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Sample records for belgian reactor 2

  1. Irradiation of Fuel Elements in the Belgian BR3 Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under a contract concluded by EURATOM and CEN-BelgoNucléaire, fuel rods containing plutonium-enriched uranium were irradiated in the Belgian BR3 reactor with the object of evaluating the behaviour of plutonium fuel elements in power reactors. The first experiment consisted in introducing 12 fuel elements fabricated by vibration and compacting followed by swaging into a core assembly of the BR3 pressurized-water power reactor. Irradiation was carried out for a period corresponding to 4820 h at full power. Subsequent examination of the fuel rods showed that they had been unaffected by irradiation. A second series of experiments is being carried out in collaboration with the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority. These experiments involve irradiating an assembly of 37 plutonium-enriched fuel elements, some compacted and others of the pellet type, in the BR3/VN power reactor. The fabrication of the vibrocompacted elements and the thermal studies relating to the assembly are briefly described. (author)

  2. A CO2-strategy for BTC [Belgian Development Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailly, J. [Prospect C and S, Brussels (Belgium); Hanekamp, E. [Partners for Innovation, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2008-09-15

    The CO2 footprint is determined the CO2 strategy is developed for the Belgian Technical Cooperation (BTC). BTC is the Belgian agency for development cooperation, and finances development projects in 23 partner countries. The CO2 footprint covered BTC's activities in 2007 in all their offices worldwide. Footprint and strategy were finalised and adopted by the Executive Board at the end of 2008. Meanwhile, the BTC began with the introduction of the proposed strategy. Partners for Innovation and Prospect were asked to support the introduction of the strategy and to determine the CO2 footprint of 2008.

  3. Lessons learned from the decommissioning of the Belgian pressurized water test reactor BR3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BR3 plant was operated with the main objective of testing advanced PWR fuels under irradiation conditions similar to those encountered in large commercial PWR plants. In 1989, it was selected as one of the pilot projects of the European Commission for its R and D programme on Decommissioning of nuclear installations. With the decommissioning of the BR3 reactor, the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK·CEN gained a lot of experiences in the field of decommissioning. This paper describes the main phases carried out in the decommissioning project up till now and will discuss the main lessons to learn. (author)

  4. Qualification of non-destructive examination for belgian nuclear reactor pressure vessel inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couplet, D. [TRACTEBEL, Brussels (Belgium); Francoise, T. [Intercontrole, 94 - Rungis (France)

    2001-07-01

    In Service Inspection (ISI) participates to the assessment of Nuclear Reactor Pressure Vessel Integrity. The performance of Non Destructive Examination (NDE) techniques must be demonstrated according to predefined objectives. The qualification process is essential to trust the reliability of the information provided by NDE. In Belgian Nuclear Power Plants, the qualification was conducted through a collaboration between the vendor and a technical group from the Electricity Utility. The important facts of this qualification will be presented: - the detailed definition of the inspection and qualifications objectives, based on a combination of the ASME code and the European Methodology for Qualification; - the systematic verification of the NDE performance and limitations, for each ISI objective, through an adequate combination of tests on blocks and technical justification; - the continuous improvement of the NDE procedure; - the feedback and the lessons learnt from site experience; - the necessary multi-disciplinary approach (NDE, degradation mechanisms, structural integrity)

  5. SAFIR-2 and the Belgian methodological R and D programme on deep disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter de Preter (NIRAS/ONDRAF, Belgium) provided an overview of the Belgian programme of research and development on deep disposal. The planned submission in December 2001 of SAFIR 2 (the second Safety Assessment and Feasibility Interim Report) would mark an important milestone, as the report would inform a decision by the Belgian government on the nature of future research. An independent committee of scientists established by NIRAS/ONDRAF had reviewed a draft version of the report. The committee was generally in agreement with the technical R and D priorities proposed in the report but suggested that there should be more integration of technical and societal aspects. The committee also recommended that a future research programme should compare the option of deep disposal with other strategies for long-term management of radioactive wastes. It was suggested that a strategic environmental assessment might provide an appropriate mechanism for comparing alternative management strategies, and would enable societal dimensions also to be addressed

  6. VISIT OF BELGIAN FIRMS AT CERN: 2 - 3 APRIL 2003

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    14:00 to 17:30 hrs Wednesday 2nd April 09:00 to 17:30 hrsThursday 3rd April Individual interviews will take place in different conference rooms or in technicians' offices. The firms will contact relevant users/technicians but any user wishing to make contact with a particular firm is welcome to use the contact details which are available from each secretariat of division or from the Purchasing web pages at the following URL http://spl-div.web.cern.ch/spl-div/member_states/exhibitions_visits.htm List of Companies: 1. Advanco13. Gillam-Fei SA25. Opticable SA 2. Balteau SA14. G-Tec SA26. Orthodyne SA 3. Barco NV15. Groupe Hamon27. Polmans Atelier Mecanique 4. Blonde SA16. HTMS NV28. RESARM Engineering Plastics SA 5. Britte SA17. IMCORP Europe29. SAMTECH 6. Cablerie d'Eupen18. Inductive Systems Europe NV30. Schreder - Hazemeyer SA 7. Cegelec SA19. Link Software31. SYREG Sprl 8. Clever House20. MACQ Electronique SA32. Thales Communications Belgium 9. SA Coppee - Courtoy NV21. Mecanique de Precision pour Equipm...

  7. VISIT OF BELGIAN FIRMS AT CERN: 2 - 3 APRIL 2003

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    14:00 to 17:30 hrs Wednesday 2nd 09:00 to 17:30 hrs Thursday 3rd Individual interviews will take place in different conference rooms or in technicians' offices. The firms will contact relevant users/technicians but any user wishing to make contact with a particular firm is welcome to use the contact details which are available from each secretariat of division or from the Purchasing web pages at the following URL http://spl-div.web.cern.ch/spl-div/member_states/exhibitions_visits.htm. List of Companies: 1. Advanco18. Link Software 2. Balteau SA19. MACQ Electronique SA 3. Barco NV20. Mecanique de Precision pour Equipments 4. Blonde SA21. Mecasoft SA 5. Britte SA22. Mockel SCA 6. Cablerie d'Eupen23. Notifier Benelux 7. Cegelec SA24. Opticable SA 8. SA Coppee - Courtoy NV25. Orthodyne SA 9. Denys NV26. Polmans Atelier Mecanique 10. DSI Sprl27. RESARM Engineering Plastics SA 11. Engetec SA28. SAMTECH 12. Gillam-Fei SA29. Schreder - Hazemeyer SA 13. G-Tec SA30. SYREG Sprl 14. Groupe Hamon31. Thales Communication...

  8. VISIT OF BELGIAN FIRMS AT CERN: 2 - 3 APRIL 2003

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    14:00 to 17:30 hrs Wednesday 2nd 09:00 to 17:30 hrs Thursday 3rd Individual interviews will take place in different conference rooms or in technicians' offices. The firms will contact relevant users/technicians but any user wishing to make contact with a particular firm is welcome to use the contact details which are available from each secretariat of division or from the Purchasing web pages at the following URL http://spl-div.web.cern.ch/spl-div/member_states/exhibitions_visits.htm. List of Companies: 1. Advanco18. Link Software 2. Balteau SA19. MACQ Electronique SA 3. Barco NV20. Mecanique de Precision pour Equipments 4. Blonde SA21. Mecasoft SA 5. Britte SA22. Mockel SCA 6. Cablerie d'Eupen23. Notifier Benelux 7. Cegelec SA24. Opticable SA 8. SA Coppee - Courtoy NV25. Orthodyne SA 9. Denys NV26. Polmans Atelier Mecanique 10. DSI Sprl27. RESARM Engineering Plastics SA 11. Engetec SA28. SAMTECH 12. Gillam-Fei SA29. Schreder - Hazemeyer SA 13. G-Tec SA30. SYREG Sprl30. SYREG Sprl 14. Groupe Hamon31. Thale...

  9. A review of silicon neutron transmutation doping and its practice at French and Belgian research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of NTD of silicon in the semiconductor market for electrical power systems is a major incentive for the development of improved characteristics in terms of fabrication techniques and materials, in order to obtain, as economically as possible, components that are more compact, generate less waste and permit higher power ratings. The market demand for NTD silicon will be met as long as there are research reactors capable of offering a reliable irradiation service of adequate capacity and quality to the customer at a cost that is competitive with high quality chemically doped silicon. Production on a 'just in time' basis is becoming less and less compatible with the operation of research reactors, which are subject to increasingly stringent safety checks, particularly as many of them are more than 30 years old and therefore may be subject to ever increasing down times and longer outages for refurbishment. Consequently, cooperation between research reactors will become increasingly necessary to guarantee the continued availability of silicon doped by neutron transmutation for industrial customers

  10. Belgian Firms Visit CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Fifteen Belgian firms visited CERN last 2 and 3 April to present their know-how. Industrial sectors ranging from precision machining to electrical engineering and electronics were represented. And for the first time, companies from the Flemish and Brussels regions of the country joined their Walloon compatriots, who have come to CERN before. The visit was organised by Mr J.-M. Warêgne, economic and commercial attaché at the Belgian permanent mission for the French-speaking region, Mr J. Van de Vondel, his opposite number for the Flemish region, and Mrs E. Solowianiuk, economic and commercial counsellor at the Belgian permanent mission for the Brussels-Capital region.

  11. The Belgian nuclear research centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Belgian Nuclear Research Centre is almost exclusively devoted to nuclear R and D and services and is able to generate 50% of its resources (out of 75 million Euro) by contract work and services. The main areas of research include nuclear reactor safety, radioactive waste management, radiation protection and safeguards. The high flux reactor BR2 is extensively used to test fuel and structural materials. PWR-plant BR3 is devoted to the scientific analysis of decommissioning problems. The Centre has a strong programme on the applications of radioisotopes and radiation in medicine and industry. The centre has plans to develop an accelerator driven spallation neutron source for various applications. It has initiated programmes to disseminate correct information on issues of nuclear energy production and non-energy nuclear applications to different target groups. It has strong linkages with the IAEA, OECD-NEA and the Euratom. (author)

  12. Balancing selection on CDH2 may be related to the behavioral features of the Belgian Malinois.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Cao

    Full Text Available The Belgian Malinois (BM is an excellent working dog that typically shows a circling behavior when placed in a confined space. Moreover, individuals showing moderate running in circles (one kind of obsessive compulsive behavior in confined spaces typically show better work performance compared to those without the circling behavior or to those with a serious circling behavior (which can be defined as an obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD. To determine whether the candidate gene CDH2, Cadherin 2, which is associated with OCD in the Doberman pinscher breed of dogs and in humans, was linked with this behavioral character in the BM, population genetic analyses were performed on a BM population and a natural population of the Chinese indigenous dog (CID. Many genetic signals of balancing selection were detected for one specific region of the CDH2 gene, which suggests that a genomic block, which is included in the CDH2 gene, experienced balancing selection in the BM, and that the CDH2 gene might be associated with the behavioral characteristics of the BM dog (a balance between circling behavior and work performance. Moreover one specific variant, G63913941A, which creates a predicted transcription factor-binding site, may be the key mutation in the CDH2 gene affecting the behavior of BMs by allowing the binding of a transcription factor and increasing CDH2 expression.

  13. Material test reactor fuel research at the BR2 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction of new, high performance material test reactor or the conversion of such reactors' core from high enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU) based fuel requires several fuel qualification steps. For the conversion of high performance reactors, high density dispersion or monolithic fuel types are being developed. The Uranium-Molybdenum fuel system has been selected as reference system for the qualification of LEU fuels. For reactors with lower performance characteristics, or as medium enriched fuel for high performance reactors, uranium silicide dispersion fuel is applied. However, on the longer term, the U-Mo based fuel types may offer a more efficient fuel alternative and-or an easier back-end solution with respect to the silicide based fuels. At the BR2 reactor of the Belgian nuclear research center, SCK-CEN in Mol, several types of fuel testing opportunities are present to contribute to such qualification process. A generic validation test for a selected fuel system is the irradiation of flat plates with representative dimensions for a fuel element. By flexible positioning and core loading, bounding irradiation conditions for fuel elements can be performed in a standard device in the BR2. For fuel element designs with curved plates, the element fabrication method compatibility of the fuel type can be addressed by incorporating a set of prototype fuel plates in a mixed driver fuel element of the BR2 reactor. These generic types of tests are performed directly in the primary coolant flow conditions of the BR2 reactor. The experiment control and interpretation is supported by detailed neutronic and thermal-hydraulic modeling of the experiments. Finally, the BR2 reactor offers the flexibility for irradiation of full size prototype fuel elements, as 200mm diameter irradiation channels are available. These channels allow the accommodation of various types of prototype fuel elements, eventually using a dedicated cooling loop to provide the

  14. PM2.5 and NOx from traffic: human health impacts, external costs and policy implications from the Belgian perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Michiels, Hans; Mayeres, Inge; Int Panis, Luc; De Nocker, Luc; DEUTSCH Felix; Lefebvre, Wouter

    2012-01-01

    This article employs an optimized impact pathway approach to marginal external health costs that relies on high-resolution dispersion models calibrated for Belgium and the surrounding areas. Per tonne, the MEHC PM2.5 is found to be many times larger than MEHC NOx, which is currently negative. Further, the impact of Belgian PM2.5 emissions in the immediate area of generation is significantly larger than the impact on more distant areas; the opposite is true for NOx. The MEHCs of both pollutant...

  15. Reactor BR2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BR2 reactor is still SCK-CEN's most important nuclear facility. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. Various aspects concerning the operation of the BR2 Reactor, the utilisation of the CALLISTO loop and the irradiation programme, the BR2 R and D programme and the production of isotopes and of NTD-silicon are discussed. Progress and achievements in 1999 are reported

  16. High resolution mapping of the tropospheric NO2 distribution in three Belgian cities based on airborne APEX remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, Frederik; Merlaud, Alexis; Fayt, Caroline; Danckaert, Thomas; Iordache, Daniel; Meuleman, Koen; Deutsch, Felix; Adriaenssens, Sandy; Fierens, Frans; Van Roozendael, Michel

    2015-04-01

    An approach is presented to retrieve tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) vertical column densities (VCDs) and to map the NO2 two dimensional distribution at high resolution, based on Airborne Prism EXperiment (APEX) observations. APEX, developed by a Swiss-Belgian consortium on behalf of ESA (European Space Agency), is a pushbroom hyperspectral imager with a high spatial (approximately 3 m at 5000 m ASL), spectral (413 to 2421 nm in 533 narrow, contiguous spectral bands) and radiometric (14-bit) resolution. VCDs are derived, following a similar approach as described in the pioneering work of Popp et al. (2012), based on (1) spectral calibration and spatial binning of the observed radiance spectra in order to improve the spectral resolution and signal-to-noise ratio, (2) Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) analysis of the pre-processed spectra in the visible wavelength region, with a reference spectrum containing low NO2 absorption, in order to quantify the abundance of NO2 along the light path, based on its molecular absorption structures and (3) radiative transfer modeling for air mass factor calculation in order to convert slant to vertical columns. This study will be done in the framework of the BUMBA (Belgian Urban NO2 Monitoring Based on APEX hyperspectral data) project. Dedicated flights with APEX mounted in a Dornier DO-228 airplane, operated by Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), are planned to be performed in Spring 2015 above the three largest and most heavily polluted Belgian cities, i.e. Brussels, Antwerp and Liège. The retrieved VCDs will be validated by comparison with correlative ground-based and car-based DOAS observations. Main objectives are (1) to assess the operational capabilities of APEX to map the NO2 field over an urban area at high spatial and spectral resolution in a relatively short time and cost-effective way, and to characterise all aspects of the retrieval approach; (2) to use the APEX NO2 measurements

  17. Reactor BR2. Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubel, P

    2001-04-01

    The BR2 is a materials testing reactor and is still one of SCK-CEN's important nuclear facilities. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. During the last three years, the availability of the installation was maintained at an average level of 97.6 percent. In the year 2000, the reactor was operated for a total of 104 days at a mean power of 56 MW. In 2000, most irradiation experiments were performed in the CALLISTO PWR loop. The report describes irradiations achieved or under preparation in 2000, including the development of advanced facilities and concept studies for new programmes. An overview of the scientific irradiation programmes as well as of the R and D programme of the BR2 reactor in 2000 is given.

  18. Reactor BR2. Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubel, P

    2002-04-01

    The BR2 materials testing reactor is one of SCK-CEN's most important nuclear facilities. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. In 2001, the reactor was operated for a total of 123 days at a mean power of 59 MW in order to satisfy the irradiation conditions of the internal and external programmes using mainly the CALLISTO PWR loop. The mean consumption of fresh fuel elements was 5.26 per 1000 MWd. Main achievements in 2001 included the development of a three-dimensional full-scale model of the BR2 reactor for simulation and prediction of irradiation conditions for various experiments; the construction of the FUTURE-MT device designed for the irradiation of fuel plates under representative conditions of geometry, neutron spectrum, heat flux and thermal-hydraulic conditions and the development of in-pile instrumentation and a data acquisition system.

  19. Reactor BR2. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BR2 is a materials testing reactor and is still one of SCK-CEN's important nuclear facilities. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. During the last three years, the availability of the installation was maintained at an average level of 97.6 percent. In the year 2000, the reactor was operated for a total of 104 days at a mean power of 56 MW. In 2000, most irradiation experiments were performed in the CALLISTO PWR loop. The report describes irradiations achieved or under preparation in 2000, including the development of advanced facilities and concept studies for new programmes. An overview of the scientific irradiation programmes as well as of the R and D programme of the BR2 reactor in 2000 is given

  20. Reactor Materials Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activities of the Reactor Materials Research Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. The programmes within the department are focussed on studies concerning (1) fusion, in particular mechanical testing; (2) Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC); (3) nuclear fuel; and (4) Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel (RPVS)

  1. Reactor Materials Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Walle, E

    2001-04-01

    The activities of the Reactor Materials Research Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. The programmes within the department are focussed on studies concerning (1) fusion, in particular mechanical testing; (2) Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC); (3) nuclear fuel; and (4) Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel (RPVS)

  2. BR2 Reactor: Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The irradiations in the BR2 reactor are in collaboration with or at the request of third parties such as the European Commission, the IAEA, research centres and utilities, reactor vendors or fuel manufacturers. The reactor also contributes significantly to the production of radioisotopes for medical and industrial applications, to neutron silicon doping for the semiconductor industry and to scientific irradiations for universities. Along the ongoing programmes on fuel and materials development, several new irradiation devices are in use or in design. Amongst others a loop providing enhanced cooling for novel materials testing reactor fuel, a device for high temperature gas cooled fuel as well as a rig for the irradiation of metallurgical samples in a Pb-Bi environment. A full scale 3-D heterogeneous model of BR2 is available. The model describes the real hyperbolic arrangement of the reactor and includes the detailed 3-D space dependent distribution of the isotopic fuel depletion in the fuel elements. The model is validated on the reactivity measurements of several tens of BR2 operation cycles. The accurate calculations of the axial and radial distributions of the poisoning of the beryllium matrix by 3He, 6Li and 3T are verified on the measured reactivity losses used to predict the reactivity behavior for the coming decades. The model calculates the main functionals in reactor physics like: conventional thermal and equivalent fission neutron fluxes, number of displacements per atom, fission rate, thermal power characteristics as heat flux and linear power density, neutron/gamma heating, determination of the fission energy deposited in fuel plates/rods, neutron multiplication factor and fuel burn-up. For each reactor irradiation project, a detailed geometry model of the experimental device and of its neighborhood is developed. Neutron fluxes are predicted within approximately 10 percent in comparison with the dosimetry measurements. Fission rate, heat flux and

  3. Strategic groups in the Belgian fishing fleet

    OpenAIRE

    Stouten, H.; A. HEENE; Gellynck, X.; Polet, H

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the heterogeneity of the Belgian fishing fleet based on “strategic groups”, a concept borrowed from the field of strategic management. Its objectives are: (1) to define strategic groups within the Belgian fishing fleet; (2) to examine the performance differences among these strategic groups; (3) to examine whether firms (i.e., vessels) move between strategic groups over time; and (4) to examine if firm-movement (i.e., vessel-movement) differs across strategic groups. In th...

  4. MOLIERE PROJECT - Belgian National Report

    OpenAIRE

    Naedenoen, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    This document aims at introducing the restructuring phenomena in Belgium. It makes part of a larger project (called the MOLIERE project) undertaken by eleven European countries gathered to analyse restructurings. This national document follows a common reporting format: an introduction of the complex Belgian restructuring frameworks (1), a presentation of the main actors involved in the process (2), a synthesis of the measures created to anticipate change (3) and a synthesis of the measures ...

  5. Implementation of a program for type 2 diabetes based on the Chronic Care Model in a hospital-centered health care system: 'the Belgian experience'

    OpenAIRE

    Van Royen Paul; Vermeire Etienne; Wens Johan; Nobels Frank; Snauwaert Boris; Feyen Luc; Bastiaens Hilde; Sunaert Patricia; De Maeseneer Jan; De Sutter An; Willems Sara

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Most research publications on Chronic Care Model (CCM) implementation originate from organizations or countries with a well-structured primary health care system. Information about efforts made in countries with a less well-organized primary health care system is scarce. In 2003, the Belgian National Institute for Health and Disability Insurance commissioned a pilot study to explore how care for type 2 diabetes patients could be organized in a more efficient way in the Bel...

  6. An attempt to reconstruct geodynamically the Belgian palaeogene basin from mineralogical clay data, from radioelement (U, Th, K2O) geochemistry and palynology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By analysing clay mineralogy, U-Th-K2O geochemistry and palynology data, we find that the Belgian Palaeogene is dominated by the action of a biostasic period toward the end of the lower Eocene. At the middle Eocene starts a new phase, at least a rhexistasic one at the begining. In the Basin, the geochemical and mineralogical traces of this phase just start from the upper Eocene

  7. The utility of different reactor types for the research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents a general view of the use of the different belgian research reactor i.e. venus reactor, BR-1 reactor, BR-2 reactor and BR-3 reactor. Particular attention is given to the programmes which is in the interest of international collaboration. In order to reach an efficient utilization of such reactors they require a specialized personnel groups to deal with the irradiation devices and radioactive materials and post irradiation examinations, creating a complete material testing station. (A.J.)

  8. Preliminary LEU fuel cycle analyses for the Belgian BR2 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuel cycle calculations have been performed with reference HEU fuel and LEU fuel using Cd wires or boron as burnable absorbers. The 235U content in the LEU element has increased 20% to 480g compared to the reference HEU element. The number of fuel plates has remained unchanged while the fuel meat thickness has increased to 0.76 mm from 0.51 mm. The LEU meat density is 5.1 Mg U/m3. The reference fuel cycle was a 31 element core operating at 56 MW with a 19.8 day cycle length and eight fresh elements loaded per cycle. Comparable fuel cycle characteristics can be achieved using the proposed LEU fuel element with either Cd wires or boron burnable absorbers. The neutron flux for E/sub n/ > 1 eV changes very little (<5%) in LEU relative to HEU cores. Thermal flux reductions are 5 to 10% in non-fueled positions, and 20 to 30% in fuel elements

  9. Refurbishment of BR2 (Phase 4 and 5)[1997 Scientific Report of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubel, P.; Dekeyser, J.; Van der Auwera, J.

    1998-07-01

    The extensive refurbishment of the BR-2 materials testing reactor should allow another 10 to 15years of continued operation. The refurbishment programme is required in order to comply with modern safety standards, to enhance the reliability of operation, and to compensate for the ageing of the installations of a facility that has reached about 35 years of intensive service. The main objectives and achievements of phase 4 and 5 are described.

  10. Fuel cycle transition - A Belgian implementation scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the end of 2002 the total installed electric power in Belgium was 16,200 MWe of which 40% (6485 MWe) corresponds to the seven nuclear power plants installed on the two Belgian sites of Doel (4 power plants) and Tihange (3 power plants) and the 25% participation in the two French Units B1 and B2 at Chooz at the Belgian-French border. The nuclear installed power in Belgium is 5800 MWe. In 2003, the government decided to phase out the nuclear energy progressively by closing the Belgian NPPs after 40 years of operation. This means that the first generation units (Doel 1, Doel 2 and Tihange 1) will be closed in 2015 and the four other remaining units in 2022-2025. Nevertheless, this phase out is subject to various conditions: the guarantee of energy independence should not be affected and the engagement to respect the Kyoto agreement (reducing the CO2 production by 7.5% in 2010 as compared to the 1990 production). Thus the phase-out decision can be re-opened if the above mentioned conditions are not met. The paper has the following contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Actual fuel cycle; 3. Transition fuel cycle; 4. Calculations; 4.1. PWR modelling; 4.2. ADS modelling; 4.3. Calculation code; 5. Results; 5.1. PWR/EPR; 5.2. ADS; 6. Conclusions. In conclusion it is shown that the evaluated stock pile of waste in Belgium (with no increase of electricity demand) coming from the thermal reactors park is 4380 tons (52 t Pu, 9 t MA, 217 t FP) with phase out (i.e. between 1975, first PWR and 2025, last PWR) and 7825 tons (84 t Pu, 20 t MA, 381 t FP) without phase out (i.e. between 1975, first PWR and 2075, last EPR). According to this study, Belgium should keep all its first generation Pu for the eventual starting of the self burning FR. Indeed, the Pu needed to start the self burning FR is evaluated between 60 t and 90 t (based on 10 t to 15 t per GWe). With an homogeneous core loading, 54% of the MA could be eliminated after 24 years in three 600 MWth industrial ADS (corresponding

  11. The IBR-2 test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major design criteria, specifications and potential fields of application of the IBR-2 pulsed test reactor (now under construction in Dubna, USSR) are described. The pulsed power bursts will be due to fast periodic reactivity changes by a rotating reflector. The frequency of approximately 100 μs pulsed may be 5, 12.5 or 50 Hz. The IBR-2 reactor will be mostly profitable for slow neutron experiments when investigating solids, nuclei or neutrons themselves using spectroscopic methods. Due to the high peak flux of thermal neutrons (1016-1017 n/cm2xs) the reactor will be superior (for the sort of experiments) to the currently operating SM-2 and HFR high flux steady-state test reactors for many times

  12. The Belgian Nuclear Higher Education Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: BNEN, the Belgian Nuclear Higher Education Network has been created in 2001 by five Belgian universities and the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN) as a joint effort to maintain and further develop a high quality programme in nuclear engineering in Belgium. In a country where a substantial part of electricity generation will remain of nuclear origin for a number of years, there is a need for well educated and well trained engineers in this area. Public authorities, regulators and industry brought their support to this initiative. In the framework of the new architecture of higher education in Europe, the English name for this 60 ECTS programme is 'Master of Science in Nuclear Engineering'. To be admitted to this programme, students must already hold a university degree in engineering or equivalent. Linked with university research, benefiting from the human resources and infrastructure of SCK-CEN, encouraged and supported by the partners of the nuclear sector, this programme should be offered not only to Belgian students, but also more widely throughout Europe and the world. The master programme is a demanding programme where students with different high level backgrounds in engineering have to go through highly theoretical subjects like neutron physics, fluid flow and heat transfer modelling, and apply them to reactor design, nuclear safety and plant operation and control. At a more interdisciplinary level, the programme includes some important chapters of material science, with a particular interest for the fuel cycle. Radiation protection belongs also to the backbone of the programme. All the subjects are taught by academics appointed by the partner universities, whereas the practical exercises and laboratory sessions are supervised by researchers of SCK-CEN. The final thesis offers an opportunity for internship in industry or in a research laboratory. More information: http://www.sckcen.be/BNEN. (author)

  13. BR2 reactor neutron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of reactor neutron beams is becoming increasingly more widespread for the study of some properties of condensed matter. It is mainly due to the unique properties of the ''thermal'' neutrons as regards wavelength, energy, magnetic moment and overall favorable ratio of scattering to absorption cross-sections. Besides these fundamental reasons, the impetus for using neutrons is also due to the existence of powerful research reactors (such as BR2) built mainly for nuclear engineering programs, but where a number of intense neutron beams are available at marginal cost. A brief introduction to the production of suitable neutron beams from a reactor is given. (author)

  14. Risk analysis of marine activities in the Belgian part of the North Sea (RAMA): final report

    OpenAIRE

    Le Roy, D; Volckaert, A; Vermoote, S.; Wachter, B; Maes, F.; Coene, J.; Calewaert, J.-B.

    2006-01-01

    RAMA is a 2-year project (04/2004 - 04/2006) executed by two Belgian partners, Ecolas NV (Environmental Consultancy Agency) and the Maritime Institute (University of Ghent), and financed by the SPSD II research program, specific actions, of the Belgian Science Policy (BELPSO). RAMA aims to assess the environmental risks of spills by commercial shipping activities on the Belgian Part of the North Sea. Shipping patterns, transports of dangerous goods, probability of risks and the potential impa...

  15. PARR-2: reactor description and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PARR-2 is a miniature neutron source reactor (MNSR) research reactor has been designed at the rate of 27 kW. Reactor assembly comprises of peaking characteristics with a self limiting flux. In this report reactor description with its assembly and instrumentation control system has been explained. The reactor engineering and physics experiments which can be performed on this reactor are explained in this report. PARR-2 is fueled with HEU fuel pins which are about 90% enriched in U-235. Specific requirements for the safety of the reactor, its building and the personnel, normal instrumentation as required in an industrial environment is sufficient. (A.B.)

  16. Annual report for the steering committee of the association Euratom-Belgian State for fusion 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is prepared for the annual steering committee meting of the Association Euratom - Belgian State in the area of fusion reactor technology. The Belgian contribution focuses on the assessment of the first wall and blanket materials under radiation and coolant interaction and on developments for the remote handling in maintenance activities. The period October 1998 to September 1999 is reported on.The fusion technology work performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN, the Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering of the Louvain University (Belgium) and S.A. Gradel, a Luxemburg-based organisation, is described

  17. Annual report for the steering committee of the association Euratom-Belgian State for fusion 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is prepared for the annual steering committee meting of the Association Euratom - Belgian State in the area of fusion reactor technology. The Belgian contribution focuses on the assessment of the first wall and blanket materials under radiation and coolant interaction and on developments for the remote handling in maintenance activities. The period October 1997 to September 1998 is reported on.The fusion technology work performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN, the Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering of the Louvain University (Belgium) and S.A. Gradel, a Luxemburg-based organisation, is described

  18. Annual report for the steering committee of the association Euratom-Belgian State for fusion 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    1999-10-01

    This report is prepared for the annual steering committee meting of the Association Euratom - Belgian State in the area of fusion reactor technology. The Belgian contribution focuses on the assessment of the first wall and blanket materials under radiation and coolant interaction and on developments for the remote handling in maintenance activities. The period October 1998 to September 1999 is reported on.The fusion technology work performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN, the Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering of the Louvain University (Belgium) and S.A. Gradel, a Luxemburg-based organisation, is described.

  19. Reactor pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research and development activities related to reactor pressure vessel steels during 1997 are reported. The objectives of activities of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN in this domain are: (1) to develop enhanced surveillance concepts by applying micromechanics and fracture-toughness tests to small specimens, and by performing damage modelling and microstructure characterization; (2) to demonstrate a methodology on a broad database; (3) to achieve regulatory acceptance and industrial use

  20. Mechanical testing and microstructural characterization of pressure vessel at decommissioned Belgian BR3 Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper was a discussion of a proposal to perform mechanical testing and microstructural characterization of the annealed reactor vessel of the Belgian BR-3 reactor. Motivation for this effort was discussed, and a preliminary cost estimate for some of the tasks was also presented

  1. The BR2 materials testing reactor. Past, ongoing and under-study upgradings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BR2 reactor (Mol, Belgium) is a high-flux materials testing reactor. The fuel is 93% 235U enriched uranium. The nominal power ranges from 60 to 100 MW. The main features of the design are the following: 1) maximum neutron flux, thermal: 1.2 x 1015 n/cm2 s; fast (E > 0.1 MeV) : 8.4 x 1014 n /cm2 s; 2) great flexibility of utilization: the core configuration and operation mode can be adapted to the experimental loading; 3) neutron spectrum tailoring; 4) availability of five 200 mm diameter channels besides the standard channels (84 mm diameter); 5) access to the top and bottom covers of the reactor authorizing the irradiation of loops. The reactor is used to study the behaviour of fuel elements and structural materials intended for future nuclear power stations of several types (fission and fusion). Irradiations are carried out in connection with performance tests up to very high burn-up or neutron fluence as well as for safety experiments, power cycling experiments, and generally speaking, tests under off-normal conditions. Irradiations for nuclear transmutation (production of high specific activity radio-isotopes and transplutonium elements), neutron-radiography, use of beam tubes for physics studies, and gamma irradiations are also carried out. The BR2 is used in support of Belgian programs, at the request of utilities, industry and universities and in the framework of international agreements. The paper reviews the past and ongoing upgrading and enhancement of reactor capabilities as well as those under study or consideration, namely with regard to: reactor equipment, fuel elements, irradiation facilities, reactor operation conditions and long-term strategy. (author)

  2. Coastal flooding risk calculations for the Belgian coast

    OpenAIRE

    Verwaest, T.; Van der Biest, K.; Vanpoucke, Ph.; Reyns, J.; Vanderkimpen, P.; de Vos, L.; De Rouck, J.; Mertens, T.

    2009-01-01

    Coastal flooding risk calculations are carried out for the entire Belgian coastal zone to support the management ofthe coastal defence system. The floodprone low-lying coastal area has an average width of 20 km and is locatedon average 2 m below the surge level of an annual storm. The natural sea defences are sandy beaches anddunes, which have been strengthened by revetments in the coastal towns. The Belgian standard of coastalprotection is to be safe against a surge level with a return perio...

  3. Reactor physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress in research on reactor physics in 1997 at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN is described. Activities in the following four domains are discussed: core physics, ex-core neutron transport, experiments in Materials Testing Reactors, international benchmarks

  4. A Belgian Approach to Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Cheryl W.

    The paper reviews Belgian philosophy toward the education of learning disabled students and cites the differences between American behaviorally-oriented theory and Belgian emphasis on identifying the underlying causes of the disability. Academic methods observed in Belgium (including psychodrama and perceptual motor training) are discussed and are…

  5. History of the Belgian nuclear power controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partly because nuclear energy technology continues to provoke profound controversy, the Flemish institute for technology assessment (viWTA) took the initiative to order a study aimed at mapping out the historical dynamics of the societal debate on nuclear energy. This study was carried out by the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN, under the research programme PISA) together with the Free university of Brussels (VUB, research group MEKO) in 2004. In 2007, the report was updated and published by Acco (Leuven) under the title Kernenergie (on)besproken. This study had three main objectives: 1) to discuss the societal debate on nuclear energy in Belgium in relation to major events (Chernobyl, TMI, etc.); 2) to elucidate the role of social actors in the controversy on both a national and international level and 3) to discuss possible alternatives for a better structuring of the debate in the future, building on existing approaches

  6. MERIS imagery of Belgian coastal waters: mapping of suspended particulate matter and chlorophyll-a

    OpenAIRE

    Ruddick, K.; PARK, Y.; B. Nechad

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a first application-oriented analysis of MERIS products for Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) and Chlorophyll-a (CHL) concentration in Belgian coastal waters. Regional algorithms designed for Belgian waters have been implemented and compared with the standard MERIS products, termed Total Suspended Matter and Algal2 respectively. The standard and regional SPM products seem robust and give similar data. Notwithstanding a more complete match-up validation analysis, these pr...

