate change using a longitudinal design and Bayesian analysis. A sample of 298 undergraduate/master students filled out the same questionnaire on two occasions at an interval of 2 months. The questionnaire included measures of beliefs and concern about climate change (i.e., perceived consequences, risk perception, and skepticism) and human values (i.e., the Portrait Values Questionnaire). After controlling for gender and the respective baseline score, universalism at Time 1 was associated with higher levels of perceived consequences of climate change and lower levels of climate change skepticism. Self-direction at Time 1 predicted Time 2 climate change risk perception and perceived consequences of climate change. Hedonism at Time 1 was associated with Time 2 climate change risk perception. The other human values at Time 1 were not associated with any of the measures of beliefs and concern about climate change at Time 2. The results of this study suggest that a focus on universalism and self-direction values seems to be a more successful approach to stimulate public engagement with climate change than a focus on other human values.

  17. Race Research and the Ethics of Belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anomaly, Jonathan

    2017-06-01

    On most accounts, beliefs are supposed to fit the world rather than change it. But believing can have social consequences, since the beliefs we form underwrite our actions and impact our character. Because our beliefs affect how we live our lives and how we treat other people, it is surprising how little attention is usually given to the moral status of believing apart from its epistemic justification. In what follows, I develop a version of the harm principle that applies to beliefs as well as actions. In doing so, I challenge the often exaggerated distinction between forming beliefs and acting on them. 1 After developing this view, I consider what it might imply about controversial research the goal of which is to yield true beliefs but the outcome of which might include negative social consequences. In particular, I focus on the implications of research into biological differences between racial groups.

  18. Spiritual beliefs and barriers among managed care practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Jeanne; Jenckes, Mollie W; Tarpley, Margaret J; Koenig, Harold G; Yanek, Lisa R; Becker, Diane M

    2005-01-01

    Ninety percent of American adults believe in God and 82% pray weekly. A majority wants their physicians to address spirituality during their health care visit. However, clinicians incorporate spiritual discussion in less than 20% of visits. Our objectives were to measure clinician beliefs and identify perceived barriers to integrating spirituality into patient care in a statewide, primary care, managed care group. Practitioners completed a 30-item survey including demographics and religious involvement (DUREL), spirituality in patient care (SPC), and barriers (BAR). We analyzed data using frequencies, means, standard deviations, and ANOVA. Clinicians had a range of religious denominations (67% Christian, 14% Jewish, 11% Muslim, Hindu or Buddhist, 8% agnostic), were 57% female and 24% had training in spirituality. Sixty-six percent reported experiencing the divine. Ninety-five percent felt that a patient's spiritual outlook was important to handling health difficulties and 68% percent agreed that addressing spirituality was part of the physician's role. Ninety-five percent of our managed care group noted 'lack of time' as an important barrier, 'lack of training' was indicated by 69%, and 21% cited 'fear of response from administration'. Managed care practitioners in a time constrained setting were spiritual themselves and believed this to be important to patients. Respondents indicated barriers of time and training to implementing these beliefs. Comparing responses from our group to those in other published surveys on clinician spirituality, we find similar concerns. Clinician education may overcome these barriers and improve ability to more fully meet their patients' expressed needs regarding spirituality and beliefs.

  19. Beliefs and behavioural intentions towards pharmacotherapy for stuttering: A survey of adults who stutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGroarty, Allan; McCartan, Rebecca

    Although considerable efforts have been made to investigate the effectiveness of pharmacological treatments for stuttering, little is known about how the stuttering community perceives these treatments. This study aimed to assess and quantify beliefs regarding pharmacotherapy for adults who stutter and to establish whether behavioural intentions to undertake treatment were related to these beliefs. An adapted version of the Beliefs about Medicine Questionnaire was completed by adults who stutter. Participants also reported perceptions of their stuttering including its overall impact, ratings of previous speech therapy, and behavioural intentions to initiate pharmacotherapy and speech therapy in future. Necessity and concern beliefs were distributed widely across the sample and in a pattern indicating a relatively balanced perception of the benefits and costs of medication prescribed specifically for stuttering. Of the study's measures, the necessity-concerns differential most strongly predicted the behavioural intention to initiate pharmacotherapy. The overall impact of stuttering predicted intentions to seek both pharmacotherapy and speech therapy. Participants reported the likelihood of pursuing pharmacotherapy and speech therapy in equal measure. The theoretical model of medication representations appears to be a useful framework for understanding the beliefs of adults who stutter towards the medical treatment of their disorder. The findings of this study may be of interest to clinicians and researchers working in the field of stuttering treatment and to people who stutter considering pharmacotherapy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Predicting dyadic adjustment from general and relationship-specific beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBord, J; Romans, J S; Krieshok, T

    1996-05-01

    The cognitive mediation model of human psychological functioning has received increasing attention by researchers studying the role of cognitive variables in relationship distress. This study is an examination of the role of general irrational beliefs, as measured by the Irrational Beliefs Test (IBT; Jones, 1968), and relationship-specific irrational beliefs, as measured by the Relationship Belief Questionnaire (RBQ; Romans & DeBord, 1994), in predicting the perceived quality of relationships by married or cohabiting couples. Results indicated that respondents who reported higher levels of relationship-specific irrational beliefs also reported higher levels of dyadic adjustment; but contrary to expectation, higher levels of general irrational beliefs correlated with lower levels of dyadic adjustment. Implications of these findings are discussed in relation to the depressive realism hypothesis.

  1. The self-attribution bias and paranormal beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Elk, Michiel

    2017-03-01

    The present study investigated the relation between paranormal beliefs, illusory control and the self-attribution bias, i.e., the motivated tendency to attribute positive outcomes to oneself while negative outcomes are externalized. Visitors of a psychic fair played a card guessing game and indicated their perceived control over randomly selected cards as a function of the congruency and valence of the card. A stronger self-attribution bias was observed for paranormal believers compared to skeptics and this bias was specifically related to traditional religious beliefs and belief in superstition. No relation between paranormal beliefs and illusory control was found. Self-report measures indicated that paranormal beliefs were associated to being raised in a spiritual family and to anomalous experiences during childhood. Thereby this study suggests that paranormal beliefs are related to specific cognitive biases that in turn are shaped by socio-cultural factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cultural Beliefs about Autism in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riany, Yulina Eva; Cuskelly, Monica; Meredith, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Cultural beliefs about parenting have an important influence on parenting behaviours, including considerations about appropriate ways to parent children with autism. Although Indonesia has one of the largest and most ethnically diverse populations in the world, little is known about cultural beliefs regarding children with autism within Indonesian…

  3. Strategic Belief Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul

    While (managerial) beliefs are central to many aspects of strategic organization, interactive beliefs are almost entirely neglected, save for some game theory treatments. In an increasingly connected and networked economy, firms confront coordination problems that arise because of network effects....... The capability to manage beliefs will increasingly be a strategic one, a key source of wealth creation, and a key research area for strategic organization scholars.......While (managerial) beliefs are central to many aspects of strategic organization, interactive beliefs are almost entirely neglected, save for some game theory treatments. In an increasingly connected and networked economy, firms confront coordination problems that arise because of network effects...

  4. False belief reasoning in the brain: An ERP study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Understanding others mind and interpersonal interaction are the cognitive basis of successful social interactions. People’s mental states and behaviors rely on their holding beliefs for self and others. To investigate the neural substrates of false belief reasoning, the 32 channels event-related potentials (ERP) of 14 normal adults were measured while they understood false-belief and true belief used de-ceptive appearance task. After onset of the false-belief or true-belief questions, N100, P200 and late negative component (LNC) were elicited at centro-frontal sites. Compared with true belief, false belief reasoning elicited significant declined LNC in the time window from 400 to 800 ms. The source analysis of difference wave (False minus True) showed a dipole located in the middle cingulated cortex. These findings show that false belief reasoning probably included inhibitive process.

  5. False belief reasoning in the brain: An ERP study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Understanding others mind and interpersonal interaction are the cognitive basis of successful social interactions. People's mental states and behaviors rely on their holding beliefs for self and others. To investigate the neural substrates of false belief reasoning, the 32 channels event-related potentials (ERP) of 14 normal adults were measured while they understood false-belief and true belief used deceptive appearance task. After onset of the false-belief or true-belief questions, N100, P200 and late negative component (LNC) were elicited at centro-frontal sites. Compared with true belief, false belief reasoning elicited significant declined LNC in the time window from 400 to 800 ms. The source analysis of difference wave (False minus True) showed a dipole located in the middle cingulated cortex. These findings show that false belief reasoning probably included inhibitive process.

  6. Astrology Beliefs among Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarman, Hannah; Impey, Chris; Buxner, Sanlyn; Antonellis, Jessie

    2011-01-01

    A survey of the science knowledge and attitudes toward science of nearly 10000 undergraduates at a large public university over a 20-year period included several questions addressing student beliefs in astrology and other forms of pseudoscience. The results from our data reveal that a large majority of students (78%) considered astrology "very" or…

  7. Improving measurement of normative beliefs involving smoking among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primack, Brian A; Switzer, Galen E; Dalton, Madeline A

    2007-05-01

    To identify different components of smoking normative beliefs and determine if each component is independently associated with 2 clinically relevant measures of smoking in adolescents. Cross-sectional survey. One large suburban high school. A total of 1211 high school students aged 14 to 18 years. Current smoking and susceptibility to smoking. Of the 1138 students with data on current smoking, 216 (19.0%) reported current smoking, and 342 (38.3%) of the 893 nonsmoking students with susceptibility data were susceptible to future smoking. Factor analysis identified 3 normative belief constructs, labeled "perceived prevalence of smoking," "perceived popularity of smoking among elite/successful elements of society," and "disapproval of smoking by parents/peers." On average, students believed that 56% of people in the United States smoke cigarettes; 27.7% believed that wealthy people smoke more than poor people. Multiple logistic regression showed that each of the 3 constructs was independently associated with current smoking (adjusted odds ratios, 1.05 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.02-1.08], 1.12 [95% CI, 1.02-1.23], and 0.66 [95% CI, 0.59-0.75], respectively), even after controlling for covariates. Students' perceptions of smoking among the successful/elite and disapproval by parents/peers were independently associated with susceptibility to future smoking (adjusted odds ratios, 1.20 [95% CI, 1.11-1.29] and 0.87 [95% CI, 0.79-0.96], respectively). Adolescents' normative beliefs about smoking are multidimensional and include at least 3 distinct components, each of which was independently related to smoking outcomes. These distinct components should be considered in the design and evaluation of programs related to prevention and cessation of adolescent smoking.

  8. Perceived knowledge and perceived risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    Much discussion in the area of radioactive waste management has centered on the topic of siting waste facilities in the face of public opposition. Waste managers frequently believe that the public perceives risks associated with radioactive waste as much higher than objective risk. Previous research on this topic confirms that waste managers and the public view the risks differently. The scientific literature in this area has been focused on factors that shape risk perception such as how risk perception varies by group and associations among different types of perceived risk. Research in the area of natural hazards and emergency response has focused on how the public obtains information and how that information is interpreted. In addition, much attention has been given to public involvement and public information programs. Critical to each of these research areas is the role of perception of how informed an individual is on a given risk versus how the individual rates a given risk. This paper seeks to do three things: Look at perception of health risk of radioactive waste in the context of other things related to nuclear technology and radioactivity; Investigate the relationship between perceived knowledge and perceived risk; and Determine social and psychological consequences of perceived risk

  9. Perceived Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ost, David H.

    1995-01-01

    Perceived risk is a function of information, knowledge, values, and perception. This exercise is designed to illustrate that in many situations there is no correct answer, only best-alternative choices. The exercise has five parts in which students work in groups of five. (LZ)

  10. Perceived parental efficacy: concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montigny, Francine; Lacharité, Carl

    2005-02-01

    This paper describes a concept analysis carried out to remove some of the ambiguity surrounding the conceptual meaning of perceived parental efficacy and to distinguish it from related concepts such as parental confidence and parental competence. Constructing parental efficacy is a crucial step for family members after the birth of their first child. For some authors, perceived parental efficacy is a motor for adequate parental practices. Confusion about the definition and measurement of this concept has hindered both psychology and nursing practice and research. Concept delineation and concept clarification are required in order to further the development of the concept of perceived parental efficacy. A literature search using a variety of online databases yielded 113 articles between the years 1980 and 2000. The final sample (n=60) consisted of 30 articles from two disciplines: nursing and psychology. A content analysis of the literature was done using Rodger's evolutionary concept analysis method. Content analysis of the literature yielded four contributors to perceived parental efficacy: positive enactive mastery experiences, vicarious experiences, verbal persuasion and an appropriate physiological and affective state. Perceived parental efficacy can thus be defined as 'beliefs or judgements a parent holds of their capabilities to organize and execute a set of tasks related to parenting a child'. This conceptual analysis has allowed perceived parental efficacy to be distinguished from parental confidence and parental competence. Both nursing and psychology research, practice and education will benefit from a more precise and delineated concept.

  11. Parents' knowledge, beliefs, and acceptance of the HPV vaccination in relation to their socio-demographics and religious beliefs: A cross-sectional study in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandahl, Maria; Chun Paek, Seung; Grisurapong, Siriwan; Sherer, Penchan; Tydén, Tanja; Lundberg, Pranee

    2018-01-01

    Thailand has one of the world's highest prevalence of cervical cancer, mainly caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV infections can successfully be prevented by vaccination, which is available at a cost but not yet implemented in the national vaccination program. Parents play a critical role in deciding whether to vaccinate their child against HPV. Thus, the aim was to examine the association between parents' knowledge, beliefs, and acceptance of the HPV vaccination for their daughters, considering their socio-demographics and religious beliefs. A cross-sectional design was used among three schools in Thailand: Nakorn Phatom province (suburban) and Bangkok (urban). Parents of 9-12-year-old daughters completed the questionnaires, guided by the Health Belief Model. In total, 359 parents completed the questionnaires; of those, 301 were included in the final analyses. The ordinary least squares (OLS) regression analysis showed that background knowledge of HPV and the HPV vaccine was positively related to knowledge of HPV and cervical cancer. For beliefs, knowledge was positively associated with susceptibility (i.e., parents' perceived risk of an HPV infection/ related disease), severity, and benefit. However, knowledge was not significantly related to barriers. For acceptance, higher susceptibility and benefit were related to higher acceptance, and greater knowledge was associated with higher acceptance. Thus, we found associations between parents' knowledge, beliefs, and acceptance of the HPV vaccination for their daughters, considering their socio-demographics and religious beliefs. Parents, who reported religion as important, as opposed to those who did not, were more favorable toward the HPV vaccination. Four out of ten mothers had never undergone a cervical cancer screening, but most had accepted previous childhood vaccinations for their daughters. The overall acceptance of the vaccine was high, and we believe our results are promising for future

  12. Parents' knowledge, beliefs, and acceptance of the HPV vaccination in relation to their socio-demographics and religious beliefs: A cross-sectional study in Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Grandahl

    Full Text Available Thailand has one of the world's highest prevalence of cervical cancer, mainly caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV. HPV infections can successfully be prevented by vaccination, which is available at a cost but not yet implemented in the national vaccination program. Parents play a critical role in deciding whether to vaccinate their child against HPV. Thus, the aim was to examine the association between parents' knowledge, beliefs, and acceptance of the HPV vaccination for their daughters, considering their socio-demographics and religious beliefs. A cross-sectional design was used among three schools in Thailand: Nakorn Phatom province (suburban and Bangkok (urban. Parents of 9-12-year-old daughters completed the questionnaires, guided by the Health Belief Model. In total, 359 parents completed the questionnaires; of those, 301 were included in the final analyses. The ordinary least squares (OLS regression analysis showed that background knowledge of HPV and the HPV vaccine was positively related to knowledge of HPV and cervical cancer. For beliefs, knowledge was positively associated with susceptibility (i.e., parents' perceived risk of an HPV infection/ related disease, severity, and benefit. However, knowledge was not significantly related to barriers. For acceptance, higher susceptibility and benefit were related to higher acceptance, and greater knowledge was associated with higher acceptance. Thus, we found associations between parents' knowledge, beliefs, and acceptance of the HPV vaccination for their daughters, considering their socio-demographics and religious beliefs. Parents, who reported religion as important, as opposed to those who did not, were more favorable toward the HPV vaccination. Four out of ten mothers had never undergone a cervical cancer screening, but most had accepted previous childhood vaccinations for their daughters. The overall acceptance of the vaccine was high, and we believe our results are promising for

  13. The Effect of Education about Preventive Behaviors of Urinary Infection Based on Health Belief Model by Attending and Non- Attending Educational Programs in Pregnant Women

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    F. Noroozi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infection is the second most common complication of pregnancy, maternal and fetal complications and serious consequences will follow. So, the purpose of this study is comparison of education effect between attend and non-attend methods on promotion prevailing behavior from urinary tract infection in pregnant women based on the health belief model. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, 140 pregnant women coming to Bushehr medical center, in two group (70 people each were studied. In attend group, two education meetings, including 1.5 hour were hold based on the health belief model with an interval of a week. Non-attend education group, just received a booklet arranged based on health belief model. The information about awareness, structures model and function were collected before, one week and three months later via questionnaire. The urinary test results were collected before and three months after the intervention. After getting information, data were analyzed by software SPSS version 20 via perfect tests. Results: Before educational intervention, knowledge, preventive behaviors of urinary infection and all structures model were same in both groups. After the intervention, average of perceived susceptibility, severity, benefit and self-efficacy increased and average of perceived barrier decreased significantly in attend education group (P≤0/001, and in non-attend education group, awareness score and perceived susceptibility, benefit and self-efficacy increased and average of perceived barrier decreased significantly. Average of perceived susceptibility, barrier, self-efficacy, awareness, and mean of preventive behaviors of urinary infection between two groups were different significantly (P≤0/001. Conclusion: Regarding to changes in health belief model constructs, knowledge and function in two groups after education, using booklets based on health belief model for pregnant women can be useful due to their

  14. Teachers’ implicit beliefs about the students of the Roma and the Hungarian cultural group

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    Dimitrijević Bojana M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that the beliefs about cultural, ethnic or racial diversities among students are vital for the effective work of teachers. Hence, in this paper, we aim at determining: (1 in what ways the teachers perceive and interpret the school situation that includes the students from a minority cultural group (Roma and Hungarian, i.e. what kinds of beliefs they express in the given situation; (2 whether there are any differences in the way in which teachers, within the same stadium of development of intercultural sensitivity, perceive the given situation. The sample included class teachers whose score on the Intercultural Development Inventory pointed to intercultural sensitivity in accordance with the stadium of minimisation (seventeen teachers and polarisation (six teachers. The Critical Incident Technique (CI was applied in the study, in two parallel forms: with a Hungarian and a Roma student. Thematic analysis yielded seven topics, four of which occurred only in the CI with a Roma student: Disrespecting school as an institution, Abuse of minority status, Separation from the class and Typical children’s motives. The comparison of teachers’ statements depending on the CI version and the developmental phase indicate that the specificity of a cultural group in question affects the expressed beliefs about this group, regardless of teachers’ intercultural sensitivity.

  15. Intention and Normative Belief

    OpenAIRE

    Chislenko, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    I defend the view that we act “under the guise of the good.” More specifically, I argue that an intention to do something is a belief that one ought to do it. I show how conflicts in intention and belief, as well as more complex impairments in these states, account for the central problem cases: akrasia in belief and intention, apparently unintelligible choices, and lack of motivation or accidie.

  16. Conditional Belief Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-19

    Rationality of a player is determined by comparing her actual expected payoff to her expected payoff when her strategy is changed , while her beliefs —and...reduced strategies, and it is possible that under such conditions, beliefs about other players’ reduced strategies change as well. Thus, independence...assumptions, whether they concern observability of moves or subjective beliefs of any other kind, can be all accommodated by changing the informational

  17. Aquatic Instructors' Beliefs Toward Inclusion: The Theory of Planned Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conatser, Phillip; Block, Martin; Gansneder, Bruce

    2002-04-01

    The purpose was to (a) examine aquatic instructors' beliefs (female, n = 82; male, n = 29) about teaching swimming to individuals with disabilities in inclusive settings and (b) test the theory of planned behavior model (Ajzen, 1985, 1988, 2001). Aquatic instructors from 25 states representing 122 cities across the U.S. participated in this study. The instrument, named Aquatic Instructors' Beliefs Toward Inclusion (AIBTI), was an extended version of the Physical Educators' Attitudes Toward Teaching Individuals with Disabilities- Swim (Conatser, Block, & Lepore, 2000). A correlated t test showed aquatic instructors' beliefs (attitudes toward the behavior, normative beliefs, perceived behavioral control, intention, behavior) were significantly more favorable toward teaching aquatics to individuals with mild disabilities than individuals with severe disabilities. Stepwise multiple regression showed perceived behavioral control and attitude significantly predicted intention, and intention predicted instructors' inclusive behavior for both disability groups. Further, results indicated the theory of planned behavior predicts aquatic instructors' behavior better than the theory of reasoned action.

  18. The Role of Moral Beliefs, Memories, and Preferences in Representations of Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiphetz, Larisa; Strohminger, Nina; Young, Liane L

    2017-04-01

    People perceive that if their memories and moral beliefs changed, they would change. We investigated why individuals respond this way. In Study 1, participants judged that identity would change more after changes to memories and widely shared moral beliefs (e.g., about murder) versus preferences and controversial moral beliefs (e.g., about abortion). The extent to which participants judged that changes would affect their relationships predicted identity change (Study 2) and mediated the relationship between type of moral belief and perceived identity change (Study 3). We discuss the role that social relationships play in judgments of identity and highlight implications for psychology and philosophy. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  19. African American women's beliefs about mental illness, stigma, and preferred coping behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Earlise C; Heidrich, Susan M

    2009-10-01

    We examined African American women's representations/beliefs about mental illness, preferred coping behaviors if faced with mental illness, whether perceived stigma was associated with treatment-seeking, and if so, whether it was related to beliefs and coping preference, and whether these variables differed by age group. Participants were 185 community-dwelling African American women 25 to 85 years of age. Results indicated the women believed that mental illness is caused by several factors, including family-related stress and social stress due to racism, is cyclical, and has serious consequences but can be controlled by treatment. Participants endorsed low perceptions of stigma. Major preferred coping strategies included praying and seeking medical and mental health care. Age differences were found in all variables except stigma.

  20. Beliefs of grade six learners’ regarding adolescent pregnancy and sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Grobler

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Escalating adolescent pregnancy and risky sexual behaviour is becoming more common amongst young adolescents and especially amongst black adolescents in South Africa. Statistics confirm that South African adolescents as young as fourteen are already sexually active and become pregnant. The decision to become sexually active with resulting adolescent pregnancy whether planned or not, are directly influenced by the teenager’s beliefs. A person’s beliefs consist of a person’ own individual beliefs or attitude as well as what the individual subjective norm which the individual perceive as other people’s beliefs regarding the same object of reason. The aim of the study was to describe the attitude of black grade six learners under the age of fourteen, towards adolescent pregnancy and sex. A quantitative descriptive research design was used. Results were clustered according to demographic variables as well as beliefs that consist of attitude and subjective norm.

  1. Constructivism, Factoring, and Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauff, James V.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses errors made by remedial intermediate algebra students in factoring polynomials in light of student definitions of factoring. Found certain beliefs about factoring to logically imply many of the errors made. Suggests that belief-based teaching can be successful in teaching factoring. (16 references) (Author/MKR)

  2. Beliefs and perception about mental health issues: a meta-synthesis

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    Choudhry FR

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fahad Riaz Choudhry,1 Vasudevan Mani,2 Long Chiau Ming,3,4 Tahir Mehmood Khan5 1Psychology Department, Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University Malaysia, Sunway City, Selangor, Malaysia; 2College of Pharmacy, Qassim University, Buraidah, Al-Qassim, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3Vector-borne Diseases Research Group (VERDI, Pharmaceutical and Life Sciences CoRe, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam; 4Brain Degeneration and Therapeutics Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Puncak Alam, 5School of Pharmacy, Monash University Malaysia, Sunway City, Selangor, Malaysia Background: Mental health literacy is the beliefs and knowledge about mental health issues and their remedies. Attitudes and beliefs of lay individuals about mental illness are shaped by personal knowledge about mental illness, knowing and interacting with someone living with mental illness, and cultural stereotypes. Mental health issues are increasing and are alarming in almost every part of the world, and hence compiling this review provides an opportunity to understand the different views regarding mental disorders and problems as well as to fill the gap in the published literature by focusing only on the belief system and perception of mental health problems among general population.Method: The methodology involved a systematic review and the meta-synthesis method, which includes synthesizing published qualitative studies on mental health perception and beliefs.Sample: Fifteen relevant published qualitative and mixed-method studies, regarding the concept of mental health, were identified for meta-synthesis.Analysis: All the themes of the selected studies were further analyzed to give a broader picture of mental health problems and their perceived causes and management. Only qualitative studies, not older than 2010, focusing on beliefs about, attitudes toward, and perceptions of mental health problems, causes, and treatments were included

  3. Scandinavian belief in fate

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    Åke Ström

    1967-02-01

    Full Text Available In point of principle, Christianity does not give room for any belief in fate. Astrology, horoscopes, divination, etc., are strictly rejected. Belief in fate never disappeared in Christian countries, nor did it in Scandinavia in Christian times. Especially in folklore we can find it at any period: People believed in an implacable fate. All folklore is filled up with this belief in destiny. Nobody can escape his fate. The future lies in the hands of fate, and the time to come takes its form according to inscrutable laws. The pre-Christian period in Scandinavia, dominated by pagan Norse religion, and the secularized epoch of the 20th century, however, show more distinctive and more widespread beliefs in fate than does the Christian period. The present paper makes a comparison between these forms of belief.

  4. Factors Affecting the Development and Evolution of the Teaching Beliefs of Future Geoscience Professors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, LeeAnna Tiffany Young

    The pedagogical beliefs of university instructors influence how they design their courses and whether they choose to use research-validated teaching methods that have been shown to improve student learning. The next generation of professors will be drawn from today's graduate students and post-doctoral fellows but we know relatively little about their preparation to use research-validated teaching practices. We followed a broad population of geoscience graduate students and post-docs over a three year period to evaluate changes in teaching beliefs. This study employed a longitudinal mixed-methods experimental design including surveys, short interviews, and longer case study interviews to: a) collect information on the teaching beliefs of geoscience graduate students and post-doctoral scholars; and b) identify experiences that contributed to the development of reformed teaching beliefs and their interest in an academic career. We collected initial surveys from more than 600 participants and re-surveyed more than 300 of these participants 12-18 months later. We conducted an initial round of interviews with 61 participants and repeat interviews with 31 of these individuals. The survey utilized was the Beliefs about Reformed Teaching and Learning (BARSTL); the interview tool was the Teacher Belief Interview (TBI). Finally, we conducted detailed case study interviews with a sample of ten participants who were either PhD students, post-doctoral scholars, or beginning professors at the time of the interviews. The data were examined to determine if there was a difference in beliefs about teaching on the basis of factors including number of years in graduate school, teaching assistant (TA) experiences, gender, and participation in professional development. Data from the large initial population were interpreted to show that participation in teaching-related professional development was the experience that was most likely to result in more reformed pedagogical beliefs among

  5. Belief in School Meritocracy as a System-justifying Tool for Low Status Students

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    Virginie eWiederkehr

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The belief that, in school, success only depends on will and hard work is widespread in Western societies despite evidence showing that several factors other than merit explain school success, including group belonging (e.g., social class, gender. In the present paper, we argue that because merit is the only track for low status students to reach upward mobility, Belief in School Meritocracy (BSM is a particularly useful system-justifying tool to help them perceive their place in society as being deserved. Consequently, for low status students (but not high status students, this belief should be related to more general system-justifying beliefs (Study 1. Moreover, low status students should be particularly prone to endorsing this belief when their place within a system on which they strongly depend to acquire status is challenged (Study 2. In Study 1, high status (boys and high SES were compared to low status (girls and low SES high school students. Results indicated that BSM was related to system-justifying beliefs only for low SES students and for girls, but not for high SES students or for boys. In Study 2, university students were exposed (or not to information about an important selection process that occurs at the university, depending on the condition. Their subjective status was assessed. Although such a confrontation reduced BSM for high subjective SES students, it tended to enhance it for low subjective SES students. Results are discussed in terms of system-justification motives and the palliative function meritocratic ideology may play for low status students.

  6. Belief in school meritocracy as a system-justifying tool for low status students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiederkehr, Virginie; Bonnot, Virginie; Krauth-Gruber, Silvia; Darnon, Céline

    2015-01-01

    The belief that, in school, success only depends on will and hard work is widespread in Western societies despite evidence showing that several factors other than merit explain school success, including group belonging (e.g., social class, gender). In the present paper, we argue that because merit is the only track for low status students to reach upward mobility, Belief in School Meritocracy (BSM) is a particularly useful system-justifying tool to help them perceive their place in society as being deserved. Consequently, for low status students (but not high status students), this belief should be related to more general system-justifying beliefs (Study 1). Moreover, low status students should be particularly prone to endorsing this belief when their place within a system on which they strongly depend to acquire status is challenged (Study 2). In Study 1, high status (boys and high SES) were compared to low status (girls and low SES) high school students. Results indicated that BSM was related to system-justifying beliefs only for low SES students and for girls, but not for high SES students or for boys. In Study 2, university students were exposed (or not) to information about an important selection process that occurs at the university, depending on the condition. Their subjective status was assessed. Although such a confrontation reduced BSM for high subjective SES students, it tended to enhance it for low subjective SES students. Results are discussed in terms of system justification motives and the palliative function meritocratic ideology may play for low status students.

  7. Perceiving political polarization in the United States: party identity strength and attitude extremity exacerbate the perceived partisan divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westfall, Jacob; Van Boven, Leaf; Chambers, John R; Judd, Charles M

    2015-03-01

    An important component of political polarization in the United States is the degree to which ordinary people perceive political polarization. We used over 30 years of national survey data from the American National Election Study to examine how the public perceives political polarization between the Democratic and Republican parties and between Democratic and Republican presidential candidates. People in the United States consistently overestimate polarization between the attitudes of Democrats and Republicans. People who perceive the greatest political polarization are most likely to report having been politically active, including voting, trying to sway others' political beliefs, and making campaign contributions. We present a 3-factor framework to understand ordinary people's perceptions of political polarization. We suggest that people perceive greater political polarization when they (a) estimate the attitudes of those categorized as being in the "opposing group"; (b) identify strongly as either Democrat or Republican; and (c) hold relatively extreme partisan attitudes-particularly when those partisan attitudes align with their own partisan political identity. These patterns of polarization perception occur among both Democrats and Republicans. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Parental style and vulnerability to depression: the role of core beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, R; Waller, G

    2000-01-01

    This study considers the potential role of core beliefs (unconditional schema-level representations) in the relationship between recalled parenting in childhood and major depression in adulthood, comparing a group of depressed outpatients (N = 60) with a healthy community sample (N = 67). The depressed group were differentiated by poorer perceived parenting (low care and high overprotection) and by three unhealthy core beliefs (defectiveness/shame, self-sacrifice, and insufficient self-control). Among nonclinical participants, it appears that vulnerability to harm beliefs act as a partial mediator of the relationship between poor paternal care and the development of depressive features. In contrast, a broader set of core beliefs appears to mediate the relationship of maternal bonding and paternal overprotection with depressive symptoms among the depressed group. The findings suggest that clinical work with adults with major depression might need to take account of parental style. Where parents are reported to be uncaring or overprotective, cognitive-behavioral therapy might need to include a schema-focused component.

  9. The Moderating Effect of Mental Toughness: Perception of Risk and Belief in the Paranormal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinkwater, Kenneth; Dagnall, Neil; Denovan, Andrew; Parker, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    This research demonstrates that higher levels of mental toughness provide cognitive-perceptual processing advantages when evaluating risk. No previous research, however, has examined mental toughness in relation to perception of risk and paranormal belief (a variable associated with distorted perception of causality and elevated levels of perceived risk). Accordingly, the present paper investigated relationships between these factors. A sample of 174 participants completed self-report measures assessing mental toughness, general perception of risk, and paranormal belief. Responses were analyzed via correlations and moderation analyses. Results revealed that mental toughness correlated negatively with perception of risk and paranormal belief, whereas paranormal belief correlated positively with perception of risk. For the moderation effects, simple slopes analyses indicated that high levels of MT and subfactors of commitment and confidence reduced the strength of association between paranormal belief and perceived risk. Therefore, MT potentially acts as a protective factor among individuals who believe in the paranormal, reducing the tendency to perceive elevated levels of risk.

  10. Belief Functions: Theory and Applications - Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Belief Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Masson, Marie-Hélène

    2012-01-01

    The theory of belief functions, also known as evidence theory or Dempster-Shafer theory, was first introduced by Arthur P. Dempster in the context of statistical inference, and was later developed by Glenn Shafer as a general framework for modeling epistemic uncertainty. These early contributions have been the starting points of many important developments, including the Transferable Belief Model and the Theory of Hints. The theory of belief functions is now well established as a general framework for reasoning with uncertainty, and has well understood connections to other frameworks such as probability, possibility and imprecise probability theories.   This volume contains the proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Belief Functions that was held in Compiègne, France on 9-11 May 2012. It gathers 51 contributions describing recent developments both on theoretical issues (including approximation methods, combination rules, continuous belief functions, graphical models and independence concepts) an...

  11. Beliefs about meditating among university students, faculty, and staff: a theory-based salient belief elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, Alyssa M; Middlestadt, Susan E

    2014-01-01

    Stress impacts college students, faculty, and staff alike. Although meditation has been found to decrease stress, it is an underutilized strategy. This study used the Reasoned Action Approach (RAA) to identify beliefs underlying university constituents' decision to meditate. N=96 students, faculty, and staff at a large midwestern university during spring 2012. A survey measured the RAA global constructs and elicited the beliefs underlying intention to meditate. Thematic and frequency analyses and multiple regression were performed. Quantitative analyses showed that intention to meditate was significantly predicted (R2=.632) by attitude, perceived norm, and perceived behavioral control. Qualitative analyses revealed advantages (eg, reduced stress; feeling calmer), disadvantages (eg, takes time; will not work), and facilitating circumstances (eg, having more time; having quiet space) of meditating. Results of this theory-based research suggest how college health professionals can encourage meditation practice through individual, interpersonal, and environmental interventions.

  12. College Students' Beliefs About Domestic Violence: A Replication and Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagers, Shelly M; Wareham, Jennifer; Boots, Denise Paquette

    2017-12-01

    In recent decades, significant effort and money have been spent to change social and legal responses to domestic violence and affect public perceptions. A small body of research has examined individuals' opinions about what behaviors are considered domestic violence. Using a sample of college students, the present study examined a modified version of a somewhat popular instrument used to measure beliefs about domestic violence, extending previous work done by Carlson and Worden. Results indicated beliefs about domestic violence are multidimensional, depending on the nature of the behavior and, in part, the gender of the perpetrator. Opinions about the lawfulness of these behaviors fit the same factor structure as beliefs about domestic violence. Demographic characteristics, current relationship status, secondhand experiences with domestic violence, and perceived prevalence of domestic violence in the community are generally not related to beliefs about domestic violence or the lawfulness of these behaviors. However, attributions of blame on the victim are negatively related to domestic violence beliefs and lawfulness. Moreover, lawfulness is a key covariate for domestic violence beliefs. In addition, results also indicate that the gender of the perpetrator is an important variable affecting student's beliefs about sexual assault behaviors. Results from this study support the prevailing ideas behind the Battered Women's Movement that enacting policies and educational programs deeming domestic violence socially, morally, and legally wrong could shift long-standing sociocultural beliefs about men's use of violence against women. Implications of this study for research and policy specific to college students are discussed.

  13. Worry and problem-solving skills and beliefs in primary school children

    OpenAIRE

    Parkinson, Monika; Creswell, Catharine

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To examine the association between worry and problem-solving skills and beliefs (confidence and perceived control) in primary school children.\\ud Method. Children (8–11 years) were screened using the Penn State Worry Questionnaire for Children. High (N ¼ 27) and low (N ¼ 30) scorers completed measures of anxiety, problem-solving skills (generating alternative solutions to\\ud problems, planfulness, and effectiveness of solutions) and problem-solving beliefs(confidence and perceived ...

  14. Preservice Science Teacher Beliefs about Teaching and the Science Methods Courses: Exploring Perceptions of Microteaching Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaury, Ralph L.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates beliefs about teaching held by preservice science teachers and their influences on self-perceived microteaching outcomes within interactive secondary science teaching methods courses. Hermeneutic methodology was used in cooperation with seven preservice science teachers (N = 7) to infer participant beliefs about teaching…

  15. Connecting the dots : Illusory pattern perception predicts belief in conspiracies and the supernatural

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Prooijen, Jan Willem; Douglas, Karen M.; De Inocencio, Clara

    A common assumption is that belief in conspiracy theories and supernatural phenomena are grounded in illusory pattern perception. In the present research we systematically tested this assumption. Study 1 revealed that such irrational beliefs are related to perceiving patterns in randomly generated

  16. Belief in Afterlife as a Buffer in Suicidal and Other Bereavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peggy C.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined belief in afterlife and bereavement recovery following death by suicide, homicide, accident, or natural causes. Bereaved persons (n=121) completed scales measuring belief in afterlife, impact of event, perceived recovery, spiritual well-being, emotional pain, and social support. Feeling of recovery following bereavement appeared enhanced…

  17. Treatment beliefs underlying intended treatment choices in knee and hip osteoarthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selten, E.M.H.; Geenen, R.; Schers, H.J.; van den Hoogen, F.H.J.; van der Meulen-Dilling, R.G.; Van der Laan, W.H.; Nijhof, M.W.; van den Ende, C.H.M.; Vriezekolk, J.E.

    Purpose Patients’ beliefs about treatment modalities for knee and hip osteoarthritis (OA) will underlie their treatment choices. Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior, it is hypothesized that patients’ beliefs, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control guide their treatment choices. Also,

  18. Applying the Health Belief Model in Explaining the Stages of Exercise Change in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sas-Nowosielski Krzysztof

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The benefits of physical activity (PA have been so well documented that there is no doubt about the significance of PA for personal and social health. Several theoretical models have been proposed with a view to understanding the phenomenon of PA and other health behaviours. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if and how the variables suggested in the Health Belief Model (HBM determine physical activity stages of change in older adults. Material and methods. A total of 172 students of Universities of the Third Age aged 54 to 75 (mean = 62.89 ± 4.83 years agreed to participate in the study, filling out an anonymous survey measuring their stage of exercise change and determinants of health behaviours proposed by the HBM, including: perceived benefits of physical activity, perceived barriers to physical activity, perceived severity of diseases associated with sedentary lifestyle, perceived susceptibility to these diseases, and self-efficacy. Results. The results only partially support the hypothesis that the HBM predicts intentions and behaviours related to the physical activity of older adults. Only two variables were moderately-to-strongly related to stages of exercise change, namely perceived barriers and self-efficacy. Conclusion. Interventions aimed at informing older adults about the benefits of physical activity and the threats associated with sedentary lifestyle can be expected to have rather a weak influence on their readiness for physical activity.

  19. Concern beliefs in medications: changes over time and medication use factors related to a change in beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiyanbola, Olayinka O; Farris, Karen B; Chrischilles, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Concern belief in medication is a construct that may characterize patients' attitude toward managing medicines, and this could change with time. Understanding the factors that would impact a change in concern beliefs would be helpful in interventions that could reframe patients' perceptions about their medicines. To examine if patient concern beliefs in medications change over time, assess the characteristics of individuals whose beliefs change, and determine what factors might impact a change in patient beliefs. Secondary data analysis using 2 longitudinal studies. The first study was an Internet-based survey of Medicare enrollees pre-post Medicare Part D. The second study was a randomized controlled trial evaluating a medication management intervention among adults with physical limitations. Respondents were classified as those whose beliefs remained stable and those whose beliefs increased and decreased over 2 separate periods. Chi-square analysis examined significant differences across the groups. Multiple linear regressions examined factors that influence changes in patient beliefs. Among older adults, there were differences in perceived health status (χ(2)=26.05, P=.001), number of pharmacies used (χ(2)=17.41, P=.008), and number of medicines used after the start of Medicare Part D. There were no significant differences among adults with physical limitations. Among older adults, having an increased number of medicines over time and reporting a self-reported adverse effect to a physician were positively associated with an increase in concern beliefs in medication. Having an increase in adherence was associated with a decrease in concern beliefs over time. Concern beliefs in medications may contribute independent information about individuals' response to drug programs and policies. Outcomes of medication use may influence patient anxieties about medicines. The instability of patient concerns in medications that occurs with prescription drug coverage changes

  20. Exploring the lived experience and chronic low back pain beliefs of English-speaking Punjabi and white British people: a qualitative study within the NHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurpreet; Newton, Christopher; O'Sullivan, Kieran; Soundy, Andrew; Heneghan, Nicola R

    2018-02-11

    Disabling chronic low back pain (CLBP) is associated with negative beliefs and behaviours, which are influenced by culture, religion and interactions with healthcare practitioners (HCPs). In the UK, HCPs encounter people from different cultures and ethnic backgrounds, with South Asian Indians (including Punjabis) forming the largest ethnic minority group. Better understanding of the beliefs and experiences of ethnic minorities with CLBP might inform effective management. To explore the CLBP beliefs and experiences of English-speaking Punjabi and white British people living with CLBP, explore how beliefs may influence the lived experience of CLBP and conduct cross-cultural comparisons between the two groups. Qualitative study using semistructured interviews set within an interpretive description framework and thematic analysis. A National Health Service hospital physiotherapy department, Leicester, UK. 10 CLBP participants (5 English-speaking Punjabi and 5 white British) purposively recruited from physiotherapy waiting lists. Participants from both groups held negative biomedical CLBP beliefs such as the 'spine is weak', experienced unfulfilling interactions with HCPs commonly due to a perceived lack of support and negative psychosocial dimensions of CLBP with most participants catastrophising about their CLBP. Specific findings to Punjabi participants included (1) disruption to cultural-religious well-being, as well as (2) a perceived lack of understanding and empathy regarding their CLBP from the Punjabi community. In contrast to their white British counterparts, Punjabi participants reported initially using passive coping strategies; however, all participants reported a transition towards active coping strategies. CLBP beliefs and experiences, irrespective of ethnicity, were primarily biomedically orientated. However, cross-cultural differences included cultural-religious well-being, the community response to CLBP experienced by Punjabi participants and coping

  1. Exploring the lived experience and chronic low back pain beliefs of English-speaking Punjabi and white British people: a qualitative study within the NHS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurpreet; Newton, Christopher; O’Sullivan, Kieran

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Disabling chronic low back pain (CLBP) is associated with negative beliefs and behaviours, which are influenced by culture, religion and interactions with healthcare practitioners (HCPs). In the UK, HCPs encounter people from different cultures and ethnic backgrounds, with South Asian Indians (including Punjabis) forming the largest ethnic minority group. Better understanding of the beliefs and experiences of ethnic minorities with CLBP might inform effective management. Objectives To explore the CLBP beliefs and experiences of English-speaking Punjabi and white British people living with CLBP, explore how beliefs may influence the lived experience of CLBP and conduct cross-cultural comparisons between the two groups. Design Qualitative study using semistructured interviews set within an interpretive description framework and thematic analysis. Setting A National Health Service hospital physiotherapy department, Leicester, UK. Participants 10 CLBP participants (5 English-speaking Punjabi and 5 white British) purposively recruited from physiotherapy waiting lists. Results Participants from both groups held negative biomedical CLBP beliefs such as the ‘spine is weak’, experienced unfulfilling interactions with HCPs commonly due to a perceived lack of support and negative psychosocial dimensions of CLBP with most participants catastrophising about their CLBP. Specific findings to Punjabi participants included (1) disruption to cultural-religious well-being, as well as (2) a perceived lack of understanding and empathy regarding their CLBP from the Punjabi community. In contrast to their white British counterparts, Punjabi participants reported initially using passive coping strategies; however, all participants reported a transition towards active coping strategies. Conclusion CLBP beliefs and experiences, irrespective of ethnicity, were primarily biomedically orientated. However, cross-cultural differences included cultural-religious well-being, the

  2. Overdose beliefs and management practices among ethnic Vietnamese heroin users in Sydney, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher Lisa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethnic Vietnamese injecting drug users (IDUs in Australia draw on a range of beliefs and etiologic models, sometimes simultaneously, in order to make sense of health and illness. These include understandings of illness as the result of internal imbalances and Western concepts of disease causation including germ/pollution theory. Methods Observational fieldwork and in-depth interviews were conducted between 2001 and 2006 in neighbourhoods characterised by high proportions of Asian background IDUs and street-based drug markets. Eligibility criteria for the study were: 1 ethnic Vietnamese cultural background; 2 aged 16 years and over and; 3 injected drugs in the last 6 months. Results Participants commonly attempted to treat heroin overdose by withdrawing blood (rút máu from the body. Central to this practice are cultural beliefs about the role and function of blood in the body and its relationship to illness and health. Participants' beliefs in blood were strongly influenced by understandings of blood expressed in traditional Chinese and Vietnamese medicine. Many participants perceived Western drugs, particularly heroin, as "hot" and "strong". In overdose situations, it was commonly believed that an excessive amount of drugs (particularly heroin entered the bloodstream and traveled to the heart, making the heart work too hard. Withdrawing blood was understood to reduce the amount of drugs in the body which in turn reduced the effects of drugs on the blood and the heart. Conclusion The explanatory model of overdose employed by ethnic Vietnamese IDUs privileges traditional beliefs about the circulatory, rather than the respiratory, system. This paper explores participants' beliefs about blood, the effects of drugs on blood and the causes of heroin overdose in order to document the explanatory model of overdose used by ethnic Vietnamese IDUs. Implications for overdose prevention, treatment and management are identified and

  3. Does stigma predict a belief in dealing with depression alone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Kathleen M; Crisp, Dimity A; Jorm, Anthony F; Christensen, Helen

    2011-08-01

    Community surveys indicate that many people with depressive disorders do not obtain professional help and that a preference for self-reliance is an important factor in this treatment gap. The current study sought to investigate whether stigmatising attitudes predict a belief in the helpfulness of dealing with depression without external assistance. Data were collected as part of a national household survey of 2000 Australian adults aged 18 years and above. Participants were presented with either a vignette depicting depression (n=1001) or a vignette depicting depression with suicidal ideation (n=999) and asked if it would be helpful or harmful to deal alone with the problem. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine if belief in dealing with depression alone was predicted by personal stigma, perceived stigma or sociodemographic characteristics. Higher levels of personal stigma independently predicted a belief in the helpfulness of dealing alone with both depression and depression with suicidal ideation. By contrast, lower levels of perceived stigma were associated with a belief in the helpfulness of dealing alone with depression without suicidal ideation. Personal stigma is associated with a belief in the helpfulness of self-reliance in coping with depression. Public health programs should consider the possibility that a belief in self-reliance is partly attributable to stigma. The findings also point to the potential importance of providing evidence-based self-help programs for those who believe in self-care. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Analytic cognitive style predicts religious and paranormal belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennycook, Gordon; Cheyne, James Allan; Seli, Paul; Koehler, Derek J; Fugelsang, Jonathan A

    2012-06-01

    An analytic cognitive style denotes a propensity to set aside highly salient intuitions when engaging in problem solving. We assess the hypothesis that an analytic cognitive style is associated with a history of questioning, altering, and rejecting (i.e., unbelieving) supernatural claims, both religious and paranormal. In two studies, we examined associations of God beliefs, religious engagement (attendance at religious services, praying, etc.), conventional religious beliefs (heaven, miracles, etc.) and paranormal beliefs (extrasensory perception, levitation, etc.) with performance measures of cognitive ability and analytic cognitive style. An analytic cognitive style negatively predicted both religious and paranormal beliefs when controlling for cognitive ability as well as religious engagement, sex, age, political ideology, and education. Participants more willing to engage in analytic reasoning were less likely to endorse supernatural beliefs. Further, an association between analytic cognitive style and religious engagement was mediated by religious beliefs, suggesting that an analytic cognitive style negatively affects religious engagement via lower acceptance of conventional religious beliefs. Results for types of God belief indicate that the association between an analytic cognitive style and God beliefs is more nuanced than mere acceptance and rejection, but also includes adopting less conventional God beliefs, such as Pantheism or Deism. Our data are consistent with the idea that two people who share the same cognitive ability, education, political ideology, sex, age and level of religious engagement can acquire very different sets of beliefs about the world if they differ in their propensity to think analytically. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of educational intervention on knowledge, perceived benefits, barriers and self-efficacy regarding AIDS preventive behaviors among drug addicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastami, Fatemeh; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Hassanzadeh, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Addicts account for approximately 68.15% of AIDS cases in Iran and injection drug users are considered as a major factor in the spread of AIDS in Iran. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of an educational intervention on the perceived self-efficacy, benefits, and barriers concerning AIDS preventive behaviors among drug addicts in Khorramabad, Iran. Methods: This is a quasi-experimental study carried out in 2013 on 88 addicts kept in rehabilitations center in Khorramabad. The data collection instruments included a questionnaire on self-efficacy, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, knowledge and preventive behaviors regarding HIV. Data were analyzed by paired t-test, independent t-test, Chi-square and analysis of covariance. Results: Paired t-test showed that the mean scores for perceived benefits and barriers, knowledge and preventive behaviors significantly increased in the intervention group after the intervention than before the intervention. But the increase in self-efficacy score was not statistically significant. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that training and education based on the health belief model led to an increase in knowledge, self-efficacy, perceived benefits, performance and reduction in perceived barriers in addicts. It is recommended that future studies should include strategies for enhancing self-efficacy and perceived benefits as well as strategies for reducing barriers to the adoption of preventive behaviors. PMID:27462632

  6. College Students' Beliefs about Supporting a Grieving Peer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedrick Parikh, Sara J.; Servaty-Seib, Heather L.

