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Sample records for belief scale bcrrhbs

  1. Scaling Irrational Beliefs in the General Attitude and Belief Scale

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    Lindsay R. Owings

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurate measurement of key constructs is essential to the continued development of Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT. The General Attitude and Belief Scale (GABS, a contemporary inventory of rational and irrational beliefs based on current REBT theory, is one of the most valid and widely used instruments available, and recent research has continued to improve its psychometric standing. In this study of 544 students, item response theory (IRT methods were used (a to identify the most informative item in each irrational subscale of the GABS, (b to determine the level of irrationality represented by each of those items, and (c to suggest a condensed form of the GABS for further study with clinical populations. Administering only the most psychometrically informative items to clients could result in economies of time and effort. Further research based on the scaling of items could clarify the specific patterns of irrational beliefs associated with particular clinical syndromes.

  2. Development of the Beliefs About Yoga Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Sohl, Stephanie J.; Schnur, Julie B.; Daly, Leslie; Suslov, Kathryn; Montgomery, Guy H.

    2011-01-01

    Beliefs about yoga may influence participation in yoga and outcomes of yoga interventions. There is currently no scale appropriate for assessing these beliefs in the general U.S. population. This study took the first steps in developing and validating a Beliefs About Yoga Scale (BAYS) to assess beliefs about yoga that may influence people’s engagement in yoga interventions. Items were generated based on previously published research about perceptions of yoga and reviewed by experts within the...

  3. Measuring belief in conspiracy theories: the generic conspiracist beliefs scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotherton, Robert; French, Christopher C; Pickering, Alan D

    2013-01-01

    The psychology of conspiracy theory beliefs is not yet well understood, although research indicates that there are stable individual differences in conspiracist ideation - individuals' general tendency to engage with conspiracy theories. Researchers have created several short self-report measures of conspiracist ideation. These measures largely consist of items referring to an assortment of prominent conspiracy theories regarding specific real-world events. However, these instruments have not been psychometrically validated, and this assessment approach suffers from practical and theoretical limitations. Therefore, we present the Generic Conspiracist Beliefs (GCB) scale: a novel measure of individual differences in generic conspiracist ideation. The scale was developed and validated across four studies. In Study 1, exploratory factor analysis of a novel 75-item measure of non-event-based conspiracist beliefs identified five conspiracist facets. The 15-item GCB scale was developed to sample from each of these themes. Studies 2, 3, and 4 examined the structure and validity of the GCB, demonstrating internal reliability, content, criterion-related, convergent and discriminant validity, and good test-retest reliability. In sum, this research indicates that the GCB is a psychometrically sound and practically useful measure of conspiracist ideation, and the findings add to our theoretical understanding of conspiracist ideation as a monological belief system unpinned by a relatively small number of generic assumptions about the typicality of conspiratorial activity in the world. PMID:23734136

  4. Development of a Chinese Superstitious Belief Scale.

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    Huang, Li-Shia; Teng, Ching-I

    2009-06-01

    Traditional Western superstitious beliefs, such as black cats and the number 13 bringing bad luck, may not be applicable to different cultures. This study develops a Chinese Superstitious Belief Scale by conducting two studies with 363 and 395 participants, respectively. Exploratory factor analysis was used to construct the scale and then structural equation modeling was applied to verify its reliability and validity. The scale contains six dimensions, Homonym, Traditional customs, Power of crystal, Horoscope, Feng-shui, and Luck for gambling. Findings are helpful for understanding the difference between Chinese superstitions and the traditional Western superstitions and permits subsequent development of sociopsychological theories on correlates and effects of Chinese superstitions. PMID:19708408

  5. The Early Childhood Generalized Trust Belief Scale

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    Betts, Lucy R.; Rotenberg, Ken J.; Trueman, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The study was designed to develop and evaluate the Early Childhood Generalized Trust Belief Scale (ECGTBS) as a method of assessing 5-8-year-olds' generalized trust. Two hundred and eleven (103 male and 108 female) children (mean age 6 years and 2 months at Time 1) completed the ECGTBS twice over a year. A subsample of participants completed the…

  6. Multidimensional assessment of beliefs about emotion: development and validation of the emotion and regulation beliefs scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veilleux, Jennifer C; Salomaa, Anna C; Shaver, Jennifer A; Zielinski, Melissa J; Pollert, Garrett A

    2015-02-01

    Recent work has extended the idea of implicit self-theories to the realm of emotion to assess beliefs in the malleability of emotions. The current article expanded on prior measurement of emotion beliefs in a scale development project. Items were tested and revised over rounds of data collection with both students and nonstudent adult online participants. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed a three-factor structure. The resulting scale, the Emotion and Regulation Beliefs Scale, assesses beliefs that emotions can hijack self-control, beliefs that emotion regulation is a worthwhile pursuit, and beliefs that emotions can constrain behavior. Preliminary findings suggest that the Emotion and Regulation Beliefs Scale has good internal consistency, is conceptually distinct from measures assessing individuals' beliefs in their management of emotions and facets of emotional intelligence, and predicts clinically relevant outcomes even after controlling for an existing short measure of beliefs in emotion controllability. PMID:24835246

  7. Planck-scale physics: facts and beliefs

    CERN Document Server

    Meschini, D

    2006-01-01

    The relevance of the Planck scale to a theory of quantum gravity has become a worryingly little examined assumption that goes unchallenged in the majority of research in this area. However, in all scientific honesty, the significance of Planck's natural units in a future physical theory of spacetime is only a plausible, yet by no means certain, assumption. The purpose of this article is to clearly separate fact from belief in this connection.

  8. Construct Validation and a More Parsimonious Mathematics Beliefs Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capraro, Mary Margaret

    Teacher beliefs are instrumental in defining teacher pedagogical and content tasks and for processing information relevant to those tasks. In this study, a Likert-type instrument, Mathematics Beliefs Scales (E. Fennema, T. Carpenter, and M. Loef, 1990), was used to measure the mathematical beliefs of teachers. This instrument was designed with…

  9. Measuring belief in conspiracy theories: The Generic Conspiracist Beliefs scale (GCB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eBrotherton

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The psychology of conspiracy theory beliefs is not yet well understood, although research indicates that there are stable individual differences in conspiracist ideation – individuals’ general tendency to engage with conspiracy theories. Researchers have created several short self-report measures of conspiracist ideation. These measures largely consist of items referring to an assortment of prominent conspiracy theories regarding specific real-world events. However, these instruments have not been psychometrically validated, and this assessment approach suffers from practical and theoretical limitations. Therefore, we present the Generic Conspiracist Beliefs (GCB scale: a novel measure of individual differences in generic conspiracist ideation. The scale was developed and validated across four studies. In Study 1, exploratory factor analysis of a novel 75-item measure of non-event-based conspiracist beliefs identified five conspiracist facets. The 15-item GCB scale was developed to sample from each of these themes. Studies 2, 3 and 4 examined the structure and validity of the GCB, demonstrating internal reliability, content, criterion-related, convergent and discriminant validity, and good test-retest reliability. In sum, this research indicates that the GCB is a psychometrically sound and practically useful measure of conspiracist ideation, and the findings add to our theoretical understanding of conspiracist ideation as a monological belief system unpinned by a relatively small number of generic assumptions about the typicality of conspiratorial activity in the world.

  10. Psychometric Properties of the Chinese Cultural Beliefs about Adversity Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Janet T. Y.; Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Chinese Cultural Beliefs about Adversity scale (CBA). Methods: The CBA was administered in a sample of 275 Chinese parents experiencing economic disadvantage. Results: The CBA was found to be internally consistent. Consistent with the conceptual framework, factor…

  11. TA Beliefs in a SCALE-UP Style Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBeck, George; Settelmeyer, Sam; Li, Sissi; Demaree, Dedra

    2010-10-01

    In Spring 2010, the Oregon State University physics department instituted a SCALE-UP (Student-Centered Active Learning Environment for Undergraduate Programs) style studio classroom in the introductory, calculus-based physics series. In our initial implementation, comprised of two hours lecture, two hours of studio, and two hours lab work, the studio session was lead by a faculty member and either 2 GTAs or 1 GTA and 1 LA. We plan to move to a model where senior GTAs can lead studio sections after co-teaching with the faculty member. It is critical that we know how to prepare and support the instructional team in facilitating student learning in this setting. We examine GTA and LA pedagogical beliefs through reflective journaling, interviews, and personal experience of the authors. In particular, we examine how these beliefs changed over their first quarter of instruction, as well as the resources used to adapt to the new classroom environment.

  12. Development and validation of the Patriarchal Beliefs Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Eunju; Adams, Kristen; Hogge, Ingrid; Bruner, John P; Surya, Shruti; Bryant, Fred B

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop and validate a conceptually and psychometrically solid measure for patriarchal beliefs in samples of U.S. American adults from diverse demographic and geographic backgrounds. In Study 1, we identified 3 correlated factors of the Patriarchal Beliefs Scale (PBS) in data collected from the Internet (N = 279): Institutional Power of Men, Inferiority of Women, and Gendered Domestic Roles. In Study 2, data collected from the Internet (N = 284) supported both an oblique 3-factor structure and a bifactor structure of the PBS, through confirmatory factor analyses. Construct validity of the PBS was supported in relation to other gender-related measures. The PBS was correlated in expected directions with modern sexism, antifeminist attitudes, and egalitarian attitudes toward women. In Study 3, we examined measurement invariance across gender by using combined data from Study 1 and Study 2. All 3 factors of the oblique 3-factor model indicated measurement invariance, whereas the general factor represented in the bifactor model indicated nonequivalence. Mean differences in patriarchal beliefs were found for such demographic variables as gender, sexual orientation, education, and social class. Recommendations for using the PBS, as well as implications for research and practice, are discussed. PMID:25602604

  13. Developing the scales on evaluation beliefs of student teachers

    OpenAIRE

    He, Qiaoyan; Valcke, Martin; Fella, Johan; Zhu, Chang

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study reported in this paper was to investigate the validity and the reliability of a newly developed questionnaire named ‘Teacher Evaluation Beliefs’ (TEB). The framework for developing items was provided by the two models. The first model focuses on Student-Centered and Teacher-Centered beliefs about evaluation while the other centers on five dimensions (what/ who/ when/ why/ how). The validity and reliability of the new instrument was investigated using both explorator...

  14. Assessment of Rape-Supportive Attitudes and Beliefs in College Men: Development, Reliability, and Validity of the Rape Attitudes and Beliefs Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Gerald H.

    2007-01-01

    Discussed is the development and psychometric analysis of a measure of rape-supportive attitudes and beliefs called the Rape Attitudes and Beliefs Scale (RABS), intended for the use with college men. Items were developed from a literature review of "rape myths" that were correlated to some measure of sexual aggression. An exploratory factor…

  15. Development and validation of the belief in Female Sexual Deceptiveness scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Darrin L; Cervantes, Emanuel; Espinosa, Joanna C

    2015-03-01

    This article describes the development of a scale measuring the extent of men's belief in female sexual deceptiveness. This belief has been postulated as a component of hostile masculinity and a precursor to more serious sexual-assault-facilitating cognitions, though it has not yet been studied empirically. From a final pool of 22 items, the 14-item Belief in Female Sexual Deceptiveness (BFSD) scale was constructed. Data were collected via online survey from 131 predominantly Hispanic college males; scale items were selected by exploratory factor analysis. Three moderately strongly correlated factors emerged, though they overlapped strongly and are currently considered only for future study. An 8-item short form of the BFSD scale (the BFSD-S) was created, as well. The full BFSD scale showed strong internal consistency and significant correlations with gender role attitudes, unequal/coercive relationship attitudes, history of misperceiving women's platonic interest as sexual, history of sexual frustration in relationships, adult attachment, belief in immanent justice, attitudes toward intimate partner violence, and rape myth acceptance. Patterns of divergent correlations with other measures also supported the scale's validity. The BFSD-S performed nearly identically to the BFSD. Limitations, future directions, and implications are discussed. PMID:24920000

  16. Latent structure of the social anxiety scale and relations between social anxiety and irrational beliefs

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    Tovilović Snežana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The research which was realized belongs to one of three research fields within framework of rational-emotional-behavioral therapy (REBT - to the theory of emotional disorders. It was undertaken with the aim to establish presence and nature of relations between social anxiety, treated as dimension and the construct of irrational beliefs from REBT theory. The research was carried out on the sample of 261 students of Novi Sad University, both genders, age 18 to 26. First of all, the latent structure of newly constructed Scale of Social Anxiety (SA of the author Tovilović S. was tested. SA scale was proved to be of satisfying reliability (α =0.92. Principal-component factor analysis was conducted under gathered data. Four factors of social anxiety, which explain 44,09% of total variance of the items of SA scale, were named: social-evaluation anxiety, inhibition in social-uncertain situations, low self-respect and hypersensitivity on rejection. The other test that was used is Scale of General Attitudes and Beliefs of the author Marić Z. Reliability of the sub-scale of irrational beliefs that was got on our sample is α =0.91 yet the subscale of rational beliefs is α =0.70. Canonical correlational analysis was conducted under manifest variables of both scales. Three pairs of statistically significant canonical factors were got, with correlations within the span between Rc=0.78 and Rc=0.64. We discussed nature of correlation between social anxiety and irrational beliefs in the light of REBT model of social phobia, REBT theory of emotional disorder, researches and model of social anxiety in wider, cognitive-behavioral framework.

  17. Belief into Action Scale: A Comprehensive and Sensitive Measure of Religious Involvement

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    Harold G. Koenig

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We describe here a new measure of religious commitment, the Belief into Action (BIAC scale. This measure was designed to be a comprehensive and sensitive measure of religious involvement that could discriminate individuals across the religious spectrum, and avoid the problem of ceiling effects that have haunted the study of highly-religious populations. Many scales assess religious beliefs, where assent to belief is often widespread, subjective, and a superficial assessment of religious commitment. While people may say they believe, what does that mean in terms of action? This 10-item scale seeks to convert simple belief into action, where action is assessed in terms of what individuals say is most important in their lives, how they spend their time, and where they put their financial resources. We summarize here the psychometric characteristics of the BIAC in two very different populations: stressed female caregivers in Southern California and North Carolina, and college students attending three universities in Mainland China. We conclude that the BIAC is a sensitive, reliable, and valid measure of religious commitment in these two samples, and encourage research in other population groups using this scale to determine its psychometric properties more generally.

  18. The Mathematics-Oriented Epistemological Belief Scale (MOEBS: Validity and Reliability Study

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    Mustafa İLHAN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to develop a valid and reliable instrument to measure high school students' mathematics-oriented epistemological beliefs. The participants were 406 high school students studying in Batman and Diyarbakır infall of 2012 who were considered under two separate study groups. Expert review was done to check content and face validity. The exploratory factor analysis (EFA and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA were performed in order to check construct validity. As a result of the EFA, a 27-itemthree-factor structure emerged, explaining 40.57%of variance. The emerging factors were called as a belief of that learning depends on effort (BLDE, a belief of that learning depends on talent (BLDT, and a belief of that there is only one truth (BTOOT. The findings indicated all 27 items and a three-factor structure related to the MOEBS have satisfactory indices of goodness of fit.As a result of reliability analysis, it was determined that internal consistency and test-retest coefficients were acceptable.The findings of the item analyses showed that all of the items were discriminatory. In light of these findings, it can be argued that the scale is reliable and valid and can be used to measure high school students’ mathematics-oriented epistemological beliefs.

  19. Psychometric Evaluation of an Arabic Version of the Spiritual Involvement and Beliefs Scale in Jordanian Muslim College Nursing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Ahmad S.

    2015-01-01

    A review of the nursing and health-related literature on spirituality revealed that no valid and reliable research tool exists in Arabic for measuring spiritual beliefs and practices for Arab Muslim population. This study translated the Spiritual Involvement and Beliefs Scale (SIBS) into Arabic and examined the psychometric properties of the…

  20. Self-Beliefs Mediate Math Performance between Primary and Lower Secondary School: A Large-Scale Longitudinal Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Helen C.; Kirschner, Paul A.; Jolles, Jelle

    2015-01-01

    It is often argued that enhancement of self-beliefs should be one of the key goals of education. However, very little is known about the relation between self-beliefs and performance when students move from primary to secondary school in highly differentiated educational systems with early tracking. This large-scale longitudinal cohort study…

  1. The Factor Structure of the Polish-Language Version of the Romantic Beliefs Scale

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    Katarzyna Adamczyk

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Polish adaptation of Romantic Beliefs Scale (RBS; Sprecher & Metts, 1989. In a sample of 414 Polish university students aged 19-25 (227 females and 187 males, the factor structure of the original English version was confirmed for the four subscales: Love Finds a Way, One and Only, Idealization, and Love at First Sight. The present study provides evidence that the 15-item version of the Polish adaptation of the (RBS possesses a factor structure and psychometric properties comparable to the English-language version of RBS. It was shown to be a reliable self-report measure for romantic beliefs within a sample of the Polish population. The development of a new Polish measure of romantic beliefs has provided further validation for the RBS, and provided evidence in support of the ideology of romanticism in various populations, and indicated the importance of differentiating between the different types of romantic beliefs.

  2. Validity of a scale measuring beliefs regarding the "positive" effects of punishing children: a study of Mexican mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral-Verdugo, V; Frías-Armenta, M; Romero, M; Muñoz, A

    1995-06-01

    This paper discusses the influence that "beliefs concerning the corrective effects of punishment" have on child punishment and abuse in a Mexican population. One hundred and five mothers responded to a questionnaire measuring these beliefs, and their responses were contrasted with the report those mothers gave regarding the physical punishment they inflict upon their children. A scale consisting of six items registering beliefs was developed and administered. The reliability (internal consistency) of the scale was assessed, and its validity was tested by using a factor analytic structural equations model which produced high factorial loadings from a "beliefs" factor to the scale's items. This was interpreted as a confirmation of construct validity. An indication of predictive validity was found in a high, significant structural correlation between the beliefs factor and a "corrective punishment" factor, measured by a series of related items. Mothers reported as abusing their children produced higher scores on the "beliefs" scale as compared to "control" mothers. The direct, significant effect of parent's beliefs on the punishment of children explains much about the child maltreatment problem in the studied society. PMID:7552836

  3. Preliminary factor analysis of the O’Kelly Women Beliefs Scale in a US sample

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    Arturo Heman Contreras

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy framework, the O’Kelly Women Beliefs Scale (O’Kelly, in press was originally constructed in Australia to measure sex-role beliefs women may develop through sex-role stereotyping. Factor analysis of the 92 original items showed that 64 items loaded into a single component that accounted for 18.2% of the variance in a sample of 974 Australian women. The present exploratory study examined the psychometric properties of the OWBS in a sample of 202 women born and living in the US. A varimax rotation with cutoff eigenvalues of 3, showed that 37 items loaded into 3 components which accounted for 58.48% of the variance. The items were subsequently grouped into two factors: Ir- rationality, with a total of 27 items was created by merging component 1 and 3 (Pearson’s r = 0.8 between them, and Rationality, with the 10 items from component 2. Analyses indicated a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.91 for Fac- tor 1, and a Cronbach’s alpha 0.74 for Factor 2. Results indicate that this version of the instrument may be used to evaluate both the rational and irrational content of sex-role beliefs of women born in the US.

  4. The development and initial validation of a new measure of lay definitions of health: the wellness beliefs scale

    OpenAIRE

    Bishop, Felicity; Yardley, Lucy

    2010-01-01

    The objective was to develop a psychometrically sound questionnaire measure of lay people's beliefs about the importance of different signs of wellness (the Wellness Beliefs Scale, WBS). Questionnaire items were derived from qualitative literature. Nine hundred and forty two people (recruited from the community and patient-support groups) participated in two cross-sectional studies using paper and web-based questionnaires. Study 1 participants completed the initial version of the WBS and Stud...

  5. Measuring Beliefs about Suffering: Development of the Views of Suffering Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale-Smith, Amy; Park, Crystal L.; Edmondson, Donald

    2012-01-01

    Efforts to measure religion have intensified, and many specific dimensions have been identified. However, although belief is a core dimension of all world religions, little attention has been given to assessment of religious beliefs. In particular, 1 essential set of religious beliefs, those concerning the reasons for human suffering, has remained…

  6. Initial development of a Cultural Values and Beliefs Scale among Dakota/Nakota/Lakota people: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, W Rusty; Quevillon, Randal P; Boyd, Beth; Mackey, Duane

    2006-01-01

    This study was the initial phase in the development of a mental health assessment tool. The Native American Cultural Values and Beliefs Scale is a 12-item instrument that assesses three dimensions of American Indian/Alaska Native values and beliefs: 1) the importance, 2) the frequency of practicing, and 3) the amount of distress caused by not practicing traditional values and beliefs. The initial project was targeted to Dakota/Nakota/Lakota people, though future scale development is intended to establish sufficient generality across several groups of American Indian and Alaska Native persons. The survey was administered to 37 Dakota/Nakota/Lakota adults. The results indicated high internal consistency with Cronbach's alphas of .897 for importance and .917 for practice. PMID:17602409

  7. Antisocial thinking in adolescents: further psychometric development of the Antisocial Beliefs and Attitudes Scale (ABAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Stephen M; Parry, Rachael; Fearon, R M Pasco

    2015-03-01

    Investigating the impact of "off-line" cognitive structures on the broad range of antisocial behaviors shown by young people has been hampered by the absence of psychometrically robust measures of antisocial cognitions. This study evaluates the psychometric properties of the Antisocial Beliefs and Attitudes Scale (ABAS), a developmentally sensitive measure of young people's beliefs and attitudes toward social standards of acceptable behavior at home and at school. The reliability and validity of the ABAS was assessed in a sample of British school children (N = 486) aged 9-16 years (M = 12.79, SD = 1.90) and male young offenders (N = 84) aged 13-17 years (M = 15.15, SD = 0.27). Participants completed the ABAS, together with a self-report measure of antisocial behavior; maternal reports of antisocial activity were also collected in the offending sample. Confirmatory factor analysis replicated the 2-factor structure of Rule Noncompliance and Peer Conflict previously derived from a sample of Canadian school children, and these factors showed good test-retest reliability. Rule Noncompliance predicted self-reported antisocial behavior for ages 11-16 years, while Peer Conflict predicted antisocial behavior for ages 9-16 years. Comparisons between young offenders and an age-matched subsample of males from the school group showed significant differences. In young offenders, Rule Noncompliance and Peer Conflict were significantly predictive of self-reported antisocial behavior, while Rule Noncompliance independently predicted mothers' ratings of their sons' antisocial behavior. These findings provide support for the ABAS as a psychometrically sound measure of antisocial thinking.

  8. Development of a Scale to Measure Laypersons' Beliefs about Medical Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Laura L. B.; Wheeler, Denna L.; Laster, Bonnie B.; McGaugh, Miriam; Morse, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Literature on participatory health care suggests that, though many patients desire basic information, a substantial number prefer a passive role. This variability is explored as a function of laypersons' beliefs about the nature of medical knowledge, referred to as epistemological beliefs, through the evaluation of a newly-developed…

  9. Defining distinct negative beliefs about uncertainty: validating the factor structure of the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Kathryn A; Dugas, Michel J

    2009-06-01

    This study examined the factor structure of the English version of the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS; French version: M. H. Freeston, J. Rhéaume, H. Letarte, M. J. Dugas, & R. Ladouceur, 1994; English version: K. Buhr & M. J. Dugas, 2002) using a substantially larger sample than has been used in previous studies. Nonclinical undergraduate students and adults from the community (M age = 23.74 years, SD = 6.36; 73.0% female and 27.0% male) who participated in 16 studies in the Anxiety Disorders Laboratory at Concordia University in Montreal, Canada were randomly assigned to 2 datasets. Exploratory factor analysis with the 1st sample (n = 1,230) identified 2 factors: the beliefs that "uncertainty has negative behavioral and self-referent implications" and that "uncertainty is unfair and spoils everything." This 2-factor structure provided a good fit to the data (Bentler-Bonett normed fit index = .96, comparative fit index = .97, standardized root-mean residual = .05, root-mean-square error of approximation = .07) upon confirmatory factor analysis with the 2nd sample (n = 1,221). Both factors showed similarly high correlations with pathological worry, and Factor 1 showed stronger correlations with generalized anxiety disorder analogue status, trait anxiety, somatic anxiety, and depressive symptomatology. PMID:19485672

  10. The method of belief scales as a means for dealing with uncertainty in tough regulatory decisions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilch, Martin M.

    2005-10-01

    Modeling and simulation is playing an increasing role in supporting tough regulatory decisions, which are typically characterized by variabilities and uncertainties in the scenarios, input conditions, failure criteria, model parameters, and even model form. Variability exists when there is a statistically significant database that is fully relevant to the application. Uncertainty, on the other hand, is characterized by some degree of ignorance. A simple algebraic problem was used to illustrate how various risk methodologies address variability and uncertainty in a regulatory context. These traditional risk methodologies include probabilistic methods (including frequensic and Bayesian perspectives) and second-order methods where variabilities and uncertainties are treated separately. Representing uncertainties with (subjective) probability distributions and using probabilistic methods to propagate subjective distributions can lead to results that are not logically consistent with available knowledge and that may not be conservative. The Method of Belief Scales (MBS) is developed as a means to logically aggregate uncertain input information and to propagate that information through the model to a set of results that are scrutable, easily interpretable by the nonexpert, and logically consistent with the available input information. The MBS, particularly in conjunction with sensitivity analyses, has the potential to be more computationally efficient than other risk methodologies. The regulatory language must be tailored to the specific risk methodology if ambiguity and conflict are to be avoided.

  11. Development and validation of the Intellectual Disability Literacy Scale for assessment of knowledge, beliefs and attitudes to intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scior, Katrina; Furnham, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Research into the general public's responses to individuals with intellectual disabilities has been dominated by attitudinal research. While this approach has unquestionably generated useful findings, it ignores important aspects, such as lay knowledge, explanatory models and beliefs about suitable interventions that can produce a multi-faceted understanding of public responses. This paper describes the development of a measure designed to assess respondents' intellectual disability literacy. Following a pilot with 114 participants, the IDLS was revised and then completed by 1376 members of the public (aged 18-78 years) from diverse cultural backgrounds. The measure was able to distinguish respondents who showed good intellectual disability literacy. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed four causal beliefs factors (adversity, biomedical, fate, environment) that accounted for 55% of the variance and three intervention beliefs factors (lifestyle, expert help, religion/spiritual,) that explained 52% of the variance. Test-retest reliability for these factors was good for all ethnic groups. The four-item social distance scale had good internal consistency for all ethnic groups and acceptable concurrent validity. The IDLS is a useful new tool to evaluate knowledge, beliefs and social distance to intellectual disability in lay people, is suitable for cross-cultural research and allows comparison of intellectual disability and mental health literacy in any given population.

  12. Belief-based Tobacco Smoking Scale: Evaluating the PsychometricProperties of the Theory of Planned Behavior’s Constructs

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    Majid Barati

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: At present, there are no comprehensive validated instruments for measuring adolescents’ beliefs regarding tobacco smoking in the Iranian society. This study aimed to evaluate the validity, reliability and feasibility of the belief-based tobacco smoking scale using the Theory of Planned Behavior’s (TPB constructs as a theoretical framework.Methods: This cross-sectional validation study was carried out on 410 male adolescents of Hamadan, west of Iran, recruited through multi-stage random sampling method. Reliability was assessed by internal consistency and Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC. In addition, Confirmatory Factor Analyses (CFA and Exploratory Factor Analyses (EFA were performed to test construct valid-ity. Content validity was examined using Content Validity Index (CVI and Con-tent Validity Ratio (CVR.Results: Results obtained from factor analysis showed that the data was fit to the model (X2=391.43, P<0.001 and TPB consisted of 22 items measuring sev-en components which explaining 69.7% of the common variance. The mean scores for the CVI and CVR were 0.89 and 0.80; respectively. Additional anal-yses indicated acceptable results for internal consistency reliability values ranging from 0.55 to 0.92.Conclusion: The belief-based tobacco smoking questionnaire is a reliable and valid instrument and now is acceptable and suitable and can be used in future studies.

  13. The Mathematics-Oriented Epistemological Belief Scale (MOEBS): Validity and Reliability Study

    OpenAIRE

    İlhan, Mustafa; Bayram ÇETİN

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims to develop a valid and reliable instrument to measure high school students' mathematics-oriented epistemological beliefs. The participants were 406 high school students studying in Batman and Diyarbakır infall of 2012 who were considered under two separate study groups. Expert review was done to check content and face validity. The exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were performed in order to check construct validity. As a result of...

  14. The beliefs in the inheritance of risk factors for suicide scale (BIRFSS): cross-cultural validation in Estonia, Malaysia, Romania, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voracek, Martin; Loibl, Lisa Mariella; Swami, Viren; Vintilă, Mona; Kõlves, Kairi; Sinniah, Dhachayani; Pillai, Subash Kumar; Ponnusamy, Subramaniam; Sonneck, Gernot; Furnham, Adrian; Lester, David

    2008-12-01

    The genetics of suicide is increasingly recognized and relevant for mental health literacy, but actual beliefs may lag behind current knowledge. We examined such beliefs in student samples (total N = 686) from Estonia, Malaysia, Romania, the United Kingdom, and the United States with the Beliefs in the Inheritance of Risk Factors for Suicide Scale. Cultural effects were small, those of key demographics nil. Several facets of construct validity were demonstrated. Marked differences in perceived plausibility of evidence about the genetics of suicide according to research design, observed in all samples, may be of general interest for investigating lay theories of abnormal behavior and communicating behavioral and psychiatric genetic research findings.

  15. A Bayesian Belief Network approach to assess the potential of non wood forest products for small scale forest owners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacik, Harald; Huber, Patrick; Hujala, Teppo; Kurtilla, Mikko; Wolfslehner, Bernhard

    2015-04-01

    It is an integral element of the European understanding of sustainable forest management to foster the design and marketing of forest products, non-wood forest products (NWFPs) and services that go beyond the production of timber. Despite the relevance of NWFPs in Europe, forest management and planning methods have been traditionally tailored towards wood and wood products, because most forest management models and silviculture techniques were developed to ensure a sustained production of timber. Although several approaches exist which explicitly consider NWFPs as management objectives in forest planning, specific models are needed for the assessment of their production potential in different environmental contexts and for different management regimes. Empirical data supporting a comprehensive assessment of the potential of NWFPs are rare, thus making development of statistical models particularly problematic. However, the complex causal relationships between the sustained production of NWFPs, the available ecological resources, as well as the organizational and the market potential of forest management regimes are well suited for knowledge-based expert models. Bayesian belief networks (BBNs) are a kind of probabilistic graphical model that have become very popular to practitioners and scientists mainly due to the powerful probability theory involved, which makes BBNs suitable to deal with a wide range of environmental problems. In this contribution we present the development of a Bayesian belief network to assess the potential of NWFPs for small scale forest owners. A three stage iterative process with stakeholder and expert participation was used to develop the Bayesian Network within the frame of the StarTree Project. The group of participants varied in the stages of the modelling process. A core team, consisting of one technical expert and two domain experts was responsible for the entire modelling process as well as for the first prototype of the network

  16. The Chronic Pain Myth Scale: Development and Validation of a French-Canadian Instrument Measuring Knowledge, Beliefs, and Attitudes of People in the Community towards Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background. In order to better design awareness programs on chronic pain (CP), measurement of knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes of people in the community towards this condition is most useful. Objectives. To develop and validate a French-Canadian scale that could be used for this purpose. Methods. Items of the Chronic Pain Myth Scale (CPMS) were developed based on different information sources, reviewed by pain experts, and pretested. The CPMS was administered to 1555 participants among the general Quebec population. Results. The final CPMS contained 26 items allowing the calculation of three subscales scores (knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes towards people suffering from CP, biopsychosocial impacts of CP, and treatment of CP) which showed adequate internal consistency (α = 0.72–0.82). There were statistically significant differences in subscales scores between participants who reported suffering versus not suffering from CP, reported knowing versus not knowing someone who suffers from CP, and reported being versus not being a healthcare professional, which supports the construct validity of the scale. Conclusions. Our results provide preliminary evidence supporting the psychometric qualities of the use of the CPMS for the measurement of knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes towards CP among French-speaking individuals of the Quebec general population.

  17. Large-Scale Survey of Chinese Precollege Students' Epistemological Beliefs about Physics: A Progression or a Regression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ping; Ding, Lin

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a cross-grade comparative study of Chinese precollege students' epistemological beliefs about physics by using the Colorado Learning Attitudes Survey about Sciences (CLASS). Our students of interest are middle and high schoolers taking traditional lecture-based physics as a mandatory science course each year from the 8th grade…

  18. Epistemological Beliefs and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslantas, Halis Adnan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the relationship between teacher candidates' epistemological beliefs and academic achievement. The participants of the study were 353 teacher candidates studying their fourth year at the Education Faculty. The Epistemological Belief Scale was used which adapted to Turkish through reliability and validity work by…

  19. A new inventory for assessing cognitions in social phobia: The validity and reliability study of the Turkish version of the social thoughts and beliefs scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayfun Doğan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of The Social Thoughts and Beliefs Scale (STABS, developed for assesing cognitions in social phobia by Turner and et al. (2003. STABS was administered  532 university students (343 female and 188 male from two diffirent universities in Turkey. In order to examine the structure validity and factor structures of STABS confirmatory factor analysis have been carried out. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the two-factor model fitted the data. The reliability of the scale was examined by test re-test, Cronbach alpha and split-half methods. The Cronbach alpha for the STABS’ total score was .90 and split-half .87. The computed test re-test reliability coefficient for the STABS was .88. Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965 and Interpersonal Cognitive Distortions Scale (Hamamcı ve Büyüköztürk, 2003 was used for the criterion validity. There was statistically significant positive correlations between STABS and these scales. The Turkish version of STABS demonstrated good psychometric properties, with a high level of internal consistency.

  20. A new inventory for assessing cognitions in social phobia: The validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the social thoughts and beliefs scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayfun Doğan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of The Social Thoughts and Beliefs Scale (STABS, it’s developed for assessing cognitions in social phobia by Turner and et al. (2003. STABS was administered 532 university students (343 female and 188 male from two different universities in Turkey. In order to examine the structure validity and of STABS confirmatory factor analysis have been carried out. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the two-factor model fitted the research data. The reliability of the scale was examined by test re-test and Cronbach alpha methods. The Cronbach alpha for the STABS’ total score was .90. The computed test re-test reliability coefficient for the STABS was .88. Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965, and Interpersonal Cognitive Distortions Scale (Hamamcı and Büyüköztürk, 2003 was used for the criterion validity. There were statistically significant positive correlations between STABS and these scales. The Turkish version of STABS demonstrated good psychometric properties, with a high level of internal consistency.

  1. Validation of the Greek Acceptance of Modern Myths about Sexual Aggression (AMMSA Scale: Examining Its Relationships with Sexist and Conservative Political Beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Hantzi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Acceptance of Modern Myths about Sexual Aggression scale measures contemporary beliefs about sexual aggression that tend to blame victims and exonerate perpetrators. A Greek version of the thirty-item AMMSA scale was administered to two diverse convenience samples, one in Greece and one in Cyprus. Convergent and discriminant construct validity were assessed via correlations with other constructs that were hypothesized to be strongly related to AMMSA (Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance; hostile sexism or moderately related (benevolent sexism; social dominance orientation; right-wing authoritarianism. It was found that the Greek AMMSA was unidimensional, highly internally consistent, normally distributed, and showed good construct validity. When sociodemographic data were analyzed, age, gender, and nationality turned out to be significant predictors of AMMSA, with a U-shaped trend for age, higher scores for men than women, and higher scores for Cypriots than Greeks. In sum, the Greek AMMSA scale provides a highly useful instrument for further research on sexual aggression myths, their correlates, and effects on judgment and behavior.

  2. Spanish version of the irrational food beliefs scale Versión Española de la escala de creencias irracionales sobre los alimentos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Jáuregui Lobera

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to develop a Spanish adaptation of the Irrational Food Beliefs Scale (IFBS. This is important due not only to the scarcity and limitations of existing instruments in Spanish, but also to the potential of the IFBS in terms of studying the difficulties some people face in achieving healthy weight control. Methods: Subjects were 323 secondary-level and highschool students (12-20 years; 152 females, 171 males. In addition to the IFBS, we determined the body mass index and analysed the following variables: influence of the aesthetic body shape model, perceived stress, coping strategies, self-esteem and variables from the Eating Disorders Inventory-2. Results: The factor analysis yielded two factors corresponding to irrational and rational beliefs about food. The internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the IFBS as a whole and of the irrational and rational subscales was 0.863, 0.881 and 0.779, respectively. The analysis of correlations with the abovementioned variables showed an adequate construct validity. Discussion: The Spanish version of the IFBS fulfils the psychometric requirements for a measure of irrational/rational food beliefs and shows adequate internal consistency and construct validity.Objetivo: El propósito del estudio fue adaptar la Irrational Food Beliefs Scale (IFBS a la población española. La escasez y limitaciones de instrumentos similares en nuestra lengua y las posibilidades de la IFBS para estudiar las dificultades en el control de peso de manera saludable justifican el trabajo. Métodos: Fueron aceptados 323 estudiantes de educación secundaria y bachillerato (12-20 años; 152 mujeres, 171 hombres. Además de la IFBS, se determinó el índice de masa corporal y se analizaron las siguientes variables: influencia del modelo estético corporal, estrés percibido, estrategias de afrontamiento, autoestima y variables del Eating Disorders Inventory-2. Resultados: El an

  3. Modeling the structure of the attitudes and belief scale 2 using CFA and bifactor approaches: Toward the development of an abbreviated version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Philip; Shevlin, Mark; Adamson, Gary; Boduszek, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The Attitudes and Belief Scale-2 (ABS-2: DiGiuseppe, Leaf, Exner, & Robin, 1988. The development of a measure of rational/irrational thinking. Paper presented at the World Congress of Behavior Therapy, Edinburg, Scotland.) is a 72-item self-report measure of evaluative rational and irrational beliefs widely used in Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy research contexts. However, little psychometric evidence exists regarding the measure's underlying factor structure. Furthermore, given the length of the ABS-2 there is a need for an abbreviated version that can be administered when there are time demands on the researcher, such as in clinical settings. This study sought to examine a series of theoretical models hypothesized to represent the latent structure of the ABS-2 within an alternative models framework using traditional confirmatory factor analysis as well as utilizing a bifactor modeling approach. Furthermore, this study also sought to develop a psychometrically sound abbreviated version of the ABS-2. Three hundred and thirteen (N = 313) active emergency service personnel completed the ABS-2. Results indicated that for each model, the application of bifactor modeling procedures improved model fit statistics, and a novel eight-factor intercorrelated solution was identified as the best fitting model of the ABS-2. However, the observed fit indices failed to satisfy commonly accepted standards. A 24-item abbreviated version was thus constructed and an intercorrelated eight-factor solution yielded satisfactory model fit statistics. Current results support the use of a bifactor modeling approach to determining the factor structure of the ABS-2. Furthermore, results provide empirical support for the psychometric properties of the newly developed abbreviated version.

  4. Propriedades piscométricas de la dysfunctional beliefs and atitudes about sleep scale (DBAS en una muestra española de sujetos normales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Sierra

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Existe evidencia acerca de la asociación entre pensamientos disfuncionales sobre el sueño y el mantenimiento del insomnio. En la detección de estos pensamientos se suele utilizar la Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes About Sleep Scale (DBAS que según su autor incluye cinco dimensiones: Consecuencias del insomnio, Control y predicción del sueño, Expectativas no realistas sobre el sueño, Atribuciones causales del insomnio y Creencias sobre las prácticas que promueven el sueño. En este estudio se presentan los primeros datos psicométricos de la versión española de la DBAS, en donde se incluye un análisis de ítem, un análisis factorial, un estudio de la fiabilidad y, con la estructura resultante de la escala, se diferencia entre “buenos” y “malos” dormidores, con el fin de darle validez. Los resultados indican que las dimensiones teóricas propuestas por Morin (1993, no presentan una homogeneidad adecuada, encontrándose valores de correlación ítem-total moderados, bajos o incluso inexistentes, lo que se refleja en una consistencia interna baja en tres de las cinco supuestas dimensiones. El análisis factorial exploratorio permite obtener solamente un factor de 15 ítems con unas adecuadas garantías psicométricas (DBAS-15, a partir del cual podemos diferenciar a sujetos “malos dormidores” de “buenos dormidores"

  5. Evolution of Religious Beliefs

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    Humans may be distinguished from all other animals in having beliefs about the causal interaction of physical objects. Causal beliefs are a developmental primitive in human children; animals, by contrast, have very few causal beliefs. The origin of human causal beliefs comes from the evolutionary advantage it gave in relation to complex tool making and use. Causal beliefs gave rise religion and mystical thinking as our ancestors wanted to know the causes of events that affected their lives.

  6. Trust Responsiveness and Beliefs.

    OpenAIRE

    Gerardo A. Guerra; Zizzo, Daniel John

    2002-01-01

    Trust responsiveness is the tendency to fulfill trust because you believe that it has been placed on you. The experiment presented in this paper uses two simple trust games to measure directly or indirectly the robustness of trust responsiveness in three conditions: when beliefs are elicited and a summary of these beliefs is transmitted; when beliefs are elicited but not transmitted, when beliefs are not elicited. Insofar as we can tell, trust responsiveness is robust to our belief manipulati...

  7. The Relationship between Students' Problem Posing and Problem Solving Abilities and Beliefs: A Small-Scale Study with Chinese Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limin, Chen; Van Dooren, Wim; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the present study is to investigate the relationship between pupils' problem posing and problem solving abilities, their beliefs about problem posing and problem solving, and their general mathematics abilities, in a Chinese context. Five instruments, i.e., a problem posing test, a problem solving test, a problem posing…

  8. Theory Framework and Scale Design of Mathematics Teachers’ Epistemological Belief%数学教师认识信念的一个理论框架与量表设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻平

    2013-01-01

    Mathematics teachers’ epistemological belief consists of the epistemic beliefs about mathematics and pedagogy. Epistemological belief about mathematics refers to teachers' understanding of mathematics which includes five conceptions -dualism, pluralism, separative relative absolutism, connective relative absolutism, and relative fallibilism. Epistemological belief about pedagogy indicates teachers’ understanding of teaching, which also consists five conceptions, such as behaviorism, cognitivism, information processing constructivism, individual constructivism and social constructivism. Thus, a two-dimension tendency epistemological belief system, which owned by mathematics teachers, is formed by epistemic beliefs about mathematics and pedagogy intertwining together. In which, the teachers' disposition of epistemological belief about mathematics can be examined from their knowing about the truthfulness, value, objectivity and structure of mathematics. And the teachers' epistemological belief about pedagogy can be examined from their knowing about aims, nature, methods, and operation of teaching, nature of learning, role of students, the learning capacity of students and the factors influenced learning. From combining the subject of knowing with the tendency of knowing, a special scale can be formed to access mathematics teachers’ epistemological belief.%数学教师的认识信念由数学认识信念、教学认识信念组成。数学认识信念指教师对数学本体的认识,包括二元绝对论、多元绝对论、分离性相对绝对论、联系性相对绝对论、相对可误论等5种观念。教学认识信念指教师对教学本质的认识,包括行为主义、认知主义、信息加工建构主义、个人建构主义、社会建构主义等5种观念。数学认识信念与教学认识信念相互交织形成数学教师特有的二维认识信念倾向系统。从对数学的真理性、价值性、客观性、结构性的不同认识

  9. Construcción de una Escala Para Medir Creencias Legitimadoras de Violencia en la Población Infantil Elaboration of a Children's Scale That Measures Beliefs Which Legitimize Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Galdames

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta la construcción y validación preliminar de una escala diseñada para niños y niñas, cuyo objetivo es medir creencias que legitiman la violencia en las relaciones interpersonales. El proceso incluyó su aplicación a 608 niños de 12 colegios de Coquimbo y a 20 niños víctimas de violencia. El instrumento muestra adecuados niveles de confiabilidad y evidencia un constructo multidimensional, compuesto por distintas formas de legitimación de la violencia. Los resultados permiten vincular estas creencias a contextos relaciónales violentos y sugieren su asociación con las variables: cultura escolar y socialización de género. El instrumento se plantea como una herramienta para el estudio de los mecanismos que obstaculizan la erradicación de la violencia en nuestras comunidades.This article presents the development of a scale, designed for children, which measures beliefs that legitimate interpersonal violence. The scale shows adequate reliability and shows evidence of a multidimensional construct, constituted by different ways to legitimize violence. Results suggest an association of this beliefs system with violent relational contexts, school culture and gender socialization. The scale is proposed as a tool for investigation of underlying mechanisms that perpetuate violence in our communities.

  10. The Cross-cultural Debugging and Evaluation Reliability and Validity of the Health Belief Scale%健康信念量表的跨文化调试与信效度评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季韶艳; 杨辉

    2013-01-01

    Objective:The health beliefs scale of the Chinese version of Nursing Outcome Classification cross-cultural debug,and reliability and validity of the evaluation,our assessment of the patient health beliefs provide a scientific basis measurement. Method:Follow scale cross-cultural debugging guide,by two expert consulting,40 patients with preliminary test,to form a new version of the Health Belief Scale,reliability and validity analysis of the findings of 200 hospitalized patients. Result:The new health beliefs scale internal consistency was 0.935,test-retest reliability 0.889, split-half reliability 0.936. Through expert analysis,content validity was better. The KMO and Bartlett’s test showed that suitable for factor analysis, exploratory factor analysis to extract five common factors,the cumulative variance contribution rate of 54.993%. Conclusion:The final version of health beliefs scale has high reliability and validity,science and simple,suitable for Chinese patients with wide application in the crowd,and to assess the patient’s level of health beliefs,objective evaluationn of the quality of nursing services.%  目的:对中文版《护理结局分类》中的健康信念量表进行跨文化调试,并进行信效度的评价,为评估我国患者健康信念提供科学、有效的测量依据.方法:遵循量表跨文化调试指南,通过两轮专家咨询,40名患者初试,形成新版健康信念量表,对200名住院患者调查结果进行信效度分析.结果:最终形成的健康信念量表内部一致性为0.935,重测信度0.889,分半信度0.936;经过专家分析,内容效度较好,KMO和Bartlett的检验表明适合进行因素分析,探索性因素分析提取5个公因子,累计方差贡献率为54.993%.结论:最终形成的新版健康信念量表具有较高的信效度,科学简便,适合在我国患者人群中广泛应用,以评估患者的健康信念水平,客观评价护理人员的服务质量.