  7. Production of Radioisotopes and NTD-Silicon in the BR2 Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BR2 reactor is a multipurpose 100 MWth high flux 'Materials Testing Reactor' operated by the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK·CEN) in which various research and commercial programmes are performed. The commercial activities such as radioisotope production and silicon doping have been actively developed since the early 1990s to generate additional revenues. Currently, they represent a significant contribution to the reactor operating costs and are carried out in accordance with a 'Quality System' that has been certified to the requirements of the ''EN ISO 9001:2000'' in December 2006. Due to its operating flexibility, its reliability and its production capacity, the BR2 reactor is considered as a major facility for these commercial activities worldwide. The availability of thermal neutron fluxes up to 1015 cm-2s-1 allows the production of a wide range of radioisotopes for various applications in nuclear medicine, industry and research such as 99Mo (99mTc), 131I, 133Xe, 192Ir, 75Se 186Re, 153Sm, 169Er, 90Y, 32P, 188W (188Re), 203Hg, 82Br, 79Kr, 41Ar, 125I, 177Lu, 117mSn,89Sr, 169Yb, 147Nd, etc. Some irradiation devices allow the loading and unloading of irradiated targets during the operation of the reactor. Hot-cells and storage facilities are available to prepare and organize the shipment of the irradiated targets to dedicated processing facilities. In the frame of the current 99Mo/99mTc global shortage, new dedicated irradiation devices have been installed in April 2010 to increase the 99Mo production capacity by 50%. Special efforts have also been made to develop the production of therapeutic radioisotopes as 177Lu which is supplied by both direct and indirect routes. Neutron Transmutation Doping (NTD) Silicon activities for the semiconductor industry started at SCK·CEN in 1992 with the commissioning of SIDONIE, a single channel light water device that is located in a 200 mm diameter beryllium channel within the reactor pressure vessel. Its design

  8. Integrated modelling of the Belgian coastal zone

    OpenAIRE

    Delhez, E. J. M.; Carabin, G.

    2001-01-01

    The management of the water resources in coastal or delta plains asks for an integrated modelling of the water system at a regional scale. In the SALMON project, detailed descriptions of the groundwater, river and marine domains are provided by coupling appropriate numerical models of these different sub-systems.The application of this three-fold model to the Scheldt and Belgian Coastal Zone reveals a marked river plume extending along the Belgian Coast with strong offshore gradients. This pl...

  9. An ecosystem approach towards Belgian coastal policy

    OpenAIRE

    Vanden Eede, S.

    2013-01-01

    The Belgian coastal zone hosts a complex of space-use and resource-use activities with a myriad of pressures impairing environmental conditions both on the coastline and on coastal waters Specifically at the beach zone, predictions on sea level rise, intensified storms accelerated erosion and flood risk for the North Sea have led to the drafting of the Belgian Integrated Coastal Safety Plan. The preferred coastal defence measure is beach nourishment as it safeguards the natural dynamics of th...

  10. A pilot application of the RELAP file to the steady state and transient analysis of a test section inside the BR2 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BR2 is a material test reactor sited in the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre in Mol. The main research programs carried out in BR2 are related to the safety of nuclear reactor structural materials and fuels, in normal and accidental conditions, plant lifetime evaluation and ageing of components. In this framework, a computer program that allows the performance of detailed, steady state analysis of several kinds of in-pile sections with an axisymmetrical geometry has been developed. Furthermore, comparing its results with those of the well known, extensively used, Relap5/Mod 3.2 code on a test problem has validated this program. This was performed in three steps: 1. modalisation development of a subsystem of a typical in-pile section. 2. steady state analysis and comparison with the above-mentioned program. 3. transient simulation of the same system; the considered transient consists of a loss of coolant flow. (author)

  11. BR2 Reactor: Irradiation of Fusion Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In collaboration with the EFDA (European Fusion Development Agreement), SCK-CEN irradiates several materials in the BR2 reactor at different temperatures and up to different doses to study their mechanical and physical properties during and after irradiation. Those materials are candidates for the construction of different parts of the ITER fusion reactor and of the long-term DEMO (DEMOnstration) reactor. The objectives of research performed at SCK-CEN are to irradiate up to 2 dpa RAFM (Reduced Activity Ferritic Martensitic) steels joints and RAFM ODS (Oxide Dispersion Strengthening) at 300 degrees Celsius; to build and test an experimental rig to perform in-situ creep-fatigue tests under neutron irradiation and its out-pile equipment and to design a new irradiation basket to irradiate in BR2 copper/stainless steel joints and RAFM specimens with implanted helium at low dose

  12. Dietary Intake of Artificial Sweeteners by the Belgian Population

    OpenAIRE

    Huvaere, Kevin; Vandevijvere, Stefanie Marie; Hasni, Moez; Vinkx, Christine; Van Loco, Joris

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In this study it was investigated whether the Belgian population older than 15 years was at risk of exceeding ADI levels of acesulfame-K, saccharin, cyclamate, aspartame, and sucralose through assessment of usual dietary intake of artificial sweeteners and specific consumption of table-top sweeteners. The conservative Tier 2 approach, for which an extensive label survey was performed, showed that mean usual intake was significantly lower than the respective ADIs for all sw...

  13. G2 and G3 reactors design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 'FRANCE ATOME' Manufacturers Party has been entrusted with the G2 and G3 reactors engineering by the french A.E.C., for the first-five-year french project. Although these reactors are essentially plutonium generators, everyone has been linked with a power station which is supposed to supply with 40 MW, 'Electricite de France' has taken the liability upon itself. The reactor core includes most of G1 reactor parts (central gap excluded): horizontal channels, graphite parallelepipedic bricks stacking, steel thermal shield. The cooling is provided with CO2 under a 15 atmospheres pressure. This pressure is kept steady in a press-stressed concrete packing-case which is a cylinder horizontally shaped. Steel strips tightened encircle the concrete cylinder; itself protected by sole-plates. The cylinder bottom has brought about unusual problems which have been solved by the choice of an hemispheric shape. Packing-case tightness is provided by a 30 mm iron-plate connected with the inner wall of concrete. One of the reactor's special characteristics is the possibility of loading and unloading while operating. On loading side, barrel locks, each weighting 50 tons, allow new cans, at a pressure of 15 atmospheres, to pass. The cans process almost in a steady way through the channel, and finally drop down through bent spouts, then through spiral toboggans into a new lock. The cooling CO2 flow is provided with 3 turbo-bellows, these are actuated by average pressure-steam, obtained from exchangers. Every reactor supplies 4 exchangers which have been very difficult to build and to set up. The secondary cycle is standard and contains 3 stages (pressure 10,3: 2 and 0,5 kg/cm2). Steam can be condensed in the event of a group turbo-generator stopping, with no modification for the normal operating conditions of the reactor. Auxiliary circuits have to assure the continuous purifying of cooling CO2, its storage and drain. 49 boron carbide rods are used to control the operating power

  14. TMI-2 reactor vessel plenum final lift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, D C

    1986-01-01

    Removal of the plenum assembly from the TMI-2 reactor vessel was necessary to gain access to the core region for defueling. The plenum was lifted from the reactor vessel by the polar crane using three specially designed pendant assemblies. It was then transferred in air to the flooded deep end of the refueling canal and lowered onto a storage stand where it will remain throughout the defueling effort. The lift and transfer were successfully accomplished on May 15, 1985 in just under three hours by a lift team located in a shielded area within the reactor building. The success of the program is attributed to extensive mockup and training activities plus thorough preparations to address potential problems. 54 refs.

  15. TMI-2 reactor vessel metallurgical sampling project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In March of 1979, a nuclear accident at the Three Mile Island, Unit 2 (TMI-2) Nuclear Generating Station resulted in a significant portion of the core melting and flowing onto the lower head of the reactor vessel. Damage found to date includes melted or fractured 4-1/2 inch diameter guide tubes and 2 inch diameter incore instrument nozzles in the lower head, as well as several crack like indications in the lower head itself. The extent of damage to the lower head and the margin to failure has remained an enigma. In 1988, the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission initiated a project with MPR Associates to remove metallurgical samples from the lower head for use in evaluating the effects of the accident on the vessel and the incore instrument penetrations. This paper describes some of the conditions recently found in the lower head of the reactor and discusses tools and techniques developed to obtain the vessel samples. One system of tools performs a tube expansion to seal incore instrument pipes to the reactor vessel penetrations. A second system cuts metal samples from the reactor vessel, including portions of the incore instrument pipes

  16. ETRR-2 nuclear reactor: Facility specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report provides technical details on the ETRR-2 nuclear reactor core and immediate structure for analysis purposes. The goal of the report is to provide sufficient geometric and material data to build a computational neutronic model of the facility. (author)

  17. Studsvik's R2 reactor - Review of activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general description of the R2 reactor, its associated facilities and its history is given. The facilities and range of work are described for the following types of activities: fuel testing, materials testing, neutron transmutation doping of silicon, activation analysis, radioisotope production and basic research including thermal neutron scattering, nuclear chemistry and neutron capture radiography. (author)

  18. Planning and implementation of the Belgian nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the first part of the paper, the authors recall Belgian conditions, initially as regards primary energy (high degree of energy consumption and high degree of dependence on other countries), and then as regards electricity (divided up according to energy sources and types of producer). In the second part, the method used in Belgium for planning electrical power production is explained. Particular emphasis is placed on both the economic and technical assumptions made (trends in fuel costs, method of calculating investment costs, etc.). The development required, for the period 1982-92, of the means of production is stated in the light of the assumptions made. Fuel cycle planning (front and back ends) is also described with a review of the principal stages, namely supply of natural uranium, enrichment, reprocessing, treatment of irradiated fuel, and geological storage of wastes. The third and last part of the paper looks back at events in the implementation of the Belgian nuclear programme in chronological order. The beginnings of nuclear development in Belgium are recalled, as is the decision to construct the first three units (Doel 1, Doel 2 and Tihange 1), which were completed and put into service in 1975. The programme now under way is also briefly described, together with the characteristics of Belgian power stations, especially those concerned with safety. In conclusion, the paper outlines the main advantages of the nuclear option for a country as vulnerable where energy is concerned, as Belgium. (author)

  19. Pulsed reactor IBR-2 in the 'nineties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One may expect that in the 1990s a considerable part of neutron scattering experiments will be carried out on pulsed neutron sources. Pulsed reactors of the IBR-type are the founders of a family of pulsed sources of thermal neutrons. The first IBR-type reactor started operation in 1960 with a mean thermal power of 1 kW. In 1984 the IBR-2 reactor had a mean power of 2 MW, a pulsed power of 1500 MW at 5 s-1 repetition rate and a power pulse duration of 215 μs. The peak leakage current of thermal neutrons from the moderator surface reached 1x1016n.cm-2.s-1 which allows on the sample a mean flux of thermal neutrons up to 5x107n.cm-2.s-1 monochromized by the time-of-flight method with an uncertainty of Δdelta approx.= 0.02 A. The achieved parameters, being reasonably good for a wide range of experiments, are not to be considered as being a technical limit for this type of pulsed neutron source. The experience we already have allows us to expect development in the following directions: increasing of the reactor mean power, shortening of the pulse duration, installation of the liquid hydrogen moderator. The IBR-2 reactor is used in four main fields: physics of condensed matter, nuclear physics, fundamental and applied physics. The greatest activity is in condensed matter research. In addition to conventional structural and dynamic studies we intend to expand investigations to kinetics of transitions in the time range up to 10-4s (time-resolved spectroscopy), properties of short-living non-equilibrium states, properties of matter under extreme conditions created in the pulsed mode (e.g. under the influence of superstrong magnetic fields). We expect that within the next decade, neutron methods will be increasingly introduced into different areas of research and technology. (author)

  20. IBR-2 - pulsed reactor for neutron investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief theory and design are presented of IBR-2 fast neutron pulse reactor (with a periodic operation) of an average power of 3 MW constructed in Dubna and intended for investigation of structure and dynamics of liquids and solids in nuclear and neutron physics. The core of the reactor has the volume of 22 l and is filled with a liquid sodium. Fuel elements are made of sintered plutonium dioxide tablets and placed into a stainless steel cylinder 8.6 mm in diameter with wall thickness of 0.45 mm. The height of the fuel element active part is 445 mm, and the total length of the fuel element is about 780 mm. Fuel elements are separated from each other by a wire 0.5 mm in diameter wound around each element like a spiral. Fuel elements are assembled in cassets (their total number is 78), 7 elements in each casset. To achieve periodic operation and produce power pulses to be applied to the reactor two movable reflectors are used. The booster-type operation is assumed with using line induction accelerator. The peak density of thermal neutron flux in the reactor is 1016 cm-2s-1, for power pulse repetition rate 5 Hz and duration approximately μs. The scope of investigations to be performed on IBR-2 using the flight-of-time spectrometry method is also considered

  1. Doel 2 reactor internals reevaluation in the SGR and power up-rate project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2004, the 2 steam generators of the Doel 2 Belgian NPP have been replaced. Simultaneously a power up-rate of 10% has been studied and succeeded. In the same time, stretch-out operating conditions have been considered in the safety studies. It was thus necessary to evaluate the impact of these modifications on the integrity of the Reactor internals of Doel 2, especially in case of LOCA. The contents of the paper is as follows: Introduction; Situation of the NPP before the PUSGR project; Definition of the LOCA to be considered; Generation of mechanical loads due to LOCA; Selection of zones for detailed justification; Justification of the selected zones to the post-LBB breaks; Conclusions. The paper ends with the following conclusions. Reevaluation of the RPV internals of Doel 2, a 2-loop old vintage NPP designed before the issue of the subsection NG of the code ASME, to the post-LBB ruptures (reduced LOCA thanks to the LBB approach) has led to the following conclusions: - The Doel 2 RPV internals have major geometrical differences compared to more recent Belgian NPPs already designed according to the ASME code subsection NG (Doel 3, Tihange 2, Doel 4, Tihange 3) - These major differences concern the upper support plate, the upper support columns, the core barrel and the lower radial keys. - It would be impossible to justify the internals of Doel 2 to the LOCA if LBB studies did not have demonstrated previously that a instantaneous guillotine break in the hot or cold leg was unlikely. - The different stiffness used in the RPV system model must be more realistic as they are. - TE has succeeded to justify to an arbitrary break area of 0.1 A all critical zones of the CSS of Doel 2. This break area is equivalent to the area break of the largest auxiliary line (12'' sch140) connected to the cold legs of the primary loops. - The downflow configuration of the core is very penalizing for the baffle bolts localized at the top of the core but one geometrically non linear

  2. From pralines to multinationals. The economic history of Belgian chocolate

    OpenAIRE

    Garrone, Maria; Pieters, Hannah; Swinnen, Jo

    2015-01-01

    Belgium is associated with high-quality chocolate products and Belgian companies play an important role in cocoa processing. However, in historical perspective the global success and reputation of Belgian chocolate is a relatively recent phenomenon. Especially since the 1980s exports of "Belgian chocolates" have grown exponentially. We document the growth of the sector and discuss its determinants. Today, the very concept of "Belgian chocolate" faces challenges, as successful companies have b...

  3. EL-2 reactor: Thermal neutron flux distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The flux distribution of thermal neutrons in EL-2 reactor is studied. The reactor core and lattices are described as well as the experimental reactor facilities, in particular, the experimental channels and special facilities. The measurement shows that the thermal neutron flux increases in the central channel when enriched uranium is used in place of natural uranium. However the thermal neutron flux is not perturbed in the other reactor channels by the fuel modification. The macroscopic flux distribution is measured according the radial positioning of fuel rods. The longitudinal neutron flux distribution in a fuel rod is also measured and shows no difference between enriched and natural uranium fuel rods. In addition, measurements of the flux distribution have been effectuated for rods containing other material as steel or aluminium. The neutron flux distribution is also studied in all the experimental channels as well as in the thermal column. The determination of the distribution of the thermal neutron flux in all experimental facilities, the thermal column and the fuel channels has been made with a heavy water level of 1825 mm and is given for an operating power of 1000 kW. (M.P.)

  4. TMI-2 reactor vessel head removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the safe removal and storage of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor vessel head. The head was removed in July 1984 to permit the removal of the plenum and the reactor core, which were damaged during the 1979 accident. From July 1982, plans and preparations were made using a standard head removal procedure modified by the necessary precautions and changes to account for conditions caused by the accident. After data acquisition, equipment and structure modifications, and training, the head was safely removed and stored; and the internals indexing fixture and a work platform were installed on top of the vessel. Dose rates during and after the operation were lower than expected; lessons were learned from the operation which will be applied to the continuing fuel removal operations activities

  5. ETRR-2 nuclear reactor: Experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the experimental results from a neutronic and thermalhydraulic point of view. The thermalhydraulic experiments included are steady state, loss of flow transient and negative reactivity insertion. The neutronic experiments given are critical configurations, control rod calibrations and second shutdown system reactivities. The goal of the report is to provide sufficient experimental details to enable simulation of the experiments. It should be used in conjunction with the companion report, ETRR-2 Nuclear Reactor: Facility Specification. (author)

  6. Decommissioning of reactor facilities (2). Required technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decommissioning of reactor facilities was planned to perform progressive dismantling, decontamination and radioactive waste disposal with combination of required technology in a safe and economic way. This article outlined required technology for decommissioning as follows: (1) evaluation of kinds and amounts of residual radioactivity of reactor facilities with calculation and measurement, (2) decontamination technology of metal components and concrete structures so as to reduce worker's exposure and production of radioactive wastes during dismantling, (3) dismantling technology of metal components and concrete structures such as plasma arc cutting, band saw cutting and controlled demolition with mostly remote control operation, (3) radioactive waste disposal for volume reduction and reuse, and (4) project management of decommissioning for safe and rational work to secure reduction of worker's exposure and prevent the spreading of contamination. (T. Tanaka)

  7. TMI-2 reactor vessel head removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the safe removal and storage of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor vessel head. The head was removed in July 1984 to permit the removal of the plenum and the reactor core, which were damaged during the 1979 accident. From July 1982, plans and preparations were made using a standard head removal procedure modified by the necessary precautions and changes to account for conditions caused by the accident. After data acquisition, equipment and structure modifications, and training the head was safely removed and stored and the internals indexing fixture and a work platform were installed on top of the vessel. Dose rates during and after the operation were lower than expected; lessons were learned from the operation which will be applied to the continuing fuel removal operations activities

  8. ICONE-4: Proceedings. Volume 2: Advanced reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings for this conference are contained in 5 volumes. This volume is divided into the following areas: advanced reactor requirements; advanced reactor design and analysis; arrangement and construction; specific reactor designs; demonstration testing; safety systems and analysis; component demonstration testing; advanced reactor containment design; licensing topics and updates; accelerator applications and spallation sources; and advanced reactor development. Separate abstracts were prepared for most papers in this volume

  9. Experiments of fuzzy logic control ion a nuclear research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of a fuzzy logic control scheme is presented in order to improve the power system stability of BR1 (Belgian Reactor 1) at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN). The control scheme is developed based on OMRON's fuzzy hardware (C200H-FZ001) and the Fuzzy Support Software (FSS) because of their high performance and flexibility. The various possibilities are discussed to find the best or optimal fuzzy logic control scheme for controlling BR1. On basis of the previous researches 1,2,3, some experiments have been carried out in both the steady-state and dynamic operation conditions. The results reveal that the fuzzy logic control scheme has the potential to replace nuclear reactor operators in the control room. Hence, the entire control process can be automatic, simple and effective

  10. Prospects for Revitalising the Belgian University System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecquet, Ignace

    1984-01-01

    Concerns of a researcher in a Belgian university regarding the trend toward policy implementation dominated by short- and medium-term budgetary considerations are outlined. The university system's heterogeneous, compartmentalized nature and potential are noted, along with the relationship to the government and the real danger of break-up of the…

  11. Performance communication of the Belgian Railway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelders, Dave; Verckens, Jan Pieter; Galetzka, Mirjam; Seydel, Erwin

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide an insight into performance communication from an important public service, i.e. the Belgian Railway, towards its employees (internal) and stakeholders (external). Design/methodology/approach – A qualitative research approach was taken in the form o

  12. On-line fast flux measurements in the BR2 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 2001, CEA-Cadarache and the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are collaborating on the development and in-pile qualification of subminiature fission chambers (diameter of 1.5 mm). Initially, efforts concentrated on fission chambers for the in-pile measurement of thermal fluxes (with 235U as fissile material). Meanwhile successful long-term tests of the prototypes have been performed in various environments: in low temperature (40-100 degress Celsius) BR2 pool water (up to a thermal neutron fluence of 3 1021 n/cm2) and in the CALLISTO PWR loop (300 degrees Celsius, 155 bars). The long-term qualification of derived industrial detectors (Photonis CFUZ53) in CALLISTO is still ongoing. However, for various types of irradiations in research reactors, the knowledge of the evolution of the fast neutron flux is even of more interest than the thermal flux data. Therefore the collaboration program was extended to the development and the in-pile qualification of subminiature or miniature fission chambers (with 3 mm diameter) for fast neutron detection, for which 242Pu was selected as the optimal fissile material. In order to achieve the on-line in-pile measurement of fast neutron flux, the fission chambers will be operated in the Campbelling mode (based on the mean square fluctuation of the detector current). In this mode the gamma induced contribution to the signal can be efficiently suppressed. Moreover, a data processing software will take into account the evolution of the fissile deposit in order to assess on-line the fast flux sensitivity and to correct for the low energy neutron contributions. The final objective is to qualify a Fast Neutron Detector System (FNDS) able to provide on-line data for local fast neutron fluxes in Material Testing Reactors. The on-line measurement of the fast neutron flux would contribute significantly to the characterization of the irradiation conditions during test experiments with materials and innovative fuel elements

  13. Internal capital market efficiency of Belgian holding companies

    OpenAIRE

    Gautier, Axel; Malika HAMADI

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we raise the following two questions. (1) Do Belgian holding companies operate an internal capital market to transfer financial resources amongst their subsidiaries? And if yes, (2) is the internal capital market efficient? To answer the first question, we check if group cash flow is a determinant of the group members investment spending. The answer is positive if the holding company’s subsidiary is affiliated to a coordination center and negative otherwise. To ans...

  14. BR2 reactor: medical and industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioisotopes are produced for various applications in the nuclear medicine (diagnostic, therapy, palliation of metastatic bone pain), industry (radiography of welds, ...), agriculture (radiotracers, ...) and basic research. Due to the availability of high neutron fluxes (thermal neutron flux up to 1015 n/cm2.s), the BR2 reactor is considered as a major facility through its contribution for a continuous supply of products such 99Mo (99mTc), 131I, 133Xe, 192Ir, 186Re, 153Sm, 90Y, 32P, 188W (188Re), 203Hg, 82Br, 41Ar, 125I, 177Lu,89Sr, 60Co, 169Yb, 147Nd, and others. Neutron Transmutation Doped (NTD) silicon is produced for the semiconductor industry in the SIDONIE (Silicon Doping by Neutron Irradiation Experiment) facility, which is designed to continuously rotate and traverse the silicon through the neutron flux. These combined movements produce exceptional dopant homogeneity in batches of silicon measuring 4 and 5-inches in diameter by up to 750 mm in length. The main objectives of work performed were to provide a reliable and qualitative supply of radioisotopes and NTD-silicon to the customers in accordance with a quality system that has been certified to the requirements of the EN ISO 9001: 2000. This new Quality System Certificate has been obtained in November 2003 for the Production of radioisotopes for medical and industrial applications and the Production of Neutron Transmutation Doped (NTD) Silicon in the BR2 reactor

  15. 105-B Reactor museum Phase 2 project supplement cost estimate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document serves as a supplement to BHI-0134, 105-B Reactor Museum Feasibility Assessment. The Phase 2 105-B Reactor assessment was performed to provide a basis for identifying and mitigating the hazards in specific areas of the B Reactor facility to support public tours

  16. Irradiation parameters of the ETRR-2 Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Fortran computer program was written for calculating the total sensitivity of a characteristic gamma-ray line (in gamma-rays/s.μg of an element) emitted by a product radioisotope following thermal and epithermal neutron capture. The program also deals with corrections for the spectrometer dead time and decay post irradiation as well as during the measurement. Another Fortran computer program was written for correlating the irradiation parameter f (thermal to epithermal neutron flux ratio) with the deviation parameter α of the epithermal neutron spectrum from the ideal 1/E law (where E is the neutron energy). In order to determine the reactor parameters f and a, standard samples of iron, cobalt, zirconium, tungsten and gold of precisely known weights were placed in a can 75 A00 and irradiated for 32.66 hours in the irradiation box 110 at the core periphery of the ETRR-2 at power 16 MW. Plots of f versus a for pairs of isotopes were used in getting graphically the unique solution resulting from their intersection point. The values of f and a were found to be 40.23 ± 0.52 and -0.052, respectively. The thermal and epithermal neutron fluxes were then found to be 3.8143 E+ 13 and 9.4815 E+11 neutrons/cm2.s, respectively at 16 MW reactor power

  17. The TRIGA reactor Frankfurt FRF 2, construction and present status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reactor FR2 was planned to replace the old FR1 reactor at the Frankfurt University, which was shutdown due to a failure. The FR2 is a tank reactor; the core is divided into 2 parts. The 1 MW operational core was calculated to consist of about 70 fuel elements. The grid plates contain 110 fuel element positions, surplus positions are occupied by dummy elements filled with water. The core has 5 control rods, 4 of which have fuel element followers. The reactor plant including all protection facilities was completed in 1977. The fuel elements were delivered in 1978. The reactor has been ready for critical experiments, but the permission for the start-up was not granted. In 1980 was decided that the reactor was not going in operation. Preparations are being made to dismantle the reactor components and to re-use them elsewhere

  18. Focal epilepsy in the Belgian shepherd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berendt, Mette; Gulløv, Christina Hedal; Fredholm, Merete

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To establish the mode of inheritance and describe the clinical features of epilepsy in the Belgian shepherd, taking the outset in an extended Danish dog family (199 individuals) of Groenendael and Tervueren with accumulated epilepsy. METHODS: Epilepsy positive individuals (living and...... deceased) were ascertained through a telephone interview using a standardised questionnaire regarding seizure history and phenomenology. Living dogs were invited to a detailed clinical evaluation. Litters more than five years of age, or where epilepsy was present in all offspring before the age of five...... seizures. In seven dogs, seizures could not be classified. The mode of inheritance of epilepsy was simple Mendelian. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This study identified that the Belgian shepherd suffers from genetically transmitted focal epilepsy. The seizure phenomenology expressed by family members have a...

  19. Optical remote sensing of Belgian coastal waters

    OpenAIRE

    Ovidio, F.; K. Ruddick; Vasilkov, A.; Burenkov, V.

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarises the research conducted at MUMM in optical remote sensing of Belgian coastal waters during the period 1997-2000. The motivation for this research consists of the need to provide information for marine environmental management of coastal eutrophication and sediment transport related problems. The basic products provided by optical remote sensing are maps of chlorophyll concentration and total suspended matter. A key contribution has been made for the atmospheric correction...

  20. Advertising budgeting practices of Belgian industrial marketers.

    OpenAIRE

    François, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    The author reports on the results of a survey of a random sample of 102 belgian industrial companies, which measured which budget setting processes companies use, how they set budgets and the resulting budget composition. The objective of the study was first to compare the results with international practice, and second to try to explain their budgeting practices as a function of company, product and market characteristics measured in the same survey. The major conclusions are mixed : on the ...

  1. Clonal Expansion of the Belgian Phytophthora ramorum Populations Based on New Microsatellite Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coexistence of both mating types A1 and A2 within the EU1 lineage of Phytophthora ramorum has only been observed in Belgium, begging the question whether sexual reproduction is occurring. A collection of 411 Belgian P. ramorum isolates was established during a seven year survey. Our main objective w...

  2. Problems of nuclear reactor safety. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theses of proceedings of the 9 Topical Meeting on problems of nuclear power plant safety are presented. Reports include results of neutron-physical experiments carried out for reactor safety justification. Concepts of advanced reactors with improved safety are considered. Results of researches on fuel cycles are given too

  3. Utilization of the SLOWPOKE-2 research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SLOWPOKEs are typically low power research reactors that have a limited number of applications. However, a significant range of NAA can be performed with such reactors. This paper describes a SLOWPOKE-based NAA program that is performing a valuable series of studies in Jamaica, including geological mapping and pollution assessment. (author)

  4. Stochastically fluctuations of the modernized fast pulsed reactor IBR-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full Text : Stochastically fluctuations of the power of the IBR-2 reactor have been quite significant (20 percent), they affect the dynamics of the reactor, the process of regulation, starting on the work of the experimental equipment, etc. On the other hand, the presence of large fluctuations in power at the IBR-2M has had its advantages. Investigation of stochastic fluctuations has allowed to estimate some physical parameters of the nuclear reactor core, for example, the mean lifetime of prompt neutrons in the reactor, source of spontaneous neutrons, and absolute power of the reactor. The main results of the investigation impulse stochastically fluctuations of the IBR-2 periodic pulsed reactor after modernization have been presented. It has been shown that the experimental results have been close to the calculated ones

  5. Pressurized water reactor simulator. Workshop material. 2. ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established an activity in nuclear reactor simulation computer programs to assist its Member States in education. The objective is to provide, for a variety of advanced reactor types, insight and practice in their operational characteristics and their response to perturbations and accident situations. To achieve this, the IAEA arranges for the development and distribution of simulation programs and educational material and sponsors courses and workshops. The workshops are in two parts: techniques and tools for reactor simulator development. And the use of reactor simulators in education. Workshop material for the first part is covered in the IAEA Training Course Series No. 12, 'Reactor Simulator Development' (2001). Course material for workshops using a WWER- 1000 reactor department simulator from the Moscow Engineering and Physics Institute, the Russian Federation is presented in the IAEA Training Course Series No. 21, 2nd edition, 'WWER-1000 Reactor Simulator' (2005). Course material for workshops using a boiling water reactor simulator developed for the IAEA by Cassiopeia Technologies Incorporated of Canada (CTI) is presented in the IAEA publication: Training Course Series No.23, 2nd edition, 'Boiling Water Reactor Simulator' (2005). This report consists of course material for workshops using a pressurized water reactor simulator

  6. Ageing Management and Modernization of TR-2 Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TR-2 is a 5 MW pool type research reactor. It is in the same building and in the same pool of the former TR-1 research reactor. TR-1 was active between 1961 and 1977, and during the construction period of the TR-2 reactor (1977– 1980), TR-1 was partially refurbished. TR-2 started operation in 1981 and continued to operate until 1995. In 1995 operation was stopped because of concern for the seismic safety of the old reactor building. From 1995 to 2009 the reactor was operated at a limited power of 300 kW. In 2009, HEU fuel was shipped to the country of origin, and LEU fuel was provided. Presently, the reactor is in a shutdown state for the seismic reinforcement project of the building. The building was built in the 1950s, and this and the pool are the only structures inherited from TR-1. Other parts of the TR-2 reactor were first installed in the 1980s. During the 15 years of operation certain components of the reactor aged. Considering the future operating programme, modernization of some systems are in planning. In the paper, ageing management and modernization of the TR-2 research reactor are given. (author)

  7. The SLOWPOKE-2 reactor with low enrichment uranium oxide fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A SLOWPOKE-2 reactor core contains less than 1 kg of highly enriched uranium (HEU) and the proliferation risk is very low. However, to overcome proliferation concerns a new low enrichment uranium (LEU) fuelled reactor core has been designed. This core contains approximately 180 fuel elements based on the Zircaloy-4 clad UOsub(2) CANDU fuel element, but with a smaller outside diameter. The physics characteristics of this new reactor core ensure the inherent safety of the reactor under all conceivable conditions and thus the basic SLOWPOKE safety philosophy which permits unattended operation is not affected

  8. Upgrading of the research reactors FRG-1 and FRG-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1972 for the research reactor FRG-2 we applied for a license to increase the power from 15 MW to 21 MW. During this procedure a public laying out of the safety report and an upgrading procedure for both research reactors - FRG-1 (5 MW) and FRG-2 - were required by the licensing authorities. After discussing the legal background for licensing procedures in the Federal Republic of Germany the upgrading for both research reactors is described. The present status and future licensing aspects for changes of our research reactors are discussed, too. (orig.)

  9. BR2 reactor: medical and industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioisotopes are produced for various applications in the nuclear medicine (diagnostic, therapy, palliation of metastatic bone pain), industry (radiography of welds ...), agriculture (radiotracers ...) and basic research. Due to the availability of high neutron fluxes (thermal neutron flux up to 1015 n/cm2.s), the BR2 reactor is considered as a major facility through its contribution for a continuous supply of products such as 99Mo (99mTc), 131I, 133Xe, 192Ir, 186Re, 90Sm, 131Y, 32P, 188W (188Re), 203Hg, 82Br, 41Ar, 125I, 177Lu, 89Sr, 60Co, 169Yb, 147Nd, ... Neutron Transmutation Doped (NTD) silicon is produced for the semiconductor industry in the SIDONIE (Silicon Doping by Neutron Irradiation Experiment) facility, which is designed to continuously rotate and traverse the silicon through the neutron flux. These combined movements produce exceptional dopant homogeneity in batches of silicon measuring 4 and 5-inches in diameter by up to 750 mm in length

  10. Realization of the IBR-2 reactor modernization program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The pulsed fast reactor IBR-2 is a pulsed reactor of periodic action (pulsed reactor) and its original difference from other reactors consists in mechanical reactivity modulation with a movable reflector (MR). The movable reflector is a complex mechanical system with a total mass up to 60 t providing for reliable operation of the two parts, which determine reactivity modulation: the main movable reflector (MMR) and the additional movable reflector (AMR). The MMR and AMR rotors rotate in the same direction with different velocities. When both reflectors coincide near the reactor zone, a power pulse is generated. The factors determining the duration of a fast neutron pulse are fast neutron lifetime, configuration and rotation velocity of the rotors. The IBR-2 reactor was put into operation in February 1984. At present an average power of the reactor is 1,5 MW and pulse repetition rate is 5 Hz. Due to its pulse power, equal to 1500 MW, IBR-2 possesses the highest in the world pulsed thermal neutron flux for beam investigations, which is 1016 n/cm2.s. Pulse duration is 215 ms for fast neutrons and 320 μs for thermal neutrons (behind the 4 cm thick water moderator). The IBR-2 reactor is used principally for beam studies in solid-state physics (solids and liquids), biology, and material science. The experience of the IBR-2 reactor operation proved it to be a rather effective neutron source, which for many applications is as good as the best sources, based on proton accelerators. Moreover, the development of neutron experiment technique and application of modern developments at the IBR-2 reactor have shown that neutron flux magnitude is of fundamental importance for high efficiency of a pulsed source. At the same time pulse duration can be different in different experiments. This methodical conclusion can be essential for further development of neutron sources throughout the world. Operating experience of IBR-2 is especially important at present when the

  11. Religiosity, Values, and Acculturation: A Study of Turkish, Turkish-Belgian, and Belgian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gungor, Derya; Bornstein, Marc H.; Phalet, Karen

    2012-01-01

    We address the understudied religious dimension of acculturation in acculturating adolescents who combine a religious Islamic heritage with a secularized Christian mainstream culture. The religiosity of 197 Turkish-Belgian adolescents was compared with that of 366 age-mates in Turkey (the heritage culture) and 203 in Belgium (the mainstream…

  12. Erection of reactor vessel support of Angra-2 nuclear power plant reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The erection of Reactor Pressure Vessel Support (RPV) on site can be divided in 3 different phases, according to the course of construction activities of the plant itself. They are, as follow: 1. Erection of the Embedded Parts in concrete. 2. Erection of Support before installation of RPV. 3. Erection of Support after installation of Reactor Pressure Vessel. The work will be restricted to part of item 2 of above mentioned phases, comprising since the lifting of the component inside of Reactor Building, until the dimensional records, after welding works of segments in their final localization, which steps can be considered as critical in the erection sequence. (author)

  13. PSA Level 2 activities for RBMK reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Probabilistic safety analyses (PSAs) of the boiling water graphite moderated pressure tube reactors (RBMKs) have been developed only recently and they are limited to Level 1. Activities at the IAEA were first motivated because of the difficulties to characterize core damage for RBMK reactors. Core damage probability is used in documents of the IAEA as a convenient single valued measure, for example for probabilistic safety criteria. The limited number of PSAs that have been completed for the RBMK reactors have shown that several special features of these channel type reactors necessitate revisiting of the characterization of core damage for these reactors. Furthermore, it has become increasingly evident that detailed deterministic analysis of DBAs and beyond design basis accidents reveal considerable insights into RBMK response to various accident conditions. These analyses can also help in better characterizing the outstanding phenomenological uncertainties, improved EOPs and AM strategies, including potential risk-beneficial accident negative backfits. The deterministic efforts should be focused first on elucidating accident progression processes and phenomena, and second on finding, qualifying and implementing procedures to minimize the risk of severe accident states The IAEA PSA procedures were mainly developed in New of vessel type LWRs, and would therefore require extensions to make them directly applicable. to channel type reactors. (author) (author)

  14. Fusion reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN, activities related to fusion focus on environmental tolerance of opto-electronic components. The objective of this program is to contribute to the knowledge on the behaviour, during and after neutron irradiation, of fusion-reactor materials and components. The main scientific activities for 1997 are summarized

  15. Belgian Photography: Towards a Minor Photography.

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Baetens; Hilde Van Gelder; Mieke Bleyen

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: This article investigates Belgian photography from within the national framework. Using the notion of "banal nationalism" (Billig), it explores how even in the case of a nation wi...