    2013-01-01

    The present study used I. Ajzen's (1991) Theory of Planned Behavior (TBP) to explore college students' beliefs about listening supportively to a grieving friend. Responses to open-ended questions suggested that students ("N" = 23) perceived both benefits and risks, connected with listening supportively, for the grieving friend and for…

  7. Customers' Beliefs Behind Business-to-Consumer Electronic Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nena Lim

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available With the rising importance of electronic commerce, it is important for researchers and company executives to understand customers' beliefs behind online shopping behaviour. This proposed study extends the technology acceptance model (TAM to test the influence of experience, self-efficacy, perceived risk, and social influence on customers' acceptance of the business-to consumer (b2c e-commerce.

  8. Parenting Beliefs, Parental Stress, and Social Support Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Respler-Herman, Melissa; Mowder, Barbara A.; Yasik, Anastasia E.; Shamah, Renee

    2012-01-01

    The present study built on prior research by examining the relationship of parental stress and social support to parenting beliefs and behaviors. A sample of 87 parents provided their views concerning the importance of parenting characteristics as well as their level of parental stress and perceived social support. These parents completed the…

  9. Customers' Beliefs Behind Business-to-Consumer Electronic Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Nena Lim

    2001-01-01

    With the rising importance of electronic commerce, it is important for researchers and company executives to understand customers' beliefs behind online shopping behaviour. This proposed study extends the technology acceptance model (TAM) to test the influence of experience, self-efficacy, perceived risk, and social influence on customers' acceptance of the business-to consumer (b2c) e-commerce.

  10. Perceptions, attitudes and beliefs of adults in a Nigerian community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceptions, attitudes and beliefs of adults in a Nigerian community about cleft lip and palate. ... Attempted abortion and smoking by the mother during pregnancy were perceived to cause CLP by 36.3% and 33.3% respectively while an “Act of God” was believed to be the aetiology by 23%. A small percentage (17%) ...

  11. Belief Change in Reasoning Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Yi

    2007-01-01

    The capability of changing beliefs upon new information in a rational and efficient way is crucial for an intelligent agent. Belief change therefore is one of the central research fields in Artificial Intelligence (AI) for over two decades. In the AI literature, two different kinds of belief change operations have been intensively investigated: belief update, which deal with situations where the new information describes changes of the world; and belief revision, which assumes the world is st...

  12. Agency Beliefs Over Time and Across Cultures: Free Will Beliefs Predict Higher Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Gilad; Farh, Jiing-Lih; Wong, Kin Fai Ellick

    2017-01-01

    In three studies, we examined the relationship between free will beliefs and job satisfaction over time and across cultures. Study 1 examined 252 Taiwanese real-estate agents over a 3-months period. Study 2 examined job satisfaction for 137 American workers on an online labor market over a 6-months period. Study 3 extended to a large sample of 14,062 employees from 16 countries and examined country-level moderators. We found a consistent positive relationship between the belief in free will and job satisfaction. The relationship was above and beyond other agency constructs (Study 2), mediated by perceived autonomy (Studies 2-3), and stronger in countries with a higher national endorsement of the belief in free will (Study 3). We conclude that free-will beliefs predict outcomes over time and across cultures beyond other agency constructs. We call for more cross-cultural and longitudinal studies examining free-will beliefs as predictors of real-life outcomes. PMID:29191084

  13. Breast-feeding perceptions, beliefs and experiences of Marshallese migrants: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Allison; Shreve, Marilou; Ayers, Britni; McElfish, Pearl Anna

    2016-11-01

    To determine perceptions, beliefs and experiences affecting breast-feeding in Marshallese mothers residing in Northwest Arkansas, USA. A qualitative, exploratory study using a brief survey and focus groups. Marshallese women, 18 years or older who had a child under 7 years of age, were included in the study. Community-based organization in Northwest Arkansas. The majority of mothers viewed breast milk as superior to formula, but had concerns about adequate milk supply and the nutritional value of their milk. The primary barriers to exclusive breast-feeding in the USA included public shaming (both verbal and non-verbal), perceived milk production and quality, and maternal employment. These barriers are not reported in the Marshall Islands and are encountered only after moving to the USA. Breast-feeding mothers rely heavily on familial support, especially the eldest female, who may not reside in the USA. The influence of institutions, including the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children, is strong and may negatively affect breast-feeding. Despite the belief that breast milk is the healthiest option, breast-feeding among Marshallese mothers is challenged by numerous barriers they encounter as they assimilate to US cultural norms. The barriers and challenges, along with the strong desire to assimilate to US culture, impact Marshallese mothers' perceptions, beliefs and experiences with breast-feeding.

  14. Social normative beliefs regarding cigarette smoking in Hungarian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M; Piko, Bettina F; Balazs, Mate A; Struk, Tamara

    2011-10-01

    Hungary will continue to experience a high burden of disease and death from lung cancer and other tobacco-induced disease unless there is a significant reduction in youth smoking. Social factors have been found to be among the most important determinants of adolescent smoking, yet few studies have investigated social normative beliefs in Hungarian youth. The purpose of the current study was to investigate three measures of smoking normative beliefs thought to influence adolescent smoking: perceived prevalence of smoking; perceived popularity of smoking among successful/elite elements of society; and perceived disapproval by friends and family. A cross-sectional school-based survey of eighth grade (n = 258) and 12th grade (n = 288) students in Mako, Hungary was conducted to assess social normative beliefs about smoking, current smoking, ever smoking, and susceptibility to smoking. The association of the normative beliefs with the smoking behavior variables was examined through logistic regression analysis, and the underlying factor structure of the normative belief items in the current sample was determined through factor analysis. The percent of boys reporting current smoking was 40.5% in 12th grade and 27.0% in eighth grade. Among girls, the percent was 44.0% of 12th graders and 29.1% of eighth graders. Parent/peer disapproval was the most consistently associated normative belief with smoking behavior and susceptibility to smoking across both samples. Youth smoking prevention programs should consider assessing and taking into account normative beliefs and develop strategies that provide accurate information about the actual prevalence of smoking, the types of individuals who smoke, and approval/disapproval of smoking by parents and peers. © 2011 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2011 Japan Pediatric Society.

  15. Belief, hope and faith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Luis Claudio

    2004-12-01

    A case of hysteria is presented in order to create a frame of reference for the author's approach to the concepts of hope, belief and faith. A difference between hope as a 'sad passion' (which is here called regressive hope) and hope as a principle of mental functioning is established. The concept of hope will at first always be based on beliefs--either beliefs organised in the paranoid-schizoid position (called here fragmented and delusional beliefs)--or those organised from the depressive position (complex systems of beliefs, which end up being dogmatic); the latter typically occur in neurotics. It is suggested here that there is another possibility for hope, which is based on faith. The meaning of faith is considered here externally to the religious sense. The solid establishment of hope as a principle--based on faith--can be viewed as responsible for the opening up of creative potentials and as one of the main aims of analysis. Such an aim, however requires the establishment of a deep relationship, both in theory and in clinical practice, between the Kleinian question of the depressive position and the Freudian question of the Oedipus complex.

  16. Influence of a screening navigation program on social inequalities in health beliefs about colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallet, Fanny; Guillaume, Elodie; Dejardin, Olivier; Guittet, Lydia; Bouvier, Véronique; Mignon, Astrid; Berchi, Célia; Salinas, Agnès; Launoy, Guy; Christophe, Véronique

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the study was to test whether a screening navigation program leads to more favorable health beliefs and decreases social inequalities in them. The selected 261 noncompliant participants in a screening navigation versus a usual screening program arm had to respond to health belief measures inspired by the Protection Motivation Theory. Regression analyses showed that social inequalities in perceived efficacy of screening, favorable attitude, and perceived facility were reduced in the screening navigation compared to the usual screening program. These results highlight the importance of health beliefs to understand the mechanism of screening navigation programs in reducing social inequalities. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. "Why not bathe the baby today?": A qualitative study of thermal care beliefs and practices in four African sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adejuyigbe, Ebunoluwa Aderonke; Bee, Margaret Helen; Amare, Yared; Omotara, Babatunji Abayomi; Iganus, Ruth Buus; Manzi, Fatuma; Shamba, Donat Dominic; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene; Odebiyi, Adetanwa; Hill, Zelee Elizabeth

    2015-10-14

    Recommendations for care in the first week of a newborn's life include thermal care practices such as drying and wrapping, skin to skin contact, immediate breastfeeding and delayed bathing. This paper examines beliefs and practices related to neonatal thermal care in three African countries. Data were collected in the same way in each site and included 16-20 narrative interviews with recent mothers, eight observations of neonatal bathing, and in-depth interviews with 12-16 mothers, 9-12 grandmothers, eight health workers and 0-12 birth attendants in each site. We found similarities across sites in relation to understanding the importance of warmth, a lack of opportunities for skin to skin care, beliefs about the importance of several baths per day and beliefs that the Vernix caseosa was related to poor maternal behaviours. There was variation between sites in beliefs and practices around wrapping and drying after delivery, and the timing of the first bath with recent behavior change in some sites. There was near universal early bathing of babies in both Nigerian sites. This was linked to a deep-rooted belief about body odour. When asked about keeping the baby warm, respondents across the sites rarely mentioned recommended thermal care practices, suggesting that these are not perceived as salient. More effort is needed to promote appropriate thermal care practices both in facilities and at home. Programmers should be aware that changing deep rooted practices, such as early bathing in Nigeria, may take time and should utilize the current beliefs in the importance of neonatal warmth to facilitate behaviour change.

  18. Beliefs about health, illness and acceptance of the limitations of chronic somatic disease inpeople with psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Miniszewska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Occurrence of a chronic disease means for an affected person significant changes in life and the disease itself can be seen in various categories. Assessment of the disease often affects its acceptance, which in turn affects the choice of coping strategies in dealing with it. Beliefs about psoriasis, a chronic skin disease that causes numerous psychosocial consequences, may influence its acceptance. Aim of the study: To determine the relationship between the way the disease is perceived, beliefs about having an impact on one’s own health, and acceptance of limitations of the disease. Material and methods: The study included 61 psoriasis patients. The following measures were employed: Acceptance of Illness Scale (AIS, Disease-Related Appraisals Scale (SOWC, Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale (MHLC, Self-Administered Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (SAPASI. Results: Sex and occurrence of the disease in family members did not differentiate the respondents in terms of the level of acceptance of the disease. Their perception of the disease as a threat, harm, obstacles and imbalances of life and treatment of health in terms of a chance, and severity of psoriasis measured with SAPASI correlated negatively with the disease acceptance. Internal health locus of control affected it positively. Two homogeneous subgroups were separated. Assessment of the disease in terms of an obstacle/loss, internal health locus of control and treatment of health in terms of a chance allow to predict the level of psoriasis acceptance. Conclusions: People’s beliefs relating to their own illness and their belief in having (or not an influence on their own health are associated with the level of accepting the disease. In other words, beliefs about a disease correlate with adaptation to it.

  19. Self-perceived facture risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothmann, M J; Ammentorp, J; Bech, M

    2015-01-01

    , and self-rated heath) and self-perceived fracture risk. Although women recognized the importance of some fracture risk factors, a number of significant risk factors appeared to be less well known. INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study is to investigate women's self-perceived fracture risk and potential...... factors associated with this and to compare self-perceived risk with absolute fracture risk estimated by FRAX® in women aged 65-80 years. METHODS: Data from 20,905 questionnaires from the ROSE study were analyzed. The questionnaire included 25 items on osteoporosis, risk factors for fractures, and self...... their fracture risk significantly higher than their peers. No correlation between self-perceived risk and absolute risk was found. The ordered logistic regression model showed a significant association between high self-perceived fracture risk and previous fragility fracture, parental hip fracture, falls, self...

  20. Perceived need to take medication is associated with medication non-adherence in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zwikker HE

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Hanneke E Zwikker,1,2 Sandra van Dulmen,3–5 Alfons A den Broeder,1,2 Bart J van den Bemt,1,2,6 Cornelia H van den Ende1,2 1Department of Rheumatology, 2Department of Pharmacy, Sint Maartenskliniek, Nijmegen, the Netherlands; 3Department of Primary and Community Care, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, the Netherlands; 4NIVEL (Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 5Department of Health Science, Buskerud and Vestfold University College, Drammen, Norway; 6Department of Pharmacy, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, the Netherlands Background: This is the first cross-sectional study that aims to examine associations between beliefs about medication and non-adherence in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA using disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, taking potential psychological confounders into account.Methods: Eligible patients (diagnosed with RA for ≥1 year or ≥18 years, using greater than or equal to one disease-modifying antirheumatic drug were included by their rheumatologist during regular outpatient visits between September 2009 and September 2010. Included patients received questionnaires. The Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire was used to measure the perceived need to take medication (necessity beliefs, the concerns about taking medication (concern beliefs, general medication beliefs, and attitudes toward taking medication. Medication non-adherence (no/yes was measured using the Compliance Questionnaire Rheumatology (CQR. Associations between beliefs and non-adherence, and the influence of demographical, clinical, and psychological factors (symptoms of anxiety/depression, illness cognitions, self-efficacy were assessed using logistic regression.Results: A total of 580 of the 820 eligible patients willing to participate were included in the analyses (68% female, mean age 63 years, 30% non-adherent to their medication. Weaker necessity beliefs (OR [odds ratio]: 0.8, 95% CI

  1. Beliefs about Racism and Health among African American Women with Diabetes: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Julie A.; Osborn, Chandra Y.; Mendenhall, Emily A.; Budris, Lisa M.; Belay, Sophia; Tennen, Howard A.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to racism has been linked to poor health outcomes. Little is known about the impact of racism on diabetes outcomes. This study explored African American (AA) women’s beliefs about how racism interacts with their diabetes self-management and control. Four focus groups were conducted with a convenience sample of 28 adult AA women with type 2 diabetes who were recruited from a larger quantitative study on racism and diabetes. The focus group discussions were transcribed verbatim and analyzed by the authors. Women reported that exposure to racism was a common phenomenon, and their beliefs did in fact link racism to poor health. Specifically, women reported that exposure to racism caused physiological arousal including cardiovascular and metabolic perturbations. There was consensus that physiological arousal was generally detrimental to health. Women also described limited, and in some cases maladaptive, strategies to cope with racist events including eating unhealthy food choices and portions. There was consensus that the subjective nature of perceiving racism and accompanying social prohibitions often made it impossible to address racism directly. Many women described anger in such situations, and the tendency to internalize anger and other negative emotions, only to find that the negative emotions would be reactivated repeatedly with exposure to novel racial stressors, even long after the original racist event remitted. AA women in this study believed that racism affects their diabetes self-management and control. Health beliefs can exert powerful effects on health behaviors and may provide an opportunity for health promotion interventions in diabetes. PMID:21528110

  2. Defining genes using "blueprint" versus "instruction" metaphors: effects for genetic determinism, response efficacy, and perceived control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Roxanne; Smith, Rachel A

    2014-01-01

    Evidence supports mixed attributions aligned with personal and/or clinical control and gene expression for health in this era of genomic science and health care. We consider variance in these attributions and possible relationships to individual mind sets associated with essentialist beliefs that genes determine health versus threat beliefs that genes increase susceptibility for disease and severity linked to gene-environment interactions. Further, we contribute to theory and empirical research to evaluate the use of metaphors to define genes. Participants (N = 324) read a message that varied the introduction by providing a definition of genes that used either an "instruction" metaphor or a "blueprint" metaphor. The "instruction" metaphor compared to the "blueprint" metaphor promoted stronger threat perceptions, which aligned with both belief in the response efficacy of genetic research for health and perceived behavioral control linked to genes and health. The "blueprint" metaphor compared to the "instruction" metaphor promoted stronger essentialist beliefs, which aligned with more intense positive regard for the efficacy of genetic research and human health. Implications for health communicators include societal effects aligned with stigma and discrimination that such findings portend.

  3. Osteoporosis Knowledge and Beliefs Among Jordanian Men at Karak City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diala Altwalbeh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder in which the bones become weak, brittle, and more likely to break. This disease is excessively prevalent among women, but it may also affect the male individuals. There is a lack of studies, which have assessed men’s knowledge and beliefs in Jordan about osteoporosis. Thus, this study aims to explore the level of knowledge and health beliefs regarding osteoporosis among Jordanian men at Karak city. Method: A descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted after recruiting 88 men, who attended a primary healthcare centre at Karak city. Men’s knowledge of osteoporosis was assessed using two instruments; “The Facts on Osteoporosis Quiz” and the “Male Osteoporosis Knowledge Quiz”. Osteoporosis health beliefs were assessed using the “Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale”. Results: Most of the selected participants reported that they have heard about osteoporosis before. The main source of osteoporosis information was mass media (43.18%, which was followed by family members or friends (25%. The studied sample scored a mean of 9.02 out of 26 with a range of 3 to 16, reflecting 34.70% of the maximum possible score. The selected participants had a low perceived susceptibility, moderate perceived seriousness, high perceived benefits of exercise and calcium intake, low perceived barriers to calcium intake compared to moderate perceived barrier to exercise, and moderate perceived health motivation. Conclusion: Educational interventions are required to increase men’s awareness about the seriousness of osteoporosis and its impact in later life. Healthcare providers should focus more on increased awareness level about osteoporosis.

  4. Practices and Perspectives of College Instructors on Addressing Religious Beliefs When Teaching Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, M. Elizabeth; Brownell, Sara E.

    2016-01-01

    Evolution is a core concept of biology, and yet many college biology students do not accept evolution because of their religious beliefs. However, we do not currently know how instructors perceive their role in helping students accept evolution or how they address the perceived conflict between religion and evolution when they teach evolution.…

  5. Intrinsic motivation towards sports in Singaporean students: the role of sport ability beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C K John; Biddle, Stuart J H

    2003-09-01

    This study investigated determinants of active lifestyles in Singaporean university students. Using confirmatory factor analysis, a measure of lay beliefs concerning athletic ability was confirmed. Other results confirmed hypotheses that beliefs reflecting that athletic ability can be developed over time (incremental beliefs) predict an achievement task (self-referenced) orientation, while beliefs reflecting that athletic ability is relatively stable (entity beliefs) predict an ego (other-person, comparative) orientation. Goal orientations directly affect perceived competence which, in turn, influence intrinsic motivation to be physically active. A task orientation had a direct link to intrinsic motivation. Results suggest that intrinsic motivation towards sport and physical activity might be enhanced through interventions that focus on self-referenced and self-improvement notions of ability as well as perceived competence.

  6. Effect of an Educational Program Based on the Health Belief Model to Reduce Cell Phone Usage During Driving in Taxi drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Moeini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cell phone usage during driving has become a threat to traffic safety. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of an educational program based on the health belief model to reduce cell phone usage during driving in taxi drivers of Tuyserkan. Materials and Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 110 taxi drivers younger than 35 years were randomly divided into two experimental and control groups in Tuyserkan, Iran. Data was collected using a questionnaire including the health belief model constructs, knowledge, behaviors of using cell phone and demographic variables. The questionnaires were self-reported. Intervention was three sessions applied in the experimental group. Both groups were followed for two months after the intervention. Finally, data analysis was performed using SPSS- 19 by Chi-square, Independent T-test, Paired T-test and McNemar. Results: The mean scores for the constructs of health belief model (perceived susceptibility, severity, barriers, perceived benefits, self-efficacy and cues to action, knowledge and desired behaviors about the use of cell phone during driving showed no significant differences between the two groups before the intervention. After the educational intervention, significant differences were observed in experimental group compared to control group. After educational intervention, cell phone usage reduced by 35.14% in the experimental group. Conclusion: An educational intervention based on the health belief model could reduce cell phone usage during driving in taxi drivers.

  7. The birth beliefs scale - a new measure to assess basic beliefs about birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preis, Heidi; Benyamini, Yael

    2017-03-01

    Basic beliefs about birth as a natural and safe or a medical and risky process are central in the decisions on where and how to birth. Despite their importance, they have not been studied separately from other childbirth-related constructs. Our aim was to develop a measure to assess these beliefs. Pregnant Israeli women (N = 850, gestational week ≥14) were recruited in women's health centers, in online natural birth forums, and through home midwives. Participants filled in questionnaires including sociodemographic and obstetric background, the Birth Beliefs Scale (BBS), dispositional desire for control (DC) and planned mode of delivery. Factor analyses revealed that the BBS is composed of two factors: beliefs about birth as a natural process and beliefs about birth as a medical process. Both subscales showed good internal and test-retest reliability. They had good construct validity, predicted birth choices, and were weakly correlated with DC. Women's medical obstetric history was associated with the BBS, further supporting the validity of the scale. Beliefs about birth may be the building blocks that make up perceptions of birth and drive women's preferences. The new scale provides an easy way to distinctly assess them so they can be used to further understand planned birth behaviors. Additional studies are needed to comprehend how these beliefs form in different cultural contexts and how they evolve over time.

  8. Validity of Measures Assessing Oral Health Beliefs of American Indian Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Anne R; Brega, Angela G; Thomas, Jacob F; Henderson, William G; Lind, Kimberly E; Braun, Patricia A; Batliner, Terrence S; Albino, Judith

    2018-03-05

    This aimed to validate measures of constructs included in an extended Health Belief Model (EHBM) addressing oral health beliefs among American Indian (AI) parents. Questionnaire data were collected as part of a randomized controlled trial (n = 1016) aimed at reducing childhood caries. Participants were AI parents with a preschool-age child enrolled in the Navajo Nation Head Start program. Questionnaire items addressed five EHBM constructs: perceived susceptibility, severity, barriers, benefits, and parental self-efficacy. Subscales representing each construct underwent reliability and validity testing. Internal consistency reliability of each subscale was evaluated using Cronbach's alpha. Convergent validity was assessed using linear regression to evaluate the association of each EHBM subscale with oral health-related measures. Internal consistency reliability was high for self-efficacy (α = 0.83) and perceived benefits (α = 0.83) compared to remaining EHBM subscales (α Parents with more education (p parents (ps = 0.02) and those with more education (ps oral health behavior. Female parents (p Parental knowledge was associated with all EHBM measures (ps  0.05). Parents with increased self-efficacy had greater behavioral adherence (p parents who reported higher perceived barriers (p oral health outcomes were associated with higher levels of self-efficacy (p < 0.0001) and lower levels of perceived severity (p = 0.02) and barriers (p = 0.05). Results support the value of questionnaire items addressing the EHBM subscales, which functioned in a manner consistent with the EHBM theoretical framework in AI participants.

  9. A cross-cultural survey of residents' perceived barriers in questioning/challenging authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, H; Pian-Smith, M; Sato, M; Sawa, R; Takeshita, T; Raemer, D

    2006-08-01

    To identify perceived barriers to residents' questioning or challenging their seniors, to determine how these barriers affect decisions, and to assess how these barriers differ across cultures. A written questionnaire was administered to residents in teaching hospitals in the US and Japan to assess factors affecting residents' willingness to question or challenge their superiors. The responses were analyzed for statistical significance of differences between the two cultures and to determine the importance of issues affecting decisions. Questionnaires were completed by 175 US and 65 Japanese residents, with an overall response rate of 71%. Trainees from both countries believe that questioning and challenging contribute to safety. The perceived importance of specific beliefs about the workplace differed across cultures in seven out of 22 questions. Residents' decisions to make a challenge were related to the relationships and perceived response of the superiors. There was no statistical difference between the US and Japanese residents in terms of the threshold for challenging their seniors. We have identified attributes of residents' beliefs of communication, including several cross-cultural differences in the importance of values and issues affecting one's decision to question or challenge. In contrast, there was no difference in the threshold for challenging seniors by the Japanese and US residents studied. Changes in organizational and professional culture may be as important, if not more so, than national culture to encourage "speaking up". Residents should be encouraged to overcome barriers to challenging, and training programs should foster improved relationships and communication between trainers and trainees.

  10. Islamic Beliefs and Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefein, Naim A.

    1981-01-01

    To help social studies classroom teachers present a realistic picture of the Middle Eastern religion of Islam, this article presents an overview of major beliefs and religious practices of Moslems. Information is presented on religious fundamentals, Islam's relationship to Judaism and Christianity, the development of Islam, the role of women, and…

  11. Childhood trauma and the development of paranormal beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowski, Monisha; MacDonald, Douglas A

    2014-04-01

    Belief in the paranormal is fairly prevalent in the general population. Previous research has shown a link between several personological characteristics and paranormal beliefs. The current study attempted to further investigate this link by replicating previous models that have shown a link between childhood trauma, fantasy proneness, and paranormal beliefs. In addition, the study attempted to expand on this model by including other variables such as stigma, resiliency, and coping style. The study used a sample of 198 undergraduate students. A significant correlation between trauma and paranormal beliefs was found. Partial correlations and path analyses revealed that fantasy proneness and avoidant coping style fully mediate the relationship between trauma and paranormal beliefs. The results imply that researchers need to take into account how a person responds to trauma via the development of coping strategies to accurately understand any observed relationship between trauma and paranormal beliefs.

  12. Mental illness complicated by the santeria belief in spirit possession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, L; Jeffrey, W D

    1988-11-01

    Santeria, a religious system that blends African and Catholic beliefs, is practiced by many Cuban Americans. One aspect of this system is the belief in spirit possession. Basic santeria beliefs and rituals, including the fiesta santera (a gathering at which some participants may become possessed), are briefly described, and four cases in which the patients' belief in possession played a role in their mental illness are presented. The belief in possession can complicate the diagnosis and treatment of mental illness, but it should not be considered a culture-bound syndrome. Rather, it may be a nonspecific symptom of a variety of mental illnesses and should be evaluated in the context of the patient's overall belief system and ability to carry out usual activities.

  13. Influence of intention to adhere, beliefs and satisfaction about medicines on adherence in solid organ transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugon, Amélie; Roustit, Matthieu; Lehmann, Audrey; Saint-Raymond, Christel; Borrel, Elisabeth; Hilleret, Marie-Noëlle; Malvezzi, Paolo; Bedouch, Pierrick; Pansu, Pascal; Allenet, Benoît

    2014-07-27

    Nonadherence to immunosuppressive (IS) therapy is associated with poor outcomes. Identifying factors predicting poor adherence is therefore essential. The primary objective of this study was to test whether parameters of a model adapted from the theory of planned behavior, and more specifically attitudes that are influenced by beliefs and satisfaction with medication, could predict adherence in solid organ transplant patients. Adherence was assessed with a self-reported medication adherence scale and IS blood trough concentrations over 6 months, in four transplant units. Satisfaction and beliefs were assessed using the Treatment Satisfaction with Medicines Questionnaire (SATMED-Q) and Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ), respectively. Theory of planned behavior was assessed with a specific questionnaire exploring intentions, subjective norms, attitudes and perceived behavioral control. Treatment characteristics and socioeconomic data were also collected. One hundred and fifty-three solid organ transplant patients were enrolled, including lung (n=33), heart (n=43), liver (n=42), and kidney (n=44) patients. Satisfaction and positive beliefs about medication were higher in adherent than those in nonadherent patients. Factors independently associated with an increased risk of nonadherence were negative general beliefs about medications (odds ratio [OR]=0.89 [0.83-0.97]), living alone (OR=2.78 [1.09-7.09]), heart transplantation (OR=3.49 [1.34-9.09]), and being on everolimus (OR=5.02 [1.21-20.8]). Negative beliefs toward medications were shown to be an independent risk factor of poor adherence. Therefore, the BMQ could be an effective, easy to implement tool, for use in everyday practice, to identify patients needing interventions to improve adherence to IS.

  14. Plantinga\\\\\\'s Internal and External Approach toRationality of Belief in God

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Farajipak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Various views about the rationality/irrationality of believing in God have been suggested by western religious and secular thinners. The theory of "Basicalism" together with its similar views such as "Evidentialism", "Fideism" and"Pragmatism" is one of the epistemological views posed about the belief in God and seeks to prove its rationality. In general, based on this view, believing in God does not require any rational reasoning. Various versions of this view have been presented so far.One of its versions expressed by scholars like Swinburne, Alston and Plantinga is what is known as Experientialism. In his special exposition of Experientialism – which he refers to as "reformed epistemology" –Plantinga has had two different dictions in his works. In his early woks such as God and other Minds, "Is Belief in God Rational?", "Is Belief in God Properly Basic?" and"Reformed Epistemology and Christian Apologetics", he endeavored to prove the rationality and justificationof believing in God and tried to offer certain and compelling arguments to prove the existence of God. In these works, Plantinga has adopted an internal approach toward the rationality of believing in God and regards it as a basic belief. Criticizing classic foundationalism, he sought to expand a different version of foundationalism according to which God's existence is regarded as basic for a believer. Based on this approach, Palntinga, like other proponents of foundationalism, considers the knowledgea "True Justified Belief". His view is, however, different from other foundationalists in defining the nature of the third element of knowledge. According to Plantinga's early exposition of his theory, the criteria of rationality of believing in God include the principles of classic foundationalism(such as evident to senses, evident to reason and incorrigibility and other elements. He rejected the deductive-priori method concerning the criteria of determining basic belief and

  15. Plantinga's Internal and External Approach toRationality of Belief in God

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Farajipak

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Various views about the rationality/irrationality of believing in God have been suggested by western religious and secular thinners. The theory of "Basicalism" together with its similar views such as "Evidentialism", "Fideism" and"Pragmatism" is one of the epistemological views posed about the belief in God and seeks to prove its rationality. In general, based on this view, believing in God does not require any rational reasoning. Various versions of this view have been presented so far.One of its versions expressed by scholars like Swinburne, Alston and Plantinga is what is known as Experientialism. In his special exposition of Experientialism – which he refers to as "reformed epistemology" –Plantinga has had two different dictions in his works. In his early woks such as God and other Minds, "Is Belief in God Rational?", "Is Belief in God Properly Basic?" and"Reformed Epistemology and Christian Apologetics", he endeavored to prove the rationality and justificationof believing in God and tried to offer certain and compelling arguments to prove the existence of God. In these works, Plantinga has adopted an internal approach toward the rationality of believing in God and regards it as a basic belief. Criticizing classic foundationalism, he sought to expand a different version of foundationalism according to which God's existence is regarded as basic for a believer. Based on this approach, Palntinga, like other proponents of foundationalism, considers the knowledgea "True Justified Belief". His view is, however, different from other foundationalists in defining the nature of the third element of knowledge. According to Plantinga's early exposition of his theory, the criteria of rationality of believing in God include the principles of classic foundationalism(such as evident to senses, evident to reason and incorrigibility and other elements. He rejected the deductive-priori method concerning the criteria of determining basic belief and

  16. Low Back Pain Preventive Behaviors Among Nurses Based on the Health Belief Model Constructs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Sharafkhani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The nursing profession is physically demanding as it is ranked second from the viewpoint of physical activity, following industrial occupations. Nursing is considered a profession with high musculoskeletal disorders, specifically low back pain. This article evaluated the nurses’ educational needs based on the Health Belief Model (HBM with focus on the low back pain and adoption of preventive behaviors. This analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on 133 nurses who were selected randomly from three public educational hospitals affiliated with Arak University of Medical Sciences. Data collection was performed with a questionnaire, which included demographic characteristics, questions on HBM constructs, and a checklist for explaining the performances. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive and analytical tests and Pearson’s correlation coefficient. In this study, among the HBM constructs, the cues to action and the perceived barriers were the main predictors of optimal performance among the sample subjects (B = 0.09, p < .01. Moreover, there was a significant relationship between the nurses’ performance on adopting the preventive behaviors and the scores of perceived barriers, self-efficacy, and cues to action (p < .05. However, no significant relationship was observed between the nurses’ performance and perceived susceptibility, severity, and benefits. In this study, as for behavior barriers, the nurses complained about unfamiliarity with the workplace ergonomics and inappropriate conditions based on ergonomic principles, which requires educational planning with the aim of overcoming perceived barriers, improving managerial activities, and enhancing the working place conditions.

  17. Teacher Beliefs and Technology Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, ChanMin; Kim, Min Kyu; Lee, Chiajung; Spector, J. Michael; DeMeester, Karen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory mixed methods study was to investigate how teacher beliefs were related to technology integration practices. We were interested in how and to what extent teachers' (a) beliefs about the nature of knowledge and learning, (b) beliefs about effective ways of teaching, and (c) technology integration practices were…

  18. Underestimating belief in climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, John T.

    2018-03-01

    People are influenced by second-order beliefsbeliefs about the beliefs of others. New research finds that citizens in the US and China systematically underestimate popular support for taking action to curb climate change. Fortunately, they seem willing and able to correct their misperceptions.

  19. Connecting Knowledge, Belief, Values and Action: Informing Climate Literacy by Using Autobiographies to Articulate Environmental Worldviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    Climate literacy is evolving as a specific subset of science and environmental literacy. Through a longitudinal analysis of environmental autobiographies of an internationally and religiously diverse group of environmental sciences majors at a Historically Black College or University (HBCU) in the southern U.S., this presentation will explore: 1) sources and impact of religious beliefs on students' environmental worldview; 2) conflicts between religious, community and scientific values; and 3) navigating the tensions between trust in a religious deity as well as scientific methods and processes. Lester Milbrath states that "beliefs empower and deceive us." The media, as well as significant people and institutions, including religious institutions, socialize us and contribute to individual and societal worldviews. "We so thoroughly accept our culture's beliefs about how the world works that we hardly ever think about them even though they underlie everything we think and do." Beliefs, attitudes, and values comprise an important component of environmental literacy, a praxis-oriented concept from the field of environmental education, which is defined as: [T]he capacity to perceive and interpret the relative health of environmental systems and take appropriate action to maintain, restore, or improve the health of those systems . . . Environmental literacy should be defined in terms of observable behaviors. (Disinger and Roth 1992, 2). Environmental literacy draws upon six areas: environmental sensitivity; knowledge; skills; beliefs, attitudes and values; personal investment and responsibility; and active involvement. It involves particular ways of thinking, acting, and valuing (Roth 1992). Religious beliefs, or lack thereof, shape worldviews, thereby influencing individual and societal environmental and more specifically, climate literacy. For example, Western Christianity espouses a hierarchical anthropocentric worldview, putting God infinitely above human beings, and

  20. Pediatricians' Attitudes and Beliefs about Long-Acting Reversible Contraceptives Influence Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlan, Elise D; Pritt, Nicole M; Norris, Alison H

    2017-02-01

    Adolescents are at high risk for unintended pregnancy. Because of pediatricians' potential role in contraceptive counseling, understanding their attitudes and beliefs and counseling practices about use of long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARC; ie, etonogestrel implant and intrauterine devices [IUDs]) is vital. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, INTERVENTIONS, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We interviewed primary care pediatricians (N = 23) in a Midwestern city in June-August 2014. We transcribed the interviews, developed a coding schema, and analyzed these qualitative data using a priori and open coding of transcripts. Few pediatricians had favorable views on adolescent IUD use and most did not include IUDs in routine contraception counseling. Pediatricians perceived IUDs to impose significant risks for adverse reproductive outcomes and to be poorly tolerated by adolescents. Poor and/or outdated knowledge influenced inaccurate beliefs and unsupportive attitudes. Whereas some pediatricians were advocates for adolescent use of IUDs, many others had concerns that IUDs were not appropriate and not favored by adolescents. In contrast, participants viewed the etonogestrel implant more favorably and often included it in routine counseling. Some pediatricians focused on the familiar and readily available methods (injectable and oral contraceptives) or assumed patients had predetermined expectations for those methods. Time spent counseling on LARC was also perceived as a barrier. Pediatricians described how education and increased familiarity with LARC changed viewpoints. A variety of beliefs and attitudes, as well as factors such as time and personal habits, influence pediatricians' contraceptive counseling practices. Until knowledge deficits are addressed, uninformed viewpoints and unfavorable attitudes will limit adolescents' access to LARC, especially IUDs. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  1. Further tests of belief-importance theory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K V Petrides

    Full Text Available Belief-importance (belimp theory hypothesizes that personality traits confer a propensity to perceive convergences or divergences between the belief that we can attain certain goals and the importance that we place on these goals. Belief and importance are conceptualized as two coordinates, together defining the belimp plane. We tested fundamental aspects of the theory using four different planes based on the life domains of appearance, family, financial security, and friendship as well as a global plane combining these four domains. The criteria were from the areas of personality (Big Five and trait emotional intelligence and learning styles. Two hundred and fifty eight participants were allocated into the four quadrants of the belimp plane (Hubris, Motivation, Depression, and Apathy according to their scores on four reliable instruments. Most hypotheses were supported by the data. Results are discussed with reference to the stability of the belimp classifications under different life domains and the relationship of the quadrants with the personality traits that are hypothesized to underpin them.

  2. Extreme Overvalued Beliefs: How Violent Extremist Beliefs Become “Normalized”

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    Tahir Rahman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Extreme overvalued beliefs (EOB are rigidly held, non-deusional beliefs that are the motive behind most acts of terrorism and mass shootings. EOBs are differentiated from delusions and obsessions. The concept of an overvalued idea was first described by Wernicke and later applied to terrorism by McHugh. Our group of forensic psychiatrists (Rahman, Resnick, Harry refined the definition as an aid in the differential diagnosis seen in acts of violence. The form and content of EOBs is discussed as well as group effects, conformity, and obedience to authority. Religious cults such as The People’s Temple, Heaven’s Gate, Aum Shinrikyo, and Islamic State (ISIS and conspiracy beliefs such as assassinations, moon-hoax, and vaccine-induced autism beliefs are discussed using this construct. Finally, some concluding thoughts on countering violent extremism, including its online presence is discussed utilizing information learned from online eating disorders and consumer experience.

  3. Extreme Overvalued Beliefs: How Violent Extremist Beliefs Become “Normalized”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Tahir

    2018-01-01

    Extreme overvalued beliefs (EOB) are rigidly held, non-deusional beliefs that are the motive behind most acts of terrorism and mass shootings. EOBs are differentiated from delusions and obsessions. The concept of an overvalued idea was first described by Wernicke and later applied to terrorism by McHugh. Our group of forensic psychiatrists (Rahman, Resnick, Harry) refined the definition as an aid in the differential diagnosis seen in acts of violence. The form and content of EOBs is discussed as well as group effects, conformity, and obedience to authority. Religious cults such as The People’s Temple, Heaven’s Gate, Aum Shinrikyo, and Islamic State (ISIS) and conspiracy beliefs such as assassinations, moon-hoax, and vaccine-induced autism beliefs are discussed using this construct. Finally, some concluding thoughts on countering violent extremism, including its online presence is discussed utilizing information learned from online eating disorders and consumer experience. PMID:29329259

  4. Shared beliefs enhance shared feelings: religious/irreligious identifications modulate empathic neural responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Siyuan; Han, Shihui

    2014-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging research has revealed stronger empathic neural responses to same-race compared to other-race individuals. Is the in-group favouritism in empathic neural responses specific to race identification or a more general effect of social identification-including those based on religious/irreligious beliefs? The present study investigated whether and how intergroup relationships based on religious/irreligious identifications modulate empathic neural responses to others' pain expressions. We recorded event-related brain potentials from Chinese Christian and atheist participants while they perceived pain or neutral expressions of Chinese faces that were marked as being Christians or atheists. We found that both Christian and atheist participants showed stronger neural activity to pain (versus neutral) expressions at 132-168 ms and 200-320 ms over the frontal region to those with the same (versus different) religious/irreligious beliefs. The in-group favouritism in empathic neural responses was also evident in a later time window (412-612 ms) over the central/parietal regions in Christian but not in atheist participants. Our results indicate that the intergroup relationship based on shared beliefs, either religious or irreligious, can lead to in-group favouritism in empathy for others' suffering.

  5. Beliefs, Behaviors, and Contexts of Adolescent Caffeine Use: A Focus Group Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludden, Alison B; O'Brien, Elizabeth M; Pasch, Keryn E

    2017-07-29

    Caffeinated products are widely available to adolescents, and consumption of caffeine products-energy drinks and coffee in particular-is on the rise in this age group (Branum, Rossen, & Schoendorf, 2014). Yet, little is known about the psychosocial context of caffeine use. Previous studies on adolescent caffeine use have focused on caffeine's acute physiological effects, rather than the psychosocial contexts and beliefs regarding different types of caffeinated beverages (e.g., coffee, energy drinks, soda). The current research examines the contexts and beliefs associated with adolescents' use of caffeinated beverages (e.g., coffee, energy drinks, soda) using a focus group approach. Eleven focus group interviews (49 total participants) addressed adolescents' motivations for and patterns of caffeine use; they were transcribed and axial coding was used to identify common themes. Coffee and energy drinks were perceived to be the most popular caffeinated beverages. Reasons for consuming caffeine included the effect of caffeine as a stimulant, the pleasant feelings experienced when drinking it, and the fact that caffeine was available. As for contexts, coffee was consumed in more diverse social contexts than other caffeinated beverages. Friends and sports were the most popular contexts for energy drink use. The present findings inform adolescent health promotion efforts and provide researchers and practitioners alike detailed information in adolescents' own words about how and why they use caffeine. Adolescents' beliefs about caffeinated products are not uniform; the reasons adolescents articulate regarding their use of coffee, soda, and energy drinks are different across contexts and beverage type.