  11. Epistemological Beliefs of Apprentices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinn, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    Whereas the epistemological beliefs of learners of general subjects has been the focus of many studies in the past, so far, little is known about the beliefs of apprentices on knowledge and the acquiring of knowledge. The present study analysed the first level of epistemological beliefs of students in industrial and technical professions and their…

  12. Belief and Its Revision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bewersdorf, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    The role of experience for belief revision is seldom explicitly discussed. This is surprising as it seems obvious that experiences play a major role for most of our belief changes. In this work, the two most plausible views on the role of experience for belief change are investigated: the view that

  13. Construção e validação de escala de crenças sobre o sistema treinamento Development and validation of a training system beliefs scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa Aparecida de Freitas

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda a construção e validação da escala de crenças sobre o sistema de treinamento. Os itens foram formulados a partir do Modelo MAIS (Borges-Andrade, 1982 aplicado à avaliação de treinamento, das escalas de cinismo organizacional (Tesluk, Farr, Mathieu, & Vance, 1995 e das crenças que as pessoas possuem sobre treinamento descritas na revisão de Rousseau (1997. Crenças são vistas como os aspectos cognitivos relacionados a um objeto (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980. Foram criados 35 itens, que passaram por processo de validação semântica e estatística no Banco do Brasil. Na validação estatística, realizada com 327 casos, utilizou-se análise de componentes principais e análise fatorial (PAF, rotação oblíqua. Os resultados dessas análises indicaram a existência de três fatores, com índices psicométricos adequados e conteúdos consistentes com o modelo teórico adotado, o que sugere a validade interna do instrumento. Possibilidades de intervenção nas organizações com o uso dessa escala também são discutidas.This paper focuses on the development and validation of a scale for measuring beliefs on the training system. The MAIS Model (Borges-Andrade, 1982 applied to training evaluation, the Organizational Cynicism Scales (Tesluk, Farr, Mathieu, & Vance, 1995 and the beliefs people hold on training, described in Rousseau's (1997 review, have been used as a basis for formulating the scale items. Beliefs are viewed as cognitive aspects related to an object (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980. Thirty-five items have been formulated and semantically and statistically validated in Banco do Brasil. For statistical validation, 327 cases have been collected and principal components analysis and factor analysis (PAF, oblimin rotation have been used. The results have indicated the existence of three factors, with adequate psychometric indexes. Their content has been found to be consistent with the adopted theoretical model. These results

  14. Optimal Belief Approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Leike, Reimar H

    2016-01-01

    In Bayesian statistics probability distributions express beliefs. However, for many problems the beliefs cannot be computed analytically and approximations of beliefs are needed. We seek a ranking function that quantifies how "embarrassing" it is to communicate a given approximation. We show that there is only one ranking under the requirements that (1) the best ranked approximation is the non-approximated belief and (2) that the ranking judges approximations only by their predictions for actual outcomes. We find that this ranking is equivalent to the Kullback-Leibler divergence that is frequently used in the literature. However, there seems to be confusion about the correct order in which its functional arguments, the approximated and non-approximated beliefs, should be used. We hope that our elementary derivation settles the apparent confusion. We show for example that when approximating beliefs with Gaussian distributions the optimal approximation is given by moment matching. This is in contrast to many su...

  15. Strategic Belief Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul

    While (managerial) beliefs are central to many aspects of strategic organization, interactive beliefs are almost entirely neglected, save for some game theory treatments. In an increasingly connected and networked economy, firms confront coordination problems that arise because of network effects....... The capability to manage beliefs will increasingly be a strategic one, a key source of wealth creation, and a key research area for strategic organization scholars....

  16. Ideology as Distorted Belief

    OpenAIRE

    Bevir, Mark

    1996-01-01

    A critical theory of ideology must incorporate an analysis of distorted belief unless it is to rest on a simplistic reductionism. And an analysis of distorted belief must focus on the inner constitution of consciousness unless it is to rest on a problematic claim to a privileged access to truth. This essay endeavours to provide such an analysis. Distorted beliefs arise as a result of deception, the action of the unconscious, or irrationality. In each of these cases the distortion is motiv...

  17. Belief Elicitation in Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanco, Mariana; Engelmann, Dirk; Koch, Alexander;

    Belief elicitation in economics experiments usually relies on paying subjects according to the accuracy of stated beliefs in addition to payments for other decisions. Such incentives, however, allow risk-averse subjects to hedge with their stated beliefs against adverse outcomes of other decisions...... in the experiment. This raises two questions: (i) can we trust the existing belief elicitation results, (ii) can we avoid potential hedging confounds? Our results instill confidence regarding both issues. We propose an experimental design that eliminates hedging opportunities, and use this to test for the empirical...

  18. Continuum beliefs about psychotic symptoms are a valid, unidimensional construct: Construction and validation of a revised continuum beliefs questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlier, Björn; Scheunemann, Jakob; Lincoln, Tania M

    2016-07-30

    Growing evidence supports a continuum model of psychosis, with mild psychotic symptoms being frequently experienced by the general population. Moreover, believing in the continuum model correlates with less stigmatization of schizophrenia. This study explores whether continuum beliefs are a valid construct and develops a continuum beliefs scale. First, expert-generated items were reduced to a candidate scale (study 1, n=95). One-dimensionality was tested using confirmatory factor analysis (study 2, n=363). Convergent validity was tested with a previous continuum beliefs scale, essentialist beliefs, and stigmatization (study 2), while self-reported psychotic experiences (i.e. frequency and conviction) served to test discriminant validity (study 3, n=229). A nine item questionnaire that assesses continuum beliefs about schizophrenia symptoms showed acceptable to good psychometric values, high correlations with a previous continuum beliefs scale and small correlations with essentialist beliefs, stereotypes, and desired social distance. No correlations with psychotic experiences were found. Thus, continuum beliefs can be considered a valid construct. The construed CBQ-R asks about symptoms rather than the abstract category "schizophrenia", which may increase understandability of the scale. Validation confirms previous studies and highlights the difference between continuum beliefs and personal psychotic experiences. PMID:27175910

  19. Irrational beliefs, attitudes about competition, and splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, P J; Morris, R J; Miller, L

    2001-03-01

    Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) theoretically promotes actualization of both individualistic and social-oriented potentials. In a test of this assumption, the Belief Scale and subscales from the Survey of Personal Beliefs served as measures of what REBT presumes to be pathogenic irrationalities. These measures were correlated with the Hypercompetitive Attitude Scale (HCAS), the Personal Development Competitive Attitude Scale (PDCAS), factors from the Splitting Index, and self-esteem. Results for the HCAS and Self-Splitting supported the REBT claim about individualistic self-actualization. Mostly nonsignificant and a few counterintuitive linkages were observed for irrational beliefs with the PDCAS, Family-Splitting, and Other-Splitting, and these data suggested that REBT may be less successful in capturing the "rationality" of a social-oriented self-actualization.

  20. The Role of Computer Technology in Teaching Reading and Writing: Preschool Teachers' Beliefs and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihmeideh, Fathi

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated preschool teachers' beliefs and practices regarding the use of computer technology in teaching reading and writing in Jordan. The researcher developed a questionnaire consisting of two scales--Teachers' Beliefs Scale (TB Scale) and Teachers' Practices Scale (TP Scale)--to examine the role of computer technology in teaching…

  1. Development of Chinese Positive Belief Self-rating Scale and Verified its Reliability and Validity%中国积极信念自评量表的研制及其信效度检验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张理义; 苏为吉; 王丽杰; 何明骏; 张其军; 陶凤燕; 马爱国; 刘云; 高玉芳; 涂德华; 白香辉

    2014-01-01

    Objective To develop Chinese Positive Belief Self -rating Scale and verify its reliability and validity .To establish the norm of Chinese Positive Belief Self Rating Scale ( CPBSRS) and provide a reference for research on psychology .Methods We primarily designed a scale by pretesting ,and revise it by exploratory factor -analysis,confirmatory factor analysis ,then determined its reliability and validity by factor-analysis,correlation -analysis,t-test,and so on.Results According to the results of factor analysis ,1 factor was extracted ,there were 10 items in the formal scale .The factors accounted for 51 .85%of total variance .The Cronbach'sαcoefficient of total scale was 0.783 and the split-half correlation coefficient was 0.852.Inter-scale correlation studies showed that the correlations of 10 items were ranging from 0.624 to 0.778,P<0.01.A statistical significance was found by comparing high score and low -score group (t=2.57~5.38,P<0.01).Conclusion The development of the Chinese Positive Belief Self Rating Scale has excellent reliability and validity,complying with self -rating standards .%目的:编制中国积极信念自评预测量表并进行信度、效度检验。方法通过预测验构建初问卷,并采用探索性因素分析、相关分析、t检验等方法分析数据,检验其信效度。结果根据因子分析结果,提取1个因子,正式量表含有10个条目,累计方差贡献率为51.85%。总量表的Cronbach's α系数为0.783,分半系数为0.852。10个条目与总量表的相关系数在0.624~0.778(P<0.01)。高分组与低分组比较,各条目得分差异显著(t=2.57~5.38,P<0.01)。结论中国积极信念自评量表的信度、效度符合心理测量学要求,可作为中国人积极信念的自评工具。

  2. Analysis of regional scale risk to whirling disease in populations of Colorado and Rio Grande cutthroat trout using Bayesian belief network model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb Ayre, Kimberley; Caldwell, Colleen A.; Stinson, Jonah; Landis, Wayne G.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction and spread of the parasite Myxobolus cerebralis, the causative agent of whirling disease, has contributed to the collapse of wild trout populations throughout the intermountain west. Of concern is the risk the disease may have on conservation and recovery of native cutthroat trout. We employed a Bayesian belief network to assess probability of whirling disease in Colorado River and Rio Grande cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii pleuriticus and Oncorhynchus clarkii virginalis, respectively) within their current ranges in the southwest United States. Available habitat (as defined by gradient and elevation) for intermediate oligochaete worm host, Tubifex tubifex, exerted the greatest influence on the likelihood of infection, yet prevalence of stream barriers also affected the risk outcome. Management areas that had the highest likelihood of infected Colorado River cutthroat trout were in the eastern portion of their range, although the probability of infection was highest for populations in the southern, San Juan subbasin. Rio Grande cutthroat trout had a relatively low likelihood of infection, with populations in the southernmost Pecos management area predicted to be at greatest risk. The Bayesian risk assessment model predicted the likelihood of whirling disease infection from its principal transmission vector, fish movement, and suggested that barriers may be effective in reducing risk of exposure to native trout populations. Data gaps, especially with regard to location of spawning, highlighted the importance in developing monitoring plans that support future risk assessments and adaptive management for subspecies of cutthroat trout.

  3. Physical education candidate teachers' beliefs about vocational self-esteem

    OpenAIRE

    OZSAKER, Murat; CANPOLAT, A. Meliha

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine epistemological belief and vocational self-esteem physical education candidate teachers of Physical Education and Sports Department in 3 different universities, and also to examine effect of epistemological beliefs on vocational self-esteem. A total of 346 candidate teacher respondents (137 female and 209 male) participated in the study. Epistemological Beliefs and Vocational Self-Esteem Scale were used to determine candidate teachers’ epistemologica...

  4. Analysis of Scientific Epistemological Beliefs of Eighth Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenice, Nilgun; Ozden, Baris

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the levels of scientific epistemological beliefs of 8th grade students. The sample of the study consisted of 355 students. The data of the study were collected through the use of the Scale of Scientific Epistemological Beliefs, which was developed by Elder (1999) and adapted into Turkish by Acat, Tuken and…

  5. Self-Presentation of Beliefs about Gender Discrimination and Feminism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, Michelle Ceynar; Hartman, Shelly L.

    2001-01-01

    Examined whether college students' expressed beliefs about gender discrimination and feminism related to concerns about self-presentation. Students completed gender discrimination and feminism scales and discussed hypothetical court cases. They were told their views would be either shared publicly or remain private. Men expressed more belief in…

  6. Investigation of Students' Epistemological Beliefs and Attitudes towards Studying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onen, Aysem Seda

    2011-01-01

    This study consists of the analysis on the relationship between the epistemological beliefs of secondary level students and their attitudes towards studying. The sampling of the study was formed by 440 students studying at Grade 10, 11 and 12 in secondary schools. The Epistemological Belief Questionnaire and the Attitudes towards Studying Scale,…

  7. Quantifying Rational Belief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caticha, Ariel

    2009-12-01

    Some criticisms that have been raised against the Cox approach to probability theory are addressed. Should we use a single real number to measure a degree of rational belief? Can beliefs be compared? Are the Cox axioms obvious? Are there counterexamples to Cox? Rather than justifying Cox's choice of axioms we follow a different path and derive the sum and product rules of probability theory as the unique (up to regraduations) consistent representations of the Boolean AND and OR operations.

  8. Quantifying Rational Belief

    CERN Document Server

    Caticha, Ariel

    2009-01-01

    Some criticisms that have been raised against the Cox approach to probability theory are addressed. Should we use a single real number to measure a degree of rational belief? Can beliefs be compared? Are the Cox axioms obvious? Are there counterexamples to Cox? Rather than justifying Cox's choice of axioms we follow a different path and derive the sum and product rules of probability theory as the unique (up to regraduations) consistent representations of the Boolean and and or operations.

  9. Relation Between Death Anxiety, Belief in Afterlife, and Locus of Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Alan L.; Hays, James E.

    1973-01-01

    College-age students were given a four-part questionnaire consisting of: (1) Rotter's Internal-External Locus of Control Scale, (2) the Belief in Afterlife Scale-Form A, (3) Templer's Death Anxiety Scale, and (4) Lester's Fear of Death Scale. In general, the findings suggest that the relationship between death and afterlife beliefs is weak.…

  10. Children's normative beliefs about aggression and aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huesmann, L R; Guerra, N G

    1997-02-01

    Normative beliefs have been defined as self-regulating beliefs about the appropriateness of social behaviors. In 2 studies the authors revised their scale for assessing normative beliefs about aggression, found that it is reliable and valid for use with elementary school children, and investigated the longitudinal relation between normative beliefs about aggression and aggressive behavior in a large sample of elementary school children living in poor urban neighborhoods. Using data obtained in 2 waves of observations 1 year apart, the authors found that children tended to approve more of aggression as they grew older and that this increase appeared to be correlated with increases in aggressive behavior. More important, although individual differences in aggressive behavior predicted subsequent differences in normative beliefs in younger children, individual differences in aggressive behavior were predicted by preceding differences in normative beliefs in older children. PMID:9107008

  11. Deep Belief Nets for Topic Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maaløe, Lars; Arngren, Morten; Winther, Ole

    2015-01-01

    -formative. In this paper we describe large-scale content based collaborative filtering for digital publishing. To solve the digital publishing recommender problem we compare two approaches: latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) and deep be-lief nets (DBN) that both find low-dimensional latent representations for documents...... evaluation of the DBN model and comparisons to the LDA model....

  12. Parental Belief and Parental Engagement in Children's Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodall, J.; Ghent, K.

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a small scale study, examining the influence of parental faith belief on parental engagement with children's learning. The literature surrounding parental engagement and the impact of familial belief on children's outcomes is examined. It is clear from work in the US that familial faith belief has an impact;…

  13. Attitudes and beliefs about hypnosis: A multicultural study

    OpenAIRE

    Capafons, Antonio; Mendoza, María Elena; Espejo Tort, Begoña; Green, Joseph P.; Lopes-Pires, Carlos; Selma Martín, Maria Luisa; Flores, Daniela; Morariu, Marcela; Ioana CRISTEA (DRĂGULIN); David, Daniel; Pestana, José; Carvalho, Claudia

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the effects of having personal experience and infor-mation about hypnosis over the beliefs and attitudes toward hypnosis, using a sample of students from Spain, United States, Portugal and Romania. The factor structure of the Revised Valencia Scale of Attitude s and Beliefs toward Hypnosis-Client Version, as well as its psychometric properties are also analyzed. An explorat ory factor analysis of the scale was conducted and an 8-factor model solution simila...

  14. The online Prescriptive Index platform for the assessment of managerial competencies and coaching needs: development and initial validation of the experience sampling Mood Wheel and the Manager-Rational and Irrational Beliefs Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David, O.A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Prescriptive Index platform is dedicated to the appraisal and development of managerial competencies, and it is comprised of such measures as the multi-rater Freeman-Gavita Prescriptive Executive Coaching (PEC Assessment for assessing core managerial skills, and the multi-rater Managerial Coaching Assessment System (MCAS for the evaluation of coaching competencies in managers. The aim of this research was to present the development and psychometric properties of new tools, part of the Prescriptive Index platform, for the assessment of managerial emotional competencies: the web and mobile based Mood Wheel measure using experience sampling procedures, for the assessment of current/previous distress and positive emotions; and the self-report Manager Rational and Irrational Beliefs Scale (M-RIBS for the assessment of managerial attitudes involved in emotion-regulation processes. Results obtained show that both instruments integrated in the Prescriptive Index platform have adequate initial psychometric support and predictive validity. Practical implications of our findings are discussed in the light of the importance of enabling organizations to accurately identify managerial competencies and coaching needs.

  15. Beliefs about hearing voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Michael H; Robidoux, Serje; Langdon, Robyn; Coltheart, Max

    2016-07-01

    People who experience auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) vary in whether they believe their AVHs are self-generated or caused by external agents. It remains unclear whether these differences are influenced by the "intensity" of the voices, such as their frequency or volume, or other aspects of their phenomenology. We examined 35 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who experienced AVHs. Patients completed a detailed structured interview about their AVHs, including beliefs about their cause. In response, 20 (57.1%) reported that their AVHs were self-generated, 9 (25.7%) were uncertain, and 6 (17.1%) reported that their AVHs were caused by external agents. Several analytical approaches revealed little or no evidence for associations between either AVH intensity or phenomenology and beliefs about the AVH's cause; the evidence instead favoured the absence of these associations. Beliefs about the cause of AVHs are thus unlikely to be explained solely by the phenomenological qualities of the AVHs. PMID:27258929

  16. Illness beliefs in African Americans with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Stephanie; Allen, Wilfred; Franklin, Mary; Peters, Rosalind M

    2014-02-01

    Guided by Leventhal's common sense model of illness representations, this study examined the relationship between hypertension beliefs and self-care behaviors necessary for blood pressure (BP) control in a sample of 111 community-dwelling African Americans with hypertension. Participants completed the revised Illness Perception Questionnaire, BP Self-Care Scale, and a demographic data sheet, and had BP measured. Analyses revealed that beliefs about the causes of hypertension differed by gender and educational level. Stress-related causal attributions accounted for 34.7% of the variance in hypertension beliefs. Participants who believed stress or external factors caused hypertension were less likely to engage in healthy self-care behaviors (e.g., keeping doctor visits, eating low-salt, low-fat diets). Results suggest that patients who are nonadherent with hypertension self-care recommendations may hold hypertension beliefs that are not consistent with the medically endorsed views of this disease. To more effectively treat and control BP, providers should assess patients' hypertension beliefs.

  17. Validation and psychometric evaluation of physical activity belief scale among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: an application of health action process approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohani, Hosein; Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Ghaderi, Arsalan; Jafari-Koshki, Tohid; Sadeghi, Erfan; Bidkhori, Mohammad; Raei, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Moderate increase in physical activity (PA) may be helpful in preventing or postponing the complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of a health action process approach (HAPA)-based PA inventory among T2DM patients. Methods: In 2015, this cross-sectional study was carried out on 203 participants recruited by convenience sampling in Isfahan, Iran. Content and face validity was confirmed by a panel of experts. The comments noted by 9 outpatients on the inventory were also investigated. Then,the items were administered to 203 T2DM patients. Construct validity was conducted using exploratory and structural equation modeling confirmatory factor analyses. Reliability was also assessed with Cronbach alpha and interclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results: Content validity was acceptable (CVR = 0.62, CVI = 0.89). Exploratory factor analysis extracted seven factors (risk- perception, action self-efficacy, outcome expectancies, maintenance self-efficacy, action and coping planning, behavioral intention, and recovery self-efficacy) explaining 82.23% of the variation. The HAPA had an acceptable fit to the observations (χ2 = 3.21, df = 3, P = 0.38; RMSEA = 0.06; AGFI = 0.90; PGFI = 0.12). The range of Cronbach alpha and ICC for the scales was about 0.63 to 0.97 and 0.862 to 0.988, respectively. Conclusion: The findings of the present study provided an initial support for the reliability and validity of the HAPA-based PA inventory among patients with T2DM. PMID:27386421

  18. Beliefs of women with fibromialgia

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Cláudia de Souza Leite; Elys Oliveira Bezerra; Ana Clara Patriota Chaves; Fabiane da Silva Severino Lima

    2012-01-01

    This research aimed at identifying beliefs that permeate the painful experience of women with fibromyalgia, according to the Rokeach’s theory. We interviewed 42 women attended in a Clinic of Orthopedics and Traumatology in the state of Ceara. We used a questionnaire that inquired about spiritual beliefs, coping with pain and personal values. The features which were identified were the following: central beliefs of unanimous consensus; Belief in God and seek of support in religion, zero consen...

  19. Belief Semantics of Authorization Logic

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, Andrew K.; Clarkson, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Authorization logics have been used in the theory of computer security to reason about access control decisions. In this work, a formal belief semantics for authorization logics is given. The belief semantics is proved to subsume a standard Kripke semantics. The belief semantics yields a direct representation of principals' beliefs, without resorting to the technical machinery used in Kripke semantics. A proof system is given for the logic; that system is proved sound with respect to the beli...

  20. Beliefs: A theoretically unnecessary construct?

    OpenAIRE

    Österholm, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    In this paper I analyze different existing definitions of the term beliefs, focusing on relations between beliefs and knowledge. Through this analysis I note several problems with different types of definitions. In particular, when defining beliefs through a distinction between belief and knowledge systems, this creates an idealized view of knowledge, seen as something more pure (less affective, less episodic, and more logical). In addition, attention is generally not given to from what point...

  1. Varieties of Belief and Probability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijck, D.J.N. van; Ghosh, S.; Szymanik, J.

    2015-01-01

    For reasoning about uncertain situations, we have probability theory, and we have logics of knowledge and belief. How does elementary probability theory relate to epistemic logic and the logic of belief? The paper focuses on the notion of betting belief, and interprets a language for knowledge and b

  2. [Incorporation and adaptation of the postmodern belief system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzón Pérez, Adela

    2012-01-01

    Every society develops a particular system of beliefs that summarizes its vision of socio-political organization, culture and interpersonal relationships. Each of these three basic dimensions has different forms, depending on the spatial and temporal context of societies. The belief system of the service societies is characterized by a democratic vision of social and political organization, rejection of radical social changes and high levels of interpersonal trust. This paper empirically examines the incorporation and adaptation of the postmodern belief system in a sample of university students. The participants belong to a country that is slowly integrating into the service societies. We used a scale of postmodernity to analyze the incorporation of the postmodern belief system. The results indicate that there is a peculiar combination of the three basic dimensions of the postmodern belief system, where the postmodern conceptions of culture and social relationships have lower acceptance. PMID:22748738

  3. Information and Heterogeneous Beliefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Qin, Zhenjiang

    2014-01-01

    and the maximum expected abnormal trading volume. Imperfect public information increases the gains-to-trade based on heterogeneously updated posterior beliefs. In an exchange economy, this leads to higher growth in the investors' certainty equivalents and, thus, a higher equilibrium interest rate, whereas the ex...... ante risk premium is unaffected by the informativeness of the public information system. Similar results are obtained in a production economy, but the impact on the ex ante cost of capital is dampened compared to the exchange economy due to welfare improving reductions in real investments to smooth......In an incomplete market with heterogeneous prior beliefs, we show public information can have a substantial impact on the ex ante cost of capital, trading volume, and investor welfare. The Pareto effcient public information system is the system enjoying the maximum ex ante cost of capital...

  4. ENGLISH LECTURERS' BELIEFS REGARDING INTERCULTURAL COMPETENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Kılıç, Serpil

    2013-01-01

    This present study aims to investigate the role of intercultural competence in Turkish tertiary EFL teaching. More specifically, the study was carried out in order to reveal English lecturers’ beliefs regarding intercultural competence. Data were collected from 368 English lecturers in İstanbul via a questionnaire and a scale. The findings have revealed that English lecturers do not believe that culture learning is among the primary objectives of English language teaching and believe more in ...

  5. A study on students' beliefs about nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Factor analysis of the students' beliefs about the use of nuclear energy yielded four factors: psychological/environmental risks, technological benefits, economic benefits and sociopolitical risks. The five items loading highest on each factor served as the basis for specifying dimensions of perceptions of nuclear power. The pattern of statistical relationship between each dimension was identified. The overall attitude of the respondents towards nuclear power was determined using three attitude measures: the Fishbein model, Osgood's semantic differential technique, and the direct response to favourability/unfavourability scale. The attitude scores obtained were correlated with the different factor-level scores to determine the contribution of each belief dimension to attitude. Differences in beliefs held by the PROS and CON the use of nuclear energy groups are also presented here. Responses to the importance scale showed that the belief statements or attributes included in the questionnaire used covered the more important issues raised in the present-day nuclear controversy. (author)

  6. Examining Prospective Pre-School and Biology Teachers’ Metacognitive Awareness and Epistemological Beliefs

    OpenAIRE

    BEDEL, Emine Ferda; ÇAKIR, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to describe prospective pre-school and biology teachers’ level of metacognitive awareness and epistemological beliefs and to examine differences between the groups. The total of 286 pre-school and biology teacher candidates participated in the study. Participants were asked to complete the central epistemological beliefs questionnaire which consisted of four sub-scales namely: belief in science as a source of knowledge, belief in rational society, belief in s...

  7. Bisimulation and expressivity for conditional belief, degrees of belief, and safe belief

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel Birkegaard; Bolander, Thomas; van Ditmarsch, Hans;

    2016-01-01

    Plausibility models are Kripke models that agents use to reason about knowledge and belief, both of themselves and of each other. Such models are used to interpret the notions of conditional belief, degrees of belief, and safe belief. The logic of conditional belief contains that modality and also...... the knowledge modality, and similarly for the logic of degrees of belief and the logic of safe belief. With respect to these logics, plausibility models may contain too much information. A proper notion of bisimulation is required that characterises them. We define that notion of bisimulation and prove...... the required characterisations: on the class of image-finite and preimage-finite models (with respect to the plausibility relation), two pointed Kripke models are modally equivalent in either of the three logics, if and only if they are bisimilar. As a result, the information content of such a model can...

  8. Ontological confusions but not mentalizing abilities predict religious belief, paranormal belief, and belief in supernatural purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Marjaana; Svedholm-Häkkinen, Annika M; Lipsanen, Jari

    2015-01-01

    The current research tested the hypothesis that the abilities for understanding other people's minds give rise to the cognitive biases that underlie supernatural beliefs. We used structural equation modeling (N=2789) to determine the roles of various mentalizing tendencies, namely self-reported affective and cognitive empathy (i.e., mind reading), actual cognitive and affective empathic abilities, hyper-empathizing, and two cognitive biases (core ontological confusions and promiscuous teleology) in giving rise to supernatural beliefs. Support for a path from mentalizing abilities through cognitive biases to supernatural beliefs was weak. The relationships of mentalizing abilities with supernatural beliefs were also weak, and these relationships were not substantially mediated by cognitive biases. Core ontological confusions emerged as the best predictor, while promiscuous teleology predicted only a small proportion of variance. The results were similar for religious beliefs, paranormal beliefs, and for belief in supernatural purpose. PMID:25460380

  9. Analysis of Scientific Epistemological Beliefs of Eighth Graders

    OpenAIRE

    YENiCE, Nilgün; Özden, Barış

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the levels of scientific epistemological beliefs of 8th grade students. The sample of the study consisted of 355 students. The data of the study were collected through the use of the Scale of Scientific Epistemological Beliefs, which was developed by Elder (1999) and adapted into Turkish by Acat, Tuken and Karadag (2010). Personal Data Form was also used to obtain demographic data about the participants. In order to determine the levels of scientific epis...

  10. Environmental Policy Beliefs of Stakeholders in Protected Area Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovardas, Tasos; Poirazidis, Kostas

    2007-04-01

    Although the importance of understanding stakeholder beliefs regarding environmental policy has been noted by many authors, research focusing on the heterogeneity of stakeholder views is still very scarce and concentrated on a product-oriented definition of stakeholders. The aim of the present study is to address this gap by examining environmental policy beliefs of stakeholder groups engaged in protected area management. Questionnaires containing 73 five-point Likert scale items were administered to eight different stakeholder groups involved in the management of Greek protected areas. Items referred to core beliefs on environmental policy, namely, the value framework and sustainable development, and secondary beliefs, that is, beliefs on social consensus and ecotourism development. Our study used as a starting point respondent recruitment on the basis of a traditional product-centered approach. We investigated whether environmental policy beliefs can be used to effectively segregate stakeholders in well-defined segments, which override the product-oriented definition of stakeholders. Indeed, K-means clustering revealed an innovation-introduction and an implementation-charged sample segment. The instrument utilized in this research proved quite reliable and valid in measuring stakeholder environmental policy beliefs. Furthermore, the methodology implied that stakeholder groups differ in a significant number of belief-system elements. On the other hand, stakeholder groups were effectively distinguished on a small set of both core and secondary beliefs. Therefore, the instrument used can be an effective tool for determining and monitoring environmental policy beliefs of stakeholders in protected area management. This is of considerable importance in the Greek case, given the recent establishment of 27 administrative bodies of protected areas, all of which are required to incorporate public consultation into management practices.

  11. Test Performance Related Dysfunctional Beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recep TÜTÜNCÜ

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Examinations by using tests are very frequently used in educational settings and successful studying before the examinations is a complex matter to deal with. In order to understand the determinants of success in exams better, we need to take into account not only emotional and motivational, but also cognitive aspects of the participants such as dysfunctional beliefs. Our aim is to present the relationship between candidates’ characteristics and distorted beliefs/schemata just before an examination. Method: The subjects of the study were 30 female and 30 male physicians who were about to take the medical specialization exam (MSE in Turkey. Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS and Young Schema Questionnaire Short Form (YSQ-SF were applied to the subjects. The statistical analysis was done using the F test, Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, chi-square test and spearman’s correlation test. Results: It was shown that some of the DAS and YSQ-SF scores were significantly higher in female gender, in the group who could not pass the exam, who had repetitive examinations, who had their first try taking an examination and who were unemployed at the time of the examination. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that candidates seeking help before MSE examination could be referred for cognitive therapy or counseling even they do not have any psychiatric diagnosis due to clinically significant cognitive distortion. Measurement and treatment of cognitive distortions that have negative impact on MSE performance may improve the cost-effectiveness and mental well being of the young doctors.

  12. Slav beliefs on changelings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radenković Ljubinko R.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Beliefs and legends that certain mythological creatures - fairies, witches, the devil, (vile, veštice, đavo, boginka, mamuna, baenik, domovoj, leshi etc. can take away the child from the mother and exchange it for its own in the image of the abducted child, are widespread with the West and East Slavs, while with the South Slavs they are found only in the northern parts, in Pannonia. Such demonic child is most often called: podmeče (with the Serbs, podvršće (with the Croats, podmenek (with the Slovenians, odmienjec (with the Poles, odminok (with the Ukrainians, obmen (with the Russians, etc. According to the folk beliefs, a changeling differs from the other children by its sluggish growth, voraciousness, and persistent desire to harm or spite other members of the household. Slav legends mention the ways of stealing the human and planting the demonic child (a, recognizing the demonic child (b, and disposing of it and restoring the rightful child (c. In order to prevent the demon from exchanging her child, the mother must observe certain rules of conduct during pregnancy and in the 40 days following the childbirth. Certain measures of magical protection are also undertaken, as: placing sharp iron objects near the nursing woman, then brooms, leaving the candle to burn all night, burning frankincense in her presence, sprinkling her with holy water, etc. The legends on changelings were most probably adopted by the Slavs from the neighboring western peoples (Germans, and included in the already present beliefs that the birth of a child is a gift from the other world, and that the mother must take great care of the gift and be grateful for it. Otherwise, the one bestowing the gift may take it away as well.

  13. EPISTEMOLOGICAL BELIEFS OF STUDENT TEACHERS

    OpenAIRE

    BANGİR, Gülgün ALPAN; KOÇ, Gürcü ERDAMAR

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the epistemological beliefs of student teachers and whether these beliefs are affected by certain variables (department, year of study, location, educational level of mother and father, SSE score). The study sample consisted of a total of 380 student teachers from Gazi University Vocational Educational Faculty, 191 of whom were freshman students and 189 of whom were senior students. Data were collected using Schommer' Epistemological Beliefs Questionnaire. It wa...

  14. Homo Economicus Belief Inhibits Trust

    OpenAIRE

    Ziqiang Xin; Guofang Liu

    2013-01-01

    As a foundational concept in economics, the homo economicus assumption regards humans as rational and self-interested actors. In contrast, trust requires individuals to believe partners' benevolence and unselfishness. Thus, the homo economicus belief may inhibit trust. The present three experiments demonstrated that the direct exposure to homo economicus belief can weaken trust. And economic situations like profit calculation can also activate individuals' homo economicus belief and inhibit t...

  15. Belief in a Just World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Kilinc

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Belief in a just world hypothesis is defined as the belief that the world is a just place where people generally get what they deserve. It states that individuals have a need to believe that they live in a just world; they believe in a world where people get what they deserve and where people deserve what they get. Individuals believe that who work hard or who perform good acts obtain rewards for their actions, while the sinners and the laggards receive punishments instead. Similarly, individuals want to believe that positive outcomes, whether money, success, or happiness, are obtained only by good people and, conversely, that negative outcomes only happen to bad persons. Justice beliefs have been hypothesized as adaptive for dealing with day-to-day stres. Just world beliefs protect individuals from the daily negative psychological consequences of living in what is realistically an unjust world. In addition, just world beliefs are thought to enhance feelings of security to the extent that if the individual satisfies the conditions for being "good," he or she is protected from injustice. The belief in a just world, like other positive illusions, should contribute to the maintenance of one's mental health. Belief in a just world's is discussed in two ways: personal belief in a just world's answers the question “how much justly is the world to me?”, whereas the belief in a just world's in general answers the question “how much justly is the world?”

  16. Homo economicus belief inhibits trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Ziqiang; Liu, Guofang

    2013-01-01

    As a foundational concept in economics, the homo economicus assumption regards humans as rational and self-interested actors. In contrast, trust requires individuals to believe partners' benevolence and unselfishness. Thus, the homo economicus belief may inhibit trust. The present three experiments demonstrated that the direct exposure to homo economicus belief can weaken trust. And economic situations like profit calculation can also activate individuals' homo economicus belief and inhibit their trust. It seems that people's increasing homo economicus belief may serve as one cause of the worldwide decline of trust. PMID:24146907

  17. Homo economicus belief inhibits trust.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziqiang Xin

    Full Text Available As a foundational concept in economics, the homo economicus assumption regards humans as rational and self-interested actors. In contrast, trust requires individuals to believe partners' benevolence and unselfishness. Thus, the homo economicus belief may inhibit trust. The present three experiments demonstrated that the direct exposure to homo economicus belief can weaken trust. And economic situations like profit calculation can also activate individuals' homo economicus belief and inhibit their trust. It seems that people's increasing homo economicus belief may serve as one cause of the worldwide decline of trust.

  18. Symptom dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder and obsessive beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trinette Cordeiro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD is a heterogeneous condition with a few major symptom dimensions. These symptom dimensions are thought to have unique clinical and neurobiological correlates. There seems to be a specific relation between OCD symptom dimensions and obsessive beliefs, but the findings are not consistent across studies. There is also a paucity of literature from culturally diverse settings. One of the reasons for the varied findings could be due to the method employed in measuring OCD symptoms. Materials and Methods: In this study, we examined the relation between symptom dimensions and obsessive beliefs using the Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale and the Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire respectively in 75 patients with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition OCD. Results: Perfectionism predicted both aggressive and symmetry dimensions whereas responsibility beliefs predicted sexual and religious dimensions. Conclusions: The findings suggest that certain obsessive beliefs predicted certain OCD symptom dimensions, but results are not entirely consistent with the published literature suggesting the possibility of cross-cultural variations. That the symptom dimensions have unique belief domains support the argument that symptom dimensions could be targeted to reduce the heterogeneity in etiological and treatment studies of OCD. Therapeutic interventions may have to aim at modifying unique belief domains underlying certain symptom dimensions rather than having generic cognitive-behavioral strategies.

  19. Free will and paranormal beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogi, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Free will is one of the fundamental aspects of human cognition. In the context of cognitive neuroscience, various experiments on time perception, sensorimotor coordination, and agency suggest the possibility that it is a robust illusion (a feeling independent of actual causal relationship with actions) constructed by neural mechanisms. Humans are known to suffer from various cognitive biases and failures, and the sense of free will might be one of them. Here I report a positive correlation between the belief in free will and paranormal beliefs (UFO, reincarnation, astrology, and psi). Web questionnaires involving 2076 subjects (978 males, 1087 females, and 11 other genders) were conducted, which revealed significant positive correlations between belief in free will (theory and practice) and paranormal beliefs. There was no significant correlation between belief in free will and knowledge in paranormal phenomena. Paranormal belief scores for females were significantly higher than those for males, with corresponding significant (albeit weaker) difference in belief in free will. These results are consistent with the view that free will is an illusion which shares common cognitive elements with paranormal beliefs. PMID:24765084

  20. Free will and paranormal beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken eMogi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Free will is one of the fundamental aspects of human cognition. In the context of cognitive neuroscience, various experiments on time perception, sensorimotor coordination, and agency suggest the possibility that it is a robust illusion (a feeling independent of actual causal relationship with actions constructed by neural mechanisms. Humans are known to suffer from various cognitive biases and failures, and the sense of free will might be one of them. Here I report a positive correlation between the belief in free will and paranormal beliefs (UFO, reincarnation, astrology, and psi. Web questionnaires involving 2076 subjects (978 males, 1087 females, and 11 other genders were conducted, which revealed significant positive correlations between belief in free will (theory and practice and paranormal beliefs. There was no significant correlation between belief in free will and knowledge in paranormal phenomena. Paranormal belief scores for females were significantly higher than those for males, with corresponding significant (albeit weaker difference in belief in free will. These results are consistent with the view that free will is an illusion which shares common cognitive elements with paranormal beliefs.

  1. Bulimic Beliefs: Food for Thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Barbara G.; Anderson, Wayne P.

    1989-01-01

    Contends that individuals suffering from bulimia nervosa share characteristic pattern of thinking which must be understood if effective treatment is to take place. Presents these beliefs, gathered by clinical experience and literature review, in format describing each belief, discussing common causes for its development, and suggesting therapeutic…

  2. Free will and paranormal beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogi, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Free will is one of the fundamental aspects of human cognition. In the context of cognitive neuroscience, various experiments on time perception, sensorimotor coordination, and agency suggest the possibility that it is a robust illusion (a feeling independent of actual causal relationship with actions) constructed by neural mechanisms. Humans are known to suffer from various cognitive biases and failures, and the sense of free will might be one of them. Here I report a positive correlation between the belief in free will and paranormal beliefs (UFO, reincarnation, astrology, and psi). Web questionnaires involving 2076 subjects (978 males, 1087 females, and 11 other genders) were conducted, which revealed significant positive correlations between belief in free will (theory and practice) and paranormal beliefs. There was no significant correlation between belief in free will and knowledge in paranormal phenomena. Paranormal belief scores for females were significantly higher than those for males, with corresponding significant (albeit weaker) difference in belief in free will. These results are consistent with the view that free will is an illusion which shares common cognitive elements with paranormal beliefs.

  3. Free will and paranormal beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogi, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Free will is one of the fundamental aspects of human cognition. In the context of cognitive neuroscience, various experiments on time perception, sensorimotor coordination, and agency suggest the possibility that it is a robust illusion (a feeling independent of actual causal relationship with actions) constructed by neural mechanisms. Humans are known to suffer from various cognitive biases and failures, and the sense of free will might be one of them. Here I report a positive correlation between the belief in free will and paranormal beliefs (UFO, reincarnation, astrology, and psi). Web questionnaires involving 2076 subjects (978 males, 1087 females, and 11 other genders) were conducted, which revealed significant positive correlations between belief in free will (theory and practice) and paranormal beliefs. There was no significant correlation between belief in free will and knowledge in paranormal phenomena. Paranormal belief scores for females were significantly higher than those for males, with corresponding significant (albeit weaker) difference in belief in free will. These results are consistent with the view that free will is an illusion which shares common cognitive elements with paranormal beliefs. PMID:24765084

  4. Religious beliefs and entrepreneurship among Dutch protestants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Rietveld (Niels); E. van Burg (Elco)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractReligious beliefs affect the economic behavior of individuals. The aim of this study is to investigate the relation between religious beliefs and entrepreneurship. Empirical evidence that entrepreneurship rates differ among religions suggests that religious beliefs influence the pursuit

  5. Against Motivational Efficacy of Beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungbae Park

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Danielle Bromwich (2010 argues that a belief is motivationally efficacious in that, other things being equal, it disposes an agent to answer a question in accordance with that belief. I reply that what we are disposed to do is largely determined by our genes, whereas what we believe is largely determined by stimuli from the environment. We have a standing and default disposition to answer questions honestly, ceteris paribus, even before we are exposed to environmental stimuli. Since this standing and default disposition is innate, and our beliefs have their source in environmental stimuli, our beliefs cannot be the source of the disposition. Moreover, a recent finding in neuroscience suggests that motivation is extrinsic to belief.

  6. LIGO: The strong belief

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2016-01-01

    Twenty years of designing, building and testing a number of innovative technologies, with the strong belief that the endeavour would lead to a historic breakthrough. The Bulletin publishes an abstract of the Courier’s interview with Barry Barish, one of the founding fathers of LIGO.   The plots show the signals of gravitational waves detected by the twin LIGO observatories at Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington. (Image: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab) On 11 February, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo collaborations published a historic paper in which they showed a gravitational signal emitted by the merger of two black holes. These results come after 20 years of hard work by a large collaboration of scientists operating the two LIGO observatories in the US. Barry Barish, Linde Professor of Physics, Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology and former Director of the Global Design Effort for the Internat...

  7. Multibiometrics Belief Fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Kisku, Dakshina Ranjan; Gupta, Phalguni

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a multimodal biometric system through Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) for face and ear biometrics with belief fusion of the estimated scores characterized by Gabor responses and the proposed fusion is accomplished by Dempster-Shafer (DS) decision theory. Face and ear images are convolved with Gabor wavelet filters to extracts spatially enhanced Gabor facial features and Gabor ear features. Further, GMM is applied to the high-dimensional Gabor face and Gabor ear responses separately for quantitive measurements. Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm is used to estimate density parameters in GMM. This produces two sets of feature vectors which are then fused using Dempster-Shafer theory. Experiments are conducted on multimodal database containing face and ear images of 400 individuals. It is found that use of Gabor wavelet filters along with GMM and DS theory can provide robust and efficient multimodal fusion strategy.

  8. Cognitive biases explain religious belief, paranormal belief, and belief in life's purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Aiyana K; Norenzayan, Ara

    2013-11-01

    Cognitive theories of religion have postulated several cognitive biases that predispose human minds towards religious belief. However, to date, these hypotheses have not been tested simultaneously and in relation to each other, using an individual difference approach. We used a path model to assess the extent to which several interacting cognitive tendencies, namely mentalizing, mind body dualism, teleological thinking, and anthropomorphism, as well as cultural exposure to religion, predict belief in God, paranormal beliefs and belief in life's purpose. Our model, based on two independent samples (N=492 and N=920) found that the previously known relationship between mentalizing and belief is mediated by individual differences in dualism, and to a lesser extent by teleological thinking. Anthropomorphism was unrelated to religious belief, but was related to paranormal belief. Cultural exposure to religion (mostly Christianity) was negatively related to anthropomorphism, and was unrelated to any of the other cognitive tendencies. These patterns were robust for both men and women, and across at least two ethnic identifications. The data were most consistent with a path model suggesting that mentalizing comes first, which leads to dualism and teleology, which in turn lead to religious, paranormal, and life's-purpose beliefs. Alternative theoretical models were tested but did not find empirical support. PMID:23974049

  9. Beliefs and conceptions. Complementary perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuensanta Hernández Pina

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The beliefs and conceptions of teaching and learning held by teachers is a research topic which could mean a step forward in our understanding of important factors for improving the quality of Education. For over two decades, a number of researchers have achieved results through studies which offer a corpus of solid knowledge about beliefs and conceptions of teaching and learning which has resulted in establishing new andinteresting interpretations of that relationship. In this paper, we present the ideas about beliefs and conceptions held by a group of researches about teaching and learning.

  10. Reducing dysfunctional beliefs about sleep does not significantly improve insomnia in cognitive behavioral therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa Okajima

    Full Text Available The present study examined to examine whether improvement of insomnia is mediated by a reduction in sleep-related dysfunctional beliefs through cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia. In total, 64 patients with chronic insomnia received cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia consisting of 6 biweekly individual treatment sessions of 50 minutes in length. Participants were asked to complete the Athens Insomnia Scale and the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep scale both at the baseline and at the end of treatment. The results showed that although cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia greatly reduced individuals' scores on both scales, the decrease in dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep with treatment did not seem to mediate improvement in insomnia. The findings suggest that sleep-related dysfunctional beliefs endorsed by patients with chronic insomnia may be attenuated by cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia, but changes in such beliefs are not likely to play a crucial role in reducing the severity of insomnia.

  11. Illness Beliefs regarding the Causes of Diabetes among Latino College Students: An Exploratory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Silvia J.; Hurtado-Ortiz, Maria T.; Sneed, Carl D.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the validity of the Klonoff and Landrine Illness-Belief Scale when applied to Latino college students (n = 156; 34% male, 66% female) at high risk for future diabetes onset. Principal factor analysis yielded four significant factors--emotional, folk beliefs, punitive, gene/hereditary--which accounted for 64.5% of variance and…

  12. Urban Parents' Perceptions about the Role of Organized Religion and Spiritual Beliefs in Their Family Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitchlyn, Carol L.; Smith-Myles, Brenda; Cook, Virginia H.

    2007-01-01

    Parents with children with cognitive disabilities may rely on organized religion and/or spiritual beliefs as coping strategies in their lives. Fifteen parents of adolescents with cognitive disabilities were administered the Support From Religious Organizational and Personal Beliefs Scale-Revised to test this hypothesis. The results indicated that…

  13. Balancing Multicultural Competence with Social Justice: Feminist Beliefs and Optimal Psychological Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Janice D.; Snell, Andrea F.; Tobias, Ann

    2012-01-01

    To identify a multivariate configuration of feminist beliefs best associated with optimal psychological functioning, 215 mostly White college women completed an online survey measuring their feminist beliefs (Feminist Perspectives Scale, Attitudes toward Feminism and the Women's Movement, sense of common fate, and Feminist Identity Composite) and…

  14. Determination of Self-Efficacy Beliefs of High School Students towards Math Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgen, Kemal; Bindaka, Recep

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the high school students' self-efficacy beliefs about math literacy, and examine this beliefs in terms of some variables. The research was conducted on 712 high school students. A questionnaire and Math Literacy Self-Efficacy Scale were used for data collection. The data were analyzed in terms of t-test,…

  15. Belief in Afterlife as a Buffer in Suicidal and Other Bereavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peggy C.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined belief in afterlife and bereavement recovery following death by suicide, homicide, accident, or natural causes. Bereaved persons (n=121) completed scales measuring belief in afterlife, impact of event, perceived recovery, spiritual well-being, emotional pain, and social support. Feeling of recovery following bereavement appeared enhanced…

  16. Beliefs and conceptions. Complementary perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Fuensanta Hernández Pina; Javier J. Maquilón Sánchez

    2011-01-01

    The beliefs and conceptions of teaching and learning held by teachers is a research topic which could mean a step forward in our understanding of important factors for improving the quality of Education. For over two decades, a number of researchers have achieved results through studies which offer a corpus of solid knowledge about beliefs and conceptions of teaching and learning which has resulted in establishing new andinteresting interpretations of that relationship. In this paper, we pres...