  16. Annual report on JEN-1 and JEN-2 Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the annual report on the JEN-1 and JEN-2 reactors the main fractures of the reactor operations and maintenance are described. The reactor has been in operation for 2188 hours, what means 74% of the total working time. Maintenance and periodical tests have occupied the rest of the time. Maintenance operations are shown according to three main subjects, the main failures so as the reactor scrams are also described. Different date relating with radiation level and health Physics are also included. (Author)

  17. Boiling water reactor simulator. Workshop material. 2. ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established an activity in nuclear reactor simulation computer programs to assist its Member States in education. The objective is to provide, for a variety of advanced reactor types, insight and practice in their operational characteristics and their response to perturbations and accident situations. To achieve this, the IAEA arranges for the development and distribution of simulation programs and workshop material and sponsors workshops. The workshops are in two parts: techniques and tools for reactor simulator development, and the use of reactor simulators in education. Workshop material for the first part is covered in the IAEA publication: Training Course Series No. 12, Reactor Simulator Development: Workshop Material (2001). Course material for workshops using a WWER-1000 simulator from the Moscow Engineering and Physics Institute, Russian Federation is presented in the IAEA publication: Training Course Series No. 21, 2nd edition, WWER-1000 Reactor Simulator: Workshop Material (2005). Course material for workshops using a pressurized water reactor (PWR) simulator developed by Cassiopeia Technologies Incorporated, Canada, is presented in the IAEA publication: Training Course Series No. 22, 2nd edition, Pressurized Water Reactor Simulator: Workshop Material (2005). This report consists of course material for workshops using a boiling water reactor (BWR) simulator

  18. Korea Research Reactor -1 and 2 Decommissioning Project in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korea Research Reactor 1 (KRR-1), the first research reactor in Korea, has been operated since 1962, and the second one, Korea Research Reactor 2 (KRR-2) since 1972. The operation of both of them was phased out in 1995 due to their lifetime and operation of the new and more powerful research reactor, HANARO (High-flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor; 30MW). Both are TRIGA Pool type reactors in which the cores are small self-contained units sitting in tanks filled with cooling water. The KRR-1 is a TRIGA Mark II, which could operate at a level of up to 250 kW. The second one, the KRR-2 is a TRIGA Mark III, which could operate at a level of up 2,000 kW. The decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) project of these two research reactors, the first D and D project in Korea, was started in January 1997 and will be completed to stage 3 by 2008. The aim of this decommissioning program is to decommission the KRR-1 and 2 reactors and to decontaminate the residual building structure s and the site to release them as unrestricted areas. KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) submitted the decommissioning plan and the environmental impact assessment reports to the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) for the license in December 1998, and was approved in November 2000

  19. Korea Research Reactor -1 & 2 Decommissioning Project in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S. K.; Chung, U. S.; Jung, K. J.; Park, J. H.

    2003-02-24

    Korea Research Reactor 1 (KRR-1), the first research reactor in Korea, has been operated since 1962, and the second one, Korea Research Reactor 2 (KRR-2) since 1972. The operation of both of them was phased out in 1995 due to their lifetime and operation of the new and more powerful research reactor, HANARO (High-flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor; 30MW). Both are TRIGA Pool type reactors in which the cores are small self-contained units sitting in tanks filled with cooling water. The KRR-1 is a TRIGA Mark II, which could operate at a level of up to 250 kW. The second one, the KRR-2 is a TRIGA Mark III, which could operate at a level of up 2,000 kW. The decontamination and decommissioning (D & D) project of these two research reactors, the first D & D project in Korea, was started in January 1997 and will be completed to stage 3 by 2008. The aim of this decommissioning program is to decommission the KRR-1 & 2 reactors and to decontaminate the residual building structure s and the site to release them as unrestricted areas. KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) submitted the decommissioning plan and the environmental impact assessment reports to the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) for the license in December 1998, and was approved in November 2000.

  20. Belgian NPPS fit passive autocatalytic recombiners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because hydrogen production during severe accidents can endanger the containment or safety-graded equipment, the Belgian Utility requested Belgatom in 1989 to perform a comparative study between the possible mitigative measures. From the outcome of that study, the Utility decided to install Passive Autorcatalytic Recombiners (PARs) in the seven Belgian units and mandated Belgatom to carry out the project. The author presents the successive steps from the principle decision to the installation on site. A first section is devoted to the sizing of the catalytic surface and its distribution inside the containment. The results of the method are presented for the 5 units equipped before October 96. Besides the functional requirements, the catalyst must also resist to poisoning agents which can be released not only during severe accidents but also during normal operation or shutdown; the relevant qualification criteria are reminded in the second section. Because the installation of the PARs requires also the design of supports, recommendations are drawn to minimize the design effort and the assembling work. At last, the effectiveness of the PARs entirely relies on a catalyst material of which the potential has to be periodically controlled. A section briefly describes the in-service inspection and the related test procedures

  1. BRAMS --- the Belgian RAdio Meteor Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, H.; Ranvier, S.; Martinez Picar, A.; Gamby, E.; Calders, S.; Anciaux, M.; De Keyser, J.

    2014-07-01

    BRAMS is a new radio observing facility developed by the Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy (BISA) to detect and characterize meteors using forward scattering. It consists of a dedicated beacon located in the south-east of Belgium and in 25 identical receiving stations spread over the Belgian territory. The beacon transmits a pure sinusoidal wave at a frequency of 49.97 MHz with a power of 150 watts. A complete description of the BRAMS network and the data produced will be provided. The main scientific goals of the project are to compute fluxes, retrieve trajectories of individual objects, and determine physical parameters (speed, ionization, mass) for some of the observed meteor echoes. All these goals require a good knowledge of the radiation patterns of the transmitting and receiving antennas. Simulations have been made and will be validated with in-situ measurements using a UAV/drone equipped with a transmitter flying in the far-field region. The results will be provided. Each receiving station generates around 1 GB of data per day with typical numbers of sporadic meteor echoes of 1500--2000. An automatic detection method of these meteor echoes is therefore mandatory but is complicated by spurious echoes mostly due to airplanes. The latest developments of this automatic detection method will be presented and compared to manual counts for validation. Strong and weak points of the method will be presented as well as a possible alternative method using neural networks.

  2. Experiences with a continuous vibration monitoring system on rotating machines in the Belgian power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the availability of turbogenerators is very important, especially for nuclear plants, some Belgian power plants asked Laborelec to develop a better vibration monitoring with analysis capabilities and the possibility to record data. The main goal was to have a better insight in the vibrational behaviour of some critical machines and to limit the outages due to vibrational problems. The first prototype of a computerised monitoring system was installed in 1985 to survey the Doel 4 turbine from the beginning. Meanwhile 39 turbines have been equipped ranging from 125 MW, 25 years old, fossil fuel plants to large 1000 MW nuclear plants. Some reactor coolant pumps were instrumented too. (orig.)

  3. Assessment of the French and US embrittlement trend curves applied to RPV materials irradiated in the BR2 materials test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The irradiation embrittlement of reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) in monitored through the surveillance programs associated with predictive formulas, the so-called embrittlement trend curves. These formulas are generally empirically derived and contain the major embrittlement-inducing elements such as copper, nickel and phosphorus. There are a number of such trend curves used in various regulatory guides used in the US, France, Germany, Russia and Japan. These trend curves are often supported by surveillance data and regularly assessed in view of updated surveillance databases. With the recent worldwide move towards life extension of existing reactors above their initially-scheduled lifetime of 40 years, adequate and accurate modeling of irradiation embrittlement becomes a concern for long term operation. The aim of this work is to assess the performance of the embrittlement trend curves used in a regulatory perspective. The work presented here is limited to US and French trend curves because the reactor pressure vessels of the Belgian nuclear power plants are either Westinghouse or Framatome design. The chemical composition of the Belgian RPVs being very close to the one of the French 900 MW units, the French trend curve is used except for the Doel 1-2 units for which these curves are not applicable due to the higher copper content of the welds. In this case, the U.S. trend curves are used. The aim of this work is to evaluate the performance of the embrittlement trend curves used in a regulatory perspective to represent the experimental data obtained in the BR2 reactor. In particular, the French (FIM, FIS) and the US (Reg. Guide 1.99 Rev. 2, ASTM E900-02, EWO and EONY) formulas are of prime interest. The results obtained clearly show that the French trend curves tend to over-estimate the actual irradiation hardening while the US curves under-estimate it. Within the long term operation perspective, both over- and under-estimating are undesirable and therefore the

  4. Vitamin D inadequacy in Belgian postmenopausal osteoporotic women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collette Julien

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate serum vitamin D [25(OHD] concentrations are associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism, increased bone turnover and bone loss, which increase fracture risk. The objective of this study is to assess the prevalence of inadequate serum 25(OHD concentrations in postmenopausal Belgian women. Opinions with regard to the definition of vitamin D deficiency and adequate vitamin D status vary widely and there are no clear international agreements on what constitute adequate concentrations of vitamin D. Methods Assessment of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] and parathyroid hormone was performed in 1195 Belgian postmenopausal women aged over 50 years. Main analysis has been performed in the whole study population and according to the previous use of vitamin D and calcium supplements. Four cut-offs of 25(OHD inadequacy were fixed : Results Mean (SD age of the patients was 76.9 (7.5 years, body mass index was 25.7 (4.5 kg/m2. Concentrations of 25(OHD were 52.5 (21.4 nmol/L. In the whole study population, the prevalence of 25(OHD inadequacy was 91.3 %, 87.5 %, 43.1 % and 15.9% when considering cut-offs of 80, 75, 50 and 30 nmol/L, respectively. Women who used vitamin D supplements, alone or combined with calcium supplements, had higher concentrations of 25(OHD than non-users. Significant inverse correlations were found between age/serum PTH and serum 25(OHD (r = -0.23/r = -0.31 and also between age/serum PTH and femoral neck BMD (r = -0.29/r = -0.15. There is a significant positive relation between age and PTH (r = 0.16, serum 25(OHD and femoral neck BMD (r = 0.07. (P Vitamin D concentrations varied with the season of sampling but did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.09. Conclusion This study points out a high prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy in Belgian postmenopausal osteoporotic women, even among subjects receiving vitamin D supplements.

  5. Power noise analysis at the IBM-2M nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The IBR-2M pulsed fast research reactor with the nominal power of 2 MW is a modernized version of the IBR-2 reactor which was shut down in 2006 because its service life had come to the end. The core and the shell, stationary reflectors and control and emergency protection elements were completely replaced in the course of modernizing. Neutronic processes in nuclear reactors have a probabilistic character due to the quantum mechanics of scattering and the stochastics of propagation in materials

  6. 1997 Scientific Report[1997 Scientific Report of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govaerts, P.

    1998-07-01

    The 1997 Scientific Report of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN describes progress achieved in nuclear safety, radioactive waste management, radiation protection and safeguards. In the field of nuclear research, the main projects concern the behaviour of high-burnup and MOX fuel, the embrittlement of reactor pressure vessels, the irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking of reactor internals, and irradiation effects on materials of fusion reactors. In the field of radioactive waste management, progress in the following domains is reported: the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent fuel in a clay formation, the decommissioning of nuclear installations, the study of alternative waste-processing techniques. For radiation protection and safeguards, the main activities reported on are in the field of site and environmental restoration, emergency planning and response and scientific support to national and international programmes.

  7. 2nd International technical meeting on small reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 2nd International Technical Meeting on Small Reactors was held on November 7-9, 2012 in Ottawa, Ontario. The meeting was hosted by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) and Canadian Nuclear Society (CNS). There is growing international interest and activity in the development of small nuclear reactor technology. This meeting provided participants with an opportunity to share ideas and exchange information on new developments. This Technical Meeting covered topics of interest to designers, operators, researchers and analysts involved in the design, development and deployment of small reactors for power generation and research. A special session focussed on small modular reactors (SMR) for generating electricity and process heat, particularly in small grids and remote locations. Following the success of the first Technical Meeting in November 2010, which captured numerous accomplishments of low-power critical facilities and small reactors, the second Technical Meeting was dedicated to the achievements, capabilities, and future prospects of small reactors. This meeting also celebrated the 50th Anniversary of the Nuclear Power Demonstration (NPD) reactor which was the first small reactor (20 MWe) to generate electricity in Canada.

  8. IBR-2: A periodically operating pulsed reactor for neutron research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An extensive description of the IBR-2 fast neutron pulse reactor is given. The operation and construction of the reactor, the control and safety systems and the cooling system are described in details. In the booster mode of operation a linear induction accelerator is applied as injector. The shielding problems and the experimental possibilities are also discussed. The particular problems in the design, construction and operation of such reactors are reviewed. The general characteristics of the IBR-2 as a neutron source for spectrometry as well as a list of the experimental apparatus under construction are given. (R.J.)

  9. Dietary intake of artificial sweeteners by the Belgian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huvaere, Kevin; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Hasni, Moez; Vinkx, Christine; Van Loco, Joris

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether the Belgian population older than 15 years is at risk of exceeding ADI levels for acesulfame-K, saccharin, cyclamate, aspartame and sucralose through an assessment of usual dietary intake of artificial sweeteners and specific consumption of table-top sweeteners. A conservative Tier 2 approach, for which an extensive label survey was performed, showed that mean usual intake was significantly lower than the respective ADIs for all sweeteners. Even consumers with high intakes were not exposed to excessive levels, as relative intakes at the 95th percentile (p95) were 31% for acesulfame-K, 13% for aspartame, 30% for cyclamate, 17% for saccharin, and 16% for sucralose of the respective ADIs. Assessment of intake using a Tier 3 approach was preceded by optimisation and validation of an analytical method based on liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. Concentrations of sweeteners in various food matrices and table-top sweeteners were determined and mean positive concentration values were included in the Tier 3 approach, leading to relative intakes at p95 of 17% for acesulfame-K, 5% for aspartame, 25% for cyclamate, 11% for saccharin, and 7% for sucralose of the corresponding ADIs. The contribution of table-top sweeteners to the total usual intake (sucralose: 3.08 versus 3.03, expressed as mg kg(-1) bodyweight day(-1) at p95) showed that the latter group was not exposed to higher levels. It was concluded that the Belgian population is not at risk of exceeding the established ADIs for sweeteners. PMID:22088137

  10. Belgian nuclear power life extension and fuss about nuclear rents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear decision-making is embedded in slowly evolving political, economic and financial institutions. Belgium houses extended nuclear activities, mostly under French control, for example: SUEZ-GDF and EDF own all Belgian nuclear power plants. But a 2003 law mandates the closure of Belgium's nuclear power plants at a service age of 40 years; only force majeure could lift the strict obligation. Opposition to the law argued with climate change danger, financial losses, and loss-of-load risks. The financial issue got interwoven with a fuzzy debate on the definition, height and appropriation of “nuclear rents”. As plausible hypothesis is adopted: the prospected transfer of hundreds millions of euro from power companies to the public interest will create public support for life extension. But the nuclear rents discussion had faded in July 2012 when the Belgian government admitted a 10-year life extension for TIHANGE I (962 MW) and imposed the closure of the 2×433 MW DOEL I and II. Loss-of-load risk was the government's only public argument. The opacity of the decision process and its “fifty–fifty” outcome do not allow proper testing of the hypothesis. The case illustrates that politicians cannot bind their followers except through the deployment of alternative power sources. - Highlights: • Nuclear phase-out is only successful when alternative supplies are deployed. • Politicians cannot bind their successors by words or by lawgiving. • The phase-out law exemplifies the disruption of a strong nuclear lock-in. • Life extension exemplifies the disruption of the phase-out law. • The impact of imprecise nuclear rents on life extension could not be tested

  11. Belgian Workshop (November 2003) - Executive Summary and International Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fourth workshop of the OECD/NEA Forum on Stakeholder Confidence (FSC) was hosted by ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste Management and enriched fissile materials. The central theme of the workshop was 'Dealing with interests, values and knowledge in managing risk' within the Belgian context of local partnerships for the long term management of low-level, short-lived radioactive waste. The four-day workshop started with a half-day session in Brussels giving a general introduction on the Belgian context and the local partnership methodology. This was followed by community visits to three local partnerships, PaLoFF in Fleurus-Farciennes, MONA in Mol, and STOLA in Dessel. After the visits, the workshop continued with two full-day sessions in Brussels. One hundred and nineteen registered participants, representing 13 countries, attended the workshop or participated in the community visits. About two thirds were Belgian stakeholders; the remainder came from FSC member organisations. The participants included representatives of municipal governments, civil society organisations, government agencies, industrial companies, the media, and international organisations as well as private citizens, consultants and academics. The four-day meeting was structured as follows: Day 1 morning was devoted to introductory presentations. Information was given on the general radioactive waste management context in Belgium. Regarding the management of LLW, and in particular the search for a disposal facility site, the workshop heard about the local partnership methodology developed by university researchers of the University of Antwerp and the Fondation Universitaire Luxembourgeoise (FUL). These partnerships between the potential host municipalities and the radwaste agency have the mission to develop an integrated facility proposal adapted to local conditions. Community visits took place on Day 1 afternoon and Day 2. Visits offered an opportunity for

  12. Operation of the SLOWPOKE-2 reactor in Jamaica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past sixteen years lCENS has operated a SLOWPOKE 2 nuclear reactor almost exclusively for the purpose of neutron activation analysis. During this period we have adopted a strategy of minimum irradiation times while optimizing our output in an effort to increase the lifetime of the reactor core and to maintaining fuel integrity. An inter-comparison study with results obtained with a much larger reactor at IPEN has validated this approach. The parameters routinely monitored at ICENS are also discussed and the method used to predict the next shim adjustment. (author)

  13. Operation of the SLOWPOKE-2 reactor in Jamaica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, C.N.; Lalor, G.C.; Vuchkov, M.K. [University of the West Indies, Kingston (Jamaica)

    2001-07-01

    Over the past sixteen years lCENS has operated a SLOWPOKE 2 nuclear reactor almost exclusively for the purpose of neutron activation analysis. During this period we have adopted a strategy of minimum irradiation times while optimizing our output in an effort to increase the lifetime of the reactor core and to maintaining fuel integrity. An inter-comparison study with results obtained with a much larger reactor at IPEN has validated this approach. The parameters routinely monitored at ICENS are also discussed and the method used to predict the next shim adjustment. (author)

  14. New reactor concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document gives a summary of new nuclear reactor concepts from a technological point of view. Belgium supports the development of the European Pressurized-Water Reactor, which is an evolutionary concept based on the European experience in Pressurized-Water Reactors. A reorientation of the Belgian choice for this evolutionary concept may be required in case that a decision is taken to burn plutonium, when the need for flexible nuclear power plants arises or when new reactor concepts can demonstrate proved benefits in terms of safety and cost

  15. Exporting Ethnic Divisions? The Political Participation of Belgian Citizens Abroad

    OpenAIRE

    Lafleur, Jean-Michel

    2011-01-01

    The Belgian emigrants’ political participation in home country politics is an issue that has undergone several important developments since the end of the 1990s but has surprisingly been subject to very little research. The absence of the issue of emigration from the Belgian political agenda combined with the limited engagement of this population with the home country thus stands for the absence of research on the topic. The lack of academic interest, in turn, has favoured the development of ...

  16. Dietary habits during adolescence - results of the Belgian Adolux Study

    OpenAIRE

    Paulus, Dominique; Saint-Remy, Annie; JeanJean, Michel

    2001-01-01

    STUDY: To analyse the usual dietary habits of Belgian adolescents from a high cardiovascular risk population. METHODS: A food frequency questionnaire (57 items) was administered to the whole sample. Complementary questions specified some types of food (eg fat content). A subgroup of 234 adolescents gave detailed information on portion size (picture book and food samples). SETTING: Twenty-four secondary schools in the Belgian province of Luxembourg. SUBJECTS: A total of 1,526 adolesce...

  17. Survival Among Belgian Centenarians (1870-1894 Cohorts)

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Yuzhi; Zhang Chunyuan; Foulon, M.; D. Chambre; Poulain, M.

    2001-01-01

    Poulain Michel, Chambre Dany, Foulon Michel.- Survival Among Belgian Centenarians (1870-1894 Cohorts) Calculating the probability of dying among post-centenarians is problematic and often flawed by a high risk of error. This is partly due to the unreliability of statistical data on centenarians, and partly to the small populations concerned. The Belgian centenarian database of over 4,000 centenarians in the 1870 to 1894 birth cohorts used here endeavours to compensate for these two failings. ...

  18. Psychosocial predictors of actual turnover among Belgian health care workers

    OpenAIRE

    Derycke, Hanne; Vlerick, Peter; Clays, Els; D'hoore, William; Braeckman, Lutgart

    2010-01-01

    Background: Turnover of nursing staff is a major challenge for healthcare settings and for healthcare in general, urging the need to improve retention. Aim: The aim was to explore the prospective relations between personal and psychosocial work-related factors and actual turnover among Belgian healthcare workers. Methods: Predictors of actual turnover were assessed using the longitudinal Belgian data from the Nurses Early Exit Study (NEXT). Two self-administered questionnaires with a time...

  19. The Belgian experience on the backfitting and safety upgrading of old operating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the methodology for backfitting and safety upgrading during the reevaluation of the Belgian NPP's: first generation (Doel-1, Doel-2, Tihange-1) and second generation plants (Doel-3, Doel-4, Tihange-2 and Tihange-3). A list of essential safety subjects and topics is given. The experience has proved the feasibility of a safety upgrading of operating NPP without injury to its availability, the benefit of a close cooperation between owner, engineering company and safety authorities throughout the project. A global approach to solving numerous specific deficiencies along with the optimization of the investments regarding the safety improvement of the NPP is suggested. Further increase of the know-how will be achieved through the present Belgian programme along with similar activities abroad. (R.I.)

  20. Maximum credible accident analysis for TR-2 reactor conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new reactor, TR-2, of 5 MW, designed in cooperation with CEN/GRENOBLE is under construction in the open pool of TR-1 reactor of 1 MW set up by AMF atomics at the Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center. In this report the fission product inventory and doses released after the maximum credible accident have been studied. The diffusion of the gaseous fission products to the environment and the potential radiation risks to the population have been evaluated

  1. Joint Estimation of Mark-up and Bargaining Power Parameters for Belgian Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Dobbelaere, Sabien

    2002-01-01

    This paper applies several extensions of Hall's (1988) methodology to analyse imperfections in both the product and the labour market for firms in the Belgian manufacturing industry over the period 1988-1995. We investigate (1) the heterogeneity in mark-up and bargaining power parameters among 17 sectors within the manufacturing industry, (2) whether higher bargaining power parameters are associated with higher mark-ups and (3) whether both parameters are influenced by cyclical and competitio...

  2. FMDP Reactor Alternative Summary Report: Volume 2 - CANDU heavy water reactor alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE/MD) initiated a detailed analysis activity to evaluate each of ten plutonium disposition alternatives that survived an initial screening process. This document, Volume 2 of a four volume report, summarizes the results of these analyses for the CANDU reactor based plutonium disposition alternative

  3. FRJ-2 research reactor (DIDO) at Forschungszentrum Juelich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raffel, Sieghard; Damm, Gunter [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    FRJ-2 is a research reactor of the British DIDO/PLUTO series, which uses heavy water (D{sub 2}O) in a sealed tank as a moderator and for cooling. In November 1962, it went into operation with a thermal output of 10 MW. The exhaustion of available reserves led to the output being increased in 1967 to 15 MW, and after structural alteration measures to 23 MW in 1972. Since final shutdown in May 2006, the FRJ-2 research reactor has been in the post-operational phase. The application for decommissioning and dismantling the FRJ-2 research reactor in one step was submitted to the nuclear licensing authority in North-Rhine Westphalia in 2007. FRJ-2 will be dismantled autonomously by Forschungszentrum Juelich. (orig.)

  4. IGORR 2: Proceedings of the 2. meeting of the International Group On Research Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International group on Research Reactors was formed to facilitate the sharing of knowledge and experience among those institutions and individuals who are actively working to design, build, and promote new research reactors or to make significant upgrades to existing facilities. Sessions during this second meeting were devoted to research reactor reports (GRENOBLE reactor, FRM-II, HIFAR, PIK, reactors at JAERI, MAPLE, ANS, NIST, MURR, TRIGA, BR-2, SIRIUS 2); other neutron sources; and two workshops were dealing with research and development results and needs and reports on progress in needed of R and D areas identified at IGORR 1

  5. Proceedings of 2. Yugoslav symposium on reactor physics, Part 1, Herceg Novi (Yugoslavia), 27-29 Sep 1966

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Volume 1 of the Proceedings of 2. Yugoslav symposium on reactor physics includes nine papers dealing with the following topics: reactor kinetics, reactor noise, neutron detection, methods for calculating neutron flux spatial and time dependence in the reactor cores of both heavy and light water moderated experimental reactors, calculation of reactor lattice parameters, reactor instrumentation, reactor monitoring systems; measuring methods of reactor parameters; reactor experimental facilities

  6. The Belgian nuclear education network, 5th academic year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In a country where a substantial part of the electricity generation will remain of nuclear origin for a number of years, there is a need for well educated and well trained engineers in this area. Public authorities, regulators and industry brought their support to this initiative. In 2001, the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK CEN and five Belgian universities signed a consortium agreement to set up an education programme in nuclear engineering. This academic year, a sixth university, ULB, joined the programme. The universities involved are now: KUL (Leuven), UG (Ghent), VUB (Brussels), UCL (Louvain-la-Neuve), ULg (Liege) and ULB (Brussels). These seven partners have engaged themselves anew to provide students and young-professionals with a high-standard nuclear engineering programme. The BNEN academic programme is a one-year (60 ECTS) Master-after-Master programme open for holders of a Master degree in engineering. The programme consists of ten courses to be followed mandatory (41 ECTS), the opportunity to select a number of advanced courses at will (up to 4 ECTS worth) and a Master thesis (15 ECTS). The subjects of the courses range form nuclear physics, nuclear reactor theory, nuclear thermo hydraulics to reactor plant operation and control, radiation protection and safeguards and nuclear materials. It also includes courses on nuclear energy and the nuclear fuel cycle. All courses are given in a modular fashion, i.e. the students get a course in the duration of one up to three weeks of continuous lectures and lab sessions. Attention is indeed paid to the fact that most courses are not only theoretical ones, but many of them have exercise sessions and laboratory sessions associated with them. These sessions are organised and thought by the scientific staff at SCK CEN. The number of students enrolling for the BNEN has seen a serious growth since the start of the initiative. The programme does not serve only 'full-time' students, i.e. people having

  7. Belgian canine population and purebred study for forensics by improved mitochondrial DNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmyter, Stijn; Gijsbers, Leonie

    2012-01-01

    In canine population studies for forensics, the mitochondrial DNA is profiled by sequencing the two hyper variable regions, HV1 and HV2 of the control region. In a first effort to create a Belgian population database some samples showed partially poor sequence quality. We demonstrated that a nuclear pseudogene was co-amplified with the mtDNA control region. Using a new combination of primers this adverse result was no longer observed and sequencing quality was improved. All former samples with poor sequence data were reanalyzed. Furthermore, the forensic canine population study was extended to 208 breed and mixed dogs. In total, 58 haplotypes were identified, resulting in an exclusion capacity of 0.92. The profile distribution of the Belgian population sample was not significantly different from those observed in population studies of three other countries. In addition to the total population study 107 Belgian registered pedigree dogs of six breeds were profiled. Per breed, the obtained haplotypes were supplemented with those from population and purebred studies. The combined data revealed that some haplotypes were more or less prominent present in particular dog breeds. The statistically significant differences in haplotype distribution between breeds and population sample can have consequences on mtDNA databasing and matching probabilities in forensics. PMID:21489897

  8. Mechanical degradation processes: The Belgian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Design life is merely used in Belgium as a requirement in the 'Design Specification' of some components subjected to known degradation processes, such as stress induced fatigue, embrittlement (irradiation or other), various types of corrosion, wear, erosion, thermal aging (electrical insulation, ...), etc. Design life is in no way directly related to the duration of the plant operation. In that sense design life for the Belgian NPP components includes the values of 20, 30 and 40 years. The oldest plant (20 years design life) has been decommissioned in 1991. The most recent units (40 years design life) have still a good time to go. The intermediate units (30 years design life) started around 1975. Consequently components of these plants need be looked at to determine whether or not deteriorations have occurred. The paper presents the various known mechanical degradation processes and how they affect various components. Emphasis is laid on prevention, mitigation or repair measures that have been or are being taken to avoid that the 'Equipment design life' be the limiting factor in the duration of the plant operation. (author)

  9. Digital, remote control system for a 2-MW research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battle, R.E.; Corbett, G.K.

    1988-01-01

    A fault-tolerant programmable logic controller (PLC) and operator workstations have been programmed to replace the hard-wired relay control system in the 2-MW Bulk Shielding Reactor (BSR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In addition to the PLC and remote and local operator workstations, auxiliary systems for remote operation include a video system, an intercom system, and a fiber optic communication system. The remote control station, located at the High Flux Isotope Reactor 2.5 km from the BSR, has the capability of rector startup and power control. The system was designed with reliability and fail-safe features as important considerations. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  10. The radiological impact of the Belgian phosphate industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Belgian phosphate industry processes huge amounts of phosphate ore (1.5 to 2 Mton/year) for a wide range of applications, the most important being the production of phosphoric acid, fertilizers and cattle food. Marine phosphate ores show high specific activities of the natural uranium decay series (usually indicated by Ra-226) (e.g. 1200 to 1500 Bq/kg for Moroccan ore). Ores of magmatic origin generally contain less of the uranium and more of the thorium decay series (up to 500 Bq/kg). These radionuclides turn up in by-products, residues or product streams depending on the processing method and the acid used for the acidulation of the phosphate rock. Sulfuric acid is the most widely used, but also hydrochloric acid and nitric acid are applied in Belgium. For Flanders, the northern part of Belgium, we already have a clear idea of the production processes and waste streams. The five Flemish phosphate plants, from 1920 to 2000, handled 54 million ton of phosphate ore containing 65 TBq of radium-226 and 2.7 TBq of thorium- 232. The total surface area of the phosphogypsum and calcium fluoride sludge deposits amounts to almost 300 ha. There is also environmental contamination along two small rivers receiving the waste waters of the hydrochloric production process: the Winterbeek (> 200 ha) and the Grote Laak (12 ha). The data on the impact of the phosphate industry in the Walloon provinces in Belgium is less complete. A large plant produced in 2004 0.8 Mton of phosphogypsum, valorizing about 70 % of the gypsum in building materials (plaster, cement), in fertilizers, and in other products such as paper. The remainder was stored on a local disposal site. The radiological impact of the Belgian phosphate industry on the local population will be discussed. At present most contaminated areas are still recognizable as waste deposits and inaccessible to the population. However as gypsum deposits and other contaminated areas quickly blend in with the landscape, it is

  11. analysis and implementation of reactor protection system circuits - case study Egypt's 2 nd research reactor-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    this work presents a way to design and implement the trip unit of a reactor protection system (RPS) using a field programmable gate arrays (FPGA). instead of the traditional embedded microprocessor based interface design method, a proposed tailor made FPGA based circuit is built to substitute the trip unit (TU), which is used in Egypt's 2 nd research reactor ETRR-2. the existing embedded system is built around the STD32 field computer bus which is used in industrial and process control applications. it is modular, rugged, reliable, and easy-to-use and is able to support a large mix of I/O cards and to easily change its configuration in the future. therefore, the same bus is still used in the proposed design. the state machine of this bus is designed based around its timing diagrams and implemented in VHDL to interface the designed TU circuit

  12. Reproduction of the PSBR reactor with Exterminator-2; Reproduccion del reactor PSBR con exterminador-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar H, F. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1983-08-15

    To reproduce the reactor PSBR reported in (1), with the available version of the Exterminator-II in the ININ, they took the dimensions, composition specifications, effective sections of the different compositions (excepting those of the central thimble and of the moderator), the K{sub eff} and the factors of power (FP) for the different burners. Based on the comparison of the K{sub eff} and of the FP obtained with those reported the precision it is determined before in the reproduction of the reactor mentioned. (Author)

  13. Reactor physics recommissioning of Pickering NGS Units 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations following the rupture of Pickering Unit 1 pressure tube G16 in 1983, led to the shutdown of Units 1 and 2 for pressure tube replacement and numerous other upgrades. They were recommissioned in 1987 and 1988 respectively. This paper surveys the procedures used during the reactor physics recommissioning of these two reactors and presents the results of these measurements. Special note is made of the differences between this recommissioning work, and the initial commissioning of new CANDU reactors. From a physics point of view, the restarted units differed substantially from the original design. The main difference in the core configuration involved the conversion of 10 of the original adjuster rods into shutoff rods. The reactivities of the remaining adjusters were increased. These substantial changes to the core, together with the full core of fresh fuel, necessitated a complete set of reactor physics recommissioning experiments. Some of our procedures differed from those used to commission a new reactor. This was due mainly to the high levels of tritium in the moderator D2O and to radiological hazards on the reactivity deck. Also, the high residual activities in the rebuilt cores lead to increased difficulties in neutron monitoring and higher subcritical neutron count rates (hence a higher than usual reactor power at first criticality). In general the results of our recommissioning measurements closely matched the results of presimulations using the OHRFSP and SMOKIN computer codes. Results for Unit 2 were generally better than those for Unit 1. This was due to improved procedures which resulted from our experiences with Unit 1. (author). 4 tabs., 9 figs

  14. Optimized Control Rods of the BR2 Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the present time the BR-2 reactor uses control elements with cadmium as neutron absorbing part. The lower section of the control element is a beryllium assembly cooled by light water. Due to the burn up of the lower end of the cadmium section during the reactor operation, the presently used rods for reactivity control of the BR-2 reactor have to be replaced by new ones. Considered are various types Control Rods with full active part of the following materials: cadmium (Cd), hafnium (Hf), europium oxide (Eu2O3) and gadolinium (Gd2O3). Options to decrease the burn up of the control rod material in the hot spot, such as use of stainless steel in the lower active part of the Control Rod are discussed. Comparison with the characteristics of the presently used Control Rods types is performed. The changing of the characteristics of different types Control Rods and the perturbation effects on the reactor neutronics during the BR-2 fuel cycle are investigated. The burn up of the Control Rod absorbing material, total and differential control rods worth, macroscopic and effective microscopic absorption cross sections, fuel and reactivity evolution are evaluated during approximately 30 operating cycles.

  15. Optimized Control Rods of the BR2 Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalcheva, Silva; Koonen, E.

    2007-09-15

    At the present time the BR-2 reactor uses control elements with cadmium as neutron absorbing part. The lower section of the control element is a beryllium assembly cooled by light water. Due to the burn up of the lower end of the cadmium section during the reactor operation, the presently used rods for reactivity control of the BR-2 reactor have to be replaced by new ones. Considered are various types Control Rods with full active part of the following materials: cadmium (Cd), hafnium (Hf), europium oxide (Eu2O3) and gadolinium (Gd2O3). Options to decrease the burn up of the control rod material in the hot spot, such as use of stainless steel in the lower active part of the Control Rod are discussed. Comparison with the characteristics of the presently used Control Rods types is performed. The changing of the characteristics of different types Control Rods and the perturbation effects on the reactor neutronics during the BR-2 fuel cycle are investigated. The burn up of the Control Rod absorbing material, total and differential control rods worth, macroscopic and effective microscopic absorption cross sections, fuel and reactivity evolution are evaluated during approximately 30 operating cycles.

  16. Update on the pulsed reactor IBR-2 and its instruments at Dubna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IBR-2 reactor is the world's most powerful pulsed neutron source. The advantages of the IBR-2 reactor may be most fully revealed at cold neutron wavelengths. This contribution presents data on the parameters of the reactor today and in the near future. A brief description of the reactor instrumentation for physical research is given. (orig.)

