WorldWideScience

Sample records for belgium

  1. Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    The Kingdom of Belgium which borders on the nations of France, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, and the Federal Republic of Germany, is one of the smallest European countries and is a parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarch. The branches of its government are the executive (with a king, a prime minister, and a Council of Ministers), the legislative (a bicameral Parliament and various regional and cultural assemblies), and the judicial (a Court of Cassation modelled on the French system). 30% of Belgium's gross national product comes from machinery, iron and steel, coal, textiles, chemicals, and glass. During the 80 year period which preceded WWI, Belgium remained neutral in an era of intra-European wars until German troops overran the country during their attack on France in 1914. Some of the worst battles of that war were fought in Belgium. Again in 1940, Belgium was occupied by the Germans. There was a government-in-exile in London; however the King remained in Belgium during the war. The course of Belgian politics was determined largely by the division of the Belgian people into 2 major language groups--the Dutch speakers and French speakers. Regional and language rivalries are taken into account in all important national decisions. The 3 major political parties representing the main ideological tendencies are the Socialists, the Socialist Christians, and the Liberals. Belgium is one of the most open economies in the world and is a densely populated, highly industrialized country in the midst of a highly industrialized region. An economic austerity program was instituted at the beginning of this decade which included devaluation of the Belgian franc, reduction of government expenditures, a partial price freeze, etc. Improvements have been seen as a result of this program. Although US investment has declined in recent years, total US direct investment is estimated at $5.28 billion and there are 899 US companies currently operating in Belgium. As a

  2. Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides information on the status of institutional and financial arrangements in Belgium for the long term management of HLW and SNF, It includes the following elements: A consistent set of requirements for the technical and legal infrastructure including: funding, liability, institutional control, records management, and research activities; An organizational structure with clearly defined responsibilities; and Provisions for participation by interested parties in decisions and outcomes

  3. Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To maintain and further develop the high quality of nuclear engineering education, a network of five Belgian universities and Belgian nuclear research centre (SCK CEN) were created in 2001 with the title of 'Belgium Nuclear Higher Education Network BNEN'. Public authorities, regulators and industries supported this initiative due to the need of well educated and trained nuclear manpower. It introduced a new programme of higher education under the name of 60 ECTS programme 'Master of Science in Nuclear Engineering'. To join this new master's programme, students must already hold a university degree in engineering or equivalent. This programme aims to deliver a considerable number of highly qualified engineers for the safe and economic operation of nuclear power plants, not only in Belgium, but worldwide as well. The BNEN consortium organizes several courses for a significant number of foreign students under the ENEN project. This creates good international exposure for European students. The master's programme is a demanding programme whereby students with different high level backgrounds in engineering have to go through highly theoretical subjects like neutron physics; fluid flow and heat transfer modelling, and apply them to reactor design, nuclear safety and plant operation and control. As a more interdisciplinary level, the programme includes some important chapters of material science, with a particular interest in the fuel cycle. Radiation protection belongs also to the backbone of the programme. All subjects are taught by academics appointed by the partner universities, whereas the practical exercises and laboratory sessions are supervised by researchers of SCK CEN. The final thesis offers an opportunity for internship in industry or in a research laboratory

  4. Restructuring in SMEs: Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Musialski, Cécile

    2013-01-01

    Based on information derived from 85 case studies across all EU Member States and other sources, the project outlines the features peculiar to SMEs in their anticipation and management of restructuring, explores the main drivers of change and analyses the factors influencing successful restructuring. It offers some insight into how restructuring impacts on workers and the company itself and sets out several policy pointers for future action. This is the country report for Belgium.

  5. Nuclear power in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the energy sector Belgium is 90% dependent on imports. This was clearly felt by the electricity generating economy when the share of hydrocarbons in the energy resources used for electricity generation increased to more than 85% in 1973 as a consequence of rising electricity consumption. Although Belgium had been early to start employing nuclear power for peaceful purposes, only little use had initially been made of this possibility. After the first oil price crisis the Belgian electricity utilities turned more attention to nuclear power. To this day, seven nuclear power plants have been started up, and Belgian utilities hold a fifty percent share in a French nuclear power plant, while the French EdF holds fifty percent in one Belgian nuclear generating unit. The Belgian nuclear power plants, which were built mostly by Belgian industries, have an excellent operating record. Their availabilities are considerably above the worldwide average and they contributed some 60% to the electricity production in Belgium in 1985. Thanks to nuclear power, the cumulative percentage shares of heating oil and gas in electricity production were reduced to well over 15%, compared to 1973, thus meeting the objectives of using nuclear power, i.e., to save foreign exchange and become self-sufficient in supplying the country's needs. The use of nuclear power allowed the Belgian utilities to reduce the price per kilowatthour of electricity and, in this way, remain competitive with other countries. The introduction of nuclear power continues to have a stabilizing influence on electricity generating costs. In the light of the forecast future development of consumption it is regarded as probable that another nuclear power plant of 1390 MWe will have to be built and commissioned before the year 2000. (orig.)

  6. [Family policy in Belgium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumon, W

    1987-01-01

    The development of family policy in Belgium since the end of World War I is described. Three periods are identified. The original objectives were to provide a basic income level for all families and to promote fertility. After World War II, measures were introduced to foster the physical and psychological health of the family, including the protection of women's rights. More recent policy trends have concentrated on family income and providing services at the family rather than the institutional level. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE) PMID:12280764

  7. Geothermal energy in Belgium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandenberghe, N.

    1984-09-01

    The inventory of geological potentialities for the utilization of low enthalpy geothermal energy in Belgium reveals the lower Cretaceous limestone as an interesting reservoir. This formation, karstic and fractured, is very pervious. The geometry, hydrodynamism, chemistry and water temperature of this formation have been determined for 2 different regions: the Hainaut and the ''Campine anversoise''. In the Hainaut, the first stage, namely urban heating is now under progress; the two other stages are greenhouse heating and sludge heating before biomethanisation. A utilization in series has been planned. In the Campine region, the first well of a demonstration doublet has just been drilled. It will be used for building and greenhouse heating. Another shallower reservoir, situated in a porous chalk formation, is also fairly interesting for an energetic application (swimming-pools, heat pumps heating and biomass).

  8. Incomplete Negotiations: The Belgium Case

    OpenAIRE

    Fridl, D.

    2005-01-01

    Why do some negotiations end in agreement and some do not? Are there lessons that can be learned from studying negotiations that did not end in agreement? In this paper, I examine the history of 19th century Belgium and the events that led up to the negotiations over its future in 1830, which ended without agreement. The Kingdom of the Netherlands which consisted of Belgium, Luxembourg and northern Netherlands was formed at the Vienna Congress in 1815 with a specific purpose of serving as a b...

  9. Robert Cailliau honoured by Belgium

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    On 15 November, Robert Cailliau received the distinction of Commandeur de l'Ordre de Léopold from Belgium, his home country, for his pioneering work in developing the World Wide Web. Robert Cailliau worked closely with Tim Berners-Lee, the inventor of the Web.

  10. Alien macroinvertebrates in Flanders (Belgium)

    OpenAIRE

    Boets, Pieter; Brosens, Dimitri; Lock, Koen; Adriaens, Tim; Aelterman, Bart; Mertens, Joost; Goethals, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Biological invasions of aquatic macroinvertebrates are gaining interest because of their potential for significant ecological and socio-economic impacts (positive and negative). In the present study, an inventory was made of the alien macroinvertebrates occurring in Flanders (northern Belgium) based on extensive existing collections of biological samples and supplemented with our additional sampling programs. Fresh and brackish waters as well as the Belgian coastal harbours, situated at the i...

  11. Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Maeyaert, Stijn; Judo, Frank; Vandeburie, Aurelien; Lindemans, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    The Government Procurement Review brings together contributions from procurement lawyers across five continents and provides real insight to the key issues in government procurement across the different jurisdictions.This publication brings together even wider geographic coverage than the first edition, now covering six continents and 24 national chapters (including the EU chapter) and providing real insight to the key issues in government procurement across the different jurisdictions.

  12. Trends in dragonfly occurrence in Belgium (Odonata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knijf, de G.; Anselin, A.; Goffart, P.

    2003-01-01

    Trends in dragonfly occurrence in Belgium (Odonata) The group ‘Gomphus’ collected 65 000 records of 69 species of Odonata, more or less equally scattered over Belgium. The best-investigated areas are the northern part and some river valleys in the south. Most hot spots can be found in the northeaste

  13. Agricultural marketing in Belgium and The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenberg, M.T.G.; Viaene, J.

    1993-01-01

    Agriculture in Belgium and the Netherlands has a strong export tradition and has been market oriented for a long time. In this article agricultural markeling in Belgium and the Netherlands is analyzed on the basis of the concepts structure, conduct and performance. In our review of market structure

  14. Euthanasia for Detainees in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devolder, Katrien

    2016-07-01

    In 2011, Frank Van Den Bleeken became the first detainee to request euthanasia under Belgium's Euthanasia Act of 2002. This article investigates whether it would be lawful and morally permissible for a doctor to accede to this request. Though Van Den Bleeken has not been held accountable for the crimes he committed, he has been detained in an ordinary prison, without appropriate psychiatric care, for more than 30 years. It is first established that Van Den Bleeken's euthanasia request plausibly meets the relevant conditions of the Euthanasia Act and that, consequently, a doctor could lawfully fulfill it. Next, it is argued that autonomy-based reasons for euthanizing him outweigh complicity-based reasons against doing so, and that, therefore, it is also morally permissible for a doctor to carry out the euthanasia request. PMID:27348823

  15. The Belgium debate on tactical nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication proposes a discussion about the opinions and positions of the various Belgium political actors and authorities regarding nuclear weapons. After a synthesis of several interviews with different actors, the author analyses the debate content, and more precisely the positions of peace movements, of the government, and of political parties. Several documents are proposed in appendix: a presentation of the evolution on Belgium nuclear missions, a government's answer to parliamentary resolutions regarding non-proliferation and nuclear disarmament, and a working paper submitted by Belgium, Norway and the Netherlands in the perspective of the 2005 Conference of Parties on the Non-Proliferation Treaty

  16. Recent trends in Belgium's gas activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article brings various recent trends together to provide a view of the natural gas activities in Belgium. Belgium has a strategic position as an important nodal point in the North-Western European gas grids. This is illustrated by the high interconnection rate with adjacent networks. Gas volumes are attracted for international transit from border point to border point and to supply the national market. Natural gas represents more than a quarter of Belgium's energy mix and is completely dependent on foreign gas supplies. The Belgian gas market and transmission grid are broken down for H-gas (high calorific value, average of 11,630 kWh/m3(n)) and for L-gas (low calorific value, average of 9,769 kWh/m3(n)). This article is intended to disclose some statistics in order to contribute to the understanding and benchmarking of Belgium's gas flows, gas consumption, supply diversification and import capacity. (authors)

  17. Regional Labor Market Disparities in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Marcello M. Estevão

    2002-01-01

    Regional labor market discrepancies have been widening in Belgium in the last two decades and are more evident within particular demographic groups. These developments can largely be accounted for by worse matching of people to jobs in the high-unemployment provinces. Using a structural VAR, it is also shown that labor mar- ket dynamics in Belgium produce a strong attenuating effect on employment growth, in contrast to the United States where initial labor demand shocks are expanded in the lo...

  18. Agricultural marketing in Belgium and The Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    M.T.G. Meulenberg; Viaene, J.

    1993-01-01

    Agriculture in Belgium and the Netherlands has a strong export tradition and has been market oriented for a long time. In this article agricultural markeling in Belgium and the Netherlands is analyzed on the basis of the concepts structure, conduct and performance. In our review of market structure attention is paid to the structure of agriculture, the food consumer, food retailing, government policies, competition and marketing channels. Afterwards market conduct with respect to product, pri...

  19. Climate index for Belgium - Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the U.S. Department of Energy, an estimated 25% of the GNP is affected by weather-related events. The variations in temperature - even small ones - can also have long-lasting effects on the operational results of a company. Among other, the Energy supply sector is sensitive to weather risks: a milder or harsher than usual winter leads to a decrease or increase of energy consumption. The price of electricity on power trading facilities like Powernext is especially sensitive to odd changes in temperatures. Powernext and Meteo-France (the French meteorological agency) have joined expertise in order to promote the use of weather indices in term of decision making or underlying of hedging tools to energy actors, end users from any other sector of activity and specialists of the weather risk hedging. The Powernext Weather indices are made from information collected by Meteo-France's main observation network according to the norms of international meteorology, in areas carefully selected. The gross data are submitted to a thorough review allowing the correction of abnormalities and the reconstitution of missing data. Each index is fashioned to take into account the economic activity in the various regions of the country as represented by each region's population. This demographic information represents a fair approximation of the weight of the regional economic activity. This document presents the calculation methodology of average, minimum and maximum weather indexes with the winter and summer regression equations for the different economical regions of Belgium. (J.S.)

  20. Spent fuel management in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belgium at present operates seven commercial nuclear units (all of the PWR type) distributed over two sites (Tihange and Doel), with a total output of 5600 MW. Until now, the spent fuel of the three oldest units was reprocessed in the Cogema facility at La Hague, in France. The spent fuel of the remaining units is currently stored in the pools of the units. For economic and political reasons, it has been decided to postpone reprocessing of the major part of the fuel. As the existing pools were filling up, it was necessary to provide interim storage facilities. BELGATOM has performed a technical and economic study in order to define the most appropriate solutions. Specific Belgian conditions had to be taken into account for the selection of the solution. The main considerations are the high population density and the relatively high risk of an aircraft crash. Site conditions are such that different solutions were selected at each site. All possibilities were considered and a comparative study was carried out. After the technical and economic study, the choice was made of dry storage in metallic dual purpose casks at the Doel site and of wet storage in pools at the Tihange site. The paper describes the facilities at both sites as well as their design bases. Also addressed are the licensing approach (including the qualification programme) and environmental aspects. Finally, the Belgian approach for further storage is discussed. (author). 2 figs, 1 tab

  1. Euthanasia in Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Each of the Benelux countries (Belgium, Luxembourg, Netherlands) has enacted legislation that partially decriminalises euthanasia, defined as an act that intentionally terminates someone's life at their request. In the Netherlands and Luxembourg, but not in Belgium, the legislation partially decriminalised assisted suicide at the same time. In all three countries, euthanasia can only be performed by a doctor, in response to the patient's voluntary and well-considered request, and for patients who have an incurable disease that causes unbearable suffering, without any prospect of relief. In the Netherlands, minors can request euthanasia as of the age of 12 years. In 2011, reported euthanasia accounted for about 1% of deaths in Belgium and 3% in the Netherlands. In 75% of cases, cancer was the disease leading to a request for euthanasia. In the Netherlands, the number of cases of euthanasia reported by doctors in surveys matches the number that is officially declared. In Belgium, it is thought that there are as many unreported as reported cases of euthanasia. Since the enactment of euthanasia legislation, fewer deaths involve the intentional administration of lethal drugs without an explicit request from the patient. PMID:24427846

  2. The MAR model performances over Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Wyard, Coraline; Fettweis, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    This presentation deals with the set-up of the regional climate model MAR over Belgium. It also presents the performances of MAR to simulate the present-day climate following three reanalysis used as forcing of the model (ERA-Interim, ERA-20C and NCEP/NCAR-v1).

  3. An Astronomical Survey Conducted in Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazé, Yaël; Fantaine, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the first survey conducted in Belgium about the interest in and knowledge of astronomy. Two samples were studied, the public at large (667 questionnaires) and students (2589 questionnaires), but the results are generally similar in both samples. We evaluated people's interest, main information source and…

  4. Elementary Particle Physics in Belgium Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    The experimental activities of the Belgian Universities and Institutes are performed within the framework of large international collaborations. Moreover, the universities whose name is colored in light blue with * on the map of Belgium also take part into theoretical work. (All these activities are mainly supported by the FNRS-FWO research foundations.)

  5. Euthanasia in Belgium five years after legalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Penney

    2009-06-01

    In 2002, Belgium became the second country to legalise euthanasia after the Netherlands. Three biannual reports have been published by the Federal Control and Evaluation Commission, the body which monitors the application of the law. This article explores how the Belgian law works and what is known about Belgian euthanasia practice both before and since legalisation. PMID:19544922

  6. First Steps of Hydrogen Implementation in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the Belgian energy policy the knowledge on hydrogen was rather limited. To resolve this a project was started titled 'Development of Tools to Evaluate the Potential of Sustainable Hydrogen in Belgium' on behalf of Belgian Science Policy Office. It intends to be the first step in a scientific assessment of hydrogen in the Belgian context. The results of the project can be summarized as follows: - databases with international knowledge and experiences on hydrogen - hydrogen module within MARKAL-TIMES, illustrated by a scenario calculation - initial technology assessment on hydrogen, focussed on the scenario - translation of the progress in foreign legislation and licence procedures on hydrogen - definition of relevant policy issues concerning hydrogen. The conclusions of this study are shown in this presentation. The presentation starts showing the actual situation in Belgium around hydrogen and fuel cells. (authors)

  7. Fluid intake survey among schoolchildren in Belgium.

    OpenAIRE

    Senterre, Christelle; Dramaix Wilmet, Michèle; Thiebaut, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Background In childhood, inadequate fluid intakes can lead on the short term, to reduced physical and cognitive performances. However, few data are available on the fluid intake among schoolchildren in Belgium. The main aim of this study is to evaluate total fluid intake provided by different types of beverages in a sample of Belgian schoolchildren, in order to assess the percentage of individuals complying with the European Food Safety Authority recommendations for total fluid intake. A seco...

  8. Economic projections for Belgium – spring 2005

    OpenAIRE

    National Bank of Belgium

    2005-01-01

    Twice a year, in June and December, the National Bank of Belgium publishes the macroeconomic projections for the Belgian economy for the current and the following year. The current projections cover the years 2005 and 2006. These projections make up the national component of the broad macroeconomic projection exercise conducted within the Eurosystem ; the ECB publishes the aggregated results of this exercise for the euro area economy in its Monthly Bulletin. At the current juncture, the inter...

  9. Economic projections for Belgium – autumn 2004

    OpenAIRE

    National Bank of Belgium

    2004-01-01

    Twice a year, in June and December, the National Bank of Belgium publishes the macroeconomic projections for the Belgian economy for the current and the following year. The current projections are an update of the projections for 2004 and 2005 published last June. These projections make up the national component of the broad macroeconomic projection exercise conducted within the Eurosystem; the ECB publishes the aggregated results of this exercise for the euro area economy. At the current jun...

  10. Economic projections for Belgium, 2004-2005

    OpenAIRE

    National Bank of Belgium

    2004-01-01

    In light of an increased transparency, the National Bank of Belgium has decided to publish twice a year, in June and December, the macroeconomic projections for the Belgian economy for the current and the following year. These projections represent the national part from the broad macroeconomic projection exercise conducted within the Eurosystem, for which the ECB publishes the aggregated results for the euro area economy. At the current juncture, the recovery of the world leading economies i...

  11. Economic projections for Belgium – Autumn 2008

    OpenAIRE

    National Bank of Belgium

    2008-01-01

    Since the publication of the previous forecasts in June 2008, the economic outlook has deteriorated very rapidly, both at global level and for Belgium. The financial tensions which emerged in mid 2007 turned into a serious crisis, and the contagion effects on the real economy proliferated, halting the growth of activity in the advanced economies and causing an abrupt fall in commodity prices. The slowdown in activity which began in mid 2007 as a result of weakening external demand was slightl...

  12. Implementing an electronic medication overview in Belgium.

    OpenAIRE

    Storms, Hannelore; Marquet, Kristel; Claes, Neree

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Digitally sharing information enables improved communication, consequently increasing accuracy of a medication overview, resulting in reduced medication errors [1]. The aim of this study is to evaluate implementation of an electronic medication overview, particularly its accessibility and usability. Methods: In Belgium a project called “Vitalink” was implemented. Main objective of this project was to improve the exchange of health information between healthcare profession...

  13. Pharmaceutical Policy regarding Generic Drugs in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Simoens; Kristien De Bruyn; Marc Bogaert; Gert Laekeman

    2005-01-01

    Pressure to control pharmaceutical expenditure and price competition among pharmaceutical companies are fuelling the development of generic drug markets in EU countries. However, in Belgium, the market for generic drugs is underdeveloped compared with other countries. To promote the use of generic drugs, the government introduced a reference pricing (RP) scheme in 2001. The aim of this paper is to discuss Belgian pharmaceutical policy regarding generic drugs and to analyse how the Belgian dru...

  14. Online monitoring of flu in Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devroey, Dirk; Semaille, Pascal; Vansintejan, Johan; Vandevoorde, Jan; Van De Vijver, Erwin

    2011-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Devroey et al. (2011) Online monitoring of flu in Belgium. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 5(5), 351–356. Background  The diagnosis and treatment of patients with the A(H1N1) pandemic flu caused some serious burden for general practitioners (GPs) in the summer and autumn of 2009. Objective  The aim of this study was to track the incidence of influenza and influenza‐like illness (ILI) in Belgium and to describe the characteristics of the affected patients. Methods  In July 2009, the Belgian online influenza surveillance system (BOISS) was set up to monitor the spread of influenza and ILI. Registrations were made by 93 GPs from all 10 Belgian provinces who participated at least 1 week during the first 12 months of the registration. Only patients who met the WHO criteria for flu were recorded. Results  In total, 1254 patients (53% men) with influenza or ILI were included. Mainly younger persons were affected: 43% was under the age of 20 years. A risk factor for influenza‐related complications was determined in 19% of cases, mainly patients with chronic respiratory problems. A treatment with oseltamivir or zanamivir was prescribed in 13%, and 3% of the patients was admitted to a hospital. The time of the peak incidence (44th week) and the magnitude (623 cases per week per 100 000 inhabitants) corresponded with the figures of the existing paper‐based registration network. The small sample size and possible reporting biases may have influenced the findings of the study. Conclusions  The BOISS provides a good alternative to conduct surveillance activities for influenza and ILI in Belgium. It provides complementary information regarding ILI compared to the existing data capturing. PMID:21668686

  15. Competitiveness of nuclear power in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Belgium, the power utilities have to draw up periodically, for the Belgium Government, a national equipment plan so as to substantiate the investments planned for the ten year period that follows the publication of the plan. The justification of this plan is mainly based on the cost of the kilowatt-hour produced by the different types of power units. The most recently published plan covers the period 1988-1998. The three power generation means considered in Belgium for comparison are nuclear, coal and gas. Taking into account the official calculation criteria (discount rate of 8.6% and book-keeping life of 20 years), nuclear generation is clearly situated between the low and high hypotheses for gas, while coal is more costly. By using more realistic values of the book-keeping life, nuclear and gas are at the same level. Nuclear power generation can be an economic option for base load generation, especially if gas prices go up. This may be the case in the coming years, since 'a dash for gas' is currently being experienced and since the nuclear fuel costs are lower than the conservative price level adopted in the equipment plant in 1988. Despite the advantages of nuclear energy (economic advantages as a result of price stability, ecological advantages with respect to the greenhouse effect and carbon dioxide production, political advantages in terms of energy independence, and industrial advantages in terms of benefits to the domestic economy), it can only be developed in a favourable context if it is accepted by the citizens. This is the reason why the utilities are waiting for a national political consensus before introducing officially new nuclear plants in their planning proposals. (author). 7 figs, 4 tabs

  16. Payment cards and money demand in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Rinaldi, Laura

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the impact of payment cards use on the amount of money in circulation in Belgium. In all developed countries the amout of notes and coins has decreased over the past years. Such tendency can be attributed to a slow, but continuous process of substitution of cash by other means of payment for everyday transactions. If the substitution was first due to a widespread used of cheques, more recently this was intensified by cards' diffusion. This claim is supporte...

  17. Emergency Planning and Preparedness in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present Belgian nuclear emergency planning and preparedness is based on experience cumulated since the early eighties. This paper describes the organisation, actuation process, the emergency planning zones and the applicable intervention guidance levels. The role of AVN as on-site inspector, nuclear emergency adviser and emergency assessor is explained as well as its human and technical resources. Finally the paper presents briefly the experience feedback on emergency exercises and training in Belgium as well as AVN's views on some debatable topics. (author)

  18. Spatial dependences among precipitation maxima over Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannitsem, S.; Naveau, P.

    2007-09-01

    For a wide range of applications in hydrology, the probability distribution of precipitation maxima represents a fundamental quantity to build dykes, propose flood planning policies, or more generally, to mitigate the impact of precipitation extremes. Classical Extreme Value Theory (EVT) has been applied in this context by usually assuming that precipitation maxima can be considered as Independent and Identically Distributed (IID) events, which approximately follow a Generalized Extreme Value distribution (GEV) at each recording site. In practice, weather stations records can not be considered as independent in space. Assessing the spatial dependences among precipitation maxima provided by two Belgium measurement networks is the main goal of this work. The pairwise dependences are estimated by a variogram of order one, also called madogram, that is specially tailored to be in compliance with spatial EVT and to capture EVT bivariate structures. Our analysis of Belgium precipitation maxima indicates that the degree of dependence varies greatly according to three factors: the distance between two stations, the season (summer or winter) and the precipitation accumulation duration (hourly, daily, monthly, etc.). Increasing the duration (from one hour to 20 days) strengthens the spatial dependence. The full independence is reached after about 50 km (100 km) for summer (winter) for a duration of one hour, while for long durations only after a few hundred kilometers. In addition this dependence is always larger in winter than in summer whatever is the duration. An explanation of these properties in terms of the dynamical processes dominating during the two seasons is advanced.

  19. Purple vests. The origins of plural policing in Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devroe, E.

    2015-01-01

    This article increases the body of knowledge on the origins of plural policing in a continental setting, more specifically in Belgium. Compared to other European countries, Belgium occupies a unique position, which can be explained by its particular constitutional setting. While non-police public ac

  20. Administrative reform movements and commissions in Belgium 1848-2004

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Thijs (Nick); S.G.J. Van de Walle (Steven)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractCurrent analysis of the public administration’s dysfunctions in Belgium bears remarkable resemblance to the analyses made by numerous authors and commissions in the past 150 years. In this article, we provide an overview of the major administrative reform initiatives in Belgium between 1

  1. Belgium; Selected Issues—Regional Labor Markets in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2002-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper analyzes the regional labor markets for Belgium. The paper examines labor market performance, and argues that a number of factors—poor worker-job matching, a compressed wage structure, and low geographical mobility—contribute to economic disparities. The paper describes the divergences in local labor markets, and offers potential explanations for them, including an analysis of variations in the relationship between regional unemployment rates and regional vacanc...

  2. Spatial dependences among precipitation maxima over Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vannitsem

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available For a wide range of applications in hydrology, the probability distribution of precipitation maxima represents a fundamental quantity to build dykes, propose flood planning policies, or more generally, to mitigate the impact of precipitation extremes. Classical Extreme Value Theory (EVT has been applied in this context by usually assuming that precipitation maxima can be considered as Independent and Identically Distributed (IID events, which approximately follow a Generalized Extreme Value distribution (GEV at each recording site. In practice, weather stations records can not be considered as independent in space.

    Assessing the spatial dependences among precipitation maxima provided by two Belgium measurement networks is the main goal of this work. The pairwise dependences are estimated by a variogram of order one, also called madogram, that is specially tailored to be in compliance with spatial EVT and to capture EVT bivariate structures. Our analysis of Belgium precipitation maxima indicates that the degree of dependence varies greatly according to three factors: the distance between two stations, the season (summer or winter and the precipitation accumulation duration (hourly, daily, monthly, etc.. Increasing the duration (from one hour to 20 days strengthens the spatial dependence. The full independence is reached after about 50 km (100 km for summer (winter for a duration of one hour, while for long durations only after a few hundred kilometers. In addition this dependence is always larger in winter than in summer whatever is the duration. An explanation of these properties in terms of the dynamical processes dominating during the two seasons is advanced.

  3. Feminism and the health movement in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segers, A; Chartier, D; Filosof, F; Osteaux, M

    1984-04-01

    Feminism in Belgium is characterized by its openness and its flexibility. The feminist movement is characterized by; 1) the existence of groups which think about the theory of feminism, encompassing the entire sphere of action of women and concerning itself with private matters and politics; and 2) the existence of action groups which specialize in certain areas. Health has become a matter of great concern for these groups, and one reason for this is the urgent need to put a stop to the scandal of illicit abortion, and the family planning situation in Belgium. It was not until 1973 that information on contraceptive use was permitted. Illicit abortions are still performed, and only women from well-to-do backgrounds have access to "tourist abortion" and can have abortions in England and Holland. The legislative text states that abortion remains an offense against the family and until 1983 the law only allowed certain therapeutic abortions. The women who join the feminist movement are usually professional middle-class women and those of the left and extreme left. These women helped to establish the Groupe d'Action des Centres Extra-Hospitaliers Praiquant des Avortements, an organization of non-hosppital centers that provide abortion services and which provide women with full information on contraception, emphasizing that the decision must be made by the woman herself. Good medial and psychological conditions are provided as well as postabortion care. At present there are 15 centers in Brussels and Wallonia and 2 Flemish centers have recently opened. The centers use a system of payment by the hour or on the basis of fixed fees. The feminist movement has also helped to open up the medical profession to women, opened up hospital services sensitive to feminist ideas, and fought resistence to change among the medical hierarchy, that remains predominantly male. PMID:12178363

  4. Non power applications of nuclear technology: The case of Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The historical review and oversight of Belgium activities in applications of nuclear technologies has been presented. Especially attention have been paid on industrial applications as sterilization of surgical tools, medical supplies, drugs, food; radiation induced polymerization and composite materials production; nondestructive testing and application of sealed sources in industry. The detailed review has been done on nuclear medicine development in Belgium covering the range of therapeutic applications as well as diagnostic techniques

  5. Nuclear energy policy in Belgium after Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Belgian nuclear phase-out law imposes closing down in the 2015–2025 period seven nuclear power plants (NPPs) producing more than 50% of the domestic electricity. This creates an urgent problem in the country because of the absence of well-defined capacity-replacement plans. Though a safety-of-supply provision in the law allows for a delayed phase-out, hopes for a technically acceptable schedule have reduced after the Fukushima nuclear disaster in March 2011. In this article policy investigations are made with system dynamics. A significant finding from such modelling is that, in contrast to common expectations, a too early nuclear phase-out will not serve the deployment of renewable energy sources and rational use of energy. It is indeed found to primarily benefit to fossil fuel, creating unwanted drawbacks regarding safety of supply, dependency on foreign suppliers, price volatility, and increased use of non-renewable and CO2-emitting fossil fuels. - Highlights: • Belgium decided to close nuclear plants between 2015 and 2025 to promote renewables. • Hopes for a technically acceptable schedule reduced after the Fukushima disaster. • The Belgian electricity system has been modelled with system dynamics (SD). • SD shows that nuclear plants will be mainly replaced by fossil-fuel plants. • SD shows that it is better for renewables to delay shutdowns or to replace plants

  6. Disposal of disused sealed sources in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is not foreseen by the Belgian operator to dispose radioactive sealed sources in Near Surface Disposal Facility. The adaptation of the generic safety assessment in order to take in account the presence of sealed sources has been made. The level of concern in the context of the long term safety of a near surface disposal is assessed. On the base of the Belgium exemption level and the extrapolation for the disused sources the range of values above which sources could be considered as to have a significant radiological impact is determined. The number of significant medical sources after 300 years is estimated to be 294. For long term safety after 300 years it is obtained the reduction by a factor 10 of the number of sources, when only three radionuclides 241Am, 137Cs and 226Ra should be taken into account for the long term safety (only α and γemitters). The Belgian Near Surface Disposal Concept is presented. Long Term Safety Assessment including assumptions, generic concept, classification, scenarios (Human intrusion scenario) is presented. It is concluded that high actives of long-lived radionuclides sources should be avoided in a near surface disposal facility regarding the human intrusion scenario. If sources are still foreseen, activity limits should be specified together with requirements on their management. Specific limits could be derived from safety or security scenario. Attempts to distribute other sources in each module of the disposal and to set out the monoliths containing sources away from the intruder possible access could be made. Stylised human intrusion scenarios including sources should be developed by discussions with the safety authority. Scenario addressing the Operational phase should include the presence of sources

  7. IDF-curves for precipitation In Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves for precipitation constitute a relationship between the intensity, the duration and the frequency of rainfall amounts. The intensity of precipitation is expressed in mm/h, the duration or aggregation time is the length of the interval considered while the frequency stands for the probability of occurrence of the event. IDF-curves constitute a classical and useful tool that is primarily used to dimension hydraulic structures in general, as e.g., sewer systems and which are consequently used to assess the risk of inundation. In this presentation, the IDF relation for precipitation is studied for different locations in Belgium. These locations correspond to two long-term, high-quality precipitation networks of the RMIB: (a) the daily precipitation depths of the climatological network (more than 200 stations, 1951-2001 baseline period); (b) the high-frequency 10-minutes precipitation depths of the hydro meteorological network (more than 30 stations, 15 to 33 years baseline period). For the station of Uccle, an uninterrupted time-series of more than one hundred years of 10-minutes rainfall data is available. The proposed technique for assessing the curves is based on maximum annual values of precipitation. A new analytical formula for the IDF-curves was developed such that these curves stay valid for aggregation times ranging from 10 minutes to 30 days (when fitted with appropriate data). Moreover, all parameters of this formula have physical dimensions. Finally, adequate spatial interpolation techniques are used to provide nationwide extreme values precipitation depths for short- to long-term durations With a given return period. These values are estimated on the grid points of the Belgian ALADIN-domain used in the operational weather forecasts at the RMIB.(Author)

  8. Tradable green certificates in Flanders (Belgium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper provides details on green certificate systems in Belgium. The Flemish region has established a system and the Walloon region is preparing a slightly different one. The lack of uniformity and consequently of transparency in one country emphasises the need for more EU leadership in the field. The main part of the article analyses the established Flemish system. Green certificates are complementary to other instruments that promote renewable electricity, e.g. direct subventions on the feed-in price of green electricity or direct subventions on capital investments. Certificates execute a forcing effect on the actual development of green power if the imposed shares of green power in total sales are significant and if the fine level is at the height to enforce the quota. If the fine is too low the incentive effect turns into a financing tax effect. When the green certificate system does the job it is designed for, i.e. operating at the edge of the RES-E development and organise the transition from a non-sustainable to a sustainable power system, certificate prices will be high and reduce end-use consumption of electricity. A segmentation of the RES-E sector along the various RES-E technologies is a necessity to keep any certificate system affordable, effective and efficient. One can segment the tradable certificate market or one can assign a different number of certificates to a different RES-E technology project. Both solutions require an intensive follow-up of cost structures and of other policy measures (subventions), but given the infant state of understanding and experience segmenting markets may be best in the nearby years. (Author)

  9. Belgium: National approach to ageing management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Belgium, the licenses for operation of the nuclear power plants granted by Royal Decree do not specify a fixed lifetime. The oldest plants, Doel 1&2 and Tihange 1, have been operational since 1975. The 2003 law regarding the exit from nuclear power limits the operation of nuclear power plants to 40 years. However, in October 2009, the Belgian government declared that they intended to make it legally possible for Doel 1&2 and Tihange 1 to operate until 2025, which would mean a total lifetime of 50 years (this statement was confirmed by the Belgian government in June 2012, only for the Tihange 1 plant). The Belgian Federal Agency for Nuclear Control (FANC) published in 2009 a strategic note regarding the requirements of long-term operation for Doel 1&2 and Tihange 1. Electrabel GDF SUEZ started its LTO programme in order to respond to these requirements. The LTO programme consisted of the following areas of concern, identified in the FANC strategic note: − Preconditions for long-term operation considering the IAEA expectations; − Ageing management; − Design re-evaluation; − Knowledge, competence and behaviour management. The note also stated that the long-term operation of the plants should be evaluated within the framework of the fourth ten-yearly PSR, based upon IAEA NS-G-2.10. As such a license renewal was not required for LTO and the LTO approval will be integrated in the approval process of the 4th PSR. In its strategic note, the Belgian Federal Agency for Nuclear Control explicitly states that the AMP has to be in conformity with the USNRC 10CFR54 and IAEA SRS 57

  10. The BR-3 decommissioning project, Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BR-3 was a small 10 MW(e) PWR which was shut down in 1987 after 25 years of operation. It was selected as an EU pilot project for the research and development programme on decommissioning of nuclear installations. The decommissioning project started in 1989. The optimization of the management of waste material generated by decommissioning activities has always been an intensive task and the minimization of the radioactive waste a priority. Over the past 16 years, the factors influencing the management of waste have been constantly evolving in Belgium, steered mainly by the following changes in technologies, regulations and economic conditions: - The publication of the Royal Decree of 20 July 2001, establishing a legal frame on decommissioning and including a set of clearance levels; - The improvement of the instrumentation used for characterization; - The increase in the performance of decontamination techniques; - The cost increase of the waste disposal paths; - The implementation of international recommendations in areas such as environmental impact, waste categorization, human aspects, ethics, etc.; -The strengthening of the legislation related to industrial safety and environmental release; - The diminution of the background radiation level at the decommissioning site itself. The first part of this annex gives a description of relevant influencing factors in order to define the context in which the dismantling activities took place. The second part puts in perspective the strategy chosen for the management of the waste, recognizing the influencing factors. As mentioned in the scope of this report, the focus is LLW. High and intermediate level wastes for which disposal in dedicated repositories is assumed are outside the scope of this report. They are therefore not examined in detail here

  11. Overview of radium legacies in Belgium - 59367

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Belgian metallurgical company, Union Miniere, has been a key-player in the sector of radium production between 1922 and 1969. The factory based in Olen has extracted radium from minerals and produced radium sources during that period. The radium production facilities have been dismantled in the 70's but legacies of the former production have still to be remediated. An overview of these legacies and of their radiological characteristics will be given. Next to the sites related to radium production, other radium legacies are related to NORM industries, essentially from the phosphate sector (phosphogypsum and CaF2 stacks). The issue of radium legacies in Belgium encompasses a variety of concrete situations. Next to the issue of the legacies of the former radium production, the other radium contaminated sites are related to current or former NORM industries, especially from the phosphate sector. The methodological and regulatory approaches towards these sites have been described elsewhere in these proceedings. The outcome differs according to the specificities of the site: it will not be the same for the legacies of former radium production where the inventory of radioactivity includes materials which have to be considered and treated as radioactive waste (for example, disused radium sources) than for phosphogypsum stacks where a sufficient level of protection may be brought by relatively simple measures such as restrictions on the use of the site. For these sites, like PG stacks, where radon is the most important exposure pathway in case of intrusion scenario, regulatory measures similar to the ones applied to 'radon-prone areas' (restrictions in the construction of buildings, compulsory radon monitoring in workplaces present on the site,...) may be implemented. In all cases, the radiological risk-assessment will be crucial for the decision-making process. The examples given showed that the probability of occurrence of 'intrusion scenario' (like construction of

  12. Pharmaceutical policy regarding generic drugs in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoens, Steven; De Bruyn, Kristien; Bogaert, Marc; Laekeman, Gert

    2005-01-01

    Pressure to control pharmaceutical expenditure and price competition among pharmaceutical companies are fuelling the development of generic drug markets in EU countries. However, in Belgium, the market for generic drugs is underdeveloped compared with other countries. To promote the use of generic drugs, the government introduced a reference pricing (RP) scheme in 2001. The aim of this paper is to discuss Belgian pharmaceutical policy regarding generic drugs and to analyse how the Belgian drug market has evolved following initiation of the RP scheme. The market share held by generic drugs increased following implementation of the RP scheme. Focusing on volume, average market share (by semester) for generic drugs amounted to 2.05% of the total pharmaceutical market from January 1998 to June 2001, compared with 6.11% from July 2001 to December 2003. As new generic drugs are introduced, their market share tends to increase in the first couple of months, after which it levels off. Faced with increasing generic competition, some manufacturers have launched new variants of their original drug, thereby effectively extending the period of patent protection. Strategies consisting of price reductions in return for the abolition of prescribing conditions and the launch of new dosages or formulations appear to have been successful in maintaining the market share of original drugs. Nevertheless, the introduction of the RP scheme was associated with savings amounting to 1.8% of pharmaceutical expenditure by the third-party payer in 2001 and 2.1% in 2002. The findings of this paper indicate that the RP scheme has stimulated the Belgian generic drug market. However, existing policy has largely failed to take into account the role that physicians and pharmacists can play in stimulating generic drug use. Therefore, further development of the Belgian generic drug market seems to hinge on the creation of appropriate incentives for physicians to prescribe, and for pharmacists to

  13. A survey of wheat take-all in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Bodson, Bernard; Pamart, M.; Daoust, Serge; Janssens, M.; Falisse, André

    2000-01-01

    Take-all of wheat caused by the soil-borne fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis var. Tritici (Ggt) is known world-wide as a major yield-limiting factor. In Belgium, the Take-all disease is not very well known. A take-all survey has been set up in 1999 in Belgium in collaboration between the Agricultural University of Gembloux and Monsanto where goals were to quantify the disease in the main cereal areas and to study the main factors influencing take-all development.

  14. Oil pollution in and around the waters of Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Schallier, R.; Van Roy, W

    2016-01-01

    Although the waters of Belgium only form a minor part of the North Sea, they contain some of the busiest shipping routes in the world with the Dover Strait and some of the biggest European ports in the immediate vicinity. It is therefore recognized as a key maritime risk area, also in terms of ship-source oil pollution. This chapter first discusses the significant, stepwise decrease of illegal oil discharges from ships in and around the waters of Belgium based on national aerial surveillance ...

  15. Media awards for responsible reporting of suicide: Experiences from Australia, Belgium and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dare, Andrew J; Andriessen, Karl Am; Nordentoft, Merete; Meier, Michella; Huisman, Annemiek; Pirkis, Jane E

    2011-01-01

    Media awards to encourage responsible reporting of suicide have been introduced in several countries, including Australia, Belgium and Denmark.......Media awards to encourage responsible reporting of suicide have been introduced in several countries, including Australia, Belgium and Denmark....

  16. 78 FR 79662 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... Value: Stainless Steel Plate in Coils from Belgium, 64 FR 15476 (March 31, 1999), as amended by... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Final Results of Antidumping... administrative review on stainless steel plate in coils (steel plate) from Belgium.\\1\\ This review covers...

  17. Supplemental health insurance and equality of access in Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Schokkaert (Schokkaert); T.G.M. van Ourti (Tom); D. de Graeve (Diana); A. Lecluyse (Ann); C. van de Voorde (Carine)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe effects of supplemental health insurance on health-care consumption crucially depend on specific institutional features of the health-care system. We analyse the situation in Belgium, a country with a very broad coverage in compulsory social health insurance and where supplemental in

  18. Shareholding Cascades : The Separation of Ownership and Control in Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becht, M.C.; Chapelle, A.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyses the control of Belgian listed companies. The analysis reveals that control of listed companies in Belgium is highly concentrated. Business groups, holding companies, and voting pacts, play an important role in bringing about this concentration. The main characteristics of the Bel

  19. OECD Reviews of School Resources: Flemish Community of Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusche, Deborah; Miron, Gary; Santiago, Paulo; Teese, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This report for the Flemish Community of Belgium forms part of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Review of Policies to Improve the Effectiveness of Resource Use in Schools and explores how resources can be governed, distributed, utilised and managed to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school education.…

  20. JINR and Belgium Exhibition Science Bringing Nations Together

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Collaboration of JINR with research centres and universities in Belgium embraces various aspects of nuclear, elementary particle and solid-state physics. Involved in the co-operation with JINR scientists are Belgian colleagues from UIA (Antwerp), ISIPC, ULB, VUB (Brussels), IRMM (Geel) RUG (Gent), KUL (Leuven) IBAA (Louvain-la-Neuve) and the University of Mons.

  1. Energy policies of IEA countries: Belgium 2005 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Belgium continues to make measured progress in its energy policy, particularly with respect to electricity market liberalisation. The country has improved the independent functioning of the electricity market. An electricity exchange will begin operation shortly. However, to enable Belgian customers to fully benefit from energy market liberalisation, more work needs to be done. In 2003, Belgium decided to phase out nuclear power between 2015 and 2025. As nuclear energy supplies about 55% of the country's electricity, this will be a significant challenge. The federal government should conduct more comprehensive long-term studies on the nuclear energy phase-out and its effects on energy security, environmental protection and economic growth. Belgium's natural gas and electricity markets are highly concentrated. Companies owned by the international power group Suez SA dominate at all levels. Belgium has made some efforts to unbundle these industries and reduce their market dominance, but much more must be done to encourage new entry, increase competition and bring real economic benefits to Belgian customers. 50 refs., 40 tabs., 3 annexes.

  2. Working time and forms of employment in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Mulder, J; M. Druant

    2006-01-01

    The article discusses developments over the past two decades in regard to working time and alternative forms of employment, placing the trends seen in Belgium in an international perspective. It also examines whether the Belgian regulations on this subject are stricter than those in the other EU-15 countries. For the Belgian working population, the usual working time averaged 37 hours per week in 2004, whereas in 1983 it was a little over 40 hours. There are wide variations within the EU-15. ...

  3. Shareholding cascades: the separation of ownership and control in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Becht, M.C.; Chapelle, A.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyses the control of Belgian listed companies. The analysis reveals that control of listed companies in Belgium is highly concentrated. Business groups, holding companies, and voting pacts, play an important role in bringing about this concentration. The main characteristics of the Belgian corporate ownership and equity market can be summarised as follows : (i) few - merely 140 - Belgian companies are listed on the Brussels stock exchange, (ii) there is a high degree of ownershi...

  4. Geographic structure and potential ecological factors in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Dufrêne, Marc; Legendre, P

    1991-01-01

    The available potential ecological factors have been scored in the form of presence/absence in Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) squares in Belgium. A correspondence analysis shows a strong underlying gradient in the data set which induces an extraordinary horseshoe effect. This gradient follows closely the altitude component. Applying the k-means clustering method on UTM squares produced geographically compact groups which are largely hierarchically nested. This indicates strong regional t...

  5. Built-in appliances distribution and brand image in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Aurelio Volpe

    2005-01-01

    This report provides a qualitative and quantitative study of the distribution of built-in appliances in Belgium as well as an analysis of the trade satisfaction of the main brands of built-in appliances present in the Belgian market. The research also includes an overview of the Belgian kitchen furniture market providing data on the supply and trade of kitchen furniture, consumption, the leading kitchen furniture manufacturers and distribution. Distribution flows of built-in appliances (suppl...

  6. Post Kyoto options for Belgium, 2012-2050

    OpenAIRE

    Nijs, Wouter; Van Regemorter, Denise

    2007-01-01

    This report examines possible post-Kyoto options for Belgium. Climate change is coming up again at the top of the policy agenda with the decision of the European Commission to reduce its GHG emissions by 20% by 2020. The analysis is done with the MARKAL/TIMES model, a partial equilibrium model for the energy system. It is a technico-economic model, which assembles in a simple but economic consistent way technological information (conversion-efficiency, investment- and variable costs, emission...

  7. Characterization and dynamics of fusariosis on maize in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Scauflaire, Jonathan; Mahieu, Olivier; Paternostre, Laurent; Louvieaux, Julien; Foucart, Guy; Renard, Fabien; Munaut, Françoise; 12th European Fusarium Seminar

    2006-01-01

    Fusariosis is one of the most important problems encountered in maize crops in Belgium and it is responsible for significant losses (up to 30%) in both grain yield and quality. More than 7% of the world cultures are destroyed by fusariosis (Hoffmann and Schmutterer 1999 ; Papst et al., 2005). Fusariosis is in fact the result of simultaneous contaminations by several Fusarium species, mostly F. graminearum, F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum. Other species are also detected at low frequenc...

  8. Organ donation after euthanasia on specific patients' request in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Ysebaert, Y; Detry, Olivier; Mikhalski, D; Verfaillie, G.; D. Van Raemdonck

    2015-01-01

    Euthanasia is banned in almost countries of the world, although in 2002 Belgium legalized it for adults under strict conditions (in a similar way after The Netherlands in 2001. The patient must be in a medically futile condition, of constant and unbearable physical or mental suffering that cannot be alleviated, resulting from a serious and incurable disorder caused by illness or accident. If the person is not in the terminal phase of his illness, the 2 doctors must consult with a third doctor...

  9. Everyday racism as predictor of political racism in Flemish Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Billiet, Jaak; De Witte, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Two aspects of research on racism in Flanders (Belgium) are discussed in this article based on results from large-scale surveys between 1991 and 2003. The first relates to the (negative) attitudes of the majority toward foreigners (everyday racism). The second relates to the vote for an extreme right-wing political party that emphasizes anti-immigrant viewpoints in its political program and propaganda (political racism). Our main research question is how both forms of racism are related. Firs...

  10. Animal poisonings in Belgium: a review of the past decade

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenbroucke, Virginie; Van Pelt, Henk; De Backer, Patrick; Croubels, Siska

    2010-01-01

    This review focuses on poisonings in companion animals, including horses, farm animals and wildlife, investigated and recorded during the past ten years at the Laboratory of Toxicology of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (Ghent University) and the National Poison Centre in Belgium. The causative agents of poisoning incidents vary among the different species. The Laboratory of Toxicology of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine reports that the majority of poisoning incidents in companion anima...

  11. The Extension of Belgium's Euthanasia Law to Include Competent Minors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raus, Kasper

    2016-06-01

    Following considerable debate, the practice of euthanasia was legalized in Belgium in 2002, thereby making Belgium one of the few places in the world where this practice is legal. In 2014 the law was amended for the first time. The 2014 amendment makes euthanasia legally possible for all minors who repeatedly and voluntarily request euthanasia and who are judged to possess "capacity of discernment" (regardless of their biological age), as well as fulfil a number of other criteria of due care. This extension of the 2002 euthanasia law generated a lot of national and international debate and has been applauded by many and heavily criticized by others. This evolution is clearly of interest to end-of-life debates in the entire world. This paper will therefore describe how this amendment came to get passed using official documents from Belgium's Senate and Chamber of Representatives where this amendment was discussed and subsequently passed. Next, some of the most commonly given arguments in favour of the law are identified, as well as the arguments most often voiced against the amendment. All these arguments will be expanded upon and it will be examined whether they hold up to ethical scrutiny. Analysing the official documents and identifying the most commonly voiced arguments gives valuable insight into how Belgium came to amend its euthanasia law and why it did so in 2014. It also becomes clear that although the current amendment is often seen as far-reaching, more radical ideas were proposed during the drafting of the law. Also, in analysing those arguments in favour of the amendment and those against, it is clear that the validity of some of these is questionable. PMID:26842904

  12. Fusarium spp. on maize in Belgium, from biodiversity to biocontrol

    OpenAIRE

    Scauflaire, Jonathan; Lienard, Charlotte; Gourgue, Mélanie; Foucart, Guy; Mary, Michael; Renard, Fabien; Callebaut, Alfons; Legrève, Anne; Munaut, Françoise; EFS12

    2013-01-01

    Numerous Fusarium species are important mycotoxin-producing pathogens affecting maize in Belgium. Crop quality is often reduced by Fusarium rot diseases, and mycotoxin contaminations can pose a serious problem for animal health. As several of these mycotoxins are integrated into European legislation, field monitoring and accurate identification of the Fusarium species remain important tasks, allowing relevant preventive or curative measures. Impacts of environmental factors, cultural practice...

  13. Alcohol-induced hypertension: an important healthcare target in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collart, F; de Timary, P; Dom, G; Dor, B D; Duprez, D; Lengelé, J-P; Matthys, F; Peuskens, H; Rehm, J; Stärkel, P

    2015-12-01

    Excessive alcohol intake is one of the leading causes of premature death in Europe and particularly in Belgium. Belgian people are consuming more alcohol per year than the European average. It is well established that excessive alcohol consumption is a significant predictor of the development of hypertension (HTN). Two million adults in Belgium suffer from HTN and this number will increase to three million by 2025. Less than 50% of Belgian people treated for HTN are well-controlled. Alcohol reduction in patients with HTN can significantly lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure. After reviewing the epidemiology of HTN and alcohol disorders in Belgium, this paper will focus on the rationale for alcohol screening and brief intervention in primary care. It will also describe the barriers to alcohol screening, and what could be the benefits of alcohol screening for our healthcare system. The authors believe that early identification through alcohol screening and brief intervention in general practice can help to improve the management of patients with HTN, to reach the targets of the WHO Global Action Plan, i.e., a 25% relative reduction in the risk of premature mortality from cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes or chronic respiratory diseases. They are also convinced that this would allow achieving major healthcare savings. PMID:26135944

  14. Investigation of the passage of a derecho in Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Karim

    2012-04-01

    From the 7th July, 2010 until 14th July, 2010, a heat wave dominated the weather in Belgium. Three major storm situations occurred during this period and all three caused severe damage. In this paper, we discuss the last storm case of 14th July. That day, a quasi-linear convective system (QLCS) crossed parts of France, Belgium and the Netherlands and caused very important wind damages and at least 2 people were killed. Most of the damage was caused by straight-line wind but at least one tornado was observed over the north of the Netherlands. This complex was induced in a very favorable synoptic configuration for severe weather and also the timing of the storm was favorable. In the frame of the Supercell project at the RMI, a damage survey was made of one of the most affected regions, which yielded useful information about the origin of the losses. Careful examination of the radar imagery revealed some connections between internal mesovortices and tracks of enhanced damage. As far as known, this paper is the first description of a derecho in Belgium. It is also the first time a connection is shown between some mesovortices and several damage tracks over the country. During the evolution of the QLCS, several examples of successive vortices were found in front of the system. Several of the vortices were accompanied by a tornado or a funnel cloud and the damage was typically concentrated along elongated tracks.

  15. CORDEX.be: COmbining Regional climate Downscaling EXpertise in Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Termonia, Piet; Van Schaeybroeck, Bert; De Ridder, Koen; Fettweis, Xavier; Gobin, Anne; Luyten, Patrick; Marbaix, Philippe; Pottiaux, Eric; Stavrakou, Trissevgeni; Van Lipzig, Nicole; van Ypersele, Jean-Pascal; Willems, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    The main objective of the ongoing project CORDEX.be, "COmbining Regional Downscaling EXpertise in Belgium: CORDEX and Beyond" is to gather existing and ongoing Belgian research activities in the domain of climate modelling to create a coherent scientific basis for future climate services in Belgium. The project regroups eight Belgian Institutes under a single research program of the Belgian Science Policy (BELSPO). The project involves three regional climate models: the ALARO model, the COSMO-CLM model and the MAR model running according to the guidelines of the CORDEX project and at convection permitting resolution on small domains over Belgium. The project creates a framework to address four objectives/challenges. First, this projects aims to contribute to the EURO-CORDEX project. Secondly, RCP simulations are executed at convection-permitting resolutions (3 to 5 km) on small domains. Thirdly, the output of the atmospheric models is used to drive land surface models (the SURFEX model and the Urbclim model) with urban modules, a crop model (REGCROP), a tides and storm model (COHERENS) and the MEGAN-MOHYCAN model that simulates the fluxes emitted by vegetation. Finally, one work package will translate the uncertainty present in the CORDEX database to the high-resolution output of the CORDEX.be project. The organization of the project will be presented and first results will be shown, demonstrating that convection-permitting models can add extra skill to the mesoscale version of the regional climate models, in particular regarding the extreme value statistics and the diurnal cycle.