  17. Irrational beliefs and marital conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, A T; de Beer, Z C

    1998-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that the major irrational evaluative beliefs postulated by Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy are related to marital conflict, 15 married couples participated in a thought-listing procedure. During this procedure, three idiosyncratic scenes portraying marital conflict and three control scenes free of conflict were identified for and presented to each member of the dyad. Analysis indicated that the conflict-portraying scenes were associated with significantly more irrational evaluative beliefs and significantly fewer rational cognitions than the control scenes.

  18. Attitudes and Beliefs in Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Pohořelá, Denisa

    2011-01-01

    Bachelor thesis of name „Attitudes and Belief in Advertising“ considers determination of general attitude towards advertising and testing of factors which effect advertising message´s consignee. Belief in advertising has character of general attitude or attitude towards brand. My bachelor abstract recognizes particulary these general attitudes. Working factors in advertising are: relation, politics, sex, symbolism, family. For this purpose questionnaire research was chosen. A part ...

  19. Reliability and validity of an instrument to measure the beliefs of intrapartum nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Ellise D; Sauls, Donna J

    2014-01-01

    Intrapartum nurses assume a central role in the birth process and make decisions driven by a set of beliefs. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable instrument to measure birth beliefs of intrapartum nurses related to birth practice. A total of 313 intrapartum nurses accessed this online, self-administered instrument over a 3-month period. The Theory of Planned Behavior guided development of the Intrapartum Nurses' Beliefs Related to Birth Practice scale and provided a basis for the connection between beliefs and practice. This article describes the psychometric analysis of the instrument. Findings include a moderate, positive correlation with a similar instrument, a Cronbach α of 0.797, and 2 factors identifying belief systems. With further revision, this instrument may provide an accurate measure of the birth beliefs of intrapartum nurses. PMID:24781771

  20. [Meta-cognitive beliefs about thought suppression and associated paradoxical effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Yosuke; Honma, Yoshiko; Tanno, Yoshihiko

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the contents of meta-cognitive beliefs about thought suppression and to investigate the relationship between these beliefs and the paradoxical effects of thought suppression. In Study 1, we developed a scale measuring the endorsement of meta-cognitive beliefs about thought suppression. This measure, the Meta-cognitive Beliefs about Thought Suppression Questionnaire (BTQ, has four subscales: Distraction, Paradoxical Effect, Regret, and Promotion of Concentration. In Study 2 and Study 3, the BTQ showed sufficient criterion-related validity and test-retest reliability. In Study 4, we conducted an experiment to investigate the relationship between meta-cognitive beliefs about thought suppression and its paradoxical eftects. Results showed that the Paradoxical Effect subscale score significantly predicted the number of intrusive thoughts during thought suppression. The development process of meta-cognitive beliefs about thought suppression and implications for research about cognitive control are discussed. PMID:25508973

  1. The belief in a just world and subjective perceptions of society: a developmental perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Louis

    2006-08-01

    The hypothesis guiding this study stated that just world beliefs (i.e., the belief that the world is orderly and just) are primitive beliefs that lose their importance across age as they become replaced by more sophisticated forms of reasoning enabling individuals to handle a world that is neither orderly nor just. In addition, just world beliefs were thought to relate to perceptions of inequality and collectivism within society. In this study, a cross-sectional design was employed involving 235 secondary school pupils and 268 psychology students divided over six age groups with mean ages 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, and 22 years and older. They were presented with the Just World Beliefs Scale and the Individualism-Collectivism Scale. Outcomes revealed that general beliefs in a just world begin to loose their importance around the age of 12, followed by personal beliefs around the age of 16. Vertical collectivism related positively to general and personal just world beliefs showing that the experience of social 'inequality' plays an important role in the maintenance of such beliefs.

  2. Emergent Literacy: Preschool Teachers' Beliefs and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandvik, Jenny Miglis; van Daal, Victor H. P.; Adèr, Herman J.

    2014-01-01

    The present study reports on the construction of a research instrument developed to examine preschool teachers' beliefs and practices in relation to emergent literacy. A 130-item survey (Preschool Literacy Survey, PLS) was completed by a total of 90 preschool teachers in Norway. Items were grouped into homogenous scales, and the relationship…

  3. Pre-Service Teachers' Epistemological Beliefs and Conceptions of Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Harun; Sahin, Sami

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate pre-service teachers' views about teaching and the relation of those views to epistemological beliefs, gender, and subject areas. The data collection tool was adapted from "The Traditional Teaching (TT) and Constructivist Teaching (CT) Scale," developed by Chan and Elliot (2004). Participants consisted of 490…

  4. An Instrument to Assess Beliefs about Standardized Testing: Measuring the Influence of Epistemology on the Endorsement of Standardized Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Robert G.; Jones, Brett D.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the development of an instrument to assess beliefs about standardized testing in schools, a topic of much heated debate. The Beliefs About Standardized Testing scale was developed to measure the extent to which individuals support high-stakes standardized testing. The 9-item scale comprises three subscales which measure…

  5. Measurement of math beliefs and their associations with math behaviors in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendy, Helen M; Schorschinsky, Nancy; Wade, Barbara

    2014-12-01

    Our purpose in the present study was to expand understanding of math beliefs in college students by developing 3 new psychometrically tested scales as guided by expectancy-value theory, self-efficacy theory, and health belief model. Additionally, we identified which math beliefs (and which theory) best explained variance in math behaviors and performance by college students and which students were most likely to have problematic math beliefs. Study participants included 368 college math students who completed questionnaires to report math behaviors (attending class, doing homework, reading textbooks, asking for help) and used a 5-point rating scale to indicate a variety of math beliefs. For a subset of 84 students, math professors provided final math grades. Factor analyses produced a 10-item Math Value Scale with 2 subscales (Class Devaluation, No Future Value), a 7-item single-dimension Math Confidence Scale, and an 11-item Math Barriers Scale with 2 subscales (Math Anxiety, Discouraging Words). Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that high levels of the newly discovered class devaluation belief (guided by expectancy-value theory) were most consistently associated with poor math behaviors in college students, with high math anxiety (guided by health belief model) and low math confidence (guided by self-efficacy theory) also found to be significant. Analyses of covariance revealed that younger and male students were at increased risk for class devaluation and older students were at increased risk for poor math confidence.

  6. Brain networks shaping religious belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapogiannis, Dimitrios; Deshpande, Gopikrishna; Krueger, Frank; Thornburg, Matthew P; Grafman, Jordan Henry

    2014-02-01

    We previously demonstrated with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) that religious belief depends upon three cognitive dimensions, which can be mapped to specific brain regions. In the present study, we considered these co-activated regions as nodes of three networks each one corresponding to a particular dimension, corresponding to each dimension and examined the causal flow within and between these networks to address two important hypotheses that remained untested in our previous work. First, we hypothesized that regions involved in theory of mind (ToM) are located upstream the causal flow and drive non-ToM regions, in line with theories attributing religion to the evolution of ToM. Second, we hypothesized that differences in directional connectivity are associated with differences in religiosity. To test these hypotheses, we performed a multivariate Granger causality-based directional connectivity analysis of fMRI data to demonstrate the causal flow within religious belief-related networks. Our results supported both hypotheses. Religious subjects preferentially activated a pathway from inferolateral to dorsomedial frontal cortex to monitor the intent and involvement of supernatural agents (SAs; intent-related ToM). Perception of SAs engaged pathways involved in fear regulation and affective ToM. Religious beliefs are founded both on propositional statements for doctrine, but also on episodic memory and imagery. Beliefs based on doctrine engaged a pathway from Broca's to Wernicke's language areas. Beliefs related to everyday life experiences engaged pathways involved in imagery. Beliefs implying less involved SAs and evoking imagery activated a pathway from right lateral temporal to occipital regions. This pathway was more active in non-religious compared to religious subjects, suggesting greater difficulty and procedural demands for imagining and processing the intent of SAs. Insights gained by Granger connectivity analysis inform us about the causal

  7. Confidence in one's social beliefs: implications for belief justification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koriat, Asher; Adiv, Shiri

    2012-12-01

    Philosophers commonly define knowledge as justified true beliefs. A heated debate exists, however, about what makes a belief justified. In this article, we examine the question of belief justification from a psychological perspective, focusing on the subjective confidence in a belief that the person has just formed. Participants decided whether to accept or reject a proposition depicting a social belief, and indicated their confidence in their choice. The task was repeated six times, and choice latency was measured. The results were analyzed within a Self-Consistency Model (SCM) of subjective confidence. According to SCM, the decision to accept or reject a proposition is based on the on-line sampling of representations from a pool of representations associated with the proposition. Respondents behave like intuitive statisticians who infer the central tendency of a population based on a small sample. Confidence depends on the consistency with which the belief was supported across the sampled representations, and reflects the likelihood that a new sample will yield the same decision. The results supported the assumption of a commonly shared population of representations associated with each proposition. Based on this assumption, analyses of within-person consistency and cross-person consensus provided support for the model. As expected, choices that deviated from the person's own modal judgment or from the consensually held judgment took relatively longer to form and were associated with relatively lower confidence, presumably because they were based on non-representative samples. The results were discussed in relation to major epistemological theories--foundationalism, coherentism and reliabilism. PMID:22995400

  8. Reducing Dysfunctional Beliefs about Sleep Does Not Significantly Improve Insomnia in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Isa Okajima; Shun Nakajima; Moeko Ochi; Yuichi Inoue

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined to examine whether improvement of insomnia is mediated by a reduction in sleep-related dysfunctional beliefs through cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia. In total, 64 patients with chronic insomnia received cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia consisting of 6 biweekly individual treatment sessions of 50 minutes in length. Participants were asked to complete the Athens Insomnia Scale and the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep scale both at the...

  9. Beliefs about Volunteerism, Volunteering Intention, Volunteering Behavior, and Purpose in Life among Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben M. F. Law

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationships among beliefs about volunteerism, volunteering intention, volunteering behavior, and purpose in life were examined in this study. A total of 5,946 participants completed a series of scales, including the Revised Personal Functions of Volunteerism Scale, Volunteering Intention Scale, and Purpose in Life Scale. The results showed that participants whose purpose in life had different levels also had varied prosocial beliefs about volunteerism, volunteering intention, and volunteering behavior. Purpose in life was associated more strongly with prosocial value function than with other types of beliefs (except understanding function. When different beliefs are grouped, the correlation between purpose in life and other-serving beliefs was higher than that between purpose in life and self-serving beliefs. Purpose in life was also associated with volunteering intention and behavior. Path analyses showed that purpose in life predicted volunteering behavior via beliefs and intention. While other-serving beliefs predicted volunteering behavior directly, self-serving beliefs did not have such direct effect.

  10. Aggregation of Information and Beliefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottaviani, Marco; Sørensen, Peter Norman

    In a binary prediction market in which risk-neutral traders have heterogeneous prior beliefs and are allowed to invest a limited amount of money, the static rational expectations equilibrium price is demonstrated to underreact to information. This effect is consistent with a favorite-longshot bias......, and is more pronounced when prior beliefs are more heterogeneous. Relaxing the assumptions of risk neutrality and bounded budget, underreaction to information also holds in a more general asset market with heterogeneous priors, provided traders have decreasing absolute risk aversion. In a dynamic asset market...

  11. Beliefs about Drinking Problem Causation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Bullers

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Research has found that “internal” or personal attributions about the causes of problem drinking increase the likelihood of seeking treatment and treatment efficacy, while “external” attributions, such as environmental, social or cultural causations, may hinder treatment efforts. Results of survey data from a sample of 152 US college students found three main causation belief factors, which were differentially associated with age, heavy drinking, protestant religion, and exposure to problem drinkers. The "Social Cause" factor was the most strongly endorsed belief suggesting external, but surmountable attributions for problem drinking. Implications of attributions for treatment efficacy are discussed.

  12. The analysis of the relationship between epistemological beliefs and TPACK education competence among pre-service teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Efilti, Erkan; Coklar, Ahmet Naci

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present research is defining TPACK education competence and epistemological beliefs of pre-service teachers, and presenting the relationship between TPACK education competence and epistemological belief. In accordance with this purpose, TPACK education competence scale and Epistemological Beliefs Questionnaire were conducted on 342 (222 female-65%, 120 male-35%) pre-service teachers studying senior year at Necmettin Erbakan University, Faculty of Education in 2012-2013 acad...

  13. [Myths and beliefs surrounding breastfeeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Emanuele Souza; Cotta, Rosângela Minardi Mitre; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2011-05-01

    The scope of this work was to analyze the main myths and beliefs surrounding breastfeeding for the theoretical-practical perspective of the various studies extant in the literature. The studies were obtained by bibliographical surveys in the main databases (Medline, Lilacs, scielo), retrieved using the key words "Breastfeeding," "Weaning," "Myths" and "Beliefs" (and their versions in English and Spanish). Books, theories, dissertations and publications in international and national organs were also consulted. It was seen that over the centuries there have been doubts surrounding the correct form of suckling newborns based on concepts that include biological aspects and socio-cultural determinants. It was seen that various myths and beliefs surrounding suckling generate either feelings of guilt, anxiety, or feelings of trust and support in the breastfeeding mother with respect to her capacity to produce breast milk. In this respect, it is necessary for healthcare professionals to understand suckling from the maternal standpoint, dispelling myths and beliefs, altering outlooks, in such a way as to comprehend the various factors present in suckling, acting in a more effective way for prolongation and maintenance of breastfeeding. PMID:21655719

  14. Resilience: It Begins with Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truebridge, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Educators' beliefs are powerful, affecting not only their pedagogical practices, but also student efficacy and success. The academic achievement of any particular student may rely greatly on whether the teacher believes that student has the ability to succeed. This article affirms the imperative for administrators and educators to spend time…

  15. Witchcraft Beliefs and Witch Hunts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, N.B.J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes an interdisciplinary explanation of the cross-cultural similarities and evolutionary patterns of witchcraft beliefs. It argues that human social dilemmas have led to the evolution of a fear system that is sensitive to signs of deceit and envy. This was adapted in the evolutionary

  16. Astrology Beliefs among Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarman, Hannah; Impey, Chris; Buxner, Sanlyn; Antonellis, Jessie

    2011-01-01

    A survey of the science knowledge and attitudes toward science of nearly 10000 undergraduates at a large public university over a 20-year period included several questions addressing student beliefs in astrology and other forms of pseudoscience. The results from our data reveal that a large majority of students (78%) considered astrology "very" or…

  17. The Epistemological Beliefs of Distance Education Students

    OpenAIRE

    GUVEN, Meral

    2009-01-01

    The researchers have mostly emphasized the epistemological beliefs which were considered as significant in learning process along with the desire to reveal the nature of learning. Epistemological belief is defined as the “individuals’ subjective beliefs about what information means and how knowing and learning occur”. It is a fact that the teachers’ epistemological beliefs have important effect on the students’ learning process. Teachers are the models for the students with both their pattern...

  18. Everyday beliefs about food and health

    OpenAIRE

    Saher, Marieke

    2006-01-01

    The series of studies addresses several everyday beliefs about food and health from the perspective of everyday thinking and paranormal beliefs. They are "you are what you eat" beliefs, attitudes towards genetically modified and organic foods, and belief in alternative medicine. The survey studies included from 239 to 3261 Finnish participants. It was found that food consumption can have far-stretching consequences for the impressions of the eater in a "you are what you eat" manner. The ...

  19. Religious beliefs and entrepreneurship among Dutch protestants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietveld, C.A.; Burg, van J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Religious beliefs are known to correlate with a wide range of socio-economic behaviors. The aim of this study is to investigate the relation between religious beliefs and entrepreneurship. Empirical evidence that entrepreneurship rates differ among religions suggests that religious beliefs influence

  20. Changing Preservice Teachers' Beliefs about Motivating Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Sarah; Schreiber, Jim; Moss, Connie

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effects of an educational psychology course on students' beliefs about motivating students. After providing opportunities to engage in systematic intentional inquiry of their beliefs about teaching and learning, we expected that students' beliefs would become more soundly based in theory and research. Following several classes on…

  1. Children's Beliefs about Intelligence and School Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipek, Deborah; Gralinski, J. Heidi

    1996-01-01

    Associations among children's beliefs about intelligence and effort, goal orientations, self-reported learning strategies, and academic achievement were studied with 319 children in grades 3 through 6. Results revealed a coherent set of beliefs about intelligence and academic performance, and that beliefs are powerful predictors of achievement…

  2. An Investigation on English Teachers’ Teaching Beliefs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The teaching repertoire of any individual teacher is an amalgam of beliefs,knowledge and assumptions.Teaching beliefs are considered particularly powerful by some researchers.This article aims to investigate English teachers’ teaching beliefs,which will contribute to the cultivation of qualified English teachers.

  3. Learning Topic Models by Belief Propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Jia; Liu, Jiming

    2011-01-01

    Latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) is an important class of hierarchical Bayesian models for probabilistic topic modeling, which attracts worldwide interests and touches many important applications in text mining, computer vision and computational biology. This paper proposes a novel tree-structured factor graph representation for LDA within the Markov random field (MRF) framework, which enables the classic belief propagation (BP) algorithm for exact inference and parameter estimation. Although two commonly-used approximation inference methods, such as variational Bayes (VB) and collapsed Gibbs sampling (GS), have gained great successes in learning LDA, the proposed BP is competitive in both speed and accuracy validated by encouraging experimental results on four large-scale document data sets. Furthermore, the BP algorithm has the potential to become a generic learning scheme for variants of LDA-based topic models. To this end, we show how to learn two typical variants of LDA-based topic models, such as autho...

  4. The Origins of Belief Representation: Monkeys Fail to Automatically Represent Others’ Beliefs

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Alia; Santos, Laurie R.

    2013-01-01

    Young infants’ successful performance on false belief tasks has led several researchers to argue that there may be a core knowledge system for representing the beliefs of other agents, emerging early in human development and constraining automatic belief processing into adulthood. One way to investigate this purported core belief representation system is to examine whether non-human primates share such a system. Although non-human primates have historically performed poorly on false belief ta...

  5. Development and Psychometric Testing of the Iceland-Family Illness Beliefs Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisladottir, Margret; Svavarsdottir, Erla Kolbrun

    2016-08-01

    Illness beliefs affect how individuals and families deal with illness. A valid and reliable instrument has not yet been developed to measure "illness beliefs" in family nursing research and clinical practice. This article describes the purpose, reliability, validity, and the potential clinical and research applications of a new instrument, the Iceland-Family Illness Beliefs Questionnaire (ICE-FIBQ). The ICE-FIBQ is a short, self-report measure of an individual's beliefs about illness. Drawing from an advanced nursing practice model called the Illness Beliefs Model, the instrument was developed to measure illness beliefs about (a) cause of illness, that is, etiology; (b) control of illness on family and control of family on illness; (c) effect of illness on the individual and family; (d) illness suffering; and (e) support received from health care professionals during illness. The instrument was tested on 139 family caregivers of adolescents/youth with an illness or a disorder. Exploratory factor analysis reduced the original questionnaire from eight to seven items with a one-factor solution (Cronbach's α = .780). Confirmatory factor analysis supported the one-factor solution (Cronbach's α = .789). Further research is needed to determine concurrent validity with other illness belief/illness perception scales and if the instrument is sensitive to capture change in illness beliefs following family nursing intervention. PMID:27496811

  6. Pre-Service Science and Technology Teachers' Efficacy Beliefs about Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) Usage and Material Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursal, Murat; Yigit, Nevzat

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a scale entitled "Information and Communication Technologies Usage and Material Design Efficacy [ICT_MDE]" is developed to investigate pre-service science and technology teachers' efficacy beliefs regarding ICT usage and Material Design and the factors impacting these beliefs. By using the validity and reliability data from 310…

  7. Belief bias and relational reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Maxwell J; Sykes, Elizabeth D A

    2003-01-01

    When people evaluate categorical syllogisms, they tend to reject unbelievable conclusions and accept believable ones irrespective of their validity. Typically, this effect is particularly marked for invalid conclusions that are possible, but do not necessarily follow, given the premises. However, smaller believability effects can also be detected for other types of conclusion. Three experiments are reported here, in which an attempt was made to determine whether belief bias effects can manifest themselves on the relational inference task. Subjects evaluated the validity of conclusions such as William the Conqueror was king after the Pyramids were built (temporal task) or Manchester is north of Bournemouth (spatial task) with respect to their premises. All of the major findings for equivalent categorical syllogism tasks were replicated. However, the overall size of the main effect of believability appears to be related to task presentation, a phenomenon not previously identified for categorical syllogisms and which current theories of belief bias have difficulty explaining.

  8. Graduates beliefs about career management

    OpenAIRE

    Babić Lepa; Kordić Boris

    2012-01-01

    Career management is increasingly becoming an individuals' matter, despite the various activities organized by the different institutions to support career development and planning. An exploratory survey was conducted to determine what kind of beliefs graduates have about career management. Results indicate that graduates are aware of the importance of university knowledge for getting a job, the importance of knowledge and investment in education for positioning in the labor market, so they g...

  9. SUPERSTITIOUS BELIEF IN PURCHASING PROPERTY

    OpenAIRE

    SYAFRUDDIN, EKA MAYLIZA BINTI

    2016-01-01

    The research about superstitious in purchasing property has been done. Research variables that were used in this research are product, price, promotion, place, location direction, tusuk sate location, location near the cemetery and crematorium, the arrangement of the environment – fish pond, and the elevation of the property location from the road. This research analyzes whether the superstitious belief can overrule marketing strategy in purchasing property. This research us...

  10. A Comparison of Student Teachers' Beliefs from Four Different Science Teaching Domains Using a Mixed Methods Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markic, Silvija; Eilks, Ingo

    2012-03-01

    The study presented in this paper integrates data from four combined research studies, which are both qualitative and quantitative in nature. The studies describe freshman science student teachers' beliefs about teaching and learning. These freshmen intend to become teachers in Germany in one of four science teaching domains (secondary biology, chemistry, and physics, respectively, as well as primary school science). The qualitative data from the first study are based on student teachers' drawings of themselves in teaching situations. It was formulated using Grounded Theory to test three scales: Beliefs about Classroom Organisation, Beliefs about Teaching Objectives, and Epistemological Beliefs. Three further quantitative studies give insight into student teachers' curricular beliefs, their beliefs about the nature of science itself, and about the student- and/or teacher-centredness of science teaching. This paper describes a design to integrate all these data within a mixed methods framework. The aim of the current study is to describe a broad, triangulated picture of freshman science student teachers' beliefs about teaching and learning within their respective science teaching domain. The study reveals clear tendencies between the sub-groups. The results suggest that freshman chemistry and-even more pronouncedly-freshman physics student teachers profess quite traditional beliefs about science teaching and learning. Biology and primary school student teachers express beliefs about their subjects which are more in line with modern educational theory. The mixed methods approach towards the student teachers' beliefs is reflected upon and implications for science education and science teacher education are discussed.

  11. The relationship between beliefs about sleep and adherence to behavioral treatment combined with meditation for insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvengros, Jamie A; Crawford, Megan R; Manber, Rachel; Ong, Jason C

    2015-01-01

    This study examined beliefs about sleep, as measured by the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep (DBAS) scale, as predictors of adherence to 3 specific insomnia treatment recommendations: restriction of time spent in bed, maintenance of a consistent rise time, and completion of daily meditation practice. Higher DBAS scores predicted poorer adherence to restriction of time spent in bed and to maintenance of a prescribed rise time. DBAS scores were not associated with completion of daily meditation. These preliminary findings suggest that pre-treatment beliefs about sleep may impact patient engagement with behavioral recommendations regarding time in bed and consistent rise time during treatment for insomnia.

  12. [Do regional and generational differences in attitudes toward "Luck Resource Belief" exist?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Koshi

    2016-04-01

    This article examines whether belief in superstitions and folklore differs by age and degree of modernization specifically. This study investigated regional and generational differences in attitudes toward "Luck Resource Belief," a notion regarding luck. The 500 Japanese participants in our sample were stratified by place of residence, age, and income. The results reflected gender differences, but not regional or generational differences with regard to the "Luck Resource Belief" scale scores. Based on these results, the hypothesis that the mass media plays a major role in the dissemination of information about superstitions and folklore is discussed in this context.

  13. [Do regional and generational differences in attitudes toward "Luck Resource Belief" exist?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Koshi

    2016-04-01

    This article examines whether belief in superstitions and folklore differs by age and degree of modernization specifically. This study investigated regional and generational differences in attitudes toward "Luck Resource Belief," a notion regarding luck. The 500 Japanese participants in our sample were stratified by place of residence, age, and income. The results reflected gender differences, but not regional or generational differences with regard to the "Luck Resource Belief" scale scores. Based on these results, the hypothesis that the mass media plays a major role in the dissemination of information about superstitions and folklore is discussed in this context. PMID:27180517

  14. A profile of the belief in Jesus and salvation among the Afrikaans speaking Christian youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik J.C. Pieterse

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on the results of a large-scale empirical-theolo-gical research project on “Religion and Human Rights among South African Youth.” Using the extensive database of this project, the article focuses on the results on the images of Jesus and the belief in salvation of Grade 11 learners. The results present a profile of the pluralistic and diverse scale of nuances in the belief structures of Christian teenagers. The results of the English-speaking private school learners are placed alongside the results of the Afrikaans speaking public school learners in order to obtain a more prolific picture of the belief of the Afrikaans speaking youth. The effect their belief in salvation has on their views regarding human rights is also examined. The results challenge the preacher to think dialectically and hermeneutically in a new age and context.

  15. The role of need for closure in essentialist entitativity beliefs and prejudice: an epistemic needs approach to racial categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roets, Arne; Van Hiel, Alain

    2011-03-01

    The present research investigates how people's general epistemic motives may inspire essentialist beliefs about racial groups and racism. In three studies, we focus particularly on essentialist entitativity (EE, referring to beliefs about the uniformity, informativeness, and inherent core of racial groups), probing into its relationships with epistemic need for closure (NFC) and prejudice. In Study 1, we develop an EE scale, empirically distinguish it from the naturalness component of essentialism and non-EE beliefs, and establish its predictive utility for explaining racial prejudice. Study 2 provides experimental evidence for the causal effect of NFC on EE beliefs. Study 3 demonstrates in three different samples that EE beliefs mediate the relationship between dispositional NFC and racial prejudice. It is argued that EE beliefs about racial groups are an expression of motivated social cognition, serving people's seizing needs for quick and easy social judgment.

  16. The Comparison of Unemployed Adults’ Computer Self Efficacy Beliefs In According To Different Variables

    OpenAIRE

    Çelik, Coşkun; Çevik, M. Nezir

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the level of unemployed adults’ computer self-efficacy beliefs and the changes according to gender, computer ownership and frequency of computer use. The sample of the study consists of 58 unemployed adults participants in basic computer training course held in 2009–2010 educational year at Siirt University. As a data gathering method; Computer Self Efficacy Belief Scale developed by Aşkar and Umay (2001) and Personal Information Form had been used. F...

  17. Attitudes, beliefs, uncertainty and risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenhalgh, Geoffrey [Down Park Place, Crawley Down (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    There is now unmistakable evidence of a widening split within the Western industrial nations arising from conflicting views of society; for and against change. The argument is over the benefits of 'progress' and growth. On one side are those who seek more jobs, more production and consumption, higher standards of living, an ever-increasing GNP with an increasing globalisation of production and welcome the advances of science and technology confident that any temporary problems that arise can be solved by further technological development - possible energy shortages as a growing population increases energy usage can be met by nuclear power development; food shortages by the increased yields of GM crops. In opposition are those who put the quality of life before GNP, advocate a more frugal life-style, reducing needs and energy consumption, and, pointing to the harm caused by increasing pollution, press for cleaner air and water standards. They seek to reduce the pressure of an ever-increasing population and above all to preserve the natural environment. This view is associated with a growing uncertainty as the established order is challenged with the rise in status of 'alternative' science and medicine. This paper argues that these conflicting views reflect instinctive attitudes. These in turn draw support from beliefs selected from those which uncertainty offers. Where there is scope for argument over the truth or validity of a 'fact', the choice of which of the disputed views to believe will be determined by a value judgement. This applies to all controversial social and political issues. Nuclear waste disposal and biotechnology are but two particular examples in the technological field; joining the EMU is a current political controversy where value judgements based on attitudes determine beliefs. When, or if, a controversy is finally resolved the judgement arrived at will be justified by the belief that the consequences of the course

  18. Attitudes, beliefs, uncertainty and risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is now unmistakable evidence of a widening split within the Western industrial nations arising from conflicting views of society; for and against change. The argument is over the benefits of 'progress' and growth. On one side are those who seek more jobs, more production and consumption, higher standards of living, an ever-increasing GNP with an increasing globalisation of production and welcome the advances of science and technology confident that any temporary problems that arise can be solved by further technological development - possible energy shortages as a growing population increases energy usage can be met by nuclear power development; food shortages by the increased yields of GM crops. In opposition are those who put the quality of life before GNP, advocate a more frugal life-style, reducing needs and energy consumption, and, pointing to the harm caused by increasing pollution, press for cleaner air and water standards. They seek to reduce the pressure of an ever-increasing population and above all to preserve the natural environment. This view is associated with a growing uncertainty as the established order is challenged with the rise in status of 'alternative' science and medicine. This paper argues that these conflicting views reflect instinctive attitudes. These in turn draw support from beliefs selected from those which uncertainty offers. Where there is scope for argument over the truth or validity of a 'fact', the choice of which of the disputed views to believe will be determined by a value judgement. This applies to all controversial social and political issues. Nuclear waste disposal and biotechnology are but two particular examples in the technological field; joining the EMU is a current political controversy where value judgements based on attitudes determine beliefs. When, or if, a controversy is finally resolved the judgement arrived at will be justified by the belief that the consequences of the course chosen will be more favourable

  19. Knowledge, true belief, and virtuous fallibilism

    OpenAIRE

    Martens, David

    2010-01-01

    I rebut a complex ad hominem argument against the thesis that true belief is sufficient for knowledge. According to the argument, the insufficiency of true belief for knowledge is guaranteed by our epistemic obligation not to think of ourselves as infallible. My rebuttal seeks clarity about the precise content of that obligation and emphasizes the variety of ways in which that thesis can be affirmed. Though I do not offer any positive argument for the sufficiency of true belief for knowled...

  20. Epistemological Beliefs in Teaching Learning Processes

    OpenAIRE

    DEMİR, Sibel; AKINOĞLU, ORHAN

    2013-01-01

    Epistemology is a dynamic field which might affect education process and also be affected by it. There are many factors that determine ones epistemological beliefs. Defining these factors is important for teaching and learning process. The purpose of this study; is to determine epistemological beliefs and their reflection on education. Therefore, the studies concerning epistemological beliefs and its relationship with education were reviewed with a special focus on research involving teachers...

  1. Undergraduates' Attitudes Toward Science and Their Epistemological Beliefs: Positive Effects of Certainty and Authority Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulmer, Gavin W.

    2013-08-01

    Attitudes toward science are an important aspect of students' persistence in school science and interest in pursuing future science careers, but students' attitudes typically decline over the course of formal schooling. This study examines relationships of students' attitudes toward science with their perceptions of science as inclusive or non-religious, and their epistemological beliefs about epistemic authority and certainty. Data were collected using an online survey system among undergraduates at a large, public US university (n = 582). Data were prepared using a Rasch rating scale model and then analyzed using multiple-regression analysis. Gender and number of science and mathematics courses were included as control variables, followed by perceptions of science, then epistemological beliefs. Findings show that respondents have more positive attitudes when they perceive science to be inclusive of women and minorities, and when they perceive science to be incompatible with religion. Respondents also have more positive attitudes toward science when they believe scientific knowledge is uncertain, and when they believe knowledge derives from authority. Interpretations of these findings and implications for future research are discussed.

  2. Forcing in Strategic Belief Models

    CERN Document Server

    Tohmè, Fernando; Gangle, Rocco

    2012-01-01

    Forcing is a methodology for building models of Set Theory satisfying certain properties. Since its inception by Paul Cohen, in the early 1960s, it has been applied to several areas in Mathematical Logic, becoming a powerful tool in the analysis of axiomatic systems. In this paper we extend the applicability of forcing to game-theoretic strategic belief models. In particular, we propose a very general notion of solutions for such games by enlarging Brandenburger's $RmAR$ condition via extension through generic types.

  3. Graduates beliefs about career management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić Lepa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Career management is increasingly becoming an individuals' matter, despite the various activities organized by the different institutions to support career development and planning. An exploratory survey was conducted to determine what kind of beliefs graduates have about career management. Results indicate that graduates are aware of the importance of university knowledge for getting a job, the importance of knowledge and investment in education for positioning in the labor market, so they give priority to development opportunities that business brings opposed to the material rewards.

  4. Outcome Knowledge and False Belief

    OpenAIRE

    Ghrear, Siba E.; Birch, Susan A. J.; Bernstein, Daniel M.

    2016-01-01

    Virtually every social interaction involves reasoning about the perspectives of others, or ‘theory of mind (ToM).’ Previous research suggests that it is difficult to ignore our current knowledge when reasoning about a more naïve perspective (i.e., the curse of knowledge). In this Mini Review, we discuss the implications of the curse of knowledge for certain aspects of ToM. Particularly, we examine how the curse of knowledge influences key measurements of false belief reasoning. In closing, we...

  5. Efficacy Beliefs, Background Variables, and Differentiated Instruction of Israeli Prospective Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertheim, Cheruta; Leyser, Yona

    2002-01-01

    Examined efficacy beliefs and choices of differentiated instructional strategies needed for effective teaching in inclusive classrooms. Israeli preservice teachers completed teacher efficacy scale and instructional strategy scales. Overall, personal teaching efficacy related to choice of instruction, but teaching efficacy did not. Participants…

  6. A New Approach to Updating Beliefs

    OpenAIRE

    Fagin, Ronald; Halpern, Joseph Y.

    2013-01-01

    We define a new notion of conditional belief, which plays the same role for Dempster-Shafer belief functions as conditional probability does for probability functions. Our definition is different from the standard definition given by Dempster, and avoids many of the well-known problems of that definition. Just as the conditional probability Pr (lB) is a probability function which is the result of conditioning on B being true, so too our conditional belief function Bel (lB) is a belief functio...

  7. Reasons for (prior) belief in bayesian epistemology

    OpenAIRE

    Dietrich, Franz; List, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Bayesian epistemology tells us with great precision how we should move from prior to posterior beliefs in light of new evidence or information, but says little about where our prior beliefs come from. It o¤ers few resources to describe some prior beliefs as rational or well-justi�ed, and others as irrational or unreasonable. A di¤erent strand of epistemology takes the central epistemological question to be not how to change one�s beliefs in light of new evidence, but what reasons justify a gi...

  8. THE EPISTEMOLOGICAL BELIEFS OF DISTANCE EDUCATION STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral GUVEN

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The researchers have mostly emphasized the epistemological beliefs which were considered as significant in learning process along with the desire to reveal the nature of learning. Epistemological belief is defined as the “individuals’ subjective beliefs about what information means and how knowing and learning occur”. It is a fact that the teachers’ epistemological beliefs have important effect on the students’ learning process. Teachers are the models for the students with both their patterns of behavior and learning approaches. The aim of this study was to determine the epistemological beliefs of the students attending to pre-school education and English language teaching departments in distance education, besides it was attempted to investigate these beliefs in terms of certain variables, namely, gender, department and grade that the students attend, and their academic achievement level, lastly the education level of their parents. The study was conducted through a descriptive method and 697 pre-service teachers composed the sampling of the study. To collect data, “Epistemological Belief Scale”, which was developed by Schommer (1990 and adapted to Turkish by Deryakulu and Büyüköztürk (2002, was used. As a result, it was obtained that the epistemological beliefs of the students in distance education developed at low level. Additionally, it was found that the epistemological beliefs of the pre-service teachers differed in terms of gender, department, grade, academic achievement, education level of parents.

  9. Doctors' attitudes and beliefs regarding acute low back pain management: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullen, B M; Baxter, G D; O'Donovan, B G G; Doody, C; Daly, L; Hurley, D A

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to determine the attitudes and beliefs of doctors to acute low back pain, and the factors that influence these. The review comprised three phases: a methodological assessment of databases (Medline, EMBASE, Psychinfo, BIOSIS, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) identified potential papers; these were screened for inclusion criteria by two independent reviewers, the extraction of data and the rating of internal validity and strength of the evidence, using valid and reliable scales from accepted papers. Themes were then identified from the accepted literature. The search generated a total of 15 papers of both qualitative (n=3) and quantitative (n=12) methodologies. Themes that emerged included doctors' attitudes and beliefs, and four factors that influenced attitudes and beliefs: doctors' specialty, demographic factors, personal beliefs and education. There was consistent evidence that doctors' specialty impacted their attitudes and beliefs: lack of consensus regarding the natural history of LBP, around treatment options, and issues regarding work. There was inconsistent evidence that demographic factors (age) and level of education impacted doctors' attitudes and beliefs. Strategies to address/ modify these attitudes and beliefs are required, as in some cases they are at odds with guideline recommendations. Long term, these changes in these areas have the potential to maximise patient-care, and reduce costs to health services. PMID:18395982

  10. Children’s Trust Beliefs in Others and Trusting Behavior in Peer Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken J. Rotenberg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The relation between children’s trust beliefs and trusting behavior in peer interaction was examined. One hundred and 5 Italian children (54 boys; mean age = 10 years-7 months completed standardized scales of reliability (i.e., promise keeping trust beliefs in parents and peers. The children participated in mixed-motive interactions with classmates which assessed behavior-dependent reliability trust on peers. The children’s reliability trustworthiness towards peers/classmates was assessed by peer reports. The SEM analyses supported the hypothesized model by showing: (1 a path between trust beliefs in parents and trust beliefs in peers; (2 paths between both types of trust beliefs and behavior-dependent trust on peers; (3 a path between behavior-dependent trust in peers and trustworthiness towards peers. Trust beliefs in peers were found to mediate the relation between trust beliefs in parents and behavior-dependent trust in peers. The findings yielded support for the basis, domain, and target trust framework and attachment theory.

  11. Investigating the Relationships among PSTs' Teaching Beliefs: Are Epistemological Beliefs Central?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahçivan, Eralp

    2016-01-01

    The present case study explored the teaching belief systems of pre-service science teachers (PSTs), including epistemological beliefs, self-efficacy beliefs, conceptions of science learning and teaching and pedagogical content knowledge. Based on their epistemological scores, three PSTs who were categorised as exhibiting naïve, moderately…

  12. Older Children's Misunderstanding of Uncertain Belief after Passing the False Belief Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting; Zheng, Xueru; Zhang, Li; Sha, Wenju; Deak, Gedeon; Li, Hong

    2010-01-01

    A four-location belief task was designed to examine children's understanding of another's uncertain belief after passing a false belief (FB) task. In Experiment 1, after passing the FB task, participants were asked what a puppet would do after he failed to find his toy at the falsely believed location. Most 4-year-olds and half of 6-year-olds…

  13. Associative processing and paranormal belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianotti, L R; Mohr, C; Pizzagalli, D; Lehmann, D; Brugger, P

    2001-12-01

    In the present study we introduce a novel task for the quantitative assessment of both originality and speed of individual associations. This 'BAG' (Bridge-the-Associative-Gap) task was used to investigate the relationships between creativity and paranormal belief. Twelve strong 'believers' and 12 strong 'skeptics' in paranormal phenomena were selected from a large student population (n > 350). Subjects were asked to produce single-word associations to word pairs. In 40 trials the two stimulus words were semantically indirectly related and in 40 other trials the words were semantically unrelated. Separately for these two stimulus types, response commonalities and association latencies were calculated. The main finding was that for unrelated stimuli, believers produced associations that were more original (had a lower frequency of occurrence in the group as a whole) than those of the skeptics. For the interpretation of the result we propose a model of association behavior that captures both 'positive' psychological aspects (i.e., verbal creativity) and 'negative' aspects (susceptibility to unfounded inferences), and outline its relevance for psychiatry. This model suggests that believers adopt a looser response criterion than skeptics when confronted with 'semantic noise'. Such a signal detection view of the presence/absence of judgments for loose semantic relations may help to elucidate the commonalities between creative thinking, paranormal belief and delusional ideation.

  14. Religious Belief, Motivation and Moral Commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zahra khazaei

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There are two different approaches followed by moral philosophers regarding the motivational role of moral belief. Having restricted the motivating reasons to belief, the internalists consider the relationship between belief and ethical commitment necessary and believe that moral judgmentis inherentlymotivating. While theexternalists by regarding the belief and desire as reasons for action,they believe that the relationship between belief and actin is not necessary. Therefore, the weakness of will is possible, that is, the agent can acts against his best judgment. Now we put religious belief instead of moral judgment and ask about the motivational role of religious beliefs , that is , what is the relationship between religious beliefs and moral commitment? Are religious beliefs sufficient for moral action? Are they inherently motivating? Considering the impact of religious beliefs on committing ethical acts as necessary or contingent may have various and valuable consequences for the believers in different religions. The purpose of this article is to investigate such psychological relationship between religion and moralityand to seek the motivating influence of religious beliefs. The article tries to analyze the relation between the religious belief and ethical commitment and responds to this question that whether religious beliefs are the necessary and sufficientcondition for committing moral action , or they are just necessary conditions or neither necessary nor sufficient.If they are essential, what other elements can be complementary to religious beliefs? In other words, what other elements can substitute religious belief? To answer these questions, the present study will firstly investigate the stimulating influence of ethical beliefs and then will analyze the two approaches of internalism and externalism in ethics and finally will conclude that the approach of externalism is much closer to the reality. The article then will explain the

  15. Role of Beliefs About Hypnotic States as a Moderator Variable: A Reexamination of the Relationship Between Reactance and Hypnotizability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    The hypothesis that beliefs about hypnosis determine the amount of psychological reactance aroused was tested. Participants were administered a measure of trait reactance to therapist directives (Therapeutic Reactance Scale; TRS), the Beliefs about Hypnotic State Questionnaire (BHSQ-R), and behavioral and subjective scales concerning hypnotic response. Hierarchical multiple regressions revealed significant interactions between BHSQ-R subscales and TRS. The findings suggest that the arousal of psychological reactance to hypnosis is determined by individuals' trait reactance levels acting together with their interpretations of the hypnotic situation. The role of beliefs about hypnotic states as a moderator of the relationship between personality and hypnotizability was discussed.

  16. Intensionality in the irrational beliefs-intellectual performance relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prola, M

    1988-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that certain semantic processes may be responsible for the previously observed inverse relationship between the endorsement of Ellis's irrational beliefs and measures of intellectual performance. The IS of Identity Scale, a measure of intensional thinking, was administered to 134 male and female entering college freshmen, along with a list of Ellis's irrational beliefs, the Developmental Test of Reading Skills, and locally constructed tests of writing and mathematics. A multiple-regression analysis showed that irrationality uniquely accounted for 13% of reading variance (p less than .001) and none of the variance in the other variables. Intensionality was not associated uniquely with any of the variables and seemingly played no part in the irrationality-intellectual performance relationship.

  17. SELF-EFFICACY BELIEFS, ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION AND GENDER AS RELATED TO EDUCATIONAL SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alev ATES

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate preservice computer teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs and achievement motivation levels for educational software development before and after the “Educational Software Design, Development and Evaluation (ESDDE” course. A pretest and post test design without a control group was employed. In 2008, 46 senior students (25 male and 21 female who were enrolled at Computer Education and Instructional Technology department participated in this study.The data were collected by the scale of self-efficacy beliefs towards Educational Software Development (ESD, achievement motivation scale besides student demographics form. Positively, the results revealed that the students’ self efficacy beliefs towards educational software development significantly improved after ESDDE course. Before the course, the students’ self-efficacy beliefs were significantly different according to perceived level of programming competency and gender in favor of male, however after the course there was no significant difference in self-efficacy beliefs regarding gender and perceived level of programming competency. Hence, achievement motivation levels after the course were significantly higher than before while gender and perceived level of programming competency had no significant effect on achievement motivation for ESD. The study is considered to contribute studies investigating gender and computer related self efficacy beliefs in IT education.

  18. A Systematic Review of Osteoporosis Health Beliefs in Adult Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine M. McLeod

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is major public health concern affecting millions of older adults worldwide. A systematic review was carried out to identify the most common osteoporosis health beliefs in adult men and women from descriptive and intervention studies. The Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale (OHBS and Osteoporosis Self-efficacy Scale (OSES evaluate osteoporosis health beliefs, including perceived susceptibility and seriousness, benefits, barriers, and self-efficacy of calcium and exercise, and health motivation, and their relationship to preventive health behaviours. A comprehensive search of studies that included OHBS and OSES subscale scores as outcomes was performed. Fifty full-text articles for citations were reviewed based on inclusion criteria. Twenty-two articles met the inclusion criteria. Greater perceived seriousness, benefits, self-efficacy, health motivation, and fewer barriers were the most common health-belief subscales in men and women. Few studies were interventions (n=6 and addressed osteoporosis health beliefs in men (n=8. Taking health beliefs into consideration when planning and conducting education interventions may be useful in both research and practice for osteoporosis prevention and management; however, more research in this area is needed.

  19. Learning Strategy Training and the Shift in Learners’ Beliefs About Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Mohammadi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the impact of teaching learning strategies on learners’ beliefs about language learning and reading comprehension ability. Participants were 78 university freshmen studying English language teaching, translation, and literature. They were divided into two groups. The experimental group received a number of learning strategies adopted and adapted by the researchers, including concept-mapping, vocabulary notebook, passage restatement, dictionary use, summary writing, and guessing. The treatment was carried out 4 hr a week for 15 consecutive weeks. The Language Learners’ Beliefs Scale, developed and validated by Birjandi and Mohammadi, and the reading comprehension section of Cambridge Preliminary English Test (PET were administered before and after the treatment to identify the students’ shifts in beliefs about language learning and to measure reading comprehension ability, respectively. The results of independent t test indicated that the instruction of learning strategies changed the university students’ beliefs about language learning. Furthermore, learning strategy instruction could boost their reading comprehension ability.