  17. SIRIUS 2: A versatile medium power research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the Research Reactors in the world have been critical in the Sixties and operated for twenty to thirty years. Some of them have been completely shut down, modified, or simply refurbished; the total number of RR in operation has decreased but there is still an important need for medium power research reactors in order: - to sustain a power program with fuel and material testing for NPP or fusion reactors; - to produce radioisotopes for industrial or medical purposes, doped silicon, NAA or neutron radiography; - to investigate further the condensed matter, with cold neutrons routed through neutron guides to improved equipment; - to develop new technologies and applications such as medical alphatherapy. Hence, taking advantage of nearly hundred reactor x years operation and backed up by the CEA experience, TECHNICATOME assisted by FRAMATOME has designed a new versatile multipurpose Research Reactor (20-30 Mw) SIRIUS 2 taking into account: - more stringent safety rules; - the lifetime; - the flexibility enabling a wide range of experiments and, - the future dismantling of the facility according to the ALARA criteria

  18. The international reactor dosimetry file. (IRDF-90 Version 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the contents of the new version of the International Reactor Dosimetry File IRDF-90 Version 2 of 1993 which contains recommended neutron cross-section data to be used for reactor neutron dosimetry by foil activation. It also contains selected recommended values for radiation damage cross-sections and benchmark neutron spectra. This library supersedes all earlier versions of IRDF. It is available on magnetic tape or on a set of PC diskettes from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section, costfree, upon request. (author)

  19. Development of activation analysis on the IBR-2 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different examples of activation analysis (AA) application and probabilities of its further development using IBR-2 reactor (Dubna) with two facilities: REGATA pneumotransport facility desigued for instrumental AA and biophysical channel designed for element analysis using capture prompt quanta and radiography-are considered. Characteristics of irradiation channels, values of flux densities for thermal, resonance and fast neutrons are given. Application advantages concerning instrumental AA of resonance neutrons are considered. New application trend of AA for composition optimization of concretes used in shielding structures of nuclear reactors, for reduction of long-lived directed activity is pointed out. 20 refs.; 6 figs.; 7 tabs

  20. Liquid film emergency for FRJ-2 type research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new, efficient emergency cooling procedure based on liquid film cooling was developed for FRJ-2 type research in reactors, which allows a higher power generation in the tubular fuel elements used and which represents an improvement of the engineered safeguards of the reactor. The problem of producing coherent liquid films on the outer surfaces of the four concentrically arranged thin fuel tubes without obstructive modifications of the fuel element design was solved by using radial water jets. These jets discharge into the drained fuel elements from the outside therby crossing the upper edges of the fuel tubes. In hydraulic experiments the influence of the geometry, of the jet velocity and of the water viscosity on the water supply to each fuel tube was measured and the conditions were evaluated where by each fuel tube in the reactor obtain sufficient cooling water taking account of variations in the various parameters. (orig./HP)

  1. Polarized neutron reflectometry at the IBR-2 pulsed reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenov, V. L.; Nikitenko, Yu. V.

    2007-05-01

    Polarized neutron reflectometry as a method for investigating layered nanostructures and its implementation at the IBR-2 pulsed reactor (Dubna, Russia) are described. The experimental data illustrating the studies of magnetic layered nanostructures and the development of the method of polarized neutron reflectometry on the polarized neutron spectrometer are presented. The directions of further development of the method of polarized neutron reflectometry are analyzed.

  2. Different compositions of pharmaceuticals in Dutch and Belgian rivers explained by consumption patterns and treatment efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laak, ter T.L.; Kooij, P.J.F.; Tolkamp, H.; Hofman, J.

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, 43 pharmaceuticals and 18 transformation products were studied in the river Meuse at the Belgian-Dutch border and four tributaries of the river Meuse in the southern part of the Netherlands. The tributaries originate from Belgian, Dutch and mixed Dutch and Belgian catchments. I

  3. The Resilience Scale for Adults: Construct Validity and Measurement in a Belgian Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjemdal, Odin; Friborg, Oddgeir; Braun, Stephanie; Kempenaers, Chantal; Linkowski, Paul; Fossion, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    The Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA) was developed and has been extensively validated in Norwegian samples. The purpose of this study was to explore the construct validity of the Resilience Scale for Adults in a French-speaking Belgian sample and test measurement invariance between the Belgian and a Norwegian sample. A Belgian student sample (N =…

  4. Standard- and extended-burnup PWR [pressurized-water reactor] and BWR [boiling-water reactor] reactor models for the ORIGEN2 computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to describe an updated set of reactor models for pressurized-water reactors (PWRs) and boiling-water reactors (BWRs) operating on uranium fuel cycles and the methods used to generate the information for these models. Since new fuel cycle schemes and reactor core designs are introduced from time to time by reactor manufacturers and fuel vendors, an effort has been made to update these reactor models periodically and to expand the data bases used by the ORIGEN2 computer code. In addition, more sophisticated computational techniques than previously available were used to calculate the resulting reactor model cross-section libraries. The PWR models were based on a Westinghouse design, while the BWR models were based on a General Electric BWR/6 design. The specific reactor types considered in this report are as follows (see Glossary for the definition of these and other terms): (1) PWR-US, (2) PWR-UE, (3) BWR-US, (4) BWR-USO, and (5) BWR-UE. Each reactor model includes a unique data library that may be used to simulate the buildup and deletion of isotopes in nuclear materials using the ORIGEN2 computer code. 33 refs., 44 tabs

  5. Inventory of nuclear liabilities - The Belgian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Like all countries that use radioactive materials for producing electricity or for other peaceful purposes, Belgium is faced with an important challenge: the safe management of all these materials, in both the short and long term. Of course there is a price to pay for this management, which in accordance with the ethical principle of inter-generational fairness should be borne mainly by the current generations. However, it is possible that when the moment has come, the financial resources to cover the costs of decommissioning and remediation of these installations, prove to be insufficient or even completely non-existent: this then results in a nuclear liability. This kind of situation can have several causes, such as an underestimation of the actual costs by the operator or the owner of the nuclear installation or by the holder or the owner of the radioactive materials, negligence, transfer of ownership of the nuclear installation or the nuclear site without transfer of the corresponding provisions, a reduction in the operating time, a bankruptcy as well as ignorance. Because it wishes to avoid the occurrence of new nuclear liabilities, the Belgian legislator, by virtue of article 9 of the programme law of 12.12.97, charged ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials, with collecting all the elements that are necessary in order to examine to which degree the decommissioning and remediation costs can be actually covered when the time comes. ONDRAF/NIRAS was specifically charged with ascertaining all facts of a technical and financial nature which should enable the minister responsible for energy to verify whether every operator or owner of a nuclear installation and every holder or owner of radioactive materials have provided in time for the requisite financial resources to cover the future costs of decommissioning and remediation. This evaluation of course also serves to enable the government to take the necessary

  6. radioisotopes production in the ETRR-2 research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    the present work was carried out to study the production of a variety of reactor produced radioisotopes via neutrons interactions with specified targets in the 22 MW ETRR-2 research reactor, egypt, compared with the 2 MW IRI, netherlands, and 2 MW ETRR-1, egypt, research reactors. no carrier added radionuclides of 131 Cs (T1/2=9,69 d), 166 Ho (T1/2=26.7 h), 67 Cu(T1/2=2.5 7 d) and 47Sc(T1/2=3.34 d) were produced by thermal neutrons interactions via 130 Ba(n,γ ) 131 Ba (β decay) 131 Cs and 164Dy(2 n,γ ) 166 Dy (βdecay) 166 Ho and fast neutrons interactions via 47 Ti(n,p) 47Sc and 67Zn(n,p) 67 Cu nuclear reactions , respectively. chemical processing was conducted using the sulfate precipitation method and dowex 2 x 8 (cl-). anion exchange, Dowex AGW 50 x 8 (H+), cation exchange and dowex AGW 50 x 8 (H+) reversed phase hplc chromatographic methods for separation of 131cs, 67cu, 47sc and 166 Ho from the barium , zinc, titanium, and dysprosium targets, respectively. the percent yields of 131 Cs, 67Cu, 47Sc and 166 Ho were found to be ∼ 91,90,98 and 42.7% respectively

  7. Cronos 2: a neutronic simulation software for reactor core calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CRONOS2 software is that part of the SAPHYR code system dedicated to neutronic core calculations. CRONOS2 is a powerful tool for reactor design, fuel management and safety studies. Its modular structure and great flexibility make CRONOS2 an unique simulation tool for research and development for a wide variety of reactor systems. CRONOS2 is a versatile tool that covers a large range of applications from very fast calculations used in training simulators to time and memory consuming reference calculations needed to understand complex physical phenomena. CRONOS2 has a procedure library named CPROC that allows the user to create its own application environment fitted to a specific industrial use. (authors)

  8. Dependent failure analysis of the TR-2 research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TR-2 is a 5 MW swimming pool type reactor designed solely for radioisotope production. Its present core consists of 10 standard fuel elements, 4 control fuel elements and 6 beryllium elements as a reflector. In addition to the deterministic safety analysis of the research reactor which was reviewed recently, Probabilistic Safety Assessment of the TR-2 reactor was carried out as part of the IAEA's coordinated research programme on 'PSA for Research Reactors. There are several important aspects of a research reactor PSA in Turkey, the main one being that it has provided a facility for carrying out full PSA programme on a small and simple system in order to build up expertise and manpower for future uses in nuclear power plant safety. Another important aspect is that the PSA document will be a supplement to the safety analysis report of the TR-2 based on the deterministic analysis, while assisting in identifying cost-effective solutions for redesigning new experimental facilities and improving control room design. The level 1 PSA application involved selection of accident initiators, mitigating functions and system definitions, various event/fault tree development and their qualifications. Dependent failure analysis is carried out in four steps to search for the existing dependences in the design of the TR-2 mitigating systems and components and to quantify dependent events through the identification of component groups sensitive to common causes. Functional, physical and human interaction dependences are searched through fault tree linking for the preselection of accident scenarios of interest. Results are incorporated into the accident sequence evaluation

  9. Planned Scientific programs around the Triga Mark 2 Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Nuclear techniques have been introduced to Morocco since the sixties. After the energy crisis of 1973, Morocco decides to create the National Center for Energy Sciences and Nuclear Techniques (CNESTEN) under the supervision of the Ministry of high Education and Research, with a research commercial and support vocation. CNESTEN is in charge of promoting nuclear application, to act as technical support for the authorities and to prepare the technological basis for nuclear power option. In 1998, CNESTEN started the construction of Nuclear Research Centre. The on going activities cover many sectors : earth and environmental sciences, high energy physics, safety and security, waste management. In 2001, CNESTEN started the construction of a 2MW TRiga Mark 2 Reactor, with the possibility to increase the power to 3 MW. The construction was achieved in January 2007. The operation of the reactor is expected for April 2007. The program of the utilization of the reactor was established with th contribution of the university and with the assistance of IAEA. Some of the experimental set-up installed around the reactor have been designed. CNESTEN has developed cooperation with Nuclear research centres from other countries and is receiving visitors and trainees mainly through the IAEA

  10. Reactor Core Internals Replacement of Ikata Units 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikata Units 1 and 2 have been in operation for a very long time. Unit 1, in particular, is one of the longest operating PWRs in Japan. In view of this history, preventive and proactive strategy has been adopted for the maintenance of major primary system components. Both units successfully completed the replacement of steam generators and reactor vessel heads approximately ten years ago. With regard to the reactor core internals, baffle former bolts (BFBs) were found to have been damaged by stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in 1989 at Bugey 2 in France. Since then, similar incidents have been reported in other European and U.S. plants, resulting in the replacement of failed BFBs. The BFB issue can be dealt with either by replacing bolts when damage is found or by replacing the entire core internals with those of a new design. Ikata Units 1 and 2 chose the latter and carried it out in 2004 and 2005, respectively.

  11. Thermal-hydraulic analysis of the TR-2 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study the thermal-hydraulic analysis of the TR-2 reactor of 5 MW has been performed. The methods and results obtained are discussed. The methods which are used throughout the analysis can be applied to other plate type research reactors. For the present, the analysis are done for steady state conditions. For fuel elements and cooling channels the relations between pressure loss and flow rate, critical heat fluxes, safety margins and temperature distributions are calculated. The effects of UAlx-Al, U3O8-Al and U3Si2-Al type fuel materials on the peak fuel temperature are also studied. It has been found, assuming that the permissible minimum safety margin to onset of nucleate boiling be 2.32, the radial peaking factor should be lower than 3.5 and as far as the cooling system is unchanged this is also valid for low enriched fuels. (author)

  12. Safety culture in a Belgian nuclear research centre from a social science point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is the result of a reflection within the framework of a Ph.D. research at SCK-CEN (Belgian Nuclear Research Centre) in collaboration with the University of Liege. The starting point of the work was the 'safety culture' model presented in the IAEA report 75-INSAG-4. This model is applied to the working organization of the SCK-CEN, also considering the safety culture as an open concept given its multi dimensionality. The methodology is based on three methods: observations, focus groups and interviews. The fieldwork was limited to two main installations: a research reactor, and a dismantling site. The preliminary findings are based on the data resulting from 4 Focus Groups. The most prominent components of a safety culture and the multiplicity of safety cultures in a large organization such as SCK-CEN will be discussed. (author)

  13. Characterization of the Three Mile Island Unit-2 reactor building atmosphere prior to the reactor building purge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Three Mile Island Unit-2 reactor building atmosphere was sampled prior to the reactor building purge. Samples of the containment atmosphere were obtained using specialized sampling equipment installed through penetration R-626 at the 358-foot (109-meter) level of the TMI-2 reactor building. The samples were subsequently analyzed for radionuclide concentration and for gaseous molecular components (O2, N2, etc.) by two independent laboratories at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The sampling procedures, analysis methods, and results are summarized

  14. Neutron flux spectra and radiation damage parameters for the Russian Bor-60 and SM-2 reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karasiov, A.V. [D.V. Efremov Scientific Rresearch Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Greenwood, L.R. [Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The objective is to compare neutron irradiation conditions in Russian reactors and similar US facilities. Neutron fluence and spectral information and calculated radiation damage parameters are presented for the BOR-60 (Fast Experimental Reactor - 60 MW) and SM-2 reactors in Russia. Their neutron exposure characteristics are comparable with those of the Experimental Breeder Reactor (ERB-II), the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) in the United States.

  15. Economic, CO2 Emission and Energy Assessments of Fusion Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Global warming due to rapid greenhouse gas (GHG) emission is a serious environmental problem, and fusion reactors are expected as one of safe and abundant electric power generation systems to reduce GHG emission amounts. To search for economic, environment-friendly and energy-efficient fusion reactors, system studies have been done using PEC (Physics-Engineering- Cost) code taking care of life-cycle cost of electricity (COE), CO2 gas emission rate equivalently including other GHG emission, and energy payback ratio (EPR), for magnetic fusion reactors (tokamak (TR), spherical tokamak (ST) and helical (HR)) and inertial fusion reactors (IR). At first, reactor system modeling is described and typical design parameters are derived. The magnetic fusion reactor designs strongly depend on achievable plasma beta value and permissible magnetic field strength, and inertial fusion designs depend on the driver energy and driver repetition rate. Using the PEC code, COE, CO2 emission rate and EPR can be analyzed. The former two indecies were previously evaluated by the authors, and the latter parameter EPR is defined here as a ratio of electric output energy to input energy investments required for construction, operation, fuel, replacement and decommissioning. Especially, as for TR design to reduce COE and to raise EPR, high plasma-current-drive efficiency is required for low-beta (normalized βN e = 1 — 3 GW, plant availability favail = 0.65 — 0.85, normalized βN = 3 — 5 or averaged beta (3 — 5%), maximum magnetic field strength Bmax = 10 — 16 T, thermal efficiency fth = 0.37 — 0.59, operation year (20 — 40 Years) and isentrope parameter αF = 2 — 4. These formulas might be important for making a strategy of fusion research development. As future assessments, the accident risk probability and related accident settlement expenditures should be included in COE, in addition to CO2 environmental tax and nuclear fuel tax, for the comparisons with other

  16. TA-2 water boiler reactor decommissioning (Phase 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Removal of external structures and underground piping associated with the gaseous effluent (stack) line from the TA-2 Water Boiler Reactor was performed as Phase I of reactor decommissioning. Six concrete structures were dismantled and 435 ft of contaminated underground piping was removed. Extensive soil contamination by 137Cs was encountered around structure TA-2-48 and in a suspected leach field near the stream flowing through Los Alamos Canyon. Efforts to remove all contaminated soil were hampered by infiltrating ground water and heavy rains. Methods, cleanup guidelines, and ALARA decisions used to successfully restore the area are described. The cost of the project was approximately $320K; 970 m3 of low-level solid radioactive waste resulted from the cleanup operations

  17. Cladding rupture detection of tammuz-2 reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The checking of fuel cladding integrity and uranium contamination level was performed using delayed neutron cladding rupture detection system (DRG). This checking is important for the start up procedure of the reactor. The technique of DRG depends on monitoring the delayed neutron emitters such as Br-87 (t1/2=54.5 sec) and l-137 (t1/2=24 sec) in the coolant of the reactor. As a requirement for the start up two tests for checking fuel cladding integrity were performed. A comparison between the obtained data and the recommended data by the vendor are tabulated. Additional data were obtained at higher power. Accordingly, it can be concluded that the activities detected were due to the uranium contamination of cladding surfaces. Results confirmed that no rupture existed on the claddings

  18. Experimental Criticality Benchmarks for SNAP 10A/2 Reactor Cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krass, A.W.

    2005-12-19

    This report describes computational benchmark models for nuclear criticality derived from descriptions of the Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power (SNAP) Critical Assembly (SCA)-4B experimental criticality program conducted by Atomics International during the early 1960's. The selected experimental configurations consist of fueled SNAP 10A/2-type reactor cores subject to varied conditions of water immersion and reflection under experimental control to measure neutron multiplication. SNAP 10A/2-type reactor cores are compact volumes fueled and moderated with the hydride of highly enriched uranium-zirconium alloy. Specifications for the materials and geometry needed to describe a given experimental configuration for a model using MCNP5 are provided. The material and geometry specifications are adequate to permit user development of input for alternative nuclear safety codes, such as KENO. A total of 73 distinct experimental configurations are described.

  19. EC initiatives promise mixed blessings: a Belgian utility perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential effects on nuclear power of European Community initiatives are analysed from the viewpoint of a Belgian utility. The initiatives fall under the three broad headings of: East-West co-operation; completing the internal market; and carbon dioxide emission. (Author)

  20. Belgian support programme to the IAEA for safeguards implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the Belgian Support Programme (BEL SP) is to contribute to the optimization of safeguards measures in accordance with INFCIRC/153 type agreements. This optimization has to take into account cost and effectiveness for the Agency, for the State System of Accounting and Control, for the plant operator and for EURATOM, which is considered an inherent partner. The Belgian support programme has undertaken a series of tasks covering the following domains: Non-destructive Measurement Technology (high resolution gamma spectroscopy, neutron measurements on powders, pins, assemblies and waste, test of Phonid, calorimetry on Pu samples, input tank calibration in a reprocessing plant, combined neutron and gamma measurements on irradiated fuel assemblies, allowing the estimation of burnup, plutonium content and cooling time, measurements of coincidence neutrons from fresh MOX fuel assemblies stored under water), System Studies, Analytical Measurements, Containment and surveillance, Training. Numerous field tests in Belgian in Belgian installations have led to a valuable contribution to the Support Programme to the IAEA, either on an individual basis or through a collaboration effort. In the past, the choice of tasks was based mainly on the availability of nuclear facilities; currently, the trend has shifted to technical contributions, system studies, possibly in a joint effort with other programmes. This approach follows the trend of on-going internationalisation of R and D

  1. The Dutch-Belgian beamline at the ESRF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsboom, M; Bras, W; Cerjak, I; Detollenaere, D; Glastra Van Loon, D; Goedtkindt, P; Konijnenburg, M; Lassing, P; Levine, Y K; Munneke, B; Oversluizen, M; Van Tol, R; Vlieg, E

    1998-05-01

    A brief description is given of the design principles and layout of the Dutch-Belgian beamline at the ESRF. This beamline optimizes the use of the available bending-magnet radiation fan by splitting the beam into two branches, each accommodating two experimental techniques. PMID:15263564

  2. Continuing Vocational Training in Belgian Companies: An Upward Tendency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyens, Dirk; Wouters, Karen

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: As part of the European continuing vocational training survey, this paper aims to give an overview of the evolutions in continuing vocational training (CVT) in Belgian companies, by comparing both the results of the survey of 1994 and those of 2000/2001. Design/methodology/approach: In Belgium 1,129 companies took part in the survey of…

  3. The attitudes of Belgian adolescents towards peers with disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossaert, Goele; Colpin, Hilde; Pijl, Sip Jan; Petry, Katja

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to explore Belgian adolescents' attitudes towards peers with disabilities and to explore factors associated with these attitudes. Based on the theory of persuasive communication, this study focused on receiver variables (the "whom"), characteristics of students with disabilities ("c

  4. Open Access to the Belgian Nuclear higher Education Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the name of the Belgian Nuclear higher Education Network, five Belgian universities, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Universiteit Gent, Universite de Liege, Vrije Universiteit Brussel have established in 2002, in collaboration with the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN, a common Belgian Interuniversity Programme of the third cycle leading to the academic degree of Master of Science in Nuclear Engineering. Under the lead of the SCK-CEN a project to use and share the acquired experience of the Consortium BNEN - in order to support the realization of a common European Education Programme in Nuclear Engineering - has been accepted by the European Commission for funding under the EU's Sixth Research Framework Programme.The project wants to contribute actively to the development of a more harmonised approach for education in nuclear sciences and engineering in Europe. It brings the European higher Education Area closer to realization and helps to safeguard the necessary competence and expertise for the continued safe use of nuclear energy and other uses of radiation in industry and medicine in Europe. The project foresees input and participation from stakeholders from different countries of the enlarged European Union (EU-25) and will therefore contribute to the integration of the new member states into the European Research Area and thus to the enlargement of Europe. The set-up of the project foresees an active role for female experts with the intention to reinforce the place and role of women in science

  5. NO2 Catalytic Decomposition - from Laboratory Experiment to Industry Reactor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Obalová, L.; Jirátová, Květa; Kovanda, F.

    Kraków : Wydawnictwo Uniwersitetu Jagiellonskiego, 2011, s. 97. ISBN 978-83-233-3249-7. [International Symposium on Nitrogen Oxides Emission Abatement NOEA 2011. Zakopane (PL), 04.09.2011-07.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01020336 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : catalytic decomposition of CO2 * reactor * kinetic data Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  6. Products and Services of Research Reactor ETRR-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority (EAEA) owns a new material testing research reactor (MTR) called ETRR-2. This reactor was commissioned in 1997 and is a swimming pool type using plate type Fuel elements with 20% enrichment. It is cooled and moderated by light water and uses beryllium as a reflector. Its maximum thermal power is 22 MW, with maximum thermal neutron flux of 2.7×l014 cm-2s-1 and can be operated up to one cycle, around 18 days, for the high fluence necessary for applying long irradiations for peaceful utilization and a wide range of applications. The reactor is a multipurpose utilization, containing different facilities for applying neutron activation analysis (NAA), radioisotope production (e.g., Ir-131, Co-60, P-32, Mo-99, etc.), neutron transmutation doping (NTD) of silicon ingots of 12.5 cm diameter and 30 cm in length, neutron radiography education for university students, research for scientists, and training for new operators. (author)

  7. Safety regulations of fuzzy-logic control to nuclear reactors

    OpenAIRE

    RUAN, Da

    2000-01-01

    We present an R&D project on fuzzy-logic control applications to the Belgian Nuclear Reactor 1 (BR1) at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK•CEN). The project started in 1995 and aimed at investigating the added value of fuzzy logic control for nuclear reactors. We first review some relevant literature on fuzzy logic control in nuclear reactors, then present the state-of-the-art of the BR1 project, with an understanding of the safety requirements for this real fuzzy-logic control ...

  8. Serosurvey for viruses associated with reproductive failure in newly introduced gilts and in multiparous sows in Belgian sow herds

    OpenAIRE

    Lefebvre, David; Van Reeth, Kristien; Vangroenweghe, Fr; Maes, Dominiek; Van Driessche, E; Laitat, M.; Nauwynck, Hans

    2009-01-01

    A serosurvey for viruses associated with reproductive disorders was conducted in 25 conventional Belgian farms. Serum antibody titers for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine parvovirus (PPV), porcine enteroviruses (PEV) and swine influenza viruses (SIV) were determined in gilts and sows. All the animals were seropositive for PCV2 and >95% were seropositive for all 4 embryopathogenic PEV serotypes. Consequently, special prevent...

  9. Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To provide a spray cooling structure wherein the steam phase in a bwr reactor vessel can sufficiently be cooled and the upper cap and flanges in the vessel can be cooled rapidly which kept from direct contaction with cold water. Constitution: An apertured shielding is provided in parallel spaced apart from the inner wall surface at the upper portion of a reactor vessel equipped with a spray nozzle, and the lower end of the shielding and the inner wall of the vessel are closed to each other so as to store the cooling water. Upon spray cooling, cooling water jetting out from the nozzle cools the vapor phase in the vessel and then hits against the shielding. Then the cooling water mostly falls as it is, while partially enters through the apertures to the back of the shielding plate, abuts against stoppers and falls down. The stoppers are formed in an inverted L shape so that the spray water may not in direct contaction with the inner wall of the vessel. (Horiuchi, T.)

  10. Belgian experience in applying the {open_quotes}leak-before-break{close_quotes} concept to the primary loop piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerard, R.; Malekian, C.; Meessen, O. [Tractebel Energy Engineering, Brussels (Belgium)

    1997-04-01

    The Leak Before Break (LBB) concept allows to eliminate from the design basis the double-ended guillotine break of the primary loop piping, provided it can be demonstrated by a fracture mechanics analysis that a through-wall flaw, of a size giving rise to a leakage still well detectable by the plant leak detection systems, remains stable even under accident conditions (including the Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE)). This concept was successfully applied to the primary loop piping of several Belgian Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) units, operated by the Utility Electrabel. One of the main benefits is to permit justification of supports in the primary loop and justification of the integrity of the reactor pressure vessel and internals in case of a Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA) in stretch-out conditions. For two of the Belgian PWR units, the LBB approach also made it possible to reduce the number of large hydraulic snubbers installed on the primary coolant pumps. Last but not least, the LBB concept also facilitates the steam generator replacement operations, by eliminating the need for some pipe whip restraints located close to the steam generator. In addition to the U.S. regulatory requirements, the Belgian safety authorities impose additional requirements which are described in details in a separate paper. An novel aspect of the studies performed in Belgium is the way in which residual loads in the primary loop are taken into account. Such loads may result from displacements imposed to close the primary loop in a steam generator replacement operation, especially when it is performed using the {open_quote}two cuts{close_quotes} technique. The influence of such residual loads on the LBB margins is discussed in details and typical results are presented.

  11. Fracture of feedwater pipe in Surry unit-2 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A trip occurred in the Surry unit-2 reactor at 14 : 21 on December 9, 1986, when the reactor was being operated at full power. Recently, the power company published a detailed report on the accident and an inspection report was released by the U.S. Nuclear Regulator Commission (NRC), suggesting that the fracture had resulted from corrosion in an elbow. Thus, the present report discusses in detail the rupture of the elbow, which was part of the secondary cooler feedwater pipe. The rupture was of the guillotine mode and took place instantaneously. Immediately after the reactor trip started, the three main steam valve systems closed and then the rupture of the elbow occurred. Visual examination has shown that the wall of the elbow had become smaller in thickness. A dimple pattern was found in the fracture surface, indicating that the rupture was of the ductile breaking type. It has been concluded that this extreme decrease in wall thickness was the result of corrosion. An ultrasonic test has detected some local pitting corrosion portions in the neighborhood of the longitudinal welding seam. No unusual microscopic metal structures were detected by microscopy. Macroscopic observation revealed that small defects had been formed along the fracture surface. (Nogami, K.)

  12. Simulation of Virtual SANS Spectrometers at IBR-2 Reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Belushkin, A V

    2001-01-01

    The experience gained in the last 15 years of experimental studies of large-scale structures with the SANS instrument at the IBR-2 pulsed reactor in Dubna shows that some parameters of the spectrometer can be improved. In particular, it concerns reduction of the fast neutron and gamma backgrounds that limit the possibilities of studying weakly scattering objects. Another direction of improvement is to reduce a minimum momentum transfer value Qmin to study objects with larger characteristic dimensions. The paper investigates several configurations of the SANS machine at IBR-2. The Monte Carlo codes are used to calculate the parameters of such virtual instruments. An optimal instrument structure is proposed.

  13. A survey of bacteria found in Belgian dairy farm products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N'Guessan, E.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. Due to the potential hazards caused by pathogenic bacteria, farm dairy production remains a challenge from the point of view of food safety. As part of a public program to support farm diversification and short food supply chains, farm dairy product samples including yogurt, ice cream, raw-milk butter and cheese samples were collected from 318 Walloon farm producers between 2006 and 2014. Objectives. Investigation of the microbiological quality of the Belgian dairy products using the guidelines provided by the European food safety standards. Method. The samples were collected within the framework of the self-checking regulation. In accordance with the European Regulation EC 2073/2005, microbiological analyses were performed to detect and count Enterobacteriaceae, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Results. Even when results met the microbiological safety standards, hygienic indicator microorganisms like E. coli and S. aureus exceeded the defined limits in 35% and 4% of butter and cheese samples, respectively. Unsatisfactory levels observed for soft cheeses remained higher (10% and 2% for S. aureus and L. monocytogenes respectively than those observed for pressed cheeses (3% and 1% and fresh cheeses (3% and 0% (P ≥ 0.05. Furthermore, the percentages of samples outside legal limits were not significantly higher in the summer months than in winter months for all mentioned bacteria. Conclusions. This survey showed that most farm dairy products investigated were microbiologically safe. However, high levels of hygiene indicators (e.g., E. coli in some products, like butter, remind us of applying good hygienic practices at every stage of the dairy production process to ensure consumer safety.

  14. The Belgian laboratory for standard dosimetry calibrations used in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting from the end of the year 2008, the RDC (Radiation Protection dosimetry and Calibrations) expertise group of SCK CEN took over the calibration and research activities at the Laboratory for Standard Dosimetry Ghent. The laboratory runs under a collaboration between SCK CEN and the University of Ghent, with the support of Federal Agency for Nuclear Control (FANC). The calibrations in Ghent were stopped at the beginning of 2008 and then restarted at the end of 2008. A new 60Co source was installed at Ghent, a Theratron 780 unit. All the calibration setups installed in the past to the old 60Co source had to move to the new source and measurement history had to be acquired. The calibration of cylindrical and plane-parallel ionization chambers in terms of absorbed dose to water was defined as the first priority, since there was an urgent need from the Belgian hospitals. These calibrations are presently done in Ghent as secondary standard calibrations, traceable to the water calorimeter of VSL, Delft, The Netherlands and following the recommendations from TRS-398 protocol. The second priority was restarting the calibrations of cylindrical ionization chambers in terms of air kerma. A cylindrical graphite ionization chamber of type CC01 is used for the absolute measurement of air kerma. Both setups are fully operational. Special efforts were done to implement the SCK CEN quality assurance (QA) system regarding ISO 17025 accreditation. The activity at the laboratory in Ghent was integrated as part of the Laboratory for Nuclear Calibrations (LNK-from the Dutch translation) of the SCK-CEN. Most of the activities of the LNK are already accredited by Belgian Accreditation Body (BELAC) with respect to the ISO-17025 standards. The quality assurance procedures were prepared and are routinely followed for the two new setups mentioned above: calibrations in terms of absorbed dose to water and air kerma in 60Co beam. During the preparation of the quality assurance procedures

  15. Exploring Pupils' Perceptions of Teacher Racism in Their Context: A Case Study of Turkish and Belgian Vocational Education Pupils in a Belgian School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Peter A. J.

    2008-01-01

    This article employs ethnographic data gathered from one Belgian (Flemish) secondary school to explore the meaning Belgian and Turkish-speaking minority pupils enrolled in technical and vocational education attach to teacher racism and racial discrimination, and to explore variations between pupils in making claims of teacher racism. A symbolic…

  16. Fast breeder reactor. The past, the present and the future. (7) History of fast reactor development in Japan - 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    History and present state of fast breeder reactor was reviewed in series. As a history of fast reactor development in Japan - 2, this seventh lecture presented the development of the prototype FBR (MONJU) and design studies of the demonstration reactor. The MONJU started operation in 1994, but a sodium leakage in its secondary heat transfer system occurred during performance tests in 1995. It has not operated since and activities for restart are conducted. Since 1997 design studies of the demonstration FBR have been conducted to reflect the MONJU sodium leakage accident and also establish its economic competitiveness with advanced LWR. (T. Tanaka)

  17. Secure Transportable Autonomous Reactor (STAR-H2). Annex XXIV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STAR1 concept development is being conducted for a portfolio of reactor and balance of plant designs to enable an incremental market penetration that is time-phased according to the degree of R and D required. Secure Transportable Autonomous Reactor - Liquid Metal (STAR-LM) is a Pb-cooled, 400 MW(th), natural circulation reactor of 565 deg. C core outlet temperature driving a supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle for electricity production. It draws on many proven technologies and will be ready for market in 15-20 years. The STAR-H2 raises the Pb outlet temperature to 800 deg. C to drive a thermochemical water cracking cycle and will require additional R and D. It is targeted for deployment by 2030. The SSTAR takes the STAR-LM design features down to ∼ 25 to 50 MW(th) to provide for secure energy supply to remote small villages. It is targeted for early prototyping of the technology and institutional features of the STAR concept. All STAR concepts are designed for 15 to 20-year refuelling interval and rely on outsourcing the associated fuel cycle and waste management services to proposed regional fuel cycle centres. All employ desalination (or alterative) bottoming cycles to extend their scope of energy services and to minimize their environmental footprint. The small sizing and outsourced fuel cycle and waste management configuration allows for plant deployment at modest initial capital outlay by the customer. Turnkey plants are transported to the customer's site and rapidly connected to a pre-constructed non-nuclear safety grade balance of plant to achieve a rapid start of the revenue stream. The R and D for the STAR-H2 concept is being performed in Argonne National Laboratory (ANL, USA). Institutions involved in STAR-H2 research and development together with ANL are Oregon State University, Texas A and M University, and Ohio State University

  18. Supercritical CO2 direct cycle Gas Fast Reactor (SC-GFR) concept.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Steven Alan; Parma, Edward J., Jr.; Suo-Anttila, Ahti Jorma (Computational Engineering Analysis, Albuquerque, NM); Al Rashdan, Ahmad (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Tsvetkov, Pavel Valeryevich (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Vernon, Milton E.; Fleming, Darryn D.; Rochau, Gary Eugene

    2011-05-01

    This report describes the supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO{sub 2}) direct cycle gas fast reactor (SC-GFR) concept. The SC-GFR reactor concept was developed to determine the feasibility of a right size reactor (RSR) type concept using S-CO{sub 2} as the working fluid in a direct cycle fast reactor. Scoping analyses were performed for a 200 to 400 MWth reactor and an S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle. Although a significant amount of work is still required, this type of reactor concept maintains some potentially significant advantages over ideal gas-cooled systems and liquid metal-cooled systems. The analyses presented in this report show that a relatively small long-life reactor core could be developed that maintains decay heat removal by natural circulation. The concept is based largely on the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) commercial power plants operated in the United Kingdom and other GFR concepts.

