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Sample records for belgrade comparative study

  1. Comparative studies of some white wine cultivars in the sub-region of Belgrade and Nis

    OpenAIRE

    Sivčev Branislava; Cvetković Dragoslav; Petrović Nevena; Popadić Ivana

    2004-01-01

    In two wine-growing areas with different climatic characteristics 12 cultivars intended for the production of white wines were studied. The climatic characteristics include: mean annual air temperatures, mean vegetation air temperatures, heliothermal coefficient, hydrothermal coefficient and active temperatures sum from the moment of the growth of shoots to their full maturity for each studied cultivar. Elements of buds fruitfulness (6 features in total), yield, cluster mass, sugar quantity a...

  2. Comparative studies of some white wine cultivars in the sub-region of Belgrade and Niš

    OpenAIRE

    Sivčev Branislava; Cvetković Dragoslav; Petrović Nevena; Popadić Ivana

    2004-01-01

    In two wine-growing areas with different climatic characteristics 12 cultivars intended for the production of white wines were studied. The climatic characteristics include: mean annual air temperatures, mean vegetation air temperatures, heliothermal coefficient, hydrothermal coefficient and active temperatures sum from the moment of the growth of shoots to their full maturity for each studied cultivar. Elements of buds fruitfulness (6 features in total), yield, cluster mass, sugar quantity a...

  3. Urban transport energy consumption: Belgrade case study

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanović Miomir M.

    2015-01-01

    More than half of the global population now lives in towns and cities. At the same time, transport has become the highest single energy-consuming human activity. Hence, one of the major topics today is the reduction of urban transport demand and of energy consumption in cities. In this article we focused on the whole package of instruments that can reduce energy consumption and transport demand in Belgrade, a city that is currently at a major crossroad. Bel...

  4. Comparative studies of some white wine cultivars in the sub-region of Belgrade and Niš

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivčev Branislava

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In two wine-growing areas with different climatic characteristics 12 cultivars intended for the production of white wines were studied. The climatic characteristics include: mean annual air temperatures, mean vegetation air temperatures, heliothermal coefficient, hydrothermal coefficient and active temperatures sum from the moment of the growth of shoots to their full maturity for each studied cultivar. Elements of buds fruitfulness (6 features in total, yield, cluster mass, sugar quantity and grape quality were observed in both localities. In the vineyards of Grocka and Kutina high yielding varieties Ugni blanc and Dimyat can be grown with great success. Italian Riezling produced higher yields and better quality of unfermented grape juice in the vineyards of Grocka in comparison with the vineyards of Kutina. Pinot blanc in both localities was characterized by high yield, but the quality of unfermented grape juice was better in the vineyards of Grocka. Variety Rkaciteli produced high yield and good quality of unfermented grape juice in the experimental period in the vineyards of Kutina.

  5. Urban transport energy consumption: Belgrade case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Miomir M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available More than half of the global population now lives in towns and cities. At the same time, transport has become the highest single energy-consuming human activity. Hence, one of the major topics today is the reduction of urban transport demand and of energy consumption in cities. In this article we focused on the whole package of instruments that can reduce energy consumption and transport demand in Belgrade, a city that is currently at a major crossroad. Belgrade can prevent a dramatic increase in energy consumption and CO2 emissions (and mitigate the negative local environmental effects of traffic congestion, traffic accidents and air pollution, only if it: 1 implements a more decisive strategy to limit private vehicles use while its level of car passenger km (PKT is still relatively low; 2 does not try to solve its transport problems only by trying to build urban road infrastructure (bridges and ring roads; and 3 if it continues to provide priority movement for buses (a dominant form of public transport, while 4 at the same time developing urban rail systems (metro or LRT with exclusive tracks, immune to the traffic congestion on urban streets. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 37010

  6. Burden of myocardial infarction attributable to road-traffic noise: A pilot study in Belgrade

    OpenAIRE

    Katarina Paunovic; Goran Belojević

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to calculate the disability-adjusted life years (DALY) as a quantification of the burden of myocardial infarction (MI) attributable to road-traffic noise in Belgrade, Serbia. Exposure to road-traffic noise was estimated on a sample of almost 6000 adult inhabitants living in the central municipality Stari Grad in Belgrade, Serbia. Each participant was assigned to daytime noise levels for 16 h exposure measured on the street of current residence. Population-attri...

  7. A comparative perspective of urban forestry in Belgrade, Serbia and Freiburg, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guduric, Ivana; Tomicevic, Jelena; Konijnendijk, Cecil Cornelis

    2011-01-01

    allows the identification of status, problems and potentials for development. Both cases of urban forestry were analysed by a series of methods, including expert interviews, on-site observations, and analysis of documents, literature and maps. Results indicate that in Belgrade institutions and policies...... of urban woodland management have being much less developed than in Freiburg. Furthermore, Belgrade faces various problems that need to be solved, e.g. in terms of developing the policy framework for urban forestry and the need to promote political awareness about its importance. Important lessons...

  8. Walking as a Climate Friendly Transportation Mode in Urban Environment Case Study: Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Đukić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A large percent of CO2 (carbon dioxide emissions in Serbia originate from transport. In the last two decades, the number of private car users in Belgrade evidently increased compared to the number of users of environmentally friendly modes of transport. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of approaches to the improvement of the physical aspect of the open public spaces, which aim to increase the number of users of climate friendly modes of transport, particularly walking. Research was done using three methods: observation of the intensity of pedestrian movement in relation to different periods during the day, direct surveys of citizens and the evaluation of immediate pedestrian surroundings. Three kinds of results were obtained: the trends and concentration of pedestrian movement along the main street lines; the attitude of citizens pertaining to reliable pedestrian movement and elements which contribute to their commitment to walking; and the rhythm of activity units, transparency, and variety of activities on the ground floor of buildings. The contribution of the study is in combining different research methods. The interpretation of the results forms the basis for directing future research and campaigns on topics of climate friendly modes of transport in urban areas.

  9. Pathophysiology of the Belgrade rat

    OpenAIRE

    Veuthey, Tania; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    The Belgrade rat is an animal model of divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) deficiency. This strain originates from an X-irradiation experiment first reported in 1966. Since then, the Belgrade rat’s pathophysiology has helped to reveal the importance of iron balance and the role of DMT1. This review discusses our current understanding of iron transport homeostasis and summarizes molecular details of DMT1 function. We describe how studies of the Belgrade rat have revealed key roles for DMT1 in ...

  10. Pathophysiology of the Belgrade Rat

    OpenAIRE

    MarianneWessling-Resnick

    2014-01-01

    The Belgrade rat is an animal model of Divalent Metal Transporter-1 (DMT1) deficiency. This strain originates from an X-irradiation experiment first reported in 1966. Since then, the Belgrade rat’s pathophysiology has helped to reveal the importance of iron balance and the role of DMT1. This review discusses our current understanding of iron transport homeostasis and summarizes molecular details of DMT1 function. We describe how studies of the Belgrade rat have revealed key roles for DMT1 i...

  11. Monitoring the Effect of Internet Use on Students Behavior Case Study: Technical Faculty Bor, University of Belgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niculovic, Milica; Zivkovic, Dragana; Manasijevic, Dragan; Strbac, Nada

    2012-01-01

    A large number of criteria for evaluating Internet addiction have been developed recently. The research of Internet addiction among students of the Technical faculty in Bor, University of Belgrade has been conducted and its results are presented in this paper. The study included 270 students using criteria of Young's Internet Addiction Test. In…

  12. Comparative phylogenetic analysis of Dobrava-Belgrade virus L and S genetic segments isolated from an animal reservoir in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Valentina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV is a member of the Bunyaviridae family, genus Hantavirus, possessing a single-stranded RNA genome consisting of three segments, designated L (large, M (medium and S (small. In this study, we present phylogenetic analysis of a newly detected DOBV strain isolated from Apodemus agrarius. Analysis was based on partial L and S segment sequences, in comparison to previously published DOBV sequences from Serbia and elsewhere. A phylogenetic tree based on partial S segment revealed local geographical clustering of DOBV sequences from Serbia, unrelated to host (rodent or human. The topology of the phylogenetic tree was confirmed with a high percent of completely or partially resolved quartets in likelihood-mapping analysis, whereas no evidence of possible recombination in the examined S segment data set was found.

  13. Food and dietary patterns and multiple sclerosis: a case-control study in Belgrade (Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana D. Pekmezovic

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The aetiology of multiple sclerosis (MS is unclear, but numerous studies suggest that different exogenous factors can lead to the development of the disease in genetically susceptible individuals. The objective of this case-control study was to determine the role of food and dietary patterns in patients with MS in the population of Belgrade (Serbia.

    Methods: In this matched case-control study, we included 110 cases with definite MS according to McDonald’s criteria, in whom the onset symptoms occurred up to 2 years prior to the interview, who were followed-up at the Institute of Neurology, Clinical Centre of Serbia, Belgrade. The identical number of controls from the same institution, individually matched by sex, age and area of residence, was recruited from patients with various non-autoimmune neurological disorders. Dietary information was obtained by using a frequency history approach.

    Results: According to univariate conditional logistic regression analysis the following factors were significantly related to MS: body mass index (BMI less than 25 (OR=2.2, p=0.009, frequent consumption of beef (OR=1.7, p=0.043, chicken (OR=2.0, p=0.045, meat of the lamb (OR=2.1, p=0.013, butter (OR=1.7, p=0.056 and ice-cream (OR=1.8, p=0.031, with dose-response relationship. Consumption of majority of various fruit was more frequently reported by controls. According to multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis, BMI less than 25 (OR=2.3, p=0.008, consumption (weekly of beef (OR=2.0, p=0.017 and butter (OR=1.9, p=0.027 was significantly related to MS, while regular consumption of cherry (OR=0.4, p=0.024 had protective role.

    Conclusions: This study might assist in potential defining of the dietary factors that could contribute to the risk of developing MS.

  14. Child Homicide on the Territory of Belgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baralic, Ivanka; Savic, Slobodan; Alempijevic, Djordje M.; Jecmenica, Dragan S.; Sbutega-Milosevic, Gorica; Obradovic, Miroljub

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the incidence and other epidemiological and medico-legal characteristics of child homicide in the territory of Belgrade, Republic of Serbia. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of all autopsies carried out at the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Belgrade during a 15 year period between 1991 and 2005,…

  15. Risk factors for epithelial ovarian cancer in the female population of Belgrade, Serbia: A case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Gazibara Tatjana; Filipović Aleksandra; Kesić Vesna; Kisić-Tepavčević Darija; Pekmezović Tatjana

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aim. Ovarian cancer (OC) comprises 3% of all cancers, but it is the fifth most common cause of cancer death in women. The aim of this case-control study was to determine the risk factors for OC in the female population of Belgrade, Serbia. Methods. A total of 80 consecutive patients were enrolled in the study between 2006 and 2008 in two national referral centers for OC in Serbia. The control subjects were recruited during the regular gynecological check-ups in the Public Hea...

  16. GIS application in the spatial analysis of illegal landfills in big cities: A case study of Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paunović Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents the attempt to map and analyze spatial distribution of illegal landfills in the City of Belgrade. To make this happen the main tasks were to form the geospatial database of illegal landfills in the study area and to analyze the patterns in their spatial distribution. The data on the landfill locations were obtained from the Agency of Environmental Protection of the Republic of Serbia, while the ArcGIS software was used for their spatial analysis. The City of Belgrade, respectively the public utility companies use five landfills, which cover up the area of 89 ha. On the other hand, in the study area there are 223 illegal landfills. The spatial analysis showed two patterns: (1 increasing of the number of illegal landfills with distancing from the city urban center, and (2 increasing of their number with distancing from the municipal centers. This paper also showed that there is landfill clustering, or that their spatial distribution is not random. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176008

  17. Negotiating cultural identity through the architectural representation case study: Foreign embassy in Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiljević-Tomić Dragana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reports methods and results of Master students' Diploma Thesis and Design research on representing identity through architecture. A group of 12 students have had the task to examine potentials and limitations of positioning and conceptualizing foreign Embassy in the context of Belgrade. Students were expected to rethink architectural representation and to find new possibilities for networking global aspects of identity and local aspects of context, thus creating architecture that emphasizes and promotes culture through its spatial and programmatic framework. Article concludes that architecture can become a resource for understanding cultural identity. It does not stop only at the physical, but affects the process of urban living, negotiating between global and local dimension of urban living, making a new culturally responsive urban landscape. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TP 36035

  18. Theory, Practice and Competences in the Study of Pedagogy – Views of Ljubljana and Belgrade University Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klara Skubic Ermenc

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the previous decade, higher education in Slovenia and Serbia has undergone considerable reforms, influenced by the Bologna process and its agenda of competence and learning outcomes. In the context of these reforms, the aim of this research is to consider the question of the relationship between the theoretical and the practical education of pedagogues at the university level. Eleven university professors from departments of pedagogy and andragogy at the universities of Ljubljana and Belgrade were interviewed. The semi-structured interviews focused on two main research questions: 1 how they understand the relationship between pedagogical theory and practice, and the identity of pedagogy as a science in that context, and 2 their opinion about the competence-based approach in the context of the study of pedagogy. The findings show that the majority of the interviewed university teachers hold an opinion that pedagogy is primarily a theoretical (reflective science and, accordingly, that the mastery of theory is crucial for the development of pedagogues’ competences. Furthermore, most of them are rather reserved and critical of the competence approach as well as of the practical skills development. Although there are some differences in opinions between the professors from Ljubljana and Belgrade, this study shows that similar discourses prevail. The gap between pedagogical theory and practice is one of the major issues that have been current in pedagogical science in the recent decades. The findings of our research indicate that there is dissatisfaction with the relationship between modern pedagogical theory and practice, accompanied by the need for its reconceptualization.

  19. Relevance of social capital and its implications for children: Study in three Belgrade urban settings

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    Tomanović Smiljka

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at questioning some theoretical and methodological issues of relevance of social capital concept for children and its policy implications. The evidence for the analysis comes from the small-scale survey and eight focus group interviews with 13 - 14 year old schoolchildren in three Belgrade urban settings. By using the operationalisation developed by V. Morrow (2003, the author explores the validity in the case of children of social networks, sense of belonging and local identity community, and civic engagement as features and components of social capital. The evidence shows that each of these features has its particularity when children and young people are concerned, which has to be kept in mind when using social capital as theoretical concept and methodological tool. The validity of the concept of social capital in its broader terms for children is questioned in the paper. Considering different kinds of social constraints, one could ask whether it would be more helpful to think about the defined components as "social resources" than as "capital" when we consider children as a social group. This argument has also specific policy implications.

  20. Characteristics of sexual behavior among teenagers in Belgrade

    OpenAIRE

    Bjekić Milan D.; Vlajinac Hristina D; Šipetić Sandra B.; Marinković Jelena M.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction The risks associated with teenage sex include pregnancy and a high rate of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Material and methods The study compared female teenagers: 32 with STDs and 90 with fungal skin infections who were treated in the City Center for Skin and Venereal Diseases in Belgrade from January 2000 to June 2001. An anonymous questionnaire was used to collect data and an univariate logistic regression analysis was performed. Results The mean age of participants was...

  1. Belgrade 2015 : Supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    We are pleased to announce the first PhD seminar in the framework of the CERN-SEENET-MTP PhD Training Program. The topic of the seminar is Supergravity. The seminar will be held at the Faculty of Physics, University of Belgrade, Serbia from June 21 (arrival day) to June 27 (departure day) 2015.

  2. Risk factors for epithelial ovarian cancer in the female population of Belgrade, Serbia: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazibara Tatjana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Ovarian cancer (OC comprises 3% of all cancers, but it is the fifth most common cause of cancer death in women. The aim of this case-control study was to determine the risk factors for OC in the female population of Belgrade, Serbia. Methods. A total of 80 consecutive patients were enrolled in the study between 2006 and 2008 in two national referral centers for OC in Serbia. The control subjects were recruited during the regular gynecological check-ups in the Public Health Center of the corresponding municipalities. All the study participants were interviewed during their visits to the above mentioned institutions by two physicians using the same questionnaire. In order to analyze the influence of specific exposure to the risk of the disease, we categorized variables according to the cut-off values. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI were calculated separately for each variable using univariate conditional logistic regression analysis. Results. There were no statistically significant differences in educational level, years of schooling, occupational and employment status between patients with OC and women in the control group. Oral contraceptives use and other contraceptive methods (condoms, mechanical contraceptive devices were highly statistically significantly more frequent among women in the control group (OR = 0.2, 95% CI 0.1-0.7, p = 0.005; OR = 0.1, 95% CI 0.01-0.5, p = 0.001, respectively. The patients with OC practiced sports for 6.3 ± 2.1 years, and controls for 11.8 ± 9.9 years. Sport and recreation activities were statistically significantly protective (OR = 0.2, p = 0.011; OR = 0.4, p = 0.019. Tea consumption on daily basis had a highly statistically significant protective effect (OR = 0.3, p = 0.001. Conclusions. Oral contraceptives use and physical activity were independent protective factors for OC in this study.

  3. Factors influencing the choice of antidepressants: A study of antidepressant prescribing practice at University psychiatric clinic in Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Nađa P.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Antidepressants are a widely used class of drugs. The aim of this study was to investigate different aspects of antidepressant prescribing practice at University Psychiatric Clinic in Belgrade. Methods. This cross-sectional study was carried out by retrospective analysis of the patient's medical charts. The study included all patients with antidepressant prescribed at discharge during 2009 (n = 296. The evaluation was focused on patient- related factors (socio-demographic and illness related, psychiatrist-related factors (sex and duration of working experience and drug related factors (type of antidepressant, dose, polypharmacy and reimbursement by national health insurance. Results. Antidepressants were prescribed for unipolar depression (F32-34, ICD X either without comorbidity (46.2% or with comorbidity (24.7%, mostly as a monotherapy (91% had one antidepressant, to the patients who were 65% female, aged 50.1 ± 8.9, most of them with 12 years of education (52.6%, married (69.3% and employed (55.9%. The majority of patients had a history of two hospitalizations (Med 2; 25th-75th perc. 1-4 during nine years (Med 9; 25th-75th perc. 2-15 after the first episode of depression. Among them, 19% were found to be suicidal in a lifetime. The single most prescribed antidepressant was sertraline (20.4%, followed by fluoxetine (13.3% and maprotiline (11.7%. Utilization of antidepressants was positively correlated with the rate of reimbursement (p < 0.01. The most prescribed antidepressant group was selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI (47.8%, followed by tricyclic antidepresants (TCA (25.3% and new antidepressants - venlafaxine, tianeptine, mirtazapine, bupropion, trazodone (15.1%. Most of the drugs were prescribed in doses which are at the lower end of the recommended dose-range. Regarding severity of the actual depressive episode, TCA were prescribed for severe depression with psychotic features, while SSRI were choice for

  4. Belgrade waterworks groundwater source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paper deals with Belgrade Waterworks groundwater source, its characteristics, conception of protection programme, contaminations on source and with parameters of groundwater quality degradation. Groundwaters present natural heritage with their strategic and slow renewable natural resources attributes, and as such they require priority in protection. It is of greatest need that existing source is to be protected and used optimally for producing quality drinkable water. The concept of source protection programme should be based on regular water quality monitoring, identification of contaminators, defining areas of their influences on the source and their permanent control. However, in the last 10 years, but drastically in the last 3, because of the overall situation in the country, it is very characteristic downfall in volume of business, organisation and the level of supply of the technical equipment

  5. Multi-criteria evaluation in strategic environmental assessment for waste management plan, a case study: The city of Belgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The paper deals with the specific method of multi-criteria evaluation applied in drafting the SEA for the Belgrade WMP. • MCE of the planning solutions, assessed according to 37 objectives of the SEA and four sets of criteria, was presented in the matrix form. • The results are presented in the form of graphs so as to be easily comprehensible to all the participants in the decision-making process. • The results represent concrete contribution proven in practice. - Abstract: Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is one of the key instruments for implementing sustainable development strategies in planning in general; in addition to being used in sectoral planning, it can also be used in other areas such as waste management planning. SEA in waste management planning has become a tool for considering the benefits and consequences of the proposed changes in space, also taking into account the capacity of space to sustain the implementation of the planned activities. In order to envisage both the positive and negative implications of a waste management plan for the elements of sustainable development, an adequate methodological approach to evaluating the potential impacts must be adopted and the evaluation results presented in a simple and clear way, so as to allow planners to make relevant decisions as a precondition for the sustainability of the activities planned in the waste management sector. This paper examines the multi-criteria evaluation method for carrying out an SEA for the Waste Management Plan for the city of Belgrade (BWMP). The method was applied to the evaluation of the impacts of the activities planned in the waste management sector on the basis of the environmental and socioeconomic indicators of sustainability, taking into consideration the intensity, spatial extent, probability and frequency of impact, by means of a specific planning approach and simple and clear presentation of the obtained results

  6. Multi-criteria evaluation in strategic environmental assessment for waste management plan, a case study: The city of Belgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josimović, Boško, E-mail: bosko@iaus.ac.rs; Marić, Igor; Milijić, Saša

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • The paper deals with the specific method of multi-criteria evaluation applied in drafting the SEA for the Belgrade WMP. • MCE of the planning solutions, assessed according to 37 objectives of the SEA and four sets of criteria, was presented in the matrix form. • The results are presented in the form of graphs so as to be easily comprehensible to all the participants in the decision-making process. • The results represent concrete contribution proven in practice. - Abstract: Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is one of the key instruments for implementing sustainable development strategies in planning in general; in addition to being used in sectoral planning, it can also be used in other areas such as waste management planning. SEA in waste management planning has become a tool for considering the benefits and consequences of the proposed changes in space, also taking into account the capacity of space to sustain the implementation of the planned activities. In order to envisage both the positive and negative implications of a waste management plan for the elements of sustainable development, an adequate methodological approach to evaluating the potential impacts must be adopted and the evaluation results presented in a simple and clear way, so as to allow planners to make relevant decisions as a precondition for the sustainability of the activities planned in the waste management sector. This paper examines the multi-criteria evaluation method for carrying out an SEA for the Waste Management Plan for the city of Belgrade (BWMP). The method was applied to the evaluation of the impacts of the activities planned in the waste management sector on the basis of the environmental and socioeconomic indicators of sustainability, taking into consideration the intensity, spatial extent, probability and frequency of impact, by means of a specific planning approach and simple and clear presentation of the obtained results.

  7. Multi-criteria evaluation in strategic environmental assessment for waste management plan, a case study: the city of Belgrade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josimović, Boško; Marić, Igor; Milijić, Saša

    2015-02-01

    Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is one of the key instruments for implementing sustainable development strategies in planning in general; in addition to being used in sectoral planning, it can also be used in other areas such as waste management planning. SEA in waste management planning has become a tool for considering the benefits and consequences of the proposed changes in space, also taking into account the capacity of space to sustain the implementation of the planned activities. In order to envisage both the positive and negative implications of a waste management plan for the elements of sustainable development, an adequate methodological approach to evaluating the potential impacts must be adopted and the evaluation results presented in a simple and clear way, so as to allow planners to make relevant decisions as a precondition for the sustainability of the activities planned in the waste management sector. This paper examines the multi-criteria evaluation method for carrying out an SEA for the Waste Management Plan for the city of Belgrade (BWMP). The method was applied to the evaluation of the impacts of the activities planned in the waste management sector on the basis of the environmental and socioeconomic indicators of sustainability, taking into consideration the intensity, spatial extent, probability and frequency of impact, by means of a specific planning approach and simple and clear presentation of the obtained results. PMID:25464940

  8. Ship waste quantities prediction model for the port of Belgrade

    OpenAIRE

    VLADANKA PRESBURGER ULNIKOVIĆ; MARIJA VUKIĆ; RADMILA JANČIĆ-HEINEMANN; DUŠAN ANTONOVIĆ

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the issues related to the waste management in river ports in general and especially in the port of Belgrade. Data on solid waste, waste oils, oily waters, gray water and black water have been collected for a period of five years. The methodology of data collection is presented. Trends of data were analyzed and the regression model was used to predict the waste quantities in the Belgrade port. This data could be utilized as a basis for the calculation of the equipment cap...

  9. Physician-Based Tobacco Smoking Cessation Counseling in Belgrade, Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Ray; Harmon, Tanner; Gagon, Heather

    2009-01-01

    This study examined physician attitudes and practices pertaining to patient counseling about smoking in Belgrade, Serbia. Data were collected using a cross-sectional survey of 86 physicians at multiple health care facilities. Approximately 74% of physicians agreed that they should routinely ask patients about their smoking habits and 79% agreed…

  10. The current status of the Magnetoplasma compressor device in Belgrade - study of plasma facing materials important for fusion reactors

    OpenAIRE

    Nora Trklja

    2015-01-01

    The magnetoplasma compressor, a quasi stationary plasma accelerator, is a source of supersonic compression plasma flow. High plasma parameters of compression flow, large flow velocity and discharge duration enable their efficient usage for development of new plasma technologies, including material surface modification, creation of sub microstructures and nanostructures. In this paper spatial and temporal distribution of emissivity was studied using inverse Abel transform. This has been realiz...

  11. Level of knowledge, attitudes and substance use among students of primary and secondary schools in Belgrade 2010/2011: Pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević Ivan,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to organize prevention of substance abuse in the community, it is necessary to provide research on the level of knowledge, attitudes and patterns of use of particular substances within youth. In Belgrade, the Commission for the prevention of substance abuse among youth has done the research during the 2010/2011. The representative sample consisted of 1103 students from 16 primary and secondary schools in the city of Belgrade. We applied a specially designed questionnaire on the level of knowledge for particular classes of substances as well as new forms of addiction (internet, gambling. Important are data on different levels of students' knowledge about certain classes of substances. The low level of correct answers was noted for the way of cannabis use (5.3%, the consequences of amphetamines use (0.8%, the effects of opiates (1.9%, ways of using opiates (1.4%, effects of steroids (0.7%, the types of inhalants (3.8%, types of synthetic drugs (18.7% and the ability to detect substances in the urine (0.5%. The high level of correct answers was noted on the issue of the consequences of using marijuana (84.4%, sedatives (89.4%, possibility the Internet addiction (85.7%, computer games dependence (86.4% and betting (90.9%. This work provide guidelines for educational programs in order to improve students' knowledge in this field.

  12. Economically feasible energy refurbishment of prefabricated building in Belgrade, Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Matic, Dubravka; Roset Calzada, Jaime; Eric, Milos; Babin, Mihajlo

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of the presented paper was to evaluate the integrated design strategies applied in refurbishment of the prefabricated residential housing, erected in '70 in the New Belgrade, Serbia, in order to achieve energy savings accompanied with reduction of CO2 emissions and improvement of households’ health and comfort. Conducted study led to the preliminary design of energy refurbishment of the existing building, and its conversion to energy efficient building with minimized loads....

  13. Ship waste quantities prediction model for the port of Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLADANKA PRESBURGER ULNIKOVIĆ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the issues related to the waste management in river ports in general and especially in the port of Belgrade. Data on solid waste, waste oils, oily waters, gray water and black water have been collected for a period of five years. The methodology of data collection is presented. Trends of data were analyzed and the regression model was used to predict the waste quantities in the Belgrade port. This data could be utilized as a basis for the calculation of the equipment capacity for waste selective collection, treatment and storage. The results presented in this study establish the need for an orga¬nized management system for this type of waste which can be achieved either by constructing and providing new specialized terminal or by providing mobile floating facilities and other plants in the Port of Belgrade for these kinds of ser¬vices. In addition to the above, the legislative and organizational strategy of waste management has been explored to complete the study because the im¬pact of good waste management on environment and prevention of environ¬mental accidents would be highly beneficial. This study demonstrated that ad¬dressing these issues should be considered at international as well as national level.

  14. Radioactivity of bio-indicators in the Belgrade environment, Serbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitrovic, Branislava; Vitorovic, Gordana; Grdovic, Svetlana; Andric, Velibor [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University in Belgrade, Department of Radiolgy and Radiation hygiene, Bulevar Oslobodjenja 18, Belgrade (Serbia); Vitorovic, Dusko [Faculty of Agriculture, University in Belgrade, Nemanjina 6, Zemun (Serbia); Vicentijevic, Mihajlo [Science Institute of Veterinary Medicine of Serbia, Vojvode Toze 14, 11000 Beograd (Serbia)

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study were to investigate the activity concentrations of {sup 40}K, {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 137}Cs in soil, mosses, mushroom, wild rabbit and pheasants meat from the six sites in the surroundings of Belgrade. The samples were collected during 2007-2010 year. A content of natural radionuclides in soil were within normal value range for Serbia. The activity level of {sup 137}Cs ranged from 17-66 Bq/kg in soil, 15 to 160 Bq/kg in mosses and 0.3 to 18 Bq/kg in different wild mushrooms. These results indicate that {sup 137}Cs is even 25 years after nuclear accident in Chernobyl present in Belgrade environment. The activity concentration of natural radionuclides and {sup 137}Cs in the meat of wild animals were low and below the detection limits, so these samples can be classified as radioactivity safe. (authors)

  15. Radioactivity of bio-indicators in the Belgrade environment, Serbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study were to investigate the activity concentrations of 40K, 238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 137Cs in soil, mosses, mushroom, wild rabbit and pheasants meat from the six sites in the surroundings of Belgrade. The samples were collected during 2007-2010 year. A content of natural radionuclides in soil were within normal value range for Serbia. The activity level of 137Cs ranged from 17-66 Bq/kg in soil, 15 to 160 Bq/kg in mosses and 0.3 to 18 Bq/kg in different wild mushrooms. These results indicate that 137Cs is even 25 years after nuclear accident in Chernobyl present in Belgrade environment. The activity concentration of natural radionuclides and 137Cs in the meat of wild animals were low and below the detection limits, so these samples can be classified as radioactivity safe. (authors)

  16. Epidemiological characteristics of hip fractures in Belgrade from 1990 to 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lešić Aleksandar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate the incidence of hip fractures in Belgrade for the period 1990-2000, and to determine distribution of fractures according to sex, age, and causes of injuries. Data based on medical records of the National Health Service in Belgrade were collected from all orthopedic hospitals and departments in Belgrade. A total number of 8904 hip fractures were included in the analysis, out of which 64.7% occurred in women. During the survey period, the estimated average annual incidence rate of hip fractures was 51.7/100 000 (95% Cl= 48.1-55.4; 66.2/100 000 (95% Cl= 60.8-72.1 in women and 35.3/100 000 (95% Cl= 31.4-40.1 in men, respectively. In the age group s50 years, the incidence rates standardized by the 1985 US population were 228 and 96 per 100 000 female and male population, respectively. An exponential increase in the incidence of hip fractures with age was observed in both sexes, especially in women. The number of trochanteric fractures was 4718 (53.0%, compared with 4186 (47.0% cervical fractures. Observation at three time points, in 1990,1995,2000, indicated the pronounced increase of trochanteric fractures in women and less distinctive in men. Fall on the flat ground resulted in 70.3% of hip fractures among persons aged 50 years or older, and traffic accidents were recorded as the major cause in 59.7% of patients under 50 years of age.

  17. Thermal mass impact on energy performance of a low, medium and heavy mass building in Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Bojan V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy mass materials used in building structures and architecture can significantly affect building energy performance and occupant comfort. The purpose of this study was to investigate if thermal mass can improve the internal environment of a building, resulting in lower energy requirements from the mechanical systems. The study was focused on passive building energy performance and compared annual space heating and cooling energy requirements for an office building in Belgrade with several different applications of thermal mass. A three-dimensional building model was generated to represent a typical office building. Building shape, orientation, glazing to wall ratio, envelope insulation thickness, and indoor design conditions were held constant while location and thickness of building mass (concrete was varied between cases in a series of energy simulations. The results were compared and discussed in terms of the building space heating and cooling energy and demand affected by thermal mass. The simulation results indicated that with addition of thermal mass to the building envelope and structure: 100% of all simulated cases experienced reduced annual space heating energy requirements, 67% of all simulated cases experienced reduced annual space cooling energy requirements, 83% of all simulated cases experienced reduced peak space heating demand and 50% of all simulated cases experienced reduced peak space cooling demand. The study demonstrated that there exists a potential for reducing space heating and cooling energy requirements with heavy mass construction in the analyzed climate region (Belgrade, Serbia.

  18. Radioactivity in food in Belgrade city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitorović Gordana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The activity concentrations of 40K, 238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 137Cs were measured using the gamma spectrometric method in different food chain samples from the area of the City of Belgrade during the periods May-June 2007 and May-June 2008. Relatively high activities of 40K and 137Cs were detected in the soil. These results indicate that 137Cs is present in the area of Belgrade even 20 years after the nuclear accident in the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. However, in the samples of feedstuffs, animal products and bio indicators (meat of wild animals and fish, activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides and 137Cs were low and below the detection limits. The results of these trials have shown that investigated animal products from the natural environment around Belgrade are radioactivity safe.

  19. Radioactivity in food in Belgrade city

    OpenAIRE

    Vitorović Gordana; Mitrović Branislava; Grdović Svetlana; Petrujkić Branko; Vitorović Duško

    2010-01-01

    The activity concentrations of 40K, 238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 137Cs were measured using the gamma spectrometric method in different food chain samples from the area of the City of Belgrade during the periods May-June 2007 and May-June 2008. Relatively high activities of 40K and 137Cs were detected in the soil. These results indicate that 137Cs is present in the area of Belgrade even 20 years after the nuclear accident in the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. However, in the samples of feedstuffs, a...

  20. Characteristics of foreign youth tourism in Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Nikola

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth of youth tourism share in overall tourist expenditures and arrivals is noted on global level. Despite of that, the available data regarding socio-demographic characteristics of youth tourists, characteristics of their travel and tourist stay, as well as their motivation for coming to Belgrade and their satisfaction with their stay in it, is sparse. Aim of this research is attaining scientific findings on the discussed matter. The results of the survey conducted at Belgrade Main Railway Station showed that students from the EU account for the majority of the sample and that the majority of the indicators corresponds with global trends. The significant difference is noted regarding the type of used accommodation, where an absolute domination of hostels is noted. Several figures indicate the transit character of the visit and the general satisfaction with the stay in Belgrade. In average, this tourist segment accounts for larger number of overnight stays than Belgrade's overall average of overnight stays. Differences are also noted regarding the geographic structure of the respondents, but that may potentially be explained by methodological limitations which should be addressed in future research of the subject. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 146010 i br. 176008

  1. Imagining and Remembering City: Memory, Space and Symbolism of Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Rogač Mijatović

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In contemporary “runaway world”, cities are becoming the main reference point of social life, change and development. The author discusses the complex process of articulating city identity and memory, as well as the meanings that arise in the interaction of memory, space and symbols of the city, within urban symbolism and cultural memory approach. What are the strategies of activating the cultural memory through multiple symbol bearers of the city, both tangible and intangible? The case study of the city of Belgrade indicates how the narratives related to memory and symbol bearers can be used in fostering culturally sustainable development of the city.

  2. Heavy metals concentration in soils from parks and green areas in Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRJANA D. MARJANOVIĆ

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The current study included the investigation of several metals and their distribution in urban soils from parks and green areas in the city of Belgrade. The soils were sampled in January and February 2008. The concentrations of Cd, Co, Cu, Pb, Mn and Zn were measured, as well as the pH values and organic matter contents. The obtained results showed that there was a significant level of contamination in some samples, especially with lead, and that it was most probably caused by anthropogenic activities, mostly from traffic. The results were compared with the National legislation and Netherlands standards. Also, the recent results were compared with the data from previous work and it was concluded that there has been a certain increase of the Pb concentration in the past three years. The level of pollution in playground soil was very high and each analyzed sample exceeded the Dutch target value for Cd, Co and Pb.

  3. Characteristics of sexual behavior among teenagers in Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjekić Milan D.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The risks associated with teenage sex include pregnancy and a high rate of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs. Material and methods The study compared female teenagers: 32 with STDs and 90 with fungal skin infections who were treated in the City Center for Skin and Venereal Diseases in Belgrade from January 2000 to June 2001. An anonymous questionnaire was used to collect data and an univariate logistic regression analysis was performed. Results The mean age of participants was 18.2 years. About 40% of respondents reported to have their first sexual intercourse at the age of 14-16 years. The majority of cases and controls had one or two partners, but a greater percentage of cases had six or more partners compared to controls (12.5% vs. 3.3%. Adolescents with STDs frequently had sexual intercourse on the first date (p<0.05, and more frequently reported previous STDs in their personal history (p<0.05. Consistent use of condoms was less frequent among cases than among controls, both with steady (9.4% vs. 27.8% and irregular partners (30.0% vs. 70.6%. The majority of teenagers (95% thinks that sexual education at schools should be better. Discussion According to the results obtained, which are in agreement with literature data, teenagers should change their behavior, especially with respect to condom use both during vaginal and anal sex. Health education at schools could probably influence future sexual behavior, and counseling for STDs should be offered to all teenagers attending STD clinics. Conclusion The best way to avoid unwanted pregnancy and STDs is to delay the first sexual experience, reduce the number of sexual partners and increase the protection by condom use.

  4. Pigs leptospirosis at the territory of Belgrade

    OpenAIRE

    Vojinović Dragica; Vasić Ana; Jovičić Dubravka; Đuričić Bosiljka; Ilić Živka

    2014-01-01

    Examinations of pig blood samples have been carried out at public pig farms in three Belgrade municipalities: Palilula, Surcin and Obrenovac. The number of tested blood serums of pigs at Palilula was 18990, in Surcin 7739 and in Obrenovac it was 8200. The number of positive blood serums on leptospirosis in pigs was 760, and out of that number the most positive samples (496) were in Surcin, followed by Palilula (217), and the least were found in Obrenovac (4...

  5. Conference Attendees’ Satisfaction: Evidence from Belgrade (Serbia)

    OpenAIRE

    Dunjić Jelena; Dragićević Vanja; Arsenović Daniel; Pantelić Milana; Stankov Uglješa

    2012-01-01

    Conference industry brings significant economic effects and that is one of the reasons why many destinations around the world strive to organize conferences, especially the international ones, which make bigger economic effects. According to the Strategy of tourism development of the Republic of Serbia (2005-2015), city break and business tourism are tourism products of high priority, which can provide short-term positioning of Novi Sad and Belgrade, at the first place, at the international t...

  6. Conference Attendees’ Satisfaction: Evidence from Belgrade (Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunjić Jelena

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Conference industry brings significant economic effects and that is one of the reasons why many destinations around the world strive to organize conferences, especially the international ones, which make bigger economic effects. According to the Strategy of tourism development of the Republic of Serbia (2005-2015, city break and business tourism are tourism products of high priority, which can provide short-term positioning of Novi Sad and Belgrade, at the first place, at the international tourism market, and contribute to the growth of tourism turnover of foreign travellers.Belgrade is the capital and the largest city in Serbia. It is very well equipped with necessary infrastructure for organizing business events such as conferences, congresses, meetings etc. Lately, the number of international business events in Serbia is increasing and the majority of those events are organized in Belgrade. However, there are very few surveys which are examining satisfaction of the conference attendees in Serbia. This topic is often ignored despite the fact that the attendees satisfaction is substantial for organizers and all other relevant stakeholders at host destination. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to analyze the satisfaction of the conference attendees, as they are final consumers of conference tourist product and their experience regarding both conference and host destination is thus essential to destination marketing and management organizations, conference centres, hotel managers, meeting planners and all other stakeholders involved in conference industry and tourism

  7. Pigs leptospirosis at the territory of Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojinović Dragica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Examinations of pig blood samples have been carried out at public pig farms in three Belgrade municipalities: Palilula, Surcin and Obrenovac. The number of tested blood serums of pigs at Palilula was 18990, in Surcin 7739 and in Obrenovac it was 8200. The number of positive blood serums on leptospirosis in pigs was 760, and out of that number the most positive samples (496 were in Surcin, followed by Palilula (217, and the least were found in Obrenovac (47. In the period from 2000 to 2009, there were tested 34929 blood serums of pigs from farms located at the territory of Belgrade. For the investigations there was used the microscopic agglutination test (MAT on seven varieties of L. interrogans: L. pomona, L. icterohaemorrhagiae, L. grippotyphosa, L. sejroe, L. canicola, L. bataviae and L. australis. Seropositivity in pigs was determined in 760 blood serums, or in 2.17%. Leptospirosis prevalence was not very high, but it was constant, which indicates that leptospirosis infection maintained at the territory of Belgrade for ten years throughout our continual investigation.

  8. Knowledge, attitudes and behavior of adolescents about reproductive health at Belgrade territory

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    Kisić-Tepavčević Darija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Over the past few years, the results of numerous studies have emphasized the importance of adolescents' insufficient knowledge about reproductive health (RH, which implies an increasing trend of unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs. Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of adolescents about RH in the population of Belgrade. Method. The study comprised 292 students from three secondary schools in Belgrade involved in the research February 1-15, 2008. The semistructured questionnaire about adolescents' knowledge, attitudes and behaviour about RH was filled in by themselves in presence of a student-investigator who provided assistance when necessary. Statistical analysis included χ2 test and correlation analysis. Results. Most adolescents (70.5% showed the medium level of knowledge about RH. In our study, 33.6% of adolescents were sexually active. Sexually active students achieved a better score on the test about RH compared with the students who have not had sexual intercourse yet (χ2-test=34.003; p<0.01. The average age of the first sexual intercourse was 16.5 years for females, and 15.7 years for males. The students with a lower average grade in school education experienced the first sexual intercourse earlier compared to the adolescents with a higher average grade during the school education (ρ=0.485; p<0.01. The most common (73.4% source of information about RH is mass media. Conclusion. The results of our study indicate the need for more intensive and comprenhensive educational programmes in the area of RH for adolescents in our country.

  9. Attitudes of Belgrade University employees on corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gredelj Stjepan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Corruption is widely overspread phenomenon in all transition countries. In this sense Serbia is not exception, on the contrary, it was always highly ranked in all corruption indices of Transparency International. Among social areas which are considered as saturated with corruption highly ranked is the field of university education. In order to check justification of such perceptions, we have conducted a survey among Belgrade University employees. The findings confirmed that there exist corruption in high education on one side and that there is not too much readiness of employees to oppose it, if not to tear it out, than at least to diminish it.

  10. Energy efficiency of different bus subsystems in Belgrade public transport

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    Mišanović Slobodan M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Research in this paper comprised experimental determination of energy efficiency of different bus subsystems (diesel bus, trolleybus and fully electric bus on chosen public transport route in Belgrade. Experimental measuring of energy efficiency of each bus type has been done based on the analysis of parameters of vehicle driving cycles between stops. Results of this analysis were basis for development of theoretical simulation model of energy efficiency. The model was latter compared with the results of simulation done by "Solaris bus & Coach" company for the chosen electric bus route. Based on demonstrated simulation, characteristics of electric bus batteries were defined, the method and dynamic of their recharge was suggested, as well as choice for other aggregates for drive system and technical characteristics for the electric buses were suggested.

  11. Space Radar Image of Belgrade, Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This spaceborne radar image of Belgrade, Serbia, illustrates the variety of land use patterns that can be observed with a multiple wavelength radar system. Belgrade, the capital of Serbia and former capital of Yugoslavia, is the bright area in the center of the image. The Danube River flows from the top to the bottom of the image, and the Sava River flows into the Danube from the left. Agricultural fields appear in shades of dark blue, purple and brown in outlying areas. Vegetated areas along the rivers appear in light blue-green, while dense forests in hillier areas in the lower left appear in a darker shade of green. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 2, 1994. The image is centered at 44.5 degrees north latitude and 20.5 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right. The image shows an area 36 kilometers by 32 kilometers 22 miles by 20 miles). The colors are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  12. Ecological and Tourist Potential of Central Belgrade

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    Nebojša Anastasijević

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban green spaces traditionally represent areas where tourists gladly pause and rest. Ecological potential of green spaces, their capacity to enhance urban life through micro-climate mitigation, and their original attractiveness, represent the source from which their tourist potential is derived. Consequently, continuous increase in plant quantity and constant expansion of their existence to green-less zones and territories, commonly defined as gray or gray-green zones, is compulsory. Green spaces of central part of old Belgrade situated on the right banks of the rivers Sava and Danube are by all criteria in the category of top tourist rank, and the same goes for this whole area with numerous attractive points within. However, this zone – the territory of three central urban municipalities (Savski Venac, Stari Grad, and Vračar – holds numerous neglected spaces, deserted corridors and backyards, river bank segments and other sites covered with weed, debris left from past and recent bombardments, parking lots and half-devastated green stripes along residential blocks. Starting with the assumption that many of these can be qualitatively renewed and professionally greenscaped, paper describes their proper development into different categories of green spaces, important structural elements of Belgrade green infrastructure.

  13. Piloting an advanced methodology to analyse health care policy networks: The example of Belgrade, Serbia

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    Helmut Wenzel

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Political decisions usually emerge from the competing interests of politicians, voters, and special interest groups. We investigated the applicability of an advanced methodological concept to determine whether certain institutional positions in a cooperating network have influence on the decision-making procedures. To that end, we made use of the institutional network of relevant health care and health governance institutions, concentrated in Belgrade, Serbia. Methods: We used a Principal Component Analysis (PCA based on a combination of measures for centrality in order to evaluate the positions of 25 players in Belgrade‟s institutional network. Their directed links were determined by a simulated position approach employing the authors‟ long-term involvement. Software packages used consisted of Visone 2.9, UCINET 6, and KeyPlayer 1.44. Results: In our analysis, the network density score in Belgrade was 71%. The PCA revealed two dimensions: control and attractiveness. The Ministry of Health exerted the highest level of control but displayed a low attractiveness in terms of receiving links from important players. The National Health Insurance Fund had less control capacity but a high attractiveness. The National Institute of Public Health‟s position was characterized by a low control capacity and high attractiveness, whereas the National Drug Agency, the National Health Council, and Non-Governmental Organisations were no prominent players. Conclusions: The advanced methodologies used here to analyse the health care policy network in Belgrade provided consistent results indicating that the intended decentralization of the health care network in Belgrade may be incomplete, still with low participation of civil society representatives. With the present study we set the stage for a broad-range survey based data collection applying the methodology piloted in Belgrade.

  14. Cosmic rays muon flux measurements at Belgrade shallow underground laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Belgrade underground laboratory is a shallow underground one, at 25 meters of water equivalent. It is dedicated to low-background spectroscopy and cosmic rays measurement. Its uniqueness is that it is composed of two parts, one above ground, the other bellow with identical sets of detectors and analyzing electronics thus creating opportunity to monitor simultaneously muon flux and ambient radiation. We investigate the possibility of utilizing measurements at the shallow depth for the study of muons, processes to which these muons are sensitive and processes induced by cosmic rays muons. For this purpose a series of simulations of muon generation and propagation is done, based on the CORSIKA air shower simulation package and GEANT4. Results show good agreement with other laboratories and cosmic rays stations

  15. Structural changes in the rural planting areas of Belgrade region

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    Sibinović Mikica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Socio-economic development of the Belgrade region significantly affects the direction of the change of planting areas use. The increase in urban areas has adversely affected the direction of agricultural land use. Dynamics of change is significantly due to high production costs (high land prices and expensive labor force gives rise to the high price of the product on the market, there is a constant "pressure" of urban areas to arable land, increasing the risk of "loss" of agricultural holdings; increased environmental pollution due to the concentration of industrial plants or road construction. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of structural changes in sowing area in the period from 1991 to 2011. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176017

  16. Comparative Packaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, Michele; Antonini, David

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes a comparative packaging study for use on long duration space missions. The topics include: 1) Purpose; 2) Deliverables; 3) Food Sample Selection; 4) Experimental Design Matrix; 5) Permeation Rate Comparison; and 6) Packaging Material Information.

  17. A comparative study of energy certification systems for buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Milicevic, Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Due to the large amount of energy consumption in buildings and the biggest potential of energy and ecology savings, energy efficiency and sustainable construction represent the priorities of modern architecture and energetics today.This paper shows a comparative analysis of energy certification of residential object in realistic environments with the aim of enhancing their energy efficiencies. Subjects of the analysis were two buildings - one in Norway (Oslo), and the other in Serbia (Belgrad...

  18. Mortality from heart attack in Belgrade population during the period 1990-2004

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    Ratkov Isidora

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION In most countries, cardiovascular diseases are the leading disorders, with ischemic heart diseases being the leading cause of death. According to WHO data, every year about 17 million people die of cardiovascular diseases, which is 30% of all deaths. Ischemic heart diseases contribute from one-third to one-half of all deaths due to cardiovascular diseases. Three point eight million men and 3.4 million women in the world die every year from ischemic heart diseases, and in Europe about 2 million. The highest mortality rate from ischemic heart diseases occurs in India, China and Russia. OBJECTIVE The aim of this descriptive epidemiological study was to determine heart attack mortality in Belgrade population during the period 1990-2004. METHOD In the study, we conducted investigation of Belgrade population during the period 1990-2004. Mortality data were obtained from the city institution for statistics. The mortality rates were calculated based on the total Belgrade population obtained from the mean values for the last two register years (1991 and 2002. The mortality rates were standardized using the direct method of standardization according to the world (Segi standard population. RESULTS In the Belgrade population during the period 1990-2004, the participation of mortality rate due to heart attack among deaths from cardiovascular diseases was 17% in males and 10% in females. In Belgrade male population, mean standardized mortality rates (per 100,000 habitants were 50.5 for heart attack, 8.3 for chronic ischemic heart diseases and 4.6 for angina pectoris, while in females the rates were 30.8, 6.7 and 4.2, respectively. Mortality from ischemic heart diseases and from heart attack was higher in males than in females. During the studied 15-year period, on average 755 males and 483 females died due to heart attack every year. Mean standardized mortality rates per 100,000 habitants were 50.0 in male and 31.1 in female population. Males

  19. Survey on sexual harassment in public transportation in Belgrade

    OpenAIRE

    Tanasković Branislava; Račeta Milena

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the survey on sexual harassment in public transportation in Belgrade, conducted during 2007. Authors of the survey are Milena Račeta and Branislava Tanasković, students on Philosophy faculty in Belgrade, psychology department. In introduction, authors give a short review of research methodology. In the rest of the paper, authors present quantitive survey results obtained through exploration of specific aspects of real sexual harassment experiences. Qualitive...

  20. Digitization Projects Carried out by the Mathematical Institute Belgrade

    OpenAIRE

    Ognjanovič, Zoran; Mijajlovič, Žarco

    2004-01-01

    In this paper some current digitization projects carried out by the Mathematical Institute of Serbian Academy of Science and Arts Belgrade and the Faculty of Mathematics Belgrade are described. The projects concern developing of a virtual library of retro-digitized books and an Internet data base and presentation of electronic editions of some leading Serbian journals in science and arts, and the work on the South-Eastern European Digitization Initiative (SEEDI).

  1. a prospective comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Jäckel, Tanja

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine effectiveness and safety of homoeopathic vs. conventional treatment for children with atopic eczema in usual care. In a prospective multicentre comparative observational non-randomized study 135 patients (1-14 years old, homoeopathy n=48 vs. conventional n=87) with moderate atopic eczema were included. Treatment was left to the physicians´preferences in both groups. The primary endpoint was the SCORAD (SCOring Atopic Dermatitis) after 6 months. Secondary outcom...

  2. Psychometric Properties of the Serbian Version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey: A Validation Study among Anesthesiologists from Belgrade Teaching Hospitals

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    Bojana Matejić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report findings from a validation study of the translated and culturally adapted Serbian version of Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS, for a sample of anesthesiologists working in the tertiary healthcare. The results showed the sufficient overall reliability (Cronbach’s α = 0.72 of the scores (items 1–22. The results of Bartlett’s test of sphericity (χ2 = 1983.75, df = 231, p<0.001 and Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy (0.866 provided solid justification for factor analysis. In order to increase sensitivity of this questionnaire, we performed unfitted factor analysis model (eigenvalue greater than 1 which enabled us to extract the most suitable factor structure for our study instrument. The exploratory factor analysis model revealed five factors with eigenvalues greater than 1.0, explaining 62.0% of cumulative variance. Velicer’s MAP test has supported five-factor model with the smallest average squared correlation of 0,184. This study indicated that Serbian version of the MBI-HSS is a reliable and valid instrument to measure burnout among a population of anesthesiologists. Results confirmed strong psychometric characteristics of the study instrument, with recommendations for interpretation of two new factors that may be unique to the Serbian version of the MBI-HSS.

  3. Psychometric Properties of the Serbian Version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey: A Validation Study among Anesthesiologists from Belgrade Teaching Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matejić, Bojana; Milenović, Miodrag; Kisić Tepavčević, Darija; Simić, Dušica; Pekmezović, Tatjana; Worley, Jody A

    2015-01-01

    We report findings from a validation study of the translated and culturally adapted Serbian version of Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS), for a sample of anesthesiologists working in the tertiary healthcare. The results showed the sufficient overall reliability (Cronbach's α = 0.72) of the scores (items 1-22). The results of Bartlett's test of sphericity (χ(2) = 1983.75, df = 231, p Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy (0.866) provided solid justification for factor analysis. In order to increase sensitivity of this questionnaire, we performed unfitted factor analysis model (eigenvalue greater than 1) which enabled us to extract the most suitable factor structure for our study instrument. The exploratory factor analysis model revealed five factors with eigenvalues greater than 1.0, explaining 62.0% of cumulative variance. Velicer's MAP test has supported five-factor model with the smallest average squared correlation of 0,184. This study indicated that Serbian version of the MBI-HSS is a reliable and valid instrument to measure burnout among a population of anesthesiologists. Results confirmed strong psychometric characteristics of the study instrument, with recommendations for interpretation of two new factors that may be unique to the Serbian version of the MBI-HSS. PMID:26090517

  4. Actual contamination of the Danube and Sava Rivers at Belgrade (2013)

    OpenAIRE

    Antonijević Milan D.; Arsović Marija; Čáslavský Josef; Cvetković Vesna; Dabić Predrag; Franko Mladen; Ilić Gordana; Ivanović Milena; Ivanović Nevena; Kosovac Milica; Medić Dragana; Najdanović Slobodan; Nikolić Milica; Novaković Jovana; Radovanović Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    This study is focussed on a comprehensive investigation on the state of pollution of Danube and Sava rivers in Belgrade region. Different complementary analytical approaches have been used covering both (i) organic ccontaminants in river water by target analyses of hormones and neonicotinoids as well as non-target screening analyses and (ii) heavy metals in sediments. Finally, some common water quality parameters have been analysed. The overall state of pol...

  5. The development of the program of voluntary blood donation promotion in students population of the University of Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović-Srzentić Snežana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Given that in each country students represent the most progressive population group, as of 2001, the Blood Transfusion Institute of Serbia (BTIS has been carrying the program of voluntary blood donation promotion and education of volunteers at the University of Belgrade (UB. In 2011, the BTIS intensified all activities at the UB. The aim of this study was to present activities performed from 2001 at the Blood Donors` Motivation Department (DMD of the BTIS related with increasing the level of awareness on voluntary blood donation in the Belgrade students` population, enhancing their motivation to become voluntary blood donors (VBDs, increasing the number of blood donations at faculties of the UB, and increasing the number of blood donations in the UB students population compared with the total number of blood units collected by BTIS in Belgrade, with the emphasis on the year 2013. Methods. Initially, the applied methodology was based on encouraging students to donate blood through discussions and preparatory lectures, followed by organized blood drives. Appropriate selection of volunteers at each faculty was crucial. Besides their recognisable identity, they had to have remarkable communication skills and ability to positivly affect persons in their environment. The applied principle was based on retention of volunteers all through the final academic year, with the inclusion of new volunteers each year and 1,000 preparatory lectures on the annual basis. The activities were realized using two Facebook profiles, SMS messages and continuous notification of the public through the media. Results. There was an increase in the average number of students in blood drives at the faculties from 2011, when the average number of the students per blood drive was 39, followed by 43 in 2012 and 46 in 2013. The number of students who donated blood in 2013 increased by 21.3% compared with 2012 data. Conclusion. The applied concept highly

  6. Operations dashboard: comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramly, Noor Nashriq; Ismail, Ahmad Zuhairi; Aziz, Mohd Haris; Ahmad, Nurul Haszeli

    2011-10-01

    In this present days and age, there are increasing needs for companies to monitor application and infrastructure health. Apart from having proactive measures to secure their application and infrastructure, many see monitoring dashboards as crucial investment in disaster preparedness. As companies struggle to find the best solution to cater for their needs and interest for monitoring their application and infrastructure's health, this paper summarizes the studies made on several known off-the-shelf operations dashboard and in-house developed dashboard. A few criteria of good dashboard are collected from previous studies carried out by several researchers and rank them according to importance and business needs. The finalized criteria that will be discussed in later sections are data visualization, performance indicator, dashboard personalization, audit capability and alert/ notification. Comparative studies between several popular dashboards were then carried out to determine whether they met these criteria that we derived from the first exercise. The findings hopefully can be used to educate and provide an overview of selecting the best IT application and infrastructure operations dashboard that suit business needs, thus become the main contribution of this paper.