  20. 女性排尿行为信念量表的编制及在女性护士中的信度效度检验%Development of Women’s Belief of Toileting Behavior Scale and Its Psychometric Validation among Female Nurses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑜; 万小娟; 吴臣; 刘妍; 王克芳

    2014-01-01

    Objective To develop and validate Women’s Belief of Toileting Behavior Scale based on conceptual framework of the Health Belief Model (HBM) and literature review. Methods Women’s Belief of Toileting Behavior Scale was developed through the steps of developing cognitive scales postulated by Lynn. With multistage sampling, totally 245 female nurses in 3 Clsaa ⅢGrade I hospitals in Jinan were surveyed and 25 of them were resurveyed randomly after 2 weeks. Data from participants for trial test were analyzed to simplify the items and establish the dimensions with item analysis and exploratory factor analysis by SPSS13.0. Three reliability indexes (internal consistency, split-half reliability and test-retested reliability) and two validity indexes (content validity, construct validity) of the scale were presented. Results Items content validity index(I-CVI) ranged from 0.83 to 1 and scale content validity (S-CVI) index valued 0.96; item analysis and exploratory factor analysis showed that the scale was composed of 24 items, belonging to 5 dimensions: perceived susceptibility of lower urine tract symptoms, perceived severity of lower urine tract symptoms, benefit from persistent normal voiding behavior, factors impeding normal toileting style and self-efficacy of persisting normal toileting style; Principal Component Analysis with varimax rotation revealed that item factor loadings of corresponding dimension were within 0.58~0.87 and 5 dimensions explained 61.34% of the variance. Conclusion The scale indicates good validity and reliability which can be used for a further study in nurses.%目的:以健康信念模式为概念框架编制女性排尿行为信念量表,并检验量表的信度、效度。方法参照Lynn提出的编制认知领域量表的步骤,在文献回顾的基础上编制女性排尿行为信念量表。本研究采用多阶段抽样法。首先方便抽样抽取济南市3所三级甲等医院245名女性护士进行问卷调查,2

  1. Why Do Drivers Use Mobile Phones While Driving? The Contribution of Compensatory Beliefs.

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    Zhou, Ronggang; Yu, Mengli; Wang, Xinyi

    2016-01-01

    The current study is the first to investigate the contribution of compensatory beliefs (i.e., the belief that the negative effects of an unsafe behavior can be "neutralized" by engaging in another safe behavior; e.g., "I can use a mobile phone now because I will slow down ") on drivers' mobile phone use while driving. The effects of drivers' personal characteristics on compensatory beliefs, mobile phone use and self-regulatory behaviors were also examined. A series of questions were administered to drivers, which included (1) personal measures, (2) scales that measured compensatory beliefs generally in substance use and with regard to driving safety, and (3) questions to measure drivers' previous primary mobile phone usage and corresponding self-regulatory actions. Overall, drivers reported a low likelihood of compensatory beliefs, prior mobile phone use, and a strong frequency of self-regulatory behaviors. Respondents who had a higher tendency toward compensatory beliefs reported more incidents or crash involvement caused by making or answering calls and sending or reading messages. The findings provide strong support for the contribution of compensatory beliefs in predicting mobile phone usage in the context of driving. Compensatory beliefs can explain 41% and 43% of the variance in the active activities of making calls and texting/sending messages compared with 18% and 31% of the variance in the passive activities of answering calls and reading messages. Among the regression models for predicting self-regulatory behaviors at the tactical or operational level, compensatory beliefs emerge as significant predictors only in predicting shorter conversations while on a call. The findings and limitations of the current study are discussed. PMID:27494524

  2. High School Students' Beliefs about Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brett D.; Byrd, C. Noel; Lusk, Danielle

    2009-01-01

    We implemented a sequential mixed methods design using parallel samples to answer our general research question: What are high school students' definitions of intelligence and implicit beliefs about the malleability of intelligence? We surveyed 9th and 11th grade students who responded to questions about their intelligence beliefs on open- and…

  3. Beliefs and Emotions in Foreign Language Learning

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    Aragao, Rodrigo

    2011-01-01

    From the argument that in languaging worlds are created (Aragao, 2005; Kalaja, 1995, 2003; Maturana and Varela, 2001; Nunez, 1997), this article aims at reflecting about the relationship between emotions and beliefs in foreign language learning. It is argued that beliefs and emotions in language learning/teaching are inter-related and can be…

  4. Professional Preparation: Multicultural Health Beliefs in Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Linda Sue

    1982-01-01

    A course dealing with the health beliefs of Hispanics, American Indians, and Anglo Americans was developed at the University of New Mexico. An ethnically diverse class visited different cultural settings in the Southwest to study beliefs about religion, nutrition, folk medicine, and other customs affecting health practices. (PP)

  5. The Expert Ceiling in Epistemological Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Lucy

    2007-01-01

    Paulsen and Wells (1998) stated that, "it seems unlikely that substantial differences in epistemological beliefs across domains would persist in studies of faculty or other more advanced experts," (p. 380). This statement implies the existence of an upper limit or ceiling effect in the epistemological beliefs among experts. Faculty members are…

  6. Relations between Epistemological Beliefs and Culture Classifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulimma, Maren

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Epistemological beliefs, defined as individuals' beliefs about the nature of knowledge and the process of knowing, are assumed to serve an important function in regulating the application of individuals' learning behaviour. Previous research has mainly been shaped by the framework of results of white, well-educated people from North…

  7. Belief in an Afterlife: A National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenow, Daniel J.; Bolin, Robert C.

    1990-01-01

    Examined factors affecting belief in afterlife. Data from 1978 subfile on National Opinion Research Center's General Social Survey showed that, controlling on frequency of church attendance and religious intensity, Protestants had highest incidence of belief in life after death, followed by Catholics, and then by Jews. Race, religion, and church…

  8. Cognitive Consistency in Beliefs about Nuclear Weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Linden

    The paper details a study supporting the hypothesis that people's opinions about nuclear arms control are influenced by their logically relevant beliefs about nuclear weapons, nuclear war, and the Soviet Union. The hypothesis should not be construed to imply that these beliefs are the only influences or the most powerful influences on arms control…

  9. Teachers' Beliefs about Neuroscience and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambo, Debby; Zambo, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Information from neuroscience is readily available to educators, yet instructors of educational psychology and related fields have not investigated teachers' beliefs regarding this information. The purpose of this survey study was to uncover the beliefs 62 teachers held about neuroscience and education. Results indicate there were three types of…

  10. Analysis of English Teachers Teaching Beliefs in Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵启君; 徐家玉

    2012-01-01

    The thesis presents different conceptions of teachers beliefs and explores teachers beliefs about learners, learning and teaching, and teachers themselves. The findings suggest a strong relationship between teachers beliefs and their planning, instructional decisions, and classroom practices.

  11. Negative Tree Reweighted Belief Propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Qiang

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a new class of lower bounds on the log partition function of a Markov random field which makes use of a reversed Jensen's inequality. In particular, our method approximates the intractable distribution using a linear combination of spanning trees with negative weights. This technique is a lower-bound counterpart to the tree-reweighted belief propagation algorithm, which uses a convex combination of spanning trees with positive weights to provide corresponding upper bounds. We develop algorithms to optimize and tighten the lower bounds over the non-convex set of valid parameter values. Our algorithm generalizes mean field approaches (including naive and structured mean field approximations), which it includes as a limiting case.

  12. Toward a Better Understanding of the Relationship between Belief in the Paranormal and Statistical Bias: The Potential Role of Schizotypy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnall, Neil; Denovan, Andrew; Drinkwater, Kenneth; Parker, Andrew; Clough, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The present paper examined relationships between schizotypy (measured by the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experience; O-LIFE scale brief), belief in the paranormal (assessed via the Revised Paranormal Belief Scale; RPBS) and proneness to statistical bias (i.e., perception of randomness and susceptibility to conjunction fallacy). Participants were 254 volunteers recruited via convenience sampling. Probabilistic reasoning problems appeared framed within both standard and paranormal contexts. Analysis revealed positive correlations between the Unusual Experience (UnExp) subscale of O-LIFE and paranormal belief measures [RPBS full scale, traditional paranormal beliefs (TPB) and new age philosophy]. Performance on standard problems correlated negatively with UnExp and belief in the paranormal (particularly the TPB dimension of the RPBS). Consideration of specific problem types revealed that perception of randomness associated more strongly with belief in the paranormal than conjunction; both problem types related similarly to UnExp. Structural equation modeling specified that belief in the paranormal mediated the indirect relationship between UnExp and statistical bias. For problems presented in a paranormal context a framing effect occurred. Whilst UnExp correlated positively with conjunction proneness (controlling for perception of randomness), there was no association between UnExp and perception of randomness (controlling for conjunction). PMID:27471481

  13. Measurement and Exploration of Individual Beliefs About the Consequences of Building Information Modelling Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Richard; Harty, Chris

    2013-01-01

    of the consequences of ICT use predict subsequent usage. We describe the development of scales to measure beliefs about the consequences of building information modelling (BIM) and their use in a survey of employees of a large construction contracting organization in the United Kingdom. Scales for performance......Information and communication technology (ICT) is becoming increasingly important in construction although the rate of adoption is considered slow and the industry faces specific implementation challenges. Mainstream information systems research has shown that individuals’ beliefs and expectations...

  14. Age, religious beliefs, and sexual attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gall, Armelle; Mullet, Etienne; Rivière Shafighi, Sheila

    2002-08-01

    Age effects on sexual attitudes were examined using the Hendrick and Hendrick (1987a) Sexual Attitude Scale. The study was cross-sectional, including people from various age groups, from young adults to older adults. The religious beliefs variable, which covaries substantially both with age and sexual attitudes, was controlled. Three main questions guided the study: (a) Is the four-factor structure (Permissiveness, Instrumentality, Communion, and Sexual Practices) previously identified in a sample of young students able to accurately account for data gathered over a full range of adult ages, (b) are older adults much less permissive and less instrumentalist than young people, and (c) to what extent are believers less permissive and instrumentalist than young people when age is taken into account? Factor analyses showed that at least five correlated factors were needed to account for the data; the fourth factor, Sexual Practices, divided itself into two distinct factors: Pleasure and Responsibility. Older adults and believers were shown to be less permissive than young people and nonbelievers, and this result held regardless of the participants educational level. As regards to instrumentality, however, the pattern of differences was extremely complex.

  15. Examination of outcome after mild traumatic brain injury: the contribution of injury beliefs and Leventhal's common sense model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Deborah L; Hay-Smith, E Jean C; Surgenor, Lois J; Siegert, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    Associations between components of Leventhal's common sense model of health behaviour (injury beliefs, coping, distress) and outcome after mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) were examined. Participants (n = 147) were recruited within three months following MTBI and assessed six months later, completing study questionnaires at both visits (Illness Perceptions Questionnaire Revised, Brief COPE, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). Outcome measures included the Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire and Rivermead Head Injury Follow-Up Questionnaire. Univariate and multivariate (logistic regression) analyses examined associations between injury beliefs, coping and distress at baseline, and later outcome. Participants endorsing stronger injury identity beliefs (p model. Consistent with Leventhal's model, participant beliefs about their injury and recovery had significant associations with outcome over time. Coping also appeared to have important associations with outcome but more research is required to examine these. Current reassurance-based interventions may be improved by targeting variables such as injury beliefs, coping and adjustment soon after injury.

  16. Physical Activity and Health Beliefs among Saudi Women

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    Einas S. Al-Eisa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Physical activity (PA is associated with health benefits and disease prevention and is often prescribed in managing many health conditions. Understanding the cultural influences is relevant in order to effectively promote PA. The objective of this study was to assess the level of PA among Saudi women, measured by daily step count, and the association between PA and health beliefs. Methods. A total of 161 eligible participants were asked to complete two questionnaires to assess health beliefs: Health Locus of Control (HLC and Self-Efficacy Assessment Scale. Each participant was given a pedometer and a diary to record their daily PA for two weeks. Results. One hundred and five participants completed the two weeks pedometer data (mean age 26.3±7.1 years, BMI 25±4.2 kg/m2. The average pedometer score over two weeks was 5114±2213 steps. Step count had strong correlation with self-efficacy (rs=0.75, mild correlation with internal HLC (rs=0.42, and mild negative correlation with external HLC (rs=−0.35. Conclusion. The study demonstrates high level of inactivity among Saudi females in reference to the international recommendation for minimum activity. The data also reveal an association between PA and health beliefs. Ultimately, such information can be used to design gender- and culture-sensitive interventions that could enhance adherence to PA.

  17. Folk beliefs of cultural changes in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yi; Hamamura, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    For the last several decades, Chinese society has experienced transformative changes. How are these changes understood among Chinese people? To examine this question, Part 1 in this research solicited folk beliefs of cultural change from a group of Chinese participants in an open-ended format, and the generated folk beliefs were rated by another group of participants in Part 2 to gage each belief's level of agreement. Part 3 plotted the folk beliefs retained in Part 2 using the Google Ngram Viewer in order to infer the amount of intellectual interests that each belief has received cross-temporarily. These analyses suggested a few themes in Chinese folk beliefs of cultural change (1) rising perceived importance of materialism and individualism in understanding contemporary Chinese culture and Chinese psychology relative to those of the past (2) rising perceived importance of freedom, democracy and human rights and (3) enduring perceived importance of family relations and friendship as well as patriotism. Interestingly, findings from Parts 2 and 3 diverged somewhat, illuminating possible divergence between folk beliefs and intellectual interests especially for issues related to heritage of Confucianism. PMID:25309491

  18. Folk beliefs of cultural changes in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yi; Hamamura, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    For the last several decades, Chinese society has experienced transformative changes. How are these changes understood among Chinese people? To examine this question, Part 1 in this research solicited folk beliefs of cultural change from a group of Chinese participants in an open-ended format, and the generated folk beliefs were rated by another group of participants in Part 2 to gage each belief's level of agreement. Part 3 plotted the folk beliefs retained in Part 2 using the Google Ngram Viewer in order to infer the amount of intellectual interests that each belief has received cross-temporarily. These analyses suggested a few themes in Chinese folk beliefs of cultural change (1) rising perceived importance of materialism and individualism in understanding contemporary Chinese culture and Chinese psychology relative to those of the past (2) rising perceived importance of freedom, democracy and human rights and (3) enduring perceived importance of family relations and friendship as well as patriotism. Interestingly, findings from Parts 2 and 3 diverged somewhat, illuminating possible divergence between folk beliefs and intellectual interests especially for issues related to heritage of Confucianism. PMID:25309491

  19. Mathematics teachers' beliefs and curriculum reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handal, Boris; Herrington, Anthony

    2003-05-01

    This paper discusses the role of mathematics teachers' beliefs and their impact on curriculum reform. It is argued that teachers' beliefs about the teaching and learning mathematics are critical in determining the pace of curriculum reform. Educational change is a complex process in which teachers hold strong beliefs about the quality and the process of innovation. Curriculum implementation may only occur through sufferance as many teachers are suspicious of reform in mathematics education given its equivocal success over the past decades. It is not surprising then that many teachers, when they come to enact the curriculum in their classes, rely more on their own beliefs than on current trends in pedagogy. These beliefs, conservative as they might be, have their own rationality in the practical and daily nature of the teaching profession, and in the compelling influence of educational systems from which these teachers are paradoxically the social product. The literature indicates that many of these teachers hold behaviourist beliefs, a fact that has strong implications for the success of constructivist-oriented curriculum reform. In general, studies of teachers' pedagogical beliefs reveal the extreme complexity of bringing about educational change, and largely explains the failure of many past reform endeavours.

  20. How do Epistemological Beliefs Affect Training Motivation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Molan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies show that human resources development through workplace training is one of the major investments in the workforce in today’s globalized and challenging market. As training motivation influences employees’ preparation for the workplace training, their respond to the programme, their learning outcome, their performance levels, and use of acquired knowledge and skills in their workplace it seems logical to investigate and determine antecedents of training motivation. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the concepts of epistemological beliefs, training motivation and the actual participation in the workplace training. We predicted that epistemological beliefs would have an effect on training motivation and actual participation on the workplace training and that there would be a positive relationship between the concepts, meaning that the more sophisticated epistemological beliefs would lead to higher motivation and participation. To test the epistemological beliefs, the Epistemic Belief Inventory (Schraw, Bendixen & Dunkle, 2002 was used and adjusted to the workplace setting. Then the results were compared to employees’ training motivation, which was measured with a questionnaire made by authors of the present study, and employees’ actual number of training hours annually. The results confirmed the relationship between the concepts as well as a significant predicting value of epistemological beliefs on motivation and actual participation. Epistemic Belief Inventory did not yield expected results reported by the authors of the instrument therefore the limitations, possible other interpretations and suggested further exploration are discussed.

  1. Analytic thinking reduces belief in conspiracy theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Voracek, Martin; Stieger, Stefan; Tran, Ulrich S; Furnham, Adrian

    2014-12-01

    Belief in conspiracy theories has been associated with a range of negative health, civic, and social outcomes, requiring reliable methods of reducing such belief. Thinking dispositions have been highlighted as one possible factor associated with belief in conspiracy theories, but actual relationships have only been infrequently studied. In Study 1, we examined associations between belief in conspiracy theories and a range of measures of thinking dispositions in a British sample (N=990). Results indicated that a stronger belief in conspiracy theories was significantly associated with lower analytic thinking and open-mindedness and greater intuitive thinking. In Studies 2-4, we examined the causational role played by analytic thinking in relation to conspiracist ideation. In Study 2 (N=112), we showed that a verbal fluency task that elicited analytic thinking reduced belief in conspiracy theories. In Study 3 (N=189), we found that an alternative method of eliciting analytic thinking, which related to cognitive disfluency, was effective at reducing conspiracist ideation in a student sample. In Study 4, we replicated the results of Study 3 among a general population sample (N=140) in relation to generic conspiracist ideation and belief in conspiracy theories about the July 7, 2005, bombings in London. Our results highlight the potential utility of supporting attempts to promote analytic thinking as a means of countering the widespread acceptance of conspiracy theories.

  2. Analytic thinking reduces belief in conspiracy theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Voracek, Martin; Stieger, Stefan; Tran, Ulrich S; Furnham, Adrian

    2014-12-01

    Belief in conspiracy theories has been associated with a range of negative health, civic, and social outcomes, requiring reliable methods of reducing such belief. Thinking dispositions have been highlighted as one possible factor associated with belief in conspiracy theories, but actual relationships have only been infrequently studied. In Study 1, we examined associations between belief in conspiracy theories and a range of measures of thinking dispositions in a British sample (N=990). Results indicated that a stronger belief in conspiracy theories was significantly associated with lower analytic thinking and open-mindedness and greater intuitive thinking. In Studies 2-4, we examined the causational role played by analytic thinking in relation to conspiracist ideation. In Study 2 (N=112), we showed that a verbal fluency task that elicited analytic thinking reduced belief in conspiracy theories. In Study 3 (N=189), we found that an alternative method of eliciting analytic thinking, which related to cognitive disfluency, was effective at reducing conspiracist ideation in a student sample. In Study 4, we replicated the results of Study 3 among a general population sample (N=140) in relation to generic conspiracist ideation and belief in conspiracy theories about the July 7, 2005, bombings in London. Our results highlight the potential utility of supporting attempts to promote analytic thinking as a means of countering the widespread acceptance of conspiracy theories. PMID:25217762

  3. Two Types of Belief Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hegarty

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Ascriptions of belief and other doxastic propositional attitudes are commonly interpreted as quantifying over a set of possible worlds constituting doxastic alternatives for the belief experiencer. Katz (2000, 2003, 2008 has argued that belief predicates and other stative attitude predicates, along with stative predicates generally, lack a Davidsonian event argument and therefore do not report on any eventuality (event or state. Hacquard (2010, in contrast, assumes that all attitude ascriptions describe an event corresponding to the mental state of the attitude experiencer. The present investigation suggests that the strengths of doxastic predicates can be modeled by generalized quantifiers over the doxastic alternative set, permitting us to formulate and test predictions based on standard interactions of these quantifiers with negation when these ascriptions are negated. This provides a middle ground between Katz and Hacquard, whereby some belief ascriptions are interpreted as nothing more than a quantified condition over a doxastic alternative set, while others attribute a Davidsonian belief state to the experiencer. In the latter case, the condition involving quantification over doxastic alternatives is an essential content condition which serves to individuate the eventuality described by the belief report, and to identify it across possible worlds.ReferencesCappelli, G. 2007. “I reckon I know how Leonardo da Vinci must have felt...” Epistemicity, Evidentiality and English Verbs of Cognitive Attitude. Pari: Pari Publishing.Carlson, G. 1998. ‘Thematic roles and the individuation of events’. In S. Rothstein (ed. ‘Events and Grammar’, 35–51. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.Davidson, D. 1980[1967]. ‘The Logical Form of Action Sentences’. In N. Rescher (ed. ‘The Logic of Decision and Action’, 81–95. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. Reprinted in Davidson, D., Essays on Actions and Events, pp. 105

  4. Self-Exempting Beliefs and Intention to Quit Smoking within a Socially Disadvantaged Australian Sample of Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Christine; D'Este, Catherine; Twyman, Laura; Palazzi, Kerrin; Oldmeadow, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    An investigation of beliefs used to rationalise smoking will have important implications for the content of anti-smoking programs targeted at socioeconomically disadvantaged groups, who show the lowest rates of cessation in the population. This study aimed to assess the types of self-exempting beliefs reported by a sample of socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers, and identify associations between these beliefs and other smoking-related factors with quit intentions. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from March-December 2012 with smokers seeking welfare assistance in New South Wales (NSW), Australia (n = 354; response rate 79%). Responses to a 16-item self-exempting beliefs scale and intention to quit, smoker identity, and enjoyment of smoking were assessed. Most participants earned smoking due to ubiquity of risk) and selected "skeptic" beliefs were endorsed by 25%-47% of the sample, indicating these smokers may not fully understand the extensive risks associated with smoking. Smokers with limited quit intentions held significantly stronger self-exempting beliefs than those contemplating or preparing to quit (all p smoking-related variables only "skeptic" beliefs were significantly associated with intention to quit (p = 0.02). Some of these beliefs are incorrect and could be addressed in anti-smoking campaigns.

  5. Effects of dogmatism on state anxiety during the analysis and synthesis of new beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, E

    1979-06-01

    Investigated the concept of dogmatism as a defense mechanism and the role of threat in the synthesis of new beliefs by examining the effects of dogmatism on changes in state anxiety (A-State) during the analysis and synthesis of new beliefs. Sixty female college students were selected on the basis of extreme scores on the Dogmatism Scale and the trait anxiety (A-Trait) scale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory to work on a task requiring the analysis and synthesis of new beliefs. In support of Rokeach's theory, high dogmatics displayed no change in A-State from the analysis to the synthesis period of the task, while low dogmatics exhibited a significant decline in A-State between the two periods. The clinical implications of these findings were discussed in terms of the role of dogmatism in the processing of personality interpretations and test feedback. PMID:469707

  6. The Impact of Solution-Focused Training on Professionals' Beliefs, Practices and Burnout of Child Protection Workers in Tenerife Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Antonio; Beyebach, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the first results of a large-scale research project on the child protection services in Tenerife, Spain. In Study 1, the professional beliefs and practices of 152 child protection workers, as measured by a Professional Beliefs and Practices Questionnaire, were correlated with their scores on the Maslach Burnout Inventory.…

  7. LinguisticBelief: a java application for linguistic evaluation using belief, fuzzy sets, and approximate reasoning.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darby, John L.

    2007-03-01

    LinguisticBelief is a Java computer code that evaluates combinations of linguistic variables using an approximate reasoning rule base. Each variable is comprised of fuzzy sets, and a rule base describes the reasoning on combinations of variables fuzzy sets. Uncertainty is considered and propagated through the rule base using the belief/plausibility measure. The mathematics of fuzzy sets, approximate reasoning, and belief/ plausibility are complex. Without an automated tool, this complexity precludes their application to all but the simplest of problems. LinguisticBelief automates the use of these techniques, allowing complex problems to be evaluated easily. LinguisticBelief can be used free of charge on any Windows XP machine. This report documents the use and structure of the LinguisticBelief code, and the deployment package for installation client machines.

  8. Belief, emotion, and health: toward an integrative account. Commentary on John Cromby's 'beyond belief'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararajan, Louise

    2012-10-01

    This commentary identifies in Cromby's formulation of belief the potentials for developing three innovative approaches to belief systems: emotion as meaning, cognition as dialogue, and an aesthetic model of meaning making based on Susanne Langer's integrative approach to feeling and form. It is argued that the semiotics of Charles Sanders Peirce can help to weave these threads into an integrative theory to shed some light on the connection between belief, emotion, and health.

  9. Magical beliefs and rituals in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David W; Milanak, Melissa E; Medeiros, Bethany; Ross, Jennifer L

    2002-01-01

    Thirty-one children were administered a structured interview that assessed their beliefs about magic, tricks and wishes. Children were also presented with demonstrations of magic tricks/illusions, and asked to offer explanations as to how they worked. Parents completed the Childhood Routines Inventory (CRI), a 19-item parent report measure that assesses children's rituals, habits and sensory-perceptual experiences that we have termed "compulsive-like" behavior. Results indicated that children's rituals and compulsions were positively related to their magical beliefs, and inversely related to their uses of concrete, physical explanations to describe various phenomena. In particular, children's beliefs about the effects of wishing were most consistently correlated with their compulsive-like rituals and routines. The findings extended the work on magical beliefs and obsessive-compulsive phenomena to the normative manifestation of compulsive behaviors found in typical development.

  10. Spanking Infants and Toddlers: Maternal Belief and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socolar, Rebecca R. S.; Stein, Ruth E. K.

    1995-01-01

    Interviewed mothers about spanking infants and toddlers to determine beliefs and practice and relationships between factors affecting these beliefs and practices. Found that context of the spanking affects spanking beliefs and practice and that beliefs about spanking rather than impulse largely explain the prevalence of spanking for children under…

  11. Belief elicitation in experiments: Is there a hedging problem?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanco, Mariana; Engelmann, Dirk; Koch, Alexander;

    2010-01-01

    Belief-elicitation experiments usually reward accuracy of stated beliefs in addition to payments for other decisions. But this allows risk-averse subjects to hedge with their stated beliefs against adverse outcomes of the other decisions. So can we trust the existing belief-elicitation results? A...

  12. Gifted Students' Implicit Beliefs about Intelligence and Giftedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makel, Matthew C.; Snyder, Kate E.; Thomas, Chandler; Malone, Patrick S.; Putallaz, Martha

    2015-01-01

    Growing attention is being paid to individuals' implicit beliefs about the nature of intelligence. However, implicit beliefs about giftedness are currently underexamined. In the current study, we examined academically gifted adolescents' implicit beliefs about both intelligence and giftedness. Overall, participants' implicit beliefs about…

  13. Nestedness of beliefs: Examining a prospective elementary teacher's belief system about science teaching and learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Lynn A.

    2003-11-01

    This study, conducted from a constructivist perspective, examined the belief system of a prospective elementary teacher (Barbara) about science teaching and learning as she developed professional knowledge within the context of reflective science teacher education. From an analysis of interviews, observation, and written documents, I constructed a profile of Barbara's beliefs that consisted of three foundational and three dualistic beliefs. Her foundational beliefs concerned (a) the value of science and science teaching, (b) the nature of scientific concepts and goals of science instruction, and (c) control in the science classroom. Barbara held dualistic beliefs about (a) how children learn science, (b) the science students' role, and (c) the science teacher's role. Her dualistic beliefs formed two contradictory nests of beliefs. One nest, grounded in lifelong science learner experiences, reflected a didactic teaching orientation and predominantly guided her practice. The second nest, not well grounded in experience, embraced a hands-on approach and predominantly guided her vision of practice. The findings accentuate the complexity and nestedness of teachers' belief systems and underscore the significance of identifying prospective teachers' beliefs, espoused and enacted, for designing teacher preparation programs.

  14. Deconstructing the notion of 'belief' in psychology: commentary on 'beyond belief'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Delefosse, Marie

    2012-10-01

    The article by John Cromby raises pertinent issues concerning the exclusively cognitive approach of 'belief' as well as regarding the very variable and vague definition of this notion. Beliefs in the area of Health do not stem from the mere cognitive sector. They are not purely discursive in nature either. Beliefs are rooted in experienced embodiment and influenced by the unique story of each subject. However, the reader sometimes regrets the lack of development on the nature of the links between three different levels: the cognitive, the affective and the social one. The notion of 'belief' in Psychology remains to be deconstructed. PMID:22912504

  15. Beliefs and practices in health care

    OpenAIRE

    MELGUIZO HERRERA, ESTELA; ALZATE POSADA, MARTHA LUCÍA

    2010-01-01

    The objective is to review the concepts of beliefs and practices of health care as cultural expressions in order to highlight to caregivers the necessary aspects for them to provide a culturally consistent care, a more human and effective one. From the conception of culture as a human creation which influences and shapes people's beliefs and practices, some definitions of the concepts as of social psicology, anthropology, sociology and transcultural nursing aspects are revised. We found that ...

  16. Belief in God among South African youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes A. van der Ven

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates belief in God among 538 students from standard 9 who attend Anglican and Catholic schools in the Johannesburg/Pretoria region. Within their belief in God they make use of different interpretations, namely anthropomorph theism and panentheism, non-anthropomorph theism and panentheism, as well as what is called aniconic transcendent pantheism. These interpretations do not appear to exclude one another, but co-exist in the students' minds.

  17. On Three Ways to Justify Religious Beliefs

    OpenAIRE

    Brümmer, V.

    2001-01-01

    This paper compares the ways in which revealed theology, natural theology and philosophical theology justify religious belief. Revealed theology does so with an appeal to revelation and natural theology with an appeal to reason and perception. It is argued that both are inadequate. Philosophical theology analyses the meaning rather than proving the truth of religious belief. In doing so it does show how truth claims are entailed by a religious tradition and how the whole heritage of a traditi...

  18. Lifted Region-Based Belief Propagation

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, David; Singla, Parag; Gogate, Vibhav

    2016-01-01

    Due to the intractable nature of exact lifted inference, research has recently focused on the discovery of accurate and efficient approximate inference algorithms in Statistical Relational Models (SRMs), such as Lifted First-Order Belief Propagation. FOBP simulates propositional factor graph belief propagation without constructing the ground factor graph by identifying and lifting over redundant message computations. In this work, we propose a generalization of FOBP called Lifted Generalized ...

  19. Belief, truth, and the enigma of error.

    OpenAIRE

    Solberg, Mariann

    2006-01-01

    The thesis discusses problems related to the American Philosopher Donald Davidson’s (1917-2003) views upon beliefs, truth and error. Underlying questions are; what are the basic conditions for knowledge? What are the prerequisites for understanding other human beings? What are the conditions for emergence of beliefs that can be true or false? The thesis focuses on the role that our inherited characteristics play in understanding other human beings, and these are seen in relation to the signif...

  20. The Effect of Iranian Teachers’ Epistemological Beliefs on Their Teaching Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malahat Yousefzadeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Epistemology is the branch of philosophy that investigates what knowledge is and how people know whether they know something (BonJour, 2002. It addresses questions such as: What is knowledge? How do people know if they really have knowledge? What gives a reason for any knowledge that they have? This study aimed at investigating the relationships between high school teachers’ epistemological beliefs and their teaching practices. The subjects of the study were 60 teachers at Ardabil high schools. They responded to two questionnaires: an Epistemological Beliefs Questionnaire and a Teaching Practices Questionnaire. In this study, the independent variables are measures of teacher epistemology and their teaching practices as the dependent variables. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient was used to assess the relationship between scores on the Teaching practice scale and those on the Epistemological Beliefs scale. Findings of the study showed that teachers with inexperienced epistemological beliefs tend to traditional teacher-centered practices and experienced belief holders were more tend to constructive learner-centered practices.  Keywords: inexperienced epistemology, experienced epistemology, teacher-centered practices, constructive learner-centered

  1. Folk Beliefs of Cultural Changes in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi eXu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available For the last several decades, Chinese society has experienced transformative changes. How are these changes understood among Chinese people? To examine this question, Part 1 in this research solicited folk beliefs of cultural change from a group of Chinese participants in an open-ended format, and the generated folk beliefs were rated by another group of participants in Part 2 to gauge each belief’s level of agreement. Part 3 plotted the folk beliefs retained in Part 2 using the Google Ngram Viewer in order to infer the amount of intellectual interests that each belief has received cross-temporarily. These analyses suggested a few themes in Chinese folk beliefs of cultural change (1 rising perceived importance of materialism and individualism in understanding contemporary Chinese culture and Chinese psychology relative to those of the past (2 rising perceived importance of freedom, democracy and human rights and (3 enduring perceived importance of family relations and friendship as well as patriotism. Interestingly, findings from Parts 2 and 3 diverged somewhat, illuminating possible divergence between folk beliefs and intellectual interests especially for issues related to heritage of Confucianism.

  2. Rethinking the learning of belief network probabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musick, R.

    1996-03-01

    Belief networks are a powerful tool for knowledge discovery that provide concise, understandable probabilistic models of data. There are methods grounded in probability theory to incrementally update the relationships described by the belief network when new information is seen, to perform complex inferences over any set of variables in the data, to incorporate domain expertise and prior knowledge into the model, and to automatically learn the model from data. This paper concentrates on part of the belief network induction problem, that of learning the quantitative structure (the conditional probabilities), given the qualitative structure. In particular, the current practice of rote learning the probabilities in belief networks can be significantly improved upon. We advance the idea of applying any learning algorithm to the task of conditional probability learning in belief networks, discuss potential benefits, and show results of applying neural networks and other algorithms to a medium sized car insurance belief network. The results demonstrate from 10 to 100% improvements in model error rates over the current approaches.

  3. Ten weeks of physical-cognitive-mindfulness training reduces fear-avoidance beliefs about work-related activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jay, Kenneth; Brandt, Mikkel; Jakobsen, Markus Due;

    2016-01-01

    on physical exercise, mindfulness, and education on pain and behavior, can decrease work-related fear-avoidance beliefs.As part of a large scale 10-week worksite randomized controlled intervention trial focusing on company initiatives to combat work-related musculoskeletal pain and stress, we evaluated fear......, as assessed by the Fear-avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire, can be significantly reduced by 10 weeks of physical-cognitive-mindfulness training in female laboratory technicians with chronic pain....

  4. The Relationship between Metacognition and Obsessive Beliefs, and Procrastination in Students of Tabriz and Mohaghegh Ardabili Universities, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Sadeghi, Hasan; Hajloo, Nader; Babayi, Karim; Shahri, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the current study is to investigate the relationship between metacognition and obsessive beliefs, and procrastination. Methods: 285 students of Tabriz and Mohaghegh Ardabili Universities, Iran, were selected by random sampling, and completed the metacognition (MCQ-30) questionnaire, obsessive beliefs questionnaire (OBQ-44), and General Procrastination Scale. The research method was descriptive. Data was implemented by structural equation modeling, using Amos software (ve...

  5. Impact of reading a scientific journal issue about hypnosis on the beliefs and attitudes towards hypnosis among psychologists

    OpenAIRE

    M. Elena Mendoza; Antonio Capafons; Begoña Espejo

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the influence of receiving scientific information about hypnosis over Spanish psychologists" beliefs and attitudes toward hypnosis. The Valencia Scale on Attitudes and Beliefs toward Hypnosis-Therapist (VSABH-T) was administered to 2434 Spanish psychologists. A retest and a second retest were carried out,and between these testing administrations a monograph issue focused on hypnosis was published in a journal that all members of the Spanish Psychological ...

  6. The Attitudes & Beliefs on Classroom Control Inventory-Revised and Revisited: A Continuation of Construct Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nancy K.; Yin, Zenong; Mayall, Hayley

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report the psychometric properties of the revised Attitudes and Beliefs of Classroom Control Inventory (ABCC-R). Data were collected from 489 participants via the ABCC-R, Teacher Efficacy Scale, Problems in School Questionnaire, and a demographic questionnaire. Results were in keeping with the construct. The…

  7. The Relationship between General Self-Efficacy Belief and Burnout Level among Turkish Academicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevindi, Tarik

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relation between burnout level and general self-efficacy beliefs of academicians working in School of Physical Education and Sport. 178 Academicians working at various universities in Turkey participated in this study. The General Self-Efficacy Scale developed by Schwarzer and Jerusalem (1995), adapted to…

  8. Relationships between Ongoing Professional Development and Educators' Beliefs Relative to Response to Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Jose M.; March, Amanda L.; Tan, Sim Yin; Stockslager, Kevin M.; Brundage, Amber

    2016-01-01

    Questions remain regarding whether professional development focused on response to intervention can be implemented effectively on a large scale. One important goal of professional development involves educators' beliefs regarding foundational response-to-intervention concepts (e.g., data-based decision making, importance of effective instruction).…

  9. An Examination of Locus of Control, Epistemological Beliefs and Metacognitive Awareness in Preservice Early Childhood Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedel, Emine Ferda

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to explore the locus of control, epistemological beliefs and metacognitive awareness levels of preservice early childhood education teachers and to determine the interrelations among these variables. 206 teacher candidates have been asked to fill out Rotter's Internal-External Locus of Control Scale, Central Epistemological Beliefs…

  10. Dysfunctional Relationship Beliefs in Parent-Late Adolescent Relationship and Conflict Resolution Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamci, Zeynep

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of dysfunctional relationships beliefs on both the perceptions of their relationships with the parents and conflict resolution behaviors of late adolescence. The sample was consisted of 372 Turkish university students (248 women and 124 men). Interpersonal Cognitive Distortions Scale,…

  11. Development of the Assessment of Belief Conflict in Relationship-14 (ABCR-14.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Kyougoku

    Full Text Available Nurses and other healthcare workers frequently experience belief conflict, one of the most important, new stress-related problems in both academic and clinical fields.In this study, using a sample of 1,683 nursing practitioners, we developed The Assessment of Belief Conflict in Relationship-14 (ABCR-14, a new scale that assesses belief conflict in the healthcare field. Standard psychometric procedures were used to develop and test the scale, including a qualitative framework concept and item-pool development, item reduction, and scale development. We analyzed the psychometric properties of ABCR-14 according to entropy, polyserial correlation coefficient, exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, average variance extracted, Cronbach's alpha, Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient, and multidimensional item response theory (MIRT.The results of the analysis supported a three-factor model consisting of 14 items. The validity and reliability of ABCR-14 was suggested by evidence from high construct validity, structural validity, hypothesis testing, internal consistency reliability, and concurrent validity. The result of the MIRT offered strong support for good item response of item slope parameters and difficulty parameters. However, the ABCR-14 Likert scale might need to be explored from the MIRT point of view. Yet, as mentioned above, there is sufficient evidence to support that ABCR-14 has high validity and reliability.The ABCR-14 demonstrates good psychometric properties for nursing belief conflict. Further studies are recommended to confirm its application in clinical practice.

  12. Gravity, God and Ghosts? Parents' Beliefs in Science, Religion, and the Paranormal and the Encouragement of Beliefs in Their Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braswell, Gregory S.; Rosengren, Karl S.; Berenbaum, Howard

    2012-01-01

    Using a questionnaire, the present study examined parents' beliefs regarding the development of children's beliefs about science, religion, and the paranormal. The study also investigated parental encouragement of children's beliefs, as well as parents' own beliefs within these domains. Results revealed that parents make distinctions between…

  13. Investigating High School Teachers’ Belief Regarding Teaching Grammar

    OpenAIRE

    Farahian, Majid

    2011-01-01

    Although there is an ever increasing interest in the issue of teacher belief systems in mainstream education studies, the beliefs of EFL teachers, especially Iranian teachers‟, about grammar and the influence of such beliefs on their instruction remain relatively unexplored. The present study seeks to examine high school teachers‟ belief regarding teaching grammar. To do so a grammar belief questionnaire and an interview were administered. The result showed that although teachers were compell...

  14. Probabilistic Belief Logic and Its Probabilistic Aumann Semantics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO ZiNing(曹子宁); SHI ChunYi(石纯一)

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we present a logic system for probabilistic belief named PBL,which expands the language of belief logic by introducing probabilistic belief. Furthermore, wegive the probabilistic Aumann semantics of PBL. We also list some valid properties of belief andprobabilistic belief, which form the deduction system of PBL. Finally, we prove the soundness andcompleteness of these properties with respect to probabilistic Aumann semantics.

  15. The relationship between students' problem solving frames and epistemological beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wampler, Wendi N.

    Introductory undergraduate physics courses aim to help students develop the skills and strategies necessary to solve complex, real world problems, but many students not only leave these courses with serious gaps in their conceptual understanding, but also maintain a novice-like approach to solving problems. Matter and Interactions [M&I] is a curriculum that focuses on a restructuring of physics content knowledge and emphasizes a systematic approach to problem solving, called modeling, which involves the application physical principles to carefully defined systems of objects and interactions (Chabay and Sherwood, 2007a). Because the M&I approach to problem solving is different from many students' previous physics experience, efforts need to be made to attend to their epistemological beliefs and expectations about not only learning physics content knowledge, but problem solving as well. If a student frames solving physics problems as a `plug and chug' type activity, then they are going continue practicing this strategy. Thus, it is important to address students' epistemological beliefs and monitor how they frame the activity of problem solving within the M&I course. This study aims to investigate how students frame problem solving within the context of a large scale implementation of the M&I curriculum, and how, if at all, those frames shift through the semester. By investigating how students frame the act of problem solving in the M&I context, I was able to examine the connection between student beliefs and expectations about problem solving in physics and the skills and strategies used while solving problems in class. To accomplish these goals, I recruited student volunteers from Purdue's introductory, calculus-based physics course and assessed their problem solving approach and espoused epistemological beliefs over the course of a semester. I obtained data through video recordings of the students engaged in small group problem solving during recitation activities

  16. The BEL information extraction workflow (BELIEF): evaluation in the BioCreative V BEL and IAT track

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Sumit; Hodapp, Sven; Senger, Philipp; Ansari, Sam; Szostak, Justyna; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel; Fluck, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    Network-based approaches have become extremely important in systems biology to achieve a better understanding of biological mechanisms. For network representation, the Biological Expression Language (BEL) is well designed to collate findings from the scientific literature into biological network models. To facilitate encoding and biocuration of such findings in BEL, a BEL Information Extraction Workflow (BELIEF) was developed. BELIEF provides a web-based curation interface, the BELIEF Dashboard, that incorporates text mining techniques to support the biocurator in the generation of BEL networks. The underlying UIMA-based text mining pipeline (BELIEF Pipeline) uses several named entity recognition processes and relationship extraction methods to detect concepts and BEL relationships in literature. The BELIEF Dashboard allows easy curation of the automatically generated BEL statements and their context annotations. Resulting BEL statements and their context annotations can be syntactically and semantically verified to ensure consistency in the BEL network. In summary, the workflow supports experts in different stages of systems biology network building. Based on the BioCreative V BEL track evaluation, we show that the BELIEF Pipeline automatically extracts relationships with an F-score of 36.4% and fully correct statements can be obtained with an F-score of 30.8%. Participation in the BioCreative V Interactive task (IAT) track with BELIEF revealed a systems usability scale (SUS) of 67. Considering the complexity of the task for new users—learning BEL, working with a completely new interface, and performing complex curation—a score so close to the overall SUS average highlights the usability of BELIEF. Database URL: BELIEF is available at http://www.scaiview.com/belief/

  17. The BEL information extraction workflow (BELIEF): evaluation in the BioCreative V BEL and IAT track

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Sumit; Hodapp, Sven; Senger, Philipp; Ansari, Sam; Szostak, Justyna; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel; Fluck, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    Network-based approaches have become extremely important in systems biology to achieve a better understanding of biological mechanisms. For network representation, the Biological Expression Language (BEL) is well designed to collate findings from the scientific literature into biological network models. To facilitate encoding and biocuration of such findings in BEL, a BEL Information Extraction Workflow (BELIEF) was developed. BELIEF provides a web-based curation interface, the BELIEF Dashboard, that incorporates text mining techniques to support the biocurator in the generation of BEL networks. The underlying UIMA-based text mining pipeline (BELIEF Pipeline) uses several named entity recognition processes and relationship extraction methods to detect concepts and BEL relationships in literature. The BELIEF Dashboard allows easy curation of the automatically generated BEL statements and their context annotations. Resulting BEL statements and their context annotations can be syntactically and semantically verified to ensure consistency in the BEL network. In summary, the workflow supports experts in different stages of systems biology network building. Based on the BioCreative V BEL track evaluation, we show that the BELIEF Pipeline automatically extracts relationships with an F-score of 36.4% and fully correct statements can be obtained with an F-score of 30.8%. Participation in the BioCreative V Interactive task (IAT) track with BELIEF revealed a systems usability scale (SUS) of 67. Considering the complexity of the task for new users—learning BEL, working with a completely new interface, and performing complex curation—a score so close to the overall SUS average highlights the usability of BELIEF. Database URL: BELIEF is available at http://www.scaiview.com/belief/ PMID:27694210

  18. Professor Attitudes and Beliefs about Teaching Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Maryann Elizabeth

    Teaching evolution has been shown to be a challenge for faculty, in both K-12 and postsecondary education. Many of these challenges stem from perceived conflicts not only between religion and evolution, but also faculty beliefs about religion, it's compatibility with evolutionary theory, and it's proper role in classroom curriculum. Studies suggest that if educators engage with students' religious beliefs and identity, this may help students have positive attitudes towards evolution. The aim of this study was to reveal attitudes and beliefs professors have about addressing religion and providing religious scientist role models to students when teaching evolution. 15 semi-structured interviews of tenured biology professors were conducted at a large Midwestern universiy regarding their beliefs, experiences, and strategies teaching evolution and particularly, their willingness to address religion in a class section on evolution. Following a qualitative analysis of transcripts, professors did not agree on whether or not it is their job to help students accept evolution (although the majority said it is not), nor did they agree on a definition of "acceptance of evolution". Professors are willing to engage in students' religious beliefs, if this would help their students accept evolution. Finally, professors perceived many challenges to engaging students' religious beliefs in a science classroom such as the appropriateness of the material for a science class, large class sizes, and time constraints. Given the results of this study, the author concludes that instructors must come to a consensus about their goals as biology educators as well as what "acceptance of evolution" means, before they can realistically apply the engagement of student's religious beliefs and identity as an educational strategy.

  19. Are Beliefs Believable? An Investigation of College Students' Epistemological Beliefs and Behavior in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Po-Hung

    2010-01-01

    College students' epistemological belief in their academic performance of mathematics has been documented and is receiving increased attention. However, to what extent and in what ways problem solvers' beliefs about the nature of mathematical knowledge and thinking impact their performances and behavior is not clear and deserves further…

  20. Epistemological Beliefs Are Standards for Adaptive Learning: A Functional Theory about Epistemological Beliefs and Metacognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromme, Rainer; Pieschl, Stephanie; Stahl, Elmar

    2010-01-01

    Empirical studies reveal a close relationship between epistemological beliefs (EBs) and metacognition. For example, more "sophisticated" beliefs are associated with more self-reported monitoring strategies. This relationship is also advocated theoretically. Nevertheless, exactly "how" and "why" EBs impact learning is still an open question. In…

  1. Belief Functions: Theory and Applications - Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Belief Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Masson, Marie-Hélène

    2012-01-01

    The theory of belief functions, also known as evidence theory or Dempster-Shafer theory, was first introduced by Arthur P. Dempster in the context of statistical inference, and was later developed by Glenn Shafer as a general framework for modeling epistemic uncertainty. These early contributions have been the starting points of many important developments, including the Transferable Belief Model and the Theory of Hints. The theory of belief functions is now well established as a general framework for reasoning with uncertainty, and has well understood connections to other frameworks such as probability, possibility and imprecise probability theories.   This volume contains the proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Belief Functions that was held in Compiègne, France on 9-11 May 2012. It gathers 51 contributions describing recent developments both on theoretical issues (including approximation methods, combination rules, continuous belief functions, graphical models and independence concepts) an...

  2. Using More than 10% of Our Brains: Examining Belief in Science-Related Myths from an Individual Differences Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Stieger, Stefan; Pietschnig, Jakob; Nader, Ingo W.; Voracek, Martin

    2012-01-01

    There currently exists a dearth of research on the transmission and assimilation of myths. To overcome this limitation, we developed a novel scale that measures belief in science-related myths. A total of 363 participants completed this new scale along with measures of personality (the Big Five factors), anti-scientific attitudes, and New Age…

  3. Investigating students’ beliefs about language learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Boakye

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available There is widespread current interest in language learning studies regarding the extent to which student beliefs can influence the language learning process.  Whilst institutions may set up frameworks to enable students to learn languages successfully, many researchers contend that ultimately it is the belief systems of the students themselves which will contribute most to the final outcome of the teaching process. This article explores the idea that the language learning process among students is substantially influenced by their beliefs about this process. A questionnaire based on Horwitz’s (1987 BALLI instrument was used to assess students’ beliefs in terms of language learning, and the issues are discussed within the categories of aptitude, motivation, learning and communication strategies, the nature of learning, and the difficulty of language learning. The results indicate that the beliefs of the students can have a negative influence on their learning strategies which, in turn, affect the success or otherwise of the language learning process. This article thus concludes with suggestions on how to address the negative mindsets of the students concerned in order to create environments that would be more conducive to achieving positive results.