  16. [Adherence to chronic medication: also a frequent problem in Belgium!].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liekens, S; Hulshagen, L; Dethier, M; Laekeman, G; Foulon, V

    2013-12-01

    Medication adherence in chronic conditions such as asthma, type 2 diabetes, heart failure, HIV and cancer appears to be a frequent problem. However, the literature on adherence in patients who use inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), oral hypoglycemic agents, drugs for heart failure, antiretrovirals or oral chemotherapy, contains little or no relevant data for Belgium. In the context of a Master thesis in Pharmaceutical care at KU Leuven, a quantitative study was performed to determine the prevalence of adherence to chronic medication in Belgium. This retrospective, cross-sectional study used a database containing refill data of a regional pharmacists' association (KLAV). Out of the 603 pharmacies affiliated with this association, all 50 pharmacies where HIV medication was delivered, were selected. Dispensing data from the selected pharmacies were collected from 01/07/2008 to 31/12/2009 for five pathologies, i.e.; asthma, type 2 diabetes, heart failure, HIV and cancer. Adherence (TT) was calculated with the Medication Refill Adherence (MRA) method. In order to determine whether there were associations between age, gender, drug class and adherence, Chi-square tests were used. Compared with the other patients, cancer patients were the most adherent in taking their drugs (median adherence rate = 88%). In addition, this was the only group in which the median adherence rate was above the set limit of 80%. The patients who were prescribed inhaled corticosteroids were the least adherent (median adherence rate = 38%). More than 50% of patients with asthma/COPD, heart failure and diabetes were classified as "under-users". Furthermore, the results showed a significant association within asthma patients between gender and adherence. In asthma, type 2 diabetes, heart failure and HIV patients there was a significant relationship between age and adherence and drug class and adherence. As the current study has some limitations, the results should be handled with caution. Nevertheless

  17. Beach cleaning in Belgium: a social and biological study

    OpenAIRE

    Domínguez Tejo, H.M.

    2006-01-01

    A study on beach cleaning in Belgium was conducted from a social and biological perspective, to confront the lack of information regarding the two methods used: manual and mechanical beach cleaning. Through direct participation in the pilot project on manual beach cleaning of the municipality of Koksijde, during summer 2004, around 42 kg of man-made waste/km/month were estimated during July and September, and 87 kg during August. An average 1.5h/km was needed for two persons to manually clean...

  18. High Radon Areas in the Walloon Region of Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Tondeur, François; CINELLI GIORGIA; Dehandschutter, Boris

    2015-01-01

    Indoor radon data from Southern Belgium are organised in 35 geological units (GUs), most of which are homogeneous with respect to the radon risk. The percentage of cases above the reference level (400 Bq m−3; 300 Bq m−3 in the future) is calculated for these GUs from the observations and from the log-normal distribution fitted to the data. Affected areas are defined as areas with more than 1 % of houses above the reference level. In the north of the region, the old Palaeozoic basement is gene...

  19. [The role of diabetes convention centres in Belgium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobels, F; Scheen, A J

    2005-01-01

    We briefly present the modes of functioning of Diabetes Convention Centres in Belgium. In those hospital centres, patients with both type 1 or type 2 diabetes, treated by at least two insulin injections per day, benefit of an intensive educational programme by a multidisciplinary team and receive free of charge material for home blood glucose monitoring, in order to optimize diabetes management. The collaboration between convention centres and general practitioners should be reinforced (share-care), especially to improve the management of type 2 diabetic patients, who are increasingly treated with various insulin regimens. PMID:16035339

  20. The Role of Equities in Corporate Finance in Belgium.

    OpenAIRE

    V. Baugnet; Wuyts, Gunther

    2006-01-01

    Share issues are a significant source of finance for non-financial corporations in Belgium. Between 1995 and 2005, they represented around 32 p.c. of the cumulative new liabilities of non-financial corporations. Share issues are therefore the second most important source of finance, the first being non-bank credit, which accounts for 51 p.c. of the total. Share issues are a much more important source of funding than bank credit and issues of fixed-income securities. Unquoted shares represent ...

  1. Industry wage differential, rent sharing and gender in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Tojerow, Ilan

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to present new empirical elements to the debate on sources of wage differentials. We investigate issues specifically related to the role of employer’s characteristics in the wage setting process. Findings show that combined industry effects explain almost no share of the gender wage gap in Belgium. Our results also suggest that a substantial part of the gender wage gap is due to women’s segregation in less profitable firms. Finally, our results show that re...

  2. A paradise for LGBT rights? The paradox of Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eeckhout, Bart; Paternotte, David

    2011-01-01

    How is it that a small country such as Belgium, with its reputation of relative conservatism, has jumped to the forefront of LGBT-friendly nations when it comes to the extension of rights to, and implementation of government policies for, its LGBT population? The analysis offered here focuses on a combination of six causes: the impact of wider secularization processes; the political history and culture of the country; the organization of especially the Flemish LGBT movement and reasons for its political effectiveness; mainstream social trends in national scapegoating hierarchies; the overall media environment; and the window of opportunity opened by the political landslide of 1999. PMID:21902492

  3. Workplace learning in midwifery education in Flanders (Belgium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embo, M; Valcke, M

    2016-02-01

    Workplace learning plays a crucial role in midwifery education. Twelve midwifery schools in Flanders (Belgium) implemented a new competency framework and aimed at implementing a more standardized and evidence-based method to learn and assess competencies, as well as to guide continuous competency development in practice. This paper describes the introduction of 'Embo's continuous workplace learning model', a holistic and competency-based method that integrates all workplace learning components. Available research evidence helps concluding the learning model is a feasible approach to organize workplace learning in such a way that continuous professional competency development is achieved. PMID:26747208

  4. Present status of commercialization of food irradiation in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The I.R.E. decided in 1975 on the construction of an industrial-scale irradiation plant. Construction started in 1977 and the plant was operational in October 1978. Two cobalt-60 irradiators were built. GAMMIR II, having a maximum source strength of 0.5 MCi, allowed the necessary experience in food irradiation technology to be gained generally and especially in plant engineering, safety precautions and the training of operating personnel. In this paper, the technological and economic feasibility of radiation processing in Belgium is discussed in terms of the following: regulatory status, commercial application of food irradiation, reduction of microbial counts in dry ingredients, and elimination of salmonellae. (Namekawa, K.)

  5. Cervical cancer screening in Belgium and overscreening of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kerrebroeck, Helena; Makar, Amin

    2016-03-01

    There has been a marked decrease in the incidence of cervical cancer thanks to cytological screening with the Pap smear test. In Belgium, this screening is rather opportunistic. Over 39% of Belgian women between 25 and 64 years of age are never or only rarely screened by cytological tests. Moreover, there is an excess use of Pap smears because of women who rely on their yearly cervical smear and because many Pap smears are obtained from women beyond the target age range of 25 to 64 years. Sexually active adolescents are increasingly being recognized as a population distinct from adult women. They are at a high risk of acquiring the human papillomavirus (HPV), but most infections and cervical intraepithelial lesions caused by HPV are efficiently cleared by the immune system. We present a description of cervical cancer screening in Belgium using the database of the National Health Insurance Institute (RIZIV/INAMI) and the Belgian Health Care Knowledge Centre (KCE). We describe why elimination of Pap testing in the adolescent population reduces costs and harms without increasing cervical cancer rates. Expectant management, education on the risk factors for cervical cancer and HPV persistence, and HPV vaccination are very important in adolescents and young adults. PMID:25812038

  6. The taxation of diesel cars in Belgium – revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper compares the current taxation of diesel and gasoline cars in Belgium with the guidelines for optimal taxation. We find that diesel cars are still taxed much less than gasoline cars, resulting in a dominant market share for diesel cars in the car stock. If the fuel tax is the main instrument to control for externalities and generate revenues, the diesel excise should be much higher than the excise on gasoline for two reasons: diesel is more polluting than gasoline and more importantly, through the better fuel efficiency, diesel cars contribute less fiscal revenues per mile. - Highlights: ► With a correct tax system the diesel excise should be higher than that on gasoline. ► When this is difficult, the fixed annual charge should be higher for diesel cars. ► The current tax structure for gasoline and diesel cars in Belgium is suboptimal. ► It implies that CO2 emissions are reduced, but in a very cost-inefficient way

  7. Distributional and regional economic impact of energy taxes in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyse the macroeconomic and distributional effects of increased oil excises in Belgium by combining a regional Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model with a microsimulation framework that exploits the rich detail of household-level data. The link between the CGE model and the microlevel is top–down, feeding changes in commodity prices, factor returns and employment by sector into a microsimulation model. The results suggest that policymakers face an equity-efficiency trade-off driven by the choice of revenue recycling options. When the additional revenue is used to raise welfare transfers to households, the reform is beneficial for lower income groups, but output levels decrease in all regions. However, when the energy tax revenue is used to lower distortionary labour taxes, the tax shift is slightly regressive. In this case, national GDP is hardly affected but regional production levels diverge. The impact of the environmental tax reform on income distribution depends strongly on changes in factor prices and welfare payments, whereas sector composition is an important determinant for regional impact variation. - Highlights: • We study the impact of oil excises across regions and households in Belgium. • Lower income groups gain if the revenue is used to raise welfare payments. • If labour taxes are reduced, the reform is only slightly regressive. • The differential impact across households is driven by factor price changes. • Sector composition is a crucial determinant for impact variation across regions

  8. 78 FR 34644 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Preliminary Results of... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on stainless steel plate in coils (steel plate) from Belgium...: Scope of the Order The product covered by this order is certain stainless steel plate in...

  9. 76 FR 28809 - Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium; Termination of Five-Year Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... review concerning the countervailing duty order on stainless steel plate from Belgium (75 FR 30777 and 75 FR 30434). On May 5, 2011, Commerce published notice in the Federal Register of the final results of... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium; Termination of Five-Year Review AGENCY: United...

  10. 75 FR 81217 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Preliminary Results of Full Sunset Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Preliminary Results of Full... review of the countervailing duty (``CVD'') order on certain stainless steel plate in coils from Belgium... June 2, 2010, the Department initiated the second sunset review of the CVD order on stainless...

  11. 76 FR 50495 - Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan Determinations On the.... 1675(c)), that revocation of the countervailing duty order on stainless steel plate from South Africa and revocation of the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel plate from Belgium, Korea,...

  12. 76 FR 31588 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Rescission of Countervailing Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Rescission of Countervailing... countervailing duty (``CVD'') order on stainless steel plate in coils from Belgium. See Antidumping or... FR 23236 (May 3, 2010). On May 28, 2010, we received a request for revocation of this order from...

  13. 75 FR 59744 - Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 701-TA-376 and 379 and 731-TA-788, 790-793 (Second Review)] Stainless Steel... countervailing duty orders on stainless steel plate from Belgium and South Africa and the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel plate from Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan. SUMMARY:...

  14. 75 FR 81309 - Stainless Steel Plate from Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 701-TA-376 and 379 and 731-TA-788, 790-793 (Second Review)] Stainless Steel... stainless steel plate from Belgium and South Africa and the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel plate... steel plate from Belgium and South Africa and/or the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel...

  15. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale-Belgium Form: Psychometric Characteristics and Construct Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dries, Nicky; Van Esbroeck, Raoul; van Vianen, Annelies E. M.; De Cooman, Rein; Pepermans, Roland

    2012-01-01

    The Dutch version of the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale-Belgium Form (CAAS-Belgium) consists of four scales, each with six items, which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. A pilot survey was administered to 700 high school,…

  16. 78 FR 30271 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium, South Africa, and Taiwan: Notice of Court Decision...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ... Orders: Stainless Steel Plate in Coils from Belgium, Italy and South Africa, 64 FR 25288 (May 11, 1999... Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium, Italy, and South Africa, 68 FR 11524 (March 11, 2003... FR 25666 (May 5, 2011). \\2\\ See ArcelorMittal Stainless Belgium N.V. v. United States, Court No....

  17. 77 FR 21963 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Notice of Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... Coils From Belgium, Canada, Italy, the Republic of Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan, 64 FR 27756 (May 21... From Belgium, Canada, Italy, the Republic of Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan, 68 FR 11520 (March 11... Belgium, Canada, Italy, the Republic of Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan, 68 FR 20114 (April 24, 2003)....

  18. Challenges in physician supply planning: the case of Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léonard Christian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Planning human resources for health (HRH is a complex process for policy-makers and, as a result, many countries worldwide swing from surplus to shortage. In-depth case studies can help appraising the challenges encountered and the solutions implemented. This paper has two objectives: to identify the key challenges in HRH planning in Belgium and to formulate recommendations for an effective HRH planning, on the basis of the Belgian case study and lessons drawn from an international benchmarking. Case description In Belgium, a numerus clausus set up in 1997 and effective in 2004, aims to limit the total number of physicians working in the curative sector. The assumption of a positive relationship between physician densities and health care utilization was a major argument in favor of medical supply restrictions. This new regulation did not improve recurrent challenges such as specialty imbalances, with uncovered needs particularly among general practitioners, and geographical maldistribution. New difficulties also emerged. In particular, limiting national training of HRH turned out to be ineffective within the open European workforce market. The lack of integration of policies affecting HRH was noteworthy. We described in the paper what strategies were developed to address those challenges in Belgium and in neighboring countries. Discussion and evaluation Planning the medical workforce involves determining the numbers, mix, and distribution of health providers that will be required at some identified future point in time. To succeed in their task, health policy planners have to take a broader perspective on the healthcare system. Focusing on numbers is too restrictive and adopting innovative policies learned from benchmarking without integration and coordination is unfruitful. Evolving towards a strategic planning is essential to control the effects of the complex factors impacting on human resources. This evolution requires

  19. Lifecourses, pensions and poverty among elderly women in Belgium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peeters, Hans; Tavernier, Wouter De

    2015-01-01

    The precarious financial situation of many elderly women in developed countries is well established. Nevertheless, in-depth insight into the persistent vulnerability of this group remains largely absent. In this article, we demonstrate how a specific focus on the interaction between work history......, family history and pension regulations can provide greater insight into the mechanisms that produce poverty among elderly women in Belgium. To that end, we make use of register data on some 9,000 women aged 65-71. Data on the poverty risk of these women is linked to career and family data, spanning over...... 45 years. We find that pension policy can indeed account for the higher poverty risk of some groups of elderly women (e.g. divorcees) as compared to others (e.g. widows). Similarly, pension policy can, to a large extent, directly or indirectly explain how previous lifecourse events, such as marital...

  20. Air pollution levels and trends in Belgium's major cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belgium has five major urban areas or conurbations with a total population of 2 million people, representing 20% of the total population. Using data from three nationwide monitoring networks, the past and present sulphur dioxide, lead, nitrogen dioxide and ozone situation in the conurbations of Antwerp, Brussels, Charleroi, Gent and Liege are summarised and analysed over a period of 15 to 25 years. Major conclusions are marked downward trends in the ambient levels of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and lead in all five conurbations reducing the present levels under all legal national and European limit values, and bringing them in general, beneath the guidelines values for the protection of human health recommended by the World Health Organisation. For ozone the trend over the past 10 to 15 years has been stationary. Ozone guideline values, as well as recommended threshold values are still frequently violated. (Author)

  1. Uranium series disequilibrium measurements at Mol, Belgium and Whiteshell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of uranium series disequilibrium in groundwaters derived from sand layers above and below the Boom Clay formation in North East Belgium, are analysed in terms of uranium, thorium and radium isotopic geochemistries, water types, and their mixing in the regional groundwater systems. Most sampled waters are mixtures of younger shallow groundwaters from horizons above the Boom Clay lens and older waters from horizons below the lens, at depths greater than 500m. No true old water end-members have been sampled. The longest residence times of the sampled waters are found to be not much in excess of 104y. More detailed modelling is required in conjunction with groundwater hydraulic pressure and flow direction data to establish detailed mixing patterns. In a second parallel study the 228Ra/226Ra activity ratios were measured in large groundwater samples, from the Underground Research Laboratory at Pinawa, Canada. (author)

  2. Environmental conditions and Puumala virus transmission in Belgium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linard, Catherine; Tersago, Katrien; Leirs, Herwig;

    2007-01-01

    . Conclusion: The transmission risk to humans of non-vector-borne zoonoses such as PUUV The transmission risk to humans of non-vector-borne zoonoses such as PUUV depends on a combination of various environmental factors. To understand the complex causal pathways between the environment and disease risk, one...... of this study is to better understand the causal link between environmental features and PUUV prevalence in bank vole population in Belgium, and hence with transmission risk to humans. Our hypothesis was that environmental conditions controlling the direct and indirect transmission paths differ, such...... that the risk of transmission to humans is not only determined by host abundance. We explored the relationship between, on one hand, environmental variables and, on the other hand, host abundance, PUUV prevalence in the host, and human cases of nephropathia epidemica (NE). Statistical analyses were...

  3. Nuclear and health news. iodine 131 Fleurus incident - Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the 25. august 2008, the operator of the institute of radioelements in belgium has informed the federal agency of nuclear control of an abnormal release of iodine 131 by the chimney of the building to environment. This release occurred following a transfer of liquid effluents between tanks. This release lasts several days and the activity released has been estimated to 45 Giga-becquerels. The incident was classified at the level 3 on the INES scale. The production of radioelements was stopped and the consumption of fruits and vegetables from gardens as well as the rainwater was forbidden at five kilometers at the north-east of the installation. On the 30. august analysis were made on grass and milk but no detection of iodine 131 appears. (N.C.)

  4. Plutonium-enriched thermal fuel production experience in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taking into account the strategic aspects of nuclear energy such as availability and sufficiency of resources and independence of energy supply, most countries planning to use plutonium look mainly to its use in fast reactors. However, by recycling the recovered uranium and plutonium in light water reactors, the saving of the uranium that would otherwise be required could already be higher than 35%. Therefore, until fast reactors are introduced, for macro- or microeconomic reasons, the plutonium recycle option seems to be quite valuable for countries having the plutonium technology. In Belgium, Belgonucleaire has been developing the plutonium technology for more than 20 yr and has operated a mixed oxide fuel fabrication plant since 1973. The past ten years of plant operation have provided for many improvements and relevant new documented experiences establishing a basis for new modifications that will be beneficial to the intrinsic quality, overall safety, and economy of the fuel

  5. The Situation of the Otter in Flanders, Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Criel D.

    1989-02-01

    Full Text Available The otter has become an endangered species in Belgium on the extinction. Probably nothing can be done to save the last otters, because water pollution, habitat destruction and disturbance are still rife. All future efforts will concentrate on the re-establishment of a healthy otter population, although this will take a very long time. Plans are made for an ecologically orientated approach to water management and first steps are set to create so called 'otter reserves'. All activities are co-ordinated by the 'Otteroverleggroep' (OOG: a commission in which national and regional authorities, organisations and specialists are represented. In the near future they will take charge of funds to support projects on the protection of otter habitats.

  6. Identification and characterization of NORM industries in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the NORM issue in the Belgium industry is given, mainly based on a study on behalf of ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Belgian agency for radioactive waste. The phosphate industry, which was identified as the main source of enhanced natural radioactivity, is mainly located in Flanders, the northern part of Belgium. The five Flemish phosphate plants handled, from 1920 to 2006, 60 Mton of phosphate ore containing 72 TBq of uranium-238 (radium-226) and 3.5 TBq of thorium-232. This resulted in a vast legacy of 500 ha of contaminated sites. In the non-ferro industry high activity-concentrations of the thorium decay series were identified with cassiterite (tin ore). Zircon sands with high uranium concentrations are applied for the production of precision casting molds. Almost every industry with a large turnover of materials has some problems with NORM, because of the selective concentration of certain radionuclides in by-products, residues or product streams. Examples of a blast furnace and a coal-fired power plant are given. In these cases the natural radioactivity is concentrated in blast furnace slag or fly ash, both of which are used as input material in the cement industry. The extraction and purification of ground water was also identified as a potential source for generating NORM sludges. Finally, ample remains from past NORM practices exist. A number of historical sites, including a former mining area of alum shale in the valley of the Meuse, several coal mining sites, a coltan processing site in Ghent and a radium facility in Olen were contaminated before present standards of radiological protection were developed. (author)

  7. Identification and characterization of NORM industries in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the Norm issue in the Belgium industry is given, mainly based on a study on behalf of Offender/Nitras, the Belgian agency for radioactive waste. The phosphate industry, which was identified as the main source of enhanced natural radioactivity, is mainly located in F landers, the northern part of Belgium. The five Flemish phosphate plants handled, from 1920 to 2006, 60 M ton of phosphate ore containing 72 TBq of uranium-238 (radium-226) and 3.5 TBq of thorium-232. This resulted in a vast legacy of 500 ha of contaminated sites. In the non-ferro industry high activity-concentrations of the thorium decay series were identified with careerist (tin ore). Zircon sands with high uranium concentrations are applied for the production of precision casting molds. Almost every industry with a large turnover of materials has some problems with Norm, because of the selective concentration of certain radionuclides in by-products, residues or product streams. Examples of a blast furnace and a coal-fired power plant are given. In these cases the natural radioactivity is concentrated in blast furnace slag or fly ash, both of which are used as input material in the cement industry. The extraction and purification of ground water was also identified as a potential source for generating Norm sludges. Finally, ample remains from past Norm practices exist. A number of historical sites, including a former mining area of alum shale in the valley of the Meuse, several coal mining sites, a col tan processing site in Ghent and a radium facility in Olen were contaminated before present standards of radiological protection were developed. (author)

  8. Communication received from Belgium concerning its policies regarding the management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Secretariat has received a Note Verbale dated 10 September 2008 from the Permanent Mission of Belgium to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government, in keeping with Belgium's commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines) and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2007. In addition to these figures, a declaration on MOX fuel in Belgium was under cover of the Note Verbale

  9. Communication Received from Belgium Concerning its Policies regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 15 October 2012 from the Permanent Mission of Belgium to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government, in keeping with Belgium's commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2011. A declaration concerning the nuclear policy situation in Belgium was also enclosed with the note verbale

  10. 76 FR 13890 - Importation of Bromeliad Plants in Growing Media From Belgium, Denmark, and the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... Aechmea, Cryptanthus, Guzmania, Hohenbergia, Neoregelia, Tillandsia, and Vriesea from Belgium, Denmark... established in growing media. Currently, Bromeliad plants of the genera Aechmea, Cryptanthus, Guzmania... INFORMATION CONTACT. In the pest risk analysis, titled ``Importation of Aechmea, Cryptanthus,...

  11. Normabweichungen im Zeitungsdeutsch Ostbelgiens (Deviations from the Standard in the Newspaper German of East Belgium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelde, Peter H.

    1974-01-01

    Concludes that the German used in the east Belgium newspaper differs fr om standard High German. Proceeds to list these differences in the areas of lexicology, semantics and stylistics, morphology and syntax, orthography e tc. (Text is in German.) (DS)

  12. The soil remediation fund for petrol stations in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Flemish, Brussels-Capital and Walloon Region, petrol stations are subjected to strict operating standards, to avoid soil contamination as much as possible in the future. Besides these operating requirements, regional authorities also issued regulations regarding the remediation of contaminated soils. For many petrol stations operators, land owners and users, these rules and regulations are a heavy financial burden. As a result, the soil contamination threaten to become a public charge, due to a lack of adequate remediation by the stakeholders. After years of negotiating between the petroleum industry and the government the negotiations finally resulted in a cooperation agreement between the Federal Government, the Flemish, Walloon and Brussels-Capital Regions regarding the execution and financing of the remediation of contaminated soil at petrol stations. The cooperation agreement, signed in Brussels on 13 December 2002 and approved by all Regions and the Federal Government, makes it possible to provide a structured approach for the remediation of the soil contamination at petrol stations in Belgium. In the cooperation agreement the establishment of an Inter-regional Soil Remediation Committee is provided to guarantee the fund's independence and to observe the fund's operation. The official start is given through the accreditation of BOFAS by the Inter-regional Soil Remediation Committee. To calculate the amount that would be necessary for the remediation of the soil contamination at petrol stations and the contribution to the fund, an economical research has been carried out. This research indicated that the total cost for the remediation of the soil contamination at petrol stations in Belgium is situated between 400 and 450 million EUR. BOFAS has calculated that 5.000 petrol stations can comply with the conditions mentioned in the cooperation agreement. Operators, Owners or Actual users can submit an application if they comply with the legally established

  13. The soil remediation fund for petrol stations in Belgium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naeyer, F. de; Van Dyck, E. [OVAM, Mechelen (Belgium); Janssens, J.P.; Duliere, A. [BIM, Brussel (Belgium); Fondaire, D. [DGRNE, Liege (Belgium); Bodart, O. [Governement Wallon, Namur (Belgium)

    2005-07-01

    In the Flemish, Brussels-Capital and Walloon Region, petrol stations are subjected to strict operating standards, to avoid soil contamination as much as possible in the future. Besides these operating requirements, regional authorities also issued regulations regarding the remediation of contaminated soils. For many petrol stations operators, land owners and users, these rules and regulations are a heavy financial burden. As a result, the soil contamination threaten to become a public charge, due to a lack of adequate remediation by the stakeholders. After years of negotiating between the petroleum industry and the government the negotiations finally resulted in a cooperation agreement between the Federal Government, the Flemish, Walloon and Brussels-Capital Regions regarding the execution and financing of the remediation of contaminated soil at petrol stations. The cooperation agreement, signed in Brussels on 13 December 2002 and approved by all Regions and the Federal Government, makes it possible to provide a structured approach for the remediation of the soil contamination at petrol stations in Belgium. In the cooperation agreement the establishment of an Inter-regional Soil Remediation Committee is provided to guarantee the fund's independence and to observe the fund's operation. The official start is given through the accreditation of BOFAS by the Inter-regional Soil Remediation Committee. To calculate the amount that would be necessary for the remediation of the soil contamination at petrol stations and the contribution to the fund, an economical research has been carried out. This research indicated that the total cost for the remediation of the soil contamination at petrol stations in Belgium is situated between 400 and 450 million EUR. BOFAS has calculated that 5.000 petrol stations can comply with the conditions mentioned in the cooperation agreement. Operators, Owners or Actual users can submit an application if they comply with the legally

  14. Establishing specialized health services for professional consultation in euthanasia: experiences in the Netherlands and Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Bilsen Johan; Onwuteaka-Philipsen Bregje D; Cohen Joachim; Van Wesemael Yanna; Deliens Luc

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg have adopted laws decriminalizing euthanasia under strict conditions of prudent practice. These laws stipulate, among other things, that the attending physician should consult an independent colleague to judge whether the substantive criteria of due care have been met. In this context initiatives were taken in the Netherlands and Belgium to establish specialized services providing such consultants: Support and Consultation for Eutha...

  15. Chytridiomycosis related mortality in a midwife toad (Alytes obstetricans) in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Pasmans, Frank; Muijsers, Mariska; Maes, Sofie; Van Rooij, Pascale; Brutyn, Melanie; Ducatelle, Richard; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Martel, An

    2010-01-01

    Chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, contributes to amphibian declines worldwide. Recently, the fungus has shown to be widely distributed in Belgium and the Netherlands, although no clinical cases of the disease have been diagnosed yet. This case report describes the first case of mortality due to chytridiomycosis in Belgium in a wild population of midwife toads (Alytes obstetricans). The presence of clinical chytridiomycosis, combined with the relatively hig...

  16. What Belgium Can Teach Bosnia: The Uses of Autonomy in 'Divided House' States

    OpenAIRE

    Sherrill Stroschein

    2003-01-01

    Belgium and Bosnia can be understood as 'divided house' states, which contain proportionally similar groups with opposing views regarding whether the states should be more unitary or more decentralized. The Belgian example demonstrates that even where groups disagree on state structure, a mixture of various forms of group autonomy may facilitate stability and compromise within the state. Belgium addresses this dilemma in two ways: 1) non-territorial autonomous unites in the form of linguistic...

  17. When Collective Memories of Victimhood Fade: Generational Evolution of Intergroup Attitudes and Political Aspirations in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Rimé, Bernard; Bouchat, Pierre; Klein, Olivier; Licata, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Collective memory theories propose that groups' remembrances of their past depend upon their current social situation. In Belgium, a significant proportion of Dutch-speakers share a collective memory of past victimisation by French-speakers and fight for an ever-larger autonomy of their region. Yet, as the respective economic, political and social situations of the linguistic regions of Belgium recently evolved with a reversal of fortunes, the current experience of younger Dutch-speakers does...

  18. General study and evaluation of potential impacts of climate change in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    De Groof, Arnaud; Hecq, Walter; Coninx, Ingrid; Bachus, Kris; Dewals, Benjamin; Pirotton, Michel; El Kahloun, Mohsine; Meire, Patrick; De Smet, Lieven; De Sutter, Renaat

    2006-01-01

    Climate change is a hot topic in the media. There is the alarming message that climate change will strongly affect life on earth. But what consequences may be expected in Belgium? In cooperation with research partners from other Belgian universities, HIVA analysed the already-experienced and the expected impacts of climate change in Belgium. The research approach is interdisciplinairy, given that economic as well as social and ecological consequences have been taken into account. This stud...

  19. Requirements to the Professional Competence of English Language Teachers in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Protsko Yevheniya

    2014-01-01

    The concept of a teacher competence in the works of national and foreign scholars has been investigated in the article. The author describes the standards for English teachers in Belgium that is considered to be an inalienable element of the European education. The qualified training of the teachers is denoted as pedagogical, didactic and methodical knowledge mastering and obtaining research and practical skills. In Belgium vocational education in general and teacher training in particular ar...

  20. PBDEs in freshwater mussels and fish from Flanders, Belgium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covaci, A.; Voorspoels, S.; Schepens, P. [Antwerp Univ. (Belgium). Toxicological Center; Bervoets, L.; Hoff, P.; Voets, J.; Campenhout, K. van; Blust, R. [Antwerp Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology

    2004-09-15

    Polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), a class of brominated flame retardants (BFRs), are widely used in textiles, plastics, electronic equipment and other materials for more than 30 years. Due to their massive use, PBDEs have become ubiquitously present in aquatic organisms and it was recently evidenced that their levels seem to increase rapidly. Higher PBDE concentrations were found in biota from freshwater compared to similar marine species. This is probably due to a higher pollution load found near point pollution sources that are almost exclusively inland located. Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) fulfil the requirements of a good biomonitoring organism for freshwater ecosystems: they are easy to collect and to handle, are available in sufficient numbers, have a relative long lifespan, are sedentary and resistant to various types of pollution without suffering a too high mortality and have a high filtration rate which favours the bioaccumulation of organic contaminants. Fish species are another suitable tool for the biomonitoring of organic contaminants. The occurrence of PBDEs in fish species from Europe has already received some attention, but the amount of data is still limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurence of PBDEs in zebra mussels and several representative freshwater fish species (eel, carp and gibel carp) at different sites in Flanders, Belgium. In parallel, other organohalogenated contaminants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p,p'-DDE and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were also measured and their relationship with PBDEs was investigated.

  1. Location of radiotherapy centers: An exploratory geographic analysis for Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose. - The distance between the patient's home and a radiotherapy department may represent a hurdle for the patient and influence treatment choice. Therefore, it is necessary to check whether the geographical distribution of radiotherapy centers is in accordance with cancer incidence, taking also into account the cost of travelling to the radiotherapy department. The objective of this study is double; first, to map the current locations of radiotherapy centers across the country and second, to evaluate the observed spatial disparities with appropriate tools. Materials and methods. - A model of operational research (P-median) is used to suggest the optimal locations and allocations and to compare them with the current situation. This is an exploratory study with simple inputs. It helps to better understand the current geographical distribution of radiotherapy centers in Belgium as well as its possible limitations. Results-conclusion. - It appears that the current situation is on the average acceptable in terms of accessibility to the service and that the method presents huge potentialities for decision making so as to yield a spatial system that is both efficient and equitable. (authors)

  2. Environmental engineering education at Ghent University, Flanders (Belgium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeestere, K; Dewulf, J; Janssen, C; Van Langenhove, H

    2004-01-01

    Since the 1980s, environmental engineering education has been a rapidly growing discipline in many universities. This paper discusses the history, the current status and the near future of environmental engineering education at Ghent University. This university, with about 50% of the Flemish university environmental engineering students, can be considered as representative for the situation in Flanders, Belgium. In contrast to many other universities, environmental engineering education at Ghent University does not have its historical roots in civil engineering, but has been developed from the curricula organized by the former Faculty of Agricultural Sciences. As part of a reorganisation of the education and research activities at this faculty, a curriculum leading to the degree of "bio-engineer in environmental technology" was established in 1991. This curriculum covers a 5-year study and is constructed around 8 main components. Exchange of students with other European universities, e.g. within the Socrates framework, has become a prominent aspect of student life and education. This paper also briefly describes the employment opportunities of graduated bio-engineers in environmental technology. Finally, the current implementation of the bachelor's-master's structure, leading to a "master of science in environmental technology" degree is summarized. PMID:15193102

  3. Decommissioning of a section of a discharge line in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of a judicial decision, a licensed discharge line for very low level radioactive liquid wastewater to the river Molse Nete in Belgium had to be removed from the gardens of seven properties within a time schedule of one year. The pipeline was constructed in 1956 by the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN) and transferred the wastes a distance of about 10 km from the Belgoprocess Site 2 to the river Molse Nete. It is an asbestos cement pipeline with a wall thickness of 13 mm and an inner diameter of 20 cm. Individual pipe sections have a length of about 5 m and are interconnected by sleeves. The section to be removed was situated on average about 1 m (maximum 1.6 m) below ground level. Access was hampered by the various structures (for example summer houses and garages) that had since been built in the area. A new steel discharge pipe was installed to ensure the continuity of the discharge authorization

  4. Consumer motivation towards purchasing fruit from integrated production in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannoppen, J; Verbeke, W; Van Huylenbroeck, G

    2001-01-01

    Consumer concerns about food safety have been steadily growing during the last decade. Along with the recognition of the increasing power from the consumer side of food chains, this has forced agricultural producers to innovate and adapt their production methods. One of those developments is integrated production of pip fruit (IFP). This research analyses and presents motivational structures of consumers towards purchasing IP fruit in Belgium. The research methodology builds on means-end-chain (MEC) theory, with data collected through personal laddering interviews with consumers. A hierarchical value map, indicating motivational structures for farm shop purchase of IP-labelled apples, is presented. IP-apple buyers pursue typical values, with health being paramount. The findings reveal interactions between market channel characteristics and product attributes, including characteristics that refer to production methods. Also, the study shows how outlet choice influences the perception and the motivation structure of the respondents for the specific product, fresh fruit in this case. From the findings, two sets of implications are set forth. First, marketing implications pertaining to advertising through the application of the "Means-End Conceptualization of the Components of Advertising Strategy" or MECCAS model. Second, implications to producers with respect to adapting their production methods to the needs and wants of the present end consumers. PMID:12425106

  5. Implications and priorities of tobacco control in Belgium and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bartsch

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims to define what tobacco control is both in Europe and around the world. The situation of tobacco control in Belgium will be compared to other European countries using the tobacco control scale (TCS. If countries demonstrating a high TCS score have lower tobacco smoking prevalence than countries with a low TCS, it is not known whether the decrease in smoking prevalence over several years is well correlated with the increase in TCS score in each country during the same period. Moreover the article will raise the question of how far research will continue control into controlling the use of tobacco. The remaining 20% of smokers in the best tobacco control scale countries who are still smoking are not similar to the 20% that are now ex-smokers. Indeed we are now facing the "hard core smokers", who show great resistance to policy measures and be considered as ill individuals requiring specialised care rather than individuals with bad habits. The future tobacco control scale should place more importance on the quality of care and the implication of European countries providing improved access to this form of care and validated forms of treatment of this chronic, difficult to treat disease.

  6. Plant life management in Belgium: an integrated project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Belgium, a specific plant life management project, named ''Continuous Operation of Belgian NPPs'' is currently developing. Its final objective is to centralize all safety and economic aspects of plant life management in order to determine, for each NPP unit, the optimal actions required to maintain their safe and reliable operation. As the lifetime of safety-related active components is permanently controlled by the current maintenance programs, the project focuses only on passive safety-related components and on non-safety components important for the availability of the plants. These structures and components were evaluated and compared on the basis of a set of weighted criteria in order to measure their criticality and to identify those which must be considered in the project. The selection and the ranking of those components is based on the KBM TM methodology (Knowledge Based Maintenance). This methodology facilitates the collection, formalization and exchange of know-how and gives immediate results thanks to a sequential and systematic step by step analysis. (author)

  7. Leaf litter ecological fate in the Schelde estuary in Belgium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Two dominant species of Willow (Salix triandra) and Reed(Phragmites australis) along the Schelde estuary (in Belgium) wereselected in this research. The pigments of higher plant was used asbiomarkers, the decomposition process of the two species werestudied after they fall into the Schelde estuary. After statisticalanalysis (Spearman rank order correlation, p<0.05), the results hasshown the decomposition dynamics pattern of the pigments, and thewillow showed different pattern in comparing with the reed, eg.Chlorophyll-a decomposition dynamics for willow is: y1 = 12196x2 -175895x + 1E + 06 + k, R2 = 0.5706 while for reed is: y2 = -37878x2+ 229782x + 734282 + k, R2 = 0.9065. The precise time of the leaflitter spent in the water was also calculated as were less than 24days, 24-37 days, longer than 37 days (willow) and less than 24days, longer than 24 days (reed), the leaf litter fate of the two -Process, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciencesdominant species in the Schelde estuary was also compared.

  8. Cocaine and metabolites in waste and surface water across Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cocaine abuse, a growing social problem, is currently estimated from population surveys, consumer interviews and crime statistics. A new approach based on the analysis of cocaine (COC) and metabolites, benzoylecgonine (BE) and ecgonine methyl ester (EME), in water samples was applied to 28 rivers and 37 waste water treatment plants in Belgium using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. While EME was undetectable, COC and BE were detectable with concentrations ranging from <1 to 753 ng/L and <1 to 2258 ng/L, respectively. BE concentrations were employed to calculate the local amount of abused cocaine. The highest values (up to 1.8 g/day cocaine per 1000 inhabitants) were found in large cities and during weekends. The estimation of cocaine abuse through water analysis can be executed on regular basis without cooperation of patients. It also gives clear geographical information, while prevention campaigns can easily be implemented and evaluated. - Cocaine consumption can be evaluated through analysis of waste and surface water

  9. Towards 100% renewable energy in Belgium by 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devogelaer, D.; Gusbin, D. [Federal Planning Bureau FPB, Brussels (Belgium); Duerinck, J.; Nijs, W. [VITO, Mol (Belgium); Marenne, Y.; Orsini, M; Pairon, M. [Institute for Consultancy and Studies in Sustainable Development ICEDD, Namur (Belgium)

    2012-12-15

    In this report, different long-term evolutions of the Belgian future energy system are drafted, analysed and evaluated. All evolutions are designed to meet the requirement of a 100% renewable based national energy system by 2050. For this purpose, a baseline is developed which depicts an energy system without the stringent renewables' requirement. Next, different trajectories are sketched that lead up to a 100% renewable coverage in 2050. The trajectories show that it is feasible to combine economic growth and comfort with far going deployment of renewable energy sources, provided a number of key options and effective policies and measures are being implemented. These options were deducted from several discussions with stakeholders via an open dialogue process, as well as with national experts, and finally, were presented to the Steering committee. The analysis leads to the undeniable observation that drastic changes in a multitude of areas throughout society are required to obtain the desired level of renewable energy penetration in 2050, but also that such a transition can be realised through various sectoral, technology and inter-temporal choices. In other words, this study describes a vast number of different trajectories leading to a 100% renewable energy system in Belgium in the long term, as well as their socio-economic impacts.

  10. Recent Photocatalytic Applications for Air Purification in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elia Boonen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalytic concrete constitutes a promising technique to reduce a number of air contaminants such as NOx and VOC’s, especially at sites with a high level of pollution: highly trafficked canyon streets, road tunnels, the urban environment, etc. Ideally, the photocatalyst, titanium dioxide, is introduced in the top layer of the concrete pavement for best results. In addition, the combination of TiO2 with cement-based products offers some synergistic advantages, as the reaction products can be adsorbed at the surface and subsequently be washed away by rain. A first application has been studied by the Belgian Road Research Center (BRRC on the side roads of a main entrance axis in Antwerp with the installation of 10.000 m² of photocatalytic concrete paving blocks. For now however, the translation of laboratory testing towards results in situ remains critical of demonstrating the effectiveness in large scale applications. Moreover, the durability of the air cleaning characteristic with time remains challenging for application in concrete roads. From this perspective, several new trial applications have been initiated in Belgium in recent years to assess the “real life” behavior, including a field site set up in the Leopold II tunnel of Brussels and the construction of new photocatalytic pavements on industrial zones in the cities of Wijnegem and Lier (province of Antwerp. This paper first gives a short overview of the photocatalytic principle applied in concrete, to continue with some main results of the laboratory research recognizing the important parameters that come into play. In addition, some of the methods and results, obtained for the existing application in Antwerp (2005 and during the implementation of the new realizations in Wijnegem and Lier (2010–2012 and in Brussels (2011–2013, will be presented.

  11. 'Homogeneity in brachytherapy' - Dummy run experience in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The homogeneity of brachytherapy treatments in Belgium was appreciated through a dummy run with two fictive patients. Materiel and Methods: All members of the Belgian Brachytherapy Board received last year a questionnaire about treatment technique, technical approach, dosimetry and treatment planning, for 2 selected clinical histories. Case 1: T1 G1 NO MO - SCC of the lateral border of the mobile tongue (dimensions: 12x10x5mm). Case 2: T1 G1 NO MO - SCC of the lateral side of the nose (10x12x3mm). Results: 10 members out of 14 from the Belgian Brachytherapy Board returned their questionnaire. Little variation has been observed regarding treatment technique, technical approach (H and N: hairpins or loops, skin: plastic tubes), dose (60-65 Gy), activity of Ir-192 (1-2 mCi/cm), definition of Gross Tumor Volume and dosimetry (Paris System). On the contrary, a large difference was observed in the definition of the Clinical Target Volume and the Treated Volume. Despite of this large difference, the ratio treated volume on clinical target volume was always satisfactory (1,2 for skin cancer - 2 for H and N cancer), indicating that the treatment was well adapted to the Clinical Target Volume in all but 1 instance. Variations of a factor 2 in the dose rate of irradiation were tolerated (40-80 cGy/h). Conclusion: Rigid guidelines are mostly followed by the responders concerning dose, dose prescription and implantation techniques. Large variations are encountered concerning safety margins (Clinical Target definition) and dose rate

  12. Clinical radiotherapy audits in Belgium, 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalliet, P G M

    2015-10-01

    Systematic clinical radiotherapy audits have been introduced in Belgium in 2011, as part of the Federal Cancer Plan. This is in compliance with article 11 of the 97/43 Council directive of Euratom states, translated into the Belgian legislation by royal decree in 2002. The principle of clinical audits has thus been part of the federal legal requirements for more than 10 years. However, its application had to wait for the development of a practical approach: what authority will audit, who will be the auditors, along which methodology, at what frequency, etc. Since 2002, the Federal College of Radiotherapy has the mission to monitor quality of radiotherapy at large. It was therefore decided after discussions with the relevant administration at the Ministry of Health and the Federal Agency for Nuclear Control that the College would practically organise the audits. Early in the 2000s, the IAEA developed a manual for comprehensive audits, as a tool for quality improvement. Auditors were professionals of the domain and the audit visit took the form of a peer review. Great care was taken to assemble an audit party able to cover all aspects of clinical radiotherapy with a radiation oncologist, a medical physicist, a radiation therapist and, on demand, a quality officer. The IAEA manual contains a series of questionnaires to be prepared by the audited centre in advance (pre-audit and self-assessment), indicating what specific areas the auditors would assess. It is also a template for the auditors, ensuring that no area is left aside or forgotten during the site visit. The report, at the end of the visit, is drafted according to a specific report template, also developed by IAEA. Several members of the Belgian radiotherapy community have developed their auditor's skills by participating to the IAEA audit program; they are the core of the auditor Belgian team. PMID:26321683

  13. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium occurrences and resources - To date the uranium identified in Belgium is limited to a number of occurrences and none of these have as yet proved significant from a reserve or resource viewpoint. The main uranium occurrences ares (1) In the Upper Cambrian graphite schists corresponding to the culm of Sweden small zones are found (30 - 50 cm thick) with an average of 20 ppm uranium. (2) Near Vise at the base of the Carboniferous the Visean formation is discordantly superimposed on the Permian (Frasnian) and overlain by shales and phyllites. Solution pockets at the boundary contain phosphatic lenses that contain uranium values of up to 200 ppm. Autunite and Torbernite are the main uranium minerals associated with a number of complex phosphatic minerals. Within the Chalk (Maestrichtien) of the Mons basin, that is mainly in the Ciply - St. Symphorien and Baudow district. Here is found enrichment of uranium up to 140 ppm over large areas related to phosphatic chalk. The thickness of the zone varies from a few to 20 metres. However, as the P2O5 content is not high enough for the deposits to be exploited at present for phosphate there is little possibility of the uranium being concentrated at high enough levels to be exploited for itself alone. (4) Near to Vielsalm (in the Stavelot Massif) are some thin quartz veins containing small amounts of copper and uranium minerals (Torbornite). Values of up to 70 ppm are recorded. (5) A number of low uranium values are recorded associated with phosphatic nodules and zones in the Lower Pleistocene and Tertiary

  14. Regulation of NORM industries and NORM residues in Belgium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermans, G.; Dehandschutter, B.; Pepin, S.; Sonck, M. [Federal Agency for Nuclear Control - FANC (Belgium)

    2014-07-01

    In the Belgian Royal Decree of 20 July 2001, which transposed the EU Directive 96/26/EURATOM (BSS) into national legislation regarding radiation protection regulations, a list of 'work activities involving natural radiation sources' (i.e. NORM industries) was defined based on the concept described in Article 40 of the Directive. These activities are subject to declaration to the Belgian radiation protection authority (Federal Agency for Nuclear Control - FANC). The initial list was subsequently modified by a FANC decree in 2012 to reflect the increased knowledge about NORM in other industrial sectors, most of which have also been added in the recently published New Basic Safety Standards (Directive 2013/53/EURATOM). In March 2013, an additional decree was published by FANC regulating the acceptance of NORM residues by non-radioactive waste treatment facilities. This regulation was fitted within the framework described above by introducing NORM residue treatment into the existing NORM industry list. It introduces generic exemption levels above which the processing or disposal of NORM residues will be considered as a 'work activity' and submitted to declaration according to the Belgian radiation protection regulations. On basis of this declaration, specific acceptance criteria are assigned to the disposal or processing facility. FANC has published technical and methodological guides for the operators of the concerned facilities and industries to facilitate the declaration process, and has recently organized a round-table gathering both NORM industries and waste processing industries to identify the needs, uncertainties and concerns regarding the regulatory control of NORM in Belgium. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  15. Strucute optimale du raffinage Optimum Stucture of Refining in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jomaux F.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article présente un résumé des méthodes utilisées et des résultats obtenus au cours d'une étude de la structure de l'industrie du raffinage en Belgique, étude qui a fait l'objet d'une thèse de doctorat('. L'objectif était de déterminer, dans ses grandes lignes, l'évolution à long terme des capacités des unités de traitement en raffinerie permettant de satisfaire au moindre coût la demande belge en produits pétroliers. Différents scénarios relatifs à cette demande, ainsi que différentes hypothèses d'approvisionnement en pétroles bruts ont été analysés. L'étude s'est appuyée sur des modèles linéaires de raffinage développés à l'Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP, et dont la mise en ceuvre fait appel à des programmes générateurs de matrices et de rapports, ainsi qu'à des fichiers de données technico-économiques disponibles à l'IFP. L'existence de trois zones de raffinage géographiquement distinctes a conduit à l'utilisation de modèles multi-raffineries intégrant l'approvisionnement des principaux dépôts de distribution. This article reviews the methods used and results obtained during a survey of the structure of the refining industry in Belgium, a survey which is the subject of a doctoral dissertation (1. The aim was to determine the major guidelines of the longterm evolution of the production capacities of refinery processing installations so as to fulfill the Belgian demand for petroleum products at lowest cost. Different scénarios for this demand as well as different crude-oil supply hypotheses are analyzed. The survey is based on linear refining models developed at IFP. These models make use of matrix and report generator programs as well as technico-economic data files available at Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP. The existence of three geographically distinct refining zones leads ta the multi-refinery models integrating deliveries to the main distribution depots.

  16. Weather based risks and insurances for crop production in Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobin, Anne

    2014-05-01

    Extreme weather events such as late frosts, droughts, heat waves and rain storms can have devastating effects on cropping systems. Damages due to extreme events are strongly dependent on crop type, crop stage, soil type and soil conditions. The perspective of rising risk-exposure is exacerbated further by limited aid received for agricultural damage, an overall reduction of direct income support to farmers and projected intensification of weather extremes with climate change. According to both the agriculture and finance sectors, a risk assessment of extreme weather events and their impact on cropping systems is needed. The impact of extreme weather events particularly during the sensitive periods of the farming calendar requires a modelling approach to capture the mixture of non-linear interactions between the crop, its environment and the occurrence of the meteorological event. The risk of soil moisture deficit increases towards harvesting, such that drought stress occurs in spring and summer. Conversely, waterlogging occurs mostly during early spring and autumn. Risks of temperature stress appear during winter and spring for chilling and during summer for heat. Since crop development is driven by thermal time and photoperiod, the regional crop model REGCROP (Gobin, 2010) enabled to examine the likely frequency, magnitude and impacts of frost, drought, heat stress and waterlogging in relation to the cropping season and crop sensitive stages. The risk profiles were subsequently confronted with yields, yield losses and insurance claims for different crops. Physically based crop models such as REGCROP assist in understanding the links between different factors causing crop damage as demonstrated for cropping systems in Belgium. Extreme weather events have already precipitated contraction of insurance coverage in some markets (e.g. hail insurance), and the process can be expected to continue if the losses or damages from such events increase in the future. Climate

  17. Environmental conditions and Puumala virus transmission in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leirs Herwig

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-vector-borne zoonoses such as Puumala hantavirus (PUUV can be transmitted directly, by physical contact between infected and susceptible hosts, or indirectly, with the environment as an intermediate. The objective of this study is to better understand the causal link between environmental features and PUUV prevalence in bank vole population in Belgium, and hence with transmission risk to humans. Our hypothesis was that environmental conditions controlling the direct and indirect transmission paths differ, such that the risk of transmission to humans is not only determined by host abundance. We explored the relationship between, on one hand, environmental variables and, on the other hand, host abundance, PUUV prevalence in the host, and human cases of nephropathia epidemica (NE. Statistical analyses were carried out on 17 field sites situated in Belgian broadleaf forests. Results Linear regressions showed that landscape attributes, particularly landscape configuration, influence the abundance of hosts in broadleaf forests. Based on logistic regressions, we show that PUUV prevalence among bank voles is more linked to variables favouring the survival of the virus in the environment, and thus the indirect transmission: low winter temperatures are strongly linked to prevalence among bank voles, and high soil moisture is linked to the number of NE cases among humans. The transmission risk to humans therefore depends on the efficiency of the indirect transmission path. Human risk behaviours, such as the propensity for people to go in forest areas that best support the virus, also influence the number of human cases. Conclusion The transmission risk to humans of non-vector-borne zoonoses such as PUUV depends on a combination of various environmental factors. To understand the complex causal pathways between the environment and disease risk, one should distinguish between environmental factors related to the abundance of hosts

  18. Communication received from Belgium concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Secretariat has received a Note Verbale, dated 8 July 2003, from the Permanent Mission of Belgium to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of Belgium, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2002. In the light of the request expressed by Belgium in its Note Verbale of 1 December 1997 concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium (INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998), the enclosures to the Note Verbale of 8 July 2003 are attached for the information of all Member States

  19. Communication received from Belgium concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Secretariat has received a Note Verbale dated 18 August 2004 from the Permanent Mission of Belgium to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government, in keeping with Belgium's commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2003. In the light of the request expressed by Belgium in its Note Verbale of 1 December 1997 concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium (INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998), the enclosures to the Note Verbale of 18 August 2004 are attached for the information of all Member States

  20. Audit pricing and the Big4 fee premium: evidence from Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Tom Van Caneghem

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to study audit pricing and the Big4 fee premium in Belgium. While a number of studies have already explored these issues, the Belgian audit market provides an interesting setting to gain an additional insight into the pricing of audit services for many reasons (e.g. audit market concentration in Belgium is much lower than in other countries, the Belgian audit market mainly consists of non-listed firms, etc.). Design/methodology/approach – Besides the tra...

  1. Optimizing iodine nutrition in Belgium: a selective, progressive and monitored approach to control iodine deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie

    2012-01-01

    Since 1990, many countries world-wide implemented salt iodisation programs in an effort totackle iodine deficiency. It was however only during the last few years that an effort wasundertaken in order to eliminate iodine deficiency as a public health problem in Belgium. In autumn 1998, a nation-wide study among children clearly showed mild iodine deficiency inBelgium, but no action was taken before 2009. It was only in the framework of the firstNational Nutrition and Health Plan 2005-2010 that...

  2. Relations between coffee world market price and retail price in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Delille, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this publication is to analyze how the variations observed at the coffee world market price level pass on the coffee retail price in Belgium. This research takes place in the framework of a coffee value chain analysis. The formation of the coffee price cycles seems to fade these last years at world market as well as retail price in Belgium levels and since the previous months, these prices rise strongly due to the speculators interest for the commodities market. We observe th...

  3. [An unusual case in Belgium of intestinal myiasis due to Eristalis tenax].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, E; Durieux, M; Franchimont, M M; Hermant, P

    2004-01-01

    We report an unusual case in Belgium of indigenous intestinal myiasis caused by Eristalis tenax during canicular summer 2003 in a 36 year old man living in Belgium. This patient complain near its general practitioner about diarrhea and intestinal rumbles. Larvae emitted on several occasions were identified as Eristalis tenax larvae. Socio-economical status of the patient and atmospheric conditions seems to be related to this observation. Clinical evolution has been spontaneously and quickly positive. An empirical treatment with an association of metronidazole and nifuroxazide was however prescribed. PMID:15462515

  4. 77 FR 73013 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 2010-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Antidumping Duty Administrative... results of the antidumping duty order on stainless steel plate in coils (steel plate) from Belgium.\\1... Review, 77 FR 32517 (June 1, 2012) (Preliminary Results). Based on our analysis of the comments...

  5. 75 FR 81966 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Extension of Time Limit for... administrative review of the countervailing duty order on stainless steel plate in coils from Belgium, covering... Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews and Requests for Revocation in Part, 75 FR 37759, 37763 (June 30,...

  6. Reading Comprehension of Flemish Deaf Children in Belgium: Sources of Variability in Reading Comprehension after Cochlear Implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kant, Anne; Vermeulen, Anneke; De Raeve, Leo; Schreuder, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the results of two studies of reading comprehension of Flemish children in Belgium. In the northern part of Belgium (Flanders), Dutch is the official language. The Dutch-speaking inhabitants of Flanders are called Flemish. Dutch is also the national language of the Netherlands. Despite both groups using Dutch, cultural…

  7. 76 FR 25666 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils from Belgium: Final Results of Full Sunset Review and Revocation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... From Belgium: Preliminary Results of Full Sunset Review, 75 FR 81217, 81218 (December 27, 2010... Duty Orders on Certain Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium, Italy, and South Africa, 70 FR... Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 75 FR 30777 (June 2, 2010). ] Within the deadline specified...

  8. 76 FR 75870 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Notice of Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... Administrative Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 76 FR 37781 (June 28, 2011). The preliminary results... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Notice of Extension of Time... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on stainless steel plate in coils from Belgium, covering...

  9. 75 FR 61699 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium, Italy, South Africa, South Korea, and Taiwan: Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium, Italy, South Africa, South Korea... orders on stainless steel plate in coils (SSPC) from Belgium, Italy, South Africa, South Korea, and..., South Africa, South Korea, and Taiwan pursuant to section 751(c) of the Act. See Initiation of...

  10. Landslides in Flanders (Belgium): Where science meets public policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Eeckhaut, M.; Poesen, J.; Vandekerckhove, L.