  7. Incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Belgrade during the period 1991-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nešić Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC is a relatively rare malignant disease, of which 80 000 individuals become ill around the world annually, which amounts to 0.7% of all carcinomas. The aim of this descriptive study was to analyze NPC incidence in Belgrade (the capital city of Serbia, with about 1.6 million inhabitants during the period 1991-2005. Methods. In data analysis, crude rates age and sex specific rates, and standardized incidence rates were used. Standardization was performed by a direct method, using world population as the standard. Results. In Belgrade, during the observed 15-year-period, the number of new NPC patients totaled 118, of which 86 (72.9% were male and 32 (27.1% were female. The average standardized incidence rate for men was 0.52 per 100 000 and for women 0.16 per 100 000. In both sexes the incidence was very low before 40 years of age. In men, the greatest incidence rate of NPC was in the 50-59 years age group, and in women in those 60 and more years old. Furthermore, undifferentiated carcinoma of nasopharyngeal type was 3.6 times more often in comparison to squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusion. Belgrade belongs to a region with a low incidence rate of NPC. Further investigations are needed to explain higher frequency of undifferentiated carcinoma of nasopharyngeal type than squamous cell carcinoma.

  8. Comparative waste forms study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of alternative process and waste form options exist for the immobilization of nuclear wastes. Although data exists on the characterization of these alternative waste forms, a straightforward comparison of product properties is difficult, due to the lack of standardized testing procedures. The characterization study described in this report involved the application of the same volatility, mechanical strength and leach tests to ten alternative waste forms, to assess product durability. Bulk property, phase analysis and microstructural examination of the simulated products, whose waste loading varied from 5% to 100% was also conducted. The specific waste forms investigated were as follows: Cold Pressed and Sintered PW-9 Calcine; Hot Pressed PW-9 Calcine; Hot Isostatic Pressed PW-9 Calcine; Cold Pressed and Sintered SPC-5B Supercalcine; Hot Isostatic pressed SPC-5B Supercalcine; Sintered PW-9 and 50% Glass Frit; Glass 76-68; Celsian Glass Ceramic; Type II Portland Cement and 10% PW-9 Calcine; and Type II Portland Cement and 10% SPC-5B Supercalcine. Bulk property data were used to calculate and compare the relative quantities of waste form volume produced at a spent fuel processing rate of 5 metric ton uranium/day. This quantity ranged from 3173 L/day (5280 Kg/day) for 10% SPC-5B supercalcine in cement to 83 L/day (294 Kg/day) for 100% calcine. Mechanical strength, volatility, and leach resistance tests provide data related to waste form durability. Glass, glass-ceramic and supercalcine ranked high in waste form durability where as the 100% PW-9 calcine ranked low. All other materials ranked between these two groupings

  9. Oesophageal-cancer-derived death in the population of Belgrade in a period 1989-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Janko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Oesophageal cancer is the sixth most common cause of death from all malignant tumors in the world (fifth in men, eighth in women. This cancer was estimated to account for about 529 000 new cases and about 442 000 deaths in the year 2007. In the year 2002 the highest standardized mortality rates (per 100 000 habitants of oesophageal carcinoma were noticed in the East Asia (men/women: 18.8/7.7 and East Africa (18.6/7.8, while the lowest were noticed in the Middle Africa (1.4/0.2 and West Africa (1.3/0.5. The aim of this descriptive epidemiologic study was to analyze epidemiologic situation of oesophageal cancer in Belgrade population during the period 1989-2006, using mortality data. Methods. Mortality data were collected from the City Organization for Statistics. In data analysis we used mortality rates which were standardized directly using those of the world population as the standard, and proportions. A denominator for mortality rates was calculated using the Belgrade population which was an average of the two latest register years (1991 and 2002. In order to analyze trend mortality from oesophageal cancer we used linear trend. Results. In Belgrade deaths from oesophageal cancer accounted for about 5.2% of all malignant tumors of intestinal system in male population, and 2.4% in female population. This cancer is, according to standardized mortality rates (per 100 000 habitants, on the fifth place in Belgrade population behind colorectal, stomach, pancreatic, liver and cholecystic cancer. During the period 1989-2006 in Belgrade 44 persons died from oesophageal carcinoma on the average each year, mainly men (75%, and the rest were women (25%. In male population during the same period we noticed a significant increase in trend mortality (y = 1.61 + 0.06x, p = 0.001, while in female population the increase of mortality was not significant. The male/female oesophageal cancer mortality ratio was 3:1. Mortality rates for oesophageal

  10. Marble tabula in Belgrade: Commemoration plates dedicated to perished ones

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    Đapović Lasta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an ancient Balkans tradition of building commemoration plates dedicated to perished ones. This actually represents twofold belief, one being that a deceased should rest on his/hers own soil and an attempt to mark a place of someone's death. All were performed with an aim to prolong memory and reminiscence of the deceased. In 19th century Serbia and especially so at the beginning of the 20th century it became popular to build such commemoration plates dedicated to soldiers who have died abroad. In the second half of the 20th century, there are sporadic commemoration plates near roads, not as a designation for an unknown grave but to mark down a place where someone has died, most often in a car accident. At the crossroads of the century, however, this custom was very frequent. Belgrade has also seen many of these commemoration plates. The studying of ways and shapes of this custom is the main subject of this paper. The author tries to follow all changes ranging from those induced by the state to those very rare private commemoration plates placed on certain buildings, including those left to decay, or those maintained regularly, on street lights, near cressets at grave yards, flowers, granite plates etc. The paper also discusses possible causes, frequencies and changes related to this custom.

  11. Heavy metal content of soil in urban parks of Belgrade

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    Kuzmanoski Maja M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on soil pollution in four urban parks of Belgrade. The sampling locations within each park were chosen based on proximity to streets characterized by heavy traffic, and soil samples were taken at different depths down to 50 cm. Concentrations of six heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn were measured using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF spectrometer. The following average abundance order of heavy metals was found: Fe >> Mn > Zn > Cr > Ni > Cu in topsoil samples. The highest enrichment in topsoil was observed for Zn. Copper and Zn, metals mainly related to traffic emissions, exhibited the highest concentrations at the sampling location close to a bus and trolleybus terminus. The highest Ni and Cr concentrations were observed in a park located in a city suburb, where a large number of individual heating units is present. The largest decrease in concentrations with soil dept was observed for Zn and Cu, followed by Ni and Cr, in the parks with the highest concentrations of these elements in topsoil. Generally high topsoil Cr and Ni concentrations were observed in comparison with average values reported in literature for other world cities. [Projekat Ministartsva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III43007

  12. Mobile OS Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Jyothy; K, Shinto Kurian

    2013-01-01

    In the fast growing mobile revolutionary era, many operating systems are playing vital role in present market. This study is intending to identify the apt and secure mobile based on mobile operating systems capability and user requirements.

  13. The historical maximal precipitations in Belgrade and their urban aspect

    OpenAIRE

    Ocokoljić Miroslav

    2007-01-01

    The historical maximal daily precipitations are discussed in this paper. A period of 100 years of Belgrade observations of the maximal daily precipitations is analyzed. The conclusion is that the historical daily precipitations are not yet appeared in the instrumental period, and the range of 100 years of observations can’t be used for examination of probability of daily maximal precipitations.

  14. An analytical method of estimating Value-at-Risk on the Belgrade Stock Exchange

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    Obadović Milica D.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents market risk evaluation for a portfolio consisting of shares that are continuously traded on the Belgrade Stock Exchange, by applying the Value-at-Risk model - the analytical method. It describes the manner of analytical method application and compares the results obtained by implementing this method at different confidence levels. Method verification was carried out on the basis of the failure rate that demonstrated the confidence level for which this method was acceptable in view of the given conditions.

  15. Evaluation of Recreational Areas in Reservoir Serie of Belgrad Forest From Forest Management Point of View

    OpenAIRE

    Özcan, Mehmet; Destan, Sinan

    2010-01-01

     ã€€The aim of this study was to implement a developed and tested methodology to determine the function of forest recreation, which can be useful for forest management and planning. In the study, structural components that are effective in evaluation of categories and types of seven recreational areas (Bentler, Falih Rıfkı Atay, Irmak, Kirazlıbent, Kömürcübent, Neşetsuyu and M.Akif Ersoy) in The Bentler Planning Unit of Belgrad Forest were rendered into a measurable situation and digitized. O...

  16. Eye injuries caused by shotgun and air-rifles treated at the University eye clinic in Belgrade 2000-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanović Miloš B.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Eye injuries caused by shotgun buckshot or air-rifle bullets are not common but are very severe, causing blindness of the injured eye. Objective. By comparison of different parameters, to determine which of these two types of injuries have more serious final effect on vision. Methods. A retrospective comparative analysis of patients with shotgun and air-rifle injuries, treated in the period 2000-2009 at the University Eye Clinic in Belgrade wa...

  17. An analysis of fog events at Belgrade International Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veljović, Katarina; Vujović, Dragana; Lazić, Lazar; Vučković, Vladan

    2015-01-01

    A preliminary study of the occurrence of fog at Belgrade "Nikola Tesla" Airport was carried out using a statistical approach. The highest frequency of fog has occurred in the winter months of December and January and far exceeded the number of fog days in the spring and the beginning of autumn. The exceptionally foggy months, those having an extreme number of foggy days, occurred in January 1989 (18 days), December 1998 (18 days), February 2005 (17 days) and October 2001 (15 days). During the winter months (December, January and February) from 1990 to 2005 (16 years), fog occurred most frequently between 0600 and 1000 hours, and in the autumn, between 0500 and 0800 hours. In summer, fog occurred most frequently between 0300 and 0600 hours. During the 11-year period from 1995 to 2005, it was found that there was a 13 % chance for fog to occur on two consecutive days and a 5 % chance that it would occur 3 days in a row. In October 2001, the fog was observed over nine consecutive days. During the winter half year, 52.3 % of fog events observed at 0700 hours were in the presence of stratus clouds and 41.4 % were without the presence of low clouds. The 6-h cooling observed at the surface preceding the occurrence of fog between 0000 and 0700 hours ranged mainly from 1 to 4 °C. A new method was applied to assess the probability of fog occurrence based on complex fog criteria. It was found that the highest probability of fog occurrence (51.2 %) takes place in the cases in which the relative humidity is above 97 %, the dew-point depression is 0 °C, the cloud base is lower than 50 m and the wind is calm or weak 1 h before the onset of fog.

  18. Ivan Djaja (Jean Giaja)1 and the Belgrade School of Physiology

    OpenAIRE

    Andjus, Pavle R.; Stojilkovic, Stanko S.; Cvijic, Gordana

    2011-01-01

    The founder of physiology studies in the Balkans and the pioneer of research on hypothermia, Ivan Djaja (Jean Giaja) was born 1884 in L’Havre. Giaja gained his PhD at the Sorbonne in 1909. In 1910 he established the first Chair of Physiology in the Balkans and organized the first Serbian Institute for Physiology at the School of Philosophy of the University of Belgrade. He led this Institute for more than 40 subsequent years. His most notable papers were in the field of thermoregulation and b...

  19. List of Strigiformes species in the Belgrade Natural History Museum bird collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novčić Ivana D.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available During re-inventory of the order Strigiformes in the ornithological collection of the Belgrade Natural History Museum, we recorded a total of 134 specimens, collected at over 40 localities throughout Serbia. Of these 71 are in the study collection, 59 in the exhibition collection, and four in the historical collection of birds. In view of the number of specimens diversity of species, and the geographical representatives, the collection of owls in the Natural History Museum represents an extremely important source of information for the taxon Strigiformes.

  20. The New Setup in the Belgrade Low-Level and Cosmic-Ray Laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Dragić, Aleksandar; Banjanac, Radomir; Joković, Dejan; Maletić, Dimitrije; Veselinović, Nikola; Savić, Mihailo; Puzović, Jovan; Aničin, Ivan V; 10.2298/NTRP1101064N

    2012-01-01

    The Belgrade underground laboratory consists of two interconnected spaces, a ground level laboratory and a shallow underground one, at 25 m.w.e.. The laboratory hosts a low-background gamma spectroscopy system and cosmic-ray muon detectors. With recently adopted digital data acquisition system it is possible to study simultaneously independent operation of two detector systems, as well as processes induced by cosmic-ray muons in germanium spectrometers. Characteristics and potentials of present experimental setup, together with some preliminary results for the flux of fast neutrons and stopped muons are reported.

  1. Survey on sexual harassment in public transportation in Belgrade

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    Tanasković Branislava

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the survey on sexual harassment in public transportation in Belgrade, conducted during 2007. Authors of the survey are Milena Račeta and Branislava Tanasković, students on Philosophy faculty in Belgrade, psychology department. In introduction, authors give a short review of research methodology. In the rest of the paper, authors present quantitive survey results obtained through exploration of specific aspects of real sexual harassment experiences. Qualitive analysis of recommendations given by questioned females is also presented. This survey has been conducted using a questionnaire specially constructed by authors for the purpose of this research. Finally, in conclusion, authors summarize the data, and emphasizing the need of an appropriate social action offer some possible solutions for minimizing this type of violence.

  2. CERN exhibition attracts over 100,000 visitors in Belgrade

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    “This must be an 'all-time record',” says Ray Lewis, CERN travelling exhibition manager. “In all my time with the various permanent and travelling exhibitions that have taken place locally and within our Member States I have never experienced such figures.”   Zarko Obradovic (left), Serbian Minister of Education, Science and Technology, and Rolf Heuer (right), CERN Director-General, at the CERN travelling exhibition in Belgrade. Indeed, in approximately 20 days of exhibition time about 120,000 people, mainly school visiters and the general public, visited the 100 m2 CERN mini-exhibition. It was set up in the centre of Belgrade in October, in association with the meeting of the Restricted European Committee for Future Accelerators (RECFA). After attending the RECFA meeting, CERN's Director-General Rofl Heuer opened the CERN exhibition on the evening of 19 October. Lectures about CERN were held every afternoon, and two public de...

  3. Molecular Epidemiology of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Belgrade, Central Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Vuković, Dragana; Rüsch-Gerdes, Sabine; Savić, Branislava; Niemann, Stefan

    2003-01-01

    In order to gain precise data on the actual epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) in Belgrade, central Serbia, we conducted the molecular epidemiological investigation described herein. IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) typing of 176 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates was performed. These strains were obtained from 48.4% of all patients diagnosed with culture-proven pulmonary TB from April through September 1998 and from May through October 1999. Clusters containing strains ...

  4. Belgrade as European Capital of Culture: Conceptual conjunction

    OpenAIRE

    Volić Ivana; Bajić Luka; Radenković-Šošić Bojana

    2012-01-01

    The paper treated the question of cultural policy in the context of Belgrade event ‘European Capital of Culture’ (ECOC). In accordance with the current nomination for the title of cultural capital of Europe 2020 there are frequent media and political statements about contribution to the socio-economic development of the city and its positioning as an international cultural center. Also, it is assumed that this project can be a strategic tool in creating a new model of cultural policy of...

  5. Belgrade breakdance girl: Breaking gender-specific stereotypes with dance

    OpenAIRE

    Blagojević Gordana

    2009-01-01

    This paper is based on the life story of one of Belgrade break dance dancers who started dancing and competing in early youth, but later she ceased to dance. I was interested in motives which influenced that young person to begin to deal with the brake dance, what she expressed by that, what the reaction was of social environment to the dance and what factors influenced her to stop dealing with this dance.

  6. The moss flora in the central urban area of Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grdović Svetlana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In floristic research on mosses in the central urban area of Belgrade, the presence of 58 species classified into 23 genera and 12 families was verified. The mosses occur in different specific and extreme microhabitats. Diversity of the bryoflora in urban ecosystems can be explained in terms of the large number of different habitats found on large greens, old fortress ruins, and roofs, as well as in gardens in the center of the Old Town.

  7. Determination of heavy metal concentrations in tea samples taken from Belgrade market, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perić-Grujić Aleksandra A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tea is one of the world's most popular beverages. Economic and social interest in tea is clear from the fact that about 18-20 billion tea cups are being consumed daily in the world. Consequently, chemical components in tea leaves have received great interest because they are related to health and disease. Various reports have discussed the potential health implications of some chemical factors such as heavy metals in tea, particularly since tea bush is known to accumulate trace metals. Metallic constituents of tea leaves depend on the type of tea and geological origin. In the present study four tea samples (two black and two green and four herbal tea samples (two Mentha piperita and two Matricaria chammomilla were collected from the local market in Belgrade, Serbia, in May 2008. The sample preparation has been performed using wet and dry digestion procedures. The metal content (Cu, Zn, Mn, Cd, Ni and Pb in the digested samples has been analyzed by using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The comparison of wet and dry digestion has shown significant differences in results, indicating that dry digestion is more appropriate method. The levels of the examined metals obtained by dry digestion in this study compared well with those reported for tea samples from some other parts of the world. Among the investigated metals, the most abundant nutritive metal, Mn, has been the highest with 26.0 to 199.3 mg/kg, while fortunately toxic heavy metal, Cd, has been below the detection limit (0.1 mg/kg. The concentrations of lead and nickel have been in the range 5.1-13.7 and 1.4- -4.4, respectively. The content of lead in two samples (Mentha piperita has been higher than the maximum permissible concentration of 10 mg/kg specified by the national legislation.

  8. (Odonomastics of Ljubljana and Belgrade - indicator of Serbian-Slovenian ties in recent past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radović Srđan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Naming and renaming of streets and other public spaces is an area of research interest of several social sciences; street names (odonyms, particularly official street names, are seen as symbols in urban space which cater for various politics of identity and memory. This paper compares odonomastic landscapes (urban onomastic landscapes of Ljubljana and Belgrade, more precisely their segments which commemorate Slovenia and Slovenians in Belgrade, and on the other side Serbia and Serbian persons in Ljubljana. The focus of discussion is street (renaming in capitals of Serbia and Slovenia from the 19th century till present (encompassing the periods of the long nineteenth century, interbellum Yugoslavia, World War Two, socialist Yugoslavia, and present independent states. Streets and squares named after members of these two nations, and after terms and toponyms from these two countries (which are a part of the urban nomenclature of the two capitals, indirectly point out to types of symbolic connections established between Serbia and Slovenia in the last hundred years or more.

  9. The development of the program of voluntary blood donation promotion in students population of the University of Belgrade

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanović-Srzentić Snežana; Rodić Ivana; Knežević Mirjana

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aim. Given that in each country students represent the most progressive population group, as of 2001, the Blood Transfusion Institute of Serbia (BTIS) has been carrying the program of voluntary blood donation promotion and education of volunteers at the University of Belgrade (UB). In 2011, the BTIS intensified all activities at the UB. The aim of this study was to present activities performed from 2001 at the Blood Donors` Motivation Department ...

  10. Seasonal trends of benzo(apyrene in suspended particulate matter in urban areas of Belgrade, Serbia

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    Snežana Matić-Besarabić

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were identified to be one of the major toxic air pollutants in urban environment. PAHs are mostly formed during incomplete combustion or pyrolysis of organic material. According to Serbian National Legislation, benzo(apyrene (BaP concentration in total suspended particles (TSP in ambient air in the Belgrade metropolitan area has been determined in the last ten years, as a part of a local air pollution monitoring program performed by the Public Health Institute of Belgrade and funded by Belgrade’s Municipality. Air samples for analysis of BaP in suspended particleshave been collected (as 24 h sample once per month at selected onitoring sites within the municipal air quality monitoring network. At the beginning, according to National Regulation, all samples were taken as total suspended particles (TSP. Since mid-2008, the procedure of sampling methodology was harmonized with EU requirements and solid fraction PM10 has been collected and analyzed using GC/MS. In this study, we have analyzed results of TSP collected between 2005 and 2008. Looking through the results obtained during the period of a whole year, it can be noticed that concentrations of BaP were much higher during winter season at almost all measuring sites.

  11. Nonmelanoma skin cancer in the population of the city of Belgrade in the period 1999-2011

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    Videnović Goran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nonmelanoma skin cancers in the literature are mainly related to basal cell and squamous cell skin carcinoma. Objective. The aim of the study was to determine the trend in the incidence of histological types of nonmelanoma skin cancers in the population of the city of Belgrade from 1999 to 2011. Methods. From the Serbian National Cancer Registry we extracted all recorded cases of skin cancer in Belgrade from January 1st 1999 to December 31st 2011. Incidence rates were standardized by the method of direct standardization with the world population as the standard population. Trends and annual percentage change (APC of incidence rate were calculated by performing joinpoint regression analyses. Results. Incidence rate of nonmelanoma skin cancer showed significantly increasing trend between 1999 and 2006 with APC of 8.6% (95% CI: 5.6-11.7, basal cell carcinoma increased with APC of 8.4% (95% CI: 5.2-11.6 and squamous cell skin carcinoma with APC of 9.33% (95% CI: 5.7-13.1. The incidence increased with age for both men and women, especially after the age of 60. Conclusion. Our results showed a continuously increasing incidence trend of both basal cell and squamous cell skin carcinomas in the population of the city of Belgrade between 1999 and 2011. Adequate primary and secondary prevention would certainly be successful in reducing this type of cancer in the future.

  12. Trg republike: Dominant pedestrian place in central Belgrade zone

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    Galečić Nevenka

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses historical, compositional and functional values of one of the most frequent open space in central zone of Belgrade - Trg Republike. Based on gathered data from terrain, cartographical and literary data genesis of the space, functionality and composition characteristics were analyzed, as well as degree of the usage. It is concluded that neither degree of functionality nor the compositional value of Trg Republike do not satisfy in full, although the degree of usage is very high, as a result of position in the very center of the town, as well as the important surrounding objects.

  13. Giardiasis in dogs and cats in the Belgrade area

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolić Aleksandra I.; Dimitrijević Sanda M.; Đurković-Đaković Olgica M.; Bobić Branko N.; Maksimović-Mihajlović Olga

    2002-01-01

    Giardia infection is an ongoing problem in Serbia, since 8,0% of the children in the Belgrade area are infected. In the light of the zoonotic potential of Giardia infection, a total of 248 companion animals (167 dogs and 81 cats) were examined for giardiasis in the same urban area. The overall rates of infection in dogs and cats were 14.4% (24/167) and 22.2 % (18/81), respectively. Significantly (p<0.05, p<0.01) higher infection rates were found in stray (18.7%) and farm...

  14. Postmodernism in Belgrade architecture: Between cultural modernity and societal modernization

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    Blagojević Ljiljana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the introduction and articulation of ideas and aesthetic practice of postmodernism in architecture of late socialism in Yugoslavia, with the focus on Belgrade architecture scene. Theoretical and methodological point of departure of this analysis is Jürgen Habermas's thesis of modernity as an incomplete, i.e., unfinished project, from his influential essay “Die Moderne: Ein unvollendetes Projekt” (1980. The thematic framework of the paper is shifted towards issues raised by Habermas which concern relations of cultural modernity and societal modernization, or rather towards consideration of architectural postmodernity in relation to the split between culture and society. The paper investigates architectural discourse which was profiled in Belgrade in 1980s, in a historical context of cultural modernity simultaneous with Habermas's text, but in different conditions of societal modernization of Yugoslav late socialism. In that, the principle methodological question concerns the interpretation of postmodern architecture as part of the new cultural production within the social restructuration of late and/or end of socialism as a system, that being analogous to Fredric Jameson's thesis of “Postmodernism, Or, The Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism” (1984.

  15. Periodontal condition in diabetics in Belgrade

    OpenAIRE

    Anđelski-Radičević Biljana; Zelić Obrad; Mirković Silvija; Todorović Tatjana

    2008-01-01

    Background/Aim. Diabetes mellitus (DM) as a complex metabolic disease influences functioning of numerous organs. Therefore, frequent diabetic complication is chronic periodontitis. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of various risk factors, like age, sex, duration of DM, oral hygiene, on oral manifestations of diabetes. Methods. The group of diabetics included 52 adult patients, 18-79-year of age, both sexes (33 females, 19 males) out of which 35 patients were with diabetes...

  16. Research of the quality of life of schizophrenic patients in Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opalić Petar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available First of all, it was pointed to the specificity of the quality of life of psychiatric patients, primarily to the fact that the very poor mental state significantly reduces the life satisfaction. Then, an overview of results of general research of quality of life among schizophrenic patients was presented, in relation to their conditions of treatment, cultural setting, influence of socio-demographic and other factors. The very research was conducted on the sample of 80 subjects treated under the diagnosis of schizophrenia at the Institute of Mental Health in Belgrade - treated as out-patients in the day-hospital. The controls were 80 healthy subjects employed with a Health-care center in Belgrade. The statistical significance calculations of differences were related to replies to the instrument's questions - the instrument being a combination of Lancashire and Manchester Questionnaire. The questions referred to 15 features, classified according to five dimensions of quality of life (physical and medical; psychological and psychopathological; economic; relational and social; and axiological and transcendental dimension, and we arrived at the following: In terms of statistical significance, schizophrenic patients, in comparison to healthy controls confirmed taking medicaments significantly more often, that is, confirmed feeling as being chronic patients, suffering due to their bad disposition, fear and having hallucinations. The schizophrenic subjects, also confirmed something very interesting - that they were satisfied with their housing conditions and income. On the other hand, healthy controls, statistically speaking, replied significantly more often that they were satisfied with their sexual relations and relations with their friends, as well as that they were significantly more satisfied with their cultural and social activities. The results of our research were also commented on in relation to the social and other factors, and were compared

  17. Test run of biodiesel in public transport system in Belgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems related to our strong dependency on fossil fuels, i.e. greenhouse effect, energy dependency, urban pollution, are of growing importance in recent years. European Union (EU) Action plan of 2003, which had originated from Kyoto Agreement, defined a strategy for substitution of 20% of conventional fuel with the alternative one by 2020. Proved advantages of biodiesel usage in the system of public transport of passengers, with regard to exhaust gases emission above all, have been the decisive determinants for the actual promotion of biodiesel as ecologically 'clean' fuel, while its wider usage gives important contribution to sustainable development of cities. This paper presents results of biodiesel-test run in Belgrade, as a part of the project BIO-PEX, which relates to the usage of this alternative fuel in real operating conditions in urban public transport system, with special emphasis on technical, ecological and operational aspects of biofuel usage.

  18. "Oganj - association of cremation in Belgrade": Development, ideas and symbols

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    Pavićević Aleksandra

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available And although the development and spreading of the idea of cremation, as well as mentioned laws, could be seen as the beginning of secularization of death death has remained, for a long time, closely associated with this or that religious beliefs and practice. Still, the development of the idea of cremation during the 20th century testifies on changes related to understanding of death among the contemporary, especially urban population in Serbia. This is particularly true for Belgrade and Novi Sad, although some other areas seem to be accepting new ideas and practices. The paper illustrates the development of the idea, its latent and real content, symbols used during its promotion. The accent is put on an ideological polarization that came about as a result of the development of cremation.

  19. On Byzantine origins of figural miniatures of Belgrade Alexandride

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    Živković Miloš

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The late antique literary biography of Alexander the Great known as Pseudo-Callisthenes’ Alexander Romance was remarkably popular reading both in Byzantium and in the West in the middle ages. This literary work was also translated into Serbian Slavonic. Two extensively illustrated manuscripts of the “Serbian Alexandride”, and one decorated with only a few drawings are known. The paper discusses the iconographic features of the oldest of the known manuscripts, the so-called Belgrade Alexandride, which is commonly dated to the second half or the end of the fourteenth century. The research is particularly focused on the costumes of the depicted figures. The findings of the research suggest that the iconographic solutions of the miniatures are of Byzantine origin and that earlier views suggesting West-European influences on their shaping are not founded. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177032: Tradicija, inovacija i identitet u vizantijskom svetu

  20. Ecology and distribution of an invasive species Aster­lanceolatus willd. on wet habitats in Belgrade

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    Obratov-Petković Dragica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The species Aster lanceolatus occupies a significant position in the world and European lists of invasive species. Its spreading potential is a hazardous factor to the biodiversity in many countries. There are no relevant data on the wider proportion of this species in the area of Belgrade. The sites of Aster lanceolatus are annual or pioneer communities along the water courses, abandoned and neglected areas, forest margins, moist meadows. The study areas are located near a choice of water courses in Belgrade. The aim of the study was to assess the species ecology and population density, synecological interrelationships among the coenobionts of the communities in which it occurs, and also to map its the habitats. The study of population density was performed on the supplemented and partially modified 'CPS SKEW' form, applied in West European countries, by the principle of squares. The species was determined by standard floristic method, and the species location by GPS system. It was concluded that Aster lanceolatus was dominant and wild at all study sites. The individuals and populations are especially numerous on the river islands Ada Ciganlija and Veliko Ratno Ostrvo, along the stream Kumodršaki Potok and the Danube left bank, where the number of individuals per squares is above 1300 and the degree of coverage is 100%. Its spreading potential is conditioned by the species biology, and the expansiveness by climate changes, anthropogenic impacts and the competitive interrelationships.

  1. Paracetamol suppositories: a comparative study.

    OpenAIRE

    Cullen, S; Kenny, D; Ward, O C; Sabra, K.

    1989-01-01

    Paracetamol suppositories in two different bases were given to children who had fever after operations. Plasma concentrations and the effect on temperature were compared. There was a significant correlation between peak plasma concentrations and maximum drop in temperature. A lipophilic base produced better results than a hydrophilic base.

  2. Giardiasis in dogs and cats in the Belgrade area

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    Nikolić Aleksandra I.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Giardia infection is an ongoing problem in Serbia, since 8,0% of the children in the Belgrade area are infected. In the light of the zoonotic potential of Giardia infection, a total of 248 companion animals (167 dogs and 81 cats were examined for giardiasis in the same urban area. The overall rates of infection in dogs and cats were 14.4% (24/167 and 22.2 % (18/81, respectively. Significantly (p<0.05, p<0.01 higher infection rates were found in stray (18.7% and farm (36.4% dogs than in household pets (7.4%. Furthermore, the rate of infection was significantly (p<0.01 higher in domestic cats than in household dogs (22.2%vs. 7.4%. The owners and all 16 of their family members of five out of the six household pet dogs excreting Giardia were Giardia-negative, while both the owner of one dog and the only other family member were Giardia-positive. The data demonstrate that potential animal reservoirs (dogs and cats exist in urban Serbia and underline the possibility of transmission between dog and man in close contact, thus having important implications for the epidemiology of giardiasis in urban areas.

  3. Mortality from endometrial cancer in female population of Belgrade

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    Pantović Vesna R.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Data about mortality from malignant tumors of endometrium were analyzed in the Belgrade area during the period 1975-2000. The obtained results showed that the average percentage of endometrial cancer in mortality structure from all the cancers of female population was 2.65%. During the observed 26-years period, malignant tumors of endometrium constituted 17.38% of all the tumors of gynecological localization. The standardized mortality rate in 1975 (population worldwide used as a standard 7.06/100 000 population while in 2000 it was 1.78/100 000 population, respectively, which showed almost fourfold mortality decline during the observed period (y=4.72-0.16x. A trend of declining risk of dying from endometrial cancer was present in all the age groups. The obtained results indicated that in the observed period the average mortality rates ranged from 0.14/100 000 population in females aged up to 34 years (y=0.30-0.01x, and reached the highest value in females aged 65-74 years (14.57/100 000; y=23.43-0.66x, and 75 years of age and over (19.62/100 000; y=31.17-0.85x.

  4. Comparative study between polymeric superplasticizers

    OpenAIRE

    Aguiar, J. L. Barroso de; Pires, Patrício; Machado, A.V.; Ferreira, Rui Miguel; Azevedo, Isabel

    2008-01-01

    The present work aims to compare the properties of concrete produced with different incorporation of superplasticizers. Superplasticizers or water reducing agents are considered the most important chemical admixtures in concrete mixtures, due to their influence on the properties of both fresh and hardened concrete. Superplasticizers are usually polymer based products. Three superplasticizers were tested: two sulphonated naphthalene based and one polycarboxylate based polymer. The performance ...

  5. Belgrade as new Jerusalem: Reflections on the reception of a topos in the age of despot Stefan Lazarević

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    Erdeljan Jelena

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Vita of despot Stefan Lazarević, Belgrade is compared to Jerusalem The use of this topos is aimed at a social construction of meaning within the framework of historically determined cultural discourse, based on the premise that culture itself can be observed as a complex system of signs constantly open to redefinition. This implies that the approach to its more profound understanding must rely on a method based on reconceptualization of the problem of text and context. Therefore, the true object of investigation becomes the relation between text and society whose activities are themselves perceived as a sort of behavioral text, in which that relation functions as two homologous systems of signs. As a result, our attention is focused on activities which produce social and cultural phenomena and objects — actually on the means by the use of which a world filled with meaning is created. Apart from texts, those means, as real as the text itself, belong to the instruments of creating sacred space or hierotopy, a phenomenon historically recognized as translatio Hierosolymi. Beyond any doubt, in the eyes of homo medievalis, the absolute paradigm of hierotopic activity is Constantinople the capital of the Empire and universal model through the emulation of which or through the appropriation of whose elements of identity (ranging from cults of saints to visual identity throughout history, and in particular in the later middle ages (especially following the events of 1204, a growing number of other points in the Christian oikoumene gains the status of center as a God-chosen and God-protected place — Arta, Trebizond and Nicea, Paris and Venice, Novgorod and Moscow, to name just the most prominent examples In investigating the case of Belgrade, attention is focused on the modes and vehicles of hierotopy which in the days of despot Stefan Lazarević (1402-1427 were laid as the foundation of likening Belgrade and Jerusalem as the utmost example of

  6. Between pride and shame. Media narratives on "Belgrade Pride Parade" in contemporary Serbia

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    Đorđević Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the position of the key social and political actors in contemporary Serbia, referring to the broadly accepted concept defined as “European values”. The article focuses on the so-called “Belgrade Pride Parade”, a highly contested event in the Serbian public, which is at the same time considered as the essential part of the EU accession process. Through the analysis of the media discourses related to the “Pride” events in 2010 and 2014, the paper shows the complex relation between the officially proclaimed politics of “European integration” and still very strong nationalist discourses, inherited from the 1990s. The aim of the article is to analyse the present hegemonic struggles between the political forces defending “traditional”, conservative values and the political agents that promote “dangerous”, liberal “European” ideas, such as protecting the rights of sexual minorities. The comparative analysis of the media representation of two events in 2010 and 2014 shows the changes in the public narrative. I argue that the violent clashes that occurred in 2010 Belgrade Pride Parade between the police and the members of right wing organisations were mostly the result of the lack of the political will among the Serbian elites, followed by ambivalent media representations, promoting at the same time the necessity of accepting “European values” and justification of violence. On the other hand, the absence of violent events in 2014 shows the will of the state apparatus to secure the “Pride”. However, the media reports on the event, as well as the public statements made by Serbian officials, still remain ambivalent towards the very nature of the “Pride”, justifying it only by the pressure made by the EU and the protection of constitutional rights. Moreover, the presence of new narratives in the media, discussing the high price of organizing such event, shows the shift in the public discourse from

  7. Single and combined effects of air pollutants on circulatory and respiratory system-related mortality in Belgrade, Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojić, Svetlana Stanišić; Stanišić, Nemanja; Stojić, Andreja; Šoštarić, Andrej

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between short- and long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and soot and mortality attributed to circulatory and respiratory diseases in Belgrade area (Serbia). The analyzed data set comprised results of regular pollutant monitoring and corresponding administrative records on frequency of daily mortality in the period 2009-2014. Nonlinear exposure-response dependencies and delayed effects of temperature were examined by means of distributed lag nonlinear models. The air pollutant loadings and circulatory system-related death rates in Belgrade area are among the highest in Europe. Data demonstrated that excess risk of death with short-term exposure to elevated concentrations of PM10, SO2, and soot was not significant, whereas marked effect size estimates for exposure over 90 d preceding mortality were found. The influence of chronic exposure was shown to be greater for respiratory than circulatory system-related mortality. When stratified by age and gender, higher risk was noted for male individuals below the age of 65 years. PMID:26699658

  8. Review of music: Forgotten musical magazine of inter-war Belgrade

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    Vasić Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The monthly magazine Review of Music was published six times in Belgrade from January to June 1940. Each edition comprised thirty-two pages, half of which were devoted to a sheet-music supplement, popular compositions of the time for voice and piano. Review of Music published 222 articles and scores in total. The aim of the magazine was to popularise classical music, but it also encompassed jazz, films and film music, theatre, literature, fashion, and even sport. Review of Music was different from all other Serbian inter-war music magazines, not only because of its wide range of topics, but also because it published anonymous articles, probably taken from other sources, but it is not known from where. This study analyses the articles about classical music in Review of Music. In several short chapters the author presents the concept of the magazine, its genre structure, themes addressed, and the style of its music writers. Selected examples show that article authors tended to exploit elements of narrative (with an emphasis on impressive details, humour, and moral teaching. The authors also especially emphasized the neutral attitude of Review of Music towards contemporary music, although the magazine published different views of contemporary composers concerning the aesthetics of modern music. Review of Music started four months after Germany invaded Poland. However, in the journal references to social and political events are non-existant. The journal seems to have been interested only in culture and the arts. However, the author of this study presents examples in which the political circumstances of the time can be perceived. One of these examples is the visit of the Frankfurt Opera House to Belgrade in 1940. That extraordinary cultural event was attended by Prince Paul Karađorđević and Princess Olga, the Yugoslav Prime Minister, and almost all other government ministers. In this news, any authority on the political situation of the time

  9. Benchmarked Library Websites Comparative Study

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides an analysis of services provided by the benchmarked library websites. The exploratory study includes comparison of these websites against a list of criterion and presents a list of services that are most commonly deployed by the selected websites. In addition to that, the investigators proposed a list of services that could be provided via the KAUST library website.

  10. Comparative study of silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors studied three different types of silicon sensors: PIN diodes, circular drift detectors, both made at the Delft University of Technology (DUT), and Hamamatsu S5345 avalanche photodiodes. Measurements have been carried out in the same optimized experimental setup, both at room temperature and at low temperatures. Comparison is made for direct X-ray detection and CsI(Tl) scintillation light readout

  11. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

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    Gavrea Corina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Corporate governance is a key element of today’s economic reality being more and more present in many countries around the world. This paper has two main objectives. The first one is to offer more insight into the concept of corporate governance by a thorough literature review and by presenting and analyzing a framework of corporate governance. The second objective of this paper is to investigate the corporate governance situation in three developing economies (Romania, Bulgaria and Hungary. The World Bank and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development published a series of reports on corporate governance. The present study uses data from these reports in order to illustrate how these developing economies are dealing with corporate governance. Based on ROSC Reports a corporate governance score was calculated. As this score shows, there is room for improvement for all three developing economies. This study is important because it shows the differences in corporate governance among developing economies and the need to study these nations at the individual country level. Corporate governance has many benefits for developing economies. It helps developing economies to register sustainable growth rates, to increases investors’ confidence in the national economy, and to increase the ability of capital markets to mobilize savings.

  12. Comparative study of Butterfly valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work tries to justify the hydrodynamic butterfly valves performance, using the EPRI tests, results carried out in laboratory and in situ. This justification will be possible if: - The valves to study are similar - Their performance is calculated using EPRI's methodology Looking for this objective, the elements of the present work are: 1. Brief EPRI butterfly valve description it wild provide the factors which are necessary to define the butterfly valves similarity. 2. EPRI tests description and range of validation against test data definition. 3. Description of the spanish butterfly analyzed valves, and comparison with the EPRI performance results, to prove that this valves are similar to the EPRI test valves. In this way, it will not be necessary to carry out particular dynamic tests on the spanish valves to describe their hydrodynamic performance. (Author)

  13. Computer and online health information literacy among Belgrade citizens aged 66-89 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazibara, Tatjana; Kurtagic, Ilma; Kisic-Tepavcevic, Darija; Nurkovic, Selmina; Kovacevic, Nikolina; Gazibara, Teodora; Pekmezovic, Tatjana

    2016-06-01

    Computer users over 65 years of age in Serbia are rare. The purpose of this study was to (i) describe main demographic characteristics of computer users older than 65; (ii) evaluate their online health information literacy and (iii) assess factors associated with computer use in this population. Persons above 65 years of age were recruited at the Community Health Center 'Vračar' in Belgrade from November 2012 to January 2013. Data were collected after medical checkups using a questionnaire. Of 480 persons who were invited to participate 354 (73.7%) agreed to participate, while 346 filled in the questionnaire (72.1%). A total of 70 (20.2%) older persons were computer users (23.4% males vs. 17.7% females). Of those, 23.7% explored health-related web sites. The majority of older persons who do not use computers reported that they do not have a reason to use a computer (76.5%), while every third senior (30.4%) did not own a computer. Predictors of computer use were being younger [odds ratio (OR) = 2.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.30-4.04; p = 0.019], having less members of household (OR = 2.97, 95% CI 1.45-6.08; p = 0.003), being more educated (OR = 3.53, 95% CI 1.88-6.63; p = 0.001), having higher income (OR = 2.31, 95% CI 1.17-4.58; p = 0.016) as well as fewer comorbidities (OR = 0.42, 95% CI 0.23-0.79; p = 0.007). Being male was independent predictor of online health information use at the level of marginal significance (OR = 4.43, 95% CI 1.93-21.00; p = 0.061). Frequency of computer and Internet use among older adults in Belgrade is similar to other populations. Patterns of Internet use as well as non-use demonstrate particular socio-cultural characteristics. PMID:25576152

  14. Does occupational exposure to solvents and pesticides in association with glutathione S-transferase A1, M1, P1, and T1 polymorphisms increase the risk of bladder cancer? The Belgrade case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija G Matic

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We investigated the role of the glutathione S-transferase A1, M1, P1 and T1 gene polymorphisms and potential effect modification by occupational exposure to different chemicals in Serbian bladder cancer male patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A hospital-based case-control study of bladder cancer in men comprised 143 histologically confirmed cases and 114 age-matched male controls. Deletion polymorphism of glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 was identified by polymerase chain reaction method. Single nucleotide polymorphism of glutathione S-transferase A1 and P1 was identified by restriction fragment length polymorphism method. As a measure of effect size, odds ratio (OR with corresponding 95% confidence interval (95%CI was calculated. RESULTS: The glutathione S-transferase A1, T1 and P1 genotypes did not contribute independently toward the risk of bladder cancer, while the glutathione S-transferase M1-null genotype was overrepresented among cases (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.1-4.2, p = 0.032. The most pronounced effect regarding occupational exposure to solvents and glutathione S-transferase genotype on bladder cancer risk was observed for the low activity glutathione S-transferase A1 genotype (OR = 9.2, 95% CI = 2.4-34.7, p = 0.001. The glutathione S-transferase M1-null genotype also enhanced the risk of bladder cancer among subjects exposed to solvents (OR = 6,5, 95% CI = 2.1-19.7, p = 0.001. The risk of bladder cancer development was 5.3-fold elevated among glutathione S-transferase T1-active patients exposed to solvents in comparison with glutathione S-transferase T1-active unexposed patients (95% CI = 1.9-15.1, p = 0.002. Moreover, men with glutathione S-transferase T1-active genotype exposed to pesticides exhibited 4.5 times higher risk in comparison with unexposed glutathione S-transferase T1-active subjects (95% CI = 0.9-22.5, p = 0.067. CONCLUSION: Null or low-activity genotypes of the

  15. Actual contamination of the Danube and Sava rivers at Belgrade (2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonijević Milan D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is focussed on a comprehensive investigation on the state of pollution of Danube and Sava rivers in Belgrade region. Different complementary analytical approaches have been used covering both (i organic ccontaminants in river water by target analyses of hormones and neonicotinoids as well as non-target screening analyses and (ii heavy metals in sediments. Finally, some common water quality parameters have been analysed. The overall state of pollution is on a moderate level. Bulk parameters did not reveal any unusual observation. Also quantification of preselected organic contaminants did not point to elevated pollution. A more significant contamination was measured for chromium, nickel, zinc and partially copper in sediments with values above target values according to Serbian regulations. Lastly, non-target screening analysis revealed a wider spectrum of organic contaminants comprising pharmaceuticals, technical additives, personal care products and pesticides. The study presented a comprehensive view on the state of pollution of Sava and Danube rivers and is the base for setting up further monitoring programs. As a superior outcome it has been illustrated how different chemical analyses can point to different assessments of the river quality. The comparison of target and non-target analyses pointed to potential misinterpretation of the real state of pollution.

  16. The reproduction of borders and the contagiousness of illegalisation: A case of a Belgrade youth hostel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojić-Mitrović Marta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For the past couple of years, Serbia has become a transit country for the ever increasing number of migrants from Africa and Asia, travelling towards the EU. As part of the process of approaching the EU - first achieving the liberalisation of the visa regime for entry into the Schengen area in 2009 and then getting the official status of a candidate member in 2012 - Serbia needed to harmonise its policies with those of the EU, especially in the areas of border control and migration management. As a result, Serbia adopted a series of laws and policies which effectively illegalise migrants. In this paper, we first look into how migrant “illegality” is produced by Serbian migration legislation and policy, and second, we look at the consequences of this illegalisation. The first set of consequences are those that are felt by migrants themselves, as they are its principle target. The second set of consequences affects those persons that come into contact with the illegalised migrants. We speak of contagiousness of illegalisation, which affects those people who are providing professional services to illegalised persons. Under the treat of possible criminalisation, pressure is put on them to conduct “legality” checks and thus reproduce borders far away from the actual state border. We look particularly at reproduction of borders in the area of accommodation of migrants, taking as a case study a Belgrade youth hostel.

  17. Patients' reported quality of life in chronic venous disease in an outpatient service in Belgrade, Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunić, Ivana; Medenica, Ljiljana; Bobić, Branko; Djurković-Djaković, Olgica

    2009-01-01

    Chronic venous disease (CVD) has been reported to substantially affect patients' quality of life (QoL). To evaluate the impact of CVD on patient-reported QoL in a patient series in Serbia, a cross-sectional study of 570 CVD patients, classified according to the CEAP clinical classification into classes (C) 1-6, was performed in a Belgrade outpatient clinic. QoL was assessed by the general short-form (SF)-36 questionnaire, and additionally by a brief CVD-specific questionnaire. The SF-36 scores for all QoL dimensions showed a progressive reduction from C1 to C6. Class 5 and 6 patients scored the lowest across all dimensions, with significant (p social functioning and emotional role scores across the groups. There were no age or gender differences in any QoL item across the classes. The data presented show that QoL of CVD patients decreases, particularly after the appearance of skin changes, and suggest that even patients in the early stages consider CVD a disease and not merely a cosmetic problem. PMID:19737727

  18. Adaptability of Paulownia tomentosa (thumb. Sieb. et Zucc. on green areas in Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojičić Đurđa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The taxa with the improved esthetical characteristics, increased or decreased productivity, higher resistance to diseases, insect attacks, air pollution, as well as with optimal adaptability in urban coenoses are of great importance to land­scape architecture, horticulture and forestry. The criteria for the selection of individual plants out of the number of many individuals depend on their future usage, but also on their esthetical features, morphology and physiology. One of the species that fulfils the above criteria is Paulownia tomentosa (Thumb. Sieb. et Zucc. Different morphophysiological features of royal paulownia cultivated on green areas in Banovo Brdo, Dorćol, Tašmajdan, Novi Beograd and Zemun are analyzed. The study results prove the adaptability of royal paulownia on green areas in Belgrade, but also the need to select the parent trees with the best combining features prior to production, aiming at the improvement and production of planting material for urban coenoses and specific-purpose plantations of this species.

  19. HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT BASED ON ANTHROPOMETRIC INDICATORS IN MEN IN NEW BELGRADE

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    Stankovic Veroslava

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is little data on the association of metabolic syndrome and health status in Serbian men, so our intention was to investigate the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in men with no history of diabetes or cardiovascular disease in New Belgrade, Serbia; to determine which of the anthropometric parameters (body mass index—BMI and waist circumference—WC is best for the evaluation of health risks in primary care, especially the risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Research Methods and Procedures: The study involved 132 healthy men ages 44.73 ± 9.37 years. Anthropometric values were measured in all the patients. Blood pressure, blood biochemistry (high-density lipoprotein- cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglycerides, blood glucose and analysis of their medical records were also done. Analysis of consistency has been used in testing hypothesis. Results: The sample consisted of 132 patients with mean age 44.73 ± 9.37 years. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 44.7%. Analysis of consistence showed differences in the combined predictive ability of anthropometric indicators and other factors of MetS. Conclusions: BMI andWCare the simple measures of adiposity most strongly associated with metabolic abnormalities. Our findings suggest that WC can not be used as a complementary measurement to identify health risks in any group of men

  20. High prevalence of intestinal zoonotic parasites in dogs from Belgrade, Serbia--short communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Aleksandra; Dimitrijević, Sanda; Katić-Radivojević, Sofija; Klun, Ivana; Bobrć, Branko; Djurković-Djaković, Olgica

    2008-09-01

    To identify areas of risk for canine-related zoonoses in Serbia, the aim of this study was to provide baseline knowledge about intestinal parasites in 151 dogs (65 household pets, 75 stray and 11 military working dogs) from Belgrade. The following parasites, with their respective prevalences, were detected: Giardia duodenalis (14.6%), Ancylostomatidae (24.5%), Toxocara canis (30.5%), Trichuris vulpis (47.0%) and Taenia-type helminths (6.6%). Of all examined dogs, 75.5% (114/151) were found to harbour at least one parasite species. Of these, mixed infections with up to four species per dog occurred in 44.7% (51/114). Infections with all detected species were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in military working (100%) and stray dogs (93.3%) versus household pets (50.8%). Among all parasites, agents with zoonotic potential including Giardia, Ancylostomatidae and Toxocara were detected in 58.3% (88/151) of all examined dogs with a significant difference (p < 0.05) among the subgroups (100%, 62.7% and 46.2% for military working dogs, stray dogs and household pets, respectively). The high prevalence of zoonotic parasites registered in the dog population from a highly urban area in south-eastern Europe indicates a potential risk to human health. Thus, veterinarians should play an important role in helping to prevent or minimise zoonotic transmission. PMID:18828485

  1. Behavioral response of people in Belgrade to the bombing campaign during 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurić Marija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In contrast to numerous reports on long-term psychological consequences of disasters, the literature addressing the acute impact of intentional collective disaster is limited. Objective. This research aimed to examine the impact of the bombing campaign on the behavior of people living in Belgrade during the air attacks in 1999. Methods. The questionnaire was designed and administered to 231 participants. Psychological distress symptoms were assessed using the Symptom Checklist-Revised (SCL-90-R. Results. Participants reported fear and anger as dominant feelings, and the majority of them complained about sleep disturbance, body weight change, and loss of interest for sexual activity. Regression analysis of the scores of the SCL-90-R revealed significant effects of the duration of living under the stress of air attacks, age and gender of the participants and living in the risky areas of the city, upon the scores on Anxiety and Depression dimension. Conclusion. The results of the study contributed to our understanding of the processes through which individuals pass during a long lasting bombardment. It can be beneficial for mental health services in evaluating which actions of care and support could be most suitable. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 45005

  2. Museum Course and Archaeology in Belgrade during the World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Bandović

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The museum course in the Museum of Prince Paul in Belgrade lasted from 1942 to 1944, initiated by Miodrag Grbić, one of the curators of the Museum. The whole generation of the post-war archaeologists, art historians, and architects stemmed from the lectures of Miodrag Grbić, Đorđe Mano Zisi, Milan Kašanin and Ivan Zdravković. The course became the turning point in the history of archaeology, a sort of parallel university in the occupied city. However, it should not be valorised isolated from other events in Belgrade during the World War II. The German authorities established new institutions in charge of heritage protection in the occupied Serbia – Kunst und Denkmalschutz, the department chaired by Baron Johann von Reiswitz. Himmler’s organization Ahnenerbe was also active in the region of Belgrade and Serbia. As part of its activities, Wilhelm Unverzagt, the director of the Berlin museum conducted the excavations at Kalemegdan. These excavations symbolically legitimized the German presence in Belgrade. On the other hand, the project became one of the topoi of the ideology of collaborationism. The students of the museum course acquired their practical training during these excavations.

  3. The Influence Studies in Comparative Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏莹

    2010-01-01

    Comparative literature arose in the 19th century,the approach adopted for its influence study has been developed and diversified in different eras,in this article,the influence study in comparative literature through a reading culture is discussed in order to reveal in what aspects the reading culture may cut across the regional border of influence study.