  6. Beliefs and practices of the parents of violent and oppositional adolescents: an ecological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Catherine P; Glaser, Brian A; Calhoun, Georgia B; Bates, Jeffrey M

    2006-05-01

    Parenting is a transactional process, influenced by the child's behavior and the environmental context. The present study explores the beliefs and practices of parents of aggressive and oppositional adolescents to understand better the relation among parenting practices, context, and youth violence. Parents of juvenile offenders (N=203) completed assessments of youths' violent and oppositional behaviors, community violence exposure, and their own beliefs and parenting behaviors and perceptions of the juvenile justice system. Parents of youth with the highest levels of violent and oppositional behavior problems reported elevated feelings of hopelessness regarding the child's future, inadequacy as a parent, fear of physical harm by the child, anger toward the child, as well as difficulty monitoring the child. All parents reported relatively high levels of perceived support by the justice system. Parental stress was also examined as a possible influence on the parents' beliefs and behaviors regarding the child. Results suggest that parents' emotional and behavioral responses should be addressed when intervening with juvenile offenders. Editors' Strategic Implications: The authors present evidence to suggest that parents' perceptions of hopelessness/inadequacy and their fear for their child's safety are both by-products of life with an aggressive child as well as contributing factors to that aggressive behavior. Thus, successful interventions must both target the parents as change agents in the youth's life but also include a strong parental support component, so that parents will have an opportunity to orchestrate positive impacts in high-risk environments.

  7. Rational Irrationality: Modeling Climate Change Belief Polarization Using Bayesian Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, John; Lewandowsky, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Belief polarization is said to occur when two people respond to the same evidence by updating their beliefs in opposite directions. This response is considered to be "irrational" because it involves contrary updating, a form of belief updating that appears to violate normatively optimal responding, as for example dictated by Bayes' theorem. In light of much evidence that people are capable of normatively optimal behavior, belief polarization presents a puzzling exception. We show that Bayesian networks, or Bayes nets, can simulate rational belief updating. When fit to experimental data, Bayes nets can help identify the factors that contribute to polarization. We present a study into belief updating concerning the reality of climate change in response to information about the scientific consensus on anthropogenic global warming (AGW). The study used representative samples of Australian and U.S. Among Australians, consensus information partially neutralized the influence of worldview, with free-market supporters showing a greater increase in acceptance of human-caused global warming relative to free-market opponents. In contrast, while consensus information overall had a positive effect on perceived consensus among U.S. participants, there was a reduction in perceived consensus and acceptance of human-caused global warming for strong supporters of unregulated free markets. Fitting a Bayes net model to the data indicated that under a Bayesian framework, free-market support is a significant driver of beliefs about climate change and trust in climate scientists. Further, active distrust of climate scientists among a small number of U.S. conservatives drives contrary updating in response to consensus information among this particular group. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  8. You didn't have to do that: belief in free will promotes gratitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Michael J; Vohs, Kathleen D; Baumeister, Roy F

    2014-11-01

    Four studies tested the hypothesis that a weaker belief in free will would be related to feeling less gratitude. In Studies 1a and 1b, a trait measure of free will belief was positively correlated with a measure of dispositional gratitude. In Study 2, participants whose free will belief was weakened (vs. unchanged or bolstered) reported feeling less grateful for events in their past. Study 3 used a laboratory induction of gratitude. Participants with an experimentally reduced (vs. increased) belief in free will reported feeling less grateful for the favor. In Study 4, a reduced (vs. increased) belief in free will led to less gratitude in a hypothetical favor scenario. This effect was serially mediated by perceiving the benefactor as having less free will and therefore as being less sincerely motivated. These findings suggest that belief in free will is an important part of being able to feel gratitude. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  9. Changing smoking attitudes by strengthening weak antismoking beliefs - Taiwan as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chingching

    2006-12-01

    I first explored the strength of Taiwanese high school students' beliefs regarding five antismoking messages. Findings of a nationwide survey showed that the students held these beliefs in the following order of decreasing strength: second-hand smoke damages health, smoking has long-term health consequences, smoking has short-term health consequences, cigarette marketers are manipulative, and smokers are perceived negatively. Experiment one further showed that antismoking ads featuring weakly held beliefs are more effective than those featuring strongly held beliefs. Experiment two demonstrated that antismoking campaigns need to be framed carefully; in general, it is more effective to positively frame messages about strongly held antismoking beliefs but negatively frame messages about weakly held antismoking beliefs.

  10. Teachers' Educational Beliefs about Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landers, Andrew James

    2017-01-01

    Past research indicates that teachers' beliefs are influential in their decisions and behaviors in the classroom. Teachers are also influenced by the socioeconomic status of their students. The present study on beliefs and evaluation of knowledge about working with students with learning disabilities included kindergarten through 12th grade…

  11. Making Theory Relevant: The Gender Attitude and Belief Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Janice

    2013-01-01

    This article describes and evaluates the Gender Attitude and Belief Inventory (GABI), a teaching tool designed to aid students in (a) realizing how sociological theory links to their personal beliefs and (b) exploring any combination of 11 frequently used theoretical perspectives on gender, including both conservative theories (physiological,…

  12. The effect of safety education based on Health Belief Model (HBM on the workers practice of Borujen industrial town in using the personal protection respiratory equipments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hasanzadeh

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims   Every year 50-158 million occupational diseases and job accidents occur in the world. Studies on the job injuries show that about 150000 injuries occur annually in  Iran. Unhealthy behaviors are important problems in public health. Education is one of the best ways to change unhealthy behaviors. Interventions based on model and theories have many  capacities for behavior change. Health Belief Model is one of the health education models that are  useful for behavior change. This research has been performed in order to assess the effect of health  education program based on health belief model (HBM to prevent occupational respiratory   diseases in workers.   Methods   Aquasi-experimental design was used for this interventional study, in which 88 of workers of Borujen industrial town participated, who were randomly assigned to experimental and control group. Data collecting tool were a self-administered questionnaire including 53 questions based on health belief model that was completed by the workers, in addition to the performance check list which was conducted by researcher via insensible controlling the workers' safety behaviour. Validity and reliability of the tools were examined prior to the study. Educational  intervention was conducted in the first stage following by the second data collection one month  later. The data of both experimental and control group were compared statistically before and  after the intervention.   Results   The results showed that the mean of the grade of all parts of health belief model  (HBM and performance mark of the workers about safety and use of personal respiratory  preventive equipment in experimental group after educational intervention compared to prior the  study and also compared to control group were significantly increased.   Conclusion   The results of this survey showed that by enhancement of health belief model (HBM components including

  13. Children's perceived cost for exercise: application of an expectancy-value paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Evelyn S; Byrd, Sandra P; Molin, Ashley J

    2011-04-01

    Expectancy-value models of motivation have been applied to understanding children's choices in areas such as academics and sports. Here, an expectancy-value paradigm is applied to exercising (defined as engaging in physical activity). The notion of perceived cost is highlighted in particular. Two hundred twenty children in third, fourth, and fifth grades were surveyed on their competence beliefs, perceived importance, interest, and perceived cost of being physically active. Results indicated that perceived cost is empirically distinct from competence beliefs and other types of value, that perceived cost is marginally related to children's self-reported level of physical activity, and children's beliefs and other values are related to their self-reported level of physical activity. Children's perceptions of cost vary depending on grade and gender. Interventions based on these findings are proposed.

  14. Effect of Education by Text Messaging Based on Health Belief Model on Food Handling Behaviors in Health Volunteers\\' Yazd City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Morowatisharifabad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The text message can be presented as a way to change patterns of behavior-based prevention programs, such as the theory of planned behavior and health belief model to be used., And as an alternative approach to the individual and group training programs should be considered. The present study examined the effectiveness of this new method in promoting food handling behavior of a team of health volunteers on health belief model was based. Methods: This study was an evaluation of an intervention in which 16 health centers, 200 health volunteers who were actively involved Yazd city who were randomly divided into two groups. After the initial test, chi-square test, t test were analyzed. The intervention group received an educational package on the SMS regarding  food handling behavior on health Belief Model was designed for codification; wantonly within a month and a half a day and after 8 weeks of the last SMS sent from any intervention and control groups was performed in a secondary assessment. Tool for data gathering questionnaire consisting of structures of health belief model including demographic variables, respectively. Data were using 18spss and employing applied, statistical tests of non-parametric Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis, Chi-square and correlation coefficient the analysis was. Results: The overall food handling behavior, after training significantly increased in the intervention group (p =0/01, while the control group was not significant (p=0/21. Cooling behavior after training in the experimental group and the control group was significantly increased (p =0/00. Cooking behavior, after training in the intervention group (p =0/11 and control group( p =0/17 was not significantly increased. Individual health behavior, after training in the intervention group (p =0/13 and control group (p =0/07 was not significantly increased. Separation behavior after training has not significantly increased in the

  15. Functional neuroimaging of belief, disbelief, and uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Sam; Sheth, Sameer A; Cohen, Mark S

    2008-02-01

    The difference between believing and disbelieving a proposition is one of the most potent regulators of human behavior and emotion. When one accepts a statement as true, it becomes the basis for further thought and action; rejected as false, it remains a string of words. The purpose of this study was to differentiate belief, disbelief, and uncertainty at the level of the brain. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study the brains of 14 adults while they judged written statements to be "true" (belief), "false" (disbelief), or "undecidable" (uncertainty). To characterize belief, disbelief, and uncertainty in a content-independent manner, we included statements from a wide range of categories: autobiographical, mathematical, geographical, religious, ethical, semantic, and factual. The states of belief, disbelief, and uncertainty differentially activated distinct regions of the prefrontal and parietal cortices, as well as the basal ganglia. Belief and disbelief differ from uncertainty in that both provide information that can subsequently inform behavior and emotion. The mechanism underlying this difference appears to involve the anterior cingulate cortex and the caudate. Although many areas of higher cognition are likely involved in assessing the truth-value of linguistic propositions, the final acceptance of a statement as "true" or its rejection as "false" appears to rely on more primitive, hedonic processing in the medial prefrontal cortex and the anterior insula. Truth may be beauty, and beauty truth, in more than a metaphorical sense, and false propositions may actually disgust us.

  16. Information and Heterogeneous Beliefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Qin, Zhenjiang

    2014-01-01

    In an incomplete market with heterogeneous prior beliefs, we show public information can have a substantial impact on the ex ante cost of capital, trading volume, and investor welfare. The Pareto effcient public information system is the system enjoying the maximum ex ante cost of capital...... and the maximum expected abnormal trading volume. Imperfect public information increases the gains-to-trade based on heterogeneously updated posterior beliefs. In an exchange economy, this leads to higher growth in the investors' certainty equivalents and, thus, a higher equilibrium interest rate, whereas the ex...... ante risk premium is unaffected by the informativeness of the public information system. Similar results are obtained in a production economy, but the impact on the ex ante cost of capital is dampened compared to the exchange economy due to welfare improving reductions in real investments to smooth...

  17. Mixmaster: fact and belief

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinzle, J Mark; Uggla, Claes

    2009-01-01

    We consider the dynamics towards the initial singularity of Bianchi type IX vacuum and orthogonal perfect fluid models with a linear equation of state. Surprisingly few facts are known about the 'Mixmaster' dynamics of these models, while at the same time most of the commonly held beliefs are rather vague. In this paper, we use Mixmaster facts as a base to build an infrastructure that makes it possible to sharpen the main Mixmaster beliefs. We formulate explicit conjectures concerning (i) the past asymptotic states of type IX solutions and (ii) the relevance of the Mixmaster/Kasner map for generic past asymptotic dynamics. The evidence for the conjectures is based on a study of the stochastic properties of this map in conjunction with dynamical systems techniques. We use a dynamical systems formulation, since this approach has so far been the only successful path to obtain theorems, but we also make comparisons with the 'metric' and Hamiltonian 'billiard' approaches.

  18. Expectations and Beliefs in Science Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Gitte

    2016-01-01

    communication practices, it is argued that deep beliefs may constitute drivers of hype that are particularly difficult to deal with. To participants in science communication, the discouragement of hype, viewed as a practical–ethical challenge, can be seen as a learning exercise that includes critical attention......; gene therapy was not universally hyped. Against that background, attention is directed towards another area of variation in the material: different basic assumptions about science and scientists. Exploring such culturally rooted assumptions and beliefs and their possible significance to science...

  19. The Problem of Grammar Teaching: A Case Study of the Relationship between a Teacher's Beliefs and Pedagogical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Annabel

    2015-01-01

    Through a case study of a first-language English teacher's approach to teaching writing, the significance of conceptual and affective beliefs about grammar for pedagogical practice is explored. The study explores a perceived dichotomy between grammar and creativity, examining a belief that attention to grammar is separate and secondary to the…

  20. The Impact of Faith Beliefs on Perceptions of End-of-Life Care and Decision Making among African American Church Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jerry; Hayden, Tara; True, Jennifer; Simkin, Daren; Colbert, Louis; Thompson, Beverly; Stewart, Denise; Martin, Latoya

    2016-02-01

    African Americans underuse palliative care and hospice services because of a combination of factors including faith beliefs. As the spiritual family for many African Americans, the church presents an opportunity to improve communication about palliative care and hospice and end-of-life (EOL) decision making. We conducted a focus group study to understand the cultural and spiritual perspectives that influence decisions about palliative care and hospice among African American church members who visit and support persons with life-limiting illnesses. Our specific aims were to elicit their perceptions, beliefs, and attitudes about: (1) the relation between faith beliefs and EOL care; (2) emotional and family influences on EOL decision making; (3) palliative care and hospice resources; and (4) opportunities to improve communication among lay persons and health professionals and within families. Seven focus groups using purposeful sampling. We partnered with two African American churches. Of 51 persons, 27 were deacons or deaconesses, 17 were members of health or bereavement ministries, and 7 were other members of the congregations. We found that faith beliefs of African Americans can support discussions about palliative care and hospice. Participants perceived that many of their congregants harbor beliefs, perceptions, and feelings about death and dying that were often not communicated to family members or to health providers. Among African Americans, faith beliefs, emotional issues, family dynamics, and insufficient knowledge of palliative care and hospice are intertwined and influence decision making about palliative care and hospice. Our findings confirm the influence of faith beliefs of African Americans on decisions about palliative care and hospice and demonstrate the opportunity to improve communication about palliative care and hospice and EOL through collaborations with the African American church.

  1. Distribution of cow-calf producers' beliefs about reporting cattle with clinical signs of foot-and-mouth disease to a veterinarian before or during a hypothetical outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Amy H; Norby, Bo; Scott, H Morgan; Dean, Wesley; McIntosh, W Alex; Bush, Eric

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the prevalence of cattle producers' beliefs regarding disease reporting can help officials improve surveillance programs with passive data collection. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Texas in 2008 and 2009 to determine beliefs about reporting cattle with clinical signs consistent with foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) either prior to (scenario 1) or during an on-going outbreak of FMD (scenario 2). Two questionnaires were developed and distributed to Texas cow-calf producers in order to evaluate their behavioral, control, and normative beliefs related to disease reporting. The context for each behavior was provided through the use of scenarios, and belief strength was measured using a 7-point Likert-like scale. Beliefs were compared across scenarios and demographic categories, and the effect of scenario on belief examined using ordinal logistic regression. Respondents agreed that reporting clinically suspect cases would have positive economic and emotional consequences; however, when an outbreak was known to be present, producers were less likely to agree with many of the positive outcomes of reporting. Important barriers to disease reporting indicated by producers included a lack of knowledge related to clinical signs of highly contagious cattle diseases and which cattle are at risk of contracting FMD. In general, beliefs about barriers to reporting did not differ based on scenario. Veterinarians and regulatory authorities were the groups perceived to most strongly expect disease reporting, regardless of the scenario. Risk education for producers related to clinical signs of reportable livestock diseases, post-reporting procedures, and an understanding of FMD introduction and spread may improve the reporting of cattle with clinical signs consistent with FMD. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Ontological confusions but not mentalizing abilities predict religious belief, paranormal belief, and belief in supernatural purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Marjaana; Svedholm-Häkkinen, Annika M; Lipsanen, Jari

    2015-01-01

    The current research tested the hypothesis that the abilities for understanding other people's minds give rise to the cognitive biases that underlie supernatural beliefs. We used structural equation modeling (N=2789) to determine the roles of various mentalizing tendencies, namely self-reported affective and cognitive empathy (i.e., mind reading), actual cognitive and affective empathic abilities, hyper-empathizing, and two cognitive biases (core ontological confusions and promiscuous teleology) in giving rise to supernatural beliefs. Support for a path from mentalizing abilities through cognitive biases to supernatural beliefs was weak. The relationships of mentalizing abilities with supernatural beliefs were also weak, and these relationships were not substantially mediated by cognitive biases. Core ontological confusions emerged as the best predictor, while promiscuous teleology predicted only a small proportion of variance. The results were similar for religious beliefs, paranormal beliefs, and for belief in supernatural purpose. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Beliefs and Perception About HIV/AIDS, Self-Efficacy, and HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Young Thai Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khumsaen, Natawan; Stephenson, Rob

    2017-04-01

    This study examined the relationships of HIV/AIDS beliefs, self-efficacy for AIDS preventive behaviors, perception of HIV as a chronic disease, and HIV risk behaviors among young Thai men who have sex with men. Participants were recruited for a self-administered anonymous survey through Facebook. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with each of four HIV risk behavior outcomes. Factors associated with sexual risk behaviors included age (18 and 21 years), having a current regular male partner, self-efficacy for AIDS preventive behaviors (self-efficacy in refusing sexual intercourse, self-efficacy in questioning potential sex partners, and self-efficacy in condom use), AIDS health belief (perceived susceptibility to HIV/AIDS, perceived severity of HIV/AIDS, perceived barriers to condom use, and cues to action for HIV/AIDS prevention), and perception of HIV/AIDS as a chronic disease (perceived HIV sero-status disclosure). Knowledge generated from this study has the potential to inform prevention messages for young Thai MSM.

  4. Beliefs about family-school relationships. Changes in pre-service teachers after receiving specific training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Vázquez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Teachers’ beliefs about family-school relationship vary in a continuum according to the role that parents and teachers have, and the power that they hold. Pre-service teachers also have beliefs about this relationship and their own competence to develop it. Two groups of pre-service teachers (second year students participated in this study. One group received specific training on family-school relationship and its improvement (116 students attending a degree in Early Childhood Education, who constituted the experimental group, EG. The other group was not trained (92 students attending a degree in Primary Education, who made up the control group, CG. The Beliefs about family-school Questionnaire (CCR was developed and applied before and after the EG was trained. Results show that students in the EG increased their beliefs about family-school collaboration in the post-test and decreased their beliefs about parental subordination to teachers’ authority and parents’ carelessness. Students in the CG kept their beliefs unchanged, which were significantly more prone to support teachers’ authority and parental subordination and parents’ carelessness compared to the EG.. Perceived competence for family-school relationship did not change significantly in either group. However, significant correlations between beliefs and perceived competence were found, pointing out the importance of working pre-service teachers’ beliefs about family-school collaboration.

  5. The Relationship of Health Beliefs with Information Sources and HPV Vaccine Acceptance among Young Adults in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jarim

    2018-04-04

    Despite the HPV vaccine’s efficacy in preventing cervical cancer, its coverage rates among Asians are very low. To increase immunization coverage among these populations, understanding the psychological factors that affect HPV acceptability is critical. To this end, this study examined the relationships between multidimensional health beliefs and HPV vaccine acceptance, and what information sources effectively foster HPV vaccination-related health beliefs. Data were collected using a survey of 323 undergraduate students in Korea. Results showed that perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, and perceived vaccine safety concerns predicted vaccine acceptance. Multiple dimensions of perceived barriers showed differing impacts on vaccine acceptance. In addition, interpersonal information sources were effective in boosting various health beliefs for HPV vaccination. The Internet also was effective in reducing social barriers, but the effects were opposite to those of social media. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  6. The Relationship of Health Beliefs with Information Sources and HPV Vaccine Acceptance among Young Adults in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarim Kim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the HPV vaccine’s efficacy in preventing cervical cancer, its coverage rates among Asians are very low. To increase immunization coverage among these populations, understanding the psychological factors that affect HPV acceptability is critical. To this end, this study examined the relationships between multidimensional health beliefs and HPV vaccine acceptance, and what information sources effectively foster HPV vaccination-related health beliefs. Data were collected using a survey of 323 undergraduate students in Korea. Results showed that perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, and perceived vaccine safety concerns predicted vaccine acceptance. Multiple dimensions of perceived barriers showed differing impacts on vaccine acceptance. In addition, interpersonal information sources were effective in boosting various health beliefs for HPV vaccination. The Internet also was effective in reducing social barriers, but the effects were opposite to those of social media. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  7. Positive beliefs about anorexia nervosa and muscle dysmorphia are associated with eating disorder symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Scott; Mond, Jonathan M; Murray, Stuart B; Touyz, Stephen

    2015-09-01

    The ego-syntonic nature of anorexia nervosa means that sufferers often deny their symptoms or experience them as positive or comforting. Positive beliefs about eating disorder symptoms may contribute to the development and/or maintenance of eating-disordered behaviour. To date, however, research in this field has been confined to women and anorexia nervosa. Given increasing scientific interest in muscle dysmorphia, a potential eating disorder with ego-syntonic qualities, there is a need to extend current research to include men and muscle dysmorphia. The present study examined whether positive beliefs about anorexia nervosa and muscle dysmorphia were associated with more marked eating disorder symptoms and explored sex differences in these associations. Male and female university students (n = 492) read descriptions of a male or female character with clinically significant symptoms of anorexia nervosa or muscle dysmorphia. Participants subsequently answered questions about the characters and completed a measure of disordered eating. Knowledge, personal history and interpersonal familiarity with the conditions were assessed. Results from two simultaneous multiple regressions showed that more positive beliefs about anorexia nervosa and muscle dysmorphia were uniquely associated with more eating disorder symptoms for both male and female participants. Effect sizes for these relationships were medium to large (partial eta-squared = 0.09-0.10). The relationships were not moderated by the sex of the participant, nor the sex of the character. Although preliminary, these findings suggest that, among young men and women, positive beliefs about anorexia nervosa and muscle dysmorphia may contribute to the development and maintenance of these conditions. Some symptoms of muscle dysmorphia may be perceived as ego-syntonic, providing another parallel with anorexia nervosa. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  8. Investigating the effects of cognitive apprenticeship-based instructional coaching on science teaching efficacy beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Teo O. H.

    The overall purpose of this collected papers dissertation was to examine the utility of a cognitive apprenticeship-based instructional coaching (CAIC) model for improving the science teaching efficacy beliefs (STEB) of preservice and inservice elementary teachers. Many of these teachers perceive science as a difficult subject and feel inadequately prepared to teach it. However, teacher efficacy beliefs have been noted as the strongest indicator of teacher quality, the variable most highly correlated with student achievement outcomes. The literature is scarce on strong, evidence-based theoretical models for improving STEB. This dissertation is comprised of two studies. STUDY #1 was a sequential explanatory mixed-methods study investigating the impact of a reformed CAIC elementary science methods course on the STEB of 26 preservice teachers. Data were collected using the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument (STEBI-B) and from six post-course interviews. A statistically significant increase in STEB was observed in the quantitative strand. The qualitative data suggested that the preservice teachers perceived all of the CAIC methods as influential, but the significance of each method depended on their unique needs and abilities. STUDY #2 was a participatory action research case study exploring the utility of a CAIC professional development program for improving the STEB of five Bahamian inservice teachers and their competency in implementing an inquiry-based curriculum. Data were collected from pre- and post-interviews and two focus group interviews. Overall, the inservice teachers perceived the intervention as highly effective. The scaffolding and coaching were the CAIC methods portrayed as most influential in developing their STEB, highlighting the importance of interpersonal relationship aspects in successful instructional coaching programs. The teachers also described the CAIC approach as integral in supporting their learning to implement the new inquiry

  9. Normative Beliefs and Relational Aggression: An Investigation of the Cognitive Bases of Adolescent Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Nicole E.; Nixon, Charisse L.

    2005-01-01

    The relations between normative beliefs about different forms of aggression and corresponding aggressive behaviors were investigated in 2 studies of adolescents. In Study 1, we revised an instrument designed to assess normative beliefs about aggression to include beliefs about the acceptability of relational aggression, and we examined the…

  10. Diabetes screening anxiety and beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, T C; Davies, M J; Farooqi, A M; Jarvis, J; Tringham, J R; Khunti, K

    2005-11-01

    This study assesses the impact of screening for diabetes on anxiety levels in an ethnically mixed population in the UK, and explores whether beliefs about Type 2 diabetes account for these anxiety levels. This cross-sectional study recruited individuals who were identified at high risk of developing diabetes through general practitioners' (GPs) lists or through public media recruitment. Participants completed an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Between blood tests, participants completed the Spielberger State Anxiety Scale Short Form, the Emotional Stability Scale of the Big Five Inventory 44 and three scales from the Diabetes Illness Representations Questionnaire, revised for this study. Of the 1339 who completed the OGTT and questionnaire booklet, 54% were female, with 21% from an Asian background. Forty-five per cent of participants reported little to moderate amounts of anxiety at screening (mean 35.2; sd = 11.6). There was no significant effect of family history of diabetes, ethnic group or recruitment method on anxiety. The only variable significantly associated (negatively) with anxiety was the personality trait of emotional stability. Of responders, 64% and 61% agreed that diabetes was caused by diet or hereditary factors, respectively. Only 155 individuals (12%) agreed that diabetes was serious, shortens life and causes complications. The results of this study replicate that of previous studies, indicating that screening for diabetes does not induce significant anxiety. Bivariate analysis indicated that individuals who perceived diabetes to be serious, life shortening and resulting in complications had higher anxiety scores, the personality trait of emotional stability being the strongest predictor of anxiety.

  11. Perceived Threat of Malaria and the Use of Insecticide Treated Bed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using multiple qualitative methods, this study investigated the perceived threat and perceived susceptibility of children under five years of age to malaria, and willingness of the caregivers to use the ITNs in the prevention of malaria in selected rural and urban areas of Nigeria. The health belief model (HBM) is the theoretical ...

  12. Economic Beliefs and Party Preference

    OpenAIRE

    Michael W.M. Roos; Andreas Orland

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a questionnaire study used to explore the economic understanding, normative positions along the egalitarian-libertarian spectrum, and the party preferences of a large student sample. The aim of the study is both to find socio-economic determinants of normative and positive beliefs and to explore how beliefs about the economy influence party support. We find that positive beliefs of lay people differ systematically from those of economic experts. Positive beli...

  13. Inpatients' Preferences, Beliefs, and Stated Willingness to Pay for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montross-Thomas, Lori P; Meier, Emily A; Reynolds-Norolahi, Kimberly; Raskin, Erin E; Slater, Daniel; Mills, Paul J; MacElhern, Lauray; Kallenberg, Gene

    2017-04-01

    Research demonstrates the benefits of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in myriad environments. Yet, the majority of CAM services are offered in outpatient settings. Incorporating CAM into hospital settings may lead to increased patient comfort, well-being, and overall satisfaction with hospital admissions. Few studies have examined CAM services among inpatients. Therefore, this study assessed inpatients' preferences and beliefs regarding CAM, as well as their stated willingness to pay for these services. Adult patients (n = 100), ranging in age from 19-95 years (M = 53 years; SD = 19.2 years), were recruited during their hospitalization in the University of California, San Diego, Healthcare System. The inpatients completed a brief individual interview to gather their perspectives on common CAM services, including acupuncture, aromatherapy, art therapy, guided imagery, healthy food, humor therapy, massage therapy, music therapy, pet therapy, Reiki, and stress management. Inpatients were asked which CAM therapies they perceived as being potentially the most helpful, their willingness to pay for those therapies, and their perceived beliefs regarding the use of those therapies. Inpatients most commonly perceived healthy food (85%), massage therapy (82%), and humor therapy (70%) to be the most helpful, and were most willing to pay for healthy food (71%), massage therapy (70%), and stress management (48%). Inpatients most commonly believed CAM treatments would provide relaxation (88%), increase well-being (86%), and increase their overall satisfaction with the hospitalization (85%). This study suggests that CAM services may be a beneficial addition to hospitals, as demonstrated by inpatients' interest and stated willingness to pay for these services. These findings may help organizational leaders when making choices regarding the development of CAM services within hospitals, particularly since a significant percentage of inpatients reported that

  14. Worry and problem-solving skills and beliefs in primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Monika; Creswell, Cathy

    2011-03-01

    To examine the association between worry and problem-solving skills and beliefs (confidence and perceived control) in primary school children. Children (8-11 years) were screened using the Penn State Worry Questionnaire for Children. High (N= 27) and low (N= 30) scorers completed measures of anxiety, problem-solving skills (generating alternative solutions to problems, planfulness, and effectiveness of solutions) and problem-solving beliefs (confidence and perceived control). High and low worry groups differed significantly on measures of anxiety and problem-solving beliefs (confidence and control) but not on problem-solving skills. Consistent with findings with adults, worry in children was associated with cognitive distortions, not skills deficits. Interventions for worried children may benefit from a focus on increasing positive problem-solving beliefs. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  15. Agent Communication for Dynamic Belief Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Mikito; Tojo, Satoshi

    Thus far, various formalizations of rational / logical agent model have been proposed. In this paper, we include the notion of communication channel and belief modality into update logic, and introduce Belief Update Logic (BUL). First, we discuss that how we can reformalize the inform action of FIPA-ACL into communication channel, which represents a connection between agents. Thus, our agents can send a message only when they believe, and also there actually is, a channel between him / her and a receiver. Then, we present a static belief logic (BL) and show its soundness and completeness. Next, we develop the logic to BUL, which can update Kripke model by the inform action; in which we show that in the updated model the belief operator also satisfies K45. Thereafter, we show that every sentence in BUL can be translated into BL; thus, we can contend that BUL is also sound and complete. Furthermore, we discuss the features of CUL, including the case of inconsistent information, as well as channel transmission. Finally, we summarize our contribution and discuss some future issues.

  16. The impact of Black cancer patients' race-related beliefs and attitudes on racially-discordant oncology interactions: A field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, Louis A; Harper, Felicity W K; Dovidio, John F; Albrecht, Terrance L; Hamel, Lauren M; Senft, Nicole; Eggly, Susan

    2017-10-01

    Both physician and patient race-related beliefs and attitudes are contributors to racial healthcare disparities, but only the former have received substantial research attention. Using data from a study conducted in the Midwestern US from 2012 to 2014, we investigated whether 114 Black cancer patients' existing race-related beliefs and attitudes would predict how they and 18 non-Black physicians (medical oncologists) would respond in subsequent clinical interactions. At least two days before interacting with an oncologist for initial discussions of treatment options, patients completed measures of perceived past discrimination, general mistrust of physicians, and suspicion of healthcare systems; interactions were video-recorded. Measures from each interaction included patients' verbal behavior (e.g., level of verbal activity), patients' evaluations of physicians (e.g., trustworthiness), patients' perceptions of recommended treatments (e.g., confidence in treatment), physicians' evaluations of patient personal attributes (e.g., intelligence) and physicians' expectations for patient treatment success (e.g., adherence). As predicted, patients' race-related beliefs and attitudes differed in their associations with patient and physician responses to the interactions. Higher levels of perceived past discrimination predicted more patient verbal activity. Higher levels of mistrust also predicted less patient positive affect and more negative evaluations of physicians. Higher levels of suspicion predicted more negative evaluations of physicians and recommended treatments. Stronger patient race-related attitudes were directly or indirectly associated with lower physician perceptions of patient attributes and treatment expectations. Results provide new evidence for the role of Black patients' race-related beliefs and attitudes in racial healthcare disparities and suggest the need to measure multiple beliefs and attitudes to identify these effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  17. Homo economicus belief inhibits trust.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziqiang Xin

    Full Text Available As a foundational concept in economics, the homo economicus assumption regards humans as rational and self-interested actors. In contrast, trust requires individuals to believe partners' benevolence and unselfishness. Thus, the homo economicus belief may inhibit trust. The present three experiments demonstrated that the direct exposure to homo economicus belief can weaken trust. And economic situations like profit calculation can also activate individuals' homo economicus belief and inhibit their trust. It seems that people's increasing homo economicus belief may serve as one cause of the worldwide decline of trust.

  18. Homo Economicus Belief Inhibits Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Ziqiang; Liu, Guofang

    2013-01-01

    As a foundational concept in economics, the homo economicus assumption regards humans as rational and self-interested actors. In contrast, trust requires individuals to believe partners’ benevolence and unselfishness. Thus, the homo economicus belief may inhibit trust. The present three experiments demonstrated that the direct exposure to homo economicus belief can weaken trust. And economic situations like profit calculation can also activate individuals’ homo economicus belief and inhibit their trust. It seems that people’s increasing homo economicus belief may serve as one cause of the worldwide decline of trust. PMID:24146907

  19. African American Women's Beliefs About Mental Illness, Stigma, and Preferred Coping Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Earlise C.; Heidrich, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    We examined African American women's representations/beliefs about mental illness, preferred coping behaviors if faced with mental illness, whether perceived stigma was associated with treatment-seeking, and if so, whether it was related to beliefs and coping preference, and whether these variables differed by age group. Participants were 185 community-dwelling African American women 25 to 85 years of age. Results indicated the women believed that mental illness is caused by several factors, ...

  20. Health Beliefs of University Students With Regard To Sportive Recreational Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Yalçın, Bilal; Arslan, Fethi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is based on investigating the link between health beliefs and health decision-making using the application of Health Belief Scale on Sportive Recreational Activities. The data have been collected from 190 volunteer students which study Sports and Theology at University of Batman and Gumushane. The data have been examined using by Independent Samples t-test and One way Anova. Student perceptions regarding “Perceived Severity have been high. Regarding “Psychosocial Benefit...

  1. General practitioners' beliefs about effectiveness and intentions to prescribe smoking cessation medications: qualitative and quantitative studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marteau Theresa M

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background General practitioners' (GPs negative beliefs about nicotine dependence medications may act as barriers to prescribing them. Methods Study1: Twenty-five GPs from 16 practices across London were interviewed in this qualitative study. Framework analysis was used to identify key themes. Study 2: A convenience sample of 367 GPs completed an internet-based survey. Path-analysis was used to examine the relations between beliefs and intentions to prescribe smoking cessation medications. Results Study 1: Whilst nicotine replacement therapy (NRT and bupropion were generally perceived as effective and cost-effective, the effectiveness of NRT was seen as critically dependent on behavioural support for smoking cessation. This dependence appeared to be influenced by perceptions that without support smokers would neglect psychological aspects of smoking and use NRT incorrectly. GPs perceived bupropion as dangerous and were concerned about its side-effects. Study 2: GPs' beliefs had medium (NRT, f2 = .23 to large (bupropion, f2=.45; NRT without support, f2=.59 effects on their intentions to prescribe medications. Beliefs about effectiveness of NRT and bupropion and the perceived danger of bupropion were the key predictors of intentions to prescribe NRT and bupropion, respectively. Beliefs about neglecting psychological aspects of smoking and incorrect use had indirect effects on intentions to prescribe NRT without support, operating via beliefs about effectiveness. Conclusion GPs vary in their beliefs about the effectiveness and safety of smoking cessation medications. Their intentions to prescribe these medications vary in line with these beliefs. Interventions aimed at increasing the likelihood with which GPs prescribe these medications may be more effective if they addressed these beliefs.

  2. Beliefs Underlying Messages of Anti-Cancer-Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuhara, Tsuyoshi; Ishikawa, Hirono; Okada, Masahumi; Kato, Mio; Kiuchi, Takahiro

    2018-02-26

    Background: Cancer screening rates are lower in Japan than in Western countries. Meanwhile, anti-cancer-screening activists take to the internet to spread their messages that cancer screening has little or no efficacy, poses substantial health risks such as side effects from radiation exposure, and that people should forgo cancer screening. We applied a qualitative approach to explore the beliefs underlying the messages of anti-cancer-screening websites, by focusing on perceived value the beliefs provided to those who held them. Methods: We conducted online searches using Google Japan and Yahoo! Japan, targeting websites we classified as “pro,” “anti,” or “neutral” depending on their claims. We applied a dual analytic approach- inductive thematic analysis and deductive interpretative analysis- to the textual data of the anti websites. Results: Of the 88 websites analyzed, five themes that correspond to beliefs were identified: destruction of common knowledge, denial of standard cancer control, education about right cancer control, education about hidden truths, and sense of superiority that only I know the truth. Authors of anti websites ascribed two values (“safety of people” and “self-esteem”) to their beliefs. Conclusion: The beliefs of authors of anti-cancer-screening websites were supposed to be strong. It would be better to target in cancer screening promotion not outright screening refusers but screening hesitant people who are more amenable to changing their attitudes toward screening. The possible means to persuade them were discussed. Creative Commons Attribution License

  3. SELF-EFFICACY BELIEFS, ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION AND GENDER AS RELATED TO EDUCATIONAL SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alev ATES

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate preservice computer teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs and achievement motivation levels for educational software development before and after the “Educational Software Design, Development and Evaluation (ESDDE” course. A pretest and post test design without a control group was employed. In 2008, 46 senior students (25 male and 21 female who were enrolled at Computer Education and Instructional Technology department participated in this study.The data were collected by the scale of self-efficacy beliefs towards Educational Software Development (ESD, achievement motivation scale besides student demographics form. Positively, the results revealed that the students’ self efficacy beliefs towards educational software development significantly improved after ESDDE course. Before the course, the students’ self-efficacy beliefs were significantly different according to perceived level of programming competency and gender in favor of male, however after the course there was no significant difference in self-efficacy beliefs regarding gender and perceived level of programming competency. Hence, achievement motivation levels after the course were significantly higher than before while gender and perceived level of programming competency had no significant effect on achievement motivation for ESD. The study is considered to contribute studies investigating gender and computer related self efficacy beliefs in IT education.

  4. Illness beliefs and the sociocultural context of diabetes self-management in British South Asians: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Neesha R; Chew-Graham, Carolyn; Bundy, Christine; Kennedy, Anne; Blickem, Christian; Reeves, David

    2015-05-10

    British South Asians have a higher incidence of diabetes and poorer health outcomes compared to the general UK population. Beliefs about diabetes are known to play an important role in self-management, yet little is known about the sociocultural context in shaping beliefs. This study aimed to explore the influence of sociocultural context on illness beliefs and diabetes self-management in British South Asians. A mixed methods approach was used. 67 participants recruited using random and purposive sampling, completed a questionnaire measuring illness beliefs, fatalism, health outcomes and demographics; 37 participants completed a social network survey interview and semi-structured interviews. Results were analysed using SPSS and thematic analysis. Quantitative data found certain social network characteristics (emotional and illness work) were related to perceived concern, emotional distress and health outcomes (p work remained a significant predictor of perceived concern and emotional distress related to diabetes (p culturally appropriate interventions to modify beliefs and support self-management in this population.

  5. Breast self-examination: do religious beliefs matter? A descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazeri, Ali; Haji-Mahmoodi, Mehregan; Jarvandi, Soghra

    2003-06-01

    A descriptive study was conducted in Tehran, Iran, to investigate the beliefs of Muslim women and their practices regarding screening modalities of breast cancer. A questionnaire was specially designed and validated to collect data and was completed by 410 Muslim women. A vast majority of women (90 per cent) said that breast self-examination is not against their religious beliefs. With regard to clinical breast examination, although 58 per cent preferred to be examined by a female physician, 47 per cent said that clinical breast examination by a male physician is not against their Islamic beliefs. However, only 6 per cent of respondents performed breast self-examination on a regular basis (monthly). The study findings suggest that most Muslim women do not perceive breast self-examination as being against their Islamic beliefs and that they believe clinical breast examination by a male physician does not interfere with their religious beliefs.

  6. Belief update as social choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Benthem, J.; Girard, P.; Roy, O.; Marion, M.

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic epistemic-doxastic logics describe the new knowledge or new beliefs indexBelief of agents after some informational event has happened. Technically, this requires an update rule that turns a doxastic-epistemic modelM(recording the current information state of the agents) and a dynamic ‘event

  7. Free will and paranormal beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogi, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Free will is one of the fundamental aspects of human cognition. In the context of cognitive neuroscience, various experiments on time perception, sensorimotor coordination, and agency suggest the possibility that it is a robust illusion (a feeling independent of actual causal relationship with actions) constructed by neural mechanisms. Humans are known to suffer from various cognitive biases and failures, and the sense of free will might be one of them. Here I report a positive correlation between the belief in free will and paranormal beliefs (UFO, reincarnation, astrology, and psi). Web questionnaires involving 2076 subjects (978 males, 1087 females, and 11 other genders) were conducted, which revealed significant positive correlations between belief in free will (theory and practice) and paranormal beliefs. There was no significant correlation between belief in free will and knowledge in paranormal phenomena. Paranormal belief scores for females were significantly higher than those for males, with corresponding significant (albeit weaker) difference in belief in free will. These results are consistent with the view that free will is an illusion which shares common cognitive elements with paranormal beliefs.

  8. Assessment of Religious Beliefs Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiver, Christopher M.; O'Brien, Eugene M.

    1993-01-01

    Notes that religion may be source of spiritual strength or source of conflict and guilt. Outlines importance of assessing religious beliefs of clients for treatment purposes and provides format for counselor to use. Says that, because counselors may be unaware of clients' individual perspectives, it is important to evaluate client's belief system…

  9. Free will and paranormal beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogi, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Free will is one of the fundamental aspects of human cognition. In the context of cognitive neuroscience, various experiments on time perception, sensorimotor coordination, and agency suggest the possibility that it is a robust illusion (a feeling independent of actual causal relationship with actions) constructed by neural mechanisms. Humans are known to suffer from various cognitive biases and failures, and the sense of free will might be one of them. Here I report a positive correlation between the belief in free will and paranormal beliefs (UFO, reincarnation, astrology, and psi). Web questionnaires involving 2076 subjects (978 males, 1087 females, and 11 other genders) were conducted, which revealed significant positive correlations between belief in free will (theory and practice) and paranormal beliefs. There was no significant correlation between belief in free will and knowledge in paranormal phenomena. Paranormal belief scores for females were significantly higher than those for males, with corresponding significant (albeit weaker) difference in belief in free will. These results are consistent with the view that free will is an illusion which shares common cognitive elements with paranormal beliefs. PMID:24765084

  10. Comparing strengths of beliefs explicitly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghosh, S.; de Jongh, D.

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by a similar use in provability logic, formulas p > B q and p ≥ B q are introduced in the existing logical framework for discussing beliefs to express that the strength of belief in p is greater than (or equal to) that in q. Besides its usefulness in studying the properties of the concept

  11. Free will and paranormal beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken eMogi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Free will is one of the fundamental aspects of human cognition. In the context of cognitive neuroscience, various experiments on time perception, sensorimotor coordination, and agency suggest the possibility that it is a robust illusion (a feeling independent of actual causal relationship with actions constructed by neural mechanisms. Humans are known to suffer from various cognitive biases and failures, and the sense of free will might be one of them. Here I report a positive correlation between the belief in free will and paranormal beliefs (UFO, reincarnation, astrology, and psi. Web questionnaires involving 2076 subjects (978 males, 1087 females, and 11 other genders were conducted, which revealed significant positive correlations between belief in free will (theory and practice and paranormal beliefs. There was no significant correlation between belief in free will and knowledge in paranormal phenomena. Paranormal belief scores for females were significantly higher than those for males, with corresponding significant (albeit weaker difference in belief in free will. These results are consistent with the view that free will is an illusion which shares common cognitive elements with paranormal beliefs.

  12. Equilibria in social belief removal

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Booth, R

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In studies of multi-agent interaction, especially in game theory, the notion of equilibrium often plays a prominent role. A typical scenario for the belief merging problem is one in which several agents pool their beliefs together to form a...

  13. Politics of climate change belief

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Donald Trump's actions during the election and his first weeks as US president-elect send a strong message about his belief in climate change, or lack thereof. However, these actions may reflect polarization of climate change beliefs, not climate mitigation behaviour.