  19. TPDWR2: thermal power determination for Westinghouse reactors, Version 2. User's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TPDWR2 is a computer program which was developed to determine the amount of thermal power generated by any Westinghouse nuclear power plant. From system conditions, TPDWR2 calculates enthalpies of water and steam and the power transferred to or from various components in the reactor coolant system and to or from the chemical and volume control system. From these results and assuming that the reactor core is operating at constant power and is at thermal equilibrium, TPDWR2 calculates the thermal power generated by the reactor core. TPDWR2 runs on the IBM PC and XT computers when IBM Personal Computer DOS, Version 2.00 or 2.10, and IBM Personal Computer Basic, Version D2.00 or D2.10, are stored on the same diskette with TPDWR2

  20. Proceedings of 2. Yugoslav symposium on reactor physics, Part 2, Herceg Novi (Yugoslavia), 27-29 Sep 1966

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Volume 2 of the Proceedings of 2. Yugoslav symposium on reactor physics includes eight papers dealing with the following topics: method for measuring high anti reactivities of a reactor system; integration method for thermal reaction rate calculation; Determination of initial core configuration for BHWR-200 MWe; safety shutdowns and failures of the RA reactor equipment; determining the reactivity of absorption rods; measurements of thermal and fast neutron fluxes at the TRIGA reactor and other measurements during operation of the TRIGA reactor; mathematical modelling of the reactor safety; review of problems and methods for radiation risk assessment in the environment of a nuclear power plant

  1. Once-through CANDU reactor models for the ORIGEN2 computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactor physics calculations have led to the development of two CANDU reactor models for the ORIGEN2 computer code. The model CANDUs are based on (1) the existing once-through fuel cycle with feed comprised of natural uranium and (2) a projected slightly enriched (1.2 wt % 235U) fuel cycle. The reactor models are based on cross sections taken directly from the reactor physics codes. Descriptions of the reactor models, as well as values for the ORIGEN2 flux parameters THERM, RES, and FAST, are given

  2. Belgian nuclear forum - launching the public debate on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past decades, public opinion on nuclear power was dominated by a 'sleeping', indifferent majority. Nothing moved until (a minority of) opponents began to stir. Their activism strongly contrasted with the low-profile attitude of the nuclear players and pushed a considerable part of the indifferent majority towards a more negative attitude. A 2007 opinion poll (IFOP) confirmed this trend. The poll also revealed a major lack of objective and factual information. Incorrect and incomplete arguments tended to demonize nuclear energy, and 'nuclear' became a brand polarizing public opinion. This had a negative impact on decision-makers and culminated in the Belgian phase-out law of 2003. Based on the opinion poll, the members of the Belgian Nuclear Forum decided to launch a public information campaign, which they would jointly finance, with these goals: - In 3 to 4 years time, create greater public awareness on energy matters and move public opinion towards a more positive attitude. - Gain recognition of nuclear energy's legitimate place in the mix, and of the importance of peaceful nuclear applications. - Attract attention to the Belgian know-how and the importance of the industry on the scientific and economical level. - Optimize conditions for important nuclear issues such as long-term operation of NPPs, new nuclear research projects (MYRRHA),.. A 'push-pull' approach was adopted: push communication to the public (campaign) to pull (involve) decision-makers and get nuclear back on the political agenda. The Forum also opted for a sustained, long-term effort based on public campaigning, public relations and public affairs. Considering its long-time absence from the public debate, the Forum and its agency Saatchi and Saatchi agreed upon the following principles to underpin the campaign: - No 'pro-campaign'; that would be highly unrealistic and have a negative effect; - No taboos: bring up both the pros and cons; - No emotions: bring reason into a mainly emotional

  3. Analysis of the Chernobyl reactor accident. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Of the six items of improvement measures including a future improvement measure announced by the USSR regarding the accident of Chernobyl nuclear power plant No. 4 reactor, the three items having exercised large influence over the plant behavior at the accident were analyzed by WIMS-ATR, EUREKA-2 and other calculational codes, and technically evaluated. As a result the following have been made clear: (1) If 80 manual control rods are inserted 1.2 m deep from the core upper end, any accident can be prevented by further inserting them at a 0.4 m/s speed, even under such power increase conditions as in this accident. (2) If the additional 80 manual control rods are inserted into the reactor, the coolant void reactivity coefficient can be improved from 2x10-4 Δk/k/% void to 1.4x10-4 Δk/k/% void. Further if the coefficient is less than 1.5x10-4 Δk/k/% void, the power increase speed will slow down much more and similar accidents can fully be prevented by means of the currently designed control rods of the shut-down system. (orig.)

  4. Local stability tests in Dresden 2 boiling water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of a local stability test performed at Dresden Unit 2 in May 1983 to determine the effect of a new fuel element design on local channel stability. This test was performed because the diameter of the new fuel rods increases the heat transfer coefficient, making the reactor more responsive and, thus, more susceptible to instabilities. After four of the new fuel elements with a 9 x 9 array of fuel rods were loaded into Dresden 2, the test was performed by inserting an adjacent control rod all the way in and then withdrawing it to its original position at maximum speed. At the moment of the test, reactor conditions were 52.7% power and 38.9% flow. Both the new 9 x 9 fuel elements and the standard 8 x 8 ones proved to be locally stable when operating at minimum pump speed at the beginning of cycle in Dresden 2, and no significant difference was found between the behavior of the two fuel types. Finally, Dresden 2 showed a high degree of stability during control rod and normal noise type perturbations

  5. Neutron radiography and tomography facility at IBR-2 reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlenko, D. P.; Kichanov, S. E.; Lukin, E. V.; Rutkauskas, A. V.; Belushkin, A. V.; Bokuchava, G. D.; Savenko, B. N.

    2016-05-01

    An experimental station for investigations using neutron radiography and tomography was developed at the upgraded high-flux pulsed IBR-2 reactor. The 20 × 20 cm neutron beam is formed by the system of collimators with the characteristic parameter L/D varying from 200 to 2000. The detector system is based on a 6LiF/ZnS scintillation screen; images are recorded using a high-sensitivity video camera based on the high-resolution CCD matrix. The results of the first neutron radiography and tomography experiments at the developed facility are presented.

  6. Radical pluralism and free speech in online public spaces: the case of North Belgian extreme right discourses

    OpenAIRE

    Cammaerts, Bart

    2009-01-01

    Progressive political movements and activists are not the only ones appropriating Web 2.0 as a way to construct independent public spaces and voice counterhegemonic discourses. By looking at the other extreme of (post-)fascist movements, it will be shown that the internet also gives rise to anti-public spaces, voicing hatred and essentialist discourses. In this article, discourses of hate produced by North-Belgian (post-)fascist movements and activists will be analysed. Theoretically the anal...

  7. Operating and test experience with Experimental Breeder Reactor number 2 (EBR-II), the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor number 2 (EBR-II) has operated for 30 years, the longest for any liquid metal cooled reactor (LMR) power plant in the world. Given the scope of what has been developed and demonstrated over those years, it is arguably the most successful test reactor operation ever. Tests have been carried out on virtually every fast reactor fuel type. The reactor itself has been extensively studied. The most dramatic safety tests, conducted on 3 April, 1986, showed that an LMR with metallic fuel could safely accommodate loss of flow or loss of heat-sink without scram. EBR-II operated as the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) prototype, demonstrating important innovations in safety, plant design, fuel design and actinide recycle. The ability to accommodate anticipated transients without scram passively resulted in significant simplification of the reactor plant, primarily through less reliance on emergency power and not having to require the secondary sodium or steam systems to be safety grade. These features have been quantified in a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) conducted for EBR-II, demonstrating considerable safety advantages over other reactor concepts. Fundamental to the superior safety and operating characteristics of this reactor is the metallic U-Pu-Zr alloy fuel. Performance of the fuel has been fully proven: achieved burnup levels exceed 20 at.% in the lead test assemblies. A complete set of fuel performance and safety limits has been developed and was carried forward in formal safety documents supporting conversion of the core to IFR fuel. The last major demonstration planned was to assess the performance of recycled actinides in the fuel and to confirm that passive safety characteristics are maintained with recycled actinide fuel in the core. (author)

  8. The Mandate System for the Belgian Public Prosecution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno BROUCKER

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The law of 22 December 1998 introduced the mandate system for the heads of the Public Prosecution offices, which were appointed permanent before that. Theoretically, such a system needs to enhance, within the organization, effectiveness, efficiency, responsabilisation, and goal-orientation. However, the mandate system within the Belgian Public Prosecution was introduced prematurely, for dubious reasons and in a precipitate manner. In the current situation, the position of the mandate holder is uncertain, with a bounded autonomy and a low wage increase. Moreover, it remains impossible to intervene in the policy of appointed heads of office (during their mandate, the efficiency and effectiveness is only increased in some prosecution offices and a contract containing actual management responsibilities is absent. In sum: there is a large gap between the theoretical principles of mandate systems and the way it is introduced in the Belgian Public Prosecution.

  9. Measurements at the RA Reactor related to the VISA-2 project - Part 1, Start-up of the RA reactor and measurement of new RA reactor core parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the measurements was determining the neutron flux in the RA reactor core. Since the number of fuel channels is increased from 56 to 68 within the VISA-2 project, it was necessary to attain criticality of the RA reactor and measure the neutron flux properties. The 'program of RA reactor start-up' has been prepared separately and it is included in this report. Measurements were divided in two phases. First phase was measuring of the neutron flux after the criticality was achieved but at zero power. During phase two measurements were repeated at several power levels, at equilibrium xenon poisoning. This report includes experimental data of flux distributions and absolute values of the thermal and fast neutron flux in the RA reactor experimental channels and values of cadmium ratio for determining the neutron epithermal flux. Data related to calibration of regulatory rods for cold un poisoned core are included

  10. Operating reactors licensing actions summary. Volume 5, No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Operating Reactors Licensing Actions Summary is designed to provide the management of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with an overview of licensing actions dealing with operating power and nonpower reactors. These reports utilize data collected from the Division of Licensing in the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and are prepared by the Office of Resource Management. This summary report is published primarily for internal NRC use in managing the Operating Reactors Licensing Actions Program

  11. Management and Program Effectiveness in Belgian Sports Clubs

    OpenAIRE

    A. BALDUCK; M. BUELENS; Maes, M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated management and program effectiveness using the competing values approach as theoretical framework. The sample consisted of 823 board and sports members of Belgian sports clubs. Two scales were developed. Factor analysis revealed 12 management and 9 program effectiveness dimensions. Reliability scores were acceptable. Results showed that both board and sports members rated the dimension atmosphere at management and program level as the most effective factor in sports cl...

  12. Characteristics and challenges of the modern Belgian veal industry

    OpenAIRE

    Pardon, Bart; CATRY, Boudewijn; Boone, Randy; Theys, Hubert; De Bleecker, Koen; Dewulf, Jeroen; Deprez, Piet

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the modern Belgian veal industry is situated in a European context, and an overview is provided of the major past, present and future challenges for veal production. The production of white veal requires a specific diet and housing conditions to assure a controlled iron anemic state resulting in pale carcasses. In response to the increasing public concern about animal welfare, legal limits for hemoglobin (in 1990), the provision of a minimum quality of solid feed to assure rumi...

  13. A survey of bacteria found in Belgian dairy farm products

    OpenAIRE

    N'Guessan, E.; Godrie, T.; de Laubier, J.; di Tanna, S.; Ringuet, M.; Sindic, M.

    2015-01-01

    Description of the subject. Due to the potential hazards caused by pathogenic bacteria, farm dairy production remains a challenge from the point of view of food safety. As part of a public program to support farm diversification and short food supply chains, farm dairy product samples including yogurt, ice cream, raw-milk butter and cheese samples were collected from 318 Walloon farm producers between 2006 and 2014. Objectives. Investigation of the microbiological quality of the Belgian dairy...

  14. Development path and capital structure of belgian biotechnology firms

    OpenAIRE

    Véronique Bastin; Albert Corhay; Georges Hübner; Pierre-Armand Michel

    2002-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between the evolution of real options values and associated financing policies for Belgian companies in the sector of bio-industries. Each firm's situation regarding the relevant types of real options is stylistically represented through a scenario tree. The consumption of a time-to-build or a growth option is respectively considered as a success or a failure in company development. Empirically, several variables enable us to locate each company along ...

  15. A Belgian traveler who acquired yellow fever in The Gambia

    OpenAIRE

    Colebunders, R; Mariage, J. L.; Coche, J. C.; Pirenne, B; Kempinaire, S.; Hantson, P.; Gompel, A; Niedrig, M; Van Esbroeck, M.; Bailey, R; Drosten, C.; Schmitz, H

    2002-01-01

    A 47-year-old Belgian woman acquired yellow fever during a 1-week vacation in The Gambia; she had never been vaccinated against yellow fever. She died of massive gastrointestinal bleeding 7 days after the onset of the first symptoms. This dramatic case demonstrates that it is important for persons to be vaccinated against yellow fever before they travel to countries where yellow fever is endemic, even if the country, like The Gambia, does not require travelers to be vaccinated.

  16. Auditor Choice in the Belgian Nonprofit Sector: a Behavioral Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    REHEUL, Anne-Mie; Van Caneghem, Tom; Verbruggen, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates auditor choice in Belgian nonprofit organizations from a behavioral perspective. We investigate whether auditor choice in favor of an auditor with a high (versus low) level of sector specialization is associated with the importance that nonprofit organizations attach to six auditor attributes: competence/integrity/deontology, working relationship with management, audit fee, practical execution of the audit, client oriented analysis and suggestions, and sector expertise...

  17. Internal finance and corporate investment: Belgian evidence with panel data

    OpenAIRE

    Barran, Fernando; Peeters, Marga

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the corporate investment decision under financial restrictions is investigated with Belgian firm data from 1984 to 1992. An investment Euler equation is derived from a dynamic optimization model with debt ceilings and an elastic credit supply. The model is estimated by GMM for different firm groups. An important aspect is that the sample is split according to a firm’s association with coordination centers. These centers have become the major external funding source of corpora...

  18. The Attitudes of Belgian Adolescents towards Peers with Disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Bossaert, Goele; Colpin, Hilde; Pijl, Sip Jan; Petry, Katja

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to explore Belgian adolescents' attitudes towards peers with disabilities and to explore factors associated with these attitudes. Based on the theory of persuasive communication, this study focused on receiver variables (the "whom"), characteristics of students with disabilities ("concerning who") and channel ("how"). An online survey was created and published on several popular websites for youngsters. Attitudes were assessed by means of the CATCH questionnair...

  19. Assessment of marine debris on the Belgian Continental Shelf

    OpenAIRE

    Van Cauwenberghe, L.; Claessens, M.; Vandegehuchte, M.B.; Mees, J.; Janssen, C. R.

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of marine litter in three environmental compartments of Belgian coastal waters was performed. Abundance, weight and composition of marine debris, including microplastics, was assessed by performing beach, sea surface and seafloor monitoring campaigns during two consecutive years. Plastic items were the dominant type of macrodebris recorded: over 95% of debris present in the three sampled marine compartments were plastic. In general, concentrations of macrodebris wer...

  20. A survey of bacteria found in Belgian dairy farm products

    OpenAIRE

    N'Guessan, Elise; Godrie, Thérèse; De Laubier, Juliette; Ringuet, Mélanie; Sindic, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Description of the subject. Due to the potential hazards caused by pathogenic bacteria, farm dairy production remains a challenge from the point of view of food safety. As part of a public program to support farm diversification and short food supply chains, farm dairy product samples including yogurt, ice cream, raw-milk butter and cheese samples were collected from 318 Walloon farm producers between 2006 and 2014. Objectives. Investigation of the microbiological quality of the Belgian da...

  1. Sustainable groundwater extraction in coastal areas: a Belgian example

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenbohede, A.; Van Houtte, E.; Lebbe, L.

    2009-01-01

    Water extractions in coastal areas have to deal with salt water intrusion and lowering of hydraulic heads in valuable ecosystems. Therefore, sustainable management of fresh water resources in these areas is crucial. This is illustrated here with two water extractions in the western Belgian coastal plain which extract groundwater from a phreatic dune aquifer. One water extraction faced problems with salt water intrusion, while lowering of hydraulic heads was an issue for both. To remedy the sa...

  2. Proceedings of the 1992 topical meeting on advances in reactor physics. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    This document, Volume 2, presents proceedings of the 1992 Topical Meeting on Advances in Reactor Physics on March 8--11, 1992 at Charleston, SC. Session topics were as follows: Transport Theory; Fast Reactors; Plant Analyzers; Integral Experiments/Measurements & Analysis; Core Computational Systems; Reactor Physics; Monte Carlo; Safety Aspects of Heavy Water Reactors; and Space-Time Core Kinetics. The individual reports have been cataloged separately. (FI)

  3. Crisis behind the figures? Belgian trade unions between strength, paralysis and revitalisation

    OpenAIRE

    Faniel, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Unlike most of the trade unions in European countries, Belgian unions managed to preserve a high and stable union density, and strong institutional positions. However, their situation is not blissful and the condition of both the workforce and the unions has been worsening for three decades. This article looks at the strengths and weaknesses of Belgian unions and presents four initiatives of union revitalisation recently developed. The argument is that Belgian unions do not fully size the sco...

  4. Microstructure in Zircaloy Creep Tested in the R2 Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubular specimens of Zircaloy-4 have been creep tested in bending in the R2 reactor in Studsvik. The creep deformation in the reactor core is accelerated in comparison with creep deformation outside the reactor core. The possible mechanisms behind this behaviour are described briefly. In order to determine which the actual mechanism is, the microstructure of the material creep tested in the R2 reactor has been examined by transmission electron microscopy. Due to the bending, material subjected to both tensile and compressive stress during creep was available. Since some of the proposed mechanisms might give microstructures which are different when the material is subjected to compressive or tensile stress it was assumed that examination of both types of material would give valuable information with regard to the operating mechanism. The result of the examination was that in the as-irradiated condition there were no obvious differences detected between materials which had been deformed in tension or compression. After a heat treatment to coarsen the irradiation induced microstructure there were still no significant differences between the two types of material. However it was now observed that in addition to dislocation loops the microstructure also contained network dislocations which presumably had been invisible in the electron microscope before heat treatment due to the high density of small dislocation loops in this state. It is therefore concluded that the most probable mechanism for irradiation creep in this case is climb and glide of the network dislocations. The role of irradiation is two-fold: It accelerates climb due to the production of point defects of which more interstitials than vacancies arrive to the network dislocations stopped at an obstacles. This leads to a net climb after which a dislocation is released from the obstacle and an amount of glide takes place. The second effect is the production of loops which serve as an increasing density of

  5. Artificial intelligence in nuclear reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessment of four real fuzzy control applications at the MIT research reactor in the US, the FUGEN heavy water reactor in Japan, the BR1 research reactor in Belgium, and a TRIGA Mark III reactor in Mexico will be examined through a SWOT analysis (strengths, weakness, opportunities, and threats). Special attention will be paid to the current cooperation between the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK·CEN) and the Mexican Nuclear Centre (ININ) on AI-based intelligent control for nuclear reactor operation under the partial support of the National Council for Science and Technology of Mexico (CONACYT). (authors)

  6. CERREX Software Application to the Japan Research Reactor No. 2 (JRR-2) Decommissioning Programme. Appendix VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The JRR-2 was a heavy water moderated and cooled CP-5 type research reactor. It used highly enriched uranium fuels to obtain a neutron flux of 1.8 x 1014 n.cm-2.s-1 and achieve 10 MW thermal power. The reactor first went critical in October 1960 and was used for neutron scattering experiments, irradiation tests of nuclear fuels and materials, radioisotope production, boron neutron capture therapy, etc. The JRR-2 was finally shut down owing to degradation of the facility after 36 years of operation. The JRR-2 decommissioning project started in August 1997. The project was divided into four major phases: - Phase 1: Preparation (shutdown related activities). - Phase 2: Isolation of cooling systems and the reactor body. - Phase 3: Tritium decontamination and dismantling of cooling system components. - Phase 4: Removal of the reactor vessel and dismantling of remaining facilities. Activities implemented within Phases 1-3 were completed by 2005. The reactor vessel has been isolated for safe storage until Phase 4 begins. The major activities are listed. The actual expenditures of the contractual work are as follows: - Phase 1: 62 000 000 yen ( Euro 470 000). - Phase 2: 200 000 000 yen ( Euro 1 500 000). - Phase 3: 356 000 000 yen ( Euro 2 700 000)

  7. Annual report on JEN-1 and JEN-2 Reactors; Informe periodico de Reactores JEN-1 y JEN-2 correpondiente al ano 1972

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes Ponce de Leon, J.

    1974-07-01

    In the annual report on the JEN-1 and JEN-2 reactors the main fractures of the reactor operations and maintenance are described. The reactor has been in operation for 2188 hours, what means 74% of the total working time. Maintenance and periodical tests have occupied the rest of the time. Maintenance operations are shown according to three main subjects, the main failures so as the reactor scrams are also described. Different date relating with radiation level and health Physics are also included. (Author)

  8. Coolant radiolysis studies in the high temperature, fuelled U-2 loop in the NRU reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot, A.J.; Stuart, C.R. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2008-06-15

    An understanding of the radiolysis-induced chemistry in the coolant water of nuclear reactors is an important key to the understanding of materials integrity issues in reactor coolant systems. Significant materials and chemistry issues have emerged in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR), Boiling Water Reactors (BWR) and CANDU reactors that have required a detailed understanding of the radiation chemistry of the coolant. For each reactor type, specific computer radiolysis models have been developed to gain insight into radiolysis processes and to make chemistry control adjustments to address the particular issue. In this respect, modelling the radiolysis chemistry has been successful enough to allow progress to be made. This report contains a description of the water radiolysis tests performed in the U-2 loop, NRU reactor in 1995, which measured the CHC under different physical conditions of the loop such as temperature, reactor power and steam quality. (author)

  9. Coolant radiolysis studies in the high temperature, fuelled U-2 loop in the NRU reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An understanding of the radiolysis-induced chemistry in the coolant water of nuclear reactors is an important key to the understanding of materials integrity issues in reactor coolant systems. Significant materials and chemistry issues have emerged in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR), Boiling Water Reactors (BWR) and CANDU reactors that have required a detailed understanding of the radiation chemistry of the coolant. For each reactor type, specific computer radiolysis models have been developed to gain insight into radiolysis processes and to make chemistry control adjustments to address the particular issue. In this respect, modelling the radiolysis chemistry has been successful enough to allow progress to be made. This report contains a description of the water radiolysis tests performed in the U-2 loop, NRU reactor in 1995, which measured the CHC under different physical conditions of the loop such as temperature, reactor power and steam quality. (author)

  10. How Belgium helped establish a surveillance programme for Argentina's Atucha-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collaboration between Belgian experts and Argentina on the commissioning of Argentine reactors helped overcome problems caused by delays with construction. Marc Scibetta, deputy manager for nuclear materials science, from the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK CEN) gave an interview in which he told some facts to Lubomir Mitev of NucNet. The cooperation between SCK CEN an Argentina's Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA) started in 2002. The first project was a support for the safety evaluation of the Atucha-1 reactor pressure vessel. When Argentina resumed the construction of Atucha-2 in 2006 - originally, construction started in 1981 but was suspended in 1985 due to financial reasons -, SCK CEN was asked to develop and implement a surveillance programme for the unit.

  11. How Belgium helped establish a surveillance programme for Argentina's Atucha-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitev, Lubomir [NucNet, Brussels (Belgium)

    2015-02-15

    Collaboration between Belgian experts and Argentina on the commissioning of Argentine reactors helped overcome problems caused by delays with construction. Marc Scibetta, deputy manager for nuclear materials science, from the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK CEN) gave an interview in which he told some facts to Lubomir Mitev of NucNet. The cooperation between SCK CEN an Argentina's Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA) started in 2002. The first project was a support for the safety evaluation of the Atucha-1 reactor pressure vessel. When Argentina resumed the construction of Atucha-2 in 2006 - originally, construction started in 1981 but was suspended in 1985 due to financial reasons -, SCK CEN was asked to develop and implement a surveillance programme for the unit.

  12. Evaluation of CO2 emission in the life cycle of tokamak fusion power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global warming problem is one of the most serious problems which human beings are currently face. Carbon Dioxide (CO2) from power plants is considered one of the major causes of the global warming this study, CO2 emission from Tokamak fusion power plants are compared with those from conventional present power generating technologies. Plasma parameters are calculated by a systems code couples the ITER physics, TF coil shape, and cost calculation. CO2 emission from construction and operation is evaluated from summing up component volume times CO2 emission intensities of the composing materials. The uncountable components on such as reactor building, balance of plants, etc., are scaled from the ITER referenced power reactor (ITER-like) by use of Generomak model. Two important findings are revealed. Most important finding- is that CO2 emissions from fusion reactors are less than that from PV, and less than double of that from fission reactor. The other findings are that (i) most CO2 emissions from fusion reactors are from materials, (ii) CO2 emissions from reactor construction becomes almost 60% to 70%, rest from reactor operation, and (m) the RS reactor can reduce CO2 emission half compared with the ITER-like reactor. In conclusion, tokamak fusion reactors are excellent because of their small CO2 emission intensity, and they can be one of effective energy supply technologies to solve global warming. (author)

  13. On the role of radiologists in the Belgian PROject on CAncer of the REctum, PROCARE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penninckx, F; Danse, E

    2006-01-01

    Radiologists are involved at all stages of the treatment of patients with rectum cancer: in the preoperative staging, in the diagnosis of postoperative complications, in the detection of recurrent or metastatic disease during follow-up, in the monitoring of the therapeutic effect of palliative therapy. PROCARE is a Belgian national project to improve outcome in all patients with rectum cancer. Guidelines were made by a multidisciplinary workgroup and are available on the web. Decentralised implementation of guidelines is organised by the scientific and professional organisations. It is planned that a central review committee of radiologists, delegated by the Royal Belgian Society of Radiology, will survey the quality of preoperative staging. Overall quality of care will be assured by registration in a specific national database starting in 2006. Participating teams will receive annual feedback. Radiologists should provide data on cTNM staging and cCRM. Differentiation between cT2 and cT3, cN0 and cN+, and measurement of the cCRM in mm are crucial as they have a relevant impact on treatment strategy. While spiral abdominal CT is adequate for cM staging, high-resolution MRI is highly recommended and, in fact, a necessity for locoregional staging because its adequacy is superior to that of CT-scan and EUS. However, EUS is mandatory when local excision is considered, i.e. for cT1N0 lesions. PMID:16607873

  14. Preparation of covariance data for the fast reactor. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For some isotopes important for core analysis of the fast reactor, covariance data of neutron nuclear data in the evaluated nuclear data library (JENDL-3.2) were presumed to file. Objected isotopes were 10-B, 11-B, 55-Mn, 240-Pu and 241-Pu. Physical amounts presumed on covariance were cross section, isolated and unisolated resonance parameters and first order Legendre coefficient of elastic scattering angle distribution. Presumption of the covariance was conducted in accordance with the data estimation method of JENDL-3.2 as possible. In other ward, when the estimated value was based on the experimental one, error of the experimental value was calculated, and when based on the calculated value, error of the calculated one was obtained. Their estimated results were prepared with ENDF-6 format. (G.K.)

  15. CO2 direct cycles suitable for AGR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The perspectives given by the gas turbines under pressure, to build simple nuclear power plants and acieving significantly high yield, are specified. The CO2 is characterised by by good efficiency under moderate temperature (500 to 750 Celsius degrees), compactness and the simpleness of machines and the safe exploitation (supply, storage, relief cooling, thermosyphon). The revision of thermal properties of the CO2 and loss elements show that several direct cycles would fit in particular to the AGR type reactors. Cycles that would diverge a little from classical models and able to lead to power and heat generation can lead by simple means to the best results. Several satisfying solutions present for the starting up, the power regulation and the stopping. The nuclear power plant components and the functioning safety are equally considered in the present report. The conclusions stimulate the studies and realizations of carbon dioxide gas turbines in when approprite

  16. Preparation of covariance data for the fast reactor. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Keiichi; Hasagawa, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    For some isotopes important for core analysis of the fast reactor, covariance data of neutron nuclear data in the evaluated nuclear data library (JENDL-3.2) were presumed to file. Objected isotopes were 10-B, 11-B, 55-Mn, 240-Pu and 241-Pu. Physical amounts presumed on covariance were cross section, isolated and unisolated resonance parameters and first order Legendre coefficient of elastic scattering angle distribution. Presumption of the covariance was conducted in accordance with the data estimation method of JENDL-3.2 as possible. In other ward, when the estimated value was based on the experimental one, error of the experimental value was calculated, and when based on the calculated value, error of the calculated one was obtained. Their estimated results were prepared with ENDF-6 format. (G.K.)

  17. Neutronic modeling of pebble bed reactors in APOLLO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis we develop a new iterative homogenization technique for pebble bed reactors, based on a 'macro-stochastic' transport approximation in the collision probability method. A model has been developed to deal with the stochastic distribution of pebbles with different burnup in the core, considering spectral differences in homogenization and depletion calculations. This is generally not done in the codes presently used for pebble bed analyses, where a pebble with average isotopic composition is considered to perform the cell calculation. Also an iterative core calculation scheme has been set up, where the low-order RZ SN full-core calculation computes the entering currents in the spectrum zones subdividing the core. These currents, together with the core keff, are then used as surface source in the fine-group heterogeneous calculation of the multi-pebble geometries. The developed method has been verified using reference Monte Carlo simulations of a simplified PBMR- 400 model. The pebbles in this model are individually positioned and have different randomly assigned burnup values. The APOLLO2 developed method matches the reference core keff within ± 100 pcm, with relative differences on the production shape factors within ± 4%, and maximum discrepancy of 3% at the hotspot. Moreover, the first criticality experiment of the HTR-10 reactor was used to perform a first validation of the developed model. The computed critical number of pebbles to be loaded in the core is very close to the experimental value of 16890, only 77 pebbles less. A method to calculate the equilibrium reactor state was also developed and applied to analyze the simplified PBMR-400 model loaded with different fuel types (UO2, Pu, Pu + MA). The potential of the APOLLO2 method to compute different fluxes for the different pebble types of a multi-pebble geometry was used to evaluate the bias committed by the average composition pebble approximation. Thanks to a 'compensation of error', this

  18. Calculations of reactor-accident consequences, Version 2. CRAC2: computer code user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CRAC2 computer code is a revision of the Calculation of Reactor Accident Consequences computer code, CRAC, developed for the Reactor Safety Study. The CRAC2 computer code incorporates significant modeling improvements in the areas of weather sequence sampling and emergency response, and refinements to the plume rise, atmospheric dispersion, and wet deposition models. New output capabilities have also been added. This guide is to facilitate the informed and intelligent use of CRAC2. It includes descriptions of the input data, the output results, the file structures, control information, and five sample problems

  19. VISA-2, Reactor Vessel Failure Probability Under Thermal Shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: VISA2 (Vessel Integrity Simulation Analysis) was developed to estimate the failure probability of nuclear reactor pressure vessels under pressurized thermal shock conditions. The deterministic portion of the code performs heat transfer, stress, and fracture mechanics calculations for a vessel subjected to a user-specified temperature and pressure transient. The probabilistic analysis performs a Monte Carlo simulation to estimate the probability of vessel failure. Parameters such as initial crack size and position, copper and nickel content, fluence, and the fracture toughness values for crack initiation and arrest are treated as random variables. Linear elastic fracture mechanics methods are used to model crack initiation and growth. This includes cladding effects in the heat transfer, stress, and fracture mechanics calculations. The simulation procedure treats an entire vessel and recognizes that more than one flaw can exist in a given vessel. The flaw model allows random positioning of the flaw within the vessel wall thickness, and the user can specify either flaw length or length-to-depth aspect ratio for crack initiation and arrest predictions. The flaw size distribution can be adjust on the basis of different inservice inspection techniques and inspection conditions. The toughness simulation model includes a menu of alternative equations for predicting the shift in the reference temperature of the nil-ductility transition. 2 - Method of solution: The solution method uses closed form equations for temperatures, stresses, and stress intensity factors. A polynomial fitting procedure approximates the specified pressure and temperature transient. Failure probabilities are calculated by a Monte Carlo simulation. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maxima of 30 welds. VISA2 models only the belt-line (cylindrical) region of a reactor vessel. The stresses are a function of the radial (through-wall) coordinate only

  20. Nuclear Reactor RA Safety Report, Vol. 2, Site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RA research reactor is located in the village Vinca, in the vicinity of the Danube right bank, downstream from Belgrade, about 12 km from the city center. The reactor building is in the shallow valley on a plateau about 100 m above the sea level and 20 m above the Danube level. Apart from geographic and demographic data of the reactor site this document covers geologic, seismology and hydrology data. Climatic, ecology and radioactivity data of the surroundings are included as well

  1. Conceptual Design Study of JSFR (2) - Reactor System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several innovative technologies are adopted in the JSFR design to meet the high level requirements for economic competitiveness in the design requirements. The cost-down approaches for JSFR are as follows. In order to reduce the amount of structural materials, the diameter of the reactor vessel shall be minimized and the reactor internal structures shall be simplified. The reduction of the reactor vessel diameter is achieved by adopting a advanced refueling system and the hot reactor vessel with high temperature wall. The flow velocity in the reactor upper plenum increases because the diameter of the reactor vessel is decreased. As the result, the coolant flow field in reactor upper plenum is severe. The optimization of the coolant flow field in the reactor upper plenum was carried out for prevention the cover gas entrainment and the vortex cavitations at the hot leg intake. In addition, structural integrities for seismic loadings and thermal loadings were evaluated because the design seismic loading was highly increased and the vessel wall is directly exposed to the thermal transients of the upper plenum. This paper describes the characteristics and the results of the design study of the reactor system. (author)

  2. RHTF 2, a 1200 MWe high temperature reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having adapted to French conditions the 1160 MWe G.A.C. reactor, Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique and French Industry have decided to design an High Temperature Reactor 1200 MWe based on the G.A.C. technology and taking into account the point of view of Electricite de France and the experience of C.E.A. and industry on the gas cooled reactor technology. The main objective of this work is to produce a reactor design having a low technical risk, good operability, with an emphasis on the safety aspects easing the licensing problems

  3. CASSANDRE, 2-D Reactor Dynamic FEM Program with Thermohydraulic Feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: CASSANDRE is a two-dimensional (x-y or r-z) finite-elements neutronics code with thermohydraulic feedback for reactor dynamics prior to the disassembly phase. The code was conceived in order to be coupled with any thermohydraulics module, although thermohydraulics feedback is only considered in r-z geometry. In the steady state, criticality search is possible either by control-rod insertion or by homogeneous poisoning of the coolant. 2 - Method of solution: The program uses multigroup diffusion theory. Its main characteristics are the use of a generalized quasi-static model, the use of a flexible multigroup point-kinetics algorithm allowing for spectral matching, and the use of a finite elements description. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The user must prepare a cross section library

  4. Experience gained in the erection of the Philippsburg-2 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article is a comprehensive summary with tables and figures of contract award, chronology of the various licences and construction permits, the licencing procedure under atomic law, consequences of technological advances made during construction, and measures securing compliance with time limits. The chronology of projects showed intervals of up to 3 years, most of which were caused by the courts putting a freeze on the plant. Owing to different expertises, there were many differences of opinion that needed settling. The present state of affairs and the situation concerning the licencing procedure has now come to a point where the course of the project can be expected to be on schedule. After the first criticality in October 1984 and performance tests until spring 1985, the Philippsburg-2 reactor will be an essential source of energy supply. (orig.)

  5. Consideration of LH2 and LD2 cold neutron sources in heavy water reactor reflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reactor power, the required CNS dimensions and power of the cryogenic equipment define the CNS type with maximized cold neutron production. Cold neutron fluxes from liquid hydrogen (LH2) and liquid deuterium (LD2) cold neutron sources (CNS) are analyzed. Different CNS volumes, presents and absence of reentrant holes inside the CNS, different adjustment of beam tube and containment are considered. (orig.)