    2009-04-01

    Although scientific research on landslides in the Flemish Ardennes (710 km²; Belgium), has been conducted over the last decades, the Flemish Government only took account of slope failure as a soil degradation process after the occurrence of several damaging landslides in the beginning of the 21st century. Here we aim to present the successful collaboration between the Physical and Regional Geography Research Group (FRG; Dept. Earth and Environmental Sciences K.U.Leuven) and the Environment, Nature and Energy Department (LNE; Flemish Government) in landslide management. We will demonstrate how geomorphologists produced practical tools for landslide management which can be directly applied by LNE as well as other local and regional authorities and planners. Since 2004 three projects on landslide inventory mapping and susceptibility assessment in the Flemish Ardennes have been funded by LNE, and a fourth one on landslide susceptibility assessment in remaining hilly regions in Flanders west of Brussels recently started. Together with a steering committee composed of stakeholders, persons from LNE supervise the research carried out by geomorphologists experienced in landslide studies. For the establishment of the landslide inventory map of the Flemish Ardennes we combined the analysis of LIDAR-derived hillshade and contour line maps with detailed field controls. Additional information was collected through interviews with local authorities and inhabitants and from analysis of newspaper articles and technical reports. Then, a statistical model, logistic regression, was applied to produce a high quality classified landslide susceptibility map. The unique part of this collaboration is that all end products are online available at user-friendly websites designed by LNE. The scientific report containing (1) general information on landslides, (2) a description of the study area, (3) an explanation of the materials and methods used, (4) a presentation of the resulting

  11. The conditional returns to origin-country human capital among Turkish and Moroccan immigrants in Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanas, A.M.; Tubergen, F.A. van

    2014-01-01

    This study extends the analysis of the economic returns to pre-migration human capital by examining the role of the receiving context, co-ethnic residential concentration, and post-migration investments in human capital. It uses large-scale survey data on Turkish and Moroccan immigrants in Belgium.

  12. The stock market performance of the central banks of Belgium and Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldberg, Lawrence G.; Kabir, Rezaul

    2002-01-01

    Most central banks issue stock that is held by the government and/or commercial banks and is not tradable. In contrast, stocks of the central banks of Belgium and Japan are traded on the Brussels and Tokyo stock exchanges. The purpose of the paper is to examine this unique phenomenon of stock market

  13. 75 FR 30434 - Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... FR 25288). On May 21, 1999, Commerce issued antidumping duty orders on imports of certain stainless steel plate from Belgium, Canada, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan (64 FR 27756). On March 11... COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 701-TA-376 and 379 and 731-TA-788, 790-793 (Second Review)] Stainless...

  14. 75 FR 64709 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Notice of Rescission of... ``Opportunity to Request Administrative Review'' of the antidumping duty order on stainless steel plate in coils... Administrative Review, 75 FR 23236, (May 3, 2010). On June 1, 2009, in accordance with 19 CFR 351.213(b),...

  15. One Information example given to parliamentarians: the MOX debate in Belgium in 1992-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with a public debate that took place in Belgium prior to the authorization of the use a uranium-plutonium fuel (MOX) in many power plants. The document gives some details about MOX as well as about the usual procedures for such an authorization. (TEC)

  16. Improving Incentives in Tertiary Education in Belgium. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 587

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoj, Jens

    2007-01-01

    The tertiary education system has been transformed from an elite-oriented system to a system providing tertiary education to a much larger share of each new generation. This re-orientation has contributed to raising education attainment in Belgium. However, in many respects the organisation of the tertiary education systems has not been changed…

  17. Victims or heroes? Elucidating the Profile of Current Irregular Chinese Migrants in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Pang, Ching Lin

    2006-01-01

    Agency versus victimhood In anthropology: main focus on migrants strategies, migrants life and migration project In legal studies and criminology, emphasis is on victimhood Methodology: Desk research: -academic articles -government documents -international reports, in particular the Hypocrates report on human trafficking: case study of Belgium -police files and statistics -court cases Interviews: -12 in-depth interviews with undocumented Chinese in Belgian de...

  18. Clonal population structure and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter jejuni from chicken meat in Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most important causes of human diarrhea worldwide. In the present work, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was used to study the genotypic diversity of 145 C. jejuni isolates from 135 chicken meat preparations sampled across Belgium. Isolates were further typed by p...

  19. Participant report for Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium) Hole Plate No. 132

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Morace, Renate Erica

    ). In the project, 15 research laboratories have been involved from 9 countries: Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom, USA. A total of 24 CMMs were used to measure an optomechanical hole plate [1], designed and manufactured by DTU. A measurement procedure was sent...

  20. Religious and Citizenship Education in Belgium/Flanders: Suggestions for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, Leni

    2014-01-01

    In Belgium (Flanders), citizenship education is one of the cross-curricular achievements, but it is not scheduled as a separate school subject. Alternatively, citizenship education is integrated in diverse school subjects and particularly in the religious education classes. However, with this didactical approach, two problems arise. First,…

  1. Official portrait of STS-45 Payload Specialist Dirk D. Frimout of Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Official portrait of STS-45 Payload Specialist Dirk D. Frimout of Belgium. Frimout, wearing launch and entry suit (LES), holds LES gloves and has his left arm on launch and entry helmet (LEH). Displayed in the background are the United States flag and a space shuttle model.

  2. Towards Integrative Religious Education in Belgium and Flanders: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loobuyck, Patrick; Franken, Leni

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the way in which religious education (RE) has been organised in Flanders and Belgium, and gives attention to the problems and challenges that arise these days. We argue that the "Schoolpact" of 1958 which implies separate RE in different religions in public schools needs a revision. Therefore, we propose an alternative…

  3. Narrating Linguistic Conflict: A Storytelling Analysis of the Language Conflict in Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Keere, Kobe; Elchardus, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have addressed the question how the two main linguistic groups in Belgium (French and Flemish speakers) code each other. The research reported in this article is based on a storytelling forum of 56 persons that gathered five times. The storytelling sessions yielded 91 different stories about living in a bilingual society. These were…

  4. Interpersonal violence against children in sport in the Netherlands and Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vertommen, Tine; Schipper-van Veldhoven, Nicolette; Wouters, Kristien; Kampen, J.K.; Brackenridge, Celia H.; Rhind, Daniel J.A.; Neels, Karel; Eede, Van Den Filip

    2016-01-01

    The current article reports on the first large-scale prevalence study on interpersonal violence against children in sport in the Netherlands and Belgium. Using a dedicated online questionnaire, over 4,000 adults prescreened on having participated in organized sport before the age of 18 were surveyed

  5. Radiocarbon dating reveals different past managements of adjacent forest soils in the Campine region, Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiti, T.; Neubert, R. E. M.; Janssens, I. A.; Certini, G.; Yuste, J. Curiel; Sirignano, C.

    2009-01-01

    The soils of adjacent first generation monospecific stands of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) in the Campine region, Belgium, apparently developed under the same forming factors, were studied for carbon dynamics to disentangle eventual different past land uses

  6. Pediatric Cochlear Implantation: A Qualitative Study of Parental Decision-Making Processes in Flanders, Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardonk, Stefan; Bosteels, Sigrid; Desnerck, Greetje; Loots, Gerrit; Van Hove, Geert; Van Kerschaver, Erwin; Vanroelen, Christophe; Louckx, Fred

    2010-01-01

    Factors contributing to parents' decision when they choose between cochlear implantation (CI) and traditional hearing aids for their child were examined. The subjects were children with severe/profound hearing loss, born 1999-2001, registered in the universal neonatal hearing screening program in the Flanders region of Belgium. Qualitative data…

  7. Different measles outbreaks in Belgium, January to June 2016 - a challenge for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammens, Tine; Maes, Virginie; Hutse, Veronik; Laisnez, Valeska; Schirvel, Carole; Trémérie, Jean Marie; Sabbe, Martine

    2016-08-11

    During the first half of 2016, several outbreaks of measles were reported in the three regions of Belgium. Main challenges for public health were severe complications occurring in adults, nosocomial transmission and infection in healthcare workers. Here, we describe those outbreaks and lessons learnt for public health. PMID:27541858

  8. Characteristics and evolution of hantavirus infection in Liège Area (Belgium)

    OpenAIRE

    Krzesinski, Jean-Marie; Parotte, Marie-Christine; Vanden velde, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Hantavirus is a zoonosis transmitted by rodents responsible in Europe for Hemorrhagic fever with acute renal syndrome (called nephropathia epidemica or NE). Hantavirus epidemics were increased in the recent years in the South part of Belgium. After acute illness, the question could be about its evolution.

  9. The paradoxical increase in involuntary admissions after the revision of the Civil Commitment Law in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecompte, D

    1995-01-01

    The revision in 1990 of the Mental Health Commitment Law in Belgium, which was initially intended to decrease the use of civil commitment, has resulted in a paradoxical increase in involuntary hospital admissions. To understand the reasons for this increase, the relative importance of the various factors involved, notably the criteria of mental illness, dangerousness and clinical treatability, is examined. PMID:7666748

  10. An empirical study of the underground economy in the Kingdom of Belgium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezaei, Shahamak; Goli, Marco; Dana, Léo-Paul

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the underground economy in Belgium. Although several government initiatives are attempting to combat underground economic activities, we found illegal foreign workers identifying opportunities and fulfilling market needs. Underground employment thus thrives in a variety ...... sectors, including the building sector, cleaning houses, delivery jobs, garage business horticulture, hotels, industrial cleaning, and social work....

  11. The politics of labelling youth vernaculars in the Netherlands and Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Cornips; J. Jaspers; V. de Rooij

    2015-01-01

    This chapter critically analyses the labelling of youthful language use in Belgium and the Netherlands. Urban youthful speech practices have in recent years been assigned a variety of labels, some of which have gained currency among insiders as well as outsiders. Linguists have not infrequently cont

  12. "It Is Not Easy": Challenges for Provider-Initiated HIV Testing and Counseling in Flanders, Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manirankunda, Lazare; Loos, Jasna; Debackaere, Pieterjan; Nostlinger, Christiana

    2012-01-01

    This study identified physicians' HIV testing practices and their barriers toward implementing provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling (PITC) for Sub-Saharan African migrants (SAM) in Flanders, Belgium. In-depth interviews were conducted on a purposive sample of 20 physicians (ten GPs and ten internists). GPs performed mainly…

  13. Ray-finned fishes (Osteichthyes, Actinopterygii) from the type Maastrichtian, the Netherlands and Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friedman, M.

    2012-01-01

    Ray-finned fishes are a diverse, but understudied, component of the Maastrichtian marine fauna of the southeast Netherlands (Limburg) and northeast Belgium (Liège-Limburg). The most extensive reviews of fishes from these uppermost Cretaceous deposits were made in the early and mid-Twentieth Century,

  14. Belgium: two communities with diverging views on how to manage media diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    d'Haenens, L.S.J.; Saeys, F.

    2009-01-01

    Although Belgium's broadcasting history can be considered a perfect example of the overall situation in Western Europe, the country's specific cultural makeup and political shifts are also reflected in its media environment. The media system is characterized by a fairly high degree of cross-ownershi

  15. Lifecourse determinants and incomes in retirement: Belgium and the United Kingdom compared

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Dewilde

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the impact of lifecourse family and labour market experiences on household incomes of older people in Belgium and the United Kingdom (UK) is analysed. To this end, panel data and life-history information fromthe Panel Study of Belgian Households and the British Household Panel Survey

  16. Factors, Processes and Outcomes of Early Immersion Education in the Francophone Community in Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyl, Aafke; Housen, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Although Belgium is characterized by a widespread consensus that a functional proficiency in the two major national languages, Dutch and French, as well as in English is desirable, educational provision to achieve such proficiency has long been constrained by an official language policy which mandates that education must be monolingual in Dutch,…

  17. The governance of public-private partnerships in sports infrastructure: Interfering complexities in Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van den Hurk; K. Verhoest

    2015-01-01

    Although public-private partnership (PPP) in infrastructure development has gained foothold in Flanders (the northern part of Belgium) over time, dissimilar results are evident and the controversy around PPP remains. This paper investigates the contradictory achievements of the Flemish Sports Infras

  18. An analysis on energy efficiency initiatives in the building stock of Liege, Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Built environment is responsible for 60% of total energy consumption in European countries and 128 million BOE of primary energy in Belgium. The average energy consumption in the residential buildings of Belgium is 70% higher than the EU average and stands at 348 kW h/m2/year. Energy Performance Building Directive (EPBD) provides guidelines for energy performance analysis of buildings in Belgium. In this study, a holistic approach has been adopted to analyse the building stock of Liege, Belgium. This analysis is based on ‘General Socio-economic survey 2001’ and ‘Housing quality survey 2006 in Walloon region’ databases. It considers parameters such as buildings age, built-up area, type of heating system, type of fuel used, adjacency, insulation of roofs and walls and energy consumption etc. for an in depth analysis. This study concludes that about 69% of buildings which are constructed before 1945 needs serious renovation towards the improvement of roof and external wall insulation level. It then successfully identifies specific areas which need detailed study to evaluate the comfort status in the existing building stock, improvement of insulation level and its effect on heating energy consumption as well as the economic analysis on energy efficiency measurements. -- Highlights: •Energy efficiency studies of building stock of Liege, Belgium. •Energy Performance Building Directive is used as reference for analysis. •Buildings age, built-up area and energy consumption data are used for analysis. •Identifies the areas to improve energy efficiency of building stock

  19. Overview of Seismic Hazard and Vulnerability of Ordinary Buildings in Belgium: Methodological Aspects and Study Cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Northwest Europe is a region in which damaging earthquakes exist. Assessing the risks of damages is useful, but this is not an easy work based on exact science.In this paper, we propose a general tool for a first level assessment of seismic risks (rapid diagnosis). General methodological aspects are presented. For a given building, the risk is represented by a volume in a multi-dimensional space. This space is defined by axes representing the main parameters that have an influence on the risk. We notably express the importance of including a parameter to consider the specific value of cultural heritage.Then we apply the proposed tool to analyze and compare methods of seismic risk assessment used in Belgium. They differ by the spatial scale of the studied area. Study cases for the whole Belgian Territory and for part of cities in Liege and Mons (Be) aim also to give some sense of the overall risk in Belgium

  20. [Similarities and differences between the euthanasia laws in Belgium and the Netherlands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliens, L; van der Wal, G

    2003-01-25

    Recently, a law on euthanasia has been adopted in both the Netherlands and Belgium. In both countries euthanasia has been legalized under strict conditions and after confirmation with a notification procedure. Although both laws are similar, the Belgian law is more extensive on the requirements of prudent practice. On the other hand, in Dutch society the norm-setting on euthanasia has been more widely developed through jurisprudence. Nevertheless, we expect that the implementation of the new law and the notification procedure in Belgium will be more difficult than in the Netherlands. In order to promote, safeguard and guarantee the quality of the euthanasia practice, the present euthanasia notification procedure in the Netherlands is supplemented with feedback to the physicians. The strict anonymous procedure in the Belgian notification procedure prevents this possibility. Therefore, Belgian physicians will not be supported by the notification procedure to improve their knowledge and skills in euthanasia. PMID:12635551

  1. Risk assessment of heavy metal pollution in alluvial soils and sediments of the Grote Beek river (Belgium)

    OpenAIRE

    Cappuyns, Valérie; Swennen, Rudy

    2003-01-01

    Consoil 2003 RISK ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METAL POLLUTION IN ALLUVIAL SOILS AND SEDIMENTS OF THE GROTE BEEK RIVER (BELGIUM) Valérie Cappuyns, Rudy Swennen and Katrien De Nil Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Fysico-chemische Geologie, Celestijnenlaan 200C, 3001 Heverlee, Belgium Tel. +3216327297, Fax. +3216327981, e-mail: 1. Introduction Wastewater discharge from the processing of phosphate ores has contributed to pollution by heavy metals ...

  2. Draft genome sequences of two commensal Enterococcus cecorum strains isolated from chickens in Belgium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolka, Beata; Boyen, Filip; Butaye, Patrick; Olsen, Rikke Heidemann; Thøfner, Ida; Christensen, Jens Peter

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequences of two commensal Enterococcus cecorum strains (1710s23 and 1711s24), cultivated from the ceca of healthy laying hens originating from different farms in Belgium.......Here, we report the draft genome sequences of two commensal Enterococcus cecorum strains (1710s23 and 1711s24), cultivated from the ceca of healthy laying hens originating from different farms in Belgium....

  3. Occurrence, ecology and potential impact of the New Zealand wheat bug Nysius huttoni White (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Bonte, Jochem; Casteels, Hans; Maes, Martine; De Clercq, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    In 2002 the New Zealand wheat bug Nysius huttoni White was observed for the first time in the Netherlands and Belgium. The introduction of N. huttoni to our regions presumably occurred via overseas transport of apple and kiwi fruits from New Zealand. Laboratory experiments showed that both eggs and adults of N. huttoni were capable of surviving cold conditions similar to those in overseas transportation. Specimens were sampled in Belgium and the Netherlands, and a DNA sequence analysis indic...

  4. Prediction of butterfly diversity hotspots in Belgium: a comparison of statistically focused and land use-focused models

    OpenAIRE

    Maes,Dirk; Gilbert, Marius; TITEUX Nicolas; Goffart,Philippe; Dennis, Roger

    2003-01-01

    Aim: We evaluate differences between and the applicability of three linear predictive models to determine butterfly hotspots in Belgium for nature conservation purposes. Location: The study is carried out in Belgium for records located to Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) grid cells of 5 x 5 km. Methods: We first determine the relationship between factors correlated to butterfly diversity by means of modified t-tests and principal components analysis; subsequently, we predict hotspots using...

  5. IOC Committee on International Oceanographic Data and Information Exchange, Eighteenth Session Kursaal, Ostend, Belgium, 26-30 April 2005

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The IOC Committee on International Oceanographic Data and Information Exchange held its Eighteenth Session (IODE-XVIII) at the Kursaal, Ostend, Belgium between 26 and 30 April 2005. The Session was attended by 59 delegates from 31 Member States, 15 representatives of organizations, programmes and projects, and 5 observers. The Session was preceded by the official inauguration on 25 April 2005, of the IOC Project for IODE, based in Ostend, Belgium which was attended by Mr. Jean Vandecasteele...

  6. Neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations in Belgium: a useful indicator for detecting mild iodine deficiency?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Vandevijvere

    Full Text Available It has been proposed that neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH concentrations are a good indicator of iodine deficiency in the population. A frequency of neonatal TSH concentrations above 5 mU/L below 3% has been proposed as the threshold indicating iodine sufficiency. The objective of the present study was to evaluate feasibility and usefulness of nation-wide neonatal TSH concentration screening results to assess iodine status in Belgium. All newborns born in Belgium during the period 2009-2011 (n = 377713 were included in the study, except those suffering from congenital hypothyroidism and premature neonates. The frequency of neonatal TSH concentrations above 5 mU/L from 2009 to 2011 in Belgium fluctuated between 2.6 and 3.3% in the centres using the same TSH assay. There was a significant inverse association between neonatal TSH level and birth weight. The longer the duration between birth and screening, the lower the TSH level. Neonatal TSH levels were significantly lower in winter than in spring or autumn and significantly lower in spring and summer than in autumn while significantly higher in spring compared to summer. In conclusion, despite that pregnant women in Belgium are mildly iodine deficient, the frequency of neonatal TSH concentrations above 5 mU/L was very low, suggesting that the neonatal TSH threshold proposed for detecting iodine deficiency needs to be re-evaluated. Although neonatal TSH is useful to detect severe iodine deficiency, it should not be recommended presently for the evaluation of iodine status in mildly iodine deficient regions.

  7. The politics of labeling youth vernaculars in the Netherlands and Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Cornips, L.; Jaspers, J.; de Rooij, V.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Professional and common usage of language names This chapter critically analyses the labelling of youthful language use in Belgium and the Netherlands. Urban youthful speech practices have in recent years been assigned a variety of labels, some of which have gained currency among insiders as well as outsiders. Linguists have not infrequently contributed to (the success of) this labelling process through their scholarly descriptions and public communication about their work (see ...

  8. The learner corpus Aprescrilov and its utility in the didactics of SFL in multilingual Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Buyse, Kris; Fernández Pereda, Lydia; González Ruiz, Pilar

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the structure of the learner corpus “Aprescrilov” and its benefits for the didactics of SFL (Spanish as a Foreign Language) in multilingual Belgium. The learner corpus contains writing assignments by Flemish students (‘Applied Linguistics’ and ‘Linguistics and Literature’) which were written during the three first years of their studies and compiled between 2005 and 2011. The compositions were corrected using a customized version of Markin , which allows analysing in a s...

  9. Social Enterprise in Belgium: A Diversity of Roots, Models and Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Huybrechts, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    This working paper is structured as follows. The first introductory section reviews the main historical roots that have led to the emergence of a diversity of models related to social enterprise and the social economy in Belgium. Next, the second section sketches the main features of these models in terms of legal forms, types of social missions addressed, governance dynamics and resources. In the third section, these models are then illustrated in different fields of activity both establishe...

  10. Pediatric gastroenteritis in the emergency department: Practice evaluation in Belgium, France, The Netherlands and Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Pelc, Isidore; Redant, Sébastien; Julliand, Sébastien; Llor, X.; Lorrot, Mathie; Oostenbrink, Rianne; Gajdos, Vincent; Angoulvant, François

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Based on European recommendations of ESPGHAN/ESPID from 2008, first line therapy for dehydration caused by acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is oral rehydration solution (ORS). In case of oral route failure, nasogastric tube enteral rehydration is as efficient as intra-venous rehydration and seems to lead to fewer adverse events. The primary objective was to describe rehydration strategies used in cases of AGE in pediatric emergency departments (PEDs) in Belgium, France, The...

  11. Variation in methanotroph-related proxies in peat deposits from Misten Bog, Hautes-Fagnes, Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    van Winden, Julia F.; Talbot, Helen M.; De Vleeschouwer, François; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2012-01-01

    Methane emissions from peat bogs are strongly reduced by aerobic methane oxidising bacteria (methanotrophs) living in association with Sphagnum spp. Field studies and laboratory experiments have revealed that, with increasing water level and temperature, methanotrophic activity increases. To gain a better understanding of how longer term changes in methanotrophic activity are reflected in methanotroph biomarkers, a peat record (0–100 cm) from the Hautes-Fagnes (Belgium) encompassing the past ...

  12. Organizational competencies and innovation performances: the case of large firms in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Peeters, Carine; Van Pottelsberghe, Bruno

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess whether large firms' organizational competencies affect their innovation performances. About 40 organizational sub-competencies are defined and measured through an original survey questionnaire answered by 148 large firms in Belgium. The sub-competencies are grouped into seven broad organizational competencies associated with the inovation process. For each broad competence a principal component analysis is run to illustrate whether the sub-competencie...

  13. Defining nearly zero-energy housing in Belgium and the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Mlecnik, E.

    2012-01-01

    Europe expects the housing sector to evolve towards ‘nearly zero-energy’ dwellings. Meanwhile, general terms and research, marketing and legal definitions considering such dwellings have already been introduced. Appraisal of existing definitions is now needed for further policy development. This paper examines what nearly zero-energy terms can be expected to be adopted in Belgium and the Netherlands. The research method uses an interview method based on innovation diffusion theory. The analys...

  14. Water displacement by sewer infrastructure in the Grote Nete catchment, Belgium, and its hydrological regime effects

    OpenAIRE

    Vrebos, D.; T. Vansteenkiste; J. Staes; Willems, P; P. Meire

    2014-01-01

    Urbanization and especially increases in impervious areas, in combination with the installation of wastewater treatment infrastructure, can impact the runoff from a catchment and river flows in a significant way. These effects were studied for the Grote Nete catchment in Belgium based on a combination of empirical and model-based approaches. Effective impervious area, combined with the extent of the wastewater collection regions, was considered as an indicator for urbanization pressure....

  15. Pharmacists and medical doctors in the 19th century in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Schepers, Rita

    1988-01-01

    In this article the main areas of conflict between the medical and the pharmaceutical professions in Belgium in the 19th century are outlined. The medical profession was dominant in the division of labour and the pharmacists were not allowed to threaten its position. However, pharmacists were also able to achieve their objectives - geographical expansion of their officially recognized monopoly and the safeguarding of the pharmacist's key role in the dispensing of drugs, including proprietary ...

  16. Utilitarian cycling in Belgium: a cross-sectional study in a sample of regular cyclists.

    OpenAIRE

    de Geus, B.; Degraeuwe, B.; Vandenbulcke, G.; Int Panis, Luc; I Thomas; Aertsens, Joris; De Weerdt, Y.; Torfs, R; Meeusen, R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: For an accurate estimation of health benefits and hazards of utilitarian cycling, a prospective collection of bicycle usage data (exposure) is fundamental. Individual and environmental correlates are necessary to guide health promotion and traffic safety issues. Firstly, this study aims to report on utilitarian bicycle usage in Belgium, using a prospective data collection in regular adult commuter cyclists. Secondly, the association is explored between the individual variation in ...

  17. Vitellogenin content in European eel (Anguilla anguilla) in Flanders, Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Versonnen, B.J.; Goemans, Geert; Belpaire, Claude; Janssen, C. R

    2004-01-01

    As part of a large-scale monitoring program of bioaccumulating contaminants in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) in Flanders (Belgium), we investigated potential effects of xenoestrogens in these fish. The present paper describes the results of the plasma vitellogenin (VTG) content, measured in 142 eels sampled at 20 different locations, in relation to the internal pollution levels. To validate the blood VTG assays, a small number of eels (n=8) was exposed to 10 µg ethinylestradiol/l (EE2)...

  18. Establishing specialized health services for professional consultation in euthanasia: experiences in the Netherlands and Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilsen Johan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg have adopted laws decriminalizing euthanasia under strict conditions of prudent practice. These laws stipulate, among other things, that the attending physician should consult an independent colleague to judge whether the substantive criteria of due care have been met. In this context initiatives were taken in the Netherlands and Belgium to establish specialized services providing such consultants: Support and Consultation for Euthanasia in the Netherlands (SCEN and Life End Information Forum (LEIF in Belgium. The aim of this study is to describe and compare these initiatives. Methods We studied and compared relevant documents concerning the Dutch and Belgian consultation service (e.g. articles of bye-laws, inventories of activities, training books, consultation protocols. Results In both countries, the consultation services are delivered by trained physicians who can be consulted in cases of a request for euthanasia and who offer support and information to attending physicians. The context in which the two organisations were founded, as well as the way they are organised and regulated, is different in each country. By providing information on all end-of-life care matters, the Belgian LEIF seems to have a broader consultation role than the Dutch SCEN. SCEN on the other hand has a longer history, is more regulated and organised on a larger scale and receives more government funding than LEIF. The number of training hours for physicians is equal. However, SCEN-training puts more emphasis on the consultation report, whereas LEIF-training primarily emphasizes the ethical framework of end-of-life decisions. Conclusion In case of a request for euthanasia, in the Netherlands as well as in Belgium similar consultation services by independent qualified physicians have been developed. In countries where legalising physician-assisted death is being contemplated, the development of such a

  19. The Ordovician of the Condroz Inlier, Belgium: Trilobites from the southeastern margin of Avalonia

    OpenAIRE

    Owens, R.M.; Servais, T.

    2007-01-01

    During the Early Palaeozoic, Belgium was located in the eastern part of the microcontinent of Avalonia, which moved from high to low latitudes during the course of the Ordovician. In the Belgian Condroz Inlier ("Bande de Sambre-et-Meuse"), Ordovician trilobites have been reported from four formations: the early Llanvirn Huy Formation, the Caradoc Sart-Bemard and Oxhe formations, and the Ashgill Fosses Formation. These assemblages are some of the easternmost occurrences of trilobites in Avalon...

  20. Contaminants in organically and conventionally produced winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Pussemier, Luc; Harcz, Peter; De Temmerman, Ludwig; De Voghel, Simon; Waegeneers, Nadia; Wilmart, Olivier; Vromman, Valérie; Schmit, Jean-François; Moons, Emmanuelle; Van Peteghem, Carlos; De Saeger, Sarah; Schneider, Yves Jacques; Larondelle, Yvan

    2007-01-01

    Abstract A database has been compiled with the levels of important contaminants (mycotoxins, heavy metals and pesticides) measured from 2002 to 2005 in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) grown in Belgium according to the organic and conventional farming systems. Assuming no further change in contaminant levels during cereal processing and during the preparation of foodstuffs, conservative intakes are estimated for the consumers of cereal based products such as flour, bread, breakfast...

  1. The informal economy in Belgium's hotel and catering sector: survival strategy and crime risk

    OpenAIRE

    Klima, Noel

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on explanatory qualitative research into the illegal economy within the hotel and catering industry in Belgium. Low profitability, exacerbated by pricing pressures customers and suppliers, predispose hotel and catering entrepreneurs to attempting a variety of non-legal modes of economic survival, including involvement in a ‘black market’ (‘off the books’ trading) between providers, suppliers and some customers. There are similar arrangements for the highly fluid workforce, ...

  2. Monitoring environment, health and perception: an experimental survey on health and environment in Flanders, Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Keune, H.; Loots, I.; Bruckers, Liesbeth; Bilau, M.; Koppen, G; Van Larebeke, N.; G. Schoeters; Nelen, V

    2008-01-01

    The Centre of Expertise for Health and Environment started biomonitoring campaign at the end of 2001, in Flanders (Belgium). The main purpose of this project, funded by the Flemish government, is to investigate the relationship between environmental pollution and human health. This is done by measuring pollutants and health effects in human beings. Social scientists cooperating with the environmental and health experts proposed to include a questionnaire on risk perception related to environm...

  3. Citizens in the Wasteland: the Trouble with Radioactive Waste Management in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Parotte, Céline

    2013-01-01

    In Belgium, the long-term management of radioactive waste falls under the exclusive competence of the Belgian federal Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials (ONDRAF). Contrary to the existing situation for low-level waste, no institutional policy has yet been formally approved for the long-term management of long-lived and high level waste. In this context, ONDRAF considers the public and stakeholders’ participation and engagement as essential in the formulation of an eff...

  4. Nuclear Waste Management in Belgium: the place(less) of public participation

    OpenAIRE

    Parotte, Céline

    2014-01-01

    This presentation highlights the last reflections of the author on NWM in Belgium. It focuses on the new governance practices in Belgian nuclear waste management (NWM) from its ‘participatory turn’ in the late 1990s. Rather than praising (or rejecting) participation versus expert analysis, we make use of a theoretical and analytical framework in which the important dynamics for the analysis are ‘opening up’ and ‘closing down’ technological appraisals and commitments. Even though NWM agencies ...

  5. The use of Deflection Measurements in Pavement Management of the Primary Road Network of Wallonia, Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Van Geem, Carl; Nigro, Pierre; Berlémont, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The road authorities of the primary road network of motorways and main roads in Wallonia (Belgium) determined the priorities for road maintenance from surface characteristics such as roughness, skid resistance and rutting. Recently, they added the structural health (and primarily the bearing capacity) as a criterion for pavement management. The structural health of the road sections is estimated from deflection measurements obtained with Falling Weight Deflectometer and Curviameter. This pape...

  6. Timing of the saprolitisation processes in the sediments of the Ardenne area (Belgium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dating and the timing of the paleo-weathering processes are essential to predict the stability of the host-rocks for radioactive waste-disposal. This work deals with the mechanisms and the timing of the saprolitisation on the mature sedimentary potential host-rocks of the Haute-Lesse area (Ardenne, Belgium). In this area, the alternations of Lochkovian shales and sandstones experienced the Hercynian tectonic activity and were later affected by saprolitisation processes. (authors)

  7. Timing of the saprolitisation processes in the sediments of the Ardenne area (Belgium)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yans, J.; Dupuis, Ch. [Faculte Polytechnique de Mons, Geologie Fondamentale et Appliquee, Mons (Belgium); Perruchotz, A. [Paris-11 Univ., Lab. de Geochimie des roches sedimentaires, 91 - Orsay (France)

    2005-07-01

    The dating and the timing of the paleo-weathering processes are essential to predict the stability of the host-rocks for radioactive waste-disposal. This work deals with the mechanisms and the timing of the saprolitisation on the mature sedimentary potential host-rocks of the Haute-Lesse area (Ardenne, Belgium). In this area, the alternations of Lochkovian shales and sandstones experienced the Hercynian tectonic activity and were later affected by saprolitisation processes. (authors)

  8. Floral visitors and the importance of honey bee on buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) in central Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Jacquemart, Anne-Laure; Gillet, Claire; Cawoy, Valérie

    2007-01-01

    Visitors to buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) flowers were studied in central Belgium during 2 months (July and September) over 2 years (2001-2002). Forty-nine different insect species, belonging to 18 families, were recorded. Over both years, species from the orders Diptera and Hymenoptera were the principal visitors. Hymenoptera were mainly represented by honey bees (Apis mellifera L.; 18.5 - 51.8% of total visitors), while Diptera were represented by syrphid flies and several other f...

  9. The political geography of fiscal transfers: empirical evidence using data on Belgium.

    OpenAIRE

    JENNES, Geert

    2015-01-01

    Summary I analyse the relationship between the geographic distribution of the government budget on the one hand and the geographic distribution of political power and government popularity on the other hand in Belgium. In a 1st chapter I find evidence that a Belgian federal electoral district receives more social spending and/or pays less income taxes with every federal minister having been elected in that district. In a 2nd chapter I present a method for calculating net fiscal transfers b...

  10. Perceived Discrimination and Integration: The Case of Moroccan and Turkish Minorities in Flemish Belgium,

    OpenAIRE

    VANCLUYSEN, Kris; VAN CRAEN, Maarten; Ackaert, Johan

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the relation between integration and perceived discrimination among persons of Moroccan and Turkish descent living in Flemish Belgium. Two opposing theories exist concerning this relationship. The assimilation theory (Gordon, 1964) posits that the more ethnic minorities are integrated into the country of residence, the less discrimination they perceive. The ethnic competition theory (Portes, Parker & Cobas, 1980) proposes the opposite: the more ethnic minorities integrate,...

  11. Aerial surveillance of operational oil pollution in Belgium's Maritime Zone of Interest

    OpenAIRE

    Volckaert, F.A.M.J.; Kayens, G.; Schallier, R.; Jacques, T.G.

    2000-01-01

    Belgium's Maritime Zone of Interest (BMZI), including the Belgian Territorial Sea, Belgian Continental Shelf, and Bonn Agreement Zone of Multilateral Responsibility, were regularly surveyed by remote-sensing aircraft for the presence of operational oil spills between 1991 and 1995. Simultaneously wind speed and direction were recorded; wave height was obtained from the literature. In total, 228 spills of various sizes, volumes and origins were analysed by means of univariate statistical analy...

  12. Language management: in multinational companies: with focus on Norwegian MNCs in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Gundersen, Sigrid Louise

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present thesis is to explain the concept of strategic language management and why this field of study deserves increased attention in international business. It is argued that Language Management deserves increased attention from business managers since language management may contribute to their firms' competitive advantage. A survey among Norwegian companies in Belgium was undertaken to assess the current situation of language issues. The survey results show th...

  13. What Lies Behind Income Mobility? Reranking and Distributional Change in Belgium, Western Germany and the USA

    OpenAIRE

    van Kerm, Philippe

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents a decomposition of income mobility indices into two basic sources: Mobility induced by a change of the income distribution shape and mobility induced by a re-ordering of individuals in the income pecking order. The decomposition procedure based on counterfactual distributions results in a decomposition that is applicable to a broad class of mobility measures. Application to income indices with data for Belgium, Western Germany and the USA indicates that reranking has been t...

  14. Paleoparasitological remains revealed by seven historic contexts from "Place d'Armes", Namur, Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Gino Chaves da Rocha; Stephanie Harter- Lailheugue; Matthieu Le Bailly; Adauto Araújo; Luiz Fernando Ferreira; Nicolau Maués da Serra-Freire; Françoise Bouchet

    2006-01-01

    Human occupation for several centuries was recorded in the archaeological layers of "Place d'Armes", Namur, Belgium. Preventive archaeological excavations were carried out between 1996/1997 and seven historical strata were observed, from Gallo-Roman period up to Modern Times. Soil samples from cesspools, latrines, and structures-like were studied and revealed intestinal parasite eggs in the different archaeological contexts. Ascaris lumbricoides, A. suum, Trichuris trichiura, T. suis. Taenia ...

  15. No favorable effect of reduced tillage on microbial communities in a silty loam soil (Belgium)

    OpenAIRE

    Degrune, Florine; Theodorakopoulos, Nicolas; Dufrêne, Marc; Taminiau, Bernard; Colinet, Gilles; Bodson, Bernard; Hiel, Marie-Pierre; Daube, Georges; Vandenbol, Micheline

    2015-01-01

    To date, only a few studies have applied metagenomics to investigate the influence of different tillage regimes and types of crop residue management on soil microbial communities. These studies were conducted under specific climates on soils characterized by particular land-use histories. A very different ecological context is to be found in certain areas of Western Europe, such as central Belgium, whose loess-derived soils are among the most fertile in the world and have long been used for i...

  16. Congenital jaundice in bovine aborted foetuses: an emerging syndrome in southern Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delooz, L; Mori, M; Petitjean, T; Evrard, J; Czaplicki, G; Saegerman, C

    2015-04-01

    Southern Belgium faces an unusual recent increase of icteric bovine aborted foetuses. In the necropsy room, the majority of foetuses presented jaundice and splenomegaly. Despite a wide range of analyses, no definitive cause of abortion has yet been established but some analysis results support the leptospirosis hypothesis. This first description of cases will help veterinary practitioners to recognize more cases and to conduct those to the laboratory for future investigations. PMID:25620571

  17. Should the "in situ" simulation become the new way in Belgium? Experience of an academic hospital.

    OpenAIRE

    Pospiech, Audrey; Lois, Fernande; Van Dyck, Michel; Kahn, David; Kock, Marc De

    2013-01-01

    The place of simulation in medical education, particularly in anesthesia, appears to be more and more evident. However, the history of simulation in Belgium showed that the associated costs remain a barrier. The use of 'in situ' simulation, defined as the practice of simulation in the usual workplace, could solve the problem of providing access to this educational tool. Indeed, it allows reducing equipment and manpower costs: the needed equipment comes from the hospital, and supervision and o...

  18. Do networks do the works? Migration networks among Indian entrepreneurs in Poland and Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Nestorowicz, Joanna

    2008-01-01

    The thesis deals with the notion of migration networks. The focal point of the study is on the functioning of networks among immigrant entrepreneurs. Indian businessmen operating in Poland and Belgium are taken as an exemplification of the analyzed process. Theoretical considerations reflect upon various theories of migration, which are relevant for the study. Based on this analysis, a holistic conceptual framework is developed, which defines three areas of research: the migration decision ma...

  19. Antimicrobial and molecular analysis of Salmonella serovar Livingstone strains isolated from humans in Tunisia and Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Guedda, Intissar; Taminiau, Bernard; Ferjani, Asma; Boukadida, Jalel; Bertrand, Sophie; Daube, Georges

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Salmonella Livingstone is one of the most common serotypes responsible for nosocomial outbreaks in Tunisia. In this study, 42 isolates of Salmonella Livingstone were analyzed. Most of these were isolated from humans (31 strains from Tunisia and 9 strains from Belgium) and 2 isolates came from food products (beef and pork). Methodology: All strains were characterized by antibiogram, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and virulotyping. This last technique was carried out by sim...

  20. Ray-finned fishes (Osteichthyes, Actinopterygii) from the type Maastrichtian, the Netherlands and Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Friedman, M.

    2012-01-01

    Ray-finned fishes are a diverse, but understudied, component of the Maastrichtian marine fauna of the southeast Netherlands (Limburg) and northeast Belgium (Liège-Limburg). The most extensive reviews of fishes from these uppermost Cretaceous deposits were made in the early and mid-Twentieth Century, but little research on this important assemblage has been executed since. The present paper provides figures and brief descriptions of fishes from the Maastrichtian type area as an aid for field i...

  1. First isolation of Trichinella britovi from a wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Belgium.

    OpenAIRE

    Schynts, F; van der Giessen, Joke; Tixhon, S; Pozio, E.; Dorny, P; Borchgrave, J de

    2006-01-01

    Since 1992, when the European Union Council Directive requires that wild boars (Sus scrofa) hunted in EU for commercial purpose should be examined for Trichinella, the infection has not been detected in wild boars from Belgium, despite serological evidence of the presence of anti-Trichinella antibodies in wildlife and previous reports of Trichinella larvae in this host species. In November 2004, Trichinella larvae were detected in a wild boar hunted near Mettet, Namur province (Southern Belgi...

  2. Upper Campanian and Lower Maastrichtian belemnites from the Mons Basin, Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, W.K.

    1999-01-01

    Upper Campanian Belemnitella and Lower Maastrichtian Belemnella and Belemnitella faunas from the chalks of the Mons Basin in Belgium are described, utilizing univariate and bivariate biométrie analyses. The Upper Campanian belemnite faunas comprise six taxa of Belemnitella, including two left in open nomenclature: B. mucronata, B. woodi, B. minor I, B. minor II, B. sp. 1 and B. sp. 2. The lower Lower Maastrichtian fauna includes Belemnella (Pachybelemnella) obtusa with subordinate Belemnitell...

  3. Living on the Poverty Line. Lone Mothers in Belgium, Germany, Great Britan, Italy and Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Elisabetta Ruspini

    1998-01-01

    The paper focuses on the circumstances that explain lone mothers' dynamics of poverty in five different European settings (Belgium, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, and Sweden) using household panel data. My aim is to tackle the problem of poverty comparatively, dynamically, and with a gender perspective. This paper attempts to answer questions such as: "How do lone mothers experience poverty? Are poverty spells for lone mothers longer? Do poverty spells differ within different groups of lone m...

  4. Establishing specialized health services for professional consultation in euthanasia: experiences in the Netherlands and Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background The Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg have adopted laws decriminalizing euthanasia under strict conditions of prudent practice. These laws stipulate, among other things, that the attending physician should consult an independent colleague to judge whether the substantive criteria of due care have been met. In this context initiatives were taken in the Netherlands and Belgium to establish specialized services providing such consultants: Support and Consultation for Euthanasia in the Netherlands (SCEN) and Life End Information Forum (LEIF) in Belgium. The aim of this study is to describe and compare these initiatives. Methods We studied and compared relevant documents concerning the Dutch and Belgian consultation service (e.g. articles of bye-laws, inventories of activities, training books, consultation protocols). Results In both countries, the consultation services are delivered by trained physicians who can be consulted in cases of a request for euthanasia and who offer support and information to attending physicians. The context in which the two organisations were founded, as well as the way they are organised and regulated, is different in each country. By providing information on all end-of-life care matters, the Belgian LEIF seems to have a broader consultation role than the Dutch SCEN. SCEN on the other hand has a longer history, is more regulated and organised on a larger scale and receives more government funding than LEIF. The number of training hours for physicians is equal. However, SCEN-training puts more emphasis on the consultation report, whereas LEIF-training primarily emphasizes the ethical framework of end-of-life decisions. Conclusion In case of a request for euthanasia, in the Netherlands as well as in Belgium similar consultation services by independent qualified physicians have been developed. In countries where legalising physician-assisted death is being contemplated, the development of such a consultation provision could also

  5. Acceptability of ISA: results from a large-scale survey in Belgium and the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Vlassenroot, Sven; Brookhuis, Karel; De Mol, Johan; Marchau, Vincent; Witlox, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Several trials with different types of ISA have shown that ISA can be an efficient and effective way to reduce speed and speeding. In our research we ask the question will there be acceptability of ISA by the public? Different methods and theories were used to distil the most relevant determinants that could influence acceptability. Based on these determinants a web-survey was held: 6370 individuals responded in Belgium (Flanders region) and 1158 persons in The Netherlands. In our questionnai...

  6. Neoliberal Urban Movements? A Geography of Conflict and Mobilisation over Urban Renaissance in Antwerp, Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Loopmans, Maarten; Dirckx, Toon

    2011-01-01

    This chapter maps new forms of contentious mobilisation around neoliberal urban policies in Antwerp, Belgium. Neoliberal urban policies are confronted with the uneasy task to match local competitiveness with collective provision and so-cial cohesion. The upgrading of the built environment offers the opportunity to in-tegrate both aspirations, but simultaneously provides people with a concrete focus for mobilisation. Building on Urban Social Movement theory, we identify 5 types of urban mobili...

  7. Dynamic modelling of target loads of acidifying deposition for forest ecosystems in Flanders (Belgium)

    OpenAIRE

    Roskams P; Genouw G; Neirynck J; Staelens J

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine target loads for acidification for representative forest ecosystems in Flanders (Belgium) using dynamic modelling. Target loads were calculated for 83 forest stands for which sufficient measurements were available. This dataset is considered to be representative for the Flemish forest area. It is concluded that, despite the inherent uncertainty in modelling soil acidification at a regional level, important N and S deposition reductions are needed to allo...

  8. Sodium reduction and the correction of iodine intake in Belgium: Policy options

    OpenAIRE

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie

    2012-01-01

    Many studies suggest that high salt intakes are related to high blood pressure and consequently cardiovascular diseases. In addition salt intake was found to be related with obesity, renal stones, osteoporosis and stomach cancer. Belgium, such as other European countries, is suffering from both salt intakes that are twice as high as the recommended intakes and mild iodine deficiency. No comprehensive strategy encompassing both public health problems has been developed. While specific salt red...

  9. Artificial insemination with donor sperm (AID): heterogeneity in sperm banking facilities in a single country (Belgium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijssen, A; Dhont, N; Vandormael, E; Cox, A; Klerkx, E; Creemers, E; Ombelet, W

    2014-01-01

    Due to the high inflow of foreign patients seeking cross-border reproductive care in Belgium and the increased number of lesbian couples and single women who call for artificial insemination with donor sperm (AID), Belgian sperm banks nowadays face a shortage in donor sperm. However, since there is no central registration system for sperm donors in Belgium, no figures are currently available supporting this statement. Therefore a study was performed to obtain a detailed overview of the sperm banking facilities in Belgium. Questionnaires were sent to all Belgian centres for assisted reproduction with laboratory facilities (n = 18) to report on their sperm banking methods. The results showed that 82% of the centres rely partially or completely on foreign donor sperm. Moreover, four of the thirteen centres that have their own sperm bank use imported donor sperm in > 95% AID cycles. Our results show that in 63% of the Belgian AID cycles imported Danish donor sperm is being used. Donor recruitment is mainly performed through the centre's website (61%) or by distributing flyers in the centre (46%) and 9 to 180 potential donors have been recruited per centre in 2013. Eventually, 15 to 50% of these candidate donors were accepted. Different criteria for donor acceptance are handled by the centres: donor age limits range from 18-25 to 36-46 years old, and thresholds for sperm normality differ considerably. We can conclude that a wide variation in methods associated with sperm banking is observed in Belgian centres. PMID:25009728

  10. POPULATION DYNAMICS OF DROSOPHILA SUZUKII (DIPTERA: DROSOPHILIDAE) IN BELGIUM IN 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belien, T; Thys, T; Fassotte, C; Walrant, C; Tomme, M; Bolen, M; Bylemans, D

    2014-01-01

    The vinegar fly Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera Drosophilidae), spotted wing drosophila, is a new invasive fruit pest that recently became established in Europe. Unlike other fruit flies that typically only infest overripe and rotten fruit, D. suzukii females oviposit in ripe fruit leading to considerable economic losses of fruit during production. In 2011 and 2012 D. suzukii was detected at several places in Belgium. In 2013, a large-scale monitoring in frame of the project "FLY ALERT" (FOD) was executed using traps with liquid attractant (apple cider vinegar) at more than 100 locations across Belgium during the whole fruit growing season. At 16 locations we also compared the efficacy of a 'bottle type' trap with a 'cup type' trap. The results show that D. suzukii has expanded its distribution in Belgium. Remarkably, in 2013 as well as in 2012 the first detections were made only in the second part of the growing season (August) and the populations reached their peak only at the very end of the season (November). In the bottle type trap the first flies were caught 2-3 weeks earlier than in the cup type trap. In addition, also the population peaks were on average 1 week earlier when monitored with the bottle trap compared to when monitored with the cup trap. In 2014, after an exceptional mild winter adult D. suzukii flies were continuously detected throughout the winter and early spring. The implications of these findings for the phenology of D. suzukii in the Northwest climate region of Europe are discussed. PMID:26084094

  11. Reconstructing historical atmospheric mercury deposition in Western Europe using : Misten peat bog cores, Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Allan, Mohammed; Le Roux, Gaël; Jeroen E Sonke; Piotrowska, Natalia; Streel, Maurice; Fagel, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    Four sediment cores were collected in 2008 from the Misten ombrotrophic peat bog in the Northern part of the Hautes Fagnes Plateau in Belgium. Total mercury (Hg) concentrations were analyzed to investigate the intra-site variability in atmospheric Hg deposition over the past 1500 years. Mercury concentrations in the four cores ranged from 16 to 1100 μg kg− 1, with the maxima between 840 and 1100 μg kg− 1. A chronological framework was established using radiometric 210Pb and 14C dating of two ...

  12. Judicial Loyalty Through Dissent or Why The Timing is Perfect for Belgium to Embrace Separate Opinions

    OpenAIRE

    Nelissen, Bart

    2011-01-01

    Belgian judges may well be among the loneliest of their peers due to Belgium’s legal framework. In an attempt to counter this unfortunate situation, we will start by outlining some contours of “judicial loneliness” in Belgium through a brief discussion of secrecy of deliberations, the wide-spread unus iudex practice, as well as a more recent phenomenon: judges who ventilate certain aspirations and/or frustrations often end up being the epicenter of fierce public polemics. Secondly, we will em...

  13. Satellite Derived Forest Phenology and Its Relation with Nephropathia Epidemica in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Barrios

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The connection between nephropathia epidemica (NE and vegetation dynamics has been emphasized in recent studies. Changing climate has been suggested as a triggering factor of recently observed epidemiologic peaks in reported NE cases. We have investigated whether there is a connection between the NE occurrence pattern in Belgium and specific trends in remotely sensed phenology parameters of broad-leaved forests. The analysis of time series of the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index revealed that changes in forest phenology, considered in literature as an effect of climate change, may affect the mechanics of NE transmission.

  14. The diet and consumption of dominant fish species in the upper Scheldt estuary, Belgium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maes, J.; De Brabandere, Loreto; Ollevier, F.;

    2003-01-01

    Seasonal changes in the diet composition and trophic niche overlap were examined for the dominant members of the fish assemblage of the turbid low-salinity zone of the Scheldt estuary (Belgium). Samples of fish were taken in the cooling water of a power plant. Juveniles of eight species dominated...... trophic niche overlap showed that, in general, niche overlap between individuals of the same species was significantly higher than overlap between individuals from different species, suggesting that the available food resources were partitioned. The total annual prey consumption by the dominant fish...

  15. Considerations on the operation of nuclear power plants and emergency plants. Special case of Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plant operation in Belgium is characterized by an effective utilization factor of 80.6% (which compares fairly well with world averages). It is important to analyse the reason for break-downs so as to improve operation. The paper reviews the procedures for emergency plans and considers separately the regulatory system and the internal rules. The nuclear operator is responsible for emergency plans on site while the Protection Civile (a public body) takes the necessary measures for protection of the public and the environment; a description follows of these tasks which are inter-related. (NEA)

  16. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Belgium 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-12

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Belgium for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  17. Predicting academic success in Belgium and France Comparison and integration of variables related to student behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Lust, Thibaut; Meskens, Nadine; Ahues, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Having observed low success rates among first-year university students in both Belgium and France, we develop prediction models in this paper in order to identify, at the earliest possible stage, those students who are at risk of failing at the end of the academic year. We applied different data mining techniques to predict the students' academic success. We find that it is very difficult to predict success by only considering the variables related to behavior during classes, and that it is n...

  18. Seasonal patterns in the fish and crustacean community of a turbid temperate estuary (Zeeschelde Estuary, Belgium)

    OpenAIRE

    J. Maes; Taillieu, A.; Damme, P.A. van; Cottenie, K.; Ollevier, F.P.

    1998-01-01

    Fish and crustaceans were sampled for 1 year in the upper reaches of a temperate estuary characterized by high turbidity and a tidal range of up to 5 m. Samples were taken in the cooling-water circuit of the Doel Nuclear Power station (Zeeschelde, Belgium). Between July 1994 and June 1995, 55 fish species, two shrimp species and four crab species were recorded. The fish community was composed of 36 marine species, 16 freshwater species and three diadromous species. Shrimps, Gobiidae and Clupe...

  19. The stock market performance of the central banks of Belgium and Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Goldberg, Lawrence G.; Kabir, Rezaul

    2001-01-01

    Most central banks issue stock that is held by the government and/or commercial banks and is not tradable. In contrast, stocks of the central banks of Belgium and Japan are traded on the Brussels and Tokyo stock exchanges. The purpose of the paper is to examine this unique phenomenon of stock market valuation of central banks. Our analysis shows that shares of these two central banks have performed poorly. We also investigate the factors affecting central bank stock returns and find that the ...

  20. Albert Siepert Points Out Highlights of Apollo 10 Liftoff to Belgium King and Queen

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center Deputy Director for Administration, Albert Siepert, seated at left on third row, points out highlights of Apollo 10 liftoff to Belgiums King Baudouin and Queen Fabiola. Next to the queen is Mrs. Siepert. Former Vice President Hubert Humphrey, in baseball cap at right, talks with Mr. And Mrs. Emil Mosbacher, seated next to him. Mr. Mosbacher is the Chief of U.S. Protocol. The Apollo 10 astronauts were launched by an Apollo/Saturn V space vehicle at 12:49 pm EDT, May 18, 1969, from KSC launch complex 39B.

  1. Premature avoidable deaths by road traffic injuries in Belgium: trends and geographical disparities

    OpenAIRE

    Levêque, Alain; Humblet, Claire Perrine; Lagasse, Raphaël

    2001-01-01

    Road traffic injuries are a major public health problem. In this study, we chose Years of Potential Life Lost (YPLL) to analyse the trends during the period 1974-1994 and the relative impact of the traffic injuries death on total mortality and on total avoidable mortality in Belgium. We analysed the geographical trends over a 20-year period at the district level. The YPLL age-adjusted rates were analysed for four successive 5-year periods: 1974-1978, 1980-1984, 1985-1989, 1990-1994 and the ra...

  2. Economic effects of a carbon tax: with a general equilibrium illustration for Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility and efficiency arguments of an international and a national carbon tax are analysed. It is argued that an internationally organized carbon tax can be a good instrument for implementing an international CO2 abatement strategy. Less efficient instruments like national CO2 reduction emission objectives are more likely to be implemented. A national carbon tax is analysed as a policy instrument to reach such an internationally agreed national CO2 emission reduction objective. This is done for Belgium using a dynamic general equilibrium model. (author)

  3. Strategic Partnerships and Open Innovation in the Biotechnology Industry in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Segers

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Strategic partnerships in the biotechnology industry allow new technology-based firms to gain a foothold in this high-cost, high-risk industry. In this article, we examine the impact of strategic partnerships and open innovation on the success of new biotechnology firms in Belgium by developing multiple case studies of firms in regional biotechnology clusters. We find that, despite their small size and relative immaturity, new biotechnology firms are able to adopt innovative business models by providing R&D and services to larger firms and openly cooperating with them through open innovation.

  4. Environmental impact of the former Pb-Zn mining and smelting in East-Belgium.

    OpenAIRE

    Cappuyns, Valérie; Swennen, Rudy; Vandamme, A.; Niclaes, M

    2005-01-01

    In the mining district of Plombières-La Calamine (East-Belgium), extensive Pb-Zn mining activities resulted in an important contamination of overbank sediments along the Geul river. Moreover, a huge amount of heavy metals is stored in a dredged mine pond tailing, which is located along the river. In the dredged mine pond tailing sediments, Pb-Zn minerals control the solubility of Zn, Pb and Cd. Although Pb, Zn and Cd display a lower solubility in overbank sediments compared to the mine tailin...