  14. Knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs related to hypertension and hyperlipidemia self-management among African-American men living in the southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Everett; Ponder, Monica; Bernard, Stephanie

    2017-05-01

    Perceptions of illness affect cardiovascular disease (CVD) self-management. This study explores knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding hypertension and hyperlipidemia management among 34 African-American men with hypertension and/or hyperlipidemia, age 40-65, living in the Southeastern United States. In-person focus groups were conducted using semi-structured interview questions informed by the Health Belief Model (HBM). Participants had a high level of knowledge about hypertension self-management, but less about cholesterol self-management. Perceived severity of both conditions was acknowledged, though participants perceived hypertension as more severe. Barriers to self-management included medication side effects and unhealthy dietary patterns. Facilitators included social support, positive healthcare experiences, and the value placed on family. Cultural implications highlighted the importance of food in daily life and social settings. Participants expressed how notions of masculinity affected self-management-noting the impact of feelings of vulnerability and perceived lack of control stemming from diagnosis and treatment expectations. The findings highlight gaps in knowledge of hyperlipidemia versus hypertension, and the impact of cultural context and perceptions on engagement in self-management behaviors. Public health practitioners and healthcare providers serving African-American men should address cultural factors and notions of masculinity which can hinder effective disease management among this population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. How can repeat drunk drivers be influenced to change? Analysis of the association between drunk driving and DUI recidivists' attitudes and beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Michael D; Morral, Andrew R; Jain, Arvind K

    2004-07-01

    Public policy interventions designed to deter or prevent drunk driving depend, in part, on modifying beliefs concerning the riskiness, social acceptability and immorality of driving under the influence of alcohol. The current study examines the association of these beliefs with the incidence of alcohol-impaired driving. Interviews were conducted with 273 people with multiple driving under the influence (DUI) offenses. Data included self-reported frequency of driving after drinking in the past year, as well as measures of moral and prescriptive beliefs concerning alcohol-impaired driving (internal behavioral controls), perceived risks of criminal punishment and accidents associated with alcohol-impaired driving (external behavioral controls) and perceived peer group attitudes toward alcohol-impaired driving (social controls). Logit regression modeling showed significant, unique protective associations with behavioral control items in each category. Behavioral controls may protect against alcohol-impaired driving behavior even in a high-risk sample of repeat DUI offenders. Policy interventions designed to curtail drunk driving might seek to enhance these sorts of behavioral controls among DUI offenders.

  16. LIGO: The strong belief

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2016-01-01

    Twenty years of designing, building and testing a number of innovative technologies, with the strong belief that the endeavour would lead to a historic breakthrough. The Bulletin publishes an abstract of the Courier’s interview with Barry Barish, one of the founding fathers of LIGO.   The plots show the signals of gravitational waves detected by the twin LIGO observatories at Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington. (Image: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab) On 11 February, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo collaborations published a historic paper in which they showed a gravitational signal emitted by the merger of two black holes. These results come after 20 years of hard work by a large collaboration of scientists operating the two LIGO observatories in the US. Barry Barish, Linde Professor of Physics, Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology and former Director of the Global Design Effort for the Internat...

  17. Against Motivational Efficacy of Beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungbae Park

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Danielle Bromwich (2010 argues that a belief is motivationally efficacious in that, other things being equal, it disposes an agent to answer a question in accordance with that belief. I reply that what we are disposed to do is largely determined by our genes, whereas what we believe is largely determined by stimuli from the environment. We have a standing and default disposition to answer questions honestly, ceteris paribus, even before we are exposed to environmental stimuli. Since this standing and default disposition is innate, and our beliefs have their source in environmental stimuli, our beliefs cannot be the source of the disposition. Moreover, a recent finding in neuroscience suggests that motivation is extrinsic to belief.

  18. Validation of a Measure of Normative Beliefs About Smokeless Tobacco Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkison, Sarah E; O'Connor, Richard J; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Cummings, K Michael; Rees, Vaughan W; Hatsukami, Dorothy K

    2016-05-01

    Validated methods to evaluate consumer responses to modified risk tobacco products (MRTPs) are needed. Guided by existing literature that demonstrates a relationship between normative beliefs and future intentions to use tobacco the current research sought to (1) develop a measure of normative beliefs about smokeless tobacco (ST) and establish the underlying factor structure, (2) evaluate the structure with confirmatory factor analysis utilizing an independent sample of youth, and (3) establish the measure's concurrent validity. Respondents (smokers and nonsmokers aged 15-65; N = 2991) completed a web-based survey that included demographic characteristics, tobacco use history and dependence, and a measure of attitudes about ST adapted from the Normative Beliefs about Smoking scale. A second sample of youth (aged 14-17; N = 305) completed a similar questionnaire. Exploratory factor analysis produced the anticipated three-factor solution and accounted for nearly three-quarters of the variance in the data reflecting (1) perceived prevalence of ST use, (2) popularity of ST among successful/elite, and (3) approval of ST use by parents/peers. Confirmatory factor analysis with data from the youth sample demonstrated good model fit. Logistic regression demonstrated that the scales effectively discriminate between ST users and nonusers and are associated with interest in trying snus. Assessment of MRTPs for regulatory purposes, which allows messages of reduced risk, should include measurement of social norms. Furthermore, surveillance efforts that track use of new MRTPs should include measures of social norms to determine how norms change with prevalence of use. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Filipino older adults' beliefs about exercise activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceria-Ulep, Clementina D; Serafica, Reimund C; Tse, Alice

    2011-01-01

    This study explored how the older traditional Filipino adults 65 years old and above living in Honolulu, Hawaii, describe their beliefs regarding exercise activity. The location of this research setting is unique because a blending of traditional Filipino culture exists within an acculturated social setting. The Filipino older adults who have relocated to this U.S. location may have also stayed close to their own cultural traditions. A perception of exercise activity was generated through the lens of 47 participants using qualitative methodology. While focusing on the older adults' beliefs about exercise activity, it became evident that exercise may have been seen as a proxy measure of physical activity. The study revealed four main domains: balancing barriers against benefits; engaging capabilities; intervening factors; and defining exercise. The data suggest that the four themes are juxtaposed among each other, with overarching social obligations to the kin group governing the older adults' engagement in what constitutes structured exercise by Western definition. Further investigation is needed to conceptualize what types of physical activities traditional Filipino elders perceive as exercise, and whether these activities fall into the Western definition of exercise. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Filipino Older Adults’ Beliefs About Exercise Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceria-Ulep, Clementina D.; Serafica, Reimund C.; Tse, Alice

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE This study explored how the older traditional Filipino adults 65 years old and above living in Honolulu, Hawaii, describe their beliefs regarding exercise activity. The location of this research setting is unique because a blending of traditional Filipino culture exists within an acculturated social setting. The Filipino older adults who have relocated to this U.S. location may have also stayed close to their own cultural traditions. METHODOLOGIES A perception of exercise activity was generated through the lens of 47 participants using qualitative methodology. FINDINGS While focusing on the older adults’ beliefs about exercise activity, it became evident that exercise may have been seen as a proxy measure of physical activity. The study revealed four main domains: balancing barriers against benefits; engaging capabilities; intervening factors; and defining exercise. The data suggest that the four themes are juxtaposed among each other, with overarching social obligations to the kin group governing the older adults’ engagement in what constitutes structured exercise by Western definition. IMPLICATIONS Further investigation is needed to conceptualize what types of physical activities traditional Filipino elders perceive as exercise, and whether these activities fall into the Western definition of exercise. PMID:22029767

  1. The relationship between clients' depression etiological beliefs and psychotherapy orientation preferences, expectations, and credibility beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Kelley A; Swift, Joshua K; Rousmaniere, Tony G; Whipple, Jason L

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between clients' etiological beliefs for depression and treatment preferences, credibility beliefs, and outcome expectations for five different depression treatments-behavioral activation, cognitive therapy, interpersonal psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy, and psychodynamic psychotherapy. Adult psychotherapy clients (N = 98) were asked to complete an online survey that included the Reasons for Depression Questionnaire, a brief description of each of the five treatment options, and credibility, expectancy, and preference questions for each option. On average, the participating clients rated pharmacotherapy as significantly less credible, having a lower likelihood of success, and being less preferred than the four types of psychotherapy. In general, interpersonal psychotherapy was also rated more negatively than the other types of psychotherapy. However, these findings depended somewhat on whether the participating client was personally experiencing depression. Credibility beliefs, outcome expectations, and preferences for pharmacotherapy were positively associated with biological beliefs for depression; however, the other hypothesized relationships between etiological beliefs and treatment attitudes were not supported. Although the study is limited based on the specific sample and treatment descriptions that were used, the results may still have implications for psychotherapy research, training, and practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Examining the incremental contribution of metacognitive beliefs beyond content-specific beliefs in relation to posttraumatic stress in a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergus, Thomas A; Bardeen, Joseph R

    2017-11-01

    Cognitive-behavioral models of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) propose that the content of one's thoughts, including negative beliefs about the self, others, and world, play a fundamental role in our understanding and treatment of PTSD. Metacognitive theory suggests that metacognitive beliefs (i.e., beliefs about thinking), rather than content-specific beliefs, underlie PTSD. The present study provided the first known examination of the incremental contribution of metacognitive beliefs and trauma-related cognitions in relation to posttraumatic stress. Community adults recruited through an online crowdsourcing website who reported experiencing a criterion A traumatic event (N = 299) completed self-report measures of the study variables. Results from multiple linear regression analyses indicated that metacognitive beliefs of the uncontrollability and danger of thinking shared associations with each posttraumatic stress symptom cluster after accounting for the effects of content-specific beliefs and other covariates. The individual content-specific beliefs did not consistently share associations with posttraumatic stress symptoms in the regression analyses. The contribution of the individual content-specific beliefs to posttraumatic stress symptoms was consistently attenuated or rendered nonsignificant after accounting for metacognitive beliefs. These results are consistent with metacognitive theory in suggesting that metacognitive beliefs may be more important than trauma-related thought content in relation to posttraumatic stress. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Tobacco outlet density, retailer cigarette sales without ID checks and enforcement of underage tobacco laws: associations with youths' cigarette smoking and beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Grube, Joel W; Friend, Karen B; Mair, Christina

    2016-03-01

    To estimate the relationships of tobacco outlet density, cigarette sales without ID checks and local enforcement of underage tobacco laws with youth's life-time cigarette smoking, perceived availability of tobacco and perceived enforcement of underage tobacco laws and changes over time. The study involved: (a) three annual telephone surveys, (b) two annual purchase surveys in 2000 tobacco outlets and (c) interviews with key informants from local law enforcement agencies. Analyses were multi-level models (city, individual, time). A sample of 50 mid-sized non-contiguous cities in California, USA. A total of 1478 youths (aged 13-16 at wave 1, 52.2% male); 1061 participated in all waves. Measures at the individual level included life-time cigarette smoking, perceived availability and perceived enforcement. City-level measures included tobacco outlet density, cigarette sales without ID checks and compliance checks. Outlet density was associated positively with life-time smoking [OR = 1.12, P Sales rate without checking IDs was related to greater perceived availability (β = 0.01, P sales without ID checks and enforcement levels may influence beliefs about access to cigarettes and enforcement of underage tobacco sales laws. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. Cognitive biases explain religious belief, paranormal belief, and belief in life's purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Aiyana K; Norenzayan, Ara

    2013-11-01

    Cognitive theories of religion have postulated several cognitive biases that predispose human minds towards religious belief. However, to date, these hypotheses have not been tested simultaneously and in relation to each other, using an individual difference approach. We used a path model to assess the extent to which several interacting cognitive tendencies, namely mentalizing, mind body dualism, teleological thinking, and anthropomorphism, as well as cultural exposure to religion, predict belief in God, paranormal beliefs and belief in life's purpose. Our model, based on two independent samples (N=492 and N=920) found that the previously known relationship between mentalizing and belief is mediated by individual differences in dualism, and to a lesser extent by teleological thinking. Anthropomorphism was unrelated to religious belief, but was related to paranormal belief. Cultural exposure to religion (mostly Christianity) was negatively related to anthropomorphism, and was unrelated to any of the other cognitive tendencies. These patterns were robust for both men and women, and across at least two ethnic identifications. The data were most consistent with a path model suggesting that mentalizing comes first, which leads to dualism and teleology, which in turn lead to religious, paranormal, and life's-purpose beliefs. Alternative theoretical models were tested but did not find empirical support. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Validation of the vaccine conspiracy beliefs scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilla K. Shapiro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parents’ vaccine attitudes influence their decision regarding child vaccination. To date, no study has evaluated the impact of vaccine conspiracy beliefs on human papillomavirus vaccine acceptance. The authors assessed the validity of a Vaccine Conspiracy Beliefs Scale (VCBS and determined whether this scale was associated with parents’ willingness to vaccinate their son with the HPV vaccine. Methods: Canadian parents completed a 24-min online survey in 2014. Measures included socio-demographic variables, HPV knowledge, health care provider recommendation, Conspiracy Mentality Questionnaire (CMQ, the seven-item VCBS, and parents’ willingness to vaccinate their son at two price points. Results: A total of 1427 Canadian parents completed the survey in English (61.2% or French (38.8%. A Factor Analysis revealed the VCBS is one-dimensional and has high internal consistency (α=0.937. The construct validity of the VCBS was supported by a moderate relationship with the CMQ (r=0.44, p<0.001. Hierarchical regression analyses found the VCBS is negatively related to parents’ willingness to vaccinate their son with the HPV vaccine at both price points (‘free’ or ‘$300′ after controlling for gender, age, household income, education level, HPV knowledge, and health care provider recommendation. Conclusions: The VCBS is a brief, valid scale that will be useful in further elucidating the correlates of vaccine hesitancy. Future research could use the VCBS to evaluate the impact of vaccine conspiracies beliefs on vaccine uptake and how concerns about vaccination may be challenged and reversed. Keywords: Cancer prevention, Conspiracy beliefs, Human papillomavirus, Vaccine hesitancy, Vaccines, Vaccine Conspiracy Belief Scale

  6. Recursive belief manipulation and second-order false-beliefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben; Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Polyanskaya, Irina

    2016-01-01

    it indicate that a more fundamental *conceptual change* has taken place? In this paper we extend Braüner's hybrid-logical analysis of first-order false-belief tasks to the second-order case, and argue that our analysis supports a version of the conceptual change position.......The literature on first-order false-belief is extensive, but less is known about the second-order case. The ability to handle second-order false-beliefs correctly seems to mark a cognitively significant step, but what is its status? Is it an example of *complexity only* development, or does...

  7. The Influence of Skin Color on Heterosexual Black College Women’s Dating Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Dionne; Thomas, Tami L.

    2014-01-01

    Black women’s skin color perceptions were identified utilized qualitative methods. The primary goal was to identify the relevance of these perceptions on their understandings about dating preferences and related beliefs about appropriate scripts using a Black feminist thought framework. Twenty- eight self- identified Black women attending a large university in the southeastern United States were interviewed for this study. Lighter- skin was perceived as being more attractive, and associated with four themes about dating: (a) positive personality traits, (b) increased value in dating contexts, and (c) sexual appeal to men. Therapeutic considerations for addressing skin color concerns with Black female clients, including addressing within group differences and validation of skin color values, are addressed. PMID:24707076

  8. Knowledge, attitudes and beliefs related to HIV/AIDS among adolescents in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifli, S N; Wong, Y L

    2002-03-01

    Findings on knowledge, attitudes and beliefs related to HIV/AIDS among 520 Malaysian adolescents, aged 15 to 21 years, based on a survey conducted in Peninsular Malaysia showed that the average score for knowledge on HIV/AIDS was high, and majority showed a positive attitude towards the disease. However, misconceptions regarding transmission and gender bias related to sexual behaviour and contracting the disease prevailed. Although 72 percent of the sexually-experienced did not use protection at first sexual intercourse, 80 percent did not perceive themselves to be at risk of contracting HIV/AIDS. A critical review of existing HIV/AIDS prevention programmes to focus on adolescent risk-taking behaviour and sexuality issues, including male-female negotiation skills, is warranted.

  9. 'That is how the real mad people behave': Beliefs about and treatment of mental disorders by traditional medicine-men in Accra, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kpobi, Lily; Swartz, Leslie

    2018-06-01

    Traditional healing methods are considered central to mental health care in low-income countries such as Ghana, because they are perceived to be more easily accessible, more affordable and generally ascribe similar causal beliefs to those of the patients. However, not much is known about the work of traditional healers largely because their methods are shrouded in mysticism and secrecy. There is a need to understand the ideology and beliefs of traditional healers surrounding mental disorders, including knowledge about their practices in mental health care. In this article, we discuss the causal beliefs and treatment methods of traditional medicine-men from Accra, Ghana. We also describe their diagnostic and treatment methods for mental disorders. Eight medicine-men, indigenous to the Greater Accra Region, were interviewed through individual semi-structured interviews. The data were analysed through thematic analysis. The medicine-men's beliefs about mental illness were dominated by supernatural ideas. Mental illness was also seen as a form of punishment or resulting from envy, and there was a strong reliance on spiritual direction from the gods for diagnosis and treatment. These themes are discussed with emphasis on their potential implications for patients, as well as for collaborative efforts.

  10. The relevance of spirituality, religion and personal beliefs to health-related quality of life: themes from focus groups in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Kathryn A; Skevington, Suzanne M

    2005-09-01

    Generic health-related quality of life (QoL) instruments have not routinely assessed spirituality, religion, and personal beliefs (SRPB) in their measurement. This research addresses the perceived importance of 18 facets (dimensions) of SRPB, for example, inner peace, to QoL that are not specific to a religion, but address the experience of having this belief, in relation to health. Adult focus groups were structured according to beliefs from UK surveys. Quotas targeted gender and health status. Nine focus groups (N = 55, age 51, 47% male) contained sick and well people who were religious, Christians, Buddhists, Quakers (50.1%), agnostic (27.4%), or atheist (21.8%) participants. Qualitative and quantitative analysis showed considerable variability in the importance attributed to some concepts, although spiritual strength, meaning in life and inner peace were relevant to all groups. Spiritual strength (4.42), the meaning of life (4.09), wholeness/integration (4.06), and inner peace (4.02) were most important. Divine love, freedom to practice beliefs, and attachment/detachment were less relevant, conceptually confusing or had religious bias; atheists rated them as unimportant and as less important (p religious people. SRPB is relevant to health-related QoL and consensually important facets should be included in generic health care assessments. Their inclusion permits a more holistic assessment and improves the case for a biopsychosociospiritual model of health.

  11. Moral Beliefs and Cognitive Homogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevia Dolcini

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Emotional Perception Model of moral judgment intends to account for experientialism about morality and moral reasoning. In explaining how moral beliefs are formed and applied in practical reasoning, the model attempts to overcome the mismatch between reason and action/desire: morality isn’t about reason for actions, yet moral beliefs, if caused by desires, may play a motivational role in (moral agency. The account allows for two kinds of moral beliefs: genuine moral beliefs, which enjoy a relation to desire, and motivationally inert moral beliefs acquired in ways other than experience. Such etiology-based dichotomy of concepts, I will argue, leads to the undesirable view of cognition as a non-homogeneous phenomenon. Moreover, the distinction between moral beliefs and moral beliefs would entail a further dichotomy encompassing the domain of moral agency: one and the same action might possibly be either genuine moral, or not moral, if acted by individuals lacking the capacity for moral feelings, such as psychopaths.

  12. Belief attribution despite verbal interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgeot d'Arc, Baudouin; Ramus, Franck

    2011-05-01

    False-belief (FB) tasks have been widely used to study the ability of individuals to represent the content of their conspecifics' mental states (theory of mind). However, the cognitive processes involved are still poorly understood, and it remains particularly debated whether language and inner speech are necessary for the attribution of beliefs to other agents. We present a completely nonverbal paradigm consisting of silent animated cartoons in five closely related conditions, systematically teasing apart different aspects of scene analysis and allowing the assessment of the attribution of beliefs, goals, and physical causation. In order to test the role of language in belief attribution, we used verbal shadowing as a dual task to inhibit inner speech. Data on 58 healthy adults indicate that verbal interference decreases overall performance, but has no specific effect on belief attribution. Participants remained able to attribute beliefs despite heavy concurrent demands on their verbal abilities. Our results are most consistent with the hypothesis that belief attribution is independent from inner speech.

  13. Teacher beliefs about the aetiology of individual differences in cognitive ability, and the relevance of behavioural genetics to education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosswaite, Madeline; Asbury, Kathryn

    2018-04-26

    Despite a large body of research that has explored the influence of genetic and environmental factors on educationally relevant traits, few studies have explored teachers' beliefs about, or knowledge of, developments in behavioural genetics related to education. This study aimed to describe the beliefs and knowledge of UK teachers about behavioural genetics and its relevance to education, and to test for differences between groups of teachers based on factors including years of experience and age of children taught. Data were gathered from n = 402 teachers from a representative sample of UK schools. Teachers from primary and secondary schools, and from across the state and independent sectors, were recruited. An online questionnaire was used to gather demographic data (gender, age, years of experience, age of children taught, and state vs. independent) and also data on beliefs about the relative influence of nature and nurture on cognitive ability; knowledge of behavioural genetics; openness to genetic research in education; and mindset. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, ANOVA, correlations, and multiple regression. Teachers perceived genetic and environmental factors as equally important influences on cognitive ability and tended towards a growth mindset. Knowledge about behavioural genetics was low, but openness to learning more about genetics was high. Statistically significant differences were observed between groups based on age of children taught (openness higher among primary teachers) and state versus independent (more growth-minded in state sector). Although teachers have a limited knowledge of behavioural genetics, they are keen to learn more. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.

  14. Effect of Planned Follow-up on Married Women's Health Beliefs and Behaviors Concerning Breast and Cervical Cancer Screenings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolutek, Rahsan; Avci, Ilknur Aydin; Sevig, Umit

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the effect of planned follow-up visits on married women's health beliefs and behaviors concerning breast and cervical cancer screenings. The study was conducted using the single-group pre-test/post-test and quasi-experimental study designs. The sample of the study included 153 women. Data were collected using a Personal Information Form, the Health Belief Model (HBM) Scale for Breast Cancer Screening, the HBM Scale for Cervical Cancer Screening, and a Pap smear test. Data were collected using the aforementioned tools from September 2012 to March 2013. Four follow-up visits were conducted, nurses were educated, and telephone reminders were utilized. Friedman's test, McNemar's test, and descriptive statistics were used for data analyzing. The frequency of performing breast self-examination (BSE) at the last visit increased to 84.3 % compared to the pre-training. A statistically significant difference was observed between the pre- and post-training median values in four subscales except for the subscale of perceived seriousness of cervical cancer under "the Health Belief Model Scale for Cervical Cancer and the Pap Smear Test" (p < 0.001). The rate of performing BSE significantly increased after the training and follow-up visits. Also, the rate of having a Pap smear significantly increased after the follow-up visits.

  15. Food beliefs and practices in urban poor communities in Accra: implications for health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boatemaa, Sandra; Badasu, Delali Margaret; de-Graft Aikins, Ama

    2018-04-02

    Poor communities in low and middle income countries are reported to experience a higher burden of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and nutrition-related NCDs. Interventions that build on lay perspectives of risk are recommended. The objective of this study was to examine lay understanding of healthy and unhealthy food practices, factors that influence food choices and the implications for developing population health interventions in three urban poor communities in Accra, Ghana. Thirty lay adults were recruited and interviewed in two poor urban communities in Accra. The interviews were audio-taped, transcribed and analysed thematically. The analysis was guided by the socio-ecological model which focuses on the intrapersonal, interpersonal, community, structural and policy levels of social organisation. Food was perceived as an edible natural resource, and healthy in its raw state. A food item retained its natural, healthy properties or became unhealthy depending on how it was prepared (e.g. frying vs boiling) and consumed (e.g. early or late in the day). These food beliefs reflected broader social food norms in the community and incorporated ideas aligned with standard expert dietary guidelines. Healthy cooking was perceived as the ability to select good ingredients, use appropriate cooking methods, and maintain food hygiene. Healthy eating was defined in three ways: 1) eating the right meals; 2) eating the right quantity; and 3) eating at the right time. Factors that influenced food choice included finances, physical and psychological state, significant others and community resources. The findings suggest that beliefs about healthy and unhealthy food practices are rooted in multi-level factors, including individual experience, family dynamics and community factors. The factors influencing food choices are also multilevel. The implications of the findings for the design and content of dietary and health interventions are discussed.

  16. Beliefs, Barriers, and Preferences of European Overweight Women to Adopt a Healthier Lifestyle in Pregnancy to Minimize Risk of Developing Gestational Diabetes Mellitus : An Explorative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jelsma, Judith G M; van Leeuwen, Karen M; Oostdam, Nicolette; Bunn, Christopher; Simmons, David; Desoye, Gernot; Corcoy, Rosa; Adelantado, Juan M; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Harreiter, Jürgen; van Assche, Frans Andre; Devlieger, Roland; Timmerman, Dirk; Hill, David; Damm, Peter; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R; Wender-Ozegowska, Ewa; Zawiejska, Agnieszka; Rebollo, Pablo; Lapolla, Annunziata; Dalfrà, Maria G; Del Prato, Stefano; Bertolotto, Alessandra; Dunne, Fidelma; Jensen, Dorte M; Andersen, Lise Lotte T; Snoek, Frank J; van Poppel, Mireille Nm

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We explored beliefs, perceived barriers, and preferences regarding lifestyle changes among overweight European pregnant women to help inform the development of future lifestyle interventions in the prevention of gestational diabetes mellitus. METHODS: An explorative mixed methods,

  17. Beliefs, Barriers, and Preferences of European Overweight Women to Adopt a Healthier Lifestyle in Pregnancy to Minimize Risk of Developing Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: An Explorative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jelsma, Judith G. M.; van Leeuwen, Karen M.; Oostdam, Nicolette; Bunn, Christopher; Simmons, David; Desoye, Gernot; Corcoy, Rosa; Adelantado, Juan M.; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Harreiter, Jürgen; van Assche, Frans Andre; Devlieger, Roland; Timmerman, Dirk; Hill, David; Damm, Peter; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R.; Wender-Ozegowska, Ewa; Zawiejska, Agnieszka; Rebollo, Pablo; Lapolla, Annunziata; Dalfrà, Maria G.; del Prato, Stefano; Bertolotto, Alessandra; Dunne, Fidelma; Jensen, Dorte M.; Andersen, Lise Lotte T.; Snoek, Frank J.; van Poppel, Mireille N. M.

    2016-01-01

    We explored beliefs, perceived barriers, and preferences regarding lifestyle changes among overweight European pregnant women to help inform the development of future lifestyle interventions in the prevention of gestational diabetes mellitus. An explorative mixed methods, two-staged study was

  18. Determinants of Behavior of Students as Pedestrian and Car Occupants in Relation to Traffic Laws in 2013, Gorgan, Iran; An Application of Health Belief Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heshmati, Hashem; Behnampour, Nasser; Binaei, Golnaz; Khajavai, Samane

    2014-07-01

    To determine the behavioral pattern of Golestan University of Medical Science (GUMS) students as pedestrian and car occupants in relation to traffic law based on Health Belief Model. This cross-sectional study was performed during 2012 in GUMS. A total of 370 students of GUMS were selected using multi-stage sampling method  including stratified and  random  sampling. Data were collected by using a reliable and valid questionnaire. All the participants filled the questionnaire and the data was extracted according to previously described method. Data were analyzed by using SPSS 18 Software. Descriptive statistic and Spearman correlation was used for analyzing the data. Mean age of the participants was 20.92±1.98 (range 17-32) years. Mean score of perceived susceptibility was 81.87±17.18, being in desirable level. Mean score of perceived severity was 73.39±18.4, being also in desirable level. Mean score of perceived benefits was 77.22 ±16.13, which was also assumed to be in desirable level. Mean score of perceived barriers was 53.46±16.27, assumed as moderate level. In the same way the mean score of practice was 66.17±17.51, so practice in students was in moderate level. Television was the most important cues to action. Perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits regarding safety behaviors was in good level but perceived barriers and behavior was in moderate level and according to the importance of Television, we recommended appropriate intervention such as health education and advocacy, especially through national Television.

  19. Local perceptions, cultural beliefs and practices that shape umbilical cord care: a qualitative study in Southern Province, Zambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie M Herlihy

    Full Text Available Global policy regarding optimal umbilical cord care to prevent neonatal illness is an active discussion among researchers and policy makers. In preparation for a large cluster-randomized control trial to measure the impact of 4% chlorhexidine as an umbilical wash versus dry cord care on neonatal mortality in Southern Province, Zambia, we performed a qualitative study to determine local perceptions of cord health and illness and the cultural belief system that shapes umbilical cord care knowledge, attitudes, and practices.This study consisted of 36 focus group discussions with breastfeeding mothers, grandmothers, and traditional birth attendants, and 42 in-depth interviews with key community informants. Semi-structured field guides were used to lead discussions and interviews at urban and rural sites. A wide variation in knowledge, beliefs, and practices surrounding cord care was discovered. For home deliveries, cords were cut with non-sterile razor blades or local grass. Cord applications included drying agents (e.g., charcoal, baby powder, dust, lubricating agents (e.g., Vaseline, cooking oil, used motor oil and agents intended for medicinal/protective purposes (e.g., breast milk, cow dung, chicken feces. Concerns regarding the length of time until cord detachment were universally expressed. Blood clots in the umbilical cord, bulongo-longo, were perceived to foreshadow neonatal illness. Management of bulongo-longo or infected umbilical cords included multiple traditional remedies and treatment at government health centers.Umbilical cord care practices and beliefs were diverse. Dry cord care, as recommended by the World Health Organization at the time of the study, is not widely practiced in Southern Province, Zambia. A cultural health systems model that depicts all stakeholders is proposed as an approach for policy makers and program implementers to work synergistically with existing cultural beliefs and practices in order to maximize

  20. The Relationship among Pre-Service EFL Teachers' Beliefs about Language Learning, Pedagogical Beliefs, and Beliefs about ICT Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inayati, Dian; Emaliana, Ive

    2017-01-01

    This paper elucidates the relationship among pre-service teachers' beliefs about language learning, pedagogical beliefs, and beliefs about ICT Integration through survey methodology. This study employed a quantitative approach, particularly a correlational relationship to investigate the relationships among beliefs about language learning,…

  1. Beliefs About Dysmenorrhea and Their Relationship to Self-Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen X; Kwekkeboom, Kristine L; Ward, Sandra E

    2016-08-01

    Dysmenorrhea is highly prevalent and is the leading cause of work and school absences among women of reproductive age. However, self-management of dysmenorrhea is not well understood in the US, and little evidence is available on factors that influence dysmenorrhea self-management. Guided by the Common Sense Model, we examined women's representations of dysmenorrhea (beliefs about causes, symptoms, consequences, timeline, controllability, coherence, and emotional responses), described their dysmenorrhea self-management behaviors, and investigated the relationship between representations and self-management behaviors. We conducted a cross-sectional, web-based survey of 762 adult women who had dysmenorrhea symptoms in the last six months. Participants had varied beliefs about the causes of their dysmenorrhea symptoms, which were perceived as a normal part of life. Dysmenorrhea symptoms were reported as moderately severe, with consequences that moderately affected daily life. Women believed they understood their symptoms moderately well and perceived them as moderately controllable but them to continue through menopause. Most women did not seek professional care but rather used a variety of pharmacologic and complementary health approaches. Care-seeking and use of self-management strategies were associated with common sense beliefs about dysmenorrhea cause, consequences, timeline, and controllability. The findings may inform development and testing of self-management interventions that address dysmenorrhea representations and facilitate evidence-based management. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Paranormal belief and attributional style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, R T; Whisnand, E A

    2000-06-01

    52 college students completed Tobacyk's 1988 Revised Paranormal Belief Scale and Peterson, Semmel, von Baeyer, Abramson, Metalsky, and Seligman's 1982 Attributional Style Questionnaire. Analysis showed significantly higher depressive attributional styles among high scorers on paranormal phenomena than low scorers.

  3. Breast Health Belief Systems Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Mary

    1999-01-01

    .... The hypothesis underlying this research is that a breast health promotion approach that is based in specific belief systems among three disparate African American rural populations of low socioeconomic status (SES...

  4. Feelings towards Child-Teacher Relationships, and Emotions about the Teacher in Kindergarten: Effects on Learning Motivation, Competence Beliefs and Performance in Mathematics and Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanou, Georgia

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the role of kindergarten children's feelings about the perceived quality of their relationships with their teachers and their emotions towards their teachers in their competence beliefs and learning motivation (intrinsic interest, learning goals), in the impact of competence beliefs on learning motivation, and in turn in school…

  5. Perceived organizational support and job involvement in the Iranian health care system: A case study of emergency room nurses in general hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorji, Hassan Abolghasem; Etemadi, Manal; Hoseini, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Researchers believe that there are social exchanges between the employers and employees, because the employees would be interested in their organization and trust it based on how the organization values them and their welfare, comfort, and security. This belief is known as perceived organizational support that makes employees consider themselves as a part of their organization and have a commitment to it. The literature review is very limited in both variables in Iran and thus few studies also report the perceived organizational support and job involvement at the lower levels in our country. This research aimed at studying the levels of perceived organizational support and job involvement, relationship between this two, and the demographic factors relationship with both of them. This research was a descriptive analytical study conducted in 2012. The population included 123 emergency nurses in General Hospitals of Qom. Data were collected through Perceived Organizational Support and Job Involvement Questionnaires and analyzed using SPSS software, descriptive statistics and Spearman correlation and Chi-square test. Both mean scores for perceived organizational support and job involvement were in average level, 146/12 and 35/38, respectively. There was a significant relationship between perceived organizational support and age, education, tenure, organizational position, and job shift. There was also a significant relationship between job involvement and age and education and finally between perceived organizational support and job involvement (P = 0/029). The high correlation between perceived organizational support and job involvement indicates that the improvement of perceived organizational support are necessary through motivating the employees, showing interest in them, paying attention to them, respecting them, and providing development opportunity in the organization. These should be always considered by managers to improve job involvement.

  6. Children's beliefs about parental divorce

    OpenAIRE

    Dovydaitienė, Miglė

    2001-01-01

    This article investigates children's beliefs about parental divorce and attitudes toward environment and people. Children's believes about parental divorce is evaluated in a sample 8 through 10-year children whose parents had been separated for about 3 years. Attitudes toward environment and people between children of separated as well as intact families are compared. We also examined the relation of children's beliefs about parental divorce and attitudes toward environment and people. The me...

  7. Belief in luck or in skill: which locks people into gambling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kun; Tang, Hui; Sun, Yue; Huang, Gui-Hai; Rao, Li-Lin; Liang, Zhu-Yuan; Li, Shu

    2012-09-01

    According to the social axioms framework, people's beliefs about how the world functions (i.e., internal or external locus of control) are related to their social behaviors. Previous researchers have attempted to relate locus of control to gambling behavior, but the results have not been clear-cut. The present study speculated that the effects of perceived control (i.e., belief in luck and belief in skill) on gambling behavior are domain-specific and vary with the type of gambling. A total of 306 adult Macau residents ranging in age from 18 to 65 with casino gambling experience were recruited by going door to door. Empirical data on gambling frequency and perceived control relating to 13 types of gambling were collected. Our results demonstrated that the effects of belief in luck or skill on gambling behavior varied across different gambling categories. Specifically, for football lottery, Chinese lottery, and baccarat, it was not belief in skill but rather belief in luck that was a positive significant predictor of gambling frequency. Only for slot machines and stud poker did belief in skill significantly predict gambling frequency. For the remaining eight gambling categories, neither belief in luck nor belief in skill could predict gambling frequency. Our findings indicate that neither internal nor external locus of control can consistently explain people's gambling behaviors. Instead, which factor plays a greater role in a person's gambling behavior is dependent on the gambling type. Therefore, the finding that not all gambles are created equal might be a promising avenue for further research and treatment approaches.

  8. Climate change beliefs, risk perceptions, and adaptation behavior among Midwestern U.S. crop farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Saylor Mase

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change presents unique challenges to the resilience of United States agriculture, and farmers and advisors must utilize effective adaptation strategies to be both economically and environmentally sustainable. This study addresses Midwestern U.S. crop farmers’ beliefs about climate change, perceived risks from weather and climate, and attitudes toward adaptation that influence their decisions to adopt adaptation strategies. Analyzing a 2012 survey of nearly 5000 corn farmers across 22 Midwestern U.S. Watersheds, we investigate the most common weather and climate risk management strategies, including purchasing additional crop insurance, implementing conservation practices, and adding new technology. U.S. farmers’ belief in anthropogenic climate change, perceptions of changing weather patterns, climate risks to their farm and attitudes toward adapting are analyzed. Farmers’ perceptions of risk to their own farm, attitudes toward innovation and adaptation attitudes were the most important determinants of adaptation. This study highlights the critical role of risk perceptions in adaptation attitudes as well as behaviors among agriculturalists. Finally, we discuss how these findings could be applied to increase uptake of adaptation strategies and thus resilience of U.S. agriculture to a changing climate.

  9. Open Single Item of Perceived Risk Factors (OSIPRF toward Cardiovascular Diseases Is an Appropriate Instrument for Evaluating Psychological Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Saeidi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Psychological symptoms are considered as one of the aspects and consequences of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs, management of which can precipitate and facilitate the process of recovery. Evaluation of the psychological symptoms can increase awareness of treatment team regarding patients’ mental health, which can be beneficial for designing treatment programs (1. However, time-consuming process of interviews and assessment by questionnaires lead to fatigue and lack of patient cooperation, which may be problematic for healthcare evaluators. Therefore, the use of brief and suitable alternatives is always recommended.The use of practical and easy to implement instruments is constantly emphasized. A practical method for assessing patients' psychological status is examining causal beliefs and attitudes about the disease. The causal beliefs and perceived risk factors by patients, which are significantly related to the actual risk factors for CVDs (2, are not only related to psychological adjustment and mental health but also have an impact on patients’ compliance with treatment recommendations (3.It seems that several risk factors are at play regarding the perceived risk factors for CVDs such as gender (4, age (5, and most importantly, patients’ psychological status (3. Accordingly, evaluation of causal beliefs and perceived risk factors by patients could probably be a shortcut method for evaluation of patients’ psychological health. In recent years, Saeidi and Komasi (5 proposed a question and investigated the perceived risk factors with an open single item: “What do you think is the main cause of your illness?”. According to the authors, the perceived risk factors are recorded in five categories including biological (age, gender, and family history, environmental (dust, smoke, passive smoking, toxic substances, and effects of war, physiological (diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and obesity, behavioral (lack of exercise, nutrition

  10. Developing resident learning profiles: Do scientific evidence epistemology beliefs, EBM self-efficacy beliefs and EBM skills matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Nancy J.

    This study investigated resident scientific evidence epistemology beliefs, evidence based medicine (EBM) self-efficacy beliefs, and EBM skills. A convenience sample of fifty-one residents located in six U.S. based residency programs completed an online instrument. Hofer's epistemology survey questionnaire was modified to test responses based on four types of scientific evidence encountered in medical practice (Clinical Trial Phase 1, Clinical Trial Phase 3, Meta-analysis and Qualitative). It was hypothesized that epistemology beliefs would differ based on the type of scientific evidence considered. A principal components analysis produced a two factor solution that was significant across type of scientific evidence suggesting that when evaluating epistemology beliefs context does matter. Factor 1 is related to the certainty of research methods and the certainty of medical conclusions and factor 2 denotes medical justification. For each type of scientific evidence, both factors differed on questions comprising the factor structure with significant differences found for the factor 1 and 2 questions. A justification belief case problem using checklist format was triangulated with the survey results, and as predicted the survey and checklist justification z scores indicated no significant differences, and two new justification themes emerged. Modified versions of Finney and Schraw's statistical self-efficacy and skill instruments produced expected significant EBM score correlations with unexpected results indicating that the number of EBM and statistics courses are not significant for EBM self-efficacy and skill scores. The study results were applied to the construction of a learning profile that provided residents belief and skill feedback specific to individual learning needs. The learning profile design incorporated core values related to 'Believer' populations that focus on art, harmony, tact and diplomacy. Future research recommendations include testing context

  11. Understanding type 2 diabetes: including the family member's perspective.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    White, Patricia

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between psychological and social factors and diabetes outcomes in people with type 2 diabetes and their family members. METHODS: A total of 153 patients with type 2 diabetes were assessed at a diabetes outpatient clinic and postal questionnaires were sent to nominated family members. The measures examined were diabetes knowledge, social support, well-being, and illness perceptions. RESULTS: When compared with those with diabetes, family members reported lower positive well-being and lower levels of satisfaction with support. They also perceived diabetes as a more cyclical illness, which was controlled more by treatment than by the individual. Family members also reported that the person with diabetes was more emotionally distressed and knew more about diabetes than the patient had actually reported himself or herself. There were no differences between the family members of those in good or poor glycaemic control. CONCLUSIONS: This study reinforces the importance of understanding social context and illness beliefs in diabetes management. It also highlights the potential for including family members in discussions and education about diabetes management.

  12. Beliefs about health and illness in latin-american migrants with diabetes living in sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelm, Katarina; Bard, Karin

    2013-01-01

    The study explored beliefs about health and illness in Latin American migrants diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (DM) living in Sweden, and investigated the influence on health-related behavior including self-care and care-seeking behavior. Migrants are particularly affected in the diabetes pandemia. Beliefs about health and illness determine health-related behaviour and health but no studies have been found on Latin American migrants with DM. An explorative study design with focus-group interviews of nine persons aged 36-77 years from a diabetes clinic was used. Health was described from a pathogenetic or a salutogenetic perspective: 'freedom from disease or feeling of well-being', and being autonomous and able to work. Economic hardship due to expenses for medications and food for DM affected health. Individual factors such as diet, exercise and compliance with advice, and social factors with good social relations and avoidance of stress, often caused by having experienced severe events related to migrational experiences, were considered important for maintaining health and could cause DM. Disturbed relations to others (social factors), punishment by God or Fate (supernatural factors), intake of diuretics and imbalance between warmth and cold (natural factors) were also perceived as causes. A mix of biomedical and traditional explanations and active self-care behaviour with frequent use of herbs was found. It is important to assess the individual's beliefs, and health professionals, particularly nurses, should incorporate discussions of alternative treatments and other components of explanatory models and co-operate with social workers to consider influence of finances and migrational experiences on health.

  13. A study on students' beliefs about nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savellano, R.A.; Bulaon, C.A.; Leonin, T.V. Jr.; Caccam, G.S.

    1981-05-01

    Factor analysis of the students' beliefs about the use of nuclear energy yielded four factors: psychological/environmental risks, technological benefits, economic benefits and sociopolitical risks. The five items loading highest on each factor served as the basis for specifying dimensions of perceptions of nuclear power. The pattern of statistical relationship between each dimension was identified. The overall attitude of the respondents towards nuclear power was determined using three attitude measures: the Fishbein model, Osgood's semantic differential technique, and the direct response to favourability/unfavourability scale. The attitude scores obtained were correlated with the different factor-level scores to determine the contribution of each belief dimension to attitude. Differences in beliefs held by the PROS and CON the use of nuclear energy groups are also presented here. Responses to the importance scale showed that the belief statements or attributes included in the questionnaire used covered the more important issues raised in the present-day nuclear controversy. (author)

  14. Obsessions and worry beliefs in an inpatient OCD population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleo, Jessica S; Hart, John; Björgvinsson, Thröstur; Stanley, Melinda A

    2010-12-01

    Dysfunctional beliefs in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and worry are thought to contribute to vulnerability and maintenance of pathological anxiety. In this study, five belief domains concerning responsibility/threat estimation, perfectionism, intolerance of uncertainty, importance/control of thoughts and thought-action fusion were examined to see whether they differentially predicted worry and obsession severity in patients with severe OCD. Correlational analysis revealed that perfectionism and intolerance of uncertainty were associated with worry, whereas beliefs in the importance and control of thoughts and thought-action fusion were associated with obsession severity when obsession severity and worry, respectively, were controlled. In regression analyses, thought-action fusion and intolerance of uncertainty predicted OCD severity. The relation between dysfunctional beliefs and specific subtypes of OCD symptoms was also examined. Specific relationships were identified, including perfectionism with ordering, obsessions with control/importance of thoughts and checking and washing with threat estimation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Parental beliefs on medication and satisfaction with child healthcare].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Castillo, Antonio; Vílchez-Lara, María José

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore a possible significant relationship between parental beliefs about medication and satisfaction with the medical care their children receive in two different healthcare settings. The study included a total of 1,517 parents whose children were being treated either in pediatric primary care or pediatric emergency centers in eastern Andalusia. Of these, 489 were men and 1,028 women. The research instruments used were the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ) and the Scale of Satisfaction with Health Care Services. Our results indicate that high levels of negative beliefs about medication were significantly associated with lower levels of parent satisfaction with healthcare received. Satisfaction with pediatric healthcare depends on aspects relating to the healthcare system, but certainly personal psychological and social variables like beliefs and parent’s previous expectations may play an important role too.