  4. Amplitude and phase perturbations on VLF/LF signals at Belgrade due to X-ray flare intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulic, Desanka

    2016-07-01

    Narrowband very low frequency (VLF, 3-30 kHz) and low frequency (LF, 30-300 kHz) radio signals are powerful tool for long-range remote sensing of the ionospheric D-region electron density. Propagation of VLF/LF signals emitted by man-made transmitters takes place in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide and strongly depends on the electrical properties of the ionosphere. Changes in the D-region electron density cause changes in the received amplitude and phase on VLF/LF signals. Comparing the measured VLF/LF perturbations with LWPC simulations based on the predicted changes to the D-region, so as to infer the average D-region electron density profiles along the waveguide. The data were recorded at a Belgrade (44.85 ^{0} N, 20.38 ^{0} E) Serbia by AbsPAL and AWESOME receivers since 2003 and 2008 up to 2015, respectively. The first purpose of this paper is to give an account on the dropping amplitude phenomena on one long and three short VLF paths. The NAA-BEL path is sufficiently long, D = 6540 km and oriented west-east to show well-developed sunrise and sunset effects on amplitude and phase. Measured NAA/24.00 kHz signal at Belgrade shows three amplitude minima in time interval when sunrise reaches Belgrade and Maine, USA. Similar but less evident changes occur in time interval defined by sunsets at receiver and transmitter sites. The results show that at the times of amplitude minima the rate of change of phase becomes quite large. GQD/22.10 kHz, DHO/23.40 kHz and NSC/45.90 kHz signals propagate over short paths, D flare. During occurrence of solar flare the altitude profile of ionospheric conductivity changes, a VLF/LF signal reflects from lower height and these changes result that VLF/LF propagation is performed with more discrete modes than in normal ionospheric condition. Amplitude and phase perturbations on different VLF/LF signals observed at Belgrade have sensitive dependence on: X-ray flare intensity, solar zenith angle, occurrence of solar flare under solar

  5. Sociospacial identity of Belgrade in the context of urban and regional development of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujović Sreten

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analyses of sociologists, historians, economists, demographers, anthropologists, and based on author’s own research, the aim of the paper is to point to the complex and dynamic sociospatial identity of contemporary Belgrade in the context of urban and regional development of post-socialist Serbia. The analytical framework includes, first of all, the definition of the city’s identity in terms of self-awareness of a city as sociospatial collectivity, which historically originates and develops in dependency which the city and the individuals in it establish in relationships with other cities. It then cites the various concepts by means of which identity of the modern city is constructed: the entrepreneurial city (Harvey, the creative city (Florida and Landry, the exciting city (Richards and Palmer, the city as a text (Radović, a competitive identity of the city (Anholt and so on. In particular, Belgradization as a process of concentration of money and power in the capital is analyzed and it is concluded that the network of Serbian cities is pyramidal, that the regionalization of Serbia is asymmetric, and that Belgrade is a primate city, too big and too powerful for Serbia i.e. that Belgradization increases regional imbalance in Serbia. The paper concludes with an optimistic assessment that Belgrade, despite numerous problems in its development, has the potential to become the „European Capital of Culture” in 2020. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179035: Izazovi nove društvene integracije: koncepti i akteri

  6. Assessment of health status and quality of life of homeless persons in Belgrade, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarajlija Marija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Homelessness is a problem with social, medical, economic, political and other implications. Despite a large number of studies, reports about health-related quality of life (HRQoL of homeless persons remain sparse. There is a summary of consistent evidence that homeless people have higher prevalence of chronic disease (mental and somatic than general population. The aim of this study was to assess HRQoL and depression in homeless persons in Belgrade, to describe their sociodemographic factors and health status (the presence of chronic mental and somatic diseases and addiction disorders and analyse impact of sociodemographic factors and health status to HRQoL and depression of homeless persons. Methods. The study was conducted in the Shelter for Adult and Elderly Persons in Belgrade, from January 1 to January 31, 2012. A set of questionnaires used in survey included Serbian translation of SF-36 questionnaire, Serbian translation of Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II and sociodemographic questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed by descriptive and analytic methods. Results. Our study sample consisted of 104 adult participants. The majority of them were male (74% and the mean age in the sample was 48.2 ± 13.0 years. We have found that 35.6% participants had lifetime diagnosis of psychiatric disorder, most frequently depression (lifetime prevalence of 15.4% in the study group. The history of suicide attempts was registered in 28 (26.9% participants. Lifetime illicit drugs use was reported by 12.5%, daily smoking by 82.7% and daily alcohol consumption by 8.7% of the participants. Most common somatic chronic diseases were cardiovascular while chronic lung diseases were the second most frequent. Single chronic disease was present in 33 (31.7% of the participants and comorbidity of 2 chronic diseases was present in 20 of them. A statistically significant difference between participants` HRQoL SF-36 domain scores and norms of

  7. Comparison of sources of urban ambient particle bound PAHs between non-heating seasons 2009 and 2012 in Belgrade, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Anka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to increased cconcentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs is associated with adverse health problems and specifically with carcinogenic and mutagenic effects. The major PAH sources outdoors are: stationary sources from industry (power plants, incineration, local industry and domestic sources as the residential heating, burning and pyrolysis of coal, oil, gas, garbage, wood, or other organic substances mobile emissions (diesel and petrol engines, biomass burning and agricultural activities (e.g., open burning of brushwood, straw, stubble. The aim of this study was to assess potential differences in particle-bound PAH levels and source contribution between summer 2009 and 2012 sampling campaigns done at same location in Belgrade urban area. The sampling location is considered representative for a mix of residential, business and industrial areas of New Belgrade, an urban area that has been under rapid development. The average concentrations of PM10 are slightly higher in summer 2012 than in 2009. PM-bound PAH follow the same trend as the PM indicating an increasing strength of PAH sources relative to all PM sources. Appling Positive Matrix Factorization, three potential sources of PAHs in the atmosphere were distinguished: (1 stationary sources, (2 traffic (diesel and gasoline vehicle exhaust and (3 local open burning sources (OBS. The analysis confirmed higher contribution of traffic and lower of OBS in summer 2012 than in 2009, reflecting higher traffic volumes and absence of or lower local OBS emissions due to burning wood, grass and domestic waste in 2012. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III41028

  8. Frequency of alcohol use among elementary school pupils at Belgrade territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Zorana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Alcoholism is one of the most frequent modern diseases. These kinds of epidemiological studies have not been carried out in this country at a global level. Objective The aim of the study was to establish the spread of alcohol abuse among the young regarding the sex, and find the connection between the alcohol abuse and the consumption of drugs and cigarettes. Methods The study was carried out among the elementary school pupils of the seventh and eighth grade in the area of Belgrade from October 2003 to January 2004. Total of 457 pupils were involved; 229 (50.1% were boys and 228 (49.9% girls, aged 12-15 years, the average age being 13.4 years. The method used was the modified questionnaire European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs, which the pupils filled in individually, voluntarily and anonymously. χ2-test, Student's t-test, Mann-Whitney Logistic Regression Test were used in statistical processing of the data. Results Almost 70% of the examinees have tried alcohol. Most of the examinees had the first contact with alcohol at the age of 11. Half of our examinees got drunk at least once in their life and about one fifth more than 20 times. The binge form of consumption (five or more drinks in a row was evident in a quarter of our examinees. Our examinees use alcohol together with other psychoactive substances, mostly marijuana. It was observed that certain types of behavior, such as frequent going out in the evening, were directly related to the abuse of alcohol. Conclusion Two thirds of the examinees have tried alcohol. The first contact with alcohol is shifted to an earlier age (11 years. New trends of alcohol abuse have been noticed, such as binge form of consumption and the connection of use with other psychoactive substances. .

  9. Determination of PAH concentrations in the air of Belgrade in summer 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory for Environmental Physics from the Institute of Physics, Belgrade, has been involved in the programme 'Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in the Balkans' organized in the period of June to August 1999. Laboratory for Environmental Physics is almost 15 years involved in fundamental, applied and development research in environmental science. Pollution sources, transport and transformation processes of pollutants and their impact on environment have been investigated. Main topics of the research are physical and chemical characterization of aerosols, trace metals determination in dry and wet deposition, suspended particles and vegetation. An automated wet/dry deposition collector was designed and constructed to be used for the trace metal deposition monitoring. Special attention is focused on sampling of particulate matter PM10 and PM2.5 that have been recognized to have the greatest impact on human health. All preparation and sample analysis are performed in class 100 clean room. Significant part of the activities is also related to the study of kinetics of combustion and its environmental effect and also to the development of methods, sensors and devices for monitoring of meteorological data and detection of polluting gases and vapours. In the Institute of Physics, an automated meteorological station has been constructed and installed in the Institute for nuclear science Vinca. A constitutive part of this meteorological station is the software that gives prediction of pollutant spreading. Models for evaluation of long-range air transport have been developed and applied to predict accidental and permanent transboundary transfer of pollutants. The work is a part of an international effort to monitor and control air pollution in the lower troposphere. (author)

  10. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF BYG SEARCH ENGINES

    OpenAIRE

    Kailash Kumar

    2013-01-01

    This paper compares the retrieval effectiveness of the Bing, Yahoo and Google (BYG) Search Engines. The precision and relative recall of each search engine was considered for evaluating the effectiveness of the search engines. General Queries were tested. Results of the study showed that the precision of Google was high as compared to other two search engines and Yahoo has better precision than Bing

  11. Comparative Environmental Threat Analysis: Three Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latour, J. B.; Reiling, R.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews how carrying capacity for different environmental problems is operationalized. Discusses whether it is possible to compare threats, using the exceeding of carrying capacity as a yardstick. Points out problems in comparative threat analysis using three case studies: threats to European groundwater resources, threats to ecosystems in Europe,…

  12. The demographic picture of Belgrade at the beginning of the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rašević Mirjana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The central part of this paper is devoted to establishing the demographic picture of the City of Belgrade at the beginning of the 21st century. The authors discuss the number of inhabitants and the components of demographic growth through natural increase (fertility and mortality on the one hand and net migration on the other. Special attention was paid to the problem of refugees (the number and special distribution of refugees. Age and sex structure, the structure by marital status, as well as educational, and economic structures were analyzed. Current ethnic structure, as well as the changes in this structure since the early 1990s, were also presented. The analysis of the demographic picture has made it possible, first of all, to show the implications for the future of the established population trends, and second of all, to single out the basic demographic problems that need to be addressed strategically by the City of Belgrade and by the State.

  13. Strategic development goals of the metropolitan area of Belgrade in the context of European physical development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borislav Stojkov

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade the importance of Belgrade has for known reasons seriously deteriorated. For future development under the new circumstances it is therefore necessary to define several primary strategic goals. In this article the most important ones are presented, namely: new definition and positioning of the metropolitan region in relation to the European, macro-regional and regional hinterland or its position and role/function in the framework of Europe and the Balkans; establishment of efficient and sustainable transport infrastructure and adequate inclusion in the European transport system; deconcentrated concentration and restructuring; improving and placing economic structures for increasing economic competitiveness of the metropolitan region; protection and improving natural givings, cultural specifics and strengthening the metropolitan identity, as well as profiling the Belgrade metropolitan region with specialised economic activities, especially service activities oriented towards south-eastern Europe.

  14. Nutritional and physical activity behaviours and habits in adolescent population of Belgrade

    OpenAIRE

    Đorđević-Nikić Marina; Dopsaj Milivoj; Vesković Ana

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aim. Proper nutrition and regular physical activity are essential parts of a adolescent's overall health. The aim of this research was to evaluated eating and physical activity behaviours and habits, nutritional and food knowledge, beliefs and self-efficacy related to diet and health of the adolescents of the city of Belgrade, Serbia. Methods. A dietary questionnaire previously constructed and tested in adolescent population from Italy was self-administrated. We evaluated eat...

  15. Globalization of identity in the delayed transition: Notions about Europe and Serbia among students in Belgrade

    OpenAIRE

    Radović Srđan

    2007-01-01

    Together with appreciable inheritance of ethno-centric discourses about Europe and a lack of clear public communication about European integrations Serbia, largely gripped by the process of globalization and irreversible reforms of social system, is constituting its cultural identity in the light of new relations in Europe. The content of cultural notions about Serbia and Europe that Belgrade students have can point to the direction, dynamics and perception of Europe and symbolic self-constit...

  16. Gender aspects of public urban space: Analysis of the names of Belgrade streets

    OpenAIRE

    Sekulić Nada

    2014-01-01

    The street city network and the street names represent structural public symbolic system which is characterized by readability. This readability gives identity; the city is clearly divided in significant and less significant zones used for different purposes with different levels of communicativity. It is explicitly connected with public memory evocation-with collective memory and the state ideology. Having that in mind, the names of streets in Belgrade giv...

  17. Planning and land policy tools for limiting urban sprawl: The example of Belgrade

    OpenAIRE

    Zeković Slavka; Vujošević Miodrag; Bolay Jean-Claude; Cvetinović Marija; Miljković Živanović Jelena; Maričić Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Both the characteristics of Serbia’s urban land policy, the delay in reforms and land development management of the Belgrade Metropolitan Area (BMA) illustrate the complexities following the reshaping of institutional framework under the conditions of economic and other uncertainties of societal transition. The negative implications of the prolonged crisis on the new urban development policy and urban land tools can postpone the establishment and applicatio...

  18. Review of music: Forgotten musical magazine of inter-war Belgrade

    OpenAIRE

    Vasić Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    The monthly magazine Review of Music was published six times in Belgrade from January to June 1940. Each edition comprised thirty-two pages, half of which were devoted to a sheet-music supplement, popular compositions of the time for voice and piano. Review of Music published 222 articles and scores in total. The aim of the magazine was to popularise classical music, but it also encompassed jazz, films and film music, theatre, literature, fashion, and even ...

  19. SIP and RSW: A Comparative Evaluation Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud Baklizi; Nibras Abdullah; Omar Abouabdalla; Sima Ahmadpour

    2010-01-01

    Voice over internet protocol (VoIP) is a technology that uses Internet to transmit voice digital information. The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) and Real time Switching (RSW) are signaling protocols that emerged as a new VoIP which gained popularity among VoIP products. In literature, many comparative studies have been conducted to evaluate signaling protocols, but none of them addressed the targeted protocols. In this paper, we make a comparative evaluation and analysis for SIP and RSW us...

  20. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF BYG SEARCH ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailash Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the retrieval effectiveness of the Bing, Yahoo and Google (BYG Search Engines. The precision and relative recall of each search engine was considered for evaluating the effectiveness of the search engines. General Queries were tested. Results of the study showed that the precision of Google was high as compared to other two search engines and Yahoo has better precision than Bing

  1. Comparative Studies of Six Programming Languages

    OpenAIRE

    Alomari, Zakaria; Halimi, Oualid El; Sivaprasad, Kaushik; Pandit, Chitrang

    2015-01-01

    Comparison of programming languages is a common topic of discussion among software engineers. Multiple programming languages are designed, specified, and implemented every year in order to keep up with the changing programming paradigms, hardware evolution, etc. In this paper we present a comparative study between six programming languages: C++, PHP, C#, Java, Python, VB ; These languages are compared under the characteristics of reusability, reliability, portability, availability of compiler...

  2. Assessment of atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and other elements in Belgrade using the moss biomonitoring technique and neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study aimed at assessing atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and other elements using the moss genera Brachythecium sp. (B. rutabulum and B. salebrosum) and Eurhynchium sp. (E. hians and E. striatum) collected in autumn 2004 in the urban area of Belgrade. The concentrations of 36 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Mo, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Tb, Dy, Hf, Ta, W, Hg, Th, U) were determined in moss and local topsoil samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The concentration of elements in moss positively correlated to those obtained for topsoil. High enrichment factors for As, Zn, Mo, Br, Sb, Se, Hg, and Cl, calculated to continental crust composition, gave an evidence for anthropogenic impact on urban area, mainly due to intensive vehicular traffic and fossil fuel combustion. The concentrations of elements in moss, characteristic for fossil fuel combustion, obtained in this study, were substantially lower than in the previous investigation (2000) conducted in the area of Belgrade. The level of concentrations for V, Cr, Ni, and As in moss from this study correlated to those measured for neighboring countries, and were several times higher than the base-level data from low polluted areas. The level of accumulated elements in both investigated moss genera were similar and all studied species could be combined for biomonitoring purposes in urban areas

  3. Gender inequality on the example of socio-demographic structures of Belgrade population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuburović Ankica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of demographic characteristics from the gender perspective represents a contribution to enlightening the social relations between female and male population in Belgrade. Gender specificity and explicitness of socio-demographic structures indicate to different positions and statuses of the female and male populations. There are more females than men in the total population of the capital city of Serbia. The sex imbalance of age groups is determined by gender differences in the number of born boys and girls, in migration characteristics and in the level of mortality. The male population is greater in the age group up to 20 years old, while the female population is more numerous among the middle-aged and older generations. Gender differences in marital structure, level of education and economic activities cannot be reduced only to demographic limits. A larger rate of married persons among the males in relation to female population is determined by the different behavior in view of remarriage in case of divorce or death of partner. Women are widowed or divorced more often than men, which can be interpreted as a less favorable position in everyday functioning, especially when the women have small or school-age children, as well as in the case of older women. Gender differences in the level of education of Belgrade population are not exceptionally pronounced and are a consequence of unfavorable positions of older women to a certain degree. Differences in economic activity, among other things, are determined by uneven utilization of female and male work force. The rate of economic activity is greater in the male population, and the coefficient of economic dependency in the female population. The gender difference in the rate of supported persons among the work capable population increases the unfavorable social position of women. The characteristics of socio-demographic structures of female and male population of the city of Belgrade vary

  4. A Comparative Study of Sparse Associative Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gripon, Vincent; Heusel, Judith; Löwe, Matthias; Vermet, Franck

    2016-07-01

    We study various models of associative memories with sparse information, i.e. a pattern to be stored is a random string of 0s and 1s with about log N 1s, only. We compare different synaptic weights, architectures and retrieval mechanisms to shed light on the influence of the various parameters on the storage capacity.

  5. A Comparative Study of Probabilistic Roadmap Planners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geraerts, R.J.; Overmars, M.H.

    2004-01-01

    The probabilistic roadmap approach is one of the leading motion planning techniques. Over the past eight years the technique has been studied by many different researchers. This has led to a large number of variants of the approach, each with its own merits. It is difficult to compare the different

  6. Comparative study of reinforced nozzle connections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The shell theory and finite-element method are used for the stress analysis of models of unreinforced and reinforced nozzle connections under internal pressure and external loads. Various reinforcement configurations are considered. The results of a comparative study of the effects of reinforcement on the maximum stress in radial models of the intersecting cylindrical shells are presented. (orig.)

  7. A Comparative Study of Clustering Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Satchidanandan Dehuri; Chinmay Mohapatra; Ashish Ghosh; Rajib Mall

    2006-01-01

    Data clustering is an unsupervised task that can generate different shapes of clusters for a particular type of data set. Hence choosing an algorithm for a particular type of data set is a difficult problem. This study presents the choice of an appropriate clustering algorithm by a comparative study of three representative techniques like K-means, Kohonen`s Self Organizing Map (SOM) and Density Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise (DBSCAN) based on the extensive simulation stud...

  8. Comparative Study of Deep Learning Software Frameworks

    OpenAIRE

    Bahrampour, Soheil; Ramakrishnan, Naveen; Schott, Lukas; Shah, Mohak

    2015-01-01

    Deep learning methods have resulted in significant performance improvements in several application domains and as such several software frameworks have been developed to facilitate their implementation. This paper presents a comparative study of five deep learning frameworks, namely Caffe, Neon, TensorFlow, Theano, and Torch, on three aspects: extensibility, hardware utilization, and speed. The study is performed on several types of deep learning architectures and we evaluate the performance ...

  9. A comparative study of various advanced fusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purpose of comparing the merits and demerits of various advanced fuel cycles, parametric studies of operation conditions are examined. The effects of nuclear elastic collisions and synchrotron radiation are taken into account. It is found that the high-#betta# Catalyzed DD fuel cycle with the transmutation of fusion-produced tritium into helium-3 is most feasible from the point of view of neutron production and tritium handling. The D-D fuel cycles seem to be less attractive compared to the Catalyzed DD. The p-11B and p-6Li fusion plasmas hardly attain the plasma Q value relevant to reactors. (author)

  10. The role and responsibility of teachers and students in university studies: A comparative analysis of the views expressed by pedagogy students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šteh Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and analyses the results of the empirical research basically intended to determine how students understand the main role of teachers and their own role and to find out what they consider as their significant learning experience during the studies. We were interested in whether their conceptions of teachers’ and students’ roles had changed during the studies and whether they had approached modern scientific concepts on active and constructive learning. The research was carried out during the winter semester of the 2012/13 academic year on the sample of first- and third-year students, enrolled at the first level of the pedagogy study programme at the Faculty of Philosophy in Belgrade and pedagogy and andragogy at the Faculty of Arts in Ljubljana. The results from comparing the first and the third year have shown that third-year students demonstrate a shift to higher conceptions of students’ and teachers’ roles, which is more likely to lead to a deeper approach to learning. Modifications towards higher conceptions of students’ and teachers’ roles can thus indicate the quality of studies, since they clearly demonstrate that students are prepared to adopt a more responsible and autonomous role in their studies. In the efforts to achieve the high quality of university studies, the above-mentioned perspectives serve as pieces of information important for the reform of study programmes and introduction of changes in the study process.

  11. Comparative bioequivalence study of meloxicam drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Ekut Karieva; Khаlida Yunusova

    2011-01-01

    The governments of many countries strongly support the production and clinical use of generic medicinal products which are “copies” of patented drugs and can be marked at lower cost. At present time bioequivalence testing is regarded as a useful methodology to perform comparisons among different products containing the same active ingredient. This report presents the results of comparative bioequivalence study of three meloxicam formulations: brand-drug “Melbek” with tablets and capsules of m...

  12. ANALYSIS AND COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SEARCHING TECHNIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    Yuvraj Singh Chandrawat*

    2015-01-01

    We live in the age of technolgy and it is quiet obvious that it is increasing day-by-day endlessly. In this technical era researchers are focusing on the development of the existing technologies. Software engineering is the dominant branch of Computer Science that deals with the development and analysis of the software. The objective of this study is to analyze and compare the existing searching algorithms (linear search and binary search). In this paper, we will discuss both thes...

  13. A Comparative Study on Error Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Chun

    2015-01-01

    of errors in the written and spoken production of L2 learners has a long tradition in L2 pedagogy. Yet, in teaching and learning Chinese as a foreign language (CFL), only handful studies have been made either to define the ‘error’ in a pedagogically insightful way or to empirically investigate the...... occurrence of errors either in linguistic or pedagogical terms. The purpose of the current study is to demonstrate the theoretical and practical relevance of error analysis approach in CFL by investigating two cases - (1) Belgian (L1) learners’ use of Chinese (L2) comparative sentences in written production...

  14. The creation of folk music program on Radio Belgrade before World War Two: Editorial policies and performing ensembles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumnić Marija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the establishing of the organizing models, on one side, and with folk music and its aesthetic characteristics in the interwar period, on the other. This problem significantly contributed to the present meaning of the term “folk music” (“narodna muzika”. The program of Radio Belgrade (founded in 1929 contained a number of folk music shows, often with live music. In order to develop folk music program, numerous vocal and instrumental soloists were hired, and different bands accompanied them. During that time, two official radio ensembles emerged - the Folk Radio Orchestra and the Tambura Radio Orchestra - displacing from the program the ensembles that were not concurrent to their technical and repertoire level. The decisive power in designing the program concept and content, but also in setting standards for the aesthetic values, was at the hands of music editorship of Radio Belgrade. The radio category of folk music was especially influenced by Petar Krstić (folk music editor in the period from 1930 to 1936 and his successor Mihajlo Vukdragović (1937-1940, who formally defined all of the aforementioned characteristics, but in rather different ways. A general ambivalence in the treatment of the ensembles that performed at the radio reflects the implementation of their policies. In comparison to the official orchestras, the tavern singers and players received poor reviews in the editors’ reports, despite their strong presence on the program. On the other side, the official orchestras were divided according to the regional folklore instrumentarium, but also according to the quality of playing. The Folk Radio Orchestra probably had double leadership, so it was possible to observe different approaches to the music folklore, which eventually resulted in a unique tendency towards cherishing folk music. This paper represents an attempt to show how the media term “folk music” was constructed and where it currently

  15. Continuing medical education in Serbia with particular reference to the Faculty of Medicine, Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjegović-Mikanović Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Continuing Medical Education (CME, conceptualised as lifelong learning (LLL aims at improving human resources and continuing professional development. Various documents of European institutions underline its key importance. This paper therefore tries to analyse the current status of CME and the main deficits in the delivery of LLL courses at medical faculties in Serbia with special consideration of the Faculty of Medicine in Belgrade with detailed financial data available. Methods. Data of 2,265 medical courses submitted in 2011 and 2012 for accreditation were made available, thereof 403 courses submitted by 4 medical faculties in Serbia (Belgrade, Kragujevac, Niš, Novi Sad. A subset of more detailed information on 88 delivered courses with 5,600 participants has been provided by the Faculty of Medicine, Belgrade. All data were transferred into an Excel file and analysed with XLSTAT 2009. To reduce the complexity and possible redundancy we performed a principal component analysis (PCA. Correlated component regression (CCR models were used to identify determinants of course participation. Results. During the 2-year period 12.9% of all courses were submitted on preclinical and 62.4% on clinical topics, 12.2% on public health, while 61.5% of all took place in Belgrade. The subset of the Faculty of Medicine, Belgrade comprised 3,471 participants registered with 51 courses accredited and delivered in 2011 and 2,129 participants with 37 courses accredited and delivered in 2012. The median number of participants per course for the entire period was 45; the median fee rates for participants were 5,000 dinars in 2011 and 8,000 in 2012, resulting together with donations in a total income for both years together of 16,126,495.00 dinar or almost 144,000.00 euro. This allowed for a median payment of approximately 90 eur per hour lectured in 2011 and 49 euro in 2012. The 2 factors, D1 (performance and D2 (attractiveness, identified in the PCA

  16. Comparative Studies on Retroviral Proteases: Substrate Specificity

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    József Tözsér

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Exogenous retroviruses are subclassified into seven genera and include viruses that cause diseases in humans. The viral Gag and Gag-Pro-Pol polyproteins are processed by the retroviral protease in the last stage of replication and inhibitors of the HIV-1 protease are widely used in AIDS therapy. Resistant mutations occur in response to the drug therapy introducing residues that are frequently found in the equivalent position of other retroviral proteases. Therefore, besides helping to understand the general and specific features of these enzymes, comparative studies of retroviral proteases may help to understand the mutational capacity of the HIV-1 protease.

  17. EFQPSK Versus CERN: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Deva K.; Horan, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    This report presents a comparative study on Enhanced Feher's Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (EFQPSK) and Constrained Envelope Root Nyquist (CERN) techniques. These two techniques have been developed in recent times to provide high spectral and power efficiencies under nonlinear amplifier environment. The purpose of this study is to gain insights into these techniques and to help system planners and designers with an appropriate set of guidelines for using these techniques. The comparative study presented in this report relies on effective simulation models and procedures. Therefore, a significant part of this report is devoted to understanding the mathematical and simulation models of the techniques and their set-up procedures. In particular, mathematical models of EFQPSK and CERN, effects of the sampling rate in discrete time signal representation, and modeling of nonlinear amplifiers and predistorters have been considered in detail. The results of this study show that both EFQPSK and CERN signals provide spectrally efficient communications compared to filtered conventional linear modulation techniques when a nonlinear power amplifier is used. However, there are important differences. The spectral efficiency of CERN signals, with a small amount of input backoff, is significantly better than that of EFQPSK signals if the nonlinear amplifier is an ideal clipper. However, to achieve such spectral efficiencies with a practical nonlinear amplifier, CERN processing requires a predistorter which effectively translates the amplifier's characteristics close to those of an ideal clipper. Thus, the spectral performance of CERN signals strongly depends on the predistorter. EFQPSK signals, on the other hand, do not need such predistorters since their spectra are almost unaffected by the nonlinear amplifier, Ibis report discusses several receiver structures for EFQPSK signals. It is observed that optimal receiver structures can be realized for both coded and uncoded EFQPSK

  18. Comparative Study of Vented vs. Unvented Crawlspaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Kaushik [ORNL; Christian, Jeffrey E [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL

    2011-10-01

    There has been a significant amount of research in the area of building energy efficiency and durability. However, well-documented quantitative information on the impact of crawlspaces on the performance of residential structures is lacking. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of two crawlspace strategies on the whole-house performance of a pair of houses in a mixed humid climate. These houses were built with advanced envelope systems to provide energy savings of 50% or more compared to traditional 2010 new construction. One crawlspace contains insulated walls and is sealed and semi-conditioned. The other is a traditional vented crawlspace with insulation in the crawlspace ceiling. The vented (traditional) crawlspace contains fiberglass batts installed in the floor chase cavities above the crawl, while the sealed and insulated crawlspace contains foil-faced polyisocyanurate foam insulation on the interior side of the masonry walls. Various sensors to measure temperatures, heat flux through crawlspace walls and ceiling, and relative humidity were installed in the two crawlspaces. Data from these sensors have been analyzed to compare the performance of the two crawlspace designs. The analysis results indicated that the sealed and insulated crawlspace design is better than the traditional vented crawlspace in the mixed humid climate.

  19. A Comparative Study of Mammalian Diversification Pattern

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    Wenhua Yu, Junxiao Xu, Yi Wu, Guang Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although mammals have long been regarded as a successful radiation, the diversification pattern among the clades is still poorly known. Higher-level phylogenies are conflicting and comprehensive comparative analyses are still lacking. Using a recently published supermatrix encompassing nearly all extant mammalian families and a novel comparative likelihood approach (MEDUSA, the diversification pattern of mammalian groups was examined. Both order- and family-level phylogenetic analyses revealed the rapid radiation of Boreoeutheria and Euaustralidelphia in the early mammalian history. The observation of a diversification burst within Boreoeutheria at approximately 100 My supports the Long Fuse model in elucidating placental diversification progress, and the rapid radiation of Euaustralidelphia suggests an important role of biogeographic dispersal events in triggering early Australian marsupial rapid radiation. Diversification analyses based on family-level diversity tree revealed seven additional clades with exceptional diversification rate shifts, six of which represent accelerations in net diversification rate as compared to the background pattern. The shifts gave origin to the clades Muridae+Cricetidae, Bovidae+Moschidae+Cervidae, Simiiformes, Echimyidae, Odontoceti (excluding Physeteridae+Kogiidae+Platanistidae, Macropodidae, and Vespertilionidae. Moderate to high extinction rates from background and boreoeutherian diversification patterns indicate the important role of turnovers in shaping the heterogeneous taxonomic richness observed among extant mammalian groups. Furthermore, the present results emphasize the key role of extinction on erasing unusual diversification signals, and suggest that further studies are needed to clarify the historical radiation of some mammalian groups for which MEDUSA did not detect exceptional diversification rates.

  20. Analysis of selected elements in water in the drinking water preparation plants in Belgrade, Serbia

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    Antanasijević Davor Z.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Belgrade's water supply relies mainly on the River Sava and groundwater supply wells, which are located in the vicinity of the river and Ada Ciganlija. In this paper, the content of aluminum, boron, chromium, manganese, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, cadmium, barium and lead was analyzed in raw water as well as drinking water distributed by the Water Supply and Sewage of Belgrade. A total of 14 samples were examined from all water treatment plants that are part of the distribution system. The measurements were conducted using the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS technique. The aim of this research was to examine the effectiveness of drinking water preparation process in the plants belonging to the Water Supply and Sewage of Belgrade. The content of certain elements varies considerably in raw water (river and groundwater: the concentration of boron in river water is two to three times lower than the concentration in groundwater; the concentration of arsenic in river water is ten to twenty five times lower than the concentration in groundwater; the concentration of aluminum in all groundwater samples was below the detection limit of the instrument (0.50 μg/dm3, whilst in the river water the content of aluminum was about 50 μg/dm3 and the concentration of manganese in the river water was up to 10 times lower than the concentrations in groundwater. In all drinking water samples the concentration of the elements were bellow the maximum allowed levels according to the Serbian regulations. Correlation coefficients determined for boron, manganese, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, barium and lead, which were analyzed in raw waters, show that four groups of elements can be distinguished. Boron, manganese, arsenic and barium are related to each other and probably have a common natural origin; copper and lead probably have a common anthropogenic origin; correlation of nickel and cobalt was observed, while zinc was not in

  1. Determinants of job satisfaction of healthcare professionals in public hospitals in Belgrade, Serbia - cross-sectional analysis

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    Kuburović Nina B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The quality of health care significantly depends on the satisfaction of the employees. Objective. The objective of this study was to establish the level of professional satisfaction of healthcare professionals in state hospitals in Belgrade, Serbia, and to determine and to rank the factors which impact on their satisfaction or dissatisfaction. Method. Professional satisfaction survey was designed and conducted as a cross-sectional study in 2008. Completed questionnaires were returned by 6,595 healthcare professionals from Belgrade’s hospitals. Statistical analysis was performed using the Student’s t-test, χ2 test and ANOVA. Factor analysis was applied in order to define determinants of professional satisfaction, i.e. dissatisfaction. Results. This study showed that the degree of professional satisfaction of Serbian healthcare professionals was low. The main causes of professionals’ dissatisfaction were wages, equipment, the possibility of continuous medical education/training and the opportunities for professional development. Healthcare professionals with university education were more satisfied with all the individual aspects of job satisfaction than those with secondary school and college education. Conclusion. There were significantly more healthcare professionals satisfied with their job among males, older than 60 years, in the age group 50-59 years, with managerial function, and with 30 or more years of service. Development strategy of human resources in the Serbian health care system would significantly improve the professional satisfaction and quality of the provided health care.

  2. System of centres, the city of Belgrade and territorial organization of Serbia

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    Branka Tošić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the basic characteristics of the systems of settlements and centers in Serbia. A forceful process of industrialization in the second half of the 20th century caused intensive urbanization which resulted in increasing of the number of urban settlements as well as their size, with prominent supremacy of the capital city, Belgrade. The system of centers in Serbia is represented by the hierarchy of urban centers with their spatial and functional areas as determined by the National spatial plan (1996. Territorial organization of the state is partially completed and defned on a macro-regional and local levels.

  3. Comparative study of heart sound localization algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moukadem, A.; Dieterlen, A.; Hueber, N.; Brandt, C.; Raymond, P.

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this document is to present a comparative study of five algorithms of heart sound localization, one of which, is a method based on radial basis function networks applied in a novel approach. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are evaluated according to a data base of 50 subjects in which there are 25 healthy subjects selected from the University Hospital of Strasbourg (HUS) and from theMARS500 project (Moscow) and 25 subjects with cardiac pathologies selected from the HUS. This study is made under the control of an experienced cardiologist. The performance of each method is evaluated by calculating the area under a receiver operating curve (AUC) and the robustness is shown against different levels of additive white Gaussian noise.

  4. Contemporary Serbian stereotypes about the Chinese in Belgrade: When you say China, I think about Block 70 or…

    OpenAIRE

    Blagojević Gordana

    2009-01-01

    The Chinese widely settled in Serbia in the 1990's. There is no official data on the real number of the Chinese living in Serbia. Most of the Chinese live in New Belgrade, near the shopping center at Block 70. Media images of the Chinese community in Serbia, especially in Belgrade are at the level of urban legend. Those are stories about their number, nutrition, non-dying fictitious mixed marriages, etc. Knowledge of contemporary Serbs about the Chinese mainly exists at the level of media inf...

  5. Water Ice in Comets: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protopapa, Silvia; Sunshine, J.; Feaga, L. M.; Kelley, M. S.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Farnham, T.; DIXI Team

    2013-06-01

    Processes involving the sublimation of volatiles dominate cometary activity and drive the release of ancient material from within the nucleus into the coma. As comets are kept cold for most of their history, they contain the least processed primordial materials that accumulated into the giant planets. In addition, comets may have delivered their ices and organics to the primitive Earth. The Deep Impact eXtended Investigation (DIXI) to comet Hartley 2 revealed a highly active comet with bright icy-rich jets. We present a detailed characterization of the composition and texture of the ices and refractories in the inner-most coma of Hartley 2, closer than a few kilometers from the surface. This analysis is conducted using laboratory measurements of optical constants of cometary analog materials. We also discuss the implications of these findings on the accretion process that led to the formation of cometary nuclei and therefore of planets. The physical makeup of the ice grains in comet Hartley 2 is compared with that of water ice in the interior, surface, and coma of other comets (e.g., 9P/Tempel 1, C/2002 T7 (LINEAR), 17P/Holmes). Through this comparative study, we investigate how ice is redistributed from the interior to the surface and ultimately into the coma of comets.

  6. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF HAND GESTURE RECOGNITION SYSTEM

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    Rafiqul Zaman Khan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Human imitation for his surrounding environment makes him interfere in every details of this great environment, hear impaired people are gesturing with each other for delivering a specific message, this method of communication also attracts human imitation attention to cast it on human-computer interaction. The faculty of vision based gesture recognition to be a natural, powerful, and friendly tool for supporting efficient interaction between human and machine. In this paper a review of recent hand gesture recognition systems is presented with description of hand gestures modelling, analysis and recognition. A comparative study included in this paper with focusing on different segmentation, features extraction and recognition tools, research advantages and drawbacks are provided as well.

  7. Comparative Study of Airfoil Flow Separation Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Nick; Kahouli, Waad; Epps, Brenden

    2015-11-01

    Airfoil flow separation impacts a multitude of applications including turbomachinery, wind turbines, and bio-inspired micro-aerial vehicles. In order to achieve maximum performance, some devices operate near the edge of flow separation, and others use dynamic flow separation advantageously. Numerous criteria exist for predicting the onset of airfoil flow separation. This talk presents a comparative study of a number of such criteria, with emphasis paid to speed and accuracy of the calculations. We evaluate the criteria using a two-dimensional unsteady vortex lattice method, which allows for rapid analysis (on the order of seconds instead of days for a full Navier-Stokes solution) and design of optimal airfoil geometry and kinematics. Furthermore, dynamic analyses permit evaluation of dynamic stall conditions for enhanced lift via leading edge vortex shedding, commonly present in small flapping-wing flyers such as the bumblebee and hummingbird.

  8. Comparative microscopy study of Vibrio cholerae flagella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konnov, Nikolai P.; Baiburin, Vil B.; Zadnova, Svetlana P.; Volkov, Uryi P.

    1999-06-01

    A fine structure of bacteria flagella is an important problem of molecular cell biology. Bacteria flagella are the self-assembled structures that allow to use the flagellum protein in a number of biotechnological applications. However, at present, there is a little information about high resolution scanning probe microscopy study of flagellum structure, in particular, about investigation of Vibrio cholerae flagella. In our lab have been carried out the high resolution comparative investigation of V. cholerae flagella by means of various microscopes: tunneling (STM), scanning force (SFM) and electron transmission. As a scanning probe microscope is used designed in our lab versatile SPM with replaceable measuring heads. Bacteria were grown, fixed and treated according to the conventional techniques. For STM investigations samples were covered with Pt/Ir thin films by rotated vacuum evaporation, in SFM investigations were used uncovered samples. Electron microscopy of the negatively stained bacteria was used as a test procedure.

  9. Alternative waste forms: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A characterization study utilizing comparative tests has been conducted to assess product inertness of alternative waste form materials, having evaluated at this point four basic product types: sintered ceramics, glass ceramics, glass and concrete. The seven specific waste form materials studied represent simulated nuclear waste loading of 5% to 100%, processed between room temperature and 12000C and subjected to characterization tests including phase analysis, microstructure, compression testing, volatility and leach testing. Significant conclusions based upon the results obtained to date are: sintered calcine waste form PW-9 does not retain Na, Mo and Cs when leached 900C and, in fact, does not remain a solid; glass and supercalcine are alike under both hydrous and hydrothermal leach conditions with glass exhibiting a greater retention of sodium and molybdenum, supercalcine having a greater retention of cesium, and both forms approximately equal in strontium retention; volatility measurements indicate that an order of magnitude decrease in volatility occurs when a calcine waste form is incorporated in a crystalline or glassy host; glass 76-68 is superior to supercalcine SPC-5B in retention of volatiles below 11000C because of the high release of Na from SPC-5B, however, as the temperature approaches or exceeds the glass melt temperature, volatile losses of the glass equal or exceed that of SPC-5B; glass 76-68 and supercalcine SPC-5B have high compressive strengths when compared to sintered PW-9 and cement products. This is apparently due to a stronger continuum bond resulting from a glassy matrix or crystalline ingrowth over a simple mechanical agglomeration of particles

  10. Comprehensive analysis of PM10 in Belgrade urban area on the basis of long-term measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojić, A; Stojić, S Stanišić; Reljin, I; Čabarkapa, M; Šoštarić, A; Perišić, M; Mijić, Z

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the impact of potential emission sources and transport pathways on annual and seasonal PM10 loadings in an urban area of Belgrade (Serbia). The analyzed dataset comprised PM10 mass concentrations for the period 2003-2015, as well as their chemical composition (organic/elemental carbon, benzo[a]pyrene, As, Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, Cl(-), Na(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), K(+), NO3 (-), SO4 (2-), and NH4 (+)), meteorological parameters, and concentrations of inorganic gaseous pollutants and soot for the period 2011-2015. The combination of different methods, such as source apportionment (Unmix), ensemble learning method (random forest), and multifractal and inverse multifractal analysis, was utilized in order to obtain a detailed description of the PM10 origin and spatio-temporal distribution and to determine their relationship with other pollutants and meteorological parameters. The contribution of long-range and regional transport was estimated by means of trajectory sector analysis, whereas the hybrid receptor models were applied to identify potential areas of concern. PMID:26888527

  11. Urban deciduous tree leaves as biomonitors of trace element (As, V and Cd atmospheric pollution in Belgrade, Serbia

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    KATARINA M. ŠUĆUR

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Leaves of common deciduous trees: horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum and linden (Tilia spp. from three parks within the urban area of Belgrade were studied as biomonitors of trace element (As, V, and Cd atmospheric pollution. The May–September trace element accumulation in the leaves, and their temporal trends, were assayed in a multi-year period (2002–2006. Significant accumulation in the leaves was evident for As and V, but not so regularly for Cd. Slightly decreasing temporal trends of V and As ac-cumulated in the leaf tissues were observed over the years. During the time span, the concentrations of Cd remained approximately on the same level, except in May 2002 and September 2005, when a rapid increase was observed. The May–September accumulations of As and V were higher in horse chestnut than in linden, although both may be used as biomonitors for these elements, and optionally for Cd in conditions of its high atmospheric loadings.

  12. Wettability of coal - a comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orumwense, F.F.O. [University of Benin, Benin City (Nigeria). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2001-08-01

    A comparative study of the contact angles of air bubbles, hydrocarbon oils (benzene and dodecane - both in the absence and in the presence of water-soluble dodecylamine (laurylamine) chloride), flocculants and coagulants drops on flat polished coal surfaces immersed in water was made. The effect of the hydrocarbon chain length of some n-alkylamine chlorides on the coal-oil-water was also investigated. The relationship of the measured contact angles to the flocculants, coagulants and dodecylamide chloride concentrations and pH was established. Results obtained show that maximum contact angles for the coals studied occur in the alkaline pH range (pH > 7) for the systems investigated. Evidence is also provided to show that benzene and dodecane do not spread spontaneously on wet coal surfaces, even in the presence of a water-soluble cationic surfactant. The results further show that the coal-benzene water contact angles increase with an increase in the hydrocarbon chain length of the surfactant. Coagulants probably affect flotation of coal fines adversely, whereas flocculants have a remarkable effect on contact angles similar to that of surfactants.

  13. The sociological investigation of the audience of the Opera of the National theater in Belgrade

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    Hadžibulić Sabina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Opera of the National Theater in Belgrade was founded in 1920, but it is well known that opera performances were held long before its official opening. Despite the fact that this is the sole opera house in Belgrade (and one of the only two in Serbia, as well as the fact that it did not face any strong audience fluctuation, it is unusual that no one ever tried to investigate and profile its audience. During the last decades we were witnessing the popularization of the opera via various medias, as well as development and extention of the music industry, which surely changed its social status. The aim of the investigation that is going to be presented is to discover if this social life of opera changed its audience and does it still consists of - according to stereotypes - elderly, high educated individuals of certain professions and high material standards, i.e. at which level the opera is present in the private and public sphere of their lives.

  14. Assessment of heavy metal pollution of topsoils and plants in the City of Belgrade

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    Andrejić Gordana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess heavy metal pollution in the city of Belgrade (Serbia concentrations of V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb were measured on 18 topsoil samples collected in the proximity to central urban boulevards and in urban parks. In addition, concentrations of specified elements were determined in leaves of three evergreen plant species Buxus sempervirens L., Mahonia aquifolium (Pursh Nutt. and Prunus laurocerasus L. so as to estimate their sensitivity to heavy metal pollution. Even though various types of soils from different quarts of Belgrade were sampled, their heavy metal contents were very similar, with somewhat higher concentrations of almost all elements detected in the proximity to high traffic roads. Generally, concentrations of heavy metals in leaves of investigated plant species paralleled the heavy metal concentrations found in their respective soils and were higher in plants sampled from boulevards then from urban parks. Since investigated plant show no visible injuries induced by detected heavy metal pollution these species are suitable for the successful urban landscaping. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173030

  15. Nutritional and physical activity behaviours and habits in adolescent population of Belgrade

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    Đorđević-Nikić Marina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Proper nutrition and regular physical activity are essential parts of a adolescent's overall health. The aim of this research was to evaluated eating and physical activity behaviours and habits, nutritional and food knowledge, beliefs and self-efficacy related to diet and health of the adolescents of the city of Belgrade, Serbia. Methods. A dietary questionnaire previously constructed and tested in adolescent population from Italy was self-administrated. We evaluated eating habits, physical activity, meaning of healthy and unhealthy dietary habits and food, self-efficacy, barriers affecting food choices, nutritional and food safety, and body mass index (BMI of the adolescents. The sample included 707 adolescents, the mean age of 15,8 ± 2 years enrolled in the first grade at several high schools in Belgrade. Results. Only 27% of the adolescents had satisfactory eating habits; 31% have a very active lifestyle; 7% good nutritional knowledge and 6- 12% satisfactory food safety knowledge and hygiene practices. Conclusion. Significant deviations from recommendations for healthy lifestyle was noted in adolescents’ habits, knowledge and practice. It is therefore necessary to develop and organize programs for promotion of healthy behaviours adapted to the adolescents’ needs. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III47015

  16. RES integrated refurbishment of prefabricated building in Belgrade, Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Matic, Dubravka; Todorovic, Marija S.; Roset Calzada, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Energy refurbishment of the existing housing stocks main goals are: to decrease fossil fuels consumption, to reduce the CO2 emissions, and to improve indoor environment quality. The main objective of the presented investigation was to evaluate the integrated design strategies applied in refurbishment of the prefabricated residential housing, in order to achieve energy savings accompanied with reduction of CO2 emissions and improvement of households’ health and comfort. Conducted study led ...

  17. Social Capital & Sport Activities : The Care of Post War Belgrade

    OpenAIRE

    Evertsson, Ronnie

    2011-01-01

    ”Sustainable reconciliation”, a form of international aid relief program, has been developed and constructed to help populations overcome war trauma, using different activities within art, entertainment and sports.  Theorists claim that if conducted properly, activities such as these, should lead to good social capital, causing higher levels of culture tolerance, gender equality and creativity, as well as better health and life satisfaction. This study has examined how the non-governmental or...

  18. If only Derrida missed that flight... About the assessment of the "academic achievements" of the so-called "American Anthropology" by Belgrade Structural-semiotic School of Folklore

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    Miloš Milenković

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account recent critiques of "underdevelopment", "positivism", "methodological backwardness" and other failings attributed to socalled "American Anthropology" by some of the authors from the Belgrade Structural-semiotic School of Anthropology of Folklore, I analyse the context in which colleagues and students may be tempted to explain common sense political connection between polyphone ethnography, neo-romanticism and nationalism as counter-intuitive history of the discipline. I already pointed that the important transformative differences in the attitudes towards structuralism between European anthropologists, especially Belgrade Structural-semiotic School of Anthropology of Folklore and so called "American Anthropology", are the consequence of a pure coincidence – the fact that French structuralism and French poststructuralism were launched simultaneously at the American interdisciplinary intellectual scene ("Theory" at the same conference. This ironic concurrence would not be much more than one entertaining episode for students, historians of anthropology and historians of ideas, if there were no attempts (more and more frequent and increasingly fluently articulated to compare different intellectual traditions as they were elements of the same unilineal evolution of the discipline. Belgrade Structural-semiotic School (further called only SS and especially its spiritus movens and most prominent representative Prof. Kovačević started in recent years to criticise some "American Anthropology" measuring its academic "achievement" (the author’s term in comparative perspective and taking as an analytical unit uncritically generalized traditions marked with a single term of "postmodern anthropology" on the one hand, and "anthropology" on the other. Belgrade SS School did develop globally original, although badly promoted and never fully used, battery for the synchronic analysis of the folklore phenomena, but this was done only after

  19. Waste management in the Institute for Nuclear Sciences 'Vinca' - Belgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences served for many years as the only Yugoslav (Serbia and Montenegro) nuclear institute. Therefore, it acted for many years as national storage facility for the radioactive waste from all institutional (medical, military, etc.) activities. The interim storage was situated within the Vinca Institute historically at several different places. The main fraction of the wastes is stored in two metallic hangars. In addition, underground stainless steel tanks in concrete shields have been constructed to accept all processed liquid waste from the research reactor RA. The current situation of the interim storage facilities is not satisfactory. However, the principle limitation for improvements of the waste management at the Vinca Institute lies in the fact that long-term solutions cannot be addressed at the moment. Plans for a final repository for radioactive waste do not exist yet in the Serbia and Montenegro. Consequently, waste management can only address an interim solution. In order to conduct all waste management activities in a safe manner, an overall strategy and study for improvement/rearrangement of radioactive waste storage facilities was developed which addresses all wastes and their management. The IAEA is providing assistance to these activities. This support includes a project which has been initiated by the IAEA to improve the waste management at the Vinca Institute. This paper describes the current status of the development of this overall strategy and study for improvement/rearrangement of radioactive waste storage facilities. The information available and the current status of the development of concepts for the processing and storage of the waste are summarised. (author)

  20. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON ACCOUNTING AND FISCAL AMORTIZATION

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    MARIANA GURAU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Placed in the international trend, Romanian accounting had experienced various changes, especially as regards of progress on disconnection between accounting and fiscality. In the present, fiscal rules should not have any role in accounting decisions, because accounting rules are applied to produce accounting information that is useful in making decisions and to provide a "true and fair view" upon financial reality of the entity. However, the barrier in the habit of accounting to thinking for fiscal point of view all economic transactions remains insurmountable, yet. Starting from this perspective on disconnection between accounting and fiscality would mean that amortization recorded in the accounting, as a result of management policy, to be different from fiscality amortization, to calculate income tax. Although formally accepted, disconnect between accounting and fiscality continues to meet many difficulties. In this sense, it is usual in practice to use the same method of amortization for accounting purposes and for fiscal purposes to prevent complications of double track amortization and prevent wandering in the rules in this field. Accounting rule is deliberately eluded in favor of the fiscal rules. This is the reason we proposed to make in this paper a comparative study between norms and rules on accounting and fiscal amortization, paper in which we intend to show the benefits of applying accounting and fiscal rules separately.

  1. Comparative economic analysis: Anaerobic digester case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An economic guide is developed to assess the value of anaerobic digesters used on dairy farms. Two varieties of anaerobic digesters, a conventional mixed-tank mesophilic and an innovative earthen psychrophilic, are comparatively evaluated using a cost-effectiveness index. The two case study examples are also evaluated using three other investment merit statistics: simple payback period, net present value, and internal rate of return. Life-cycle savings are estimated for both varieties, with sensitivities considered for investment risk. The conclusion is that an earthen psychrophilic digester can have a significant economic advantage over a mixed-tank mesophilic digester because of lower capital cost and reduced operation and maintenance expenses. Because of this economic advantage, additional projects are being conducted in North Carolina to increase the rate of biogas utilization. The initial step includes using biogas for milk cooling at the dairy farm where the existing psychrophilic digester is located. Further, a new project is being initiated for electricity production with thermal reclaim at a swine operation

  2. Assays for mammalian tyrosinase: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work describes a comparative study of the tyrosinase activity determined using three methods which are the most extensively employed; two radiometric assays using L-tyrosine as substrate (tyrosine hydroxylase and melanin formation activities) and one spectrophotometric assay using L-dopa (dopa oxidase activity). The three methods were simultaneously employed to measure the activities of the soluble, melanosomal, and microsomal tyrosinase isozymes from Harding-Passey mouse melanoma through their purification processes. The aim of this study was to find any correlation among the tyrosinase activities measured by the three different assays and to determine whether that correlation varied with the isozyme and its degree of purification. The results show that mammalian tyrosinase has a greater turnover number for L-dopa than for L-tyrosine. Thus, enzyme activity, expressed as mumol of substrate transformed per min, is higher in assays using L-dopa as substrate than those using L-tyrosine. Moreover, the percentage of hydroxylated L-tyrosine that is converted into melanin is low and is affected by several factors, apparently decreasing the tyrosinase activity measured by the melanin formation assay. Bearing these considerations in mind, average interassay factors are proposed. Their values are 10 to transform melanin formation into tyrosine hydroxylase activity, 100 to transform tyrosine hydroxylase into dopa oxidase activity, and 1,000 to transform melanin formation into dopa oxidase activity. Variations in these values due to the presence in the tyrosinase preparations of either inhibitors or regulatory factors in melanogenesis independent of tyrosinase are also discussed

  3. Flip This Classroom: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, Tiffany; Peters, Michelle L.; Willis, Jana

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to compare the beliefs and attitudes of teachers using the flipped versus the traditional class model. Survey and interview data were collected from a matched sample of in-service teachers representing both models from a large suburban southeastern Texas school district. The Attitude Towards Technology Scale, the…

  4. Counseling in Costa Rica: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Crystal

    2013-01-01

    With one of the world's most comprehensive universal healthcare systems, medical tourism in Costa Rica has increased significantly over the past few decades. American tourists save up to 80% of comparative costs for procedures, from heart surgery to root canal treatment. Although many Costa Rican healthcare professionals receive training in North…

  5. A Comparative Study of Software Testing Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Anju Bansal

    2014-01-01

    Software testing is the process used to measure the quality of developed computer software. It exhibits all mistakes, errors and flaws in the developed software. In this paper, the three most prevalent and commonly used software testing techniques for detecting errors are described and compared, they are: white box testing, black box testing and grey box testing.

  6. Comparative studies of electricity generation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays, it can not be contested the great importance of environmental factors on choice between different electricity generation systems, given the increasing level demand of the more rigorous legal requirements related to environmental management. Because of their significance to a comparative assessment analysis, a number of environmental impacts are discussed in this paper, focusing the main Brazilian options to electricity production. (author)

  7. Tesseract Vs Gocr A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Shivani Dhiman

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Optical Character Recognition (OCR is a technique used to convert scanned images into machine readable text formats. Different types of Optical Character Recognition (OCR Tools are used in market from earlier times have their own strengths and weaknesses. They provided different results on the basis of different metrics or parameters. But in this paper we are going to compare two open source tools i.e. Tesseract and GOCR. This paper firstly provides the introduction of open source tools Tesseract and GOCR, architecture of Tesseract and description about their working. In this paper, Tools are compared on the basis of Precision as well as Accuracy by considering different parameters that are Image Type, Resolution, Brightness and Font Type.

  8. Comparative study about Crimes against the Person's

    OpenAIRE

    Zar Rokh, Ehsan; Radmanesh, Mansour

    2008-01-01

    In this article I want talk about crimes against person's crimes witch cause objection of people's body and punishment by government in all societies. Now I trying to have a comparative research of most important crimes in this category in some countries and especially in Islamic criminal law based on Iran Islamic criminal law. Crimes describe in this article are: assault _ battery _ robbery _ kidnapping _ rape _ mayhem _ manslaughter – murder I must say must describe abo...

  9. Gas Storage Valuation: A Comparative Simulation Study

    OpenAIRE

    Felix, Bastian

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is the comparative analysis of four natural gas storage valuation approaches. In competitive natural gas markets the optimal valuation and operation of natural gas storages is a key task for natural gas companies operating storages. Within this paper, four spot based valuation approaches are analyzed regarding computational time and accuracy. In particular, explicit and implicit finite differences, multinomial recombining trees, and Least Squares Monte Carlo Simulati...

  10. Friendship in Latin American Social Comparative Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Agnaldo Garcia; Julia Sursis Nobre Ferro Bucher-Maluschke; Daniela Marisol Pérez-Angarita; Fábio Nogueira Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Friendship has been traditionally investigated in the field of interpersonal relationships using different theoretical frameworks and approaches. This paper discusses the possibility of investigating friendship from a comparative Latin American perspective, based on a wide literature review on the subject. Based on the theoretical proposals of Hinde (1997) for the investigation of interpersonal relationships, the paper considers that friendship involves several levels of complexity and affect...

  11. Neural networks in analysing 137Cs behaviour in the air in the Belgrade area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samolov Aleksandra D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of the principal component analysis and artificial neural network method in forecasting 137Cs behaviour in the air as the function of meteorological parameters is presented. The model was optimized and tested using 137Cs specific activities obtained by standard gamma-ray spectrometric analysis of air samples collected in Belgrade (Serbia during 2009-2011 and meteorological data for the same period. Low correlation (r = 0.20 between experimental values of 137Cs specific activities and those predicted by artificial neural network was obtained. This suggests that artificial neural network in the case of prediction of 137Cs specific activity, using temperature, insolation, and global Sun warming does not perform well, which can be explained by the relative independence of 137Cs specific activity of particular meteorological parameters and not by the ineffectiveness of artificial neural network in relating these parameters in general. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR34034

  12. Mineral characterization of soil type ranker formed on serpentines occurring in southern Belgrade environs Bubanj Potok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cekić Božidar Đ.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the issue of health risk associated with the presence of chrysotile in the soil type ranker formed on massive serpentines occurring in the area of Bubanj Potok, a settlement located in the southern Belgrade environs, Serbia. Characterization of the ranker soil was conducted by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, micro-Raman spectroscopy and transmission 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy figures showed regular shaped smectite (montmorillonite particles, aggregates of chlorite, and elongated sheets of serpentines minerals antigorite. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the presence of detrital mineral quartz polymorph as well as minor amounts of other mineral species. Micro-Raman spectroscopy identified the presence of dominant minerals, such as montmorillonite, kaolinite, muscovite, gypsum, calcite, albite, amphiboles (hornblende/kaersutite and orthoclase. Important polymorph silica modifications of quartz, olivine (forsterite, pyroxene (enstatite/ferrosilite, diopside/hedenbergite, and serpentine (antigorite/lizardite/chrysotile were identified.

  13. Seasonal distribution of Borreliae in Ixodes ricinus ticks in the Belgrade region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milutinović Marija

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Green areas at four localities in the Belgrade region (Ada Ciganlija, Košutnjak, Miljakovac forest, and Mt. Avala were investigated in 2004. The aim of the research was to clarify the faunistic composition, relative abundance, and population dynamics of ticks, as well as the seasonal distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl in Ixodes ricinus. Two species of ticks were detected: Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulates. Relative abundance analysis revealed that the species Ixodes ricinus was predominant (97.41 %. Out of 942 Ixodes ricinus ticks, 188 (19.96 % were infected with Borrelia burgdorferi sl. The infection rate of adults by localities ranged from 19.16% to 30.99% (Mt. Avala and Ada Ciganlija, respectively.