  5. Survey report of site selection process on the basis of local partnerships. Slovenia and Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Local partnership approach to achieve stakeholder consensus on low-level waste disposal, with particular focus on the siting of repositories are adopted in Europe. Especially in Belgium and Slovenia, final repository site had been decided in each country. The authors investigate on these two cases on the basis of interviews with implementing organizations for final disposal, representatives of local partnerships and citizens concerned so that the problem of introducing a local partnership in Japan can be examined. Its results are used as a reference for studying measures to determine the radioactive final repository site in Japan. (author)

  6. Annual progress report on nuclear data 1983 of the Central Bureau for Nuclear Measurements, Geel (Belgium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this progress report of the Central Bureau for Nuclear Measurements at Geel (Belgium) researches related to neutron data and to non-neutron nuclear data are gathered. Neutron data are essentially related to cross-section measurements: for instance, concerning actinides, structural materials as Cr and Fe, fission products. Some studies are classified as concerning standard neutron data. Underlying physics is no forgotten neither than equipment (linear accelerator). Non-neutron nuclear data is concerned essentially with decay studies. Some compilations and evaluations are also given. Improvement of measurement and source preparation techniques is a part of this section

  7. Science-policy challenges for biodiversity, public health and urbanization: examples from Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keune, H.; Kretsch, C.; De Blust, G.; Gilbert, M.; Flandroy, L.; Van den Berge, K.; Versteirt, V.; Hartig, T.; De Keersmaecker, L.; Eggermont, H.; Brosens, D.; Dessein, J.; Vanwambeke, S.; Prieur-Richard, A. H.; Wittmer, H.; Van Herzele, A.; Linard, C.; Martens, P.; Mathijs, E.; Simoens, I.; Van Damme, P.; Volckaert, F.; Heyman, P.; Bauler, T.

    2013-06-01

    Internationally, the importance of a coordinated effort to protect both biodiversity and public health is more and more recognized. These issues are often concentrated or particularly challenging in urban areas, and therefore on-going urbanization worldwide raises particular issues both for the conservation of living natural resources and for population health strategies. These challenges include significant difficulties associated with sustainable management of urban ecosystems, urban development planning, social cohesion and public health. An important element of the challenge is the need to interface between different forms of knowledge and different actors from science and policy. We illustrate this with examples from Belgium, showcasing concrete cases of human-nature interaction. To better tackle these challenges, since 2011, actors in science, policy and the broader Belgian society have launched a number of initiatives to deal in a more integrated manner with combined biodiversity and public health challenges in the face of ongoing urbanization. This emerging community of practice in Belgium exemplifies the importance of interfacing at different levels. (1) Bridges must be built between science and the complex biodiversity/ecosystem-human/public health-urbanization phenomena. (2) Bridges between different professional communities and disciplines are urgently needed. (3) Closer collaboration between science and policy, and between science and societal practice is needed. Moreover, within each of these communities closer collaboration between specialized sections is needed.

  8. Slope aspect affects geomorphic dynamics of coal mining spoil heaps in Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyssen, Jan; Vermeersch, Dominiek

    2010-11-01

    After the abandonment of coal mining in Belgium in the 1960s-1980s, many coal tips have been left to themselves. Increasingly, these coal tips are regarded as socio-cultural heritage and protected for their environmental value. This research analyses the spatial distribution of the main geomorphic processes (sheet and rill erosion, landsliding, rock fragment movement and root throw) occurring on coal tips in Belgium, through mapping of the processes and their causal factors. Five spoil heaps spread over the major coal basins were studied in detail. The spoil heaps were subdivided in homogeneous land units, especially with regard to slope gradient, vegetation cover and slope aspect. Qualitative and quantitative observations were done on processes and potential causal factors. Regressions showed that generally, the expression of slope processes on the studied coal tips is (1) strongly dependent on westerly aspect of the slopes, (2) independent of slope gradient (which presents a narrow range), (3) impeded by grass cover, and (4) not fully predictable due to variability in type and age of dumped mine spoil.

  9. Science–policy challenges for biodiversity, public health and urbanization: examples from Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Internationally, the importance of a coordinated effort to protect both biodiversity and public health is more and more recognized. These issues are often concentrated or particularly challenging in urban areas, and therefore on-going urbanization worldwide raises particular issues both for the conservation of living natural resources and for population health strategies. These challenges include significant difficulties associated with sustainable management of urban ecosystems, urban development planning, social cohesion and public health. An important element of the challenge is the need to interface between different forms of knowledge and different actors from science and policy. We illustrate this with examples from Belgium, showcasing concrete cases of human–nature interaction. To better tackle these challenges, since 2011, actors in science, policy and the broader Belgian society have launched a number of initiatives to deal in a more integrated manner with combined biodiversity and public health challenges in the face of ongoing urbanization. This emerging community of practice in Belgium exemplifies the importance of interfacing at different levels. (1) Bridges must be built between science and the complex biodiversity/ecosystem–human/public health–urbanization phenomena. (2) Bridges between different professional communities and disciplines are urgently needed. (3) Closer collaboration between science and policy, and between science and societal practice is needed. Moreover, within each of these communities closer collaboration between specialized sections is needed. (letter)

  10. Interpersonal violence against children in sport in the Netherlands and Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertommen, Tine; Schipper-van Veldhoven, Nicolette; Wouters, Kristien; Kampen, Jarl K; Brackenridge, Celia H; Rhind, Daniel J A; Neels, Karel; Van Den Eede, Filip

    2016-01-01

    The current article reports on the first large-scale prevalence study on interpersonal violence against children in sport in the Netherlands and Belgium. Using a dedicated online questionnaire, over 4,000 adults prescreened on having participated in organized sport before the age of 18 were surveyed with respect to their experiences with childhood psychological, physical, and sexual violence while playing sports. Being the first of its kind in the Netherlands and Belgium, our study has a sufficiently large sample taken from the general population, with a balanced gender ratio and wide variety in socio-demographic characteristics. The survey showed that 38% of all respondents reported experiences with psychological violence, 11% with physical violence, and 14% with sexual violence. Ethnic minority, lesbian/gay/bisexual (LGB) and disabled athletes, and those competing at the international level report significantly more experiences of interpersonal violence in sport. The results are consistent with rates obtained outside sport, underscoring the need for more research on interventions and systematic follow-ups, to minimize these negative experiences in youth sport. PMID:26516053

  11. Institutional Elderly Care Services and Moroccan and Turkish Migrants in Belgium: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahaddour, Chaïma; van den Branden, Stef; Broeckaert, Bert

    2016-10-01

    In several European countries, including Belgium, the rapid ageing of the migrant population has emerged only recently on the political agenda. The aim of this literature review is threefold. Firstly, it provides a review of the available studies on the accessibility and use of institutional care services by Moroccan and Turkish migrants in the Flemish part of Belgium including Flanders and Brussels. Secondly, it identifies their specific needs regarding elderly care services. Finally, it provides an overview of the way in which Belgian policy has dealt with the issue of migration and elderly care. Literature published between 1965 and 2014 and relevant to the Belgian context has been included. This search yielded 21 references, of which 8 empirical studies, 5 policy literature, 3 theoretical studies, 3 news articles and 2 popularized reports. Mainstream elderly care remains relatively inaccessible for these migrants due to the language and a series of cultural and religious barriers, a low level of education, financial constraints, a lack of knowledge of health care systems, and the so-called return and care dilemmas. Their religious and cultural needs are currently not met by elderly care services. The inclusive and neutral Belgian policy seems to pay insufficient attention to these issues. PMID:26141810

  12. Water availability change in central Belgium for the late 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabari, Hossein; Taye, Meron Teferi; Willems, Patrick

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the potential impact of climate change on water availability in central Belgium. Two water balance components being precipitation and potential evapotranspiration are initially projected for the late 21st century (2071-2100) based on 30 Coupled Models Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) models relative to a baseline period of 1961-1990, assuming forcing by four representative concentration pathway emission scenarios (RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0, RCP8.5). The future available water is then estimated as the difference between precipitation and potential evapotranspiration projections. The number of wet days and mean monthly precipitation for summer season is projected to decrease in most of the scenarios, while the projections show an increase in those variables for the winter months. Potential evapotranspiration is expected to increase during both winter and summer seasons. The results show a decrease in water availability for summer and an increase for winter, suggesting drier summers and wetter winters for the late 21st century in central Belgium.

  13. Spatial continuities and discontinuities in two successive demographic transitions: Spain and Belgium, 1880-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Lesthaeghe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a study of how the synergisms between cultural and structural factors, which played a major role during the historical fertility and nuptiality transition (first demographic transition or FDT, have continued to condition demographic innovations connected to the "second demographic transition" (SDT. The continuity or discontinuity from the "first" to the "second" demographic transition is studied for spatial aggregates over more than a century in two national contexts, i.e., Belgium and Spain. Special attention is paid to the role of successive secularization waves in shaping the geographical patterns of both transitions. The study also shows that the maps of the two aspects of the SDT, i.e., the "postponement" and the "non-conformism" transitions respectively, are shaped by different determinants. Explanations are offered using the "Ready, Willing, and Able" paradigm, which allows us to uncover the different conditioning and limiting factors involved. The "non-conformist" transitions (control of marital fertility during the FDT and rise of cohabitation and non-conventional family formation during the SDT more closely mirror the history of secularization and the "Willingness" condition, whereas the fertility postponement aspect of the SDT mainly reflects female education and employment, or the "Readiness" condition. This generalization holds in both countries. However, in Belgium spatial continuity from FDT to SDT is connected to stable patterns of secularization, whereas in Spain it is linked to long standing differences with respect to female literacy and education.

  14. 500 years of coppice-with-standards management in Meerdaal Forest (Central Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandekerkhove K

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available For centuries, coppice and coppice-with-standards were the main forest management systems in the northern and central parts of present Belgium. A high population density and a low forest cover in the whole region resulted in a high demand for wood, therefore strict regulations and management regimes were necessary to prevent overexploitation. We illustrate this with a well-documented case, that of Meerdaal Forest in Central Belgium, with reference to other sites in the region. Meerdaal Forest is a woodland 30 km east of Brussels. For centuries its high quality timber stands, especially oak, were managed as coppice-with-standards, with a gradually increasing share of standard trees. Using archive documents and ancient maps, we have reconstructed how this coppice-with-standard management has been developed and optimized over a period of about 500 years. Changes in cutting cycles and configurations were discerned, with a gradual increase of the importance of the standard layer over time. The analysis also showed how wood production could be successfully combined with other sources of income like grazing and pannage. We conclude that former managers of Meerdaal Forest, notwithstanding their lack of scholarship and reference works, developed a state-of-the-art sustainable and flexible management regime that allowed to provide high revenues during many centuries.

  15. Lymphoscintigraphy in the management of lymphoedemas and their health costs reimbursement in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limb edemas of lymphatic origin, either primary, or secondary, represent a chronic disease sometimes heavy to bear by patients who suffer from them. These lymphoedemas imply specific care by physical therapists trained to the use of different therapeutic approaches. Until a few years, only the treatments of secondary lymphoedemas after radiotherapy and/or complete nodal dissection for cancer were reimbursed by the national health insurance system in Belgium. The introduction of the primary congenital lymphoedemas as a disease also reimbursed raised several problems and led to a redefinition of these situations and of their cares. The definition and classification of the lymphoedemas in view of the reimbursement of their treatments by the national health insurance system are now officially based (not only on the sole clinical history but) mainly on their clinical severity and/or also on the result of their lympho-scintigraphic investigation (according to a methodological protocol and to diagnostic criteria adopted at the national level). The reimbursements of the treatments by the physical therapists were also adapted and improved. The lympho-scintigraphic investigations of the limb edemas became so essential in the management of the lymphedematous situations and in the reimbursement of their physical treatments in Belgium. (authors)

  16. Operational improvements of nuclear power plants in Belgium by optimized tuned control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belgium has installed seven nuclear power plants. They are all of the PWR type, five of them are of the 900 to 1000 MWe, three loop plants, the two others are 400 MWe, two loop plants. The introduction of these units in the power system is not evident and required an evaluation of the capability the unit to cope with the power system requirements. This evaluation led to many improvements in the design of the control systems as well on protection and the BOP systems. These improvements were not all implemented during the design phase, since some problems were discovered during operation. This paper will describe the problems that were identified and their solutions as they were implemented in Belgium. Most of the identified problems were discovered at the start-up period during which many transient tests were performed. As this is a quite exceptional period in the life of the plant, it was decided to built a digital data acquisition system, collecting about 240 critical parameters in the power plant at a fast rate. For each NPP a collection of about 200 transients were recorded and kept for further analysis and review. This data bank was also very valuable for code validation. The data acquisition system and the data bank will also be described in this paper

  17. Belgium. Annex IV [Planning and Design Considerations for Geological Repository Programmes of Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R&D activities regarding geological disposal started in Belgium mid-1970s with a rapid focus on Boom Clay, a poorly indurated argillaceous formations in NE Belgium, as potential host formation. As excavation of a facility in such “soft” clay had never been realised at depths considered as suitable (around 200 m), an underground research laboratory was constructed very early on in the programme (i.e. in the early 1980s). Since its inception, the soundness of the scientific foundations of the Belgian programme as well as the potentiality to develop a safe repository facility in the Boom Clay have been assessed and confirmed at several occasions (SAFIR, 1989; SAFIR 2, 2001; NEA Peer Review of the SAFIR 2, 2003). These assessments and reviews have allowed the R&D programme to continue up to now, with increased in situ works. However, as noted by the waste management agency in SAFIR 2 and stressed by the NEA Peer Review of this safety case, the Belgian programme is still missing societal foundations as well as institutional and regulatory framework

  18. Synthesis of the technical feasibility evaluation of spent fuel conditioning in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the end of 1993 the Belgian government decided that both reprocessing and direct disposal have to be considered as equal options in the back-end policy for spent fuel in Belgium. As a result of this decision Synatom, the Belgian utilities' subsidiary in charge of the nuclear fuel cycle for all PWR reactors in Belgium, entrusted the engineering companies Tractebel and Belgonucleaire to develop a dedicated spent fuel container, to perform a feasibility study of an appropriate encapsulation process and to perform a preliminary design study of a complete spent fuel conditioning plant. The feasibility and design studies of the Open Cycle project started mid 1994 and came to an end, as scheduled, by the end of 97. The design of the spent fuel container was presented at the ICEM '97 Conference in Singapore in a paper called 'Development of a container for spent nuclear fuel disposal in clay'. The present paper is dealing mainly with the demonstration of the feasibility of the process and a brief description of the design of the conditioning facilities. (author)

  19. Sistemas de Documentacion e Informacion Educativa en Belgica, Paises Bajos y Francia (Educational Documentation and Information Systems in Belgium, Holland, and France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi Etchelouz, Nelly Yvis

    This booklet describes the working and organization of the information and documentation systems in Belgium, the Netherlands, and France. The discussion begins with a look at the Belgium educational system and how information services operate within that system. The central library, specialized services, and specialized information centers are all…

  20. Spatial analysis of extreme precipitation deficit as an index for atmospheric drought in Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Sepideh; Van De Vyver, Hans; Gobin, Anne

    2014-05-01

    The growing concern among the climate scientists is that the frequency of weather extremes will increase as a result of climate change. European society, for example, is particularly vulnerable to changes in the frequency and intensity of extreme events such as heat waves, heavy precipitation, droughts, and wind storms, as seen in recent years [1,2]. A more than 50% of the land is occupied by managed ecosystem (agriculture, forestry) in Belgium. Moreover, among the many extreme weather conditions, drought counts to have a substantial impact on the agriculture and ecosystem of the affected region, because its most immediate consequence is a fall in crop production. Besides the technological advances, a reliable estimation of weather conditions plays a crucial role in improving the agricultural productivity. The above mentioned reasons provide a strong motivation for a research on the drought and its impacts on the economical and agricultural aspects in Belgium. The main purpose of the presented work is to map atmospheric drought Return-Levels (RL), as first insight for agricultural drought, employing spatial modelling approaches. The likelihood of future drought is studied on the basis of precipitation deficit indices for four vegetation types: water (W), grass (G), deciduous (D) and coniferous forests (C) is considered. Extreme Value Theory (EVT) [3,4,5] as a branch of probability and statistics, is dedicated to characterize the behaviour of extreme observations. The tail behaviour of the EVT distributions provide important features about return levels. EVT distributions are applicable in many study areas such as: hydrology, environmental research and meteorology, insurance and finance. Spatial Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distributions, as a branch of EVT, are applied to annual maxima of drought at 13 hydro-meteorological stations across Belgium. Superiority of the spatial GEV model is that a region can be modelled merging the individual time series of

  1. Information dossier. Return of vitrified wastes from France to Belgium; Dossier d'information. Retour de dechets vitrifies depuis la France vers la Belgique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-01

    Synatom, a daughter company of Electrabel and Tractebel, is in charge of the fuel management of Belgium nuclear power plants. Contracts were signed with Cogema (France) in the 70's for the reprocessing/recycling of spent fuels. The ultimate residual wastes are vitrified at Cogema-La Hague and sent back to Belgium by rail and road transports. This information dossier presents: the power production in Belgium, the management of the fuel cycle in Belgium (recycling, interim storage of spent fuels at Tihange and Doel sites, political choices, financing), the vitrification process (quality assurance, safety), the transport of vitrified wastes from France to Belgium (handling, packaging, TN 28 VT container, regulations, safety evaluation), interim storage, long-term disposal. (J.S.)

  2. OBTAINING A PERMIT-TO-FLY FOR A HALE-UAV IN BELGIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Everaerts

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ever since 2000, VITO has been working on the Pegasus project. This involves a solar High Altitude Long Endurance Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (HALE-UAV as a stratospheric platform for Earth Observation. This aircraft, called Mercator, is designed to fly for prolonged duration at altitudes up to 20 km. The technology has been proven by the aircraft’s manufacturer, QinetiQ (UK by a series of test flights over the past years, culminating in a world record flight in duration of over 14 days duration. All test flights, however, were conducted in test ranges, where other air traffic does not pose a concern. Pegasus aims to demonstrate the viability of stratospheric Earth Observation in Belgium, as a proof of concept for other areas around the world. The Belgian air space is completely different from a test range. More than 1 million aircraft movements take place over Belgium and Luxembourg every year, with routes to Amsterdam, Paris, Frankfurt, and London. Although Pegasus will usually be flying above this dense traffic, it does interfere with it during ascent and landing, and needs to be monitored during the cruise phase for safety reasons. Air traffic management in Belgium is a shared responsibility of Air Navigation Service Providers (ANSPs Belgocontrol (civil, ATCC (military and Eurocontrol MUAC (high altitude. In 2010, VITO applied for a permit-to-fly for a test flight of one day duration. Although the Belgian Civil Aviation Authority (CAA had issued a regulation on UAVs in 2007, it was the first application for a permit to fly in controlled airspace. The Belgian CAA decided to use it as a test for the procedures as well. A prerequisite for flying in controlled airspace was that the aircraft has to carry a mode-S transponder and navigation lights. During first half of 2010, the ANSPs collaborated on a Temporary Operations Instruction and studied the safety impact of this flight on their operations. As an outcome, they decided that the Pegasus

  3. Lessons learnt in establishing a first national inventory of decommissioning liabilities in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Like all countries that use nuclear power for producing electricity or have other nuclear activities for peaceful purposes, Belgium is faced with an important challenge: the safe management of all the radioactive materials present in these industries and activities, in both the short and long term. Of course there is a price to pay for this management, which in accordance with the ethical principle of inter-generational fairness should be borne mainly by the generations which benefit from these activities, in other words by current generations. However, it is possible that when the moment has come, the financial resources to cover the costs of decommissioning and remediation of these installations, so that they no longer need to be subject to institutional control, prove to be insufficient or even completely non-existent: this then results in a nuclear liability. This kind of situation can have several causes, such as an underestimation of the actual costs by the operator or the owner of the nuclear installation or by the holder or the owner of the radioactive materials, negligence, transfer of ownership of the nuclear installation or the nuclear site without transfer of the corresponding provisions, a reduction in the operating time, a bankruptcy, as well as ignorance. Because it wishes to avoid the occurrence of new nuclear liabilities, the Belgian legislator, by virtue of article 9 of the programme law of 12 December 1997, charged the 'Nationale instelling voor radioactief afval and verrijkte splijtstoffen' (ONDRAF/NIRAS) [Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials] with collecting all the elements that are necessary in order to examine to which degree the decommissioning and remediation costs can be actually covered when the time comes. After five years collaboration between ONDRAF/NIRAS and the operators of nuclear installations and holders of radioactive substances, the government today has at its disposal a first general overview

  4. 76 FR 45511 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Notice of Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium, Canada, Italy, the Republic of Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan, 68 FR... Review, 57 FR 20460, 20462 (May 13, 1992) and Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate from Romania... Changed Circumstances Review: Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate from Romania 70 FR 35624 (June...

  5. 77 FR 32517 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Notice of Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ...) expenses, profit, and U.S. packing costs. We calculated the cost of materials, fabrication and general... Belgium: Notice of Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review, 77 FR 21963 (April 12... Investigation; Opportunity to Request Administrative Review, 76 FR 24460 (May 2, 2011). \\3\\ See Initiation...

  6. 75 FR 58351 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils from Belgium: Extension of Time Limits for Preliminary and Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (``Act''). See Initiation of Five-year (``Sunset'') Review, 75 FR 30777... Determination Deadlines Pursuant to the Tariff Act of 1930, As Amended, 70 FR 24533 (May 10, 2005). Accordingly... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Plate in Coils from Belgium: Extension of Time Limits...

  7. How Tracking Structures Attitudes towards Ethnic Out-Groups and Interethnic Interactions in the Classroom: An Ethnographic Study in Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Praag, Lore; Boone, Simon; Stevens, Peter A. J.; Van Houtte, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    The influence of the ethnic composition of schools on interethnic relations and attitudes has been studied extensively and has received ample interest from policy makers. However, less attention has been paid to the structures and processes inside schools that organize interethnic relations and attitudes. In Flanders (Belgium), secondary education…

  8. Prenatal Ambient Air Pollution, Placental Mitochondrial DNA Content, and Birth Weight in the INMA (Spain) and ENVIRONAGE (Belgium) Birth Cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemente, Diana B; Casas, Maribel; Vilahur, Nadia; Begiristain, Haizea; Bustamante, Mariona; Carsin, Anne-Elie; Fernández, Mariana F; Fierens, Frans; Gyselaers, Wilfried; Iñiguez, Carmen; Janssen, Bram G; Lefebvre, Wouter; Llop, Sabrina; Olea, Nicolás; Pedersen, Marie; Pieters, Nicky; Santa Marina, Loreto; Souto, Anna; Tardón, Adonina; Vanpoucke, Charlotte; Vrijheid, Martine; Sunyer, Jordi; Nawrot, Tim S

    investigated whether placental mtDNA content is a possible mediator of the association between prenatal NO2 exposure and birth weight. METHODS: We used data from two independent European cohorts: INMA (n=376; Spain) and ENVIRONAGE (n=550; Belgium). Relative placental mtDNA content was determined as the ratio...

  9. The Paradoxical Visions of Multilingualism in Education: The Ideological Dimension of Discourses on Multilingualism in Belgium and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambye, Philippe; Richards, Mary

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we will examine some contrasted discourses on multilingualism that circulate nowadays in the field of education. Focusing on the cases of French-speaking Belgium and of the Franco-Ontarian community in Canada, we will show the existence of two discourses on multilingualism: one that insists on the positive value of multilingualism…

  10. Differentiated Financing of Schools in French-Speaking Belgium: Prospectives for Regulating a School Quasi-Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeuse, Marc; Derobertmasure, Antoine; Friant, Nathanael

    2010-01-01

    The school quasi-market in French-speaking Belgium is characterised by segregation. Efforts to apply measures that encourage greater social mixing have met with stiff resistance. In 2008 and 2009, turbulence was caused by the application of the "social mixing" law influencing the registration procedures. The purpose of this article is to present…

  11. Main Lines of Teaching Staff Policy in the Strategic Plan of the "Universite catholique de Louvain"--Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecquet, Ignace

    1993-01-01

    Characteristics of current faculty at Belgium's Catholic University of Louvain are outlined and faculty policy in the 1991-95 strategic plan is reviewed. Policies include early identification of shortages, keeping permanent scientific personnel on staff, replenishing the pool of future faculty, a new system for promotion, and development of…

  12. Records of mining Lepidoptera in Belgium with nine species new to the country (Nepticulidae, Opostegidae, Tischeriidae, Lyonetiidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Nieukerken, van, A.

    2006-01-01

    Records of 56 species of mining Lepidoptera are given, mostly for Wallonia. Stigmella thuringiaca (Namur: Nismes, on Potentilla tabernaemontani), Ectoedemia arcuatella (Luxembourg, Namur, on Fragaria vesca) and Leucoptera lustratella (Luxembourg, Namur, on Hypericum perforatum) are reported new for Belgium on the basis of reared adults, Stigmella crataegella (Luxembourg: Belvaux, Crataegus monogyna), S. confusella (West Vlaanderen, Betula pubescens), Trifurcula subnitidella (Namur: Nismes, Lo...

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of a Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus from a Novel Outbreak in Belgium, January 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição-Neto, Nádia; Christiaens, Isaura; Zeller, Mark; Desmarets, Lowiese M. B.; Roukaerts, Inge D. M.; Acar, Delphine D.; Heylen, Elisabeth; Matthijnssens, Jelle; Nauwynck, Hans J.

    2015-01-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a member of the family Coronaviridae and can cause severe outbreaks of diarrhea in piglets from different age groups. Here, we report the complete genome sequence (28,028 nt) of a PEDV strain isolated during a novel outbreak in Belgium. PMID:25999551

  14. Complete genome sequence of a porcine epidemic diarrhea virus from a novel outbreak in belgium, january 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Theuns, Sebastiaan; Conceição-Neto, Nádia; Christiaens, Isaura; Zeller, Mark; Desmarets, Lowiese M B; Inge D. M. Roukaerts; Acar, Delphine D; Heylen, Elisabeth; Matthijnssens, Jelle; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2015-01-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a member of the family Coronaviridae and can cause severe outbreaks of diarrhea in piglets from different age groups. Here, we report the complete genome sequence (28,028 nt) of a PEDV strain isolated during a novel outbreak in Belgium.

  15. Assessment of motor and process skills: assessing client work performance in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandamme, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to establish whether the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS) is an appropriate tool to evaluate the quality of work performance by comparing clients' results on the AMPS with the quality of the skills that they demonstrate on the shop floor. A convenience sample of chronically unemployed (vocationally disabled) participants (N=139) with no formal training who were seeking unskilled work through Jobcentrum West-Vlaanderen (West Flanders Job Centre, Belgium) was used. Results demonstrated that in 75.2% of cases the prediction of employment outcome was correct; it is suggested that an AMPS motor score process score employment, while a motor score > 3.1 and process score > 1.5 indicates that regular employment is a realistic goal. The quality of the motor skills measured by the AMPS and measured on the shop floor are comparable, but little similarity was found in the measurement of process skills. PMID:20164615

  16. Profiles and changes in stimulant use in Belgium in the period of 2011-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Been, Frederic; Lai, Foon Yin; Kinyua, Juliet; Covaci, Adrian; van Nuijs, Alexander L N

    2016-09-15

    Adapting illicit drug policy strategies requires detailed knowledge on types and amounts of substances consumed by the target population. In this study, we applied wastewater-based epidemiology to detect spatio-temporal changes in the relative amounts of stimulants (amphetamine, methamphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), cocaine) used in seven locations in Belgium over 2011-2015. Clear geographical differences were observed with stimulant users in large cities (Antwerp, Brussels) showing a preference for cocaine, while amphetamine use was most abundant in smaller cities (Geraardsbergen, Koksijde, Lier, Ninove, Ostend). Results obtained across õdifferent years revealed that the investigated substances had a stable share in the total amount of stimulants used, suggesting that habits of stimulant use remained constant, although differences in absolute amounts were observed across years. Investigation of the weekly pattern in stimulant use showed an increase in the use of MDMA on the weekends compared to cocaine and amphetamine. PMID:27251771

  17. Radium contamination of the Laak river banks as a consequence of phosphate industry in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For over half a century, phosphate ores of marine origin, containing 226Ra have been processed in Belgium to produce calcium phosphate for use in cattle food. As a result, the wastewaters contained 226Ra, which was discharged into two little rivers, one of which is the Laak. The purpose of this study was to chart the radium contamination of the river banks, and of some areas that are regularly flooded by the river. It was seen that enhanced concentration of 226Ra do occur along the river banks, but that the contaminated area is mostly confined to a 10 m strip on both sides of the river, even in the flooding zones. At present, no dwellings are present on top of the contamination, and no crops for direct human consumption are grown there, so there is no immediate threat to the population. (author)

  18. Outbreak of leptospirosis during a scout camp in the Luxembourg Belgian province, Belgium, summer 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, M; VAN Esbroeck, M; Depoorter, S; Decaluwe, W; Vandecasteele, S J; Fretin, D; Reynders, M

    2015-06-01

    An outbreak of leptospirosis occurred in the South of Belgium, during August 2012, in teenagers who participated in two consecutive adventure scout camps near the Semois river. Among the symptomatic patient population (ten scouts), clinical manifestations included headache (70%), myalgia (50%), fever (50%), bilateral conjunctival injection (50%), general malaise (30%), vomiting (20%), anorexia (20%) and cough (20%). Some of the cases presented elevated blood creatinine (40%), or proteinuria (30%). Three patients were confirmed by serology and one by polymerase chain reaction. Potential risk factors included direct contact with a muskrat and indirect contact with potentially contaminated environments including the river water. Prospective environmental investigation carried out near the river banks 2 weeks after the outbreak identified Ondatra zibethicus (muskrat) as one Leptospira sp. reservoir. PMID:25311398

  19. ROLES OF ENGOS IN NITRATE CONFLICT MANAGEMENT: CASE STUDY: THE NETHERLANDS AND FLANDERS, BELGIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Yanti Sulistiawati

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In developed countries, conflicts between environmental interests and agricultural emissions can not be avoided. Within the legal formal perspective, it is often assumed that all environmental conflicts are solved through the legal-formal system. In reality, however, the conflict between environmental concern and agricultural practices is complicated by wide variety of interests and mere legal formal approaches will not be adequate to solve them. This conflict as it relates to nitrate emissions will be referred to herein as the ‘nitrate conflict’. The role of civil society, in this case the Environmental Non-Governmental Organizations (ENGOs, are often neglected in the nitrate conflict management. This study will document and analyze nitrate con.ict management in the Netherlands and Flanders Belgium, on the roles of ENGOs regarding the issue. Moreover, the research will emphasize the important role of ENGOs in civic engagement in developing democratic and just environmental management.

  20. The Current Approach of Interface Issues in Spent Fuel Management in Belgium. Annex II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apart from the nuclear reactors operated by the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre of Mol, the first three Belgian NPPs started up in 1975, two of them on the Doel site, in the northern half of the country and one on the Tihange site, in the southern part. Four other NPPs were started up between 1982-1985, totaling 7 units, four on the Doel site and three on the Tihange site. All these units are operated by ELECTRABEL, the Belgian main electricity producer, owned by the French company GDF-SUEZ. A bried presentation of the other main stakeholders is provided since it is necessary for the understanding of the interfaces in the field of SF management in Belgium. The target of this paper is to show how those companies and agencies interact in the various faces of SF management and how possible issues are treated

  1. Econophysics of a religious cult: The Antoinists in Belgium [1920-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausloos, Marcel

    2012-06-01

    In the framework of applying econophysics ideas in religious topics, the finances of the Antoinist religious movement organised in Belgium between 1920 and 2000 are studied. The interest of investigating financial aspects of such a, sometimes called, sect stems in finding characteristics of conditions and mechanisms under which definitely growth and decay features of communities can be understood. The legally reported yearly income and expenses between 1920 and 2000 are studied. A three wave asymmetric regime is observed over a trend among marked fluctuations at times of crises. The data analysis leads to the proposition of a general mechanistic model taking into account an average GDP growth, oscillatory monetary inflation and a logistic population drift.

  2. Econophysics of a religious cult: the Antoinists in Belgium [1920-2000

    CERN Document Server

    Ausloos, Marcel R

    2012-01-01

    In the framework of applying econophysics ideas in religious topics, the finances of the Antoinist religious movement organized in Belgium between 1920 and 2000 are studied. The interest of investigating financial aspects of such a, sometimes called, sect stems in finding characteristics of conditions and mechanisms under which definitely growth AND decay features of communities can be understood. The legally reported yearly income and expenses between 1920 and 2000 are studied. A three wave asymmetric regime is observed over a trend among marked fluctuations at time of crises. The data analysis leads to propose a general mechanistic model taking into account an average GDP growth, an oscillatory monetary inflation and a logistic population drift.

  3. Spatial interpolation of ambient ozone concentrations from sparse monitoring points in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooyberghs, Jef; Mensink, Clemens; Dumont, Gerwin; Fierens, Frans

    2006-11-01

    Due to scientific interest on the one hand and political and regulatory obligations on the other hand the monitoring of ozone in the troposphere is an important issue. To this end, in Belgium as in many other countries, a fixed network of monitoring stations is operated. In order to estimate the ozone concentrations over the whole territory, a model is needed to spatially complement the sparse measurements. This paper describes the development of an interpolation scheme which is aimed at fast operational use. The model uses the population density as auxiliary data to remove a spatial trend due to titration by nitric oxide. The residuals are interpolated by kriging. As a benchmark the inverse distance weighting interpolation method is used with and without the detrending. The proposed model systematically improves the interpolation and makes a significant difference when estimating human exposure to ozone. It is generic in design, easy to implement and flexible to changes in the monitoring network. PMID:17075619

  4. The 39th CERN School of Computing goes to Belgium: apply now!

    CERN Multimedia

    Alberto Pace, CSC Director

    2016-01-01

    Applications are now open for CERN’s 39th School of Computing. The CSC:2016 (see here) will take place from 28 August to 10 September 2016 in Mol, Belgium, in collaboration with SCK•CEN and the Vrije Universiteit Brussel.   The two-week programme consists of more than 50 hours of lectures and hands-on exercises, all on advanced, interesting and challenging computing topics. It covers three main themes: data technologies, base technologies and physics computing. In particular, we will explore: Many-core performance optimisation Concurrent programming Key aspects of multi-threading Writing code for tomorrow’s hardware today Storage technologies, reliability and performance Cryptography, authentication, authorisation and accounting Data replication, caching, monitoring, alarms and quota Writing secure software Observing software with an attacker's eyes Software engineering for physics computing Statistical methods and pr...

  5. Healthcare professionals' perceptions toward interprofessional collaboration in palliative home care: a view from Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pype, Peter; Symons, Linda; Wens, Johan; Van den Eynden, Bart; Stess, Ann; Cherry, Gemma; Deveugele, Myriam

    2013-07-01

    There is a growing need for palliative care, with the majority of palliative patients preferring palliative home care from their general practitioner (GP). GPs join specialized palliative home care teams (PHCTs) to perform this task. GPs' views on this collaboration are not known. This study explores the perceptions and preferences of GPs toward interprofessional collaboration. By employing a grounded theory approach, five focus groups were conducted in Flanders, Belgium with a total of 29 participants (professionals from PHCTs; professionals from organizations who provide training and education in palliative care and GPs who are not connected to either of the aforementioned groups). Analysis revealed that GPs considered palliative home care as part of their job. Good relationships with patients and families were considered fundamental in the delivery of high quality care. Factors influencing effective interprofessional collaboration were team competences, team arrangements (responsibilities and task description) and communication. GPs' willingness to share responsibilities with equally competent team members requires further research. PMID:23181267

  6. Experience with the Implementation of Clinical Pharmacy Services and Processes in a University Hospital in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Annemie; Claus, Barbara; Vandewoude, Koen; Petrovic, Mirko

    2016-03-01

    This article summarizes the experience with the development of clinical pharmacy services in the Ghent University Hospital in Belgium. Implementation of clinical pharmacy services in Belgian hospitals has not been evident because these activities were initially not structurally financed. The aim is to describe the strengths and weaknesses of the clinical pharmacy development process, and the milestones that enhanced the progress. Furthermore, the organisation of clinical pharmacy in the Ghent University Hospital is explained, including back- and front-office activities, seamless pharmaceutical care and medication safety improvement. Some working methods, procedures and tools are explained for different clinical pharmacy services. In particular, the clinical pharmacy projects for geriatric patients as well as the preparation of clinical pharmacy services for the accreditation process are explained. We also reflect on the organisation model and the future development of clinical pharmacy, taking into consideration facilitators and potential barriers. PMID:26922733

  7. Belgium. Oil sector activities in 2012. Economic briefing note Nr 725 of the 6 December 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication proposes data tables and graphs on the evolutions since 2002: of general economic data for Belgium (currency, industrial production, GDP, foreign trade, road motor vehicle fleet); of primary energy production and consumption (globally and per energy source); of the oil sector activity (crude oil and semi-finished products, refined products); of crude oil imports (origins, average price), of imports and exports of refined products (per product type), and of the oil trade balance; of the refining activity (global refining capacity, capacity and production of oil refineries); of oil product consumption (evolution per product); of retailing (per brand); of oil product prices; of the natural gas sector (global imports, imports per origin, global exports, exports per destination)

  8. Can the 'Heuvelland' region of West Flanders, Belgium, be considered as a 'terroir' for wine making?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavernier, Emma; Verdoodt, Ann; Gabriels, Donald

    2015-04-01

    A 'terroir' can be defined as a group of vineyards from the same region, with the same type of soil, weather conditions, grapes and wine making. The 'Heuvelland' region with a surface are of 19 km² is situated in the Province of West Flanders, Belgium, bordering with France. The region comprises a number of hills (heuvels) on which a fast growing 'wine culture' is developing. Five different vineyards were selected from which soil samples were taken at different depths and locations on the slopes. The Belgian Soil Map, dating from the 1960's, illustrated 6 different soil types, but a detailed study on the soil particle size distribution (texture) enabled to distinguish more soil types in the vineyards. This leads to a 'tentative' conclusion that on the basis of 'soil type' the Heuvelland region cannot be considered as one unique 'terroir'.

  9. Should the "in situ" simulation become the new way in Belgium? Experience of an academic hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pospiech, A; Lois, F; Van Dyck, M; Kahn, D; De Kock, M

    2013-01-01

    The place of simulation in medical education, particularly in anesthesia, appears to be more and more evident. However, the history of simulation in Belgium showed that the associated costs remain a barrier. The use of 'in situ' simulation, defined as the practice of simulation in the usual workplace, could solve the problem of providing access to this educational tool. Indeed, it allows reducing equipment and manpower costs: the needed equipment comes from the hospital, and supervision and organization are provided by staff members. It also provides access to simulation for a larger number of individuals on site. The environment is more realistic because the participants operate in their usual workplace, with their customary equipment and team. Furthermore, 'in situ' simulation allows participation of the paramedical staff. This allows developing skills related to teamwork and communication. Despite those numerous advantages, several difficulties persist. The associated logistic and organizational constraints can be cumbersome. PMID:24605415

  10. Cultural Landscapes and Neolithisation Processes: Outline of a model for the Scheldt basin (Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick N. Robinson

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has indicated the continuation of a hunting-fishing-gathering way of life in the lower Scheldt basin (Belgium for over a millennium after the first arrival of agriculture in the middle Scheldt. Current evidence suggests multiple hiatuses in cultural change from the late 6th-late 5th millennium BC. This article provides the outline of a model that seeks to explain these hiatuses from the perspective of indigenous hunter-fisher-gatherer cultural landscapes. The outline investigates the significance of palaeoecological and social contexts in relation to contact and cultural transmission processes during the transition to agriculture. Recent ethnoarchaeological research from hunter-fisher-gatherers in temperate and boreal environments is referenced as a structural analogy for illuminating the important relationship between territoriality and social mediation within hunter-gatherer groups at the Mesolithic-Neolithic interface.

  11. Measuring personal exposure from 900MHz mobile phone base stations in Australia and Belgium using a novel personal distributed exposimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Chhavi Raj; Thielens, Arno; Redmayne, Mary; Abramson, Michael J; Billah, Baki; Sim, Malcolm R; Vermeulen, Roel; Martens, Luc; Joseph, Wout; Benke, Geza

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to: i) measure personal exposure in the Global System for Mobile communications (GSM) 900MHz downlink (DL) frequency band with two systems of exposimeters, a personal distributed exposimeter (PDE) and a pair of ExpoM-RFs, ii) compare the GSM 900MHz DL exposures across various microenvironments in Australia and Belgium, and iii) evaluate the correlation between the PDE and ExpoM-RFs measurements. Personal exposure data were collected using the PDE and two ExpoM-RFs simultaneously across 34 microenvironments (17 each in Australia and Belgium) located in urban, suburban and rural areas. Summary statistics of the electric field strengths (V/m) were computed and compared across similar microenvironments in Australia and Belgium. The personal exposures across urban microenvironments were higher than those in the rural or suburban microenvironments. Likewise, the exposure levels across the outdoor were higher than those for indoor microenvironments. The five highest median exposure levels were: city centre (0.248V/m), bus (0.124V/m), railway station (0.105V/m), mountain/forest (rural) (0.057V/m), and train (0.055V/m) [Australia]; and bicycle (urban) (0.238V/m), tram station (0.238V/m), city centre (0.156V/m), residential outdoor (urban) (0.139V/m) and park (0.124V/m) [Belgium]. Exposures in the GSM900 MHz frequency band across most of the microenvironments in Australia were significantly lower than the exposures across the microenvironments in Belgium. Overall correlations between the PDE and the ExpoM-RFs measurements were high. The measured exposure levels were far below the general public reference levels recommended in the guidelines of the ICNIRP and the ARPANSA. PMID:27136346

  12. Which transition comes first? Urban and demographic transitions in Belgium and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Bocquier

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several theories compete to explain the main drivers of urbanisation, past and present, in relation to both demographic transition and economic development. One hypothesis is that rural-to-urban migration is the driver of urbanisation; another is that urban mortality decline actually triggered urban transition. Objective: This paper reconsiders the relationship between demographic (vital migration and urban transitions by analysing the long-term contribution of natural and migratory movements to urban transition. The respective contributions of birth, death, and migration and their timing will indicate whether economic development, through labour force migration, or vital transition mainly determines urban transition. Methods: After examining the spatial dimension of the demographic transition theory, we use 19th and 20th century series on Sweden and Belgium to better identify the migration component of urban transition through the computation of growth difference between urban and rural areas, accounting for the often neglected reclassification effect. Results: In both Sweden and Belgium, migration is the direct or indirect (through reclassification engine of urban transition and its contribution precedes the onset of vital transition, while the vital transition has a secondary, unstable, and negative role in the urban transition. Conclusions: Changes in the economic sphere are reinstated as the underlying cause of population change, acting through the shift of human capital in space. Methodological consequences are then drawn for analysing vital and urban transitions in an increasingly interdependent world. Contribution: The paper contributes to the theoretical literature on urban and demographic transitions in relation to economic development. The proposed method evaluates migration contribution without having to measure it.

  13. House Sparrows Do Not Constitute a Significant Salmonella Typhimurium Reservoir across Urban Gradients in Flanders, Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouffaer, Lieze Oscar; Lens, Luc; Haesendonck, Roel; Teyssier, Aimeric; Hudin, Noraine Salleh; Strubbe, Diederik; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank; Martel, An

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades major declines in urban house sparrow (Passer domesticus) populations have been observed in north-western European cities, whereas suburban and rural house sparrow populations have remained relatively stable or are recovering from previous declines. Differential exposure to avian pathogens known to cause epidemics in house sparrows may in part explain this spatial pattern of declines. Here we investigate the potential effect of urbanization on the development of a bacterial pathogen reservoir in free-ranging house sparrows. This was achieved by comparing the prevalence of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Typhimurium in 364 apparently healthy house sparrows captured in urban, suburban and rural regions across Flanders, Belgium between September 2013 and March 2014. In addition 12 dead birds, received from bird rescue centers, were necropsied. The apparent absence of Salmonella Typhimurium in fecal samples of healthy birds, and the identification of only one house sparrow seropositive for Salmonella spp., suggests that during the winter of 2013–2014 these birds did not represent any considerable Salmonella Typhimurium reservoir in Belgium and thus may be considered naïve hosts, susceptible to clinical infection. This susceptibility is demonstrated by the isolation of two different Salmonella Typhimurium strains from two of the deceased house sparrows: one DT99, typically associated with disease in pigeons, and one DT195, previously associated with a passerine decline. The apparent absence (prevalence: <1.3%) of a reservoir in healthy house sparrows and the association of infection with clinical disease suggests that the impact of Salmonella Typhimurium on house sparrows is largely driven by the risk of exogenous exposure to pathogenic Salmonella Typhimurium strains. However, no inference could be made on a causal relationship between Salmonella infection and the observed house sparrow population declines. PMID:27168186

  14. Belgium's 'Comite de Controle de l'Electricite et du Gaz' and European cartel law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Comite de Controle de l'Electricite et du Gaz, was formed in 1955 from the three employee's unions, the employers association, as well as government officials and the national executives, and is responsible for the technical, economical and pricing policy control of the electricity and gas sectors. Among others, it fixes gas and electricity rates, controls rationalization of the gas and electricity sectors by the electricity supply companies (EVU) and gas supply companies (GVU) and examines the project lying of the renewue and the investments of the parties. Initially, the author describes the coming into being as well as the functions and the development of the Comite and illustrates the structure of the gas and electricity supply in Belgium. The crucial point of the investigation is the question whether the work of the Comite de Controle is in harmony with the European cartel law. First of all, there is a subsumption under Article 85, section 1 of the EEC Treaty and then in regard to the exemption provision in Article 90, Section 2 of the EEC Treaty or the exemption possibility pursnant to Article 85, Section 3 of the EEC Treaty, the author concludes that the work of the Comite de Controle is incompatible with the European cartel law. Among others, the dissertation includes comments on the application of the EEC Treaty to the energy sector, on the peculiarities of energy supply as well as a comparison of electricity and gas prices for households and industry in Belgium, France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and the Federal Republic of Germany. Furthermore, the author apports liberalization of the energy market and points out the advantages of free competition. (orig./HP)

  15. Reconstructing historical atmospheric mercury deposition in Western Europe using: Misten peat bog cores, Belgium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, Mohammed, E-mail: mallan@doct.ulg.ac.be [Argiles, Geochimie et Environnement sedimentaires, Departement de Geologie, Universite de Liege, Allee du 6 Aout B18 Sart Tilman B4000-Liege (Belgium); Le Roux, Gael [Universite de Toulouse, INP, UPS, EcoLab (Laboratoire Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Environnement), ENSAT, Avenue de l' Agrobiopole, 31326 Castanet Tolosan (France); CNRS, EcoLab, 31326 Castanet Tolosan (France); Sonke, Jeroen E. [Geosciences Environnement Toulouse, CNRS/IRD/Universite de Toulouse 3, 14 avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse (France); Piotrowska, Natalia [Department of Radioisotopes, GADAM Centre of Excellence, Institute of Physics, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice (Poland); Streel, Maurice [PPM, Departement de Geologie, Universite de Liege, Allee du 6 Aout B18 Sart Tilman B4000-Liege (Belgium); Fagel, Nathalie [Argiles, Geochimie et Environnement sedimentaires, Departement de Geologie, Universite de Liege, Allee du 6 Aout B18 Sart Tilman B4000-Liege (Belgium)

    2013-01-01

    Four sediment cores were collected in 2008 from the Misten ombrotrophic peat bog in the Northern part of the Hautes Fagnes Plateau in Belgium. Total mercury (Hg) concentrations were analyzed to investigate the intra-site variability in atmospheric Hg deposition over the past 1500 years. Mercury concentrations in the four cores ranged from 16 to 1100 {mu}g kg{sup -1}, with the maxima between 840 and 1100 {mu}g kg{sup -1}. A chronological framework was established using radiometric {sup 210}Pb and {sup 14}C dating of two cores (M1 and M4). Pollen horizons from these two cores were correlated with data from two additional cores, providing a consistent dating framework between all the sites. There was good agreement between atmospheric Hg accumulation rates in the four cores over time based on precise age dating and pollen chronosequences. The average Hg accumulation rate before the influence of human activities (from 500 to 1300 AD) was 1.8 {+-} 1 {mu}g m{sup -2} y{sup -1} (2SD). Maximum Hg accumulation rates ranged from 90 to 200 {mu}g m{sup -2} y{sup -1} between 1930 and 1980 AD. During the European-North American Industrial Revolution, the mean Hg accumulation rate exceeded the pre-Industrial values by a factor of 63. Based on comparisons with historical records of anthropogenic activities in Europe and Belgium, the predominant regional anthropogenic sources of Hg during and after the Industrial Revolution were coal burning and smelter Hg emissions. Mercury accumulation rates and chronologies in the Misten cores were consistent with those reported for other European peat records. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Study of Hg concentration in four cores from Belgian peat bog. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reconstruction of Hg deposition over last 1500 years. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Maximum Hg accumulation rates ranging from 90 to 200 {mu}g m{sup -2} y{sup -1} are recorded between 1930 and 1980 AD. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The average Hg

  16. Cité et territoire celtique à travers l'exemple du Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fichtl, Stephan

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available [es] El origen de las ciudades de Belgium (Bellovaci, Ambiarli y Atrebates se puede situar a fines del s. iv o comienzos del s. Ill a.C. Se vincula a la llegada de una nueva población que se instala en el Noroeste de la Galia, resultado de una migración negociada. Rápidamente, el territorio se estructura con la fundación de una primera serie de grandes santuarios: Gournay-sur-Aronde, Rubemont-sur-Ancre, Moeuvres. Esta organización del territorio necesitó para realizarse muchas décadas y no es hasta comienzos del s. II cuando comenzó a estabilizarse. La organización se apoya siempre en dichos santuarios cuyo papel seguirá siendo preponderante hasta la época de La Tène final, cuando los oppida no harán nada más que superponerse a estos sitios. [fr] L'origine des cités du Belgium (Bellovaques, Ambiens et Atrébates peut être placée à la fin du IVe s. ou au début du Ille s. av. J.-C. Elle est liée à l'arrivée d'une nouvelle population qui s'installe dans le nord-ouest de la Gaule suite à une migration négociée. Très rapidement le territoire se structure autour de la fondation d'une première série de grands sanctuaires: Gournay-sur-Aronde, Ribemont-sur-Ancre, Moeuvres. Cette organisation du territoire a nécessité plusieurs décennies et ce n'est qu'au début du IIe s. que le territoire commence à se stabiliser. L'organisation s'appuie toujours sur les sanctuaires dont le rôle restera encore prépondérant à La Tène finale, les oppida ne venant que se superposer à ces sites.

  17. Ground-penetrating radar research in Belgium: from developments to applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambot, Sébastien; Van Meirvenne, Marc; Craeye, Christophe

    2014-05-01

    Ground-penetrating radar research in Belgium spans a series of developments and applications, including mainly ultra wideband radar antenna design and optimization, non-destructive testing for the characterization of the electrical properties of soils and materials, and high-resolution subsurface imaging in agricultural engineering, archeology and transport infrastructures (e.g., road inspection and pipe detection). Security applications have also been the topic of active research for several years (i.e., landmine detection) and developments in forestry have recently been initiated (i.e., for root zone and tree trunk imaging and characterization). In particular, longstanding research has been devoted to the intrinsic modeling of antenna-medium systems for full-wave inversion, thereby providing an effective way for retrieving the electrical properties of soils and materials. Full-wave modeling is a prerequisite for benefiting from the full information contained in the radar data and is necessary to provide robust and accurate estimates of the properties of interest. Nevertheless, this has remained a major challenge in geophysics and electromagnetics for many years, mainly due to the complex interactions between the antennas and the media as well as to the significant computing resources that are usually required. Efforts have also been dedicated to the development of specific inversion strategies to cope with the complexity of the inverse problems usually dealt with as well as ill-posedness issues that arise from a lack of information in the radar data. To circumvent this last limitation, antenna arrays have been developed and modeled in order to provide additional information. Moreover, data fusion ways have been investigated, by mainly combining GPR data with electromagnetic induction complementary information in joint interpretation analyses and inversion procedures. Finally, inversions have been regularized by combining electromagnetics models together with soil

  18. Reconstructing historical atmospheric mercury deposition in Western Europe using: Misten peat bog cores, Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four sediment cores were collected in 2008 from the Misten ombrotrophic peat bog in the Northern part of the Hautes Fagnes Plateau in Belgium. Total mercury (Hg) concentrations were analyzed to investigate the intra-site variability in atmospheric Hg deposition over the past 1500 years. Mercury concentrations in the four cores ranged from 16 to 1100 μg kg−1, with the maxima between 840 and 1100 μg kg−1. A chronological framework was established using radiometric 210Pb and 14C dating of two cores (M1 and M4). Pollen horizons from these two cores were correlated with data from two additional cores, providing a consistent dating framework between all the sites. There was good agreement between atmospheric Hg accumulation rates in the four cores over time based on precise age dating and pollen chronosequences. The average Hg accumulation rate before the influence of human activities (from 500 to 1300 AD) was 1.8 ± 1 μg m−2 y−1 (2SD). Maximum Hg accumulation rates ranged from 90 to 200 μg m−2 y−1 between 1930 and 1980 AD. During the European–North American Industrial Revolution, the mean Hg accumulation rate exceeded the pre-Industrial values by a factor of 63. Based on comparisons with historical records of anthropogenic activities in Europe and Belgium, the predominant regional anthropogenic sources of Hg during and after the Industrial Revolution were coal burning and smelter Hg emissions. Mercury accumulation rates and chronologies in the Misten cores were consistent with those reported for other European peat records. -- Highlights: ► Study of Hg concentration in four cores from Belgian peat bog. ► Reconstruction of Hg deposition over last 1500 years. ► Maximum Hg accumulation rates ranging from 90 to 200 μg m−2 y−1 are recorded between 1930 and 1980 AD. ► The average Hg accumulation rate before the influence of human activities (e.g. 1300 AD) was 1.8 ± 1 μg m−2 y−1. ► The predominant anthropogenic Hg sources were coal

  19. [The development of the female labor force in Belgium: Part 1, trends from 1970 to 1977].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broerman, M

    1980-01-01

    In the 1st section, the evolution of the active female population in Belgium was examined as a function of some social and demographic variables. The comparisons made cover the period 1970-77. The evolution in the rate of female activity during these 2 dates was analyzed and it was found that participation of women in economic activities is increasing. This is a recent phenomenon despite the serious economic recession Belgium has been experiencing since 1974. On examination of the overall volume of females employed in the total labor force, it was noted that the female labor force grew much more than did the male labor force. This increase in female activity made it possible to maintain the general rate of activity in the country. With regard to unemployment, there is an enormous disparity between the number of unemployed males and females. There is a rapidly rising trend in the number of females unemployed. In 1979, the rate of female unemployment was 3 times the rate of that of males. This situation existed in spite of the fact that the level of education in unemployed women was found to be distinctly higher than that of unemployed men. This was especially true of women less than 25 years of age who form a particularly vulnerable group. The influence of age on the activity curve of women was also studied. Peaks in 1977 existed for those ages 20-29, an age during which women raise young children. This discovery is confirmed by the remarkable advance in the activity of married women, which although recent, has taken on spectacular proportions during the last decade. The declining age at marriage, decreasing fertility, a rising trend for women in 1977 to postpone their 1st birth, and the decrease in family size are all factors which only must be briefly analyzed to discover that women in 1977 are in better position to participate in the professional world. They thereby display a desire to arrive at independence through work in spite of the obstacles encountered in

  20. Divestiture or virtual power plants. The solution to the problem of the dominant producer? the case of Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Commission adopted the directive on 'the common rules for the creation of the internal electricity market' in 1996. After about ten years, it seems that in many smaller countries the historical producer remains dominant in the national market. This is the case for Belgium, where historical reasons and limited interconnection capacity resulted in a market share between 70 % and 80 % (depending on whether or not the interconnections are taken into account) for the historical producer Electrabel. Moreover, the wholesale margins seem to be higher in Belgium than e.g. in the Netherlands. Many argue that divestiture or additional Virtual Power Plants (VPP) might solve the problem. This paper argues that the efficiency of such solutions depends strongly on the specific context. It is shown that the existence of margins might be due to other causes than the abuse of market power and as a consequence that divestiture and VPP might not be the solution. (author)

  1. Belgium: Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes: FATF Recommendations for Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the Observance of Standards and Codes and Financial Action Task Force (FATF) Recommendations for Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism (AML/CFT) in Belgium. In Belgium, the financial intelligence unit (CTIF-CFI) has noted a shift in money laundering activities in recent years. It has emerged that the proportion of new cases involving layering operations and, to a lesser extent, integration, is on the rise. At the layering stage, the methods favore...