  16. Selectively altering belief formation in the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharot, Tali; Kanai, Ryota; Marston, David; Korn, Christoph W.; Rees, Geraint; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2012-01-01

    Humans form beliefs asymmetrically; we tend to discount bad news but embrace good news. This reduced impact of unfavorable information on belief updating may have important societal implications, including the generation of financial market bubbles, ill preparedness in the face of natural disasters, and overly aggressive medical decisions. Here, we selectively improved people’s tendency to incorporate bad news into their beliefs by disrupting the function of the left (but not right) inferior frontal gyrus using transcranial magnetic stimulation, thereby eliminating the engrained “good news/bad news effect.” Our results provide an instance of how selective disruption of regional human brain function paradoxically enhances the ability to incorporate unfavorable information into beliefs of vulnerability. PMID:23011798

  17. Similarities and differences in underlying beliefs of socio-cognitive factors related to diet and physical activity in lower-educated Dutch, Turkish, and Moroccan adults in the Netherlands: a focus group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Romeike

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unhealthy eating patterns and a lack of physical activity (PA are highly prevalent in most Western countries, especially among lower-educated people, including people of non-Western origin. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the beliefs and barriers that underlie socio-cognitive and planning constructs related to healthy eating and PA among lower-educated Dutch, Turkish, and Moroccan adults. Methods Focus group interviews were conducted with 90 Dutch, Turkish, and Moroccan lower-educated adults between March and August 2012. Five semi-structured group interviews were conducted with Dutch participants, five with Turkish participants, and four with Moroccan participants. Men and women were interviewed separately. The question route was based on the Theory of Planned Behavior and self-regulation theories. The theoretical method used for the qualitative data analysis was content analysis. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed by applying the framework approach. Results Some participants seemed to lack knowledge of healthy eating and PA, especially regarding the health consequences of an unhealthy lifestyle. Important attitude beliefs concerning healthy eating and PA were taste and health benefits. Participants suggested that social support can encourage the actual performance of healthy behavior. For instance, exercising with other people was perceived as being supportive. Perceived barriers to PA and cooking healthily were a lack of time and tiredness. These previously mentioned beliefs arose in all the ethnic groups. Differences were also found in beliefs between the ethnic groups, which were mainly related to religious and cultural issues. Turkish and Moroccan participants discussed, for example, that the Koran contains the recommendation to eat in moderation and to take care of one’s body. Furthermore, they reported that refusing food when offered is difficult, as it can be perceived as

  18. Similarities and differences in underlying beliefs of socio-cognitive factors related to diet and physical activity in lower-educated Dutch, Turkish, and Moroccan adults in the Netherlands: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeike, Kristina; Abidi, Latifa; Lechner, Lilian; de Vries, Hein; Oenema, Anke

    2016-08-17

    Unhealthy eating patterns and a lack of physical activity (PA) are highly prevalent in most Western countries, especially among lower-educated people, including people of non-Western origin. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the beliefs and barriers that underlie socio-cognitive and planning constructs related to healthy eating and PA among lower-educated Dutch, Turkish, and Moroccan adults. Focus group interviews were conducted with 90 Dutch, Turkish, and Moroccan lower-educated adults between March and August 2012. Five semi-structured group interviews were conducted with Dutch participants, five with Turkish participants, and four with Moroccan participants. Men and women were interviewed separately. The question route was based on the Theory of Planned Behavior and self-regulation theories. The theoretical method used for the qualitative data analysis was content analysis. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed by applying the framework approach. Some participants seemed to lack knowledge of healthy eating and PA, especially regarding the health consequences of an unhealthy lifestyle. Important attitude beliefs concerning healthy eating and PA were taste and health benefits. Participants suggested that social support can encourage the actual performance of healthy behavior. For instance, exercising with other people was perceived as being supportive. Perceived barriers to PA and cooking healthily were a lack of time and tiredness. These previously mentioned beliefs arose in all the ethnic groups. Differences were also found in beliefs between the ethnic groups, which were mainly related to religious and cultural issues. Turkish and Moroccan participants discussed, for example, that the Koran contains the recommendation to eat in moderation and to take care of one's body. Furthermore, they reported that refusing food when offered is difficult, as it can be perceived as an insult. Finally, men and women usually cannot exercise

  19. Tolerating the doubting Thomas: How centrality of religious beliefs versus practices influences prejudice against atheists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey eHughes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Past research has found a robust effect of prejudice against atheists in largely Christian-dominated (belief-oriented samples. We propose that religious centrality of beliefs vs. practices influences attitudes toward atheists, such that religious groups emphasizing beliefs perceive non-believers more negatively than believers, while groups emphasizing practices perceive non-practicing individuals more negatively than practicing individuals. Studies 1-2, in surveys of 41 countries, found that Muslims and Protestants (belief-oriented had more negative attitudes toward atheists than did Jews and Hindus (practice-oriented. Study 3 experimentally manipulated a target individual’s beliefs and practices. Protestants had more negative attitudes toward a non-believer (vs. a believer, whereas Jews had more negative attitudes toward a non-practicing individual (vs. a practicing individual, particularly when they had a Jewish background. This research has implications for the psychology of religion, anti-atheist prejudice, and cross-cultural attitudes regarding where dissent in beliefs or practices may be tolerated or censured within religious groups.

  20. Tolerating the "doubting Thomas": how centrality of religious beliefs vs. practices influences prejudice against atheists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Jeffrey; Grossmann, Igor; Cohen, Adam B

    2015-01-01

    Past research has found a robust effect of prejudice against atheists in largely Christian-dominated (belief-oriented) samples. We propose that religious centrality of beliefs vs. practices influences attitudes toward atheists, such that religious groups emphasizing beliefs perceive non-believers more negatively than believers, while groups emphasizing practices perceive non-practicing individuals more negatively than practicing individuals. Studies 1-2, in surveys of 41 countries, found that Muslims and Protestants (belief-oriented) had more negative attitudes toward atheists than did Jews and Hindus (practice-oriented). Study 3 experimentally manipulated a target individual's beliefs and practices. Protestants had more negative attitudes toward a non-believer (vs. a believer), whereas Jews had more negative attitudes toward a non-practicing individual (vs. a practicing individual, particularly when they had a Jewish background). This research has implications for the psychology of religion, anti-atheist prejudice, and cross-cultural attitudes regarding where dissent in beliefs or practices may be tolerated or censured within religious groups.

  1. An instrument to assess subjective task value beliefs regarding the decision to pursue postgraduate training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemeier, Nicholas E; Murawski, Matthew M

    2014-02-12

    To develop and validate an instrument to assess subjective ratings of the perceived value of various postgraduate training paths followed using expectancy-value as a theoretical framework; and to explore differences in value beliefs across type of postgraduate training pursued and type of pharmacy training completed prior to postgraduate training. A survey instrument was developed to sample 4 theoretical domains of subjective task value: intrinsic value, attainment value, utility value, and perceived cost. Retrospective self-report methodology was employed to examine respondents' (N=1,148) subjective task value beliefs specific to their highest level of postgraduate training completed. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analytic techniques were used to evaluate and validate value belief constructs. Intrinsic, attainment, utility, cost, and financial value constructs resulted from exploratory factor analysis. Cross-validation resulted in a 26-item instrument that demonstrated good model fit. Differences in value beliefs were noted across type of postgraduate training pursued and pharmacy training characteristics. The Postgraduate Training Value Instrument demonstrated evidence of reliability and construct validity. The survey instrument can be used to assess value beliefs regarding multiple postgraduate training options in pharmacy and potentially inform targeted recruiting of individuals to those paths best matching their own value beliefs.

  2. The relationship between perceived parenting style, filial piety, and life satisfaction in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Wen

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between perceived parenting style, filial piety, and life satisfaction among Chinese young adults. A survey was administered to 395 university students in Hong Kong on their perceptions about their parents' parenting practices, filial piety beliefs, and life satisfaction. The results suggest that perceived authoritative parenting is associated with reciprocal filial piety and contributes positively to the young adults' life satisfaction. Both perceived authoritative and authoritarian parenting were associated with authoritarian filial piety, but authoritarian filial piety was not associated with young adults' life satisfaction. Due to the familial interdependence emphasized in the Chinese cultural context, Chinese adolescents' filial beliefs are related to the parenting they have experienced, and these beliefs may be associated with their psychosocial outcomes. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Evaluating a Health Belief Model-Based Educational Program for School Injury Prevention among Hard-of-Hearing/Deaf High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Vejdani-Aram

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: While all students are vulnerable to injuries, such vulnerability may even be higher in the deaf and hard-of-hearing students. Therefore, this study evaluated a health belief model-based educational program to prevent school injuries among deaf and hard-of-hearing high school students. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted on all deaf and hard-of-hearing students who attended two special schools in Hamadan (Iran during 2014. They were randomly assigned to either the intervention group (n = 23 or the control group (n = 27. Data were collected using a self-report questionnaire containing items on demographic characteristics, constructs of the health belief model, and knowledge and preventive behaviors. In both groups, the questionnaires were filled out through interviews before and two months after the intervention. The intervention included distributing booklets and holding five educational sessions. Data were analyzed with paired t, independent t, chi square, and Fisher’s exact tests in SPSS16. Results: After the educational intervention, the mean scores of knowledge (P=0.002, preventive behaviors (P=0.001, and constructs of the health belief model, i.e. perceived severity (P=0.001, perceived benefits (P=0.001, self-efficacy (P=0.001, and cues to action (P=0.001, were significantly higher in the intervention group than in the control group. Conclusion: According to our findings, an educational intervention based on the health belief model can promote behaviors to prevent school injuries among deaf and hard-of-hearing students.

  4. What role do traditional beliefs play in treatment seeking and delay for Buruli ulcer disease?--insights from a mixed methods study in Cameroon.

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    Koen Peeters Grietens

    Full Text Available Victims of Buruli ulcer disease (BUD frequently report to specialized units at a late stage of the disease. This delay has been associated with local beliefs and a preference for traditional healing linked to a reportedly mystical origin of the disease. We assessed the role beliefs play in determining BUD sufferers' choice between traditional and biomedical treatments.Anthropological fieldwork was conducted in community and clinical settings in the region of Ayos and Akonolinga in Central Cameroon. The research design consisted of a mixed methods study, triangulating a qualitative strand based on ethnographic research and quantitative data obtained through a survey presented to all patients at the Ayos and Akonolinga hospitals (N = 79 at the time of study and in four endemic communities (N = 73 belonging to the hospitals' catchment area.The analysis of BUD sufferers' health-seeking behaviour showed extremely complex therapeutic itineraries, including various attempts and failures both in the biomedical and traditional fields. Contrary to expectations, nearly half of all hospital patients attributed their illness to mystical causes, while traditional healers admitted patients they perceived to be infected by natural causes. Moreover, both patients in hospitals and in communities often combined elements of both types of treatments. Ultimately, perceptions regarding the effectiveness of the treatment, the option for local treatment as a cost prevention strategy and the characteristics of the doctor-patient relationship were more determinant for treatment choice than beliefs.The ascription of delay and treatment choice to beliefs constitutes an over-simplification of BUD health-seeking behaviour and places the responsibility directly on the shoulders of BUD sufferers while potentially neglecting other structural elements. While more efficacious treatment in the biomedical sector is likely to reduce perceived mystical involvement in the

  5. Exploring Donation Decisions: Beliefs and Preferences for Organ Donation in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Melissa K.; White, Katherine M.

    2010-01-01

    The authors explored common beliefs and preferences for posthumous and living organ donation in Australia where organ donation rates are low and little research exists. Content analysis of discussions revealed the advantage of prolonging/saving life whereas disadvantages differed according to donation context. A range of people/groups perceived to…

  6. Demographically Induced Variation in Students' Beliefs about Learning and Studying German.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Monika

    1995-01-01

    Examines how the demographic values of foreign travel, previous foreign-language learning, major field of study, and other factors affect students' beliefs about the study of German. The article focuses on student-perceived improvement in the four skills and cultural knowledge, student motivation, and the expected contributions of teachers and…

  7. Is There Concordance in Attitudes and Beliefs between Parents and Scientists about Autism Spectrum Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischbach, Ruth L.; Harris, Mark J.; Ballan, Michelle S.; Fischbach, Gerald D.; Link, Bruce G.

    2016-01-01

    There is no reported investigation comparing concordance in attitudes and beliefs about autism spectrum disorder between parents of children with autism spectrum disorder and scientists who research autism spectrum disorder. To investigate the level of concordance between these groups on causes of autism, priorities of research, perceived stigma,…

  8. Ballet Body Belief: Perceptions of an Ideal Ballet Body from Young Ballet Dancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, Angela

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores what is perceived and believed to be an ideal ballet body by young ballet dancers. Such bodily belief becomes, in Pierre Bourdieu's terms, a core part of a ballet dancer's habitus. A four year longitudinal, ethnographic, empirical study of the experiences of 12 young ballet dancers, six boys and six girls, aged between 10 and…

  9. Relations of low frustration tolerance beliefs with stress, depression, and anxiety in young adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Noreen E; Yarcheski, Adela; Yarcheski, Thomas J; Hanks, Michele M

    2007-02-01

    Young adolescents (N=144; 66 boys, 78 girls), ages 12 to 14 years (M=12.2, SD=.8), who reported lower scores on the Low Frustration Tolerance Beliefs Instrument had higher scores on the Perceived Stress Scale and the Profile of Mood States Subscales of Depression and Anxiety.

  10. The Influence of Self-Efficacy Beliefs for Student Parents Attending University

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rhijn, Tricia M.; Lero, Donna S.

    2014-01-01

    Student parents (i.e. students who have their own dependent children) are a specific subpopulation of adult learners. This study investigated the impact of self-efficacy beliefs on student parents' perceived capacity to manage multiple roles and their satisfaction with family, school and life. Survey data collected from 398 student parents enroled…

  11. Barrier-beliefs about physical activity in active and inactive adults : an explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, Adrie

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: Perceived barriers are often a reason why people do not start physical activity or relapse to inactivity. From a psychological perspective, barriers can be seen as beliefs about what is obstructing people’s behavior. To understand inactivity and relapse from physical activity, this study

  12. Teachers' Beliefs Concerning Teaching about Testicular Cancer and Testicular Self-Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Royal E.; Kane, William M.

    1997-01-01

    This study compared secondary health teachers' beliefs concerning teaching about testicular cancer (TC) and self-examination (TSE) to actual instruction. TC and TSE education levels were low. Perceived barriers to teaching about TSE was the main predictor of TSE instruction. Teachers with previous preparation in TC and TSE provided the most…

  13. The Influence of Tobacco Countermarketing Ads on College Students' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy-Hoefer, Rebecca; Hyland, Andrew; Rivard, Cheryl

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine which antitobacco messages were perceived effective in changing college students' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about tobacco use. Participants: College students (n = 1,020) were surveyed before and after viewing 4 30-second antitobacco advertisements in 1 of 3 theme categories--social norms, health consequences, or…

  14. Study Links Learning Design to Changes in Knowledge, Beliefs, and Behaviors. Lessons from Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killion, Joellen

    2015-01-01

    In this study of 16 teachers in two primary schools in the Netherlands, researchers built on findings from previous studies to demonstrate that a thoughtfully designed professional development program can be "effective and sustainable, if certain conditions are met" (p. 772) in changing teachers' knowledge, beliefs, perceived problems,…

  15. Patient-perceived value of Medication Therapy Management (MTM services: a series of focus groups

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    Heidi Schultz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the patient-perceived value of MTM services and non-financial barriers preventing patients with insurance coverage from receiving MTM services. Design: Focus groups. Setting: Fairview Pharmacy Services, Minneapolis, MN. Participants: Three focus groups, each with five to nine participants, consisting of different participant populations: (i patients who paid out-of-pocket to receive MTM services; (ii insurance beneficiaries, under which MTM is a covered benefit and participants may have received incentives for receiving MTM services; (iii patients with an insurance plan which covers MTM services who were recruited to receive MTM services but declined. Intervention: MTM services. Main Outcome Measure: Patient-perceived value of MTM services and non-financial barriers. Results: Seven themes were identified relating to the patient-perceived value of MTM services: collaboration of the health care team, MTM pharmacist as a supporter/advocate/confidant, MTM pharmacist as a resource for questions and education, accessibility to the MTM pharmacist, financial incentives for participation in MTM services, MTM pharmacy as a specialty field, and the MTM pharmacist as a coordinator. Three themes were identified regarding patient-perceived non-financial barriers to receiving MTM services, including: availability of the MTM pharmacist, patient/physician lack of knowledge of MTM services, patient's belief that MTM services are not needed. Conclusion: MTM is a service which patients identify as valuable. Patients are able to identify non-financial barriers that may prevent some patients from receiving MTM services. This study provides preliminary evidence of both the value and barriers perceived by patients.   Type: Original Research

  16. Patient-perceived value of Medication Therapy Management (MTM services: a series of focus groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Brummel, PharmD

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the patient-perceived value of MTM services and non-financial barriers preventing patients with insurance coverage from receiving MTM services. Design: Focus groups. Setting: Fairview Pharmacy Services, Minneapolis, MN.Participants: Three focus groups, each with five to nine participants, consisting of different participant populations: (i patients who paid out-of-pocket to receive MTM services; (ii insurance beneficiaries, under which MTM is a covered benefit and participants may have received incentives for receiving MTM services; (iii patients with an insurance plan which covers MTM services who were recruited to receive MTM services but declined. Intervention: MTM services. Main Outcome Measure: Patient-perceived value of MTM services and non-financial barriers. Results: Seven themes were identified relating to the patient-perceived value of MTM services: collaboration of the health care team, MTM pharmacist as a supporter/advocate/confidant, MTM pharmacist as a resource for questions and education, accessibility to the MTM pharmacist, financial incentives for participation in MTM services, MTM pharmacy as a specialty field, and the MTM pharmacist as a coordinator. Three themes were identified regarding patient-perceived non-financial barriers to receiving MTM services, including: availability of the MTM pharmacist, patient/physician lack of knowledge of MTM services, patient’s belief that MTM services are not needed. Conclusion: MTM is a service which patients identify as valuable. Patients are able to identify non-financial barriers that may prevent some patients from receiving MTM services. This study provides preliminary evidence of both the value and barriers perceived by patients.

  17. Attitudes and beliefs as verbal behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Guerin, Bernard

    1994-01-01

    Attitudes and beliefs are analyzed as verbal behavior. It is argued that shaping by a verbal community is an essential part of the formation and maintenance of both attitudes and beliefs, and it is suggested that verbal communities mediate the important shift in control from events in the environment (attitudes and beliefs as tacts) to control by other words (attitudes and beliefs as intraverbals). It appears that both attitudes and beliefs are constantly being socially negotiated through aut...

  18. The neural basis of testable and non-testable beliefs.

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    Jonathon R Howlett

    Full Text Available Beliefs about the state of the world are an important influence on both normal behavior and psychopathology. However, understanding of the neural basis of belief processing remains incomplete, and several aspects of belief processing have only recently been explored. Specifically, different types of beliefs may involve fundamentally different inferential processes and thus recruit distinct brain regions. Additionally, neural processing of truth and falsity may differ from processing of certainty and uncertainty. The purpose of this study was to investigate the neural underpinnings of assessment of testable and non-testable propositions in terms of truth or falsity and the level of certainty in a belief. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was used to study 14 adults while they rated propositions as true or false and also rated the level of certainty in their judgments. Each proposition was classified as testable or non-testable. Testable propositions activated the DLPFC and posterior cingulate cortex, while non-testable statements activated areas including inferior frontal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, and an anterior region of the superior frontal gyrus. No areas were more active when a proposition was accepted, while the dorsal anterior cingulate was activated when a proposition was rejected. Regardless of whether a proposition was testable or not, certainty that the proposition was true or false activated a common network of regions including the medial prefrontal cortex, caudate, posterior cingulate, and a region of middle temporal gyrus near the temporo-parietal junction. Certainty in the truth or falsity of a non-testable proposition (a strong belief without empirical evidence activated the insula. The results suggest that different brain regions contribute to the assessment of propositions based on the type of content, while a common network may mediate the influence of beliefs on motivation and behavior based on the level of

  19. Predicting Self-Management Behaviors in Familial Hypercholesterolemia Using an Integrated Theoretical Model: the Impact of Beliefs About Illnesses and Beliefs About Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagger, Martin S; Hardcastle, Sarah J; Hingley, Catherine; Strickland, Ella; Pang, Jing; Watts, Gerald F

    2016-06-01

    Patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) are at markedly increased risk of coronary artery disease. Regular participation in three self-management behaviors, physical activity, healthy eating, and adherence to medication, can significantly reduce this risk in FH patients. We aimed to predict intentions to engage in these self-management behaviors in FH patients using a multi-theory, integrated model that makes the distinction between beliefs about illness and beliefs about self-management behaviors. Using a cross-sectional, correlational design, patients (N = 110) diagnosed with FH from a clinic in Perth, Western Australia, self-completed a questionnaire that measured constructs from three health behavior theories: the common sense model of illness representations (serious consequences, timeline, personal control, treatment control, illness coherence, emotional representations); theory of planned behavior (attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control); and social cognitive theory (self-efficacy). Structural equation models for each self-management behavior revealed consistent and statistically significant effects of attitudes on intentions across the three behaviors. Subjective norms predicted intentions for health eating only and self-efficacy predicted intentions for physical activity only. There were no effects for the perceived behavioral control and common sense model constructs in any model. Attitudes feature prominently in determining intentions to engage in self-management behaviors in FH patients. The prominence of these attitudinal beliefs about self-management behaviors, as opposed to illness beliefs, suggest that addressing these beliefs may be a priority in the management of FH.

  20. Teaching smoking cessation to future nurses: Quebec educators' beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepage, Mario; Dumas, Louise; Saint-Pierre, Chantal

    2015-03-01

    Smoking cessation strategies are barely discussed in nursing education programs, even though initial education shapes how future professionals practice their profession. The aim of this research is to describe the practices, attitudes, and beliefs of nursing educators of Quebec with regard to smoking cessation strategies in initial nursing education. A descriptive design was chosen along with an online questionnaire. A total of 278 educators (20.8%) participated in the survey. Although educators recognize the importance of incorporating smoking cessation strategies into their teaching practice, they allocate an average of only one hour per year to the topic. Tobacco use is addressed mostly in terms of risk factors, with little focus on how to help patients quit. The perceived obstacles are related to false beliefs and a lack of knowledge. The results of this study demonstrate the need to raise educators' awareness of the importance of incorporating smoking cessation strategies into classroom teaching. © The Author(s) 2013.

  1. Factors Affecting Intention among Students to Be Vaccinated against A/H1N1 Influenza: A Health Belief Model Approach

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    Sharon Teitler-Regev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The outbreak of A/H1N1 influenza (henceforth, swine flu in 2009 was characterized mainly by morbidity rates among young people. This study examined the factors affecting the intention to be vaccinated against the swine flu among students in Israel. Questionnaires were distributed in December 2009 among 387 students at higher-education institutions. The research questionnaire included sociodemographic characteristics and Health Belief Model principles. The results show that the factors positively affecting the intention to take the swine flu vaccine were past experience with seasonal flu shot and three HBM categories: higher levels of perceived susceptibility for catching the illness, perceived seriousness of illness, and lower levels of barriers. We conclude that offering the vaccine at workplaces may raise the intention to take the vaccine among young people in Israel.

  2. Validation of the vaccine conspiracy beliefs scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Gilla K; Holding, Anne; Perez, Samara; Amsel, Rhonda; Rosberger, Zeev

    2016-12-01

    Parents' vaccine attitudes influence their decision regarding child vaccination. To date, no study has evaluated the impact of vaccine conspiracy beliefs on human papillomavirus vaccine acceptance. The authors assessed the validity of a Vaccine Conspiracy Beliefs Scale (VCBS) and determined whether this scale was associated with parents' willingness to vaccinate their son with the HPV vaccine. Canadian parents completed a 24-min online survey in 2014. Measures included socio-demographic variables, HPV knowledge, health care provider recommendation, Conspiracy Mentality Questionnaire (CMQ), the seven-item VCBS, and parents' willingness to vaccinate their son at two price points. A total of 1427 Canadian parents completed the survey in English (61.2%) or French (38.8%). A Factor Analysis revealed the VCBS is one-dimensional and has high internal consistency (α=0.937). The construct validity of the VCBS was supported by a moderate relationship with the CMQ (r=0.44, pparents' willingness to vaccinate their son with the HPV vaccine at both price points ('free' or '$300') after controlling for gender, age, household income, education level, HPV knowledge, and health care provider recommendation. The VCBS is a brief, valid scale that will be useful in further elucidating the correlates of vaccine hesitancy. Future research could use the VCBS to evaluate the impact of vaccine conspiracies beliefs on vaccine uptake and how concerns about vaccination may be challenged and reversed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. The milk mucus belief: sensations associated with the belief and characteristics of believers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arney, W K; Pinnock, C B

    1993-02-01

    The belief that milk produces mucus is widespread in the community and is associated with a significant reduction in milk consumption. Sensations associated with milk drinking were reported by otherwise healthy believers and non-believers in the milk-mucus effect (N = 169) in an unstructured interview, with further responses prompted about the duration, type and amount of milk causing the effect. The site predominantly affected was the throat, with sensations related to difficulty in swallowing and perceived thickness of mucus and salivary secretions, rather than excessive mucus production. The effect required only a small amount of milk and was reported to be of short duration. The chronic respiratory symptom history and dairy product intake of 130 of these subjects were also assessed. Milk-mucus believers were different from non-believers, reporting more respiratory symptoms and consuming less milk and dairy products. Symptoms consistent with the known effects of food allergy or intolerance were not reported.

  4. Attitude and beliefs of traditional birth attendants to prematurely erupted teeth of infants in urban local government areas in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankole, Olubunmi; Taiwo, Juliana; Nasiru, Olukemi

    Traditional birth attendants (TBAs) can be invaluable in assisting to dispel myths commonly associated with natal/neonatal teeth. To ensure correct delivery of the message, baseline data of their beliefs is important. To assess the attitude and beliefs of some Nigerian TBAs to prematurely erupted teeth in infants, a total enumeration of the TBAs in the five urban Local Government Areas in Ibadan was conducted and 163 consenting TBAs were recruited using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. The attitude of the TBAs was that of fear and shock (35.6%) while 30 (18.4%) will consider the child weird. Perceived causes of the variation include evil spirits (31.9%), contravening cultural taboos (9.2%), and prolonged gestation (4.9%). Beliefs on the effect of natal/neonatal teeth on the child include strange behavior (31.3%), child developing evil spiritual powers (41.1%), and mental retardation (3.1%). Practices included advising parents to get rid of/or hide the child (4.9%) and immediate extraction of the teeth with/without sacrifices (35.6%). There is an urgent need to address knowledge gaps by giving health education to TBAs.

  5. Is Music an Active Developmental Tool or Simply a Supplement? Early Childhood Preservice Teachers' Beliefs about Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hae Kyoung; Kemple, Kristen M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines early childhood preservice teachers' beliefs about the importance of music in early childhood and explores factors influencing those beliefs. The study found that preservice teachers in this study held relatively strong beliefs about the importance of music, including aesthetic, quality-of-life, and social-emotional benefits.…

  6. Perceived stigmatization and discrimination of people with mental illness: A survey-based study of the general population in five metropolitan cities in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böge, Kerem; Zieger, Aron; Mungee, Aditya; Tandon, Abhinav; Fuchs, Lukas Marian; Schomerus, Georg; Tam Ta, Thi Minh; Dettling, Michael; Bajbouj, Malek; Angermeyer, Matthias; Hahn, Eric

    2018-01-01

    India faces a significant gap between the prevalence of mental illness among the population and the availability and effectiveness of mental health care in providing adequate treatment. This discrepancy results in structural stigma toward mental illness which in turn is one of the main reasons for a persistence of the treatment gap, whereas societal factors such as religion, education, and family structures play critical roles. This survey-based study investigates perceived stigma toward mental illness in five metropolitan cities in India and explores the roles of relevant sociodemographic factors. Samples were collected in five metropolitan cities in India including Chennai ( n = 166), Kolkata ( n = 158), Hyderabad ( n = 139), Lucknow ( n = 183), and Mumbai ( n = 278). Stratified quota sampling was used to match the general population concerning age, gender, and religion. Further, sociodemographic variables such as educational attainment and strength of religious beliefs were included in the statistical analysis. Participants displayed overall high levels of perceived stigma. Multiple linear regression analysis found a significant effect of gender ( P Gender differences in cultural and societal roles and expectations could account for higher levels of perceived stigma among female participants. A higher level of perceived stigma among female participants is attributed to cultural norms and female roles within a family or broader social system. This study underlines that while India as a country in transition, societal and gender rules still impact perceived stigma and discrimination of people with mental illness.

  7. Perceived discrimination, social support, and perceived stress among people living with HIV/AIDS in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaoyou; Lau, Joseph T F; Mak, Winnie W S; Chen, Lin; Choi, K C; Song, Junmin; Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Guanglu; Feng, Tiejian; Chen, Xi; Liu, Chuliang; Liu, Jun; Liu, De; Cheng, Jinquan

    2013-01-01

    Perceived stress among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH) was associated with severe mental health problems and risk behaviors. Discrimination toward PLWH in China is prevalent. Both perceived discrimination and social supports are determinants of the stress level among PLWH. Psychological support services for PLWH in China are scarce. It is unknown whether social support is a buffer between the perceived discrimination and perceived stress. With written consent, this study surveyed 258 PLWH recruited from multiple sources in two cities in China. Instruments were validated in previous or the present study, including the perceived stress scale for PLWH (PSSHIV), the perceived social support scale (PSSS), and the perceived discrimination scale for PLWH (PDSHIV). Pearson correlations and multiple regression models were fit. PDSHIV was associated with the Overall Scale and all subscales of PSSHIV, whilst lower socioeconomic status in general and lower scores of PSSS were associated with various subscales of PSSHIV. The interaction item (PSSS×PSDHIV) was nonsignificant in modeling PSSHIV, hence no significant moderating effect was detected. Whilst perceived discrimination is a major source of stress and social support can reduce stress among PLWH in China, improved social support cannot buffer the stressful consequences due to perceived discrimination. The results highlight the importance to reduce discrimination toward PLWH and the difficulty to alleviate its negative consequences. It is warranted to improve mental health among PLWH in China and it is still important to foster social support among PLWH as it has direct effects on perceived stress.

  8. Scaling Irrational Beliefs in the General Attitude and Belief Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay R. Owings

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurate measurement of key constructs is essential to the continued development of Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT. The General Attitude and Belief Scale (GABS, a contemporary inventory of rational and irrational beliefs based on current REBT theory, is one of the most valid and widely used instruments available, and recent research has continued to improve its psychometric standing. In this study of 544 students, item response theory (IRT methods were used (a to identify the most informative item in each irrational subscale of the GABS, (b to determine the level of irrationality represented by each of those items, and (c to suggest a condensed form of the GABS for further study with clinical populations. Administering only the most psychometrically informative items to clients could result in economies of time and effort. Further research based on the scaling of items could clarify the specific patterns of irrational beliefs associated with particular clinical syndromes.

  9. Dysfunctional sexual beliefs: a comparative study of heterosexual men and women, gay men, and lesbian women with and without sexual problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Maria Manuela; Nobre, Pedro

    2014-11-01

    Conservative and dysfunctional sexual beliefs are commonly associated with sexual problems among heterosexual men and women. However, little is known about the role of sexual beliefs in sexual problems in gay men and lesbians. The present study aimed at analyzing the role of sexual beliefs in sexual dysfunction in a sample of heterosexual and homosexual men and women. Participants answered questions about self-perceived sexual problems and completed the Sexual Dysfunctional Beliefs Questionnaire. Two hundred twelve men (106 gay) and 192 women (96 lesbian) completed a Web survey. Findings indicated that men with sexual dysfunction (regardless of sexual orientation) reported significantly more conservative beliefs and more erroneous beliefs related to partner's sexual satisfaction compared with sexually healthy men. Also, gay men with sexual dysfunction (but not heterosexual men) scored higher on belief in sex as an abuse of men's power compared with healthy controls. In addition, heterosexual men scored higher on "macho" beliefs, beliefs regarding partner's sexual satisfaction, and partner's power, compared with gay men. For women, a main effect was found for sexual orientation, with lesbian women scoring higher on sexual desire as a sin, age-related beliefs, and affection primacy and lower on beliefs related to motherhood primacy. Overall, findings suggest that dysfunctional sexual beliefs may play a role as vulnerability factors for sexual dysfunction regardless of sexual orientation, particularly in men. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  10. The dynamics of belief in climate change and its risks in business organisations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleda, Mercedes; Shackley, Simon

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation model of the formation of the belief in climate change of a business organisation using a systems dynamics approach. Understanding how businesses form their belief on the issue of climate change is of paramount importance given the key role of beliefs and cognitive characteristics in the triggering and shaping of organisational adaptation processes. The main assumption of the model is that the dynamics of belief is driven by the perceived actual and potential changes in competitiveness as a consequence of climate impacts rather than by the growth of an ecological 'business conscience'. The model has been built using the STELLA software program, and it is based upon theoretical hypotheses drawn from behavioural studies of organisations and evolutionary theories of economic change. (author)

  11. Caregivers' beliefs associated with medication adherence among children and adolescents with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Patricia Johnson; Alexander, Jeffrey; Ewing, Helen; Gerace, Laina

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the association between adherence to prescribed antiepileptic medication in a convenience sample of caregivers (n = 100) of children diagnosed with epilepsy, ages 2-14 years, and caregivers' beliefs about the medication. Using the Beliefs about Medication Questionnaire and Medication Adherence Report Scale, caregivers were questioned about beliefs of necessity and concerns associated with medication adherence. Using bivariate linear regression, no significant correlation was found between necessity for antiepileptic drug treatment or caregiver's concerns and medication adherence. Nevertheless, although only 28% of the respondents reported complete adherence, the majority of caregivers perceived their child's medication was necessary to maintain good health. Educational aspects and social desirability in this setting may have contributed to the discordance between adherence and caregivers' beliefs.

  12. The ecology of religious beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botero, Carlos A.; Gardner, Beth; Kirby, Kathryn R.; Bulbulia, Joseph; Gavin, Michael C.; Gray, Russell D.

    2014-01-01

    Although ecological forces are known to shape the expression of sociality across a broad range of biological taxa, their role in shaping human behavior is currently disputed. Both comparative and experimental evidence indicate that beliefs in moralizing high gods promote cooperation among humans, a behavioral attribute known to correlate with environmental harshness in nonhuman animals. Here we combine fine-grained bioclimatic data with the latest statistical tools from ecology and the social sciences to evaluate the potential effects of environmental forces, language history, and culture on the global distribution of belief in moralizing high gods (n = 583 societies). After simultaneously accounting for potential nonindependence among societies because of shared ancestry and cultural diffusion, we find that these beliefs are more prevalent among societies that inhabit poorer environments and are more prone to ecological duress. In addition, we find that these beliefs are more likely in politically complex societies that recognize rights to movable property. Overall, our multimodel inference approach predicts the global distribution of beliefs in moralizing high gods with an accuracy of 91%, and estimates the relative importance of different potential mechanisms by which this spatial pattern may have arisen. The emerging picture is neither one of pure cultural transmission nor of simple ecological determinism, but rather a complex mixture of social, cultural, and environmental influences. Our methods and findings provide a blueprint for how the increasing wealth of ecological, linguistic, and historical data can be leveraged to understand the forces that have shaped the behavior of our own species. PMID:25385605

  13. Renal Transplant Recipients: The Factors Related to Immunosuppressive Medication Adherence Based on the Health Belief Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Pen-Chen; Yeh, Mei Chang; Lai, Ming-Kuen; Liu, Hsueh-Erh

    2017-10-01

    Kidney transplant failures are caused primarily by lack of adherence to immunosuppressive medication regimens by patients after transplantation. A number of studies have indicated that health-related beliefs are an effective predictor of health-related behavior. The aim of this study is to understand the influence of the personal characteristics and health-related beliefs of patients on adherence to treatment with immunosuppressive medication based on the Health Belief Model. This cross-sectional study distributed questionnaires to patients who had been recruited via purposive sampling at one medical center in Taipei. All of the potential participants had undergone kidney transplantation at least 6 months previously. The self-developed questionnaire collected data in three areas: personal characteristics, health-related beliefs regarding transplant rejection, and adherence to the immunosuppressive medication regimen. One hundred twenty-two valid questionnaires were received. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, independent t test, one-way analysis of variance, Pearson's correlation, and multiple regression. Participants who had received dialysis treatment or had experienced rejection perceived susceptibility to rejection more strongly than those who had not. Participants who had undergone transplantation in Taiwan, had experienced more drug-related symptoms, or had contracted severe to extremely severe infections in the past showed lower rates of adherence to treatment with immunosuppressive medication. Adherence to medication regimens correlated negatively with length of time since transplantation. Length of time since transplantation, drug-related symptoms, perceived susceptibility to rejection, and perceived benefits of treatment were identified as major predictors of adherence to immunosuppressive medication regimens. The results partially conformed to the concepts of the Health Belief Model. Perceived susceptibility to rejection and

  14. The role of salient beliefs in graduates’ intention to apply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Adams

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Organisations compete fiercely to recruit the best graduates, because they consider them a rich source of future talent. In the recruitment literature, it has become increasingly important to understand the factors that influence graduate applicant intentions. Research purpose: Drawing on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB, we tested a model proposing that applicant intention is a function of their attitude towards applying, beliefs about referent other’s expectations (subjective norms and perceived behavioural control with respect to this behaviour. Motivation for the study: The study was motivated by the need to shed light on graduate applicants’ decisions to apply to an organisation of their choice. Research approach, design and method: The study used a quantitative design to test hypotheses that attitudes towards behaviour, norms and control beliefs would influence intention to apply. We surveyed prospective job seekers (N = 854 studying at a South African university about their beliefs regarding the job application process. Main findings: Structural equation modelling showed reasonable fit of the proposed model to the survey data. Latent variable analysis demonstrated that perceived behavioural control and subjective norm explained intention to apply. With the combination of all three variables, only attitude towards applying did not play a significant role in the prediction of intention to apply, which is contrary to previous research. Practical/managerial implications: The findings highlight the role of salient control beliefs in the application process. Efforts by universities and organisations to affect intentions to apply may potentially benefit from focusing on support services that could enhance feelings of control and minimise perceived obstacles. Recruiters could focus on control to increase potential recruitment pools. Contribution/value-add: The study contributes to the recruitment literature in three ways

  15. Application of the Health Belief Model to customers' use of menu labels in restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jin-Yi; Ham, Sunny

    2018-04-01

    Some countries require the provision of menu labels on restaurant menus to fight the increasing prevalence of obesity and related chronic diseases. This study views customers' use of menu labels as a preventive health behavior and applies the Health Belief Model (HBM) with the aim of determining the health belief factors that influence customers' use of menu labels. A self-administered survey was distributed for data collection. Responses were collected from 335 restaurant customers who experienced menu labels in restaurants within three months prior to the survey. The results of a structural equation model showed that all the HBM variables (perceived threats, perceived benefits, and perceived barriers of using menu labels) positively affected the customers' use of menu labels. Perceived threats were influenced by cues to action and cues to action had an indirect influence on menu label use through perceived threats. In conclusion, health beliefs were good predictors of menu label use on restaurant menus. This study validated the application of the HBM to menu labeling in restaurants, and its findings could offer guidelines for the industry and government in developing strategies to expand the use of menu labels among the public. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. EFL Teachers’ Epistemological Beliefs and Their Assessment Orientations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Abdullah Mahmoud Ismail

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Epistemological beliefs—beliefs about the nature of knowledge, where it resides, and how knowledge is constructed and evaluated—have been the target of increased research interest lately. Heretofore, emphasis has been directed to language teaching/learning aspects and strategies. Language assessment practices have not yet received due attention in epistemic research literature. The current study examined the relationship between pre-service EFL teachers’ epistemological beliefs and their assessment orientations. Dimensions of epistemological beliefs were assessed via a questionnaire designed and validated by the researcher based on Schommer’s work. Two assessment orientations were examined including: (a transmissive surface- processing orientation and (b constructive deep-processing orientation. The study involved 114 preservice EFL teachers enrolled in the Professional Diploma in Teaching Program in the Abu Dhabi University, the United Arab Emirates. Results of the study showed that EFL teachers’ epistemological beliefs have a direct bearing on their assessment orientations and practices. EFL teachers with naive epistemological beliefs tended more to adopt surface-level assessment orientations whereas those with sophisticated epistemological beliefs showed more tendency to adopt deeper level approaches to assessment in language settings. Results are discussed in terms of backwash effects on foreign language instruction, curriculum development, and teacher education. Suggestions for further research are also discussed.

  17. Beliefs about Supporting Mothers to Exclusively Breastfeed for 6 Months: An Elicitation Study of Health Professionals Working in Maternal-Child Health Clinics in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyawade, Susan A; Middlestadt, Susan E; Peng, Chao-Ying Joanne

    2016-08-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding rates remain low in Kenya and determinants influencing mothers' practice are documented. Little is known about factors underlying health professionals' intention to support mothers to continue exclusive breastfeeding. Effective behavior modification requires designing interventions at multiple levels of influence, informed by theory-based research to identify relevant determinants. To identify salient beliefs held by health professionals about support of mothers to exclusively breastfeed for 6 months and to explore definitions of the term support. This qualitative study was conducted in 6 public health facilities in Nairobi, Kenya. We used open-ended questions based on the reasoned action approach to elicit salient consequences, referents, and circumstances perceived by 15 health professionals about support for mothers to exclusively breastfeed for 6 months. The most frequently mentioned consequences were healthier babies (87%) and reduced childhood ailments (67%). The main disadvantage was human immunodeficiency virus transmission through breast milk (33%). Colleagues (80%) and managers (67%) were perceived as approving referents, whereas some mothers/couples (40%) and the breast milk substitute industry (20%) were perceived as disapproving. Facilitating circumstances included lighter workload, better training, and more time. Definitions of support were varied and included giving information and demonstrating positioning and attachment techniques. Overall, health professionals perceived positive consequences toward supporting exclusive breastfeeding continuation and identified a number of approving referents. However, they reported challenging circumstances in the work environment, which managers need to address to help health professionals provide the support needed by Kenyan mothers to continue exclusive breastfeeding. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Remarriage Beliefs as Predictors of Marital Quality and Positive Interaction in Stepcouples: An Actor-Partner Interdependence Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garneau, Chelsea L; Higginbotham, Brian; Adler-Baeder, Francesca

    2015-12-01

    Using an Actor-Partner Interdependence Model, we examined remarriage beliefs as predictors of marital quality and positive interaction in a sample of 179 stepcouples. Three beliefs were measured using subscales from the Remarriage Belief Inventory (RMBI) including success is slim, children are the priority, and finances should be pooled. Several significant actor and partner effects were found for both wives' and husbands' beliefs. Wives' marital quality was positively associated with their own beliefs that finances should be pooled and negatively associated with their own beliefs that success is slim. Wives' reports of their own and spouses' positive interaction were both positively associated with their beliefs that finances should be pooled. Their reports of spouses' positive interaction were also negatively associated with husbands' beliefs that success is slim. Husbands' marital quality was positively associated with wives' beliefs that children are the priority, positively associated with their own beliefs that finances should be pooled, and negatively with success is slim. Positive interaction for husbands was positively associated with wives' beliefs that finances should be pooled and negatively associated with their own beliefs that success is slim. Finally, husbands' reports of positive interaction for their spouses were positively associated with wives' beliefs that finances should be pooled. Implications for future research utilizing dyadic data analysis with stepcouples are addressed. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  19. Employee characteristics and health belief variables related to smoking cessation engagement attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Tamara D; Lacey, Sarah J

    2018-05-01

    Workplace smoking cessation programs can effectively assist employees to quit smoking. However, little is known about employees' attitudes towards engagement in workplace smoking cessation programs. This study aimed to address the limited understanding of the interaction between employee characteristics and their health beliefs toward engaging in a workplace smoking cessation program. Self-report data was collected from 897 employees of a mining company operating in two remote towns in Australia. The majority of participants were male (73%), the mean age was 36.9 years (SD = 11.5). Chi square tests of independence were used to analyze relationships between employee characteristics and smoking cessation engagement attitudes. Engagement attitudes included: A desire to cease smoking; desire for assistance with the smoking cessation process; and intention to participate in a workplace smoking intervention. The findings from this study indicated that attitudes towards engagement in smoking cessation programs varied for mining employees according to gender, age, perceived severity, perceived self-efficacy, and stage of readiness to change. These findings provide insights that health promotion practitioners may apply to inform the design and marketing of effective workplace smoking cessation programs for similar employees.

  20. Women's beliefs about male circumcision, HIV prevention, and sexual behaviors in Kisumu, Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H Riess

    Full Text Available It is important to understand how women's sexual practices may be influenced by male circumcision (MC as an HIV prevention effort. Women's beliefs about MC and sexual behaviour will likely influence the scale-up and uptake of medical MC. We conducted qualitative interviews with 30 sexually active women in Kisumu, Kenya. Women discussed MC related to perceived health benefits, condom use, sexual behaviour, knowledge of susceptibility to HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs, circumcision preference, and influence on circumcision uptake. Respondents had a good understanding of the partial protection of MC for acquisition of HIV for men. Women perceived circumcised men as cleaner, carrying fewer diseases, and taking more time to reach ejaculation. Male's circumcision status is a salient factor for women's sexual decision making, including partner choice, and condom use. It will be important that educational information affirms that MC provides only partial protection against female to male transmission of HIV and some STIs; that other HIV and STI prevention methods such as condoms need to be used in conjunction with MC; that MC does not preclude a man from having HIV; and that couples should develop plans for not having sex while the man is healing.

  1. Determination of social variables affected the health belief model in adopting preventive behaviors of osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH BaghianiMoghadam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Osteoporosis is one of the most common musculoskeletal problem and a metabolic bone disorder that normally is without sign and is shown with fragile bone in the absence of prevention and treatment. This study was aimed to determine social variables affected the health belief model in adopting preventive behaviors of osteoporosis. Methods: This descriptive study was carried out on 278 women referring to 6 health Centers of Yazd city with random sampling. Data collection was using a self-reported questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16 software including Kruskall Wallis, Dunn Tests, Mann Whitney, Spearman correlation coefficient and regression. Results: Among the osteoporosis preventive behaviors, the most frequency was related to non smoking actions or exposure to cigarette and the lowest frequency was related to regular physical activity during every weeks. According to spearman's correlation coefficient, it was occurred a direct significant correlation between knowledge, perceived benefits, practical guide, self efficacy and preventive behaviors of women. In addition, a reverse significant correlation was occurred between perceived barrier and women's behavior (P<0.001. Overall, variables of the model predicted 0.36 of preventive behavior's variables and finally self-efficacy was the strongest prediction of behavior (P=0.000. Conclusion: according to the results, the presentation of suitable educational program with emphasize on promotion of knowledge and upgrade of HBM's level in addition increasing barriers in the context of diseases such as osteoporosis by staff of health centers is suggested.