  14. District heating system of Belgrade supplied from the co-generation plant 'Obrenovac' (Yugoslavia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents most relevant technical and economic features of the Project called 'System for supplying Belgrade with heat' (SDGB) from the thermal power plant 'Obrenovac', based on domestic coal and reconstruction of condensing power plant for combined generation of electricity and heat for the needs of municipal energy consumption. The system is designed for transport thermal energy, with capacity of 730 MJ/s from the Thermal Power Plant 'Nikola Tesla' / A to the existing heat plant 'Novi Beograd' based on the natural gas. The paper also gives the comparison of most important technical and economic features of 'SDGB' Project with the similar Project of District Heating System for supplying Prague with the thermal energy from Thermal Power Plant Melnik. (Author)

  15. Daily and seasonal radon variability in the underground low-background laboratory in Belgrade, Serbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon time-series analysis, based on the short-term indoor radon measurements performed worldwide, shows two main periodicity: daily and seasonal. The information obtained from time series of the measured radon values is the results of the complex radon dynamics that arises from the influence of the large number of different parameters (the state of the indoor atmosphere (temperature, pressure and relative humidity, aerosol concentration), the exchange rate between indoor and outdoor air and so on). In this paper we considered daily radon variability in the underground low-background laboratory in Belgrade, Serbia. The results are originated from the radon time-series analysis based on the 3 y of the continuous short-term indoor radon measurements. At the same time, we obtained the time series of the temperature, pressure and relative humidity in the laboratory. We also tried to find the correlation between different time series. (authors)

  16. Astronomical Books in Virtual Library of Faculty of Mathematics in Belgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejovic, N.; Mijajlovic, Z.

    2012-12-01

    The Virtual Library of the Faculty of Mathematics in Belgrade, at the address http://elibrary.matf.bg.ac.rs, contains about 100 digitized books related to astronomy. These books are written mostly by Serbian scientists but there are also translations into Serbian by foreign authors. This article presents a list of books written by the following authors: Rudjer Bo\\vsković, Zaharije Orfelin, Atanasije Stojković, Djordje Stanojević, Milan Andonović, Kosta Stojanović, Nikolai Tsinger, Milutin Milanković, Milan Nedeljković, Pavle Vujević, Vojislav Minković, Zaharije Brkić, Branislav Ševarlić, Jovan Simovljević and Sergei Blažko. Some of these books had the great influence on the development of astronomy, geodesy and mathematical geography in Serbia. The full list of these books is given and a selection of them is presented and commented.

  17. Total alpha and beta activity of air and fallout in Belgrade from 2006 to 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of radioactivity control of air and fallout in Belgrade from 2006 to 2008 are presented. The measurements were carried out by low-background proportional gas alpha beta counter PIC-WPC-9550. The system was calibrated with 241Am for total alpha and 90Sr for total beta activity measurements. Efficiency for α and β activity measurement was 31% and 46%, respectively. Monthly average values of the total alpha and beta activity in air varied between 0.003 and 0.053 mBq/m3 and between 0.02 and 0.40 mBq/m3, respectively. Monthly average of the total alpha and beta activity of fallout varied between 0.022 and 0.55 Bq/m2 and between 0.15 and 4.7 Bq/m2, respectively. (author)

  18. Transmental Sheherazade on the interwar avant-garde balls in Belgrade and Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović Bojan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In expert circles, attention has been drawn to the “1002nd Night Ball” created by the protagonists of Yugoslav and Serbian avant-garde, in particular on its dance and musical segments, moreover, the ballet “Le balai du valet” by Marko Ristić and Miloje Milojević, as well as the ensuing series of balls related to the Association of Friends of Art “Cvijeta Zuzorić”. On the other hand, it is an (almost completely unknown fact that Rade Drainac’s original idea to throw a ball for the benefit of artists and writers that needed financial assistance because of difficult financial situation (later replaced with an initiative to raise funds to build an art pavilion “Cvijeta Zuzorić” matched the idea of the Union of Russian artists in Paris to organize a ball with the aim of contributing to mutual aid. The ball in Paris, with the participation of the most prominent avant-garde artists, took place exactly one week after the Belgrade ball, which also suggests the possible connection / synchronization of these two artistic events. Having this in mind, I offer a brief analysis of the concept and scope of the aforementioned artistic events from the perspective of the intermedia and multimedia strategies. I demonstrate that the Belgrade spectacle was envisioned and performed far more ambitiously than the Parisian one, and the thoroughness of the interweaving of various arts ranks it among those works (including Parade by Cocteau, Picasso and Satie, Skating-Rink by Canudo, Leger, and Honegger, La creation du monde by Cendrars, Léger and Milhaud, with Russian and Swedish Ballet that aimed to achieve a Gesamtkunstwerk, i.e. a total work of avant-garde art. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON 178008: Srpska književnost u evropskom kulturnom prostoru

  19. Biology and harmfulness of Planococcus vovae (Nassonov (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae in Belgrade area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Draga Graora

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Planococcus vovae (Nassonov (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae is an important pest on plants of the family Cupressaceae. Its numerous populations have been present in recent years on Juniperus spp. in Belgrade. Feeding by sap-sucking on all aboveground plant organs, it causes growth stagnation, chlorosis, drying of needles and branches, and even of entire plants under heavy infestation. Additionally, the scale excretes large quantities of honeydew, on which sooty mold develops, reducing photosynthesis and causing faster plant deterioration. Throughout 2007 and 2008, P. vovae was recorded on Juniperus spp. in 12 localities in Belgrade, and on Thuja sp. in a single locality. The pest was found to develop three generations per year and overwinter on branches at the egg or second instar stages. The first generation adults were observed at the end of May, the second generation at the beginning of August, while the third generation was recorded at the beginning of October. Different overwintering modes, and variable oviposition, embryonic and larval development periods led to an overlapping of generations and continuous presence of all developmental stages on plants. In different localities the infestation of plants varied in abundance from a few individual specimens to very large colonies. The highest infestation intensity was recorded in the localities Bežanija, Dorćol and Voždovac. The predatory species Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae and Nephus bipunctatus (Kugelann (Coleoptera: Coccinelidae were found in the scale colonies. Regarding N. bipunctatus, this was its first record as a new species in the Serbian fauna.

  20. Body condition and physical care scales in three cases of dog hoarding from Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Marijana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the spring of 2006 Belgrade city officials were planning to take steps to reduce the city’s stray dog population. The plan was to sterilize (spay or neuter, microchip and vaccinate about 5000 dogs during the next two years. The plan was set to kick into action at the start of September in 2006, with a monthly goal of spaying or neutering at least 255 dogs. Taking the program one step further, approximately 15000 dog owners will be given free microchips for their dogs, among them owners of private dogs' shelters, too. A professional team of four members was formed with the aim to visit all private shelters for dogs in Belgrade. The team found three cases of dog hoarding. In all of them, hoarders claimed to possess a "no-kill" shelter for dogs. These hoarders were likely to exhibit characteristics between overwhelmed caregivers and rescuer hoarders. These cases of hoarding are described in this paper from the dog abuse aspect. The two parts of Tufts Animal Care and Condition (TACC scales were used for this purpose (body condition and physical care scales. Body condition and physical care were evaluated in 429 dogs (220 dogs in the first, 157 dogs in the second and 52 dogs in the third hoarder. There were significant differences (P<0.0001 only for body condition of dogs in three cases of hoarders. Inadequate diet was the main reason for this state. Physical care of dogs ranged from borderline to terrible without significant differences between three cases of animal hoarding.

  1. PAIN MANAGEMENT IN CIRCUMCISION: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.Khalid Mahmood; Dr. Zahid Mahmood Nagra; Dr.Muhammad Akram Malik; Prof.Sajid Hameed; Dr.Rana Liaqat Ali

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effectiveness and safety of interventions of reducing pain at neonatal circumcision.Study Design: Quasi-experimental designPlace and Duration of Study: Departments of Pediatric Surgery and Plastic Surgery, Allied Hospital, Madina TeachingHospital, Faisal Hospital, Abdullah Medical Complex, Jail Road, Faisalabad from June 2005 to July 2010.Methodology: Neonates presenting for circumcision during the first month of life were included in the study. A total of 102neonates...

  2. Risk of HIV infection among indoor and street sex workers and their use of health services in Belgrade, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Dragan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. HIV in Serbia is most often transmitted through sexual contact, and therefore numerous prevention activities are geared towards sex workers (SW. Objective. To analyze the differences in knowledge, attitudes and risky behaviour between indoor and street SW in Belgrade; to examine the accessibility of health services to this vulnerable group. Methods. In this behavioural cross-sectional study, 113 street and 78 indoor SW were included. The sampling method used was snowball samples. Data were gathered through structured questionnaires. Results. Around 15% of respondents used drugs intravenously. Around 60% of SW used a condom during the last sexual intercourse with their private partner, and around 90% with a commercial partner. Indoor SW had lower levels of education more often than outdoor SW, and they used marijuana, sedatives and painkillers on a daily basis. A significantly higher number of indoor SW were informed about HIV, HBV and HCV testing, and that the risk for HIV infection is not lower if a condom is used exclusively for vaginal sex. Indoor SW reported using health services and testing and counseling for HIV, HBV and HCV more frequently than outdoor SW. Outdoor SW had significantly more sex partners in the previous month than indoor SW. Indoor SW recognized more frequently that providing sex services posed a higher risk for HIV infection. Conclusion. The results of this research study show that even though outdoor SW had higher levels of education than indoor SW, their level of knowledge about HIV transmission was lower and they reported more risky behaviour than indoor SW. Data show that both groups reported not taking care of their health.

  3. Secondary Syphilis in Patients Treated at the City Institute for Skin and Venereal Diseases in Belgrade from 2010 to 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjekić Milan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the characteristics and clinical manifestations of secondary syphilis among patients registered at the City Institute for Skin and Venereal Diseases in Belgrade, during the period from 2010 to 2014. The study was designed as a case-note review. In the five-year period, a total of 62 patients with secondary syphilis were registered. The average patient age was 32 years. There were 45 (72.6% HIV-negative, and 17 (27.4% HIV-positive patients. The incidence of HIV–positive patients was significantly different from random distribution (p = 0.016. All HIV-positive patients were unmarried men. A significant percentage of HIV-positive patients were unemployed (p < 0.001, reported unknown source of infection (p = 0.002 and were all homosexuall (p = 0.026. More than 25% of all patients with syphilis had a history of chancres, and it was still present at the time of examination in 11.3% of all patients. The majority of cases (87.1% had a rash, and lymphadenopathy was found in 20% of patients. However, syphilitic alopecia was detected only in HIV-positive cases (p = 0.004. There were no statistically significant differences between HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients in regard to other clinical manifestations, such as mucous patches and condylomata lata. Being a great imitator, secondary syphilis may manifest in a myriad of diverse morphological entities and clinical manifestations. We review a range of cutaneous manifestations of secondary syphilis and skin diseases it may mimic. Clinicians must be vigilant and consider syphilis in differential diagnosis, and maintain a high index of suspicion, especially when assessing vulnerable populations, such as men who have sex with men and HIV-infected individuals.

  4. Comparative study of anomalous dispersive transparent media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a comparative theoretical analysis of five different atomic schemes with respect to their performance as negative (anomalous) dispersive transparent media. The schemes discussed are the strongly driven and the degenerate two-level system, two closely spaced gain lines, and two slightly different double-Λ schemes with incoherent pumping. The analysis shows that the degenerate two-level scheme is best suited for applications for which only modest negative dispersion but strongly reduced absorption is required, and dissipation and loss of the optical fields have to be avoided. Two closely spaced gain lines and one of the double-Λ schemes are the best choice for applications which rely on large negative dispersion, but are not too sensitive to residual absorption and dissipation

  5. Comparative study of void fraction models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some models for the calculation of void fraction in water in sub-cooled boiling and saturated vertical upward flow with forced convection have been selected and compared with experimental results in the pressure range of 1 to 150 bar. In order to know the void fraction axial distribution it is necessary to determine the net generation of vapour and the fluid temperature distribution in the slightly sub-cooled boiling region. It was verified that the net generation of vapour was well represented by the Saha-Zuber model. The selected models for the void fraction calculation present adequate results but with a tendency to super-estimate the experimental results, in particular the homogeneous models. The drift flux model is recommended, followed by the Armand and Smith models. (F.E.)

  6. Comparative Studies of Alternative Anaerobic Digestion Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Inman, David C.

    2004-01-01

    Washington D.C. Water and Sewage Authority is planning to construct a new anaerobic digestion facility at its Blue Plains WWTP by 2008. The research conducted in this study is to aid the designers of this facility by evaluating alternative digestion technologies. Alternative anaerobic digestion technologies include thermophilic, acid/gas phased, and temperature phased digestion. In order to evaluate the relative merits of each, a year long study evaluated the performance of bench scale dig...

  7. Advertisement Analysis: A Comparative Critical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noureldin Mohamed Abdelaal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at analyzing two advertisements, and investigating how advertisers use discourse and semiotics to make people and customers buy into their ideas, beliefs, or simply their products. The two advertisements analyzed are beauty products which have been selected from internet magazines. The methodology adopted in this study is qualitative method. The first advertisement is analyzed qualitatively in terms of content; there was no focus on a specific theoretical frame work, while the second advertisement analysis is based on Fairclough’s framework, the critical discourse analysis framework.  

  8. Annual Journal citation indices: a comparative study

    CERN Document Server

    Khaleque, Abdul; Sen, Parongama

    2016-01-01

    We study the statistics of citations made to the indexed Science journals in the Journal Citation Reports during the period 2004-2013 using different measures. We consider different measures which quantify the impact of the journals. To our surprise, we find that the apparently uncorrelated measures, even when defined in an arbitrary manner, show strong correlations. This is checked over all the years considered. Impact factor being one of these measures, the present work raises the question whether it is actually a nearly perfect index as claimed often. In addition we study the distributions of the different indices which also behave similarly.

  9. Comparative study on software development methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Liviu DESPA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the current state of knowledge in the field of software development methodologies. It aims to set the stage for the formalization of a software development methodology dedicated to innovation orientated IT projects. The paper starts by depicting specific characteristics in software development project management. Managing software development projects involves techniques and skills that are proprietary to the IT industry. Also the software development project manager handles challenges and risks that are predominantly encountered in business and research areas that involve state of the art technology. Conventional software development stages are defined and briefly described. Development stages are the building blocks of any software development methodology so it is important to properly research this aspect. Current software development methodologies are presented. Development stages are defined for every showcased methodology. For each methodology a graphic representation is illustrated in order to better individualize its structure. Software development methodologies are compared by highlighting strengths and weaknesses from the stakeholder's point of view. Conclusions are formulated and a research direction aimed at formalizing a software development methodology dedicated to innovation orientated IT projects is enunciated.

  10. LES versus DNS: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtilman, L.; Chasnov, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    We have performed Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) and Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of forced isotropic turbulence at moderate Reynolds numbers. The subgrid scale model used in the LES is based on an eddy viscosity which adjusts instantaneously the energy spectrum of the LES to that of the DNS. The statistics of the large scales of the DNS (filtered DNS field or fDNS) are compared to that of the LES. We present results for the transfer spectra, the skewness and flatness factors of the velocity components, the PDF's of the angle between the vorticity and the eigenvectors of the rate of strain, and that between the vorticity and the vorticity stretching tensor. The above LES statistics are found to be in good agreement with those measured in the fDNS field. We further observe that in all the numerical measurements, the trend was for the LES field to be more gaussian than the fDNS field. Future research on this point is planned.

  11. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DIFFERENTEDGE DETECTION TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beant Kaur,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Detection of edge is a terminology in image processing and computer vision particularly in the areas of feature detection and extraction to refer to the algorithms which aims at identifying points in a digital image at which the image brightness changes sharply or more formally has discontinuities. The need of edge detection is to find the discontinuities in depth, discontinuities in surface orientation, changes in material properties and variations in scene illumination. Remote sensing images are generally corrupted from noise. athematical morphology is a new technique for edge detection .It is a theory and technique for analysis and processing of geometrical structures, based on set theory. In this paper square type structuring element of different size is implemented on different remote sensing images . The noise can also be suppressed by mathematical morphology. So by using mathematical morphology the image can be enhanced and the edges can be detected. In this paper ,the result of edge detection using mathematical morphology will be compared with sobel edge detector, Prewitt edge detector, laplician of gaussian edge detector and Canny edge detector.

  12. Articulation of Quality Teaching: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakarneh, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe and then contrast the New South Wales Department of Education and Training's model of quality teaching with the Jordanian Ministry of Education's conception of quality teaching, looking particularly at potential differences in interpretation. A content analysis methodology was used. Each perspective has been…

  13. Metacognition and Group Differences: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, metacognition refers to performing visual analysis and discrimination of real life events and situations in naïve psychology, naïve physics, and naïve biology domains. It is used, along with measuring reaction time, to examine differences in the ability of four groups of students to select appropriate pictures that correspond with…

  14. Children's Friendship Development: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, SeonYeong; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Fowler, Susan A.

    2011-01-01

    Establishing friendships is an important developmental goal of early childhood, but little research has addressed ways in which parents support the friendship development of their young children with disabilities. The purpose of this survey study was to explore the support strategies that parents use to facilitate their children's friendships.…

  15. Assessment of heavy metal and pesticide levels in soil and plant products from agricultural area of Belgrade, Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, Mirjana; Cupać, Svjetlana; Durović, Rada; Milinović, Jelena; Kljajić, Petar

    2010-02-01

    This study was aimed to assess the levels of selected heavy metals and pesticides in soil and plant products from an agricultural area of Belgrade, Serbia and to indicate possible sources and risks of contamination. Soil, vegetable, and fruit samples from the most important agricultural city areas were collected from July to November of 2006. Metal contents were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry, whereas pesticide residues were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after extraction performed using solid-phase microextraction technique. Soil characterization based on the determination of selected physical and chemical properties revealed heterogeneous soils belonging to different soil groups. The concentrations of lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc in soil samples do not exceed the limits established by national and international regulations. Residues of the herbicide atrazine were detected in three soil samples, with levels lower than the relevant limit. The presence of other herbicides, namely prometryn, chloridazon, acetochlor, flurochloridone, and napropamide, was registered in some soil samples as well. Among the insecticides investigated in the soil, fenitrothion and chlorpyrifos were the only ones detected. In most of the investigated vegetable samples from the Obrenovac area, Pb and Cd contents are higher in comparison with the maximum levels, indicating the emission of coal combustion products from local thermal power plants as a possible source of contamination. Residue levels of some herbicides and insecticides (metribuzin, trifluralin, pendimethalin, bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, and cypermethrin) determined in tomato, pepper, potato, and onion samples from Slanci, Ovca, and Obrenovac areas are even several times higher than the maximum residue levels. Inappropriate use of these plant protection products is considered to be the most probable reason of contamination. Because increased levels of heavy metals and pesticide residues found in

  16. Earthquake correlations and networks: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We quantify the correlation between earthquakes and use the same to extract causally connected earthquake pairs. Our correlation metric is a variation on the one introduced by Baiesi and Paczuski [M. Baiesi and M. Paczuski, Phys. Rev. E 69, 066106 (2004)]. A network of earthquakes is then constructed from the time-ordered catalog and with links between the more correlated ones. A list of recurrences to each of the earthquakes is identified employing correlation thresholds to demarcate the most meaningful ones in each cluster. Data pertaining to three different seismic regions (viz., California, Japan, and the Himalayas) are comparatively analyzed using such a network model. The distribution of recurrence lengths and recurrence times are two of the key features analyzed to draw conclusions about the universal aspects of such a network model. We find that the unimodal feature of recurrence length distribution, which helps to associate typical rupture lengths with different magnitude earthquakes, is robust across the different seismic regions. The out-degree of the networks shows a hub structure rooted on the large magnitude earthquakes. In-degree distribution is seen to be dependent on the density of events in the neighborhood. Power laws, with two regimes having different exponents, are obtained with recurrence time distribution. The first regime confirms the Omori law for aftershocks while the second regime, with a faster falloff for the larger recurrence times, establishes that pure spatial recurrences also follow a power-law distribution. The crossover to the second power-law regime can be taken to be signaling the end of the aftershock regime in an objective fashion.

  17. Conjunctivitis in the newborn- A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Wadhwani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Conjunctivitis of the newborn is defined as hyperemia and eye discharge in the neonates and is a common infection occurring in the neonates in the first month of life. In the United States, the incidence of neonatal conjunctivitis ranges from 1-2%, in India, the prevalence is 0.5-33% and varies in the world from 0.9-21% depending on the socioeconomic status. Aim: To study the organisms causing conjunctivitis of the newborn and to correlate the etiology with the mode of delivery. Design: Single center, prospective, observational study. Materials and Methods: A total of 300 mothers and their newborns, born over a period of one year, were included in the study. Of these 200 newborns were delivered through vaginal route (Group A and 100 (Group B delivered by lower segment caesarean section (LSCS. At the time of labour, high vaginal swabs were taken from the mothers. Two conjunctival swabs each from both eyes of the newborn were collected at birth and transported to Microbiology department in a candle jar immediately. Results: Eight babies in Group A, developed conjunctivitis at birth. None of the babies in Group B developed conjunctivitis, this difference was statistically highly significant (P<0.000. The organisms found in the conjunctiva of the newborns in Group A were Coagulase negative Staphylococcus, α hemolytic Streptococcus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas spps. However, the commonest organism leading to conjunctivitis in the newborn in this study was Coagulase negative Staphylococcus. It was observed that the mothers of 5 out of 8 babies (60% developing conjunctivitis gave history of midwife interference and premature rupture of membranes so the presence of risk factors contribute to the occurrence of conjunctivitis in the newborn. Conclusions: It is inferred that the mode of delivery and the presence of risk factors is responsible for conjunctivitis in the newborn.

  18. Target costing in construction: a comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Melo, Reymard Savio Sampaio De; Kaushik, Amit; Koskela, Lauri; Granja, Ariovaldo Denis; Keraminiyage, Kaushal; Tzortzopoulos, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Target costing is an approach for the development of new products in the automobile industry, aimed at reducing their life-cycle costs while ensuring quality, reliability and other client requirements, by examining all possible ideas for cost reduction at the product planning, research and development and prototyping phases. Prior studies have attempted to adapt the manufacturing target costing process to the project-based nature of the construction industry. This paper aims to provide insigh...

  19. SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY: COMPARATIVE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Cătălina Silvia MITRA (CRIŞAN); Borza, Anca

    2011-01-01

    The authors are preoccupied with analyzing the process of social entrepreneurship and the implications and the influence of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) on social entrepreneurial process. We will base our researches on two perspectives of social entrepreneurs and of founds. This study was inspired from a model developed by Professor Rob John in collaboration with Skoll Center for Social Entrepreneurship and Oxford Said Business School. Our research has as a main purpose to identify t...

  20. Annual Journal citation indices: a comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Khaleque, Abdul; Chatterjee, Arnab; Sen, Parongama

    2016-01-01

    We study the statistics of citations made to the indexed Science journals in the Journal Citation Reports during the period 2004-2013 using different measures. We consider different measures which quantify the impact of the journals. To our surprise, we find that the apparently uncorrelated measures, even when defined in an arbitrary manner, show strong correlations. This is checked over all the years considered. Impact factor being one of these measures, the present work raises the question ...

  1. Agoraphobia and Panic Disorder: A Comparative Study

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    Ayse Kart

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In this study we aim to get more information about agoraphobia (AG which is an independent diagnosis in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5 and to evaluate overlaps or differences between agoraphobia and panic disorder (PD upon sociodemographic features and comorbidity with considering relation of these two disorders. Material and Method: Sociodemographic Data Form was given and Structural Clinical Interview for DSM Axis I Disorders (SCID-I was applied to 33 patients diagnosed as AG and 34 patients diagnosed as PD with AG (PDA.Results: AG group consisted of 21 females (63.1%, 12 males (36%, totally 33 patients and PDA group consisted of 23 females (67.6%, 11 males (32.4%, totally 34 patients. Mean age of onset was 32.4±10.2 in PDA group and 31.1±12.1 in AG group. According to sociodemographic features, violence in family and smoking rates were significantly higher in PDA group than AG group. Major Depressive Disorder (MDD as a comorbidity was higher in PDA group. Discussion: In this study, we tried to identify the overlaps and differences of PDA and AG. For a better recognition of AG, further studies are needed.

  2. A comparative study of various decalcification techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathibha Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Study of fibrilar, cellular and sub cellular structures of mineralized tissues is only possible after the removal of the calcium apatite of these tissues by the process of demineralization. Aims: The present study aims to evaluate six commonly used demineralizing agents to identify the best decalcifying agent. Materials and Methods: The present study included six different decalcifying solutions: 10% formal nitric acid, 8% formal nitric acid, 10% formic acid, 8% formic acid, Perenyi′s fluid and Ethylene Di-Amine Tetra Acetic Acid. eight samples of posterior mandible of rat were decalcified in each of the decalcifying solutions and subjected to chemical end-point test. Ehrlich′s Hematoxylin stain was used. Statistical Analysis Used: One way ANOVA was used for multiple group comparisons and Chi-square test was used for analyzing categorical data. P value of 0.05/less was set for statistical significance. Results: Samples treated with EDTA showed the best overall histological impression and the tissue integrity were well preserved. Formal nitric of both the percentages 10 and 8% gave fairly good cellular detail and were rapid in their action. Conclusion: The final impression led to the proposition that EDTA was indeed the best decalcifying agent available. However, with time constraint, the use of formal nitric acid is advocated.

  3. Comparative study of radon in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted primarily to contribute radon data for radon map in Sudan and identify regions with elevated radon levels and improve data collection and analysis for the future radon levels evaluation. This study partially covered three states of Sudan ( Red Sea - Khartoum - South Khordofan). Previous work done has been considered in this study which focused and investigated the levels of radon concentration in ( indoor radon gas and water) by using gamma spectrometry equipped with ( HPGe detector) or (Na1 (T1) detector). The results obtained are within the acceptable levels and dose not poses any risk from radiation protection point of view. Red Sea state ( port-sudan): (124.39±6.21) Bq/m3. Khartoum state ( Suba): (151.52) Bq/m3. (Omdurman): ( 127±23) Bq/m3. Radon in water: (59) Bq/L. South Kordofan State: (102.8) Bq/m3. In water (Kadugli): (3139)) Bq/L.(Author)

  4. Egress of Alphaherpesviruses: Comparative Ultrastructural Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granzow, Harald; Klupp, Barbara G.; Fuchs, Walter; Veits, Jutta; Osterrieder, Nikolaus; Mettenleiter, Thomas C.

    2001-01-01

    Egress of four important alphaherpesviruses, equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1), herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), and pseudorabies virus (PrV), was investigated by electron microscopy of infected cell lines of different origins. In all virus-cell systems analyzed, similar observations were made concerning the different stages of virion morphogenesis. After intranuclear assembly, nucleocapsids bud at the inner leaflet of the nuclear membrane, resulting in enveloped particles in the perinuclear space that contain a sharply bordered rim of tegument and a smooth envelope surface. Egress from the perinuclear cisterna primarily occurs by fusion of the primary envelope with the outer leaflet of the nuclear membrane, which has been visualized for HSV-1 and EHV-1 for the first time. The resulting intracytoplasmic naked nucleocapsids are enveloped at membranes of the trans-Golgi network (TGN), as shown by immunogold labeling with a TGN-specific antiserum. Virions containing their final envelope differ in morphology from particles within the perinuclear cisterna by visible surface projections and a diffuse tegument. Particularly striking was the addition of a large amount of tegument material to ILTV capsids in the cytoplasm. Extracellular virions were morphologically identical to virions within Golgi-derived vesicles, but distinct from virions in the perinuclear space. Studies with gB- and gH-deleted PrV mutants indicated that these two glycoproteins, which are essential for virus entry and direct cell-to-cell spread, are dispensable for egress. Taken together, our studies indicate that the deenvelopment-reenvelopment process of herpesvirus maturation also occurs in EHV-1, HSV-1, and ILTV and that membrane fusion processes occurring during egress are substantially different from those during entry and direct viral cell-to-cell spread. PMID:11264357

  5. "STUDY OF ENDOMETRIOSIS RELATED INFERTILITY, A COMPARATIVE STUDY"

    OpenAIRE

    N. Khadem Sh. Jalali Mazlouman

    2004-01-01

    It seems that endometriosis plays an important role in female factor infertility but a clear causal relationship has yet to be established. This case-control study was conducted to determine and compare the frequency and severity of endometriosis in 100 infertile women and 120 fertile multi-para women as control group. Descriptive statistics, Student t test and Chi square test were used in analyzing data. Endometriosis was diagnosed in 38% of infertile versus 11.6% in fertile women (P=0.002)....

  6. Seroprevalence of leptospirosis in horses in the territory of Belgrade during the period from 1998 to 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Vojinović Dragica; Žutić Jadranka; Stanojević Slobodan

    2009-01-01

    Serological investigations of leptospirosis in horses were carried out in the epizootic territory of Belgrade during the period from 1998 to 2008. Serological examinations were performed on 1701 blood serum samples of horses from private and sociallyowned stables, riding clubs, hippodromes, and from the individual sector. The number of seropositive horses was 107 (6.29%). The most represented serovarieties of the Leptospira species were: Leptospira grippotyphosa 42 (2.47%), Leptospira icteroh...

  7. Seasonal trends of benzo(a)pyrene in suspended particulate matter in urban areas of Belgrade, Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Snežana Matić-Besarabić; Ljiljana Adjanski-Spasić; Milena Jovašević-Stojanović; Anka Cvetković; Dragan A. Marković

    2010-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were identified to be one of the major toxic air pollutants in urban environment. PAHs are mostly formed during incomplete combustion or pyrolysis of organic material. According to Serbian National Legislation, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) concentration in total suspended particles (TSP) in ambient air in the Belgrade metropolitan area has been determined in the last ten years, as a part of a local air pollution monitoring program performed by the Public Health...

  8. Agricultural population of Belgrade city territory: Basic tendencies in the demographic development, problems and possibilities of its revitalization

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanović Jasmina

    2006-01-01

    The territory of Belgrade city after the Second World War, has been characterized by the intensive processes of qualitative transformation concerning settling and arrangement of population, territorial organization of production and other activities. The facts that mostly influenced these processes are migrations, caused by economic movements and development. There has been a sudden transfer of agricultural population into non-agricultural activities. Participation of agricultural population ...

  9. Gender aspects of public urban space: Analysis of the names of Belgrade streets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekulić Nada

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The street city network and the street names represent structural public symbolic system which is characterized by readability. This readability gives identity; the city is clearly divided in significant and less significant zones used for different purposes with different levels of communicativity. It is explicitly connected with public memory evocation-with collective memory and the state ideology. Having that in mind, the names of streets in Belgrade given by female names will be analyzed. It is analyzed how it is in structural manner the street network in Belgrade on symbolic level (through the names of streets and their distribution in the street network structure expresses gender based distribution of power in the public space-using relation between the center and periphery in certain municipalities and the city as a whole. Investigating different city zones, it can be showed “rationalization of political domination” - the parts of the city where the residencies of foreign countries, embassies and consulates are situated, representative and private, as well as zones which belong to different social stratums - higher and lower layers, which are also the zones of different communicative capacity (determinated by the structure of street network. This analysis clearly points out on distinctive, even though implicitly inherited difference in power distribution and gender based standings in social organization of the space. Streets which got the name by women are very few and they occupy marginal positions in the street network structure - they are mostly peripheral, smaller streets, which are in high percent dead end streets. In the same time, the dynamics of the change of the street names in the last decade is not in favor of the names from National Liberation Army (NOB. Street name change affirms historical females characters from XIX century, expressing on the direct way the ideological change and the need of classes and stratums which

  10. Mortality rate of gastric cancer in the population of Belgrade for 1990-2002 period

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    Šipetić Sandra B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Worldwide, gastric cancer is the fourth leading cause of diseases, and the second leading cause of cancer deaths. Aim. To analyze the differences between men and women in mortality rate of gastric cancer in Belgrade from 1990−2002. Methods. Mortality rates standardized directly to the „World population“, and regression analysis were used. Results. In Belgrade population, 29.2% out the total number of deaths attributable to cancer were caused by gastric cancer. Gastric cancer was the second most common cause of death among digestive tract cancers. In women, in the period between 1990 and 1993, an average annual decline of mortality was 9.0% (95% confidence interval (CI = 5.9−13.1, and between 1994 and 2002, an average annual increase was 10.3% (CI = 8.4−12.6. Mortality rate series of gastric cancer in men did not fit any of the usual trend functions. The male/female gastric cancer mortality ratio was 1.7 : 1. Mortality rates for gastric cancer rose with age in both sexes and they were highest in the age group of 70 and more years. From 1990−2002, in both sexes aged 70 years and more, mortality from gastric cancer rose by 67.2% (CI = 58.0−76.4 in men and by 69.6% (CI = 60.6−78.6 in women. During the same period, the death rates in men decreased by 75.9 % (CI = 67.5−84.4 in the age group of 30−39 years, and by 48.1% (CI = 38.4−57.9 in women aged 50−59 years. In both sexes mortality rate series of all other age groups did not fit any of the usual trend functions. Conclusions. The increase in mortality rate of gastric in women over the past few years, showed the necessity of instituting primary and secondary preventive measures.

  11. Natural radionuclides by gammaspectrometry in the Belgrade, capital city in Yugoslavia for 1998, 1997 and 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Region of Belgrade, 44 0 18' north width and 21 o 35' east length, 134 m under the sea, as a capital city of Yugoslavia is important part of monitoring of radioactivity in environment. Radioactivity comes mostly from natural radionuclides and partly from long-lived radionuclides from non natural sources as a consequence of Chernobyl accident. Monitoring of environment has proceeded by vertical methodology. We analyzed: aerosol, soil, fallout (wet and dry deposition), rivers, lakes, drinking water, human and animal food. Results from analyze of samples from environment contains very low activity, actually activity of changes of basic signal. Results for 1998, 1997 and 1996 are: 1. Gamma dose rate, with values from 0.072 μG/h to 0.170 μG/h, with median years values: 0.103 μG/h (1998), 0.077 μG/h (1997) and 0.072 μG/h (1996). 2. By gammaspectrometry analyze of air as months samples for each year, results shows activity of changes of basic signal. The signals are coming from natural radionuclides. 3. 137Cs, as a long lived radionuclide, with remarkable activity in soil has values: 14-19 Bq/kg (1998), 12-111 Bq/kg (1997) and 7-39 Bq/kg (1996). 4. Activity in rivers Sava (Belgrade) and Danube (Zemun) belongs to 40K, while activities of 137Cs, 226Ra, 232Th, 235U and 238U are in traces. Activity of river sediment comes from 137Cs with values 0.4-46 Bq/kg of dry samples (river Danube). Activity in fish, mixture, white fish and others comes from 40K 55-100 Bq/kg and 137Cs 0.2-0.8 Bq/kg. 5. Activity of drinking waters, from city network shows low level of activity which comes from 40K. 6. Activity in milk comes from 40K 46.5-61.2 Bq/l (1998), 33-59 Bq/l (1997) and 31-54 Bq/l (1996). Activities of 137Cs are on the same level of detection. 7. Activity in the human food, measured in yogurt, meats, bread and agricultural products comes from 40K 44-310 Bq/kg (1998), 31-238 Bq/kg (1997) and 36-122 Bq/kg (1996). Activities of 137Cs are 1 Bq/kg. Results of analyze of animal

  12. Planning and land policy tools for limiting urban sprawl: The example of Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeković Slavka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Both the characteristics of Serbia’s urban land policy, the delay in reforms and land development management of the Belgrade Metropolitan Area (BMA illustrate the complexities following the reshaping of institutional framework under the conditions of economic and other uncertainties of societal transition. The negative implications of the prolonged crisis on the new urban development policy and urban land tools can postpone the establishment and application of guidelines for limiting the urban sprawl. This paper presents a brief literature review, as well as the current urban land policy and land-use efficiency in the BMA. Traditional urban land tools will be shortly described, followed by recommendations for limiting sprawl. There is a need for readjusting the current planning and urban policy regarding the urban sprawl, from an urban “command-and-control” approach to a “learn-and-adapt” approach. We suggest the introduction of more innovative and flexible urban land policy tools. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III47014

  13. Foundation of theological college in Belgrade and establishment of legal framework for its functioning

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    Novaković Dragan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The foundation of the Theological College in Belgrade is viewed in the context of complex political circumstances which followed the restoration of the Serbian state and the efforts of the Serbian church to gain autonomy and the right to elect bishops independently from the Universal Patriarchate. Once having achieved these goals, and with a conviction that the achieved must be defended and maintained by knowledge and education, the state authorities founded a seminary for education of priests and teachers capable to carry out national and spiritual reformation. The accord between the state and the Church regarding the strategic aims enabled the very first vocational school in Serbia to develop continuously its curricula and hire better and better teaching staff each year. However, due to the change of circumstances, the state passed the laws by which it enforced its dominance and showed a clear intent to subordinate theological education to its control. Yet, by its continuous activity during two crucial centuries, the Seminary became a part of collective consciousness, and its cadres contributed actively to the creation of original cultural and value patterns and preservation of national identity of the Serbian nation. The brilliant history of this school and its precious experience can be of great encouragement not only to the researchers of our pedagogical inheritance but also to all those who are engaged in reforming and adjusting education in Serbia to the European standards. .

  14. What Do We Compare When We Compare Religions? Philosophical Remarks on the Psychology of Studying Comparative Religion Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The issue of comparison is a vexing one in religious and theological studies, not least for teachers of comparative religion in study abroad settings. We try to make familiar ideas fresh and strange, in settings where students may find it hard not to take "fresh" and "strange" as signs of existential threat. The author explores…

  15. Biography of Dr. Đorđe-Đurica Đorđević, Founder of the Clinic for Skin and Venereal Diseases in Belgrade/Biografija dr Đorđa - Đurice Đorđevića, osnivača Klinike za dermatovenerologiju i venerologiju u Beogradu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosiljka Lalević-Vasić M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Đorđe Đorđević, a Serb from Croatia, was born in Grubišno polje (Croatia on April 22, 1885. He studied medicine in Vienna and graduated in 1909. Till 1912, he advanced his knowledge working at dermatology clinics with Prof. Finger and Prof. Arning, as well as with Prof. Weichselbaum, professor of pathological anatomy and bacteriology. From 1912 he worked in Zagreb, at the Dermatology Department of the Brothers of Mercy Hospital, and during World War I as a military doctor at the Dermatology Department and the Zagreb Outpatient Department (Second kolodvor. After the war, in 1918, he moved to Belgrade, where he was the Head of the Polyclinic for Skin and Venereal Diseases, and in 1922 he became an Assistant Professor of Dermatology at the School of Medicine in Belgrade. In the same year, he founded the Department of Dermatovenereology at the School of Medicine in Belgrade and the Clinic for Skin and Venereal Diseases, of which he was also the Head. In 1923, he became an Associate Professor, and in 1934 a Full Professor. He is given credit for passing legislation on prostitution and banning brothels.

  16. Comparing What to What? Intersecting Methodological Issues in Comparative Area Studies and Transitional Justice Research

    OpenAIRE

    Anika Oettler

    2015-01-01

    The paper discusses how current methodological debates on the potentials of Comparative Area Studies intersect with current trends in transitional justice research. As the field of transitional justice studies is approximating a status of maturation, academic enterprises tend to focus on empirical as well as theoretical generalization. The challenge of comparative transitional justice research consists less in weighing national impacts of policies than in taking into account a more historiciz...

  17. "Eco-Infill" as an alternative strategy for postindustrial landscape in the light of climate change: The case of Belgrade shipyard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikezić Ana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available At this moment, and under the circumstances that surround us, we have recognized as a definite global challenge the problem of climate change, and in general, the ecological misbalance of cities. In an attempt to meet this challenge, we will try to discuss possibilities of implementing the "Eco-Infill" strategy (fragments of nature incorporated into abandoned artificial environment as a viable, somewhat “alternative”, urban development strategy. The contemporary matrix of the post-industrial urban landscape is dotted with large and small fragments of abandoned spaces, which need to be incorporated into the city texture. Belgrade is a city with a potential, one of the larger capitals of the region, standing on the threshold of the European Union and undergoing an intensive process of political, economic and social transition. Similar to other large cities, it was previously an industrial city, but is now increasingly relying on the tertiary sector, promoting itself through its geographical, morphological, and cultural advantages. The consequences of privatization during transition and an exceptionally long and difficult political and economic crisis produced Brownfield and other abandoned spaces of the city centre with a complicated proprietary-ownership status, and no realistic guidelines for a much needed regeneration of the city centre in terms of contemporary problems linked to ecological, social and cultural values. In this article, there is a tendency to define principles on which the transformation of these abandoned places is based on and to try to apply these strategies onto the Belgrade shipyard on the river Sava. If we accept the previously set general views, these spaces can become crucial in developing a strategy for mitigation and adaptation to climate change. Although these effects are primarily aimed at confronting climate change, they are bound to upgrade the quality of life and offer new life styles, potentially affecting

  18. Everyday clothing of the Goranci females in Belgrade - between traditional and modern cultural practices

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    Đorđević-Crnobrnja Jadranka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents and discusses changes in certain dress and clothing practices and their effects on conflict within oneself and others. In this context, the paper analyzes certain conflict situations faced by the Goranci females in Belgrade. This conflict was brought about by the changes that have occurred in the females clothing during the second half of 20th and the first decade of 21st century. The focus is placed on changes that were initiated by external factors - legislation, migration and fashion trends. Accepting novelties in dress and clothing was not always simple and easy, especially if they implied the elimination of those garments implying a certain symbolic significance within the Goranci community and female subculture. Besides, changes in clothing imply and initiate changes in other spheres of life, especially in the sphere of (self identification, on several levels at the same time (gender, religious, ethnic, etc.. The initiation of the clothing changes impacted the women in such a way to become somewhat at odds with themselves, to feel discomfort because of the fear that the (non acceptance of the novelty could cause conflicts with some family members and relatives. A reconciliation with oneself and others imply that a women accepts a new way of dressing, but also the rest of whatever this may imply. Such reconciliation - assessed in this way - is not an end in itself. It is a process that involves several aspects simultaneously, and clothing is just one among them. In addition, a reconciliation on a personal level does not imply in itself reconciliation with others, and vice versa. Conflicts due to clothing do not represent an exception in this respect, but proved to be indicative for understanding complex socio-cultural processes such as reconciliation.

  19. Application of multi-criteria decision-making model for choice of the optimal solution for meeting heat demand in the centralized supply system in Belgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The expected growth of living standard, number of inhabitants and development of technology, industry and agriculture will cause a significant increase of energy consumption in cities. Three scenarios of energy sector development until 2030 and corresponding energy consumption for the city of Belgrade are analyzed in this paper. These scenarios consider different level of economic development, investments in energy sector, substitution of fossil fuels, introduction of renewable energy sources and implementation of energy efficiency measures. The proposed model for selection of optimal district heating system compares different options for fulfilling expected new heat demand through eight criteria for each scenario. Proposed options are combination of different energy sources and technologies for their use. The criteria weights are set according to Serbian economy and energy position. The criteria include financial aspects, environmental impact and availability of energy. Multi-criteria method ELECTRE (ELimination Et Choix Traduisant la REalite) is used as a tool for obtaining the optimal option. It is concluded that combination of CHP (combined heat and power) plant and centralized use of geothermal energy is optimal choice in the optimistic scenario. In the pessimistic and business as usual scenario the optimal option is combination of new gas boilers and centralized use of geothermal energy. - Highlights: • Three scenarios for meeting new heat demand are developed and assessed. • Constructing CHP (combined heat and power) is desirable in case of significant electricity price growth. • In all scenarios the chosen option includes using geothermal energy for heating

  20. How Australian and Indonesian Universities Treat Plagiarism: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bambang Yudi Cahyono

    2016-01-01

    This article is a part of a larger study comparing various aspects of policies on plagiarism in two university contexts. It compares policies on plagiarism in universities in Australia and Indonesia. The results of this comparative study showed that Australian and Indonesian universities treat plagiarism differently. Australian universities treat plagiarism explicitly in their university policies. In Australian universities, plagiarism is defined clearly and forms of plagiarism are explained ...

  1. The Comparative Study of Learning from 1994-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Blaser, Rachel; Bellizzi, Carolina

    2014-01-01

    The study of learning has long held a central position in the field of comparative psychology. Here we present a survey of the past 20 years of comparative learning research, covering publications from 1994 to 2013. We selected seven journals with a strong focus on comparative learning, and identified five major topics of study represented by the publications in those journals: non-associative learning, associative learning, perceptual/object learning, social learning, and neural correlates o...

  2. Cognitive Ethology: The Comparative Study of Animal Minds

    OpenAIRE

    Bekoff, Marc

    1995-01-01

    In each essay I discuss some aspects of the field of cognitive ethology and show how interdisciplinary research can inform evolutionary, comparative, and ecological studies of animal minds. I stress the importance of studying animals other than primates.

  3. [Studies of Student Performance on the Comparative Guidance Placement Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, M. Douglas

    Data from the College Entrance Examination Board's Comparative Guidance and Placement (CGP) Program were used in these two studies of students at Central Virginia Community College (CVCC). In the first study, 1971 fall quarter performance in specific courses and in all courses was compared to CGP performance. The conclusions indicate that: (1) CGP…

  4. Long term investigation of thermal behaviour of 110 kV underground transmission lines in the Belgrade area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sredojevic, M.R.; Naumov, R.M.; Popovic, D.P. [Nikola Tesla Electrical Engineering Inst., Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Simic, M.D. [Electrical Utility Co., Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1997-12-31

    The paper describes the procedure for applying a special cable backfill material, developed and manufactured at the Institute ``Nikola Tesla`` for the thermal stabilisation and reduction of hot spot cable operating temperature, on specific hot spots of 110 kV underground transmission lines in the Belgrade area. The results presented in this paper are an important contribution to the proof of the justification and necessity of defining and introducing in practice new procedures for the thermal stabilisation and reduction of operating temperature of existing, as well as of new, underground transmission cable lines to be built. (author)

  5. Linguistic Features of English and Russian Dictionaries (A Comparative Study)

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Leščinskij

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to establish differences and similarities between linguistic characteristics of English and Russian dictionaries. Two dictionaries were selected for the study – electronic version of the 8th edition of Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (OALD) and the online version of Ozhegov’s explanatory dictionary. The methods chosen for the study were descriptive, comparative and contrastive analysis. Linguistic characteristics of the dictionaries were analysed and compared...

  6. A comparative study of language strategies in international organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Ylinen, Anna-Maria

    2010-01-01

    A comparative study of language strategies in international organizations Objectives of the study The study focuses on language strategies and their existence among international organizations. The goal is to find out if organizations have a written language strategy at all and if they do, what the language strategy contains. Also, in case a language strategy does not exist, the language practices are researched. After that the strategies and practices are compared. The main research q...

  7. Dobrava-Belgrade hantavirus from Germany shows receptor usage and innate immunity induction consistent with the pathogenicity of the virus in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Popugaeva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV is a European hantavirus causing hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS in humans with fatality rates of up to 12%. DOBV-associated clinical cases typically occur also in the northern part of Germany where the virus is carried by the striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius. However, the causative agent responsible for human illness has not been previously isolated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report on characterization of a novel cell culture isolate from Germany obtained from a lung tissue of "spillover" infected yellow necked mouse (A. flavicollis trapped near the city of Greifswald. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated close clustering of the new strain, designated Greifswald/Aa (GRW/Aa with the nucleotide sequence obtained from a northern German HFRS patient. The virus was effectively blocked by specific antibodies directed against β3 integrins and Decay Accelerating Factor (DAF indicating that the virus uses same receptors as the highly pathogenic Hantaan virus (HTNV. In addition, activation of selected innate immunity markers as interferon β and λ and antiviral protein MxA after viral infection of A549 cells was investigated and showed that the virus modulates the first-line antiviral response in a similar way as HTNV. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In summary, our study reveals novel data on DOBV receptor usage and innate immunity induction in relationship to virus pathogenicity and underlines the potency of German DOBV strains to act as human pathogen.

  8. From Comparative Education to Comparative Pedagogy: A Physical Education Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakis, Steve; Graham, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    In the last two decades forces of globalization and the rise of and access to information technology have transformed the nature of educational research. Traditional disciplines such as comparative education have not been immune to these transformational impacts. Although one might expect globalization to promote the study of comparative…

  9. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SPECTRAL METHODS WITH SEA WAVE DATA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Two spectral methods are used to study sea wave data.Firstly, the estimated results calculated by the sequency spectrum method and frequency spectrum method are compared, and then the differences between the two methods are discussed.Furthermore, compared with frequency spectral analysis, sequency spectral analysis has many advantages: faster calculating speed, convenient use and high distinguishability.

  10. Religious Confession and Symptom Severity: A Prospective Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Madiha; Rana, Majeed; Herzberg, Philipp Y; Krause, Christin

    2015-12-01

    Little research has been done on comparing confessions regarding mental health. In the present study, 320 people (78 Buddhists, 77 Catholics, 89 Protestants and 79 Muslims) were compared in terms of their symptom severity. Buddhists and Protestants had lower scores than Catholics and Muslims for obsessive-compulsive behavior and hostility. Muslim group had the highest comparative scores for psychoticism. Buddhists and Protestants had comparatively low scores for paranoid ideation and overall symptom severity, with Catholics and Muslims having high ones. Results reveal that confession should be taken in account in psychological research and diagnosis, since it is explicitly associated with psychological well-being. PMID:25204789

  11. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ALGORITHMS FOR LAND COVER CHANGE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ALGORITHMS FOR LAND COVER CHANGE SHYAM BORIAH*, VARUN MITHAL, ASHISH GARG, VIPIN KUMAR, MICHAEL STEINBACH, CHRIS POTTER, AND STEVE KLOOSTER*...

  12. Teacher Leader Human Relations Skills: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roby, Douglas E.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, 142 graduate school teachers working in schools throughout southwestern Ohio assessed their human relation skills. A human relations survey was used for the study, and results were compared with colleagues assessing the teachers in the study. The survey was developed using a Likert-type scale, and was based on key elements affecting…

  13. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF TRACHEOBRONCHIAL PATTERN USING LUMINAL PLASTINATION

    OpenAIRE

    Venketesh G Kamath; Radha Krishan K shetty; Muhammed Asif; Ramakrishna A

    2013-01-01

    Background: The tracheobronchial pattern of human lungs is well known. An attempt was made to compare the pattern with that of sheep lung using luminal plastination of sheep lung. Several similarities were observed between the two patterns, due to which, the sheep lung serves as an ideal experimental model to study the effect of treatment in several human airway diseases. Objective: The first objective was to compare the two tracheobronchial patterns. Moreover the study also provided an o...

  14. Important Questions Of Comparative Studies In Asian Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Pazyura Natalia

    2015-01-01

    The issue of the “identity” of comparative education as a field of study or a discipline has been discussed for decades. Yet a kind of systematic structure that provides the basic principles for a coherent exposition of the field remains open. “Comparative education” is no longer conceived as an imaginary field’s coherence but, rather in terms of distinct branches of comparative and international studies in education and their underlying issues. Such an understanding is fostered through a dee...

  15. Comparative Study of Copyright Trade between China and UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Ting

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to promote the development of Chinese copyright trade by comparing copyright trade between China and UK and finding out on which aspects China lags behind UK. With the deepening of Chinese reform and opening up, China has improved its copyright system and accelerated the development of our copyright trade. However, there still is a big gap compared with UK and other developed countries. Based on the comparative study of copyright trade between UK and China, we draw a conclusion so as to promote the development of China's copyright trade. We mainly adopted comparative research method, statistical research method and Empirical research methods in this study. The results show there is a big gap between China and UK on legal system, management of intellectual property right and main information channels etc. China still has a long way to go.

  16. Oral Microflora: A Comparative Study in HIV and Normal Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Hegde, Mahesh Chandra; Kumar, Abhijit; Bhat, Gopalkrishna; Sreedharan, Suja

    2011-01-01

    The study was designed to compare the oral microbiota in normal and HIV-infected individuals. The study tries to establish a significant shift in oral microflora in HIV-infected patients. Antibiotic sensitivity testing was performed to establish any rise in resistance against the antibiotics. It was a two and half year prospective study conducted in a tertiary care centre. The study group consisted of eighty subjects divided into two groups of control and HIV. The age range for this group was...

  17. Comparative Study of Bio-implantable Acoustic Generator Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, D.; Roundy, S.

    2013-12-01

    This paper is a comparative study of the design spaces of two bio-implantable acoustically excited generator architectures: the thickness-stretch-mode circular piezoelectric plate and the bending-mode unimorph piezoelectric diaphragm. The generators are part of an acoustic power transfer system for implanted sensors and medical devices such as glucose monitors, metabolic monitors, drug delivery systems, etc. Our studies indicate that at small sizes the diaphragm architecture outperforms the plate architecture. This paper will present the results of simulation studies and initial experiments that explore the characteristics of the two architectures and compare their performance.

  18. A Comparative Study of Students' Achievement in Botany and Zoology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamir, P.

    1974-01-01

    A comparative study of student achievement in botany and zoology based on data of 10 studies conducted in 20 countries. Up to age 14, students achieve better in zoology; after age 14, students achieve better in botany. Based on the findings, recommendations are suggested regarding curriculum planning, laboratory work and the need for specific…

  19. Entrepreneurial Training: A Comparative Study across Fifteen European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matricano, Diego

    2014-01-01

    This paper arises from the contents of the Lisbon Strategy, a set of cooperation policies stressing the role of education and training. The findings from a comparative study of the influence that entrepreneurial training--classified as formal or informal--can have on start-up expectations are analysed. The study covers fifteen European countries…

  20. A comparative study of ICU patient diaries vs. hospital charts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egerod, Ingrid; Christensen, Doris

    2010-01-01

    discharge. The central question we posed in this study was: Why do nurses write diaries in addition to conventional charting in the medical record? To answer this question, we compared intensive care diaries and hospital charts using textual analysis and narrative theory. The aims of our study were to...

  1. Political Ideology: A Comparative Study of Three Chicano Youth Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Richard A.

    The study investigated the political ideology of three Chicano youth groups in El Paso, Texas: Mexican American Youth Association (MAYA), Mexican American Political Association (MAPA), and the Alianza. Purpose of the study was to identify and compare the political ideas and attitudes of the three organizations. Questionnaires were administered to…

  2. Information Technology Diffusion: A Comparative Case Study of Intranet Adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Zolla, George A.

    1999-01-01

    This exploratory study identifies factors that influence the adoption and diffusion of intranet technology. A comparative case study of bipolar organizations is used to identify crucial implementation factors and create an innovation adoption model. A strategic approach for the adoption and diffusion of intranet technology is then presented.

  3. Taking a stand in times of violent societal changes: Belgrade and Zagreb feminists’ positionings on the (post-)Yugoslav wars and each other (1991-2000)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Miškovska Kajevska

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation explores the positionings (discourses and activities) of the Belgrade and Zagreb feminists vis-à-vis the (post-)Yugoslav wars and one another between 1991 and 2000. Primarily applying a Bourdieuian framework and based on a comprehensive literature review, extensive semi-structured

  4. Comparative Studies of Programming Languages; Course Lecture Notes

    OpenAIRE

    Paquet, Joey; Mokhov, Serguei A.

    2010-01-01

    Lecture notes for the Comparative Studies of Programming Languages course, COMP6411, taught at the Department of Computer Science and Software Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Computer Science, Concordia University, Montreal, QC, Canada. These notes include a compiled book of primarily related articles from the Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, as well as Comparative Programming Languages book and other resources, including our own. The original notes were compiled by Dr. Paquet.

  5. Metaphors in Minangali and English : A comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Cederholm, MariAnne

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a comparative study of metaphors in two diverse languages in different parts of the world. The two languages are English and Minangali, the latter a language spoken in the northern part of the Philippines. Metaphors in these two languages were compared to see how they differ or overlap in areas such as emotions, death and dying, biological urges and family matters. Subcategories for emotions were anger, love, worry, relief, for biological urges hunger, ...