  2. Quality of pathology reporting is crucial for cancer care and registration: a baseline assessment for breast cancers diagnosed in Belgium in 2008

    OpenAIRE

    De Schutter, H.; Van Damme, N; Colpaert, C; Galant, Christine; K. Lambein; Cornelis, A; Neven, P.; Van Eycken, E

    2015-01-01

    Given the crucial role of pathology reporting in the management of breast cancers, we aimed to investigate the quality and variability of breast cancer pathology reporting in Belgium. Materials and methods: Detailed information on non-molecular and molecular parameters was retrieved from the pathology protocols available at the Belgian Cancer Registry for 10,007 breast cancers diagnosed in Belgium in 2008. Results: Substantial underreporting was shown for several clinically relevant non-molec...

  3. Rehabilitation within prison : a comparative study under the scope of prison reform and proposals of prison reform in Belgium and in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Resende, Cláudia

    2006-01-01

    Throughout this working paper, under the scope of Prison Reform and Proposals of Prison Reform in Belgium and in Portuguese Prison System, between the periods of 2004 up to 2006, one is driven by the inseparability of Rehabilitative philosophy with Harm Reduction strategies.Whether Belgium, whether Portugal strongly tend to believe that the rehabilitative rationale is a must once speaking of a custodial sentence. Alike, in both countries, it is up to the State to ensure Rehabilitation as an i...

  4. Euthanasia and other end of life decisions and care provided in final three months of life: nationwide retrospective study in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Block, Lieve; Deschepper, Reginald; Bilsen, Johan; Bossuyt, Nathalie; Van Casteren, Viviane; Deliens, Luc

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explore the relation between the care provided in the final three months of life and the prevalence and types of end of life decisions in Belgium. Design Two year nationwide retrospective study, 2005-6 (SENTI-MELC study). Setting Data collection via the sentinel network of general practitioners, an epidemiological surveillance system representative of all general practitioners in Belgium. Subjects 1690 non-sudden deaths in practices of the sentinel general practitioners. Main out...

  5. Effectiveness of injectable risperidone long-acting therapy for schizophrenia: data from the US, Spain, Australia, and Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macfadden Wayne

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because wide variations in mental health care utilization exist throughout the world, determining long-term effectiveness of psychotropic medications in a real-world setting would be beneficial to physicians and patients. The purpose of this analysis was to describe the effectiveness of injectable risperidone long-acting therapy (RLAT for schizophrenia across countries. Methods This was a pragmatic analysis of data from two prospective observational studies conducted in the US (Schizophrenia Outcomes Utilization Relapse and Clinical Evaluation [SOURCE]; ClinicalTrials.gov registration number for the SOURCE study: NCT00246194 and Spain, Australia, and Belgium (electronic Schizophrenia Treatment Adherence Registry [eSTAR]. Two separate analyses were performed to assess clinical improvement during the study and estimate psychiatric hospitalization rates before and after RLAT initiation. Clinical improvement was evaluated using the Clinical Global Impressions-Severity (CGI-S and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF scales, and change from baseline was evaluated using paired t tests. Psychiatric hospitalization rates were analyzed using incidence densities, and the bootstrap resampling method was used to examine differences between the pre-baseline and post-baseline periods. Results The initial sample comprised 3,069 patients (US, n = 532; Spain, n = 1,345; Australia, n = 784; and Belgium, n = 408. In all, 24 months of study participation, completed by 39.3% (n = 209, 62.7% (n = 843, 45.8% (n = 359, and 64.2% (n = 262 of patients from the US, Spain, Australia, and Belgium, respectively, were included in the clinical analysis. Improvements compared with baseline were observed on both clinical assessments across countries (P P P Conclusions RLAT in patients with schizophrenia was associated with improvements in clinical and functional outcomes and decreased hospitalization rates in the US, Spain, Australia, and Belgium, despite

  6. Happy pills in nursing homes in Belgium: A cohort study to determine prescribing patterns and relation to fall risk

    OpenAIRE

    Veronique Verhoeven, MD, PhD; Maja Lopez Hartmann, MScN (Master in Science of Nursing); Johan Wens, MD, PhD; Bernard Sabbe, MD, PhD; Peter Dieleman, MD; Giannoula Tsakitzidis, PT (Physical Therapist); Paul Van Royen, MD, PhD; Roy Remmen, MD, PhD

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mental problems are common in nursing homes, and the medical answer to these conditions is largely pharmacological. However, frail elderly people are particularly vulnerable to psychotropic-related adverse effects. This study documents the current use of psychotropics in Flemish nursing homes, and examines the relation to fall risk. Methods: This is a cohort study in 651 nursing home residents in 53 nursing homes in Flanders, Belgium. The use of antidepressants, anxiolytics, se...

  7. WHOQoL Psychological and employability skills among students at the universities of Luxembourg and Liege (Belgium).

    OpenAIRE

    Pelt, Véronique; J.f. Guillaume; Baumann, Michèle

    2009-01-01

    To analyse the relationships between a psychological quality of life and employability skills among first-year students of social sciences at the universities of Luxembourg and Belgium. Method. 84 students initially registered at bachelor professional (Faculty LSHASE), and 91 at bachelor academic (Institut SHS Liege) completed questionnaires. Results Scores for psychological WHOQoL (74.3 vs 63.9 Liege) and environmental WHOQoL (73.3 vs 68.4) were better among the Luxembourg student...

  8. Validation of the CAR II model for Flanders, Belgium; Validatie van het model CAR II voor Vlaanderen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marien, S.; Celis, D.; Roekens, E.

    2013-04-15

    In Flanders, Belgium, the CAR model (Calculation of Air pollution from Road traffic) for air quality along urban roads was recently extensively validated for NO2. More clarity has been gained about the quality and accuracy of this model [Dutch] In Vlaanderen is het CAR-model (Calculation of Air pollution from Road traffic) voor de luchtkwaliteit langs binnenstedelijke wegen onlangs uitvoerig gevalideerd voor NO2. Er is nu meer duidelijkheid over de kwaliteit en nauwkeurigheid van dit model.

  9. Activity-based modeling to predict spatial and temporal power demand of electric vehicles in flanders, Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Knapen L.; Kochan B.; Bellemans T.; Janssens D.; Wets G.

    2012-01-01

    Electric power demand for household-generated traffic was estimated as a function of time and space for the region of Flanders, Belgium. An activity-based model was used to predict traffic demand. Electric vehicle (EV) type and charger characteristics were determined on the basis of car ownership and on the assumption that the market shares of EV categories would be similar to the current ones for internal combustion engine vehicles published in government statistics. Charging opportunities a...

  10. Diplodia seriata, cause of black fruit rot in organically grown apples in Holland, Belgium and Northern Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Trapman, Marc; Maxin, Peter; Weber, Roland W. S.

    2008-01-01

    A fruit rot resembling Gloeosporium infections but appearing on fruits prior to harvest was noticed in organic apple orchards in Holland, Belgium and Northern Germany in 2007. Infections were most commonly observed on ‘Elstar’, but other cultivars were also affected. Fruit colonisation progressed in two steps, whereby a latent stage of sunken black lesions in immature fruits gave rise to a rapidly spreading firm brown rot upon fruit ripening. Isolation experiments from both sta...

  11. A zone-specific fish-based biotic index as a management tool for a temperate estuary (Zeeschelde, Belgium)

    OpenAIRE

    Breine, J.J.; Quataert, P.; STEVENS, M.; Ollevier, F. P; Volckaert, F.A.M.J.; Maes, J

    2009-01-01

    Fish-based indices monitor changes in surface waters and are invaluable to summarise complex information on the environment (Harrison & Whitfield, 2004). A Zone-specific fishbased multimetric Estuarine index of Biotic Integrity (Z-EBI) was developed based on a 13 year time series of fish surveys from the Zeeschelde estuary (Belgium). Sites were preclassified using indicators of anthropogenic impact. Metrics showing a monotone response with pressure classes were selected for further analysis. ...

  12. A Zone-Specific Fish-Based Biotic Index as a Management Tool for the Zeeschelde Estuary (Belgium)

    OpenAIRE

    Breine, Jan; Quataert, Paul; Stevens, Maarten; Ollevier, Frans; Volckaert, Filip; VAN DEN BERGH Ericia; MAES JOACHIM

    2010-01-01

    Fish-based indices monitor changes in surface waters and are a valuable aid in communication by summarising complex information about the environment (Harrison and Whitfield, 2004). A zone-specific fish-based multimetric estuarine index of biotic integrity (Z-EBI) was developed based on a 13 year time series of fish surveys from the Zeeschelde estuary (Belgium). Sites were pre-classified using indicators of anthropogenic impact. Metrics showing a monotone response with pressure cl...

  13. IRE (Institut National des Radioelements) site in Belgium. Report of in situ measurements and analyses performed for the RTBF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reports various analyses performed within the frame of the preparation and filming of a TV documentary on the Belgium National Institute of Radio-elements. It reports gamma radiation measurements performed at the vicinity of the institute, discusses the possible origin of its increase at the vicinity of the institute, analyses of sludge samples coming from a wastewater treatment works, and analyses of milk, cabbage, mosses and sediments collected by residents

  14. Combined landslide inventory and susceptibility assessment based on different mapping units: an example from the Flemish Ardennes, Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Eeckhaut, M.; Reichenbach, P.; Guzzetti, F.; Rossi, M.; J. Poesen

    2009-01-01

    For a 277 km2 study area in the Flemish Ardennes, Belgium, a landslide inventory and two landslide susceptibility zonations were combined to obtain an optimal landslide susceptibility assessment, in five classes. For the experiment, a regional landslide inventory, a 10 m × 10 m digital representation of topography, and lithological and soil hydrological information obtained from 1:50 000 scale maps, were exploited. In the study area, the regional inventory sho...

  15. Tax Evasion, Welfare Fraud, and "The Broken Windows" Effect: An Experiment in Belgium, France and the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Lefebvre, Mathieu; PESTIEAU, Pierre; Riedl, Arno; Villeval, Marie Claire

    2011-01-01

    In a series of experiments conducted in Belgium (Wallonia and Flanders), France and the Netherlands, we compare behavior regarding tax evasion and welfare dodging, with and without information about others' behavior. Subjects have to decide between a "registered" income, the realization of which will be known to the tax authority for sure, and an "unregistered" income that will only be known with some probability. This unregistered income comes from self-employment in the Tax treatment and fr...

  16. Tax evasion, welfare fraud, and 'the broken windows' effect: An experiment in Belgium, France and the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Lefèbvre, Mathieu; PESTIEAU, Pierre; Riedl, Arno; Villeval, MArie-Claire

    2011-01-01

    In a series of experiments conducted in Belgium (Wallonia and Flanders), France and the Netherlands, we compare behavior regarding tax evasion and welfare dodging, with and without information about others' behavior. Subjects have to decide between a 'registered' income, the realization of which will be known to the tax authority for sure, and an 'unregistered' income that will only be known with some probability. This unregistered income comes from self-employment in the Tax treatment and fr...

  17. Tax Evasion, Welfare Fraud, and "The Broken Windows" Effect: An Experiment in Belgium, France and the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Mathieu Lefebvre; Pierre Pestieau; Arno Riedl; Marie Claire Villeval

    2011-01-01

    In a series of experiments conducted in Belgium (Wallonia and Flanders), France and the Netherlands, we compare behavior regarding tax evasion and welfare dodging, with and without information about others’ behavior. Subjects have to decide between a 'registered' income, the realization of which will be known to the tax authority for sure, and an 'unregistered' income that will only be known with some probability. This unregistered income comes from self-employment in the Tax treatment and fr...

  18. Tax Evasion, Welfare Fraud, and ”The Broken Windows” Effect: An Experiment in Belgium, France and the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Lefebvre, Mathieu

    2011-01-01

    In a series of experiments conducted in Belgium (Wallonia and Flanders), France and the Netherlands, we compare behavior regarding tax evasion and welfare dodging, with and without information about others’ behavior. Subjects have to decide between a ‘registered’ income, the realization of which will be known to the tax authority for sure, and an ‘unregistered’ income that will only be known with some probability. This unregistered income comes from self-employment in the Tax treatme...

  19. Tax evasion, welfare fraud, and "the broken windows" effect: An experiment in Belgium, France and the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Lefèbvre, Mathieu; PESTIEAU, Pierre; Riedl, Arno; Villeval, Marie Claire

    2011-01-01

    In a series of experiments conducted in Belgium (Wallonia and Flanders), France and the Netherlands, we compare behavior regarding tax evasion and welfare dodging, with and without information about others' behavior. Subjects have to decide between a 'registered' income, the realization of which will be known to the tax authority for sure, and an 'unregistered' income that will only be known with some probability. This unregistered income comes from self-employment in the Tax treatment and fr...

  20. Tax Evasion, Welfare Fraud, and “the Broken Windows” Effect: An Experiment in Belgium, France and the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Lefebvre Mathieu; Pestieau Pierre; Riedl Arno; Villeval Marie Claire

    2011-01-01

    In a series of experiments conducted in Belgium (Wallonia and Flanders), France and theNetherlands, we compare behavior regarding tax evasion and welfare dodging, with and without information about others’ behavior. Subjects have to decide between a ‘registered’ income, the realization of which will be known to the tax authority for sure, and an ‘unregistered’ income that will only be known with some probability. This unregistered income comes from self-employment in the Tax treatment and fro...

  1. Tax Evasion, Welfare Fraud, and ”The Broken Windows” Effect: An Experiment in Belgium, France and the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Mathieu Lefebvre; Pierre Pestieau; Arno Riedl; Marie Claire Villeval

    2011-01-01

    In a series of experiments conducted in Belgium (Wallonia and Flanders), France and the Netherlands, we compare behavior regarding tax evasion and welfare dodging, with and without information about others’ behavior. Subjects have to decide between a ‘registered’ income, the realization of which will be known to the tax authority for sure, and an ‘unregistered’ income that will only be known with some probability. This unregistered income comes from self-employment in the Tax treatment and fr...

  2. Tax Evasion, Welfare Fraud, and "The Broken Windows" Effect: An Experiment in Belgium, France and the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Lefèbvre, Mathieu; PESTIEAU, Pierre; Riedl, Arno; Villeval, Marie Claire

    2011-01-01

    In a series of experiments conducted in Belgium (Wallonia and Flanders), France and the Netherlands, we compare behavior regarding tax evasion and welfare dodging, with and without information about others' behavior. Subjects have to decide between a 'registered' income, the realization of which will be known to the tax authority for sure, and an 'unregistered' income that will only be known with some probability. This unregistered income comes from self-employment in the Tax treatment and fr...

  3. High-resolution isotope stratigraphy of the Devonian-Carboniferous boundary in the Namur-Dinant Basin, Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Amy, K.; Poty, E.; Brand, U.

    2009-01-01

    The Devonian–Carboniferous (D–C) boundary sequence of the Namur–Dinant Basin in southern Belgium consists of marine platform carbonates. Global biostratigraphic correlation of the boundary has been a dilemma due to the absence of index conodont zones. Despite the scarcity of brachiopods, we managed to sample twenty-five calcitic shells from boundary beds at the Royseux-Gare section, to reconstruct biochemostratigraphic profiles of oxygen-, carbon- and strontium-isotopes for correlations with ...

  4. Combined landslide inventory and susceptibility assessment based on different mapping units: an example from the Flemish Ardennes, Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Eeckhaut, M.; P. Reichenbach; Guzzetti, F.; M. Rossi; Poesen, J.

    2009-01-01

    For a 277 km2 study area in the Flemish Ardennes, Belgium, a landslide inventory and two landslide susceptibility zonations were combined to obtain an optimal landslide susceptibility assessment, in five classes. For the experiment, a regional landslide inventory, a 10 m × 10 m digital representation of topography, and lithological and soil hydrological information obtained from 1:50 000 scale maps, were exploited. In the study area, the regional inventory shows 192 la...

  5. Combined landslide inventory and susceptibility assessment based on different mapping units: an example from the Flemish Ardennes, Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Van Den Eeckhaut, Miet; P. Reichenbach; Guzzetti, F.; M. Rossi; Poesen, Jean

    2009-01-01

    For a 277 km2 study area in the Flemish Ardennes, Belgium, a landslide inventory and two landslide susceptibility zonations were combined to obtain an optimal landslide susceptibility assessment, in five classes. For the experiment, a regional landslide inventory, a 10m×10m digital representation of topography, and lithological and soil hydrological information obtained from 1:50 000 scale maps, were exploited. In the study area, the regional inventory shows 192 landslides of the slide type, ...

  6. Novel foci of Dermacentor reticulatus ticks infected with Babesia canis and Babesia caballi in the Netherlands and in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Jongejan, Frans; Ringenier, Moniek; Putting, Michael; Berger, Laura; Burgers, Stefan; Kortekaas, Reinier; Lenssen, Jesse; van Roessel, Marleen; Wijnveld, Michiel; Madder, Maxime

    2015-01-01

    Background Autochthonous populations of Dermacentor reticulatus ticks in the Netherlands were discovered after fatal cases of babesiosis occurred in resident dogs in 2004. The presence of D. reticulatus in the Netherlands has also linked with the emergence of piroplasmosis in the resident horse population. The aim of this study was to put together results of continued surveillance of field sites and hosts for this tick in the Netherlands and also in Belgium and determine their infection statu...

  7. Growth and diagenesis of cryptalgal-bryozoan buildups within a Mid-Visean (Dinantian) cyclic sequence, Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Lauwers, S.

    1992-01-01

    Cryptalgal-bryozoan carbonate buildups are reported from the Middle Visean (Upper Dinantian) near Namur, Belgium. They occur in a 20 m-thick, upward-shallowing, carbonate rhythm - the thickest in a succession of such rhythms.The rhythm comprises three phases; from bottom to top: (1) packstones-grainstones with rich and diverse biota, indicating open, shallow marine conditions; grading to (2) wackestones, with a poorer and more restricted biota, passing upwards to cryptalgal boundstones; and(3...

  8. Lost transparency! Weathering phenomena on the archaeological window glass collection of the Cistercian Abbey of the Dunes - Koksijde (Belgium)

    OpenAIRE

    H. Wouters; Nuyts, G.; Cagno, S.; Minten, N.; Meulebroeck, W.; Baert, K.; Terryn, H.; Janssens, K.; Thienpont, H.; Nys, K.

    2012-01-01

    As far as Belgium and archaeological window glass is concerned, the most important site is the Dunes Abbey, a former Cistercian abbey near the Flemish coastline. The collection contains approximately 15,000 fragments dating from the 13th to the 16th century. This glass was exposed to atmospheric weathering while in situ for several hundred years, buried for up to 400 years, excavated by different individual excavators in different eras and for over half a century stored in uncontrolled condit...

  9. Three cases of Parafilaria bovicola infection in Belgium, and a few recent epidemiological observations on this emergent disease

    OpenAIRE

    Caron, Yannick; Groignet, Stéphanie; Saegerman, Claude; Losson, Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    Parafilariosis is a vector borne parasitic disease caused by the development of the nematode Parafilaria bovicola in the subcutaneous and intermuscular connective tissues of cattle. On February 28th 2012, the so-called bleeding spots were observed in two heifers and one bull in a cattle herd close to Namur (Belgium). The animals had been treated in December with an injectable ivermectin/closantel solution (Closamectin pour on®, Norbrook Lab) at the recommended dosage. Samples of serohaemorrha...

  10. Advance directives and physicians' orders in nursing home residents with dementia in Flanders, Belgium: prevalence and associated outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Vandervoort, An; Van den Block, Lieve; van der Steen, Jenny T; Vander Stichele, Robert; Bilsen, Johan; Deliens, Luc

    2012-01-01

    Background: Advance care planning (ACP) is an important element of high-quality care in nursing homes, especially for residents having dementia who are often incompetent in decision-making toward the end of life. The aim of this study was describe the prevalence of documented ACP among nursing home residents with dementia in Flanders, Belgium, and associated clinical characteristics and outcomes. Methods: All 594 nursing homes in Flanders were asked to participate in a retrospective cross...

  11. Assessing and Harmonizing Lying Deadwood Volume with Regional Forest Inventory Data in Wallonia (Southern Region of Belgium)

    OpenAIRE

    Ligot, Gauthier; Lejeune, Philippe; Rondeux, Jacques; Hebert, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Using lying deadwood or coarse woody debris (CWD) is on the rise among national and local forest inventories. We compared two generally recommended methods for lying deadwood: line intersect sampling and fixed area sampling. We assessed both methods in plots of the regional forest inventory of Wallonia (southern region of Belgium) and we developed bridging functions that converts CWD volume estimates to estimates that would have been obtained with different thresholds. Peer reviewed

  12. Venture capitalists, investment appraisal and accounting information: a comparative study of the US, UK, France, Belgium and Holland

    OpenAIRE

    Philippe Desbrières; Sophie Manigart; Koen De Waele; Mike Wright; Ken Robbie; Harry Sapienza; Amy Beekman

    1999-01-01

    The differences between the information used for the pre-investment valuation and the valuation methods used by venture capital investors in five countries (US, UK, France, Belgium and Holland) are empirically studied. The analysis is based on postal questionnaire surveys of representative samples of senior venture capitalists in each country. Differences are found, which may be attributed to the dominant corporate governance mechanism or the level of development of the venture capital market...

  13. Reporting of euthanasia in medical practice in Flanders, Belgium: cross sectional analysis of reported and unreported cases

    OpenAIRE

    Smets, Tinne; Bilsen, Johan; Cohen, Joachim; Rurup, Mette L.; Mortier, Freddy; Deliens, Luc

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the rate of reporting of euthanasia cases to the Federal Control and Evaluation Committee and to compare the characteristics of reported and unreported cases of euthanasia. Design Cross sectional analysis. Setting Flanders, Belgium. Participants A stratified at random sample was drawn of people who died between 1 June 2007 and 30 November 2007. The certifying physician of each death was sent a questionnaire on end of life decision making in the death concerned. Main out...

  14. Study of the feasibility of an aquifer storage and recovery system in a deep aquifer in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenbohede, A.; Van Houtte, E.; Lebbe, L.

    2008-01-01

    The feasibility of aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) was tested in a deep aquifer near Koksijde, Belgium. To achieve this, oxic drinking water was injected into a deep aquifer (the Tienen Formation) that contains anoxic brackish water. The hydraulic properties of the aquifer were determined using a step-drawdown test. Chemical processes caused by the injection of the water were studied by two push—pull tests. The step-drawdown test was interpreted by means of an inverse numerical model, resu...

  15. Anthropogenic impact on sediment composition and geochemistry in vertical overbank profiles of river alluvium from Belgium and Luxembourg

    OpenAIRE

    Swennen, R.; Van der Sluys, J.

    2002-01-01

    The geochemical study of alluvial sediments allows to reconstruct pollution through time. Geochemical and sedimentological variations recorded in 40 vertical overbank sediment profiles from Belgium and Luxembourg can be classified in three dominant pattern types: . type 1 profiles with dominantly non-anthropogenically influenced geochemical distribution patterns. These profiles are devoid of anthropogenic particles such as charcoal, plastic, brick and slag fragments, with the exception, in so...

  16. Predormancy omnivory in European cave bears evidenced by a dental microwear analysis of Ursus spelaeus from Goyet, Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Peigné, Stéphane; Goillot, Cyrielle; Germonpré, Mietje; Blondel, Cécile; Bignon, Olivier; Merceron, Gildas

    2009-01-01

    Previous morphological and isotopic studies indicate that Late Pleistocene cave bear (Ursus spelaeus) diet ranged from mostly vegetarian to omnivory or even carnivory. However, such analyses do not provide information on seasonal diets, and only provide an average record of diet. A dental microwear analysis of 43 young and adult individuals demonstrate that, during the predormancy period, cave bears from Goyet (Late Pleistocene, Belgium) were not strictly herbivorous, but had a mixed diet com...

  17. Increased detection of Aedes albopictus in Belgium: no overwintering yet, but an intervention strategy is still lacking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deblauwe, Isra; Demeulemeester, Julie; De Witte, Jacobus; Hendy, Adam; Sohier, Charlotte; Madder, Maxime

    2015-09-01

    In 2013 and 2014, routine surveillance for invasive mosquito species was implemented in Belgium at 13 potential points of entry. Following the introduction of Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse 1895) to Belgium via a used tyre import company (Vrasene, Province of East Flanders) in July 2013, one female and 17 larvae were collected outdoors during a period of intensive surveillance in summer and autumn 2013, but no control measures were implemented. Although climatic conditions were suitable during the winter of 2013-2014, this reproducing population did not overwinter. Lack of genetic variation, incomplete diapause adaptation and egg desiccation due to long dry periods during diapause or competition with endemic species are possible reasons. More studies on the diapause/longevity of Ae. albopictus eggs in northern temperate climatic conditions and on the competition with endemic species in western and central Europe are warranted to assess the potential for this invasive mosquito to overwinter. Furthermore, following the detection of four Ae. albopictus larvae in a shipment of lucky bamboo at the port of Antwerp in August 2014, one female, one male, 11 pupae and six larvae were collected at the destined lucky bamboo company (Lochristi, Province of East Flanders) in autumn 2014. In this case, immediate control measures were successfully implemented at the nursery. Because of increasing threats and the absence of an invasive mosquito species control policy in Belgium, the need for a permanent vector surveillance and control plan has never been so high. PMID:26113506

  18. Rotavirus vaccination coverage and adherence to recommended age among infants in Flanders (Belgium) in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braeckman, T; Theeten, H; Lernout, T; Hens, N; Roelants, M; Hoppenbrouwers, K; Van Damme, P

    2014-01-01

    In Belgium, rotavirus vaccination has been recommended and partially reimbursed since October 2006. Through a retrospective survey in 2012, we estimated the coverage rate of the rotavirus vaccination in Flanders among infants born in 2010. Using a standardised questionnaire, 874 families were interviewed at home, collecting information on demographic characteristics, socio-economic background and documented vaccination history (updated from medical files and vaccination database, if needed). Adherence to the recommended age for vaccination (8, 12 and 16 weeks) was also assessed. The coverage rate for two doses of rotavirus vaccination was 92.2% (95% confidence interval: 90.2-93.8). Respectively 31.7% and 10.1% of the children received their first and second dose at the recommended age. Incomplete vaccination was often a deliberate choice of the parents. Only eight children (1%) were vaccinated after the maximum age of 26 weeks. Factors identified by multiple logistic regression as related to incomplete vaccination were: living in the province of Antwerp, unemployed mother, and three or more older siblings in the household. Four years after introduction, the coverage rates were surprisingly high for a vaccine that is not fully reimbursed and not readily available in the vaccinator's fridge, which is the case for the other recommended infant vaccines. PMID:24871757

  19. The conditional returns to origin-country human capital among Turkish and Moroccan immigrants in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanas, Agnieszka; van Tubergen, Frank

    2014-07-01

    This study extends the analysis of the economic returns to pre-migration human capital by examining the role of the receiving context, co-ethnic residential concentration, and post-migration investments in human capital. It uses large-scale survey data on Turkish and Moroccan immigrants in Belgium. The analysis demonstrates that regarding employment, Moroccan immigrants, that is, those originating from former French colonies receive larger returns to their origin-country education and work experience in French- vs. Dutch-speaking regions. Other than the positive interaction effect between co-ethnic residential concentration and work experience on employment, there is little evidence that co-ethnic concentration increases the returns to origin-country human capital. Speaking the host-country language facilitates economic returns to origin-country work experience. Conversely, immigrants who acquire host-country credentials and work experience receive lower returns to origin-country education and experience, suggesting that, at least among low-skilled immigrants, pre- and post-migration human capital substitute rather than complement each other. PMID:24767595

  20. Holocaust or Benevolent Paternalism? Intergenerational Comparisons on Collective Memories and Emotions about Belgium's Colonial Past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Klein

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available After publication of Adam Hochschild's King Leopold's Ghost in 1998, asserting that King Leopold II had been responsible for a "holocaust" in the Congo and the heated public debate this provoked, we set out to study Belgian people's reactions to these accusations. In two studies we compared collective memories of and emotions associated with Belgium's colonial action in the Congo in different generations. Results show higher levels of collective guilt and support for reparative actions among young adults than among older generations. This difference can be explained either by referring to the different ideological backgrounds in which different generations were socialized, as evidenced by stark differences in collective memories of colonialism, or by referring to the influence of national identification. Indeed, people could adapt their representations of colonialism in order to avoid experiencing a social identity threat. However, evidence for the identity-protecting functions of collective memories and collective emotions was only found in the older generations: young people held negative representations of colonialism independently of their level of national identification. We refer to the normative dimension of collective guilt to interpret these results.

  1. Groundwater quality assessment of one former industrial site in Belgium using a TRIAD-like approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contaminated industrial sites are important sources of pollution and may result in ecotoxicological effects on terrestrial, aquatic and groundwater ecosystems. An effect-based approach to evaluate and assess pollution-induced degradation due to contaminated groundwater was carried out in this study. The new concept, referred to as 'Groundwater Quality TRIAD-like' (GwQT) approach, is adapted from classical TRIAD approaches. GwQT is based on measurements of chemical concentrations, laboratory toxicity tests and physico-chemical analyses. These components are combined in the GwQT using qualitative and quantitative (using zero to one subindices) integration approaches. The TRIAD approach is applied for the first time on groundwater from one former industrial site located in Belgium. This approach will allow the classification of sites into categories according to the degree of contaminant-induced degradation. This new concept is a starting point for groundwater characterization and is open for improvement and adjustment. - Highlights: → This study presents the first application of the TRIAD approach on groundwater system. → Groundwater Quality TRIAD-like approach is based on measurements of chemical concentrations, laboratory toxicity tests and physico-chemical analyses. → None of the three TRIAD components could reliably predict the other one. - This study presents the first application of the TRIAD approach on groundwater system. None of the TRIAD components (chemistry, physico-chemistry and ecotoxicity) could reliably predict the other one.

  2. The Pyrenean inversion phase in northern Belgium: an example of a relaxation inversion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckers, Jef; Vandenberghe, Noël; Lanckacker, Timothy; De Koninck, Roel

    2016-03-01

    The analysis of 2D seismic and well data provides new insights into the late Eocene to earliest Oligocene dynamics along the southern border of the North Sea area, Belgium. From the start of the Priabonian onwards, the northwestern part of the Campine Basin and the London-Brabant Massif to its west experienced subsidence and developed into a shallow trough. Simultaneously, several other southern North Sea basins, including the central and eastern part of the Campine Basin and the Roer Valley Graben, were inverted by what is generally referred to as the Pyrenean inversion phase. Inversion caused broad flexural uplift and minor reverse fault movements. The characteristics of inversions in the southern North Sea basins are very similar to each other and to those described for a phase of intraplate stress relaxation. The results of this study therefore suggest that the Pyrenean inversion phase was triggered by a regional stress relaxation that started around the Bartonian/Priabonian boundary and ended before the onset of the Oligocene.

  3. Paleoparasitological remains revealed by seven historic contexts from "Place d'Armes", Namur, Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gino Chaves da Rocha

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Human occupation for several centuries was recorded in the archaeological layers of "Place d'Armes", Namur, Belgium. Preventive archaeological excavations were carried out between 1996/1997 and seven historical strata were observed, from Gallo-Roman period up to Modern Times. Soil samples from cesspools, latrines, and structures-like were studied and revealed intestinal parasite eggs in the different archaeological contexts. Ascaris lumbricoides, A. suum, Trichuris trichiura, T. suis. Taenia sp., Fasciola hepatica, Diphyllobothrium sp., Capillaria sp. and Oxyuris equi eggs were found. Paleoparasitology confirmed the use of structures as latrines or cesspit as firstly supposed by the archaeologists. Medieval latrines were not only used for rejection of human excrements. The finding of Ascaris sp. and Trichuris sp. eggs may point to human's or wild swine's feces. Gallo-Roman people used to eat wild boar. Therefore, both A. suum and T. suis, or A. lumbricoides and T. trichuris, may be present, considering a swine carcass recovered into a cesspit. Careful sediment analysis may reveal its origin, although parasites of domestic animals can be found together with those of human's. Taenia sp. eggs identified in latrine samples indicate ingestion of uncooked beef with cysticercoid larvae. F. hepatica eggs suggest the ingestion of raw contaminated vegetables and Diphyllobothrium sp. eggs indicate contaminated fresh-water fish consumption. Ascaris sp. and Trichuris sp. eggs indicate fecal-oral infection by human and/or animal excrements.

  4. Status of fast breeder reactor development in the Federal Republic of Germany, Belgium and the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Problems of public acceptance of nuclear power have affected the development of fast breeder reactors in the Federal Republic of Germany. Besides cooperation with UK, USA and Japan, the most outstanding event in the field of international fast breeder cooperation was a set of the agreements between Germany and France. These agreements opened the possibility of joint fast breeder development by Germany together with Belgium and the Netherlands. Most activities on the site of Compact Sodium Cooled Nuclear Reactor KNK-II were concerned with commissioning of the plant and final construction work. Criticality was achieved in Oct. 1977 and low-power tests performed. This paper includes a description of the status of construction of SNR-300 reactor and the results of research and development programmes performed. These were concerned with fuel elements development and results of irradiation experiments; development of cladding materials and core element structural materials; interaction between fuel and cladding; sodium tests; development and verification of computer codes; experiments in fast critical assemblies; fast rector safety; core disruptive accidents; development of instrumentation; thermodynamics od fuel assemblies; fluid dynamics

  5. Status of Fast Breeder Reactor Development in the Federal Republic of Germany, Belgium and the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1967 and 1968, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Kingdom of Belgium and the Kingdom of the Netherlands (''DeBeNe'') agreed to develop breeder reactors in a joint program. The following research organizations have taken part in this effort: - Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK) - Interatom, Bergisch Gladbach Alkem, Hanau - SCK/CEN, Mol - Belgonucleaire, Brussels - ECN, Petten - TNO, Apeldoorn - Neratoom, The Hague. The first three institutions mentioned above have been associated in the Entwicklungsgemeinschaft Schneller Brüter since 1977. KfK, INTERATOM, and the French Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique entered into contracts in 1977 about close cooperation in the fast breeder field, to which the Belgian and Dutch partners acceded. The results of activities carried out by the DeBeNe partners in 1987 have been compiled in this report. The report begins with a survey of the fast reactor plants, which is followed by an R&D summary. In an additional chapter, a survey is given of international cooperation in 1987

  6. Statistics, gymnastics and the origins of sport science in Belgium (and Europe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delheye, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the introduction of statistics in the field of gymnastics and its effect on the institutionalisation of physical education as a fully fledged academic discipline. Soon after Belgian independence, Adolphe Quetelet's research already resulted in large-scale anthropometric statistics - indeed, he developed an index that is still being used and is better known under the name of the body mass index. His insights were applied by promoters of gymnastics who wanted to make physical education more scientific. Thus, Clément Lefébure, director of the Ecole Normale de Gymnastique et d'Escrime in Brussels, set up a comparative experiment (with pre- and post-test measurements) by which he intended to show that the 'rational' method of Swedish gymnastics produced much better results than the 'empirical' method of Belgian/German Turnen. Lefébure's experiment, which was cited internationally but which was also strongly contested by opponents, was one of the factors that led to Swedish gymnastics being officially institutionalised in 1908 at the newly founded Higher Institute of Physical Education of the State University of Ghent, the first institute in the world where students could obtain a doctoral degree in physical education. Although it rested actually on very weak scientific foundations, the bastion of Swedish gymnastics built in Belgium in that pre-war period collapsed only in the 1960s. From then on, sport science could develop fully within the institutes for physical education. PMID:24624946

  7. The Right Wing Parties Dynamic between the Economic and the Identity Discourse: Case study - Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela GOUDENHOOFT

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Latest developments of the global economic crisis but also the way people use to build their perception on their own identity brought interesting developments in the political sphere. Thus, Belgian right wings parties have amplified the identity discourse. Belgian political crisis is an interesting example in terms of political reconciliation. The problem became so acute that makes discussion on Belgian state dissolution/dividing to be almost trivial. Interrogation on problems like: should regionalization be a priority? Which will be the future of federal state concepts? It is the question about social solidarity or about autonomy and regional development? What kind of news can occur in institutional organization? The problem is not really the way the two communities (Flemish and Walloons can live together separately in a federation, each speaking its own language, building a separate culture, having own perception of things. The most difficult to manage is the problem of economic redistribution. This and no other disagreements made the issue of the Belgian state segregation to be worthy of discussion. Centrifugal dynamics that happen in Europe lately are signs of rethinking their identity. The idea of confederalism in the case study on Belgium appears to be a possible solution to the crisis problem and generate a new and radical reform of the state.

  8. External Quality Assessment for the Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in Urine Using Molecular Techniques in Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    China, Bernard; Vernelen, Kris

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a major cause of sexually transmitted bacterial disease worldwide. C. trachomatis is an intracellular bacterium and its growth in vitro requires cell culture facilities. The diagnosis is based on antigen detection and more recently on molecular nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAAT) that are considered fast, sensitive, and specific. In Belgium, External Quality Assessment (EQA) for the detection of C. trachomatis in urine by NAAT was introduced in 2008. From January 2008 to June 2012, nine surveys were organized. Fifty-eight laboratories participated in at least one survey. The EQA panels included positive and negative samples. The overall accuracy was 75.4%, the overall specificity was 97.6%, and the overall sensitivity was 71.4%. Two major issues were observed: the low sensitivity (45.3%) for the detection of low concentration samples and the incapacity of several methods to detect the Swedish variant of C. trachomatis. The reassuring point was that the overall proficiency of the Belgian laboratories tended to improve over time. PMID:26316982

  9. Unified phenology model with Bayesian calibration for several European species in Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Y. S. H.; Demarée, G.; Hamdi, R.; Deckmyn, A.; Deckmyn, G.; Janssens, I. A.

    2009-04-01

    Plant phenology is a good bio-indicator for climate change, and this has brought a significant increase of interest. Many kinds of phenology models have been developed to analyze and predict the phenological response to climate change, and those models have been summarized into one kind of unified model, which could be applied to different species and environments. In our study, we selected seven European woody plant species (Betula verrucosa, Quercus robur pedunculata, Fagus sylvatica, Fraxinus excelsior, Symphoricarpus racemosus, Aesculus hippocastanum, Robinia pseudoacacia) occurring in five sites distributed across Belgium. For those sites and tree species, phenological observations such as bud burst were available for the period 1956 - 2002. We also obtained regional downscaled climatic data for each of these sites, and combined both data sets to test the unified model. We used a Bayesian approach to generate distributions of model parameters from the observation data. In this poster presentation, we compare parameter distributions between different species and between different sites for individual species. The results of the unified model show a good agreement with the observations, except for Fagus sylvatica. The failure to reproduce the bud burst data for Fagus sylvatica suggest that the other factors not included in the unified model affect the phenology of this species. The parameter series show differences among species as we expected. However, they also differed strongly for the same species among sites.Further work should elucidate the mechanism that explains why model parameters differ among species and sites.

  10. The prevalence of nine genetic disorders in a dog population from Belgium, the Netherlands and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeckx, Bart J G; Coopman, Frank; Verhoeven, Geert E C; Van Haeringen, Wim; van de Goor, Leanne; Bosmans, Tim; Gielen, Ingrid; Saunders, Jimmy H; Soetaert, Sandra S A; Van Bree, Henri; Van Neste, Christophe; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Van Ryssen, Bernadette; Verelst, Elien; Van Steendam, Katleen; Deforce, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to screen a dog population from Belgium, the Netherlands and Germany for the presence of mutant alleles associated with hip dysplasia (HD), degenerative myelopathy (DM), exercise-induced collapse (EIC), neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis 4A (NCL), centronuclear myopathy (HMLR), mucopolysaccharidosis VII (MPS VII), myotonia congenita (MG), gangliosidosis (GM1) and muscular dystrophy (Duchenne type) (GRMD). Blood samples (K3EDTA) were collected for genotyping with Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR (n = 476). Allele and genotype frequencies were calculated in those breeds with at least 12 samples (n = 8). Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was tested. Genetic variation was identified for 4 out of 9 disorders: mutant alleles were found in 49, 15, 3 and 2 breeds for HD, DM, EIC and NCL respectively. Additionally, mutant alleles were identified in crossbreeds for both HD and EIC. For HD, DM, EIC and NCL mutant alleles were newly discovered in 43, 13, 2 and 1 breed(s), respectively. In 9, 2 and 1 breed(s) for DM, EIC and NCL respectively, the mutant allele was detected, but the respective disorder has not been reported in those breeds. For 5 disorders (HMLR, MPS VII, MG, GM1, GRMD), the mutant allele could not be identified in our population. For the other 4 disorders (HD, DM, EIC, NCL), prevalence of associated mutant alleles seems strongly breed dependent. Surprisingly, mutant alleles were found in many breeds where the disorder has not been reported to date. PMID:24069350

  11. Combined prevalence of inherited skeletal disorders in dog breeds in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coopman, F; Broeckx, B; Verelst, E; Deforce, D; Saunders, J; Duchateau, L; Verhoeven, G

    2014-01-01

    Canine hip dysplasia (CHD), canine elbow dysplasia (CED), and humeral head osteochondrosis (HHOC) are inherited traits with uneven incidence in dog breeds. Knowledge of the combined prevalence of these three disorders is necessary to estimate the effect of the currently applied breeding strategies, in order to improve the genetic health of the population. Official screening results of the Belgian National Committee for Inherited Skeletal Disorders (NCSID) revealed that an average of 31.8% (CHD, CED, or both; n = 1273 dogs) and 47.2% (CHD, CED, HHOC, or a combination of these three diseases; n = 250 dogs) of dogs are mildly to severely affected by at least one skeletal disorder. According to the current breeding recommendations in some dog breeds in Belgium, these animals should be restricted (mild signs) or excluded (moderate to severe signs) from breeding. The introduction of genetic parameters, such as estimated breeding values, might create a better approach to gradually reduce the incidence of these complex inherited joint disorders, without compromising genetic population health. PMID:25078710

  12. Pressure of non-professional use of pesticides on operators, aquatic organisms and bees in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fevery, Davina; Houbraken, Michael; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2016-04-15

    Various studies focus on professional pesticide use, whereas pressure of non-professional use on human and the environment is often neglected. In this study, an attempt was made to estimate the pressure of non-professional use of pesticides on operators, aquatic organisms and bees in Belgium based on sales figures and by using three exposure models. A classification in non-professional use was made based on type of pesticide, application method and on intensity of non-professional use. Pressure of non-professional use on operators is highest for intensive operators, caused by the use of insecticides in an aerosol spray can. Pressure of non-professional pesticides on aquatic life is mainly generated by the use of herbicides. The aerosol spray induces the highest pressure whereas the trigger application hardly affects operator and environmental exposure. The ordinary non-professional user generates most pressure on aquatic organisms. Pressure of non-professional pesticides on bees is mainly caused by the use of insecticides, especially the active substance imidacloprid in combination with the aerosol spray can application method applied by an intensive operator. In general, both total usage (kg) and pressure of pesticides decreased for the period 2005 to 2012 due to efforts made by the government and industry. The results of this study suggest to pay special attention to aerosol spray applications and the non-professional use of insecticides. PMID:26845187

  13. CSR Initiatives in two Higher Education Institutions from Belgium and Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent LAHAYE

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper reveals the strategic role of CSR in two higher education institutions from Belgium and Romania - ICHEC Brussels Management School and Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Galati as institutions which influence sustainable development, by proving their implications in training students as future responsible citizens. Our main goal of this study was not to realise a comparative analysis of CSR initiatives managed by these two faculties, as we focused our attention on the emphasis of the outcomes related to the CSR projects, in the context in which they were designed in a totally different manner. ICHEC Housing Project provides to the students from ICHEC Brussels Management School the experience of intercultural openness, making them take part of a social work and be conscious of the reality in three countries from South: India, Burkina Faso and Benin. Within the CSR workshop organized by Faculty of Economics and Business Administration from Galati, in partnership with a NGO and four participants from Turkey, Bulgaria, France and Austria helps the students to achieve and develop their skills related to the tools, methods and procedures which can be used in CSR operational management. The project aims at increasing the level of implication of citizens in the process of sustainable development. We are aware that each project described in this paper could be considered as a model and replicated by other higher education institutions from worldwide.

  14. Economic impact of decreasing stocking densities in broiler production in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verspecht, A; Vanhonacker, F; Verbeke, W; Zoons, J; Van Huylenbroeck, G

    2011-08-01

    Stocking density is a prominent topic in public debates on animal welfare and was one of the reasons for the European Commission to set limits to the stocking density on broiler farms. The objective of this paper was to calculate in detail the financial impact of changes in technical and management variables due to decreasing stocking densities in line with new European Union (EU) regulations. Therefore, the productive performance indicators such as BW, mortality, or feed conversion and farm technical data such as water consumption and heating of 3 independent experiments conducted at a poultry research station in Flanders (Belgium) were combined. Using the partial budget technique only those elements that change with stocking density have been taken into account. Reducing stocking density implies a recalculation of all costs on a reduced number of birds. This yields an economic situation that leaves hardly any profit margin for most of the broiler producers under the present market conditions. It was found that the critical threshold of stocking density for maintaining profitability under the present market and technical conditions is around 46 kg/m(2), thus well above the EU maximum of 42 kg/m(2). It is shown, however, that with changing broiler feed and meat prices, the impact might be less negative in economic terms. PMID:21753224

  15. Social Reform in Times of Transition. Reflections on Martin Conway’s The Sorrows of Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Wouters

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In his book The Sorrows of Belgium Martin Conway uses the Belgian case to look at the restoration of liberal parliamentary states in Europe between 1945 and 1947. Nico Wouters’ contribution focuses on three elements brought to the fore by Conway: 1 the essential yet ambivalent role played by local government (cities and municipalities, 2 the inability to institutionalise Belgian patriotism as binder for the nation-state and finally, 3 the rift between shifts in class relations and political institutional renewal. His contribution comments on each of these elements, by means of superficial comparisons with the Netherlands.As Conway shows, Belgium’s larger cities were laboratories for new political currents that in the end strengthened centrifugal, regionalist tendencies. On the other hand, the local level as an institutional part of state organisation had a reverse effect in the shorter term. The restoration after the liberation can only be understood when one takes into account how ‘local states’ imposed a compelling framework that limited the opportunities for political renewal. As such, Wouters hypothesises that these local states help to explain in part the institutional conservatism of Belgian elites, a core-element in Conway’s book. On this point Wouters sees mostly similarities with the Netherlands. A Belgian-Dutch difference on the other hand, is that the Dutch did succeed in seamlessly combining an equally conservative post-war restoration with restarting a revitalised collective national identity. Belgium’s failure in this regard was quite evident. Although it is obvious that by 1950 such a renewal had become impossible because of the Royal Question, it is still a question of the extent to which the Belgian state still had some leeway in 1945. The third and most important point is connected to the shifts in social class relations. This concerns mutual power relations, group identities, attitudes and political strategies. The

  16. The Hydrological response to climate change of the Lesse and the Vesdre catchments (Wallonia, Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bauwens

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Meuse is an important rain-fed river in North-Western Europe. Nine millions of people live in its catchment splited over five countries. Projected changes in precipitation and temperature characteristics due to climate change would have significant impact on the Meuse River and its tributaries. In this study, we focus on two tributaries of the Meuse in Belgium the Lesse and the Vesdre catchments. The physically based, distributed model EPICGrid, a model which reflects water-soil-plant continuum, is driven by four sets of meteorological information. Two time slices (2020–2050 and 2070–2100 and two scenarios (wet and dry were studied. The meteorological scenarios are produced by the CCI-HYDR Perturbation Tool, a tool specially designed for the Belgian climate and taking into account a broad range of models. Water balance, high-flows and low-flows are calculated. It highlights that towards the end of the century, plants may suffer from water shortage and excess. This may lead to a decrease in evapotranspiration and clear changes in water balances. The seasoning contrast in river discharge may be strongly accentuated.

  17. Paleoparasitological remains revealed by seven historic contexts from "Place d'Armes", Namur, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha, Gino Chaves; Harter-Lailheugue, Stephanie; Le Bailly, Matthieu; Araújo, Adauto; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; da Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maués; Bouchet, Françoise

    2006-12-01

    Human occupation for several centuries was recorded in the archaeological layers of "Place d'Armes", Namur, Belgium. Preventive archaeological excavations were carried out between 1996/1997 and seven historical strata were observed, from Gallo-Roman period up to Modern Times. Soil samples from cesspools, latrines, and structures-like were studied and revealed intestinal parasite eggs in the different archaeological contexts. Ascaris lumbricoides, A. suum, Trichuris trichiura, T. suis. Taenia sp., Fasciola hepatica, Diphyllobothrium sp., Capillaria sp. and Oxyuris equi eggs were found. Paleoparasitology confirmed the use of structures as latrines or cesspit as firstly supposed by the archaeologists. Medieval latrines were not only used for rejection of human excrements. The finding of Ascaris sp. and Trichuris sp. eggs may point to human's or wild swine's feces. Gallo-Roman people used to eat wild boar. Therefore, both A. suum and T. suis, or A. lumbricoides and T. trichuris, may be present, considering a swine carcass recovered into a cesspit. Careful sediment analysis may reveal its origin, although parasites of domestic animals can be found together with those of human's. Taenia sp. eggs identified in latrine samples indicate ingestion of uncooked beef with cysticercoid larvae. F. hepatica eggs suggest the ingestion of raw contaminated vegetables and Diphyllobothrium sp. eggs indicate contaminated fresh-water fish consumption. Ascaris sp. and Trichuris sp. eggs indicate fecal-oral infection by human and/or animal excrements. PMID:17308808

  18. Physician-assisted death: attitudes and practices of community pharmacists in East Flanders, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilsen, Johan; Bauwens, Marc; Bernheim, Jan; Stichele, Robert Vander; Deliens, Luc

    2005-03-01

    This study investigates attitudes and practices of community pharmacists with respect to physician-assisted death. Between 15 February and 15 April 2002, we sent anonymous mail questionnaires to 660 community pharmacists in the eastern province of Flanders, Belgium. The response rate was 54% (n = 359). Most of the pharmacists who responded felt that patients have the right to end their own life (73%), and that under certain conditions physicians may assist the patient in dying (euthanasia: 84%; physician-assisted suicide: 61%). Under the prevailing restrictive legislation, a quarter of the pharmacists were willing to dispense lethal drugs for euthanasia versus 86% if it were legalized, but only after being well informed by the physician. The respondents-favour guidelines for pharmacists drafted by their own professional organizations (95%), and enforced by legislation (90%) to ensure careful end-of-life practice. Over the last two years, 7.3% of the responding pharmacists have received a medical prescription for lethal drugs and 6.4% have actually dispensed them. So we can conclude that community pharmacists in East Flanders were not adverse to physician-assisted death, but their cooperation in dispensing lethal drugs was conditional on clinical information about the specific case and on protection by laws and professional guidelines. PMID:15810755

  19. Water displacement by sewer infrastructure in the Grote Nete catchment, Belgium, and its hydrological regime effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrebos, D.; Vansteenkiste, T.; Staes, J.; Willems, P.; Meire, P.

    2013-06-01

    Urbanization and especially impervious areas, in combination with wastewater treatment infrastructure, can exert several pressures on the hydrological cycle. These pressures were studied for the Grote Nete catchment in Belgium (8.18% impervious area and 3.89% effective impervious area), based on a combination of empirical and model-based approaches. The effective impervious area, combined with the extent of the wastewater collection regions which do not coincide with the natural catchment boundaries, was used as an indicator for the urbanization pressure. Our study revealed changes in the total upstream areas of the subcatchments between -16% and +3%, and in upstream impervious areas between -99% and +64%. These changes lead to important inter-catchment water transfers. Based on simulations with a physically-based and spatially-distributed hydrological catchment model, profound impacts of effective impervious area on infiltration and runoff were found. The model results show that the changes in impervious areas and related water displacements in and between catchments due to the installation of the wastewater treatment infrastructure severely impacted low flows, peak flows and seasonal trends. They moreover show that it is difficult, but of utmost importance, to incorporate these pressures and artificial processes in an accurate way during the development of hydrological models for urbanized catchments.

  20. Comparative antimicrobial activity of ceftibuten against multiply-resistant microorganisms from Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbist, L; Jacobs, J; Hens, K

    1991-01-01

    To study the activity of ceftibuten, we obtained multiply-resistant isolates from approximately 20 hospitals in Belgium. Against Enterobacteriaceae, all of the tested comparative compounds were more active than cefaclor, and ceftibuten and tigemonam were the most active of the agents tested. Ceftibuten MIC50s were less than or equal to 1 microgram/ml for most enteric bacilli species and 85% of strains were susceptible (less than or equal to 8 micrograms/ml). This level of activity compared favorably to that recorded for cefaclor (less than or equal to 8 micrograms/ml), cefetamet (less than or equal to 4 micrograms/ml), and cefteram (less than or equal to 1 microgram/ml), that is, 37%, 69%, and 59%, respectively. Ceftibuten, cefetamet, cefteram, and tigemonam were highly active against isolates of Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. None of the comparative agents were as active as cefaclor against staphylococcal isolates. Against streptococci, cefteram was the most active, and tigemonam the least active of the agents. The MIC90s of ceftibuten for strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes were 2 micrograms/ml and 0.5 microgram/ml, respectively. Strains of Streptococcus agalactiae were resistant to both ceftibuten and tigemonam; cefaclor and cefteram inhibited 100% of isolates of this species. Strains of Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were consistently resistant to all of the compounds. Overall, ceftibuten exhibited potent activity against many multiply-resistant clinical isolates. PMID:1901535

  1. Water displacement by sewer infrastructure in the Grote Nete catchment, Belgium, and its hydrological regime effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Vrebos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization and especially impervious areas, in combination with wastewater treatment infrastructure, can exert several pressures on the hydrological cycle. These pressures were studied for the Grote Nete catchment in Belgium (8.18% impervious area and 3.89% effective impervious area, based on a combination of empirical and model-based approaches. The effective impervious area, combined with the extent of the wastewater collection regions which do not coincide with the natural catchment boundaries, was used as an indicator for the urbanization pressure. Our study revealed changes in the total upstream areas of the subcatchments between −16% and +3%, and in upstream impervious areas between −99% and +64%. These changes lead to important inter-catchment water transfers. Based on simulations with a physically-based and spatially-distributed hydrological catchment model, profound impacts of effective impervious area on infiltration and runoff were found. The model results show that the changes in impervious areas and related water displacements in and between catchments due to the installation of the wastewater treatment infrastructure severely impacted low flows, peak flows and seasonal trends. They moreover show that it is difficult, but of utmost importance, to incorporate these pressures and artificial processes in an accurate way during the development of hydrological models for urbanized catchments.

  2. Small Business Marketing Capability in the Food Sector: The Cases of Belgium, Hungary and Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allesandro Banterle

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of thie paper is to assess the marketing management capabilities of SMEs producing traditional food products in the EU through thge development of a self-evaluation tool.SMEs represent the greater part of European food firms and they find it very difficult to adapt to market changes, and to compete with big enterprises. In this context, marketing management capabilities play a key role in good SME performance in the market. The self-evaluation tool is developed in the innovative form of an interactive questionnaire published on the web. At the moment, the sample is composed by 60 traditional food producers located in three member states (Belgium, Italy, and Hungary belonging to different sectors (cheese, beer, dry ham, sausage and white pepper. The data were analysed with cluster analysis. The results of the survey revealed that most of the firms analysed show weaknesses in marketing management capabilities. Nevertheless, cluster analysis pointed out a group of firms (22% of the sample with high performances in all the stages of marketing management process, which can be defined market oriented in terms of MARKOR approach. Most firms showed difficulties in analysing the competitive environment in which they operate, and in controlling the achievement of the marketing objectives. Moreover, the survey showed that, generally, micro sized firms perform worse than small and medium enterprises. Nevertheless, in some cases micro firms achieved high performances revealing that the firm size is not a so insuperable constraint to reach good results in marketing.