  4. False belief reasoning in the brain: An ERP study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Understanding others mind and interpersonal interaction are the cognitive basis of successful social interactions. People's mental states and behaviors rely on their holding beliefs for self and others. To investigate the neural substrates of false belief reasoning, the 32 channels event-related potentials (ERP) of 14 normal adults were measured while they understood false-belief and true belief used deceptive appearance task. After onset of the false-belief or true-belief questions, N100, P200 and late negative component (LNC) were elicited at centro-frontal sites. Compared with true belief, false belief reasoning elicited significant declined LNC in the time window from 400 to 800 ms. The source analysis of difference wave (False minus True) showed a dipole located in the middle cingulated cortex. These findings show that false belief reasoning probably included inhibitive process.

  5. False belief reasoning in the brain: An ERP study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Understanding others mind and interpersonal interaction are the cognitive basis of successful social interactions. People’s mental states and behaviors rely on their holding beliefs for self and others. To investigate the neural substrates of false belief reasoning, the 32 channels event-related potentials (ERP) of 14 normal adults were measured while they understood false-belief and true belief used de-ceptive appearance task. After onset of the false-belief or true-belief questions, N100, P200 and late negative component (LNC) were elicited at centro-frontal sites. Compared with true belief, false belief reasoning elicited significant declined LNC in the time window from 400 to 800 ms. The source analysis of difference wave (False minus True) showed a dipole located in the middle cingulated cortex. These findings show that false belief reasoning probably included inhibitive process.

  6. Extraterrestrial beliefs and experiences: an application of the theory of reasoned action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patry, A L; Pelletier, L G

    2001-04-01

    The authors expanded the applicability of I. Ajzen and M. Fishbein's (1980) theory of reasoned action by assessing the participants' beliefs, attitudes, and experiences related to sightings of unidentified flying objects (UFOs) and to alien abductions. The authors designed and administered a survey on UFO phenomena to 398 Canadian students. The survey contains items relating to each component of Ajzen and Fishbein's model, as well as scales that evaluate paranormal beliefs and social desirability. A majority of the sample believed in UFOs, although most had never seen one. However, only a minority believed in alien abductions--again, most without having had any reported experience. According to path analyses, UFO beliefs originated from societal forces rather than from personal experiences as the model would predict.

  7. Bayesian Belief Network Method for Predicting Asphaltene Precipitation in Light Oil Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey O. Oseh (M.Sc.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Asphaltene precipitation is caused by a number of factors including changes in pressure, temperature, and composition. The two most prevalent causes of asphaltene precipitation in light oil reservoirs are decreasing pressure and mixing oil with injected solvent in improved oil recovery processes. This study focused on predicting the amount of asphaltene precipitation with increasing Gas-Oil Ratio in a light oil reservoir using Bayesian Belief Network Method. These Artificial Intelligence-Bayesian Belief Network Method employed were validated and tested by unseen data to determine their accuracy and trend stability and were also compared with the findings obtained from Scaling equations. The obtained Bayesian Belief Network results indicated that the method showed an improved performance of predicting the amount of asphaltene precipitated in light oil reservoirs thus reducing the number of experiments required.

  8. Outsourcing punishment to God: beliefs in divine control reduce earthly punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurin, Kristin; Shariff, Azim F; Henrich, Joseph; Kay, Aaron C

    2012-08-22

    The sanctioning of norm-transgressors is a necessary--though often costly--task for maintaining a well-functioning society. Prior to effective and reliable secular institutions for punishment, large-scale societies depended on individuals engaging in 'altruistic punishment'--bearing the costs of punishment individually, for the benefit of society. Evolutionary approaches to religion suggest that beliefs in powerful, moralizing Gods, who can distribute rewards and punishments, emerged as a way to augment earthly punishment in large societies that could not effectively monitor norm violations. In five studies, we investigate whether such beliefs in God can replace people's motivation to engage in altruistic punishment, and their support for state-sponsored punishment. Results show that, although religiosity generally predicts higher levels of punishment, the specific belief in powerful, intervening Gods reduces altruistic punishment and support for state-sponsored punishment. Moreover, these effects are specifically owing to differences in people's perceptions that humans are responsible for punishing wrongdoers.

  9. Extraterrestrial beliefs and experiences: an application of the theory of reasoned action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patry, A L; Pelletier, L G

    2001-04-01

    The authors expanded the applicability of I. Ajzen and M. Fishbein's (1980) theory of reasoned action by assessing the participants' beliefs, attitudes, and experiences related to sightings of unidentified flying objects (UFOs) and to alien abductions. The authors designed and administered a survey on UFO phenomena to 398 Canadian students. The survey contains items relating to each component of Ajzen and Fishbein's model, as well as scales that evaluate paranormal beliefs and social desirability. A majority of the sample believed in UFOs, although most had never seen one. However, only a minority believed in alien abductions--again, most without having had any reported experience. According to path analyses, UFO beliefs originated from societal forces rather than from personal experiences as the model would predict. PMID:11372566

  10. Planning Graph Heuristics for Belief Space Search

    CERN Document Server

    Bryce, D; Smith, D E; 10.1613/jair.1869

    2011-01-01

    Some recent works in conditional planning have proposed reachability heuristics to improve planner scalability, but many lack a formal description of the properties of their distance estimates. To place previous work in context and extend work on heuristics for conditional planning, we provide a formal basis for distance estimates between belief states. We give a definition for the distance between belief states that relies on aggregating underlying state distance measures. We give several techniques to aggregate state distances and their associated properties. Many existing heuristics exhibit a subset of the properties, but in order to provide a standardized comparison we present several generalizations of planning graph heuristics that are used in a single planner. We compliment our belief state distance estimate framework by also investigating efficient planning graph data structures that incorporate BDDs to compute the most effective heuristics. We developed two planners to serve as test-beds for our inve...

  11. An education belief worth reflection: Molding intellectuals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Jie

    2006-01-01

    Molding intellectuals is one of the expectations people have,which comes from a deep-rooted belief in education.The humanity hypothesis of this belief is to take knowledge and the pursuit of knowledge as the only prescription for human beings.This hypothesis overturns the relation of knowledge and life.Intellectuals make scientific paradigm as the limit of knowledge.Experience and consciousness outside the paradigm are ejected from the scope of knowledge.Accordingly,knowledge of intellectuals is broken away from a human being's life.Under the domination of this conception of knowledge,the world of intellectuals has become a world deficient of meaning.The belief that education molds intellectuals should be deconstructed gradually,with criticism in both practice and theory.

  12. On the nature of implicit soul beliefs: when the past weighs more than the present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglin, Stephanie M

    2015-06-01

    Intuitive childhood beliefs in dualism may lay the foundation for implicit soul and afterlife beliefs, which may diverge from explicit beliefs formed later in adulthood. Brief Implicit Association Tests were developed to investigate the relation of implicit soul and afterlife beliefs to childhood and current beliefs. Early but not current beliefs covaried with implicit beliefs. Results demonstrated greater discrepancies in current than in childhood soul and afterlife beliefs among religious groups, and no differences in implicit beliefs. These findings suggest that implicit soul and afterlife beliefs diverge from current self-reported beliefs, stemming instead from childhood beliefs.

  13. Teachers’ beliefs about diversity: an analysis from a personal and professional perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Chiner Sanz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the beliefs that teachers have about diversity and their level of sensitivity towards some topics related to it. Moreover, beliefs were compared according to teachers’ personal and professional views and teaching experience. The Personal and Professional Beliefs about Diversity Scales (Pohan and Aguilar, 1999 were administered to a sample of 233 teachers. Results showed highly positive beliefs towards diversity in all its dimensions (cultural, linguistic and social diversity, ability, gender, sexual orientation and religion, especially regarding its personal implications compared to the professional ones. Likewise, it was observed a significant relationship between years of teaching experience and professional beliefs about diversity, so teachers with no school experience showed a higher tolerance than those with teaching experience, mainly in aspects related to cultural, linguistic and social differences, ability and gender. The implications that these results have for educational practice and the need for the development of multicultural education courses that favour an effective teaching are discussed.

  14. Association between patients’ beliefs and oral antidiabetic medication adherence in a Chinese type 2 diabetic population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ping; Liu, Naifeng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study was to identify, using the theory of planned behavior (TPB), patients’ beliefs about taking oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs) as prescribed, and to measure the correlations between beliefs and medication adherence. Patients and methods We performed a cross-sectional study of type 2 diabetic patients using structured questionnaires in a Chinese tertiary hospital. A total of 130 patients were enrolled to be interviewed about TPB variables (behavioral, normative, and control beliefs) relevant to medication adherence. Medication adherence was assessed using the eight-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8). Spearman’s rank correlation was used to assess the association between TPB and MMAS-8. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the relationship between different variables and MMAS-8, with statistical significance determined at PTPB is the only important determinant influencing OAD adherence among all the factors (P=0.011). Conclusion The results indicate that the TPB model could be used to examine adherence to OADs. One facilitating control belief, and most of the barrier control beliefs of TPB were related to medication adherence among Chinese type 2 diabetes inpatients. It will be helpful to understand patients’ self-medication and provide methods to develop instruments for identifying factors that influence OAD adherence. PMID:27390519

  15. THE COHERENCE BETWEEN CLASSROOM TEACHERS’ IMPLEMENTATION OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM AND THEIR BELIEFS ABOUT SCIENCE EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan SERİN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate coherence between classroom teachers’ practices of elementary science and technology curriculum and their beliefs about science education. The study was designed as a qualitative study in which case study method was used. The participants of the study were five classroom teachers whose professional experience was over 15 years. The classes of these teachers were observed throughout one academic year such that three class hours per month. Moreover, the teachers were interviewed and voice-recorder was used. In order to support qualitative data related with beliefs about science education, a science education belief scale was also administered. Therefore, the data was collected through classroom observations, teacher interviews, and the science education belief scale. Descriptive analysis method was used in data analysis. The findings revealed that there was no exact coherence between teachers’ classroom practices of science and technology curriculum and their beliefs about science education. The reasons of inconsistency between teaching practices and beliefs were discussed in light of the findings.

  16. A building block for hardware belief networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behin-Aein, Behtash; Diep, Vinh; Datta, Supriyo

    2016-01-01

    Belief networks represent a powerful approach to problems involving probabilistic inference, but much of the work in this area is software based utilizing standard deterministic hardware based on the transistor which provides the gain and directionality needed to interconnect billions of them into useful networks. This paper proposes a transistor like device that could provide an analogous building block for probabilistic networks. We present two proof-of-concept examples of belief networks, one reciprocal and one non-reciprocal, implemented using the proposed device which is simulated using experimentally benchmarked models. PMID:27443521

  17. Expectations and Beliefs in Science Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Gitte

    2016-01-01

    ; gene therapy was not universally hyped. Against that background, attention is directed towards another area of variation in the material: different basic assumptions about science and scientists. Exploring such culturally rooted assumptions and beliefs and their possible significance to science...... communication practices, it is argued that deep beliefs may constitute drivers of hype that are particularly difficult to deal with. To participants in science communication, the discouragement of hype, viewed as a practical–ethical challenge, can be seen as a learning exercise that includes critical attention...

  18. Smoke and mirrors: magnified beliefs that cigarette smoking suppresses weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Marney A; McKee, Sherry A; O'malley, Stephanie S

    2007-10-01

    Research suggests that for some smokers, weight concerns interfere with smoking cessation. Studies with individuals with eating disorders and weight concerns have indicated that weight-concerned individuals place undue faith in the effectiveness of certain weight control strategies; i.e., adopt a brand of magical thinking pertaining to food rules and dieting behaviors. The current study investigated whether weight-concerned smokers endorsed exaggerated beliefs in the ability of smoking to suppress body weight. Participants were 385 individuals undergoing treatment for smoking cessation. Prior to treatment, participants completed the Smoking Consequences Questionnaire-Adult (SCQ-A), the Dieting and Bingeing Severity Scale, and the Perceived Risks and Benefits Questionnaire (PBRQ). Results indicated that heightened beliefs in the effectiveness of smoking to control weight were related to eating and weight concerns; specifically, strong associations were observed between SCQ-A Weight Control scores and fear of weight gain, loss of control over eating, and body dissatisfaction. Although SCQ-A Weight Control scores were related to (self-reported) weight gain during a previous quit attempt, scores did not predict actual weight gain over the course of the cessation trial. Reported weight gain at previous attempts was also unrelated to actual weight gain over the current trial. These findings indicate that eating and weight-concerned smokers may benefit from psychoeducation concerning the relatively modest and temporary ability of nicotine to suppress weight.

  19. Implicit Beliefs about Ideal Body Image Predict Body Image Dissatisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niclas eHeider

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We examined whether implicit measures of actual and ideal body image can be used to predict body dissatisfaction in young female adults. Participants completed two Implicit Relational Assessment Procedures (IRAPs to examine their implicit beliefs concerning actual (e.g., I am thin and desired ideal body image (e.g., I want to be thin. Body dissatisfaction was examined via self-report questionnaires and rating scales. As expected, differences in body dissatisfaction exerted a differential influence on the two IRAP scores. Specifically, the implicit belief that one is thin was lower in participants who exhibited a high degree of body dissatisfaction than in participants who exhibited a low degree of body dissatisfaction. In contrast, the implicit desire to be thin (i.e., thin ideal body image was stronger in participants who exhibited a high level of body dissatisfaction than in participants who were less dissatisfied with their body. Adding further weight to the idea that both IRAP measures captured different underlying constructs, we also observed that they correlated differently with body mass index, explicit body dissatisfaction, and explicit measures of actual and ideal body image. More generally, these findings underscore the advantage of using implicit measures that incorporate relational information relative to implicit measures that allow for an assessment of associative relations only.

  20. Preferences and Beliefs in a Sequential Social Dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanco, Mariana; Engelmann, Dirk; Koch, Alexander Karl;

    2014-01-01

    In empirical analyses of games, preferences and beliefs are typically treated as independent. However, if beliefs and preferences interact, this may have implications for the interpretation of observed behavior. Our sequential social dilemma experiment allows us to separate different interaction ...

  1. Associations between generic substitution and patients' attitudes, beliefs and experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard Rathe, Jette; Larsen, Pia Veldt; Andersen, Morten;

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Generic substitution has been implemented in many countries, but knowledge about patients’ attitudes, beliefs and experiences is still sparse. Aim To assess associations between generic switching and patients’ attitudes, beliefs and experiences with previous generic switching....

  2. Age and leadership : The moderating role of legacy beliefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zacher, Hannes; Rosing, Kathrin; Frese, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Age and age-related motivations have been neglected in leadership research. This study examined the moderating influence of legacy beliefs on the relationships between age and transformational, transactional, and passive-avoidant leadership behaviors. Legacy beliefs involve individuals' convictions

  3. Skepticism: Genuine unbelief or implicit beliefs in the supernatural?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Marjaana; Svedholm-Häkkinen, Annika M; Riekki, Tapani

    2016-05-01

    We examined whether skeptics hold implicit supernatural beliefs or implicit cognitive underpinnings of the beliefs. In study 1 (N=57), participants read a biological or a religious story about death. The story content had no effect on skeptics' (or believers') afterlife beliefs. Study 2 examined the relationships between religious and non-religious paranormal beliefs and implicit views about whether supernatural and religious phenomena are imaginary or real (n1=33, n2=31). The less supernatural beliefs were endorsed the easier it was to connect "supernatural" with "imaginary". Study 3 (N=63) investigated whether participants' supernatural beliefs and ontological confusions differ between speeded and non-speeded response conditions. Only non-analytical skeptics' ontological confusions increased in speeded conditions. The results indicate that skeptics overall do not hold implicit supernatural beliefs, but that non-analytically thinking skeptics may, under supporting conditions, be prone to biases that predispose to supernatural beliefs. PMID:27043273

  4. Skepticism: Genuine unbelief or implicit beliefs in the supernatural?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Marjaana; Svedholm-Häkkinen, Annika M; Riekki, Tapani

    2016-05-01

    We examined whether skeptics hold implicit supernatural beliefs or implicit cognitive underpinnings of the beliefs. In study 1 (N=57), participants read a biological or a religious story about death. The story content had no effect on skeptics' (or believers') afterlife beliefs. Study 2 examined the relationships between religious and non-religious paranormal beliefs and implicit views about whether supernatural and religious phenomena are imaginary or real (n1=33, n2=31). The less supernatural beliefs were endorsed the easier it was to connect "supernatural" with "imaginary". Study 3 (N=63) investigated whether participants' supernatural beliefs and ontological confusions differ between speeded and non-speeded response conditions. Only non-analytical skeptics' ontological confusions increased in speeded conditions. The results indicate that skeptics overall do not hold implicit supernatural beliefs, but that non-analytically thinking skeptics may, under supporting conditions, be prone to biases that predispose to supernatural beliefs.

  5. Customers' values, beliefs on sustainable corporate performance, and buying behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collins, Christy M.; Steg, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Sustainable corporate performance (SCP) requires balancing a corporation's economic, social, and environmental performance. This research explores values, beliefs about the importance of SCP, and buying behaviors of supermarket customers from within a stakeholder framework. Beliefs about the importa

  6. Belief Elicitation : A Horse Race among Truth Serums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trautmann, S.T.; van de Kuilen, G.

    2011-01-01

    In survey studies, probabilistic expectations about uncertain events are typically elicited by asking respondents for their introspective beliefs. If more complex procedures are feasible, beliefs can be elicited by incentive compatible revealed preference mechanisms (“truth serums”). Various mechani

  7. Paternal Attachment, Parenting Beliefs and Children's Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Kimberly S.

    2010-01-01

    Relationships between fathers' romantic attachment style, parenting beliefs and father-child attachment security and dependence were examined in a diverse sample of 72 fathers of young children. Paternal romantic attachment style was coded based on fathers' endorsement of a particular style represented in the Hazan and Shaver Three-Category…

  8. General Beliefs and Environmental Concern: Transatlantic Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, Anna; Ohman, Susanna

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to empirically test whether grouping people according to their general beliefs, combined with positional factors, can explain environmental concern, and whether there are country differences in this respect. The study is based on the United States, Canadian, Norwegian, and Swedish parts of The International Social Survey…

  9. Psychic reality and unconscious belief: a reconsideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerard, H B

    1997-04-01

    In a recent paper Britton attempted to distinguish between a phantasy that has achieved the status of a belief and one that has not, and between a belief and knowledge. The author argues that, in the light of the seventeenth-century controversy between Descartes and Spinoza, both of these distinctions are untenable. Descartes argued, as Britton does, and as Freud did, that phantasies or ideas are not accepted as beliefs until they are tested against reality. Furthermore, Britton maintains that for a belief to acquire the status of knowledge, it must be supported by incontrovertible evidence. Spinoza, on the other hand, proposed the seemingly preposterous notion that a comprehended proposition is automatically believed. Doubt may subsequently be engendered by disconfirming evidence. As it turns out, research in a number of domains suggests that Spinoza was correct and Descartes was wrong. This evidence and its clinical implications are discussed. As suggested by Bion, instilling doubt regarding deeply ingrained (Spinozan-formed) phantasies is a principal goal of treatment.

  10. Utilitarian Aggregation of Beliefs and Tastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilboa, Itzhak; Samet, Dov; Schmeidler, David

    2004-01-01

    Harsanyi's utilitarianism is extended here to Savage's framework. We formulate a Pareto condition that implies that both society's utility function and its probability measure are linear combinations of those of the individuals. An indiscriminate Pareto condition has been shown to contradict linear aggregation of beliefs and tastes. We argue that…

  11. Beliefs and Uses of Tagging among Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer-Duffield, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Context: This dissertation examines beliefs and uses regarding tagging among current undergraduate students, and examines the ecology of communications practice and implications for formation and maintenance of identity within the population. Currently enrolled undergraduate students at UNC-Chapel Hill formed the population for examination. …

  12. Sociology: Drivers of climate change beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givens, Jennifer E.

    2014-12-01

    Direct experience of global warming is expected to increase the number of people who accept that it is real and human-caused. A study now shows that people's perceptions about abnormal temperatures mostly match actual measurements but do not affect climate change beliefs.

  13. Women's beliefs concerning condom acquisition and use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libbus, K

    1995-10-01

    Condoms are a time-honored and reliable method of protection against pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. However, their use, and thus their effectiveness, is determined by individual behavior. The purpose of this paper is to report attitudes and salient beliefs related to condom use in a sample of adult women. The study used Ajzen and Fishbein's Theory of Planned Behavior to identify modal, salient beliefs regarding condom acquisition and use as intentional behaviors. The study sample consisted of 58 community women who reported using condoms for contraceptive purposes within the last five years. In face-to-face, audiotaped interviews, open-ended questions were used to solicit beliefs regarding condom acquisition and use. All subject narratives were content-analyzed for recurrent themes. Women cited accessibility and effectiveness in preventing pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases as both advantages and as factors contributing to the ease of acquisition and use. Disadvantages and factors that might deter condom acquisition and use included embarrassment, objections by male partner, and effect on spontaneity. Overall, subjects exhibited accurate knowledge regarding the benefits of condom acquisition and use. However, it is possible that expressed negative beliefs could take precedence in decision-making and reduce the probability of consistent condom use. PMID:7479543

  14. Impact of Teachers' Beliefs on Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayaga, Anass; Wadesango, Newman; Wadesango, Ongayi Vongai

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to analyse the impact of teachers' personal theory and beliefs (PTB) towards Mathematics teaching. A total of 183 respondents were involved in this study, using the stratified random sampling method with Cronbach's alpha of 0.87. Due to the objective of the research and the hypothesis, it was positioned…

  15. The role of beliefs in teacher agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biesta, Gert; Priestley, Mark; Robinson, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    ’s Curriculum for Excellence – in order to explore these questions. We focus on teachers’ beliefs in order to get a sense of the individual and collective discourses that inform teachers’ perceptions, judgements and decision-making and that motivate and drive teachers’ action. While the research suggests...

  16. Differences in beliefs and currency risk premiums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Beber; F. Breedon; A. Buraschi

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the importance of heterogeneous beliefs for the dynamics of asset prices. We focus on currency markets, where the absence of short-selling constraints allows us to perform sharper tests of theoretical predictions. Using a unique data set with detailed information on foreign-exchan

  17. Belief in astrology inventory: development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chico, Eliseo; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano

    2006-12-01

    After the paper by Mayo, White, and Eysenck in 1978, a considerable number of papers studied the so-called sun-sign-effect predicted by astrology: people born with the sun in a positive sign are supposed to be extraverted, and those with the sun in a negative sign are supposed to be introverted. In these papers, researchers used ad hoc questionnaires with a few questions related to belief, knowledge, experience, or attitude toward astrology. However, an appropriate inventory with known psychometric properties has yet to be developed to assess the belief in astrology. In the present paper, the Belief in Astrology Inventory is presented with some psychometric data. The participants were 743 undergraduates studying Psychology and Social Sciences at a university in Spain. Correlation of scores on Belief in Astrology and Extraversion was small but significant (r = .22; r2 = .04) for positive sun-sign participants. This value accounts for negligible common variance. Women had significandy higher scores on the inventory than men. PMID:17305205

  18. Prospective Elemantary Science Teachers' Epistemological Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaroglu Akgul, Esra; Oztuna Kaplan, Aysun

    2009-01-01

    This research study examined "prospective elementary science teachers' epistemological beliefs". Forty-nine prospective elementary science teachers participated into research. The research was designed in both quantitative and qualitative manner, within the context of "Special Methods in Science Teaching I" course. Participants' epistemological…

  19. Presuppositions, Logic, and Dynamics of Belief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Brkic

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In researching presuppositions dealing with logic and dynamic of belief we distinguish two related parts. The first part refers to presuppositions and logic, which is not necessarily involved with intentional operators. We are primarily concerned with classical, free and presuppositonal logic. Here, we practice a well known Strawson’s approach to the problem of presupposition in relation to classical logic. Further on in this work, free logic is used, especially Van Fraassen’s research of the role of presupposition in supervaluations logical systems. At the end of the first part, presuppositional logic, advocated by S.K. Thomason, is taken into consideration. The second part refers to the presuppositions in relation to the logic of the dynamics of belief. Here the logic of belief change is taken into consideration and other epistemic notions with immanent mechanism for the presentation of the dynamics. Three representative and dominant approaches are evaluated. First, we deal with new, less classical, situation semantics. Besides Strawson’s theory, the second theory is the theory of the belief change, developed by Alchourron, Gärdenfors, and Makinson (AGM theory. At the end, the oldest, universal, and dominant approach is used, recognized as Hintikka’s approach to the analysis of epistemic notions.

  20. Metaphysical Beliefs as Predictors of Death Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, R. K.; Sinha, Ambalika

    1992-01-01

    Investigated impact of four metaphysical beliefs (existence of God, attributes of God, afterlife, consequences of suffering) on death anxiety. Householders (n=120), one-half of whom lived in high exposure to death sight areas, responded to pictures depicting death and nondeath scenes to measure death anxiety. Subjects from low exposure areas…

  1. Exploring Pupils' Beliefs about Designers and Designing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebell, Donna

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report on an investigation into pupil beliefs about designers and designing conducted as part of a research project focusing on Designerly Activity in Secondary Design and Technology which builds upon a pilot study (Barlex and Trebell in "Int J Technol Design Educ," 2007). Four research questions drove this element…

  2. Beliefs and Knowledge in Chemistry Teacher Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veal, William R.

    2004-01-01

    The primary objective of this research was to establish a link between preservice, secondary chemistry teachers' knowledge base and beliefs about teaching. The case study followed two preservice chemistry teachers through their methods course, practicum experience, and student teaching internship. Pedagogical content knowledge vignettes, following…

  3. Southeast Asian Health Beliefs and Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Sandra L.

    This paper explores the health behaviors and health beliefs of Vietnamese, Cambodians, Laotians, (and the Chinese components of these populations), and the Mien and Hmong of Laos. Included is a description of the major medical systems in each country, local practitioners, and some of the uniquely recognized diseases and cures of each area.…

  4. Introduction to "Beliefs about SLA Revisited"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, Ana Maria Ferreira; Kalaja, Paula

    2011-01-01

    This article serves as an introduction to this second special issue of System on "Beliefs about Second Language Acquisition (SLA)" held by learners and/or teachers of foreign languages in a variety of contexts all over the world, and it compares and contrasts the empirical studies included in the issue. In sharp contrast to the first special…

  5. Unlocking ePortfolio Practice: Teaching Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henscheid, Jean M.; Brown, Gary; Gordon, Aifang; Chen, Helen L.

    2014-01-01

    The Association for Authentic, Experiential, and Evidence-Based Learning (AAEEBL) annual ePortfolio survey focuses on understanding ePortfolio practitioners' teaching beliefs and practices. The action research reported here extends that survey research to a population of emerging educators (i.e., graduate students in education). In addition to…

  6. Deep Belief Networks for dimensionality reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.K. Noulas; B.J.A. Kröse

    2008-01-01

    Deep Belief Networks are probabilistic generative models which are composed by multiple layers of latent stochastic variables. The top two layers have symmetric undirected connections, while the lower layers receive directed top-down connections from the layer above. The current state-of-the-art tra

  7. Children's knowledge and beliefs about medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, Omar Thanoon; Mohamed Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham; Abdullah, Anna Christina

    2015-03-01

    Minor illnesses in children are often cured at home with over the counter medicines. Even though there is a wide use of medicines among children, they rarely receive medical advice about their medications from doctors or pharmacists. The aim of this study is to evaluate children's beliefs about medicines as well as to explain what children know about medicines. A cross-sectional survey was used to collect data from four primary schools in Penang Island, Malaysia. The target population of this research was schoolchildren of 11 and 12 years old regardless of their gender and social status. A self-administration questionnaire was used to obtain the data from schoolchildren and their parents. After including all schoolchildren in grades five and six, the total sample size was 1000 children in addition to 1000 parents. This study found that most children have inadequate knowledge and false beliefs about the efficacy of medicines. Children's beliefs about the efficacy of medicines were affected by their age group, gender and race (p economic status, parents' education level and parents' occupation influenced children's beliefs about medicines (p < .001). This study showed that children have misconception about medicines. The need for medicine education should be implemented to get more knowledgeable users of medicines in future. However, the role of health-care professional should be increased in terms of medicine education.

  8. Belief in astrology inventory: development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chico, Eliseo; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano

    2006-12-01

    After the paper by Mayo, White, and Eysenck in 1978, a considerable number of papers studied the so-called sun-sign-effect predicted by astrology: people born with the sun in a positive sign are supposed to be extraverted, and those with the sun in a negative sign are supposed to be introverted. In these papers, researchers used ad hoc questionnaires with a few questions related to belief, knowledge, experience, or attitude toward astrology. However, an appropriate inventory with known psychometric properties has yet to be developed to assess the belief in astrology. In the present paper, the Belief in Astrology Inventory is presented with some psychometric data. The participants were 743 undergraduates studying Psychology and Social Sciences at a university in Spain. Correlation of scores on Belief in Astrology and Extraversion was small but significant (r = .22; r2 = .04) for positive sun-sign participants. This value accounts for negligible common variance. Women had significandy higher scores on the inventory than men.

  9. The Epistemological Beliefs of Social Work Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Meger, Jennifer I.

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that undergraduate students come into social work programs with an epistemological belief system that values personal experience over critical thinking processes. Epistemological development and self-efficacy are important factors to facilitating identity as a learner and developing critical thinking aptitudes. This qualitative,…

  10. Beginning Teachers: Beliefs and Classroom Actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Patricia E.; Emory, Allen; Carter, Tim; Coker, Teresa; Finnegan, Brian; Crockett, Denise; Richardson, Lon; Yager, Robert; Craven, John; Tillotson, John; Brunkhorst, Herbert; Twiest, Mark; Hossain, Kazi; Gallagher, James; Duggan-Haas, Don; Parker, Joyce; Cajas, Fernando; Alshannag, Qasim; McGlamery, Sheryl; Krockover, Jerry; Adams, Paul; Spector, Barbara; LaPorta, Tom; James, Bob; Rearden, Kristin; Labuda, Kay

    1999-01-01

    Describes the research of a national collaborative consortium formed to investigate how the perceptions, beliefs and classroom performances of beginning secondary science teachers relate to their philosophies of teaching and their content pedagogical skills. Finds that teachers possessed a wide range of philosophies, and that observers' reports of…

  11. Development of the Attitudes about Romance and Mate Selection Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Nathan P.; Larson, Jeffry H.; Watson, Wendy L.

    2003-01-01

    The 32-item Attitudes about Romance and Mate Selection Scale (ARMSS) was developed to measure constraining beliefs about mate selection. Results of factor analysis showed few gender differences in the degree to which constraining beliefs about mate selection are held by single young adults. However, significant differences were found when age,…

  12. Parental Attitudes, Beliefs, and Understanding of Anxiety (PABUA): Development and psychometric properties of a measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolk, Courtney Benjamin; Caporino, Nicole E; McQuarrie, Susanna; Settipani, Cara A; Podell, Jennifer L; Crawley, Sarah; Beidas, Rinad S; Kendall, Philip C

    2016-04-01

    The Parental Attitudes, Beliefs, and Understanding of Anxiety (PABUA) was developed to assess parental beliefs about their child's anxiety, parents' perceived ability to cope with their child's anxiety and to help their child manage anxious symptoms, and to evaluate parents' understanding of various parenting strategies in response to their child's anxiety. The study evaluated the PABUA in mother-child dyads (N=192) seeking treatment for youth anxiety. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a three-factor solution and identified PABUA scales of Overprotection, Distress, and Approach (with Cronbach's alpha ranging from .67 to .83). Convergent and divergent validity of PABUA scales was supported by the pattern of associations with measures of experiential avoidance, beliefs related to children's anxiety, empathy, trait anxiety, and depressive symptoms; parent-reported family functioning; parent- and youth-reported anxiety severity; and parent-reported functional impairment (n=83). Results provide preliminary support for the PABUA as a measure of parental attitudes and beliefs about anxiety, and future studies that investigate this measure with large and diverse samples are encouraged. PMID:26970877

  13. Proposing an Operational Definition of Science Teacher Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutner, Todd L.; Markman, Arthur B.

    2016-10-01

    Much research has shown that a science teacher's beliefs are related to their teaching practice. This line of research has often defined "belief" epistemologically. That is, beliefs are often defined relative to other mental constructs, such as knowledge, dispositions, or attitudes. Left unspecified is the role beliefs play in cognition and how they come to influence science teachers' classroom practice. As such, researchers and science teacher educators have relied on an (at times, implicit) assumption that there is a direct causal relationship between teachers' beliefs and classroom practice. In this paper, we propose an operational, as opposed to epistemological, definition of belief. That is, we are explicit about the role a belief plays in science teachers' cognition and how that leads to classroom practice. We define a belief as a mental representation that influences the practice of a teacher if and only if the belief is active in cognition. We then turn our attention to two limitations in the literature on that have arisen via previous definitions and assumptions regarding science teacher beliefs, showing how defining beliefs operationally helps think about these issues in new ways. The two limitations surround: (1) the difficulty in precisely delineating belief from knowledge; and (2) the interconnectedness of beliefs such that they draw meaning from one another. We then show how our definition of beliefs is congruent with other models of teacher cognition reported in the literature. Finally, we provide implications arising from this definition of belief for both science teacher educators and those who conduct research on the beliefs of both preservice and in-service science teachers.

  14. Proposing an Operational Definition of Science Teacher Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutner, Todd L.; Markman, Arthur B.

    2016-07-01

    Much research has shown that a science teacher's beliefs are related to their teaching practice. This line of research has often defined "belief" epistemologically. That is, beliefs are often defined relative to other mental constructs, such as knowledge, dispositions, or attitudes. Left unspecified is the role beliefs play in cognition and how they come to influence science teachers' classroom practice. As such, researchers and science teacher educators have relied on an (at times, implicit) assumption that there is a direct causal relationship between teachers' beliefs and classroom practice. In this paper, we propose an operational, as opposed to epistemological, definition of belief. That is, we are explicit about the role a belief plays in science teachers' cognition and how that leads to classroom practice. We define a belief as a mental representation that influences the practice of a teacher if and only if the belief is active in cognition. We then turn our attention to two limitations in the literature on that have arisen via previous definitions and assumptions regarding science teacher beliefs, showing how defining beliefs operationally helps think about these issues in new ways. The two limitations surround: (1) the difficulty in precisely delineating belief from knowledge; and (2) the interconnectedness of beliefs such that they draw meaning from one another. We then show how our definition of beliefs is congruent with other models of teacher cognition reported in the literature. Finally, we provide implications arising from this definition of belief for both science teacher educators and those who conduct research on the beliefs of both preservice and in-service science teachers.

  15. Vulgar Beliefs in Vis and Ramin & Tristan and Isolde

    OpenAIRE

    Shima Sadat Sharif Al-Hoseini; Abbas Ali Maghsodlo

    2014-01-01

    Ever since ancient times, when man could not find a logic relationship between the extraordinary events and phenomena, feather to Supers tedious beliefs and ideas in their head and mentioned incantations and performed certain rituals to get rid of thepain. In this paper, the four sections is investigated superstitious beliefs and opinions in two oeuvres Vis and Ramin and Tristan and Isolde; that include: Belief in magic and charm, belief in astrology and star's Saad and siniste...

  16. Malawian secondary students' beliefs about intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brett D; Rakes, Lee; Landon, Krista

    2013-01-01

    Students who view intelligence as malleable tend to be more academically motivated and perform at higher levels than students who view it as a fixed trait. We examined the beliefs of students from Malawi because the culture and schooling process in this country is very different from some other areas of the world in which students' views of intelligence have already been studied. Our research questions were: (1) How do Malawian students define intelligence? (2) To what extent do Malawian students view intelligence as malleable? (3) Are Malawian students' definitions of intelligence and beliefs about the malleability of intelligence similar to those of students in more developed countries? We conducted a mixed methods study and surveyed 136 students attending a secondary school in Malawi using a 39-item questionnaire. Students responded to questions about their intelligence beliefs on open- and closed-ended items. Our results showed that Malawian students believe that an intelligent student exhibits a variety of behaviors, including studying, working hard, reading, performing well on exams and in class, answering and asking questions, paying attention, and demonstrating good behavior. Most students believe that intelligence is malleable and provided responses that indicated that students can become more intelligent through effort. When compared to the findings of other studies, the present results suggest that the Malawian students who remain in secondary school have definitions of intelligence and beliefs about the malleability of intelligence that are similar to those of students in more developed countries, such as the US and Germany. In fact, it appears that Malawian secondary students have even higher malleable beliefs than American and German students. Finally, some of the measures that have been found to produce scores that are reliable and valid in other populations do not produce scores that are as reliable when used with Malawian students.

  17. Beliefs and brownies: in search for a new identity for 'belief' research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skott, Jeppe

    2014-01-01

    Belief research (BR) has contributed with better understandings of teachers’ acts and meaning making, but is fraught with conceptual and methodological problems. Also, the premise that teachers’ beliefs impact practice is often not confirmed. I compare BR with a conceptual framework, Patterns...... of the rationale of BR, but involves a fundamental shift of identity for research on affect, which alleviates some of the problems of BR and is useful for understanding the dynamics of teachers’ contribution to classroom practice....

  18. 29 CFR 18.610 - Religious beliefs or opinions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES Rules of Evidence Witnesses § 18.610 Religious beliefs or opinions. Evidence of the beliefs or opinions of a witness on matters of religion is not admissible for the purpose... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Religious beliefs or opinions. 18.610 Section 18.610...

  19. Yemeni Teachers' Beliefs of Grammar Teaching and Classroom Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzi, Nemah Abdullah Ayash

    2012-01-01

    Beliefs of in-service English teachers about grammar learning/teaching and the influence of such beliefs on their classroom practices remain relatively unexplored. More precisely, this study explores English teachers' beliefs about grammar learning and teaching. It throws light on the teachers' actual practices in the classrooms of 7th -12th…

  20. Sensitivity to change of the Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.A. Anholt; P. van Oppen; D.C. Cath; P.M.G. Emmelkamp; J.H. Smit; A.J.L.M van Balkom

    2010-01-01

    The Obsessive-Compulsive Beliefs Questionnaire-87 (OBQ-87) has been constructed by leading obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) experts to assess dysfunctional beliefs typical for OCD patients. The OBQ-87 has recently been revised (Obsessive-Compulsive Beliefs Questionnaire-44 [OBQ-44]) to improve it

  1. Preservice Teacher Education Students' Epistemological Beliefs and Conceptions about Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kwok-Wai

    2011-01-01

    A questionnaire was administered to 231 Hong Kong preservice teacher education students to examine their epistemological beliefs and conceptions of learning. Pearson correlation analysis showed significant pairs of epistemological beliefs and conceptions of learning. Regression and path analysis showed epistemological beliefs had significant…

  2. Epistemological Beliefs and Attitudes toward Inclusion in Preservice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Jenzi C.

    2007-01-01

    Previous investigations suggest that in addition to positive attitudes toward inclusion, high-level beliefs about knowledge and learning (i.e., epistemological beliefs) are essential for all teachers of students with disabilities in inclusive settings. This study examined the attitudes toward inclusion and epistemological belief status of 71…

  3. Turkish Elementary Student Teachers' Epistemological Beliefs and Moral Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topcu, Mustafa Sami

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the relationships among Turkish elementary student teachers' epistemological beliefs and moral reasoning, and to determine which types of epistemological beliefs elementary student teachers exhibit. The findings of the present study demonstrated that epistemological beliefs did not make a unique…

  4. Epistemological Beliefs across Faculty Experts and Student Non-Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Lan, William

    2009-01-01

    The epistemological beliefs of non-experts or novices have been studied with some frequency, while the beliefs of experts as a comparison group have received little attention in research literature. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether the conceptual framework of epistemological beliefs may be considered statistically similar or…

  5. Epistemological Beliefs in Child Care: Implications for Vocational Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownlee, J.; Boulton-Lewis, G.; Berthelsen, D.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The quality of child care is of social and economic significance worldwide. The beliefs that child care workers hold about knowing and knowledge (epistemological beliefs) influence the quality of their professional work. However, attention to epistemological beliefs is rarely a focus in vocational education programmes. Aim: The aim of…

  6. Osteoporosis Health Beliefs among Younger and Older Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. Shanthi; McLeod, William; Kennedy, Laura; McLeod, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare osteoporosis health beliefs among different age and gender groups. This study used a cross-sectional design, involved 300 participants that represent both genders and three age groups (18 to 25, 30 to 50, and 50-plus), and assessed osteoporosis health beliefs using the Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale…

  7. The Dynamics of Moral Beliefs and Minor Deviance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsueda, Ross L.

    1989-01-01

    Contrary to social control theory, adolescent boys' belief in the efficacy of honesty had little impact on minor deviant activities, whereas deviance had a large effect on beliefs. A situational theory of crime is needed to conceptualize the reciprocal causal relationship of beliefs and deviant behavior. Contains 60 references. (SV)

  8. Teachers' Dispositions and Beliefs about Cultural and Linguistic Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Montilla, Elia; Just, Megan; Triscari, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Teachers' beliefs towards their students' cultural backgrounds and languages affect all aspects of learning. Critical consciousness of attitudes and beliefs about the increasing culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) student population is necessary for aligning individual beliefs with effective teaching practices. Rethinking how to work with…

  9. Matched False-Belief Performance during Verbal and Nonverbal Interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dungan, James; Saxe, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Language has been shown to play a key role in the development of a child's theory of mind, but its role in adult belief reasoning remains unclear. One recent study used verbal and nonverbal interference during a false-belief task to show that accurate belief reasoning in adults necessarily requires language (Newton & de Villiers, 2007). The…

  10. Conceptions about the mind-body problem and their relations to afterlife beliefs, paranormal beliefs, religiosity, and ontological confusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riekki, Tapani; Lindeman, Marjaana; Lipsanen, Jari

    2013-01-01

    We examined lay people's conceptions about the relationship between mind and body and their correlates. In Study 1, a web survey (N = 850) of reflective dualistic, emergentistic, and monistic perceptions of the mind-body relationship, afterlife beliefs (i.e., common sense dualism), religiosity, paranormal beliefs, and ontological confusions about physical, biological, and psychological phenomena was conducted. In Study 2 (N = 73), we examined implicit ontological confusions and their relations to afterlife beliefs, paranormal beliefs, and religiosity. Correlation and regression analyses showed that reflective dualism, afterlife beliefs, paranormal beliefs, and religiosity were strongly and positively related and that reflective dualism and afterlife beliefs mediated the relationship between ontological confusions and religious and paranormal beliefs. The results elucidate the contention that dualism is a manifestation of universal cognitive processes related to intuitions about physical, biological, and psychological phenomena by showing that especially individuals who confuse the distinctive attributes of these phenomena tend to set the mind apart from the body.

  11. Relationship between Classroom Authority and Epistemological beliefs as Espoused by Primary School Mathematics Teachers from the Very High and Very Low Socio-economic Regions in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natthapoj Vincent Trakulphadetkrai

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents findings of a larger single-country comparative study which set out to better understand primary school teachers' mathematics education-related beliefs in Thailand. By combining the interview and observation data collected in the initial stage of this study with data gathered from the relevant literature, the 8-belief / 22-item 'Thai Teachers' Mathematics Education- related Beliefs' (TTMEB Scale was developed. The results of the Mann-Whitney U Test showed that Thai teachers in the two examined socio-economic regions espouse statistically different beliefs concerning the source and stability of mathematical knowledge, as well as classroom authority. Further, these three beliefs are found to be significantly and positively correlated.

  12. Logic and belief across the lifespan: the rise and fall of belief inhibition during syllogistic reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Neys, Wim; Van Gelder, Elke

    2009-01-01

    Popular reasoning theories postulate that the ability to inhibit inappropriate beliefs lies at the heart of the human reasoning engine. Given that people's inhibitory capacities are known to rise and fall across the lifespan, we predicted that people's deductive reasoning performance would show similar curvilinear age trends. A group of children (12-year-olds), young adults (20-year-olds), and older adults (65+-year-olds) were presented with a classic syllogistic reasoning task and a decision-making questionnaire. Results indicated that on syllogisms where beliefs and logic conflicted, reasoning performance showed the expected curvilinear age trend: Reasoning performance initially increased from childhood to early adulthood but declined again in later life. On syllogisms where beliefs and logic were consistent and sound reasoning did not require belief inhibition, however, age did not affect performance. Furthermore, across the lifespan we observed that the better people were at resisting intuitive temptations in the decision-making task, the less they were biased by their beliefs on the conflict syllogisms. As with the effect of age, one's ability to override intuitions in the decision-making task did not mediate reasoning performance on the no-conflict syllogisms. Results lend credence to the postulated central role of inhibitory processing in those situations where beliefs and logic conflict.

  13. Social States of Belief and the Determinants of the Equity Risk Premium in A Rational Belief Equilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Mordecai Kurz

    1997-01-01

    September 4, 1997 We review the issues related to the formulation of endogenous uncertainty in rational belief equilibria(RBE). In all previous models of RBE, individual states of belief were the foundation for the construction of the endogenous state space where individual states of belief were described with the method of assessment variables. This approach leads to a lack of "anonymity" where the belief of each individual agent has an impact on equilibrium prices but as a competitor he ign...

  14. Adaptation of Epistemological Beliefs Questionnaıre in Turkish and Investigation of Pre-Service Teachers’ Beliefs

    OpenAIRE

    AYPAY, Ayşe

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this research is to adapt an instrument that will help to determine pre-service teachers’ beliefs into Turkish. In the study, pre-service teachers’ epistemological beliefs, relationships among these beliefs, and whether epistemological beliefs differ based on gender, department they study, class levels. The study group included a total of 341 students from Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Faculty of Education and Institute of Social Sciences. For the validity of the instr...

  15. Bias, Belief and Consensus: Collective opinion formation on fluctuating networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ngampruetikorn, V

    2015-01-01

    With the advent of online networks, societies are substantially more connected with individual members able to easily modify and maintain their own social links. Here, we show that active network maintenance exposes agents to confirmation bias, the tendency to confirm one's beliefs, and we explore how this affects collective opinion formation. We introduce a model of binary opinion dynamics on a complex network with fast, stochastic rewiring and show that confirmation bias induces a segregation of individuals with different opinions. We use the dynamics of global opinion to generally categorize opinion update rules and find that confirmation bias always stabilizes the consensus state. Finally, we show that the time to reach consensus has a non-monotonic dependence on the magnitude of the bias, suggesting a novel avenue for large-scale opinion engineering.

  16. Predicting Software Suitability Using a Bayesian Belief Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, Justin M.; Schiavone, Guy A.; Berrios, Joseph S.

    2005-01-01

    The ability to reliably predict the end quality of software under development presents a significant advantage for a development team. It provides an opportunity to address high risk components earlier in the development life cycle, when their impact is minimized. This research proposes a model that captures the evolution of the quality of a software product, and provides reliable forecasts of the end quality of the software being developed in terms of product suitability. Development team skill, software process maturity, and software problem complexity are hypothesized as driving factors of software product quality. The cause-effect relationships between these factors and the elements of software suitability are modeled using Bayesian Belief Networks, a machine learning method. This research presents a Bayesian Network for software quality, and the techniques used to quantify the factors that influence and represent software quality. The developed model is found to be effective in predicting the end product quality of small-scale software development efforts.