  6. A federal audit of the Belgian radiotherapy departments in breast cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The Belgian Federal College of Radiotherapy carried out an external audit of breast cancer patient documentation in the 26 Belgian radiotherapy centres. The objective was to assess compliance with the recommendations regarding minimal requirements for documentation of radiotherapy prescription and administration. All centres volunteered to take part in this audit. Methods: Two experienced radiation oncologists site-visited the departments over a 6 month period (Sept. 2003-Feb. 2004), with a list of items to be verified, including details on the surgery, the pathological report, details on systemic treatments, details on the radiotherapy prescription (and consistency with therapeutic guidelines) and delay surgery/radiotherapy. Findings: Three hundred and eighty-nine patients files were reviewed, for a total of 399 breast cancers (10 patients with bilateral cancer). Mean age was 57.8 y (range 29-96). Breast conservative surgery (BCS) was used in 71%; radical mastectomy in 29%. A complete pathological report was present in all files but 2 (99.5% conformity). 5.2% were treated for DCIS, 61.6% for pT1, 28.2% for pT2 and 5% for pT3-4. Data regarding resection margins were specified to be free in 76.2%, tangential in 12% (within 2 mm) and positive for DCIS in 3.8% or invasive cancer in 1.5% (no information, on margins in 6.5%). The pT stage was always specified, and consistent with the macroscopic and microscopic findings. Hormonal receptors were routinely assessed (94.7%), as well as Her2neu (87.4%). Axillary surgery was carried out in 92%, either by sentinel node biopsy or by complete clearance, in which case the median number of nodes analysed was 12 for all centres together (7-17). All radiotherapy prescriptions were in line with evidence-based standards of therapy (i.e., irradiation of breast after BCS or after mamectomy (in case of pN+), but one. The mean delay between surgery and radiotherapy was 5.5 weeks (SD 11days). Conclusion: There was a high

  7. The test of the fuel assembly of the IVV-2M reactor at the IGR reactor under emergency modes with the flow rate blockage and power leap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results on studying into the IVV-2M fuel assembly operation in the IGR pulse reactor under conditions of coolant flow blockage and power pulse growth, simulating an accident with prompt rupture of pipeline in the primary coolant circuit for reactor operating at nominal power level and an accident connected with positive reactivity insertion at nominal reactor power with the account for reactor protection system signal delay are presented

  8. Industrial application of APOLLO2 to boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AREVA NP - a joint's subsidiary of AREVA and Siemens- decided to develop a new calculation scheme based on the multigroup neutron transport code APOLLO2, developed at CEA, for industrial application to Boiling Water Reactors. This scheme is based on the CEA93 library with the XMAS-172 energy mesh and the JEF2.2 evaluation. Microscopic cross-sections are improved by a self-shielding calculation that accounts for 2D geometrical effects and the overlapping of resonances. The flux is calculated with the Method of Characteristics. A best-estimate flux is found with the 172 energy group structure. In the industrial scheme, the computing time and the memory size are reduced by a simplified self-shielding and the calculation of the flux with 26 energy groups. The results are presented for three BWR assemblies. Several BWR operating conditions were simulated. Results are accurate compared to the Monte-Carlo code MCNP. A very good agreement is obtained between the best-estimate and the industrial calculations, also during depletion. These results show the high physical quality of the APOLLO2 code and its capability to calculate accurately BWR assemblies for industrial applications. (authors)

  9. Compensation by RGMS for misreading reactor power in case of D2O dilution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Sang Hoon; Park, Jae Yoon; Choi, Young San; Kim, Young Ki [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    In a research reactor Neutron Measurement System (NMS) which uses wide range fission chamber as neutron detector is applied to measure the reactor power. This system has rapid response to power and stable accuracy for wide range. But this has some concerns of relative measured values depending on the installed location of neutron detector and also may cause the loss of accuracy when dilution of heavy water in the D2O tank happens. The NMS is not only used for reactor control and but also used for reactor protection system. Accordingly faulted reactor power with high deviation for second case may lead unexpected increase of the reactor power. In order to prevent this occurrence, Reactor Gamma Measurement System (RGMS) is necessarily applied. Herein the structure, measuring method and application of RGMS will be introduced.

  10. Operating reactors licensing actions summary. Vol. 4, No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This summary is designed to provide the management of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with an overview of licensing actions dealing with operating power and nonpower reactors. These reports utilize data collected from the Division of Licensing in the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and are prepared by the Office of Resource Management

  11. Set of rules SOR 2 licensing of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the set of rules promulgated by the Israel Atomic Energy Commission pursuant to the Supervision of Supplies and Services Law 5718-1957, Order regarding Supervision of Nuclear Reactors (1974) Chapter 3: Permits, to provide for the Licensing of Nuclear Reactors. (B.G.)

  12. Some policy aspects of the fast reactor question. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following aspects of energy policy in the UK are discussed: planning and forecasting, accuracy and relevance to government policies; economics; plant construction programmes; scope for electricity growth; arguments for and against fast reactor programme (and in relation to other types of reactor). The general discussions of energy policy cover coal, natural gas and oil in addition to nuclear power. (U.K.)

  13. The Influence of the 1974 Oil Crisis on Sectoral Growth Rates in the Belgian Economy

    OpenAIRE

    F.BOSSIER; D. DUWEIN

    1981-01-01

    This paper briefly presents and analyses the behaviour of the different sectors of the Belgian economy during the period 1965-1978. Special attention is paid to the influence of the 1974 oil crisis on sectors of the Belgian economy. It is shown that the 1974 shock had different consequences according to the energy components of the sector

  14. Developing silicon irradiation devices at TRIGA - INR Pitesti reactor2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of introducing doping impurities in semiconductors by making use of nuclear reactions was suggested in early '50. This method is based on thermal neutron capture in 30 Si and it results in a highly uniform distribution of the doping impurity. Three irradiation devices were built lately. All are disposed at the border of reactor core to prevent the influence of in-core experiments and allow operating several irradiation channels. The flux typical distribution was flattened by means of a water differential absorbent. During irradiation the silicon ingots are rotated to obtain a uniform exposure. The first irradiation device was filled with water while the other two, with graphite to get a fair thermalization and compatibility with the graphite thermal column meanwhile installed near the reactor core. The last device, installed in 1998, is provided with four irradiation channels disposed in a raw and four channels for monitors. The maximum diameter of the silicon ingots is 2.5 inches. Neutron flux-spectrum measurements as well as thermal neutron flux distribution measurements were conducted to have a neutronic characterization of the main irradiation channels. It was found that in the graphite filled device a better thermalization of the neutrons is obtained. Energetic neutrons (En > 1 MeV) represents only 1.6% of the total flux in the case of graphite devices as compared to 6.1% in case of air-filled device. The irradiation regime is to be adjusted by means of a permanent feedback based on electrical measurements of the materials obtained by doping process. The devices has a production capacity of 1000-1500 kg of average resistivity material in a year

  15. Turkey's regulatory plans for high enriched to low enriched conversion of TR-2 reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkey is a developing country and has three nuclear facilities two of which are research reactors and one pilot fuel production plant. One of the two research reactors is TR-2 which is located in Cekmece site in Istanbul. TR-2 Reactor's core is composed of both high enriched and low enriched fuel and from high enriched to low enriched core conversion project will take place in year 2005. This paper presents the plans for drafting regulations on the safety analysis report updates for high enriched to low enriched core conversion of TR-2 reactor, the present regulatory structure of Turkey and licensing activities of nuclear facilities. (author)

  16. The BR2-material testing reactor and its major contribution to the reactor material, fuel and safety research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BR2 was shutdown at the end of June 1995 for a programme of extensive refurbishment after more than 30 years utilization. The beryllium matrix was replaced and the aluminum vessel inspected and requalified for the envisaged 15 years life extension. Other aspects of the refurbishment programme were aimed at reliability and availability of the installations, safety of operation and compliance with modem safety standards. The reactor was restarted in April 1997. This paper deals with aspects of this refurbishment in general as well as the ongoing experimental projects in the areas of reactor material, fuel behaviour and safety research. (author)

  17. Differences between Belgian and Brazilian group A Streptococcus epidemiologic landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Robert Smeesters

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Group A Streptococcus (GAS clinical and molecular epidemiology varies with location and time. These differences are not or are poorly understood. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We prospectively studied the epidemiology of GAS infections among children in outpatient hospital clinics in Brussels (Belgium and Brasília (Brazil. Clinical questionnaires were filled out and microbiological sampling was performed. GAS isolates were emm-typed according to the Center for Disease Control protocol. emm pattern was predicted for each isolate. 334 GAS isolates were recovered from 706 children. Skin infections were frequent in Brasília (48% of the GAS infections, whereas pharyngitis were predominant (88% in Brussels. The mean age of children with GAS pharyngitis in Brussels was lower than in Brasília (65/92 months, p<0.001. emm-typing revealed striking differences between Brazilian and Belgian GAS isolates. While 20 distinct emm-types were identified among 200 Belgian isolates, 48 were found among 128 Brazilian isolates. Belgian isolates belong mainly to emm pattern A-C (55% and E (42.5% while emm pattern E (51.5% and D (36% were predominant in Brasília. In Brasília, emm pattern D isolates were recovered from 18.5% of the pharyngitis, although this emm pattern is supposed to have a skin tropism. By contrast, A-C pattern isolates were infrequently recovered in a region where rheumatic fever is still highly prevalent. CONCLUSIONS: Epidemiologic features of GAS from a pediatric population were very different in an industrialised country and a low incomes region, not only in term of clinical presentation, but also in terms of genetic diversity and distribution of emm patterns. These differences should be taken into account for designing treatment guidelines and vaccine strategies.

  18. Microflow photochemistry: UVC-induced [2 + 2]-photoadditions to furanone in a microcapillary reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvestre Bachollet; Kimitada Terao; Shin Aida; Yasuhiro Nishiyama; Kiyomi Kakiuchi; Michael Oelgemöller

    2013-01-01

    [2 + 2]-Cycloadditions of cyclopentene and 2,3-dimethylbut-2-ene to furanone were investigated under continuous-flow conditions. Irradiations were conducted in a FEP-microcapillary module which was placed in a Rayonet chamber photoreactor equipped with low wattage UVC-lamps. Conversion rates and isolated yields were compared to analogue batch reactions in a quartz test tube. In all cases examined, the microcapillary reactor furnished faster conversions and improved product qualities.

  19. Impulse power stochastically fluctuations of the modernized fast pulsed reactor IBR-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text : Stochastically fluctuations of the power of the IBR-2 reactor have been quite significant, they affect the dynamics of the reactor, the process of regulation, starting on the work of the experimental equipment. On the other hand, the presence of large fluctuations in power at the IBR-2M has had its advantages. Investigation of stochastic fluctuations has allowed to estimate some physical parameters of the nuclear reactor core, for example, the mean lifetime of prompt neutrons in the reactor, source of spontaneous neutrons and absolute power of the reactor. The main results of the investigation impulse power stochastically fluctuations of the IBR-2 periodic pulsed reactor after modernization have been presented. It has been shown that the experimental results have been close to the calculated ones

  20. Operating experience with diesel generators in Belgian nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various problems have occurred on the diesel generators in the Belgian nuclear power plants, independently of the D.G. manufacturer or from the operating crew. Furthermore no individual part of the D.G. can be incriminated as being the main cause of the incidents. The incidents reported in this paper are chosen because of the importance for the safety or for the long repair period. The unavailability of a D.G. can only be detected by periodic tests and controls. Combined with a good preventive maintenance, the risks of incidents can be reduced. (author)

  1. Migration and americanisation: The special case of Belgian economics.

    OpenAIRE

    Maes, Ivo; Buyst, Erik

    2005-01-01

    One of the distinguishing features of Belgian economics is that, from the early 1920s, so many of Belgium's best economists pursued postgraduate studies at top American universities, a case of ‘temporary’ migration. This was made possible by the fellowships granted by the Commission for Relief in Belgium, a legacy of the First World War. After a stay in the US of a few years, most returned to Belgium. However, they maintained strong links with the US. Also, they tried to recreate in Belgium t...

  2. Development and testing of the EDF-2 reactor fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This technical report reviews the work which has been necessary for defining the EDF-2 fuel element. After giving briefly the EDF-2 reactor characteristics and the preliminary choice of parameters which made it possible to draw up a draft plan for the fuel element, the authors consider the research proper: - Uranium studies: tests on the passage into the β phase of an internal crown of a tube, bending of the tube under the effect of a localized force, welding of the end-pellets and testing for leaks. The resistance of the tube to crushing and of the pellets to yielding under the external pressure have been studied in detail in another CEA report. - Can studies: conditions of production and leak proof testing of the can, resistance of the fins to creep due to the effect of the gas flow. - Studies of the extremities of the element: creep under compression and welding of the plugs to the can. - Cartridge studies: determination of the characteristics of the can fuel fixing grooves and of the canning conditions, verification of the resistance of the fuel element to thermal cycling, determination of the temperature drop at the can-fuel interface dealt with in more detail in another CEA report. - Studies of the whole assembly: this work which concerns the graphite jacket, the support and the cartridge vibrations has been carried out by the Mechanical and Thermal Study Service (Mechanics Section). In this field the Fuel Element Study Section has investigated the behaviour of the centering devices in a gas current. The outcome of this research is the defining of the plan of the element the production process and the production specifications. The validity of ail these out-of-pile tests will be confirmed by the in-pile tests already under way and by irradiation of the elements in the EDF-2 reactor itself. In conclusion the programme is given for improving the fuel element and for defining the fuel element for the second charge. (authors)

  3. Physical and power start-up of the modernized IBR-2M research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IBR-2M pulsed research reactor of periodic operation at a power of 2 MW is intended for use as a neutron source for investigations in the field of condensed matter physics, biology, chemistry, materials science. The reactor generates a power pulse of ∼1830 MW of 200 μs duration with a frequency of 5 Hz. The IBR-2M is a modernized version of the IBR-2 reactor, which was shut down in 2006 having completed its intended service life period. The physical and power start-up of the IBR-2M reactor was carried out from December 10, 2010 to October 28, 2011. The IBR-2M reactor produces one of the most intense pulse neutron flux at the moderator surface among the world's reactors (∼1016 n/cm2/s). The paper covers the main results of the investigation of the modernized IBR-2M reactor carried out within the framework of the program of the power start-up of the reactor operated at a power of up to rated 2 MW. (authors)

  4. International tokamak reactor. Phase Two A, Part 3. Vol.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume 2 of the report of Phase 2A, Part III of the International Tokamak Reactor Workshop focuses on a critical analysis of five INTOR-like designs: INTOR, NET, FER, TIBER, and OTR. Topics covered are a report of IAEA Specialists' Meeting on INTOR-like designs, a comparison of these designs, and a systems analysis of the designs. In this volume, programmatic and technical objectives are discussed and compared. The resulting physics design features are based on Q (power out/power in), burn duration, impurity control, plasma configuration, startup, operational scenario, duty factor, plasma heating, and frequency of disruptions. Design constraints (confinement scaling, plasma beta, density limit, geometry, plasma parameters, operating mode, disruption, magnetic field, heating, and startup) are compared for the various machines. Systems analyses are used to determine sensitivities to the various physical design features, and those parameters with the most sensitivity are determined. Relative costs of the various designs are compared, ranging from TIBER at 35 per cent less than INTOR, to OTR at 25 per cent more than INTOR. Refs, figs and tabs

  5. Health effects[1997 Scientific Report of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahieu, L.

    1998-07-01

    The objectives of the research in the field of epidemiology , performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are (1) to study cancer mortality and morbidity in nuclear workers in Belgium; (2) to document the feasibility of retrospective cohort studies in Belgium; (3) to participate in the IARC study. For radiobiology, the main objectives are: (1) to elucidate the mechanisms of the effects of ionizing radiation on the mammalian embryo during the early phase of its development, (2) to assess the genetic risks of maternal exposure to ionizing radiation, (3) to elucidate the mechanisms by which damage to the brain and mental retardation are caused in man after prenatal irradiation. The main achievements in these domains for 1997 are presented.

  6. Salmonella surveillance and control at post-harvest in the Belgian pork meat chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhalle, L; Saegerman, C; Farnir, F; Korsak, N; Maes, D; Messens, W; De Sadeleer, L; De Zutter, L; Daube, G

    2009-05-01

    Salmonella remains the primary cause of reported bacterial food borne disease outbreaks in Belgium. Pork and pork products are recognized as one of the major sources of human salmonellosis. In contrast with the primary production and slaughterhouse phases of the pork meat production chain, only a few studies have focussed on the post-harvest stages. The goal of this study was to evaluate Salmonella and Escherichia coli contamination at the Belgian post-harvest stages. E. coli counts were estimated in order to evaluate the levels of faecal contamination. The results of bacteriological analysis from seven cutting plants, four meat-mincing plants and the four largest Belgian retailers were collected from official and self-monitoring controls. The prevalence of Salmonella in the cutting plants and meat-mincing plants ranged from 0% to 50%. The most frequently isolated serotype was Salmonella typhimurium. The prevalence in minced meat at retail level ranged from 0.3% to 4.3%. The levels of Salmonella contamination estimated from semi-quantitative analysis of data relating to carcasses, cuts of meat and minced meat were equal to -3.40+/-2.04 log CFU/cm(2), -2.64+/-1.76 log CFU/g and -2.35+/-1.09 log CFU/g, respectively. The E. coli results in meat cuts and minced meat ranged from 0.21+/-0.50 to 1.23+/-0.89 log CFU/g and from 1.33+/-0.58 to 2.78+/-0.43 log CFU/g, respectively. The results showed that faecal contamination still needs to be reduced, especially in specific individual plants. PMID:19269567

  7. Homogeneous fast reactor benchmark testing of CENDL-2 and ENDF/B-6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    How to choose correct weighting spectrum has been studied to produce multigroup constants for fast reactor benchmark calculations. A correct weighting option makes us obtain satisfying results of Keff and central reaction rate ratios for nine fast reactor benchmark testings of CENDL-2 and ENDF/B-6. (4 tabs., 2 figs.)

  8. Homogeneous fast reactor benchmark testing of CENDL-2 and ENDF/B-6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    How to choose correct weighting spectrum has been studied to produce multigroup constants for fast reactor benchmark calculations. A correct weighting option makes us obtain satisfying results of Keff and central reaction rate ratios for nine fast reactor benchmark testing of CENDL-2 and ENDF/B-6. (author). 8 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs

  9. Neutron flux determinations in the reactors G2 and G3 during operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After demonstrating the sensitivity of the distribution of power in a production reactor to a deformation caused by dissymmetries of reactivity in the reactor, the authors describe the method of neutron flux determination devised for the reactors G2 and G3 under working conditions; the detector used is a tungsten or nickel wire, the γ activity of which is measured with an ionisation chamber. Several flux determinations are given as examples to illustrate the sensitivity of the method. (author)

  10. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in food and feed on the Belgian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huybrechts, Bart; Callebaut, Alfons

    2015-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are widely distributed plant toxins with species dependent hepatotoxic, carcinogenic, genotoxic and pneumotoxic risks. In a recent European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) opinion, only two data sets from one European country were received for honey, while one feed data set was included. No data are available for food or feed samples from the Belgian market. We developed an LC-MS/MS method, which allowed the detection and quantification of 16 PAs in a broad range of matrices in the sub ng g(-1) range. The method was validated in milk, honey and hay and applied to honey, tea (Camellia sinensis), scented tea, herbal tea, milk and feed samples bought on the Belgian market. The results confirmed that tea, scented tea, herbal tea and honey are important food sources of pyrrolizidine alkaloid contamination in Belgium. Furthermore, we detected PAs in 4 of 63 commercial milk samples. A high incidence rate of PAs in lucerne (alfalfa)-based horse feed and in rabbit feed was detected, while bird feed samples were less contaminated. We report for the first time the presence of monocrotaline, intermedine, lycopsamine, heliotrine and echimidine in cat food. PMID:26373269

  11. The attitudes of Belgian adolescents towards peers with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossaert, Goele; Colpin, Hilde; Pijl, Sip Jan; Petry, Katja

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to explore Belgian adolescents' attitudes towards peers with disabilities and to explore factors associated with these attitudes. Based on the theory of persuasive communication, this study focused on receiver variables (the "whom"), characteristics of students with disabilities ("concerning who") and channel ("how"). An online survey was created and published on several popular websites for youngsters. Attitudes were assessed by means of the CATCH questionnaire among 167 adolescents between 11 and 20 years old. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were conducted. Belgian adolescents had fairly tolerant attitudes towards peers with disabilities. Factors associated with more positive attitudes were being female, and viewing a video introduction of a peer with a disability before assessing attitudes. Factors such as having a parent, sibling or good friend with a disability and frequent contact with persons with disabilities did not remain significant in the overall model. The way in which students with disabilities are presented to their peers is very important. Further research is needed among larger samples, including more diverse variables, concerning the former mentioned categories, and also concerning the source (the "who") and message (the "what"). PMID:21257288

  12. VISIT OF BELGIAN FIRMS AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    2 - 3 APRIL 2001 14h00 to 17h30 Monday 2nd 09h00 to 17h30 Tuesday 3rd The firms will be in the Main Building - Pas Perdus and Mezzanine List of Companies: Alcatel ETCA Amos S.A. Asco Industries N.V. Barco N.V. Belgatom Capaul S.A. Comelec S.A. Groupe Hamon HTMS (High Tech Metal Seals) N.V. Kelatron S.A. Mécanique de Précision pour Equipements Mecasoft S.A. Pauwels International N.V. Penders & Vanherle Elektrotechniek N.V. Resarm Engineering Plastics S.A. Simonis Plastic S.A. Techspace Aero S.A. Verhaert Design & Development N.V. Detailed information on the companies is also available on the Web: http://spl-purchasing.web.cern.ch/spl-purchasing/exhibitions_visits.htm For further information please contact Mrs C.L. Jullien-Woringer (tel. 73722-76360)

  13. RISCOM Applied to the Belgian Partnership Model: More and Deeper Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bombaerts, Gunter; Bovy, Michel; Laes, Erik [SCKCEN, Mol (Belgium). PISA

    2006-09-15

    Technology participation is not a new concept. It has been applied in different settings in different countries. In this article, we report a comparing analysis of the RISCOM model in Sweden and the Belgian partnership model for low and intermediate short-lived nuclear waste. After a brief description of the partnerships and the RISCOM model, we apply the latter to the first and come to recommendations for the partnership model. The strength of the partnership approach is at the community level. In one of the villages, up to one percent of the population was motivated to discuss at least once a month for four years the nuts and bolts of the repository concept. The stress on the community level and the lack of a guardian includes a weakness as well. First of all, if communities come into competition, the inter-community discussions can start resembling local politics and can become less transparent. Local actors are concerned actors but actors at the national level are concerned as well. The local decisions influence how the waste will be transported. The local decisions also determine an extra cost of electricity. We therefore recommend a broad (in terms of territory) public debate on the participation experiments preceding and concluding the local participation process in which this local process maintains an important position. The conclusions of our comparative analysis are: (1) The guardian of the process at the national level is missing. Since the Belgian nuclear regulator plays a controlling role after the process, we recommend a technology assessment institute at the federal level. (2) We state that stretching in the partnership model can happen more profoundly and recommend a 'counter institute' at the European level. The role of non-participative actors should be valued. (3) Recursion levels can be taken as a point of departure for discussion about the problem framing. If people accept them, there is no problem. If people clearly mention issues

  14. RISCOM Applied to the Belgian Partnership Model: More and Deeper Levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technology participation is not a new concept. It has been applied in different settings in different countries. In this article, we report a comparing analysis of the RISCOM model in Sweden and the Belgian partnership model for low and intermediate short-lived nuclear waste. After a brief description of the partnerships and the RISCOM model, we apply the latter to the first and come to recommendations for the partnership model. The strength of the partnership approach is at the community level. In one of the villages, up to one percent of the population was motivated to discuss at least once a month for four years the nuts and bolts of the repository concept. The stress on the community level and the lack of a guardian includes a weakness as well. First of all, if communities come into competition, the inter-community discussions can start resembling local politics and can become less transparent. Local actors are concerned actors but actors at the national level are concerned as well. The local decisions influence how the waste will be transported. The local decisions also determine an extra cost of electricity. We therefore recommend a broad (in terms of territory) public debate on the participation experiments preceding and concluding the local participation process in which this local process maintains an important position. The conclusions of our comparative analysis are: (1) The guardian of the process at the national level is missing. Since the Belgian nuclear regulator plays a controlling role after the process, we recommend a technology assessment institute at the federal level. (2) We state that stretching in the partnership model can happen more profoundly and recommend a 'counter institute' at the European level. The role of non-participative actors should be valued. (3) Recursion levels can be taken as a point of departure for discussion about the problem framing. If people accept them, there is no problem. If people clearly mention issues that are

  15. Proceedings of 2. Yugoslav symposium on reactor physics, Part 3, Herceg Novi (Yugoslavia), 27-29 Sep 1966

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Volume 3 of the Proceedings of 2. Yugoslav symposium on reactor physics includes three papers describing the following: model for spatial synthesis of automated control system of the GCR type reactor; model for analysis of hydrodynamic processes at the BHWR type reactors; mathematical model for safety analysis of heavy water power reactor

  16. Belgian experience with radiation technologies for sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belgium pioneered in non energetic applications of nuclear science. In 1970, the National Institute for Radioisotopes (IRE) was founded on the ground of the experience acquired at the CEN/SCK, for developing nuclear techniques oriented to the well-being of population. In 1978 IRE started operation of 2 γ-irradiation units with a 2.25 million Ci Co60, source having a capacity for sterilization of more than 100 m3 of product per day. this installation is currently operated by Griffith-Mediris (Group Griffith Micro Science) and has accumulated 20 years of experience for irradiation of foodstuffs, medical appliances and pharmaceuticals. In 1986, IRE was producing radioisotopes from accelerators and joined UCL for founding Ion Beam Applications (IBA) company which shortly became the world leader for design and delivery of cyclotrons. More recently, on the basis of French CEA patent, IBA developed the Rhodotron, an e-beam accelerator, with an X-ray option, which is now facing commercial success i area of ionization of food and medical appliances. IRE developed also expertise for the back-end of these activities i.e. final disposal of radioactive sealed source and dismantling of the installations. (author)

  17. Analytical investigations at the IBR-2 reactor in Dubna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experience in applying activation analysis with epithermal neutrons to environmental studies at the IBR-2 pulsed fast reactor in Dubna is reviewed. The principal units of the pneumatic system REGATA are described as well as the main present-day parameters of the irradiation channels. Examples from two challenging areas: analysis of airborne particulate matter and analysis of the biomonitors of atmospheric deposition, where the feasibility of ENAA related to non-nuclear multi-element techniques has been shown, are given. ENAA is presently being used in several projects carried out at FLNP JINR that involve the analysis of aerosol filters. For these studies, instrumental neutron activation analysis cannot feasibly be replaced by any non-nuclear analytical technique at the present state of art due to the fact that the total mass of the aerosol collected on filter samples is often rather small. This favours direct instrumental techniques rather than those depending on dissolving the sample prior to analysis. The dominant part of air pollution studies at FLNP JINR is based on the use of the moss biomonitoring technique resulting in a final product-maps of the atmospheric deposition of heavy metals, rare-earths, actinides (U and Th), etc., constructed by the GIS (geographical information system) technology

  18. Continuous poly(2-oxazoline) triblock copolymer synthesis in a microfluidic reactor cascade

    OpenAIRE

    Baeten, Evelien; Verbraeken, Bart; Hoogenboom, Richard; Junkers, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Cationic ring-opening polymerizations of 2-oxazolines were investigated in continuous microflow reactors. Fast homopolymerizations of 2-ethyl-2-oxazoline (EtOx) and 2-n-propyl-2-oxazoline (nPropOx) were carried out up to 180 degrees C, yielding well-controlled polymers. Also well-defined diblock and triblock copolymers were produced in a microfluidic reactor cascade, demonstrating the high value of microflow synthesis for the built-up of advanced poly(2-oxazoline)-based polymers.

  19. Organ procurement after euthanasia: Belgian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ysebaert, D; Van Beeumen, G; De Greef, K; Squifflet, J P; Detry, O; De Roover, A; Delbouille, M-H; Van Donink, W; Roeyen, G; Chapelle, T; Bosmans, J-L; Van Raemdonck, D; Faymonville, M E; Laureys, S; Lamy, M; Cras, P

    2009-03-01

    Euthanasia was legalized in Belgium in 2002 for adults under strict conditions. The patient must be in a medically futile condition and of constant and unbearable physical or mental suffering that cannot be alleviated, resulting from a serious and incurable disorder caused by illness or accident. Between 2005 and 2007, 4 patients (3 in Antwerp and 1 in Liège) expressed their will for organ donation after their request for euthanasia was granted. Patients were aged 43 to 50 years and had a debilitating neurologic disease, either after severe cerebrovascular accident or primary progressive multiple sclerosis. Ethical boards requested complete written scenario with informed consent of donor and relatives, clear separation between euthanasia and organ procurement procedure, and all procedures to be performed by senior staff members and nursing staff on a voluntary basis. The euthanasia procedure was performed by three independent physicians in the operating room. After clinical diagnosis of cardiac death, organ procurement was performed by femoral vessel cannulation or quick laparotomy. In 2 patients, the liver, both kidneys, and pancreatic islets (one case) were procured and transplanted; in the other 2 patients, there was additional lung procurement and transplantation. Transplant centers were informed of the nature of the case and the elements of organ procurement. There was primary function of all organs. The involved physicians and transplant teams had the well-discussed opinion that this strong request for organ donation after euthanasia could not be waived. A clear separation between the euthanasia request, the euthanasia procedure, and the organ procurement procedure is necessary. PMID:19328932

  20. Fissile fuel production and usage of thermal reactor waste fueled with UO2 by means of hybrid reactor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of Fast Breeder Reactors to produce fissile fuel from nuclear waste and the operation of these reactors with a new neutron source are becoming today' topic. In the thermonuclear reactors, it is possible to use 2.45-14.1 MeV - neutrons which can be obtained by D-T, D-D Semicatalyzed (D-D) and other fusion reactions. To be able to do these, Hybrid Reactor System, which still has experimental and theoretical studies, have to be taken into consideration.In this study, neutronic analysis of hybrid blanket with grafit reflector, is performed. D-T driven fusion reaction is surrounded by UO2 fuel layer and the production of ''2''3''9Pu fissile fuel from waste ''2''3''8U is analyzed. It is also compared to the other possible fusion reactions. The results show that 815.8 kg/year ''2''3''8Pu with D-T reaction and 1431.6 kg/year ''2''3''8Pu with semicatalyzed (D-D) reaction can be produced for 1000 MW fusion power. This means production of 2.8/ year and 4.94/ year LWR respectively. In addition, 1000 MW fusion flower is is multiplicated to 3415 MW and 4274 MW for D-T and semicatalyzed (D-D) reactions respectively. The system works subcritical and these values are 0.4115 and 0.312 in order. The calculations, ANISN-ORNL code, S16-P3 approach and DLC36 data library are used

  1. Extraction of Mechanical-Reactivity Influences from Neutron Noise Spectra at the IBR-2 Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dima, M.; Pepelyshev, Yu.

    2013-07-01

    Neutron noise spectra in nuclear reactors are a convolution of multiple-induced reactivities. For the IBR-2 pulsed reactor (JINR-Dubna), one part is represented by the reactivities induced by the two moving reflectors, and the other part by other sources that are moderately stable. In the present study, using recordings of the mechanical noise of the two moving reflectors, their non-linear correlations into the power spectra of the reactor are extracted using statistical analysis. The remaining noise sources are moderately stable noise and can be further monitored by other automated reactor diagnoses.

  2. Genetic parameters and estimated breeding values of insect bite hypersensitivity in Belgian Warmblood horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Liesbet M; Janssens, Steven; Brebels, Machteld; Buys, Nadine

    2015-12-01

    Genetic factors involved in susceptibility to insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) in Belgian Warmblood horses (BWP) were investigated. Data relating to 3409 horses were collected using a questionnaire, administered to owners during sport competitions, BWP breeding days, breeder visits and after phone calls. Horses were classified as IBH-affected or unaffected, based on two 'disease classifiers': a lifetime record, based on owner information (life_status) and another based on whether or not the horse was showing clinical signs at the time of questioning (clin_status). IBH prevalence was 10% based on life_status, and 6.2% based on clin_status. The heritabilities estimated using threshold animal models varied from 0.65 to 0.78 on the underlying scale (0.18-0.26 on the observed scale). These research findings indicate that susceptibility to IBH is a heritable trait in BWP. PMID:26586216

  3. Chemical analyses of dredged spoil disposal sites at the Belgian part of the North Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Witte, Bavo; Ruttens, Ann; Ampe, Bart; Waegeneers, Nadia; Gauquie, Johanna; Devriese, Lisa; Cooreman, Kris; Parmentier, Koen

    2016-08-01

    The chemical status of five dredged spoil disposal sites in the Belgian Part of the North Sea is evaluated. A linear mixed-effect model was applied to PCB, PAH and heavy metal data from 2005 to 2014. No decrease in PCB concentrations was found, with even an increase at two disposal sites. Hg/AL ratios increased with 62% at one disposal site (BR&WS2) from 2005 to 2006 to 2013-2014. Cu and Zn concentrations increased at two disposal sites. Additional harbour sampling suggests that the latter is possibly linked to antifouling paints. Based on OSPAR environmental assessment criteria, the current chemical status of the sites suggests no chronic effect of dredged spoil disposal. However, increasing time trend data for PCB, Hg, Cu and Zn demonstrate the importance of monitoring to identify adverse trends. PMID:27176939

  4. Radiological optimization[1997 Scientific Report of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeevaert, T.

    1998-07-01

    Radiological optimization is one of the basic principles in each radiation-protection system and it is a basic requirement in the safety standards for radiation protection in the European Communities. The objectives of the research, performed in this field at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN, are: (1) to implement the ALARA principles in activities with radiological consequences; (2) to develop methodologies for optimization techniques in decision-aiding; (3) to optimize radiological assessment models by validation and intercomparison; (4) to improve methods to assess in real time the radiological hazards in the environment in case of an accident; (5) to develop methods and programmes to assist decision-makers during a nuclear emergency; (6) to support the policy of radioactive waste management authorities in the field of radiation protection; (7) to investigate existing software programmes in the domain of multi criteria analysis. The main achievements for 1997 are given.

  5. Visit of Belgian Firms at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    FP Department

    2009-01-01

    25 – 26 MAY 2009 09h00 to 17h00 Monday 25 May 09h00 to 17h00 Tuesday 26 May Individual interviews will take place in technicians’ offices. The firms will contact relevant users/technicians but any user wishing to make contact with a particular firm is welcome to use the contact details which are available from each secretariat of department or from the GS Department web pages at the following URL: http://gs-dep.web.cern.ch/gs-dep/groups/sem/ls/Industrial_Exhibitions.htm List of Companies: 1. Automation Services and Consulting BVBA 2. Burrick NV, (PLC) 3. Cissoid 4. DB Engineering 5. Design, Drafting & Services BVBA 6. Entelec Control Systems 7. GILLAM-Fei S.A. 8. HPC 9. ICSENSE 10. IWT – Enterprise Europe Flanders 11. Jema SA 12. Mecasoft SA 13. SA Polmans 14. Rapid-Torc 15. Resarm Engineering Plastics SA 16. Sentera Europa NV 17. SLC BVBA 18. Stocker Industrie SA 19. Technord 20. Tecnubel 21. Winlock BVBA For further information please contact Caroline Laignel GS-DI 737...