  3. [Cardiovascular disease prevention and health promotion in the French speaking community of Belgium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppieters, Y; Béduwé, C; Collignon, J L; Hubens, V; Levêque, A

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases remain the first cause of mortality in Belgium and are a priority for the Five-year program of health promotion in the French speaking Community. It is declined in operational programs by priority thematics, including the heart health. With this framework, it appeared necessary to operationalize cardiovascular priorities. A process of systemic and participative planning was set up in order to seek operational strategies and actions, and to cover the whole population and actors concerned with these health problems. The various cardiovascular risk factors, which potentiate one another, are approached together and in a global way. Upstream to the risk factors, social health determinants play an important role in cardiovascular diseases and others diseases like cancers. Tracking cardiovascular risk factors among people 30 to 75 years is also proposed. It makes it possible to identify people at risk and to put forward individual and adapted measures. The plan integrates actions of health promotion (acting on the health determinants and factors which influence them) as well as actions aiming at improving tracking and the accompaniment of the patients in secondary and tertiary prevention. Actions on health determinants and the factors influencing them present moreover the advantage of being often common to many chronic diseases. PMID:20687443

  4. Evaluation of long-term bedload virtual velocity in gravel-bed rivers (Ardenne, Belgium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houbrechts, Geoffrey; Levecq, Yannick; Peeters, Alexandre; Hallot, Eric; Van Campenhout, Jean; Denis, Anne-Cécile; Petit, François

    2015-12-01

    In many gravel-bed rivers, bed material transfer has been interrupted or perturbed by anthropogenic activities. Currently, restoration projects are being conducted in many countries in order to re-establish bedload continuity. However, until now, few studies have provided indications of the velocity of bed material over the long-term (at least decade to century time-scale). In the context of river restoration projects (e.g. weir removal, addition of spawning gravel), these data are nevertheless crucial to predict the downstream propagation of the geomorphological and biological benefits (e.g. supply-transport equilibrium, morphological and substratum diversity). In our study, PIT-tag tracers were used in eight medium-sized gravel-bed rivers (Ardenne Region, Belgium) to propose a flow competence relationship based on specific stream power, on the one hand, and to determine the long-term virtual velocity of the bed material corresponding to the median diameter (D50) of the surface layer of riffles, on the other hand. After each flow event that exceeded the threshold for sediment entrainment, tagged particles were sought and located, even when they were buried in the subsurface layer. Afterwards, all of the data were used to estimate the virtual velocity of the bed material over the long-term using three approaches. Finally, the results were compared with long-term transport estimations based on iron slag dispersed by the rivers since the end of the middle ages.

  5. The hydrogeology of the military inundation at the 1914-1918 Yser front (Belgium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbohede, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    Protection against flooding by the sea, drainage of rainwater and integrated management of groundwater and surface-water resources are key issues in low-lying coastal areas. However, under exceptional circumstances, knowledge to keep coastal areas dry and habitable can be used otherwise. Inundation for military purposes is such an example. The hydrogeology of the inundation at the Yser River, Belgium, during the Great War is studied. The inundation started in October 1914 to stop the German advance and lasted until 1918. A water balance and groundwater model are combined to derive the water balance before and during the inundation and to study the impact on the groundwater system. It is concluded that a number of hydrogeological factors contributed to the effectiveness of the inundation. Most importantly, the low-permeability subsoil facilitated loss of inundation water mainly by evaporation. Further, the normal water management strategy of the area (aimed at evacuating excess water towards the sea) was reversed to keep water between the opposing armies. However, the duration of the inundation meant a reorganization of the drainage of areas not inundated; truly an exercise in integrated water management.

  6. Research Reactors: Decommissioning of a Small Reactor (BR3 Reactor, Belgium). Appendix III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research reactors are nuclear reactors that serve primarily as source of neutrons. They are less complex than power reactors and operate at lower temperatures. Research reactors need far less fuel, and far less fission products build up as the fuel is used. On the other hand, their fuel requires more highly enriched uranium, typically up to 20% 235U. More than 650 research reactors worldwide have been built or are under construction or in a planning phase; of which more than 350 have been shut down and partly or wholly decommissioned. Experience has shown that decommissioning can be undertaken in line with safety standards aimed at protecting human beings or the environment from harm, provided that decommissioning activities are undertaken in accordance with a properly formulated plan. The potential or actual radiological hazards associated with reactors may require the application of special techniques and procedures during decommissioning. The decommissioning of the BR3 reactor in Mol, Belgium, Belgian nuclear research centre SCK•CEN, provides an example of current good practice in decommissioning research reactors.13 Since 1991, the organization’s statutory mission gives priority to research on problems of societal concern such as the safety of nuclear installations, radiation protection, safe treatment and disposal of radioactive waste, fighting against uncontrolled proliferation of fissile materials, and education and training. BR3 was the first European pressurized water reactor (PWR) power plant and was put into service in 1962. It was in that industrial context that the BR3 has played its role as a demonstration unit for the development and improvement of decommissioning related techniques. While the BR3 power level was low (40 MW(th), 10.5 MW(e) net), it contains all the features of commercial PWR power plants. The reactor was used at the beginning of its lifetime as a training facility for future nuclear power plant operators. Later, it was also used

  7. Model testing for the remediation assessment of a radium contaminated site in Olen, Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental assessment models are used as decision-aiding tools in the selection of remediation options for radioactively contaminated sites. In most cases, the effectiveness of the remedial actions in terms of dose savings cannot be demonstrated directly, but can be established with the help of environmental assessment models, through the assessment of future radiological impacts. It should be emphasized that, given the complexity of the processes involved and our current understanding of how they operate, these models are simplified descriptions of the behaviour of radionuclides in the environment and therefore imperfect. One way of testing and improving the reliability of the models is to compare their predictions with real data and/or the predictions of other models. Within the framework of the Remediation Assessment Working Group (RAWG) of the BIOMASS (BIOsphere Modelling and ASSessment) programme coordinated by IAEA, two scenarios were constructed and applied to test the reliability of environmental assessment models when remedial actions are involved. As a test site, an area of approximately 100 ha contaminated by the discharges of an old radium extraction plant in Olen (Belgium) has been considered. In the first scenario, a real situation was evaluated and model predictions were compared with measured data. In the second scenario the model predictions for specific hypothetical but realistic situations were compared. Most of the biosphere models were not developed to assess the performance of remedial actions and had to be modified for this purpose. It was demonstrated clearly that the modeller's experience and familiarity with the mathematical model, the site and with the scenario play a very important role in the outcome of the model calculations. More model testing studies, preferably for real situations, are needed in order to improve the models and modelling methods and to expand the areas in which the models are applicable

  8. The Variscan belt of Northern France Southern Belgium: geodynamic implications of new palaeomagnetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márton, Emő; Mansy, Jean-Louis; Averbuch, Olivier; Csontos, László

    2000-09-01

    Palaeomagnetic investigations were carried out in Devonian-early Carboniferous rocks of the Variscan foreland chain of Northern France-Southern Belgium in order to reveal the origin of its arcuate shape. The Brabant Parautochthon was sampled in the Boulonnais (near Calais) and near Tournai, while the Ardenne Allochthon was sampled near Maubeuge and in the Givet area. All the sampled localities yielded characteristic remanent magnetization as a result of stepwise demagnetization and component analysis. Fold or tilt tests were possible for three localities, with negative results indicating pervasive remagnetization. The tectonic position was sub-horizontal at two localities, while the tilt was monoclinal for the rest. Therefore, the acquisition time of the magnetic signals was estimated by comparing the palaeolatitude computed from each magnetic component to the palaeolatitudes of Variscan Europe calculated after Van der Voo (1993). Three components showing: A, a southern B, a near-Equatorial, and C, a northern palaeolatitude are recognized from our data. Since a pre-Variscan age of component A (observed only in Boulonnais, at 10 sites) is not supported by data, it is assigned to an early phase of deformation. Component B (16 sites) was acquired during the peak of the Variscan tectonics (late Westphalian), while component C (five sites) originated during Permian times. Regardless of the palaeolatitudes, declinations fall between 190 and 210°, thus being conformable with the declinations expected for Variscan Europe. The declinations show no correlation with the arcuate shape of the belt, neither are they different in the Paraauthochthon and in the Allochthon, nor in the different components. Arc formation by moulding of the Allochthon on the Brabant Parautochthon is, therefore, not supported by these data, since this mechanism requires substantial (opposed) rotations on both wings of the arc. The available palaeomagnetic data are conformable with a pre-formed arc

  9. Meteorological risks, impacts on crop production systems and agricultural insurances in Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobin, A.; Piccard, I.

    2012-04-01

    Devastating weather-related events recorded in recent years have captured the interest of the general public in Belgium. Extreme weather events such as droughts, heat stress, rain storms and floods are projected to increase both in frequency and magnitude with climate change. Since more than half of the Belgian territory is managed by the agricultural sector, extreme events have significant impacts on agro-ecosystem services and pose severe limitations to sustainable agricultural land management. The perspective of rising risk-exposure is exacerbated further by more limits to aid received for agricultural damage (amendments to EC Regulation 1857/2006) and an overall reduction of direct income support to farmers. Current knowledge gaps related to the occurrence of extreme events and the response of agro-ecosystems need to be addressed in conjunction with their vulnerability, resilience and adaptive possibilities. A chain of risks approach starts with assessing the likely frequency and magnitude of extreme meteorological events by means of probability density functions. Impacts are subsequently based on physically based models that provide information on the state of the damage at any given time and assist in understanding the links between different factors causing damage and in determining bio-physical vulnerability. The output of regional bio-physical models is compared with remote sensing based algorithms applied on SPOT-VGT temporal data. Crop damage and risk indicators are derived from remote sensing, meteorological records, crop modelling and agricultural statistics and compared to damage statistics obtained from the government-based agricultural disaster funds. Damages due to adverse meteorological events are strongly dependent on crop type, crop stage and soil type. Spatio-temporal indicators of drought during the growing season and waterlogging at harvest showed the highest agreement with damage, followed by hail and frost. In general potatoes, flax and

  10. The 3 December 1828 moderate earthquake at the border between Belgium and Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuts, Elisabeth; Camelbeeck, Thierry; Alexandre, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    On 3 December 1828 at half past six in the evening, the border region between Belgium and Germany was stricken by a moderate earthquake. Up to now, the available information on this event has been essentially provided by a few contemporaneous scientific studies. To better evaluate its impact, location and magnitude, we have searched for new original historical reports. We collected 57 additional witness testimonies, which complete those previously collected about the earthquake effects. Among the testimonies, we also retrieved a questionnaire sent by the Prussian government to local authorities with the purpose of quickly obtaining information on the earthquake effects in the western part of the kingdom of Prussia. This inquiry is the oldest of its kind that has been discovered to date in this part of Europe, suggesting a rare concern by a national authority about the seismic hazard, and prefiguring the seismic inquiries that scientific institutions use today. The analysis of these new data made it possible to evaluate the intensity in 50 cities out of the 75 where the earthquake was observed. From these intensity data, we determine that the epicentre was in the Hautes-Fagnes region [lat. 50.38°N/long. 6.19°E ± 30 km] where moderate damage, corresponding to EMS-98 intensity VI-VII, was observed. At large distances, the earthquake was felt as far as Düsseldorf to the north, Brussels to the west, Metz to the south and Wiesbaden to the east. These distances correspond to a perceptibility radius of about 150 km. The magnitude of this earthquake is evaluated to be ML = 4.7 (-0.2/+0.5) and MW = 4.2 (+0.4/-0.2).

  11. Effect of excavation induced fractures on radionuclide migration through the boom clay (Belgium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Belgium, the Boom Clay at a depth of 200 m below surface is being evaluated as a potential host formation for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste. In order to investigate this option, an underground research facility composed of two access shafts and a 200 m long gallery was excavated in the Boom Clay for research purposes (HADES-URF). Around the gallery, excavation induced fractures are observed. The majority of these fractures are approximately parallel planes with an average spacing of around 70 cm, a strike approximately perpendicular to the tunnel axis and a dip between 30 and 70 degrees. fracturing and self-sealing processes in Boom (and Opalinus) Clay were studied in the EC SELFRAC project (EC contract FIKW-CT2001-00182). The research performed in the framework of this project shows that the excavation induced fractures around the connecting gallery are limited to a zone of 1 m. This gallery was excavated using an industrial technique and with minimal radial convergence. Moreover self-sealing processes, which will further limit the influence of these fractures, have clearly been demonstrated in laboratory and in-situ experiments. The potential effect of these excavation induced fractures on the radionuclide migration through the clay is investigated in this study under the conservative assumption that no self-sealing occurs. A hydrogeological model of the clay is built with a radionuclide source in the middle of the clay surrounded by different fracture configurations. The radionuclide flux through the upper and lower boundaries of the clay into the surrounding aquifers is calculated and compared for different fracture configurations. (authors)

  12. Longitudinal study on morbidity and mortality in white veal calves in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardon Bart

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality and morbidity are hardly documented in the white veal industry, despite high levels of antimicrobial drug use and resistance. The objective of the present study was to determine the causes and epidemiology of morbidity and mortality in dairy, beef and crossbred white veal production. A total of 5853 calves, housed in 15 production cohorts, were followed during one production cycle. Causes of mortality were determined by necropsy. Morbidity was daily recorded by the producers. Results The total mortality risk was 5,3% and was significantly higher in beef veal production compared to dairy or crossbreds. The main causes of mortality were pneumonia (1.3% of the calves at risk, ruminal disorders (0.7%, idiopathic peritonitis (0.5%, enterotoxaemia (0.5% and enteritis (0.4%. Belgian Blue beef calves were more likely to die from pneumonia, enterotoxaemia and arthritis. Detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus at necropsy was associated with chronic pneumonia and pleuritis. Of the calves, 25.4% was treated individually and the morbidity rate was 1.66 cases per 1000 calf days at risk. The incidence rate of respiratory disease, diarrhea, arthritis and otitis was 0.95, 0.30, 0.11 and 0.07 cases per 1000 calf days at risk respectively. Morbidity peaked in the first three weeks after arrival and gradually declined towards the end of the production cycle. Conclusions The present study provided insights into the causes and epidemiology of morbidity and mortality in white veal calves in Belgium, housed in the most frequent housing system in Europe. The necropsy findings, identified risk periods and differences between production systems can guide both veterinarians and producers towards the most profitable and ethical preventive and therapeutic protocols.

  13. 40 years of experience in incineration of radioactive waste in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the very beginning of the nuclear activities in Belgium, the incineration of radioactive waste was chosen as a suitable technique for achieving an optimal volume reduction of the produced waste quantities; several R and D projects were realised in this specific field and different facilities were erected and operated. An experimental furnace ''Evence Coppee'' was built in 1960 for treatment of LLW produced by the Belgian Research Centre (SCK/CEN). Regularly this furnace has been modified, improved and equipped with additional installations to obtain better combustion conditions and a more efficient gas cleaning system. Based on the 35 years experience gained by the operation of the ''Evence Coppee'', a completely new industrial incineration installation has been designed in the nineties and commissioned in May 1995, in the frame of the erection of the Belgian Centralised Treatment/Conditioning Facility CILVA. At the end of 1998, the new furnace has burnt 455 tons of solid waste and 246 tons of liquid waste. Besides the conventional incineration process, a High Temperature Slagging Incinerator (HTSI) has been developed, constructed and operated for 10 years in the past. This installation was the combination of an incinerator and a melter producing melted granulated material instead of ashes, and provided experience in the incineration of hazardous waste, such as chlorinated organic compounds and waste with PCB content. The paper presents ''the Belgian Experience'' accumulated year after year with the design and the operation of the above mentioned facilities and demonstrates how the needs required today for a modern installation are met. The paper covers the following aspects; design particularities and description of the systems, operational results for different solid waste categories (bulk waste, precompacted waste, ion exchange resins) and for different liquid waste categories (organic, aqueous, oil), required pretreatment of the waste, ashes conditioning

  14. Determinants of the geographic distribution of Puumala virus and Lyme borreliosis infections in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tersago Katrien

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vector-borne and zoonotic diseases generally display clear spatial patterns due to different space-dependent factors. Land cover and land use influence disease transmission by controlling both the spatial distribution of vectors or hosts, and the probability of contact with susceptible human populations. The objective of this study was to combine environmental and socio-economic factors to explain the spatial distribution of two emerging human diseases in Belgium, Puumala virus (PUUV and Lyme borreliosis. Municipalities were taken as units of analysis. Results Negative binomial regressions including a correction for spatial endogeneity show that the spatial distribution of PUUV and Lyme borreliosis infections are associated with a combination of factors linked to the vector and host populations, to human behaviours, and to landscape attributes. Both diseases are associated with the presence of forests, which are the preferred habitat for vector or host populations. The PUUV infection risk is higher in remote forest areas, where the level of urbanisation is low, and among low-income populations. The Lyme borreliosis transmission risk is higher in mixed landscapes with forests and spatially dispersed houses, mostly in wealthy peri-urban areas. The spatial dependence resulting from a combination of endogenous and exogenous processes could be accounted for in the model on PUUV but not for Lyme borreliosis. Conclusion A large part of the spatial variation in disease risk can be explained by environmental and socio-economic factors. The two diseases not only are most prevalent in different regions but also affect different groups of people. Combining these two criteria may increase the efficiency of information campaigns through appropriate targeting.

  15. Homogenity of geological units with respect to the radon risk in the Walloon region of Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the process of mapping indoor radon risk, an important step is to define geological units well-correlated with indoor radon. The present paper examines this question for the Walloon region of Belgium, using a database of more than 18,000 indoor radon measurements. With a few exceptions like the Carboniferous (to be divided into Tournaisian, Visean and Namurian-Westphalian) and the Tertiary (in which all Series may be treated together), the Series/Epoch stratigraphic level is found to be the most appropriate geological unit to classify the radon risk. A further division according to the geological massif or region is necessary to define units with a reasonable uniformity of the radon risk. In particular, Paleozoic series from Cambrian to Devonian show strong differences between different massifs. Local hot-spots are also observed in the Brabant massif. Finally, 35 geological units are defined according to their radon risk, 6 of which still present a clear weak homogeneity. In the case of 4 of these units (Jurassic, Middle Devonian of Condroz and of Fagne-Famenne, Ordovician of the Stavelot massif) homogeneity is moderate, but the data are strongly inhomogeneous for Visean in Condroz and in the Brabant massif. The 35 geological units are used in an ANOVA analysis, to evaluate the part of indoor radon variability which can be attributed to geology. The result (15.4–17.7%) agrees with the values observed in the UK. - Highlights: • Indoor Radon risk mapping. • Classification of geological units with respect to their potential radon risk. • Improved division of geological units according to the geographical region

  16. Additional requirements for leak-before-break application to primary coolant piping in Belgium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roussel, G. [AIB Vincotte Nuclear, Brussels (Belgium)

    1997-04-01

    Leak-Before-Break (LBB) technology has not been applied in the first design of the seven Pressurized Water Reactors the Belgian utility is currently operating. The design basis of these plants required to consider the dynamic effects associated with the ruptures to be postulated in the high energy piping. The application of the LBB technology to the existing plants has been recently approved by the Belgian Safety Authorities but with a limitation to the primary coolant loop. LBB analysis has been initiated for the Doel 3 and Tihange 2 plants to allow the withdrawal of some of the reactor coolant pump snubbers at both plants and not reinstall some of the restraints after steam generator replacement at Doel 3. LBB analysis was also found beneficial to demonstrate the acceptability of the primary components and piping to the new conditions resulting from power uprating and stretch-out operation. LBB analysis has been subsequently performed on the primary coolant loop of the Tihange I plant and is currently being performed for the Doel 4 plant. Application of the LBB to the primary coolant loop is based in Belgium on the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission requirements. However the Belgian Safety Authorities required some additional analyses and put some restrictions on the benefits of the LBB analysis to maintain the global safety of the plant at a sufficient level. This paper develops the main steps of the safety evaluation performed by the Belgian Safety Authorities for accepting the application of the LBB technology to existing plants and summarizes the requirements asked for in addition to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission rules.

  17. Relationship between Fusarium spp. diversity and mycotoxin contents of mature grains in southern Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellin, Pierre; Dedeurwaerder, Géraldine; Duvivier, Maxime; Scauflaire, Jonathan; Huybrechts, Bart; Callebaut, Alfons; Munaut, Françoise; Legrève, Anne

    2016-07-01

    Over a 4-year period (2010-13), a survey aiming at determining the occurrence of Fusarium spp. and their relations to mycotoxins in mature grains took place in southern Belgium. The most prevalent species were F. graminearum, F. avenaceum, F. poae and F. culmorum, with large variations between years and locations. An even proportion of mating type found for F. avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. cerealis and F. tricinctum is usually a sign of ongoing sexual recombination. In contrast, an unbalanced proportion of mating type was found for F. poae and no MAT1-2 allele was present in the F. langsethiae population. Genetic chemotyping indicates a majority of deoxynivalenol (DON)-producing strains in F. culmorum (78%, all 3-ADON producers) and F. graminearum (95%, mostly 15-ADON producers), while all F. cerealis strains belong to the nivalenol (NIV) chemotype. Between 2011 and 2013, DON, NIV, enniatins (ENNs) and moniliformin (MON) were found in each field in various concentrations. By comparison, beauvericin (BEA) was scarcely detected and T-2 toxin, zearalenone and α- and β-zearalenols were never detected. Principal component analysis revealed correlations of DON with F. graminearum, ENNs and MON with F. avenaceum and NIV with F. culmorum, F. cerealis and F. poae. BEA was associated with the presence of F. tricinctum and, to a lesser extent, with the presence of F. poae. The use of genetic chemotype data revealed that DON concentrations were mostly influenced by DON-producing strains of F. graminearum and F. culmorum, whereas the concentrations of NIV were influenced by the number of NIV-producing strains of both species added to the number of F. cerealis and F. poae strains. This study emphasises the need to pay attention to less-studied Fusarium spp. for future Fusarium head blight management strategies, as they commonly co-occur in the field and are associated with a broad spectrum of mycotoxins. PMID:27181458

  18. A one year investigation of the occurrence of illicit drugs in wastewater from Brussels, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nuijs, Alexander L N; Mougel, Jean-François; Tarcomnicu, Isabela; Bervoets, Lieven; Blust, Ronny; Jorens, Philippe G; Neels, Hugo; Covaci, Adrian

    2011-04-01

    Daily 24 hour composite influent wastewater samples were collected from the wastewater treatment plant of Brussels-North (Belgium) for eight months to study variations in the concentrations and mass loads of nine illicit drugs and metabolites: cocaine (COC) and its metabolites benzoylecgonine (BE) and ecgonine methyl ester (EME), amphetamine (AMP), methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), methamphetamine (METH), methadone (MTD) and its metabolite 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP) and the specific metabolite of heroin, 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM). Samples were analyzed using a validated analytical method based on solid-phase extraction and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The selected compounds could be detected and quantified in all samples. The measured concentrations were in agreement with earlier published concentrations, when available. All illicit drugs showed significant differences in mass loads between months. Daily variations were observed for MDMA, AMP and COC and metabolites, with higher mass loads observed during the weekend. This is probably related to their recreational consumption pattern and was further confirmed when holiday periods (New Year's Eve, Belgian national holiday) were in detail investigated. For METH, 6-MAM, MTD and EDDP, stable and consistent amounts were observed during the week. In all samples, the ratio of the concentration of the parent compound to its metabolite(s) was calculated to evaluate whether measured concentrations reflect human excretion of the illicit drugs. For MTD, the ratio of parent compound/metabolite was in agreement with the excretion pattern, while for COC some deviations were observed, resulting from excretion pattern uncertainties, and stability and discharge issues. PMID:21331424

  19. Perception and Understanding of Invasive Alien Species Issues by Nature Conservation and Horticulture Professionals in Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhoeven, Sonia; Piqueray, Julien; Halford, Mathieu; Nulens, Greet; Vincke, Jan; Mahy, Grégory

    2011-03-01

    We conducted a survey to determine how two professional sectors in Belgium, horticulture professionals and nature reserve managers (those directly involved in conservation), view the issues associated with invasive plant species. We developed and utilized a questionnaire that addressed the themes of awareness, concept and use of language, availability of information, impacts and, finally, control and available solutions. Using co-inertia analyses, we tested to what extent the perception of invasive alien species (IAS) was dependent upon the perception of Nature in general. Only forty-two percent of respondent horticulture professionals and eighty-two percent of nature reserve managers had a general knowledge of IAS. Many individuals in both target groups nonetheless had an accurate understanding of the scientific issues. Our results therefore suggest that the manner in which individuals within the two groups view, or perceive, the IAS issue was more the result of lack of information than simply biased perceptions of target groups. Though IAS perceptions by the two groups diverged, they were on par with how they viewed Nature in general. The descriptions of IAS by participants converged with the ideas and concepts frequently found in the scientific literature. Both managers and horticulture professionals expressed a strong willingness to participate in programs designed to prevent the spread of, and damage caused by, IAS. Despite this, the continued commercial availability of many invasive species highlighted the necessity to use both mandatory and voluntary approaches to reduce their re-introduction and spread. The results of this study provide stakeholders and conservation managers with practical information on which communication and management strategies can be based.

  20. Engineering geological mapping in Wallonia (Belgium) : present state and recent computerized approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvoie, S.; Radu, J.-P.; Ruthy, I.; Charlier, R.

    2012-04-01

    An engineering geological map can be defined as a geological map with a generalized representation of all the components of a geological environment which are strongly required for spatial planning, design, construction and maintenance of civil engineering buildings. In Wallonia (Belgium) 24 engineering geological maps have been developed between the 70s and the 90s at 1/5,000 or 1/10,000 scale covering some areas of the most industrialized and urbanized cities (Liège, Charleroi and Mons). They were based on soil and subsoil data point (boring, drilling, penetration test, geophysical test, outcrop…). Some displayed data present the depth (with isoheights) or the thickness (with isopachs) of the different subsoil layers up to about 50 m depth. Information about geomechanical properties of each subsoil layer, useful for engineers and urban planners, is also synthesized. However, these maps were built up only on paper and progressively needed to be updated with new soil and subsoil data. The Public Service of Wallonia and the University of Liège have recently initiated a study to evaluate the feasibility to develop engineering geological mapping with a computerized approach. Numerous and various data (about soil and subsoil) are stored into a georelational database (the geotechnical database - using Access, Microsoft®). All the data are geographically referenced. The database is linked to a GIS project (using ArcGIS, ESRI®). Both the database and GIS project consist of a powerful tool for spatial data management and analysis. This approach involves a methodology using interpolation methods to update the previous maps and to extent the coverage to new areas. The location (x, y, z) of each subsoil layer is then computed from data point. The geomechanical data of these layers are synthesized in an explanatory booklet joined to maps.

  1. Variability in the hydraulic conductivity of the Boom clay in the Campine Basin, NE-Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In the framework the Belgian research program on the long term management of high-level and/or long-lived radioactive waste coordinated by ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Boom Clay has been investigated for more than 30 years as a candidate host formation for the disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive waste in Belgium. The very low hydraulic conductivity (on the order of 10-12 m/s) in combination with limited hydraulic gradients over the host formation (0.02 ∼ 0.04 m/m) results in water flow in the Boom Formation being negligible and diffusion the dominant transport mechanism. The assessment of the long-term barrier function of the host clay formation in the framework of radioactive waste disposal requires rigorous quantitative characterization of key formation properties such as the hydraulic conductivity (K). Hydraulic conductivities of Boom Clay measured through various testing techniques in the laboratory, i.e. tracer percolation experiments, constant head permeameter experiments and isostatic experiments, exhibit similar K values in the order of 10-12 m/s. Based on a large set of test samples, the impact of sample scale, hydraulic gradient range adopted in the tests, stress controlled methods and pre-existing fissures in the sample on the K value is shown to be quite limited. In situ measurements obtained from both several-centimetre long piezometer filters and percolation into a 7-metre long gallery and 21-meter long shaft at the HADES underground research facility yield K values that are very similar to values measured in the laboratory on samples of a few centimetres. This indicates that the K measurements for the Boom Clay obtained through various techniques are very consistent. K values measured on a centimetre-scale are also representative at the metre-scale, which is often the size of grid cells used in numerical simulations for long-term safety assessments. Spatial analysis of K values across the Boom

  2. Contribution of Chronic Conditions to the Disability Burden across Smoking Categories in Middle-Aged Adults, Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Renata Tiene de Carvalho; Nusselder, Wilma Johanna; Robine, Jean-Marie; Tafforeau, Jean; Deboosere, Patrick; Van Oyen, Herman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Smoking is considered the single most important preventable cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, contributing to increased incidence and severity of disabling conditions. The aim of this study was to assess the contribution of chronic conditions to the disability burden across smoking categories in middle-aged adults in Belgium. Methods Data from 10,224 individuals aged 40 to 60 years who participated in the 1997, 2001, 2004, or 2008 Health Interview Surveys in Belgium were used. Smoking status was defined as never, former (cessation ≥2 years), former (cessation <2 years), occasional light (<20 cigarettes/day), daily light, and daily heavy (≥20 cigarettes/day). To attribute disability to chronic conditions, binomial additive hazards models were fitted separately for each smoking category adjusted for gender, except for former (cessation <2 years) and occasional light smokers due to the small sample size. Results An increasing trend in the disability prevalence was observed across smoking categories in men (never = 4.8%, former (cessation ≥2 years) = 5.8%, daily light = 7.8%, daily heavy = 10.7%) and women (never = 7.6%, former (cessation ≥2 years) = 8.0%, daily light = 10.2%, daily heavy = 12.0%). Musculoskeletal conditions showed a substantial contribution to the disability burden in men and women across all smoking categories. Other important contributors were depression and cardiovascular diseases in never smokers; depression, chronic respiratory diseases, and diabetes in former smokers (cessation ≥2 years); chronic respiratory diseases, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases in daily light smokers; cardiovascular diseases and chronic respiratory diseases in men and depression and diabetes in women daily heavy smokers. Conclusions Beyond the well-known effect of smoking on mortality, our findings showed an increasing trend of the disability prevalence and different contributors to the disability burden across smoking categories. This

  3. Estimating Soil Organic Carbon stocks and uncertainties for the National inventory Report - a study case in Southern Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartin, Caroline; Stevens, Antoine; Kruger, Inken; Esther, Goidts; Carnol, Monique; van Wesemael, Bas

    2016-04-01

    As many other countries, Belgium complies with Annex I of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Belgium thus reports its annual greenhouse gas emissions in its national inventory report (NIR), with a distinction between emissions/sequestration in cropland and grassland (EU decision 529/2013). The CO2 fluxes are then based on changes in SOC stocks computed for each of these two types of landuse. These stocks are specified for each of the agricultural regions which correspond to areas with similar agricultural practices (rotations and/or livestock) and yield potentials. For Southern Belgium (Wallonia) consisting of ten agricultural regions, the Soil Monitoring Network (SMN) 'CARBOSOL' has been developed this last decade to survey the state of agricultural soils by quantifying SOC stocks and their evolution in a reasonable number of locations complying with the time and funds allocated. Unfortunately, the 592 points of the CARBOSOL network do not allow a representative and a sound estimation of SOC stocks and its uncertainties for the 20 possible combinations of land use/agricultural regions. Moreover, the SMN CARBIOSOL is based on a legacy database following a convenience scheme sampling strategy rather than a statistical scheme defined by design-based or model-based strategies. Here, we aim to both quantify SOC budgets (i.e., How much?) and spatialize SOC stocks (i.e., Where?) at regional scale (Southern Belgium) based on data from the SMN described above. To this end, we developed a computation procedure based on Digital Soil Mapping techniques and stochastic simulations (Monte-Carlo) allowing the estimation of multiple (10,000) independent spatialized datasets. This procedure accounts for the uncertainties associated to estimations of both i) SOC stock at the pixelscale and ii) parameters of the models. Based on these 10,000 individual realizations of the spatial model, mean SOC stocks and confidence intervals can be then computed at

  4. A critical review of laboratory and in-situ hydraulic conductivity measurements for the Boom Clay in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Li; Rogiers, Bart; Gedeon, Matej; Marivoet, Jan; De Craen, Mieke; Mallants, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    The Boom Clay has been investigated for more than 30 years as a candidate host formation for the disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive waste in Belgium. The very low hydraulic conductivity (on the order of 10− 12 m/s) in combination with limited hydraulic gradients over the host formation (0.02–0.04) results in water flow in the Boom Formation being negligible and diffusion the dominant transport mechanism. The assessment of the long-term barrier function of the host clay formatio...

  5. Proceedings from the second UEMS Conference on CME-CPD in Europe, 28 February 2014, Brussels, Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Simper, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Over a year since the implementation of the new UEMS-EACCME® accreditation criteria for Live Educational Events (LEEs), the second Union Européenne des Médecins Spécialistes (UEMS) Conference on continuing medical education and continuing professional development (CME-CPD) in Europe was a much anticipated event. The conference, which took place 28 February 2014 in Brussels, Belgium, provided an important opportunity for stakeholders to discuss and debate:The role of accreditation in CME-CPD, ...

  6. Identification of a novel plasmid-mediated colistin-resistance gene, mcr-2, in Escherichia coli, Belgium, June 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Basil Britto; Lammens, Christine; Ruhal, Rohit; Kumar-Singh, Samir; Butaye, Patrick; Goossens, Herman; Malhotra-Kumar, Surbhi

    2016-07-01

    We identified a novel plasmid-mediated colistin-resistance gene in porcine and bovine colistin-resistant Escherichia coli that did not contain mcr-1. The gene, termed mcr-2, a 1,617 bp phosphoethanolamine transferase harboured on an IncX4 plasmid, has 76.7% nucleotide identity to mcr-1. Prevalence of mcr-2 in porcine colistin-resistant E. coli (11/53) in Belgium was higher than that of mcr-1 (7/53). These data call for an immediate introduction of mcr-2 screening in ongoing molecular epidemiological surveillance of colistin-resistant Gram-negative pathogens. PMID:27416987

  7. Four perspectives of sustainability applied to the local food strategy of Ghent (Belgium): need for a cycle of democratic participation?

    OpenAIRE

    Maarten Crivits; Charlotte Prové; Thomas Block; Joost Dessein

    2016-01-01

    As part of cities’ increasing commitment to sustainable development, local food systems are becoming a policy priority. In this article we focus on the case of a local food system in Ghent, Belgium. We adopt the notion of Hajer et al. (2015) that top-down steering of environmental issues (so-called “cockpit-ism”) is insufficient, incomplete and in need of revision. Using their four perspectives on sustainable development (Hajer et al., 2015), we explore, analyze and valorize the potential of ...

  8. Age-based disparities in end-of-life decisions in Belgium: a population-based death certificate survey

    OpenAIRE

    Chambaere Kenneth; Rietjens Judith A C; Smets Tinne; Bilsen Johan; Deschepper Reginald; Pasman H Roeline W; Deliens Luc

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background A growing body of scientific research is suggesting that end-of-life care and decision making may differ between age groups and that elderly patients may be the most vulnerable to exclusion of due care at the end of life. This study investigates age-related disparities in the rate of end-of-life decisions with a possible or certain life shortening effect (ELDs) and in the preceding decision making process in Flanders, Belgium in 2007, where euthanasia was legalised in 2002...

  9. First molecular evidence of potentially zoonotic Babesia microti and Babesia sp. EU1 in Ixodes ricinus ticks in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Lempereur, Laetitia; De Cat, Ann; Caron, Yannick; Madder, Maxime; Claerebout, Edwin; Saegerman, Claude; Losson, Bertrand

    2011-01-01

    We report the first molecular evidence of the presence of Babesia sp. EU1 and Babesia microti in Ixodes ricinus ticks in Belgium. A 1-year national survey collected 1005 ticks from cats and dogs. A polymerase chain reaction technique amplifying a part of the 18S rRNA gene detected Babesia spp. in 11 out of 841 selected and validated tick extracts. Subsequent sequencing identified Ba. microti (n = 3) and Babesia sp. EU1 (n = 6). This study has demonstrated a low infection rate (1.31% with 95% ...

  10. A test of mowing and soil-removal restoration techniques in wet heaths of the High Ardenne, Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Jacquemart, Anne-Laure; Champluvier, Dominique; De Sloover, Jacques

    2003-01-01

    Vegetation restoration was attempted in four plots of a degraded wet heath overgrown by Molinia caerulea in High Ardenne (Belgium). Two treatments, mowing for two years and removal of the top 3-28 cm of peat, were applied in spring 1989. The vegetation was recorded in 1989 and 1998 using the Braun-Blanquet method. After nine years, the mowing treatment had relatively little effect on vegetation composition. We observed a 0-25 % decrease of Molinia cover and an increase of some heath species l...

  11. Energies and media nr 27. Conditions for the nuclear sector. Incidents this summer in France, Belgium and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After some comments on recent events in the nuclear sector (agreement between India and the USA, new programs in different countries, activity of French companies abroad), this issue comments the worrying accumulation of incidents which occurred in several French nuclear installations in France (notably on the Tricastin site). It comments the actions of the French nuclear safety authority (ASN), the incident classification, delays in public information, problems faced on fuel assemblies, the issue of subcontracting. Incidents which occurred in Belgium (leakage of radioactive iodine) and Germany (water in an ancient salt and potash mine) are also commented

  12. Consolidated progress report for 1975 on nuclear data activities outside the NDS service area: Austria, Belgium, Greece, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A consolidated progress report for 1975 on nuclear data activities in the following countries and institutes is presented: Austria: Atominstitut der Oesterreichischen Hochschulen, Vienna; Institut fuer Radiumforschung und Kernphysik; Oesterreichische Studiengesellschaft fuer Atomenergie, Seibersdorf; Gesellschaft zur Foerderung der Kernenergie, Graz; Belgium: University of Ghent, Ghent; University of Louvain, Louvain; Nuclear Energy Center, Mol; Greece: N.R.C. ''Demokritos'', Athens; Spain: Junta de Energia Nuclear, Madrid; Universidad Complutense, Madrid; Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid; Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Valencia; Universidad de Valladolid; Universidad de Zaragoza; Switzerland: University of Neuchatel, Neuchatel; University of Fribourg, Fribourg; University of Zuerich, Zuerich; Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zuerich; Institute for Reactor Research, Wuerenlingen; Turkey: Cekmece Nuclear Research Center, Istanbul

  13. Is Belgium Overshooting in its Policy Support to Cut the Cost of Capital of Renewable Sources of Energy ?

    OpenAIRE

    Estache, Antonio; Steichen, Anne-Sophie

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to document the differences in the cost of capital in Belgium across electricity generation companies, depending on whether they rely on traditional thermal sources or on RES. The average results are quite surprising and in sharp contrast with the results obtained for the UK or Germany by other researchersfor instancer. Comparing 3 main categories (renewable, non renewable and mixed), the Non-Renewable appear to have a lower CoC than the other in contrast to ...

  14. Risk analysis of the Amur sleeper Perccottus glenii:risk analysis report of non-native organisms in Belgium - update

    OpenAIRE

    Verreycken, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Executive summaryPROBABILITY OF ESTABLISHMENT AND SPREAD (EXPOSURE)Entry in Belgium It is very likely that Amur sleeper will enter Belgian waters in the near future if it were to be used as an aquarium fish. Especially fish transports from fish farms in infested areas (where Amur sleeper can be present as a stowaway) to local fish farms here may serve as an important entry pathway. From aquaculture ponds it may spread via escapes or through fish stocking activities.Establishment capacity Perc...

  15. Effectiveness of the introduction of a Chronic Care Model-based program for type 2 diabetes in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    De Maeseneer Jan; Vermeire Etienne; Verbeke Geert; Feyen Luc; Nobels Frank; Bastiaens Hilde; Sunaert Patricia; Willems Sara; De Sutter An

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background During a four-year action research project (2003-2007), a program targeting all type 2 diabetes patients was implemented in a well-defined geographical region in Belgium. The implementation of the program resulted in an increase of the overall Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (ACIC) score from 1.45 in 2003 to 5.5 in 2007. The aim of the follow-up study in 2008 was to assess the effect of the implementation of Chronic Care Model (CCM) elements on the quality of diabetes c...

  16. A pilot study on 25-hydroxyvitamin D status according to sun exposure in pregnant women in Antwerp, Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Vercruyssen, J.; Martin, M.; Jacquemyn, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Vitamin D deficiency in utero or early neonatal life may have a major impact on children’s health. Little is known on vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women in Belgium, non on the impact of wearing head and/or body cover. Objectives: This was a preliminary exploration of the vitamin D status in pregnant women visiting the antenatal clinic in the Antwerp University Hospital. Method: From August 1 2009 until November 30 2009 we systematically determined 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OH...

  17. Long-term DOC-leaching from a temperate Scots pine forest (Brasschaat, Belgium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielen, B.; Neirynck, J.; Janssens, I. A.

    2009-04-01

    The carbon and water balance of terrestrial ecosystems are tightly coupled. Part of the assimilated carbon is leached from the ecosystem as dissolved organic carbon (DOC). These DOC-fluxes from the ecosystem are highly uncertain and are not incorporated in most process-based models. Therefore the focus of this study is to determine the drivers of the interannual and seasonal variability of the DOC-leaching. The study site is located 20km NE of Antwerp, near Brasschaat (Belgium) and consists of an 80-year-old even aged Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand, which belongs to a larger mixed coniferous/deciduous forest and it is part of the ICP-II and Fluxnet/CarboEurope-IP networks since 1997. We simulated the different components of the water balance (transpiration, soil evaporation canopy evaporation, soil water content, runoff and leaching) with a combination of field measurements (sap flow, eddy covariance, TDR's) and the ORCHIDEE model. DOC concentrations were measured monthly in the trough fall and at four depths in the soil from the year 2000 onwards. Here we report estimates of DOC-leaching for a six year period (2000-2006) and assess its importance in the total carbon balance of the ecosystem. Results indicate that on average 10% of yearly NEE (as measured with eddy covariance measurements) is lost as DOC in the soil. We further looked at the drivers responsible for seasonal and interannual variation of the DOC-leaching. Logically, water leaching is the main driver of the DOC-leaching, for both the seasonal and the interannual variability. The remaining variation in the DOC leaching is affected by soil temperature and pH. DOC concentrations are highest in the upper soil layer and gradually decrease with depth. This could be explained by part of the DOC being respired as CO2 and part being retained in the soil matrix by Al and Fe-oxides adsorption. Future climate scenarios predict drier summer periods and more precipitation during the winter for the north

  18. Seismotectonic significance of the 2008-2010 Walloon Brabant seismic swarm in the Brabant Massif, Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Noten, Koen; Lecocq, Thomas; Shah, Anjana K.; Camelbeeck, Thierry

    2015-08-01

    Between 12 July 2008 and 18 January 2010 a seismic swarm occurred close to the town of Court-Saint-Etienne, 20 km SE of Brussels (Belgium). The Belgian network and a temporary seismic network covering the epicentral area established a seismic catalogue in which magnitude varies between ML -0.7 and ML 3.2. Based on waveform cross-correlation of co-located earthquakes, the spatial distribution of the hypocentre locations was improved considerably and shows a dense cluster displaying a 200 m-wide, 1.5-km long, NW-SE oriented fault structure at a depth range between 5 and 7 km, located in the Cambrian basement rocks of the Lower Palaeozoic Anglo-Brabant Massif. Waveform comparison of the largest events of the 2008-2010 swarm with an ML 4.0 event that occurred during swarm activity between 1953 and 1957 in the same region shows similar P- and S-wave arrivals at the Belgian Uccle seismic station. The geometry depicted by the hypocentral distribution is consistent with a nearly vertical, left-lateral strike-slip fault taking place in a current local WNW-ESE oriented local maximum horizontal stress field. To determine a relevant tectonic structure, a systematic matched filtering approach of aeromagnetic data, which can approximately locate isolated anomalies associated with hypocentral depths, has been applied. Matched filtering shows that the 2008-2010 seismic swarm occurred along a limited-sized fault which is situated in slaty, low-magnetic rocks of the Mousty Formation. The fault is bordered at both ends with obliquely oriented magnetic gradients. Whereas the NW end of the fault is structurally controlled, its SE end is controlled by a magnetic gradient representing an early-orogenic detachment fault separating the low-magnetic slaty Mousty Formation from the high-magnetic Tubize Formation. The seismic swarm is therefore interpreted as a sinistral reactivation of an inherited NW-SE oriented isolated fault in a weakened crust within the Cambrian core of the Brabant

  19. Achievements and projects in Belgium in the field of reactor shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four reactors are in operation in Belgium: the BR-1 and BR-2 which are research and materials testing reactors, the BR-3 which has a power output of 11 MW(e) and the BR-02 which is the nuclear mock-up of the BR-2. In 1965 the BR-3 will be operating on the spectral-shift principle. The VENUS reactor, the critical mock-up of the future BR-3 core, should commence operation in April 1964. By the end of 1964, the University of Ghent will have at its disposal a swimming-pool type reactor. The fast reactors MASURCA and HARMONIE were studied on behalf of the French Atomic Energy Commission and EURATOM. Most of these reactors raise no shielding problems other than the conventional ones. The VULCAIN prototype shield will be designed in accordance with the specifications characteristic of naval reactors, in which an optimization of volume, weight and cost is of primary interest. Study of these problems has begun. The radiation damage of the BR-3 pressure vessel is a problem when equipped with the future spectral-shift core. The level and spectrum of neutron irradiation will be experimentally determined in the VENUS facility. All shielding studies were carried out by conventional methods and in no case was any research project, either experimental or theoretical, undertaken along these lines. Works were accepted on the basis of their practical utility and no specific experiment for the verification of the theoretical studies was ever carried out. Among the main theoretical problems encountered in shielding design, the following should be cited: Gamma and neutron attenuation along straight and stepped ducts; Back-scattering of gammas and neutrons from air (skyshine), solid and liquid materials, and shielding of the reflected radiations; Gamma and neutron propagation at long distance in air; Capture gamma spectra as a function of the energy of the incident neutron; and Gamma radiations from neutron inelastic scattering. In conjunction with a Ferranti-Mercury computer, the

  20. Euthanasia and other end-of-life decisions: a mortality follow-back study in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bossuyt Nathalie

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study compares prevalence and types of medical end-of-life decisions between the Dutch-speaking and French-speaking communities of Belgium. This is the first nationwide study that can make these comparisons and the first measurement after implementation of the euthanasia law (2002. Methods We performed a mortality follow-back study in 2005–2006. Data were collected via the nationwide Sentinel Network of General Practitioners, an epidemiological surveillance system representative of all Belgian GPs. Weekly, all GPs reported the medical end-of-life decisions among all non-sudden deaths of patients in their practice. We compared the northern Dutch-speaking (60% and southern French-speaking communities (40% controlling for population differences. Results We analysed 1690 non-sudden deaths. An end-of-life decision with possible life-shortening effect was made in 50% of patients in the Dutch-speaking community and 41% of patients in the French-speaking community (OR 1.4; 95%CI, 1.2 to 1.8. Continuous deep sedation until death occurred in 8% and 15% respectively (OR 0.5; 95%CI, 0.4 to 0.7. Community differences regarding the prevalence of euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide were not significant. Community differences were more present among home/care home than among hospital deaths: non-treatment decisions with explicit life-shortening intention were made more often in the Dutch-speaking than in the French-speaking community settings (OR 2.2; 95%CI, 1.2 to 3.9; while continuous deep sedation occurred less often in the Dutch-speaking community settings (OR 0.5; 95%CI, 0.3 to 0.9. Conclusion Even though legal and general healthcare systems are the same for the whole country, there are considerable variations between the communities in type and prevalence of certain end-of-life decisions, even after controlling for population differences.

  1. Air permeametry on outcrop analogues: a composite image of the Neogene aquifer, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogiers, B.; Beerten, K.; Smekens, T.; Huysmans, M.; Gedeon, M.; Mallants, D.; Batelaan, O.; Dassargues, A.

    2012-04-01

    Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) is one of the most important parameters determining groundwater flow and contaminant transport in both unsaturated and saturated porous media. While several well-established laboratory methods exist for determining Ks, in-situ measurements of this parameter remain very complex. Since the 50's, and increasingly from the late 80's, air permeameters are being used effectively as an indirect method to determine Ks on outcrop sediments. In this paper, the heterogeneity within outcrop sediments that are analogues for the Neogene aquifer hydrostratigraphic units in northern Belgium is studied with a hand-held air permeameter. This aquifer, representing a major groundwater source, consists of several sandy geological units from Miocene to Pleistocene age with a marine to continental origin. Moreover, it plays an important role in the Belgian deep geological radwaste disposal studies, and is the subject of a safety assessment for a future low-level radwaste surface repository. To characterise the variability between and within the different lithostratigraphical aquifer units, 804 air permeability measurements at cm-scale were performed on several outcrops that are analogues for the sandy aquifer sediments and a highly heterogeneous aquitard. Equivalent meter-scale Ks tensors were calculated numerically through the law of flow conservation to obtain the vertical anisotropy factor. The off-diagonal tensor components were shown to be negligible. To validate the air permeametry data, 18 additional constant head permeameter tests on 100 cm3 cores and 27 grain size analyses based Ks assessments were performed on outcrop material. The comparison indicates that hand-held air permeameters are very effective and useful tools to characterise the magnitude of hydraulic conductivity, as well as it's small-scale variability and anisotropy, on a broad range of sediment types. However, a comparison with data from a previous borehole campaign on similar

  2. Environmental Soil Remediation: Communication with the Public in Flanders, Belgium. Annex I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    industry still tends to use expert language and is very nuclear power plant oriented; therefore, communication with the public and professionals in non-nuclear fields is a developing and improving area. In the context of this IAEA initiative, where communication about environmental remediation (ER) is investigated, the example of Belgian industrial soil remediation is described. The IAEA is convinced that Member States can learn from this experience, as there are many parallels with the ER of radioactively contaminated sites. This is especially the case in Belgium, where this type of soil pollution usually occurs together with other, chemical industrial pollution

  3. More safety for emergency diesel engines for the Belgium nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Each nuclear plant in Belgium is equipped with a series of ultimate power supply (UPS) units, also called emergency power units. These consist of generators driven by multi-cylinder (typically 18) diesel engines, which are marine derivatives. Unlike marine applications, the steady-state load does not produce pulsating torques. However, these diesel engines are designed to start upon short notice following a blackout and reach full power within a few seconds to guarantee the availability or all safety valves and ventilators. Such sharp and quasi-cold starts, periodically performed to guarantee the UPS availability, may spell utter failures of the crank shaft, as demonstrated by a fatigue failure observed on the fillets connecting the crank pin to the web faces. The fillet cracks initiate in bending mode and then progress in torsion mode to excessive transient torques arising in the power train during successive starts. Aware of the potential risk and conforming to the Belgian nuclear safety rules, the plant operator of Doel sponsored the development of a nondestructive technique enabling the inspection of each fillet for cracks without first removing each piston rod from its crank pin. As a result, Laborelec developed a specific eddy-current probe which avoids fully dismantling the engine, as is done during ten-yearly overhauls with dye-checks for cracks. Inspecting crank shaft fillet integrity with this least obtrusive technique requires 24 hours per engine. It can thus be performed more frequently to prevent total crank shaft failures in time and monitor the engine fatigue caused following the mandatory monthly start-up tests. This promising technique may also find marine applications. Measuring the transient torque arising between the engine and the generator showed that this reached very high values shortly after starting the engine and injecting fuel at full throttle to reach full power within seconds. The pulsating torque of the 18-cylinders engine occurring 9

  4. Climate change impacts on groundwater resources: modelled deficits in a chalky aquifer, Geer basin, Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouyère, Serge; Carabin, Guy; Dassargues, Alain

    An integrated hydrological model (MOHISE) was developed in order to study the impact of climate change on the hydrological cycle in representative water basins in Belgium. This model considers most hydrological processes in a physically consistent way, more particularly groundwater flows which are modelled using a spatially distributed, finite-element approach. Thanks to this accurate numerical tool, after detailed calibration and validation, quantitative interpretations can be drawn from the groundwater model results. Considering IPCC climate change scenarios, the integrated approach was applied to evaluate the impact of climate change on the water cycle in the Geer basin in Belgium. The groundwater model is described in detail, and results are discussed in terms of climate change impact on the evolution of groundwater levels and groundwater reserves. From the modelling application on the Geer basin, it appears that, on a pluri-annual basis, most tested scenarios predict a decrease in groundwater levels and reserves in relation to variations in climatic conditions. However, for this aquifer, the tested scenarios show no enhancement of the seasonal changes in groundwater levels. Un modèle hydrologique intégré (MOHISE) a été développé afin d'étudier l'impact du changement climatique sur le cycle hydrologique de bassins versants représentatifs de Belgique. Ce modèle prend en compte tous les processus hydrologiques d'une manière physiquement consistante, plus particulièrement les écoulements souterrains qui sont modélisés par une approche spatialement distribuée aux éléments finis. Grâce à cet outil numérique précis, après une calibration et une validation détaillées, des interprétations quantitatives peuvent être réalisées à partir des résultats du modèle de nappe. Considérant des scénarios de changements climatiques de l'IPCC, l'approche intégrée a été appliquée pour évaluer l'impact du changement climatique sur le cycle de l

  5. Estimating the economic impact of a possible equine and human epidemic of West Nile virus infection in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humblet, Marie-France; Vandeputte, Sébastien; Fecher-Bourgeois, Fabienne; Léonard, Philippe; Gosset, Christiane; Balenghien, Thomas; Durand, Benoît; Saegerman, Claude

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed at estimating, in a prospective scenario, the potential economic impact of a possible epidemic of WNV infection in Belgium, based on 2012 values for the equine and human health sectors, in order to increase preparedness and help decision-makers. Modelling of risk areas, based on the habitat suitable for Culex pipiens, the main vector of the virus, allowed us to determine equine and human populations at risk. Characteristics of the different clinical forms of the disease based on past epidemics in Europe allowed morbidity among horses and humans to be estimated. The main costs for the equine sector were vaccination and replacement value of dead or euthanised horses. The choice of the vaccination strategy would have important consequences in terms of cost. Vaccination of the country's whole population of horses, based on a worst-case scenario, would cost more than EUR 30 million; for areas at risk, the cost would be around EUR 16-17 million. Regarding the impact on human health, short-term costs and socio-economic losses were estimated for patients who developed the neuroinvasive form of the disease, as no vaccine is available yet for humans. Hospital charges of around EUR 3,600 for a case of West Nile neuroinvasive disease and EUR 4,500 for a case of acute flaccid paralysis would be the major financial consequence of an epidemic of West Nile virus infection in humans in Belgium. PMID:27526394

  6. High-resolution isotope stratigraphy of the Devonian-Carboniferous boundary in the Namur-Dinant Basin, Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmy, Karem; Poty, Edouard; Brand, Uwe

    2009-04-01

    The Devonian-Carboniferous (D-C) boundary sequence of the Namur-Dinant Basin in southern Belgium consists of marine platform carbonates. Global biostratigraphic correlation of the boundary has been a dilemma due to the absence of index conodont zones. Despite the scarcity of brachiopods, we managed to sample twenty-five calcitic shells from boundary beds at the Royseux-Gare section, to reconstruct biochemostratigraphic profiles of oxygen-, carbon- and strontium-isotopes for correlations with established global counterparts. The δ18O and δ13C values of the well-preserved shells range from - 7.8 to - 6.3‰ VPDB (- 7.2 ± 0.4, n = 25) and from + 1.1 to + 2.4‰ VPDB (1.8 ± 0.3, n = 25), respectively. The shells also yielded 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios between 0.708185 and 0.708297. The Royseux isotope signatures are within the ranges documented for the global D-C boundary but their isotope profiles, however, show no significant shifts or excursions. Evaluation of the Royseux isotope profiles and correlation with their global counterparts may suggest a stratigraphic hiatus approximately from the middle Siphonodella praesulcata to the lower Siphonodella sulcata zones on the global D-C boundary conodont biostratigraphic scheme, while corresponding to the Hangenberg Event in Belgium.