  17. Keeping an up-to-date consistent belief set by querying the belief database with explicit timestamps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelink, A.

    2006-01-01

    A new approach for a BDI agent to form a consistent belief set about the current state of itself and the world is introduced. The approach does not use standard belief revision or updating mechanisms, instead it proposes the explicit posting of base facts as beliefs with a time stamp into a database

  18. Belief inhibition in children's reasoning: memory-based evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steegen, Sara; De Neys, Wim

    2012-06-01

    Adult reasoning has been shown as mediated by the inhibition of intuitive beliefs that are in conflict with logic. The current study introduces a classic procedure from the memory field to investigate belief inhibition in 12- to 17-year-old reasoners. A lexical decision task was used to probe the memory accessibility of beliefs that were cued during thinking on syllogistic reasoning problems. Results indicated an impaired memory access for words associated with misleading beliefs that were cued during reasoning if syllogisms had been solved correctly. This finding supports the claim that even for younger reasoners, correct reasoning is mediated by inhibitory processing as soon as intuitive beliefs conflict with logical considerations.

  19. Framing the Picture: A Preliminary Investigation into Experts’ Beliefs about the Roles and Purposes of Self-Access Centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Navarro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results from phase one of a large-scale, two-phase research project investigating self-access centre (SAC experts’ (Centre Directors; Centre Managers; Centre Coordinators; Learning Advisors beliefs about the roles and purposes of SACs. The project adopts both the fundamental assumptions and approaches of learner belief studies in SLA and teacher cognition research in education. However, it examines neither learners nor teachers; instead, all the participants are SAC practitioners. Phase one of the study begins by surveying, through an online questionnaire, the different beliefs these practitioners have about self-access learning and SAC practice. This paper describes how the data was collected and analysed, as well as selecting a few interesting findings to highlight the value of conducting beliefs study on SAC experts. The findings reported in this paper need to be triangulated with follow up interviews (phase two in order to construct a more accurate understanding of the beliefs held by the participants. Therefore, any conclusions or implications regarding the relationship between practitioners’ beliefs and SAC practice remain incomplete. Nevertheless, the findings from phase one provide an insightful preliminary picture of the diversity of both practice and practitioner from SACs across the world and open up a valuable avenue for further discussion.

  20. The analysis of the relationship between epistemological beliefs and TPACK education competence among pre-service teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Efilti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present research is defining TPACK education competence and epistemological beliefs of pre-service teachers, and presenting the relationship between TPACK education competence and epistemological belief. In accordance with this purpose, TPACK education competence scale and Epistemological Beliefs Questionnaire were conducted on 342 (222 female-65%, 120 male-35% pre-service teachers studying senior year at Necmettin Erbakan University, Faculty of Education in 2012-2013 academic-year. According to the findings obtained from the present designed in quantitative method, pre-service teachers’ epistemological belief scores are ranked as learning process-casting doubt on authority/expert knowledge, learning effort, innate/fixed ability, and certainty of knowledge. As for TPACK education competencies, pre-service teachers perceive themselves as advanced level. Another finding is that, gender is not an effective variable in terms of epistemological beliefs and TPACK education competencies among pre-service teachers. For the correlations between TPACK education competencies and epistemological beliefs among pre-service teachers, only learning process and doubt on expert knowledge factors are positively correlated with TPACK competencies at medium level. From this perspective, it can be claimed that TPACK education competencies are higher among pre-service teachers who tend to believe that acquiring knowledge process is important in learning.

  1. Associations between stigma and help-seeking intentions and beliefs: findings from an Australian national survey of young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Marie Bee Hui; Reavley, Nicola J; Jorm, Anthony Francis

    2013-12-30

    To reduce stigma and improve help seeking by young people for mental illness, we need a better understanding of the associations between various dimensions of stigma and young people's help-seeking intentions and helpfulness beliefs for various sources of help and for different disorders. This study assessed stigmatizing attitudes and help-seeking intentions and helpfulness beliefs via a national telephone survey of 3021 youths aged 15-25. Five stigma scales were used: social distance, personally held weak-not-sick and dangerousness beliefs, and weak-not-sick and dangerousness beliefs perceived in others. Respondents were presented with a vignette of a young person portraying depression, depression with suicidal thoughts, depression with alcohol abuse, post-traumatic stress disorder, social phobia, or psychosis. Beliefs that mental illness is a sign of personal weakness and preference for social distance were associated with less intention to seek professional help and less endorsement of their helpfulness. In contrast, dangerousness/unpredictability beliefs were associated with more intention to seek professional help and more endorsement of their helpfulness. Findings highlight the importance of examining the associations between different dimensions of stigma with different sources of help, specifically for various mental disorders, to better inform future efforts to reduce stigma and increase help seeking in young people. PMID:24011848

  2. Spiritual beliefs among Chinese junior high school students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Lili; Jin Shenghua

    2006-01-01

    Objective:To explore the characteristics of the spiritual beliefs among junior high school students.Method:431 junior high school students are measured by Students' Basic Information Questionnaire (SBIQ) and Middle School Students'Spiritual Beliefs Questionnaire (MSSSBQ).Results:(1) The overall characteristics of the spiritual beliefs among junior high school students are as follows:social beliefs rank first,practical faith second,and supernatural beliefs last.The ranks of the seven beliefs from high to low are nationalism,political conviction,family's doctrine,life worship,religious beliefs,money/material and gods worship.(2) Boy students have higher political conviction and money/material faith than girl students.Girt students have higher religious beliefs than boy students.(3) On the beliefs of money/material and life worship,students in Grade 9 take the first place,Grade 8 second and Grade 7 last.(4) Non-student cadres have stronger money/material faith than cadres.(5) League members have higher political beliefs than non-members.(6)Students who are good at studies have stronger national faith than students who are average or poor at studies.Students who are poor at studies have stronger money/material faith than other students.Conclusion:The spiritual beliefs of junior high school students' are positive.

  3. Change through paradox: using self-verification to alter beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, W B; Pelham, B W; Chidester, T R

    1988-02-01

    Past research has shown that conventional strategies of persuasion tend to be ineffective against people who are highly certain of their beliefs. To change the beliefs of such individuals, we devised a paradoxical strategy that consisted of posing superattitudinal leading questions (questions that encouraged respondents to make statements that were consistent with, but more extreme than, their own viewpoints). We expected that individuals who were high in belief certainty would resist such questions and, therefore, change their beliefs in the opposite direction. To test this reasoning, we used either a conventional or a paradoxical strategy to change people's beliefs about women's roles. As suggested by earlier research, the conventional strategy was effective in changing the beliefs of targets who were low in belief certainty only. In contrast, the paradoxical strategy was effective in changing the beliefs of targets who were high in belief certainty only. A follow-up investigation replicated this effect and indicated that paradoxical injunctions change people's positions on belief dimensions rather than their perception of the dimension itself. The implications of these findings for an understanding of the interpersonal mechanisms that generate stability and change in people's beliefs are discussed.

  4. Beliefs about God and mental health among American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silton, Nava R; Flannelly, Kevin J; Galek, Kathleen; Ellison, Christopher G

    2014-10-01

    This study examines the association between beliefs about God and psychiatric symptoms in the context of Evolutionary Threat Assessment System Theory, using data from the 2010 Baylor Religion Survey of US Adults (N = 1,426). Three beliefs about God were tested separately in ordinary least squares regression models to predict five classes of psychiatric symptoms: general anxiety, social anxiety, paranoia, obsession, and compulsion. Belief in a punitive God was positively associated with four psychiatric symptoms, while belief in a benevolent God was negatively associated with four psychiatric symptoms, controlling for demographic characteristics, religiousness, and strength of belief in God. Belief in a deistic God and one's overall belief in God were not significantly related to any psychiatric symptoms.

  5. Illness Beliefs Predict Mortality in Patients with Diabetic Foot Ulcers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedhara, Kavita; Dawe, Karen; Miles, Jeremy N. V.; Wetherell, Mark A.; Cullum, Nicky; Dayan, Colin; Drake, Nicola; Price, Patricia; Tarlton, John; Weinman, John; Day, Andrew; Campbell, Rona; Reps, Jenna; Soria, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients’ illness beliefs have been associated with glycaemic control in diabetes and survival in other conditions. Objective We examined whether illness beliefs independently predicted survival in patients with diabetes and foot ulceration. Methods Patients (n = 169) were recruited between 2002 and 2007. Data on illness beliefs were collected at baseline. Data on survival were extracted on 1st November 2011. Number of days survived reflected the number of days from date of recruitment to 1st November 2011. Results Cox regressions examined the predictors of time to death and identified ischemia and identity beliefs (beliefs regarding symptoms associated with foot ulceration) as significant predictors of time to death. Conclusions Our data indicate that illness beliefs have a significant independent effect on survival in patients with diabetes and foot ulceration. These findings suggest that illness beliefs could improve our understanding of mortality risk in this patient group and could also be the basis for future therapeutic interventions to improve survival. PMID:27096609

  6. An Evaluation of Teachers' Attitudes and Beliefs Levels on Classroom Control in Terms of Teachers' Sense of Efficacy (The Sample of Biology Teachers in Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Hakan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate biology teachers' attitudes and belief levels on classroom control in terms of teachers' sense of efficacy. The screening model was used in the study. The study group was comprised of 135 biology teachers. In this study, Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES) and The Attitudes and Beliefs on…

  7. Heterogeneous Beliefs, Public Information, and Option Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Zhenjiang

    rate in the investors’ certainty equivalents and, thus, a higher equilibrium interest rate. The public infor- mation system facilitates improved dynamic trading opportunities in option markets based on the heterogeneously updated posterior beliefs. With an intermediate signal precision and the option...... with intermediate strike price, the highest efficiency of side-betting is achieved, re‡ected by a unique maximum point of the ex ante equilibrium interest rate. The public signal precision affects ex ante equilibrium risk premium only via its relationship with option.......In an incomplete market setting with heterogeneous prior beliefs, I show that public information and strike price of option have substantial infl‡uence on asset pricing in option markets, by investigating an absolute option pricing model with negative exponential utility investors and normally...

  8. Attending to the construct of beliefs in research on religion/spirituality and health: commentary on 'beyond belief'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Crystal L

    2012-10-01

    In this commentary, I concur with Cromby that more attention should be given to beliefs in terms of definition, measurement, and investigation, particularly of their development and their relations with aspects of health and well-being. Within the context of religious beliefs, I argue, however, that beliefs should not be considered affect or emotion but rather should be examined in relation to them, and that their development likely arises through myriad sources. I provide an alternative definition of religious beliefs and conclude with suggestions for future research on religious beliefs and health.

  9. Bayesian belief networks in business continuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, Frank; Matthijssen, Edwin; Attema, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Business continuity professionals aim to mitigate the various challenges to the continuity of their company. The goal is a coherent system of measures that encompass detection, prevention and recovery. Choices made in one part of the system affect other parts as well as the continuity risks of the company. In complex organisations, however, these relations are far from obvious. This paper proposes the use of Bayesian belief networks to expose these relations, and presents a modelling framework for this approach. PMID:25193453

  10. Operational and Complete Approaches to Belief Revision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wei; LUAN Shangmin

    2000-01-01

    Two operational approaches to belief revision are presented in this paper. The rules of R-calculus are modified in order to deduce all the maximal consistent subsets. Another set of rules is given in order to deduce all the minimal inconsistent subsets. Then a procedure, which can generate all the maximal consistent subsets, is presented. They are complete approaches, since all the maximal consistent subsets can be deduced or generated. In this paper, only the case of propositional logic is considered.

  11. Beliefs regarding diet during childhood illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha D Benakappa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fifty percent to 70% of the burden of childhood diarrhea and respiratory infections is attributable to undernutrition. It is compounded by food restriction during illness due to false beliefs, leading to a vicious cycle of malnutrition and infection. In the long run, it decreases the child′s productivity, which is an obstacle to sustainable socioeconomic development. Objectives: To assess the dietary practices during different illnesses, to study the role of education, culture and religion in feeding an ill child and to create awareness against detrimental practices. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken among 126 caregivers of ill children using an open-ended pretested questionnaire. Statistical package for social sciences software was used for data analysis. Simple proportions, percentages and Chi-square were used. Results: Caregivers believed that a child must be fed less during illness. Educational status did not play a role in maintaining beliefs, but elders and religion did. Doctors too were responsible for unwanted dietary restrictions. Media did not have an impact in spreading nutrition messages. Decreased breast feeds, initiating bottle feeds, feeding diluted milk and reducing complementary feeds during illness was widely practiced. Calorie intake during illness was very less and statistically significant. Firmly rooted beliefs about "hot" and "cold" foods lead to restriction of food available at home. Conclusions: Healthy feeding practices were few, and inappropriate ones predominant. Dietary education was overlooked. While planning community-based nutrition programs, firmly rooted beliefs should be kept in mind. Involving the elderly caregivers and mothers actively along with the health workers is the need of the hour.

  12. Efficient Peer-to-Peer Belief Propagation

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Roman; Aberer, Karl

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we will present an efficient approach for distributed inference. We use belief propagation's message-passing algorithm on top of a DHT storing a Bayesian network. Nodes in the DHT run a variant of the spring relaxation algorithm to redistribute the Bayesian network among them. Thereafter correlated data is stored close to each other reducing the message cost for inference. We simulated our approach in Matlab and show the message reduction and the achieved load balance for rando...

  13. Quantum Graphical Models and Belief Propagation

    OpenAIRE

    Leifer, Matthew; Poulin, David

    2007-01-01

    Belief Propagation algorithms acting on Graphical Models of classical probability distributions, such as Markov Networks, Factor Graphs and Bayesian Networks, are amongst the most powerful known methods for deriving probabilistic inferences amongst large numbers of random variables. This paper presents a generalization of these concepts and methods to the quantum case, based on the idea that quantum theory can be thought of as a noncommutative, operator-valued, generalization of classical pro...

  14. Traditional Tibetan Beliefs and Environmental Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DERONGCERINGDENZHCB

    2004-01-01

    EDITOR'S NOTE: Traditional Tibetan culture contains a conscious awareness of environmental protection. It advocates balance between human beings and the natural environment, protection of the ecosystem,treasuring resources, and consideration of the benefits that should be left for future generations. In Tibetan history, the goal of environmental protection was achieved by means of traditional customs, moral obligations, religious beliefs and taboos, associated with unwritten routines of environmental protection to regulate people's behavior through self-conscious effort.

  15. Knowledge, Beliefs and Perception of Leprosy

    OpenAIRE

    Nidhi Jaswal; BG Banerjee; Sinha, Anil K.; Sukhbir Singh

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: For intervention to be effective, it is essential that the knowledge, beliefs and perception of a specific social group are taken into account. This is particularly true of leprosy where the problems of social stigma and ostracism are more prominent than the disease itself. There are many misconceptions about the cause, methods of transmission, and treatment. The main objectives of the study were to examine the socio-demographic profile of persons with leprosy and to explore their k...

  16. Women's knowledge and beliefs regarding breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Grunfeld, E A; Ramirez, A J; Hunter, M. S.; Richards, M. A.

    2002-01-01

    Approximately 20–30% of women delay for 12 weeks or more from self-discovery of a breast symptom to presentation to a health care provider, and such delay intervals are associated with poorer survival. Understanding the factors that influence patient delay is important for the development of an effective, targeted health intervention programme to shorten patient delay. The aim of the study was to elicit knowledge and beliefs about breast cancer among a sample of the general female population,...

  17. Association between patients' beliefs and oral antidiabetic medication adherence in a Chinese type 2 diabetic population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu P

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ping Wu,1 Naifeng Liu2 1Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Basic Medical Sciences and Clinical Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, 2Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, Southeast University Medical School, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China Purpose: The objective of this study was to identify, using the theory of planned behavior (TPB, patients’ beliefs about taking oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs as prescribed, and to measure the correlations between beliefs and medication adherence.Patients and methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of type 2 diabetic patients using structured questionnaires in a Chinese tertiary hospital. A total of 130 patients were enrolled to be interviewed about TPB variables (behavioral, normative, and control beliefs relevant to medication adherence. Medication adherence was assessed using the eight-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8. Spearman’s rank correlation was used to assess the association between TPB and MMAS-8. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the relationship between different variables and MMAS-8, with statistical significance determined at P<0.05.Results: From 130 eligible Chinese patients with an average age of 60.6 years and a male proportion of 50.8%, a nonsignificant relationship between behavioral, normative, and the most facilitating control beliefs and OAD adherence was found in our study. Having the OADs on hand (P=0.037 was the only facilitating control belief associated with adherence behavior. Being away from home or eating out (P=0.000, not accepting the disease (P=0.000, ignorance of life-long drug adherence (P=0.038, being busy (P=0.001, or poor memory (P=0.008 were control belief barriers found to be correlated with poor adherence. TPB is the only important determinant influencing OAD adherence among all the factors (P=0.011.Conclusion: The results indicate that the TPB model could be used to examine adherence to OADs. One

  18. Further tests of belief-importance theory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K V Petrides

    Full Text Available Belief-importance (belimp theory hypothesizes that personality traits confer a propensity to perceive convergences or divergences between the belief that we can attain certain goals and the importance that we place on these goals. Belief and importance are conceptualized as two coordinates, together defining the belimp plane. We tested fundamental aspects of the theory using four different planes based on the life domains of appearance, family, financial security, and friendship as well as a global plane combining these four domains. The criteria were from the areas of personality (Big Five and trait emotional intelligence and learning styles. Two hundred and fifty eight participants were allocated into the four quadrants of the belimp plane (Hubris, Motivation, Depression, and Apathy according to their scores on four reliable instruments. Most hypotheses were supported by the data. Results are discussed with reference to the stability of the belimp classifications under different life domains and the relationship of the quadrants with the personality traits that are hypothesized to underpin them.

  19. Outsourcing punishment to God: beliefs in divine control reduce earthly punishment

    OpenAIRE

    Laurin, Kristin; Shariff, Azim F.; Henrich, Joseph; Kay, Aaron C.

    2012-01-01

    The sanctioning of norm-transgressors is a necessary—though often costly—task for maintaining a well-functioning society. Prior to effective and reliable secular institutions for punishment, large-scale societies depended on individuals engaging in ‘altruistic punishment’—bearing the costs of punishment individually, for the benefit of society. Evolutionary approaches to religion suggest that beliefs in powerful, moralizing Gods, who can distribute rewards and punishments, emerged as a way to...

  20. Occupational stress, self-efficacy belief and burnout syndrome in fire-fighters

    OpenAIRE

    Ogińska-Bulik, Nina; Kaflik-Pieróg, Martyna

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to establish the relationship between stress at work, self-efficacy belief and burnout syndrome in fire-fighters. 100 subjects participated in the study. The mean of age was 34 years. The Perceived Job Stress Characteristics Questionnaire, Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale and Maslach Burnout Inventory were used in the study. Positive relationship between stress at work, and two dimensions of burnout syndrome: emotional exhaustion and depersonalization wa...

  1. Exploring learners' beliefs about science reading and scientific epistemic beliefs, and their relations with science text understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang-Ying; Chang, Cheng-Chieh; Chen, Li-Ling; Chen, Yi-Chun

    2016-07-01

    The main purpose of this study was to explore learners' beliefs about science reading and scientific epistemic beliefs, and how these beliefs were associating with their understanding of science texts. About 400 10th graders were involved in the development and validation of the Beliefs about Science Reading Inventory (BSRI). To find the effects of reader beliefs and epistemic beliefs, a new group of 65 10th grade students whose reader and epistemic beliefs were assessed by the newly developed BSRI and an existing SEB questionnaire were invited to take part in a science reading task. Students' text understanding in terms of concept gain and text interpretations was collected and analyzed. By the correlation analysis, it was found that when students had stronger beliefs about meaning construction based on personal goals and experiences (i.e. transaction beliefs), they produced more thematic and critical interpretations of the content of the test article. The regression analysis suggested that students SEBs could predict concept gain as a result of reading. Moreover, among all beliefs examined in the study, transaction beliefs stood out as the best predictor of overall science-text understanding.

  2. Measuring Cross-Cultural Supernatural Beliefs with Self- and Peer-Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluemke, Matthias; Jong, Jonathan; Grevenstein, Dennis; Mikloušić, Igor; Halberstadt, Jamin

    2016-01-01

    Despite claims about the universality of religious belief, whether religiosity scales have the same meaning when administered inter-subjectively–or translated and applied cross-culturally–is currently unknown. Using the recent “Supernatural Belief Scale” (SBS), we present a primer on how to verify the strong assumptions of measurement invariance required in research on religion. A comparison of two independent samples, Croatians and New Zealanders, showed that, despite a sophisticated psychometric model, measurement invariance could be demonstrated for the SBS except for two noninvariant intercepts. We present a new approach for inspecting measurement invariance across self- and peer-reports as two dependent samples. Although supernatural beliefs may be hard to observe in others, the measurement model was fully invariant for Croatians and their nominated peers. The results not only establish, for the first time, a valid measure of religious supernatural belief across two groups of different language and culture, but also demonstrate a general invariance test for distinguishable dyad members nested within the same targets. More effort needs to be made to design and validate cross-culturally applicable measures of religiosity. PMID:27760206

  3. Individualism, conservatism, and radicalism as criteria for processing political beliefs: a parametric fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamboni, Giovanna; Gozzi, Marta; Krueger, Frank; Duhamel, Jean-René; Sirigu, Angela; Grafman, Jordan

    2009-01-01

    Politics is a manifestation of the uniquely human ability to debate, decide, and reach consensus on decisions affecting large groups over long durations of time. Recent neuroimaging studies on politics have focused on the association between brain regions and specific political behaviors by adopting party or ideological affiliation as a criterion to classify either experimental stimuli or subjects. However, it is unlikely that complex political beliefs (i.e., "the government should protect freedom of speech") are evaluated only on a liberal-to-conservative criterion. Here we used multidimensional scaling and parametric functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify which criteria/dimensions people use to structure complex political beliefs and which brain regions are concurrently activated. We found that three independent dimensions explained the variability of a set of statements expressing political beliefs and that each dimension was reflected in a distinctive pattern of neural activation: individualism (medial prefrontal cortex and temporoparietal junction), conservatism (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex), and radicalism (ventral striatum and posterior cingulate). The structures we identified are also known to be important in self-other processing, social decision-making in ambivalent situations, and reward prediction. Our results extend current knowledge on the neural correlates of the structure of political beliefs, a fundamental aspect of the human ability to coalesce into social entities. PMID:19562629

  4. Outreach as seen by the Spanish professional astronomers: a survey of beliefs, attitudes, and activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Hidalgo, I.; Díaz Vilela, L. F.

    A survey of outreach related beliefs, attitudes, and activities of the Spanish professional astronomers is presented. More than one hundred scientists answered an ad-hoc drawn up questionnaire, whose results have been analysed statistically. This feedback form is an improved version of that used in a previous research carried out by the authors with a sample of members of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (Díaz Vilela & Rodríguez Hidalgo 2005). Some of the studied items are the actual time and effort devoted to outreach by a researcher, the role of outreach within his work, the valuation of outreach activities in his curriculum, socially, or economically, the opinion about who should have the responsibility of organising and performing popularisation tasks, etc. Three kinds of studies have been performed: the descriptive one is based on the frequencies and means of variables; a Principal Component Analysis was applied to get a shorter number of belief-attitude dimensions; and an inferential one, derived from a Multiple Regression Analysis which provides a reliable description of the beliefs-attitudes scale grouping outreach related beliefs into 6 components, 3 of them more significant. A simple regression allows us to predict about a 50% of the variance of the outreach practices.

  5. Culture belief based multi-objective hybrid differential evolutionary algorithm in short term hydrothermal scheduling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Culture belief is integrated into multi-objective differential evolution. ► Chaotic sequence is imported to improve evolutionary population diversity. ► The priority of convergence rate is proved in solving hydrothermal problem. ► The results show the quality and potential of proposed algorithm. - Abstract: A culture belief based multi-objective hybrid differential evolution (CB-MOHDE) is presented to solve short term hydrothermal optimal scheduling with economic emission (SHOSEE) problem. This problem is formulated for compromising thermal cost and emission issue while considering its complicated non-linear constraints with non-smooth and non-convex characteristics. The proposed algorithm integrates a modified multi-objective differential evolutionary algorithm into the computation model of culture algorithm (CA) as well as some communication protocols between population space and belief space, three knowledge structures in belief space are redefined according to these problem-solving characteristics, and in the differential evolution a chaotic factor is embedded into mutation operator for avoiding the premature convergence by enlarging the search scale when the search trajectory reaches local optima. Furthermore, a new heuristic constraint-handling technique is utilized to handle those complex equality and inequality constraints of SHOSEE problem. After the application on hydrothermal scheduling system, the efficiency and stability of the proposed CB-MOHDE is verified by its more desirable results in comparison to other method established recently, and the simulation results also reveal that CB-MOHDE can be a promising alternative for solving SHOSEE.

  6. Individualism, conservatism, and radicalism as criteria for processing political beliefs: a parametric fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamboni, Giovanna; Gozzi, Marta; Krueger, Frank; Duhamel, Jean-René; Sirigu, Angela; Grafman, Jordan

    2009-01-01

    Politics is a manifestation of the uniquely human ability to debate, decide, and reach consensus on decisions affecting large groups over long durations of time. Recent neuroimaging studies on politics have focused on the association between brain regions and specific political behaviors by adopting party or ideological affiliation as a criterion to classify either experimental stimuli or subjects. However, it is unlikely that complex political beliefs (i.e., "the government should protect freedom of speech") are evaluated only on a liberal-to-conservative criterion. Here we used multidimensional scaling and parametric functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify which criteria/dimensions people use to structure complex political beliefs and which brain regions are concurrently activated. We found that three independent dimensions explained the variability of a set of statements expressing political beliefs and that each dimension was reflected in a distinctive pattern of neural activation: individualism (medial prefrontal cortex and temporoparietal junction), conservatism (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex), and radicalism (ventral striatum and posterior cingulate). The structures we identified are also known to be important in self-other processing, social decision-making in ambivalent situations, and reward prediction. Our results extend current knowledge on the neural correlates of the structure of political beliefs, a fundamental aspect of the human ability to coalesce into social entities.

  7. Religious and spiritual beliefs, self-esteem, anxiety, and depression among nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papazisis, Georgios; Nicolaou, Panagiotis; Tsiga, Evangelia; Christoforou, Theodora; Sapountzi-Krepia, Despina

    2014-06-01

    Research of the role of religious belief and/or spirituality has been conducted on a wide range of health-related topics, across many disciplines, and in many countries. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between religious beliefs, self-esteem, anxiety, and depression in nursing students in Cyprus. One hundred and twenty-three nursing students were asked to complete a survey consisting of four self-report questionnaires (Beck Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, The Royal Free Interview for Religious and Spiritual Beliefs, and Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale). The lowest levels of depression were observed in the third and fourth study year. Normal self-esteem levels were found in the majority of the students (71.3%) and most of them perceived current stress at mild levels. No significant differences on the basis of sex were observed. The vast majority (98.2%) of the students stated a strong religious and/or a spiritual belief that was strongly positively correlated with increased self-esteem and negatively correlated with depression, current stress, and stress as personality trait.

  8. Adaptation of The Early Childhood Curricular Beliefs Inventory into Turkish: Validity and Reliability Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema SOYDAN

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to adapt The Early Childhood Curricular Beliefs Inventory (ECCBI questionnaire into Turkish. The ECCBI is a tool designed for exploring curricular beliefs of pre-service teachers in the area of early childhood education. A subscale named “behavioural approach” is not in the Turkish adaptation of the scale according to expert opinions, three subtests meaning 54 items out of 72 items have been included in the adapted version of scale. After the equivalence test of Turkish form, instrument has been applied to 30 preschool teachers and 200 preservice preschool teachers and total 230 person. In order to test construct validity of Turkish instrument, confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis have been applied; to identify reliability, Cronbach Alpha reliability coefficient, Sperman-Brown formula and Guttmann split-half reliability formula have been employed and corrected item-total correlation has been examined. Results show that this scale is a suitable assessment tool for the pre-service teachers to determine their related beliefs about early childhood approaches.

  9. Knowledge and Beliefs about Developmental Dyslexia in Pre-Service and In-Service Spanish-Speaking Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano-Ferrer, Manuel; Echegaray-Bengoa, Joyce; Joshi, R. Malathesa

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated knowledge, misconceptions, and lack of information about dyslexia among pre-service (PST) and in-service (IST) Spanish-speaking teachers in Spain and Peru. Two hundred and forty-six pre-service teachers and 267 in-service teachers completed the Knowledge and Beliefs about Developmental Dyslexia Scale (KBDDS).…

  10. Gaps between Beliefs, Perceptions, and Practices: The Every Teacher Project on LGBTQ-Inclusive Education in Canadian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Catherine G.; Meyer, Elizabeth J.; Peter, Tracey; Ristock, Janice; Short, Donn; Campbell, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The Every Teacher Project involved large-scale survey research conducted to identify the beliefs, perspectives, and practices of Kindergarten to Grade 12 educators in Canadian public schools regarding lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ)-inclusive education. Comparisons are made between LGBTQ and cisgender heterosexual…

  11. Pre-Service EFL Teachers' Self-Efficacy Beliefs, Goal Orientations, and Participations in an Online Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucar, Hasan; Yazici Bozkaya, Mujgan

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the pre-service EFL teachers' self-efficacy beliefs, goal orientations, and participations in an online learning environment. Embedded mixed design was used in the study. In the quantitative part of the study, the participants were 186 senior pre-service EFL teachers and data were collected on two scales and a questionnaire.…

  12. The Pivotal Role of Effort Beliefs in Mediating Implicit Theories of Intelligence and Achievement Goals and Academic Motivations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempelaar, Dirk T.; Rienties, Bart; Giesbers, Bas; Gijselaers, Wim H.

    2015-01-01

    Empirical studies into meaning systems surrounding implicit theories of intelligence typically entail two stringent assumptions: that different implicit theories and different effort beliefs represent opposite poles on a single scale, and that implicit theories directly impact the constructs as achievement goals and academic motivations. Through…

  13. The Relationship of Spiritual Beliefs and Involvement with the Experience of Anger and Stress in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterowd, Carrie; Harrist, Steve; Thomason, Nancy; Worth, Sheri; Carlozzi, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of spiritual beliefs and involvement with anger and stress in college students. The spirituality scales were positively related to perceived stress and most of the anger subscales. When stress was controlled, the spirituality subscales still contributed significantly to anger.

  14. Relationship between Pre-School Preservice Teachers' Environmental Literacy and Science and Technology Literacy Self Efficacy Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surmeli, Hikmet

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between preschool teachers' environmental literacy and their science and technology self efficacy beliefs. 120 preschool teachers from teacher education programme at one university participated in this study. Data were collected by using Environmental Literacy Scale and Science and Technology Literacy Self…

  15. Apocalypse soon? Dire messages reduce belief in global warming by contradicting just-world beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Matthew; Willer, Robb

    2011-01-01

    Though scientific evidence for the existence of global warming continues to mount, in the United States and other countries belief in global warming has stagnated or even decreased in recent years. One possible explanation for this pattern is that information about the potentially dire consequences of global warming threatens deeply held beliefs that the world is just, orderly, and stable. Individuals overcome this threat by denying or discounting the existence of global warming, and this process ultimately results in decreased willingness to counteract climate change. Two experiments provide support for this explanation of the dynamics of belief in global warming, suggesting that less dire messaging could be more effective for promoting public understanding of climate-change research. PMID:21148457

  16. Measuring beliefs in centimeters: private knowledge biases preschoolers' and adults' representation of others' beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerville, Jessica A; Bernstein, Daniel M; Meltzoff, Andrew N

    2013-01-01

    A novel task, using a continuous spatial layout, was created to investigate the degree to which (in centimeters) 3-year-old children's (N = 63), 5-year-old children's (N = 60), and adults' (N = 60) own privileged knowledge of the location of an object biased their representation of a protagonist's false belief about the object's location. At all ages, participants' knowledge of the object's actual location biased their search estimates, independent of the attentional or memory demands of the task. Children's degree of bias correlated with their performance on a classic change-of-location false belief task, controlling for age. This task is a novel tool for providing a quantitative measurement of the degree to which self-knowledge can bias estimates of others' beliefs.

  17. The effect of belief in free will on prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xian; Liu, Li; Zhang, Xiao-xiao; Shi, Jia-xin; Huang, Zhen-wei

    2014-01-01

    The current research examined the role of the belief in free will on prejudice across Han Chinese and white samples. Belief in free will refers to the extent to which people believe human beings truly have free will. In Study 1, the beliefs of Han Chinese people in free will were measured, and their social distances from the Tibetan Chinese were used as an index of ethnic prejudice. The results showed that the more that Han Chinese endorsed the belief in free will, the less that they showed prejudice against the Tibetan Chinese. In Study 2, the belief of the Han Chinese in free will was manipulated, and their explicit feelings towards the Uyghur Chinese were used as an indicator of ethnic prejudice. The results showed that the participants in the condition of belief in free will reported less prejudice towards Uyghur Chinese compared to their counterparts in the condition of disbelief in free will. In Study 3, white peoples' belief in free will was manipulated, and their pro-black attitudes were measured as an indirect indicator of racial prejudice. The results showed that, compared to the condition of disbelief in free will, the participants who were primed by a belief in free will reported stronger pro-black attitudes. These three studies suggest that endorsement of the belief in free will can lead to decreased ethnic/racial prejudice compared to denial of the belief in free will. The theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  18. Does Cognitive Science of Religion Undermine Religious Belief?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezkalla Paul

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I discuss what Cognitive Science of Religion is and what its implications are for theism and the veracity of religious belief. Findings in CSR, and its counterpart Evolutionary Psychology, aim to explain the origin of religious belief. Some critics of religion, however, brandish the findings of CSR in support of their agenda. Their arguments attempt to either argue against the truth of religion or the justification for religious belief. I will argue that neither of these two kinds of arguments accomplishes its goal. Using CSR to falsify religious belief commits the genetic fallacy. The evolutionary debunking argument for undermining justification for religious belief is a more sophisticated approach, but it fails on account of making too many unjustified assumptions. I outline three brief responses to the challenge of unjustified religious belief

  19. Beliefs about breastfeeding: a statewide survey of health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, E; Sienkiewicz, M; Roholt, S

    1995-03-01

    A statewide project was implemented in 1993 to increase breastfeeding among low-income women in North Carolina through improved institutional policies and practices and professional lactation-management skills. A survey designed to ascertain professional beliefs about breastfeeding was mailed to 31 hospitals and 25 public health agencies. A total of 2209 health professionals completed the survey and met the study selection criteria. Nutritionists and pediatricians were most likely to have positive beliefs about breastfeeding, whereas hospital nurses were most likely to have negative beliefs. Personal breastfeeding experience contributed to positive beliefs. Professionals were least convinced of the emotional benefits of breastfeeding. Those with negative beliefs were most likely to advocate complete infant weaning from the breast before nine months of age. Although most health professionals had positive beliefs about breastfeeding, differences by profession, work environment, and personal breastfeeding experience indicate the need for comprehensive training in lactation management, and improvements in hospital and public health clinic environments. PMID:7741946

  20. A Single Counterexample Leads to Moral Belief Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Zachary; Powell, Derek; Hummel, John

    2015-11-01

    What kind of evidence will lead people to revise their moral beliefs? Moral beliefs are often strongly held convictions, and existing research has shown that morality is rooted in emotion and socialization rather than deliberative reasoning. In addition, more general issues-such as confirmation bias-further impede coherent belief revision. Here, we explored a unique means for inducing belief revision. In two experiments, participants considered a moral dilemma in which an overwhelming majority of people judged that it was inappropriate to take action to maximize utility. Their judgments contradicted a utilitarian principle they otherwise strongly endorsed. Exposure to this scenario led participants to revise their belief in the utilitarian principle, and this revision persisted over several hours. This method provides a new avenue for inducing belief revision. PMID:25810137

  1. A Single Counterexample Leads to Moral Belief Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Zachary; Powell, Derek; Hummel, John

    2015-11-01

    What kind of evidence will lead people to revise their moral beliefs? Moral beliefs are often strongly held convictions, and existing research has shown that morality is rooted in emotion and socialization rather than deliberative reasoning. In addition, more general issues-such as confirmation bias-further impede coherent belief revision. Here, we explored a unique means for inducing belief revision. In two experiments, participants considered a moral dilemma in which an overwhelming majority of people judged that it was inappropriate to take action to maximize utility. Their judgments contradicted a utilitarian principle they otherwise strongly endorsed. Exposure to this scenario led participants to revise their belief in the utilitarian principle, and this revision persisted over several hours. This method provides a new avenue for inducing belief revision.

  2. High School Students’ Epistemological Beliefs and the Relationship Between the Beliefs and Creative Disposition%高中生认识论信念及其与创造力倾向的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐钏; 刘文令

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the development of high school students’ epistemological beliefs and the relationship between creative disposition and the beliefs. A sample of 483 students from Shanghai was tested by the Epistemological Beliefs Scale for High School Students and Williams Creativity Assessment. Results of this research shows that: (1) Students in different schools and different grades have signiifcant differences in their integral-constructive beliefs and their separated-receptive beliefs. Girls are more sophisticated than boys in separated-receptive beliefs. (2) There is a signiifcant positive correlation between the level of epistemological belief and creative disposition. Both integral-constructive beliefs and their separated-receptive beliefs can predict participants’ creative dispositions. (3) School type, grade and gender are directly or indirectly associated with creative dispositions. Epistemological beliefs are mediators between school types, gender and creative dispositions.%本研究以483名高中阶段的学生为被试,通过量表测查,考察了不同类型学校、不同年级和性别的高中生认识论信念的现状,以及认识论信念与学生的创造力倾向的关系。结果显示:(1)高中阶段学生的认识论在“整合-建构信念”和“离散-接受信念”方面存在显著的学校类型和年级差异;在“离散-接受信念”方面,女生的认识水平明显比男生更成熟;(2)高中阶段学生的认识论信念与创造力倾向呈显著正相关。认识论信念的“整合-建构信念”和“离散-接受信念”均对创造力倾向产生直接影响;(3)学校、年级、性别等因素对学生的创造力倾向既具有直接影响,也可以通过认识论信念对创造力倾向产生间接影响。

  3. Consumer beliefs regarding farmed versus wild fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claret, Anna; Guerrero, Luis; Ginés, Rafael; Grau, Amàlia; Hernández, M Dolores; Aguirre, Enaitz; Peleteiro, José Benito; Fernández-Pato, Carlos; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carmen

    2014-08-01

    Aquaculture is a food-producing activity, alternative to traditional extractive fishing, which still acts as a reference for most consumers. The main objective of the present paper was to study which consumer beliefs, regarding farmed versus wild fish, hinder the potential development of the aquaculture sector. To achieve this purpose the study was organized into two complementary steps: a qualitative approach (focus groups) aimed at assessing consumer perception about wild and farmed fish and to identify the salient beliefs that differentiate them; and a quantitative approach (survey by means of a questionnaire) to validate the results obtained in the focus group discussions over a representative sample of participants (n = 919). Results showed that participants perceive clear differences between farmed and wild fish. Although no significant differences between both kinds of fish were detected on safety, in general farmed fish was perceived to be less affected by marine pollution, heavy metals and parasites. In the contrary, wild fish was considered to have healthier feeding, to contain fewer antibiotics and to be fresher, healthier, less handled and more natural. Beliefs related to quality were in favour of wild fish, while those related to availability and price were in favour of farmed fish. Significant differences were observed in the perception of both kinds of fish depending on the consumers' objective knowledge about fish, on the level of education, age and gender and on the three segments of consumers identified: "Traditional/Conservative", "Connoisseur", "Open to aquaculture". The results provided could play an important role when planning and designing efficient marketing strategies for promoting farmed fish by adapting the information provided to the perception of each segment of consumers identified by the present study. PMID:24709486

  4. DNA motif elucidation using belief propagation

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Ka-Chun

    2013-06-29

    Protein-binding microarray (PBM) is a high-throughout platform that can measure the DNA-binding preference of a protein in a comprehensive and unbiased manner. A typical PBM experiment can measure binding signal intensities of a protein to all the possible DNA k-mers (k = 8 ?10); such comprehensive binding affinity data usually need to be reduced and represented as motif models before they can be further analyzed and applied. Since proteins can often bind to DNA in multiple modes, one of the major challenges is to decompose the comprehensive affinity data into multimodal motif representations. Here, we describe a new algorithm that uses Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) and can derive precise and multimodal motifs using belief propagations. We describe an HMM-based approach using belief propagations (kmerHMM), which accepts and preprocesses PBM probe raw data into median-binding intensities of individual k-mers. The k-mers are ranked and aligned for training an HMM as the underlying motif representation. Multiple motifs are then extracted from the HMM using belief propagations. Comparisons of kmerHMM with other leading methods on several data sets demonstrated its effectiveness and uniqueness. Especially, it achieved the best performance on more than half of the data sets. In addition, the multiple binding modes derived by kmerHMM are biologically meaningful and will be useful in interpreting other genome-wide data such as those generated from ChIP-seq. The executables and source codes are available at the authors\\' websites: e.g. http://www.cs.toronto.edu/?wkc/kmerHMM. 2013 The Author(s).

  5. Belief in a Just World and Children's Test Scores

    OpenAIRE

    Angus Armstrong

    2010-01-01

    Parental beliefs, recognised by child psychologists as a causal influence on early development, are incorporated into a two-period model of human capital accumulation. In the first period parents transfer their beliefs, distinct from genes, to their child by signalling their "belief in a just world" or the perceived return to effort. The child responds by choosing effort, irrespective of the real world returns, which combines early with their genes to create their ability. This ability determ...

  6. Beliefs about Emotions, Depression, Anxiety and Fatigue: A Mediational Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sydenham, Mia; Beardwood, Jennifer; Rimes, Katharine Amber.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Beliefs that it is unacceptable to experience or express negative emotions have been found to be associated with various clinical problems. It is unclear how such beliefs, which could be viewed as a form of unhelpful perfectionism about emotions, may contribute to symptomatology. Aims: This study investigated two hypotheses: a) greater endorsement of beliefs about the unacceptability of negative emotions will be associated with greater emotional avoidance and lower levels of suppo...

  7. Who Decides? Mothers' and Children's Beliefs about Food Choices

    OpenAIRE

    Rigney, Jennifer Carole

    2012-01-01

    What do mothers and children believe about whether parents are in charge of what and how much a child should eat? The current study explored children's beliefs about the scope of parental authority over food decisions and whether these beliefs depend on features of the situation. Additionally, relations between children's and their mothers' beliefs were explored. Mothers and their 5- or 7-year-old children were interviewed separately regarding 4 different types of hypothetical food-related d...

  8. Theories of epistemological beliefs and communication : A unifying attempt

    OpenAIRE

    Österholm, Magnus

    2009-01-01

    In order to develop more detailed knowledge about possible effects of beliefs in mathematics education, it is suggested that we look more in-depth at more general types of theories. In particular, the study of relations between epistemological beliefs and communication is put forward as a good starting point in this endeavor. Theories of the constructs of epistemological beliefs and communication are analyzed in order to try to create a coherent theoretical foundation for the study of relatio...

  9. Beliefs about learning and constructive strategies in text comprehension

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, CKK; Law, YK

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the roles of epistemological beliefs and constructive strategies in text comprehension among elementary-school children in Hong Kong. Specifically, three questions were addressed: (a) What characterized children s beliefs and did they vary with age, gender, and ability? (b) What strategies did children use when they learned from text and did these strategies vary with age, gender, and ability? And (c) Did beliefs contribute to text comprehension over and above the effe...

  10. Does Cognitive Science of Religion Undermine Religious Belief?

    OpenAIRE

    Rezkalla Paul

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss what Cognitive Science of Religion is and what its implications are for theism and the veracity of religious belief. Findings in CSR, and its counterpart Evolutionary Psychology, aim to explain the origin of religious belief. Some critics of religion, however, brandish the findings of CSR in support of their agenda. Their arguments attempt to either argue against the truth of religion or the justification for religious belief. I will argue that neither of these two ki...

  11. AGM Revision of Beliefs about Action and Time

    OpenAIRE

    van Zee, Marc; Doder, Dragan; Dastani, Mehdi; Torre, Leendert W. N. van der

    2015-01-01

    The AGM theory of belief revision is based on propositional belief sets. In this paper we develop a logic for revision of temporal belief bases, contain- ing expressions about temporal propositions (to- morrow it will rain), possibility (it may rain tomor- row), actions (the robot enters the room) and pre- and post-conditions of these actions. We prove the Katsuno-Mendelzon and the Darwiche-Pearl repre- sentation theorems by restricting the logic to for- ...

  12. Uniformly Reweighted Belief Propagation: A Factor Graph Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Wymeersch, Henk; Penna, Federico; Savic, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Tree-reweighted belief propagation is a message passing method that has certain advantages compared to traditional belief propagation (BP). However, it fails to outperform BP in a consistent manner, does not lend itself well to distributed implementation, and has not been applied to distributions with higher-order interactions. We propose a method called uniformly-reweighted belief propagation that mitigates these drawbacks. After having shown in previous works that this method can substan...

  13. Health Belief Systems and the Psychobiology of War

    OpenAIRE

    Elgee, Neil J.

    1984-01-01

    Belief systems overlie powerful biological and psychological forces that are root causes of war. Much as in medicine where an appreciation of health belief systems is necessary in the control of illness and disease, so the paths to the control of war may lie in an understanding of belief systems and ways to circumvent them. Such understanding gives strong theoretical support to many time-honored but underutilized international initiative and educational ventures. The effort of the medical com...