  2. Motives, beliefs and attitudes towards waterpipe tobacco smoking: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In spite of the negative health effects of waterpipe tobacco smoking, its use is becoming more common. The objective of this study is to systematically review the medical literature for motives, beliefs and attitudes towards waterpipe tobacco smoking. Methods We electronically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the ISI the Web of Science in January 2012. We included both quantitative and qualitative studies. We selected studies and abstracted data using standard systematic review methodology. We synthesized data qualitatively. Results We included 58 papers reporting on 56 studies. The main motives for waterpipe tobacco smoking were socializing, relaxation, pleasure and entertainment. Peer pressure, fashion, and curiosity were additional motives for university and school students while expression of cultural identity was an additional motive for people in the Middle East and for people of Middle Eastern descent in Western countries. Awareness of the potential health hazards of waterpipe smoking was common across settings. Most but not all studies found that the majority of people perceived waterpipe smoking as less harmful than cigarette smoking. Waterpipe smoking was generally socially acceptable and more acceptable than cigarette smoking in general. In Middle Eastern societies, it was particularly more acceptable for women’s use compared to cigarette use. A majority perceived waterpipe smoking as less addictive than cigarette smoking. While users were confident in their ability to quit waterpipe smoking at any time, willingness to quit varied across settings. Conclusions Socializing, relaxation, pleasure and entertainment were the main motives for waterpipe use. While waterpipe users were aware of the health hazards of waterpipe smoking, they perceived it as less harmful, less addictive and more socially acceptable than cigarette smoking and were confident about their ability to quit. PMID:23816366

  3. Motives, beliefs and attitudes towards waterpipe tobacco smoking: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akl, Elie A; Jawad, Mohammed; Lam, Wai Yim; Co, Christopher N; Obeid, Rawad; Irani, Jihad

    2013-07-02

    In spite of the negative health effects of waterpipe tobacco smoking, its use is becoming more common. The objective of this study is to systematically review the medical literature for motives, beliefs and attitudes towards waterpipe tobacco smoking. We electronically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the ISI the Web of Science in January 2012. We included both quantitative and qualitative studies. We selected studies and abstracted data using standard systematic review methodology. We synthesized data qualitatively. We included 58 papers reporting on 56 studies. The main motives for waterpipe tobacco smoking were socializing, relaxation, pleasure and entertainment. Peer pressure, fashion, and curiosity were additional motives for university and school students while expression of cultural identity was an additional motive for people in the Middle East and for people of Middle Eastern descent in Western countries. Awareness of the potential health hazards of waterpipe smoking was common across settings. Most but not all studies found that the majority of people perceived waterpipe smoking as less harmful than cigarette smoking. Waterpipe smoking was generally socially acceptable and more acceptable than cigarette smoking in general. In Middle Eastern societies, it was particularly more acceptable for women's use compared to cigarette use. A majority perceived waterpipe smoking as less addictive than cigarette smoking. While users were confident in their ability to quit waterpipe smoking at any time, willingness to quit varied across settings. Socializing, relaxation, pleasure and entertainment were the main motives for waterpipe use. While waterpipe users were aware of the health hazards of waterpipe smoking, they perceived it as less harmful, less addictive and more socially acceptable than cigarette smoking and were confident about their ability to quit.

  4. Exploring Vaccine Hesitancy Through an Artist-Scientist Collaboration : Visualizing Vaccine-Critical Parents' Health Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koski, Kaisu; Holst, Johan

    2017-09-01

    This project explores vaccine hesitancy through an artist-scientist collaboration. It aims to create better understanding of vaccine hesitant parents' health beliefs and how these influence their vaccine-critical decisions. The project interviews vaccine-hesitant parents in the Netherlands and Finland and develops experimental visual-narrative means to analyse the interview data. Vaccine-hesitant parents' health beliefs are, in this study, expressed through stories, and they are paralleled with so-called illness narratives. The study explores the following four main health beliefs originating from the parents' interviews: (1) perceived benefits of illness, (2) belief in the body's intelligence and self-healing capacity, (3) beliefs about the "inside-outside" flow of substances in the body, and (4) view of death as a natural part of life. These beliefs are interpreted through arts-based diagrammatic representations. These diagrams, merging multiple aspects of the parents' narratives, are subsequently used in a collaborative meaning-making dialogue between the artist and the scientist. The resulting dialogue contrasts the health beliefs behind vaccine hesitancy with scientific knowledge, as well as the authors' personal, and differing, attitudes toward these.

  5. STATE LIABILITY FOR VIOLATION OF CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS AGAINST INDIGENOUS PEOPLE IN FREEDOM OF RELIGION AND BELIEF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaka Firma Aditya

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The government is perceived as the main perpetrator on violations of freedom of religion and belief in Indonesia. As the state organizer, the government frequently issues discriminatory regulations and policies and tend to cause intolerance to minority religions and beliefs, particularly to indigenous peoples. While freedom of religion or belief is a constitutional rights that cannot be reduced and is guaranteed universally in constitution and laws, the law provides limitation that causes ambiguity in the fulfillment of the rights of religion and belief. In addition, the government mindset still adheres to the term of "official religion" and "non-official religion" in any policy-making, causing adherents of minority religions and beliefs to be considered as cultural heritage to be preserved. This creates injustice, discrimination, intimidation and intolerance in rights fulfillment in state and society life. This paper discusses the existence of the guarantee of freedom of religion and belief for indigenous people and state liability for violations of freedom of religion and belief. This research used normative juridical method with statute approach and conceptual approach.

  6. Body Dysmorphic, Obsessive-Compulsive, and Social Anxiety Disorder Beliefs as Predictors of In Vivo Stressor Responding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, E Marie; Straub, Kelsey T; Smith, April R; Clerkin, Elise M

    2017-06-01

    This study tested the potential transdiagnostic nature of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and social anxiety disorder (SAD) beliefs, in addition to testing the specificity of those beliefs, in predicting how individuals responded to symptom-specific stressors. Participants included 127 adults (75% women) with a broad range of symptom severity. Path analysis was used to evaluate whether specific maladaptive beliefs predicted distress in response to symptom-relevant stressors over and above other beliefs and baseline distress. SAD beliefs emerged as a significant predictor of distress in response to a mirror gazing (BDD-relevant), a thought (OCD-relevant), and a public speaking (SAD-relevant) task, controlling for other disorder beliefs and baseline distress. BDD beliefs were also a robust predictor of BDD stressor responding. Results suggest that social anxiety-relevant beliefs may function as a transdiagnostic risk factor that predicts in vivo symptoms across a range of problem areas.

  7. Consumer Acceptance of Population-Level Intervention Strategies for Healthy Food Choices: The Role of Perceived Effectiveness and Perceived Fairness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Bos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates acceptance of intervention strategies for low-calorie snack choices that vary regarding the effect they have on consumers’ freedom of choice (providing information, guiding choice through (disincentives, and restricting choice. We examine the mediating effects of perceived effectiveness and perceived fairness, and the moderating effects of barriers to choose low-calorie snacks and perceived responsibility for food choice. Data was collected through an online survey, involving three waves that were completed over a seven week timespan. Information was collected on barriers and perceived responsibility, and evaluations of a total of 128 intervention strategies with varying levels of intrusiveness that were further systematically varied in terms of source, location, approach/avoidance, type, and severity. A total of 1173 respondents completed all three waves. We found that the effect of intervention intrusiveness on acceptance was mediated by the perceived personal- and societal effectiveness, and the perceived fairness of interventions. For barriers and perceived responsibility, only main effects on intervention-specific beliefs were found. Government interventions were accepted less than interventions by food manufacturers. In conclusion, the present study shows that acceptance of interventions depends on perceptions of personal- and societal effectiveness and fairness, thereby providing novel starting points for increasing acceptance of both existing and new food choice interventions.

  8. Consumer Acceptance of Population-Level Intervention Strategies for Healthy Food Choices: The Role of Perceived Effectiveness and Perceived Fairness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Colin; Van Der Lans, Ivo; Van Rijnsoever, Frank; Van Trijp, Hans

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates acceptance of intervention strategies for low-calorie snack choices that vary regarding the effect they have on consumers’ freedom of choice (providing information, guiding choice through (dis)incentives, and restricting choice). We examine the mediating effects of perceived effectiveness and perceived fairness, and the moderating effects of barriers to choose low-calorie snacks and perceived responsibility for food choice. Data was collected through an online survey, involving three waves that were completed over a seven week timespan. Information was collected on barriers and perceived responsibility, and evaluations of a total of 128 intervention strategies with varying levels of intrusiveness that were further systematically varied in terms of source, location, approach/avoidance, type, and severity. A total of 1173 respondents completed all three waves. We found that the effect of intervention intrusiveness on acceptance was mediated by the perceived personal- and societal effectiveness, and the perceived fairness of interventions. For barriers and perceived responsibility, only main effects on intervention-specific beliefs were found. Government interventions were accepted less than interventions by food manufacturers. In conclusion, the present study shows that acceptance of interventions depends on perceptions of personal- and societal effectiveness and fairness, thereby providing novel starting points for increasing acceptance of both existing and new food choice interventions. PMID:26389949

  9. Consumer Acceptance of Population-Level Intervention Strategies for Healthy Food Choices: The Role of Perceived Effectiveness and Perceived Fairness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Colin; Lans, Ivo Van Der; Van Rijnsoever, Frank; Van Trijp, Hans

    2015-09-15

    The present study investigates acceptance of intervention strategies for low-calorie snack choices that vary regarding the effect they have on consumers' freedom of choice (providing information, guiding choice through (dis)incentives, and restricting choice). We examine the mediating effects of perceived effectiveness and perceived fairness, and the moderating effects of barriers to choose low-calorie snacks and perceived responsibility for food choice. Data was collected through an online survey, involving three waves that were completed over a seven week timespan. Information was collected on barriers and perceived responsibility, and evaluations of a total of 128 intervention strategies with varying levels of intrusiveness that were further systematically varied in terms of source, location, approach/avoidance, type, and severity. A total of 1173 respondents completed all three waves. We found that the effect of intervention intrusiveness on acceptance was mediated by the perceived personal- and societal effectiveness, and the perceived fairness of interventions. For barriers and perceived responsibility, only main effects on intervention-specific beliefs were found. Government interventions were accepted less than interventions by food manufacturers. In conclusion, the present study shows that acceptance of interventions depends on perceptions of personal- and societal effectiveness and fairness, thereby providing novel starting points for increasing acceptance of both existing and new food choice interventions.

  10. Aggregation of Information and Beliefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottaviani, Marco; Sørensen, Peter Norman

    In a binary prediction market in which risk-neutral traders have heterogeneous prior beliefs and are allowed to invest a limited amount of money, the static rational expectations equilibrium price is demonstrated to underreact to information. This effect is consistent with a favorite-longshot bias......, and is more pronounced when prior beliefs are more heterogeneous. Relaxing the assumptions of risk neutrality and bounded budget, underreaction to information also holds in a more general asset market with heterogeneous priors, provided traders have decreasing absolute risk aversion. In a dynamic asset market...

  11. The feeling of doing across levels of analysis: The effects of perceived control on learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Chatman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A person's sense of control was initially conceptualized in psychology as either a trait (Rotter, 1966, an attribution style (Weiner, 1979 or self-efficacy belief (Bandura, 1989a. More recent work in social cognition focuses on the process of inferring one's own causality and how the feeling of doing comes about. This investigation centers on a cue based process as leading to the experience of agency. These cues include vision, proprioception, social cues, and action relevant thought (Wegner & Sparrow, 2004. Since the advent of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI, progress has been made in understanding the neural substrates implicated when one's infers own causality (for review see David, Newen, & Vogeley, 2008. An analysis of the different approaches to studying human agency, reveals their contributions with each level of analysis adding to and refining our understanding of perceived control and its effect on learning.

  12. The Beliefs of Students, Parents and Teachers about Internal Factors of Academic Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Helena Smrtnik Vitulić; Irena Lesar

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper was to determine the beliefs of students, teachers and parents about the internal factors of academic achievement and to verify whether their beliefs vary. In this paper the beliefs about the internal factors of academic achievement: personality traits, intellectual ability, language competence, interest in the subject and locus of control are thematised. The sample included 516 students from grades 5, 7 and 9 of 12 different basic schools in central Slovenia, 4...

  13. Teachers’ Beliefs and Their Belief Change in an Intercultural Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Li

    of teaching in a new context and in their early years of the teaching careers of CFL teachers in the Danish context. It has been shown that the multifaceted beliefs that CFL teachers hold are based on their personal experience, shaped by context, and mediated by their classroom practices. The educational...

  14. Goal setting practice in chronic low back pain. What is current practice and is it affected by beliefs and attitudes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Tania; Refshauge, Kathryn; McAuley, James; Hübscher, Markus; Goodall, Stephen; Smith, Lorraine

    2018-01-18

    Goal setting, led by the patient, is promising as an effective treatment for the management of chronic low back pain (CLBP); however, little is known about current practice. The aims of the study were to explore (1) current goal setting practice in CLBP among physiotherapists; (2) perceived barriers to goal setting in CLBP; and (3) relationship between clinician's attitudes and beliefs and goal setting practice. A cross-sectional observational survey. The majority of respondents used goal setting with the main aim of facilitating self-management. The greatest number of goals were set with 50% therapist/50% patient involvement. The most common perceived barriers to goal setting related to time constraints and lack of skill and confidence. A higher biomedical score for treatment orientation of the therapist was associated with a lower patient involvement score. Goal setting is common practice for CLBP and is perceived as a high priority. It is more often a collaboration between therapist and patient rather than patient-led with treatment orientation of the physiotherapist a predictor of patient involvement. Education of healthcare professionals needs to include better understanding of chronic pain to orient them away from a biomedical treatment approach, as well as to enhance skills in facilitating patient involvement in goal setting.

  15. A comparison of beliefs about exercise during pregnancy between Chinese and Australian pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guelfi, Kym J; Wang, Chen; Dimmock, James A; Jackson, Ben; Newnham, John P; Yang, Huixia

    2015-12-22

    Despite the well-established benefits of exercise during pregnancy, many women remain inactive. This may be related, in part, to women's beliefs about exercise in pregnancy, which are likely influenced by cultural background. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to compare attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioural control toward exercise, together with current levels of exercise participation between Chinese and Australian women during pregnancy. A second aim was to determine the extent to which these factors predict intention to exercise within a Theory of Planned Behaviour framework. Pregnant women (22 ± 2 weeks of gestation) living in China (n = 240) and Australia (n = 215) completed a questionnaire designed to assess a) maternal beliefs regarding the importance of exercise in relation to other health behaviours, b) attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control and intentions toward exercise, and c) current levels of physical activity. One-way analyses of variance were used to compare the demographics, maternal beliefs, attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control, intentions to exercise, and current physical activity levels between the Chinese and Australian samples. Structural equation modelling was used to determine which factors predicted intention to exercise in the two samples. Australian women reported higher levels of current exercise and intentions to exercise in the next four weeks of pregnancy compared with Chinese women. These observations were associated with higher instrumental attitudes, ratings of subjective norm, and perceived behavioural control toward exercise in the Australian women. Instrumental attitudes and perceived behavioural control predicted intention to exercise in the Australian women, while perceived behavioural control was the only predictor of intentions to exercise in the Chinese sample. Beliefs, attitudes, barriers and intentions towards exercise during pregnancy differ

  16. "Between the devil and the deep blue sea": the beliefs of caregivers of people with dementia regarding the use of in-home respite services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, Lyn; Jones, Sandra C

    2011-04-01

    This article details results from qualitative research with caregivers in regard to the beliefs they associate with the use of in-home respite services. Outcomes are perceived by caregivers in relation to care recipient personal safety and the avoidance of negative consequences through the provision of supervision in the caregiver's absence. Use of in-home services challenges normative beliefs for some caregivers, particularly for spousal caregivers who feel it is their role to provide assistance that is needed in the home. Likewise, perceived inflexibility and the inability of in-home services to provide responsive and personalized care make the use of in-home services difficult and may inform control beliefs. Implications are discussed in relation to community care pathways and the promotion and development of in-home respite services to better target caregiver beliefs and respond to caregiver perceived needs.

  17. Health Promoting Self-Care Behaviors and Its Related Factors in Elderly: Application of Health Belief Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Azadbakht

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Health beliefs significantly affect health promoting self-care behaviors. The most important model designed based on health beliefs is the Health Belief Model. This study examined the association between health belief model constructs and demographic factors with behaviors in elderly. Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was performed on 465 elders referring to Tehran's cultural centers recruited with a multi-stage sampling method. Study instruments were questionnaires regarding demographic information, health beliefs, self-efficacy and health-promoting self-care behaviors. Data analysis was performed using SPSS-22 software by Independent T-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation and Multiple linear regression. Results: The mean (±SD age of subjects was 68.24±6.12 years and the mean of general self-care score was 1.79±0.36. Gender (P=0.011, economy (P<0.001, education level (P<0.001 and age (P=0.008 were significantly associated with self-care behaviors. Regression analysis showed that perceived barriers, self-efficacy and perceived severity were determinants of behavior (P<0.001. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, it is essential to pay special attention to self-efficacy, perceived severity and perceived barriers to design health education for elderly.

  18. Secondary Teachers’ Mathematics-related Beliefs and Knowledge about Mathematical Problem-solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    E Siswono, T. Y.; Kohar, A. W.; Hartono, S.

    2017-02-01

    This study investigates secondary teachers’ belief about the three mathematics-related beliefs, i.e. nature of mathematics, teaching mathematics, learning mathematics, and knowledge about mathematical problem solving. Data were gathered through a set of task-based semi-structured interviews of three selected teachers with different philosophical views of teaching mathematics, i.e. instrumental, platonist, and problem solving. Those teachers were selected from an interview using a belief-related task from purposively selected teachers in Surabaya and Sidoarjo. While the interviews about knowledge examine teachers’ problem solving content and pedagogical knowledge, the interviews about beliefs examine their views on several cases extracted from each of such mathematics-related beliefs. Analysis included the categorization and comparison on each of beliefs and knowledge as well as their interaction. Results indicate that all the teachers did not show a high consistency in responding views of their mathematics-related beliefs, while they showed weaknesses primarily on problem solving content knowledge. Findings also point out that teachers’ beliefs have a strong relationship with teachers’ knowledge about problem solving. In particular, the instrumental teacher’s beliefs were consistent with his insufficient knowledge about problem-solving, while both platonist and problem-solving teacher’s beliefs were consistent with their sufficient knowledge of either content or pedagogical problem solving.

  19. The influence of initial beliefs on judgments of probability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Erica C; Lagnado, David A

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate whether experimentally induced prior beliefs affect processing of evidence including the updating of beliefs under uncertainty about the unknown probabilities of outcomes and the structural, outcome-generating nature of the environment. Participants played a gambling task in the form of computer-simulated slot machines and were given information about the slot machines' possible outcomes without their associated probabilities. One group was induced with a prior belief about the outcome space that matched the space of actual outcomes to be sampled; the other group was induced with a skewed prior belief that included the actual outcomes and also fictional higher outcomes. In reality, however, all participants sampled evidence from the same underlying outcome distribution, regardless of priors given. Before and during sampling, participants expressed their beliefs about the outcome distribution (values and probabilities). Evaluation of those subjective probability distributions suggests that all participants' judgments converged toward the observed outcome distribution. However, despite observing no supporting evidence for fictional outcomes, a significant proportion of participants in the skewed priors condition expected them in the future. A probe of the participants' understanding of the underlying outcome-generating processes indicated that participants' judgments were based on the information given in the induced priors and consequently, a significant proportion of participants in the skewed condition believed the slot machines were not games of chance while participants in the control condition believed the machines generated outcomes at random. Beyond Bayesian or heuristic belief updating, priors not only contribute to belief revision but also affect one's deeper understanding of the environment.

  20. Thinking aloud influences perceived time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzum, Morten; Holmegaard, Kristin Due

    2015-02-01

    We investigate whether thinking aloud influences perceived time. Thinking aloud is widely used in usability evaluation, yet it is debated whether thinking aloud influences thought and behavior. If thinking aloud is restricted to the verbalization of information to which a person is already attending, there is evidence that thinking aloud does not influence thought and behavior. In an experiment, 16 thinking-aloud participants and 16 control participants solved a code-breaking task 24 times each. Participants estimated task duration. The 24 trials involved two levels of time constraint (timed, untimed) and resulted in two levels of success (solved, unsolved). The ratio of perceived time to clock time was lower for thinking-aloud than control participants. Participants overestimated time by an average of 47% (thinking aloud) and 94% (control). The effect of thinking aloud on time perception also held separately for timed, untimed, solved, and unsolved trials. Thinking aloud (verbalization at Levels 1 and 2) influences perceived time. Possible explanations of this effect include that thinking aloud may require attention, cause a processing shift that overshadows the perception of time, or increase mental workload. For usability evaluation, this study implies that time estimates made while thinking aloud cannot be compared with time estimates made while not thinking aloud, that ratings of systems experienced while thinking aloud may be inaccurate (because the experience of time influences other experiences), and that it may therefore be considered to replace concurrent thinking aloud with retrospective thinking aloud when evaluations involve time estimation.

  1. Primary Care Physicians’, Nurse Practitioners’ and Physician Assistants’ Knowledge, Attitudes and Beliefs Regarding COPD: 2007 To 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yawn, Barbara P.; Wollan, Peter C.; Textor, Kyle B.; Yawn, Roy A.

    2016-01-01

    To assess current primary care physicians’, nurse practitioners’ (NP) and physicians assistants’ (PA) knowledge, attitudes and beliefs regarding chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and changes from a similar 2007 assessment, we surveyed attendees of 3 regional continuing medical education programs and compared the 2013/2014 responses with responses to a similar survey completed in 2007. Survey data included information on personal demographics, agreement with perceived barriers to COPD diagnosis, awareness, and use of COPD guidelines, and beliefs regarding the value of available COPD therapies. In 2013/2014, 426 primary care clinicians (278 medical doctors [MDs] and doctors of osteopathic medicine [DO] and 148 NPs/PAs) provided useable responses (overall response rate 61%). Overall these physicians were older and more experienced than the NPs/PAs but with few other differences in responses except significantly greater physician reported use of spirometry for COPD diagnosis. About half of the clinicians reported having in-office spirometers but less than two thirds reported using them for all COPD diagnoses. All respondents reported multiple barriers to COPD diagnosis but with fewer than in 2007 reporting lack of knowledge or awareness of COPD guidelines as a major barrier. The most striking difference between 2007 and 2013/2014 responses was the marked increase in beliefs by all clinicians in the ability of COPD treatments to reduce symptoms and numbers of exacerbations. These data affirm that primary care clinicians continue to report multiple barriers to COPD diagnosis including lack of easy access to spirometry and frequent failure to include spirometry in diagnostic confirmation. However, since 2007, the clinicians report a remarkable decline in therapeutic nihilism, which may enhance their interest in learning more about diagnosing and managing COPD. PMID:28848888

  2. The Relationships among Chinese Practicing Teachers' Epistemic Beliefs, Pedagogical Beliefs and Their Beliefs about the Use of ICT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Feng; Chai, Ching Sing; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Lee, Min-Hsien

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationships among practicing teachers' epistemic beliefs, pedagogical beliefs and their beliefs about the use of ICT through survey methodology. Participants were 396 high school practicing teachers from mainland China. The path analysis results analyzed via structural equation modelling technique indicated…

  3. Witchcraft Beliefs and Witch Hunts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, N.B.J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes an interdisciplinary explanation of the cross-cultural similarities and evolutionary patterns of witchcraft beliefs. It argues that human social dilemmas have led to the evolution of a fear system that is sensitive to signs of deceit and envy. This was adapted in the evolutionary

  4. Heterogeneous Beliefs and Climate Catastrophes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiseleva, T.

    2016-01-01

    We study how heterogeneous beliefs about the causes and extent of global warming affect local mitigation and adaptation strategies and therefore global climate dynamics. Local policies are determined by expectations of policy makers about future climate. There are three types of expectations: strong

  5. Resilience: It Begins with Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truebridge, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Educators' beliefs are powerful, affecting not only their pedagogical practices, but also student efficacy and success. The academic achievement of any particular student may rely greatly on whether the teacher believes that student has the ability to succeed. This article affirms the imperative for administrators and educators to spend time…

  6. Negligent Rape and Reasonable Beliefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    2008-01-01

    practice such defences are often acknowledged if the belief is reasonable by some general standard, even when this standard does not pertain to the rules currently governing the practice of intercourse in Denmark. As a result it has often been argued that the notion of negligent rape should be introduced...

  7. Machiavellian Beliefs and Social Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hair, Dan; Cody, Michael J.

    1987-01-01

    Replicates previous findings of separate Machiavellian belief constructs (Deceit, Flatter, Immorality, and Cynicism). Indicates that different constructs predict selection of compliance-gaining strategies; for example, actors who scored high on Immorality used more referent influence on superiors. Discusses implications of this study concerning a…

  8. Perceived Social Support among Mentally Ill Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandana Pokharel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Social support is the perception that one is cared for, has assistance available from significant others and its benefit is by buffering stress by influencing the ability to adjust and live with illness. Social support can uplift the quality and subjective wellbeing of people. The objective of this study was to examine the perceived social support and factors influencing it among mentally ill patients. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out. Ninety cases aged more than 18 years visiting outpatient of psychiatric department and diagnosed as a case of mental illness for at least a year were included. Instruments used were self-developed proforma and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Interview technique was used to collect the data. Results: Majority (60% of the patients perceive social support from family, 28% of the patients perceive social support from significant others. Regression analysis showed that the perceived social support is influenced by employment status, type of family one lives in and physical illness. It is not influenced by gender, subjective financial status and frequency of hospitalization. Conclusion: Perceived social support is influenced by employment status, type of family one lives in and physical illness. Majority (60% of the patients perceive social support from family.

  9. Adolescent beliefs about the acceptability of dating violence: does violent behavior change them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Victoria; Jouriles, Ernest N; McDonald, Renee; Rosenfield, David

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the interplay between teens' beliefs about the acceptability of dating violence and dating violence perpetration. The final sample included 82 teens aged 14 to 17 years. Families were recruited from truancy courts and juvenile probation and victim services offices. Teens participated in a baseline and a follow-up assessment spaced 3 months apart. At each assessment, teens reported on their beliefs about dating violence acceptability and their dating violence perpetration. Dating violence perpetration at baseline predicted beliefs accepting of violence at follow-up, after accounting for baseline levels of beliefs. Beliefs at baseline, however, did not predict dating violence perpetration at follow-up. Dating violence perpetration may lead to beliefs more accepting of such violence.

  10. Teachers' attitudes and beliefs about homosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Testor, Carles; Behar, Julia; Davins, Montse; Conde Sala, José Luís; Castillo, José A; Salamero, Manel; Alomar, Elisabeth; Segarra, Sabina

    2010-05-01

    Schools play a key role in transmitting attitudes towards sexual diversity. Many studies stress the importance of teachers' and other professionals' attitudes towards gay men and/or lesbian women. This study evaluates attitudes and prejudices toward homosexuality in a sample of 254 elementary and high school teachers in Barcelona and its surrounding area. The results obtained using a scale of overt and subtle prejudice and a scale of perceived discrepancy of values indicate that discrepancy between likely behavior and personal values was significantly greater in women, those who hold religious beliefs, churchgoers and people without any gay or lesbian acquaintances. Approximately 88% of the teachers showed no type of prejudiced attitudes towards gay men and lesbian women. The experience of proximity to gay men and/or lesbian women reduces not only the discrepancy between personal values and likely behavior but also the presence of homophobic prejudice. It would be advisable to expand specific teacher training in the subject of sexual diversity in order to reduce prejudicial attitudes, thus fostering non-stereotyped knowledge of homosexuality.

  11. Sleep-Related Behaviors and Beliefs Associated With Race/Ethnicity in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandner, Michael A.; Patel, Nirav P.; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Jackson, Nicholas; Gehrman, Philip R.; Perlis, Michael L.; Gooneratne, Nalaka S.

    2013-01-01

    Explore how social factors influence sleep, especially sleep-related beliefs and behaviors. Sleep complaints, sleep hygiene behaviors, and beliefs about sleep were studied in 65 black/African American and white/European American women. Differences were found for snoring and discrepancy between sleep duration and need. Sleep behaviors differed across groups for napping, methods for coping with sleep difficulties, and nonsleep behaviors in bed. Beliefs also distinguished groups, with differences in motivation for sleep and beliefs about sleep being important for health and functioning. These findings have important public health implications in terms of developing effective sleep education interventions that include consideration of cultural aspects. PMID:23862291

  12. Order effects in research on paranormal belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, R Thomas

    2002-04-01

    Measures of paranormal belief and emotional intelligence were given a group of 72 college students using Tobacyk's Revised Paranormal Belief Scale and Schutte, Malouff, Hall, Haggerty, Cooper, Golden, and Dornheim's Emotional Intelligence Scale. Order effects indicated that participants who took the Paranormal Belief Scale first had lower emotional intelligence scores than those who took the Emotional Intelligence Scale first. The study demonstrates the importance of taking order effects into account when conducting research on paranormal belief.

  13. Folk beliefs of cultural changes in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yi; Hamamura, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    For the last several decades, Chinese society has experienced transformative changes. How are these changes understood among Chinese people? To examine this question, Part 1 in this research solicited folk beliefs of cultural change from a group of Chinese participants in an open-ended format, and the generated folk beliefs were rated by another group of participants in Part 2 to gage each belief's level of agreement. Part 3 plotted the folk beliefs retained in Part 2 using the Google Ngram V...

  14. Changing Conspiracy Beliefs through Rationality and Ridiculing

    OpenAIRE

    Orosz, Gábor; Krekó, Péter; Paskuj, Benedek; Tóth-Király, István; Bőthe, Beáta; Roland-Lévy, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Conspiracy theory (CT) beliefs can be harmful. How is it possible to reduce them effectively? Three reduction strategies were tested in an online experiment using general and well-known CT beliefs on a comprehensive randomly assigned Hungarian sample (N = 813): exposing rational counter CT arguments, ridiculing those who hold CT beliefs, and empathizing with the targets of CT beliefs. Several relevant individual differences were measured. Rational and ridiculing arguments were effective in re...

  15. Catch-up HPV vaccination status of adolescents in relation to socioeconomic factors, individual beliefs and sexual behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Grandahl

    Full Text Available In 2012, human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination was introduced free of charge in the Swedish national school-based vaccination programme for 10-12-year-old girls, and as catch-up vaccination for young women. In Sweden, there is an ongoing discussion about including boys in the national vaccination programme. Few studies are undertaken about adolescents' knowledge, beliefs and HPV vaccination status in relation to socioeconomic status and sexual experience. Thus, the aim was to examine HPV catch-up vaccination status in adolescents in relation to 1 socioeconomic factors, 2 beliefs and knowledge about HPV prevention, and 3 sexual behaviour. The Health Belief Model was used as a theoretical framework. Upper secondary school students (n = 832 aged 16, randomly chosen from a larger sample, were invited to participate in conjunction with the general health interview with the school nurse. A total of 751/832 (90.3%, girls (n = 391, 52% and boys (n = 360, 48% completed the questionnaire. HPV vaccination was associated with ethnicity and the mothers' education level; i.e. girls with a non-European background and girls with a less educated mother were less likely to have received the vaccine (p<0.01 and p = 0.04 respectively. Vaccinated girls perceived HPV infection as more severe (p = 0.01, had more insight into women's susceptibility to the infection (p = 0.02, perceived more benefits of the vaccine as protection against cervical cancer (p<0.01 and had a higher intention to engage in HPV-preventive behaviour (p = 0.01. Furthermore, boys and girls were almost equally sexually experienced, although fewer girls had used condom during first intercourse with their latest partner (p = 0.03. Finally, HPV vaccinated girls were less likely to have unprotected sex (p<0.01. In summary, catch-up HPV vaccination among young girls was associated with a European background and high maternal education level, as well as more favourable beliefs towards HPV prevention and

  16. Change over a service learning experience in science undergraduates' beliefs expressed about elementary school students' ability to learn science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Camille A.

    This longitudinal investigation explores the change in four (3 female, 1 male) science undergraduates' beliefs expressed about low-income elementary school students' ability to learn science. The study sought to identify how the undergraduates in year-long public school science-teaching partnerships perceived the social, cultural, and economic factors affecting student learning. Previous service-learning research infrequently focused on science undergraduates relative to science and society or detailed expressions of their beliefs and field practices over the experience. Qualitative methodology was used to guide the implementation and analysis of this study. A sample of an additional 20 science undergraduates likewise involved in intensive reflection in the service learning in science teaching (SLST) course called Elementary Science Education Partners (ESEP) was used to examine the typicality of the case participants. The findings show two major changes in science undergraduates' belief expressions: (1) a reduction in statements of beliefs from a deficit thinking perspective about the elementary school students' ability to learn science, and (2) a shift in the attribution of students, underlying problems in science learning from individual-oriented to systemic-oriented influences. Additional findings reveal that the science undergraduates perceived they had personally and profoundly changed as a result of the SLST experience. Changes include: (1) the gain of a new understanding of others' situations different from their own; (2) the realization of and appreciation for their relative positions of privilege due to their educational background and family support; (3) the gain in ability to communicate, teach, and work with others; (4) the idea that they were more socially and culturally connected to their community outside the university and their college classrooms; and (5) a broadening of the way they understood or thought about science. Women participants stated

  17. Salient Public Beliefs Underlying Disaster Preparedness Behaviors: A Theory-Based Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Mehdi; Ardalan, Ali; Akbarisari, Ali; Noorbala, Ahmad Ali; Elmi, Helen

    2017-04-01

    Introduction Given the increasing importance of disaster preparedness in Tehran, the capital of Iran, interventions encouraging disaster preparedness behavior (DPB) are needed. This study was conducted to show how an elicitation method can be used to identify salient consequences, referents, and circumstances about DPB and provide recommendations for interventions and quantitative research. A theory-based qualitative study using a semi-structured elicitation questionnaire was conducted with 132 heads of households from 22 districts in Tehran, Iran. Following the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), six open-ended questions were used to record the opinion of people about DPB: advantages of engaging in DPB; disadvantages of doing so; people who approve; people who disapprove; things that make it easy; and things that make it difficult. Content analysis showed the categories of salient consequences, reference groups, and circumstances. The three most frequently mentioned advantages obtained from inhabitants of Tehran were health outcomes (eg, it helps us to save our lives, it provides basic needs, and it protects us until relief workers arrive); other salient advantages were mentioned (eg, helps family reunification). The main disadvantage was preparedness anxiety. Family members were the most frequently mentioned social referent when people were asked who might approve or disapprove of their DPB. The two main circumstances perceived to obstruct DPB included not having enough knowledge or enough time. The results of this qualitative study suggest that interventions to encourage DPB among Tehran inhabitants should address: perceived consequences of DPB on health and other factors beyond health; barriers of not having enough knowledge and time perceived to hinder DPB; and social approval. More accurate research on salient beliefs with close-ended items developed from these open-ended data and with larger sample sizes of Tehran inhabitants is necessary. Research with other

  18. The moderating role of rational beliefs in the relationship between irrational beliefs and posttraumatic stress symptomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Philip; Shevlin, Mark; Adamson, Gary; Boduszek, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT) assumes that rational beliefs act as cognitive protective factors against the development of psychopathology; however little empirical evidence exists regarding the nature of the possible protective effects that they offer. The current study investigates whether rational beliefs moderate the impact of irrational beliefs on posttraumatic stress symptomology (PTS). Three hundred and thirteen active law enforcement, military, and related emergency service personnel took part in the current study. Sequential moderated multiple regression analysis was employed to investigate: (i) the direct impact of irrational beliefs on PTS; (ii) the direct impact of rational beliefs on PTS; (iii) the moderating effects of rational beliefs in the relationship between irrational beliefs and PTS. The irrational beliefs predicted by REBT theory emerged as critical predictors of PTS symptomology, in particular Depreciation beliefs. Rational beliefs (Preferences, and Acceptance beliefs) had a direct, negative impact on levels of PTS, and Acceptance beliefs moderated the impact of Catastrophizing beliefs on PTS. Irrational beliefs are important cognitive vulnerability factors in symptoms of PTS, while rational beliefs (Acceptance) appear to have a protective role in the emergence of PTS symptoms, both directly and by moderating the impact of Catastrophizing beliefs.

  19. Korean Americans' Beliefs about Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Young Lee, PhD, RN

    2013-06-01

    Conclusion: Results show the critical need for in-depth understanding of unique health and cultural beliefs about CRC screening in KAs. These beliefs could be useful for future intervention strategies to change health and cultural beliefs in order to increase CRC screening participation in KAs.

  20. Losing Belief, While Keeping Up the Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Søren Harnow

    2013-01-01

    While arguing that many cognitive states do indeed have a characteristic phenomenology, I find reasons for exempting beliefs from the program of cognitive phenomenology. Examining the complex relationship between beliefs and various kinds of conscious experience shows that belief is a messy conce...

  1. Well-Founded Belief and Perceptual Justification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broncano-Berrocal, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    According to Alan Millar, justified beliefs are well-founded beliefs. Millar cashes out the notion of well-foundedness in terms of having an adequate reason to believe something and believing it for that reason. To make his account of justified belief compatible with perceptual justification he...

  2. Forward induction reasoning and correct beliefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perea y Monsuwé, Andrés

    2017-01-01

    All equilibrium concepts implicitly make a correct beliefs assumption, stating that a player believes that his opponents are correct about his first-order beliefs. In this paper we show that in many dynamic games of interest, this correct beliefs assumption may be incompatible with a very basic form

  3. Islamic Cultures: Health Care Beliefs and Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Charles

    1996-01-01

    Presents an overview of Islamic health care beliefs and practices, noting health-related social and spiritual issues, fundamental beliefs and themes in Islam, health care beliefs and practices common among Muslims, and health-affecting social roles among Muslims. Cultural, religious, and social barriers to health care and ways to reduce them are…

  4. Changing Preservice Teachers' Beliefs about Motivating Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Sarah; Schreiber, Jim; Moss, Connie

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effects of an educational psychology course on students' beliefs about motivating students. After providing opportunities to engage in systematic intentional inquiry of their beliefs about teaching and learning, we expected that students' beliefs would become more soundly based in theory and research. Following several classes on…

  5. Perceived and Personal Mental Health Stigma in Latino and African American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFreitas, Stacie Craft; Crone, Travis; DeLeon, Martha; Ajayi, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Mental health stigma occurs when people have negative thoughts and beliefs of those with mental health illnesses or mental health treatment. Mental health stigma is related to an assortment of negative outcomes including discrimination in housing and employment, reduced usage of mental health services, and poor mental health outcomes. These implications may be particularly salient for ethnic minorities such as African Americans and Latinos who already suffer from other types of discrimination. This study examines perceived and personal mental health stigma in African American and Latino college students from a nontraditional university to help elucidate factors related to the development of mental health stigma. Students completed surveys concerning their stigma beliefs. African American students were found to have higher rates of mental health stigma than Latino students. Furthermore, anxiety about those with mental illness was related to greater mental health stigma for both groups. For African Americans, it was found that their perception of their ability to visibly identify those with mental illness was related to greater mental health stigma. These findings suggest that interventions to reduce mental health stigma in college students should target specific ethnic minority groups and focus on issues that are particularly salient to those communities. PMID:29536000

  6. Perceived and Personal Mental Health Stigma in Latino and African American College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacie Craft DeFreitas

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Mental health stigma occurs when people have negative thoughts and beliefs of those with mental health illnesses or mental health treatment. Mental health stigma is related to an assortment of negative outcomes including discrimination in housing and employment, reduced usage of mental health services, and poor mental health outcomes. These implications may be particularly salient for ethnic minorities such as African Americans and Latinos who already suffer from other types of discrimination. This study examines perceived and personal mental health stigma in African American and Latino college students from a nontraditional university to help elucidate factors related to the development of mental health stigma. Students completed surveys concerning their stigma beliefs. African American students were found to have higher rates of mental health stigma than Latino students. Furthermore, anxiety about those with mental illness was related to greater mental health stigma for both groups. For African Americans, it was found that their perception of their ability to visibly identify those with mental illness was related to greater mental health stigma. These findings suggest that interventions to reduce mental health stigma in college students should target specific ethnic minority groups and focus on issues that are particularly salient to those communities.

  7. Beliefs about medications predict adherence to antidepressants in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawzi, Waleed; Abdel Mohsen, Mohamed Yousry; Hashem, Abdel Hamid; Moussa, Suaad; Coker, Elizabeth; Wilson, Kenneth C M

    2012-01-01

    Adherence to treatment is a complex and poorly understood phenomenon. This study investigates the relationship between older depressed patients' adherence to antidepressants and their beliefs about and knowledge of the medication. Assessment was undertaken of 108 outpatients over the age of 55 years diagnosed with depressive disorder and treated for at least four weeks with antidepressants. Adherence was assessed using two self-report measures: the Medication Adherence Rating Scale (MARS) and a Global Adherence Measure (GAM). Potential predictors of adherence investigated included sociodemographic, medication and illness variables. In addition, 33 carers were interviewed regarding general medication beliefs. 56% of patients reported 80% or higher adherence on the GAM. Sociodemographic variables were not associated with adherence on the MARS. Specific beliefs about medicines, such as "my health depends on antidepressants" (necessity) and being less worried about becoming dependant on antidepressants (concern) were highly correlated with adherence. General beliefs about medicines causing harm or being overprescribed, experiencing medication side-effects and severity of depression also correlated with poor adherence. Linear regression with the MARS as the dependent variable explained 44.3% of the variance and showed adherence to be higher in subjects with healthy specific beliefs who received more information about antidepressants and worse with depression severity and autonomic side-effects. Our findings strongly support a role for specific beliefs about medicines in adherence. Challenging patients' beliefs, providing information about treatment and discussing side-effects could improve adherence. Poor response to treatment and medication side-effects can indicate poor adherence and should be considered before switching medications.

  8. In Wrong Anticipation - Miscalibrated Beliefs between Germans, Israelis, and Palestinians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian J Goerg

    Full Text Available The reconcilability of actions and beliefs in inter-country relationships, either in business or politics, is of vital importance as incorrect beliefs on foreigners' behavior can have serious implications. We study a typical inter-country interaction by means of a controlled laboratory investment game experiment in Germany, Israel and Palestine involving 400 student participants in total. An investor has to take a risky decision in a foreign country that involves transferring money to an investee/allocator. We found a notable constellation of calibrated and un-calibrated beliefs. Within each country, transfer standards exist, which investees correctly anticipate within their country. However, across countries these standards differ. By attributing the standard of their own environment to the other countries investees are remarkably bad in predicting foreign investors' behavior. The tendency to ignore this potential difference can be a source of misinterpreting motives in cross-country interaction. Foreigners might perceive behavior as unfavorable or favorable differentiation, even though-unknown to them-investors actually treat fellow-country people and foreigners alike.

  9. In Wrong Anticipation - Miscalibrated Beliefs between Germans, Israelis, and Palestinians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerg, Sebastian J.; Hennig-Schmidt, Heike; Walkowitz, Gari; Winter, Eyal

    2016-01-01

    The reconcilability of actions and beliefs in inter-country relationships, either in business or politics, is of vital importance as incorrect beliefs on foreigners’ behavior can have serious implications. We study a typical inter-country interaction by means of a controlled laboratory investment game experiment in Germany, Israel and Palestine involving 400 student participants in total. An investor has to take a risky decision in a foreign country that involves transferring money to an investee/allocator. We found a notable constellation of calibrated and un-calibrated beliefs. Within each country, transfer standards exist, which investees correctly anticipate within their country. However, across countries these standards differ. By attributing the standard of their own environment to the other countries investees are remarkably bad in predicting foreign investors’ behavior. The tendency to ignore this potential difference can be a source of misinterpreting motives in cross-country interaction. Foreigners might perceive behavior as unfavorable or favorable differentiation, even though—unknown to them—investors actually treat fellow-country people and foreigners alike. PMID:27311066

  10. Schizophrenia and the paranormal: more psi belief and superstition, and less déjà vu in medicated schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiah, Yung-Jong; Wu, Yi-Zhen; Chen, Yueh-Hua; Chiang, Shih-Kuang

    2014-04-01

    The present study examined the relation between déjà vu experiences and paranormal beliefs in schizophrenic patients. A total of 522 participants (54.5% female; mean age=33.3, SD=16.02) were recruited, including 422 healthy adults (60.9% female; mean age=29.48, SD=15.07) and 100 medicated adult schizophrenic patients (27.3% female; mean age=48.98, SD=8.57). The Chinese version of the Inventory of Déjà-vu Experiences Assessment was created via back translation. Chinese versions of the Revised Paranormal Belief Scale (CRPB), Beck Anxiety Inventory (CBAI), and Perceived Stress Scale (CPSS) were also used. After controlling for age, gender, education, and anxiety, the results supported the following three hypotheses. Schizophrenic persons have fewer déjà vu experiences than normal persons. These experiences are positively related to paranormal beliefs in healthy adults but not in schizophrenic patients. Schizophrenic patients have higher scores than healthy adults on the psi and superstitious subscales of the CRPB. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Knowledge, Beliefs, and Communication Behavior of Oncology Health-care Providers (HCPs) regarding Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Patient Health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Smita C; Walters, Chasity B; Staley, Jessica M; Alexander, Koshy; Parker, Patricia A

    2018-01-01

    Delivery of culturally competent care toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) patients depends on how health-care providers (HCPs) communicate with them; however, research about knowledge, attitude, and behavior of HCPs toward LGBT patients is scant. The objectives of our study were to describe oncology HCPs' knowledge and examine if beliefs about LGB and transgender patients mediate the effects of LGBT health-care knowledge on open communication behaviors with LGB and transgender patients, respectively. A total of 1253 HCPs (187 physicians, 153 advance practice professionals (APPs), 828 nurses, and 41 others) at a Comprehensive Cancer Center completed an online survey that included the following measures: LGBT health-care knowledge, beliefs, communication behaviors, willingness to treat LGBT patients, encouraging LGBT disclosure, and perceived importance of LGBT sensitivity training. Only 50 participants (5%) correctly answered all 7 knowledge items, and about half the respondents answered 3 (out of 7) items correctly. Favorable beliefs about LGBT health care mediated the effect of higher LGBT health-care knowledge on open communication behaviors with transgender patients, controlling for effects of type of profession, religious orientation, gender identity, sexual orientation, and having LGBT friends/family. The results of this study demonstrated an overall lack of medical knowledge and the need for more education about LGBT health care among oncology HCPs.