  6. Recent historical changes on the Belgian Meuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When a nuclear power station was installed on the Meuse in central Belgium, the impact of thermal, radioactive, and chemical waste on the water of the Neuse and on its biocenoses was studied. Three successive periods of development of the channel bed and the flood plain in Belgium have occurred, and their hydrological, physicochemical, and ecological consequences have been examined. Since the last century, the ecosystem of the Meuse has undergone, due to the increasing activity of man, modifications of increasing importance: marked reduction of the water flow, a drastic increase in the suspended material being transported, a degree of eutrophication of the water, and the disturbance of the original floral and faunal communities. The causes of this evolution of the Meuse can be itemized as different types of human interference in descending order of importance: (1) occupation of the catchment area; (2) encroachment on the flood plain; (3) encroachment on the channel bed; (4) destruction of habitats; (5) water pollution; (6) overexploitation of fish-breeding stocks; and (7) introduction of foreign species. Thought should be given to restoring damaged sectors by recreating shallow riverside zones suitable for aquatic macrophytes, for the macroinvertebrates which are linked to them, and for the reproduction of many species of fish. The example of human interference on the Meuse. 47 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs

  7. WWER-1000 reactor simulator. Material for training courses and workshops. 2. ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established an activity in nuclear reactor simulation computer programs to assist its Member States in education. The objective is to provide, for a variety of advanced reactor types, insight and practice in their operational characteristics and their response to perturbations and accident situations. To achieve this, the IAEA arranges for the development and distribution of simulation programs and educational material and sponsors courses and workshops. The workshops are in two parts: techniques and tools for reactor simulator development; and the use of reactor simulators in education. Workshop material for the first part is covered in the IAEA publication: Training Course Series No.12, Reactor Simulator Development (2001). Course material for workshops using a pressurized water reactor (PWR) simulator developed for the IAEA by Cassiopeia Technologies Inc. of Canada is presented in the IAEA publication, Training Course Series No. 22, 2nd edition, Pressurized Water Reactor Simulator (2005) and Training Course Series No.23, 2nd edition, Boiling Water Reactor Simulator (2005). This report consists of course material for workshops using the WWER-1000 Reactor Department Simulator from the Moscow Engineering and Physics Institute, Russian Federation

  8. Computer code for the analyses of reactivity initiated accident of heavy water moderated and cooled research reactor 'EUREKA-2D'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codes, such as EUREKA and EUREKA-2 have been developed to analyze the reactivity initiated accident for light water reactor. These codes could not be applied directly for the analyses of heavy water moderated and cooled research reactor which are different from light water reactor not only on operation condition but also on reactor kinetic constants. EUREKA-2D which is modified EUREKA-2 is a code for the analyses of reactivity initiated accident of heavy water research reactors. Following items are modified: 1) reactor kinetic constants. 2) thermodynamic properties of coolant. 3) heat transfer equations. The feature of EUREKA-2D and an example of analysis are described in this report. (author)

  9. Average daily nitrate and nitrite intake in the Belgian population older than 15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temme, E H M; Vandevijvere, S; Vinkx, C; Huybrechts, I; Goeyens, L; Van Oyen, H

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the dietary intake of nitrate and nitrite in Belgium. The nitrate content of processed vegetables, cheeses and meat products was analysed. These data were completed by data from non-targeted official control and from the literature. In addition, the nitrite content of meat products was measured. Concentration data for nitrate and nitrite were linked to food consumption data of the Belgian Food Consumption Survey. This study included 3245 respondents, aged 15 years and older. Food intakes were estimated by a repeated 24-h recall using EPIC-SOFT. Only respondents with two completed 24-h recalls (n=3083) were included in the analysis. For the intake assessment, average concentration data and individual consumption data were combined. Usual intake of nitrate/nitrite was calculated using the Nusser method. The mean usual daily intake of nitrate was 1.38 mg kg(-1) bodyweight (bw) day(-1) and the usual daily intake at the 97.5 percentile was 2.76 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1). Exposure of the Belgian population to nitrate at a mean intake corresponded to 38% of the ADI (while 76% at the 97.5 percentile). For the average consumer, half of the intake was derived from vegetables (especially lettuce) and 20% from water and water-based drinks. The average daily intake of nitrate and nitrite from cheese and meat products was low (0.2% and 6% of the ADI at average intake, respectively). Scenario analyses with a higher consumption of vegetables or a higher nitrate concentration in tap water showed a significant higher intake of nitrate. Whether this is beneficial or harmful must be further assessed. PMID:21728895

  10. Risk assessment for furan contamination through the food chain in Belgian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Georges; Huybrechts, Inge; Humblet, Marie-France; Scippo, Marie-Louise; De Pauw, Edwin; Eppe, Gauthier; Saegerman, Claude

    2012-08-01

    Young, old, pregnant and immuno-compromised persons are of great concern for risk assessors as they represent the sub-populations most at risk. The present paper focuses on risk assessment linked to furan exposure in children. Only the Belgian population was considered because individual contamination and consumption data that are required for accurate risk assessment were available for Belgian children only. Two risk assessment approaches, the so-called deterministic and probabilistic, were applied and the results were compared for the estimation of daily intake. A significant difference between the average Estimated Daily Intake (EDI) was underlined between the deterministic (419 ng kg⁻¹ body weight (bw) day⁻¹) and the probabilistic (583 ng kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹) approaches, which results from the mathematical treatment of the null consumption and contamination data. The risk was characterised by two ways: (1) the classical approach by comparison of the EDI to a reference dose (RfD(chronic-oral)) and (2) the most recent approach, namely the Margin of Exposure (MoE) approach. Both reached similar conclusions: the risk level is not of a major concern, but is neither negligible. In the first approach, only 2.7 or 6.6% (respectively in the deterministic and in the probabilistic way) of the studied population presented an EDI above the RfD(chronic-oral). In the second approach, the percentage of children displaying a MoE above 10,000 and below 100 is 3-0% and 20-0.01% in the deterministic and probabilistic modes, respectively. In addition, children were compared to adults and significant differences between the contamination patterns were highlighted. While major contamination was linked to coffee consumption in adults (55%), no item predominantly contributed to the contamination in children. The most important were soups (19%), dairy products (17%), pasta and rice (11%), fruit and potatoes (9% each). PMID:22632631

  11. CO2 Absorption in a Lab-Scale Fixed Solid Bed Reactor: Modelling and Experimental Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Gabbrielli

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The CO2 absorption in a lab-scale fixed solid bed reactor filled with different solid sorbents has been studied under different operative conditions regarding temperature (20-200°C and input gas composition (N2, O2, CO2, H2O at 1bar pressure. The gas leaving the reactor has been analysed to measure the CO2 and O2 concentrations and, consequently, to evaluate the overall CO2 removal efficiency. In order to study the influence of solid sorbent type (i.e. CaO, coal bottom ash, limestone and blast furnace slag and of mass and heat transfer processes on CO2 removal efficiency, a one-dimensional time dependent mathematical model of the reactor, which may be considered a Plug Flow Reactor, has been developed. The quality of the model has been confirmed using the experimental results.

  12. Neutronic analysis for core conversion (HEU-LEU) of Pakistan research reactor-2 (PARR-2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutronic analyses for the core conversion of Pakistan research reactor-2 (PARR-2) from high enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel has been performed. Neutronic model has been verified for 90.2% enriched HEU fuel (UAl4-Al). For core conversion, UO2 fuel was chosen as an appropriate fuel option because of higher uranium density. Clad has been changed from aluminum to zircalloy-4. Uranium enrichment of 12.6% has been optimized based on the design basis criterion of excess reactivity 4 mk in miniature neutron source reactor (MNSR). Lattice calculations for cross-section generation have been performed utilizing WIMS while core modeling was carried out employing three dimensions option of CITATION. Calculated neutronic parameters were compared for HEU and LEU fuels. Comparison shows that to get same thermal neutron flux at inner irradiation sites, reactor power has to be increased from 30 to 33 kW for LEU fuel. Reactivity coefficients calculations show that doppler and void coefficient values of LEU fuel are higher while moderator coefficient of HEU fuel is higher. It is concluded that from neutronic point of view LEU fuel UO2 of 12.6% enrichment with zircalloy-4 clad is suitable to replace the existing HEU fuel provided that dimensions of fuel pin and total number of fuel pins are kept same as for HEU fuel

  13. Current status of restoration work for obstacle and upper core structure in reactor vessel of experimental fast reactor 'Joyo'. 2-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An accident occurred in experimental fast reactor 'Joyo' in 2007 which is obstruction of fuel change equipment caused by contacting rotating plug and MARICO-2. In addition, we confirmed two happenings in the reactor vessel that (1) Deformation of MARICO-2 subassembly on the in vessel storage rack together with a transfer pot, (2) Deformation of the Upper core structure of 'Joyo' caused by contacting MARICO-2 subassembly and the UCS. We do the restoration work for restoring it. This time, we describe current status of Replacement work of the UCS. (author)

  14. An Ultrasonic Non Destructive Experimental System for the IRR2 Reactor Tank Wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development and the validation of a new ultrasonic Non Destructive Experimental system in-service inspection of a research reactor closed tank are surveyed. In addition, preliminary results from the inspection of the IRR2 reactor tank are presented. The inspection has shown that the aluminium tank is in good physical condition with negligible corrosion and no significant structural defects

  15. Fuel Summary Report: Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor - Rev. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Gail Lynn; Mc Cardell, Richard Keith; Illum, Douglas Brent

    2002-09-01

    The Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) was developed by Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory to demonstrate the potential of a water-cooled, thorium oxide fuel cycle breeder reactor. The LWBR core operated from 1977-82 without major incident. The fuel and fuel components suffered minimal damage during operation, and the reactor testing was deemed successful. Extensive destructive and nondestructive postirradiation examinations confirmed that the fuel was in good condition with minimal amounts of cladding deformities and fuel pellet cracks. Fuel was placed in wet storage upon arrival at the Expended Core Facility, then dried and sent to the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center for underground dry storage. It is likely that the fuel remains in good condition at its current underground dry storage location at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. Reports show no indication of damage to the core associated with shipping, loading, or storage.

  16. Assessment of the acrylamide intake of the Belgian population and the effect of mitigation strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Claeys, Wendie Liliane; Baert, Katleen; Mestdagh, Frédéric; Vercammen, Jan; Daenens, Paul; Meulenaer, Bruno De; Maghuin-Rogister, Guy; Huyghebaert, André

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The acrylamide (AA) intake of the Belgian consumer was calculated based on AA monitoring data of the Belgian Federal Agency for the Safety of the Food Chain (FASFC) and consumption data of the Belgian food consumption survey coordinated by the Scientific Institute for Public Health (3214 participants of 15 years or older). The average AA exposure, calculated probabilistically, was 0.4 ?g/kg bw/day (P97.5 = 1.6 ?g/kg bw/day) with as main contributors to the average intake c...

  17. 12th Annual conference of the Nuclear Society of Russia. Research reactors: science and high technologies. Proceedings. Vol. 2. Part 3. Research reactors - present and future (Physics and engineering of research reactors)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The part 3 of the volume 2 of the Proceedings of the 12th Annual conference of the Nuclear Society of Russia - Research reactors: science and high technologies (June 25-29, 2001, Dimitrovgrad, SRC RIAR) is presented. The scope of reports published in this part includes: projects of the pool-type reactor for heat supply and the neutron therapy centrum on the basis of the MEPhI reactor; water-chemical mode by storage of the research reactors (RR) spent fuel elements; possibility of the RR service life prolongation; material science problems on the operational control of the RR reactor core elements and heat exchangers

  18. Severe Accident Management Measures Introduced in Belgian NPP's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In response to the Belgian Safety Authorities' request to address the severe accident issue within a decennial safety review, Tractebel, on behalf of the Belgian Utility, Electrabel, examined in detail specific severe accident topics and provided the Utility with several measures that could be implemented to reduce the risk associated with beyond-design accidents. The present paper summarizes the key elements of the approach applied in Belgium: - Presentation of plant-specific studies related to severe accident issues; - Use of PSA results; - Inputs of international R and D projects; - Selection and justification of severe accident measures; - Comparative study between possible mitigative measures; - Definition and justification of implemented severe accident management strategies. The vulnerability to severe accidents as well as the potential causes of containment failures have been identified leading to the study of possible countermeasures taking into account the combination of conservative design and post-TMI measures already implemented . A section of the paper will also be devoted to the specific study made for the selection, the sizing and the implementation of hydrogen control means. After the description of the selected measures implemented, the paper also describes the content of the 'Severe Accident Management Guidelines' developed by Tractebel for the Tihange NPPs and for the Doel NPPs. This project aimed at providing the operators with procedures or guidelines enabling to deal with complex situations not formally considered in the standard Emergency Response Guidelines, including accidents in which a significant portion of the core melts. The objective of these SAMG's programs is to indicate actions that must bring the plant to a controlled stable state and, above all, mitigate any challenges to the fission product barriers. The plant personnel must use the available plant information to determine the best severe accident management measures. Obviously

  19. H loop shaping robust control system design. for Pakistan Research Reactor-2 (PARR-2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A robust nuclear reactor power controller for a range of uncertainties in control rod worth is designed using co-prime factorization technique. The controller is developed for implementation on Pakistan Research Reactor-2 (PARR-2). Robustness of the controller is verified through extensive simulations. The system performance and robustness against parameter variations are improved notably after implementation of the controller, as seen in the simulation results. The controller is synthesized by using H loop-shaping design technique. The designed system is simulated and disturbance rejection capabilities are verified. The system behaved well in spite of many uncertainties in control rod worth. The system gain and phase margin was improved considerably, thus increasing robustness of the system to desired limits. (author)

  20. A Design Study on Experimental Power Reactor Core Fueled with UO2 CFP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A neutronic study on core design of a 300 MWt EPR was performed. In this study the use of 4.8% enriched UO2 coated fuel particle was analyzed. The design was then compared to 5% enriched UO2 pin fueled EPR based on existing PWRs. Both reactors are operated with single batch refueling system with a cycle length of 3 years. The core physics parameters analyzed were : effective multiplication factor in a cycle, flux distributions and cycle burnup. The results of calculation showed that the core effective multiplication factor for reactor with fuel compact can be maintained at 1.2841 at beginning of cycle (BOC) and 1.0060 at end of cycle (EOC). As for the UO2 pin fueled reactor, the effective multiplication factor was 1.1927 at BOC and 1.0514 at EOC. The size of active core for the CFP fueled reactor were 320 cm in height and 320 cm in diameter. As for pin fueled reactor, the height was 200 cm and diameter was 180 cm. The results of calculations showed that neutron flux distribution was quite flat for both types of reactor designs, although the volume of CFP fueled reactor was 5 times as big as the pin fueled reactor

  1. A study of in-package nuclear criticality in possible Belgian spent nuclear fuel repository designs

    OpenAIRE

    Wantz, Olivier

    2005-01-01

    About 60 percent of the electricity production in Belgium originates from nuclear power plants. Belgium owns 7 nuclear pressurized water reactors, which are located in two sites: 4 reactors in Doel and 3 reactors in Tihange. Together they have a capacity of approximately 5900 MWe. All these reactors use classical uranium oxide fuel assemblies. Two of them (Doel3, Tihange2) have also accepted a limited number of mixed (uranium and plutonium) oxide fuel assemblies. These mixed fuel assemblies c...

  2. Methodology for reactor core physics analysis - part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computer codes used for reactor core physics analysis are described. The modifications introduced in the public codes and the technical basis for the codes developed by the FURNAS utility are justified. An evaluation of the impact of these modifications on the parameter involved in qualifying the methodology is included. (F.E.). 5 ref, 7 figs, 5 tabs

  3. Modernized IBR-2 reactor and first experiments at its neutron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IBR-2 reactor is the main basic facility at JINR dedicated to condensed matter research. The IBR-2 operates as a fast pulsed reactor. Its main distinctive property, which makes it differ from other nuclear reactors, is the mechanical modulation of the reactivity by means of a movable reflector. Producing a record neutron flux of 1016 n/cm2/s in the pulse, the IBR-2 reactor is also an economical and relatively inexpensive facility. The IBR-2 reactor is mainly used for investigations in the fields of condensed matter physics (solids and liquids), biology, chemistry, earth and materials science. Operating experience has shown that it is a very effective neutron source; in most areas of application it compares well with the best neutron sources based on proton accelerators. At present, this experience is of special importance in connection with the increasing interest in long-pulsed neutron sources. IBR-2 operated successfully from 1984 until 2006. On December 18, 2006 reactor was shut down for modernization. Main directions of reactor modernization include: 1. A compact reactor core. 2. Lower speed of rotation of the main movable reflector, counter rotation of rotors, use of a nickel alloy as a reflector material. 3. Use fuel pellets configuration that will allow increasing the depth of fuel burn up to 9%. 4. New design of safety system which improves its parameters. 5. Creation of easily replaceable moderators, their optimization for each neutron beam. Development of the cryogenic moderators with palletized moderator material. Dismantling of the old reactor parts and installation of the new equipment was completed in 2010. Brief history of the work will be outlined in the report. In February 2011 loading of fresh fuel to the reactor core was completed and physical start-up has begun. After successful realization of this stage in June, the power start-up program was fulfilled resulting in increase of the mean reactor power to the design value of 2 MW (peak power of

  4. Digital radiographic equipment in the Belgian dental office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gijbels, F; Debaveye, D; Vanderstappen, M; Jacobs, R

    2005-01-01

    A survey was performed among Belgian dentists to evaluate the use and management of digital radiographic equipment. The majority of respondents work as general dental practitioners. One out of eight sets of equipment for extraoral exposures is digital. For intraoral radiography, 30% of the equipment is digital. While exposure time is reduced by about 50% for digital intraoral radiography compared with conventional radiography, no differences can be found between different conventional film speed classes. Appropriate collimation of the radiation beam is only sparingly used. Beam aiming devices to hold the film and position the radiation beam are not used by the majority of dentists. While 25% of the respondents stand behind a protective wall during exposure, 8% of dentists remain next to the patient during exposure while assisting in holding the film inside the mouth. A minority of the latter practitioners wear lead aprons. PMID:16461489

  5. Characteristics of suicide hotspots on the Belgian railway network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debbaut, Kevin; Krysinska, Karolina; Andriessen, Karl

    2014-01-01

    In 2004, railway suicide accounted for 5.3% of all suicides in Belgium. In 2008, Infrabel (Manager of the Belgian Railway Infrastructure) introduced a railway suicide prevention programme, including identification of suicide hotspots, i.e., areas of the railway network with an elevated incidence of suicide. The study presents an analysis of 43 suicide hotspots based on Infrabel data collected during field visits and semi-structured interviews conducted in mental health facilities in the vicinity of the hotspots. Three major characteristics of the hotspots were accessibility, anonymity, and vicinity of a mental health institution. The interviews identified several risk and protective factors for railway suicide, including the training of staff, introduction of a suicide prevention policy, and the role of the media. In conclusion, a comprehensive railway suicide prevention programme should continuously safeguard and monitor hotspots, and should be embedded in a comprehensive suicide prevention programme in the community. PMID:24020492

  6. Can Belgian nuclear power stations work for longer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2008 Paul Magnette, former Minister of Climate and Energy, requested the GEMIX Commission - a team of Belgian and international energy specialists - to examine the energy future of Belgium. Within this framework, it was planned to examine ideal energy mixes to ensure the energy supplies of Belgium, to secure our competitive position and to ensure that environmental and climate objectives are achieved. In the framework of this study, the GEMIX Commission asked SCK-CEN to evaluate the lifetime of the commercial nuclear power plants at Doel and Tihange. In particular, the Commission wanted to know whether it is technically feasible and safe to keep these power plants open for longer than 40 years, the lifetime stipulated in the 2003 Nuclear Energy Extrication Act. The article gives a summary overview of the expert opinion of SCK-CEN to the Gemix Commission.

  7. Estimation of power feedback parameters of pulse reactor IBR-2M on transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parameters of the IBR-2M reactor power feedback (PFB) on a model of the reactor dynamics by mathematical treatment of two registered transients are estimated. Frequency characteristics and the pulse transient characteristics corresponding to these PFB parameters are calculated. PFB parameters received thus can be considered as their express tentative estimation as real measurements in this case occupy no more than 30 minutes. Total PFB is negative at 1 and 2 MW. At the received estimations of PFB parameters in a self-regulation mode it is possible to consider the stability margins of the IBR-2M reactor satisfactory

  8. SCALE-4 analysis of pressurized water reactor critical configurations. Volume 2: Sequoyah Unit 2 Cycle 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The requirements of ANSI/ANS 8.1 specify that calculational methods for away-from-reactor criticality safety analyses be validated against experimental measurements. If credit for the negative reactivity of the depleted (or spent) fuel isotopics is desired, it is necessary to benchmark computational methods against spent fuel critical configurations. This report summarizes a portion of the ongoing effort to benchmark away-from-reactor criticality analysis methods using critical configurations from commercial pressurized-water reactors. The analysis methodology selected for all the calculations reported herein is based on the codes and data provided in the SCALE-4 code system. This volume of the report documents the SCALE system analysis of three reactor critical configurations for the Sequoyah Unit 2 Cycle 3. This unit and cycle were chosen because of the relevance in spent fuel benchmark applications: (1) the unit had a significantly long downtime of 2.7 years during the middle of cycle (MOC) 3, and (2) the core consisted entirely of burned fuel at the MOC restart. The first benchmark critical calculation was the MOC restart at hot, full-power (HFP) critical conditions. The other two benchmark critical calculations were the beginning-of-cycle (BOC) startup at both hot, zero-power (HZP) and HFP critical conditions. These latter calculations were used to check for consistency in the calculated results for different burnups and downtimes. The keff results were in the range of 1.00014 to 1.00259 with a standard deviation of less than 0.001

  9. Evaluation Of Reactor Coolant System Of Design Of Bandung TRIGA Mark II 2 MW Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An evaluation of reactor coolant system of Bandung TRIGA Mark II has been carried out. The evaluation is conducted for primary and secondary system, both for steady state and transient conditions. The evaluation is based on the analysis results done by the operator. In the steady state (i.e. normal operation), the maximum temperature of fuel element is 569.7C. A series of analysis covering various accident scenarios of LOPA and LOCA shows that the coolant system and ECCS able to maintain the fuel temperature less then 970C, then the fuel integrity is kept safe. However, the detail analysis using validated codes is still needed to support the actual safety analysis

  10. The BR1 Reactor:. a Versatile Tool for Fission Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagemans, J.

    2008-04-01

    The BR1 reactor located at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK·CEN in Mol, Belgium, is a research reactor with a variety of irradiation possibilities. Thanks to its large reactor core, its flexible operation and its different irradiation facilities, this reactor is particularly suited for in-core and ex-core neutron physics experiments. This paper gives a general description of the BR1 reactor, with special emphasis on the available irradiation possibilities. Then some examples of fission experiments that have been performed in the past will be referred to and two ongoing projects related to fission will be presented.

  11. Inspection and replacement of baffle assembly screws inside American reactor vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The baffle assembly inside the vessel of a 900 MWe reactor designed by Framatome, is made up of 44 plates fixed on 8 horizontal supports by a system of about 1000 screws. These plates undergo high neutron flux and the problem of screw cracking appeared at the end of the eighties in the first-generation reactors. The first operation on a large scale concerning the screws of a Westinghouse type reactor, was performed on the Tihange-1 power plant where Framatome controlled 960 screws and replaced 91. In 1997 as a consequence of the Belgian and French feedback experience, American plant operators launched a vast program of preventive actions: material analysis, inspection of baffle plate screws and replacement of defective screws. This program was held in cooperation with EPRI (electric power research institute) and under the control of NRC (nuclear regulatory commission). Framatome Technologies Inc (FTI) was in charge of the in-situ inspection and replacement of the screws. FTI designed special tools and equipment adapted to the 2-loop American reactors but the basis ideas were those applied on the Tihange reactor. The successful experience of FTI has allowed the firm to be commissioned for 6 2-loops American reactors. (A.C.)

  12. A KINETIC MODEL FOR H2O2/UV PROCESS IN A COMPLETELY MIXED BATCH REACTOR. (R825370C076)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A dynamic kinetic model for the advanced oxidation process (AOP) using hydrogen peroxide and ultraviolet irradiation (H2O2/UV) in a completely mixed batch reactor (CMBR) is developed. The model includes the known elementary chemical and photochemical reac...

  13. Modification to ORIGEN2 for generating N Reactor source terms. Volume 2: ORIGEN2 N-Reactor output files

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This text is intended to be a brief outline of the ORIGEN2 computer code, which is a revised and updated version of the ORIGEN documented i report ORNL-4628 (May 1973). Included here are: a brief description of the functions of ORIGEN2; a listing of the major data sources; a listing of the published documentation concerning ORIGEN2; and an outline of the ORIGEN2 output organization. ORIGEN2 is a available from the ORNL Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC). Past experience has indicated that many users encounter considerable difficulty in finding the desired information in ORIGEN2 output which is sometimes rather massive. This section is intended as a brief outline of the organization of ORIGEN2 output

  14. Research reactors - an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, C.D.

    1997-03-01

    A broad overview of different types of research and type reactors is provided in this paper. Reactor designs and operating conditions are briefly described for four reactors. The reactor types described include swimming pool reactors, the High Flux Isotope Reactor, the Mark I TRIGA reactor, and the Advanced Neutron Source reactor. Emphasis in the descriptions is placed on safety-related features of the reactors. 7 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Sophistication of burnup analysis system for fast reactor (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improvement on prediction accuracy for neutronics characteristics of fast reactor cores is one of the most important study domains in terms of both achievement of high economical plant efficiency based on reasonably advanced designs and increased reliability and safety margins. In former study, considerable improvement on prediction accuracy in neutronics design has been achieved in the development of the unified cross-section set as a fruit of a series of critical experiments such as JUPITER in application of the reactor constant adjustments. For design of fast reactor cores improvement of not only static characteristics but also burnup characteristics is very important. For such purpose, it is necessary to improve the prediction accuracy on burnup characteristics using actual burnup data of 'JOYO' and 'MONJU', experimental and prototype fast reactors. Recently, study on effective burnup method for minor actinides becomes important theme. However, there is a problem that analysis work tends to become inefficient for lack of functionality suitable for analysis of composition change due to burnup since the conventional analysis system is targeted to critical assembly systems. Therefore development of burnup analysis system for fast reactors with modularity and flexibility is being done that would contribute to actual core design work and improvement of prediction accuracy. In the previous study, we have developed a prototype system which has functions of performing core and burnup calculations using given constant files (PDS files) and information based on simple and easy user input data. It has also functions of fuel shuffling which is indispensable for power reactor analysis systems. In the present study, by extending the prototype system, features for handling of control rods and energy collapse of group constants have been designed and implemented. Computational results from the present analysis system are stored into restart files which can be accessible by

  16. Assessment of doses received by the Belgian population due to the Chernobyl releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consequences of the exposure during the first year and beyond the first year after the Chernobyl accident in terms of radiation effects on the Belgian population are discussed as well as some uncertainties in these evaluations. (A.F.)

  17. The Labour Market as the Driving Force of Belgian Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielemans, Willy

    1988-01-01

    An examination of internal and external forces on Belgian higher education suggests that the system is too closely controlled by economic and political forces in the labor market, which threatens to distort university life and higher education in general. (MSE)

  18. A Conceptual Study of a Supercritical CO2-Cooled Micro Modular Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Hwanyeal Yu; Donny Hartanto; Jangsik Moon; Yonghee Kim

    2015-01-01

    A neutronics conceptual study of a supercritical CO2-cooled micro modular reactor (MMR) has been performed in this work. The suggested MMR is an extremely compact and truck-transportable nuclear reactor. The thermal power of the MMR is 36.2 MWth and it is designed to have a 20-year lifetime without refueling. A salient feature of the MMR is that all the components including the generator are integrated in a small reactor vessel. For a minimal volume and long lifetime of the MMR core, a fast n...

  19. Fast breeder reactors: Experience and trends. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA Symposium on ''Fast Breeder Reactors: Experience and Future Trends'' was held, at the invitation of the Government of France, in Lyons, France, on 22-26 July 1985. It was hosted by the French Commissariat a l'energie atomique and Electricite de France. The purpose of the Symposium was to review the experience gained so far in the field of LMFBRs, taking into account the constructional, operational, technological, economic and fuel cycle aspects, and to consider the developmental trends as well as the international co-operation in fast breeder reactor design and utilization. The Symposium was attended by almost 400 participants (340 participants, 35 observers and 20 journalists) from 25 countries and five international organizations. More than 80 papers were presented and discussed during six regular sessions and four poster sessions. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers

  20. Working Paper 13-09 - Qualitative Employment Multipliers for the Belgian Environmental Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Adja Awa Sissoko; Bart Van den Cruyce

    2009-01-01

    The present paper computes cumulative employment generated by the Belgian environmental industry. Relying on Belgian input-output tables for the year 2000 and on detailed employment data (SAM sub ]matrix), we investigate the patterns of the employment in the environmental industry, by considering the worker types differentiated by gender, educational attainment or a combination of these characteristics. The employment multiplier analysis of environmental employment reveals some interesting di...

  1. Compliance of Companies with Corporate Governance Codes: Case Study on Listed Belgian

    OpenAIRE

    Sven H. De Cleyn

    2014-01-01

    Listed and large companies become increasingly subject to internal and external pressure to comply with ethical and social standards. This article focuses on one aspect of this matter, namely the corporate governance issue. Within the framework of recent corporate scandals, this paper investigates whether and to which extent Belgian publicly listed SMEs comply with the Belgian Code on Corporate Governance after its first year of introduction, which has been constituted in the framework of the...

  2. A nationwide Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture in Belgian Hospitals: Analysis and Benchmarking

    OpenAIRE

    Vlayen, Annemie; Hellings, Johan; Claes, Neree; Schrooten, Ward

    2010-01-01

    Objective To measure patient safety culture in Belgian hospitals and to examine the homogeneous grouping of underlying safety culture dimensions. Methods The Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture was distributed organisation-wide in 180 Belgian hospitals participating in the federal program on quality and safety between 2007 and 2009. Participating hospitals were invited to submit their data to a comparative database. Homogeneous groups of underlying safety culture dimensions were sou...

  3. Annual report for the steering committee of the association Euratom-Belgian State for fusion 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moons, F.; Bogaerts, W.; Decreton, M.; Biver, E.; Coenen, S.; Benoit, Ph.; Coheur, L.; Deboodt, P.; Andreev, D.

    1996-09-01

    This report is prepared for the annual steering committee meting of the Association Euratom - Belgian State for Fusion. The period October 1995 to September 1996 is reported on.The fusion technology work performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN, the Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering of the Louvain University (Belgium) and S.A. Gradel, a Luxemburg company, is described.

  4. impact of six multimodal country-wide campaigns to promote hand hygiene in belgian hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Fonguh, Sylvanus; Hammami, N; Catry, B; Simon, Anne; ICPIC

    2015-01-01

    Six campaigns sponsored by the Belgian federal government were organized to promote hand hygiene(HH) in Belgian hospitals between 2005 and 2015. The campaigns combined educational sessions for healthcare workers (HCWs), promotion of alcohol-based hand rubs, patient awareness and audits with performance feedback. Each campaign consisted of a pre-campaign data collection period, an awareness period with training and a post-campaign data collection period.

  5. BNAIC 2008: Proceedings 20th Belgian-Netherlands Conference on Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Nijholt, Anton; Pantic, Maja; Poel, Mannes; Hondorp, Hendri

    2008-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the 20th edition of the Belgian-Netherlands Conference on Artificial Intelligence. The conference was organized by the Human Media Interaction group of the University of Twente. As usual, the conference was under the auspices of the Belgian-Dutch Association for Artificial Intelligence (BNVKI) and the Dutch Research School for Information and Knowledge Systems (SIKS). The conference aims at presenting an overview of state-of-the-art research in artificial...

  6. Annual report for the steering committee of the association Euratom-Belgian State for fusion 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is prepared for the annual steering committee meting of the Association Euratom - Belgian State for Fusion. The period October 1995 to September 1996 is reported on.The fusion technology work performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN, the Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering of the Louvain University (Belgium) and S.A. Gradel, a Luxemburg company, is described

  7. Advanced technologies for water cooled reactors 1990. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of the meeting was to review and discuss the status of national programmes, the progress achieved since the last meeting held in June 1988 in the field of advanced technologies and design trends for existing and future water cooled reactors. 24 specialists from 14 countries and the IAEA took part in the meeting and 12 papers were presented. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  8. Gemstone Color and Silicon Doping in the ETRR-2 Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present article presents a general view of the recent utilities of the rectors. The applications depend on the effect of the neutrons on the material. The effect on pure silicon ingots which is known as neutron transmutation doping is used as a way to transfer the silicon ingot as an insulator to a semiconductor one. The effect on geological stones which is known as artificial gem colored stones are presented as new applications of the reactor facilities. (author)

  9. Novel Catalytic Reactor for CO2 Reduction via Sabatier Process Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A novel short contact time Microlith Sabatier reactor system for CO2 reduction offers a significant advance in support of manned spaceflight. Compared to current...

  10. Novel, Regenerable Microlith Catalytic Reactor for CO2 Reduction via Bosch Process Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI) proposes to develop an extremely compact, lightweight and regenerable MicrolithREG catalytic CO2 reduction reactor, capable of...

  11. Investigations on coolant boiling in research reactors. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subcooled boiling has been investigated systematically at the Rossendorf Research Reactor in the range between boiling onset and boiling crisis. This is of particular interest because in the core the direction of the coolant flow is opposite to the bubble buoyance of the bubbles - in contrast to power reactors. For this reason an experimental fuel assembly equipped with a throttle valve for coolant flow reduction and different detectors was built up and installed in the reactor core. Measurements of thermohydraulic parameters and noise signals from temperature, neutron flux and acoustic sources were subject of the investigations. Besides other results fluctuations of the void fraction induced by a standing wave of the two-phase flow in the coolant channel and the 24-Hz pressure fluctuations of the circulation pumps have been observed. It has been shown that the frequency of the standing wave is determined by the size of the boiling volume in the coolant channel and that this frequency therefore depends on the outlet temperature of the coolant. (author)

  12. A simulation Model of the Reactor Hall Ventilation and air Conditioning Systems of ETRR-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the conceptual design for any system differs from one designer to another. each of them aims to achieve the function of the system required. the ventilation and air conditioning system of reactors hall is one of those systems that really differs but always dose its function for which it is designed. thus, ventilation and air conditioning in some reactor hall constitute only one system whereas in some other ones, they are separate systems. the Egypt Research Reactor-2 (ETRR-2)represents the second type. most studies conducted on ventilation and air conditioning simulation models either in traditional building or for research rectors show that those models were not designed similarly to the model of the hall of ETRR-2 in which ventilation and air conditioning constitute two separate systems.besides, those studies experimented on ventilation and air conditioning simulation models of reactor building predict the temperature and humidity inside these buildings at certain outside condition and it is difficult to predict when the outside conditions are changed . also those studies do not discuss the influences of reactor power changes. therefore, the present work deals with a computational study backed by infield experimental measurements of the performance of the ventilation and air conditioning systems of reactor hall during normal operation at different outside conditions as well as at different levels of reactor power

  13. The Irradiation Facility at the IBR-2M Reactor in Dubna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulavin, M.; Cheplakov, A.; Kulikov, S.; Kukhtin, V.; Shabalin, E.; Verhoglyadov, A.

    2014-06-01

    After renovation neutron pulsed reactor was successfully put into operation. In view of HL-LHC development, the irradiation facility at the IBR-2m, previously used for the ATLAS Liquid Argon calorimeters electronics and materials certification, has been upgraded to permit accumulation in the warm temperature conditions of the fast neutrons fluences up to k*1017 n/cm2 per one standard reactor operation cycle - 11 days. The first test of materials for ATLAS was conducted.

  14. Dynamics model of the IBR-2M pulsed reactor for analysis of fast transition processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepelyshev, Yu. N.; Popov, A. K.; Sumkhuu, D.; Sangaa, D.

    2015-05-01

    A nonlinear model of the IBR-2M pulsed reactor dynamics relating values of variables at discreet instants of time (when power pulses appear) is developed on the basis of the MATLAB program system. The tests of the model by simulating calculated processes in the IBR-2M reactor proved the correctness of the model. A tentative estimate of the transfer coefficient for the linear part of the automatic regulator is obtained.

  15. Key achievements and remaining uncertainties of the last decade of research and development in the Belgian high-level and long-lived radioactive waste disposal programme: The SAFIR 2 outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In publishing the SAFIR 2 report (December 2001), ONDRAF/NIRAS has provided its supervising minister and the various parties involved with a document that enable them to assess the progress made during the period 1990-2000 with regard to the feasibility and safety of a possible solution for the long-term management of high-level and long-lived waste, that is, its deep disposal into a poorly-indurated argillaceous layer in Belgium. The research and development (R and D) work done during this period mainly concerned the Boom Clay beneath the Mol-Dessel nuclear zone as the host formation and reference site, and, to a much lesser extent, the Ypresian Clays beneath the Doel nuclear zone as an alternative host formation and site. This methodological work in no way implies that a decision has been taken on a location for the implementation of the studied solution. At present, none of the research findings indicates any prohibitive flaw surrounding the disposal into the Boom Clay of the high-level and long-lived waste. Major achievements from the R and D programme are the confirmation of the qualities of the clay host formation and the vitrified waste matrices as robust barriers, the feasibility of excavating underground galleries without disturbing significantly the barrier properties of the host formation and the favourable results of the long-term safety assessments. The next phase of the ONDRAF/NIRAS programme of methodological research and development should consider the priorities identified in the SAFIR 2 report and presented in this paper. (author)

  16. Reactor Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis of reactor fuel. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are summarised

  17. Reactor Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCK-CEN's Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutron and gamma calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation and control, reactor code benchmarking and reactor safety calculations. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 materials testing reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2001 are summarised

  18. Reactor Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ait Abderrahim, A

    2001-04-01

    The Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis of reactor fuel. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are summarised.