  14. Knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs that can influence infant feeding practices in American Indian mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, Cara L; Lutz, Tam; Karanja, Njeri; Jobe, Jared B; Maupomé, Gerardo; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl

    2014-10-01

    The promotion of healthy infant feeding is increasingly recognized as an important obesity-prevention strategy. This is relevant for American Indian populations that exhibit high levels of obesity and low compliance with infant feeding guidelines. The literature examining the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs surrounding infant feeding within the American Indian population is sparse and focuses primarily on breastfeeding, with limited information on the introduction of solid foods and related practices that can be important in an obesity-prevention context. This research presents descriptive findings from a baseline knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs questionnaire on infant feeding and related behaviors administered to mothers (n=438) from five Northwest American Indian tribes that participated in the Prevention of Toddler Overweight and Teeth Health Study (PTOTS). Enrollment occurred during pregnancy or up to 6 months postpartum. The knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs questionnaire focused on themes of breastfeeding/formula feeding and introducing solid foods, with supplemental questions on physical activity. Knowledge questions were multiple choice or true/false. Attitudes and beliefs were assessed on Likert scales. Descriptive statistics included frequencies and percents and means and standard deviations. Most women knew basic breastfeeding recommendations and facts, but fewer recognized the broader health benefits of breastfeeding (eg, reducing diabetes risk) or knew when to introduce solid foods. Women believed breastfeeding to be healthy and perceived their social networks to agree. Attitudes and beliefs about formula feeding and social support were more ambivalent. This work suggests opportunities to increase the perceived value of breastfeeding to include broader health benefits, increase knowledge about solid foods, and strengthen social support. PMID:24951434

  15. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Illness and Medication Beliefs are Associated with Medication Adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauskopf, Katherine; Federman, Alex D; Kale, Minal S; Sigel, Keith M; Martynenko, Melissa; O'Conor, Rachel; Wolf, Michael S; Leventhal, Howard; Wisnivesky, Juan P

    2015-04-01

    Almost half of patients with COPD do not adhere to their medications. Illness and medication beliefs are important determinants of adherence in other chronic diseases. Using the framework of the Common Sense Model of Self-Regulation (CSM), we determined associations between potentially modifiable beliefs and adherence to COPD medications in a cohort of English- and Spanish-speaking adults with COPD from New York and Chicago. Medication adherence was assessed using the Medication Adherence Report Scale. Illness and medication beliefs along CSM domains were evaluated using the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (B-IPQ) and the Beliefs about Medications Questionnaire (BMQ). Unadjusted analysis (with Cohen's d effect sizes) and multiple logistic regression were used to assess the relationship between illness and medication beliefs with adherence. The study included 188 participants (47% Black, 13% Hispanics); 109 (58%) were non-adherent. Non-adherent participants were younger (p < 0.001), more likely to be Black or Hispanic (p = 0.001), to have reported low income (p = 0.02), and had fewer years of formal education (p = 0.002). In unadjusted comparisons, non-adherent participants reported being more concerned about their COPD (p = 0.011; Cohen's d = 0.43), more emotionally affected by the disease (p = 0.001; Cohen's d = 0.54), and had greater concerns about COPD medications (p < 0.001, Cohen's d = 0.81). In adjusted analyses, concerns about COPD medications independently predicted non-adherence (odds ratio: 0.52, 95% confidence interval: 0.36-0.75). In this cohort of urban minority adults, concerns about medications were associated with non-adherence. Future work should explore interventions to influence patient adherence by addressing concerns about the safety profile and long-term effects of COPD medications.

  16. Primary care physicians' attitudes and beliefs towards chronic low back pain: an Asian study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina W S Sit

    Full Text Available Chronic low back pain is a serious global health problem. There is substantial evidence that physicians' attitudes towards and beliefs about chronic low back pain can influence their subsequent management of the condition.(1 to evaluate the attitudes and beliefs towards chronic low back pain among primary care physicians in Asia; (2 to study the cultural differences and other factors that are associated with these attitudes and beliefs.A cross sectional online survey was sent to primary care physicians who are members of the Hong Kong College of Family Physician (HKCFP. The Pain Attitudes and Beliefs Scale for Physiotherapist (PABS-PT was used as the questionnaire to determine the biomedical and biopsychosocial orientation of the participants.The mean Biomedical (BM score was 34.8+/-6.1; the mean biopsychosocial (BPS score was 35.6 (+/- 4.8. Both scores were higher than those of European doctors. Family medicine specialists had a lower biomedical score than General practitioners. Physicians working in the public sector tended to have low BM and low BPS scores; whereas physicians working in private practice tended to have high BM and high BPS scores.The lack of concordance in the pain explanatory models used by private and public sector may have a detrimental effect on patients who are under the care of both parties. The uncertain treatment orientation may have a negative influence on patients' attitudes and beliefs, thus contributing to the tension and, perhaps, even ailing mental state of a person with chronic LBP.

  17. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Illness and Medication Beliefs are Associated with Medication Adherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauskopf, Katherine; Federman, Alex D; Kale, Minal S; Sigel, Keith M; Martynenko, Melissa; O’Conor, Rachel; Wolf, Michael S; Leventhal, Howard; Wisnivesky, Juan P

    2015-01-01

    Almost half of patients with COPD do not adhere to their medications. Illness and medication beliefs are important determinants of adherence in other chronic diseases. Using the framework of the Common Sense Model of Self Regulation (CSM), we determined associations between potentially modifiable beliefs and adherence to COPD medications in a cohort of English- and Spanish-speaking adults with COPD from New York and Chicago. Medication adherence was assessed using the Medication Adherence Report Scale. Illness and medication beliefs along CSM domains were evaluated using the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (B-IPQ) and the Beliefs about Medications Questionnaire (BMQ). Unadjusted analysis (with Cohen’s d effect sizes) and multiple logistic regression were used to assess the relationship between illness and medication beliefs with adherence. The study included 188 participants (47% Black, 13% Hispanics); 109 (58%) were adherent. Non-adherent participants were younger (p<0.001), more likely to be Black or Hispanic (p=0.001), to have reported low income (p=0.02), and had fewer years of formal education (p=0.002). In unadjusted comparisons, non-adherent participants reported being more concerned about their COPD (p=0.011; Cohen’s d=0.43), more emotionally affected by the disease (p=0.001; Cohen’s d=0.54), and had greater concerns about COPD medications (p<0.001, Cohen’s d=0.81). In adjusted analyses, concerns about COPD medications independently predicted non-adherence (odds ratio: 0.52, 95% confidence interval: 0.36–0.75). In this cohort of urban minority adults, concerns about medications were associated with non-adherence. Future work should explore interventions to influence patient adherence by addressing concerns about the safety profile and long-term effects of COPD medications. PMID:24960306

  18. Maximum Entropy Learning with Deep Belief Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payton Lin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Conventionally, the maximum likelihood (ML criterion is applied to train a deep belief network (DBN. We present a maximum entropy (ME learning algorithm for DBNs, designed specifically to handle limited training data. Maximizing only the entropy of parameters in the DBN allows more effective generalization capability, less bias towards data distributions, and robustness to over-fitting compared to ML learning. Results of text classification and object recognition tasks demonstrate ME-trained DBN outperforms ML-trained DBN when training data is limited.

  19. The Rationality of Religious Belief in John Locke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahsin Ölmez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Discussions about the justification of having religious beliefs have been continued since the beginning of the history of philosophy. The roles of evidence and the will in belief have been discussed under the title of “The Ethics of Belief”. John Locke also addressed to evidentialism in his works. Considering to construct his epistemology and belief on the strictest basis, Locke argued that believing something on insufficient evidence or failing to proportion our degree of belief according to the strength of the evidence is a transgression against our endowed light.

  20. When Do Types Induce the Same Belief Hierarchy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Perea

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Type structures are a simple device to describe higher-order beliefs. However, how can we check whether two types generate the same belief hierarchy? This paper generalizes the concept of a type morphism and shows that one type structure is contained in another if and only if the former can be mapped into the other using a generalized type morphism. Hence, every generalized type morphism is a hierarchy morphism and vice versa. Importantly, generalized type morphisms do not make reference to belief hierarchies. We use our results to characterize the conditions under which types generate the same belief hierarchy.

  1. Health belief systems and the psychobiology of war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgee, N J

    1984-06-01

    Belief systems overlie powerful biological and psychological forces that are root causes of war. Much as in medicine where an appreciation of health belief systems is necessary in the control of illness and disease, so the paths to the control of war may lie in an understanding of belief systems and ways to circumvent them. Such understanding gives strong theoretical support to many time-honored but underutilized international initiative and educational ventures. The effort of the medical community to educate the public about biomedical aspects of nuclear war should gain more balance and sophistication with an appreciation of belief systems in the psychobiology of war.

  2. Vulgar Beliefs in Vis and Ramin & Tristan and Isolde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Sadat Sharif Al-Hoseini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ever since ancient times, when man could not find a logic relationship between the extraordinary events and phenomena, feather to Supers tedious beliefs and ideas in their head and mentioned incantations and performed certain rituals to get rid of thepain. In this paper, the four sections is investigated superstitious beliefs and opinions in two oeuvres Vis and Ramin and Tristan and Isolde; that include: Belief in magic and charm, belief in astrology and star's Saad and sinister, Run celebrations such as Nowruz, Mehregan and Passover and Believing thatinnocent stays safe from the fire and feeling red-hotiron.

  3. Beliefs about Meditating among University Students, Faculty, and Staff: A Theory-Based Salient Belief Elicitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, Alyssa M.; Middlestadt, Susan E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Stress impacts college students, faculty, and staff alike. Although meditation has been found to decrease stress, it is an underutilized strategy. This study used the Reasoned Action Approach (RAA) to identify beliefs underlying university constituents' decision to meditate. Participants: N = 96 students, faculty, and staff at a…

  4. Logic, Beliefs, and Instruction: A Test of the Default Interventionist Account of Belief Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Simon J.; Newstead, Stephen E.; Trippas, Dries

    2011-01-01

    According to dual-process accounts of thinking, belief-based responses on reasoning tasks are generated as default but can be intervened upon in favor of logical responding, given sufficient time, effort, or cognitive resource. In this article, we present the results of 5 experiments in which participants were instructed to evaluate the…

  5. Logic and Belief across the Lifespan: The Rise and Fall of Belief Inhibition during Syllogistic Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Neys, Wim; Van Gelder, Elke

    2009-01-01

    Popular reasoning theories postulate that the ability to inhibit inappropriate beliefs lies at the heart of the human reasoning engine. Given that people's inhibitory capacities are known to rise and fall across the lifespan, we predicted that people's deductive reasoning performance would show similar curvilinear age trends. A group of children…

  6. Development of Afterlife Beliefs in Childhood: Relationship to Parent Beliefs and Testimony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misailidi, Plousia; Kornilaki, Ekaterina N.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the development of children's reasoning about the afterlife and its relationship with parental afterlife beliefs and testimony. A total of 123 children aged 5, 7, and 10 years were read a story describing the events that led to a person's death. After hearing the story, children were asked questions about the dead agent's…

  7. Analyzing Sexual Health-Related Beliefs Among Couples in Marriage Based on the Health Belief Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Barati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sexual health is the integrity between mind, emotions, and body, and any disorder leading to discoordination, can be associated with sexual dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate the beliefs of couples attending marriage counseling centers toward sexual health based on the health belief model. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional descriptive study was performed on 400 couples referring to marriage counseling centers of Hamadan recruited with a random sampling method. The participants completed a self-administered questionnaire including demographic characteristics, knowledge and health belief model constructs. Data analysis was performed using SPSS-16 software, by Pearson’s coefficient correlation, independent T-test, and one-way ANOVA. Results: Couples had a moderate knowledge of sexual health. In addition, perceived susceptibility and severity of the consequences of unsafe sexual behavior among couples were not satisfactory however, perceived benefits and barriers were reported in a relatively good level. Internet and friends were the most important sources for sexual health information. Conclusion: Promoting knowledge and beliefs toward sexual health by preparing training packages based on the needs of couples and removing obstacles to have normal sexual behavior are necessary.

  8. Adaptation of Epistemological Beliefs Questionnaıre in Turkish and Investigation of Pre-Service Teachers’ Beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe AYPAY

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research is to adapt an instrument that will help to determine pre-service teachers’ beliefs into Turkish. In the study, pre-service teachers’ epistemological beliefs, relationships among these beliefs, and whether epistemological beliefs differ based on gender, department they study, class levels. The study group included a total of 341 students from Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Faculty of Education and Institute of Social Sciences. For the validity of the instrument, both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyseswere used. In addition to descriptive statistics, correlations, reliability analyses, t-tests, ANOVAs were used. Findings indicated that pre-service teachers’ epistemological beliefs differed based on gender, department they study, class levels and there were significant relationships among the beliefs.

  9. Neuromodulation of group prejudice and religious belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Colin; Izuma, Keise; Deblieck, Choi; Fessler, Daniel M T; Iacoboni, Marco

    2016-03-01

    People cleave to ideological convictions with greater intensity in the aftermath of threat. The posterior medial frontal cortex (pMFC) plays a key role in both detecting discrepancies between desired and current conditions and adjusting subsequent behavior to resolve such conflicts. Building on prior literature examining the role of the pMFC in shifts in relatively low-level decision processes, we demonstrate that the pMFC mediates adjustments in adherence to political and religious ideologies. We presented participants with a reminder of death and a critique of their in-group ostensibly written by a member of an out-group, then experimentally decreased both avowed belief in God and out-group derogation by downregulating pMFC activity via transcranial magnetic stimulation. The results provide the first evidence that group prejudice and religious belief are susceptible to targeted neuromodulation, and point to a shared cognitive mechanism underlying concrete and abstract decision processes. We discuss the implications of these findings for further research characterizing the cognitive and affective mechanisms at play.

  10. Knowledge, Beliefs and Perception of Leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Jaswal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: For intervention to be effective, it is essential that the knowledge, beliefs and perception of a specific social group are taken into account. This is particularly true of leprosy where the problems of social stigma and ostracism are more prominent than the disease itself. There are many misconceptions about the cause, methods of transmission, and treatment. The main objectives of the study were to examine the socio-demographic profile of persons with leprosy and to explore their knowledge, beliefs and perception about the disease and its initial symptoms, within a specific socio-cultural milieu. Method: Semi-structured interviews were held with a persons with leprosy at various clinics and care-homes for affected persons in and around Chandigarh, India. Those who had completed their treatment and those who were still undergoing treatment were included in the study. Data collection was done through case studies and in-depth interviews. Results: The name of the disease varied across different geo-cultural zones. Many respondents who were afflicted with only red patches and had no ulcers, believed that they suffered from a skin disease which would turn into leprosy if proper medication was not received. The perception of 64.9 % of the respondents was that leprosy resulted from supernatural causes like God’s punishment, karma, and sin. Conclusion: There is a need to educate persons with leprosy and their families about the etiology of the disease.

  11. Individual differences in commitment to value-based beliefs and the amplification of perceived belief dissimilarity effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell-Smith, Matthew A; Seligman, Clive; Conway, Paul; Cheung, Irene

    2015-04-01

    The commitment to beliefs (CTB) framework (Maxwell-Smith & Esses, 2012) proposes that there are individual differences in the extent to which people generally follow beliefs that are a reflection of their values. The current research hypothesized that CTB would amplify the effects of perceived belief dissimilarity or incompatibility, such that individuals higher in CTB would display more pronounced reactions to belief-relevant groups, events, or individuals seen as incompatible with their value-based beliefs. We tested our hypothesis in three studies that assessed participants' CTB and their perceptions of belief dissimilarity or incompatibility with regard to other religious groups (Study 1), political parties during a national election (Study 2), and their romantic partner (Study 3). CTB amplified the effects of perceived belief dissimilarity or incompatibility on people's biases toward other religious groups, voting intentions and behavior in a national election, and their evaluative and behavioral responses toward their romantic partner. These results collectively suggest that perceptions of belief dissimilarity or incompatibility are particularly important cues for individuals with higher levels of CTB as they encounter other people or events that are relevant to their beliefs. PMID:24444458

  12. Individual differences in commitment to value-based beliefs and the amplification of perceived belief dissimilarity effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell-Smith, Matthew A; Seligman, Clive; Conway, Paul; Cheung, Irene

    2015-04-01

    The commitment to beliefs (CTB) framework (Maxwell-Smith & Esses, 2012) proposes that there are individual differences in the extent to which people generally follow beliefs that are a reflection of their values. The current research hypothesized that CTB would amplify the effects of perceived belief dissimilarity or incompatibility, such that individuals higher in CTB would display more pronounced reactions to belief-relevant groups, events, or individuals seen as incompatible with their value-based beliefs. We tested our hypothesis in three studies that assessed participants' CTB and their perceptions of belief dissimilarity or incompatibility with regard to other religious groups (Study 1), political parties during a national election (Study 2), and their romantic partner (Study 3). CTB amplified the effects of perceived belief dissimilarity or incompatibility on people's biases toward other religious groups, voting intentions and behavior in a national election, and their evaluative and behavioral responses toward their romantic partner. These results collectively suggest that perceptions of belief dissimilarity or incompatibility are particularly important cues for individuals with higher levels of CTB as they encounter other people or events that are relevant to their beliefs.

  13. Divergent effects of beliefs in heaven and hell on national crime rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azim F Shariff

    Full Text Available Though religion has been shown to have generally positive effects on normative 'prosocial' behavior, recent laboratory research suggests that these effects may be driven primarily by supernatural punishment. Supernatural benevolence, on the other hand, may actually be associated with less prosocial behavior. Here, we investigate these effects at the societal level, showing that the proportion of people who believe in hell negatively predicts national crime rates whereas belief in heaven predicts higher crime rates. These effects remain after accounting for a host of covariates, and ultimately prove stronger predictors of national crime rates than economic variables such as GDP and income inequality. Expanding on laboratory research on religious prosociality, this is the first study to tie religious beliefs to large-scale cross-national trends in pro- and anti-social behavior.

  14. Attitudes About Human Trafficking: Individual Differences Related to Belief and Victim Blame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Katherine C; Cromer, Lisa DeMarni

    2016-01-01

    Human trafficking is believed to oppress millions of people worldwide. Despite increased media attention and public awareness campaigns in recent years, no empirical research has examined public attitudes about human trafficking. The present study examined gender, sexual trauma history, and attitudes about human trafficking as they related to belief of a sex-trafficking scenario and willingness to blame the victim for the situation. Undergraduate students (N = 409) at a large private university in the Northeastern United States completed measures in which they responded to a vignette portraying sex trafficking in the United States. Participants also reported their personal trauma history and completed a Human Trafficking Myths Scale. Results indicated that gender and human trafficking myth acceptance, but not sexual trauma history, were significantly related to participants' belief of the sex-trafficking scenario and their perception of the victim's responsibility. Potential implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:25389189

  15. Attitudes About Human Trafficking: Individual Differences Related to Belief and Victim Blame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Katherine C; Cromer, Lisa DeMarni

    2016-01-01

    Human trafficking is believed to oppress millions of people worldwide. Despite increased media attention and public awareness campaigns in recent years, no empirical research has examined public attitudes about human trafficking. The present study examined gender, sexual trauma history, and attitudes about human trafficking as they related to belief of a sex-trafficking scenario and willingness to blame the victim for the situation. Undergraduate students (N = 409) at a large private university in the Northeastern United States completed measures in which they responded to a vignette portraying sex trafficking in the United States. Participants also reported their personal trauma history and completed a Human Trafficking Myths Scale. Results indicated that gender and human trafficking myth acceptance, but not sexual trauma history, were significantly related to participants' belief of the sex-trafficking scenario and their perception of the victim's responsibility. Potential implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  16. Attitudes and beliefs of Brazilian physical therapists about chronic low back pain: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício O. Magalhães

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To measure the attitudes and beliefs of Brazilian physical therapists about chronic low back pain and to identify the sociodemographic characteristics that are more likely to influence these attitudes and beliefs. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study with 100 Brazilian physical therapists who routinely work with chronic low back pain patients. The attitudes and beliefs were measured by the Pain Attitudes and Beliefs Scale for Physiotherapists (PABS.PT and the Health Care Providers' Pain and Impairment Relationship Scale (HC-PAIRS. Multivariate linear regression models were built to identify sociodemographic characteristics that could be associated with physical therapists' attitudes and beliefs. RESULTS: Mean scores on the biomedical and biopsychosocial factors of PABS.PT were 27.06 (SD 7.19 and 24.34 (SD 6.31, respectively, and the mean score on HC-PAIRS was 45.45 (SD 10.45. The score on PABS.PTbiomedical was associated with gender and years of professional experience. No variable was associated with the score on PABS.PTbiopsychosocial. The score on HC-PAIRS was significantly associated with the number of back pain patients seen by the physical therapist each month. These results indicate that male and less experienced physical therapists tend to follow a biomedical approach to the treatment of chronic low back pain patients, and that the lower the professional experience the stronger the belief in the relationship between pain and disability. CONCLUSIONS: Brazilian physical therapists are uncertain of the factors involved in the development and maintenance of chronic low back pain and about the relationship between pain and disability in these patients.

  17. The Effect of EEG Biofeedback on the Reduction of Depression, Anxiety, Stress and Craving Beliefs in Individuals with Substance Abuse Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Narimani

    2012-05-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study is the investigation of EEG biofeedback (neurofeedback on the reduction of depression, anxiety, stress and craving beliefs of individuals with substance abuse disorder. Method: Thirty-four males diagnosed as having substance abuse disorder (morphine addicted were randomly assigned to experimental (N=16 and control (N=18 groups. The study used the pretest–posttest experimental and control group design. Subjects were assessed prior and subsequent to the training process on two tests of Craving Beliefs Questionnaire and Depression Anxiety Stress Scales. In this research, the analysis of variance with repeated measures was used. Findings: The results revealed that after twenty sessions of neurofeedback, a significant and clear improvement in anxiety, depression, and craving beliefs was observed, but, no significant deference between groups in stress observed. Conclusion: This study suggests that individuals with substance abuse disorder can learn to improve their anxiety, depression, and craving beliefs.

  18. What Are the Goals of Kindergarten? Teachers' Beliefs and Their Perceptions of the Beliefs of Parents and of Agents of the Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sverdlov, Aviva; Aram, Dorit

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: The study examined the beliefs of kindergarten teachers (K-teachers) regarding the goals of kindergarten. We asked K-teachers to reflect on their own beliefs, their understanding of parents' beliefs, and their understanding of the beliefs that guide agents of the education system. We further examined differences between…

  19. Turkish Prospective Middle School Mathematics Teachers' Beliefs and Perceived Self-Efficacy Beliefs Regarding the Use of Origami in Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Okan; Isiksal-Bostan, Mine

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate beliefs and perceived self-efficacy beliefs of Turkish prospective elementary mathematics teachers in using origami in mathematics education. Furthermore, gender differences in their beliefs and perceived self-efficacy beliefs were investigated. Data for the current study was collected via Origami in…

  20. Do Creativity Self-Beliefs Predict Literacy Achievement and Motivation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putwain, David W.; Kearsley, Rebecca; Symes, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Previous work has suggested that creativity self-beliefs show only small relations with academic achievement and may only be related to intrinsic, not extrinsic motivation. We set out to re-examine these relationships accounting for the multifaceted and process embedded nature of creativity self-beliefs and the full domain range of extrinsic…

  1. Embodied Censorship: Academic Writing Rituals and the Production of Belief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Edward

    2014-01-01

    As compositionists have constructed a critical discourse on whiteness, they have tacitly theorized how students' bodies can stifle efforts to both reflect on unfamiliar beliefs and critique their own beliefs. While Composition's latent theories of "embodied censorship" challenge the notion that rationality or empathy can enable…

  2. Mathematics Self-Related Beliefs and Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinose, Cherie; Bonsangue, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This study examined students' mathematical self-related beliefs in an online mathematics course. Mathematical self-related beliefs of a sample of high school students learning mathematics online were compared with student response data from the 2012 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). The treatment group reported higher levels…

  3. Instructional Strategies to Promote Incremental Beliefs in Youth Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Stewart A.; Cliff, Dylan P.; Okely, Anthony D.; Weintraub, Dana L.; Robinson, Thomas N.

    2014-01-01

    Implicit beliefs about the nature of human abilities have significant motivational, behavioral, and affective consequences. The purpose of this article was to review the application of implicit beliefs to the youth sport context and to provide theoretically derived and evidence-based instructional strategies to promote adaptive implicit beliefs…

  4. The Effects of Epistemological Beliefs on Workplace Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Johannes; Festner, Dagmar; Gruber, Hans; Harteis, Christian; Heid, Helmut

    2004-01-01

    Epistemological beliefs are fundamental assumptions about the nature of knowledge and learning. Research in university contexts has shown that they affect the ways and results of student learning. This article transfers the concept of epistemological beliefs on workplace learning. The basic assumption is that employees epistemological beliefs…

  5. Multifaceted Impact of Self-Efficacy Beliefs on Academic Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandura, Albert; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Analyzed the psychosocial influences through which efficacy beliefs affect academic achievement. Found that parents' sense of academic efficacy and aspirations for their children, children's beliefs in their efficacy to regulate their own learning and academic attainments, children's perceived social efficacy and ability to manage peer pressure,…

  6. Beliefs about medicines in Dutch acenocoumarol and phenprocoumon users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, Talitha I; Redekop, W Ken; Bouvy, Marcel L; Dorenbos, Brenda; Karwar, Zamiera; van Schie, Rianne M F; de Boer, Anthonius; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke-Hilse

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: Adherence to the generally complex regimen of coumarin derivatives is vital in order to keep patients in the adequate International Normalized Ratio range. Patients' beliefs about medicines are associated with the level of therapy adherence. Our first aim was to assess beliefs about coumarins.

  7. Promoting Piagetian Beliefs: Theoretical Instruction vs. Inservice Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Paul S.; Pool, Kenneth W.

    This study seeks to identify particular methods most likely to induce changes in philosophical beliefs of teachers compatible with a cognitive developmental teaching approach. Specifically examined were teacher's theoretical understanding in terms of epistemological beliefs consistent with either Piaget's theory of cognitive development or operant…

  8. Evaluating Students' Beliefs in Problem Solving Process: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Tugba; Guven, Bulent

    2016-01-01

    Problem solving is not simply a process that ends when an answer is found; it is a scientific process that evolves from understanding the problem to evaluating the solution. This process is affected by several factors. Among these, one of the most substantial is belief. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the beliefs of high school students…

  9. Fragility of Happiness Beliefs Across 15 National Groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joshanloo, Mohsen; Weijers, Dan; Jiang, Ding-Yu; Han, Gyuseog; Bae, Jaechang; Pang, Joyce S.; Ho, Lok Sang; Ferreira, Maria Cristina; Demir, Meliksah; Rizwan, Muhammad; Khilji, Imran Ahmed; Achoui, Mustapha; Asano, Ryosuke; Igarashi, Tasuku; Tsukamoto, Saori; Lamers, Sanne M.A.; Turan, Yücel; Sundaram, Suresh; Yeung, Victoria Wai Lan; Poon, Wai-Ching; Lepshokova, Zarina Kh.; Panyusheva, Tatiana; Natalia, Amerkhanova

    2015-01-01

    The belief that happiness is fragile—that it is fleeting and may easily turn into less favourable states—is common across individuals and cultures. However, not much is known about this belief domain and its structure and correlates. In the present study, we use multigroup confirmatory factor analys

  10. Preservice Teachers: Investigations in Early Fieldwork and Mathematics Efficacy Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt-Ruiz, Heidi

    2011-01-01

    In this quasi-experimental study, 127 preservice teachers from two community colleges enrolled in a mathematics for teachers two-course sequence. Control and experimental groups were used to investigate the effect that fieldwork had on efficacy beliefs. The Mathematics for Teaching Efficacy Beliefs Instrument (MATHEMATICS TEACHING EFFICACY BELIEFS…

  11. Epistemic Beliefs and Conceptual Understanding in Biotechnology: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebello, Carina M.; Siegel, Marcelle A.; Witzig, Stephen B.; Freyermuth, Sharyn K.; McClure, Bruce A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to explore students' epistemic beliefs and conceptual understanding of biotechnology. Epistemic beliefs can influence reasoning, how individuals evaluate information, and informed decision making abilities. These skills are important for an informed citizenry that will participate in debates regarding areas in…

  12. Disclosing Biology Teachers' Beliefs about Biotechnology and Biotechnology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Maria Joao; Costa, Patricio; Lencastre, Leonor; Tavares, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Teachers have been shown to frequently avoid addressing biotechnology topics. Aiming to understand the extent to which teachers' scarce engagement in biotechnology teaching is influenced by their beliefs and/or by extrinsic constraints, such as practical limitations, this study evaluates biology teachers' beliefs about biotechnology and…

  13. Health beliefs and teenage condom use : A prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abraham, CS; Sheeran, P; Abrams, D; Spears, R

    1996-01-01

    Results from a longitudinal survey of sexual behaviour and HIV-relevant cognitions amongst 258 sexually-active adolescents are reported. Demographic characteristics, previous sexual experience, prior condom use, beliefs specified by the health belief model (I-IBM), peer norms regarding condom use an

  14. Alcoholic Relatives and Their Impact on Alcohol-Related Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Patrick B.; And Others

    Although research on children of alcoholics indicates that they are at high risk for later problem drinking, the etiological dynamics associated with this heightened risk status are not yet understood. This study compared the alcohol-related beliefs of subjects who possessed close relatives with alcohol problems with alcohol-related beliefs of…

  15. Pre-Service Teachers' Efficacy Beliefs and Emotional States

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMauro, Anthony A.; Jennings, Patricia A.

    2016-01-01

    Teachers' efficacy beliefs play an important role in how they create quality learning environments. When pre-service teachers (also known as initial teacher trainees) develop strong efficacy beliefs, they can be confident in their abilities to be successful teachers once they enter the field. One way pre-service teachers obtain efficacy…

  16. The Relationship between Dogmatism, Orthodox Christian Beliefs, and Ethical Judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Radha J.

    1990-01-01

    Examined relationship between dogmatism, ethical judgment, and orthodox Christian beliefs in master's level counselor education students (N=50). Found dogmatism and orthodox Christian beliefs correlated negatively with ethical judgment. Recommends counselor training programs may better prepare counselors by using a combined emphasis upon values…

  17. The Beliefs behind the Teacher that Influences Their ICT Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestridge, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores teacher beliefs that influence the ways Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) are used in learning contexts. Much has been written about the impact of teachers' beliefs and attitudes to ICT as "barriers" to ICT integration (Ertmer, Ottenbreit-Leftwich, & York, 2007; Higgins & Moseley, 2001; Loveless, 2003). This…

  18. Secondary School Teachers' Beliefs, Attitudes, and Reactions to Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaensens, Stefanie; Struyf, Elke

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The study identifies teachers' beliefs about and attitudes toward stuttering and explores to what extent these beliefs and attitudes prompt specific teachers' reactions to the stuttering of a student. Method: Participants were teachers in secondary education in Flanders (Belgium), currently teaching an adolescent who stutters. They were…

  19. Exploring Teachers’ Beliefs and the Teaching Profession in Aceh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Rahayu Jumiati Ningsih

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Formal teaching is an intentional activity that requires teachers to have beliefs and experiences. Teachers’ beliefs are defined by Johnson (1994 as something that is formed early in life as a result of a person’s education and experience. Strong beliefs about learning and teaching are well established by the time a student completes schooling. This study intends to find out the beliefs of teachers of English at junior and senior high schools in Aceh. The study surveyed three qualified teachers as participants (in which one is also a vice-principal of his school and used 15 questions to ascertain their techniques, beliefs and career paths. The results show that teachers’ beliefs are related to the teaching methodologies that they use. According to the teachers’ beliefs, the teaching methodologies should be varied from time by time according to the situation and the curriculum. Besides, each participant has committed to a career in the teaching profession persistently despite facing many obstacles and challenges during teaching and learning. The participants dreamt of being teachers since they were children. The authors suggest other researchers might see applications of this research for studying the benefits and weaknesses of different teaching methodologies based on teachers’ beliefs

  20. Unraveling the mechanisms for heart failure patients' beliefs about compliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, Martje H. L.; Jaarsma, Tiny; Moser, Debra K.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Compliance with medication, diet, and monitoring symptoms is a problem in heart failure (HF) patients. Noncompliance can lead to worsening symptoms and is associated with personal beliefs about compliance. To intervene effectively, knowledge of factors related to patients' beliefs about

  1. The Relationship between Personal Belief and Inspection Judgements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Anglican school inspectors will usually be Christian. Is it possible that their beliefs might compromise their inspection judgements? Neutrality is impossible when holding opinions or making judgements about matters of signal importance. Religious beliefs are strongly held. Using the concept of "ordinary theology" I argue that religious beliefs…

  2. Students' General and Physics Epistemological Beliefs: A Twofold Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogan-Bekiroglu, Feral; Sengul-Turgut, Gulsen

    2011-01-01

    Background: Although research on epistemological beliefs has expanded over the past two decades, there are still some issues that need to be explored, such as whether epistemological beliefs are domain general or domain specific. Purpose: One of the purposes of this research was to determine if high school students' general epistemological beliefs…

  3. How Epistemological Beliefs Relate to Values and Gender Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessels, Ursula

    2013-01-01

    In response to the current literature on possible systematic differences in the epistemological beliefs of men and women and between members of different cultures, this paper examines the way psychological constructs associated with gender (i.e. gender orientation) and culture (i.e. values) are related to individual's epistemological beliefs.…

  4. Epistemological Beliefs and Epistemic Strategies in Self-Regulated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Tobias; Schmid, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    How do epistemological attitudes and beliefs influence learning from text? We conceptualize epistemological attitudes and beliefs as components of metacognitive knowledge. As such, they serve an important function in regulating the use of epistemic strategies such as knowledge-based validation of information and checking arguments for internal…

  5. Making Theory Relevant: The Gender Attitude and Belief Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Janice

    2013-01-01

    This article describes and evaluates the Gender Attitude and Belief Inventory (GABI), a teaching tool designed to aid students in (a) realizing how sociological theory links to their personal beliefs and (b) exploring any combination of 11 frequently used theoretical perspectives on gender, including both conservative theories (physiological,…

  6. Language Teacher Beliefs in Context: An Activity Theoretical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastandrea, Adam

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to expand on our present knowledge of teacher beliefs in general and particularly to investigate the relationship between teacher beliefs and the context in which teachers work. Specifically, the study addressed and expanded the role of context, which has been inadequately theorized in previous studies investigating…

  7. Modeling Teacher Beliefs and Practices in Context: A Multimethods Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Takako

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship among Japanese high school teachers' beliefs, their practices, and socioeducational factors regarding communicative language teaching (CLT). A multimethods approach was used consisting of a survey, interviews, and class observations. A Teacher Beliefs Questionnaire was sent to 188 randomly selected Japanese…

  8. Using Metaphors to Unpack Student Beliefs about Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinck, Amelie G.; Neale, Henry W., Jr.; Pugalee, David K.; Cifarelli, Victor V.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on an exploratory study of the mathematical beliefs of a group of ninth and tenth grade students at a large, college preparatory, private school in the Southeastern United States. These beliefs were revealed using contemporary metaphor theory. A thematic analysis of the students' metaphors for mathematics indicated that students…

  9. Belief in Afterlife and Death Anxiety: Correlates and Comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aday, Ronald H.

    1985-01-01

    Investigated key variables associated with death anxiety and belief in afterlife among college students (N=181). Results supported the notion that belief in afterlife is primarily a function of religion and not directly a correlate of fear of death. Church attendance was found to be significantly related to both. (JAC)

  10. Nutrition Beliefs of Disadvantaged Parents of Overweight Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescud, Melanie; Pettigrew, Simone; Henley, Nadine

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore low socioeconomic parents' beliefs in relation to children's nutrition. Design: A qualitative, longitudinal study over 12 months involving 37 low socioeconomic parents. Setting: Perth, Western Australia. Method: Parents' nutrition-related beliefs were explored via interviews, focus groups and…

  11. Emotional salience, emotional awareness, peculiar beliefs, and magical thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenbaum, Howard; Boden, M Tyler; Baker, John P

    2009-04-01

    Two studies with college student participants (Ns = 271 and 185) tested whether peculiar beliefs and magical thinking were associated with (a) the emotional salience of the stimuli about which individuals may have peculiar beliefs or magical thinking, (b) attention to emotion, and (c) clarity of emotion. Study 1 examined belief that a baseball team was cursed. Study 2 measured magical thinking using a procedure developed by P. Rozin and C. Nemeroff (2002). In both studies, peculiar beliefs and magical thinking were associated with Salience x Attention x Clarity interactions. Among individuals for whom the objects of the belief-magical thinking were highly emotionally salient and who had high levels of attention to emotion, higher levels of emotional clarity were associated with increased peculiar beliefs-magical thinking. In contrast, among individuals for whom the objects of the belief-magical thinking were not emotionally salient and who had high levels of attention to emotion, higher levels of emotional clarity were associated with diminished peculiar beliefs-magical thinking. PMID:19348532

  12. Understanding the Connection between Epistemic Beliefs and Internet Searching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulyshen, Tianyi Zhang; Koehler, Matthew J.; Gao, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Within the context of exploring an ill-structured task using the Google search engine, this study examined (a) the connections between general epistemic beliefs and the complexity of learners' knowledge exploration processes (i.e., learning complexity) and (b) the role of activating learners' task-oriented epistemic beliefs (i.e., epistemic…

  13. An accidental sect: how war made belief in Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, P.

    2006-01-01

    Idealists consider beliefs cause wars. Realists consider wars cause beliefs. The war in Sierra Leone offers some scope to test between these two views. The main rebel faction, the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) was, sociologically speaking, an accidental sect. It lost its original ideologues at an

  14. Situational Influences upon Children's Beliefs about Global Warming and Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine-Wright, Patrick; Devine-Wright, Hannah; Fleming, Paul

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores children's beliefs about global warming and energy sources from a psychological perspective, focusing upon situational influences upon subjective beliefs, including perceived self-efficacy. The context of the research is one of growing concern at the potential impacts of global warming, yet demonstrably low levels of…

  15. Environmental Knowledge and Beliefs among Grade 10 Students in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyers, Vivian George

    To develop environmental education in Australia, a survey of tenth-grade students was undertaken. Thirty knowledge items and ten belief items were constructed. A panel of environmentalists and educators identified best responses for the knowledge items, and a common reference point, preservation of homo sapiens, for the belief items, so a…

  16. Assessing Teachers' Beliefs about Social and Emotional Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackett, Marc A.; Reyes, Maria R.; Rivers, Susan E.; Elbertson, Nicole A.; Salovey, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Teachers are the primary implementers of social and emotional learning (SEL) programs. Their beliefs about SEL likely influence program delivery, evaluation, and outcomes. A simple tool for measuring these beliefs could be used by school administrators to determine school readiness for SEL programming and by researchers to better understand…

  17. College Student Invulnerability Beliefs and HIV Vaccine Acceptability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravert, Russell D.; Zimet, Gregory D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine behavioral history, beliefs, and vaccine characteristics as predictors of HIV vaccine acceptability. Methods: Two hundred forty-five US under graduates were surveyed regarding their sexual history, risk beliefs, and likelihood of accepting hypothetical HIV vaccines. Results: Multivariate regression analysis indicated that…

  18. Perceptual biases in relation to paranormal and conspiracy beliefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Elk

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that one’s prior beliefs have a strong effect on perceptual decision-making and attentional processing. The present study extends these findings by investigating how individual differences in paranormal and conspiracy beliefs are related to perceptual and attentional bias

  19. Interlinking Physical Beliefs: Children's Bias towards Logical Congruence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloos, Heidi

    2007-01-01

    Young children's naive beliefs about physics are commonly studied as isolated pieces of knowledge. The current paper takes a different approach. It asks whether preschoolers interlink individual beliefs into larger configurations or Gestalts. Such Gestalts bring together knowledge such as how an object's mass relates to its sinking speed, how an…

  20. Belief Revision in the GOAL Agent Programming Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spurkeland, Johannes Svante; Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Villadsen, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    Agents in a multiagent system may in many cases find themselves in situations where inconsistencies arise. In order to properly deal with these, a good belief revision procedure is required. This paper illustrates the usefulness of such a procedure: a certain belief revision algorithm is consider...

  1. Effects of Educational Beliefs on Attitudes towards Using Computer Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onen, Aysem Seda

    2012-01-01

    This study, aiming to determine the relationship between pre-service teachers' beliefs about education and their attitudes towards utilizing computers and internet, is a descriptive study in scanning model. The sampling of the study consisted of 270 pre-service teachers. The potential relationship between the beliefs of pre-service teachers about…

  2. How Experience Shapes Health Beliefs: The Case of Influenza Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrabani, Shosh; Benzion, Uri

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the impact of past experience with influenza and the influenza vaccine on four categories of the Health Belief Model: beliefs about susceptibility to contracting influenza, severity of illness, perceived benefits of the vaccine in preventing influenza, and perceived barriers to getting vaccinated. The study population comprised…

  3. Content Area Reading and Writing: Practices and Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulusoy, Mustafa; Dedeoglu, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate science, social studies, and classroom teachers' reading and writing practices, and to investigate their beliefs about content area reading and writing. One hundred and forty-three teachers filled out the survey developed to learn their content area reading and writing practices and beliefs. In the…

  4. Gender Beliefs and Cooperation in a Public Goods game Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P. van Staveren (Irene); E-M. Sent (Esther-Mirjam); J. Vyrastekova

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWe study the role of gender beliefs for cooperation in a public goods game experiment. Controlling for risk preferences and for subjects’ unconditional willingness to cooperate, we find that gender beliefs affect behavior in homogenous groups where the group composition was announced.

  5. Students' and Instructors' Beliefs about Excellent Lecturers and Discussion Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Gary S.; Benassi, Victor A.

    2006-01-01

    To what extent do students and teachers hold similar beliefs about excellent teaching? Do differences in beliefs have practical implications (e.g., how students rate their teachers on end-of-semester evaluation forms)? In Study 1, undergraduate students (N=414) and faculty members (N=128) responded to questionnaires assessing their perceptions of…

  6. Review on Learner Belief about Second Language Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周小惠

    2013-01-01

    Learner belief is attracting growing attention since it is regarded as one element of individual differences which account for learners’ different achievements in second language learning. This article gives a review on studies of learner belief about second language learning concerning its properties, classifications, and major approaches to investigation. Based on the review, the importance of the research in the ifeld is emphasized.

  7. A national perspective on teachers' efficacy beliefs in deaf education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garberoglio, Carrie Lou; Gobble, Mark E; Cawthon, Stephanie W

    2012-01-01

    Teachers' sense of efficacy, or the belief that teachers have of their capacity to make an impact on students' performance, is an unexplored construct in deaf education research. This study included data from 296 respondents to examine the relationship of teacher and school characteristics with teachers' sense of efficacy in 80 different deaf education settings in the US. Deaf education teachers reported high overall efficacy beliefs but significantly lower efficacy beliefs in the area of student engagement than in instructional strategies and classroom management. Teachers' years of experience showed a significant relationship with efficacy beliefs, yet it was the teachers' perceived collective efficacy of their educational setting that ultimately predicted teachers' sense of efficacy. These findings lend credence to the need for further examination of school processes that influence teacher beliefs and attitudes in deaf education settings. PMID:22470179

  8. High-school Students’ Beliefs about Learning English and Arabic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Meshkat

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a comparative study exploring Iranian high-school students’ beliefs about learning English and Arabic. Horwitz’s (1987 Beliefs about Language Learning Inventory (BALLI was used to collect data from 540 high-school students. One-way multivariate analysis of variance was conducted to analyze the data. The MANOVA results revealed significant differences (F (5, 533 = 47.72, P =.000 between students’ beliefs about learning English and Arabic in four categories of the BALLI: foreign language aptitude, the nature of language learning, learning and communication strategies, and motivation and expectations. Students’ beliefs about the difficulty of learning English and Arabic were not significantly different. The findings might be influential in developing and designing more effective language teaching programs in high-school context.Keywords: Foreign language learning, Beliefs about language learning, BALLI, High-school students, Arabic

  9. The Role of Science Teachers' Beliefs in International Classrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    for educators. Within each of these areas there are specific explorations that examine important areas such as, the roles of beliefs in teaching and learning, the impact of beliefs on student achievement, and ways in which beliefs are connected to teacher actions in the classroom. Throughout all......This book provides science teacher educators and science educational researchers with a current overview on the roles of beliefs in science education settings. There are four focal areas in the book: an overview of this field of research, lines of research, implications for policy, and implications...... of these discussions, there is a focus on international perspectives. Those reading this book can use the research presented to consider how to confront, challenge, and cultivate beliefs during the teacher professional development process....

  10. A general approach to belief change in answer set programming

    CERN Document Server

    Delgrande, James; Tompits, Hans; Woltran, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    We address the problem of belief change in (nonmonotonic) logic programming under answer set semantics. Unlike previous approaches to belief change in logic programming, our formal techniques are analogous to those of distance-based belief revision in propositional logic. In developing our results, we build upon the model theory of logic programs furnished by SE models. Since SE models provide a formal, monotonic characterisation of logic programs, we can adapt techniques from the area of belief revision to belief change in logic programs. We introduce methods for revising and merging logic programs, respectively. For the former, we study both subset-based revision as well as cardinality-based revision, and we show that they satisfy the majority of the AGM postulates for revision. For merging, we consider operators following arbitration merging and IC merging, respectively. We also present encodings for computing the revision as well as the merging of logic programs within the same logic programming framework...

  11. Unresolved mourning, supernatural beliefs and dissociation: a mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Paula; Jaque, S Victoria

    2014-01-01

    Unresolved mourning is marked by disorganized behavior and states of mind. In this study, we speculated that pathological dissociation would mediate the effects of unresolved mourning on supernatural beliefs. This hypothesis was determined based on findings that indicate an association between higher levels of dissociation, stronger beliefs in the supernatural and unresolved mourning. We examined two groups of participants, one classified as non-unresolved (non-U) (n = 56) and the other as unresolved (n = 26) (U) with respect to past loss/trauma as measured by the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Two self-report instruments were administered to measure supernatural beliefs and dissociation. As hypothesized, the multivariate analysis of variance indicated mean differences between the two groups. The unresolved group had greater belief in the supernatural and more pathological dissociative processes. The mediation analysis demonstrated that pathological dissociation fully mediated the effects of unresolved mourning on supernatural beliefs. PMID:24913392

  12. Patienthood in medieval Tuscany: beliefs and cures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawless, Catherine

    2016-06-01

    This paper focuses on intersections of holy and sick bodies in the Tuscan Middle Ages to examine how the faithful accessed miraculous cures from contact with, or belief in, the relics of the saints. Rather than examine the relationship between the long dead martyrs (whose relics were abundant), however, it will look at the relationship between relatively recent saints and their devotees. The miracles discussed are traditional-that is, they are found in the lives of many saints and are not exceptional. It is hoped, however, that by concentrating on Tuscany, some insights can be secured on the relationship between Tuscan individuals of the late middle ages and those of their community who were recognised, either officially or through vox populi, as saints. PMID:27174846

  13. Essentialist beliefs about personality and their implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, Nick; Bastian, Brock; Bissett, Melanie

    2004-12-01

    Two studies examine implicit theories about the nature of personality characteristics, asking whether they are understood as underlying essences. Consistent with the hypothesis, essentialist beliefs about personality formed a coherent and replicable set. Personality characteristics differed systematically in the extent to which they were judged to be discrete, biologically based, immutable, informative, consistent across situations, and deeply inherent within the person. In Study 1, the extent to which characteristics were essentialized was positively associated with their perceived desirability, prevalence, and emotionality. In Study 2, essentialized characteristics were judged to be particularly important for defining people's identity, for forming impressions of people, and for communicating about a third person. The findings indicate that people understand some personality attributes in an essentialist fashion, that these attributes are taken to be valued elements of a shared human nature, and that they are particularly central to social identity and judgment.

  14. Expert Advice, Control, and Heterogeneous Beliefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Rosa, Leonidas Enrique

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of overconfidence in an investment-decision setting. A risk-averse agent privately observes information relevant to an investment decision, that he can report to a principal. In a standard common-priors setting, the optimal contract provides full insurance to the ag......This paper studies the effects of overconfidence in an investment-decision setting. A risk-averse agent privately observes information relevant to an investment decision, that he can report to a principal. In a standard common-priors setting, the optimal contract provides full insurance......) principal, and hence bear some project risk in equilibrium. In addition, because what the principal considers to be the optimal investment rule is too conservative according to the agent’s beliefs and the agent holds some stake in the choice of investment rule, he will accept a lower fixed payment...

  15. Preferences and beliefs in ingroup favouritism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Albert Charlton Everett

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ingroup favouritism – the tendency to favour members of one’s own group over those in other groups – is well documented, but the mechanisms driving this behavior are not well understood. In particular, it is unclear to what extent ingroup favouritism is driven by preferences concerning the welfare of ingroup over outgroup members, versus beliefs about the behaviour of ingroup and outgroup members. In this review we analyse research on ingroup favouritism in economic games, identifying key gaps in the literature and providing suggestions on how future work can incorporate these insights to shed further light on when, why, and how ingroup favouritism occurs. In doing so, we demonstrate how social psychological theory and research can be integrated with findings from behavioral economics, providing new theoretical and methodological directions for future research.