  12. Breast cancer literacy and health beliefs related to breast cancer screening among American Indian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Soonhee; Burnette, Catherine E; Lee, Yeon-Shim; Jun, Jung Sim; Lee, Hee Yun; Lee, Kyoung Hag

    2018-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the health beliefs and literacy about breast cancer and their relationship with breast cancer screening among American Indian (AI) women. Using the Health Belief Model (HBM) and hierarchical logistic regression with data from a sample of 286 AI female adults residing in the Northern Plains, we found that greater awareness of breast cancer screening was linked to breast cancer screening practices. However, perceived barriers, one of the HBM constructs, prevented such screening practices. This study suggested that culturally relevant HBM factors should be targeted when developing culturally sensitive breast cancer prevention efforts.

  13. Beliefs about work and beliefs about groupwork: Exploring the relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Cullen, John G.

    2013-01-01

    Smrt & Karau’s (2011) finding that the Protestant Work Ethic (PWE) influences individual behaviour towards groups, emphasized that individuals who have a stronger PWE are less likely to socially loaf. This note aims to contribute to this research by exploring the influence which a key component of the PWE, the vocation, has on individual beliefs about groupwork. An online questionnaire based on Wrzesniewski et al.’s (1997) research on personal relationships to work and Karau & Elsaid’s (200...

  14. Emergency medicine residents' beliefs about contributing to an online collaborative slideshow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archambault, Patrick M; Thanh, Jasmine; Blouin, Danielle; Gagnon, Susie; Poitras, Julien; Fountain, Renée-Marie; Fleet, Richard; Bilodeau, Andrea; van de Belt, Tom H; Légaré, France

    2015-07-01

    Collaborative writing applications (CWAs), such as the Google DocsTM platform, can improve skill acquisition, knowledge retention, and collaboration in medical education. Using CWAs to support the training of residents offers many advantages, but stimulating them to contribute remains challenging. The purpose of this study was to identify emergency medicine (EM) residents' beliefs about their intention to contribute summaries of landmark articles to a Google DocsTM slideshow while studying for their Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (RCPSC) certification exam. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior, the authors interviewed graduating RCPSC EM residents about contributing to a slideshow. Residents were asked about behavioral beliefs (advantages/disadvantages), normative beliefs (positive/negative referents), and control beliefs (barriers/facilitators). Two reviewers independently performed qualitative content analysis of interview transcripts to identify salient beliefs in relation to the defined behaviors. Of 150 eligible EM residents, 25 participated. The main reported advantage of contributing to the online slideshow was learning consolidation (n=15); the main reported disadvantage was information overload (n=3). The most frequently reported favorable referents were graduating EM residents writing the certification exam (n=16). Few participants (n=3) perceived any negative referents. The most frequently reported facilitator was peer-reviewed high-quality scientific information (n=9); and the most frequently reported barrier was time constraints (n=22). Salient beliefs exist regarding EM residents' intention to contribute content to an online collaborative writing project using a Google DocsTM slideshow. Overall, participants perceived more advantages than disadvantages to contributing and believed that this initiative would receive wide support. However, participants reported several barriers that need to be addressed to increase contributions. Our

  15. Doing masculinity, not doing health? a qualitative study among dutch male employees about health beliefs and workplace physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Rijk Angelique

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Being female is a strong predictor of health promoting behaviours. Workplaces show great potential for lifestyle interventions, but such interventions do not necessarily take the gendered background of lifestyle behaviours into account. A perspective analyzing how masculine gender norms affect health promoting behaviours is important. This study aims to explore men's health beliefs and attitudes towards health promotion; in particular, it explores workplace physical activity in relation to masculine ideals among male employees. Methods In the Fall of 2008, we interviewed 13 white Dutch male employees aged 23-56 years. The men worked in a wide range of professions and occupational sectors and all interviewees had been offered a workplace physical activity program. Interviews lasted approximately one to one-and-a-half hour and addressed beliefs about health and lifestyle behaviours including workplace physical activity, as well as normative beliefs about masculinity. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. Results Two normative themes were found: first, the ideal man is equated with being a winner and real men are prepared to compete, and second, real men are not whiners and ideally, not vulnerable. Workplace physical activity is associated with a particular type of masculinity - young, occupied with looks, and interested in muscle building. Masculine norms are related to challenging health while taking care of health is feminine and, hence, something to avoid. Workplace physical activity is not framed as a health measure, and not mentioned as of importance to the work role. Conclusions Competitiveness and nonchalant attitudes towards health shape masculine ideals. In regards to workplace physical activity, some men resist what they perceive to be an emphasis on muscled looks, whereas for others it contributes to looking self-confident. In order to establish a greater reach among vulnerable employees such as ageing men

  16. Doing masculinity, not doing health? A qualitative study among Dutch male employees about health beliefs and workplace physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonk, Petra; Seesing, Hannes; de Rijk, Angelique

    2010-11-19

    Being female is a strong predictor of health promoting behaviours. Workplaces show great potential for lifestyle interventions, but such interventions do not necessarily take the gendered background of lifestyle behaviours into account. A perspective analyzing how masculine gender norms affect health promoting behaviours is important. This study aims to explore men's health beliefs and attitudes towards health promotion; in particular, it explores workplace physical activity in relation to masculine ideals among male employees. In the Fall of 2008, we interviewed 13 white Dutch male employees aged 23-56 years. The men worked in a wide range of professions and occupational sectors and all interviewees had been offered a workplace physical activity program. Interviews lasted approximately one to one-and-a-half hour and addressed beliefs about health and lifestyle behaviours including workplace physical activity, as well as normative beliefs about masculinity. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. Two normative themes were found: first, the ideal man is equated with being a winner and real men are prepared to compete, and second, real men are not whiners and ideally, not vulnerable. Workplace physical activity is associated with a particular type of masculinity - young, occupied with looks, and interested in muscle building. Masculine norms are related to challenging health while taking care of health is feminine and, hence, something to avoid. Workplace physical activity is not framed as a health measure, and not mentioned as of importance to the work role. Competitiveness and nonchalant attitudes towards health shape masculine ideals. In regards to workplace physical activity, some men resist what they perceive to be an emphasis on muscled looks, whereas for others it contributes to looking self-confident. In order to establish a greater reach among vulnerable employees such as ageing men, worksite health promotion programs including workplace physical

  17. Australian midwives knowledge, attitude and perceived learning needs around perinatal mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Yvonne L; Kelly, Georgina; Dragovic, Milan; Butt, Janice; Whittaker, Pamela; Badcock, Johanna C

    2015-01-01

    a cross sectional survey was undertaken to explore midwives' knowledge of, and attitudes towards, mental health disorders in childbearing women vis-à-vis their perceived mental health learning needs. a 50.1% response rate included 238 midwives employed in the only public tertiary maternity hospital in Western Australia from March to June 2013. The survey comprised a mixture of custom-designed questions and vignettes presenting various disorders. Only 37.6% of midwives felt well-equipped to support women, whilst 50.2% reported insufficient access to information. Demand was highest for education on: personality disorders (77.8%); the impact of childbearing on mental health disorders (74.2%); and skills for handling stress and aggression (57.8%). Knowledge scores were variable: on average eight out of a maximum 13 questions were answered correctly, but few (2.7%) answered more than 11 correctly, and 3.7% scored ≤4 correct. Across disorders, recognition from vignettes was highest for depression (93.9%), and lowest for schizophrenia (65.6%). Surprisingly, there were no associations between general knowledge scores and previous mental health experience, recent professional development, or access to information around mental health. The majority endorsed positive beliefs about midwives' role in mental health assessment, and belief in women's recovery (83.5%), however, cluster analysis of warmth and competence ratings revealed negative stereotyping of mental health disorders. Midwives accept it is their role to assess the mental health status of women but many feel ill-equipped to do so and express a strong desire for further knowledge and skills across a range of perinatal mental health topics. Attitudes to recovery are positive but negative stereotypes exist; therefore awareness of potential bias is important to negate their influence on care. Learning needs may change due to trends in clinical practice. Strategies are needed to recognise negative beliefs and to

  18. Introducing the modified paranormal belief scale: distinguishing between classic paranormal beliefs, religious paranormal beliefs and conventional religiosity among undergraduates in Northern Ireland and Wales

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Emyr; Francis, Leslie J.; Lewis, Christopher Alan

    2009-01-01

    Previous empirical studies concerned with the association between paranormal beliefs and conventional religiosity have produced conflicting evidence. Drawing on Rice's (2003) distinction between classic paranormal beliefs and religious paranormal beliefs, the present study proposed a modified form of the Tobacyk Revised Paranormal Belief Scale to produce separate scores for these two forms of paranormal belief, styled 'religious paranormal beliefs' and 'classic paranormal beliefs'. Data provi...

  19. Identified risk factors and adolescents’ beliefs about triggers for headaches: results from a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Milde-Busch, Astrid; Straube, Andreas; Heinen, Florian; von Kries, Rüdiger

    2012-01-01

    Although there are few studies on adolescents’ beliefs about triggers of headache, none of these compared the associations between perceived and observed triggers. This study aimed at comparing the prevalence of self-perceived and observed risk factors for headache among adolescents. Adolescents from the 10th and 11th grades of high schools answered questionnaires on their headaches and on potential risk factors regarding lifestyle, stress and muscle pain. Individuals reporting to have experi...

  20. Is there an association between fear avoidance beliefs, and pain and disability in patients with orofacial pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmond, S L; Enriquez, C S; Millner, M H; Nasri-Heir, C; Heir, G M

    2017-06-01

    Numerous psychosocial factors have been shown to contribute to the development and perpetuation of orofacial pain. One well-recognized model for explaining the link between psychosocial factors and chronic pain is the fear avoidance model. To date, this proposed link has not been studied in subjects with orofacial pain. During the initial evaluation of subjects with orofacial pain, we collected data on fear avoidance beliefs using the Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire, and disability and pain. At between 6 and 8 weeks follow-up, we re-collected these data, as well as data addressing subjects' perceived change in their condition. Data were analyzed using correlation coefficients and linear regression. Fear avoidance beliefs at intake were inversely correlated with intake disability, There were no significant associations between fear avoidance beliefs at initial evaluation or in changes in fear avoidance beliefs during the 6-8 weeks follow-up period; and changes in disability, pain or perceived change in condition at 6-8 weeks follow-up. Of note, fear avoidance beliefs increased over the follow-up period, despite improvements in all outcome measures. There was insufficient evidence to suggest that high levels of fear avoidance beliefs at initial evaluation are associated with higher levels of disability or pain at intake, or with change in disability, pain or perceived change in condition at 6-8 weeks follow-up. Similarly, there was insufficient evidence to suggest that changes in fear avoidance beliefs during treatment are associated with any of these outcome measures. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Perceived Gender Differences in Performance in Science: The Case of Lesotho Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanyane, Marethabile; Mokuku, Tšepo; Nthathakane, Malefu C.

    2016-01-01

    The paper reports on a study aimed at investigating perceived gender differences in performance in science at secondary school level, as well as beliefs on possible underlying causes for these differences. The study is situated within the interpretivist paradigm and uses a typology of factors drawn from the Educational Effectiveness Research model…

  2. Extending Attribution Theory: Considering Students' Perceived Control of the Attribution Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Evan J.; Husman, Jenefer

    2017-01-01

    Research in attribution theory has shown that students' causal thinking profoundly affects their learning and motivational outcomes. Very few studies, however, have explored how students' attribution-related beliefs influence the causal thought process. The present study used the perceived control of the attribution process (PCAP) model to examine…

  3. Culture, Gender, and the Development of Perceived Academic Self-Efficacy among Hawaiian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Lois A.; Greene, William L.

    Social cognitive theory suggests that individuals' beliefs about their efficacy in specific contexts, such as school, influence their motivation in those settings. The relationship between various sociocultural factors and the development of adolescents' perceived academic self-efficacy are investigated in this paper. Participants (N=202), drawn…

  4. Pre- and In-Service Preschool Teachers' Science Teaching Efficacy Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Durmus; Tas, Isil; Ogul, Irem Gürgah

    2016-01-01

    In this study, pre- and in-service preschool teachers' science teaching efficacy beliefs were investigated. The sample included 100 pre-service (50 first grades and 50 last grades) and 73 in-service preschool teachers. As a data collection tool "Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument" was used. Findings indicated that in-service…

  5. Acculturation and Religion in Schools: The Views of Young People from Minority Belief Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niens, Ulrike; Mawhinney, Alison; Richardson, Norman; Chiba, Yuko

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to explore the relationship between religious identity, acculturation strategies and perceptions of acculturation orientation in the school context amongst young people from minority belief backgrounds. Based on a qualitative study including interviews with 26 young people from religious minority belief backgrounds in Northern…

  6. Changing Minds by Reasoning About Belief Revision: A Challenge for Cognitive Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    this case, his dialog moves could include highlighting unintended relationships suggested by the logo (e.g., that a competitor’s logo is an octopus , a...others, a cognitive system must, at a minimum, be able to entertain beliefs about their beliefs. Any movement at all toward more sophisticated scenarios

  7. Student and Faculty Beliefs about Learning in Higher Education: Implications for Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandy, Kristina L.; Bendersky, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Beliefs about learning can influence whether or not a student learns course material. However, few studies in higher education have compared student and faculty beliefs about learning. In the current study, students and faculty agreed on many aspects of learning--including the definition of learning, which most hinders learning and where learning…

  8. 29 CFR 1605.1 - “Religious” nature of a practice or belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the issue does exist, the Commission will define religious practices to include moral or ethical beliefs as to what is right and wrong which are sincerely held with the strength of traditional religious... GUIDELINES ON DISCRIMINATION BECAUSE OF RELIGION § 1605.1 “Religious” nature of a practice or belief. In most...

  9. The cultural beliefs of the Vhavenda on the causes and transmission ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cultural and ethnic identity and folk beliefs play a decisive role in perceptions, attitudes and practices regarding health care and illness. Such beliefs and practices of a community may have an influence on the causes and transmission of diseases, including sexually transmitted diseases. The purpose of the study on which ...

  10. 76 FR 77582 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Beauty and Belief...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7725] Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Beauty and Belief: Crossing Bridges With the Arts of Islamic Culture'' SUMMARY: Notice is... objects to be included in the exhibition ``Beauty and Belief: Crossing Bridges with the Arts of Islamic...

  11. Farmers' Perceived Risks of Climate Change and Influencing Factors: A Study in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Dang, Hoa; Li, Elton; Nuberg, Ian; Bruwer, Johan

    2014-08-01

    Many countries are confronting climate change that threatens agricultural production and farmers' lives. Farmers' perceived risks of climate change and factors influencing those perceived risks are critical to their adaptive behavior and well-planned adaptation strategies. However, there is limited understanding of these issues. In this paper, we attempt to quantitatively measure farmers' perceived risks of climate change and explore the influences of risk experience, information, belief in climate change, and trust in public adaptation to those perceived risks. Data are from structured interviews with 598 farmers in the Mekong Delta. The study shows that perceived risks to production, physical health, and income dimensions receive greater priority while farmers pay less attention to risks to happiness and social relationships. Experiences of the events that can be attributed to climate change increase farmers' perceived risks. Information variables can increase or decrease perceived risks, depending on the sources of information. Farmers who believe that climate change is actually happening and influencing their family's lives, perceive higher risks in most dimensions. Farmers who think that climate change is not their concern but the government's, perceive lower risks to physical health, finance, and production. As to trust in public adaptation, farmers who believe that public adaptive measures are well co-ordinated, perceive lower risks to production and psychology. Interestingly, those who believe that the disaster warning system is working well, perceive higher risks to finance, production, and social relationships. Further attention is suggested for the quality, timing, and channels of information about climate change and adaptation.

  12. Farmers' perceived risks of climate change and influencing factors: a study in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Dang, Hoa; Li, Elton; Nuberg, Ian; Bruwer, Johan

    2014-08-01

    Many countries are confronting climate change that threatens agricultural production and farmers' lives. Farmers' perceived risks of climate change and factors influencing those perceived risks are critical to their adaptive behavior and well-planned adaptation strategies. However, there is limited understanding of these issues. In this paper, we attempt to quantitatively measure farmers' perceived risks of climate change and explore the influences of risk experience, information, belief in climate change, and trust in public adaptation to those perceived risks. Data are from structured interviews with 598 farmers in the Mekong Delta. The study shows that perceived risks to production, physical health, and income dimensions receive greater priority while farmers pay less attention to risks to happiness and social relationships. Experiences of the events that can be attributed to climate change increase farmers' perceived risks. Information variables can increase or decrease perceived risks, depending on the sources of information. Farmers who believe that climate change is actually happening and influencing their family's lives, perceive higher risks in most dimensions. Farmers who think that climate change is not their concern but the government's, perceive lower risks to physical health, finance, and production. As to trust in public adaptation, farmers who believe that public adaptive measures are well co-ordinated, perceive lower risks to production and psychology. Interestingly, those who believe that the disaster warning system is working well, perceive higher risks to finance, production, and social relationships. Further attention is suggested for the quality, timing, and channels of information about climate change and adaptation.

  13. Soliciting scientific information and beliefs in predictive modeling and adaptive management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, P. D.; Voinov, A. A.; Shapiro, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    Post-normal science requires public engagement and adaptive corrections in addressing issues with high complexity and uncertainty. An adaptive management framework is presented for the improved management of natural resources and environments through a public participation process. The framework solicits the gathering and transformation and/or modeling of scientific information but also explicitly solicits the expression of participant beliefs. Beliefs and information are compared, explicitly discussed for alignments or misalignments, and ultimately melded back together as a "knowledge" basis for making decisions. An effort is made to recognize the human or participant biases that may affect the information base and the potential decisions. In a separate step, an attempt is made to recognize and predict the potential "winners" and "losers" (perceived or real) of any decision or action. These "winners" and "losers" include present human communities with different spatial, demographic or socio-economic characteristics as well as more dispersed or more diffusely characterized regional or global communities. "Winners" and "losers" may also include future human communities as well as communities of other biotic species. As in any adaptive management framework, assessment of predictions, iterative follow-through and adaptation of policies or actions is essential, and commonly very difficult or impossible to achieve. Recognizing beforehand the limits of adaptive management is essential. More generally, knowledge of the behavioral and economic sciences and of ethics and sociology will be key to a successful implementation of this adaptive management framework. Knowledge of biogeophysical processes will also be essential, but by definition of the issues being addressed, will always be incomplete and highly uncertain. The human dimensions of the issues addressed and the participatory processes used carry their own complexities and uncertainties. Some ideas and principles are

  14. Speech-language therapists' process of including significant others in aphasia rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallé, Marie-Christine; Le Dorze, Guylaine; Mingant, Anne

    2014-11-01

    Although aphasia rehabilitation should include significant others, it is currently unknown how this recommendation is adopted in speech-language therapy practice. Speech-language therapists' (SLTs) experience of including significant others in aphasia rehabilitation is also understudied, yet a better understanding of clinical reality would be necessary to facilitate implementation of best evidence pertaining to family interventions. To explore the process through which SLTs work with significant others of people with aphasia in rehabilitation settings. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight SLTs who had been working with persons with aphasia in rehabilitation centres for at least 1 year. Grounded theory principles were applied in analysing interview transcripts. A theoretical model was developed representing SLTs' process of working with significant others of persons with aphasia in rehabilitation. Including significant others was perceived as challenging, yet a bonus to their fundamental patient-centred approach. Basic interventions with significant others when they were available included information sharing. If necessary, significant others were referred to social workers or psychologists or the participants collaborated with those professionals. Participants rarely and only under specific conditions provided significant others with language exercises or trained them to communicate better with the aphasic person. As a result, even if participants felt satisfied with their efforts to offer family and friends interventions, they also had unachieved ideals, such as having more frequent contacts with significant others. If SLTs perceived work with significant others as a feasible necessity, rather than as a challenging bonus, they could be more inclined to include family and friends within therapy with the aim to improve their communication with the person with aphasia. SLTs could also be more satisfied with their practice. In order to

  15. Agents' beliefs and economic regimes polarization in interacting markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalli, F.; Naimzada, A. K.; Pecora, N.; Pireddu, M.

    2018-05-01

    In the present paper, a model of a market consisting of real and financial interacting sectors is studied. Agents populating the stock market are assumed to be not able to observe the true underlying fundamental, and their beliefs are biased by either optimism or pessimism. Depending on the relevance they give to beliefs, they select the best performing strategy in an evolutionary perspective. The real side of the economy is described within a multiplier-accelerator framework with a nonlinear, bounded investment function. We study the effect of market integration, in particular, of the financialization of the real market. We show that strongly polarized beliefs in an evolutionary framework can introduce multiplicity of steady states, which, consisting in enhanced or depressed levels of income, reflect and reproduce the optimistic or pessimistic nature of the agents' beliefs. The polarization of these steady states, which coexist with an unbiased steady state, positively depends on that of the beliefs and on their relevance. Moreover, with a mixture of analytical and numerical tools, we show that such static characterization is inherited also at the dynamical level, with possibly complex attractors that are characterized by endogenously fluctuating pessimistic and optimistic prices and levels of national income, with the effect of having several coexisting business cycles. This framework, when stochastic perturbations are included, is able to account for stylized facts commonly observed in real financial markets, such as fat tails and excess volatility in the returns distributions, as well as bubbles and crashes for stock prices.

  16. Nurses' beliefs about nursing diagnosis: A study with cluster analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Fabio; Pancani, Luca; Romero-Sánchez, José Manuel; Lumillo-Gutierrez, Iris; Paloma-Castro, Olga; Vellone, Ercole; Alvaro, Rosaria

    2018-06-01

    To identify clusters of nurses in relation to their beliefs about nursing diagnosis among two populations (Italian and Spanish); to investigate differences among clusters of nurses in each population considering the nurses' socio-demographic data, attitudes towards nursing diagnosis, intentions to make nursing diagnosis and actual behaviours in making nursing diagnosis. Nurses' beliefs concerning nursing diagnosis can influence its use in practice but this is still unclear. A cross-sectional design. A convenience sample of nurses in Italy and Spain was enrolled. Data were collected between 2014-2015 using tools, that is, a socio-demographic questionnaire and behavioural, normative and control beliefs, attitudes, intentions and behaviours scales. The sample included 499 nurses (272 Italians & 227 Spanish). Of these, 66.5% of the Italian and 90.7% of the Spanish sample were female. The mean age was 36.5 and 45.2 years old in the Italian and Spanish sample respectively. Six clusters of nurses were identified in Spain and four in Italy. Three clusters were similar among the two populations. Similar significant associations between age, years of work, attitudes towards nursing diagnosis, intentions to make nursing diagnosis and behaviours in making nursing diagnosis and cluster membership in each population were identified. Belief profiles identified unique subsets of nurses that have distinct characteristics. Categorizing nurses by belief patterns may help administrators and educators to tailor interventions aimed at improving nursing diagnosis use in practice. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. PREP advertisement features affect smokers' beliefs regarding potential harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, A A; Tang, K Z; Tuller, M D; Cappella, J N

    2008-09-01

    The Institute of Medicine report on potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) recommends that advertising and labelling be regulated to prevent explicitly or implicitly false or misleading claims. Belief that a product is less harmful may increase use or prevent smoking cessation. To determine the effect of altering advertisement features on smokers' beliefs of the harm exposure from a PREP. A Quest advertisement was digitally altered using computer software and presented to participants using web-based television recruitment contracted through a survey company. 500 current smokers completed demographic and smoking history questions, were randomised to view one of three advertisement conditions, then completed eight items assessing their beliefs of the harmfulness of the product. Advertisement conditions included the original, unaltered advertisement; a "red" condition where the cigarette packages were digitally altered to the colour red, implying increased harm potential; and a "no text" condition where all text was removed to reduce explicit product information. Polytomous logistic regression, using "incorrect," "unsure" and "correct" as outcomes, and advertisement type and covariates as predictors, was used for analyses. Participants randomised to the "no text" advertisement were less likely to be incorrect in their beliefs that Quest cigarettes are lower in tar, less addictive, less likely to cause cancer, have fewer chemicals, are healthier and make smoking safer. Smokers can form false beliefs about the harmfulness of PREP products based on how the PREPs are marketed. Careful examination must be undertaken to provide empirical evidence to better formulate regulatory principles of PREP advertising.

  18. You Are What You Read: The Belief Systems of Cyber-Bystanders on Social Networking Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Angel N M; Wong, Natalie; Farver, JoAnn M

    2018-01-01

    The present study tested how exposure to two types of responses to a hypothetical simulated Facebook setting influenced cyber-bystanders' perceived control and normative beliefs using a 4 cyberbully-victim group (pure cyberbullies, non-involved, pure cyberbullied victims, and cyberbullied-victims) × 2 condition (offend vs. defend) experimental design. 203 Hong Kong Chinese secondary school and university students (132 females, 71 males; 12 to 28; M = 16.70; SD = 3.03 years old) were randomly assigned into one of two conditions. Results showed that participants' involvement in cyberbullying significantly related to their control beliefs about bully and victim assisting behaviors, while exposure to the two different conditions (offend vs. defend comments) was related to both their control and normative beliefs. In general, the defend condition promoted higher control beliefs to help the victims and promoted higher normative beliefs to help the victims. Regardless of their past involvement in cyberbullying and exposure to offend vs. defend conditions, both cyber-bullies and cyber-victims were more inclined to demonstrate normative beliefs to help victims than to assist bullies. These results have implications for examining environmental influences in predicting bystander behaviors in cyberbullying contexts, and for creating a positive environment to motivate adolescents to become "upstanders" in educational programs to combat cyberbullying.

  19. Peer Smoking and Smoking-related Beliefs Among College Students in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Kamimura

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Smoking is a significant public health issue in Bangladesh. The purpose of this study was to examine peer smoking and smoking-related beliefs among college students in Bangladesh. Methods College students at two universities in Dhaka, Bangladesh participated in a self-administered survey in May and June 2017. Results First, being a current or former smoker is associated with lower levels of beliefs among respondents that they would not smoke even with smoker friends or nervousness, and lower levels of intentions that they would not smoke, while current smokers and former smokers have different smoking-related beliefs. Second, having smoker friends is associated with lower levels of intentions that they would not smoke. Third, higher levels of normative beliefs that it is important not to smoke are associated with higher levels of beliefs that they would not smoke even with smoker friends or nervousness, higher levels of intentions that they would not smoke, and higher levels of avoidance of smoking. Conclusions Smoking-related beliefs and perceived norms in individuals’ social networks are important components in promoting tobacco cessation in Bangladesh. But it is challenging to prevent or intervene in smoking because of the high rates of smoking in this country and the high prevalence of smokers in individuals’ social networks. Future studies should examine the most effective interventions to combat smoking in high-smoking social networks, such as using mobile apps or social media, and evaluate the effectiveness of such interventions.

  20. You Are What You Read: The Belief Systems of Cyber-Bystanders on Social Networking Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Angel N. M.; Wong, Natalie; Farver, JoAnn M.

    2018-01-01

    The present study tested how exposure to two types of responses to a hypothetical simulated Facebook setting influenced cyber-bystanders’ perceived control and normative beliefs using a 4 cyberbully-victim group (pure cyberbullies, non-involved, pure cyberbullied victims, and cyberbullied-victims) × 2 condition (offend vs. defend) experimental design. 203 Hong Kong Chinese secondary school and university students (132 females, 71 males; 12 to 28; M = 16.70; SD = 3.03 years old) were randomly assigned into one of two conditions. Results showed that participants’ involvement in cyberbullying significantly related to their control beliefs about bully and victim assisting behaviors, while exposure to the two different conditions (offend vs. defend comments) was related to both their control and normative beliefs. In general, the defend condition promoted higher control beliefs to help the victims and promoted higher normative beliefs to help the victims. Regardless of their past involvement in cyberbullying and exposure to offend vs. defend conditions, both cyber-bullies and cyber-victims were more inclined to demonstrate normative beliefs to help victims than to assist bullies. These results have implications for examining environmental influences in predicting bystander behaviors in cyberbullying contexts, and for creating a positive environment to motivate adolescents to become “upstanders” in educational programs to combat cyberbullying. PMID:29740362

  1. Peer Smoking and Smoking-related Beliefs Among College Students in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Akiko; Ahmmad, Zobayer; Pye, Mu; Gull, Bethany

    2018-01-01

    Smoking is a significant public health issue in Bangladesh. The purpose of this study was to examine peer smoking and smoking-related beliefs among college students in Bangladesh. College students at two universities in Dhaka, Bangladesh participated in a self-administered survey in May and June 2017. First, being a current or former smoker is associated with lower levels of beliefs among respondents that they would not smoke even with smoker friends or nervousness, and lower levels of intentions that they would not smoke, while current smokers and former smokers have different smoking-related beliefs. Second, having smoker friends is associated with lower levels of intentions that they would not smoke. Third, higher levels of normative beliefs that it is important not to smoke are associated with higher levels of beliefs that they would not smoke even with smoker friends or nervousness, higher levels of intentions that they would not smoke, and higher levels of avoidance of smoking. Smoking-related beliefs and perceived norms in individuals' social networks are important components in promoting tobacco cessation in Bangladesh. But it is challenging to prevent or intervene in smoking because of the high rates of smoking in this country and the high prevalence of smokers in individuals' social networks. Future studies should examine the most effective interventions to combat smoking in high-smoking social networks, such as using mobile apps or social media, and evaluate the effectiveness of such interventions.

  2. Beliefs and Attitudes about Childhood Epilepsy among School Teachers in Two Cities of Southeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanni, Karina Piccin; Matsukura, Thelma Simões; Maia Filho, Heber de Souza

    2012-01-01

    Childhood epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder associated with profound psychosocial limitations epileptic children's routine. Lack of information and inappropriate beliefs are still the factors that most contribute to the stigma and discrimination. This study aimed at characterizing teacher's beliefs and attitudes at regular and special schools in two cities of southeastern Brazil where students with epilepsy studied. Fifty-six teachers of public regular schools and specialized educational institutions for children with disabilities from two cities of Southeast Brazil who had epileptic children in their classroom completed the Brazilian version of The Epilepsy Beliefs and Attitudes Scale: Adult Version and answered a data sheet about sociodemographic characteristics. The results showed that no significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) have been found between the beliefs and attitudes of teachers in mainstream and special schools but both schoolteachers had more inappropriate beliefs and attitudes than appropriate ones against childhood epilepsy. These findings raise an important issue, providing us with the knowledge that epilepsy is still a condition which is surrounded by wrong beliefs. Also, educational programs could help reduce the gaps in knowledge about how such disease has been perceived worldwide.

  3. You Are What You Read: The Belief Systems of Cyber-Bystanders on Social Networking Sites

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    Angel N. M. Leung

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study tested how exposure to two types of responses to a hypothetical simulated Facebook setting influenced cyber-bystanders’ perceived control and normative beliefs using a 4 cyberbully-victim group (pure cyberbullies, non-involved, pure cyberbullied victims, and cyberbullied-victims × 2 condition (offend vs. defend experimental design. 203 Hong Kong Chinese secondary school and university students (132 females, 71 males; 12 to 28; M = 16.70; SD = 3.03 years old were randomly assigned into one of two conditions. Results showed that participants’ involvement in cyberbullying significantly related to their control beliefs about bully and victim assisting behaviors, while exposure to the two different conditions (offend vs. defend comments was related to both their control and normative beliefs. In general, the defend condition promoted higher control beliefs to help the victims and promoted higher normative beliefs to help the victims. Regardless of their past involvement in cyberbullying and exposure to offend vs. defend conditions, both cyber-bullies and cyber-victims were more inclined to demonstrate normative beliefs to help victims than to assist bullies. These results have implications for examining environmental influences in predicting bystander behaviors in cyberbullying contexts, and for creating a positive environment to motivate adolescents to become “upstanders” in educational programs to combat cyberbullying.

  4. Treatment Related Thoughts Based on Health Belief Model and Medication Nonadherence in Patients who Prescribed Anxiolytics and Antidepressants

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    Meltem Meric

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between treatment adherence and treatment related thoughts based on health belief model in patients who currently take medication due to depression and anxiety disorder. METHOD: The present study was performed at the Psychiatry Department of a teaching hospital. The sample of the study consisted from 112 individuals who take medications due to depression and anxiety disorder. Personal information form and an inquiry form including treatment related thoughts based on health belief model were used to collect data. Chi- Square and Percentages were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Of the patients, 58.9% were diagnosed as depression and 41.1% anxiety disorder. 60.7% stated that they had a non-adherence experience in the past. Of these non-adherent patients, 29.5% stopped to take the medication with the idea “I can do it without medication” and 14.3% stopped the medication because of the side effects. Gender, age, marital status and education level were not related to the non-adherence. Only two treatment related thoughts based on health belief concepts were significantly related to the non adherence experience. These thoughts were “If I do not take the medications properly the problems may be permanent” and “If I do not take the medications properly my illness may get worse”. Most of the patients marked “agree” options of the items under the perceived severity, self-efficacy, benefits, susceptibility and health motivation subheads. CONCLUSION: The results of this study showed that the thoughts and perceptions based on health belief concepts helps to identify and express the thoughts related to treatment adherence. These concepts can be used to describe and classify the thoughts about the treatments of patients. However, prospective and qualitative studies may be useful to clarify the influence of the health beliefs on treatment adherence. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9

  5. Narcissism and belief in the paranormal.

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    Roe, Chris A; Morgan, Claire L

    2002-04-01

    The present study was designed to assess whether the relationship between narcissistic personality and paranormal belief identified by Tobacyk and Mitchell earlier could be replicated with a general population and to see whether the effect could be found with a narrower definition of paranormal beliefs that focuses only on belief in psychic phenomena. 75 participants completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and two measures of paranormal belief, the Paranormal Belief Scale and the Australian Sheep-Goat Scale. There was no correlation between narcissism and Paranormal Belief Scale scores, but narcissism and Australian Sheep-Goat Scale scores were significantly positively correlated. Of the three subscales to the Australian Sheep-Goat measure, scores for narcissism correlated with belief in ESP and PK but not in Life after death. These relationships were interpreted in terms of need for control.

  6. Belief in reciprocity in a Chinese sample.

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    Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Jianxin

    2012-08-01

    Belief in reciprocity refers to a personally internalized faith in the reciprocity norm: that people will return positive and negative interactions or favors in kind. The current study aims to examine the relationship between belief in reciprocity and altruism among a Chinese sample. The Personal Norm of Reciprocity Scale, Trait Forgiveness Scale, Prosocial Tendency Measure, and Altruism Scale were used to assess extent of belief in reciprocity, forgiveness, and prosocial motivation, respectively, among 204 Chinese undergraduates. The results indicated that belief in reciprocity was a partially negative, but not neutral, reciprocity norm for Chinese people. Specifically, belief in reciprocity was positively related to negative reciprocity, but not significantly related to positive reciprocity. Moreover, belief in reciprocity was negatively related to both prosocial tendency and altruistic motivation. The results also indicated that forgiveness largely mediated the effect of belief in reciprocity on altruism. Finally, the implications and limitations of the current study were discussed.

  7. Beliefs of Pregnant Women in Qom City about Exclusive Breastfeeding until 6 Months of Age, Iran

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    Rahimi Tahereh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Exclusive breastfeeding is the most effective way of feeding infants until 6 months of age. The present study aimed to determine the beliefs of pregnant women in Qom city about exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months of age based on constructs of theory of planned behavior. : In this descriptive cross-sectional study, after designing a questionnaire to measure the constructs of theory of planned behavior, including behavioral, normative, and control beliefs, and also determining its validity and reliability, 240 pregnant women in Qom were selected using cluster sampling and completed the questionnaires. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: More emotional relationship with infants was the most important positive behavioral belief, and belief in breast malformation and fatigue was negative behavioral beliefs about exclusive breastfeeding among the pregnant women. The opinion of physicians and health care providers about exclusive breastfeeding was reported as the most important normative belief, and urging of relatives, especially mother or mother-in-law to use sweet water or powdered milk was the most important control beliefs among the mothers, which made exclusive breastfeeding difficult. Conclusion: Promoting positive beliefs and correcting wrong beliefs about exclusive breastfeeding, along with consideration of the role of health care providers and husband would help pregnant mothers to accept the choice of exclusive breastfeeding until the end of 6 months of age.

  8. Contemporary Inuit Traditional Beliefs Concerning Meteorites

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    Mardon, A. A.; Mardon, E. G.; Williams, J. S.

    1992-07-01

    Inuit religious mythology and the importance of meteorites as "messages" from the Creator of all things is only now being recognized. Field investigations near Resolute, Cornwallis Island in the high Canadian Arctic in 1988 are the bases for this paper. Through interpreters, several elders of the local Inuit described in detail the Inuit belief, recognition, and wonder at the falling meteors & meteorites during the long Polar Night and Polar Day. Such events are passed on in the oral tradition from generation to generation by the elders and especially those elders who fulfill the shamanistic roles. The Inuit have come across rocks that they immediately recognize as not being "natural" and in the cases of a fall that was observed and the rock recovered the meteorite is kept either on the person or in some hidden niche known only to that person. In one story recounted a meteorite fell and was recovered at the birth of one very old elder and the belief was that if the rock was somehow damaged or taken from his possession he would die. Some indirect indication also was conveyed that the discovery and possession of meteorites allow shaman to have "supernatural" power. This belief in the supernatural power of meteorites can be seen historically in many societies, including Islam and the "black rock" (Kaaba) of Mecca. It should also be noted, however, that metallic meteorites were clearly once the major source of iron for Eskimo society as is indicated from the recovery of meteoritical iron arrow heads and harpoon heads from excavated pre-Viking contact sites. The one evident thing that became clear to the author is that the Inuit distinctly believe that these meteorites are religious objects of the highest order and it brings into question the current academic practice of sending meteorites south to research institutes. Any seeming conflict with the traditional use of meteoric iron is more apparent than real--the animals, the hunt, and the act of survival--all being

  9. Determinants of puberty health among female adolescents residing in boarding welfare centers in Tehran: An application of health belief model.

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    Shirzadi, Shayesteh; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Nadrian, Haidar; Mahmoodi, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adolescence is a critical stage of growth and development. That is associated with changes in body shape and appearance. Issues such as irregular menstrual periods, amenorrhea, and menstrual cycle are major issues in women's health. The purpose of this study was to examine the determinants of physical puberty health based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) among female adolescents. Methods: This analytical cross sectional study was conducted in welfare boarding centers in Tehran, Iran. Data were collected in 2011 by a structured and valid questionnaire. Total 61 female adolescents (age range: 12-19 yrs) participated in this study from welfare boarding centers in Iran, Tehran, by using convenience sampling method. The questionnaire consisted of demographic characteristics, health belief model constructs and physical puberty health behaviors gathered by using interview. A series of univariate general linear models were used to assess the relationship between puberty health and health belief model constructs. Results: According to the results of this study there were positive significant relationships between perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, cues to action and increased puberty health in female adolescents (p<0.05). Perceived benefits, perceived barriers and cues to action were predictors of physical puberty health behaviors. Conclusion: Based on the results of the study to improve the physical Puberty health behaviors of female adolescents should make them aware of the benefits of health behaviors, and remove or reform the perceived barriers of health behaviors. Also, the appropriate information resources should be introduced for obtaining information about puberty health.

  10. Amor and Social Stigma: ASD Beliefs Among Immigrant Mexican Parents.

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    Cohen, Shana R; Miguel, Jessica

    2018-06-01

    This study examined cultural beliefs about ASD and its causes among Mexican-heritage families. In focus group interviews, we asked 25 immigrant parents of children with ASD to identify words they associated with ASD and its causes. Participants free-listed, ranked, and justified their responses. Mixed methods analyses utilized saliency scores to calculate responses. Deductive interview analyses justified participants' responses. Salient responses for ASD perceptions included specific characteristics about the child (e.g., loving) and perceptions about lack of resources. Salient responses for ASD causes were vaccines, genetics, and a combination of genetics and environment. Inductive analyses revealed distinct beliefs about social stigma, child characteristics, factors supporting development, and parents' emotional stress. Interpretations linked these beliefs to promising adaptations in diagnosis and treatment.

  11. Bayesian Image Segmentations by Potts Prior and Loopy Belief Propagation

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    Tanaka, Kazuyuki; Kataoka, Shun; Yasuda, Muneki; Waizumi, Yuji; Hsu, Chiou-Ting

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a Bayesian image segmentation model based on Potts prior and loopy belief propagation. The proposed Bayesian model involves several terms, including the pairwise interactions of Potts models, and the average vectors and covariant matrices of Gauss distributions in color image modeling. These terms are often referred to as hyperparameters in statistical machine learning theory. In order to determine these hyperparameters, we propose a new scheme for hyperparameter estimation based on conditional maximization of entropy in the Potts prior. The algorithm is given based on loopy belief propagation. In addition, we compare our conditional maximum entropy framework with the conventional maximum likelihood framework, and also clarify how the first order phase transitions in loopy belief propagations for Potts models influence our hyperparameter estimation procedures.

  12. Do religious or spiritual beliefs influence bereavement? A systematic review.

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    Becker, Gerhild; Xander, Carola J; Blum, Hubert E; Lutterbach, Johannes; Momm, Felix; Gysels, Marjolein; Higginson, Irene J

    2007-04-01

    Responses to bereavement may be influenced by characteristics such as age or gender, but also by factors like culture and religion. A systematic review was undertaken to assess whether spiritual or religious beliefs alter the process of grief and/or bereavement. Fifteen computerized databases were searched. Thirty-two studies met the inclusion criteria. Evidence was graded according to the standard grading system of the Clinical Outcomes Group and by the SIGNAL score. In total, 5715 persons were examined: 69% women, 87% white, 83% protestant. Ninety-four percent of studies show some positive effects of religious/spiritual beliefs on bereavement, but there was a great heterogeneity regarding included populations and outcome measurements. Available data do not allow for a definite answer on whether religious/spiritual beliefs effectively influence bereavement as most studies suffer from weaknesses in design and methodological flaws. Further research is needed. Recommendations for further research are given.

  13. Violence-Related Attitudes and Beliefs: Scale Construction and Psychometrics

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    Brand, Pamela A.; Anastasio, Phyllis A.

    2006-01-01

    The 50-item Violence-Related Attitudes and Beliefs Scale (V-RABS) includes three subscales measuring possible causes of violent behavior (environmental influences, biological influences, and mental illness) and four subscales assessing possible controls of violent behavior (death penalty, punishment, prevention, and catharsis). Each subscale…

  14. Pre-Service Teachers' Beliefs about Knowledge, Mathematics, and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, Jo Ann; Rearden, Kristin

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the beliefs of K-8 preservice teachers during a content methods course. The goals of this course included exposing the preservice teachers to student-centered instructional methods for math and science and encouraging the development of lessons that would integrate mathematics and science. Prior research suggested that one must…

  15. Meteor Beliefs Project: Meteoric references in Ovid's Metamorphoses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghe, A. D.; McBeath, A.

    2003-10-01

    Three sections of Ovid's Metamorphoses are examined, providing further information on meteoric beliefs in ancient Roman times. These include meteoric imagery among the portents associated with the death of Julius Caesar, which we mentioned previously from the works of William Shakespeare (McBeath and Gheorghe, 2003b).