  6. Comparative Study of C, C++, C# and Java Programming Languages

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Hao

    2010-01-01

    With the rapid development of software industry, more and more people want to learn programming languages. But nowadays there are more than 200 programming languages available, only a few of them can be applied comparatively widely. In this thesis, the research in programming language was conducted. Four of the most popular programming languages C, C++, C# and Java are chosen to be the objects to study. The technical features of these four programming languages were summarized and compar...

  7. Seasonal timing in different environments: comparative studies in Stonechats

    OpenAIRE

    Helm, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    Seasonal timing in different environments: comparative studies in Stonechats. Stonechats from four populations (Kenya, Sibiria, Ireland, Austria) were compared during their first year of life at the Max-Planck Research Centre for Ornithology in Andechs, Germany. They differed in temporal patterns of their seasonal behavior and in their reaction norms to important Zeitgebers (e.g., photoperiod). These differences were taylored to their native habitats, and there is evidence that they can rapid...

  8. A STUDY OF COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE OF INDIAN AGRICULTURAL EXPORTS

    OpenAIRE

    KANAKA. S AND M. CHINADURAI

    2012-01-01

    Recent developments in the international trade scenario and corresponding alterations in India’s foreign trade policies have depicted far reaching implications for India’s agricultural sector in general and agricultural exports in particular. The present study has ascertained the changes in comparative advantage status of India’s major agricultural exports during the postreforms period (1994-95 to 2008-09). India had enjoyed a comparative advantage in tea exports but had depicted a declining ...

  9. Comparative study of experimental signals for multipactor and breakdown.

    CERN Document Server

    Dehler, Micha; Wuensch, Walter; Faus-Golfe, Angeles; Gimeno Martinez, Benito; Kovermann, Jan; Boria, Vicente; Raboso, David

    2012-01-01

    Performance limiting high-power rf phenomenon occur in both transmitter systems in satellites and high-gradient accelerating structures in particle accelerators. In satellites the predominant effect is multipactor while in accelerators it is breakdown. Both communities have studied their respective phenomena extensively and developed particular simulation tools and experimental techniques. A series of experiments to directly compare measurements made under multipactor and breakdown conditions has been initiated with the objective to crosscheck and compare the physics, simulation tools and measurement techniques.

  10. A Comparative Study of Spreadsheet Applications on Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veera V. S. M. Chintapalli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in mobile screen sizes and feature enhancement for mobile applications have increased the number of users accessing spreadsheets on mobile devices. This paper reports a comparative usability study on four popular mobile spreadsheet applications: OfficeSuite Viewer 6, Documents To Go, ThinkFree Online, and Google Drive. We compare them against three categories of usability criteria: visibility; navigation, scrolling, and feedback; and interaction, satisfaction, simplicity, and convenience. Measures for each criterion were derived in a survey. Questionnaires were designed to address the measures based on the comparative criteria provided in the analysis.

  11. PLURALISM AND THE STUDY OF RELIGION: A COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    A.L. SAMIAN

    2010-01-01

    In the Malaysian government outline of Vision 2020, the importance of the study of religion as an integral component of general education is explicitly stated. This paper examines the present state of comparative religious studies in Malaysian Institutes of Higher Learning. Several philosophical issues are highlighted including the local concept and objective of religious studies, suitability of courses offered, and its relevance to the national development, i.e., industrialization of the cou...

  12. CLINICAL COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SUMATRIPTAN VERSUS ERGOTAMINE THERAPY IN MIGRAINE

    OpenAIRE

    Giriraja; Pavitra,; Bindumathi

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Migraine is a common neurological problem accounting for large morbidity and disability. Ergotamine and triptans are mainly used to terminate the attack of severe migraine. To study the clinical comparison between sumatriptan and ergotamine in migraine patients. AIM This study compared the safety efficacy and pharmacoeconomics of triptans verses ergotamine therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS Study sample included 100 patients of either gender aged 1...

  13. Comparing distance education and conventional education: observations from a comparative study of post-registration nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Duffy

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This retrospective study presents a comparison of assessment results achieved by distancelearning students and classroom-based students undertaking the same module in a degree course. The purpose of the comparison is to provide some objective measurement of the quality of distance education in relation to conventional classroom-based education. The authors have selected three groups of students, who have all undertaken the same module in the B. Sc Health Studies degree programme offered by the University of Paisley. One group (in Paisley undertook their studies by means of conventional classroom-based education, the second (in Hong Kong by supported distance learning with face-to-face contact in the form of tutorials, and the third (in a geographically dispersed group in the United Kingdom and other countries by supported distance learning with no face-to-face contact. The results obtained by these three groups of students were analysed. Because of the differences in the size of the groups, the Kruskal- Wallis 1- Way Anova test was applied to validate the face value findings. The authors include findings from the literature comparing distance education with conventional education and from cross-cultural studies to present their data in context. Analysis of the assessment results showed that students from all three groups were successful in their studies, but the students studying by distance learning obtained significantly higher end-of-module results than their classroom-based colleagues. This latter finding reflects the conclusion that other investigators have reached In their discussion the authors identify educational, cultural and personal factors that may help to explain their findings. A limitation in the study is that it concerns only one module in the degree programme. The research now moves on to comparing students who have undertaken the whole degree programme by the means described

  14. Computational comparative study of microwave probes for plasma density measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D. W.; You, S. J.; Kim, J. H.; Chang, H. Y.; Oh, W. Y.

    2016-06-01

    A microwave probe is known to be a suitable method to measure plasma density, even in the processing condition and is widely used in various environments of low-temperature processing plasmas. Various types of microwave probes have been researched and developed to measure the precise plasma density. Extensive research has been conducted to investigate each probes characteristic responding to the plasma parameters (plasma density, electron temperature, pressure, sheath width, and so forth) based on both experiments and simulations. However, a comparative study elucidating the relative characteristics of each probe has not been completed yet, despite the wide applications of the probes in processing plasma. We conduct a comparative study among the microwave probes using the numerical method of three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulation. In this study, the microwave probes are compared by investigating the precision of plasma density measurement under a comprehensive range of plasma parameters (plasma density, pressure, and sheath width).

  15. National and Tourist Identity of Cities. The Case Study of Belgrade

    OpenAIRE

    Dorde Comic; Slavoljub Vicic

    2013-01-01

    The paper explores some key aspects of postmodern urban theory, empirical aspects of the common identity of European cities, their importance for the development of intra-continental tourism, acculturation and process of integration. In the context of the theory of consumer society and the concept of "experience society", the cities are treated as producers of touristic experiences. Based on the accepted explanatory framework and criteria, the focus of research is on the particular case of Be...

  16. Methods and models used in comparative risk studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparative risk studies make use of a large number of methods and models based upon a set of assumptions incompletely formulated or of value judgements. Owing to the multidimensionality of risks and benefits, the economic and social context may notably influence the final result. Five classes of models are briefly reviewed: accounting of fluxes of effluents, radiation and energy; transport models and health effects; systems reliability and bayesian analysis; economic analysis of reliability and cost-risk-benefit analysis; decision theory in presence of uncertainty and multiple objectives. Purpose and prospect of comparative studies are assessed in view of probable diminishing returns for large generic comparisons

  17. How Australian and Indonesian Universities Treat Plagiarism: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Yudi Cahyono

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is a part of a larger study comparing various aspects of policies on plagiarism in two university contexts. It compares policies on plagiarism in universities in Australia and Indonesia. The results of this comparative study showed that Australian and Indonesian universities treat plagiarism differently. Australian universities treat plagiarism explicitly in their university policies. In Australian universities, plagiarism is defined clearly and forms of plagiarism are explained thoroughly, policies on plagiarism are informed to all university academic members, and there are mechanisms to manage cases related to plagiarism. In contrast, not all Indonesian universities treat plagiarism directly. Some universities depend on religious morality and academic ethics in dealing with plagiarism. Accordingly, this article recommends the explicit treatment of plagiarism in Indonesian universities.

  18. CLINICAL COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SUMATRIPTAN VERSUS ERGOTAMINE THERAPY IN MIGRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giriraja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Migraine is a common neurological problem accounting for large morbidity and disability. Ergotamine and triptans are mainly used to terminate the attack of severe migraine. To study the clinical comparison between sumatriptan and ergotamine in migraine patients. AIM This study compared the safety efficacy and pharmacoeconomics of triptans verses ergotamine therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS Study sample included 100 patients of either gender aged 18 to 65 yrs reporting in Neurology OPD in Sapthagiri Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangalore. The study was conducted from January 2014 to December 2014. RESULTS Triptans was found to be more efficacious than ergotamine in curing an attack of migraine and its associated symptoms, but looking into the contraindications, side effects and cost of the triptans, there has been limitations in its prescriptions as well as use. CONCLUSION Ergotamine is more effective in sustained pain relief with less recurrence rate, less adverse effects and more economical compared to sumatriptan.

  19. A Review of Different Comparative Studies on Mobile Operating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Ali

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to discuss the different comparative studies on mobile operating system. From the last few years with the use of mobile, the mobile technology is also increasing at a fast speed. Now a day's different mobile phone companies are competing in the market each having its own hardware and software. Each company mobile phone has its own interface and they are looking to provide new features to their customers. Each company use different operating system like Apple using iOS, Samsung using Android and Nokia using Symbian. In this study we will give, you review of different comparative studies on mobile operating systems done by different authors.

  20. Decentralized Management in Prison: A Comparative Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, J. Forbes

    1994-01-01

    Conducted comparative case study of organizational climates in two prisons Findings from 149 staff members and 442 inmates revealed that flattening organizational structure without decentralizing authority seemed to have negative effects on staff supervisory relations and job satisfaction. Inmates reported better quality of life and more effective…

  1. Comparative study of SEA experiences between EU and China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Jingjing; Kørnøv, Lone; Christensen, Per

    decision making, such as: How inclusive will the system be in relation to environmental, economic and social indicators? And how can the appropriate aggregation level for indicators be found? This paper makes a comparative study of the experiences of using indicators in SEA in two European countries and...

  2. A comparative study of fuel management in PWR reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study about fuel management in PWR reactors, where not only the conventional uranium cycle is considered, but also the thorium cycle as an alternative is presented. The final results are presented in terms of U3O8 demand and SWU and the approximate costs of the principal stages of the fuel cycle, comparing with the stardand cycle without recycling. (E.G.)

  3. Comparative study of Danish prefab houses made of wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wraber, Ida Kristina

    2011-01-01

    . In the study four Danish prefab housing concepts based on wood con¬struc¬tion is compared and discussed, in order to investigate and exemplify how it is possible to work with architectural quality in prefab timber housing and maximise the use of the material, the prefab production and the architectural values...

  4. Louis, Hildegarde, and Mary: A Comparative Study in Infant Bilingualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Coral

    Studies of bilingual infants are in disagreement as to the point at which the child distinguishes two languages in his linguistic environment. In this paper, data from two classic works by linguist-parents on bilingual infants are compared with data collected from the author's own bilingual daughter. Five types of behavior are described which…

  5. Generation 1.5 Written Error Patterns: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolan, Stephen M.; Miller, Donald

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to contribute to existing research on Generation 1.5 students, the current study uses quantitative and qualitative methods to compare error patterns in a corpus of Generation 1.5, L1, and L2 community college student writing. This error analysis provides one important way to determine if error patterns in Generation 1.5 student…

  6. Sources for comparative studies of placentation I. Embryological collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony Michael

    2008-01-01

    A rich source of material for comparative studies of the placenta is the collections made by pioneers in the field such as H.W. Mossman, A.A.W. Hubrecht and J.P. Hill. This overview gives a brief description of collections known to be available and information on how each can be accessed. Include...

  7. Comparative end-plug study for tandem mirror reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparative evaluation was made of several end plug configurations for tandem mirror fusion reactors with thermal barriers. The axicell configuration has been selected for further study and will be the basis for a detailed conceptual design study to be carried out over the next two years. The axicell end plug has a simple mirror cell produced by two circular coils followed by a transition coil and a yin-yang pair, which provides for MHD stability

  8. Comparative Study of French and Chinese Asphalt Pavement Design Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre Guy Atangana Njock; Li Yueguang

    2015-01-01

    This study deals with the comparison of French and Chinese approaches for the design of flexible pavement. The Finite Element Analysis (FEA using ANSYS) was used to compute and compare the mechanical responses in four typical pavement structures used in France and China, for respective axle type and loads. The study concluded that the maximum deflection in typical structure of stabilized asphalt pavement in China is greater than that obtained in the typical treated bases asphalt pavement in F...

  9. Migration and Economic Development Comparative Study: Romania-Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Petronela Daniela FERARU

    2010-01-01

    The article „Migration and development. Comparative Study: Romania-Italy” is part of the doctoral thesis entitled Religion and migration in contemporary Romania. Case study: Romanian citizens from Italy and represents in fact the second perspective approached by the thesis, namely migration and development, the first perspective being migration and religion. Migration is the social process with increasingly high influence on the Romanian society of these days. It is selective and dynamic and ...

  10. A Comparative Study into the Effectiveness of Personalized Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Arlon, Guillaume P.

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to provide a comparative study of the effectiveness of personalized advertising. It provides a definition of a new form of advertising and defines it as the creation of an independent existence capable of entering language, daydreams and intuitions (Lannon and Cooper, 1983); in which the advertisement provides an informational or a creative message (Lannon and Cooper, 1983; Stewart and Koslow, 1989; Bhat, 1998) to promote goods or services to an individual using personally ide...

  11. Comparative study of clinical pulmonary surfactants using atomic force microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hong; Fan, Qihui; Wang, Yi E.; Neal, Charles R.; Zuo, Yi Y.

    2011-01-01

    Clinical pulmonary surfactant is routinely used to treat premature newborns with respiratory distress syndrome, and has shown great potential in alleviating a number of neonatal and adult respiratory diseases. Despite extensive study of chemical composition, surface activity, and clinical performance of various surfactant preparations, a direct comparison of surfactant films is still lacking. In this study, we use atomic force microscopy to characterize and compare four animal-derived clinica...

  12. Publication Delay of International Scientific Papers: A Multidisciplinary Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Namvar; Kayvan Kousha

    2013-01-01

    In this research the contribution of different factors resulting in the delay of publication of papers from submitting through publication process was studied. Due to the fact that publication delay might happen in different phases in other majors and fields so we have compared and studied this phenomenon in seven sciences and social sciences disciplines. We have examined 11,598 papers which have been published in 102 journals in 2009. The results showed that maximum and minimum time period i...

  13. Systemic Inflammation in Cardiovascular and Periodontal Disease: Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Glurich, Ingrid; Grossi, Sara; Albini, Boris; Ho, Alex; Shah, Rashesh; Zeid, Mohamed; Baumann, Heinz; Genco, Robert J.; De Nardin, Ernesto

    2002-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have implicated periodontal disease (PD) as a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). These studies addressed the premise that local infection may perturb the levels of systemic inflammatory mediators, thereby promoting mechanisms of atherosclerosis. Levels of inflammatory mediators in the sera of subjects with only PD, only CVD, both diseases, or neither condition were compared. Subjects were assessed for levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), se...

  14. A Review of Different Comparative Studies on Mobile Operating System

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Ali

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to discuss the different comparative studies on mobile operating system. From the last few years with the use of mobile, the mobile technology is also increasing at a fast speed. Now a day's different mobile phone companies are competing in the market each having its own hardware and software. Each company mobile phone has its own interface and they are looking to provide new features to their customers. Each company use different operating system like Apple ...

  15. COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON POVIDONE-IODINE OINTMENT AND GEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Mangilal*, K. S. K. Rao Patnaik , R. Sivakumar , Y. Sudhakar and S. K. Basu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Povidone-Iodine Ointment was prepared using polyethylene glycol base by fusion method and the gel was prepared using Poloxamer 407 as a gelling agent by cold process. The different characteristics of povidone-iodine ointment and gel were compared from the results obtained for assay and total, available and complex iodine contents. These values were comparable with marketed formulations. The formulations were tested for wound healing and antimicrobial activity. Wound healing studies show that the time taken for complete wound healing was slightly less for prepared povidone-iodine ointment and gel than the marketed preparations. Antimicrobial activity also found to be almost equal for the different formulations.

  16. Important Questions Of Comparative Studies In Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pazyura Natalia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The issue of the “identity” of comparative education as a field of study or a discipline has been discussed for decades. Yet a kind of systematic structure that provides the basic principles for a coherent exposition of the field remains open. “Comparative education” is no longer conceived as an imaginary field’s coherence but, rather in terms of distinct branches of comparative and international studies in education and their underlying issues. Such an understanding is fostered through a deepened awareness of the basic problems, and successive solutions, constitutive of the emergence and further conformations of the comparative approach in education and the social sciences. Thus, academic journal publications of the past decade to shape education policy research within an Asia-Pacific context have been analyzed. Facts of increasing research collaboration, growing policy evaluation research, and growing attention to higher education have been presented. Significant difference in research impact and diffusion between Asia-Pacific and American education policy studies has been shown. Perspectives for future research directions in education policy research in an Asia-Pacific context have been suggested.

  17. Linguistic Features of English and Russian Dictionaries (A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Leščinskij

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to establish differences and similarities between linguistic characteristics of English and Russian dictionaries. Two dictionaries were selected for the study – electronic version of the 8th edition of Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (OALD and the online version of Ozhegov’s explanatory dictionary. The methods chosen for the study were descriptive, comparative and contrastive analysis. Linguistic characteristics of the dictionaries were analysed and compared. The research showed that both reference books provided different linguistic information on the headwords. OALD provided exhaustive phonetic information, which Ozhegov’s dictionary lacked. The two dictionaries provided different orthographic information. OALD disclosed semantic information via various tools available in the electronic version; these were unavailable in Ozhegov’s dictionary. Both dictionaries used similar stylistic labels.

  18. An example of cross-pollination in social sciences: A comparative case study on capability development in contemporary Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaurin Dragoljub

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides short introduction to the anthropological notion of culture. The concepts of Lifelong Education (LLE and Lifelong Learning (LLL as fields of practice are also under scrutiny. I argue that the latter may be seen as a cross-pollination of fields within the Humanities and Social Sciences, but have a fundamental difference from anthropology in that they are more heavily geared to introduce changes. However, one of my main points is that anthropological notion of culture has had a profound influence on the formation of these fields of practice and continues to be a fruitful source for contemporary practitioners in Education in general and in Lifelong Education in particular. Drawing on long anthropological tradition that anthropology uses case studies to shed light on its specific field of interest, I will provide one case study: “Basic Adult Literacy Programmes in Belgrade as a means of adaptation to neo-liberalism”. This will be useful primarily in showing the practical relevance of anthropological notion of culture to the educational sciences, broadly conceived. This might be placed within the context of value shift in contemporary Serbia.

  19. Maxillary sinusitis - a comparative study of different imaging diagnosis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We conducted prospective study comparing different methods (plain X-rays, computed tomography and ultrasonography mode-A) for the initial diagnosis of maxillary sinusitis. Twenty patients (40 maxillary sinuses) with a clinical history suggestive of sinusitis included in this study. The results were classified as abnormal or normal, using computed tomography as gold standard. The sensitivity for ultrasonography and plain X-rays was 84.6% and 69.2%, respectively. The specificity of both methods was 92.6%. This study suggests that ultrasonography can be used as a good follow-up method for patients with maxillary. sinusitis. (author)

  20. A Comparative Study on Temporal Mobile Access Pattern Mining Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan Fahmy

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mobile users behavior patterns is one of the most critical issues that need to be explored in mobile agent systems. Recently the algorithms of discovering frequent mobile user’s behavior patterns have been studied extensively. Existing mining methods have proposed frequent mobile user's behavior patterns statistically based on requested services and location information. Therefore, other studies considered that the mobile user's dynamic behavior patterns are usually associated with temporal access patterns. In this paper, temporal mobile access pattern methods are studied and compared in terms of complexity and accuracy. The advantages and disadvantages of these methods will be summarized as well

  1. Recognition of Faces in Unconstrained Environments: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ruiz-del-Solar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to carry out a comparative study of face recognition methods that are suitable to work in unconstrained environments. The analyzed methods are selected by considering their performance in former comparative studies, in addition to be real-time, to require just one image per person, and to be fully online. In the study two local-matching methods, histograms of LBP features and Gabor Jet descriptors, one holistic method, generalized PCA, and two image-matching methods, SIFT-based and ERCF-based, are analyzed. The methods are compared using the FERET, LFW, UCHFaceHRI, and FRGC databases, which allows evaluating them in real-world conditions that include variations in scale, pose, lighting, focus, resolution, facial expression, accessories, makeup, occlusions, background and photographic quality. Main conclusions of this study are: there is a large dependence of the methods on the amount of face and background information that is included in the face's images, and the performance of all methods decreases largely with outdoor-illumination. The analyzed methods are robust to inaccurate alignment, face occlusions, and variations in expressions, to a large degree. LBP-based methods are an excellent election if we need real-time operation as well as high recognition rates.

  2. Mechanical eye injuries in children aged 0-15 years treated at the Clinic of Eye Diseases in Belgrade: Frequency, causes and preventive measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Miloš

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Eye injuries represent a significant problem in children. Objective. The aim of the study was to determine the incidence and causes of the eye injury and to propose measures of the eye injury prevention in children up to 15 years of age. Methods. This was a retrospective study of 552 children with the eye injuries treated at the Clinic of Eye Diseases in Belgrade during the period March 1999 to February 2010. Gender and age of the children, time of injury, the type and site of injuries, visual acuity upon admission and at discharge, as well as the time of surgery in relation to time of injury were analyzed. Results. The ratio between the injured boys and girls was 3.6:1. The highest percentage of injured children was in the group 6-10 years old (39.7%; the injuries were almost evenly distributed according to months during the year and days during the week. The percentages of severe closed and open injuries of the eyeball were almost equal. Visual acuity upon discharge and subsequent follow-up examinations were significantly improved after the applied treatment in comparison with the visual acuity upon admission. Conclusion. Eye injuries in children still represent a severe health problem. Regarding the youngest age group of children, adults are mainly responsible for these injuries due to their lack of attention, while in older children these injuries are the result of the production and distribution of inappropriate toys and a failure to implement the legal traffic regulations applicable to children. The prevention of eye injuries is essential.

  3. Challenges in Doctoral Research Project Management: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuven Katz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents quantitative results of a comparative study evaluating the management skills of doctoral candidates working toward a PhD and additional information related to their lifestyles. We conducted a survey among enrolled doctoral candidates at five universities in Israel and three technological universities in Western Europe. 1013 Israeli candidates and 457 Western European candidates replied to our survey. In our analysis, we compared the answers of Israeli Science and Engineering candidates to those of Social Sciences and Humanities candidates; in addition, we compared the answers of Israeli Science and Engineering students to their Western European peers. Our analysis focused on finding significant patterns by comparing these groups of students. In order to identify such patterns, we analyzed each question using the Pearson chi-square test. The current study’s main finding is that the majority of candidates, regardless of their chosen academic field or the region where they study, have no training or expertise in managing a doctoral research project. Based on these findings, we suggest that all doctoral candidates be taught basic research-project management. We believe that such training will provide them with a powerful tool for better managing their research as they advance towards successful completion of their doctorate.

  4. Comparative Study of CDMA and OFDM in WI-FI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Larbi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available There have been extensive research efforts on simulating Wireless Local Area Networks. Many papers have studied the performance of IEEE 802.11 WLANs by using simulation under different channels and for different modulations. In this paper we first simulate a simplified IEEE 802.11a standard based on Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM with the cyclic prefix and IEEE 802.11b standard based on Direct-Sequence Code Division Multiple Accesses (DS-CDMA. Then a comparative study will be performed to evaluate them in Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN channel with Rayleigh fading to resemble the real world scenario. We investigated their physical layer performances on the basis of Bit Error Rate (BER and Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR. These parameters are discussed and compared in the two models. It has been demonstrated that OFDM system provides better performance in noisy conditions.

  5. Comparative study of variational chaos indicators and ODEs' numerical integrators

    CERN Document Server

    Darriba, Luciano A; Cincotta, Pablo M; Giordano, Claudia M

    2012-01-01

    The reader can find in the literature a lot of different techniques to study the dynamics of a given system and also, many suitable numerical integrators to compute them. Notwithstanding the recent work of Maffione et al. (2011a) for mappings, a detailed comparison among the widespread indicators of chaos in a general system is still lacking. Such a comparison could lead to select the most efficient algorithms given a certain dynamical problem. Furthermore, in order to choose the appropriate numerical integrators to compute them, more comparative studies among numerical integrators are also needed. This work deals with both problems. We first extend the work of Maffione et al. (2011) for mappings to the 2D H\\'enon & Heiles (1964) potential, and compare several variational indicators of chaos: the Lyapunov Indicator (LI); the Mean Exponential Growth Factor of Nearby Orbits (MEGNO); the Smaller Alignment Index (SALI) and its generalized version, the Generalized Alignment Index (GALI); the Fast Lyapunov Indi...

  6. A Comparative Study of Removal Noise from Remote Sensing Image

    CERN Document Server

    Al-amri, Salem Saleh; Khamitkar, S D

    2010-01-01

    This paper attempts to undertake the study of three types of noise such as Salt and Pepper (SPN), Random variation Impulse Noise (RVIN), Speckle (SPKN). Different noise densities have been removed between 10% to 60% by using five types of filters as Mean Filter (MF), Adaptive Wiener Filter (AWF), Gaussian Filter (GF), Standard Median Filter (SMF) and Adaptive Median Filter (AMF). The same is applied to the Saturn remote sensing image and they are compared with one another. The comparative study is conducted with the help of Mean Square Errors (MSE) and Peak-Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR). So as to choose the base method for removal of noise from remote sensing image.

  7. A Comparative Study of Removal Noise from Remote Sensing Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Khamitkar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to undertake the study of three types of noise such as Salt and Pepper (SPN, Random variation Impulse Noise (RVIN, Speckle (SPKN. Different noise densities have been removed between 10% to 60% by using five types of filters as Mean Filter (MF, Adaptive Wiener Filter (AWF, Gaussian Filter (GF, Standard Median Filter (SMF and Adaptive Median Filter (AMF. The same is applied to the Saturn remote sensing image and they are compared with one another. The comparative study is conducted with the help of Mean Square Errors (MSE and Peak-Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR. So as to choose the base method for removal of noise from remote sensing image.

  8. Comparative study of approaches to estimate pipe break frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simola, K.; Pulkkinen, U.; Talja, H.; Saarenheimo, A.; Karjalainen-Roikonen, P. [VTT Industrial Systems (Finland)

    2002-12-01

    The report describes the comparative study of two approaches to estimate pipe leak and rupture frequencies for piping. One method is based on a probabilistic fracture mechanistic (PFM) model while the other one is based on statistical estimation of rupture frequencies from a large database. In order to be able to compare the approaches and their results, the rupture frequencies of some selected welds have been estimated using both of these methods. This paper highlights the differences both in methods, input data, need and use of plant specific information and need of expert judgement. The study focuses on one specific degradation mechanism, namely the intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). This is the major degradation mechanism in old stainless steel piping in BWR environment, and its growth is influenced by material properties, stresses and water chemistry. (au)

  9. Comparative study of turbulence models in predicting hypersonic inlet flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Kamlesh; Anderson, Bernhard H.; Shaw, Robert J.

    1992-01-01

    A numerical study was conducted to analyze the performance of different turbulence models when applied to the hypersonic NASA P8 inlet. Computational results from the PARC2D code, which solves the full two-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equation, were compared with experimental data. The zero-equation models considered for the study were the Baldwin-Lomax model, the Thomas model, and a combination of the Baldwin-Lomax and Thomas models; the two-equation models considered were the Chien model, the Speziale model (both low Reynolds number), and the Launder and Spalding model (high Reynolds number). The Thomas model performed best among the zero-equation models, and predicted good pressure distributions. The Chien and Speziale models compared wery well with the experimental data, and performed better than the Thomas model near the walls.

  10. Comparative study of approaches to estimate pipe break frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the comparative study of two approaches to estimate pipe leak and rupture frequencies for piping. One method is based on a probabilistic fracture mechanistic (PFM) model while the other one is based on statistical estimation of rupture frequencies from a large database. In order to be able to compare the approaches and their results, the rupture frequencies of some selected welds have been estimated using both of these methods. This paper highlights the differences both in methods, input data, need and use of plant specific information and need of expert judgement. The study focuses on one specific degradation mechanism, namely the intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). This is the major degradation mechanism in old stainless steel piping in BWR environment, and its growth is influenced by material properties, stresses and water chemistry. (au)

  11. Comparative study of measured amplitude and phase perturbations on VLF and LF radio signals induced by solar flares

    CERN Document Server

    Sulic, D M

    2014-01-01

    Very Low Frequency, VLF and Low Frequency, LF signal perturbations were examined to study ionospheric disturbances induced by solar X-ray flares. The aim was to understand processes in propagation VLF/LF radio signals over short paths, and to estimate specific characteristics of each short path. The receiver at Belgrade station continuously monitor the amplitude and phase of coherent and subionospherically propagating LF signal operated in Sicily, NSC at 45.90, kHz and VLF signal operated in Isola di Tavolara ICV at 20.27 kHz, with great circle distances of 953 km and 976 km, respectively. Geographical locations of transmitters and receiver site result that these short paths have many similarity. The main difference is in transmitter frequencies. In period from 2008 to February 2014 were selected around 200 events for further examination. In all selected examples amplitude and phase on VLF and LF signals were perturbed by occurrence of solar X-ray flares. This six years period covers minimum and maximum of so...

  12. A comparative study of measured amplitude and phase perturbations of VLF and LF radio signals induced by solar flares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šulić D.M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Very Low Frequency (VLF and Low Frequency (LF signal perturbations were examined to study ionospheric disturbances induced by solar X-ray flares in order to understand processes involved in propagation of VLF/LF radio signals over short paths and to estimate specific characteristics of each short path. The receiver at the Belgrade station is constantly monitoring the amplitude and phase of a coherent and subionospherically propagating LF signal operated in Sicily NSC at 45.90 kHz, and a VLF signal operated in Isola di Tavolara ICV at 20.27 kHz, with the great circle distances of 953 km and 976 km, respectively. A significant number of similarities between these short paths is a direct result of both transmitters and the receiver’s geographic location. The main difference is in transmitter frequencies. From July 2008 to February 2014 there were about 200 events that were chosen for further examination. All selected examples showed that the amplitude and phase of VLF and LF signals were perturbed by solar X-ray flares occurrence. This six-year period covers both minimum and maximum of solar activity. Simultaneous measurement of amplitude and phase of the VLF/LF signals during a solar flare occurrence was applied to evaluate the electron density profile versus altitude, to carry out the function of time over the middle Europe. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176002 i br. III4402

  13. Generator Systems for Marine Current Turbine Applications: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Benelghali, Seifeddine; BENBOUZID, Mohamed; Charpentier, Jean-Frederic

    2012-01-01

    Emerging technologies for marine current turbines are mainly related to works that have been carried out on wind turbines and ship propellers. It is then obvious that many electric generator topologies could be used for marine current turbines. As in the wind turbine context, doubly-fed induction generators and permanent magnet generators seem to be attractive solutions for harnessing the tidal current energy. In this paper, a comparative study between these two generator types is presented a...

  14. Comparative study of acceleration transducers for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchczik, Dariusz; Wyżgolik, Roman; Pietraszek, Stanisław

    2006-10-01

    The results of comparative studies of the metrological parameters of acceleration transducers constructed in Institute of Electronics, Silesian University of Technology is presented in this article. The construction of the transducers is based on commercially available monolithic accelerometers and optimized for biomedical applications. The parameters determined during the tests are similar to the parameters of the monolithic accelerometers declared by their manufacturers. It proofs that both the mechanical and the electronic construction of the transducers are correct.

  15. On Under Water Explosions-A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Singh

    1982-10-01

    Full Text Available Propagation and attenuation of spherical shock waves in water is studied theoretically by using Whitham's method and Energy Hypothesis method. Results are compared with the experimental data it is found that attenuation predicted by Energy Hypothesis is quite agreeable with that obtained experimentally, where as that by Whitham's method gives higher values. A relation between two different forms of equations of state, generally reported in the literature, is established.

  16. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF LICHTENSTEIN VERSUS DESARDA REPAIR FOR INGUINAL HERNIA

    OpenAIRE

    Sowmya,; Deepak G

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Inguinal hernia repair is the most frequently performed operation in any general surgical unit. The Bassini’s, Shouldice and other tissue-based techniques are still being acceptable for primary inguinal hernia repair. Desarda’s technique is originally a tissue based hernia repair using an undetached strip of external oblique aponeurosis to strengthen the posterior wall of the inguinal canal. The aim of the present study was to compare Lichtenstein hernia repair and ...

  17. EXTERNAL DACRYOCYSTORHINOSTOMY VERSUS ENDOSCOPIC ENDONASAL DACRYOCYSTORHINOSTOMY: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Phani Kumar; Biplab De; Umakanta; De, Sandip; Ciranjit

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dacryocystitis is the inflammation of the lacrimal sac due to nasolacrimal duct obstruction. Chronic dacryocystitis is a constant threat to cornea and orbital soft tissue & always dictates surgery for correction of symptomatology. The gold standard procedure of choice for the treatment of epiphora is Dacryocystorhinostomy. This study proposes to evaluate and compare the surgical outcome of external DCR and endoscopic endonasal DCR. METHODS: A Retrospective, com...

  18. Initial teacher education in Japan and Spain. A comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Ramírez Carpeño; Yoko Mekochi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine, from a comparative perspective, the initial teacher training systems in Spain and Japan. We will analyze the current design of teacher educational programs, from Infant level to Secondary level. The relevance of teacher performances has been endorsed by several studies, placing international attention on teachers’ training policies. The results show similar trends relating to programs’ structure and students’ selection. Nevertheless, there are many d...

  19. Comparative dissolution study on counterfeit medicines of PDE-5 inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    E. Deconinck; S. Andriessens; J.L. Bothy; P. Courselle; J.O. De Beer

    2014-01-01

    Counterfeit medicines are a growing problem in both developing and industrialised countries. In general the evaluation of these medicines is limited to the identification and the dosage of the active ingredients. In this study in vitro dissolution tests were conducted on two sets of counterfeit medicines containing PDE-5 inhibitors (sildenafil citrate and tadalafil). The dissolution profiles were statistically compared to the ones of the genuine products using the f2-method and a comparison a...

  20. A Comparative Study of Chinese and American Ways of Address

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静

    2009-01-01

    From a cross-cultural pragmatic perspective,this paper nakes a comparative study on American and Chinese ways of address,and finds that due to different cultural values,languages differ in the actual realization of address strategies and modifications,which leads to varied interactional styles,and thus holds that there exist distinctive cultural differences in the interactional styles of verbal behaviors,which challenges the universality of pragmatic rules among different languages and cultures.

  1. Comparative Study of Minutiae Selection Algorithms for ISO Fingerprint Templates

    OpenAIRE

    Vibert, B; Charrier, Christophe; Le Bars, Jean-Marie; Rosenberger, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    International audience We address the selection of fingerprint minutiae given a fingerprint ISO template. Minutiae selection plays a very important role when a secure element (i.e. a smart-card) is used. Because of the limited capability of computation and memory, the number of minutiae of a stored reference in the secure element is limited. We propose in this paper a comparative study of 6 minutiae selection methods including 2 methods from the literature and 1 like reference (No Selectio...

  2. A Comparative Study on Decision Making Methods with Interval Data

    OpenAIRE

    Chauhan, Aditya; Vaish, Rahul

    2014-01-01

    Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) models are used to solve a number of decision making problems universally. Most of these methods require the use of integers as input data. However, there are problems which have indeterminate values or data intervals which need to be analysed. In order to solve problems with interval data, many methods have been reported. Through this study an attempt has been made to compare and analyse the popular decision making tools for interval data problems. Na...

  3. Colloidal dispersions for the delivery of acyclovir: A comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Rita Cortesi; Laura Ravani; Enea Menegatti; Drechsler, M.; Elisabetta Esposito

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a comparative study on the performances of ethosomes and solid lipid nanoparticle as delivery systems for acyclovir. Ethosomes were spontaneously produced by dissolution of phosphatidylcholine and acyclovir in ethanol followed by addition of an aqueous buffer while solid lipid nanoparticle were produced by homogenization and ultrasonication. Both colloidal systems were morphologically characterized by cryo-transmission electron microscopy. The encapsulation efficiency was...

  4. Interpreting writing of children with intellectual disabilities: A comparative study.

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira de Figueiredo, R.

    2007-01-01

    This article reports the results of developmental test analyses on literacy conducted with children with intellectual disabilities in Quebec and Brazil. Grounded on studies carried out in Argentina by Ferreiro and Teberosky (1986), with children without intellectual disabilities, we deal, comparatively, with three aspects in the development of literacy in children with intellectual disabilities: their interpretation of fragments of writing, the connection they establish between letters and nu...

  5. [Comparative study of two dried intradermal BCG vaccines (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillastre, C; Guerin, N; Danusantoso, H; Sardadi, S

    1979-01-01

    Two BCG vaccines prepared from the same strain were studied clinically in Indonesia and in France. The concentration in culturable particles was comparable. Observed differences in the Mantoux results are discussed. The French results, based on use in a temperate climate by a specialized team, on well nourished children, appear better than the Indonesian findings. Further steps should be undertaken to improve results in Indonesia. PMID:539694

  6. A Comparative Study of Heat Transfer Coefficients for Film Condensation

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Xiaoyong; Fang, Xiande; Rongrong SHI

    2012-01-01

    Film condensation heat transfer has wide applications in a variety of industrial systems. A number of film condensation heat transfer correlations (FCHTCs) have been proposed. However, their predictions are often inconsistent. This paper presents a comparative study of existing FCHTCs. Totally 1214 experimental data points are obtained from 10 published papers, and 14 FCHTCs are reviewed, among which four correlations are used for horizontal flow outside smooth tubes, three for flow ...

  7. A Comparative Study of Actuator Configurations for Satellite Attitude Control

    OpenAIRE

    Raymond Kristiansen; Olav Egeland; Per Johan Nicklasson

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a controllability study of different actuator configurations consisting of magnetic torquers, reaction wheels and a gravity boom is presented. The theoretical analysis is performed with use of controllability gramians, and simulation results with the different configurations are presented and compared regarding settling time and power consumption to substantiate the theoretical analysis. A reference model is also introduced to show how the power consumption can he lowered to the...

  8. Emotional Intelligence among Business Consultants: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Fonthip Sarinnapakorn; Usaporn Sucaromana

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the levels of emotional intelligence (EI) of business consultants who work for a consulting firm in Bangkok, Thailand, and to compare the EI levels of these consultants based on gender and years in the industry. A questionnaire adapted from the theoretical framework of Goleman (1995) was completed by 80 business consultants. This instrument comprised of 45 items that can be grouped into fives EI competencies referred to as: (a) self-awareness, (b) self-regulati...

  9. Characterization of iPhone displays : a comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Byshko, Roman; Li, Shujun

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a comparative study on evaluating the performance of six display characterization models applied to mobile displays of four Apple iPhones belonging to three different models (3GS, 4 and 4S). The character- ization models evaluated include three PLCC (Piecewise Linear interpolation assuming Constant Chromaticity coordinates) models, the PLVC (Piecewise Linear interpolation assuming Variation in Chromaticity) model, Tamura- Tsumura-Miyake masking model with one principle comp...

  10. Spirometry in fuel station attendants : a comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Vella, Jacob; Borg, Manwel

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to volatile fuel compounds and roadway motor vehicle exhaust leads to increased risk of chronic lung disease and carcinogenesis. Tobacco smoking further accelerates this process. Spirometry is an objective way of assessing lung function. The aim of this study is to infer whether fuel station attendants manifest a further decrease in lung function when compared to other full-time workers working outdoors and whether smoking tobacco manifest a further decrease in lung function among at...

  11. Comparative studies of silicon photomultipliers and traditional vacuum photomultiplier tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Feng; Lü, Jun-Guang; Lu, Hong; Wang, Huan-Yu; Ma, Yu-Qian; Hu, Tao; Zhou, Li; Cai, Xiao; Sun, Li-Jun; Yu, Bo-Xiang; Fang, Jian; Xie, Yu-Guang; An, Zheng-Hua; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Gao, Min; Li, Xin-Qiao; Xu, Yan-Bing; Wang, Ping; Sun, Xi-Lei; Zhang, Ai-Wu; Xue, Zhen; Liu, Hong-Bang; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Zhao, Xiao-Yun; Zheng, Yang-Heng; Meng, Xiang-Cheng; Wang, Hui

    2011-01-01

    Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) are a new generation of semiconductor-based photon counting devices with the merits of low weight, low power consumption and low voltage operation, promising to meet the needs of space particle physics experiments. In this paper, comparative studies of SiPMs and traditional vacuum photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) have been performed regarding the basic properties of dark currents, dark counts and excess noise factors. The intrinsic optical crosstalk effect of SiPMs was evaluated.

  12. Comparative studies of silicon photomultipliers and traditional vacuum photomultiplier tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) are a new generation of semiconductor-based photon counting devices with the merits of low weight, low power consumption and low voltage operation, promising to meet the needs of space particle physics experiments. In this paper, comparative studies of SiPMs and traditional vacuum photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) have been performed regarding the basic properties of dark currents, dark counts and excess noise factors. The intrinsic optical crosstalk effect of SiPMs was evaluated. (authors)

  13. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SCHEDULING AL-GROTIHMS IN CLOUD COMPUTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isam Azawi Mohialdeen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An essential requirement in cloud computing environment is scheduling the current jobs to be executed with the given constraints. The scheduler should order the jobs in a way where balance between improving the quality of services and at the same time maintaining the efficiency and fairness among the jobs. Thus, evaluating the performance of scheduling algorithms is crucial towards realizing large-scale distributed systems. In spite of the various scheduling algorithms proposed for cloud environment, there is no comprehensive performance study undertaken which provides a unified platform for comparing such algorithms. Comparing these scheduling algorithms from different perspectives is an aspect that needs to be addressed. This pa-per aims at achieving a practical comparison study among four common job scheduling algorithms in cloud computing. These algorithms are Round Rubin (RR, Random Resource Selection, Opportunistic Load Balancing and Minimum Completion Time. These algorithms have been evaluated in terms of their ability to provide quality service for the tasks and guarantee fairness amongst the jobs served. The three metrics for evaluating these job scheduling algorithms are throughput, makespan and the total execution cost. Several experiments with various aims have been accomplished in this comparative study.

  14. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF TRACHEOBRONCHIAL PATTERN USING LUMINAL PLASTINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venketesh G Kamath

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The tracheobronchial pattern of human lungs is well known. An attempt was made to compare the pattern with that of sheep lung using luminal plastination of sheep lung. Several similarities were observed between the two patterns, due to which, the sheep lung serves as an ideal experimental model to study the effect of treatment in several human airway diseases. Objective: The first objective was to compare the two tracheobronchial patterns. Moreover the study also provided an opportunity to the authors to attempt a luminal plastination. The final objective is to highlight the various advantages of advances in luminal plastination in current medical education and research. Materials and methods: Silicon sealant was injected into the tracheobroncheal tree of sheep after thoroughly cleaning the lungs with saline. After the sealant solidified the surrounding lung tissue was destroyed by boiling. Thus a luminal cast was prepared. Result: The result was a splendid luminal cast of the sheep lung showing its tracheobronchial pattern. Conclusion: It was observed that the tracheobronchial division pattern showed significant similarities and a single variation. Therefore the sheep lung is an ideal experimental model and luminal plastination can be applied to comparative anatomical study to identify more such models.

  15. Image based 3D city modeling : Comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. P.; Jain, K.; Mandla, V. R.

    2014-06-01

    3D city model is a digital representation of the Earth's surface and it's related objects such as building, tree, vegetation, and some manmade feature belonging to urban area. The demand of 3D city modeling is increasing rapidly for various engineering and non-engineering applications. Generally four main image based approaches were used for virtual 3D city models generation. In first approach, researchers were used Sketch based modeling, second method is Procedural grammar based modeling, third approach is Close range photogrammetry based modeling and fourth approach is mainly based on Computer Vision techniques. SketchUp, CityEngine, Photomodeler and Agisoft Photoscan are the main softwares to represent these approaches respectively. These softwares have different approaches & methods suitable for image based 3D city modeling. Literature study shows that till date, there is no complete such type of comparative study available to create complete 3D city model by using images. This paper gives a comparative assessment of these four image based 3D modeling approaches. This comparative study is mainly based on data acquisition methods, data processing techniques and output 3D model products. For this research work, study area is the campus of civil engineering department, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (India). This 3D campus acts as a prototype for city. This study also explains various governing parameters, factors and work experiences. This research work also gives a brief introduction, strengths and weakness of these four image based techniques. Some personal comment is also given as what can do or what can't do from these softwares. At the last, this study shows; it concluded that, each and every software has some advantages and limitations. Choice of software depends on user requirements of 3D project. For normal visualization project, SketchUp software is a good option. For 3D documentation record, Photomodeler gives good result. For Large city

  16. Antenna Arrays for Tactical Communication Systems: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Slama

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we give a comparative study of several planar antenna concepts for reliable long range links in a tactical environment. The antenna elements are studied in terms of their electrical properties (bandwidth, reflection coefficient and radiation characteristics and construction (robustness and material consumption. First, we model single antenna elements to investigate if they meet the requirements. Second, we arrange the elements with the best features into 2x2 arrays. Computer simulations of the arrays are verified by measurements. Finally, we formulate recommendations for large array (8x8 or 16x16 elements synthesis to achieve the required properties.

  17. Comparative Study Of Native And Fructose Glycated Human Placental DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa, Imran; Garg, Nita; Raghushaker, C. R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of our study was to glycate human placental DNA with Fructose and conduct a comparative study of properties of native and glycated DNA on the basis of UV spectrometry, fluorescence, and agarose gel electrophoresis. Methodology: Human placental DNA (10µg/ml) was incubated with 25mM fructose for 5, 10 and 15 days in phosphate buffer .Absorption profile and fluorescence emission spectra of native and glycated DNA samples were recorded. Native and glycated DNA was run on 0.8% a...

  18. Comparability of EORTC and DAPROCA studies in advanced prostatic cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suciu, S; Sylvester, R; Iversen, P; Christensen, I; Denis, L

    Very often not enough patients are entered and/or the follow-up is insufficient to be able to draw valid conclusions in cancer clinical trials. In this article, we discuss the possibility of pooling the data from two or more trials asking the same or similar questions in order to overcome such...... problems. How comparable the studies should be for combining their data, in terms of design, patient population, follow-up, and end-points, is discussed in the first part of this paper. Whether these general considerations were completely or partially fulfilled in the two prostatic studies of the EORTC and...

  19. Review Article: Structural flood-protection measures referring to several European case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryžanowski, A.; Brilly, M.; Rusjan, S.; Schnabl, S.

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a review of structural measures that were taken to cope with floods in some cities along the Danube River, such as Vienna, Bratislava, and Belgrade. These cities were also considered as case studies within the KULTURisk project. The structural measures are reviewed and compared to each other according to the type, duration of application, the return period of the design flood event, how the project measures are integrated into spatial planning and the problems that occur in the flood defences today. Based on this review, some suggestions are given on how to improve the flood risk management in flood-prone areas.

  20. A prospective, randomized multicenter study comparing APD and CAPD treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro, S; Bjorner, J B; Tofte-Jensen, P;

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The goals for maintenance dialysis treatment are to improve patient survival, reduce patient morbidity, and improve patient quality of life. This is the first randomized prospective study comparing automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD......) treatment with respect to quality of life and clinical outcomes in relation to therapy costs. DESIGN: A prospective, randomized multicenter study. SETTING: Three Danish CAPD units. PATIENTS: Thirty-four adequately dialyzed patients with high or high-average peritoneal transport characteristics were included...... in the study.Twenty-five patients completed the study. INTERVENTIONS: After randomization, 17 patients were allocated to APD treatment and 17 patients to CAPD treatment for a period of 6 months. Medical and biochemical parameters were evaluated at monthly controls in the CAPD units. Quality-of-life parameters...

  1. Comparing protein VEGF inhibitors: In vitro biological studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Lanlan; Liang, Xiao Huan [Genentech, Inc., 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, CA 94080 (United States); Ferrara, Napoleone, E-mail: nf@gene.com [Genentech, Inc., 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, CA 94080 (United States)

    2011-05-06

    Highlights: {yields} VEGF is a mediator of angiogenesis. {yields} VEGF inhibitors have clinical applications in cancer and eye disorders. {yields} Five protein VEGF inhibitors were compared for their ability to inhibit. {yields} VEGF-induced activities in cultured endothelial cells. -- Abstract: VEGF inhibitors are widely used as a therapy for tumors and intravascular neovascular disorders, but limited and conflicting data regarding their relative biological potencies are available. The purpose of the study is to compare different protein VEGF inhibitors for their ability to inhibit VEGF-stimulated activities. We tested ranibizumab, the full-length variant of ranibizumab (Mab Y0317), bevacizumab, the VEGF-TrapR1R2 and Flt(1-3)-IgG in bioassays measuring VEGF-stimulated proliferation of bovine retinal microvascular endothelial cells or chemotaxis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). The inhibitors were also compared for their ability to inhibit MAP kinase activation in HUVECs following VEGF addition. Ranibizumab, VEGF-TrapR1R2 and Flt(1-3)-IgG had very similar potencies in the bioassays tested. Bevacizumab was over 10-fold less potent than these molecules. Mab Y0317 was over 30-fold more potent than bevacizumab. The findings reported in this manuscript describe important intrinsic characteristics of several VEGF inhibitors that may be useful to design and interpret preclinical or clinical studies.

  2. Comparative study of Si diodes for gamma radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work it is presented the comparative study of Si diodes response for gamma radiation dosimetry. The diodes investigated, grown by float zone (Fz) and magnetic Czochralski (MCz) techniques, were processed at the Physics Institute of Helsinki University in the framework of the research and development of rad-hard silicon devices. To study the dosimetric response of these diodes they were connected in the photovoltaic mode to the input of a digital electrometer to measure the photocurrent signal due to the incidence of gamma-rays from a 60Co source (Gammacell 220). The dosimetric parameter utilized to study the response of these devices was the charge, obtained trough the integration of the current signals, as a function of the absorbed dose. Studies of the influence of the pre-irradiation procedures on both sensitivity and stability of these diodes showed that the sensitivity decreased with the total absorbed dose but after a preirradiation of about 873 kGy they became more stable. Radiation damage effects eventually produced in the devices were monitored trough dynamic current and capacitance measurements after each irradiation step. Both samples also exhibited good response reproducibility, 2,21% (Fz) and 2,94% (MCz), obtained with 13 consecutive measurements of 15 kGy compared with the equivalent 195 kGy absorbed dose in one step of irradiation. It is important to note that these results are better than those obtained with routine polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) dosimeters used in radiation processing dosimetry. (author)

  3. Comparative Study of Static Task Scheduling Algorithms for Heterogeneous Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miss. Kalpana A. Manudhane

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available On the distributed or parallel heterogeneous computing systems, an application is usually decomposed into several interdependent sets of co-operating subtasks and assigned to a set of available processors for execution. Task scheduling is in general NP-compete problem. Static task scheduling algorithms are categorized as Heuristic based and Guided random search based scheduling algorithms. Heuristic algorithms guaranteed to find near optimal solution in less than polynomial time. Heuristic based list scheduling algorithms are Heterogeneous Earliest Finish Time (HEFT and Critical-Path-On- -Processor (CPOP. Whereas, Guided random search based scheduling algorithms have shown robust performance on verity of schedulingproblems. Typical examples are Multiple Priority Queueing Genetic Algorithm (MPQGA, Tabu Search(TS, Ant Colony System (ACS. This paper gives comparative study of all these static task scheduling algorithms and compares them on the basis of average makespan, schedule length ratio (SLR and speedup and running time of algorithm.

  4. Comparative studies of industrial grade carbon black powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Komal; Chauhan, Alok P. S.

    2016-05-01

    Comparative studies of two dissimilar industrial grade Carbon Black (CB) powders (N375 and N405) were conducted. The structure, surface area and particle size are the three important characteristics of CB powder that determine their processability and application as filler in preparing rubber compounds. The powders were characterized for their structure using dibutyl phthalate absorption (DBPA), particle size via laser particle size analyzer and surface area by nitrogen adsorption method. The structural characterization showed that N405 had lower DBPA in comparison to N375, confirming low structure of N405 grade CB powder. It was observed from the particle size analysis that N375 was coarser than N405 grade CB. The total surface area values were determined by the BET method based on the cross sectional area of the nitrogen molecule. N375, a coarse grade CB powder with high structure, depicted less surface area as compared to N405.

  5. Bronchography in dogs. Comparative study with two barium sulphate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two solutions of barium sulphate, 60 and 30% w/v, were compared with the ''overflow'' Bronchographic method. Two groups of eight healthy adult does of both sexes, weighing 7 to 18 kg were used for the study. The dogs were anaesthetised with thiopentone sodium 2% (20 mg/kg iv). After intubation, each dog received contrast medium by a catheter connected to a syringe, in a 9 mi dose. Two series of two x-rays plates were taken in left lateral recumbent, 3 and 6 min after administering the contrast medium and in ventrodorsal projection, 30 sec. later. The x-ray plates obtained were analysed and compared intra and inter group considering the advance speed of the contrast medium, the radiographic density and outlines. Adverse reactions were controlled

  6. Comparative Study of Various Techniques on Outlier Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K, Varma Mamta and Rajesh Nigam

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Diverse patterns from web data, commonly referred to as web outliers or exceptional cases or noise; exist in many real-world databases. Detection of such outliers is important for numerous applications, such as detecting criminal activities in E-commerce. Outliers are data objects with different characteristics compared to other data objects. Formal definition of outliers is given by D.Hawkins. as “An Outlier is an observation that deviates so much from other observations so that it arouses suspicion that it is generated by a different mechanism”. Detection of such outliers (outlier mining is important for numerous applications, such as detecting criminal activities in E-commerce, video surveillance, weather prediction, intrusion detection and pharmaceutical research. This paper has focus on comparative study of various techniques on Outlier Detection.

  7. Comparative study of methods for potential and actual evapotranspiration determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two types of methods for potential and actual evapotranspiration determining were compared. The first type includes neutron gauge, tensiometers, gypsum blocks and lysimeters. The actual and potential evapotranspiration were calculated by water balance equation. The second type of methods used a simulation model for all calculation. The aim of this study was not only to compare and estimate the methods using. It was mainly pointed on calculations of water use efficiency and transpiration coefficient in potential production situation. This makes possible to choose the best way for water consumption optimization for a given crop. The final results find with the best of the methods could be used for applying the principles of sustainable agriculture in random region of Bulgarian territory. (author)

  8. A Comparative Study on Emerging Electric Vehicle Technology Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, Jonathan [Sentech, Inc.; Khowailed, Gannate [Sentech, Inc.; Blackburn, Julia [Sentech, Inc.; Sikes, Karen [Sentech, Inc.

    2011-03-01

    Numerous organizations have published reports in recent years that investigate the ever changing world of electric vehicle (EV) technologies and their potential effects on society. Specifically, projections have been made on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with these vehicles and how they compare to conventional vehicles or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Similar projections have been made on the volumes of oil that these vehicles can displace by consuming large amounts of grid electricity instead of petroleum-based fuels. Finally, the projected rate that these new vehicle fleets will enter the market varies significantly among organizations. New ideas, technologies, and possibilities are introduced often, and projected values are likely to be refined as industry announcements continue to be made. As a result, over time, a multitude of projections for GHG emissions, oil displacement, and market penetration associated with various EV technologies has resulted in a wide range of possible future outcomes. This leaves the reader with two key questions: (1) Why does such a collective range in projected values exist in these reports? (2) What assumptions have the greatest impact on the outcomes presented in these reports? Since it is impractical for an average reader to review and interpret all the various vehicle technology reports published to date, Sentech Inc. and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have conducted a comparative study to make these interpretations. The primary objective of this comparative study is to present a snapshot of all major projections made on GHG emissions, oil displacement, or market penetration rates of EV technologies. From the extensive data found in relevant publications, the key assumptions that drive each report's analysis are identified and 'apples-to-apples' comparisons between all major report conclusions are attempted. The general approach that was taken in this comparative study is comprised of six primary

  9. PLURALISM AND THE STUDY OF RELIGION: A COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. SAMIAN

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the Malaysian government outline of Vision 2020, the importance of the study of religion as an integral component of general education is explicitly stated. This paper examines the present state of comparative religious studies in Malaysian Institutes of Higher Learning. Several philosophical issues are highlighted including the local concept and objective of religious studies, suitability of courses offered, and its relevance to the national development, i.e., industrialization of the country. An attempt is made to suggest how the religious course in a plural society like Malaysia, in the future, can be used to achieve Vision 2020 by integrating science and religion based on the position that science is a problem-solving activity.