  16. Nuclear energy: beliefs, values and acceptability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The last decade has seen a dramatic increase in public concern about nuclear energy. As a consequence, it has become recognised that the future of nuclear energy will not only depend on technical and economic factors, but that public acceptability of this technology will play a crucial role in the long-term future of nuclear energy. Research has shown a considerable divergence in public and expert assessment of the risks associated with nuclear energy. Qualitative aspects of risks play a dominant role in the public's perception of risks, and it seems necessary for experts to recognise this in order to improve relations with the general public. It is also clear, however, that differences in the perception of risks do not embrace all the relevant aspects of the public's assessment of nuclear energy. Public reaction is also related to more general beliefs and values, and the issue of nuclear energy is embedded in a much wider moral and political domain. (author)

  17. Essentialist beliefs about personality and their implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, Nick; Bastian, Brock; Bissett, Melanie

    2004-12-01

    Two studies examine implicit theories about the nature of personality characteristics, asking whether they are understood as underlying essences. Consistent with the hypothesis, essentialist beliefs about personality formed a coherent and replicable set. Personality characteristics differed systematically in the extent to which they were judged to be discrete, biologically based, immutable, informative, consistent across situations, and deeply inherent within the person. In Study 1, the extent to which characteristics were essentialized was positively associated with their perceived desirability, prevalence, and emotionality. In Study 2, essentialized characteristics were judged to be particularly important for defining people's identity, for forming impressions of people, and for communicating about a third person. The findings indicate that people understand some personality attributes in an essentialist fashion, that these attributes are taken to be valued elements of a shared human nature, and that they are particularly central to social identity and judgment. PMID:15536247

  18. Revising beliefs based in evidence versus affect: Effects on knowledge acquisition and conceptual change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Thomas D.

    Theoretical treatments on the issue of conceptual change have paid little attention to the distinction between acquiring knowledge that conflicts with prior beliefs and revising prior beliefs in light of that new knowledge. Models of conceptual change that fail to make the knowledge-belief distinction can produce faulty predictions and interpretations, and prevent us from discovering the factors that independently impact knowledge acquisition and belief revision. Beliefs vary widely in whether they are based in coherence with known evidence and conceptual representations versus their promotion of affective values and goals. Study 1 provided empirical demonstrations of the prevalence of affect-based beliefs, the high degree of both between- and within-person variability in belief basis, and the validity of self-reports in assessing that variation. Study 2 supported present arguments about why the popular educational constructs of personal epistemology are not useful for understanding the evidence-affect basis of beliefs. This variability in belief basis represents variability in the coherence and specificity of the conceptual structure underlying different beliefs. Thus, the effects of prior beliefs on knowledge acquisition and subsequent belief revision may depend upon the underlying evidence-affect basis of prior beliefs. Study 1 provided data suggesting that belief revision is a separate process and not a mere by-product of acquiring belief-conflicting knowledge, and that revision is less likely when prior beliefs are initially held for affective reasons. Study 3 supported current predictions that comprehension of belief-conflicting and belief-consistent information is better when prior beliefs are evidence- rather than affect-based. In addition, the comprehension of belief-conflicting and belief-consistent information was equivalent. The widespread, but previously untested, assumption that prior beliefs impede the learning of belief-conflicting information may

  19. A study of patterns in pedagogical beliefs of preservice science teachers over three semesters of instruction and associated practica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggett, Deborah Lynn

    The purpose of this study was to identify patterns in secondary science preservice teacher beliefs and to compare beliefs to classroom practice. The participants of the study included a total of 42 secondary science preservice teachers in three different semesters of their teacher preparation program. Three types of data were collected that included a Likert scale survey, written responses to open-ended questions, and classroom observations. The instruments were designed to elicit beliefs about teaching, learning, constructivist strategies, and classroom practice. The data were analyzed using primarily multivariate statistical methods. Cluster analysis was used to identify patterns within cohorts regarding teacher beliefs, constructivist strategies, and classroom practices. Multivariate analysis of variance was used to identify differences among the cohorts. Major findings included: (1) Patterns of preservice science teachers beliefs were complex. No typical pattern was identified. (2) Beliefs and practice rarely coincided for students in the first two semesters. Beliefs and practice became more consistent with students in the third semester. (3) Personal relevance and cooperative learning were identified as important aspects of a constructivist classroom. However, participants did not perceive their students as allowed to share decisions regarding classroom management, lesson design, or assessment. (4) The classroom environment of the cooperating teacher was important to demonstrate constructivist strategies. When students received support in developing constructivist lessons, they tended to teach in student-centered ways regardless of their beliefs. When students were given more independence in pedagogical decisions and less support from the cooperating teacher, practice more closely resembled beliefs. (5) Most students without prior coursework in the philosophy and history of science did not respond to questions regarding the nature of science. The majority of

  20. Exploring beliefs about heart failure treatment in adherent and nonadherent patients: use of the repertory grid technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cottrell WN

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available William Neil Cottrell,1 Charles P Denaro,2,3 Lynne Emmerton1,41School of Pharmacy, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld, Australia; 2Department of Internal Medicine and Aged Care, The Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Brisbane, Qld, Australia; 3School of Medicine, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld, Australia; 4Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, School of Pharmacy, Curtin University, Perth, WA, AustraliaPurpose: Beliefs about medicines impact on adherence, but eliciting core beliefs about medicines in individual patients is difficult. One method that has the potential to elicit individual core beliefs is the "repertory grid technique." This study utilized the repertory grid technique to elicit individuals' beliefs about their heart failure treatment and to investigate whether generated constructs were different between adherent and nonadherent patients.Methods: Ninety-two patients with heart failure were interviewed using a structured questionnaire that applied the repertory grid technique. Patients were asked to compare and contrast their medicines and self-care activities for their heart failure. This lead to the generation of individual constructs (perceptions towards medicines, and from these, beliefs were elicited about their heart failure treatment, resulting in the generation of a repertory grid. Adherence was measured using the Medication Adherence Report Scale (MARS. Patients with a MARS score ≥ 23 were categorized as "adherent" and those with a score ≤ 22 as "nonadherent." The generated grids were analyzed descriptively and constructs from all grids themed and the frequency of these constructs compared between adherent and nonadherent patients.Results: Individual grids provided insight into the different beliefs that patients held about their heart failure treatment. The themed constructs "related to water," "affect the heart," "related to weight," and "benefit to the heart" occurred more frequently in adherent

  1. Tracking Public Beliefs About Anthropogenic Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Lawrence C; Hartter, Joel; Lemcke-Stampone, Mary; Moore, David W; Safford, Thomas G

    2015-01-01

    A simple question about climate change, with one choice designed to match consensus statements by scientists, was asked on 35 US nationwide, single-state or regional surveys from 2010 to 2015. Analysis of these data (over 28,000 interviews) yields robust and exceptionally well replicated findings on public beliefs about anthropogenic climate change, including regional variations, change over time, demographic bases, and the interacting effects of respondent education and political views. We find that more than half of the US public accepts the scientific consensus that climate change is happening now, caused mainly by human activities. A sizable, politically opposite minority (about 30 to 40%) concede the fact of climate change, but believe it has mainly natural causes. Few (about 10 to 15%) say they believe climate is not changing, or express no opinion. The overall proportions appear relatively stable nationwide, but exhibit place-to-place variations. Detailed analysis of 21 consecutive surveys within one fairly representative state (New Hampshire) finds a mild but statistically significant rise in agreement with the scientific consensus over 2010-2015. Effects from daily temperature are detectable but minor. Hurricane Sandy, which brushed New Hampshire but caused no disaster there, shows no lasting impact on that state's time series-suggesting that non-immediate weather disasters have limited effects. In all datasets political orientation dominates among individual-level predictors of climate beliefs, moderating the otherwise positive effects from education. Acceptance of anthropogenic climate change rises with education among Democrats and Independents, but not so among Republicans. The continuing series of surveys provides a baseline for tracking how future scientific, political, socioeconomic or climate developments impact public acceptance of the scientific consensus.

  2. Tracking Public Beliefs About Anthropogenic Climate Change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence C Hamilton

    Full Text Available A simple question about climate change, with one choice designed to match consensus statements by scientists, was asked on 35 US nationwide, single-state or regional surveys from 2010 to 2015. Analysis of these data (over 28,000 interviews yields robust and exceptionally well replicated findings on public beliefs about anthropogenic climate change, including regional variations, change over time, demographic bases, and the interacting effects of respondent education and political views. We find that more than half of the US public accepts the scientific consensus that climate change is happening now, caused mainly by human activities. A sizable, politically opposite minority (about 30 to 40% concede the fact of climate change, but believe it has mainly natural causes. Few (about 10 to 15% say they believe climate is not changing, or express no opinion. The overall proportions appear relatively stable nationwide, but exhibit place-to-place variations. Detailed analysis of 21 consecutive surveys within one fairly representative state (New Hampshire finds a mild but statistically significant rise in agreement with the scientific consensus over 2010-2015. Effects from daily temperature are detectable but minor. Hurricane Sandy, which brushed New Hampshire but caused no disaster there, shows no lasting impact on that state's time series-suggesting that non-immediate weather disasters have limited effects. In all datasets political orientation dominates among individual-level predictors of climate beliefs, moderating the otherwise positive effects from education. Acceptance of anthropogenic climate change rises with education among Democrats and Independents, but not so among Republicans. The continuing series of surveys provides a baseline for tracking how future scientific, political, socioeconomic or climate developments impact public acceptance of the scientific consensus.

  3. Development of the Oldenburg Epistemic Beliefs Questionnaire (OLEQ), a German Questionnaire Based on the Epistemic Belief Inventory (EBI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paechter, Manuela; Rebmann, Karin; Schloemer, Tobias; Mokwinski, Bjoern; Hanekamp, Yvonne; Arendasy, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The present research describes the development of a German questionnaire for measurement of domain-general epistemic beliefs. Pre-studies on the psychometric properties of a German version of the Epistemic Beliefs Inventory (EBI) had emphasized the necessity to develop an instrument that is especially constructed for German-speaking samples. The…

  4. The Change in Epistemological Beliefs and Beliefs about Teaching and Learning: A Study among Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Ching Sing; Teo, Timothy; Lee, Chwee Beng

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the change in Singaporean pre-service teachers' epistemological beliefs and beliefs about learning and teaching over the course of a teacher preparation program. An online survey was administered during the first week of a nine-month program and the same survey was administered after the 413 participants had completed all…

  5. Traditional Christian belief and belief in the supernatural: Diverging trends in the Netherlands between 1979 and 2005?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, N.D. de; Grotenhuis, H.F. te

    2008-01-01

    Is there an ongoing decline in religious beliefs in the Netherlands? Using cross-sectional data from 1979 up to 2005, we focus on traditional Christian faith and belief in the supernatural; the literature suggests that they undergo diverging trends. We first describe these trends using the Social an

  6. Traditional Christian Belief and Belief in the Supernatural : Diverging Trends in the Netherlands Between 1979 and 2005?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, Nan Dirk de; Grotenhuis, Manfred te

    2008-01-01

    Is there an ongoing decline in religious beliefs in the Netherlands? Using cross-sectional data from 1979 up to 2005, we focus on traditional Christian faith and belief in the supernatural; the literature suggests that they undergo diverging trends. We first describe these trends using the Social an

  7. How Ordering of Assignments Can Influence Beliefs about the Self and How These Beliefs Can Impact on Student Class Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, David S.; DeShields, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    This research examines whether the ordering of the difficulty of exams can influence student beliefs about their academic abilities and the impact of these beliefs on their performance. The ordering of the difficulty of test items has shown to affect performance. Study One (n = 91) examined college student differences in reaction to a difficult…

  8. Epistemic Beliefs and Beliefs about Teaching Practices for Moral Learning in the Early Years of School: Relationships and Complexities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn Brownlee, Jo; Johansson, Eva; Cobb-Moore, Charlotte; Boulton-Lewis, Gillian; Walker, Sue; Ailwood, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    While investment in young children is recognised as important for the development of moral values for a cohesive society, little is known about early years teaching practices that promote learning of moral values. This paper reports on observations and interviews with 11 Australian teachers, focusing on their epistemic beliefs and beliefs about…

  9. Can Legal Interventions Change Beliefs? The Effect of Exposure to Sexual Harassment Policy on Men's Gender Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinkler, Justine Eatenson; Li, Yan E.; Mollborn, Stefanie

    2007-01-01

    In spite of the relative success of equal opportunity laws on women's status in the workplace, we know little about the influence of such legal interventions on people's attitudes and beliefs. This paper focuses, in particular, on how sexual harassment policy affects men's beliefs about the gender hierarchy. We employ an experimental design in…

  10. Cognition and belief in paranormal phenomena: gestalt/feature-intensive processing theory and tendencies toward ADHD, depression, and dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharps, Matthew J; Matthews, Justin; Asten, Janet

    2006-11-01

    Belief in paranormal phenomena and cryptids--unknown animals such as Bigfoot--may predispose individuals to interpret real-world objects and events in the same way that eyewitness identification can be biased by unrelated information (P. James and N. Thorpe, 1999). Psychological tendencies toward attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), dissociation, and depression, even at subclinical levels, may be associated systematically with particular paranormal or cryptozoological beliefs. The authors evaluated these psychological tendencies using the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scales (C. K. Conners, D. Erhardt, and E. Sparrow, 1999), the Dissociative Experiences Scale (L. Coleman & J. Clark, 1999), and the Beck Depression Inventory-II (A. T. Beck, 1996). They performed regression analyses against beliefs in ghosts, unidentified flying objects (UFOs), extrasensory perception (ESP), astrology, and cryptids. ADHD, dissociation, and depression were associated with enhanced tendencies toward paranormal and cryptozoological beliefs, although participants who believed in each of the phenomena differed from one another in predictable and psychologically distinguishable ways. Cognitively biasing influences of preexisting psychological tendencies may predispose individuals to specific perceptual and cognitive errors during confrontation of real-world phenomena. PMID:17144153

  11. Knowledge formalization for vector data matching using belief theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Olteanu-Raimond

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays geographic vector data is produced both by public and private institutions using well defined specifications or crowdsourcing via Web 2.0 mapping portals. As a result, multiple representations of the same real world objects exist, without any links between these different representations. This becomes an issue when integration, updates, or multi-level analysis needs to be performed, as well as for data quality assessment. In this paper a multi-criteria data matching approach allowing the automatic definition of links between identical features is proposed. The originality of the approach is that the process is guided by an explicit representation and fusion of knowledge from various sources. Moreover the imperfection (imprecision, uncertainty, and incompleteness is explicitly modeled in the process. Belief theory is used to represent and fuse knowledge from different sources, to model imperfection, and make a decision. Experiments are reported on real data coming from different producers, having different scales and either representing relief (isolated points or road networks (linear data.

  12. American Medical Students’ Beliefs in the Effectiveness of Alternative Medicine

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    Erica Frank

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: While the use of complementary and alternative medical therapy (CAM is common in the U.S., there have been no prior national studies of CAM-related attitudes of U.S. medical students.Methods: We surveyed the Class of 2003 at freshman orientation, entrance to wards, and senior year in a nationally representative sample of 16 U.S. medical schools. Our primary outcome of interest was students’ Likert-scaled responses to the statement “Alternative medicine can often be as effective as traditional medicine.”Results: With 4764 responses overall (a response rate of 80.3%, 9% strongly agreed, 45% agreed, 34% neither agreed nor disagreed, 11% disagreed, and 2% strongly disagreed that alternative medicine could be as effective as traditional medicine. Students became modestly more polarized in their beliefs, moving from 37% of students neither agreeing nor disagreeing with the statement at freshman year to 31% at senior year. Several variables including gender, paternal educational level, ethnicity, religion, political self-characterization, intended specialty, and prevention-orientation were associated with agreement.Conclusions: U.S. patients commonly use CAM, but newly-minted U.S. physicians’ are often skeptical about its efficacy. This disconnect may make it difficult to integrate patients’ CAM use into clinical decision-making.

  13. Metric Ranking of Invariant Networks with Belief Propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Changxia [Xi' an Jiaotong University, China; Ge, Yong [University of North Carolina, Charlotte; Song, Qinbao [Xi' an Jiaotong University, China; Ge, Yuan [Anhui Polytechnic University, China; Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The management of large-scale distributed information systems relies on the effective use and modeling of monitoring data collected at various points in the distributed information systems. A promising approach is to discover invariant relationships among the monitoring data and generate invariant networks, where a node is a monitoring data source (metric) and a link indicates an invariant relationship between two monitoring data. Such an invariant network representation can help system experts to localize and diagnose the system faults by examining those broken invariant relationships and their related metrics, because system faults usually propagate among the monitoring data and eventually lead to some broken invariant relationships. However, at one time, there are usually a lot of broken links (invariant relationships) within an invariant network. Without proper guidance, it is difficult for system experts to manually inspect this large number of broken links. Thus, a critical challenge is how to effectively and efficiently rank metrics (nodes) of invariant networks according to the anomaly levels of metrics. The ranked list of metrics will provide system experts with useful guidance for them to localize and diagnose the system faults. To this end, we propose to model the nodes and the broken links as a Markov Random Field (MRF), and develop an iteration algorithm to infer the anomaly of each node based on belief propagation (BP). Finally, we validate the proposed algorithm on both realworld and synthetic data sets to illustrate its effectiveness.

  14. Illness perception in pediatric somatization and asthma: complaints and health locus of control beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bundschuh Silke

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health- and illness-related cognitions of pediatric patients with asthma or somatization and of their caregivers are considered relevant for patient education and for cognitive-behavioral interventions. This study investigates the relationship between diagnosis and illness perception by child and parent in two different chronic conditions such as somatization disorder and asthma. Methods 25 patients with somatoform disorders and 25 patients with asthma bronchiale completed the Giessen Complaint List and the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale. Primary caregivers independently answered parallel proxy-report instruments. Analyses of variance were performed to determine the impact of diagnosis and perspective. Correlations were calculated to determine the concordance between patient and caregiver reports. Results No statistically significant differences in illness locus of control beliefs were found between asthma and somatoform disorder children or parents. Parents reported more internal and fatalistic locus of control beliefs compared with their children. Correlations between patient and caregiver reports of symptoms and health locus of control beliefs were low to moderate. Conclusion Clinicians should take into account a sense of insufficient symptom control in both diagnostic groups and different viewpoints of patients and their parents.

  15. Gagging and Associations with Dental Care-Related Fear, Fear of Pain, and Beliefs about Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Cameron L.; Shulman, Grant P.; Crout, Richard J.; McNeil, Daniel W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Gagging is a behavioral response that interferes with oral health care and has been suggested to relate to dental care-related fear. Little is known, however, about the epidemiology of gagging during dental treatment. Methods To explore this phenomenon, 478 participants were recruited from the waiting area of an oral diagnosis clinic. Participants completed the Dental Fear Survey, the Short Form-Fear of Pain Questionnaire, Dental Beliefs Scale, and a demographics questionnaire that included items about problems with gagging. Results Over half of the participants reported gagging on at least one occasion during dental visits, with 7.5% almost always, or always gagging. With higher frequency of problems with gagging, patients were more likely to have greater levels of dental care-related fear, fear of pain, and more negative beliefs of dental professionals and dental treatment. Further, participants who gagged more readily had greater dental care-related fear than other gaggers. Conclusion Gagging in the dental clinic is a prevalent problem, and dental care-related fear and fear of pain are associated with more frequent gagging. Clinical Implications Given the prevalence of patients reporting problem gagging, it may be helpful for providers to assess for this barrier to treatment. By targeting dental care-related fear, fear of pain, and negative beliefs about dental care in patients who often gag in the clinic, gagging may be reduced in frequency or intensity, potentially making treatment more comfortable for patients and easier for dental care providers. PMID:24789238

  16. Is Web-Based Education Effective in Reducing Belief Toward Drug Abuse Among College Students?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalilian

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Addiction is considered a basic structural problem in modern society, and seems to reach an epidemic scale in the last decades. Choosing a method to fulfill the intervention is an important issue to conduct educational interventions to prevent addictive behaviors. In this regard, web-based education has been widely used to introduce preventive programs to risky behaviors during recent years. Objectives The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of web-based education intervention to decrease positive beliefs encouraging drug abuse among male medical college students. Patients and Methods This was a prospective-retrospective intervention study that was conducted among 75 male students in Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran, during 2014. t-test was used for the statistical analysis. Results Our findings indicated that the belief toward drug abuse was significantly reduced after education (P = 0.003. In addition, compared pre and post-intervention scores on survey items showed a significant reduction in enjoyment, improve energy, attraction, higher strength, and higher self-esteem items after education (P 0.05. Conclusions Our findings showed that designing and implementing web-based educational intervention could be effective to reduce the positive beliefs toward drug abuse among college students.

  17. Costly myths: An analysis of idling beliefs and behavior in personal motor vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the large contribution of individuals and households to climate change, little has been done in the US to reduce the CO2 emissions attributable to this sector. Motor vehicle idling among individual private citizens is one behavior that may be amenable to large-scale policy interventions. Currently, little data are available to quantify the potential reductions in emissions that could be realized by successful policy interventions. In addition, little is known about the motivations and beliefs that underlie idling. In the fall of 2007, 1300 drivers in the US were surveyed to assess typical idling practices, beliefs and motivations. Results indicate that the average individual idled for over 16 min a day and believed that a vehicle can be idled for at least 3.6 min before it is better to turn it off. Those who held inaccurate beliefs idled, on average, over 1 min longer than the remainder of the sample. These data suggest that idling accounts for over 93 MMt of CO2 and 10.6 billion gallons (40.1 billion liters) of gasoline a year, equaling 1.6% of all US emissions. Much of this idling is unnecessary and economically disadvantageous to drivers. The policy implications of these findings are discussed.

  18. Costly myths. An analysis of idling beliefs and behavior in personal motor vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the large contribution of individuals and households to climate change, little has been done in the US to reduce the CO2 emissions attributable to this sector. Motor vehicle idling among individual private citizens is one behavior that may be amenable to large-scale policy interventions. Currently, little data are available to quantify the potential reductions in emissions that could be realized by successful policy interventions. In addition, little is known about the motivations and beliefs that underlie idling. In the fall of 2007, 1300 drivers in the US were surveyed to assess typical idling practices, beliefs and motivations. Results indicate that the average individual idled for over 16 min a day and believed that a vehicle can be idled for at least 3.6 min before it is better to turn it off. Those who held inaccurate beliefs idled, on average, over 1 min longer than the remainder of the sample. These data suggest that idling accounts for over 93 MMt of CO2 and 10.6 billion gallons (40.1 billion liters) of gasoline a year, equaling 1.6% of all US emissions. Much of this idling is unnecessary and economically disadvantageous to drivers. The policy implications of these findings are discussed. (author)

  19. Psychometric properties of the Chinese craving beliefs questionnaire for heroin abusers in methadone treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yi-Lien

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper reports the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of Craving Beliefs Questionnaire (CCBQ, an easy-to-administer assessment instrument of measurement of craving beliefs for heroin abusers. Methods Participants were 445 heroin abusers from four methadone clinics in Northern Taiwan. Fifty-one of the participants were tested twice within a two-week period at a different hospital to examine test-retest reliability. Results Three-factor solution using principal component analysis was identified in the CCBQ: will power, compulsive behavior, and negative coping, accounting for 54.6% of the variance. Internal consistency analysis indicated that the three factors have strong reliability, with Cronbach alphas ranging from .81 to .92. The test-retest ICC coefficient is .80. The test-retest coefficients for the subscales will power, compulsive behavior, and negative coping are .76, .51, and .64, respectively. Overall, the data show that the CCBQ has acceptable reliability and validity, demonstrating that it can be a research instrument for assessing heroin craving beliefs. Conclusions The psychometric properties of the CCBQ seem promising for both research and clinical purposes, and the scale thus deserves further refinement and validation with heroin abusers.

  20. A COMPARISON OF FOOTBALL PLAYERS’ SPORT CONFIDENCE AND SELF-EFFICACY BELIEFS IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozan BOZKURT

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to examine the sport confidence and self-efficacy beliefs in football players participating in either super league (N = 48 or second league (N = 53. Athletes completed the Trait Sport Confidence Inventory (TSCI, State Sport Confidence Invetory (SSCI, and Self-Efficacy Scale (SES. Pearson Moment Correlation results indicated a positive significant relationship between State Sport Confidence and Self-Efficacy levels (r = .492, Trait Sport Confidence and Self-Efficacty levels (r = .493 and State Sport Confidence and Trait Sport Confidence levels (r = .766 of the Super League players. Results also revealed a non-significant relationship between State Sport Confidence and Self-Efficacy levels (r = .227 and a postive significant relationship was found between Trait Sport Confidence and Self-Efficacty levels (r = .271 and State Sport Confidence and Trait Sport Confidence levels (r = .787 of the Second League players. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA analyses revealed significant differences between the Super League and Second League players’ self-efficacy beliefs (F(1,99 = 7.188, p = .009. The linear regression results revealed that for both the Super League and Second League players, trait sport-confidence predicted state sport-confidence and self-efficacy. Finally, it was revealed that the super league and second league football players were similar with regard to sport confidence, whereas, they had different self-efficacy beliefs..

  1. Highly reflective reasoners show no signs of belief inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedholm-Häkkinen, Annika M

    2015-01-01

    The processes underlying individual differences in reasoning performance are not entirely understood. What do people who do well on reasoning tasks where beliefs and logic conflict do differently from other people? Because abundant evidence shows that even poorer reasoners detect these conflicts, it has been suggested that individual differences in reasoning performance arise from inhibition failures later in the reasoning process. The present paper argues that a minority of highly skilled reasoners may deviate from this general reasoning process from an early stage. Two studies investigated signs of belief inhibition using a lexical access paradigm (Study 1) and a negative priming paradigm (Study 2). Study 1 showed that while other people exhibited signs of belief inhibition following a belief-logic conflict, people with the highest disposition for cognitive reflection did not. In Study 2, this finding was replicated and similar results were also obtained when comparing groups with higher and lower general cognitive ability. Two possible explanations are discussed. The reasoners with a highly reflective cognitive style or high general cognitive ability may have engaged and inhibited belief processing but if so, they may have been exceptionally efficient at recovering from it, wherefore no belief inhibition effects were found. An alternative account is that these reasoners started Type 2 processing directly, without first engaging in and then inhibiting belief-based processing. Under either explanation, the results indicate that individual differences in reasoning may partly arise from differences that occur early in the reasoning process.

  2. The Belief in Magic in the Age of Science

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    Eugene Subbotsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The widely spread view on magical beliefs in modern industrial cultures contends that magical beliefs are a bunch of curious phenomena that persist today as an unnecessary addition to a much more important set of rational beliefs. Contrary to this view, in this article, the view is presented, which suggests that the belief in magic is a fundamental property of the human mind. Individuals can consciously consider themselves to be completely rational people and deny that they believe in magic or God despite harboring a subconscious belief in the supernatural. Research also shows how engagement in magical thinking can enhance cognitive functioning, such as creative thinking, perception and memory. Moreover, this article suggests that certain forms of social compliance and obedience to authority historically evolved from magical practices of mind control and are still powered by the implicit belief in magic. Finally, the article outlines areas of life, such as education, religion, political influence, commerce, military and political terror, and entertainment, in which magical thinking and beliefs of modern people can find practical applications.

  3. "Lean not on your own understanding": Belief that morality is founded on divine authority and non-utilitarian moral judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared Piazza

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has shown that religious individuals are much more resistant to utilitarian modes of thinking than their less religious counterparts, but the reason for this is not clear. We propose that a meta-ethical belief that morality is rooted in inviolable divine commands (i.e., endorsement of Divine Command Theory may help explain this finding. We present a novel 20-item scale measuring a belief that morality is founded on divine authority. The scale shows good internal reliability and convergent and discriminant validity. Study 1 found that this scale fully mediated the relationship that various religiosity measures had with a deontological thinking style in our sample of American adults. It also accounted for the link between religiosity and social conservative values. Furthermore, the relationship between the scale and these outcome variables held after statistically controlling for variables related to actively open-minded thinking and the Big Five. Study 2 replicated the results using naturalistic moral dilemmas that placed deontological and utilitarian concerns in conflict, and showed that the results of Study 1 cannot be explained by differences in moral foundations (e.g., concern for authority more generally or differences in the perceived function of rules. Quite the contrary, endorsement of the divine origins of morality fully mediated the relationship religiosity had with the so-called ``binding'' foundations (i.e., Loyalty, Authority, and Sanctity. Our findings highlight the importance of meta-ethical beliefs for understanding individual differences in moral judgment.

  4. A shorter and multidimensional version of the Gambling Attitudes and Beliefs Survey (GABS-23).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouju, Gaëlle; Hardouin, Jean-Benoit; Boutin, Claude; Gorwood, Philip; Le Bourvellec, Jean-Damien; Feuillet, Fanny; Venisse, Jean-Luc; Grall-Bronnec, Marie

    2014-06-01

    The Gambling Attitudes and Beliefs Survey (GABS) is a questionnaire which explores gambling-related dysfunctional beliefs in an unidimensional way. The present research aims to investigate the dimensionality of the scale. 343 undergraduate student gamblers and 75 pathological gamblers seeking treatment completed the GABS and the south oaks gambling screen. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed that the original one-factor structure of the GABS did not fit the data effectively. We then proposed a shorter version of the GABS (GABS-23) with a new five-factor structure, which fitted with the data more efficiently. The comparisons between students (problem vs. non-problem gamblers) and pathological gamblers seeking treatment indicated that the GABS-23 can discriminate between problem and non-problem gamblers as efficiently as the original GABS. To ensure the validity and the stability of the new structure of the GABS-23, analyses were replicated in an independent sample that consisted of 628 gamblers (256 non problem gamblers, 169 problem gamblers who are not treatment-seeking and 203 problem gamblers seeking treatment). Analyses showed satisfactory results, and the multidimensional structure of the GABS-23 was then confirmed. The GABS-23 seems to be a valid and useful assessment tool for screening gambling-related beliefs, emotions and attitudes among problem and non-problem gamblers. Moreover, it presents the advantage of being shorter than the original GABS, and of screening irrational beliefs and attitudes about gambling in a multidimensional way. The five-factor model of the GABS-23 is discussed based on the theory of locus of control. PMID:23334576

  5. Self-Perception of Parental Role, Family Functioning, and Familistic Beliefs in Italian Parents: Early Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvecchio, Elisa; Di Riso, Daniela; Salcuni, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has explored the relationships between family and cultural issues, claiming attention on the need to consider and evaluate cultural values and beliefs as useful factors to promote positive family adjustment and parenting outcomes (Cardoso and Thompson, 2010; Taylor et al., 2012). This paper explored self-perception of parental role, family maladjustment and cultural beliefs in a sample of Italian parents. More specifically, 204 mother and 204 fathers of adolescents (13-17 years old) filled self-report questionnaires about family system maladjustment (Family Assessment Measure-III), self-perception of parental role (Self-Perception of Parental Role), parents' beliefs and attitudes toward the family (Attitudinal Familism Scale), and parents' cultural values (Cultural Values Survey). Results showed that parents have a similar self-perception of family functioning and they share common cultural beliefs and values toward the family. However, fathers felt more satisfied and involved in parenting then mothers and they were more able to balance the different roles of their life. Mothers and fathers showed a similar path of correlations, in which greater level of satisfaction in parenting and better ability in role balancing correlated with a more positive family adjustment. Moreover, a higher perception of family maladjustment was associated to lower levels of family cohesion and cooperation. Furthermore, higher levels of satisfaction were associated to higher scores in family solidarity, equality among sexes and equality in decision takers. These results introduce important implications for family studies in Italian culture, and open to comparison with parenting in other cultures. PMID:26793134

  6. Self-perception of parental role, family functioning and familistic beliefs in Italian parents: early evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa eDelvecchio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has explored the relationships between family and cultural issues, claiming attention on the need to consider and evaluate cultural values and beliefs as useful factors to promote positive family adjustment and parenting outcomes (Cardoso and Thompson, 2010; Taylor, et al., 2012. This paper explored self-perception of parental role, family maladjustment and cultural beliefs in a sample of Italian parents. More specifically, 204 mother and 204 fathers of adolescents (13 to 17 years old filled self-report questionnaires about family system maladjustment (Family Assessment Measure-III, self-perception of parental role (Self-Perception of Parental Role, parents’ beliefs and attitudes toward the family (Attitudinal Familism Scale, and parents’ cultural values (Cultural Values Survey. Results showed that parents have a similar self-perception of family functioning and they share common cultural beliefs and values toward the family. However, fathers felt more satisfied and involved in parenting then mothers and they were more able to balance the different roles of their life. Mothers and fathers showed a similar path of correlations, in which greater level of satisfaction in parenting and better ability in role balancing correlated with a more positive family adjustment. Moreover, a higher perception of family maladjustment was associated to lower levels of family cohesion and cooperation. Furthermore, higher levels of satisfaction were associated to higher scores in family solidarity, equality among sexes and equality in decision takers. These results introduce important implications for family studies in Italian culture, and open to comparison with parenting in other cultures.

  7. Effectiveness of Coping Skills Education Program to Reduce Craving Beliefs among Addicts Referred To Addiction Centers in Hamadan: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ahmadpanah

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important factors affecting relapse of addiction is craving beliefs of substance use. The goal of the present study was assessment of the effectiveness of coping skills education program to reduce craving beliefs among opium addicts.In a randomized controlled trial, during September 2011 to August 2012, 70 opium addicted men referred to the Behavioral Disorders and Substance Abuse Research Center in Hamadan, western Iran were assigned to intervention group (receiving coping skills education program and control groups. The study information was analyzed using SPSS software.Regarding craving beliefs for continuing drug use, the two groups had similar scales at the beginning of interventional program, while the level of these beliefs was significantly reduced in the intervention group (P= 0.002, but not in the control group (P= 0.105. Also, a significant correlation was also revealed between taking advantage of the educational program and increase awareness of the signs of relapse in the intervention group (P=0.003 that was not revealed in the control (P= 0.174. On the other hand, executing coping skills education program led to reducecraving beliefs and improve knowledge towards signs of relapse.Our findings demonstrate positive impact of coping skills education program after detoxification process on decrease of craving beliefs among opium addicts.

  8. Impact of biomedical and biopsychosocial training sessions on the attitudes, beliefs, and recommendations of health care providers about low back pain: a randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenech, J; Sánchez-Zuriaga, D; Segura-Ortí, E; Espejo-Tort, B; Lisón, J F

    2011-11-01

    The beliefs and attitudes of health care providers may contribute to chronic low back pain (LBP) disability, influencing the recommendations that they provide to their patients. An excessively biomedical style of undergraduate training can increase negative beliefs and attitudes about LBP, whereas instruction following a biopsychosocial model could possibly lessen these negative beliefs in health care professionals. The objectives of this study were to determine the effectiveness of 2 brief educational modules with different orientations (biomedical or biopsychosocial) on changing the beliefs and attitudes of physical therapy students and the recommendations that they give to patients. The intervention in the experimental group was based on the general biopsychosocial model, whereas the sessions in the control group dealt with the basics of the biomechanics of back pain. The participants completed the Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ), Health Care Providers' Pain and Impairment Relationship Scale (HC-PAIRS), and Rainville et al. Clinical Cases questionnaire before and after the interventions. The participants attending the biopsychosocial session displayed a reduction in fear-avoidance beliefs (Pdevelopment of continuing medical education and the design of the training curriculum for undergraduate students.

  9. Patients' pretreatment beliefs about recovery influence outcome of a pain rehabilitation program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merrick, D; Sjölund, B H

    2009-01-01

    hospital setting. Demographic data and patient beliefs about recovery recorded on a five-category scale were collected before the program. Pain intensity (VAS), Disability Rating Index (DRI) and life satisfaction (LiSat-11) were collected before, immediately after and one year after the program. Partial......AIM: The aim of this study was to monitor the outcome of a five-week cognitive-behavioral interdisciplinary rehabilitation program for patients disabled by chronic pain, utilizing data collected for a national quality registry. METHODS: The study included 255 consecutive patients from a university...

  10. Developing resident learning profiles: Do scientific evidence epistemology beliefs, EBM self-efficacy beliefs and EBM skills matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Nancy J.

    This study investigated resident scientific evidence epistemology beliefs, evidence based medicine (EBM) self-efficacy beliefs, and EBM skills. A convenience sample of fifty-one residents located in six U.S. based residency programs completed an online instrument. Hofer's epistemology survey questionnaire was modified to test responses based on four types of scientific evidence encountered in medical practice (Clinical Trial Phase 1, Clinical Trial Phase 3, Meta-analysis and Qualitative). It was hypothesized that epistemology beliefs would differ based on the type of scientific evidence considered. A principal components analysis produced a two factor solution that was significant across type of scientific evidence suggesting that when evaluating epistemology beliefs context does matter. Factor 1 is related to the certainty of research methods and the certainty of medical conclusions and factor 2 denotes medical justification. For each type of scientific evidence, both factors differed on questions comprising the factor structure with significant differences found for the factor 1 and 2 questions. A justification belief case problem using checklist format was triangulated with the survey results, and as predicted the survey and checklist justification z scores indicated no significant differences, and two new justification themes emerged. Modified versions of Finney and Schraw's statistical self-efficacy and skill instruments produced expected significant EBM score correlations with unexpected results indicating that the number of EBM and statistics courses are not significant for EBM self-efficacy and skill scores. The study results were applied to the construction of a learning profile that provided residents belief and skill feedback specific to individual learning needs. The learning profile design incorporated core values related to 'Believer' populations that focus on art, harmony, tact and diplomacy. Future research recommendations include testing context

  11. Attachment, Obsessive Beliefs and Emotion Dysregulation in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: A comparison with Normal and Clinical Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevginar Vatan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study aimed at investigating the differences between nonclinical sample and clinical sample (OCD patients in attachment, obsessive beliefs and emotion regulation in Turkish sample. Methods: For these purposes 224 non clinical participants and 101 clinical OCD participants completed questionnaires related to research variables. Experience in Close Relationship Scale (Fraley, Waller & Brennan, 2000 to evaluate attachment, Obsessive Belief Questionnaire to evaluate obsessive beliefs and Difficulties of Emotion Regulation Scale (Gratz & Roemer, 2004 to evaluate emotion regulation abilities were used in this study. Results: A series of t-test for independent samples analyses were done. Findings of the analyses revealed that there was significant differences between two groups in anxiety level of attachment, but not in avoidance level. Also there were significant differences between two groups in all obsessive beliefs subscales such as responsibility and threat perception, perfectionism and need of certainty, the importance of thoughts and control. From emotional regulation perspective there were significant differences in non-acceptance of emotional response, difficulties in engaging goal-directed behavior, impulse control difficulties during emotional distress, limited access to emotional regulation strategies. However there was not significant differences between two groups in clarity about emotions and awareness of emotional arousal. Conclusion: To sum up according to results of this study attachment and obsessive beliefs follow the same pattern with the results in the literature. Moreover the difficulties of emotion regulation abilities thought to improve the knowledge about OCD. Because this part believed not to have enough findings in the OCD literature. The results were discussed in the light of the related literature and dependent recommendations to the area were given.

  12. Deep belief networks learn context dependent behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Raudies

    Full Text Available With the goal of understanding behavioral mechanisms of generalization, we analyzed the ability of neural networks to generalize across context. We modeled a behavioral task where the correct responses to a set of specific sensory stimuli varied systematically across different contexts. The correct response depended on the stimulus (A,B,C,D and context quadrant (1,2,3,4. The possible 16 stimulus-context combinations were associated with one of two responses (X,Y, one of which was correct for half of the combinations. The correct responses varied symmetrically across contexts. This allowed responses to previously unseen stimuli (probe stimuli to be generalized from stimuli that had been presented previously. By testing the simulation on two or more stimuli that the network had never seen in a particular context, we could test whether the correct response on the novel stimuli could be generated based on knowledge of the correct responses in other contexts. We tested this generalization capability with a Deep Belief Network (DBN, Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP network, and the combination of a DBN with a linear perceptron (LP. Overall, the combination of the DBN and LP had the highest success rate for generalization.

  13. God-Belief, Self- Detection, Alienation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Sadeghi Hasan Abadi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available According to some Western thinkers, considering earthy and compelled human alongside with the heavenly and compelling God can result in nothing but human’s alienation and transduction of alien personality in his mind and spirit. Basically, man’s realization of alienation and its type has a close relationship with the way of consideration of human and his nature. Of course type of human regard to God and kind of God that a religion defines, is another altered factor that into the side transaction, human and God has a decisive role. In Islamic teaching human nature and religion are defined as two truth corresponding together and in other words unique truth manifest into the sight of genesis and legislation as human nature and religion. In Islamic philosophy especially Hekmah Al-Motaaliyeh (transcendental wisdom human’s relationship with God and also universe with God, is the same as relation and dependency. In heavenly instructions, human nature is divine whiff. Therefore, it should have total congruity with divine nature. Since self- forgetfulness is the direct result of God- forgetfulness, God-belief and self- detection have strong relation with each other, too. Moreover, in the mystical instructions of the Muslims mystics, God is a truth that is closer to man than himself. And therefore, the more he is such proximity , attraction and rapture to God, not only the man becomes self- alien , but also he will recognize himself better than before and will approach to his own origin.

  14. Social representations and normative beliefs of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Tatiana de Lucena; Camargo, Brigido Vizeu; Boulsfield, Andréa Barbará; Silva, Antônia Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    This study adopted the theory of social representations as a theoretical framework in order to characterize similarities and differences in social representations and normative beliefs of aging for different age groups. The 638 participants responded to self-administered questionnaire and were equally distributed by sex and age. The results show that aging is characterized by positive stereotypes (knowledge and experience); however, retirement is linked to aging, but in a negative way, particularly for men, involving illness, loneliness and disability. When age was considered, it was verified that the connections with the representational elements became more complex for older groups, showing social representation functionality, largely for the elderly. Adulthood seems to be preferred and old age is disliked. There were divergences related to the perception of the beginning of life phases, especially that of old age. Work was characterized as the opposite of aging, and it revealed the need for actions intended for the elderly and retired workers, with post-retirement projects. In addition, it suggests investment in public policies that encourage intergenerational contact, with efforts to reduce intolerance and discrimination based on age of people. PMID:26691788

  15. Birds of ill omen in Slavic beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aksić Nina V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with birds of ill omen and beliefs related to their cries and calls. According to the presence of the ill omen attribute, these birds are sorted into three groups. The paper describes various divination types according to the calls of so-called unclean birds, as well as various prophecies, i.e. their ominous „weight“, on the basis of numerous examples from the Slavic cultural sphere, with additional, more recent examples from the Serbian space. The final remarks are related to four segments: the type of the listed birds’ bad omen (death, disease / year of famine, fire, bad weather; prophecy of evil or merely information, i.e. warning about a possible bad event; the manner of the bird’s prophecy or report of misfortune (a call, a manner of flight etc.; existence of undesirable actions related to certain birds (actions that could result in negative consequences for the person who performs them. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47016: Interdisciplinarno istraživanje kulturnog i jezičkog nasleđa Srbije i izrada multimedijalnog internet portala „Pojmovnik srpske kulture

  16. Public beliefs that may affect biomass development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tennessee River chip mill controversy involves the expansion of the pulp and paper industry rather than the biomass energy industry; however, the concerns expressed by environmentalists are likely to be the same for biomass projects that propose use of privately-owned land. It may be incorrect to assume that private landowners will have more flexibility in forest management techniques than public agencies. In fact, when faced with a potentially large new demand source for wood, environmentalists will try to stop the project while pushing for stringent regulation of harvesting. This paper describes and analyzes beliefs about forest management (related to biomass energy) taken from the 1,200 letters and 200 public hearing statements received by TVA on the chip mill environmental impact statement. The chip mill controversy suggests that there is a potential for strong coalitions to form to stop new biomass demand sources. As much as possible, the biomass industry will need to anticipate and address land management issues. New concepts such as landscape ecology and ecosystem management should be considered. Even so, increased use of non-dedicated biomass resources will require more public acceptance of the concept that ecosystems and their biomass resources can tolerate increased levels of management

  17. Affective Beliefs Influence the Experience of Eating Meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Eric C.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2016-01-01

    People believe they experience the world objectively, but research continually demonstrates that beliefs influence perception. Emerging research indicates that beliefs influence the experience of eating. In three studies, we test whether beliefs about how animals are raised can influence the experience of eating meat. Samples of meat were paired with descriptions of animals raised on factory farms or raised on humane farms. Importantly, the meat samples in both conditions were identical. However, participants experienced the samples differently: meat paired with factory farm descriptions looked, smelled, and tasted less pleasant. Even basic properties of flavor were influenced: factory farmed samples tasted more salty and greasy. Finally, actual behavior was influenced: participants consumed less when samples were paired with factory farm descriptions. These findings demonstrate that the experience of eating is not determined solely by physical properties of stimuli—beliefs also shape experience. PMID:27556643

  18. Combination of interventions can change students' epistemological beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalman, Calvin S.; Sobhanzadeh, Mandana; Thompson, Robert; Ibrahim, Ahmed; Wang, Xihui

    2015-12-01

    This study was based on the hypothesis that students' epistemological beliefs could become more expertlike with a combination of appropriate instructional activities: (i) preclass reading with metacognitive reflection, and (ii) in-class active learning that produces cognitive dissonance. This hypothesis was tested through a five-year study involving close to 1000 students at two institutions, in four physics courses. Using an experimental design, data from student interviews, writing product assessments, and the Discipline-Focused Epistemological Beliefs Questionnaire (DFEBQ) we demonstrate that the beliefs of novice science learners became more expertlike on 2 of the 4 DFEBQ factors. We conclude that a combination of an activity that gets students to examine textual material metacognitively (Reflective Writing) with one or more types of in-class active learning interventions can promote positive change in students' epistemological beliefs.

  19. Pluto behaving badly: false beliefs and their consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Shari R; Laney, Cara; Morris, Erin K; Garry, Maryanne; Loftus, Elizabeth F

    2008-01-01

    We exposed college students to suggestive materials in order to lead them to believe that, as children, they had a negative experience at Disneyland involving the Pluto character. A sizable minority of subjects developed a false belief or memory that Pluto had uncomfortably licked their ear. Suggestions about a positive experience with Pluto led to even greater acceptance of a lovable ear-licking episode. False beliefs and memories had repercussions; those seduced by the bad suggestions were not willing to pay as much for a Pluto souvenir. These findings are among the first to demonstrate that false beliefs can have repercussions for people, meaning that they can influence their later thoughts, beliefs, and behaviors.

  20. Eliminating deceptions and mistaken belief to infer conversational implicature

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, M; Lee, Mark; Wilks, Yorick

    1998-01-01

    Conversational implicatures are usually described as being licensed by the disobeying or flouting of some principle by the speaker in cooperative dialogue. However, such work has failed to distinguish cases of the speaker flouting such a principle from cases where the speaker is either deceptive or holds a mistaken belief. In this paper, we demonstrate how the three different cases can be distinguished in terms of the beliefs ascribed to the speaker of the utterance. We argue that in the act of distinguishing the speaker's intention and ascribing such beliefs, the intended inference can be made by the hearer. This theory is implemented in ViewGen, a pre-existing belief modelling system used in a medical counselling domain.