  16. Development of the Environmental Education Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Christine; Utley, Juliana; Angle, Julie; Mwavita, Mwarumba

    2016-01-01

    The increasing popularity of including environmental topics and issues in school curricula has created a need for effective environmental education teachers. One way to evaluate teacher effectiveness is through teacher efficacy, a belief measure that evaluates a teacher's perception that he/she can teach effectively. Research suggests that…

  17. Geography Teachers' Attitudes and Beliefs Regarding Classroom Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikmenli, Yurdal; Çifçi, Taner

    2016-01-01

    This study scrutinizes geography teachers' attitude and belief levels regarding classroom management. As a matter of fact, classroom management is one of the prominent areas emphasized by all educators. Descriptive correlational survey model was used in the study. Study group includes 58 geography teachers working in Sivas province during the…

  18. Does Religious Belief Promote Prosociality? A Critical Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galen, Luke W.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous authors have suggested that religious belief has a positive association, possibly causal, with prosocial behavior. This article critiques evidence regarding this "religious prosociality" hypothesis from several areas of the literature. The extant literature on religious prosociality is reviewed including domains of charity,…

  19. Relationships between Prospective Middle Grades Mathematics Teachers' Beliefs and TPACK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ryan C.; Kim, Somin; McIntyre, Leighton

    2016-01-01

    As technology become more ubiquitous in the classroom, teachers need to overcome two types of barriers to use it effectively: access to resources (including the development of knowledge) and the development of appropriate beliefs. To assist teachers in overcoming these barriers, we must understand the relationships that exist among them. We…

  20. Comparison of breast-feeding knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs before and after educational intervention for rural Appalachian high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Allison K; Schetzina, Karen E; Freeman, Sherry C; Coulter, Meredith M; Colgrove, Nicole J

    2013-03-01

    Breast-feeding rates in rural and southeastern regions of the United States are lower than national rates and Healthy People 2020 targets. The objectives of this study were to understand current breast-feeding knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among rural southern Appalachian adolescents and to explore whether a high school educational intervention designed to address the five tenets (knowledge, attitudes, intentions, perceived behavioral control, and subjective norms) of the theory of planned behavior may be effective in increasing future rates of breast-feeding in this population. An educational session including an interactive game was developed and administered to occupational health science students during a single class period in two county high schools. A presurvey and a postsurvey administered 2 weeks after the intervention were completed by students. Pre- and postsurveys were analyzed using paired t tests and Cohen d and potential differences based on sex and grade were explored. Both pre- and postsurveys were completed by 107 students (78%). Knowledge, attitudes about breast-feeding benefits, subjective norms, and intentions significantly improved following the intervention. Baseline knowledge and attitudes about breast-feeding benefits for mothers were low and demonstrated the greatest improvement. Offering breast-feeding education based on the theory of planned behavior in a single high school class session was effective in improving student knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about breast-feeding and intention to breast-feed.

  1. Primary Care Physicians' Beliefs and Practices Regarding E-Cigarette Use by Patients Who Smoke: A Qualitative Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shahawy, Omar; Brown, Richard; Elston Lafata, Jennifer

    2016-04-26

    We explored primary care physicians' (PCPs') beliefs and practices about e-cigarettes. Cross-sectional, semi-structured interviews with PCPs in 2014 were conducted and audio-recorded. Participants were 15 general internal and family medicine physicians practicing in two settings in Virginia, USA. Interview recordings were transcribed, and the content analyzed using the Constant Comparative Method to identify key themes regarding PCPs' reported current practices and beliefs. Five themes were identified: (1) existing clinic processes do not include mechanisms to screen for noncombustible tobacco products (such as e-cigarettes); (2) e-cigarette discussions are becoming commonplace with patients initiating the discussions and seeking physician guidance regarding e-cigarette use; (3) a lack of knowledge regarding the potential harms and benefits of e-cigarettes, yet a willingness to support their patients' desire to use e-cigarettes (4) believing e-cigarettes are a safer alternative to smoking combustible tobacco products; and (5) abandoning concerns regarding the potential harms of e-cigarettes in the context of highly addicted patients and those with extensive comorbidities. Despite acknowledging limited knowledge regarding e-cigarettes, findings suggest that some PCPs are currently recommending e-cigarettes to their patients for smoking cessation and relative harm reduction, often personalizing recommendations based on the patient's perceived addiction level and current health status. Physicians need to be informed about the evolving evidence regarding the risks and benefits of e-cigarettes.

  2. Primary Care Physicians’ Beliefs and Practices Regarding E-Cigarette Use by Patients Who Smoke: A Qualitative Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar El-Shahawy

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We explored primary care physicians’ (PCPs’ beliefs and practices about e-cigarettes. Cross-sectional, semi-structured interviews with PCPs in 2014 were conducted and audio-recorded. Participants were 15 general internal and family medicine physicians practicing in two settings in Virginia, USA. Interview recordings were transcribed, and the content analyzed using the Constant Comparative Method to identify key themes regarding PCPs’ reported current practices and beliefs. Five themes were identified: (1 existing clinic processes do not include mechanisms to screen for noncombustible tobacco products (such as e-cigarettes; (2 e-cigarette discussions are becoming commonplace with patients initiating the discussions and seeking physician guidance regarding e-cigarette use; (3 a lack of knowledge regarding the potential harms and benefits of e-cigarettes, yet a willingness to support their patients’ desire to use e-cigarettes (4 believing e-cigarettes are a safer alternative to smoking combustible tobacco products; and (5 abandoning concerns regarding the potential harms of e-cigarettes in the context of highly addicted patients and those with extensive comorbidities. Despite acknowledging limited knowledge regarding e-cigarettes, findings suggest that some PCPs are currently recommending e-cigarettes to their patients for smoking cessation and relative harm reduction, often personalizing recommendations based on the patient’s perceived addiction level and current health status. Physicians need to be informed about the evolving evidence regarding the risks and benefits of e-cigarettes.

  3. Cervical cancer screening attitudes and beliefs of Malaysian women who have never had a pap smear: a qualitative study.

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    Wong, L P; Wong, Y L; Low, W Y; Khoo, E M; Shuib, R

    2008-01-01

    Attitudes toward cervical cancer and participation in early detection and screening services are well known to be profoundly affected by cultural beliefs and norms. This study explored the attitudes and sociocultural beliefs on cervical cancer screening among Malaysian women. In this qualitative study, in-depth interviews were conducted with 20 Malaysian women, ages 21 to 56 years, who have never had a Papanicolaou (Pap) smear. Respondents generally showed a lack of knowledge about cervical cancer screening using Pap smear, and the need for early detection for cervical cancer. Many believed the Pap smear was a diagnostic test for cervical cancer, and since they had no symptoms, they did not go for Pap screening. Other main reasons for not doing the screening included lack of awareness of Pap smear indications and benefits, perceived low susceptibility to cervical cancer, and embarrassment. Other reasons for not being screened were related to fear of pain, misconceptions about cervical cancer, fatalistic attitude, and undervaluation of own health needs versus those of the family. Women need to be educated about the benefits of cervical cancer screening. Health education, counseling, outreach programs, and community-based interventions are needed to improve the uptake of Pap smear in Malaysia.

  4. Comparison of personality beliefs between depressed patients and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucens, Bengu; Kuru, Erkan; Safak, Yasir; Karadere, Mehmet Emrah; Turkcapar, Mehmet Hakan

    2014-11-01

    According to the cognitive model, the common mechanism underlying all psychological disorders is distorted or dysfunctional thoughts that affect mood and behaviors. Dysfunctional thoughts predispose an individual to depression and are among the processes that form the basis of personality traits. Elucidating the personality beliefs associated with depression and dysfunctional thoughts is important to understanding and treating depression. The aim of the present study is to determine whether depressed patients exhibited pathological personality beliefs compared with healthy controls. Furthermore, we investigated which personality beliefs were more common among such depressed patients. A total of 70 patients who were admitted to the Department of Psychiatry at Ankara Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Training and Research Hospital (Ankara, Turkey) and diagnosed with major depressive disorder according to The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) diagnostic criteria were included in the study. Additionally, 70 healthy controls matched for age, marital status, and education were included in the study. The Sociodemographic Data Form and Personality Belief Questionnaire-Short form (PBQ-SF) were administered to the participants. A comparison of the depression group with the healthy controls revealed higher scores in dependent, passive-aggressive, obsessive-compulsive, antisocial, histrionic, paranoid, borderline, and avoidant personality subscales in the depressive group. These results suggest that personality beliefs at the pathological level are more common in depressive patients and that the detection of these beliefs would be useful for predicting the prognosis of the disease and determining appropriate treatment methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A Mixed Methods Approach to Code Stakeholder Beliefs in Urban Water Governance

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    Bell, E. V.; Henry, A.; Pivo, G.

    2017-12-01

    What is a reliable way to code policies to represent belief systems? The Advocacy Coalition Framework posits that public policy may be viewed as manifestations of belief systems. Belief systems include both ontological beliefs about cause-and-effect relationships and policy effectiveness, as well as normative beliefs about appropriate policy instruments and the relative value of different outcomes. The idea that belief systems are embodied in public policy is important for urban water governance because it trains our focus on belief conflict; this can help us understand why many water-scarce cities do not adopt innovative technology despite available scientific information. To date, there has been very little research on systematic, rigorous methods to measure the belief system content of public policies. We address this by testing the relationship between beliefs and policy participation to develop an innovative coding framework. With a focus on urban water governance in Tucson, Arizona, we analyze grey literature on local water management. Mentioned policies are coded into a typology of common approaches identified in urban water governance literature, which include regulation, education, price and non-price incentives, green infrastructure and other types of technology. We then survey local water stakeholders about their perceptions of these policies. Urban water governance requires coordination of organizations from multiple sectors, and we cannot assume that belief development and policy participation occur in a vacuum. Thus, we use a generalized exponential random graph model to test the relationship between perceptions and policy participation in the Tucson water governance network. We measure policy perceptions for organizations by averaging across their respective, affiliated respondents and generating a belief distance matrix of coordinating network participants. Similarly, we generate a distance matrix of these actors based on the frequency of their

  6. Beliefs in the Future as a Positive Youth Development Construct: A Conceptual Review

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    Rachel C. F. Sun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Beliefs in the future are an internalization of hope and optimism about future outcomes. This paper reviews and compares several theories of hope and optimism and highlights the features constituting beliefs in the future. This paper points out that beliefs in the future include a series of goal-directed thoughts and motivation, such as setting up valued and attainable goals, planning pathways, and maintaining self-confidence and mastery, so as to keep adolescents engaged in the pursuit of goals. This kind of personal mastery, together with sociocultural values, family, school, and peers are the antecedents leading to beliefs in the future, which is related to adolescents’ well-being and positive development. In order to cultivate adolescents’ beliefs in the future, enabling their ability to manipulate goal-directed thoughts and motivation and providing a supportive environment including their family, school, peers, and the society are recommended.

  7. Beliefs, stigma and discrimination associated with mental health problems in Uganda: implications for theory and practice.

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    Quinn, Neil; Knifton, Lee

    2014-09-01

    There are major gaps in knowledge about beliefs, stigma and discrimination in Uganda, including the relationship between different cultural beliefs and stigmatising responses, how stigma and beliefs result in discrimination and the impact of social factors such as gender, poverty and ethnic conflict. This exploratory study aims to understand beliefs, stigma and discrimination associated with mental health in Uganda in more depth from the perspectives of different stakeholders. Focus groups and interviews were undertaken with mental health activists, policymakers, practitioners, non-governmental and human rights organisations, journalists and academics. Stigma was reported by individuals, families, communities and institutions, including health services. The study also found stigmatising beliefs linked to traditional, religious and medical explanatory frameworks, high levels of 'associated stigma', common mental health problems rarely medicalised and discrimination linked to poverty, gender and conflict. The findings suggest the need to address stigma in their cultural and social context, alongside other human rights initiatives. © The Author(s) 2013.

  8. An inconclusive study comparing the effect of concrete and abstract descriptions of belief-inconsistent information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Katherine A; Clément, Richard

    2018-01-01

    Linguistic bias is the differential use of linguistic abstraction (as defined by the Linguistic Category Model) to describe the same behaviour for members of different groups. Essentially, it is the tendency to use concrete language for belief-inconsistent behaviours and abstract language for belief-consistent behaviours. Having found that linguistic bias is produced without intention or awareness in many contexts, researchers argue that linguistic bias reflects, reinforces, and transmits pre-existing beliefs, thus playing a role in belief maintenance. Based on the Linguistic Category Model, this assumes that concrete descriptions reduce the impact of belief-inconsistent behaviours while abstract descriptions maximize the impact of belief-consistent behaviours. However, a key study by Geschke, Sassenberg, Ruhrmann, and Sommer [2007] found that concrete descriptions of belief-inconsistent behaviours actually had a greater impact than abstract descriptions, a finding that does not fit easily within the linguistic bias paradigm. Abstract descriptions (e.g. the elderly woman is athletic) are, by definition, more open to interpretation than concrete descriptions (e.g. the elderly woman works out regularly). It is thus possible that abstract descriptions are (1) perceived as having less evidentiary strength than concrete descriptions, and (2) understood in context (i.e. athletic for an elderly woman). In this study, the design of Geschke et al. [2007] was modified to address this possibility. We expected that the differences in the impact of concrete and abstract descriptions would be reduced or reversed, but instead we found that differences were largely absent. This study did not support the findings of Geschke et al. [2007] or the linguistic bias paradigm. We encourage further attempts to understand the strong effect of concrete descriptions for belief-inconsistent behaviour.

  9. Anxiety and depression in people with epilepsy: The contribution of metacognitive beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Peter L; Noble, Adam J

    2017-08-01

    Anxiety and depressive disorders frequently occur in people with epilepsy (PWE). An information processing model of psychopathology, the Self-Regulatory Executive Function (S-REF) model specifies that maladaptive metacognitive beliefs and processes play a fundamental role in the development and maintenance of anxiety and depression. This study explored whether metacognitive beliefs would explain additional variance in anxiety and depression after accounting for demographics, physical and/or psychiatric illnesses, epilepsy characteristics and medication issues. The mediational relationships between metacognitive beliefs, worry and anxiety and depression, predicted by the metacognitive model were also explored, METHODS: Three hundred and forty-nine PWE participated in an online survey and completed self-report questionnaires measuring anxiety, depression, metacognitive beliefs and worry. Participants also provided information on epilepsy characteristics, demographics, comorbid physical and/or psychiatric illnesses, number of, and perceived side effects of, anti-epileptic medication. Regression analysis showed that metacognitive beliefs were associated with symptoms of anxiety, depression, and explained additional variance in these outcomes after accounting for the control variables. Furthermore, the fundamental tenet of the metacognitive model was supported; the relationship between negative metacognitive beliefs about uncontrollability and danger of worry and anxious and depressive symptoms was partially mediated by worry. This is the first study to demonstrate that metacognitive beliefs and processes contribute to anxiety and depression beyond variables often associated with emotional distress in PWE. Further research is required to test if modification of metacognitive beliefs and processes using metacognitive therapy would effectively alleviate anxiety and depression in PWE. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  10. An inconclusive study comparing the effect of concrete and abstract descriptions of belief-inconsistent information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A Collins

    Full Text Available Linguistic bias is the differential use of linguistic abstraction (as defined by the Linguistic Category Model to describe the same behaviour for members of different groups. Essentially, it is the tendency to use concrete language for belief-inconsistent behaviours and abstract language for belief-consistent behaviours. Having found that linguistic bias is produced without intention or awareness in many contexts, researchers argue that linguistic bias reflects, reinforces, and transmits pre-existing beliefs, thus playing a role in belief maintenance. Based on the Linguistic Category Model, this assumes that concrete descriptions reduce the impact of belief-inconsistent behaviours while abstract descriptions maximize the impact of belief-consistent behaviours. However, a key study by Geschke, Sassenberg, Ruhrmann, and Sommer [2007] found that concrete descriptions of belief-inconsistent behaviours actually had a greater impact than abstract descriptions, a finding that does not fit easily within the linguistic bias paradigm. Abstract descriptions (e.g. the elderly woman is athletic are, by definition, more open to interpretation than concrete descriptions (e.g. the elderly woman works out regularly. It is thus possible that abstract descriptions are (1 perceived as having less evidentiary strength than concrete descriptions, and (2 understood in context (i.e. athletic for an elderly woman. In this study, the design of Geschke et al. [2007] was modified to address this possibility. We expected that the differences in the impact of concrete and abstract descriptions would be reduced or reversed, but instead we found that differences were largely absent. This study did not support the findings of Geschke et al. [2007] or the linguistic bias paradigm. We encourage further attempts to understand the strong effect of concrete descriptions for belief-inconsistent behaviour.

  11. Psychosocial effects of perceived emotional synchrony in collective gatherings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Páez, Dario; Rimé, Bernard; Basabe, Nekane; Wlodarczyk, Anna; Zumeta, Larraitz

    2015-05-01

    In a classic theory, Durkheim (1912) predicted that because of the social sharing of emotion they generate, collective gatherings bring participants to a stage of collective effervescence in which they experience a sense of union with others and a feeling of empowerment accompanied by positive affect. This would lead them to leave the collective situation with a renewed sense of confidence in life and in social institutions. A century after Durkheim's predictions of these effects, though, they remained untested as a whole. This article reports 4 studies, 2 correlational, 1 semilongitudinal, and 1 experimental, assessing the positive effects of participation in either positively valenced (folkloric marches) or negatively valenced (protest demonstrations) collective gatherings. Results confirmed that collective gatherings consistently strengthened collective identity, identity fusion, and social integration, as well as enhancing personal and collective self-esteem and efficacy, positive affect, and positive social beliefs among participants. In line with a central tenet of the theory, emotional communion, or perceived emotional synchrony with others mediated these effects. Higher perceived emotional synchrony was associated with stronger emotional reactions, stronger social support, and higher endorsement of social beliefs and values. Participation in symbolic collective gatherings also particularly reinforced identity fusion when perceived emotional synchrony was high. The respective contributions of perceived emotional synchrony and flow, or optimal experience, were also assessed. Whereas perceived emotional synchrony emerged as strongly related to the various social outcomes, flow was observed to be related first to collective efficacy and self-esteem, and thus, to encompass mainly empowerment effects. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Tolerating the “doubting Thomas”: how centrality of religious beliefs vs. practices influences prejudice against atheists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Jeffrey; Grossmann, Igor; Cohen, Adam B.

    2015-01-01

    Past research has found a robust effect of prejudice against atheists in largely Christian-dominated (belief-oriented) samples. We propose that religious centrality of beliefs vs. practices influences attitudes toward atheists, such that religious groups emphasizing beliefs perceive non-believers more negatively than believers, while groups emphasizing practices perceive non-practicing individuals more negatively than practicing individuals. Studies 1–2, in surveys of 41 countries, found that Muslims and Protestants (belief-oriented) had more negative attitudes toward atheists than did Jews and Hindus (practice-oriented). Study 3 experimentally manipulated a target individual's beliefs and practices. Protestants had more negative attitudes toward a non-believer (vs. a believer), whereas Jews had more negative attitudes toward a non-practicing individual (vs. a practicing individual, particularly when they had a Jewish background). This research has implications for the psychology of religion, anti-atheist prejudice, and cross-cultural attitudes regarding where dissent in beliefs or practices may be tolerated or censured within religious groups. PMID:26441728

  13. Perceived organizational support: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Linda; Eisenberger, Robert

    2002-08-01

    The authors reviewed more than 70 studies concerning employees' general belief that their work organization values their contribution and cares about their well-being (perceived organizational support; POS). A meta-analysis indicated that 3 major categories of beneficial treatment received by employees (i.e., fairness, supervisor support, and organizational rewards and favorable job conditions) were associated with POS. POS, in turn, was related to outcomes favorable to employees (e.g., job satisfaction, positive mood) and the organization (e.g., affective commitment, performance, and lessened withdrawal behavior). These relationships depended on processes assumed by organizational support theory: employees' belief that the organization's actions were discretionary, feeling of obligation to aid the organization, fulfillment of socioemotional needs, and performance-reward expectancies.

  14. Key beliefs related to decisions for physical activity engagement among first-in-family students transitioning to university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Eloise; Hamilton, Kyra

    2014-08-01

    The current study investigated key beliefs related to decisions for physical activity (PA) engagement among first-in-family (FIF) students transitioning to university. FIF students (n = 157) completed an online questionnaire assessing standard theory of planned behaviour constructs and belief-based items. One week later, participants completed a follow-up questionnaire assessing self-reported PA during the previous week. Results identified a range of behavioural, normative, and control beliefs that were significantly correlated with both PA intention and behaviour. Various key beliefs were also identified in relation to FIF students' decisions to be regularly physically active, with behavioural beliefs such as "take up too much time", normative beliefs including "friends outside of university", and control beliefs such as "cost", identified. Finally, frequencies of those who strongly or fully accepted these beliefs were analysed, demonstrating that typically, a large number of FIF students did not hold the beliefs, and as such, these are relevant to target in resultant interventions. The current study effectively highlights a number of key beliefs that can be targeted in programs aimed at encouraging FIF students' PA. Further, the study addresses a gap in the literature of targeting FIF students, a cohort at risk for inactivity, and utilises a sound theoretical framework to identify the unique set of beliefs guiding decisions for PA for this at-risk community group.

  15. Effects of gender role self-discrepancies and self-perceived attractiveness on social anxiety for women across social situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Ashley N; Weeks, Justin W

    2017-01-01

    Psychosocial factors, such as gender role norms, may impact how social anxiety disorder (SAD) is experienced and expressed in different social contexts for women. However to date, these factors have not been examined via experimental methodology. This was a cross-sectional, quasi-experimental controlled study. The current study included 48 highly socially anxious (HSA) women (70.9% meeting criteria for SAD) and examined the relationships among psychosocial factors (i.e. gender role self-discrepancies and self-perceived physical attractiveness), self-perceived social performance, and state anxiety, across two in vivo social tasks (i.e. conversation and opinion speech). On average, participants reported belief that they ought to be less feminine for the speech task and more masculine for both the conversation and speech tasks. Also, for the conversation task, only lower self-rated attractiveness predicted poorer self-perceived performance and greater post-task state anxiety, above gender role self-discrepancies and confederate gender. For the speech task, only greater self-discrepancy in prototypical masculine traits predicted poorer performance ratings, and it was related to greater state anxiety in anticipation of the task. For HSA women, psychosocial factors may play different roles in social anxiety across social contexts.

  16. Variable Effects of Children's Aggression, Social Withdrawal, and Prosocial Leadership as Functions of Teacher Beliefs and Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Lei

    2003-01-01

    Examined link between Chinese teachers' beliefs about classroom aggression and withdrawal and their support of middle schoolers, and student behaviors, peer acceptance, and self-perceived social competence. Found that teachers' aversion to aggression and empathy toward withdrawal enhanced self-perceptions of both aggressive and withdrawn children…

  17. How the Future Orientation of Traditional Israeli Palestinian Girls Links Beliefs about Women's Roles and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seginer, Rachel; Mahajna, Sami

    2004-01-01

    A model in which future orientation links perceived fathers' and girls' beliefs about traditional women's roles and academic achievement was tested on data collected from traditional Israeli Palestinian girls (N=295) attending a Moslem all-girl senior high school. LISREL analyses estimated two empirical models pertaining to educational and family…

  18. Engaging students: The role of teacher beliefs and interpersonal teacher behavior in fostering student engagement in vocational education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Uden, Jolien M.; Ritzen, Henk; Pieters, Julius Marie

    2014-01-01

    Student engagement is an important precursor for learning. In this study we used teacher (N = 200) and student (N = 2288) questionnaires to investigate whether perceived interpersonal teacher behavior and teacher beliefs concerning motives for being a teacher, attitudes toward teacher knowledge

  19. Influence of Family Processes, Motivation, and Beliefs about Intelligence on Creative Problem Solving of Scientifically Talented Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seokhee; Lin, Chia-Yi

    2011-01-01

    Predictive relationships among perceived family processes, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, incremental beliefs about intelligence, confidence in intelligence, and creative problem-solving practices in mathematics and science were examined. Participants were 733 scientifically talented Korean students in fourth through twelfth grades as well as…

  20. The Relationship between Pedagogical Beliefs and Teacher Efficacy: A Case Study of Chinese Foreign Language Teachers in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, I-Chun

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated an emerging language learning culture by examining the relationship between teachers' pedagogical beliefs and perceived efficacy in two cities in southern Texas. Drawing on Bandura's (1994) theory of self-efficacy and Ashton and Webb's (1986) notions about teacher efficacy, a multi-sited case study was conducted to explore…

  1. Spanish Language Self-Efficacy Beliefs among Spanish-Speaking Social Workers: Implications for Social Work Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriaza, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Limited research exists about Spanish-speaking social workers that provide bilingual social work services. To date, studies have not exclusively focused on actual language competence of bilingual social workers or even their self-perceived language beliefs. This study reviews the results of a cross-sectional Internet-based survey exploring…

  2. Making STEM “Family Friendly”: The Impact of Perceiving Science Careers as Family-Compatible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica S. Weisgram

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Two studies extended the communal goal congruity perspective to examine perceived incongruity between science careers and family caregiving goals. Study 1 examined beliefs about science careers among young adolescents, older adolescents, and young adults. Science careers were perceived as unlikely to afford family goals, and this belief emerged more strongly with age cohort. Study 1 also documented that the perception that science affords family goals predicts interest in pursuing science. Study 2 then employed an experimental methodology to investigate the impact of framing a science career as integrated with family life or not. For family-oriented women, the family-friendly framing of science produced greater personal favorability toward pursuing a science career. In addition, perceived fulfilment of the scientist described predicted personal favorability toward a science career path. We discuss the implications of these findings for research and for policy.

  3. Perceived Risks Associated with Contraceptive Method Use among Men and Women in Ibadan and Kaduna, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwandt, Hilary M; Skinner, Joanna; Hebert, Luciana E; Saad, Abdulmumin

    2015-12-01

    Research shows that side effects are often the most common reason for contraceptive non-use in Nigeria; however, research to date has not explored the underlying factors that influence risk and benefit perceptions associated with specific contraceptive methods in Nigeria. A qualitative study design using focus group discussions was used to explore social attitudes and beliefs about family planning methods in Ibadan and Kaduna, Nigeria. A total of 26 focus group discussions were held in 2010 with men and women of reproductive age, disaggregated by city, sex, age, marital status, neighborhood socioeconomic status, and--for women only--family planning experience. A discussion guide was used that included specific questions about the perceived risks and benefits associated with the use of six different family planning methods. A thematic content analytic approach guided the analysis. Participants identified a spectrum of risks encompassing perceived threats to health (both real and fictitious) and social concerns, as well as benefits associated with each method. By exploring Nigerian perspectives on the risks and benefits associated with specific family planning methods, programs aiming to increase contraceptive use in Nigeria can be better equipped to highlight recognized benefits, address specific concerns, and work to dispel misperceptions associated with each family planning method.

  4. Intentions of Chiropractic Interns Regarding use of Health Promotion in Practice: Applying Theory of Reasoned Action to Identify Attitudes, Beliefs, and Influencing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Marion W.; Ndetan, Harrison; Williams, Ronald D.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The theory of reasoned action is a health behavioral theory that has been used to predict personal health behaviors and intentions as well as those of providers delivering health care. The purpose of this study was to determine interns' future practices regarding the use of health promotion using this model to develop survey questions and to determine attitudes and perceived influences on their prospective behaviors in general, toward the use of health promotion once in practice. Methods: Across the course of one year, all graduating interns at a chiropractic college were queried with a 20 question survey designed using the theory of reasoned action. Frequencies and inferential statistics were performed including prediction modeling using logistic regression. Results: A majority (>85%) of interns indicated they would use health promotion in practice. Differences were noted based on perceived skill levels, perception of educational emphasis, various normative beliefs, and gender. Conclusion: Most interns will use some form of health promotion in practice. Normative influences including those seen as key influencers are as powerful a predictor as perceived education or skill levels on future practice of health promotion. PMID:19390679

  5. Intentions of Chiropractic Interns Regarding use of Health Promotion in Practice: Applying Theory of Reasoned Action to Identify Attitudes, Beliefs, and Influencing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Marion W; Ndetan, Harrison; Williams, Ronald D

    2009-01-01

    The theory of reasoned action is a health behavioral theory that has been used to predict personal health behaviors and intentions as well as those of providers delivering health care. The purpose of this study was to determine interns' future practices regarding the use of health promotion using this model to develop survey questions and to determine attitudes and perceived influences on their prospective behaviors in general, toward the use of health promotion once in practice. Across the course of one year, all graduating interns at a chiropractic college were queried with a 20 question survey designed using the theory of reasoned action. Frequencies and inferential statistics were performed including prediction modeling using logistic regression. A majority (>85%) of interns indicated they would use health promotion in practice. Differences were noted based on perceived skill levels, perception of educational emphasis, various normative beliefs, and gender. Most interns will use some form of health promotion in practice. Normative influences including those seen as key influencers are as powerful a predictor as perceived education or skill levels on future practice of health promotion.

  6. Impact of Weight of the Nation Community Screenings on Obesity-Related Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luecking, Courtney T.; Noar, Seth M.; Dooley, Rachel M.; Gizlice, Ziya; Ammerman, Alice S.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction HBO’s Weight of the Nation was a collaborative effort among several national organizations to raise awareness about the complexity of the obesity epidemic and promote action through media and community forums. The primary aim of this study was to assess the short-term effects of Weight of the Nation community screenings on obesity-related beliefs, intentions, and policy support. Methods Five Prevention Research Centers across the U.S. administered surveys at nine Weight of the Nation community screenings between September 2012 and May 2013. Adults aged ≥18 years who completed pre–post surveys were included. The survey assessed demographic information, perceptions of the documentary, efficacy to take action and influence policies that affect obesity, intentions to take actions to support a healthy weight, and positions on policy changes that impact food systems. Data were analyzed in 2015. Results A convenience sample of 442 individuals completed surveys. The sample was mostly health workers, female, college educated, aged 25–44 years, and racially and ethnically diverse. Significant increases (p<0.001) were observed for perceived self- and collective efficacy that individuals and communities can influence policies and environmental factors that affect obesity, intentions to take actions that contribute to a healthy weight, and support for policies that change the food system. Conclusions A broad, nationwide effort, such as Weight of the Nation, that combines media with opportunities to bring community members together for discussion, may play a role in influencing beliefs, intentions, and policy support regarding obesity prevention. PMID:28215388

  7. Treatment beliefs, health behaviors and their association with treatment outcome in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Arx, Lill-Brith Wium; Gydesen, Helge; Skovlund, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Objective: While the prevalence of type 2 diabetes is growing, it is increasingly well recognized that treatment outcomes in primary care practice are often suboptimal. The aim of this study is to examine the extent to which treatment beliefs and health behaviors predict diabetes health outcome......-reported survey administered to all insulin-treated people in the registry (n=3160). The survey was constructed to operationalize key concepts of diabetes management, diabetes treatment beliefs, and health behaviors. Results: In total, 1033 respondents answered the survey. The majority of treatment beliefs...... and health behaviors examined were predictors of glycemic control and, to a large extent, lipid profile. Absence from, or a low frequency of, self-measured blood glucose, non-adherence to general medical advice and the prescribed treatment, a low primary care utilization, and perceived low treatment efficacy...

  8. Teachers’ Beliefs and Practices Regarding the Role of Executive Functions in Reading and Arithmetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Rapoport

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigated early elementary school teachers’ beliefs and practices regarding the role of Executive Functions in reading and arithmetic. A new research questionnaire was developed and judged by professionals in the academia and the field. Reponses were obtained from 144 teachers from Israel. Factor analysis divided the questionnaire into three valid and reliable subscales, reflecting (1 beliefs regarding the contribution of executive functions to reading and arithmetic, (2 pedagogical practices, and (3 a connection between the cognitive mechanisms of reading and arithmetic. Findings indicate that teachers believe executive functions affect students’ performance in reading and arithmetic. These beliefs were also correlated with pedagogical practices. Additionally, special education teachers’ scored higher on the different subscales compared to general education teachers. These findings shed light on the way teachers perceive the cognitive foundations of reading and arithmetic and indicate to which extent these perceptions guide their teaching practices.

  9. The role of beliefs in lexical alignment: evidence from dialogs with humans and computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branigan, Holly P; Pickering, Martin J; Pearson, Jamie; McLean, Janet F; Brown, Ash

    2011-10-01

    Five experiments examined the extent to which speakers' alignment (i.e., convergence) on words in dialog is mediated by beliefs about their interlocutor. To do this, we told participants that they were interacting with another person or a computer in a task in which they alternated between selecting pictures that matched their 'partner's' descriptions and naming pictures themselves (though in reality all responses were scripted). In both text- and speech-based dialog, participants tended to repeat their partner's choice of referring expression. However, they showed a stronger tendency to align with 'computer' than with 'human' partners, and with computers that were presented as less capable than with computers that were presented as more capable. The tendency to align therefore appears to be mediated by beliefs, with the relevant beliefs relating to an interlocutor's perceived communicative capacity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Teachers’ Beliefs and Practices Regarding the Role of Executive Functions in Reading and Arithmetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapoport, Shirley; Rubinsten, Orly; Katzir, Tami

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigated early elementary school teachers’ beliefs and practices regarding the role of Executive Functions (EFs) in reading and arithmetic. A new research questionnaire was developed and judged by professionals in the academia and the field. Reponses were obtained from 144 teachers from Israel. Factor analysis divided the questionnaire into three valid and reliable subscales, reflecting (1) beliefs regarding the contribution of EFs to reading and arithmetic, (2) pedagogical practices, and (3) a connection between the cognitive mechanisms of reading and arithmetic. Findings indicate that teachers believe EFs affect students’ performance in reading and arithmetic. These beliefs were also correlated with pedagogical practices. Additionally, special education teachers’ scored higher on the different subscales compared to general education teachers. These findings shed light on the way teachers perceive the cognitive foundations of reading and arithmetic and indicate to which extent these perceptions guide their teaching practices. PMID:27799917

  11. Teachers' Beliefs and Practices Regarding the Role of Executive Functions in Reading and Arithmetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapoport, Shirley; Rubinsten, Orly; Katzir, Tami

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigated early elementary school teachers' beliefs and practices regarding the role of Executive Functions (EFs) in reading and arithmetic. A new research questionnaire was developed and judged by professionals in the academia and the field. Reponses were obtained from 144 teachers from Israel. Factor analysis divided the questionnaire into three valid and reliable subscales, reflecting (1) beliefs regarding the contribution of EFs to reading and arithmetic, (2) pedagogical practices, and (3) a connection between the cognitive mechanisms of reading and arithmetic. Findings indicate that teachers believe EFs affect students' performance in reading and arithmetic. These beliefs were also correlated with pedagogical practices. Additionally, special education teachers' scored higher on the different subscales compared to general education teachers. These findings shed light on the way teachers perceive the cognitive foundations of reading and arithmetic and indicate to which extent these perceptions guide their teaching practices.

  12. Health beliefs and practices related to dengue fever: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Li Ping; AbuBakar, Sazaly

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study aimed to provide an in-depth understanding of the meaning of dengue fever (DF) amongst people living in a dengue endemic region, dengue prevention and treatment-seeking behaviours. The Health Belief Model was used as a framework to explore and understand dengue prevention behaviours. A total of 14 focus group discussions were conducted with 84 Malaysian citizens of different socio-demographic backgrounds between 16(th) December, 2011 and 12(th) May, 2012. The study revealed that awareness about DF and prevention measures were high. The pathophysiology of dengue especially dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) were rarely known; as a result, it was seen as deadly by some but was also perceived as easily curable by others without a basis of understanding. Young adults and elderly participants had a low perception of susceptibility to DF. In general, the low perceived susceptibility emerged as two themes, namely a perceived natural ability to withstand infection and a low risk of being in contact with the dengue virus vector, Aedes spp. mosquitoes. The barriers to sustained self-prevention against dengue prevention that emerged in focus groups were: i) lack of self-efficacy, ii) lack of perceived benefit, iii) low perceived susceptibility, and iv) unsure perceived susceptibility. Low perceived benefit of continued dengue prevention practices was a result of lack of concerted action against dengue in their neighborhood. Traditional medical practices and home remedies were widely perceived and experienced as efficacious in treating DF. Behavioural change towards attaining sustainability in dengue preventive practices may be enhanced by fostering comprehensive knowledge of dengue and a change in health beliefs. Wide use of unconventional therapy for DF warrants the need to enlighten the public to limit their reliance on unproven alternative treatments.

  13. Internet Pornography Use, Perceived Addiction, and Religious/Spiritual Struggles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, Joshua B; Exline, Julie J; Pargament, Kenneth I; Volk, Fred; Lindberg, Matthew J

    2017-08-01

    Prior work has demonstrated that religious beliefs and moral attitudes are often related to sexual functioning. The present work sought to examine another possibility: Do sexual attitudes and behaviors have a relationship with religious and spiritual functioning? More specifically, do pornography use and perceived addiction to Internet pornography predict the experience of religious and spiritual struggle? It was expected that feelings of perceived addiction to Internet pornography would indeed predict such struggles, both cross-sectionally and over time, but that actual pornography use would not. To test these ideas, two studies were conducted using a sample of undergraduate students (N = 1519) and a sample of adult Internet users in the U.S. (N = 713). Cross-sectional analyses in both samples found that elements of perceived addiction were related to the experience of religious and spiritual struggle. Additionally, longitudinal analyses over a 1-year time span with a subset of undergraduates (N = 156) and a subset of adult web users (N = 366) revealed that perceived addiction to Internet pornography predicted unique variance in struggle over time, even when baseline levels of struggle and other related variables were held constant. Collectively, these findings identify perceived addiction to Internet pornography as a reliable predictor of religious and spiritual struggle.

  14. Stigmatizing attitudes and beliefs toward bulimia nervosa: the importance of knowledge and eating disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Rachel Florence; Paxton, Susan J; McLean, Siân A; Massey, Robin; Mond, Jonathan M; Hay, Phillipa J; Rodgers, Bryan

    2015-04-01

    Widely held stigmatizing attitudes and beliefs toward bulimic eating disorders may lead to self-blame and reduced treatment seeking. Knowledge and familiarity with mental disorders may help decrease associated stigma. However, these relationships are not well understood in bulimia nervosa (BN). A community sample of 1828 adults aged 18 to 70 years completed a survey assessing stigmatizing attitudes and beliefs toward BN, knowledge and familiarity with the disorder, as well as levels of eating disorder symptoms. Knowledge of BN was negatively associated with three dimensions of stigmatization, personal responsibility (ρ = -0.28), unreliability (ρ = -0.19), and advantages of BN (ρ = -0.23). Familiarity revealed no association with stigmatization. Both men and women with high levels of eating disorder symptoms perceived BN as less serious than the participants with low levels of symptoms. Increasing community knowledge about bulimia may help mitigate stigmatization and perceived barriers to treatment.

  15. Using Qualitative Research Methods to Assess the Degree of Fit between Teachers' Reported Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Their Practical Knowledge during Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Mark

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for qualitative research into teachers' self-efficacy beliefs so that the relationship between these beliefs and other cognitions possessed by teachers, including their practical knowledge, can be better understood by teacher educators. Teachers' self-efficacy beliefs may need supporting if they seem too low or challenging if they…

  16. Attitudes, beliefs, uncertainty and risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenhalgh, Geoffrey [Down Park Place, Crawley Down (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    There is now unmistakable evidence of a widening split within the Western industrial nations arising from conflicting views of society; for and against change. The argument is over the benefits of 'progress' and growth. On one side are those who seek more jobs, more production and consumption, higher standards of living, an ever-increasing GNP with an increasing globalisation of production and welcome the advances of science and technology confident that any temporary problems that arise can be solved by further technological development - possible energy shortages as a growing population increases energy usage can be met by nuclear power development; food shortages by the increased yields of GM crops. In opposition are those who put the quality of life before GNP, advocate a more frugal life-style, reducing needs and energy consumption, and, pointing to the harm caused by increasing pollution, press for cleaner air and water standards. They seek to reduce the pressure of an ever-increasing population and above all to preserve the natural environment. This view is associated with a growing uncertainty as the established order is challenged with the rise in status of 'alternative' science and medicine. This paper argues that these conflicting views reflect instinctive attitudes. These in turn draw support from beliefs selected from those which uncertainty offers. Where there is scope for argument over the truth or validity of a 'fact', the choice of which of the disputed views to believe will be determined by a value judgement. This applies to all controversial social and political issues. Nuclear waste disposal and biotechnology are but two particular examples in the technological field; joining the EMU is a current political controversy where value judgements based on attitudes determine beliefs. When, or if, a controversy is finally resolved the judgement arrived at will be justified by the belief that the consequences of the course chosen will be more favourable

  17. Attitudes, beliefs, uncertainty and risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenhalgh, Geoffrey [Down Park Place, Crawley Down (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    There is now unmistakable evidence of a widening split within the Western industrial nations arising from conflicting views of society; for and against change. The argument is over the benefits of 'progress' and growth. On one side are those who seek more jobs, more production and consumption, higher standards of living, an ever-increasing GNP with an increasing globalisation of production and welcome the advances of science and technology confident that any temporary problems that arise can be solved by further technological development - possible energy shortages as a growing population increases energy usage can be met by nuclear power development; food shortages by the increased yields of GM crops. In opposition are those who put the quality of life before GNP, advocate a more frugal life-style, reducing needs and energy consumption, and, pointing to the harm caused by increasing pollution, press for cleaner air and water standards. They seek to reduce the pressure of an ever-increasing population and above all to preserve the natural environment. This view is associated with a growing uncertainty as the established order is challenged with the rise in status of 'alternative' science and medicine. This paper argues that these conflicting views reflect instinctive attitudes. These in turn draw support from beliefs selected from those which uncertainty offers. Where there is scope for argument over the truth or validity of a 'fact', the choice of which of the disputed views to believe will be determined by a value judgement. This applies to all controversial social and political issues. Nuclear waste disposal and biotechnology are but two particular examples in the technological field; joining the EMU is a current political controversy where value judgements based on attitudes determine beliefs. When, or if, a controversy is finally resolved the judgement arrived at will be justified by the belief that the consequences of the course

  18. Attitudes, beliefs, uncertainty and risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalgh, Geoffrey

    2001-01-01

    There is now unmistakable evidence of a widening split within the Western industrial nations arising from conflicting views of society; for and against change. The argument is over the benefits of 'progress' and growth. On one side are those who seek more jobs, more production and consumption, higher standards of living, an ever-increasing GNP with an increasing globalisation of production and welcome the advances of science and technology confident that any temporary problems that arise can be solved by further technological development - possible energy shortages as a growing population increases energy usage can be met by nuclear power development; food shortages by the increased yields of GM crops. In opposition are those who put the quality of life before GNP, advocate a more frugal life-style, reducing needs and energy consumption, and, pointing to the harm caused by increasing pollution, press for cleaner air and water standards. They seek to reduce the pressure of an ever-increasing population and above all to preserve the natural environment. This view is associated with a growing uncertainty as the established order is challenged with the rise in status of 'alternative' science and medicine. This paper argues that these conflicting views reflect instinctive attitudes. These in turn draw support from beliefs selected from those which uncertainty offers. Where there is scope for argument over the truth or validity of a 'fact', the choice of which of the disputed views to believe will be determined by a value judgement. This applies to all controversial social and political issues. Nuclear waste disposal and biotechnology are but two particular examples in the technological field; joining the EMU is a current political controversy where value judgements based on attitudes determine beliefs. When, or if, a controversy is finally resolved the judgement arrived at will be justified by the belief that the consequences of the course chosen will be more favourable

  19. Danish dentists' career satisfaction in relation to perceived occupational stress and public image

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, R.

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between Danish dentists' perceptions of satisfaction with their career choice and beliefs about their occupational stress or public image was surveyed. A mailed questionnaire was completed by 216 randomly selected Danish private dentists in and around Århus. Of these, only 19% were...... dissatisfied and would not recommend dentistry as a career to young people, while almost 60% perceived dentistry as more stressful than other professions and 31% felt that dentists' public image was less than good or poor. Odds ratio (OR) analyses indicated that perceived career dissatisfaction was most...... prevalent in dentists aged >45 years (OR = 3.1) or who practiced more than 18 years (OR = 2.7), with perceived poor role image (OR = 3.0) or high perceived stress (OR = 2.1). The contribution of perceived high stress approached, but did not attain statistical significance. Adjusted odds ratios provided...

  20. Protecting young children against skin cancer: Parental beliefs, roles, and regret.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kyra; Kirkpatrick, Aaron; Rebar, Amanda; White, Katherine M; Hagger, Martin S

    2017-12-01

    To examine the role of parental beliefs, roles, and anticipated regret toward performing childhood sun-protective behaviours. Parents (N = 230; 174 mothers, 56 fathers), recruited using a nonrandom convenience sample, of at least 1 child aged between 2 and 5 years completed an initial questionnaire assessing demographics and past behaviour as well as theory of planned behaviour global (attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioural control) and belief-based (behavioural, normative, and control beliefs) measures, role construction, and anticipated regret regarding their intention and behaviour to protect their child from the sun. Two weeks later, participants completed a follow-up questionnaire assessing their sun protection of their child during the previous 2 weeks. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis identified attitude, perceived behavioural control, role construction, anticipated regret, past behaviour, and a normative belief ("current partner/other family members") as significant predictors of parents' intention to participate in sun-protective behaviour for their child. Intention and past behaviour were significant predictors of parents' follow-up sun-protective behaviour. The regression models explained 64% and 36% of the variance in intention and behaviour, respectively. The findings of this study highlight the importance of anticipated regret and role-related beliefs alongside personal, normative, and control beliefs in determining parents' intentional sun-protective behaviour for their children. Findings may inform the development of parent- and community-based sun protection intervention programs to promote parents' sun-safety behaviours for their children to prevent future skin cancer incidence. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.