  7. Determination of the accuracy of implant reconstruction and dose delivery in brachytherapy in The Netherlands and Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To gain insight into the accuracy of brachytherapy treatments, the accuracy of implant reconstruction and dose delivery was investigated in 33 radiotherapy institutions in The Netherlands and Belgium. Materials and methods: The accuracy of the implant reconstruction method was determined using a cubic phantom containing 25 spheres at well-known positions. Reconstruction measurements were obtained on 41 brachytherapy localizers, 33 of which were simulators. The reconstructed distances between the spheres were compared with the true distances. The accuracy of the dose delivery was determined for high dose rate (HDR), pulsed dose rate (PDR) and low dose rate (LDR) afterloading systems using a polymethyl methacrylate cylindrical phantom containing a NE 2571 ionization chamber in its centre. The institutions were asked to deliver a prescribed dose at the centre of the phantom. The measured dose was compared with the prescribed dose. Results: The average reconstruction accuracy was -0.07 mm (±0.4 mm, 1 SD) for 41 localizers. The average deviation of the measured dose from the prescribed dose was +0.9% (±1.3%, 1 SD) for 21 HDR afterloading systems, +1.0% (±2.3%, 1 SD) for 12 PDR afterloaders, and +1.8% (±2.5%, 1 SD) for 15 LDR afterloaders. Conclusions: This comparison showed a good accuracy of brachytherapy implant reconstruction and dose delivery in The Netherlands and Belgium

  8. Enteroaggregative Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli of serotype O104:H4 in Belgium and Luxembourg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. De Rauw

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, a large outbreak of infections caused by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC O104:H4 occurred in Germany. This exceptionally virulent strain combined virulence factors of enteroaggregative E. coli (EAggEC and STEC. After the outbreak only a few sporadic cases of infection with this rare serotype were reported, most of which were related to travel to the Middle East or North Africa. Here we describe two cases of enteroaggregative STEC (Agg-STEC O104:H4 infection that occurred in Belgium in 2012 and 2013 respectively. In both cases travel in a Mediterranean country preceded the infection. The first strain was isolated from the stool of a 42-year-old woman presenting bloody diarrhoea, who had travelled to Tunisia the week before. The second case involves a 14-year-old girl who, upon her return from Turkey to Belgium, suffered from an episode of bloody diarrhoea and haemolytic uraemic syndrome. Extended typing of the isolates with pulsed field gel electrophoresis revealed that the strains were closely related, though not exactly the same as the 2011 outbreak strain. This report supports the previously made hypothesis that Agg-STEC has a human reservoir and might be imported by travellers coming from an area where the pathogen is endemic. Furthermore, it emphasizes the concern that these bacteria may cause future outbreaks as evenly virulent O104:H4 isolates seem to be widespread.

  9. Chemical composition and deterioration of glass excavated in the 15th-16th century fishermen town of Raversijde (Belgium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical composition, as determined by electron probe X-ray microanalysis of a series of ca. 100 archaeological glass fragments, excavated at the Raversijde site (Belgium) is discussed. In the 15th-16th century, Raversijde was a flourishing fishermen town located on the shore of the North Sea, close to the city of Ostend. As a consequence of several battles that were fought in its vicinity, the site was abandoned in the 16th century and was not occupied since then. It is one of the rare archaeological sites in Europe that contains a significant amount of information on the daily life inside a small but affluent medieval community. A comparison of the chemical composition of fragments of vessels and window glass encountered in Raversijde to those found in urban centres in Belgium and to literature date on German and French archaeological finds shows that glass made with wood ash dominates. Usually, it concerns artifacts with a predominantly utilitarian use. A few objects made with sodic (i.e., Na-rich) glass were also encountered, likely to have been imported from Venice during the 15th century or in later periods from an urban centre such as Antwerp, where Facon-de-Venice glass manufacturing activities were established near the start of the 16th century

  10. Low occurrence of the new species Staphylococcus argenteus in a Staphylococcus aureus collection of human isolates from Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argudín, M A; Dodémont, M; Vandendriessche, S; Rottiers, S; Tribes, C; Roisin, S; de Mendonça, R; Nonhoff, C; Deplano, A; Denis, O

    2016-06-01

    Staphylococcus argenteus is a novel Staphylococcus species closely related to Staphylococcus aureus that has been recently described. In this study, we investigated the proportion and the characteristics of S. argenteus recovered from humans in Belgium. S. aureus. human isolates collected in Belgium from 2006 to 2015 (n = 1,903) were retrospectively characterised via the presence of non-pigmented colonies on chocolate agar, spa typing and rpoB sequencing to determine if some of them were in fact S. argenteus. Out of 73 strains non-pigmented on chocolate plates, 3 isolates (0.16 %) showed rpoB sequences, in addition to spa and sequence types (ST2250/t5787, ST2250/t6675, ST3240/t6675), related to S. argenteus. Two of them were methicillin-resistant, harbouring a SCCmec type IV. The three S. argenteus isolates carried genes (sak, scn) of the immune evasion cluster. This first Belgian nationwide analysis showed a low occurrence of S. argenteus. Further studies should be conducted to identify the distribution range and the clinical impact of this new species. PMID:27044019

  11. Characterization of deep geothermal energy resources using Electro-Magnetic methods, Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveless, Sian; Harcout-Menou, Virginie; De Ridder, Fjo; Claessens, Bert; Laenen, Ben

    2014-05-01

    Sedimentary basins in Northwest Europe have significant potential for low to medium enthalpy, deep geothermal energy resources. These resources are currently assessed using standard exploration techniques (seismic investigations followed by drilling of a borehole). This has enabled identification of geothermal resources but such techniques are extremely costly. The high cost of exploration remains one of the main barriers to geothermal project development due to the lack of capital in the geothermal industry. We will test the possibility of using the Electro-Magnetic (EM) methods to aid identification of geothermal resources in conjunction with more traditional exploration methods. An EM campaign could cost a third of a seismic campaign and is also often a passive technology, resulting in smaller environmental impacts than seismic surveys or drilling. EM methods image changes in the resistivity of the earth's sub-surface using natural or induced frequency dependant variations of electric and magnetic fields. Changes in resistivity can be interpreted as representing different subsurface properties including changes in rock type, chemistry, temperature and/or hydraulic transmissivity. While EM techniques have proven to be useful in geothermal exploration in high enthalpy areas in the last 2-3 years only a handful of studies assess their applicability in low enthalpy sedimentary basins. Challenges include identifying which sub-surface features cause changes in electrical resistivity as low enthalpy reservoirs are unlikely to exhibit the hydrothermally altered clay layer above the geothermal aquifer that is typical for high enthalpy reservoirs. Yet a principal challenge is likely to be the high levels of industrialisation in the areas of interest. Infrastructure such as train tracks and power cables can create a high level of background noise that can obfuscate the relevant signal. We present our plans for an EM campaign in the Flemish region of Belgium. Field

  12. Cultural Heritage Documentation and Integrated Geomatics Techniques in AN Educational Context: Case Bois-Du (belgium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stal, C.; Goossens, R.; Carlier, L.; Debie, J.; Haoudy, K.; Nuttens, T.; De Wulf, A.

    2013-07-01

    The Walloon Region in Belgium played a leading role in the world economy and in the industrial sciences and engineering since the 19th century. Several relicts, such as important industrial buildings or sites, are spread over a large area and are still dominating the current landscape. Some of these remnants are preserved as monuments, representing the industrial, cultural and ecological transition of the region during the last two centuries. Since 2012, UNESCO recognized the importance of four of the best preserved 19th and 20th century coal mining sites and classified them as World Heritage ("Major Mining Sites of Wallonia", Le Grand-Hornu, Bois-du- Luc, Le Bois du Cazier and Blegny Mine). The four recognised mining sites together form a strip of about 170 km long, containing important examples of the so-called 'neo classical architecture' from the early periods of the industrial era in continental Europe. Motivated by this recognition and by the huge touristic and educational potential of the sites, a partnership between the Walloon government and Ghent University was organized. In this first stage, the collaboration focuses on the site of Bois-du-Luc in the municipality of La Louvière, containing a large series of dwellings, several equipments built between 1853 and 1923 by the Société des Charbonnages du Bois-du-Luc, workshops and heaps. Consisting of numerous buildings dating back to the period between 1838 and 1923, this site is one of Europe's oldest collieries. The collaboration between the Walloon government and Ghent University - Department of Geography fits in the hands-on training which students in land surveying and geomatics receive during their Bachelor studies. For the students it is very interesting that their practical exercises are not limited to the university campus, but that they are involved in a real measurement campaign. The project consists of a series of intensive land surveying campaigns, resulting in highly detailed and accurate

  13. Incorporating rainfall uncertainty in a SWAT model: the river Zenne basin (Belgium) case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolessa Leta, Olkeba; Nossent, Jiri; van Griensven, Ann; Bauwens, Willy

    2013-04-01

    The European Union Water Framework Directive (EU-WFD) called its member countries to achieve a good ecological status for all inland and coastal water bodies by 2015. According to recent studies, the river Zenne (Belgium) is far from this objective. Therefore, an interuniversity and multidisciplinary project "Towards a Good Ecological Status in the river Zenne (GESZ)" was launched to evaluate the effects of wastewater management plans on the river. In this project, different models have been developed and integrated using the Open Modelling Interface (OpenMI). The hydrologic, semi-distributed Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is hereby used as one of the model components in the integrated modelling chain in order to model the upland catchment processes. The assessment of the uncertainty of SWAT is an essential aspect of the decision making process, in order to design robust management strategies that take the predicted uncertainties into account. Model uncertainty stems from the uncertainties on the model parameters, the input data (e.g, rainfall), the calibration data (e.g., stream flows) and on the model structure itself. The objective of this paper is to assess the first three sources of uncertainty in a SWAT model of the river Zenne basin. For the assessment of rainfall measurement uncertainty, first, we identified independent rainfall periods, based on the daily precipitation and stream flow observations and using the Water Engineering Time Series PROcessing tool (WETSPRO). Secondly, we assigned a rainfall multiplier parameter for each of the independent rainfall periods, which serves as a multiplicative input error corruption. Finally, we treated these multipliers as latent parameters in the model optimization and uncertainty analysis (UA). For parameter uncertainty assessment, due to the high number of parameters of the SWAT model, first, we screened out its most sensitive parameters using the Latin Hypercube One-factor-At-a-Time (LH-OAT) technique

  14. Toward a balanced framework to evaluate and improve the internal functioning of non-profit economic development business incubators : A study in Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanderstraeten, J.; Matthyssens, P.; van Witteloostuijn, A.

    2014-01-01

    Non-profit organisations, such as economic development incubators, may adapt the balanced scorecard and strategy map in their efforts to improve their internal functioning. In this paper, we employ qualitative research among non-profit economic development incubators in Antwerp, Belgium, to modify t

  15. How Darwinism Has Affected Catholic as Well as Non-Catholic Psycho-Pedagogical Constructs in Belgium from the 1870s to the 1930s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depaepe, Marc; De Bont, Raf; Dams, Kristof

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of their individual preliminary studies, the authors consider in this article the impact of Darwinism on psycho-pedagogical constructs in Belgium in the period before the Second World War. Their findings are put together around three positions, which are, in fact, hypotheses for further research: (1) The "influence" of Darwin on…

  16. A partial braincase and other skeletal remains of Oligocene angel sharks (Chondrichthyes, Squatiniformes) from northwest Belgium, with comments on squatinoid taxonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollen, F.H.; Bakel , van B.W.M.; Jagt, J.W.M.

    A detailed redescription of a chondrocranium from the basal Boom Clay Formation (Rupelian, Upper Oligocene) at the SVK clay pit, Sint-Niklaas (province of Oost-Vlaanderen, Belgium), previously assigned to the sawshark Pristiophorus rupeliensis, is presented. The chondrocranium is re-identified as th

  17. Complete Coding Sequences of One H9 and Three H7 Low-Pathogenic Influenza Viruses Circulating in Wild Birds in Belgium, 2009 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosseel, Toon; Marché, Sylvie; Steensels, Mieke; Vangeluwe, Didier; Linden, Annick; van den Berg, Thierry; Lambrecht, Bénédicte

    2016-01-01

    The complete coding sequences of four avian influenza A viruses (two H7N7, one H7N1, and one H9N2) circulating in wild waterfowl in Belgium from 2009 to 2012 were determined using Illumina sequencing. All viral genome segments represent viruses circulating in the Eurasian wild bird population. PMID:27284153

  18. Complete Coding Sequences of One H9 and Three H7 Low-Pathogenic Influenza Viruses Circulating in Wild Birds in Belgium, 2009 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Borm, Steven; Rosseel, Toon; Marché, Sylvie; Steensels, Mieke; Vangeluwe, Didier; Linden, Annick; van den Berg, Thierry; Lambrecht, Bénédicte

    2016-01-01

    The complete coding sequences of four avian influenza A viruses (two H7N7, one H7N1, and one H9N2) circulating in wild waterfowl in Belgium from 2009 to 2012 were determined using Illumina sequencing. All viral genome segments represent viruses circulating in the Eurasian wild bird population. PMID:27284153

  19. Convenience, food and family lives. A socio-typological study of household food expenditures in 21st-century Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Sarah; Glorieux, Ignace

    2015-11-01

    This article aims to uncover the extent to which convenience foods have become embedded in today's diets. The paper focuses on households' food expenditures, collected by Statistics Belgium in 2005. The results show that households' reliance on (semi-) convenience food items and away-from-home consumption clearly differs over the life-course and amongst different social groups. Findings show that single-living households (single men in particular) look for more convenience in their food preparation patterns compared to couples and households with children. The consumption of semi-convenient meal components seems to be more closely related to the conventional definition of home-cooking, with older-generation, lower-educated, non-working and 'traditional' nuclear households being more likely to spend a larger share of their food budget on non-convenient and 'shortcut' ingredients. PMID:25963105

  20. Reliability and Validity of the Roberts UCLA Loneliness Scale (RULS-8 With Dutch-Speaking Adolescents in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Goossens

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The internal consistency and construct validity of the RULS-8, a brief measure of loneliness for use with adolescents, was examined in three samples of Dutch-speaking adolescents in Belgium (for a total of 'N' = 6,236. The measure showed high levels of internal consistency (ranging between .80 and .82, strong convergence with the original 20-item instrument ('r' = .92; Sample 1; 'N' = 282, excellent fit with its hypothesized factor structure through confirmatory factor analysis (Sample 2; 'N' = 1,144, measurement invariance across gender, and significant correlations in the expected direction with a set of indicators of psychological adaptation and maladaptation (Sample 3; 'N' = 4,810. Based on these results, the 8-item short form is recommended for use with Dutch-speaking adolescents when administration of the full form seems less advisable due to time constraints. Suggestions for potential use of the short form and for future research on its reliability and validity are outlined.

  1. Anti-gay sentiment among adolescents in Belgium and Canada: a comparative investigation into the role of gender and religion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooghe, Marc; Claes, Ellen; Harell, Allison; Quintelier, Ellen; Dejaeghere, Yves

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that opposition toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and trangender (LGBT) rights remains prevalent among Western populations. In this article, we investigate the determinants of anti-gay attitudes among adolescents in two liberal democracies, Belgium (n = 6,330) and Canada (n = 3,334). The analysis indicates that hostile feelings toward LGBT rights are particularly widespread among boys, while the effects of socioeconomic status and parental education remain limited. Various religious denominations proved to have a strong and significant negative impact on tolerance, with especially high scores for Islam. Religious practice, too, contributes to a negative attitude toward LGBT rights. The consequences of these findings with regard to tolerance for gay rights among Islamic youth in Western democracies are discussed. PMID:20391000

  2. Information about risks of nuclear power plants proposed by nuclear industries to medical doctors in France, Belgium and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information and post-graduate training of the medical profession are performed in continuation of academic studios and should endeavour to respond to the concrete questions that physicians have in mind and may have to deal with. They must strive to emphasize this distinctive and somewhat new role of the doctor that consists in putting a premium on health education at the expense of the only therapeutic role. This aspect of radiological urgency is liable to affect physicians as frustrating, which may, at least partly, account for the widespread impression among a strong majority of them in our 3 countries that they are still insufficiently informed, despite the effort conducted for many years by the physicians of the nuclear electricity utilities. France, Belgium and Germany have adopted the same approach. (author)

  3. 'Would you eat cultured meat?': Consumers' reactions and attitude formation in Belgium, Portugal and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeke, Wim; Marcu, Afrodita; Rutsaert, Pieter; Gaspar, Rui; Seibt, Beate; Fletcher, Dave; Barnett, Julie

    2015-04-01

    Cultured meat has evolved from an idea and concept into a reality with the August 2013 cultured hamburger tasting in London. Still, how consumers conceive cultured meat is largely an open question. This study addresses consumers' reactions and attitude formation towards cultured meat through analyzing focus group discussions and online deliberations with 179 meat consumers from Belgium, Portugal and the United Kingdom. Initial reactions when learning about cultured meat were underpinned by feelings of disgust and considerations of unnaturalness. Consumers saw few direct personal benefits but they were more open to perceiving global societal benefits relating to the environment and global food security. Both personal and societal risks were framed in terms of uncertainties about safety and health, and possible adverse societal consequences dealing with loss of farming and eating traditions and rural livelihoods. Further reflection pertained to skepticism about 'the inevitable' scientific progress, concern about risk governance and control, and need for regulation and proper labeling. PMID:25541372

  4. Development and verification of a real-time stochastic precipitation nowcasting system for urban hydrology in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Foresti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Short-Term Ensemble Prediction System (STEPS is implemented in real-time at the Royal Meteorological Institute (RMI of Belgium. The main idea behind STEPS is to quantify the forecast uncertainty by adding stochastic perturbations to the deterministic Lagrangian extrapolation of radar images. The stochastic perturbations are designed to account for the unpredictable precipitation growth and decay processes and to reproduce the dynamic scaling of precipitation fields, i.e. the observation that large scale rainfall structures are more persistent and predictable than small scale convective cells. This paper presents the development, adaptation and verification of the system STEPS for Belgium (STEPS-BE. STEPS-BE provides in real-time 20 member ensemble precipitation nowcasts at 1 km and 5 min resolution up to 2 h lead time using a 4 C-band radar composite as input. In the context of the PLURISK project, STEPS forecasts were generated to be used as input in sewer system hydraulic models for nowcasting urban inundations in the cities of Ghent and Leuven. Comprehensive forecast verification was performed in order to detect systematic biases over the given urban areas and to analyze the reliability of probabilistic forecasts for a set of case studies in 2013 and 2014. The forecast biases over the cities of Leuven and Ghent were found to be small, which is encouraging for future integration of STEPS nowcasts into the hydraulic models. Probabilistic forecasts of exceeding 0.5 mm h-1 are reliable up to 60–90 min lead time, while the ones of exceeding 5.0 mm h-1 are only reliable up to 30 min. The STEPS ensembles are slightly under-dispersive and represent only 80–90 % of the forecast errors.

  5. Development and verification of a real-time stochastic precipitation nowcasting system for urban hydrology in Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foresti, L.; Reyniers, M.; Seed, A.; Delobbe, L.

    2016-01-01

    The Short-Term Ensemble Prediction System (STEPS) is implemented in real-time at the Royal Meteorological Institute (RMI) of Belgium. The main idea behind STEPS is to quantify the forecast uncertainty by adding stochastic perturbations to the deterministic Lagrangian extrapolation of radar images. The stochastic perturbations are designed to account for the unpredictable precipitation growth and decay processes and to reproduce the dynamic scaling of precipitation fields, i.e., the observation that large-scale rainfall structures are more persistent and predictable than small-scale convective cells. This paper presents the development, adaptation and verification of the STEPS system for Belgium (STEPS-BE). STEPS-BE provides in real-time 20-member ensemble precipitation nowcasts at 1 km and 5 min resolutions up to 2 h lead time using a 4 C-band radar composite as input. In the context of the PLURISK project, STEPS forecasts were generated to be used as input in sewer system hydraulic models for nowcasting urban inundations in the cities of Ghent and Leuven. Comprehensive forecast verification was performed in order to detect systematic biases over the given urban areas and to analyze the reliability of probabilistic forecasts for a set of case studies in 2013 and 2014. The forecast biases over the cities of Leuven and Ghent were found to be small, which is encouraging for future integration of STEPS nowcasts into the hydraulic models. Probabilistic forecasts of exceeding 0.5 mm h-1 are reliable up to 60-90 min lead time, while the ones of exceeding 5.0 mm h-1 are only reliable up to 30 min. The STEPS ensembles are slightly under-dispersive and represent only 75-90 % of the forecast errors.

  6. Regional modelling of the confined aquifers below the Boom clay in NE-Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In the framework of the Belgian research program on the long term management of high-level and/or long-lived radioactive waste coordinated by ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Boom Clay is considered as a reference host rock for the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in NE-Belgium (Campine area). The hydrogeological program at SCK.CEN supports the long-term performance assessments of the geological disposal of radioactive waste by performing a phenomenological research of the aquifer systems surrounding the studied disposal system. One of the important components of this programme is the regional hydrogeological modelling. The regional hydrogeology is studied using two main models - the steady state Neogene aquifer model (NAM) and the transient deep aquifer pumping model (DAP), developed to characterize and quantify the regional groundwater flow in, respectively, the aquifers lying above the Boom Clay in the Nete catchment area (NAM), and the aquifers lying below the Boom Clay in the Campine area (DAP). This paper describes the most recent update of the DAP model. The DAP model represents the confined part of the groundwater system located stratigraphically below the Boom Clay. This includes the parts of the Oligocene aquifer, the Bartoon aquitard system and the Ledo-Paniselian-Brusselian aquifer buried under the Boom Clay. Due to the considerable pumping from these aquifers in combination with a limited recharge, a gradual decrease in groundwater levels has been observed in more than 30-year piezometric records. In the DAP model, the shallow aquifer system overlying the Boom Clay is replaced by fixed head boundaries: this aquifer system is dominated by close-to-surface hydrological processes and the heads fluctuate seasonally without any apparent long-term trend. In the horizontal direction, the model extends to the south as far as the outcrops of the major aquitards: the Maldegem Formation confining the Ledo

  7. Decree No 82-864 of 4 October 1982 publishing the exchange of letters between France and Belgium dated 10 May 1982 concerning exchange of information on nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Agreement provides, for purposes of nuclear safety, that France and Belgium will exchange information on their respective nuclear power plants and in particular, the Ardennes reactor (Chooz). (NEA)

  8. Comparing climate change impacts on crops in Belgium based on CMIP3 and EU-ENSEMBLES multi-model ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanuytrecht, E.; Raes, D.; Willems, P.; Semenov, M.

    2012-04-01

    Global Circulation Models (GCMs) are sophisticated tools to study the future evolution of the climate. Yet, the coarse scale of GCMs of hundreds of kilometers raises questions about the suitability for agricultural impact assessments. These assessments are often made at field level and require consideration of interactions at sub-GCM grid scale (e.g., elevation-dependent climatic changes). Regional climate models (RCMs) were developed to provide climate projections at a spatial scale of 25-50 km for limited regions, e.g. Europe (Giorgi and Mearns, 1991). Climate projections from GCMs or RCMs are available as multi-model ensembles. These ensembles are based on large data sets of simulations produced by modelling groups worldwide, who performed a set of coordinated climate experiments in which climate models were run for a common set of experiments and various emissions scenarios (Knutti et al., 2010). The use of multi-model ensembles in climate change studies is an important step in quantifying uncertainty in impact predictions, which will underpin more informed decisions for adaptation and mitigation to changing climate (Semenov and Stratonovitch, 2010). The objective of our study was to evaluate the effect of the spatial scale of climate projections on climate change impacts for cereals in Belgium. Climate scenarios were based on two multi-model ensembles, one comprising 15 GCMs of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 (CMIP3; Meehl et al., 2007) with spatial resolution of 200-300 km, the other comprising 9 RCMs of the EU-ENSEMBLES project (van der Linden and Mitchell, 2009) with spatial resolution of 25 km. To be useful for agricultural impact assessments, the projections of GCMs and RCMs were downscaled to the field level. Long series (240 cropping seasons) of local-scale climate scenarios were generated by the LARS-WG weather generator (Semenov et al., 2010) via statistical inference. Crop growth and development were simulated with the Aqua

  9. Detection of Shiga-like toxin producing Escherichia coli from raw milk cheeses produced in Wallonia [Belgium].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Lioui M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Shiga-like toxin Escherichia coli (STEC implicated in aqueous diarrhoea, haemorrhagic colitis and haemolytic uraemic syndrome, has become a serious health problem in various countries. In Belgium, all cases are sporadic and no outbreak has been detected so far. Cattle are thought to be a reservoir for E. coli O157:H7, and many foodborne diseases have been associated with the consumption of minced beef, beefburgers and raw milk. Recently, foodborne outbreaks were concerned with different unusual foods such as acidic products. Although some data suggest that STEC are not prevalent within dairy products, the aim of this work was to assess the prevalence of E. coli O157 and non-O157 STEC in raw milk cheeses produced in the southern part of Belgium (Wallonia. For this purpose, 153 frozen samples of soft and semi-soft cheeses made with raw cow, ewe and goat milk were analysed for the presence of E. coli O157 and STEC. By using a dynabeads immunomagnetic separation technique (Dynabeads anti-E. coli O157, Dynal followed by streaking onto sorbitol MacConckey agar, no sample was found contaminated by E. coli O157 serotype. By using polymerase chain reaction achieved from a loopful of confluent bacterial material growing onto MacConckey agar, the use of consensus primers detected stx genes in 11.1/ of the samples but Shiga-like toxin producing strains could be isolated only in five of them (3.3/. The isolation rate seems to be optimum for samples with a thermotolerant coliform count arround or below 102 cfu per g. The five Shiga-like toxin isolates were identified as belonging to the species Hafnia alvei or Enterobacter amnigenius without any accessory virulence factors needed to cause illness. Nevertheless, because of the ability of STEC to survive adverse conditions and the possibility for commensal non-pathogenic enteric bacteria to become pathogenic, raw milk cheeses are to be considered at risk for foodborne STEC contamination.

  10. Mining social mixing patterns for infectious disease models based on a two-day population survey in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Damme Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Until recently, mathematical models of person to person infectious diseases transmission had to make assumptions on transmissions enabled by personal contacts by estimating the so-called WAIFW-matrix. In order to better inform such estimates, a population based contact survey has been carried out in Belgium over the period March-May 2006. In contrast to other European surveys conducted simultaneously, each respondent recorded contacts over two days. Special attention was given to holiday periods, and respondents with large numbers of professional contacts. Methods Participants kept a paper diary with information on their contacts over two different days. A contact was defined as a two-way conversation of at least three words in each others proximity. The contact information included the age of the contact, gender, location, duration, frequency, and whether or not touching was involved. For data analysis, we used association rules and classification trees. Weighted generalized estimating equations were used to analyze contact frequency while accounting for the correlation between contacts reported on the two different days. A contact surface, expressing the average number of contacts between persons of different ages was obtained by a bivariate smoothing approach and the relation to the so-called next-generation matrix was established. Results People mostly mixed with people of similar age, or with their offspring, their parents and their grandparents. By imputing professional contacts, the average number of daily contacts increased from 11.84 to 15.70. The number of reported contacts depended heavily on the household size, class size for children and number of professional contacts for adults. Adults living with children had on average 2 daily contacts more than adults living without children. In the holiday period, the daily contact frequency for children and adolescents decreased with about 19% while a similar observation

  11. Implementation of the Short-Term Ensemble Prediction System (STEPS) in Belgium and verification of case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foresti, Loris; Reyniers, Maarten; Delobbe, Laurent

    2014-05-01

    The Short-Term Ensemble Prediction System (STEPS) is a probabilistic precipitation nowcasting scheme developed at the Australian Bureau of Meteorology in collaboration with the UK Met Office. In order to account for the multiscaling nature of rainfall structures, the radar field is decomposed into an 8 levels multiplicative cascade using a Fast Fourier Transform. The cascade is advected using the velocity field estimated with optical flow and evolves stochastically according to a hierarchy of auto-regressive processes. This allows reproducing the empirical observation that the rate of temporal evolution of the small scales is faster than the large scales. The uncertainty in radar rainfall measurement and the unknown future development of the velocity field are also considered by stochastic modelling in order to reflect their typical spatial and temporal variability. Recently, a 4 years national research program has been initiated by the University of Leuven, the Royal Meteorological Institute (RMI) of Belgium and 3 other partners: PLURISK ("forecasting and management of extreme rainfall induced risks in the urban environment"). The project deals with the nowcasting of rainfall and subsequent urban inundations, as well as socio-economic risk quantification, communication, warning and prevention. At the urban scale it is widely recognized that the uncertainty of hydrological and hydraulic models is largely driven by the input rainfall estimation and forecast uncertainty. In support to the PLURISK project the RMI aims at integrating STEPS in the current operational deterministic precipitation nowcasting system INCA-BE (Integrated Nowcasting through Comprehensive Analysis). This contribution will illustrate examples of STEPS ensemble and probabilistic nowcasts for a few selected case studies of stratiform and convective rain in Belgium. The paper focuses on the development of STEPS products for potential hydrological users and a preliminary verification of the nowcasts

  12. The hourly life cycle carbon footprint of electricity generation in Belgium, bringing a temporal resolution in life cycle assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • This paper brings a temporal resolution in LCA of electricity generation. • Dynamic life cycle assessment of electricity production in Belgium for 2011. • The overall average GWP per kW h is 0.184 kg CO2eq/kW h. • The carbon footprint of Belgian electricity ranges from 0.102 to 0.262 kg CO2eq/kW h. - Abstract: In the booming research on the environmental footprint of, for example, electrical vehicles, heat pumps and other (smart) electricity consuming appliances, there is a clear need to know the hourly CO2 content of one kW h of electricity. Since the CO2 footprint of electricity can vary every hour; the footprint of for example an electric vehicle is influenced by the time when the vehicle is charged. With the availability of the hourly CO2 content of one kW h, a decision support tool is provided to fully exploit the advantages of a future smart grid. In this paper, the GWP (Global Warming Potential) per kW h for each hour of the year is calculated for Belgium using a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. This enables evaluating the influence of the electricity demand on the greenhouse gas emissions. Because of the LCA approach, the CO2 equivalent content does not only reflect activities related to the production of the electricity within a power plant, but includes carbon emissions related to the building of the infrastructure and the fuel supply chain. The considered feedstocks are nuclear combustible, oil, coal, natural gas, biowaste, blast furnace gas, and wood. Furthermore, renewable electricity production technologies like photovoltaic cells, hydro installations and wind turbines are covered by the research. The production of the wind turbines and solar panels is more carbon intensive (expressed per generated kW h of electricity) than the production of other conventional power plants, due to the lower electricity output. The overall average GWP per kW h is 0.184 kg CO2eq/kW h. Throughout the 2011 this value ranges from a minimum of 0

  13. U/Th dating and pollen analysis of a stalagmitic sequence of the isotopic stage 5 (''Galerie des Vervietois, Grotte de Han'' Belgium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stalagmitic body of the 'Galerie des Vervietois' ('Grotte de Han', Belgium) has been sampled by numerous drillings. We present here two series studied by lithostratigraphy, palynology and absolute dating by the uranium series disequilibrium. These series allow one to date and reconstitute the palaeoclimatic sequence from isotopic substage 5.5 to isotopic substage 5.3, emphasizing the climatic deterioration of the isotopic substage 5.4 (Melisey I in the 'Grande Pile' sequence). (authors)

  14. Application of statistical emulation to an agent-based model: assortative mating and the reversal of gender inequality in education in Belgium.

    OpenAIRE

    De Mulder, Wim; Grow, André; Molenberghs, Geert; Verbeke, Geert

    2015-01-01

    We describe the application of statistical emulation to the outcomes of an agent-based model. The agent-based model simulates the mechanisms that might have linked the reversal of gender inequality in higher education with observed changes in educational assortative mating in Belgium. Using the statistical emulator as a computationally fast approximation to the expensive agent-based model, it is feasible to use a genetic algorithm in nding the parameter values for which the correspondin...

  15. Sexual health is dead in my body: participatory assessment of sexual health determinants in refugees, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants in Belgium and the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Keygnaert, Ines; Vettenburg, Nicole; Roelens, Kristien; Temmerman, Marleen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although migrants constitute an important proportion of the European population, little is known about migrant sexual health. Existing research mainly focuses on migrants' sexual health risks and accessibility issues while recommendations on adequate sexual health promotion are rarely provided. Hence, this paper explores how refugees, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants in Belgium and the Netherlands define sexual health, search for sexual health information and perceive sexu...

  16. Fifth research coordination meeting on the measurement and evaluation of transactinium isotope nuclear data. Central Bureau for Nuclear Measurements, Geel, Belgium, 1-3 September 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proceedings of the fifth meeting of the participants in the IAEA Coordinated Research Programme to measure and evaluate the required nuclear decay data of heavy element radionuclides, convened by the IAEA Nuclear Data Section on 1-3 September 1982 at CBNM, Geel, Belgium. The meeting participants reviewed the data requirements, updated and extended the recommended list of half-lives, and continued to review the status of alpha and gamma radiation spectra emitted in the decay of transactinium isotopes. (author)

  17. Pregnant women's fear of childbirth in midwife- and obstetrician-led care in Belgium and the Netherlands: test of the medicalization hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Christiaens, Wendy; Velde, Sarah; Bracke, Piet

    2011-01-01

    Fear of childbirth has gained importance in the context of increasing medicalization of childbirth. Belgian and Dutch societies are very similar but differ with regard to the organization of maternity care. The Dutch have a high percentage of home births and low medical intervention rates. In contrast, home births in Belgium are rarer, and the medical model is more widely used. By comparing the Belgian and Dutch maternity care models, the association between fear of childbirth and medicalizat...

  18. Physicochemical And Biochemical Characterization Of Non-Biodegradable Cellulose In Miocene Gymnosperm Wood From The Entre-Sambre-Et-Meuse, Southern Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Lechien, Valérie; Rodriguez, Christian; Ongena, Marc; Hiligsmann, Serge; Rulmont, André; Thonart, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    Specimens of Miocene fossil wood from the Entre-Sambre-et-Meuse karsts (southern Belgium) were examined using physicochemical and biochemical techniques in order to understand the reasons for the exceptional preservation of these fossilized remains after 15 million years. Structural and chemical changes were assessed by comparing the structural features of the fossil samples with those of their modern counterpart, Metaseguoia. Solid state C-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and microscopic ...

  19. Harmonized Growth Models and Simulations of the Evolution of Pure Stands of Norway spruce, Larches and Douglas-fir for Southern Belgium (Wallonia).

    OpenAIRE

    Perin, Jérôme; Ligot, Gauthier; Cerisier, François; Claessens, Hugues; Hebert, Jacques; Lejeune, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    In order to compare different silvicultural scenarios we have undertaken the development of a software that can simulate stand evolution in regards to their species composition, site characteristics and silvicultural operations. As a first approach we limited the scope of our work to even-aged and pure coniferous stands of the three most important coniferous species in Wallonia (southern part of Belgium): Norway spruce (Picea abies), douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziensii) and larches (Larix sp....

  20. External and internal accidents in PWR power plants. Comparison of current regulations in Belgium, United States, France, Federal Republic of Germany and United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report a comparison is made of the rules and practices applied in various countries (Belgium, France, Federal Republic of Germany, United Kingdom and United States of America) in designing PWR plants to resist natural hazards (first part of the report) and hazards associated with human activities (second part). The third part of the report deals with the practices in different countries concerning the protection against accidents of internal origin

  1. The interplay between collective memory and the erosion of nation states – the paradigmatic case of Belgium: Introduction to the special issue

    OpenAIRE

    Luminet, Olivier; Licata, Laurent; Klein, Olivier; Rosoux, Valérie; Heenen, Susann; Van Ypersele, Laurence; Stone, Charles B.

    2012-01-01

    The main goal of the special issue on ‘the interplay between collective memory and the erosion of nation states: The paradigmatic case of Belgium’ is to examine the erosion of the Belgian State as an exemplary illustration of the way memories of past events can influence current attitudes, emotions, representations and behaviours. We believe that the recent political crisis in Belgium, with no government for more than one year after the 2010 general elections, could be partly illuminated by t...

  2. Assessment of the priority target group of mental health service networks within a nation-wide reform of adult psychiatry in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Lorant, Vincent; Grard, Adeline; Van Audenhove, Chantal; Helmer, Eva; Vanderhaegen, Joke; Nicaise, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Background Belgium is currently implementing a nation-wide reform of mental health care delivery based on service networks. These networks are supposed to strengthen the community-based supply of care, reduce the resort to hospitals, and improve the continuity of care. They are also intended to supply comprehensive care to all adult mental health users. It is unclear, however, if one single model of network can target the needs of the whole adult population with mental health problems. Method...

  3. Belgium, Canada and Switzerland: are there differences in the contributions of selected variables on self-reported property-related and violent delinquency?

    OpenAIRE

    Egli, Nicole; Vettenburg, Nicole; Savoie, Josée; Lucia, Sonia

    2010-01-01

    Three countries with different sociodemographic characteristics and different school and criminal justice systems are compared using data from Belgium, Switzerland, and Canada with respect to juvenile delinquency as measured by the International Self-Reported Delinquency questionnaire (ISRD-2). Following a brief presentation of descriptive statistics of the different samples, multivariate analyses including basic variables such as gender, age, family composition, immigrant status, school atta...

  4. Predictors of poor-quality spirometry in two cohorts of older adults in Russia and Belgium: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Turkeshi, Eralda; Zelenukha, Dmitry; Vaes, Bert; Andreeva, Elena; Frolova, Elena; Degryse, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Spirometry is an important test for the diagnosis of respiratory diseases, yet it is underused especially in older adults. Several predictors of good-quality spirometry in this age group have been reported, based mainly on in/outpatients of geriatric and/or respiratory units. Aims: This study aims to assess predictors of poor-quality spirometry in community-dwelling older adults from two primary care cohorts in Russia and Belgium. Methods: Spirograms from two population-based coho...

  5. Feeding habits of young predatory fishes in marsh creeks situated along the salinity gradient of the Schelde estuary, Belgium and The Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Hampel, H.; Cattrijsse, A.; Elliott, M.

    2005-01-01

    Fish and macrobenthos were sampled in four different marshes along the salinity gradient of the Schelde estuary, Belgium/Netherlands, to investigate the importance of marsh creeks as foraging grounds for the dominant, larger fish species. The total density and biomass of all the main macrobenthic taxa (Corophium volutator, Nereis diversicolor, Oligochaeta, Macoma baltica and Heteromastus fliliformis) were measured. The feeding habits of the larger predatory fishes (Platichthys flesus, Dicentr...

  6. Petrographical differentiation between Palaeozoic oolitic ironstones from France, Belgium and Germany and application to the provenance study of archaeological artefacts – preliminary results

    OpenAIRE

    Dreesen, Roland; Savary, Xavier; Goemaere, Eric; Dupret, Lionnel

    2013-01-01

    Samples of Palaeozoic oolitic ironstone beds susceptible of having being used as raw materials for Neolithic red ochres, have been petrographically investigated. The preliminary results of this first comparative analysis are quite encouraging: microfacies differences have been observed between Ordovician oolitic ironstones from Normandy (France), late Upper Devonian oolitic ironstones from Belgium and uppermost Lower Devonian to lowermost Middle-Devonian (Emsian-Eifelian) oolit...

  7. Repair criteria and methods of repair for concrete structures of nuclear power plants - Particular application on natural draught cooling towers in belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A previous paper was presented at the OCDE Workshop held 22-23 March 2000 in Brussels explaining different aspects of the techniques used for 'Instrumentation and monitoring of natural draught cooling towers in Belgium'. These monitoring and preventive techniques are now applied in Belgium since already more then 10 years by Tractebel on the towers of the nuclear plants. These huge constructions have to sustain considerable physical, chemical and biological loads. As one can figure out, and as years go by, these inspections showed deterioration of which type, progress, quantity eventually led to the need of repairing these structures. The present paper goes over 4 main different sorts of defects (beam supports breaking, fast carbonation rate, concrete porosity, and a series of local deteriorations like insufficient concrete cover, cracking, gravel pockets, corroded reinforcement) encountered on 3 cooling towers situated in Belgium, and affecting the shell as well as the inner structures. The diagnosis, the choice of the appropriate repair techniques and products which will avoid having to face much higher costs in the future are explained. It also gives an illustration of the works carried on site and points out the uncommon and complex aspects the treatment of such a construction implies (planning, both horizontal and vertical curved shape, works at great height,...). (author)

  8. Stakeholder Involvement in Radioactive Waste Management in Belgium: the Past, the Present and Challenges for the Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present stakeholder involvement in RWM in Belgium focuses solely on siting a LILW-repository, engaging primarily local citizen-stakeholders. If accepting the value of participation in this programme, which NIRAS/ONDRAF explicitly states, the biggest future challenge for the agency will be to match the efforts in its LILWprogramme with similar efforts for the whole of its management operations, both short-term and long-term; and both site specific as well as on a general policy level. The local partnerships (in particular STORA and MONA) today have become NIRAS/ONDRAF's most important stakeholders. Their insisting on opening up a HLW-debate (but without the intention of turning it into a site selection process) might therefore be just the leverage needed to move from a declaration of intent to the setting up of an active participatory programme. Although some might regret it, the introduction of the partnership approach has opened up a Pandora's box, creating self-awareness and self-identification among a particular group of stakeholders who clearly are not prepared to be backing out of their new role in the immediate future

  9. Managing a cluster outbreak of psittacosis in Belgium linked to a pet shop visit in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE Boeck, C; Dehollogne, C; Dumont, A; Spierenburg, M; Heijne, M; Gyssens, I; VAN DER Hilst, J; Vanrompay, D

    2016-06-01

    In July 2013, a Belgian couple were admitted to hospital because of pneumonia. Medical history revealed contact with birds. Eleven days earlier, they had purchased a lovebird in a pet shop in The Netherlands. The bird became ill, with respiratory symptoms. The couple's daughter who accompanied them to the pet shop, reported similar symptoms, but was travelling abroad. On the suspicion of psittacosis, pharyngeal swabs from the couple were taken and sent to the Belgian reference laboratory for psittacosis. Culture and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests were positive for the presence of Chlamydia psittaci, and ompA genotyping indicated genotype A in both patients. The patients were treated with doxycycline and the daughter started quinolone therapy; all three recovered promptly. Psittacosis is a notifiable disease in Belgium and therefore local healthcare authorities were informed. They contacted their Dutch colleagues, who visited the pet shop. Seven pooled faecal samples were taken and analysed using PCR by the Dutch national reference laboratory for notifiable animal diseases for the presence of Chlamydia psittaci. Four (57%) samples tested positive, genotyping revealed genotype A. Enquiring about exposure to pet birds is essential when patients present with pneumonia. Reporting to health authorities, even across borders, is warranted to prevent further spread. PMID:26669637

  10. [Increasing cost of insulin therapy in Belgium. From a critical analysis of the situation to a search for practical solutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheen, A J

    2006-09-01

    Cost related to insulin therapy is markedly increasing in Belgium, as in other Eucopean countries. In the present paper, we will briefly analyze the main reasons for such aa increase, integrate such observation withIn the global context of diabetes management and suggest some solutions to provide best care to insulin-treated diabetic patients at a reasonable cost. The rise of the cost of insulin therapy has a multifactorial origin. It mainly results from an increase in the number of diabetic patients, a more intensive management, In both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and a greater use of more expansive insulin analogues. It is important to analyze the increase of the cost of insulin therapy within the global burden of diabetes melitus. Only a better responsibility of all health care partners, patients, physicians, pharmaceutical companies, public health authorities, could provide solutions allowing diabetic people to profit from best treatments they should receive in order to prevent diabetic complications, by far the main cause of expenses. PMID:17112161

  11. Sociodemographic Characteristics of Trans Persons in Belgium: A Secondary Data Analysis of Medical, State, and Social Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motmans, Joz; Ponnet, Koen; De Cuypere, Griet

    2015-07-01

    By performing secondary data analyses of existing medical, social, and state data, this study examined the sociodemographic profile of trans persons in Belgium and gains knowledge on those who are functionally invisible in traditional epidemiological studies or clinical samples. Based on medical interventions, post-operative transsexual persons were selected from a social survey data set, to compare their sociodemographic profile with available data on legal sex changes from the Belgian National Register and with published data on clinical samples of post-operative transsexual persons. Furthermore, based on self-chosen gender identity categories in the social survey data, transsexual participants were compared with the transgender participants (those people feeling neither female nor male, or both female and male, or otherwise). The sociodemographic data on the post-operative transsexual persons from the three datasets appeared to be very similar. Based on identity categories, the data on transsexual and transgender persons from the social survey showed differences in marital status and employment. Transsexual persons were significantly more often divorced than transgender persons. Both groups differed significantly in employment status. Information about transgender people (or the "in-between" group) is too often lacking from studies but can be obtained when identity instead of medical criteria are used in research. PMID:25300904

  12. Assimilating soil moisture data in a hydrological model: a case study in Belgium using H-SAF products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baguis, Pierre; Roulin, Emmanuel

    2016-04-01

    Precipitation is the main driving force for hydrological processes. There are however other physical variables, like soil moisture, that play an essential role in the hydrological cycle. In the present study, we focus on the use of a surface soil moisture (SSM) product in hydrological modelling. This product is generated using MetOp scatterometer (ASCAT) data at 25 km of horizontal resolution in the framework of the H-SAF project (EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on Support to Operational Hydrology and Water Management). The Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium (RMI) is an active partner of H-SAF, involved in the validation of precipitation, soil moisture and snow products. In this work, we include in our hydrological simulations a soil moisture product through a data assimilation procedure. Our approach is based on the Ensemble Kalman Filter technique where observation and model uncertainties are taken into account. We first develop an assimilation scheme for surface soil moisture into the hydrological model of the RMI. In our implementation, bounded variables like SSM are handled with the aid of specially designed probability distributions so that the bounds are never exceeded. Subsequently, the impact of SSM assimilation on the simulated streamflow is assessed by using different sources of precipitation forcing. The ultimate goal is to provide new tools of hydrological validation and to investigate the possibilities of enhancing the quality of the simulated streamflow.

  13. Incidence of HCV and sexually transmitted diseases among hiv positive msm in antwerp, belgium, 2001-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apers, L; Koole, O; Bottieau, E; Vandenbruaene, M; Ophoff, D; Van Esbroeck, M; Crucitti, T; Florence, E

    2013-01-01

    Recurrent Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) are an indication of unsafe sexual practices and may be associated with HCV-infection among HIV-positive men who have sex with men. In a retrospective study we analysed the laboratory data of 99 HIV-positive MSM who acquired HCV during the observation period (cases) and 176 HIV-positive MSM who remained HCV negative during the observation period (controls), all followed at the HIV/STI-clinic in Antwerp, Belgium. All laboratory confirmed STI-episodes were recorded since the date of first consultation at our clinic, until the date of HCV-diagnosis of the cases. The HCV incidence varied between 0.24 (2001) and 1.36 (2011) new cases per hundred person-years, with a peak of 2.93 new cases per hundred person-years in 2009. The number of STI-episodes per person-year follow-up was significantly higher for the cases as compared to the controls for syphilis, non-LGV and LGV Chlamydia infections (p HCV conversion, all laboratory confirmed STIs remained more frequent among cases, but only the difference in syphilis incidence was statistically significant (p HCV and should lead to intensified screening for HCV and counselling of the patient. PMID:24635329

  14. Status of the fast breeder reactor development in the Federal Republic of Germany, Belgium and the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1967 and 1968 the Federal Republic of Germany, the Kingdom of Belgium and the Kingdom of the Netherlands (''DeBeNe'') agreed to develop, in a joint program, breeder reactors to the point of commercial maturity. The following research organizations take part in this effort: Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK); INTERATOM, Bergisch Gladbach; ALKEM, Wolfgang near Hanau; SCK/CEN, Mol; Belgonucleaire, Brussels; ECN, Petten; TNO, Apeldoorn; NERATOOM, The Hague. The three German institutions mentioned above have been interrelated since 1977 by the Entwicklungsgemeinschaft (EG) Schneller Brueter. Between KfK, INTERATOM, and the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique contracts were concluded in 1977 about close cooperation in the Fast Breeder field, with association of the Belgian and Dutch partners. The results of research and development activities carried out by the DeBeNe partners in 1981 have been compiled in this report. The report begins with a short survey of the fast reactor plants, followed by an R and D summary. The bulk of the report gives more detailed information about those plants and about results reported by the Working Groups of the R and D Program Working Committee of the Fast Breeder Project. In an additional chapter a survey is given of international cooperation. (author)

  15. Status of fast breeder reactor development in the Federal Republic of Germany, Belgium and the Netherlands - February 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1967 and 1968, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Kingdom of Belgium and the Kingdom of the Netherlands (''DeBeNe'') agreed to develop breeder reactors in a joint program. The following research organizations have taken part in this effort: Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK); INTERATOM, Bergisch Gladbach; ALKEM, Wolfgang near Hanau; SCK/CEN, Mol; Belgonucleaire, Brussels; ECN, Petten; TNO, Apeldoorn; NERATOOM, The Hague. The three Germany institutions mentioned above have been associated since 1977 in the Entwicklungsgemeinschaft (EG) Schneller Brueter. KfK, INTERATOM, and the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique entered into contracts in 1977 about close cooperation in the fast breeder field, to which the Belgian and Dutch partners acceded. The results of activities carried out by the DeBeNe partners in 1984 have been compiled in this report. The report begins with a survey of the fast reactor plants followed by a R and D summary. In an additional chapter, a survey is given of international cooperation in 1984

  16. Sustained low rotavirus activity and hospitalisation rates in the post-vaccination era in Belgium, 2007 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbe, Martine; Berger, Nicolas; Blommaert, Adriaan; Ogunjimi, Benson; Grammens, Tine; Callens, Michiel; Van Herck, Koen; Beutels, Philippe; Van Damme, Pierre; Bilcke, Joke

    2016-07-01

    In 2006, Belgium was the first country in the European Union to recommend rotavirus vaccination in the routine infant vaccination schedule and rapidly achieved high vaccine uptake (86-89% in 2007). We used regional and national data sources up to 7 years post-vaccination to study the impact of vaccination on laboratory-confirmed rotavirus cases and rotavirus-related hospitalisations and deaths. We showed that (i) from 2007 until 2013, vaccination coverage remained at 79-88% for a complete course, (ii) in children 0-2 years, rotavirus cases decreased by 79% (95% confidence intervals (CI): 68--89%) in 2008-2014 compared to the pre-vaccination period (1999--2006) and by 50% (95% CI: 14-82%) in the age group ≥ 10 years, (iii) hospitalisations for rotavirus gastroenteritis decreased by 87% (95% CI: 84-90%) in 2008--2012 compared to the pre-vaccination period (2002--2006), (iv) median age of rotavirus cases increased from 12 months to 17 months and (v) the rotavirus seasonal peak was reduced and delayed in all post-vaccination years. The substantial decline in rotavirus gastroenteritis requiring hospitalisations and in rotavirus activity following introduction of rotavirus vaccination is sustained over time and more pronounced in the target age group, but with evidence of herd immunity. PMID:27418466

  17. Hydrological response to climate change in the Lesse and the Vesdre catchments: contribution of a physically based model (Wallonia, Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bauwens

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Meuse is an important rain-fed river in North-Western Europe. Nine million people live in its catchment, split over five countries. Projected changes in precipitation and temperature characteristics due to climate change would have a significant impact on the Meuse River and its tributaries. In this study, we focused on the impacts of climate change on the hydrology of two sub-catchments of the Meuse in Belgium, the Lesse and the Vesdre, placing the emphasis on the water-soil-plant continuum in order to highlight the effects of climate change on plant growth, and water uptake on the hydrology of two sub-catchments. These effects were studied using two climate scenarios and a physically based distributed model, which reflects the water-soil-plant continuum. Our results show that the vegetation will evapotranspirate between 10 and 17 % less at the end of the century because of water scarcity in summer, even if the root development is better under climate change conditions. In the low scenario, the mean minimal 7 days discharge value could decrease between 19 and 24 % for a two year return period, and between 20 and 35 % for a fifty year return period. It will lead to rare but severe drought in rivers, with potentially huge consequences on water quality.

  18. Four Perspectives of Sustainability Applied to the Local Food Strategy of Ghent (Belgium: Need for a Cycle of Democratic Participation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Crivits

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of cities’ increasing commitment to sustainable development, local food systems are becoming a policy priority. In this article we focus on the case of a local food system in Ghent, Belgium. We adopt the notion of Hajer et al. (2015 that top-down steering of environmental issues (so-called “cockpit-ism” is insufficient, incomplete and in need of revision. Using their four perspectives on sustainable development (Hajer et al., 2015, we explore, analyze and valorize the potential of the actors, motives and logics for change within the agriculture and food system in the Ghent region. Applying these four perspectives, we have mapped the current positive developments as well as identified the weaknesses, pitfalls and opportunities of a local food strategy. The discussion section contains two important strategies for good governance of sustainable urban development: first, a governance approach to stimulate participation and representation in a complex, unequal and rapidly changing context; and second, a reflection on how local food strategies can drive global sustainability. In conclusion, we argue for the integration of a global sustainability approach within sustainable urban development.

  19. Socioeconomic Impact on the Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Wallonia, Belgium: A Population-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Streel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Monitoring the epidemiology of cardiovascular risk factors (CRFs and their determinants is important to develop appropriate recommendations to prevent cardiovascular diseases in specific risk groups. The NESCaV study was designed to collect standardized data to estimate the prevalence of CRFs in relation to socioeconomic parameters among the general adult population in the province of Liège, Wallonia, Belgium. Methods. A representative stratified random sample of 1017 subjects, aged 20–69 years, participated in the NESCaV study (2010–2012. A self-administered questionnaire, a clinical examination, and laboratory tests were performed on participants. CRFs included hypertension, dyslipidemia, global obesity, abdominal obesity, diabetes, current smoking, and physical inactivity. Covariates were education and subjective and objective socioeconomic levels. Data were analyzed by weighted logistic regression. Results. The prevalence of hypertension, abdominal obesity, global obesity, current smoking, and physical inactivity was higher in subjects with low education and who considered themselves “financially in need.” Living below poverty threshold also increased the risk of global and abdominal obesity, current smoking, and physical inactivity. Conclusion. The study shows that socioeconomic factors impact the prevalence of CRFs in the adult population of Wallonia. Current public health policies should be adjusted to reduce health inequalities in specific risk groups.