  10. Sensitivity comparative study in Philips Forte Gamma Camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte Carlo modeling is widely used in the development nuclear medical imaging systems, particularly in the adjustment of its main characteristics and parameters. It is essential to evaluate the behavior of the system sensitivity in real measurement conditions for specific patient. Planar studies of thyroid phantom were conducted in a Philips Forte Gamma Camera of the 'Hermanos Ameijeiras' Hospital. Experimental set up was totally reproduced in the simulation environment. A comparative study between the experimental and theoretical, obtained by Monte Carlo mathematical modeling, sensitivity values have been done. For simulation GAMOS (Geant4-Architecture for medicine Oriented Simulation) framework was used. The results obtained from both methods have shown an acceptable coincidence (less than 2%) of sensitivity. Therefore this paper aims to validate sensitivity studies carried out via Monte Carlo mathematical modeling and irs acceptable equivalence with experimental measurements in authentic medical circumstances. (Author)

  11. Achalasia in the elderly patient: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana B. Schechter

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Achalasia is a primary esophageal motor disorder secondary to the degeneration of ganglion cells of the inhibitory intramural myenteric plexus. It affects both sexes similarly and has two peaks of incidence, one in the 3rd to 4th decades of life and the other after 60 years of age. The effect of age on esophageal motility of patients with achalasia is not well known. Studies have shown that healthy older people, when compared to the young, have: a a lower number of ganglion cells in the intramural myenteric plexus; b a reduced normal relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter; and c a reduced esophageal peristalsis. Thus, as both age and achalasia can produce comparable degenerative changes in the intramural myenteric plexus, it is possible that advanced age could be an important factor in enhancing the clinical and manometric abnormalities commonly found in patients with achalasia. OBJECTIVES: To compare the clinical, radiological and manometric findings in young as compared to elderly (>60 years old achalasia patients. METHODS: A retrospective study of a group of patients with untreated achalasia separated into young and elderly patients. Demographic, clinical, serology for Chagas' disease, radiological and manometric data were compared between these groups. The level of significance was P<0.05. RESULTS: The study included 105 patients, 52 young (25 M/27 F, mean age 40 years old and 53 elderly (21 M/32 F, mean age 70 years old. The elderly group had a higher prevalence of Chagas' disease (P = 0.004 and a lower pressure of the lower esophageal sphincter [26.4 mm Hg vs 31.9 mm Hg] P = 0.001, a difference that persisted when analyzed only elderly and young patients with idiopathic achalasia. Younger patients had a higher prevalence of heartburn (P = 0.001 and chest pain (P = 0.012 than the elderly. CONCLUSION: Elderly patients with achalasia had a lower esophageal sphincter pressure than the young, even when we excluded patients with

  12. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF LAPAROSCOPIC VERSUS OPEN CHOLECYSTECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Rao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The model era of Laparoscopic Surgery has evoked remarkable changes in approaches to surgical diseases. The trend toward minimal access surgery (MAS has prompted General surgeons to scrutinize nearly all operations for possible convention to Laparoscopic techniques. AIM OF THE STUDY : Our aim of the study is to compare Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy with that of open cholecystectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS : In our Mahatma Gandhi Memorial Hospital we are doing both Open and Laparoscopic cholecystectomy, this is done between October 2011 – October 2013. In this period we have done 146 cholecystectomy, out of which 96 are Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy to compare with 50 cases of Open cholecystectomy. RESULTS : Conversation rate Laparoscopic to Open is 8%. Duration of Surgery : Open (90Min, Lap (120Min. Average post of antibiotics : Open (7 days, Laparoscopic ( 4 days. Average post - op resumption of normal diet Open (5 days, lap (3 days. Average post of hospital stay : Open (10days, Lap (5days. CONCLUSION : In our study the Laparoscopic cholecystectomy surpasses the open cholecystectomy. The only disadvantage is the prolonged operative time, which can be minimized in due course of time as the learning curve progresses. We have also found that the conversion to open cholecystectomy should be done in proper time without any hesitation in case of complications that could not be managed laparoscopic surgery and conversion in such case reflects sound judgment and should not be considered as a complication.

  13. Comparative Study: Block Truncating Coding, Wavelet and Fractal Image Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Gupta

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We undertake a study of the performance difference of different transform coding techniques i.e. Block truncating coding, wavelet and fractal image compression. This paper focuses important features of transform coding in compression of still images, including the extent to which the quality of image is degraded by the process of compression and decompression. The above techniques have been successfully used in many applications. The techniques are compared by using the performance parameters PSNR, CR and reduced size. Images obtained with those techniques yield very good results

  14. Mycobacterial species as case-study of comparative genome analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakham, F.; Belayachi, L.; Ussery, David; Akrim, M.; Benjouad, A.; El Aouad, R.; Ennaji, M. M.

    2011-01-01

    evolutionary events of these species and improving drugs, vaccines, and diagnostics tools for controlling Mycobacterial diseases. In this present study we aim to outline a comparative genome analysis of fourteen Mycobacterial genomes: M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis K—10, M. bovis AF2122/97, M. bovis BCG str...... genomes, GC content, number of genes in different data bases (Genbank, Refseq, and Prodigal). The BLAST matrix of these genomes has been figured to give a lot of information about the similarity between species in a simple scheme. As a result of multiple genome analysis, the pan and core genome have been...

  15. A Comparative Study of Actuator Configurations for Satellite Attitude Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Kristiansen

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a controllability study of different actuator configurations consisting of magnetic torquers, reaction wheels and a gravity boom is presented. The theoretical analysis is performed with use of controllability gramians, and simulation results with the different configurations are presented and compared regarding settling time and power consumption to substantiate the theoretical analysis. A reference model is also introduced to show how the power consumption can he lowered to the same magnitude as when magnetic torquers are used, without degrading the satellite response significantly.

  16. Comparative Study of Various SDLC Models on Different Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prateek Sharma

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The success of a software development project greatly depends upon which process model is used. This paper emphasizes on the need of using appropriate model as per the application to be developed. In this paper we have done the comparative study of the following software models namely Waterfall, Prototype, RAD (Rapid Application Development Incremental, Spiral, Build and Fix and V-shaped. Our aim is to create reliable and cost effective software and these models provide us a way to develop them. The main objective of this research is to represent different models of software development and make a comparison between them to show the features of each model.

  17. Mining Frequent Itemsets from Online Data Streams: Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HebaTallah Mohamed Nabil

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Online mining of data streams poses many new challenges more than mining static databases. In addition to the one-scan nature, the unbounded memory requirement, the high data arrival rate of data streams and the combinatorial explosion of itemsets exacerbate the mining task. The high complexity of the frequent itemsets mining problem hinders the application of the stream mining techniques. In this review, we present a comparative study among almost all, as we are acquainted, the algorithms for mining frequent itemsets from online data streams. All those techniques immolate with the accuracy of the results due to the relatively limited storage, leading, at all times, to approximated results.

  18. Comparative DFT study of crystalline ammonium perchlorate and ammonium dinitramide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Weihua; Wei, Tao; Zhu, Wei; Xiao, Heming

    2008-05-22

    The electronic structure, vibrational properties, absorption spectra, and thermodynamic properties of crystalline ammonium perchlorate (AP) and ammonium dinitramide (ADN) have been comparatively studied using density functional theory in the local density approximation. The results shows that the p states for the two solids play a very important role in their chemical reaction. From the low frequency to high frequency region, ADN has more motion modes for the vibrational frequencies than AP. The absorption spectra of AP and ADN display a few, strong bands in the fundamental absorption region. The thermodynamic properties show that ADN is easier to decompose than AP as the temperature increases. PMID:18396853

  19. Comparative study of Palito inspection and MFL Inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Anne A. de; Miranda, Ivan Vicente Janvrot; Silva, Jose Augusto Pereira da [Pipeway Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Guimaraes, Frederico S.; Magalhaes, Joao Alfredo P. [Minds at Work, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Sabino, Joao Marcos [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS/UN-RN/CE), Natal, RN (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios Rio Grande do Norte e Ceara

    2009-07-01

    A 16 inches oil pipeline was surveyed with MFL and Palito pig in 2007. The MFL inspection was performed by Pipeway Engenharia while Palito inspection was performed by PETROBRAS. A comparison between the results of these two ILI inspections has been made to validate Palito Pig and to assess main characteristics and differences between the two techniques. The purpose of this paper is to detail the methodology applied to perform the comparison and to present a comparative study of results registered in the MFL and Palito inspections by Pipeway Engenharia, PETROBRAS/CENPES and CPTI/PUC-Rio. (author)

  20. Suicides in two Scandinavian capitals--a comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogde, S; Hougen, H P; Poulsen, K

    1996-01-01

    Suicides from the city and county of Copenhagen, Denmark, and from the two police districts Oslo and Asker and Baerum, Norway, two comparable Scandinavian capital populations, were studied with regard to age, gender, suicide methods, marital status, nationality, month of year, somatic and...... psychiatric disease, previous suicidal attempts or suicidal threats, and suicide location. The incidence of suicides was higher in the Copenhagen material than in the Oslo material. In both cities the preferred method was intoxication by prescription drugs. In Copenhagen suffocation by means of a plastic bag...

  1. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF TWO ORGANISATIONAL CHANGE MODELS

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela BRADUTANU

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to study the comparative patterns of change suggested by Price Waterhouse (1995) in their book “A better change: Best practices for transforming your organization” and John Kotter (1996), in his book “Leading change”. Price Waterhouse’s and Kotter’s change models are nearly identical in many aspects. In his book “Leading change”, Kotter appears to have much of the same perspective as Price Waterhouse when it comes to culture, organizational change in general and vision. Howeve...

  2. Goal oriented requirements engineering in data warehouses: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ania Cravero Leal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Data warehouses provide historical information about the organization that needs to be analyzed by the decision makers; therefore, it is essential to develop them in the context of a strategic business plan. In recent years, a number of engineering approaches for goal-oriented requirements have been proposed, which can obtain the information requirements of a data warehouse using traditional techniques and the objectives of the modeling. This paper provides an overview and a comparative study of the treatment of the requirements in the existing approaches to serve as a starting point for further research.

  3. Comparative studies of the secretome of fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, Tore; Grell, Morten Nedergaard; Schiøtt, Morten;

    2009-01-01

    Leafcutter ants of the species Acromyrmex echinatior live in symbiosis with the fungus Leucoagaricus gongylophorus. The ants harvest fragments of leaves and carry them to the nest where they place the material on the fungal colony. The fungus secretes a wide array of proteins to degrade the leaves...... into nutrients that the ants can feed on. The focus of this study is to discover, characterize and compare the secreted proteins. In order to do so cDNA libraries are constructed from mRNA extracted from the fungus material. The most efficient technology to screen cDNA libraries selectively for...

  4. Comparative study of divertor and limiter concepts in FER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparative study of engineering features is carried out for divertor and pumped limiter reactor concepts. These concepts are: double null divertor as a reference concept of FER, single null divertor, single pumped limiter with medium edge temperature and single pumped limiter with low edge temperature. Plasma parameters of these concepts are determined by maintaining plasma confinement performance. It is found that the double null divertor is the least favorable; and the medium edge temperature limiter is the most favorable from most of the engineering standpoints. (author)

  5. A Comparative Study on Decision Making Methods with Interval Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Chauhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM models are used to solve a number of decision making problems universally. Most of these methods require the use of integers as input data. However, there are problems which have indeterminate values or data intervals which need to be analysed. In order to solve problems with interval data, many methods have been reported. Through this study an attempt has been made to compare and analyse the popular decision making tools for interval data problems. Namely, I-TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution, DI-TOPSIS, cross entropy, and interval VIKOR (VlseKriterijumska Optimiza-cija I Kompromisno Resenje have been compared and a novel algorithm has been proposed. The new algorithm makes use of basic TOPSIS technique to overcome the limitations of known methods. To compare the effectiveness of the various methods, an example problem has been used where selection of best material family for the capacitor application has to be made. It was observed that the proposed algorithm is able to overcome the known limitations of the previous techniques. Thus, it can be easily and efficiently applied to various decision making problems with interval data.

  6. EXTERNAL DACRYOCYSTORHINOSTOMY VERSUS ENDOSCOPIC ENDONASAL DACRYOCYSTORHINOSTOMY: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phani Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dacryocystitis is the inflammation of the lacrimal sac due to nasolacrimal duct obstruction. Chronic dacryocystitis is a constant threat to cornea and orbital soft tissue & always dictates surgery for correction of symptomatology. The gold standard procedure of choice for the treatment of epiphora is Dacryocystorhinostomy. This study proposes to evaluate and compare the surgical outcome of external DCR and endoscopic endonasal DCR. METHODS: A Retrospective, comparative, randomized interventional study was conducted from January 2012 to December 2013. 40 diagnosed cases of chronic dacryocystitis were randomized into two groups. Group A included 20 patients who underwent external Dacryocystorhinostomy and group B included the rest of the 20 patients who underwent endoscopic endonasal Dacryocystorhinostomy. RESULTS: In group A patients, 9 cases had bleeding during surgery, tearing of the anterior nasal flap was seen in 5 cases and punctal laceration in 4 cases. In group B patients 3 cases had bleeding, 5 cases had Trauma to the middle turbinate while accidental entry into anterior ethmoidal cells was in 4 cases. In 8 cases there was difficulty in making a bone window. In group A patients, duration of surgery is comparatively more than in group B. In post-operative period group A patients, had epistaxis, rhinostomy site closure, hypertrophied external scar and medial canthi damage as its complication while group B epistaxis, nasal Synechea, intra nasal granulation at the ostium are major complication. After a period of 3months by syringing the lacrimal sac of the patients in group A patients, 18 patients had a patent sac (success rate is 90%. In group B patients, 16 patients had a patent sac (success rate being 80%. CONCLUSION: DCR either by external or endonasal route can be considered for treatment of nasolacrimal duct obstruction. The external route has an easy and short learning curve with reduced cost of equipment. Whereas

  7. Radioactivity of natural and artificial building materials - a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Zs; Völgyesi, P; Nagy, H É; Szabó, Cs; Kis, Z; Csorba, O

    2013-04-01

    Building materials and their additives contain radioactive isotopes, which can increase both external and internal radioactive exposures of humans. In this study Hungarian natural (adobe) and artificial (brick, concrete, coal slag, coal slag concrete and gas silicate) building materials were examined. We qualified 40 samples based on their radium equivalent, activity concentration, external hazard and internal hazard indices and the determined threshold values of these parameters. Absorbed dose rate and annual effective dose for inhabitants living in buildings made of these building materials were also evaluated. The calculations are based on (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K activity concentrations determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. Measured radionuclide concentrations and hence, calculated indices and doses of artificial building materials show a rather disparate distribution compared to adobes. The studied coal slag samples among the artificial building materials have elevated (226)Ra content. Natural, i.e. adobe and also brick samples contain higher amount of (40)K compared to other artificial building materials. Correlation coefficients among radionuclide concentrations are consistent with the values in the literature and connected to the natural geochemical behavior of U, Th and K elements. Seven samples (coal slag and coal slag concrete) exceed any of the threshold values of the calculated hazard indices, however only three of them are considered to be risky to use according to the fact that the building material was used in bulk amount or in restricted usage. It is shown, that using different indices can lead to different conclusions; hence we recommend considering more of the indices at the same time when building materials are studied. Additionally, adding two times their statistical uncertainties to their values before comparing to thresholds should be considered for providing a more conservative qualification. We have defined radon hazard portion to point

  8. ROBOTIC ASSISTED LAPAROSCOPIC MYOMECTOMY VERSUS CLASSICAL MYOMECTOMY - A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Georgescu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM:The objective of this study was to perform a comparative analysis between robotic assisted laparoscopic and open approach, for patients with uterine leiomyoma, in terms of feasibility and quality of operation (duration of surgery, number and dimensions of extracted miomas, intraoperative blood loss. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study on 166 patients diagnosed with uterine fibroids who have received conservative surgery – myomectomy over a period of 3 years (2008-2010. 38 cases were treated by robotic assisted laparoscopic myomectomy (RALM and 128 patients underwent open myomectomy. RESULTS: BMI was higher among patients with RALM, 27.68 vs 22.63, respectively. The average time of interventions was similar, 111.8 min for RALM. Time for myomectomy itself was 50.39 min and 22.37 min for the uterine suture. Open myomectomy took an average of 103 min, 21.05 min for myomectomies itself, and 21.05 min for the uterine suture. In RALM, a higher number of myomas were extracted, but with a smaller volume, 2.26 myomas with a volume of 57 mm3 vs 1.8 myomas with a volume of 156 mm3 for open myomectomy. Blood loss was significantly lower during robotic-assisted laparoscopic myomectomy compared to open myomectomy, 140 mL vs 267 mL. Patients treated by RALM had a shorter length of stay 2.05 versus 6 days. Postoperative complications in RALM were insignificant. In open miomectomy we noted: a case of uncontrollable intraoperative bleeding that required the use the Gelaspon, 4 cases of postoperative febrile syndrome and one case of urinary infection. CONCLUSIONS: RALM is feasible and allows superior results compared to open myomectomy, with less blood loss and shorter postoperative hospital stay.

  9. Comparative activity of carbapenem testing (the COMPACT study in Turkey

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    Leblebicioglu Hakan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent evidence indicates that Gram-negative bacterial pathogens, the most common of which are Pseudomonas spp., Enterobacteriaceae, and Acinetobacter baumannii, are frequent causes of hospital-acquired infections. This study aims to evaluate the in vitro activity of doripenem and comparator carbapenem antibiotics against Gram-negative clinical isolates collected from COMParative Activity of Carbapenem Testing (COMPACT study centres in Turkey. Methods Ten centres in Turkey were invited to submit Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacteriaceae, and other Gram-negative isolates from intensive care unit (ICU/non-ICU patients with complicated intra-abdominal infections, bloodstream infections, or nosocomial pneumonia, including ventilator-associated pneumonia, between May and October 2008. Susceptibility was determined by each centre using E-test. A central laboratory performed species confirmation as well as limited susceptibility and quality-control testing. Results Five hundred and ninety six isolates were collected. MIC90 values for doripenem, meropenem, and imipenem, respectively, were 32, ≥ 64, and ≥ 64 mg/L against Pseudomonas spp.; 0.12, 0.12, and 0.5 mg/L against Enterobacteriaceae; and ≥ 64 mg/L for each against other Gram-negative isolates. In determining the susceptibility of hospital isolates of selected Gram-negative pathogens to doripenem, imipenem, and meropenem, we found that against all pathogens combined, the MIC90 for ICU compared with non-ICU isolates was higher. Conclusions Doripenem showed similar or slightly better activity than meropenem and better activity than imipenem against the Gram-negative pathogens collected in Turkey.

  10. Comparative study of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) transportation alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    WIPP transportation studies in the Final Supplement Environmental Impact Statement for WIPP are the baseline for this report. In an attempt to present the most current analysis, this study incorporates the most relevant data available. The following three transportation options are evaluated for the Disposal Phase, which is assumed to be 20 years: Truck shipments, consisting of a tractor and trailer, with three TRUPACT-IIs or one RH-72B; Regular commercial train shipments consisting of up to three railcars carrying up to 18 TRUPACT-IIs or up to six RH-72Bs; Dedicated train shipments consisting of a locomotive, an idle car, railcars carrying 18 TRUPACT-IIs or six RH-72Bs, another idle car, and a caboose or passenger car with an emergency response specialist. No other cargo is carried. This report includes: A consideration of occupational and public risks and exposures, and other environmental impacts; A consideration of emergency response capabilities; and An extimation of comparative costs.

  11. Comparative study of aqueous and solvent methods for cleaning metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were performed to determine the comparative effectiveness of solvent and aqueous detergent methods for cleaning various metals. The metals investigated included 304L stainless steel, beryllium, uranium-6.5 wt percent niobium alloy, and unalloyed uranium (238U). The studies were initiated in response to governmental regulations restricting the use of some chlorinated solvents. Results showed that aqueous detergent cleaning was more effective than solvents, i.e. trichloroethylene and methyl chloroform, for the removal of light industrial soils. The subsequent adoption of aqueous cleaning at this plant has facilitated waste disposal, which contributed to recorded economic savings. The controlled use of aqueous detergents is environmentally acceptable and has decreased the hazards of fire and toxicity that are generally associated with solvents. 8 tables, 15 figures

  12. The Comparative Study of Color Metaphors in English and Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡琦

    2014-01-01

    With the development of human civilization, the significance of the color terms gradually emerges in our daily life and the unique charm which the color terms express and display, makes us regard them with special esteem. Color terms not only have the literal meanings, describing the things in nature, they also have the extended or metaphorical meanings, expressing dif erent and complex human emotions as well as the characteristic of the changing matters. This paper tries to give a comparative study of some basic color metaphors in English and Chinese as I discover that though color metaphors used in different languages have something in common they also have the difference, which deserves our further study.

  13. A Comparative Study of Antarctic Arctic and Himalayan Ice

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    R. C. Pathak

    1989-07-01

    Full Text Available Arctic, Antarctic and inaccessible lofty regions of Himalayas,which are geographically diverse areas and have been a constant source of inspiration, envisages a challenging field of study 'by early adventurers and scientists of the world. Characteristics of ice obtained at Arctic and Antarctic do not possess similar properties. Even thesalient properties of snow and ice of western and central Himalayas vary due to its differing free water content. A study has been carriedout based on recent Antarctic Expedition by Indian scientists and the data gathered along litha-tectonic regions of Himalayas and their characteristics have been compared, wkich brings out stratigraphic and metamorphic characteristics of the ice and snow. In the present paper,an analysis of the ice and snow properties of Arctic, Antarctic and Himalayan regions has been presented.

  14. Comparative study of tricarbonyl complexes fluconazole and voriconazole fungal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widely used options for infection detection include traditional imaging procedures like X-ray, ultrasound, CT, MRI complemented with labeled leukocytes or other radiopharmaceuticals which provide anatomic and functional information to localize the foci.However, these methods not always lead to reliable clinical interpretation due to their low specificity and sensitivity. This paper shows the results of a comparative study of two radiolabeled antifungal compounds: Fluconazole and Voriconazole as potential diagnostic agents. Labeling was performed using Triaquotricarbonyltechnetium(I) as precursor, followed by substitution with ligands of interest. Biological studies were performed using CD1 mice and injury models were sterile inflammation, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger infections. Results show that both complexes present good specificity in differentiating inflammation and infection. Nevertheless, scintigraphic images fail to achieve adequate sensitivity for the detection of these two processes

  15. A Comparative Study on Automotive Brake Testing Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbhar, Bhau Kashinath; Patil, Satyajit Ramchandra; Sawant, Suresh Maruti

    2016-06-01

    Performance testing of automotive brakes involves determination of stopping time, distance and deceleration level. Braking performance of an automobile is required to be ensured for various surfaces like dry, wet, concrete, bitumen etc. as well as for prolonged applications. Various brake testing standards are used worldwide to assure vehicle and pedestrian safety. This article presents methodologies used for automotive service brake testing for two wheelers. The main contribution of this work lies in comparative study of three main brake testing standards; viz. Indian Standards, Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards and European Economic Commission Standards. This study shall help the policy makers to choose the best criteria out of these three while formulating newer edition of testing standards.

  16. Internal Structure Quality Control of Solid Pharmaceuticals. A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre Silvia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was a comparative investigation by spectral and thermal analysis in order to asses a number of characteristics of different varieties ofrawmaterials of ursodeoxycholic acid and ibuprofen. The different dissolution behavior of two ursodeoxycholic acid pharmaceutical product by crystallinity pattern was investigated. Methods: Raw materials of ursodeoxycholic acid and ibuprofen were used. IR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and X-Ray Diffraction Analysis were applied. Results: The results show no crystallinitydifferences for different batches of the tested drugs. No solid solid transition was proved during sample preparation for transmission IR analysis. Conclusions: A combination of two more affordabletests by IR spectrometry and differential scanning calorimetry lead to the same results as X-Ray diffraction analysis for crystallinity similarity assessment of the studied substances. The dissolution differences of test drugs were not related to the polymorphism of the raw materials.

  17. Comparative study of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) transportation alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WIPP transportation studies in the Final Supplement Environmental Impact Statement for WIPP are the baseline for this report. In an attempt to present the most current analysis, this study incorporates the most relevant data available. The following three transportation options are evaluated for the Disposal Phase, which is assumed to be 20 years: Truck shipments, consisting of a tractor and trailer, with three TRUPACT-IIs or one RH-72B; Regular commercial train shipments consisting of up to three railcars carrying up to 18 TRUPACT-IIs or up to six RH-72Bs; Dedicated train shipments consisting of a locomotive, an idle car, railcars carrying 18 TRUPACT-IIs or six RH-72Bs, another idle car, and a caboose or passenger car with an emergency response specialist. No other cargo is carried. This report includes: A consideration of occupational and public risks and exposures, and other environmental impacts; A consideration of emergency response capabilities; and An extimation of comparative costs

  18. Femoral anteversion measured by ultrasound and CT: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonography have been used successfully to estimate the femoral anteversion (AV) angle. In this study, AV angles in 20 human adult femurs were determined by ultrasonography and CT and the measurements compared. On CT the real AV angle was measured as the angle between the head-neck centreline and the posterior condylar plane. In addition, the angle between the anterior head-trochanter (HT) tangent and the posterior condylar plane was determined. The latter angle was also measured by ultrasonography using the tilted transducer technique. The mean interobserver variation in the ultrasound measurements was 1.9 . We found ultrasonography to correlate very well with CT, both when comparing with the HT angle (r=0.95) and with the AV angle (r=0.93). The HT angle was on average 4 greater than the AV angle. In this study the accuracy of ultrasonography was ±5 and the method is recommended for screening in patients with rotational disorders of the femur. (orig.)

  19. Comparative study on NPP design requirements between IAEA and Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA safety standards encompass international consensus to strengthen the nuclear safety and to reflect the latest advancement of safety regulation related technologies. Also, they provide a reliable means to ensure the effective fulfillment of obligations under the various international safety conventions. Many countries have adopted the IAEA safety standards as their national standards in nuclear regulations. And Korea has exported nuclear power plant technologies abroad these days. The KINS (Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety) has performed a review of the IAEA safety requirements for the design of NPPs(Nuclear Power Plants) [1] comparing with those of Korea. The purposes of this comparative study are to harmonize the design safety requirements for the NPPs of Korea with those of the IAEA as a member state of the IAEA, and to encompass global efforts to enhance the nuclear safety and to reflect the latest advancement of safety regulation related technologies into the design safety requirements for the NPPs of Korea. Design requirements for structures, systems, and components of NPPs as well as for procedures and organizational processes important to safety, which are required to be met for assuring safe operation, for preventing events that could compromise safety, or for mitigating the consequences of such events, have been reviewed in this study

  20. CAECUM AND APPENDIX IN RUMINANTS AND MAN: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

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    Sreekanth

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The change in the trends of living and dietary habits prompted the inquisitiveness in finding out if there are obvious changes in the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants. Ruminants are entirely dependent on the environment for their food and take a long time to feed themselves with foliage which is first taken in and then digested. The changing ecological balance and dwindling reserves in the past few years and changing climatic conditions could probably have an effect on the digestive tract. It has been observed that the cow, sheep and goat have started feeding on debris from the environment. Man has also started changing dietary habits according to convenience and has become aware of organic foods and vegetarian diets. Therefore an attempt was made to see if there are notable changes that can be recorded in the digestive tract. The study here attempted to compare the caecum of man with that of ruminants. The caecum was found to be the largest in the cow in proportion to the weight of the animal. The caecum was almost of the same dimensions in goat and sheep compared with that of man. The appendix was noted only in man. The study attempts to describe the importance of appendix in man and a large caecum in ruminants.

  1. Comparative study on diets and food consumption of Spanish people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the radiological consequences of the environmental discharges are analysed. It is necessary to take into account several parameters as the values related with the population diets, because food ingestion will be one of the main pathways of radionuclide intake by the human body. With the aim of having current food consumption values, in agreement with the Spanish reality, the CIEMAT has performed a wide study in collaboration with CSN and the Nutritional Department of the Complutense University of Madrid. This work involves people between 0-60 years old, divided in 6 age groups following the ICRP recommendations, with a total sample about 12,000 persons from 10 provinces. The methodology applied is based in three questionnaires and 2 concordance tests. The results obtained in this study are compared with those of several national and international information sources (MAPA, INE and FAO), normally used in dose assessments by ingestion. The results are also compared with the RG 1109 NRC values, widely used for regulatory purposes. (Author) 10 refs

  2. A comparative Study of Circulation Patterns at Active Lava Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, Einat; Oppenheimer, Clive; Spampinato, Letizia; Hernandez, Pedro; Unglert, Kathi

    2016-04-01

    Lava lakes present a rare opportunity to study magma dynamics in a large scaled-up "crucible" and provide a unique natural laboratory to ground-truth dynamic models of magma circulation. The persistence of lava lakes allows for long-term observations of flow dynamics and of lava properties, especially compared to surface lava flows. There are currently five persistent lava lakes in the world: Halemaumau in Kilauea (Hawaii, USA), Erta Ale (Ethiopia), Nyiragongo (Congo), Erebus (Antarctica), and Villarica (Chile). Marum and Benbow craters of Ambrym volcano (Vanuatu) and Masaya (Nicaragua) have often hosted lava lakes as well. We use visible-light and thermal infrared time-lapse and video footage collected at all above lakes (except Villarica, where the lake is difficult to observe), and compare the circulation patterns recorded. We calculate lake surface motion from the footage using the optical flow method (Lev et al., 2012) to produce 2D velocity fields. We mined both the surface temperature field and the surface velocity field for patterns using machine learning techniques such as "self-organizing maps (SOMs)" and "principle component analysis (PCA)". We use automatic detection technique to study the configuration of crustal plates at the lakes' surface. We find striking differences among the lakes, in flow direction, flow speed, frequency of changes in flow direction and speed, location and consistency of upwelling and downwelling, and crustal plate configuration. We relate the differences to lake size, shallow conduit geometry, lava viscosity, crystal and gas content, and crust integrity.

  3. A comparative study of Raman enhancement in capillaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhari, Fatemeh; Irizar, Juan; Hulbert, Laila; Helmy, Amr S.

    2011-06-01

    This work reports on the comparative studies of Raman enhancement in liquid core waveguides (LCWs). The theoretical considerations that describe Raman enhancement in LCWs is adapted to analyze and compare the performance of hollow core photonic crystal fibers (HCPCFs) to conventional Teflon capillary tubes. The optical losses in both platforms are measured and used to predict their performance for different lengths. The results show that for an optimal waveguide length, two orders of magnitude enhancement in the Raman signal can be achieved for aqueous solutions using HCPCFs. This length, however, cannot be achieved using normal capillary effects. By integrating the interface of the fluidic pump and the HCPCF into a microfluidic chip, we are able to control fluid transport and fill longer lengths of HCPCFs regardless of the viscosity of the sample. The long-term stability and reproducibility of Raman spectra attained through this platform are demonstrated for naphthalenethiol, which is a well-studied organic compound. Using the HCPCF platform, the detection limit of normal Raman scattering in the range of micro-molars has been achieved. In addition to the higher signal-to-noise ratio of the Raman signal from the HCPCF-platform, more Raman modes of naphthalenethiol are revealed using this platform.

  4. Spot diameters for scanning photorefractive keratectomy: a comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manns, Fabrice; Parel, Jean-Marie A.

    1998-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare with computer simulations the duration, smoothness and accuracy of scanning photo-refractive keratectomy with spot diameters ranging from 0.2 to 1 mm. Methods: We calculated the number of pulses per diopter of flattening for spot sizes varying from 0.2 to 1 mm. We also computed the corneal shape after the correction of 4 diopters of myopia and 4 diopters of astigmatism with a 6 mm ablation zone and a spot size of 0.4 mm with 600 mJ/cm2 peak radiant exposure and 0.8 mm with 300 mJ/cm2 peak radiant exposure. The accuracy and smoothness of the ablations were compared. Results: The repetition rate required to produce corrections of myopia with a 6 mm ablation zone in a duration of 5 s per diopter is on the order of 1 kHz for spot sizes smaller than 0.5 mm, and of 100 Hz for spot sizes larger than 0.5 mm. The accuracy and smoothness after the correction of myopia and astigmatism with small and large spot sizes were not significantly different. Conclusions: This study seems to indicate that there is no theoretical advantage for using either smaller spots with higher radiant exposures or larger spots with lower radiant exposures. However, at fixed radiant exposure, treatments with smaller spots require a larger duration of surgery but provide a better accuracy for the correction of astigmatism.

  5. Comparative Study of Algorithms for Automated Generalization of Linear Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimjon, S.; Gupta, P. K.; Sukhmani, R. S. G. S.

    2014-11-01

    Automated generalization, rooted from conventional cartography, has become an increasing concern in both geographic information system (GIS) and mapping fields. All geographic phenomenon and the processes are bound to the scale, as it is impossible for human being to observe the Earth and the processes in it without decreasing its scale. To get optimal results, cartographers and map-making agencies develop set of rules and constraints, however these rules are under consideration and topic for many researches up until recent days. Reducing map generating time and giving objectivity is possible by developing automated map generalization algorithms (McMaster and Shea, 1988). Modification of the scale traditionally is a manual process, which requires knowledge of the expert cartographer, and it depends on the experience of the user, which makes the process very subjective as every user may generate different map with same requirements. However, automating generalization based on the cartographic rules and constrains can give consistent result. Also, developing automated system for map generation is the demand of this rapid changing world. The research that we have conveyed considers only generalization of the roads, as it is one of the indispensable parts of a map. Dehradun city, Uttarakhand state of India was selected as a study area. The study carried out comparative study of the generalization software sets, operations and algorithms available currently, also considers advantages and drawbacks of the existing software used worldwide. Research concludes with the development of road network generalization tool and with the final generalized road map of the study area, which explores the use of open source python programming language and attempts to compare different road network generalization algorithms. Thus, the paper discusses the alternative solutions for automated generalization of linear objects using GIS-technologies. Research made on automated of road network

  6. If only Derrida missed that flight... About the assessment of the "academic achievements" of the so-called "American Anthropology" by Belgrade Structural-semiotic School of Folklore

    OpenAIRE

    Miloš Milenković

    2016-01-01

    Taking into account recent critiques of "underdevelopment", "positivism", "methodological backwardness" and other failings attributed to socalled "American Anthropology" by some of the authors from the Belgrade Structural-semiotic School of Anthropology of Folklore, I analyse the context in which colleagues and students may be tempted to explain common sense political connection between polyphone ethnography, neo-romanticism and nationalism as counter-intuitive history of the discipline. I al...

  7. Alcoholic Steatosis in Different Strains of Rat: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhopale, Kamlesh K.; Kondraganti, Shakuntala; Fernando, Harshica; Boor, Paul J.; Kaphalia, Bhupendra S.; Shakeel Ansari, G. A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Different strains of rats have been used to study alcoholic liver disease (ALD) while the reason for selecting a particular rat strain was not apparent. Purpose The aim of our study was to compare outbred (Wistar) and inbred (Fischer) strains to evaluate pathological, biochemical changes, and gene expression differences associated with ethanol-induced early hepatic steatosis. Study Design Male Wistar and Fischer-344 rats were pair-fed for 6 weeks with or without 5% ethanol in Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet. Livers were analyzed for histological and lipid-related differences. Results Hepatic midzonal steatosis was mainly found in Wistar rats while Fischer rats showed mostly pericentral steatosis. Increased hepatic steatosis in ethanol-fed Wistar rats is supported by increases in lipids with related genes and transcription factors involved in fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis. Conclusion Our data showed that Fischer rats are relatively less prone to ethanol-mediated steatosis with pericentral lipid deposition pattern in the liver which is similar to humans and show no trace level of lipid accumulation in pair-fed controls as observed in Wistar (outbred) strain. Therefore, Fischer rats are better suited for lipid studies in an early development of ALD. PMID:27213081

  8. Mac protocols for wireless sensor network (wsn): a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data communication between nodes is carried out under Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol which is defined at data link layer. The MAC protocols are responsible to communicate and coordinate between nodes according to the defined standards in WSN (Wireless Sensor Networks). The design of a MAC protocol should also address the issues of energy efficiency and transmission efficiency. There are number of MAC protocols that exist in the literature proposed for WSN. In this paper, nine MAC protocols which includes S-MAC, T-MAC, Wise-MAC, Mu-MAC, Z-MAC, A-MAC, D-MAC, B-MAC and B-MAC+ for WSN have been explored, studied and analyzed. These nine protocols are classified in contention based and hybrid (combination of contention and schedule based) MAC protocols. The goal of this comparative study is to provide a basis for MAC protocols and to highlight different mechanisms used with respect to parameters for the evaluation of energy and transmission efficiency in WSN. This study also aims to give reader a better understanding of the concepts, processes and flow of information used in these MAC protocols for WSN. A comparison with respect to energy reservation scheme, idle listening avoidance, latency, fairness, data synchronization, and throughput maximization has been presented. It was analyzed that contention based MAC protocols are less energy efficient as compared to hybrid MAC protocols. From the analysis of contention based MAC protocols in term of energy consumption, it was being observed that protocols based on preamble sampling consume lesser energy than protocols based on static or dynamic sleep schedule. (author)

  9. Epidural analgesia during labor vs no analgesia: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesam Farid Mousa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epidural analgesia is claimed to result in prolonged labor. Previous studies have assessed epidural analgesia vs systemic opioids rather than to parturients receiving no analgesia. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of epidural analgesia on labor duration compared with parturients devoid of analgesia. Methods: One hundred sixty nulliparous women in spontaneous labor at full term with a singleton vertex presentation were assigned to the study. Parturients who request epidural analgesia were allocated in the epidural group, whereas those not enthusiastic to labor analgesia were allocated in the control group. Epidural analgesia was provided with 20 mL bolus 0.5% epidural lidocaine plus fentanyl and maintained at 10 mL for 1 h. Duration of the first and second stages of labor, number of parturients receiving oxytocin, maximal oxytocin dose required for each parturient, numbers of instrumental vaginal, vacuum-assisted, and cesarean deliveries and neonatal Apgar score were recorded. Results: There was no statistical difference in the duration of the active-first and the second stages of labor, instrumental delivery, vacuum-assisted or cesarean delivery rates, the number of newborns with 1-min and 5-min Apgar scores less than 7 between both groups and number of parturients receiving oxytocin, however, the maximal oxytocin dose was significantly higher in the epidural group. Conclusion: Epidural analgesia by lidocaine (0.5% and fentanyl does not prolong labor compared with parturients without analgesia; however, significant oxytocin augmentation is required during the epidural analgesia to keep up the aforementioned average labor duration.

  10. Antiamoebic Chemoprophylaxis Using Quinfamide in Children: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Padilla

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to examine whether the administration of quinfamide at 3- or 6-month intervals diminished the frequency of Entamoeba histolytica cysts in stool samples compared to controls. The prospective, longitudinal, randomized, single-blind study examined children from six primary schools in Celaya and Neutla, Guanajuato. Of the 1,524 students in these schools, we selected participants for the study as follows: Children were included in the study if their parents agreed in writing to the study and if the children demonstrated evidence of E. histolytica cysts after a parasitoscopic analysis by concentration (PSC in three samples over consecutive days using Faust’s method. Those included in the study received a single 4.3-g/kg dose of quinfamide, and we performed PSC on days 5, 6, and 7 following dose administration to examine whether quinfamide had affected the presence of the cysts. The study participants who tested negative for cysts were divided into three groups: Group 1 had 102 patients who underwent quinfamide treatment and three CPS analyses after the 12 months of the study; Group 2 had 98 subjects who underwent the quinfamide treatment and three CPS analyses at months 3, 6, 9, and 12 after their entrance into the study; and Group 3 had 102 patients, who underwent the quinfamide treatment and series of three CPS analyses at months 6 and 12 of the study. All participants received the dose of quinfamide after providing stool samples and after a clinical gastrointestinal history was obtained. Further clinical gastrointestinal data were collected 5 days after the quintamide dose was administered. We used EpiInfo 6.0 for statistical analysis, calculating X2 and p values for the clinical data and the CPS data after the 12 months concluded. Of the initial samples of 1,524 subjects, 308 (20.2% had Entamoebic cysts. Of these, six were further eliminated because they did not meet the inclusion requirements. At the conclusion of the study

  11. DEXMEDETOMIDINE AND FENTANYL FOR ENDOTRACHEAL INTUBATION: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishwanath R

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Severe cardiovascular response in the form of tachycardia and hypertension occur during induction of general anaesthesia and endotracheal intubation. This can cause deleterious effects in hypertensive and other cardiovascular disease patients. Alpha-2 (α-2 agonists are increasingly used as adjuncts in anaesthesia. Nowadays, dexmedetomidine, α-2 adrenoreceptor agonist, is gaining popularity for its sympatholytic, sedative, anaesthetic sparing and haemodynamic stabilizing properties without significant respiratory depression. The stable hemodynamic and decreased oxygen consumption due to enhanced sympathoadrenal stability make dexmedetomidine very useful pharmacologic agent. The present study was undertaken to compare the effectiveness of dexmedetomidine and fentanyl in attenuating the response to laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation during general anaesthesia. We enrolled 100 patients in age range 18-50 years of ASA I-II, and of either sex undergoing elective operation of short duration. Patients were randomly selected and allocated into two Groups. Group D: Received dexmedetomidine 1μg/kg intravenous (IV bolus and Group F: received fentanyl 1μg/kg IV bolus 10min before induction. All patients were induced with thiopentone sodium and vecuronium. Patients in both the Groups were continuously monitored for heart rate, systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure (MAP and data recorded. After induction and intubation HR, SBP, DBP and MAP were significantly lower in Group D than Group F (P<0.004, P=0.00, P<0.04, P<0.006 respectively. The need for thiopentone was decreased by 9% in the dexmedetomidine Group as compared to the fentanyl Group. Post-operative sedation and pain scores were comparably less in Group D than Group F. We conclude, Preoperative infusion of 1μg/kg of both dexmedetomidine and fentanyl are effective in attenuating the sympathetic responses to laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation however, dexmedetomidine blunts this

  12. Comparative efficacy of eptifibatide and abciximab in primary angioplasty study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan Jayasinghe

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Rohan Jayasinghe1 Matias Yudi1 Sanjay Jayasinghe21Cardiology Department, Gold Coast Hospital, Griffith University, Queensland, Australia; 2Centre for Immunisation Research, Sydney, AustraliaBackground: Primary percutaneous intervention is the safest and most effective treatment modality for acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (MI in centers where catheterization facilities exist. Intravenous glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor therapy during the procedures has been proven to provide added benefits. For the two agents, abciximab and eptifibatide, commonly used in this context, there is only limited comparative data available for the clinicians. Hitherto, there is no data published from the Asia–Pacific region on this topic.Method: A retrospective comprehensive analysis was carried out, comparing patients who were treated with abciximab (n = 125 and eptifibatide (n = 125 during primary angioplasty over a 3-year period. The primary outcome measure was in-hospital mortality. The other outcome measures studied include MI, stroke, blood transfusion, contrast nephropathy, significant bleeding, and vascular complications. A comparative cost analysis was carried out to ascertain the average overall differential cost.Results: In-hospital mortality, MI, stroke, blood transfusion, contrast nephropathy, significant bleeding, and vascular complication were observed at a higher rate in the patients who were treated with abciximab. However, these differences did not reach statistical significance. Due to the higher cost per unit and longer hospital stay, therapy with abciximab costs more than that with eptifibatide.Conclusions: Both abciximab and eptifibatide are safe and effective adjunct therapeutic agents in the setting of primary angioplasty. However, there is a trend toward higher adverse event with the former agent that was not statistically significant. Therapy with abciximab costs more per patient.Keywords: abciximab, eptifibatide, PCI, STEMI

  13. Comparative study of Danish and foreign wind turbine economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This comparative study indicates that Denmark still is the leading nation in wind turbine technology in regard to economics as well as energy output and nacelle weight per swept rotor area. For roughness class 1, the levellized socioeconomic costs of wind power from Danish wind turbines is DKK 0.396 - 0.536 per kWh compared with production costs of DKK 0.525 for the most economic of the foreign wind turbines investigated. Furthermore it is pointed out, that there seems to be no correlation between generator capacity or swept rotor area and costs of windpower for the wind turbines investigated. Nevertheless there are arguments for the statement that large scale wind turbines will be relatively more economic in the future. Danish wind turbine manufacturers only produce tree-bladed, stall- or pitch regulated wind turbines with constant rotational speed. In Holland, Germany and UK two-bladed wind turbines and turbines with variable speed has been introduced. Still the new concepts are less economic, but not without future interest. (au)

  14. Colloidal dispersions for the delivery of acyclovir: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Cortesi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a comparative study on the performances of ethosomes and solid lipid nanoparticle as delivery systems for acyclovir. Ethosomes were spontaneously produced by dissolution of phosphatidylcholine and acyclovir in ethanol followed by addition of an aqueous buffer while solid lipid nanoparticle were produced by homogenization and ultrasonication. Both colloidal systems were morphologically characterized by cryo-transmission electron microscopy. The encapsulation efficiency was 94.2±2.8% for ethosomes and 53.2±0.2% for solid lipid nanoparticle. Concerning Z potential, both formulations are close to neutrality. The diffusion coefficients of the drug from ethosomes and solid lipid nanoparticle, determined by a Franz cell method, were 9.4 and 1.2-fold lower as compared to the free acyclovir in solution, thus evidencing the ability of both colloidal systems in enhancing the diffusion of the drug. The antiviral activity against HSV-1 of both systems was tested by plaque reduction assay in monolayer cultures of Vero cells. Data showed that no significant differences in the antiviral activity were observed by acyclovir in the free or loaded forms. Taken together these results, colloidal systems could be interesting to mediate the penetration of acyclovir within Vero cells.

  15. Colloidal dispersions for the delivery of acyclovir: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortesi, Rita; Ravani, Laura; Menegatti, Enea; Drechsler, M; Esposito, Elisabetta

    2011-11-01

    This paper describes a comparative study on the performances of ethosomes and solid lipid nanoparticle as delivery systems for acyclovir. Ethosomes were spontaneously produced by dissolution of phosphatidylcholine and acyclovir in ethanol followed by addition of an aqueous buffer while solid lipid nanoparticle were produced by homogenization and ultrasonication. Both colloidal systems were morphologically characterized by cryo-transmission electron microscopy. The encapsulation efficiency was 94.2±2.8% for ethosomes and 53.2±0.2% for solid lipid nanoparticle. Concerning Z potential, both formulations are close to neutrality. The diffusion coefficients of the drug from ethosomes and solid lipid nanoparticle, determined by a Franz cell method, were 9.4 and 1.2-fold lower as compared to the free acyclovir in solution, thus evidencing the ability of both colloidal systems in enhancing the diffusion of the drug. The antiviral activity against HSV-1 of both systems was tested by plaque reduction assay in monolayer cultures of Vero cells. Data showed that no significant differences in the antiviral activity were observed by acyclovir in the free or loaded forms. Taken together these results, colloidal systems could be interesting to mediate the penetration of acyclovir within Vero cells. PMID:23112407

  16. Evolutionary algorithms, simulated annealing, and Tabu search: a comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Habib; Sait, Sadiq M.; Adiche, Hakim

    1998-10-01

    Evolutionary algorithms, simulated annealing (SA), and Tabu Search (TS) are general iterative algorithms for combinatorial optimization. The term evolutionary algorithm is used to refer to any probabilistic algorithm whose design is inspired by evolutionary mechanisms found in biological species. Most widely known algorithms of this category are Genetic Algorithms (GA). GA, SA, and TS have been found to be very effective and robust in solving numerous problems from a wide range of application domains.Furthermore, they are even suitable for ill-posed problems where some of the parameters are not known before hand. These properties are lacking in all traditional optimization techniques. In this paper we perform a comparative study among GA, SA, and TS. These algorithms have many similarities, but they also possess distinctive features, mainly in their strategies for searching the solution state space. the three heuristics are applied on the same optimization problem and compared with respect to (1) quality of the best solution identified by each heuristic, (2) progress of the search from initial solution(s) until stopping criteria are met, (3) the progress of the cost of the best solution as a function of time, and (4) the number of solutions found at successive intervals of the cost function. The benchmark problem was is the floorplanning of very large scale integrated circuits. This is a hard multi-criteria optimization problem. Fuzzy logic is used to combine all objective criteria into a single fuzzy evaluation function, which is then used to rate competing solutions.

  17. Comparative Study of Volatile Compounds from Genus Ocimum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Vani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There are distinct varieties of basil types in the genus Ocimum which makes them very special. Genus Ocimum is widespread over Asia, Africa and Central & Southern America. All basils are member of the Lamiaceae family. The colors of the leaves vary from bright green to purple-green and sometimes almost black. Fresh basil leaves have a strong and characteristic aroma, not comparable to any other spice, although there is a hint of clove traceable. Ocimum Sanctum, also addressed as Ocimum Tenuiflorum is a sacred plant in the Hindu culture and known as Tulasi in Tamil or Holy Basil in English. Meanwhile Ocimum Basilicum, known as Common or Sweet Basil has very dark green leaves. The genus Ocimum is cultivated for its remarkable essential oil which exhibits many usages such as in medicinal application, herbs, culinary, perfume for herbal toiletries, aromatherapy treatment and as flavoring agent. Due to varying essential oil profiles even within the same species, plants may often be classified as a different species as a result of different scents. In the present study, volatile constituents of Ocimum Sanctum and Ocimum Basilicum were extracted using various solvents and their chemical constituents were identified and quantified by using GC-MS in optimized conditions. The profiles of extract from both species were compared in an effort to investigate effects of seasonal variation on their chemical compositions. The predominant species in Ocimum Sanctum and Ocimum Basilicum was found to be methyl eugenol and methyl chavicol, respectively, during different months of analysis.

  18. A Comparative Study of Radiographic Images on Normal Anatomical Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare radiographic images of Digora system and Ektaspeed Plus film obtained from normal adults. Storage phosphor plate (SPP) was placed in a film holder behind Ektaspeed Plus film package without lead foil. The effect of film on SPP was studied in a separate in vitro experiment. Forty-seven sets of images were prepared for the evaluation. The regions of interest (ROI) for evaluation were designated at seven sites including normal anatomical structures. The image quality for each ROI was evaluated on enhanced and unenhanced storage phosphor (SP) images and Ektaspeed Plus film. Two film-SPP configurations showed significantly different grey levels at each step of the aluminum step wedge (p<0.05). The contrasts were comparable. Enhanced SP images were significantly superior to unenhanced images and film in all anatomical structures (p<0.01). The differences between unenhanced SP images and film were significant (p<0.05) except root canal and cortical bone on alveolar crest. For anatomical items, there were statistically significant difference among five observers (p<0.05). The image quality of enhanced SP images were superior to Ektaspeed Plus film, and Digora system is potentially applicable to clinical diagnosis.

  19. A Comparative Study of Default Reasoning and Epistemic Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李未

    1993-01-01

    A comparative study between the theories of default reasoning and open logic is given.Some concepts of open logic,such as new premises,rejections by facts,reconstructions ,epistemic processes,and its limit are introduced to describe th evolution of hypotheses.An improved version of the limit theorem is given and proved.A model-theoretic interpretation of the closed normal defaults is given using the above concepts and the corresponding completeness is proved.Any extension of a closed normal default theory is proved to be the linit of a δ-partial increasing epistemic process of that theory,and vice versa.It is proved that there exist two distinct extensions of a closed normal default theory iff there is an δ-non-monotonic epistemic process of that theory.The completeness of Reiter's proof is also given and proved,in terms of the epistemic processes.Finally,the work is compared with Gaerdenfors's theory of knowledge in flux.

  20. Early parenting styles and sexual offending behavior: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigre-Leirós, Vera; Carvalho, Joana; Nobre, Pedro J

    2016-01-01

    Sexual offenders, in general, report problematic rearing practices from their parents, lacking however more empirical research on this topic regarding particular subtypes of offenders. The current study examined the relationship between early parenting styles and different types of sexual offending. A total of 113 sexual offenders (rapists, pedophilic and nonpedophilic child molesters), and 51 nonsexual offenders completed the EMBU (My Memories of Upbringing), the Brief Symptom Inventory, and the Socially Desirable Response Set Measure. Results showed that rapists were less likely to remember their fathers as being emotionally warm compared with nonsexual offenders and pedophilic child molesters. In addition, compared with rapists, pedophilic offenders perceived their mothers as having been less emotionally warm to them. Overall, results showed that certain developmental experiences with parents were able to distinguish between subtypes of offenders supporting an association between distal interpersonal factors and sexual offending. These findings may have important implications for early intervention and prevention of sexual crimes. Further research using larger samples of pedophilic child molesters is recommended. PMID:27019974

  1. Comparative study of dose descriptor in pediatric computed tomography exams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aims to investigate the dose descriptor, volumetric Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI), a pediatric patients sample undergoing to skull CT, comparing the results with the diagnostic reference levels of the literature. Were collected volumetric CTDI values of all skull CT exams performed retrospectively in children of 0-10 years of age in a period of 12 months in a large hospital size. Patients, in a total of 103, were divided into four groups, where the criterion of separation used was age, trying to use the same division used in international references dose descriptors. In all acquisitions we used the pediatric protocol and the Automatic Exposure Control (AEC) available on the equipment. The CDTI values, with and without the use of AEC for pediatric studies, were compared. There was a reduction of approximately 100% in the absorbed dose value due to the use of the AEC. From the data collected and analyzed in this work, it is concluded that the use of dose reduction systems is relevant, such as the Care Dose, to maintain volumetric CTDI values within the reference levels. Also it is important the observation of range of children age to the appropriate choice of parameters used in the test protocol. The values obtained are according to the diagnostic reference levels from the literature

  2. Heuristic Synthesis of Reversible Logic – A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chua Shin Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reversible logic circuits have been historically motivated by theoretical research in low-power, and recently attracted interest as components of the quantum algorithm, optical computing and nanotechnology. However due to the intrinsic property of reversible logic, traditional irreversible logic design and synthesis methods cannot be carried out. Thus a new set of algorithms are developed correctly to synthesize reversible logic circuit. This paper presents a comprehensive literature review with comparative study on heuristic based reversible logic synthesis. It reviews a range of heuristic based reversible logic synthesis techniques reported by researchers (BDD-based, cycle-based, search-based, non-search-based, rule-based, transformation-based, and ESOP-based. All techniques are described in detail and summarized in a table based on their features, limitation, library used and their consideration metric. Benchmark comparison of gate count and quantum cost are analysed for each synthesis technique. Comparing the synthesis algorithm outputs over the years, it can be observed that different approach has been used for the synthesis of reversible circuit. However, the improvements are not significant. Quantum cost and gate count has improved over the years, but arguments and debates are still on certain issues such as the issue of garbage outputs that remain the same. This paper provides the information of all heuristic based synthesis of reversible logic method proposed over the years. All techniques are explained in detail and thus informative for new reversible logic researchers and bridging the knowledge gap in this area.

  3. A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE PROFITABILITY OF TOURISTIC PENSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana TINDECHE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The expansion that rural tourism has witnessed in the late XIXth century was determined by the existence of two reasons: on the one side the revival and development of the rural area, and the other side the alternative tourism form compared to traditional, classic or table tourism. It is known that regardless of the external environment in which tourist accommodation units operate, an important role belongs to the quality of the services offered and the satisfaction level of the customers. This study aimed to comparatively analyze the economic efficiency of the Confort Pension located in a rural area and the Danacris Pension from the urban area. The reason for choosing these two units was that the types of tourism they represent are significant areas of operation, namely leisure tourism ("Confort " Pension from Suceava area and business tourism ("Danacris" Pension fromBucharest. Based on the existing methodology in the specialized literature, specific indicators were calculated in order to highlight economic efficiency. Based on the analysis of the main financial standing indicators and the evolution of income and expenditure one may conclude that both companies were profitable.