  20. Status of fast breeder reactor development in the Federal Republic of Germany, Belgium and The Netherlands - February 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1967 and 1968 the Federal Republic of Germany, the Kingdom of Belgium and the Kingdom of the Netherlands (''DeBeNe'') agreed to develop breeder reactors in a joint program. The following research organizations have taken part in this effort: Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK); INTERATOM, Bergisch Gladbach; ALKEM, Wolgang near Hanau; SCK/CEN, Mol; Belgonucleaire, Brussels; ECN, Petten; TNO, Apeldoorn; NERATOOM, The Hague. The three German institutions mentioned above have been connected since 1977 in the Entwicklungsgemeinschaft (EG) Schneller Brueter. KfK, INTERATOM, and the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique entered into contracts in 1977 about close cooperation in the fast breeder field, to which the Belgian and Dutch partners acceded. The results of activities carried out by the DeBeBe partners in 1983 have been compiled in this report. The report begins with a survey of the fast reactor plants followed by an R and D summary. In an additional chapter, a survey is given of international cooperation in 1983

  1. Comparison of the large-scale radon risk map for southern Belgium with results of high resolution surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large-scale radon survey consisting of long-term measurements in about 5200 singe-family houses in the southern part of Belgium was carried from 1995 to 1999. A radon risk map for the region was produced using geostatistical and GIS approaches. Some communes or villages situated within high risk areas were chosen for detailed surveys. A high resolution radon survey with about 330 measurements was performed in half part of the commune of Burg-Reuland. Comparison of radon maps on quite different scales shows that the general Rn risk map has similar pattern as the radon map for the detailed study area. Another detailed radon survey in the village of Hatrival, situated in a high radon area, found very high proportion of houses with elevated radon concentrations. The results of this detailed survey are comparable to the expectation for high risk areas on the large-scale radon risk map. The good correspondence between the findings of the general risk map and the analysis of the limited detailed surveys, suggests that the large-scale radon risk map is likely reliable. (author)

  2. Comprehensive bee pathogen screening in Belgium reveals Crithidia mellificae as a new contributory factor to winter mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgen Ravoet

    Full Text Available Since the last decade, unusually high honey bee colony losses have been reported mainly in North-America and Europe. Here, we report on a comprehensive bee pathogen screening in Belgium covering 363 bee colonies that were screened for 18 known disease-causing pathogens and correlate their incidence in summer with subsequent winter mortality. Our analyses demonstrate that, in addition to Varroa destructor, the presence of the trypanosomatid parasite Crithidia mellificae and the microsporidian parasite Nosema ceranae in summer are also predictive markers of winter mortality, with a negative synergy being observed between the two in terms of their effects on colony mortality. Furthermore, we document the first occurrence of a parasitizing phorid fly in Europe, identify a new fourth strain of Lake Sinai Virus (LSV, and confirm the presence of other little reported pathogens such as Apicystis bombi, Aphid Lethal Paralysis Virus (ALPV, Spiroplasma apis, Spiroplasma melliferum and Varroa destructor Macula-like Virus (VdMLV. Finally, we provide evidence that ALPV and VdMLV replicate in honey bees and show that viruses of the LSV complex and Black Queen Cell Virus tend to non-randomly co-occur together. We also noticed a significant correlation between the number of pathogen species and colony losses. Overall, our results contribute significantly to our understanding of honey bee diseases and the likely causes of their current decline in Europe.

  3. Innovative market-based policy instruments for waste management: A case study on shredder residues in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Maarten; Hoogmartens, Rob; Van Passel, Steven; Van Acker, Karel; Vanderreydt, Ive

    2015-10-01

    In an increasingly complex waste market, market-based policy instruments, such as disposal taxes, can give incentives for sustainable progress while leaving flexibility for innovation. However, implementation of disposal taxes is often criticised by domestic waste handlers that fear to be outcompeted by competitors in other countries. The article discusses three innovative market-based instruments that limit the impact on international competitiveness: Tradable recycling credits, refunded disposal taxes and differentiated disposal taxes. All three instruments have already been implemented for distinct environmental policies in Europe. In order to illustrate how these instruments can be used for waste policy, the literature review is complemented with a case study on shredder residues from metal-containing waste streams in Belgium. The analysis shows that a conventional disposal tax remains the most efficient, simple and transparent instrument. However, if international competition is a significant issue or if political support is weak, refunded and differentiated disposal taxes can have an added value as second-best instruments. Tradable recycling credits are not an appropriate instrument for use in small waste markets with market power. In addition, refunded taxes create similar incentives, but induce lower transactions costs. PMID:26395844

  4. Stakeholder Involvement in Radioactive Waste Management in Belgium: the Past, the Present and Challenges for the Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmans, Anne; Steenberge, Annelies Van [Univ. of Antwerp (Belgium)

    2006-09-15

    At present stakeholder involvement in RWM in Belgium focuses solely on siting a LILW-repository, engaging primarily local citizen-stakeholders. If accepting the value of participation in this programme, which NIRAS/ONDRAF explicitly states, the biggest future challenge for the agency will be to match the efforts in its LILWprogramme with similar efforts for the whole of its management operations, both short-term and long-term; and both site specific as well as on a general policy level. The local partnerships (in particular STORA and MONA) today have become NIRAS/ONDRAF's most important stakeholders. Their insisting on opening up a HLW-debate (but without the intention of turning it into a site selection process) might therefore be just the leverage needed to move from a declaration of intent to the setting up of an active participatory programme. Although some might regret it, the introduction of the partnership approach has opened up a Pandora's box, creating self-awareness and self-identification among a particular group of stakeholders who clearly are not prepared to be backing out of their new role in the immediate future.

  5. Collective Memories of WWII Collaboration in Belgium and Attitudes About Amnesty in the Two Main Linguistic Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura De Guissmé

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Collaboration with the Nazi occupier during WWII has always been a topic of dissent between French-speakers (FS and Dutch-speakers (DS in Belgium. According to a popular myth coined after the war and often narrated in the media and literature, collaboration was widespread in Flanders, whereas Walloons bravely resisted, although historical reality is much more nuanced. These representations regularly resurface in political debates surrounding the Belgian linguistic conflict. Demands for amnesty addressed by nationalist Flemish parties are a case in point. A questionnaire survey (N = 521; 315 FS and 206 DS showed that collaboration was represented negatively and was morally condemned in both groups. However, DS expressed more Support for Amnesty (SA than FS. This effect of Linguistic Group (LG on SA was mediated by judgment of morality of collaboration, and this mediation was moderated by identification with the LG. Interestingly, SA was predicted by judgments of morality of DS, but not of FS, collaborators, in both groups, as if francophone collaboration was deemed irrelevant. Results suggest that differences between DS and FS in political position taking regarding the granting of amnesty are partly due to differences in representations of collaboration, and to different perspectives towards the same historical representation. The myth is both shared and disputed.

  6. Sewage epidemiology--a real-time approach to estimate the consumption of illicit drugs in Brussels, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nuijs, Alexander L N; Mougel, Jean-François; Tarcomnicu, Isabela; Bervoets, Lieven; Blust, Ronny; Jorens, Philippe G; Neels, Hugo; Covaci, Adrian

    2011-04-01

    The sewage epidemiology approach was applied to a one-year sampling campaign in the largest wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Belgium. The consumption of cocaine (COC), amphetamine (AMP), methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), methamphetamine (METH), methadone (MTD) and heroin (HER) was evaluated based on measured concentrations of the parent compound and/or metabolites in daily 24-hour composite influent wastewater samples. The inevitable back-calculations used in the sewage epidemiology approach were adapted to newly available information regarding the stability of the compounds in wastewater and the excretion pattern of illicit drugs. For COC, three different back-calculation approaches were evaluated. In addition, for the first time, efforts were made to calculate the number of inhabitants living in the catchment area of the WWTP in a real-time and dynamic way, based on concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus and oxygen in the wastewater samples. Clear variations in the amount of inhabitants in the catchment area of the WWTP were observed. For COC, AMP and MDMA a significant higher weekend use was observed while for HER and MTD no significant daily variations could be found. METH consumption was negligible. Generally, the sewage epidemiology calculations were in agreement with official statistics. This manuscript shows that sewage epidemiology provides consistent and logical results and that it is a promising tool that can be used in addition to classical studies to estimate illicit drug use in populations. Therefore, efforts should be made to further optimize this approach in the future. PMID:21257204

  7. Paleobiological Implications of the Isotopic Signatures ( 13C, 15N) of Fossil Mammal Collagen in Scladina Cave (Sclayn, Belgium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocherens, Hervé; Billiou, Daniel; Patou-Mathis, Marylène; Bonjean, Dominique; Otte, Marcel; Mariotti, André

    1997-11-01

    An isotopic investigation of upper Pleistocene mammal bones and teeth from Scladina cave (Sclayn, Belgium) demonstrated the very good quality of collagen preservation. A preliminary screening of the samples used the amount of nitrogen in whole bone and dentine in order to estimate the preserved amount of collagen before starting the extraction process. The isotopic abundances of fossil specimens from still-extant species are consistent with their trophic position. Moreover, the 15N isotopic abundance is higher in dentine than in bone in bears and hyenas, a phenomenon already observed in modern specimens. These results demonstrate that the isotopic compositions of samples from Scladina cave can be interpreted in ecological terms. Mammoths exhibit a high 15N isotopic abundance relative to other herbivores, as was the case in Siberian and Alaskan samples. These results suggest distinctive dietary adaptations in herbivores living in the mammoth steppe. Cave bears are clearly isotopically different from coeval brown bears, suggesting an ecological separation between species, with a pure vegetarian diet for cave bear and an omnivorous diet for brown bear.

  8. Alpha-contaminated solid waste sorting and conditioning at Belgoprocess (Belgium): lessons learned from the first three years operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alpha-contaminated solid waste generated in Belgium results from past activities in the fuel cycle (R and D + Reprocessing and MOX fabrication pilot plants) and operation of BELGONUCLEAIRE's MOX fuel fabrication plant. After the main steps in the management of alpha-contaminated solid waste were established, BELGONUCLEAIRE, with the support of BELGOPROCESS and ONDRAF/NIRAS, started the design and construction of the T and C and interim-storage facilities for this alpha waste. The accumulated solid alpha radwaste containing a mixture of combustible and non-combustible material must be sorted and characterized. After sorting, both the accumulated and recently-generated alpha waste will be compacted and the pellets will be embedded in a cement matrix in a 400-1 drum. The commissioning of the sorting unit which includes glove boxes was completed at BP, at the beginning of year 2005; the sorting campaign of 30-1 cans has been achieved in March 2007. The paper describes the project environment and gives a short description of the used facilities; the lessons learned from the sorting campaign and from the first T/C period, will be presented, as well. (authors)

  9. Impact of trees on pollutant dispersion in street canyons: A numerical study of the annual average effects in Antwerp, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranckx, Stijn; Vos, Peter; Maiheu, Bino; Janssen, Stijn

    2015-11-01

    Effects of vegetation on pollutant dispersion receive increased attention in attempts to reduce air pollutant concentration levels in the urban environment. In this study, we examine the influence of vegetation on the concentrations of traffic pollutants in urban street canyons using numerical simulations with the CFD code OpenFOAM. This CFD approach is validated against literature wind tunnel data of traffic pollutant dispersion in street canyons. The impact of trees is simulated for a variety of vegetation types and the full range of approaching wind directions at 15° interval. All these results are combined using meteo statistics, including effects of seasonal leaf loss, to determine the annual average effect of trees in street canyons. This analysis is performed for two pollutants, elemental carbon (EC) and PM10, using background concentrations and emission strengths for the city of Antwerp, Belgium. The results show that due to the presence of trees the annual average pollutant concentrations increase with about 8% (range of 1% to 13%) for EC and with about 1.4% (range of 0.2 to 2.6%) for PM10. The study indicates that this annual effect is considerably smaller than earlier estimates which are generally based on a specific set of governing conditions (1 wind direction, full leafed trees and peak hour traffic emissions). PMID:26100726

  10. Status of the fast breeder reactor development in the Federal Republic of Germany, Belgium and The Netherlands, February 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1967 and 1968 the Federal Republic of Germany, the Kingdom of Belgium and the Kingdom of the Netherlands (DeBeNe) agreed to develop, in a joint program, breeder reactors to the point of commercial maturity. The following research organizations take part in this effort: Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK); INTERATOM, Bergisch Gladbach; ALKEM, Wolfgang near Hanau; SCK/CEW, Mol; Belgonucleaire, Brussels; ECN, Petten; TWO, Apeldoorn; NERATOOM, The Hague. The results of research and development activities carried out by the DeBeNe partners in 1980 have been compiled in this report. The report begins with a review of the energy policy background, followed by an R and D summary. The bulk of the report following next is organized by the Working Groups of the R and D Program Working Committee of the Fast Breeder Project; additional chapters provide information about the operation of KNK II and the construction of SNR 300. In the annexes a survey is given of international cooperation

  11. Characterizing the hypersiliceous rocks of Belgium used in (pre-)history: a case study on sourcing sedimentary quartzites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracking raw material back to its extraction source is a crucial step for archaeologists when trying to deduce migration patterns and trade contacts in (pre-)history. Regarding stone artefacts, the main rock types encountered in the archaeological record of Belgium are hypersiliceous rocks. This is a newly introduced category of rock types comprising those rocks made of at least 90% silica. These are strongly silicified quartz sands or sedimentary quartzites, siliceous rocks of chemical and biochemical origin (e.g. flint), very pure metamorphic quartzites and siliceous volcanic rocks (e.g. obsidian). To be able to distinguish between different extraction sources, ongoing research was started to locate possible extraction sources of hypersiliceous rocks and to characterize rocks collected from these sources. Characterization of these hypersiliceous rocks is executed with the aid of optical polarizing microscopy, optical cold cathodoluminescence and scanning-electron microscopy combined with energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry and with back-scatter electron imaging. In this paper, we focus on various sedimentary quartzites of Paleogene stratigraphical level. (paper)

  12. High-resolution climate and land surface interactions modeling over Belgium: current state and decennial scale projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquemin, Ingrid; Henrot, Alexandra-Jane; Beckers, Veronique; Berckmans, Julie; Debusscher, Bos; Dury, Marie; Minet, Julien; Hamdi, Rafiq; Dendoncker, Nicolas; Tychon, Bernard; Hambuckers, Alain; François, Louis

    2016-04-01

    The interactions between land surface and climate are complex. Climate changes can affect ecosystem structure and functions, by altering photosynthesis and productivity or inducing thermal and hydric stresses on plant species. These changes then impact socio-economic systems, through e.g., lower farming or forestry incomes. Ultimately, it can lead to permanent changes in land use structure, especially when associated with other non-climatic factors, such as urbanization pressure. These interactions and changes have feedbacks on the climate systems, in terms of changing: (1) surface properties (albedo, roughness, evapotranspiration, etc.) and (2) greenhouse gas emissions (mainly CO2, CH4, N2O). In the framework of the MASC project (« Modelling and Assessing Surface Change impacts on Belgian and Western European climate »), we aim at improving regional climate model projections at the decennial scale over Belgium and Western Europe by combining high-resolution models of climate, land surface dynamics and socio-economic processes. The land surface dynamics (LSD) module is composed of a dynamic vegetation model (CARAIB) calculating the productivity and growth of natural and managed vegetation, and an agent-based model (CRAFTY), determining the shifts in land use and land cover. This up-scaled LSD module is made consistent with the surface scheme of the regional climate model (RCM: ALARO) to allow simulations of the RCM with a fully dynamic land surface for the recent past and the period 2000-2030. In this contribution, we analyze the results of the first simulations performed with the CARAIB dynamic vegetation model over Belgium at a resolution of 1km. This analysis is performed at the species level, using a set of 17 species for natural vegetation (trees and grasses) and 10 crops, especially designed to represent the Belgian vegetation. The CARAIB model is forced with surface atmospheric variables derived from the monthly global CRU climatology or ALARO outputs

  13. Isotope tools to support conceptual model building of the Carboniferous limestone aquifer of Northern France and Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourcy, L.; Castres de Paulet, F.; Rorive, A.; Bastien, J.

    2012-04-01

    Since the beginning of the 20th century, the Carboniferous aquifer was known as a high potential limestone aquifer. Groundwater has been exploited for decades to provide drinkable water and supply heavy factories in north of France and Belgium. Over-pumped during the last century, the Carboniferous aquifer has seen its water level dramatically decreased between Lille (Fr), Mouscron and Tournai (Be). Since the end of industrial period and some agreements to reduce pumpings, groundwater consumption has declined and water table is now stabilized and slowly coming back to a more "natural" level in some areas. In order to sustainably manage this aquifer, French and Belgian environmental agencies and local authorities underlined the need of a better hydrogeological knowledge. Within the framework of the "Scaldwin" project (launched in 2008), a hydrogeological model will be built. To reach these objectives, existing data were compiled, updated and treated. Moreover, new data were collected since 2009: 11 boreholes were drilled, 2 piezometrical maps were drawn and 2 field sampling campaigns were carried out in March and November 2011 to collect groundwater for further analyses. As a first step, the conceptual hydrogeological map was reviewed considering new knowledge of the geometry and water levels of this aquifer. Then, the hydrogeochemical study was undertaken in order to dispel doubts on some specific aspects such as: relationships between the deep (carbonated Carboniferous) and the surface (chalky Cretaceous) aquifers, delineation of the southern Carboniferous aquifer limit, mechanisms of sulphate enrichment… Major and trace elements, dissolved gases (CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, SF6) and various isotopes (δ2H, δ18O, δ11B, δ34S, δ18O-SO4, δ13C, 14C) were analysed in water sampled from 36 wells exploiting the Carboniferous limestones (16 in the French part and 20 in Belgium) and 4 waters from the chalk aquifer. Cation exchange process is playing an important role

  14. Use and experience of radiological evaluation tools for the early phase during nuclear emergency exercises in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Royal Decree on 'The Emergency Plan for Nuclear Risks an the Belgian Territory' describes the role and tasks of the different stakeholders involved in case of a nuclear crisis affecting Belgium. The crisis is managed from within the Governmental Crisis Coordination Centre in Brussels where various functional cells meet according to the notification and alarm levels. Decisions about countermeasures are taken at federal level by a Coordination Committee headed by the Minister of Interior. These may be preceded by rapid decision making initiated at provincial and local levels in case of an imminent radiological threat. An information cell stands for the release of official information and instructions to the media and the public and for the monitoring of public reactions. A crucial step for a sound intervention decision making is the radiological evaluation process. The evaluation cell is responsible to gather all relevant information, to analyse it and to give advice on the best intervention strategy to the coordination committee. The primary source of information originates from the nuclear operator which must legally transmit recurrent information about the actual and forecasted status and release of the plant, the actual meteorological situation, the expected off-site radiological consequences and, if possible, environmental measurements. The evaluation cell is assisted by the measurement cell which elaborates and executes a monitoring campaign based an advice of the evaluation cell. The national monitoring network called Telerad provides another input of information. In consultation with the authorities, a rather simple yet highly flexible radiological evaluation tool to be used by the two main nuclear power plants in Belgium (Doel and Tihange) during the early phase has been developed by SCK-CEN, i.e. Noodplan Kerncentrale Doel and Plan d'Urgence Zone de Production Nucleaire de Tihange. The principal module allows computing in real-time the main

  15. Identification of the nitrate contamination sources of the Brusselian sands groundwater body (Belgium) using a dual-isotope approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattern, Samuel; Vanclooster, Marnik

    2010-05-01

    Knowledge of the groundwater pollution source is of primary importance to define appropriate remediation strategies. Yet, the identification of the contamination sources remains a complicated task. A dual isotope approach has been used to provide information for tracing sources of nitrate in water. In this study, we used the naturally occurring stable isotopic composition of groundwater nitrate (1) to evaluate the origin of nitrate in the Brussels sands aquifer (Belgium) and (2) to study the temporal dynamics of the isotope signature of groundwater nitrate in this region. Potential N sources sampled in the region, including e.g. ammonium and nitrate mineral fertilizers, sewage and rain, had isotopic signatures that fell within the corresponding typical ranges found in literature. Some of them however deviated from the isotopic ranges corresponding to typical N sources, illustrating the impact of processes affecting the isotopic signature of the nitrate sources. During a pluri-annual sampling campaign, groundwater samples were collected at 10 moments between June 2007 and February of 2009 over 9 monitoring stations located in the western part of the study area. The isotopic data time series suggest that, most of the time, N applied on the soil has been cycled in the soil by micro-organisms before leaching to the groundwater, while the isotopic data and the high nitrate concentrations strongly suggests that nitrate of the groundwater sampled in January 2008 principally originates from mineral fertilizers. The isotopic data measured at some of the 114 monitoring stations across the study area strongly suggests that the sources of nitrate are mineral fertilizers used in agriculture and golf courses, manure leaching from unprotected stockpiles in farms, domestic gardening practices, cesspools and probably cemeteries. Isotopic data are particularly helpful when associated with other information like historical data about monitoring stations, land use, chemical parameters

  16. Social differences in postponing a General Practitioner visit in Flanders, Belgium: which low-income patients are most at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlinde, Evelyn; Poppe, Annelien; DeSmet, Ann; Hermans, Koen; De Maeseneer, Jan; Van Audenhove, Chantal; Willems, Sara

    2013-07-01

    One of the main goals of primary care is providing equitable health-care, meaning equal access, equal treatment and equal outcomes of healthcare for all in equal need. Some studies show that patients from lower socioeconomic groups visit a GP more often, while other studies show that they are more likely to postpone a visit to a GP. In this study, we want to explore within the social group of low-income patients living in Flanders, Belgium, which patients have a higher risk of postponing a visit to a GP. A face-to-face questionnaire was administered among 606 low-income users of Public Social Services. The questionnaire consisted of questions on socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, social networks, health and healthcare use. A multivariate logistic regression model was built to study the relationship between postponing or cancelling a GP visit which respondents thought they needed and variables on health, socio-demographic background. The multivariate regression indicates that depression, self-rated health and trust in the GP independently predict postponing a visit to a GP. Low-income people with a low trust in the GP, people with a poor self-rated health and people suffering from a severe depression are more likely to postpone or cancel a GP visit they thought they needed compared to other people on low incomes. This might indicate that the access to health-care for low-income people might be hindered by barriers which are not directly linked to the cost of the consultation. PMID:23489284

  17. Health risk assessment of exposure to dioxin-like PCBs and dioxins in the City of Menen (Belgium)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouwen, J.; Provoost, J.; Cornelis, C.; Bronders, J.; Fre, R. de; Clauvenbergern, R. van [Flemish Insitute for Technological Research (Vito) (Belgium)

    2004-09-15

    The City of Menen is a well-outlined residential area located in the neighbourhood of two waste incinerators. The waste incinerators (Menen (Belgium) and Roncq (France)) are in full operation since the eighties. Emission measurements indicate that they fulfil the European Union dioxin emission standard of 0.1 ng TEQ/m{sup 3}. Despite this, new deposition measurements and analysis of milk in this region indicate a high burden of the local environment with dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dioxin-like PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). It should be noted that formerly the City of Menen was also surrounded by other potential dioxin sources, among them a dye factory, some small illegal cable burning houses, a pressed board manufacturer, and a metal recycling plant. Before 1984, fly ashes of the waste incinerator were locally used as road materials and transported. This could be a secondary source. Additionally the Environmental Inspection has regularly noticed some large open waste fires in this region and follows up the situation. On request of the Public Waste Agency of Flanders (OVAM) an inventory of all dioxin measurements within the city area was made. The ratio of the dioxin-like PCBs compared to the PCDD/Fs in these measurement results was unexpectedly high. As a consequence of this and in order to achieve an optimal risk assessment for the people living in the City of Menen an additional sampling of soil, vegetables and eggs was carried out. This article focuses on the relative amounts of dioxin-like PCBs and PCDD/Fs in the different media and the consequences for the outcome of the risk assessment.

  18. A trend analysis of antimicrobial resistance in commensal Escherichia coli from several livestock species in Belgium (2011-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanon, Jean-Baptiste; Jaspers, Stijn; Butaye, Patrick; Wattiau, Pierre; Méroc, Estelle; Aerts, Marc; Imberechts, Hein; Vermeersch, Katie; Van der Stede, Yves

    2015-12-01

    A temporal trend analysis was performed on antimicrobial resistance data collected over 4 consecutive years (2011-2014) in the official Belgian antimicrobial resistance monitoring programme. Commensal Escherichia coli strains were isolated from faecal samples of four livestock categories (veal calves, young beef cattle, broiler chickens and slaughter pigs) and the trends of resistance profiles were analysed. The resistance prevalence remained high (>50%) during the study period for ampicillin in veal calves and chickens, for ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid in chickens, for sulfamethoxazole in veal calves, chickens and pigs and for tetracycline in veal calves. Using logistic regression and Generalized Estimating Equation and after p value adjustment for multiple testing (Linear step-up method), statistically significant decreasing temporal trends were observed for several of the 11 tested antimicrobials in several livestock categories: in veal calves (10/11), in chickens (6/11) and in pigs (5/11). A significant increasing trend was observed for the prevalence of resistance to ciprofloxacin in chickens. Multi-resistance, considered as the resistance to at least three antimicrobials of different antibiotic classes, was observed in the four livestock categories but was significantly decreasing in veal calves, chickens and pigs. Overall, the prevalence of resistance and of multi-resistance was lowest in the beef cattle livestock category and highest in broiler chickens. These decreasing temporal trends of antimicrobial resistance might be due to a decrease of the total antimicrobial consumption for veterinary use in Belgium which was reported for the period between 2010 and 2013. The methodology and statistical tools developed in this study provide outputs which can detect shifts in resistance levels or resistance trends associated with particular antimicrobial classes and livestock categories. Such outputs can be used as objective evidence to evaluate the possible

  19. Increasing trends of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) in temperate forests under recovery from acidification in Flanders, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraeten, Arne; Verschelde, Pieter; De Vos, Bruno; Neirynck, Johan; Cools, Nathalie; Roskams, Peter; Hens, Maarten; Louette, Gerald; Sleutel, Steven; De Neve, Stefaan

    2016-05-15

    We evaluated trends (2005-2013) and patterns of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and its ratio with dissolved organic carbon (DOC), DOC:DON in atmospheric deposition and soil solution of five Level II plots of the International Co-operative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests (ICP Forests) in Flanders, Northern Belgium. The primary aim was to confirm positive postulated trends in DON levels and DOC:DON under on-going recovery from acidification. The DON concentrations (0.95-1.41mgL(-1)) and fluxes (5.6-8.3kgha(-1)y(-1)) in throughfall were about twice as high compared to precipitation in the open field (0.40-0.48mgL(-1), 3.0-3.9kgha(-1)y(-1)). Annual soil profile leaching losses of DON varied between 1.2 and 3.7kgha(-1)y(-1). The highest soil DON concentrations and fluxes were observed beneath the O horizon (1.84-2.36mgL(-1), 10.1-12.3kgha(-1)y(-1)). Soil solution concentrations and fluxes of DON showed significant increasing trends. Temporarily soil solution DOC:DON rose following an exceptionally long spring drought in 2007, suggesting an effect of drying and rewetting on DOM composition. Further research is needed to test the dependence of DON and DOC:DON on factors such as latitude, forest cover, length of the growing season, hydrology and topography. Nonetheless, even with considerable variation in soil type, level of base saturation, and soil texture in the five included ICP Forests Level II plots, all data revealed a proportionally larger positive response of DON flux than DOC to recovery from acidification. PMID:26906698

  20. Distribution of phthalates, pesticides and drug residues in the dissolved, particulate and sedimentary phases from transboundary rivers (France-Belgium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Net, Sopheak; Rabodonirina, Suzanah; Sghaier, Rafika Ben; Dumoulin, David; Chbib, Chaza; Tlili, Ines; Ouddane, Baghdad

    2015-07-15

    Various drug residues, pesticides and phthalates are ubiquitous in the environment. Their presence in the environment has attracted considerable attention due to their potential impacts on ecosystem functioning and on public health. In this work, 14 drug residues, 24 pesticides and 6 phthalates have been quantified in three matrices (in the dissolved phase, associated to suspended solid matter (SSM), and in sediment) collected from fifteen watercourses and rivers located in a highly industrialized zone at the cross-border area of Northern France and Belgium. The extractions have been carried out using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) for solid matrices (SSM and sediment) and using solid phase extraction (SPE) for liquid matrix. The final extract was analyzed using GC-MS technique. Among the three classes of compounds, phthalates have been found at highest level compared to pesticides and drug residues. The Σ6PAE concentrations were ranging from 17.2±2.58 to 179.1±26.9μgL(-1) in dissolved phase, from 2.9±0.4 to 21.1±3.2μgL(-1) in SSM and from 1.1±0.2 to 11.9±1.8μgg(-1)dw in sediment. The Σ14drug residue concentrations were lower than 1.3μgL(-1) in the dissolved phases, lower than 30ngL(-1) associated to SSM and from nondetectable levels to 60.7±9.1ngg(-1)dw in sediment. For pesticides, all compounds were below the LOQ values in dissolved phase and in sediment, and only EPTC could be quantified in SSM. PMID:25829293

  1. The emergence and development of Brussels (Belgium): the contribution of an interdisciplinary study of the urban soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devos, Yannick; Vrydaghs, Luc; Degraeve, Ann; Modrie, Sylvianne

    2010-05-01

    The actual Brussels' landscape is the result of a progressing anthropisation and urbanisation. Traces of these processes have been conserved in the urban soil. In order to clarify and identify them, a research protocol involving archaeopedology, micro-archaeology and archaeobotany has been developed (DEVOS et al., 2009). Research has so far focussed on the early phases of urban development (10th-13th century AD), which remains a historical poorly documented period. The study of the urban soil and more particularly of the Dark Earth witnesses profound transformations of the environment ensuing human activities such as agriculture, pasturing or quarrying. A second research focus has been the accumulation of ancient pollution in the historical town centre. Ancient texts mention repeatedly nuisances caused by several artisanal activities, as well as the presence of all kind of waste deposits (DELIGNE, 2003). Unfortunately, these sources do not provide reliable data on the importance of the different kinds of pollution. The systematic application of the interdisciplinary research protocol during the follow up of archaeological excavations throughout the historical town centre shows a growing impact of heavy metal pollution for several sites in the upper part of the city while the sites in the lower part of the city are mainly affected by organic pollution, related to agricultural and artisanal activities. Acknowledgements The authors want to thank the Brussels Capital Region who financed this research. Bibliography DELIGNE, C. 2003. Bruxelles et sa rivière. Genèse d'un territoire urbain (12e-18e siècle), Turnhout. (=Studies in European Urban History (1100-1800), 1). DEVOS Y., VRYDAGHS L., DEGRAEVE A. & FECHNER K. 2009: An archaeopedological and phytolitarian study of the "Dark Earth" on the site of Rue de Dinant (Brussels, Belgium). Catena, 78, 270-284. (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2009.02.013).

  2. Prevalence and sources of Campylobacter spp. contamination in free-range broiler production in the southern part of Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandeplas, S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A one year epidemiological study was carried out between February 2005 and February 2006 in the southern part of Belgium to assess the Campylobacter prevalence in free-range broiler production. Three successive broiler flocks from six Belgian farms were investigated for the presence of Campylobacter spp. during the rearing period. Each flock was visited four times, before and after the outdoor rearing period. During each visit, samples were taken in the broiler house (litter, cecal droppings, water-lines, feed, anteroom as well as from the outer rearing environment (open-air range. The Campylobacter detection in all samples was carried out according to the ISO 10272 standard. Identification was based on colonial morphology, microscopic examination, and biochemical tests. PCR multiplex was used for genetic confirmation. Campylobacter jejuni was the main species isolated from all contaminated samples. Overall, mixed infections C. jejuni / Campylobacter coli represented 40.6%, while C. jejuni and C. coli represented 46.9% and 12.5% of chicken samples respectively. A 100% flock contamination was observed in the 6 farms during the summer-autumn period, whereas only 66.7% and 33.3% of the flocks became Campylobacter-positive in spring and winter respectively, at the end of the rearing period. Half of contaminated flocks were infected before chickens have access to the open-air range. Environmental samples, especially the open-air range soil, were found to be Campylobacter-positive before flock infection. The other potential sources of contamination were delivery tray, anteroom floor and water-lines. Other animal productions like cattle on the farm, no applied rodent control, no cleaning and disinfection of water-lines between flocks, no detergent used for cleaning and thinning were recorded as risk factors. In conclusion, the contact with the environment, particularly the access to an open-air range, appeared to be the major way of Campylobacter

  3. A database on the distribution of butterflies (Lepidoptera) in northern Belgium (Flanders and the Brussels Capital Region).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Dirk; Vanreusel, Wouter; Herremans, Marc; Vantieghem, Pieter; Brosens, Dimitri; Gielen, Karin; Beck, Olivier; Van Dyck, Hans; Desmet, Peter; Natuurpunt, Vlinderwerkgroep

    2016-01-01

    In this data paper, we describe two datasets derived from two sources, which collectively represent the most complete overview of butterflies in Flanders and the Brussels Capital Region (northern Belgium). The first dataset (further referred to as the INBO dataset - http://doi.org/10.15468/njgbmh) contains 761,660 records of 70 species and is compiled by the Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO) in cooperation with the Butterfly working group of Natuurpunt (Vlinderwerkgroep). It is derived from the database Vlinderdatabank at the INBO, which consists of (historical) collection and literature data (1830-2001), for which all butterfly specimens in institutional and available personal collections were digitized and all entomological and other relevant publications were checked for butterfly distribution data. It also contains observations and monitoring data for the period 1991-2014. The latter type were collected by a (small) butterfly monitoring network where butterflies were recorded using a standardized protocol. The second dataset (further referred to as the Natuurpunt dataset - http://doi.org/10.15468/ezfbee) contains 612,934 records of 63 species and is derived from the database http://waarnemingen.be, hosted at the nature conservation NGO Natuurpunt in collaboration with Stichting Natuurinformatie. This dataset contains butterfly observations by volunteers (citizen scientists), mainly since 2008. Together, these datasets currently contain a total of 1,374,594 records, which are georeferenced using the centroid of their respective 5 × 5 km² Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) grid cell. Both datasets are published as open data and are available through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). PMID:27199606

  4. Combined landslide inventory and susceptibility assessment based on different mapping units: an example from the Flemish Ardennes, Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Van Den Eeckhaut

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available For a 277 km2 study area in the Flemish Ardennes, Belgium, a landslide inventory and two landslide susceptibility zonations were combined to obtain an optimal landslide susceptibility assessment, in five classes. For the experiment, a regional landslide inventory, a 10 m × 10 m digital representation of topography, and lithological and soil hydrological information obtained from 1:50 000 scale maps, were exploited. In the study area, the regional inventory shows 192 landslides of the slide type, including 158 slope failures occurred before 1992 (model calibration set, and 34 failures occurred after 1992 (model validation set. The study area was partitioned in 2.78×106 grid cells and in 1927 topographic units. The latter are hydro-morphological units obtained by subdividing slope units based on terrain gradient. Independent models were prepared for the two terrain subdivisions using discriminant analysis. For grid cells, a single pixel was identified as representative of the landslide depletion area, and geo-environmental information for the pixel was obtained from the thematic maps. The landslide and geo-environmental information was used to model the propensity of the terrain to host landslide source areas. For topographic units, morphologic and hydrologic information and the proportion of lithologic and soil hydrological types in each unit, were used to evaluate landslide susceptibility, including the depletion and depositional areas. Uncertainty associated with the two susceptibility models was evaluated, and the model performance was tested using the independent landslide validation set. An heuristic procedure was adopted to combine the landslide inventory and the susceptibility zonations. The procedure makes optimal use of the available landslide and susceptibility information, minimizing the limitations inherent in the inventory and the susceptibility maps. For the established susceptibility classes, regulations to

  5. Mapping mean total annual precipitation in Belgium, by investigating the scale of topographic control at the regional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meersmans, J.; Van Weverberg, K.; De Baets, S.; De Ridder, F.; Palmer, S. J.; van Wesemael, B.; Quine, T. A.

    2016-09-01

    Accurate precipitation maps are essential for ecological, environmental, element cycle and hydrological models that have a spatial output component. It is well known that topography has a major influence on the spatial distribution of precipitation and that increasing topographical complexity is associated with increased spatial heterogeneity in precipitation. This means that when mapping precipitation using classical interpolation techniques (e.g. regression, kriging, spline, inverse distance weighting, etc.), a climate measuring network with higher spatial density is needed in mountainous areas in order to obtain the same level of accuracy as compared to flatter regions. In this study, we present a mean total annual precipitation mapping technique that combines topographical information (i.e. elevation and slope orientation) with average total annual rain gauge data in order to overcome this problem. A unique feature of this paper is the identification of the scale at which topography influences the precipitation pattern as well as the direction of the dominant weather circulation. This method was applied for Belgium and surroundings and shows that the identification of the appropriate scale at which topographical obstacles impact precipitation is crucial in order to obtain reliable mean total annual precipitation maps. The dominant weather circulation is determined at 260°. Hence, this approach allows accurate mapping of mean annual precipitation patterns in regions characterized by rather high topographical complexity using a climate data network with a relatively low density and/or when more advanced precipitation measurement techniques, such as radar, aren't available, for example in the case of historical data.

  6. Spatial interpolation of daily rainfall at catchment scale: a case study of the Ourthe and Ambleve catchments, Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ly

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Spatial interpolation of precipitation data is of great importance for hydrological modelling. Geostatistical methods (krigings are widely used in spatial interpolation from point measurement to continuous surfaces. However, the majority of existing geostatistical algorithms are available only for single-moment data. The first step in kriging computation is the semi-variogram modelling which usually uses only one variogram model for all-moment data. The objective of this paper was to develop different algorithms of spatial interpolation for daily rainfall on 1 km2 regular grids in the catchment area and to compare the results of geostatistical and deterministic approaches. In this study, we used daily rainfall data from 70 raingages in the hilly landscape of the Ourthe and Ambleve catchments in Belgium (2908 km2. This area lies between 35 and 693 m in elevation and consists of river networks, which are tributaries of the Meuse River. For geostatistical algorithms, Cressie's Approximate Weighted Least Squares method was used to fit seven semi-variogram models (logarithmic, power, exponential, Gaussian, rational quadratic, spherical and penta-spherical to daily sample semi-variogram on a daily basis. Seven selected raingages were used to compare the interpolation performance of these algorithms applied to many degenerated-raingage cases. Spatial interpolation with the geostatistical and Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW algorithms outperformed considerably interpolation with the Thiessen polygon that is commonly used in various hydrological models. Kriging with an External Drift (KED and Ordinary Cokriging (OCK presented the highest Root Mean Square Error (RMSE between the geostatistical and IDW methods. Ordinary Kriging (ORK and IDW were considered to be the best methods, as they provided smallest RMSE value for nearly all cases.

  7. Associations between perceived neighborhood environmental attributes and adults' sedentary behavior: findings from the U.S.A., Australia and Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyck, Delfien; Cerin, Ester; Conway, Terry L; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Owen, Neville; Kerr, Jacqueline; Cardon, Greet; Frank, Lawrence D; Saelens, Brian E; Sallis, James F

    2012-05-01

    Sedentary behaviors are associated with multiple health problems, independently of physical activity. Neighborhood environment attributes might influence sedentary behaviors, but few studies have investigated these relationships. Moreover, all previous studies have been conducted within single countries, limiting environmental variability. We investigated the shape of associations between perceived neighborhood environment attributes and sedentary behavior in three countries; and whether these associations differed by country and gender. Data from U.S.A. (Seattle and Baltimore regions), Australia (Adelaide) and Belgium (Ghent) were pooled. Data collection took place between 2002 and 2008. In total, 6014 adults (20-65 years, 55.7% women) were recruited in high-/low-walkability and high-/low-income neighborhoods. All participants completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (domain-specific physical activity, transport-related sitting and overall time spent sitting) and the Neighborhood Environmental Walkability Scale (environmental perceptions). The number of destinations within a 20 min walk from home, perceiving few cul-de-sacs, good walking and cycling facilities, and traffic safety were included in an index of motorized transport correlates. This index was linearly negatively associated with motorized transport time, so the higher the scores on the index (more activity-friendliness), the lower the amount of motorized transport. No gender- or country-differences were identified. Perceived aesthetics and proximity of destinations were included in an index of overall sitting time correlates. A linear negative relationship with overall sitting time was found, but associations were stronger for men and not significant in Belgian adults. In conclusion, consistent and expected correlates were found for motorized transport in the three countries, but results were less clear for overall sitting time. Future studies should include even more countries to

  8. GIS-BASED location optimization of a biomass conversion plant on contaminated willow in the Campine region (Belgium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Campine region is diffusely contaminated with heavy metals like cadmium. Since traditional excavation techniques are too expensive, phytoremediation is preferred as a remediation technique. In a previous study, the biomass potential from phytoremediation of contaminated agricultural land in the Campine region in Belgium was assessed. Based on recently upgraded figures of willow potential from phytoremediation on agricultural land in the seven most contaminated municipalities of the Belgian Campine region, the current paper uses GIS-knowledge to investigate which of three previously identified locations is most suitable for a biomass plant, taking into account the spatial distribution of the contaminated willow supply and the total cost of willow transport. Biomass transport distance from the centroid of each contaminated agricultural parcel to each of the three potential biomass plant locations was determined following Euclidian distance calculations and distance calculations over the existing road network. A transport cost model consisting of distance fixed and distance dependent biomass transport costs was developed. Of the locations identified, the Overpelt Fabriek site results in the lowest biomass transport distance and costs. When willow allocation for each parcel occurs based on the nearest potential plant location, transport costs are on average 23% lower than when all biomass is transported to the single Overpelt Fabriek site location. Therefore, when only considering transport costs, installing a smaller plant at each of the three potential plant locations would be less expensive than when installing a single biomass plant at the Overpelt Fabriek site. -- Highlights: ► Overpelt Fabriek site most attractive for time frames considered. ► Average tortuosity factor in Campine region between 1.27 and 1.42. ► Share of willow transport costs in willow supply costs 21%. ► Optimal allocation of willow results in lower transport costs

  9. A database on the distribution of butterflies (Lepidoptera) in northern Belgium (Flanders and the Brussels Capital Region)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Dirk; Vanreusel, Wouter; Herremans, Marc; Vantieghem, Pieter; Brosens, Dimitri; Gielen, Karin; Beck, Olivier; Van Dyck, Hans; Desmet, Peter; Natuurpunt, Vlinderwerkgroep

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this data paper, we describe two datasets derived from two sources, which collectively represent the most complete overview of butterflies in Flanders and the Brussels Capital Region (northern Belgium). The first dataset (further referred to as the INBO dataset – http://doi.org/10.15468/njgbmh) contains 761,660 records of 70 species and is compiled by the Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO) in cooperation with the Butterfly working group of Natuurpunt (Vlinderwerkgroep). It is derived from the database Vlinderdatabank at the INBO, which consists of (historical) collection and literature data (1830-2001), for which all butterfly specimens in institutional and available personal collections were digitized and all entomological and other relevant publications were checked for butterfly distribution data. It also contains observations and monitoring data for the period 1991-2014. The latter type were collected by a (small) butterfly monitoring network where butterflies were recorded using a standardized protocol. The second dataset (further referred to as the Natuurpunt dataset – http://doi.org/10.15468/ezfbee) contains 612,934 records of 63 species and is derived from the database http://waarnemingen.be, hosted at the nature conservation NGO Natuurpunt in collaboration with Stichting Natuurinformatie. This dataset contains butterfly observations by volunteers (citizen scientists), mainly since 2008. Together, these datasets currently contain a total of 1,374,594 records, which are georeferenced using the centroid of their respective 5 × 5 km² Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) grid cell. Both datasets are published as open data and are available through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). PMID:27199606

  10. Physical and mental quality of life in adult patients with haemophilia in Belgium: the impact of financial issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalhosa, A M; Henrard, S; Lambert, C; Hermans, C

    2014-07-01

    In Belgium, where haemophilia affects approximately 1:7000 people (2011), data on patients' quality of life (QoL) is scarce. This project aims to assess physical and mental QoL (P-QoL and M-QoL) simultaneously, and to analyse the influence of different variables on these two aspects of QoL. After Ethics Committee approval, we contacted 84 adult haemophilia A (HA) and haemophilia B (HB) patients, without current inhibitors, on replacement therapy (on-demand or secondary prophylaxis), regularly followed up at our comprehensive treatment centre. Seventy-one (n = 59 HA, n = 12 HB) replied to our questionnaire, which included the SF36v2 QoL assessment forms. We analysed two groups of variables: one including variables previously associated with decreased QoL, and another including variables with unclear impact on QoL (e.g., patients' understanding of haemophilia-related issues, economical concerns). In our population (mean ± SD age: 45.2 ± 14.7 years old), P-QoL appeared more reduced than M-QoL. P-QoL was strongly influenced by the number of arthropathies while M-QoL was primarily affected by patients' concern of personal costs due to haemophilia. Among this latter group, having knowledge of insurance coverage had a positive impact on M-QoL. Scores did not depend on haemophilia type. QoL was impaired in our haemophilia patients. A simultaneous assessment of P-QoL and M-QoL confirmed the benefit of primary prophylaxis in P-QoL, while originally pointing out the major burden of patients' concerns and poor understanding of haemophilia-related economical issues on their M-QoL. This might become a particularly challenging issue in times of financial crisis. PMID:24354566

  11. From root zone modelling to regional forecasting of nitrate concentration in recharge flows - The case of the Walloon Region (Belgium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohier, C.; Degré, A.; Dautrebande, S.

    2009-05-01

    SummaryIn order to model the nitrate concentration of the recharge water in a spatially distributed way for the agricultural areas of the Walloon Region of Belgium, the EPIC model was first adapted to the specific soil description by modifying the reservoir sizes. It was also adapted to the regional crop production by modifying classcrop files in relation with observed data (both aerial and underground crop growth, yield) in wheat, sugar beet, and potato fields. As the vadose zone presents a depth between 1.5 and 104 m in this region, new reservoirs were added according to the geological descriptions available. Deep nitrate transfer was validated in a specific site where cropping history was known. Nitrate nitrogen after harvest in the root zone was validated for wheat within different crop rotations using the first results of a nitrate-monitoring program planned by the authorities to test the effectiveness of the mitigation measures in agriculture. This extended model was also linked to a GIS (geographical information system) using 1 km 2-cells. All the required data were rasterised to allow HRU (hydrological response unit) identification within the cells. The cell's daily water flows are weighted flows of each HRU depending on their relative area within the cell. Water balances at catchment scale allow us to validate the calculation. Taking into account the evolution of distributed land use and observed climatic data, we have built maps of fast indicators and long-term indicators. The first map represents nitrate concentration in the water leaving the root zone and the second one represents the time transfer for nitrate from 1.5 m depth to the groundwater table and nitrate concentration in recharge water. These maps constitute major tools for nitrogen management at a regional level.

  12. Effect evaluation of a road safety education program based on victim testimonials in high schools in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenen, Ariane; Brijs, Kris; Brijs, Tom; Van Vlierden, Karin; Daniels, Stijn; Wets, Geert

    2016-09-01

    For several decades policy makers worldwide have experimented with testimonials as a strategy to promote road safety supportive views in a wide variety of target populations such as recidivists and students. In its basic format, a (relative of) a victim or an offender brings a personal testimonial of what it is to experience a traffic accident. The underlying idea is that such a testimonial will emotionally affect participants, thereby stimulating them to cognitively reflect upon their own behavior and responsibility as a road user. Unfortunately, empirical literature on the effectiveness of this strategy is rather scarce and inconsistent. This study investigated the effect of a large-scale program with victim testimonials for high schools in Belgium on five socio-cognitive and behavioral variables drawn from the Theory of Planned Behavior (i.e., attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, behavioral intention and behavior). Moreover, this study investigated program effects on participants' cognitive and emotional estate and whether this influences the program's impact on socio-cognitive and behavioral variables. Our test sample included 1362 students, who were assigned to a baseline - follow-up group and a post-test - follow-up group. We questioned both groups, a first time (just before or after session attendance) on paper, and a second time (two months after session attendance) online. Results indicate the program had, both immediate and two months after attendance, small to medium positive effects on most socio-cognitive and behavioral variables. However, effects depended on participants' demographic profile, their baseline values on the socio-cognitive and behavioral variables, and the degree to which they were cognitively/emotionally affected by the program. We discuss the practical implications of these findings and formulate recommendations for the development of future interventions based on victim testimonials. PMID:27240125

  13. R and D program concerning radioactive waste disposal in deep geologic formation (Study of an argilaceous formation in Belgium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1974 it was decided to start up research with a view to safe disposal of conditioned waste in geological formations in Belgium. A first R and D programme was set up for study of the Boom clay in the Mol region. Multiple research projects have been undertaken; both experimental research in the field and in the laboratory and theoretical studies. Different exploratory drillings for geohydrological and geotechnical research were performed at the potential site. Teledetection and seismic prospection campaigns have provided data on the dimensions of the argillaceous layer and on the absence of major faults. Clay samples collected during drilling campaigns have been submitted to a number of analyses in laboratory as well as analyses of possible interactions between the clay and the conditioned waste to be stored. Some of these laboratory analyses, in particular, those concerning heat transfer and corrosion have been completed by more representative experiments in a clay pit. Various mathematical models have been developed and adapted with a view to better understanding of physical and physico-chemical phenomena like heat transfer, migration and retardation of radionuclides. A feasibility study was performed. Concerning safety analyses, a probabilistic study was undertaken on the behaviour of the geological barrier. The fault tree analysis technique was applied and the study was carried out in close collaboration with the Joint Rsearch Centre in Ispra. The underground experimental room at about 220 m depth was not yet relised but the technico-economical dossier has made such progress that the excavation can start in the very beginning of the next five-year programme

  14. GIS-based assessment of the biomass potential from phytoremediation of contaminated agricultural land in the Campine region in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dedicated energy crop cultivation is expected to be the prevalent form of biomass production for reaching renewable energy targets set by the European Union. However, there are some concerns with regard to its sustainability. This study demonstrates how this problem can be evaded by applying phytoremediation, i.e. the use of plants to remove pollutants from moderately contaminated soils. By selecting the appropriate plants a considerable biomass flow is produced without taking in scarce agricultural land, while simultaneously remediating the soil to levels of contamination below threshold values. Since phytoremediation is only applicable within a limited range of soil pollutant concentrations, the outer values of this range have to be determined at first. Subsequently, a Geographic Information System (GIS) is needed to perform further analyses. The contamination in the region is predicted using GIS, after which the agricultural area is determined that can be committed to energy crop cultivation. This way, the biomass potential and the resulting bioenergy potential from phytoremediation can be assessed. In this paper the Campine region in Belgium, a region diffusely contaminated with heavy metals like cadmium (Cd), is examined. It is illustrated that more than 2000 ha of agricultural land hold Cd concentrations exceeding guide values set by the Flemish Government. However, a large majority of these soils can be remediated by phytoremediation within a reasonable time span of 42 years. Concurrently, a significant amount of biomass is supplied for renewable energy production. -- Highlights: → More than 2000 ha of agricultural land have elevated Cd concentrations. → 87% can be remediated within 42 years by phytoremediation. → Annual biomass flow of 19 067 Mg for 21 years.

  15. Opening the research agenda for selection of hot spots for human biomonitoring research in Belgium: a participatory research project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chovanova Hana

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to select priority hotspots for environment and health research in Flanders (Belgium, an open procedure was organized. Environment and health hotspots are strong polluting point sources with possible health effects for residents living in the vicinity of the hot spot. The selection procedure was part of the work of the Flemish Centre of Expertise for Environment and Health, which investigates the relation between environmental pollution and human health. The project is funded and steered by the Flemish government. Methods The involvement of other actors than merely experts is inspired by the 'analytical-deliberative' approach of the National Research Council in the United States and the extended peer community approach. These approaches stress the importance of involving different expert- and social perspectives in order to increase the knowledge base on complex issues. In the procedure used in the project a combination of expert and stakeholder input was essential. The final decision was supported by a multi-criteria analysis of expert assessment and stakeholder advice. Results The endeavour was challenging from the start because of the complicated ambition of including a diversity of actors, potential hotspots, concerns and assessment criteria, but nevertheless the procedure proved its value in both structuring and informing the decision-making process. Moreover the process gained the support of most actors participating in the process, even though the final selection could not satisfy all preferences. Conclusions Opening the research agenda exemplifies the value of inter- and transdisciplinary cooperation as well as the need for a well-structured and negotiated procedure that combines relevant factors and actors with pragmatism. The value of such a process also needs to prove itself in practice after the procedure has been completed: the tension between an ambition of openness on the one hand and a more closed

  16. Schmallenberg Virus Circulation in Culicoides in Belgium in 2012: Field Validation of a Real Time RT-PCR Approach to Assess Virus Replication and Dissemination in Midges

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Regge, Nick; Madder, Maxime; Deblauwe, Isra; Losson, Bertrand; Fassotte, Christiane; Demeulemeester, Julie; Smeets, François; Tomme, Marie; Cay, Ann Brigitte

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous Culicoides biting midges are suggested to be putative vectors for the recently emerged Schmallenberg virus (SBV) based on SBV RNA detection in field-caught midges. Furthermore, SBV replication and dissemination has been evidenced in C. sonorensis under laboratory conditions. After SBV had been detected in Culicoides biting midges from Belgium in August 2011, it spread all over the country by the end of 2011, as evidenced by very high between-herd seroprevalence rates in sheep and cattle. This study investigated if a renewed SBV circulation in midges occurred in 2012 in the context of high seroprevalence in the animal host population and evaluated if a recently proposed realtime RT-PCR approach that is meant to allow assessing the vector competence of Culicoides for SBV and bluetongue virus under laboratory conditions was applicable to field-caught midges. Therefore midges caught with 12 OVI traps in four different regions in Belgium between May and November 2012, were morphologically identified, age graded, pooled and tested for the presence of SBV RNA by realtime RT-PCR. The results demonstrate that although no SBV could be detected in nulliparous midges caught in May 2012, a renewed but short lived circulation of SBV in parous midges belonging to the subgenus Avaritia occured in August 2012 at all four regions. The infection prevalence reached up to 2.86% in the south of Belgium, the region where a lower seroprevalence was found at the end of 2011 than in the rest of the country. Furthermore, a frequency analysis of the Ct values obtained for 31 SBV-S segment positive pools of Avaritia midges showed a clear bimodal distribution with peaks of Ct values between 21–24 and 33–36. This closely resembles the laboratory results obtained for SBV infection of C. sonorensis and implicates indigenous midges belonging to the subgenus Avaritia as competent vectors for SBV. PMID:24466312

  17. Simulation Based Assessment of Heat Pumping Potential in Non-Residential Buildings – Part 3: Application to a typical office building in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Fabry, Bertrand; Andre, Philippe; Bertagnolio, Stéphane; Lebrun, Jean; Stabat, Pascal

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the application of the tools presented in a companion paper [1] to a typical office building located in the Walloon Region of Belgium. This building is a mid-size (7000 m² on seven floors) office building constructed in the eighties and equipped with a classical HVAC solution: boiler and air-cooled chiller; all-air VAV system. An energy audit was conducted in this building and featured a number of management problems. Among the Energy Co...

  18. Opal-CT precipitation in a clayey soil explained by geochemical transport model of dissolved Si (Blégny, Belgium)

    OpenAIRE

    Ronchi, Benedicta; Barao, A.L.; Vandevenne, F.; Van Gaelen, N.; Verheyen, D.; Adriaens, R.; Batelaan, Okke; Dassargues, Alain; E. Struyf; Diels, Jan; Govers, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Opal-CT precipitation controlling dissolved Si export Dissolved Si (DSi) exported by rivers are controlled by geological, hydrological and biological cycle processes [1]. The DSi concentrations measured in a river of an upstream catchment in eastern Belgium (Blégny, Land of Herve) don’t vary seasonally (6.91±0.94mgL-1; n=363). Si concentrations in pore water are often higher and vary more (8.65±3.65mgL-1; n=128). The decrease of DSi along the flowpath of water is due to sink processes, i....

  19. Cooperation under the RES Directive - Case study on a joint project: An offshore wind park in the North Sea (cooperation between the Netherlands, Belgium, UK, and Luxembourg)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitzing, Lena; Nysten, Jana; Gephart, Malte;

    This case study provides an overview of how cooperation on a large joint project could beimplemented. It seeks to make the descriptions as close to reality, hands-on and practical aspossible. That said, the case is not an actually ongoing case, but should be seen as a potential projectidea...... joint project, organising the necessary negotiations and initiatives. The country will alsoassume most risks related to the development of the wind park. Therefore, we assume that the jointproject will be shared in the following way: 40% to Belgium, 30% to the Netherlands, and 30% tothe UK. We further...

  20. ‘Puisé Aux Meilleures Sources’: Textual and Visual Strategies of Mid‐19th‐Century Architectural Historiography in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Van Impe, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    The Belgian architectural world of the 19th century has been considered a fascinating though little studied crossroads of influences. The same could be said of the architectural historiography of Belgium, which only established its independence from its powerful neighbours in 1830. Two of its canonical architectural historical publications, the Histoire de l’architecture en Belgique by A.G.B. Schayes (1808–59) and the Histoire de l’influence italienne sur l’architecture dans les Pays-Bas by A...