  4. A comparative study of radiation and gas sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethylene oxide gas has been used as a cold sterilant for heat-sensitive medical equipments and as a fungigant for food for more than 30 years, and it is used more widely than radiation although radiation sterilization has made significant inroads in recent years. But according to recent studies of toxicities such as mutagenicity, haemolytic effect and possible carcinogenicity of Ethylene oxide (ETO) and its two main reaction products, Ethylene chlorohydrin (ETCH) and Ethylene glycol (ETG), Environmental Protection Agency in U.S.A. has suggested some reo.ulations on residual gas in drug products and medical devices for human use. The mutagenic activity of ETO compared with that of X-ray has an equivalency of 1 ppm/hr for ETO as compared to 20 mrad for X-ray, and one could suggest the present maximum allowable concentration for ETO (50 ppm) should be 400 times lower than the radiation standard (2.5 mrad/hr). Although radiation sterilization has advantages of simplicity of operation and complete reliability, changes of physico-chemical properties with possible formation of toxic substances may occur. It is therefore necessary to make some regulations of our own for residual toxicities orginated from each sterilization method. (Author)

  5. A comparative study of the Poetry of Hafez and Emerson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    فتوحی رود معجنی فتوحی رود معجنی

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of Persian poetry on American literature is one of the discussions that have been reviewed to a lesser degree by those, who have done research in the field of comparative literature. The subject of the current article is to examine the influence of Hafez of Shiraz on the romantic poet and the transcendentalist philosopher, Ralph Waldo Emerson. The given research first gives a short introduction on his life and framework of thought, then introduces Emerson’s literary style, and provides information on his acquaintance with Hafez through German median texts. The second part examines Hafez’s personality in the eyes of the American poet-philosopher, and evaluates the quality of Emerson’s translations of the works of Hafez. In the final part, through a comparative study of Emerson’s and Hafez’s poetry, intellectual and stylistic similarities of the two poets, and the extent of Hafez’s influence on Emerson are examined. Hafez’s influence on Emerson is not only evident in his contents and imagination forms, but also in his intellectual framework. These similarities are illustrated through citation of articles, as well as the poetry of Emerson and their comparison with Hafez’s poetry. Key words: Hafez of Shiraz, Emerson, American Literature, influence of Eastern Literature on the West.

  6. Lead exposure among five distinct occupational groups: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharaibeh, Mohammad Younis; Alzoubi, Karem Hasan; Khabour, Omar Falah; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Gharaibeh, Mamoun Abdallah; Matarneh, Sulaiman Khalid

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate blood lead concentration among five selected occupational groups. The five groups were: hospital health workers, shop workers, taxi drivers, automobiles mechanics, and wood workers. The groups did not significantly differ among each other in the average of age and work years. ANOVA test revealed significantly higher mean lead blood concentration in taxi drivers, automechanics, and wood workers compared to other groups. Additionally, workers with lead concentration >0.483 umol/L (10μg/dL) were more likely to have frequent muscle pain compared to those with lower concentrations. No association between other symptoms of lead exposure/toxicity and blood lead concentration was detected. In conclusion, special attention must be directed toward lead blood levels and lead poisoning symptoms when examining patients from certain occupational groups such as taxi drivers, automechanics, and wood workers. Special safety precautions and educational programs are also needed to limit the lead exposure in these occupational groups. PMID:24374433

  7. THE FLAT TAX - A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE EXISTING MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schiau (Macavei Laura - Liana

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In the two last decades the flat tax systems have spread all around the globe from East and Central Europe to Asia and Central America. Many specialists consider this phenomenon a real fiscal revolution, but others see it as a mistake as long as the new systems are just a feint of the true flat tax designed by the famous Stanford University professors Robert Hall and Alvin Rabushka. In this context this paper tries to determine which of the existing flat tax systems resemble the true flat tax model by comparing and contrasting their main characteristics with the features of the model proposed by Hall and Rabushka. The research also underlines the common features and the differences between the existing models. The idea of this kind of study is not really new, others have done it but the comparison was limited to one country. For example Emil Kalchev from New Bulgarian University has asses the Bulgarian income system, by comparing it with the flat tax and concluding that taxation in Bulgaria is not simple, neutral and non-distortive. Our research is based on several case studies and on compare and contrast qualitative and quantitative methods. The study starts form the fiscal design drawn by the two American professors in the book The Flat Tax. Four main characteristics of the flat tax system were chosen in order to build the comparison: fiscal design, simplicity, avoidance of double taxation and uniformity of the tax rates. The jurisdictions chosen for the case study are countries all around the globe with fiscal systems which are considered flat tax systems. The results obtained show that the fiscal design of Hong Kong is the only flat tax model which is built following an economic logic and not a legal sense, being in the same time a simple and transparent system. Others countries as Slovakia, Albania, Macedonia in Central and Eastern Europe fulfill the requirement regarding the uniformity of taxation. Other jurisdictions avoid the double

  8. Comparative Study on Property Income of Farmers in Shaanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Hong

    2012-01-01

    According to statistic data of Shaanxi Province during 1997 to 2010,I conducted a comparative analysis on farmers’ property income from region,urban and rural factors and structure,established regression model,and studied the relationship between farmers’ property income and gross income.Results show that the growth of average property income of farmers in Shaanxi Province is clearly slow,and the gap is widening from the average national level;except 2001 and 2002,the average property income of urban and rural residents of Shaanxi Province kept a great difference;the proportion of rural residents’ property income is very small,basically not higher than 3%;there is a significant correlation between the property income and gross income of farmers in Shaanxi Province.Energetically developing rural economy and increasing farmers’ property are favorable to growth of farmers’ property income.

  9. A comparative study of European nuclear energy programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Presas i Puig, Albert (ed.)

    2011-07-01

    The report includes the following contributions: Comparative study of European Nuclear Energy Programs. From international cooperation to the failure of a national program: the Austrian case. The ''go-and-stop'' of the Italian civil nuclear programs, among improvisations, ambitions and conspiracy. Nuclear energy in Spain - a research agenda for economic historians. The Portuguese nuclear program: a peripheral experience under dictatorship (1945-1973). The nuclear energy programs in Switzerland. The rise and decline of an independent nuclear power industry in Sweden, 1945-1970. The German fast breeder program, a historical review. Fast reactors as future visions - the case of Sweden. Transnational flows of nuclear knowledge between the U.S. and the U.K. and continental Europe in the 1950/60s. The Carter administration and its non-proliferation policies: the road to INFCE.

  10. A comparative study of preservation and storage of Haemophilus influenzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga C Aulet de Saab

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of conservation by freezing the strains of Haemophilus influenzae at -20ºC and -70ºC. Skim milk supplemented with glucose, yeast extract and glycerol allowed highest viability of H. influenzae both at -20ºC and -70ºC from the media analyzed. Trypticase soy broth and brain heart infusion broth supplemented with glycerol, allowed excellent recovery. Use of cotton swaps as supporting material, with or without addition of cryoprotective agents, did not modify H. influenzae viability after six months of storage. Concentration of the initial inoculum positively affected viability when stored at -20ºC. Initial concentration did not influence survival after storage at -70ºC. Thawing at room temperature should not exceed 3 h as to get highest survival percentage.

  11. Comparative study of cesium adsorption on dioctahedral and trioctahedral smectites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentonites which are characterized by good rheological, mineralogical and chemical stability is considered used as sealing barriers in multibarrier Slovak system of deep geological repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. In Slovak Republic there are several significant deposits of bentonite, which are characterized by appropriate adsorption properties and meet the geotechnical requirements for this type of barriers. Study of adsorption properties of bentonites and other smectites is an essential step for developing the migration model long-lived corrosion and activation products, and fission products of uranium. Nuclear wastes contain the most important nuclear fission products, radioisotopes 134Cs and 137Cs. The present paper investigates and compares the cesium adsorption properties of Slovak and North America bentonites composed mainly of dioctahedral smectite montmorillonite (J, L, SAz-1 and STx-1) and trioctahedral smectites saponite (SapCa-2) and hectorite (SHCa-1). (author)

  12. Comparative study of electron conduction in azulene and naphthalene

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sudipta Dutta; S Lakshmi; Swapan K Pati

    2008-06-01

    We have studied the feasibility of electron conduction in azulene molecule and compared with that in its isomer naphthalene. We have used non-equilibrium Green’s function formalism to measure the current in our systems as a response of the external electric field. Parallely we have performed the Gaussian calculations with electric field in the same bias window to observe the impact of external bias on the wave functions of the systems. We have found that the conduction of azulene is higher than that of naphthalene inspite of its intrinsic donor–acceptor property, which leads a system to more insulating state. Due to stabilization through charge transfer the azulene system can be fabricated as a very effective molecular wire. Our calculations show the possibility of huge device application of azulene in nano-scale instruments.

  13. Comparative Study of Turbines for Wave Energy Conversion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hideaki Maeda; Toshiaki Setoguchi; Manabu Takao; Keita Sakurada; Tae-Ho Kin; Kenji Kaneko

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to compare the performances of the turbines, which could be used for wave energy conversion in the near future, under various irregular wave conditions. The turbines included in the paper are as follows: (a) Wells turbine with guide vanes; (b) impulse turbine with self-pitch-controlled guide vanes; (c) impulse turbine with fixed guide vanes. In this study, experimental investigations were carried out to clarify the performances of the turbines under steady flow conditions, and then a numerical simulation was used for predicting the performances under irregular wave conditions with various significant wave heights. As a result, it was found that the running and starting characteristics of the impulse turbines could be superior to those of the Wells turbine.

  14. Comparative study of synthesis and reduction methods for graphene oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Alazmi, Amira

    2016-05-14

    Graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) have congregated much interest as promising active materials for a variety of applications such as electrodes for supercapacitors. Yet, partially given the absence of comparative studies in synthesis methodologies, a lack of understanding persists on how to best tailor these materials. In this work, the effect of using different graphene oxidation-reduction strategies in the structure and chemistry of rGOs is systematically discussed. Two of the most popular oxidation routes in the literature were used to obtain GO. Subsequently, two sets of rGO powders were synthesised employing three different reduction routes, totalling six separate products. It is shown that the extension of the structural rearrangement in rGOs is not just dependent on the reduction step but also on the approach followed for the initial graphite oxidation.

  15. Response comparative study of Rn-222 alpha particles track monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work was a comparative study between the responses of three monitors, the NRPB, an acrylic monitor (in thin film geometry) and the aluminum monitor (also thin film geometry) in controlled and mixed environment. The experiments consisted on placing the monitors in a plastic tube, with a radio-226 source internal. Only internal CR-39 plastic detectors were analyzed in this work. It was found that the monitors in thin film geometry had activities response of approximately 15% less than the NRPB monitors. All monitors responded the same way when in controlled environment. Related to the type of material, conductive plastic or dielectric (insulator) plastic, the NRPB, in environments without ventilation, responded in the same way. (author)

  16. [Comparative study of discriminative stimulus properties of antidepressants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, A O; Kalinina, T S; Volkova, A V; Mokrov, G V; Kudriashov, N V; Voronina, T A

    2014-01-01

    Interoceptive stimulus properties of amitriptyline (54 mg/kg body weight), fluoxetine (10 mg/kg), and pyrrolo[1,2-a][1,4]diazepine derivative GMAL-24 (10 mg/kg) were studied in a standard operant model with liquid reinforcement of drug discrimination (DD) in male Wistar rats. A new experimental schedule that includes subchronic (7-day) administration of a training drug was used to perform DD learning. For the first time, it was found that amitriptyline has a discriminative interoceptive stimulus properties. Neither fluoxetine nor GMAL-24 did exhibit interoceptive properties. Imipramine (15 mg/kg, i.p.) fully substitutes for amitriptyline stimulus in substitution test. Fluoxetine (5 - 20 mg/kg, i.p.) failed to substitute with amitriptyline. Thus, amitriptyline/saline drug discrimination should be used for a comparative analysis of the central mechanisms of action of psychotropic substances, rather than for screening specific antidepressant activity. PMID:25322645

  17. PREDICTING THE INTENTION TO USE INTERNET – A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slaven Brumec

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on an application of the Triandis Model in researching Internet usage and the intention to use Internet. Unlike other TAM-based studies undertaken to date, the Triandis Model offers a sociological account of interaction between the various factors, particularly attitude, intention, and behavior. The technique of Structural Equation Modeling was used to assess the impact those factors have on intention to use the Internet in accordance with the relationships posited by the Triandis Model. The survey was administered to Croatian undergraduate students at and employed individuals. The survey results are compared to the results of a similar survey that was carried out by two universities in Hong Kong.

  18. A comparative study of two stochastic mode reduction methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinis, Panagiotis

    2005-09-01

    We present a comparative study of two methods for thereduction of the dimensionality of a system of ordinary differentialequations that exhibits time-scale separation. Both methods lead to areduced system of stochastic differential equations. The novel feature ofthese methods is that they allow the use, in the reduced system, ofhigher order terms in the resolved variables. The first method, proposedby Majda, Timofeyev and Vanden-Eijnden, is based on an asymptoticstrategy developed by Kurtz. The second method is a short-memoryapproximation of the Mori-Zwanzig projection formalism of irreversiblestatistical mechanics, as proposed by Chorin, Hald and Kupferman. Wepresent conditions under which the reduced models arising from the twomethods should have similar predictive ability. We apply the two methodsto test cases that satisfy these conditions. The form of the reducedmodels and the numerical simulations show that the two methods havesimilar predictive ability as expected.

  19. Social Capital in Russia and Denmark: A Comparative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjøllund, Lene; Paldam, Martin; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2001-01-01

    This paper has three purposes: (p1) To study the relation between the main social capital definitions using empirical data. (p2) To compare the level of social capital in a new democracy (Russia) and an old one (Denmark). (p3) To show whether social capital matters for income generation and...... eventually to economic growth. The main results are: (r1) The differences in social capital between the two countries is similar by all social capital measures used. (r2) The level of beneficial social capital is roughly three times higher in the old democracy than in the former communist dictatorship. (r3......) Social capital matters in the earnings equation. In both countries it explains roughly 40% of what human capital explains in both countries....

  20. Multiple comparative studies of Green Supply Chain Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Lihui; Mathiyazhagan, K.; Govindan, Kannan;

    2013-01-01

    products. Such organizations in developing countries like India and China are under pressure to adopt green concepts in supply chain operations to compete in the market and satisfy their customers' increasing needs. This paper offers a comparative study of pressures that impact the adoption of Green Supply...... Chain Management (GSCM). Thirty two pressures are identified from extensive literature reviews and they are classified into five distinct groups based on their similarities. A detailed questionnaire is prepared and circulated among industries in various sectors. Industries were requested through this...... means using Tukey's test was used. The analysis was performed for different sectors and different scales of production categories. The results and their implications are also discussed. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  1. Psychological profile of women with infertility: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuvabrata Poddar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: An endeavour to probe into the psychological profile of infertile women in a comparative stance with the fertile women is not very common. This study is an attempt to explore the possible non-apparent personality factors which contribute to the unexplained pain of infertility. Methods: The main objectives of the present study were (a to examine whether infertile women are different from fertile women in terms of selected psychological variables- narcissistic components, dimensions of attachment style and uses of defensive manoeuvres; and (b whether the primary infertile women (n=18 are different from the secondary infertile women (n=12 with respect to those variables. A total of 60 individuals (30 infertile women and 30 matched fertile women were assessed through Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ, Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI and Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40. General Health Questionnaire (GHQ was administered on to the fertile women to rule out the psychiatric morbidity. Results: Findings revealed that infertile women group differed from fertile women group with respect to narcissism, dimensions of attachment style and uses of defense mechanism. The primary infertile group also showed marked difference from the secondary infertile group with respect to those variables. Conclusions: This study endeavours to enrich the knowledge regarding the personality dynamics of infertile women to design psychotherapeutic programme to aid their well-being, help them to cherish the flavour of parenthood and improve their quality of life.

  2. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF TERTIARY WASTEWATER TREATMENT BY COMPUTER SIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Iordache

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to asses conditions for implementation of a Biological Nutrient Removal (BNR process in theWastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP of Moreni city (Romania. In order to meet the more increased environmentalregulations, the wastewater treatment plant that was studied, must update the actual treatment process and have tomodernize it. A comparative study was undertaken of the quality of effluents that could be obtained by implementationof biological nutrient removal process like A2/O (Anaerobic/Anoxic/Oxic and VIP (Virginia Plant Initiative aswastewater tertiary treatments. In order to asses the efficiency of the proposed treatment schemata based on the datamonitored at the studied WWTP, it were realized computer models of biological nutrient removal configurations basedon A2/O and VIP process. Computer simulation was realized using a well-known simulator, BioWin by EnviroSimAssociates Ltd. The simulation process allowed to obtain some data that can be used in design of a tertiary treatmentstage at Moreni WWTP, in order to increase the efficiency in operation.

  3. Biofragmentable bowel anastomosis ring: comparative efficacy studies in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maney, J W; Katz, A R; Li, L K; Pace, W G; Hardy, T G

    1988-01-01

    Three studies were conducted in a total of 178 dogs to determine the efficacy of a biofragmentable bowel anastomosis ring (BAR) composed of polyglycolic acid and 12.5% barium sulfate. Wound strength and healing of BAR, suture, and staple colonic anastomoses were compared for intervals of up to 1 year. The effect of systemic steroid treatment and BAR size on anastomotic wound strength and healing was also studied. The BARs fragmented at a mean time of 15.06 days postoperatively and were passed in the feces without injury. Wound strength was determined by measurements of the pressure required to burst the anastomosed colonic segment and measurements of the tension required to break 10 mm wide longitudinal strips of the anastomosed segment. The studies demonstrated that wound strength had progressed to a point where continued mechanical support (with sutures or staples) was no longer required by 14 days in both nontreated and steroid-treated dogs. Gross healing evaluations at 21 days and beyond showed no differences due to anastomotic method. Microscopic evaluations suggested that residual granulation tissue was less at the sites of BAR asastomoses than at sites of suture or staple anastomoses at the 1-year interval, suggesting that healing may be better with BAR than with standard methods of colon anastomosis. PMID:3336869

  4. Migration and Economic Development Comparative Study: Romania-Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petronela Daniela FERARU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article „Migration and development. Comparative Study: Romania-Italy” is part of the doctoral thesis entitled Religion and migration in contemporary Romania. Case study: Romanian citizens from Italy and represents in fact the second perspective approached by the thesis, namely migration and development, the first perspective being migration and religion. Migration is the social process with increasingly high influence on the Romanian society of these days. It is selective and dynamic and therefore it requires a complex approach. Over the past years, the remittances of Romanian citizens from other countries have represented the safest external deficit financing source. After several years of constant growth and in the current context marked by social and political changes, the remittance flows decreased significantly. This evolution is based on the background of international economic and financial crisis and of the deteriorating economies of countries all over the world.The topic of this paper is the interaction between migration and development, having as starting point the information provided by various authors in the field of migration and economy, as well as statistical data, slowly progressing towards the various facets of development and migration from a wide conceptual viewpoint and the specific theory of current development and migration. The entire study is focused on the neoclassical economic theory with both macro and micro applications as well as on the current variant of international migration – transnational migration.The general premise is that the external migration of Romanian population is mainly determined by economic differences.

  5. A Comparative Study on Flood Management in China and Japan

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    Guangwei Huang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Attempts at flood management during the 20th century resulted in more flood disasters. To gain a better understanding of what went wrong, it is necessary to examine historical evidence, seek ancient wisdom and compare practices of flood management in different countries. This study examines flood management concepts and practices in China and Japan during different periods of time in history and the differences in the two countries’ current management of flood retarding basins. It reveals that during the Western Han Dynasty (206 BC–24 AD, China proposed to redirect a river course to gain sufficient flood retarding capacity, and this same concept was realized, either coincidentally or intentionally, during the Edo period of Japan (1603–1868. In modern times, however, the management of flood retarding basins differs fundamentally between China and Japan. In addition, this study investigates the differences in emergency evacuation practices between China and Japan. This is the first study to highlight the link between a Chinese concept and a Japanese practice that are separated by more than 1000 years.

  6. A Comparative Study of Compliment Responses in Russian and Turkish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiydegul Alymidin Kyzy

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Responding to compliments is particularly of great importance for researchers because they require a great deal of pragmatic knowledge. Strategies used in responding to a compliment vary from culture to culture. In order to master a foreign language, to be fully competent in a foreign language it is helpful for students to learn the social values and rules of that society. Not knowing the sociolinguistic rules of the language being used may cause pragmatic failure. This in turn may cause communication breakdown. In the light of these assumptions comparative and contrastive studies of languages can serve to ease the task of comprehending both the linguistic and pragmatic features of a language and the differences between native and the foreign languages. The present study investigates compliment responses (CR among Russian and Turkish speakers. The data were collected through the use of written Discourse Completion Tasks (DTC, with 12 questions on 4 topics (appearance, ability, possession and personality. Total 30 university students participated in the study.

  7. Atherosclerotic Plaque Destabilization in Mice: A Comparative Study.

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    Helene Hartwig

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis-associated diseases are the main cause of mortality and morbidity in western societies. The progression of atherosclerosis is a dynamic process evolving from early to advanced lesions that may become rupture-prone vulnerable plaques. Acute coronary syndromes are the clinical manifestation of life-threatening thrombotic events associated with high-risk vulnerable plaques. Hyperlipidemic mouse models have been extensively used in studying the mechanisms controlling initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. However, the understanding of mechanisms leading to atherosclerotic plaque destabilization has been hampered by the lack of proper animal models mimicking this process. Although various mouse models generate atherosclerotic plaques with histological features of human advanced lesions, a consensus model to study atherosclerotic plaque destabilization is still lacking. Hence, we studied the degree and features of plaque vulnerability in different mouse models of atherosclerotic plaque destabilization and find that the model based on the placement of a shear stress modifier in combination with hypercholesterolemia represent with high incidence the most human like lesions compared to the other models.

  8. A Comparative Study of Comparative and Politeness Principles between Chinese and English Cultures(Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席晓

    2008-01-01

    This paper shows that people lay special emphasis on difference aspects of"Comparative principle"or"politeness principle"in the light of their own culture in cross-culture communication.And it analyses what the differences of PP in the language using in Pragmatic are,and why?It deals with the differences between English and Chinese cultures.

  9. Comparing the Leadership Styles of Two Heads of Department at Carnelian School: Comparative Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parascandalo, Marthese

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to compare and contrast the Leadership Styles of two Heads of Department who work at Carnelian Secondary School (anonymized). It augments a previous paper (Parascandalo 2011) which examined the role of the middle leader in secondary schools in educational literature. The investigation by means of two…

  10. Extreme storm surges: a comparative study of frequency analysis approaches

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    Y. Hamdi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In France, nuclear facilities were designed to very low probabilities of failure. Nevertheless, exceptional climatic events have given rise to surges much larger than observations (outliers and had clearly illustrated the potential to underestimate the extreme water levels calculated with the current statistical methods. The objective of the present work is to conduct a comparative study of three approaches including the Annual Maxima (AM, the Peaks-Over Threshold (POT and the r-Largest Order Statistics (r-LOS. These methods are illustrated in a real analysis case study. All the data sets were screened for outliers. Non-parametric tests for randomness, homogeneity and stationarity of time series were used. The shape and scale parameters stability plots, the mean excess residual life plot and the stability of the standard errors of return levels were used to select optimal thresholds and r values for the POT and r-LOS method, respectively. The comparison of methods was based on: (i the uncertainty degrees, (ii the adequacy criteria and tests and (iii the visual inspection. It was found that the r-LOS and POT methods have reduced the uncertainty on the distributions parameters and return level estimates and have systematically shown values of the 100 and 500 yr return levels smaller than those estimated with the AM method. Results have also shown that none of the compared methods has allowed a good fitting at the right tail of the distribution in the presence of outliers. As a perspective, the use of historical information was proposed in order to increase the representativity of outliers in data sets. Findings are of practical relevance not only to nuclear energy operators in France, for applications in storm surge hazard analysis and flood management, but also for the optimal planning and design of facilities to withstand extreme environmental conditions, with an appropriate level of risk.

  11. Systemic Inflammation in Cardiovascular and Periodontal Disease: Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glurich, Ingrid; Grossi, Sara; Albini, Boris; Ho, Alex; Shah, Rashesh; Zeid, Mohamed; Baumann, Heinz; Genco, Robert J.; De Nardin, Ernesto

    2002-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have implicated periodontal disease (PD) as a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). These studies addressed the premise that local infection may perturb the levels of systemic inflammatory mediators, thereby promoting mechanisms of atherosclerosis. Levels of inflammatory mediators in the sera of subjects with only PD, only CVD, both diseases, or neither condition were compared. Subjects were assessed for levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), ceruloplasmin, α1-acid-glycoprotein (AAG), α1-antichymotrypsin (ACT), and the soluble cellular adhesion molecules sICAM-1 and sVCAM by enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent and/or radial immunodiffusion assays. CRP levels in subjects with either condition alone were elevated twofold above subjects with neither disease, whereas a threefold increase was noted in subjects with both diseases (P = 0.0389). Statistically significant increases in SAA and ACT were noted in subjects with both conditions compared to those with one or neither condition (P = 0.0162 and 0.0408, respectively). Ceruloplasmin levels were increased in subjects with only CVD (P = 0.0001). Increases in sVCAM levels were noted in all subjects with CVD (P = 0.0054). No differences in sICAM levels were noted among subject groups. A trend toward higher levels of AAG was noted in subjects with both conditions and for ACT in subjects with only PD. Immunohistochemical examination of endarterectomy specimens of carotid arteries from subjects with atherosclerosis documented SAA and CRP deposition in association with atheromatous lesions. The data support the hypothesis that localized persistent infection may influence systemic levels of inflammatory mediators. Changes in inflammatory mediator levels potentially impact inflammation-associated atherosclerotic processes. PMID:11874889

  12. Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism: a comparative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiren Karathia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Model organisms are used for research because they provide a framework on which to develop and optimize methods that facilitate and standardize analysis. Such organisms should be representative of the living beings for which they are to serve as proxy. However, in practice, a model organism is often selected ad hoc, and without considering its representativeness, because a systematic and rational method to include this consideration in the selection process is still lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this work we propose such a method and apply it in a pilot study of strengths and limitations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism. The method relies on the functional classification of proteins into different biological pathways and processes and on full proteome comparisons between the putative model organism and other organisms for which we would like to extrapolate results. Here we compare S. cerevisiae to 704 other organisms from various phyla. For each organism, our results identify the pathways and processes for which S. cerevisiae is predicted to be a good model to extrapolate from. We find that animals in general and Homo sapiens in particular are some of the non-fungal organisms for which S. cerevisiae is likely to be a good model in which to study a significant fraction of common biological processes. We validate our approach by correctly predicting which organisms are phenotypically more distant from S. cerevisiae with respect to several different biological processes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The method we propose could be used to choose appropriate substitute model organisms for the study of biological processes in other species that are harder to study. For example, one could identify appropriate models to study either pathologies in humans or specific biological processes in species with a long development time, such as plants.

  13. A comparative study in disaster planning in selected countries

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    Mahmode M

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Assessment of different strategic in disaster planning in selected countries. According to the international report indicating that IRAN is among the seven countries most susceptible to disaster, experiencing 31 known disasters out of 40 in the world, occurrence of 1536 moderate to severe earthquake, during 1370-80 and 712 other disasters at the same period it seems necessary to design a disaster plan."nMethods: This research is a comparative-descriptive and case based study in which the researcher used random sampling process in selecting the statistical society from both developed and developing countries. In this goal oriented research the necessary information are extracted from valid global reports, articles and many questionnaires which were subjected to scientific analysis."nResults: Studying different countries (which includes: Canada, Japan, India, USA, Turkey, Pakistan and Iran shows that there is a direct relationship between the level of countries development and their success in disaster planning and management (including preventive measures and confrontation. In most of the studied countries, decentralized planning caused many professional planners participate in different levels of disaster management which ultimately led to development of efficient and realistic plans which in turn decreased the catastrophic effects of disasters dramatically. The results of the aforementioned countries showed that a balanced approach to disaster plan with investment in prophylactic area is very important."nConclusion: As our country uses a centralized strategy for disaster management which has proven its ineffectiveness, the researcher suggests that we should change our approach in disaster management and let our planners participate from all levels include: provincial, rural and etc. This will led to a reality based planning and using all potential capacities in disaster management. According to this study it will be possible to use

  14. Effect oh health condition on aesthetic value of green spaces in Pionirski park in Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galečić Nevenka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The relation between health condition and aesthetic value of green spaces was studied in Pionirski Park. Mean ratings of these values were compared and analyzed for different plant categories (broadleaf trees, coniferous trees broadleaf shrubs, evergreen shrubs and coniferous shrubs. It was concluded that in Pionirski Park broadleaf trees have higher aesthetic values than coniferous trees. Total aesthetic value of coniferous trees is lower than that of broadleaf trees, because the latter are infested by pests and diseases of assimilation organs, which have been present for many years in high degrees of infestation and infection. It was concluded that coniferous trees were significantly degraded thanks to inadequate maintenance, by which their aesthetic value was reduced and their life span significantly shortened. It is extremely important to research the current health condition of green spaces and to determine what reclamation measures are necessary to conserve and enhance its authenticity, cultural-landscape heritage and aesthetic value.

  15. COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON NITROGEN BUDGETS OF CLOSED SHRIMP POLYCULTURE SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    April to October, 1997 comparative studies on the nitrogen budgets of closed shrimp polyculture systems showed that, in all the studied polyculture systems, nitrogen from feeds and fertilizers were the main input items, which comprised 70.7%-83.9% of the total input nitrogen, 3.2%-7.4% of which was provided by nitrogen fixation. It was in monoculture enclosures (Y-4, Y-11 and Y-12) that the percentage reached the maximum value. The output nitrogen in harvested products comprised 10.8%-24.6% of total input nitrogen, and the highest percentage, 24.6%, was found in shrimp-fish-tagelus polyculture systems. In shrimp monoculture and shrimp-fish polyculture systems, they were 19.1% and 21.9%, respectively. The nitrogen utilization efficiency was different and varied from 12.2% to 20.1%. The highest, 20.1%, was found in shrimp-fish-tagelus polyculture systems, and the average of 20.0% was found in shrimp-tagelus polyculture systems. The lowest, 12.2%, was found in shrimp monoculture systems. All the nitrogen utilization efficiencies in shrimp-fish systems or shrimp-scallop systems seemed to be higher than that of the monoculture system, but they showed little statistical difference. The main outputs of nitrogen were found in sediment mud, and comprised 48.2%-60.8% of the total input, the lowest percentage was found in shrimp-fish-tagelus polyculture systems, and the highest percentage in shrimp-scallop systems. During the experiment, nitrogen lost through denitrification and ammonia volatilization comprised 1.9%-6.2%, averaged 2.8%, of the total input, and the loss through seepage comprised 5.9%-8.9% of the total. The estimated nitrogen attached to the enclosure wall comprised 3.7%-13.3% of the total, and was highest in shrimp monoculture systems. Compared with the classic shrimp farming industry, the closed shrimp polyculture systems may improve the nitrogen utilization efficiency, and hence reduce the environmental impacts on coastal waters. The nitrogen discharging

  16. Spatial Navigation Strategies in Peromyscus: a Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jašarević, Eldin; Williams, Scott A; Roberts, R Michael; Geary, David C; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S

    2012-11-01

    A male advantage in spatial abilities is predicted to evolve in species where males rely on expansion of home territory to locate dispersed mates during the breeding season. We sought to examine mechanistic underpinnings of this evolved trait by comparing spatial navigational abilities in two species of Peromyscus that employ widely different reproductive strategies. Males and females from outbred stocks of deer mice (P. maniculatus bairdii) in which males engage in territorial expansion and mate search and California mice (P. californicus insignis), in which males do not, were administered tasks that assessed spatial learning and memory, and activity and exploratory behaviours. The maze employed for these studies included four spatial cues that could be used to aid in locating 1 of 12 potential escape holes. As predicted, male deer mice outperformed conspecific females and California mice males in maze performance and memory, and this difference appeared to be due to extent to which animals used spatial cues to guide maze navigation. Consistent with territorial expansion as a component of competition for mates, male deer mice were more active and engaged in more exploratory and less anxiety-related behaviours than conspecific females and California mice males. The results have implications for understanding and studying the cognitive and behavioural mechanisms that have evolved through male-male competition that involves territorial expansion and mate search. PMID:23355748

  17. Comparative studies on the status of Indonesian coral reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soekarno, R.

    Coral reefs are of great economic importance for Indonesia. Unfortunately these resources are suffering from increasing human pressure. Several factors may cause the degradation of coral reefs, including the consequences of several human activities. Activities indirectly affecting the quality of the reefs are land-based activities such as deforestation, agriculture intensification, industrialization and domestic waste disposal. Direct use of the reefs, e.g. by coral mining, fish blasting and other fishing and collecting activities, is of greater and more widespread importance. Therefore, a rational management of the reef resources is urgently needed. Management is impossible without simple means of monitoring the status of reefs. One factor, living coral cover, has been determined for several years in many areas, including those studied during the Snellius-II Expedition. This allowed a comparative study of several different areas, which showed that coral cover is often very useful as an indication of the quality of reefs. It was found that the diversity of reef fishes is correlated with the condition of reefs as determined by the percentage cover of living coral.

  18. Comparative study of models for oil boom simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) as a tool for simulating a variety of fluid flows, including oil spills on water was discussed. A common response to an oil spill on water is to use an oil retention boom to contain the oil, and to use a skimmer to recover it. In order to be as efficient as possible in oil recovery, the speed of oil herding should be as high as possible, but if it exceeds a critical value, boom failure can occur and the oil may escape underneath the boom because of hydrodynamic forces. In this computational study, the flows around a flat plate barrier and a real boom configuration with the same draft were compared. Results showed that the flow patterns for the two cases at low velocity were almost the same. The exception was for the boom tip and oil slick regions where small differences in velocity and pressure were noticed. It was concluded that in studying boom failure, a simple flat plate barrier can be used instead of a real boom configuration with the same draft. 9 refs., 8 figs

  19. Laser diagnodent: a comparative study with other diagnostic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An evaluation of the Diagnodent equipment (Kavo Company, Germany) for the occlusal caries detection was dane through the comparison with other conventional diagnostic techniques, such as visual inspection, intra-oral micro camera and digital X-ray. The effectiveness of the equipment in the detection of hidden caries and its viability as a diagnosis method for caries in their initial stage was also studied. Fifty eight permanent molars and premolars teeth from patients with age between 6 and 30 years were studied. The obtained results indicated that the conventional methods employed for the caries diagnosis are unable to detect the carious lesion in its initial stage. The Diagnodent equipment has this capability to detect caries presenting a flawless surface, specially the hidden caries, allowing the dentist to decide between a preventive ar a conservative procedure. The main advantage of the Diagnodent is to be an objective method, compared to the visual and radiographic ones, that are dependent on the professional interpretation. The Diagnodent is, therefore, a promising alternative as an objective and standardized diagnosis method for the final diagnostic. (author)

  20. Comparative study of different surface decontaminants on chicken quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinhamahapatra, M; Biswas, S; Das, A K; Bhattacharyya, D

    2004-10-01

    (1) A comparative study on the effect of different surface decontaminants: hot water at 70 degrees C for one minute; 2% lactic acid for 30 s; 1200 p.p.m. acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) solution for 5 s and 50 p.p.m. chlorine solution for 5 min in the form of dips and sprays on the surface of dressed broilers for 0, 24 and 48 h of storage was conducted. (2) The variables studied were, total plate count (TPC), presumptive coliform count (PCC), pH and extract release volume (ERV). All treatments reduced TPC and PCC. (3) Lactic acid dip and hot water dip were the most effective for reducing TPC (1.36 and 1.28 log/cm2, respectively) with no significant difference between them. (4) ASC and hot water in dip could diminish PCC (1.37 and 1.34 log/cm2, respectively) and did not vary significantly. (5) No treatment affected muscle pH, water holding capacity (WHC), ERV, appearance, smell, tenderness and overall acceptability of treated broilers significantly. (6) Hot water treatment is the cheapest, most convenient and simplest decontamination technique for hygienic and wholesome poultry production. PMID:15623215

  1. Comparative study of models for oil boom simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, C.F.; Barron, R.M. [Windsor Univ., Fluid Dynamics Research Institute, Windsor, ON (Canada)

    1998-09-01

    The use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) as a tool for simulating a variety of fluid flows, including oil spills on water was discussed. A common response to an oil spill on water is to use an oil retention boom to contain the oil, and to use a skimmer to recover it. In order to be as efficient as possible in oil recovery, the speed of oil herding should be as high as possible, but if it exceeds a critical value, boom failure can occur and the oil may escape underneath the boom because of hydrodynamic forces. In this computational study, the flows around a flat plate barrier and a real boom configuration with the same draft were compared. Results showed that the flow patterns for the two cases at low velocity were almost the same. The exception was for the boom tip and oil slick regions where small differences in velocity and pressure were noticed. It was concluded that in studying boom failure, a simple flat plate barrier can be used instead of a real boom configuration with the same draft. 9 refs., 8 figs.

  2. Endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy with and without silicone stenting: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Shashidhar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: The objective of the present study is to compare the results of performing endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy for primary nasolacrimal duct obstruction with and without silicone stenting. Methods: This is a prospective randomized study including 57 patients who underwent 62 endonasal DCR procedures. 32 eyes underwent DCR with bicanalicular silicone stenting which was kept for 6 weeks. 30 eyes underwent DCR without stenting. Follow up was done for 6 months. Outcome of the surgery was noted as success in terms of complete relief from epiphora, patency of the ostium assessed by nasal endoscopy and lacrimal sac syringing. Results: The overall success rate for endoscopic endonasal DCR was 90.3%. Success rates were 93.7% with stenting and 86.7% without stenting. There was no statistical difference in the outcome of the two groups (p=0.4180. Complications noted were granulations, synechiae, periorbital edema and punctal trauma, with no difference in the frequency of occurrence in the two groups. Conclusion: There is no significant increase in the success rates of DCR on using silicone stenting. A selective stenting approach may be advocated, using stenting for specific indications. With proper technique and good follow up, stenting is not associated with any significant complications.

  3. Comparative studies on antisickling properties of thiocyanate, tellurite and hydroxyurea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiocyanate, hydroxyurea and tellurite are among chemical agents being used as antisickling drugs and currently receiving attention for research. The antisickling properties of these drugs was investigated and compared in this study. Human sickle blood was incubated with the drugs in vitro at concentrations related to the dose used by patients in vivo. Haemoglobin function and specific aspects of the sickling process were then measured by employing standard methods used in screening potential antisickling agents. All the drugs significantly inhibited (P<0.05) sickling of deoxygenated sickle blood and formation of irreversibly sickled cell in a dose and time-dependent manner. Thiocyanate, hydroxyurea and tellurite inhibited sickling optimally at 20 mM, 40 mM and 50 microM respectively. Thiocyanate and hydroxyurea prolonged sickle red blood cell life span as indicated in the significant decrease in haemolysis and osmotic fragility while tellurite increased these blood parameters. The three drugs also caused significant prolongation of delay time of haemoglobin S (HbS) polymerization while thiocyanate and hydroxyurea significantly increased (P<0.05) both solubility ratio and oxygen affinity of HbS. Results obtained in this study suggest that the three drugs have remarkable antisickling potential in vitro with thiocyanate being the most efficient followed by tellurite. (author)

  4. Comparative study of solvent properties for carbon dioxide absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschenbrenner, O.; Styring, P. [University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    Several inexpensive and non-toxic solvents with low vapour pressures were investigated for their suitability as alternative solvents for the absorption of carbon dioxide from flue gas. The solvents include poly(ethylene glycol)s, poly(ethylene glycol) ethers, poly(ethylenimine) and glycerol-based substances. Solvent properties such as thermal stability, solubility of carbon dioxide and selectivity over nitrogen were investigated in a systematic study using a thermogravimetric analyser. Absorption results are reported for pure carbon dioxide and nitrogen as well as a mixture of both gases. Desorption and long-term sorption behaviour are also discussed. Glycerol and poly(ethylene glycol)s show a high solubility of carbon dioxide. Due to the high viscosity of the solvent, carbon dioxide absorption in poly(ethylenimine) is very slow in spite of the presence of favourable amine groups. PEG 300 was found to be the best solvent in this study and shows a high carbon dioxide solubility as well as good selectivity over nitrogen. The advantages of high stability, low solvent loss and low desorption energy of PEG 300 may outweigh its lower absorption capacity compared to the state-of-the-art solvent monoethanolamine, making it a potentially advantageous solvent for industrial carbon dioxide absorption processes.

  5. Comparative study of seven glasses for solidification of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relative leaching behavior of seven alkali borosilicate glasses considered for immobilization of high level radioactive wastes was compared using a static 900C leach test. Leaching times studied were 1, 3, 7, 14 and 28 days with ratios of glass surface area (SA) to solution volume (V) being SA/V = 1.0 cm-1 and 0.1 cm-1. With the range of glass compositions studied, it was not possible to determine the effect of each element on leaching behavior, however some conclusions regarding the general influence of the glass network formers can be made: the addition of Al2O3, results in a large increase in the chemical durability of the glass. The presence of Fe2O3, is necessary to develop with Al2O3 a second protective layer on top of the silica-rich film that results from rapid dealkalization. The difference between the results obtained at SA/V = 1.0 cm-1 and 0.1 cm-1 shows the importance of understanding both the effects of glass composition and solution concentrations on the behavior of nuclear waste glasses

  6. The Ultraviolet Spectrum of LINERs A Comparative Study

    CERN Document Server

    Maoz, D; Shields, J C; Ho, L C; Filippenko, A V; Maoz, Dan; Koratkar, Anuradha; Shields, Joseph C.; Ho, Luis C.; Filippenko, Alexei V.

    1997-01-01

    Imaging studies have shown that ~25% of LINER galaxies display a compact nuclear UV source. As part of a program to study the nature of LINERs and their connection to AGNs, we compare the HST UV (1150-3200 Ang) spectra of seven such UV-bright LINERs. Data for three of the galaxies (NGC 404, NGC 4569, and NGC 5055) are presented for the first time, while data for four others (M81, NGC 4594, NGC 4579, and NGC 6500) have been recently published. The spectra of NGC 404, NGC 4569, and NGC 5055 show clear absorption-line signatures of a continuum dominated by light from massive stars. Similar signatures are probably present in NGC 6500. The same stellar signatures may be present but undetectable in NGC 4594, due to the low S/N of the spectrum, and in M81 and NGC 4579, due to the superposed strong broad emission lines. The compact central UV continuum source that is observed in these galaxies is a nuclear star cluster rather than a miniature AGN, at least in some cases. Except for the two LINERs with broad emission ...

  7. Comparative study of analysis methods in biospeckle phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Emerson Rodrigo; Muramatsu, Mikiya

    2008-04-01

    In this work we present a review of main statistical properties of speckle patterns and accomplish a comparative study of the more used methods for analysis and extraction of information from optical grainy. The first and second order space-time statistics are dicussed in an overview perspective. The biospeckle phenomenon has detailed attention, specially in its application on monitoring of activity in tissues. The main techniques used to obtain information from speckle patterns are presented, with special prominence to autocorrelation function, co-occurrence matrices, Fujii's method, Briers' contrast and spatial and temporal contrast analisys (LASCA and LASTCA). An incipient method for analysis, based on the study of sucessive correlations contrast, is introduced. Numerical simulations, using diferent probability density functions for velocities of scatterers, were made with two objectives: to test the analysis methods and to give subsidies for interpretation of in vivo results. Vegetable and animal tissues are investigated, achieving the monitoring of senescence process and vascularization maps on leaves, the accompaniment of fungi contamined fruits, the mapping of activity in flowers and the analisys of healing in rats subjected to abdominal surgery. Experiments using the biospeckle phenomenon in microscopy are carried out. At last, it is evaluated the potentiality of biospeckle as diagnosis tool in chronic vein ulcer cared with low intensity laser therapy and the better analysis methods for each kind of tissue are pointed.

  8. A comparative study on the dissolution of magnetite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetite is the main iron oxide formed on the surface of iron-based metals especially in contact with coolant in nuclear power plants. It reduces the efficiency of water lines in water-cooled nuclear reactors. Many solution formulations have been developed to dissolve or to decontaminate metal surfaces from the oxide layers formed on the surface. The presence of Cr in the structural materials such as stainless steel could result in the formulation of Cr-substituted iron oxides, as Fe3+ (0.067 nm) and Cr 3+ (0.064 nm) have similar ionic radii. The formation of solid solution between Cr2O3 with hematite and magnetite is reported. The best method of removing the radioactive nuclides such as Co-60, impregnated / embedded in these oxides, is to dissolve the oxide deposit without affecting the base metal. Dissolution of simple iron oxides is normally carried out using organic (inorganic) acid, reducing agent and chelating agent. Recently, it was reported that the chelating agent in a decontamination formulation affects the bad environmental effect during the disposal period of the radioactive waste. In the present study, the dissolution characteristics of magnetite in citric acid hydrazine system, in nitric acid-hydrazine system and in dithionite-sodium citrate system were investigated. The objective of the study is to compare the dissolution performance of the 3 kinds of the candidate decontamination formulation

  9. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF LICHTENSTEIN VERSUS DESARDA REPAIR FOR INGUINAL HERNIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowmya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Inguinal hernia repair is the most frequently performed operation in any general surgical unit. The Bassini’s, Shouldice and other tissue-based techniques are still being acceptable for primary inguinal hernia repair. Desarda’s technique is originally a tissue based hernia repair using an undetached strip of external oblique aponeurosis to strengthen the posterior wall of the inguinal canal. The aim of the present study was to compare Lichtenstein hernia repair and Desarda herniorrhaphy. METHODS A total of 40 patients with primary unilateral inguinal hernia were subjected either to Desarda herniorrhaphy or Lichtenstein hernioplasty. The patients were followed in terms of recurrence rate, post-operative complications, convalescence, chronic pain and cost effectiveness. RESULTS During the followup all patients had either mild or moderate pain, but the pain intensity was more in Lichtenstein repair compared to Desarda repair in the immediate postoperative period. In Lichenstein repair patients had chronic groin pain even at the end of one year, but none of the patients in Desarda repair had chronic groin pain. Complications such as seroma and wound infection were less in Desarda repair. Time taken to resume normal activities was significantly less in case of Desarda herniorrhaphy; however, there was no recurrence observed in both the groups during the followup period. Average cost incurred for Desarda repair was significantly less than Lichtenstein repair. CONCLUSION Lichtenstein method of hernia repair is simple and safe. But the mesh prosthesis has its drawbacks. Desarda hernia repair is based on physiological principles and the results are good with less convalescence period and fewer recurrences and no chronic groin pain. It is more cost effective.

  10. Mycobacterial species as case-study of comparative genome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakham, F; Belayachi, L; Ussery, D; Akrim, M; Benjouad, A; El Aouad, R; Ennaji, M M

    2011-01-01

    The genus Mycobacterium represents more than 120 species including important pathogens of human and cause major public health problems and illnesses. Further, with more than 100 genome sequences from this genus, comparative genome analysis can provide new insights for better understanding the evolutionary events of these species and improving drugs, vaccines, and diagnostics tools for controlling Mycobacterial diseases. In this present study we aim to outline a comparative genome analysis of fourteen Mycobacterial genomes: M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis K—10, M. bovis AF2122/97, M. bovis BCG str. Pasteur 1173P2, M. leprae Br4923, M. marinum M, M. sp. KMS, M. sp. MCS, M. tuberculosis CDC1551, M. tuberculosis F11, M. tuberculosis H37Ra, M. tuberculosis H37Rv, M. tuberculosis KZN 1435 , M. ulcerans Agy99,and M. vanbaalenii PYR—1, For this purpose a comparison has been done based on their length of genomes, GC content, number of genes in different data bases (Genbank, Refseq, and Prodigal). The BLAST matrix of these genomes has been figured to give a lot of information about the similarity between species in a simple scheme. As a result of multiple genome analysis, the pan and core genome have been defined for twelve Mycobacterial species. We have also introduced the genome atlas of the reference strain M. tuberculosis H37Rv which can give a good overview of this genome. And for examining the phylogenetic relationships among these bacteria, a phylogenic tree has been constructed from 16S rRNA gene for tuberculosis and non tuberculosis Mycobacteria to understand the evolutionary events of these species. PMID:21396338

  11. Comparative study of forensic psychiatric system between China and America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gangqin; Gutheil, Thomas G; Hu, Zeqing

    2016-01-01

    Laws and regulations about the forensic psychiatric systems in China and America were compared, and suggestions for improving the forensic psychiatric system of China were provided. There are many differences regarding the role of the forensic psychiatrist, the initiation of the assessment and the admission of expert opinion because of elements in the legal systems in China and America. The Chinese system has the advantages of objectivity, cost saving and high efficiency; but it has deficiencies in procedural justice and the admission of expert opinion. China can persist with the current system while taking measures to give more rights to the litigants to participate in their assessment, and while improving the quality and utility of the expert opinion; however, this review article will compare broadly the two systems without addressing human rights issues or procedural justice issues, nor will it presume to address the entirety of Chinese systems. In addition, China is developing its legal system for dealing with the mentally ill defendant in situations involving the criminal justice system and civil commitment. Although China enacted new laws regarding the mandatory treatment for the mentally ill, both in criminal and civil systems, there remain many aspects to be improved, including but not limited to a system of review of the decision to detain a patient on psychiatric grounds, and the need for provisions in the laws preventing indefinite detention. From this viewpoint, America's laws and regulations are instructive for us, in matters such as the method of dealing with the mentally ill defendant who is "incompetent to stand trial", "not guilty only by reason of insanity" or "guilty but mentally ill". The conditional release of the committed mentally ill person and the special programs in the forensic security hospital are all worthy of study by China in order to manage the mentally ill offender and to reduce the recidivism rate. PMID:27292971

  12. Compared studies of natural and artificial deuterium depleted water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biological influence of the deuterium on animals was studied insensitively in the last years. When animal cell cultures were analyzed it turned out an inhibition of the development, due to the reduced deuterium concentration. In the in vivo experiments a decreasing of the number of tumoral cells was pointed out when performing the depleted water treatment. It is obvious that the presence of deuterium in water is necessary for the development, especially for the tumoral cell proliferation. The aim of this work was to establish influence of the natural and artificial deuterium depleted water on the vegetal organisms development. For this purpose, the developmental stages of Lactuca sativa L. growth were followed. The experimental data were compared with the data obtained with distilled water. The birch, wine sap and some fruit juices are considered 'natural depleted' water sources because their deuterium content is smaller in comparison to natural water (D2=150 ppm). The effect of artificial deuterium depleted water (29 ppm D2) was analyzed in comparison to three types of wine saps, which also have a reduced deuterium concentration (125-130 ppm D2). If the deuterium depleted water was used, the germination percent and the root and shoot length were higher compared to control in the first stages. In wine sap it had a negative effect on germination and development. After three days the plants were transferred to soil and their development was followed. The foliage area was larger for all of the experimental variants compared to control. The differences were without significance when deuterium depleted water was tested but they were high and very significant in case of wine sap. The experiment pointed out a stimulative effect of the artificial deuterium depleted water. In case of wine sap the effect was negative when the contact was direct, but the growth was stimulated after the stress cessation. The first ontogenetic stages were represented by direct action on

  13. An empirical evaluation of Value-at-Risk: The case of the Belgrade Stock Exchange index - BELEX15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đaković Vladimir

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the research is to test and analyze VaR (Value-at-Risk methods of market risk management on the financial market of the Republic of Serbia. Thus, concrete research is conducted in the period 2005 - 2011, with the goal of VaR methods performance assessment on the Serbian financial market. The tested VaR methods are Historical simulation (HS and Delta normal VaR with 95% and 99% confidence level for 50, 100, 200 and 250 days. BELEX15 stock index of the Belgrade Stock Exchange, which comprises of 15 most liquid securities of the Serbian financial market, is used as a benchmark indicator of the conditions on the Serbian financial market. The goals which are intended for achieving in the research are focused to Historical simulation (HS and Delta normal VaR performance assessment on, according to many criteria, 'specific'-transitory financial market of the Republic of Serbia. The basic goal of the research is to come to concrete, practically tested, knowledge about the possibility and performance of VaR methods application on the financial market of the Republic of Serbia in function of investment decisions optimizing. Research results point to the necessity of VaR methods application in market risk management on the financial market of the Republic of Serbia.

  14. Comparative Modeling Studies of Boreal Water and Carbon Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlan, J.; Peterson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The coordination of the modeling and field efforts for an Intensive Field Campaign (IFC) may resemble the chicken and egg dilemma. This session's theme advocates that early and proactive involvement by modeling teams can produce a scientific and operational benefit for the IFC and Experiment. This talk will provide some examples and suggestions originating from the NASA funded IFC's of the FIFE First ISLSCP (International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project) Field Experiment, Oregon Transect Ecosystem Research (OTTER) and predominately Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Experiments. In February 1994 and prior to the final selection of the BOREAS study sites, a group of funded BOREAS investigators agreed to run their models with data for five community types representing the proposed tower flux sites. All participating models were given identical initial values and boundary conditions and driven with identical climate data. The objectives of the intercomparison exercise were: 1) compare simulation results of participating terrestrial, hydrological, and atmospheric models over selected time frames; 2) learn about model behavior and sensitivity to estimated boreal site and vegetation definitions; 3) prioritize BOREAS field data collection efforts supporting modeling studies; 4) identify individual model deficiencies as early as possible. Out of these objectives evolved some important coordination and science issues for the BOREAS Experiment that can be generalized to IFCs and long term archiving of the data. Some problems are acceptable because they are endemic to maintaining fair and open competition prior to the peer review process. Others are logistical and addressable through application of planning, management, and information sciences. This investigator has identified one source of measurement and model incompatibility that is manifest in the IFC scaling approach. Although intuitively obvious, scaling problems are already more formally defined in

  15. A comparative study on two explosive acetone peroxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egorshev, V. Yu.; Sinditskii, V.P., E-mail: vps@rctu.ru; Smirnov, S.P.

    2013-12-20

    Highlights: • The most accurate heats of DADP and TATP sublimation were evaluated from experimental vapor pressures in a widened temperature range. • DADP is more volatile while more thermally stable peroxide than TATP. • DADP reveals lesser sensitivity to drop-weight impact, flame temperature, burning rate, and initiating efficiency as compared with TATP. - Abstract: Two explosive cyclic acetone peroxides, diacetone diperoxide (DADP) and triacetone triperoxide (TATP) have been studied in respect of thermal decomposition, burning behavior, impact sensitivity, and initiating efficiency. Using the glass Bourdon gauge technique, the vapor pressures of TATP and DADP were determined over the temperature range 75–144 °C and 67–120 °C, respectively. The kinetic parameters of decomposition of the peroxides in the gas phase have been obtained in the temperature interval of 140–200 °C. The decomposition of both DADP and TATP followed the first-order reaction to high degrees of decay with close activation energies of 159.2 kJ/mol (38.0 kcal/mol) and 165.8 kJ/mol (39.6 kcal/mol), respectively. The decomposition rate constants of DADP were found to be approximately 2 times less than those of TATP. The linear burning rate of DADP measured in a constant-pressure window bomb appeared to be approximately 5 times less than that of TATP. Temperature profiles in the combustion wave were measured at subatmospheric pressures with the help of thin tungsten-rhenium thermocouples. The leading reaction on combustion of both volatile peroxides was assumed to occur in the gas phase. Kinetic parameters of the leading reaction derived from the combustion data showed a good agreement with kinetic parameters of low-temperature thermal decomposition extrapolated to the high-temperature flame zone. In the drop-weight impact test, DADP appeared to be notably less sensitive peroxide than TATP. No deflagration-to-detonation transition was observed when RDX was attempted to explode by

  16. A comparative study on two explosive acetone peroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The most accurate heats of DADP and TATP sublimation were evaluated from experimental vapor pressures in a widened temperature range. • DADP is more volatile while more thermally stable peroxide than TATP. • DADP reveals lesser sensitivity to drop-weight impact, flame temperature, burning rate, and initiating efficiency as compared with TATP. - Abstract: Two explosive cyclic acetone peroxides, diacetone diperoxide (DADP) and triacetone triperoxide (TATP) have been studied in respect of thermal decomposition, burning behavior, impact sensitivity, and initiating efficiency. Using the glass Bourdon gauge technique, the vapor pressures of TATP and DADP were determined over the temperature range 75–144 °C and 67–120 °C, respectively. The kinetic parameters of decomposition of the peroxides in the gas phase have been obtained in the temperature interval of 140–200 °C. The decomposition of both DADP and TATP followed the first-order reaction to high degrees of decay with close activation energies of 159.2 kJ/mol (38.0 kcal/mol) and 165.8 kJ/mol (39.6 kcal/mol), respectively. The decomposition rate constants of DADP were found to be approximately 2 times less than those of TATP. The linear burning rate of DADP measured in a constant-pressure window bomb appeared to be approximately 5 times less than that of TATP. Temperature profiles in the combustion wave were measured at subatmospheric pressures with the help of thin tungsten-rhenium thermocouples. The leading reaction on combustion of both volatile peroxides was assumed to occur in the gas phase. Kinetic parameters of the leading reaction derived from the combustion data showed a good agreement with kinetic parameters of low-temperature thermal decomposition extrapolated to the high-temperature flame zone. In the drop-weight impact test, DADP appeared to be notably less sensitive peroxide than TATP. No deflagration-to-detonation transition was observed when RDX was attempted to explode by

  17. COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON NITROGEN BUDGETS OF CLOSED SHRIMP POLYCULTURE SYSTEMS"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐振雄; 李德尚; 张曼平; 董双林

    2001-01-01

    April to October, 1997 comparative studios on the nitrogen budgets of closed shrimp polyculture systems showed that, in all the studied polyculture systems, nitrogen from feeds and fertilizers were the main input items, which comprised 70.7% - 83.9% of the total input nitrogen, 3.2% - 7.4% of which was provided by nitrogen fixation. It was in monoculture enclosures (Y-4, Y-11 and Y-12) that the percentage reached the maximum value. The output nitrogen in harvested products comprised 10.8% - 24.6% of total input nitrogen, and the highest percentage, 24.6%, was found in shrimp-fish-tagelus polyculture systems. In shrimp monoculture and shrimp-fish polyculture systems, they were 19.1% and 21.9%, respectively. The nitrogen utilization efficiency was different and varied from 12.2% to 20.1%. The highest, 20.1%, was found in shrimp-fish-tagelus polycultttre systems, and the average of 20.0% was found in shrimp-tagelus polyculture systems. The lowest, 12.2%, was found in shrimp monoculture systems.All the nitrogen utilization efficiencies in shrimp-fish systems or shrimp-scallop systems seemed to be higher than that of the monoculture system, but they showed little statistical difference. The main outputs of nitrngen were found in sediment mud, and comprised 48.2% -60.8% of the total input, the lowest percentage was found in shrimp-fish-tagelus polyculture systems, and the highost percentage in shrimp-scallop systems.During the experiment, nitrogen lost through denitrification and ammonia volatilization comprised 1.9% - 6.2%, averaged 2.8%, of the total input, and the loss through seepage comprised 5.9% - 8.9% of the total.The estimated nitrogen attached to the enclosure wall comprised 3.7% - 13.3% of the total, and was highest in shrimp monoculture systems. Compared with the classic shrimp farming industry, the closed shrimp polycul-ture systems may improve the nitrogen utilization efficiency, and hence reduce the environmental impacts on coastal waters. The nitrogen

  18. A Comparative Study of virtual and operational met mast data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance of wind assessment studies depend on the adequacy and duration of the wind data. For a reasonable wind assessment, at least one full year wind data is needed so that, all the variations throughout the year are represented. On the other hand, it is always a question of time and cost how to get the wind data. On-site measurements are the most common way of obtaining wind data but it is the most expensive and time consuming as well. Apart from onsite data, there are also reanalysis long term data sources like MERRA, NCAR, etc. Time and spatial resolution of these long term data are lower compared to on-site measurements but in cases where on-site measurements are not available, they are also utilized. On top of on-site and reanalysis wind data, weather forecasting models like WRF, MM5 are available. Although, these models mainly are used for forecasting services, flexibility of the models makes them suitable for preliminary resource assessment purposes. In this study, comparisons of annual energy production estimations are computed using virtual and on-site met mast data separately for a specific time range. The widely used weather research and forecasting model (WRF) is used to provide virtual met mast data. Once WRF simulations are completed, interpolation routines are employed in order to extract data for a specific location. The on-site met mast is located inside a wind farm project area which is under development. Project site is located in the south of Turkey. There are four different met masts, three of them recording wind data presently. On-site measurements together with WRF results are used to obtain energy yields for the project area. The performance of both methodologies is compared. It has been observed that WRF can as well serve as a preliminary model in cases where no other data source is available but the model has to be implemented with great care depending on the project site conditions

  19. Comparative study of conformal versus intensity modulated radiotherapy treatment plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In order to establish some early clinical experience in the use of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) as an alternative treatment method to conformal irradiation, we selected a number of specifically difficult clinical cases to compare. Complex tumour shapes located in the skull (two cases), close to the spinal cord (two cases) and one standard prostate case were chosen for this study. A Varian CadPlan system is used for the conformal treatment plans and Helios for the IMRT plans. In both these techniques, the linear accelerator multileaf collimator system is used to shape the beam about the target volume. The Royal North Shore Hospital Varian Clinac 600C/D linear accelerator also has dynamic multileaf collimator control (DMLC) capabilities for IMRT. The five cases reported here were planned by the radiation therapists for conformal treatment and then re-planned by physics using the CadPlan's Helios inverse planning option to produce an alternative IMRT plan. Both planners worked independently of each other. Treatment set-up errors were not considered as part of this study but it is apparent here that positional errors and immobilisation are particularly important factors to consider. An allowance for all errors must therefore be included for all critical organ outlines as well as the target volume for both the conformal or IMRT treatments. Visually, the covering of regularly shaped treatment volumes for the IMRT plans was improved marginally over the conformal plan. However, complex treatment volumes (such as the posterior orbital region with surrounding critical structures) showed very clear improvements. The IMRT dose drop-off at the edge of the target volume was not as sharp as the conformal equivalent. The dose-volume-histogram (DVH) provides a limited analytical tool to quantify these observations. The DVH generally indicated similar curves for the IMRT and conformal target volume but significant IMRT improvements in limiting the dose to

  20. Comparative Study of Complex Survey Estimation Software in ONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Fallows

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Many official statistics across the UK Government Statistical Service (GSS are produced using data collected from sample surveys. These survey data are used to estimate population statistics through weighting and calibration techniques. For surveys with complex or unusual sample designs, the weighting can be fairly complicated. Even in more simple cases, appropriate software is required to implement survey weighting and estimation. As with other stages of the survey process, it is preferable to use a standard, generic calibration tool wherever possible. Standard tools allow for efficient use of resources and assist with the harmonisation of methods. In the case of calibration, the Office for National Statistics (ONS has experience of using the Statistics Canada Generalized Estimation System (GES across a range of business and social surveys. GES is a SAS-based system and so is only available in conjunction with an appropriate SAS licence. Given recent initiatives and encouragement to investigate open source solutions across government, it is appropriate to determine whether there are any open source calibration tools available that can provide the same service as GES. This study compares the use of GES with the calibration tool ‘R evolved Generalized software for sampling estimates and errors in surveys’ (ReGenesees available in R, an open source statistical programming language which is beginning to be used in many statistical offices. ReGenesees is a free R package which has been developed by the Italian statistics office (Istat and includes functionality to calibrate survey estimates using similar techniques to GES. This report describes analysis of the performance of ReGenesees in comparison to GES to calibrate a representative selection of ONS surveys. Section 1.1 provides a brief introduction to the current use of SAS and R in ONS. Section 2 describes GES and ReGenesees in more detail. Sections 3.1 and 3.2 consider methods for

  1. Proliferative activity in oral pyogenic granuloma: A comparative immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezvani Gita

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Context: Pyogenic granuloma (PG is one of the most common reactive vascular lesions in the oral mucosa, which has been divided into the lobular capillary hemangioma (LCH and the non lobular type (non-LCH as two distinct entities, on the basis of some investigations. Aims: This study aims to compare the proliferative and angiogenic activity of two histological types of PG to determine whether they have two distinct types of biological behavior. Settings and Design: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, immunostaining was performed on 10 cases of each type of PG. Materials and Methods: About 4μm sections were cut from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded blocks and each specimen was stained with both anti-CD31 and anti-Ki-67 antibodies simultaneously. Labeling index (LI was determined for both types by counting Ki-67 and CD31 positive cells separately and simultaneously in 1000 stromal and luminal cells. Micro vessel count (MVC, the mean number of micro vessels in five areas at Χ200 magnification, was also determined for both groups. Statistical Analysis: The results were statistically compared using the Mann-Whitney U-test. Results: Ki-67 LI in LCH (5.4 ± 2.4 was higher than non-LCH (3.9 ± 3.9. The percentage of CD31 positive cells in LCH (28.5 ± 22 was lower than non-LCH (37.1 ± 20.8 and simultaneously immunostaining for both markers in LCH type (2.4 ± 2.1 was higher than non-LCH (1.2 ± 1. The MVC was approximately 77.35 ± 34.6 and 82.6 ± 42.7 in the lobular areas of LCH and central areas of non-LCH PG, respectively. These differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions: These results demonstrate a higher proliferation activity in endothelial cells of LCH PG than in non-LCH.

  2. Soft Tissue Phantoms for Realistic Needle Insertion: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibinger, Alexander; Forte, Antonio E; Tan, Zhengchu; Oldfield, Matthew J; Beyrau, Frank; Dini, Daniele; Rodriguez Y Baena, Ferdinando

    2016-08-01

    Phantoms are common substitutes for soft tissues in biomechanical research and are usually tuned to match tissue properties using standard testing protocols at small strains. However, the response due to complex tool-tissue interactions can differ depending on the phantom and no comprehensive comparative study has been published to date, which could aid researchers to select suitable materials. In this work, gelatin, a common phantom in literature, and a composite hydrogel developed at Imperial College, were matched for mechanical stiffness to porcine brain, and the interactions during needle insertions within them were analyzed. Specifically, we examined insertion forces for brain and the phantoms; we also measured displacements and strains within the phantoms via a laser-based image correlation technique in combination with fluorescent beads. It is shown that the insertion forces for gelatin and brain agree closely, but that the composite hydrogel better mimics the viscous nature of soft tissue. Both materials match different characteristics of brain, but neither of them is a perfect substitute. Thus, when selecting a phantom material, both the soft tissue properties and the complex tool-tissue interactions arising during tissue manipulation should be taken into consideration. These conclusions are presented in tabular form to aid future selection. PMID:26666228

  3. Comparative Study of 3G / 4G Network Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulshan Kumar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Modern technology is evolving so fast, that it can be very difficult to keep follow everything new. Cellular Communication is one of the most recent areas which is developing tremendously fast at present times, it is only due to the advancement of technology in all the fields of cellular and wireless communications. Networks are used basically in business and home applications, mobile users, and in all social concerns. At the present time, the use of 3 rd Generation (3G cellular communication systems seems to be the standard, while the 4th generation (4G stands for the next generation of wireless and cellular communications. This comparative study between 3G & 4G tells about the scope, background and the visualization for the 4G. In this paper, we first present a brief review on the evolutionary history, features, condition of network communication and comparison of 3G - 4G perspectives. It is followed by the introduction to 4G technologies to fulfill the limitations of 3G services. At the end, the paper is summarized.

  4. Scaling and predictability in stock markets: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huishu; Wei, Jianrong; Huang, Jiping

    2014-01-01

    Most people who invest in stock markets want to be rich, thus, many technical methods have been created to beat the market. If one knows the predictability of the price series in different markets, it would be easier for him/her to make the technical analysis, at least to some extent. Here we use one of the most basic sold-and-bought trading strategies to establish the profit landscape, and then calculate the parameters to characterize the strength of predictability. According to the analysis of scaling of the profit landscape, we find that the Chinese individual stocks are harder to predict than US ones, and the individual stocks are harder to predict than indexes in both Chinese stock market and US stock market. Since the Chinese (US) stock market is a representative of emerging (developed) markets, our comparative study on the markets of these two countries is of potential value not only for conducting technical analysis, but also for understanding physical mechanisms of different kinds of markets in terms of scaling. PMID:24632944

  5. Scaling and predictability in stock markets: a comparative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huishu Zhang

    Full Text Available Most people who invest in stock markets want to be rich, thus, many technical methods have been created to beat the market. If one knows the predictability of the price series in different markets, it would be easier for him/her to make the technical analysis, at least to some extent. Here we use one of the most basic sold-and-bought trading strategies to establish the profit landscape, and then calculate the parameters to characterize the strength of predictability. According to the analysis of scaling of the profit landscape, we find that the Chinese individual stocks are harder to predict than US ones, and the individual stocks are harder to predict than indexes in both Chinese stock market and US stock market. Since the Chinese (US stock market is a representative of emerging (developed markets, our comparative study on the markets of these two countries is of potential value not only for conducting technical analysis, but also for understanding physical mechanisms of different kinds of markets in terms of scaling.

  6. The minds of gods: a comparative study of supernatural agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purzycki, Benjamin Grant

    2013-10-01

    The present work is the first study to systematically compare the minds of gods by examining some of the intuitive processes that guide how people reason about them. By examining the Christian god and the spirit-masters of the Tyva Republic, it first confirms that the consensus view of the Christian god's mind is one of omniscience with acute concern for interpersonal social behavior (i.e., moral behaviors) and that Tyvan spirit-masters are not as readily attributed with knowledge or concern of moral information. Then, it reports evidence of a moralization bias of gods' minds; American Christians who believe that God is omniscient rate God as more knowledgeable of moral behaviors than nonmoral information. Additionally, Tyvans who do not readily report pro- or antisocial behavior among the things that spirit-masters care about will nevertheless rate spirit-masters' knowledge and concern of moral information higher than nonmoral information. However, this knowledge is distributed spatially; the farther away from spirits' place of governance a moral behavior takes place, the less they know and care about it. Finally, the wider the breadth of knowledge Tyvans attribute to spirit-masters, the more they attribute moral concern for behaviors that transpire beyond their jurisdiction. These results further demonstrate that there is a significant gulf between expressed beliefs and intuitive religious cognition and provides evidence for a moralization bias of gods' minds. PMID:23891826

  7. A comparative study of accelerated tests to simulate atmospheric corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, specimens coated with five organic coating systems were exposed to accelerated tests for periods up to 2000 hours, and also to weathering for two years and six months. The accelerated tests consisted of the salt spray test, according to ASTM B-117; Prohesion (ASTM G 85-98 annex 5A); Prohesion combined with cyclic exposure to UV-A radiation and condensation; 'Prohchuva' a test described by ASTM G 85-98 using a salt spray with composition that simulated the acid rain of Sao Paulo, but one thousand times more concentrated, and 'Prohchuva' combined with cyclic exposure to UV-A radiation and condensation. The coated specimens were exposed with and without incision to expose the substrate. The onset and progress of corrosion at and of the exposed metallic surface, besides coating degradation, were followed by visual observation, and photographs were taken. The coating systems were classified according to the extent of corrosion protection given to the substrate, using a method based on ASTM standards D-610, D-714, D-1654 and D-3359. The rankings of the coatings obtained from accelerated tests and weathering were compared and contrasted with classification of the same systems obtained from literature, for specimens exposed to an industrial atmosphere. Coating degradation was strongly dependent on the test, and could be attributed to differences in test conditions. The best correlation between accelerated test and weathering was found for the test Prohesion alternated with cycles of exposure to UV-A radiation and condensation. (author)

  8. A comparative study of input devices for digital slide navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Molin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes work presented at the Nordic Symposium on Digital Pathology 2014, Linköping, Sweden. Quick and seamless integration between input devices and the navigation of digital slides remains a key barrier for many pathologists to "go digital." To better understand this integration, three different input device implementations were compared in terms of time to diagnose, perceived workload and users′ preferences. Six pathologists reviewed in total nine cases with a computer mouse, a 6 degrees-of-freedom (6DOF navigator and a touchpad. The participants perceived significantly less workload (P < 0.05 with the computer mouse and the 6DOF navigator, than with the touchpad, while no effect of the input device used on the time to diagnose was observed. Five out of six pathologists preferred the 6DOF navigator, while the touchpad was the least preferred device. While digital slide navigation is often designed to mimic microscope interaction, the results of this study demonstrate that in order to minimize workload there is reason to let the digital interaction move beyond the familiar microscope tradition.

  9. Emotional Intelligence among Business Consultants: A Comparative Study

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    Fonthip Sarinnapakorn

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the levels of emotional intelligence (EI of business consultants who work for a consulting firm in Bangkok, Thailand, and to compare the EI levels of these consultants based on gender and years in the industry. A questionnaire adapted from the theoretical framework of Goleman (1995 was completed by 80 business consultants. This instrument comprised of 45 items that can be grouped into fives EI competencies referred to as: (a self-awareness, (b self-regulation, (c motivation, (d empathy, and (e social skills. The results were calculated in terms of percentages, mean scores, and standard deviations. T–test was also employed to determine the differences between levels of EI and the independent variables which are gender and years in the industry. The results revealed that the EI level of the business consultants was at a high level. However, there was no significant difference between levels of EI based on gender and years in the industry.

  10. Comparation studies of uranium analysis method using spectrophotometer and voltammeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparation studies of uranium analysis method by spectrophotometer and voltammeter had been done. The objective of experiment is to examine the reliability of analysis method and instrument performance by evaluate parameters; linearity, accuracy, precision and detection limit. Uranyl nitrate hexahydrate is used as standard, and the sample is solvent mixture of tributyl phosphate and kerosene containing uranium (from phosphoric acid purification unit Petrokimia Gresik). Uranium (U) stripping in the sample use HN03 0,5 N and then was analyzed by using of both instrument. Analysis of standard show that both methods give a good linearity by correlation coefficient > 0,999. Spectrophotometry give accuration 99,34 - 101,05 % with ratio standard deviation (RSD) 1,03 %; detection limit (DL) 0,05 ppm. Voltammetry give accuration 95,63 -101,49 % with RSD 3,91 %; detection limit (DL) 0,509 ppm. On the analysis of sludge samples were given the significantly different in result; spectrophotometry give U concentration 4,445 ppm by RSD 6,74 % and voltammetry give U concentration 7,693 by RSD 19,53%. (author)

  11. Comparative study of five varieties of spodumene through optical absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparative study of five varieties of spodumene crystals from Brazil through optical absorption spectroscopy, classified according to the colours lylac, colourless I, colourless II, yellow and green is reported. This series shows a consistent increase of the [Fe]/[Mn] ratio. The principal bands in the yellow sample are at 7,000 and 9,000 cm-1, and in the green sample besides these bands a band at 16,000 cm-1 is observed. In lylac, colourless I and colourless II samples, the principal bands are at 18,000 cm-1 and when irradiated two new bands appears at 15,700 cm-1 (E perpendicular to c) and 11,000 cm-1 (K perpendicular to c). It is suggested that in green and yellow samples the bands are due to Fe2+ (at 7,000 cm-1 and 9,000 cm-1) and due to Fe2+ - Fe3+ charge transfer (at 16,000 cm-1). In lylac and colourless I samples the model for Mn3+ at two different sites is applied. The colourless II corresponds to the case in which Mn3+ is at one site alone, being prohibited from occupying the second site due to higher Fe concentration. (Author)

  12. Clustering of Deep WebPages: A Comparative Study

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    Muhunthaadithya C

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The internethas massive amount of information. This information is stored in the form of zillions of webpages. The information that can be retrieved by search engines is huge, and this information constitutes the ‘surface web’.But the remaining information, which is not indexed by search engines – the ‘deep web’, is much bigger in size than the ‘surface web’, and remains unexploited yet. Several machine learning techniques have been commonly employed to access deep web content. Under machine learning, topic models provide a simple way to analyze large volumes of unlabeled text. A ‘topic’is a cluster of words that frequently occur together and topic models can connect words with similar meanings and distinguish between words with multiple meanings. In this paper, we cluster deep web databases employing several methods, and then perform a comparative study. In the first method, we apply Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA over the dataset. In the second method, we use a generative probabilistic model called Latent Dirichlet Allocation(LDA for modeling content representative of deep web databases.Both these techniques are implemented after preprocessing the set of web pages to extract page contents and form contents.Further, we propose another version of Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA to the dataset. Experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms the existing clustering methods.

  13. Robust adaptive control of underwater vehicles: A comparative study

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    Thor I. Fossen

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Robust adaptive control of underwater vehicles in 6 DOF is analysed in the context of measurement noise. The performance of the adaptive control laws of Sadegh and Harowitz (1990 and Slotine and Benedetto (1990 are compared. Both these schemes require that all states are measured, that is the velocities and positions in surge, sway, heave, roll, pitch and yaw. However, for underwater vehicles it is difficult to measure the linear velocities whereas angular velocity measurements can be obtained by using a 3 axes angular rate sensor. This problem is addressed by designing a nonlinear observer for linear velocity state estimation. The proposed observer requires that the position and the attitude are measured, e.g. by using a hydroacoustic positioning system for linear positions, two gyros for roll and pitch and a compass for yaw. In addition angular rate measurements will be assumed available from a 3-axes rate sensor or a state estimator. It is also assumed that the measurement rate is limited to 2 Hz for all the sensors. Simulation studies with a 3 DOF AUV model are used to demonstrate the convergence and robustness of the adaptive control laws and the velocity state observer.

  14. The structure of risk perception. A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research by cognitive and social psychologists has demonstrated that when lay persons make estimates of risks they do not merely calculate in terms of probabilistic information. People tend to construe the risk in accordance with other schemata. The Psychometric Paradigm (Slovic et. al., 1980), found out two main dimensions in the perception of risk: the Dread and the Familiarity-Voluntariness factors. This paper presents some of the key findings of a comparative Latin-American study on radiological risk perception in the health area. The main objective is to check whether or not the Dread and the Familiarity-Voluntariness dimensions explain the perception of risk in this specific context. A questionnaire was distributed to outpatient samples from ten countries: Argentine, Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Uruguay, and Spain, thanks to the collaboration of the different National Radioprotection Societies of the above mentioned countries, and of other concerned professionals (in case they didn't have any association at the time). A list of 22 risks, including both radiological and non-radiological ones, were evaluated on two rating scales: possibility and seriousness. Factor analysis, both exploratory and confirmatory, as well as Multidimensional Scaling will be used for the data analysis. The paper will discuss the main cross-cultural differences with regard to the structure of risk perception. The peculiarities of the health related risks will be emphasised. (author)

  15. Comparative Histological and Phytochemical Study of Fallopia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Békési-Kallenberger, Heléna; Horváth, Györgyi; Bencsik, Tímea; Balázs, Viktória Lilla; Filep, Rita; Papp, Nóra

    2016-02-01

    Fallopia species which belong to the Polygonaceae family have several data related to their use in the Asian herbal medicine. In this work, some histological and phytochemical parameters of Fallopia japonica, F. sachalinensis, and F. x bohemica were analysed and compared. Rhizome and leaf samples were collected before, during, and after the flowering period at 3 habitats in Szombathely and 4 habitats in Baranya County, Hungary. The main histological characteristics of the stem, leaf and petiole were studied by light microscopy in cross section. Total tannin and anthraquinone contents were determined according to the official methods of the Hungarian Pharmacopoeia VIIIth (equal to the European Pharmacopoeia 6th). No species-specific markers were found in any plant part. In the rhizome, the highest tannin content was measured in Japanese knotweed, followed by Bohemian and giant knotweed in each period. The tannin content measured in each plant was higher in the leaves than in the rhizomes except F. japonica. The rhizome of F. japonica had the highest anthraquinone content before the flowering period, followed by F. x bohemica and F. sachalinensis. According to earlier and our preliminary data, Fallopia taxa are of great therapeutic promise in the future. PMID:27032213

  16. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON MAIN SOLVENCY ASSESSMENT MODELS FOR INSURANCE FIELD

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    Daniela Nicoleta SAHLIAN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available During the recent financial crisis of insurance domain, there were imposed new aspects that have to be taken into account concerning the risks management and surveillance activity. The insurance societies could develop internal models in order to determine the minimum capital requirement imposed by the new regulations that are to be adopted on 1 January 2016. In this respect, the purpose of this research paper is to offer a real presentation and comparing with the main solvency regulation systems used worldwide, the accent being on their common characteristics and current tendencies. Thereby, we would like to offer a better understanding of the similarities and differences between the existent solvency regimes in order to develop the best regime of solvency for Romania within the Solvency II project. The study will show that there are clear differences between the existent Solvency I regime and the new approaches based on risk and will also point out the fact that even the key principles supporting the new solvency regimes are convergent, there are a lot of approaches for the application of these principles. In this context, the question we would try to find the answer is "how could the global solvency models be useful for the financial surveillance authority of Romania for the implementation of general model and for the development of internal solvency models according to the requirements of Solvency II" and "which would be the requirements for the implementation of this type of approach?". This thing makes the analysis of solvency models an interesting exercise.

  17. Comparative XPS study between experimentally and naturally weathered pyrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparative study has been carried out between experimentally and naturally weathered pyrites. Both were found to share similar species of weathering products and a similar weathering mechanism. The weathering products could be divided into sulphur-bearing or iron-bearing groups. The sulphur-bearing group was comprised of sulphate, sulphite, thiosulphate, elemental sulphur, polysulphide, and mono-sulphide. The iron-bearing group was comprised of goethite, hematite or magnetite, and iron sulphate. The weathering structural profile was also similar for both types of weathering, being composed of a surficial layer and a transitional layer. The surficial layer was made up of both the sulphur-bearing and the iron-bearing products, while the transitional layer was comprised of goethite, and hematite or magnetite. The inward migration of the weathering interface was stimulated by the diffusion of oxygen and moisture. The oxygen was considered to preferably squeeze the iron to form goethite, and the ferric ions of goethite to have acted as a bridge for electron transfer between the oxygen and bulk S22- and Fe2+ of pyrite.

  18. Comparative study, based on metamodels, of methods for controlling performance

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    Aitouche Samia

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The continuing evolution of technology and human behavior puts the company in an uncertain and evolving environment. The company must be responsive and even proactive; therefore, control performance becomes increasingly difficult. Choosing the best method of ensuring control by the management policy of the company and its strategy is also a decision problem. The aim of this paper is the comparative study of three methods: the Balanced Scorecard, GIMSI and SKANDIAs NAVIGATOR for choosing the best method for ensuring the orderly following the policy of the company while maintaining its durability. Our work is divided into three parts. We firstly proposed original structural and kinetic metamodels for the three methods that allow an overall view of a method. Secondly, based on the three metamodels, we have drawn a generic comparison to analyze completeness of the method. Thirdly, we performed a restrictive comparison based on a restrictive set of criteria related to the same aspect example organizational learning, which is one of the bricks of knowledge management for a reconciliation to a proactive organization in an environment disturbed and uncertain, and the urgent needs. We note that we applied the three methods are applied in our precedent works. [1][23

  19. A Novel method of Starting Induction Motor - A Comparative Study

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    R L Chakrasali

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Polyphase induction motor, when started from rest with full voltage impressed, the starting current is 5 to 8 or more times the rated current. The large line current drawn by such a motor is objectionable because of the possible sharp drop in voltage of the supply circuit and undesired effects upon other connected loads/devices. Accordingly it is customary to start such motors at reduced voltage by using auto transformers, star delta starters etc. This paper deals with a new approach to start poly phase induction motors without using any primary voltage compensators thereby limiting the inrush of starting current. The rotor of the motor is driven at suitable speed in the specified direction of rotation by using crank driving mechanism. Then te rated voltage is applied to the motor. This is enunciated using a case study on a 3- phase, 5hp, NGEF make motor with oscillographic records obtained from the experimentation and is compared with the various starting techniques. Keywords: Induction motor, starter, inrush current, voltage dip, new approach

  20. Comparative assessment study of aboveground soft x-ray technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The soft x-ray regime accessible at the laboratory nominally extends from photon energies of 10 eV to 10 keV. The technology relies on capacitor-based, short-pulse energy storage devices to generate a high-energy-density plasma 1 cc in volume and lasting about 10 ns. The hot plasma is created either by conversion of short-pulse electrical energy into light ions that heat the plasma or into a magnetically-driven imploding plasma. Applications of these intense soft x-rays include evaluation of their interaction with materials, as an energy source for weapons effects, as a source for ICF experiments, and as a source for weapons physics experiments. Because of management's interest in encouraging the development of new applications to this technology, they did a year-long comparative assessment study that involved surveying scientists engaged in such research. The literature is filled with examples of benchmarking in the manufacturing and service industries; however, the authors found only one documented case where scientific research had been benchmarked. The experience in benchmarking an area of scientific research and some of the findings are described in this paper

  1. Spheroid model study comparing the biocompatibility of Biodentine and MTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérard, Matthieu; Le Clerc, Justine; Watrin, Tanguy; Meary, Fleur; Pérez, Fabienne; Tricot-Doleux, Sylvie; Pellen-Mussi, Pascal

    2013-06-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the biological effects of a new dentine substitute based on Ca₃SiO₅ (Biodentine™) for use in pulp-capping treatment, on pseudo-odontoblastic (MDPC-23) and pulp (Od-21) cells. The secondary objective was to evaluate the effects of Biodentine and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) on gene expression in cultured spheroids. We used the acid phosphatase assay to compare the biocompatibility of Biodentine and MTA. Cell differentiation was investigated by RT-qPCR. We investigated the expression of genes involved in odontogenic differentiation (Runx2), matrix secretion (Col1a1, Spp1) and mineralisation (Alp). ANOVA and PLSD tests were used for data analysis. MDPC-23 cells cultured in the presence of MTA had higher levels of viability than those cultured in the presence of Biodentine and control cells on day 7 (P = 0.0065 and P = 0.0126, respectively). For Od-21 cells, proliferation rates on day 7 were significantly lower in the presence of Biodentine or MTA than for control (P Biodentine and in control cells. Biodentine and MTA may modify the proliferation of pulp cell lines. Their effects may fluctuate over time, depending on the cell line considered. The observed similarity between Biodentine and MTA validates the indication for direct pulp-capping claimed by the manufacturers. PMID:23515903

  2. A comparative study on the students’ concepts on learning

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    Xue-Lian Ao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the world around us change, aspects of our daily living also changes. With the advancement of technology; students’ access to information has totally changed. Such phenomenon has all together changed how students perceived learning. Recently, in Taiwan, higher education institutions are focused on increasing their international student populations. With this in mind, a qualitative study is undertaken to compare the different insights between international and local students’ concepts on learning. Participants are volunteer international and local students of a technical and vocational university in Taiwan. A series of focus group interviews is conducted on various student groups, coming from different countries such as: Vietnam, Korea, Finland, and Taiwan. Similar questions regarding the students’ perception on the concepts or goals (objectives of learning are asked. Findings are able to provide valuable insights and suggestions to the various stakeholders in the academic community, such as administrators, faculty, students, and parents. More importantly, in order to become competitive in the future, students should be exposed to a more positive learning environment, which can foster and develop the students’ positive concepts of learning.

  3. Does Cigarette Smoking Affect Seminal Fluid Parameters? A Comparative Study

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    Zakarya Bani Meri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of cigarette smoking on seminal fluid parameters, namely; volume, sperm concentration, and motility, as well as morphology, leukocyte infiltration, among males complaining of infertility.Methods: Between August 2010 and July 2011, seminal fluid analysis was done for 1438 males who are partners of couples who visited the infertility clinic at Prince Rashid Ben Al Hassan Hospital (PRH for infertility. The men who fit the inclusion criteria (n=960 were classified into two groups: group a (non-smokers; n=564 and group B (smokers; n=396, which represents 41.25% of the study group. Seminal fluid was collected using masturbation after 3-5 days of abstinence then analyzed for volume, sperm count, sperm concentration, motility and morphology. In order to analyze whether the number of cigarettes smoked per day has an effect on the spermatogram; the smoking men were divided into two subgroups: the heavy smokers (n=266 and non-heavy smokers (n=130.Results: A total of 960 adult males were enrolled. Their age ranged between 21 and 76 years, 564 were non-smokers with mean age of 36. 45±6.27 (Mean±SD. Three-hundred-and-ninety-six were smokers with a mean age of 34.35±4.25 (Mean±SD. There was a significant effect of smoking on the motility of sperms and the ratios of abnormality (p<0.005. Concentration appeared not to be affected by smoking. Furthermore, the group of heavy smokers were found to have lower sperm concentrations and a higher percentage of abnormal sperms compared to the non-heavy smokers.Conclusion: Cigarette smoking has a deleterious effect on some of the seminal fluid parameters (motility, morphology and leukocyte count which in turn may result in male subfertility.

  4. Comparative study of trabeculectomy using single sutures versus releasable sutures

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    Matlach J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Juliane Matlach, Niels Hoffmann, Florentina J Freiberg, Franz Grehn, Thomas KlinkDepartment of Ophthalmology, University of Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg, GermanyBackground: The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes of trabeculectomy using single sutures or releasable sutures.Methods: This retrospective study analyzed the medical records of 61 patients who had undergone trabeculectomy using single sutures (n = 33, 54.1% or releasable sutures (n = 28, 45.9%. The scleral flap was secured with a mean 3.9 (range 3–5 single sutures in 33 patients and with three releasable sutures in 28 patients. Primary outcomes were the success rate, based on intraocular pressure and medication usage, and the frequency of complications and postsurgical interventions. The criteria used to determine complete success were, first, intraocular pressure <18 mmHg and, second, ≤21 mmHg and ≥20% intraocular pressure reduction without glaucoma medication.Results: All patients had an intraocular pressure ≤ 21 mmHg; 87.5% in the single suture group and 92.6% in the releasable suture group had an intraocular pressure < 18 mmHg at 24 months. There was a highly significant reduction in intraocular pressure to baseline values in both groups at the last visit. Applying the first criterion, complete success was achieved in 57.6% of patients with single sutures and 71.4% with releasable sutures, and based on the second criterion, 66.7% and 71.4%, respectively. No significant difference was found between the groups with regard to intraocular pressure, or success or complication rates.Conclusion: The results of trabeculectomy using single sutures or releasable sutures are equivalent. Therefore, the choice of suture technique should be based on individual patient requirements and surgeon experience.Keywords: glaucoma surgery, trabeculectomy, releasable suture, laser suture lysis

  5. Comparative study of Chalcone synthase promoters across plant families

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    Francisco Buitrago

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Estudio comparativo de promotores de la Chalcón Sintasa en diferentes familias de plantas In the post – genomic era the understanding of gene regulation has become a challenge and a research priority. In this research, we performed a comparative study of the regulator sequences of the chalcone synthase gene across plant families. Twenty-two sequences of chalcone synthase promoters were compared considering three regulator Cis elements: G-Box, H-Box and TATA Box. Our results show that these Cis elements are conserved among species and even at the family level. However, in some species all of the Cis elements were not found, showing that the expression and regulation of these promoters via the Cis elements can be variable. Additionally, a comparison between promoters from a species with a chalcone synthase multigene family showed that the duplicate genes are variable in the composition of the Cis elements, suggesting that these genes could be expressing in different ways. Key Words: Promoter; Chalcone synthase; Cis elements; Floral expression. Resumen En la era post-genómica, el entendimiento de la regulación génica se ha convertido en un reto y una prioridad de investigación. En este trabajo realizamos un estudio comparativo de las secuencias reguladoras del gen de la chalcón sintetasa de varias familias botánicas. Veintidós secuencias de promotores de Chalcone Synthase fueron comparados teniendo en cuenta tres elementos Cis reguladores: Caja-G, Caja-H y Caja-TATA, que podrían estar actuando como una sola unidad cooperativa. Nuestra comparación muestra que estos elementos puede que se conserven en algunas especies e inclusive que se conserven a nivel de familia. Sin embargo, en algunas especies no todos los elementos Cis fueron encontrados, mostrando que no todas las especies se regulan bajo los mismos parámetros. Adicionalmente, una comparación entre promotores de una misma especie con una familia de multigenes Chs, mostró que los

  6. Comparative study of classic friction among different archwire ligation systems

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    Gilberto Vilanova Queiroz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe and compare three alternative methods for controlling classical friction: Self-ligating brackets (SLB, special brackets (SB and special elastomeric ligatures (SEB. METHODS: The study compared Damon MX, Smart Clip, In-Ovation and Easy Clip self-ligating bracket systems, the special Synergy brackets and Morelli's twin bracket with special 8-shaped elastomeric ligatures. New and used Morelli brackets with new and used elastomeric ligatures were used as control. All brackets had 0.022 x 0.028-in slots. 0.014-in nickel-titanium and stainless steel 0.019 x 0.025-in wires were tied to first premolar steel brackets using each archwire ligation method and pulled by an Instron machine at a speed of 0.5 mm/minute. Prior to the mechanical tests the absence of binding in the device was ruled out. Statistical analysis consisted of the Kruskal-Wallis test and multiple non-parametric analyses at a 1% significance level. RESULTS: When a 0.014-in archwire was employed, all ligation methods exhibited classical friction forces close to zero, except Morelli brackets with new and old elastomeric ligatures, which displayed 64 and 44 centiNewtons, respectively. When a 0.019 x 0.025-in archwire was employed, all ligation methods exhibited values close to zero, except the In-Ovation brackets, which yielded 45 cN, and the Morelli brackets with new and old elastomeric ligatures, which displayed 82 and 49 centiNewtons, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Damon MX, Easy Clip, Smart Clip, Synergy bracket systems and 8-shaped ligatures proved to be equally effective alternatives for controlling classical friction using 0.014-in nickel-titanium archwires and 0.019 x 0.025-in steel archwires, while the In-Ovation was efficient with 0.014-in archwires but with 0.019 x 0.025-in archwires it exhibited friction that was similar to conventional brackets with used elastomeric ligatures.

  7. Comparative Studies of Vertebrate Platelet Glycoprotein 4 (CD36

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    Roger S. Holmes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Platelet glycoprotein 4 (CD36 (or fatty acyl translocase [FAT], or scavenger receptor class B, member 3 [SCARB3] is an essential cell surface and skeletal muscle outer mitochondrial membrane glycoprotein involved in multiple functions in the body. CD36 serves as a ligand receptor of thrombospondin, long chain fatty acids, oxidized low density lipoproteins (LDLs and malaria-infected erythrocytes. CD36 also influences various diseases, including angiogenesis, thrombosis, atherosclerosis, malaria, diabetes, steatosis, dementia and obesity. Genetic deficiency of this protein results in significant changes in fatty acid and oxidized lipid uptake. Comparative CD36 amino acid sequences and structures and CD36 gene locations were examined using data from several vertebrate genome projects. Vertebrate CD36 sequences shared 53–100% identity as compared with 29–32% sequence identities with other CD36-like superfamily members, SCARB1 and SCARB2. At least eight vertebrate CD36 N-glycosylation sites were conserved which are required for membrane integration. Sequence alignments, key amino acid residues and predicted secondary structures were also studied. Three CD36 domains were identified including cytoplasmic, transmembrane and exoplasmic sequences. Conserved sequences included N- and C-terminal transmembrane glycines; and exoplasmic cysteine disulphide residues; TSP-1 and PE binding sites, Thr92 and His242, respectively; 17 conserved proline and 14 glycine residues, which may participate in forming CD36 ‘short loops’; and basic amino acid residues, and may contribute to fatty acid and thrombospondin binding. Vertebrate CD36 genes usually contained 12 coding exons. The human CD36 gene contained transcription factor binding sites (including PPARG and PPARA contributing to a high gene expression level (6.6 times average. Phylogenetic analyses examined the relationships and potential evolutionary origins of the vertebrate CD36 gene with vertebrate

  8. Comparative Study of Magnetic Instabilities in Cerium Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The variety of new phases and physical phenomena discovered in intermetallic compounds containing Rare Earths or Actinides has motivated, during the last four decades, the sustained study of their magnetic phase diagrams.The current interest is focused on the investigation of the region of the phase diagram where the magnetic order of Cerium, Ytterbium and Uranium based systems is destabilized.In this region different behaviours have been detected, such as non conventional superconductivity and the anomalous dependencies of the thermal, magnetic and transport properties at very low temperatures, associated to non-Fermi liquid behaviour.A simple model, the Doniach diagram, has guided the interpretation of the destabilization of the magnetic order in the previously mentioned systems.However, most of the systems that have been studied so far cannot be described within this model.This fact has motivated the development of a phenomenological classification of phase diagrams that has been mostly applied to cerium based compounds.This classification defines three types of phase diagrams, that can be distinguished by the way in which the magnetic transition is suppressed when a control parameter (such as doping or pressure) is driven towards its critical value.Within this scenario, we study the suppression of the antiferromagnetic order of the intermetallic compounds CeIn3, CeRh2Si2 and CePd2Al3 as a function of Ce-ligand alloying.The resulting systems, CeIn3-xSnx, Ce(CuxRh1-x)2Si2 and CePd2-xNixAl3, present different crystalline structures and the effects produced by the alloying process are different in each case.We analyse the resulting magnetic phase diagrams, and compare them with the above mentioned phenomenological classification.With such a purpose, we study in detail the region in which the magnetic instability takes place, in the proximity of the respective critical concentrations.Taking into account both our results and those reported in the literature, we

  9. Comparative international studies of osteoporosis using isotope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In-Vivo Neutron Activation Analysis (IVNAA) and Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) are routinely used in our laboratory for clinical and research investigation of Bone Mineral Content (BMC) and Bone Mineral Density (BMD in g/sq.cm). These two techniques differ in many respects. IVNAA is an established technique where 49Ca radioisotope induced by the 48Ca(n,gamma)49Ca reaction is measured to determine BMC. In DEXA, two X-rays of different energies are used and based on the known attenuation characteristics of bone and soft tissue and the measured attenuated signals, the BMC is calculated. Very little radiation dose (<0.1 mSv) is given in DEXA compared to IVNAA (3 to 5 mSv). Site specific information can be obtained in the former. Although DEXA is easier to use both the techniques are in use in the investigation of Osteopenia. The BMD, a clinical useful parameter, is a function of age and not height. The body calcium content determined by IVNAA is a function of height and not age. These differences are not yet clearly understood. Work is underway to determine the influence of several factors e.g. age, weight on BMD. We are also conducting experiments to determine the peak BMC and BMD of Canadians. The role of various life styles e.g. exercise, diet, ethnicity are being investigated as a determinant of BMD and BMC. Also the effects and safety of many drugs in the treatment of osteopenia and osteoporosis are also being studied. (author)

  10. Comparative imaging study in experimental acute pulmonary embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic characteristics of radionuclide pulmonary perfusion imaging, enhanced spiral computed tomography, and digital subtraction pulmonary angiography in acute experimental segmental pulmonary embolism (corresponding to human subsegmental pulmonary embolism). Methods: Acute pulmonary embolism model was established in thirteen Chinese small type pigs by injecting glutin embolus (the diameter of the embolus was 3.8 to 4.2 mm) into pulmonary artery via jugular vein, and then radionuclide pulmonary perfusion imaging, enhanced spiral computed tomography and digital subtraction pulmonary angiography were performed. The results of sensitivity and specificity of three kinds of imaging methods were compared with the pathological findings. Results: Out of 195 segmental pulmonary arteries, abnormalities were found in forty-six segmental pulmonary arteries by pathological study. Abnormalities were detected in fifty-one segmental pulmonary arteries by pulmonary perfusion imaging, with sensitivity of 87%, specificity 93%. Filling defect was demonstrated in forty-four segmental pulmonary arteries by enhanced spiral computed tomography, with sensitivity of 63%, specificity 89%. Abnormalities were displayed in forty-seven segmental pulmonary arteries by digital subtraction pulmonary angiography, with sensitivity of 98%, specificity 99%. Pulmonary perfusion imaging was superior to enhanced spiral computed tomography (P0.05). Conclusions: Pulmonary perfusion imaging is a noninvasive technique for diagnosis of pulmonary embolism which is superior to enhanced spiral computed tomography in detecting of experimental acute segmental pulmonary embolism (corresponding to human subsegmental pulmonary embolism), but the localization of embolus is more accurate by enhanced spiral computed tomography. Combination of three kinds of imaging methods may significantly improve the diagnostic accuracy for pulmonary embolism

  11. A field study comparing two methods of transportation risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RADTRAN 4 is a computer code used for; assessing risks associated with the transportation of nuclear materials. The code employs the common modeling practice of using default values for input variables to simplify the modeling of complex scenarios, thus producing conservative final risk determinations. To better address local public concerns it is of interest to quantify the introduced conservatism by taking a site-specific approach to radiation risk assessment. With RISKIND, incident-free and accident condition doses were calculated for two suburban population groups using both default input parameters; and site-specific values to describe population demographics of regions in Pocatello, Idaho, along the I-15 corridor. The use of site-specific parameters resulted in incident-free doses ranging from the same order of magnitude to one order of magnitude less than the doses calculated with default input parameters. Correcting accident condition doses for the age distribution of the populations and employing site-specific weather data resulted in doses 1.1 times lower than estimated using default input parameters. Dose-risks calculated with RISKIND for the two population groups using site-specific data were of the same order of magnitude as the risk calculated using RADTRAN 4 for the suburban population described in DOE/EIS-0203-D. This study revealed in one specific application that use of default and site-specific parameters resulted in comparable dose estimates. If this tendency were to hold generally true over other environments and model variables, then risk assessors might prefer to select codes on the basis of criteria such as (1) the number of variables to select from; (2) ability to calculate consequences directly, and (3) outputs geared to addressing public concerns

  12. Comparative study of German and Greek lignite mine reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reclamation planning of three European lignite mining districts are compared: amount and extent of planning, integration with mining operations, and results. The districts are: Rheinbraun (Cologne), Leipzig-Borna (''East'' Germany), and Megalopolis (Greece). Lignite mines were visited and mining and reclamation personnel interviewed. The Rheinbraun mines have the most thorough reclamation operations. The integrated mine and reclamation operations are world class in size, scope, and detail of reclamation. A comprehensive landscape and reclamation plan is required in the mine permitting process. The Leipzig-Borna district is the second largest of the districts, studied little pre-mining planning of the post-mining landscape or land uses was evident. Reclamation is not closely integrated with the mining and typically occurs many years after the mining. Reduced lignite production since German reunification has left vast areas of disturbed land with little mining; and no funding for the reclamation of the large areas of mined land reclamation. The Greek Megalopolis mines have mine operations plan, but with no integrated reclamation planning. The initial spoil pile was reclaimed according to the original German mining plan. No pits have been reclaimed, and spoil areas are revegetated sporadically. The Rheinbraun mining operations Cologne which include a post mining landscape/land use plan have integrated and timely reclamation operations. The other two mining operations, which do not have a comprehensive and detailed reclamation and landscape/land use plans, do not integrate reclamation operations with the mining operations. The results are large areas of mined land unreclaimed for many years

  13. Comparative study of models for pipe-whip analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of the response of high energy lines after the occurence of pipe rupture has received considerable attention in recent past, with an array of different modelling techniques proposed and available in the literature. Information on relative merits of such methods is scarce and the present study provides tentative guidelines to the designer confronted with the selection of an appropriate model for a given system. The criteria of evaluation are, implicitly, the time required for analysis and the computer cost involved and, explicitly, the degree of accuracy of the solutions. The models compared are grouped into four classes: (i) one-degree-of-freedom-systems that introduce a stationary plastic hinge and require simple hand calculations, (ii) kinematic models incorporating the concept of a travelling hinge, easily analysed by means of inexpensive computer programs, (iii) engineering beam models considering elasto-plastic pipe behavior and (iv) two dimensional finite element systems based on plane stress theory. The kinematic model, proposed earlier by the authors, is used to conduct a qualitative analysis of the response as a function of the magnitude of external force, gap size and rigidity of the restraint. The engineering beam model gives results that practically coincide with those generated by the plane stress approach, although consistently a little higher than the latter. The methods were applied to typical configurations with bilinear restraints and the results obtained prove that the single-degree-of-freedom model may lead to non conservative solutions whereas the straight application of the kinematic model would always underestimate the maximum deformation of the restraint. (orig.)

  14. Comparative study of cavities for Iinac at SAMEER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our group at SAMEER has established standing wave side coupled structure operating at π/2 mode at 2.998 GHz frequency. We have successfully established this mechanically challenging structure and made 6 MeV as well as 15 MeV linac tubes which are delivering desired beam parameter for patient treatment. It is proposed to design and develop 30 MeV, high beam power accelerator for medical applications. The present structure has ∼ 90MΩ/m shunt impedance after final processing. The drift tube diameter of 6 mm is just sufficient to deliver output beam of less than 2 mm diameter. In the existing setup, the beam with power of about 1.2 KW collides with a 6 mm tungsten target and generates Bremsstrahlung X-rays. For the new design, we plan to have 8-10 KW beam and hence the heat dissipation will be very high. We propose to increase the drift tube diameter up to 12 mm so as to ensure beam with large diameter can pass through so as to increase the beam spot size on target. This will help to reduce the thermal issues at the target location. This paper presents comparative study of cavity design with various drift tube diameters. We present the effects arising due to changing dimensions of the cavity profile on the critical parameters of the linear accelerator tube such as the shunt impedance, quality factor and power dissipation. The design of cavity is done using Super Fish code of LANL. (author)

  15. Comparative study of novel endovascular treatment techniques for intracranial aneurysms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantón, Gádor; Lasheras, Juan C.; Levy, David I.; Sparks, Steven R.

    2002-11-01

    Intracranial aneurysms are life-threatening vascular lesions, which are potentially treatable to avoid the consequences of their rupture. Current treatments, either surgical or endovascular, are all guided to reduce the hemodynamic forces acting on the aneurysm wall in an effort to minimize the risk of rupture. Surgical clipping is still the most used technique to treat this type of aneurysm but there is a continued demand for less invasive approaches. This has led to the development of several endovascular techniques. We report here a comparative study of the reduction in the hemodynamic stresses and the modification of the flow in the parent vessel resulting from the use of three different techniques. The first one consists of endosaccular packing with platinum coils (GDC, Target Therapeutics), which is already widely used but its long-term efficacy has not yet been determined. The second one consists of the embolization of the aneurismal sac with Onyx, a polymer which hardens when in contact with the blood (being developed by Micro Therapeutics, Inc.). The third one involves the packing of the sac with hydrocoils, platinum wires coated with a gel which quickly hydrates when in contact with blood (developed by MicroVention). A Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (DPIV) system is used to measure in vitro the velocity field inside a model of an ACOM aneurysm (an aneurysm forming in the anterior communicating artery). Physiological accurate pulsatile flow conditions are input to the arterial model through a programmable pump. The measurements show that although all treatment techniques lead to a reduction in both normal and tangential shear stresses on the aneurismal sac, each one of them also leads to different modifications of the flow in the parent vessel which may have consequences related to potential for clotting. Comparison of the untreated aneurysm with the above three treated cases also showed that the characteristics of the wall shear stresses on the parent

  16. Comparative study of in-situ filter test methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Available methods of testing high efficiency particulate aerosol (HEPA) filters in-situ have been reviewed. In order to understand the relationship between the results produced by different methods a selection has been compared. Various pieces of equipment for generating and detecting aerosols have been tested and their suitability assessed. Condensation-nuclei, DOP (di-octyl phthalate) and sodium-flame in-situ filter test methods have been studied, using the 500 cfm (9000 m3/h) filter test rig at Harwell and in the field. Both the sodium-flame and DOP methods measure the penetration through leaks and filter material. However the measured penetration through filtered leaks depends on the aerosol size distribution and the detection method. Condensation-nuclei test methods can only be used to measure unfiltered leaks since condensation nuclei have a very low penetration through filtered leaks. A combination of methods would enable filtered and unfiltered leaks to be measured. A condensation-nucleus counter using n-butyl alcohol as the working fluid has the advantage of being able to detect any particle up to 1 μm in diameter, including DOP, and so could be used for this purpose. A single-particle counter has not been satisfactory because of interference from particles leaking into systems under extract, particularly downstream of filters, and because the concentration of the input aerosol has to be severely limited. The sodium-flame method requires a skilled operator and may cause safety and corrosion problems. The DOP method using a total light scattering detector has so far been the most satisfactory. It is fairly easy to use, measures reasonably low values of penetration and gives rapid results. DOP has had no adverse effect on HEPA filters over a long series of tests

  17. Comparative study of etiological diagnosis of nosocomial pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Maria de Carvalho

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Nosocomial pneumonia is a common complication in patients on mechanical ventilation and results in significant mortality. Diagnosis of pneumonia in patients who are intubated and under mechanical ventilation is difficult, even with the aid of clinical, laboratorial, and endoscopic tests. The objective of this study was to compare three methods of tracheal sputum collection in patients with a clinical and radiological diagnosis of pneumonia. Twenty-two patients with a clinical diagnosis of liver disease were enrolled, 18 years of age or older, 13 males and nine females, who had been mechanically ventilated over an intubation period of 5.86 ± 4.62 days. These patients were being treated in intensive care unit (ICU of the Liver Transplantdepartment. Secretion collection was carried out according to a protocol with three distinct methods: endotracheal aspiration with a closed aspiration system, Bal cath and bronchoalveolar lavage. Of the 22 patients analyzed, 21 (95.4% showed one or more infectious agent when the closed aspiration system was used. With the Bal cathâ collection, 19 patients (86.3% had one or more infectious agents; in the collection by bronchoalveolar lavage, 10 patients (45.4% presented one or more infectious agent. According to the laboratorial analysis, 14 different microorganisms were isolated, the most frequent of which were Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. We concluded that aspiration with the closed system produced the most effective results in comparison with those of bronchoalveolar lavage and the Bal cathâ, and may be an acceptable method for diagnosing hospital-acquired pneumonia when no fiberoptic technique is available.

  18. Comparative studies of intracellular transport of secretory proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartakoff, A; Vassalli, P; Détraz, M

    1978-12-01

    The physiology of protein intracellular transport and secretion by cell types thought to be free from short-term control has been compared with that of the pancreatic acinar cell, using pulse-chase protocols to follow biosynthetically-labeled secretory products. Data previously obtained (Tartakoff, A.M., and P. Vassalli. J. Exp. Med. 146:1332-1345) has shown that plasma-cell immunoglobulin (Ig) secretion is inhibited by respiratory inhibitors, by partial Na/K equilibration effected by the carboxylic ionophore monensin, and by calcium withdrawal effected by the carboxylic ionophore A 23187 in the presence of ethylene glycol bis (beta-aminoethylether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) and absence of calcium. We report here that both inhibition of respiration and treatment with monensin slow secretion by fibroblasts, and also macrophages and slow intracellular transport (though not discharge per se) by the exocrine pancreatic cells. Attempted calcium withdrawal is inhibitory for fibroblasts but not for macrophages. The elimination of extracellular calcium or addition of 50 mM KCl has no major effect on secretory rate of either fibroblasts or macrophages. Electron microscopic examination of all cell types shows that monensin causes a rapid and impressive dilation of Golgi elements. Combined cell fractionation and autoradiographic studies of the pancreas show that the effect of monensin is exerted at the point of the exit of secretory protein from the Golgi apparatus. Other steps in intracellular transport proceed at normal rates. These observations suggest a common effect of the cytoplasmic Na/K balance at the Golgi level and lead to a model of intracellular transport in which secretory product obligatorily passes through Golgi elements (cisternae?) that are sensitive to monensin. Thus, intracellular transport follows a similar course in both regulated and nonregulated secretory cells up to the level of distal Golgi elements. PMID:103883

  19. A Comparative Study of Chinese and Western Journalistic Ethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏晓非

    2014-01-01

    related to journalistic ethics in China and the west. This paper starts with the comparison of journalistic respon-sibility ethics. Then from different points, I make a comparative analysis of journalistic ethics.

  20. A Comparative Study of Three Test Effort Estimation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália França Felipe

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Effort estimation is a big challenge for those trying to manage a project. In a software development project, testing is essential to assure product quality. However, it is a time consuming activity, and its work must be estimated for successful project execution. In our research, we concentrate our efforts on comparing some known methods of test effort estimation. So, this paper aims to analyze three different test effort estimation methods and compare them with the effort spent on real projects. Firstly we compare two widely used effort estimation methods: Test Point Analysis (TPA and Use Case Points (UCP. Thereafter, we create an artificial neural network (ANN based on the TPA, trained to estimate the testing work in software development projects, and compare it with pure TPA, to check which of them results in better estimates. Analyzing the experiment results, we concluded that the neural networks gave the best results, followed by TPA and then UCP.