  19. Noise Reduction of an Ultrasonic System for the IRR2 Research Reactor Tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the IRR2 reactor preventive maintenance, an ultrasonic scanning system was developed for inspection of the reactor tank wall. The design validation was carried out in a full-sized mock-up. An important issue tested in the mock-up experiments was the ultrasonic scanning system sensitivity to electromagnetic noise. Indeed, the system was approved only after the noise levels were found to be tolerable. However, when the Ultrasonic Inspection System was first operated in the IRR2 reactor, unacceptable noise levels were measured, i. e., system immunity to electromagnetic noise demonstrated in the mock-up testing proved to be irrelevant for the IRR2 reactor itself Various methods of noise reduction were attempted; consequently, noise interference was reduced to an acceptable level

  20. Scale-4 Analysis of Pressurized Water Reactor Critical Configurations: Volume 2-Sequoyah Unit 2 Cycle 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    The requirements of ANSI/ANS 8.1 specify that calculational methods for away-from-reactor criticality safety analyses be validated against experimental measurements. If credit for the negative reactivity of the depleted (or spent) fuel isotopics is desired, it is necessary to benchmark computational methods against spent fuel critical configurations. This report summarizes a portion of the ongoing effort to benchmark away-from-reactor criticality analysis methods using critical configurations from commercial pressurized-water reactors. The analysis methodology selected for all the calculations reported herein is based on the codes and data provided in the SCALE-4 code system. The isotopic densities for the spent fuel assemblies in the critical configurations were calculated using the SAS2H analytical sequence of the SCALE-4 system. The sources of data and the procedures for deriving SAS2H input parameters are described in detail. The SNIKR code module was used to extract the necessary isotopic densities from the SAS2H results and provide the data in the format required by the SCALE criticality analysis modules. The CSASN analytical sequence in SCALE-4 was used to perform resonance processing of the cross sections. The KENO V.a module of SCALE-4 was used to calculate the effective multiplication factor (k{sub eff}) of each case. The SCALE-4 27-group burnup library containing ENDF/B-IV (actinides) and ENDF/B-V (fission products) data was used for all the calculations. This volume of the report documents the SCALE system analysis of three reactor critical configurations for the Sequoyah Unit 2 Cycle 3. This unit and cycle were chosen because of the relevance in spent fuel benchmark applications: (1) the unit had a significantly long downtime of 2.7 years during the middle of cycle (MOC) 3, and (2) the core consisted entirely of burned fuel at the MOC restart. The first benchmark critical calculation was the MOC restart at hot, full-power (HFP) critical conditions. The

  1. Status of IVO-FR2-Vg7 experiment for irradiation of fast reactor fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Report on the Seminar celebrated in Madrid between KfK (Karlsruhe) and JEN (Madrid) concerning a Joint Irradiation Program of Fast Reactor Fuel Rods. The design of fuel rods in general is defined, and, in particular of those with a density 94% DT and diameter 7.6 mm up to a burn-up of 7% FIMA, to be irradiated in the FR2 Reactor (Karlsruhe). Together with the design of NaK and single-wall capsules used in this irradiation, other possibilities of irradiation in the reactor will also be described. (auth.)

  2. Keeping research reactors relevant: A pro-active approach for SLOWPOKE-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SLOWPOKE is a small, inherently safe, pool-type research reactor that was engineered and marketed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) in the 1970s and 80s. The original reactor, SLOWPOKE-1, was moved from Chalk River to the University of Toronto in 1970 and was operated until upgraded to the SLOWPOKE-2 reactor in 1973. In all, eight reactors in the two versions were produced and five are still in operation today, three having been decommissioned. All of the remaining reactors are designated as SLOWPOKE-2 reactors. These research reactors are prone to two major issues: aging components and lack of relevance to a younger audience. In order to combat these problems, one SLOWPOKE -2 facility has embraced a strategy that involves modernizing their reactor in order to keep the reactor up to date and relevant. In 2001, this facility replaced its aging analogue reactor control system with a digital control system. The system was successfully commissioned and has provided a renewed platform for student learning and research. The digital control system provides a better interface and allows flexibility in data storage and retrieval that was never possible with the analogue control system. This facility has started work on another upgrade to the digital control and instrumentation system that will be installed in 2010. The upgrade includes new computer hardware, updated software and a web-based simulation and training system that will allow licensed operators, students and researchers to use an online simulation tool for training, education and research. The tool consists of: 1) A dynamic simulation for reactor kinetics (e.g., core flux, power, core temperatures, etc). This tool is useful for operator training and student education; 2) Dynamic mapping of the reactor and pool container gamma and neutron fluxes as well as the vertical neutron beam tube flux. This research planning tool is used for various researchers who wish to do irradiations (e.g., neutron

  3. Neutronic calculation for cobalt irradiation devices and test loop of etrr2 research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCNP monte Carlo code were used to model ETRR-2 research reactor. The model were used to simulate the irradiation facilities of the reactor. The reactivity worth and neutron flux for cobalt irradiation device and test loop were calculated. The axial thermal flux were also calculated at the six irradiation water channels around the reactor core. The results of the present model were compared both with the experimental measurements for cobalt device and with the design calculations for test loop. Satisfactory agreement were found between the present MCNP results and measurements for both cobalt device and test loop

  4. IBR-2 reactor power start-up and first physical experiments on its beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design is described of the IBR-2 pulse fast reactor designated for investigations into nuclear physics, condensed medium physics, molecular biology, elementary particle physics (fundamental properties of the neutron) as well as for solving various applied problems. The IBR-2 core is loaded with plutonium dioxide fuel of about 90 kg total mass. The fuel elements are sodium, cooled with a 300 deg C inlet temperature. The cooling system is two-circuit, two-loop with the 100 m3/h sodium flow rate. The reactor is surrounded by water neutron moderators which are ''scanned'' by 14 horizontal channels. The power pulse is formed by the reactivity modulator in the form of two coaxially positioned mobile neutron reflectors - the basic one (BR) and additional one (AR). The BR rotation frequency equals 1500 min-1. The pulse frequency is varied discretely by the AR, being at rest or rotating at a lower rate. In 1982 the IBR-2 attained the average power 2 MW at a BR rotation frequency equal to 1500 mm-1 and a pulse frequency equal to 25 Hz, which corresponds to pulse reactor power of 270 MW. The reactor main frequency mode 5 Hz at 2 MW power was realized in 1984, the reactor peak power achieved 1350 MW. Results of first physical studies conducted during the reactor power start-up are presented

  5. Irradiated graphite studies prior to decommissioning of G1, G2 and G3 reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G1 (46 MWth), G2 (250 MWth) and G3 (250 MWth) are the first French plutonium production reactors owned by CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique). They started to be operated in 1956 (G1), 1959 (G2) and 1960 (G3); their final shutdown occurred in 1968, 1980 and 1984 respectively. Each reactor used about 1200 tons of graphite as moderator, moreover in G2 and G3, a 95 tons graphite wall is used to shield the rear side concrete from neutron irradiation. G1 is an air cooled reactor operated at a graphite temperature ranging from 30 C to 230 C; G2 and G3 are CO2 cooled reactors and during operation the graphite temperature is higher (140 C to 400 C). These reactors are now partly decommissioned, but the graphite stacks are still inside the reactors. The graphite core radioactivity has decreased enough so that a full decommissioning stage may be considered. Conceming this decommissioning, the studies reported here are: (i) stored energy in graphite, (ii) graphite radioactivity measurements, (iii) leaching of radionuclide (14C, 36Cl, 63Ni, 60Co,3H) from graphite, (iv) chlorine diffusion through graphite. (authors)

  6. Safety analysis for core conversion (from HEU to LEU) of Pakistan research reactor-2 (PARR-2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PARR-2 (Pakistan Research Reactor-2), an MNSR (Miniature Neutron Source Reactor) is to be converted from HEU (High Enriched Uranium) to LEU (Low Enriched Uranium) fuel, along with all current MNSRs in various other countries. The purpose of conversion is to minimize the use of HEU for non-proliferation of high-grade nuclear fuel. The present report presents thermal hydraulic and safety analyses of PARR-2 using existing HEU fuel as well as proposed LEU fuel. Presently, the core is comprised of 90.2% enriched UAl4-Al fuel. There are 344 fuel pins of 5.5 mm diameter. The core has a total of 994.8 g of U235. Standard computer code PARET/ANL (version 1992) was employed to perform steady-state and transient analyses. Various parameters were computed, which included: coolant outlet, maximum clad surface and maximum fuel centerline temperatures; and peak power and corresponding peak core temperatures resulting from a transient initiated by 4 mK positive reactivity insertion. Results were compared with the reported data in Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). It was found that the PARET results were in reasonable agreement with the manufacturer's results. Calculations were also carried out for the proposed LEU core with two suggested fuel pin sizes (5.5 mm and 5.1 mm diameter with 12.6% and 12.3% enrichment, respectively). Comparison of the LEU results with the existing HEU fuel has been made and discussed.

  7. Sipping tests for the irradiated fuel elements of the TR-2 research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sipping tests have been performed for fuel elements of the TR-2 reactor at Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center (CNRTC), in order to find out which one failed in the core. A sipping assembly has been constructed and placed in the pool of the TR-2 reactor. The assembly identifies leaking fuel elements by collecting and measuring 137Cs that leak out from the defective fuel elements. 31 fuel elements in the reactor have been tested for the clad integrity. The measured 137Cs activity of the fuel element with an identification number S-104 is a 10247 Bq/(0.3 l). This value is approximately 234 times greater than the average of the other tested fuel elements in the reactor. (orig.)

  8. ORIGEN2 model and results for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croff, A G; Bjerke, M A

    1982-06-01

    Reactor physics calculations and literature information acquisition have led to the development of a Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR) model for the ORIGEN2 computer code. The model is based on cross sections taken directly from physics codes. Details are presented concerning the physical description of the fuel assemblies, the fuel management scheme, irradiation parameters, and initial material compositions. The ORIGEN2 model for the CRBR has been implemented, resulting in the production of graphical and tabular characteristics (radioactivity, thermal power, and toxicity) of CRBR spent fuel, high-level waste, and fuel-assembly structural material waste as a function of decay time. Characteristics for pressurized water reactors (PWRs), commercial liquid-metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs), and the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) have also been included in this report for comparison with the CRBR data.

  9. Continuous poly(2-oxazoline) triblock copolymer synthesis in a microfluidic reactor cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeten, Evelien; Verbraeken, Bart; Hoogenboom, Richard; Junkers, Thomas

    2015-07-25

    Cationic ring-opening polymerizations of 2-oxazolines were investigated in continuous microflow reactors. Fast homopolymerizations of 2-ethyl-2-oxazoline (EtOx) and 2-n-propyl-2-oxazoline (nPropOx) were carried out up to 180 °C, yielding well-controlled polymers. Also well-defined diblock and triblock copolymers were produced in a microfluidic reactor cascade, demonstrating the high value of microflow synthesis for the built-up of advanced poly(2-oxazoline)-based polymers. PMID:26104687

  10. Innovation and research in reactor safety. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The second part of this article contains the continued survey of the advanced development of measures of engineered safeguards and facilities for accident management, referring in greater detail to digital safety and instrumentation and control systems, studies carried out at national research centers, and new facilities. Another topic considered in a separate chapter is the mitigation of the consequences of severe accidents. Irrespective of numerous improvements in accident prevention, reactor safety research in the past decade was characterized by its concentration on severe accidents. The objective of restricting the consequences of hypothetical severe accidents to the plant building was approached in mitigating emergency measures developed and, in some part, also implemented. In addition, analytical methods in the field of severe accidents were expanded, and technologies were developed and validated which seek to stabilize the core melt and to control the phenomena associated with core meltdown. On the whole, light water reactors incorporating the innovations mentioned above attain a safety level which, combined with corresponding efforts in the economic sector, is a prerequisite of the renaissance of nuclear technology in the beginning century. (orig.)

  11. Synthesis of digital control systems for nuclear reactors, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to elaborate a closed-loop digital control system to regulate a reactor during commanded changes of power level, making use of the optimal control and trajectories derived in the previous paper. Simple application of this optimal control scheme alone would not permit satisfactory control of the reactor, on account of various external disturbances that would affect the control in actual practice. This difficulty has been overcome by linearizing the system equations around the optimal control and trajectories derived as above, and thereto applying modern control theory. The feedback control system is first examined for a case where all requisite state variables are accessible. Then for the case where not all state variables are thus accessible, a method is devised for estimating the inaccessible variables. The estimates are obtained by detecting the accessible state variables a given number of times during each control stage, using the generalized inverse. A closed-loop system is constituted by incorporating this method of estimation into the feedback circuit. The resulting system is shown to provide amply satisfactory performance in terms of response time and the accuracy. (auth.)

  12. Nordic study on reactor waste. Technical part 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important part of the Nordic studies on system- and safety analysis of the management of low and medium level radioactive waste from nuclear power plants, is the safety analysis of a Reference System. This reference system was established within the study and is described in this Technical Part 1. The reference system covers waste management Schemes that are potential possibilities in either one of the four participating Nordic countries. The reference system is based on: a power reactor system consisting of 6 BWR's of 500 MWe each, operated simultaneously over the same 30 year period, and deep bed granular ion exchange resin wastes from the Reactor Water Clean-Up System (RWCS and powdered ion exchange resin from the Spent Fuel Pool Cleanup System (SFPCS)). Both waste types are supposed to be solidified by mixing with cement and bitumen. Two basic types of containers are considered. Standard 200 liter steel drums and specially made cubicreinforced concrete moulds with a net volume of 1 m3. The Nordic study assumes temporary storage of the solidified waste for a maximum of 50 years before the waste is transferred to the disposal site. Transportation of the waste from the storage facilitiy to the disposal site will be by road or sea. Three different disposal facilities are considered: Shallow land burial, near surface concrete bunker, and rock cavern with about 30 m granite cover. (EG)

  13. Neutron Noise Analysis with Flash-Fourier Algorithm at the IBR-2M Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Dima, Mihai O.; Pepelyshev, Yuri N.(Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, FLNP, Dubna, Moscow 141980, Russia); Lachin Tayibov

    2014-01-01

    Neutron noise spectra in nuclear reactors are a convolution of multiple effects. For the IBR-2M pulsed reactor (JINR, Dubna), one part of these is represented by the reactivities induced by the two moving auxiliary reflectors and another part of these by other sources that are moderately stable. The study of neutron noise involves, foremostly, knowing its frequency spectral distribution, hence Fourier transforms of the noise. Traditional methods compute the Fourier transform of the autocorrel...

  14. Calculation of Control plates life time and worth in etrr2 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCNP monte carlo code was used to design a three dimension computer model which simulate etrr2 second egyptian research reactor. The model was used to calculate and analyze the partial control plates worth and control plates life time in the reactor. The results of the present model were compared with measurements for partial plates worth and with the design calculations for plates life. The comparisons indicate satisfactory agreement

  15. Calculation of control plates life time and worth at the ETRR-2 research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed three-dimensional MCNP model of the ETRR-2 research reactor has been developed for the analysis of the neutronic parameters of the reactor. The model was used to determine the partial control plates reactivity worth and the behavior of the worth with time. The results of the present model were compared with the experimental measurements for partial control plates reactivity worth and with the design calculations for control plates behavior with time. The comparisons indicate satisfactory agreement. (orig.)

  16. Condensed matter research at the modernized IBR-2 reactor: from functional materials to nanobiotechnologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenov, V. L.; Balagurov, A. M.; Kozlenko, D. P.

    2016-07-01

    An overview of the main scientific areas of condensed matter research, which are extended with the use of the IBR-2 high-flux research reactor, is presented. It is demonstrated that the spectrometer facility of the upgraded reactor has great potential for studying the structural, magnetic, and dynamical properties of novel functional materials and nanobiosystems, which ensures the leading position of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in neutron research of condensed matter for the long-term prospect.

  17. Development of a TiO2-coated optical fiber reactor for water decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to built and to study a photo-reactor composed by TiO2-coated optical fibers for water decontamination. The physico-chemical characteristics and the optical properties of the TiO2 coating were first studied. Then, the influences of different parameters as the coating thickness, the coating length and the coating volume were investigated both on the light transmission in the TiO2- coated fiber and on the photo-catalytic activity of the fiber for a model compound (malic acid). The photo-catalytic degradation of malic acid was optimized using the experimental design methodology allowing to build a multi-fiber reactor comprising 57 optical fibers. The photo-degradation of malic acid was conducted in the multi-fiber reactor and it was demonstrated that the multi-fiber reactor was more efficient than the single-fiber reactor at the same fibers density. Finally, the multi-fiber reactor was applied to the photo-degradation of a fungicide, called fenamidone, and a degradation pathway was proposed. (author)

  18. A model reconstruction of riverine nutrient fluxes and eutrophication in the Belgian Coastal Zone since 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passy, P.; Gypens, N.; Billen, G.; Garnier, J.; Thieu, V.; Rousseau, V.; Callens, J.; Parent, J.-Y.; Lancelot, C.

    2013-12-01

    The OSPAR convention signed in 1992 by 15 European states including Belgium and France pledged to reduce the nutrient (nitrogen N and phosphorus P) loads from land-based sources to the Channel and the North Sea to half of what they were in 1985. In this paper, we use a river basin-coastal sea chain model to describe the evolution of nutrient loads to the Belgian Costal Zone originating from the Seine, Somme and Scheldt watersheds from 1984 to 2007 in order to assess the N and P reduction with respect to the OSPAR goals and the resulting effect on coastal eutrophication, especially Phaeocystis blooms. Since the early 1990s, most nutrient reduction actions have been devoted to domestic and industrial wastewater treatment, resulting in a sharp P decrease between 1984 and 2007: from 260 to 90 kgP km- 2 for the Seine River and from 215 to 110 kgP km- 2 for the Scheldt River. In spite of improved N treatment of wastewater, there is no clear decrease of N loads, which mostly originate from leaching intensively cultivated arable lands. N fluxes at the outlet of the Seine and Scheldt rivers were, respectively, 1990 and 2210 kgN km- 2 in 1984 and 1830 and 1390 kgN km- 2 in 2007. However, this relatively low decrease appears to be more influenced by hydrological conditions than by better efficiency of N use in agriculture. We conclude from this analysis that the OSPAR objectives for P have been achieved, whereas for N radical changes in agricultural practices are still required. The P reduction achieved allows, for the period of concern, a 50% decrease of Phaeocystis colony blooms in the Belgian Coastal Zone, both in magnitude and duration. However, the simulated decrease, of maximum abundance, i.e., from 60 · 106 in 1984 to 30 · 106 cells l- 1 in 2007, is still insufficient when compared to the ecological-quality indicator of 4 · 106 cells l- 1. A further decrease of nutrients is still necessary to decrease undesirable blooms more satisfactorily.

  19. Atomization of U3Si2 for research reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotating disk atomization technique is applied to KMRR (Korea Multi-purpose Research Reactor) fuel fabrication. A rotating disk atomizer is designed and manufactured locally and U-4.0 wt. % Si alloy powders are produced. The atomized powders are heat-treated to transform into U3Si and the mixture of U3Si and Al are extruded to fuel meat. Most of the atomized powders are spherical in shape. The microstructure of the powder is fine due to the rapid solidification. The time required for peritectoid reaction is reduced due to the fine microstructures and the resultant U3Si grain size is finer than ever obtained from ingot process. The mechanical properties of the fuel meat are improved: yield strength about 30 %, tensile strength 10% and elongation 250 % increased. (author)

  20. CHAP-2 heat-transfer analysis of the Fort St. Vrain reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory is developing the Composite High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Analysis Program (CHAP) to provide advanced best-estimate predictions of postulated accidents in gas-cooled reactor plants. The CHAP-2 reactor-core model uses the finite-element method to initialize a two-dimensional temperature map of the Fort St. Vrain (FSV) core and its top and bottom reflectors. The code generates a finite-element mesh, initializes noding and boundary conditions, and solves the nonlinear Laplace heat equation using temperature-dependent thermal conductivities, variable coolant-channel-convection heat-transfer coefficients, and specified internal fuel and moderator heat-generation rates. This paper discusses this method and analyzes an FSV reactor-core accident that simulates a control-rod withdrawal at full power

  1. Use of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for the detection and surveillance of marine oil spills in the Belgian part of the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnay, E. [Federal Public Service Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment, Brussels (Belgium)

    2009-07-01

    This paper discussed the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) deployed by the Belgian Army in order to detect oil spills as well as for intelligence, reconnaissance and surveillance missions. The UAV are fitted with a dual sensor gyro-stabilized turret which combines a daylight camera and a thermal infrared camera. Live images of the sensors are transmitted in real time to control stations. All Belgian marine pollution surveillance platforms are coordinated by the Maritime Security Center of the Belgian Coast Guard. Satellite surveillance services provide real time information related to potential oil spills and other anomalies on the sea surface. Stand-by helicopters are also used for the rapid assessment of reported spills. The B-Hunter system is undetectable due to its small size and low noise signature, and can be used for the continuous monitoring of specific areas or for the tracking of suspect vessels. The system will also be used to monitor the progress of oil spill response operations as well as to provide information and guidance to response vessels. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Use of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for the detection and surveillance of marine oil spills in the Belgian part of the North Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discussed the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) deployed by the Belgian Army in order to detect oil spills as well as for intelligence, reconnaissance and surveillance missions. The UAV are fitted with a dual sensor gyro-stabilized turret which combines a daylight camera and a thermal infrared camera. Live images of the sensors are transmitted in real time to control stations. All Belgian marine pollution surveillance platforms are coordinated by the Maritime Security Center of the Belgian Coast Guard. Satellite surveillance services provide real time information related to potential oil spills and other anomalies on the sea surface. Stand-by helicopters are also used for the rapid assessment of reported spills. The B-Hunter system is undetectable due to its small size and low noise signature, and can be used for the continuous monitoring of specific areas or for the tracking of suspect vessels. The system will also be used to monitor the progress of oil spill response operations as well as to provide information and guidance to response vessels. 6 refs., 2 figs

  3. Contact allergy caused by methylisothiazolinone: the Belgian-French experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Olivier; Goossens, An; Giordano-Labadie, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    The chemical Kathon CG(®), a mixture of the preservatives methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI) and methylisothiazolinone (MI), was the leading cause of a worldwide epidemic of contact-allergic reactions in the eighties. From 2000 on, MI alone became allowed in industrial products and in 2005 authorities gave a green light for its use in leave-on and rinse-off cosmetics up to a maximum concentration of 100 ppm (0.01%). Following initial occupational cases, a continuously increasing number of consumers sensitized to MI have been reported and both Belgian and French allergy groups decided to routinely test MI in their baseline series from 2010 onwards. Two multicenter studies, comprising 8,680 and 7,874 patients in Belgium and France respectively, both clearly show the rise in contact allergy caused by MI, with a spectacular sensitization rate of ∼ 6.0% in 2012, even increasing to 7.0% in 2013. Mostly middle-aged women, presenting with facial-and/or hand dermatitis, were affected, although very young children were reported as well. Furthermore, the data confirmed that sensitization is primarily caused by cosmetics (mostly leave-on, but also rinse-off), household detergents and water-based paint. This unprecedented outbreak of contact sensitization to a preservative agent in Europe, and beyond, should have alerted the authorities much sooner and meanwhile the need for safer use concentrations of MI in cosmetics, detergents and industrial products is becoming more urgent every day. PMID:26412037

  4. TMI-2 [Three Mile Island Unit 2] reactor building dose reduction task force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In late October 1982, the director of Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) created the dose reduction task force with the objective of identifying the principal radiological sources in the reactor building and recommending actions to minimize the dose to workers on labor-intensive projects. Members of the task force were drawn form various groups at TMI. Findings and recommendations were presented to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in a briefing on November 18, 1982. The task force developed a three-step approach toward dose reduction. Step 1 identified the radiological sources. Step 2 modeled the source and estimated its contribution to the general area dose rates. Step 3 recommended actions to achieve dose reductions consistent with general exposure rate goals

  5. Loss Of Secondary coolant accident analysis for Pius type reactor using Relap5/MOD2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Process inherent ultimate safety (Pius) reactor concept is a reactor concept that intrinsically based on passive safety. This reactor refer to Pressurized water reactor (PWR) wherein the primary system is submerged in a pool of poison water. the operating principle is to maintain the pressure balance, so that no inflow from pool to the primary system. On loss of secondary coolant accident, primary coolant temperature increases, it is followed by the increase of primary pump speed. When the upper limit is reached, the pump is tripped due to the pressure balance disturbance, poison water flows from pool to the primary system, then reactor shut down. this accident condition was simulated by experimental and numerical simulation using RELAP5/MOD2. Numerical simulation was done to the experimental apparatus nodalization that was set on the norm of RELAP5/MOD2. This nodalization consist of 119 volumes, 127 junctions, and 106 heat structures. Analysis was carried out using both experimental and numerical simulation results. it can be concluded that PIUS type reactor is able to anticipate loss of secondary coolant accident because its capability of self shut down

  6. New reactor concepts; Nieuwe rectorconcepten - nouveaux reacteurs nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meskens, G.; Govaerts, P.; Baugnet, J.-M.; Delbrassine, A

    1998-11-01

    The document gives a summary of new nuclear reactor concepts from a technological point of view. Belgium supports the development of the European Pressurized-Water Reactor, which is an evolutionary concept based on the European experience in Pressurized-Water Reactors. A reorientation of the Belgian choice for this evolutionary concept may be required in case that a decision is taken to burn plutonium, when the need for flexible nuclear power plants arises or when new reactor concepts can demonstrate proved benefits in terms of safety and cost.

  7. Development of an underwater remote manipulator system for use in TMI-2 [Three Mile Island Unit 2] reactor defueling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defueling operations in the original core region of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor vessel were conducted with long-handled tools that were manually positioned by operators on a rotating work platform over the reactor vessel. The difficulties encountered with these operations led GPU Nuclear Corporation (GPU) to consider other means of operation when defueling the core support assembly and reactor vessel lower head, which is ∼12 m (40 ft) below the work platform. GPU determined a heavy-duty remote manipulator system could be an effective alternative. The MANFRED (MANipulators For REactor Defueling) system was thus developed for this purpose by Ocean Systems Engineering and International Submarine Engineering under contract to GPU. The paper includes a description of MANFRED present status, and lessons learned

  8. Research on economics and CO2 emission of magnetic and inertial fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An economical and environment-friendly fusion reactor system is needed for the realization of attractive power plants. Comparative system studies have been done for magnetic fusion energy (MFE) reactors, and been extended to include inertial fusion energy (IFE) reactors by Physics Engineering Cost (PEC) system code. In this study, we have evaluated both tokamak reactor (TR) and IFE reactor (IR). We clarify new scaling formulas for cost of electricity (COE) and CO2 emission rate with respect to key design parameters. By the scaling formulas, it is clarified that the plant availability and operation year dependences are especially dominant for COE. On the other hand, the parameter dependences of CO2 emission rate is rather weak than that of COE. This is because CO2 emission percentage from manufacturing the fusion island is lower than COE percentage from that. Furthermore, the parameters dependences for IR are rather weak than those for TR. Because the CO2 emission rate from manufacturing the laser system to be exchanged is very large in comparison with CO2 emission rate from TR blanket exchanges. (author)

  9. Improved Emergency Preparedness For Management Of The Food chain Via Stakeholder Involvement: Belgian and European Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardeman, Frank; Carle, Benny [SCK.CEN, the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Turcanu, Catrinel [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Av. F. Roosevelt 50, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Vandecasteele, Christian [FANC, Federal Agency for Nuclear Control, Ravensteinstraat 36, 1000 Brussels (Belgium)

    2006-07-01

    Initiatives involving stakeholder engagement have gained increasing importance in sustainable decision making for many risk-related issues. This paper describes a Belgian experience within a European context related to food management options in the event of a radioactive contamination of the food chain. Under the auspices of the European Commission's 5. Framework Programme, the F.A.R.M.I.N.G. (F.A.R.M.I.N.G. 2000) project (co-ordinated by H.P.A.) a stakeholder network was established in a number of European countries, following a successful approach originally adopted in the UK. In a comparable approach, national working groups were thus established in Belgium, Finland, France and Greece in order to organise stakeholder panels and to discuss the outcomes of scientific and technical research related to management options for the food chain. The results of these panels were exchanged between participating Member States and on a wider international basis at the W.I.S.D.O.M.2. workshop in 2003. The F.A.R.M.I.N.G. project had many achievements and there were also several important lessons learned for Belgium (Vandecasteele et al., 2005): Firstly, many stakeholders showed a real interest in tackling problems relating to food chain contamination; Secondly, the Belgian agricultural system is very intensive and technically and economically optimised, making many of the options envisaged difficult to implement; thirdly, the applicability of management options is also limited by political and legal issues (e.g. competencies, environmental legislation), operational constraints (e.g. waste treatment, supplies of materials), societal and ethical aspects (e.g. milk disposal to sea, animal welfare), and economics (e.g. who pays the intervention cost?); fourthly, there is a now a greater awareness of these problems in both the food production sector and among the experts involved in emergency management; Fifthly, increased attention is now given in Belgium to the medium and

  10. Improved Emergency Preparedness For Management Of The Food chain Via Stakeholder Involvement: Belgian and European Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Initiatives involving stakeholder engagement have gained increasing importance in sustainable decision making for many risk-related issues. This paper describes a Belgian experience within a European context related to food management options in the event of a radioactive contamination of the food chain. Under the auspices of the European Commission's 5. Framework Programme, the F.A.R.M.I.N.G. (F.A.R.M.I.N.G. 2000) project (co-ordinated by H.P.A.) a stakeholder network was established in a number of European countries, following a successful approach originally adopted in the UK. In a comparable approach, national working groups were thus established in Belgium, Finland, France and Greece in order to organise stakeholder panels and to discuss the outcomes of scientific and technical research related to management options for the food chain. The results of these panels were exchanged between participating Member States and on a wider international basis at the W.I.S.D.O.M.2. workshop in 2003. The F.A.R.M.I.N.G. project had many achievements and there were also several important lessons learned for Belgium (Vandecasteele et al., 2005): Firstly, many stakeholders showed a real interest in tackling problems relating to food chain contamination; Secondly, the Belgian agricultural system is very intensive and technically and economically optimised, making many of the options envisaged difficult to implement; thirdly, the applicability of management options is also limited by political and legal issues (e.g. competencies, environmental legislation), operational constraints (e.g. waste treatment, supplies of materials), societal and ethical aspects (e.g. milk disposal to sea, animal welfare), and economics (e.g. who pays the intervention cost?); fourthly, there is a now a greater awareness of these problems in both the food production sector and among the experts involved in emergency management; Fifthly, increased attention is now given in Belgium to the medium and long

  11. Safety analysis for core conversion (from HEU to LEU) of Pakistan research reactor-2 (PARR-2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bokhari, Ishtiaq Hussain, E-mail: ishtiaq@pinstech.org.p [Nuclear Engineering Division, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Pervez, Showket [Nuclear Engineering Division, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2010-01-15

    PARR-2 (Pakistan Research Reactor-2), an MNSR (Miniature Neutron Source Reactor) is to be converted from HEU (High Enriched Uranium) to LEU (Low Enriched Uranium) fuel, along with all current MNSRs in various other countries. The purpose of conversion is to minimize the use of HEU for non-proliferation of high-grade nuclear fuel. The present report presents thermal hydraulic and safety analyses of PARR-2 using existing HEU fuel as well as proposed LEU fuel. Presently, the core is comprised of 90.2% enriched UAl{sub 4}-Al fuel. There are 344 fuel pins of 5.5 mm diameter. The core has a total of 994.8 g of U{sup 235}. Standard computer code PARET/ANL (version 1992) was employed to perform steady-state and transient analyses. Various parameters were computed, which included: coolant outlet, maximum clad surface and maximum fuel centerline temperatures; and peak power and corresponding peak core temperatures resulting from a transient initiated by 4 mK positive reactivity insertion. Results were compared with the reported data in Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). It was found that the PARET results were in reasonable agreement with the manufacturer's results. Calculations were also carried out for the proposed LEU core with two suggested fuel pin sizes (5.5 mm and 5.1 mm diameter with 12.6% and 12.3% enrichment, respectively). Comparison of the LEU results with the existing HEU fuel has been made and discussed.

  12. Radiation dose to premature new-borns in the belgian neonatal intensive care units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the neonatal intensive care units (NICU), premature new-borns may be exposed to important doses. Because of their increased radiosensitivity and longer life expectancy, dose optimisation is of importance. The present study aimed at evaluating the dose of the most common radiographs in the Belgian NICU. Entrance surface kerma (ESK) and kerma area product (KAP) were collected in 17 NICU (among 19 in Belgium). Median ESK ranged from 13 to 172 μGy and from 8 to 117 μGy for chest and combined chest-abdomen radiographs, respectively; median KAP ranged from 1.4 to 14.2 mGy cm2 and from 3.8 to 28.1 mGy cm2 for chest and combined chest-abdomen radiographs, respectively. Those differences were due to large variations in the examination settings. Diagnostic reference levels (DRL) were set for chest and combined chest-abdomen radiographs. Though the radiograph dose was usually low, the cumulative dose per stay could be high. The wide, intercentre differences indicate that there is scope for dose reduction. The use of DRL should contribute to achieve this object. (authors)

  13. Physics design of advanced steady-state tokamak reactor A-SSTR2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on design studies on the fusion power reactor such as the DEMO reactor SSTR, the compact power reactor A-SSTR and the DREAM reactor with a high environmental safety and high availability, a new concept of compact and economic fusion power reactor (A-SSTR2) with high safety and high availability is proposed. Employing high temperature superconductor, the toroidal filed coils supplies the maximum field of 23T on conductor which corresponds to 11T at the magnetic axis. A-SSTR2 (Rp=6.2m, ap=1.5m, Ip=12MA) has a fusion power of 4GW with βN=4. For an easy maintenance and for an enough support against a strong electromagnetic force on coils, a poloidal coils system has no center solenoid coils and consists of 6 coils located on top and bottom of the machine. Physics studies on the plasma equilibrium, controllability of the configuration, the plasma initiation and non-inductive current ramp-up, fusion power controllability and the diverter have shown the validity of the A-SSTR2 concept. (author)

  14. Manufacturing and licensing of a lead test assembly for the R2 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Sweden there is a law stating that a reactor operator must have a final solution for the back-end of the fuel cycle. The R2 reactor, operated by Studsvik Nuclear outside Nykoeping in Sweden, has such a solution at hand until May 2006, through the US policy regarding Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel, FRRSNF. For the period after that date the RERTR program has been working on a new fuel type the UMo fuel. However, this program is lagging behind and the full qualification program will not be finalised in time for the R2 needs. Based on this Studsvik Nuclear decided to go along on its own with an LTA program aiming for the full qualification of an UMo fuel design in 2005. In 2002, CERCA proposed to develop, manufacture and deliver to the R2 reactor, a new design of fuel element based on the alloy (UMo 7% alloy) as an alternative to the common Low Enriched Uranium silicide element. The development challenge was to keep the fuel element performances as high as possible without going beyond the actual inspection criteria. The specification agreed between STUDSVIK and CERCA showed the possibility to manufacture this high-density fuel element in CERCA's facility in Romans-sur-Isere (France). We propose to present how the fabrication was conducted and what were the main obtained results and how the licensing of and the introduction into the R2 reactor are planned. (author)

  15. Manufacturing and licensing of a lead test assembly for the R2 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Sweden there is a law stating that a reactor operator must have a final solution for the back-end of the fuel cycle. The R2 reactor, operated by Studsvik Nuclear outside Nykoeping in Sweden, has such a solution at hand until May 2006, through the US policy regarding Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel, FRRSNF. For the period after that date the RERTR program has been working on a new fuel type the UMo fuel. However, this program is lagging behind and the full qualification program will not be finalised in time for the R2 needs. Based on this Studsvik Nuclear decided to go along on its own with an LTA-program aiming for the full qualification of an UMo fuel design in 2005. In 2002, CERCA proposed to develop, manufacture and deliver to the R2 reactor, a new design of fuel element based on the alloy (UMo 7% alloy) as an alternative to the common Low Enriched Uranium silicide element. The development challenge was to keep the fuel element performances as high as possible without going beyond the actual inspection criteria. The specification agreed between STUDSVIK and CERCA showed the possibility to manufacture this high-density fuel element in CERCA's facility in Romans-sur-Isere (France). We propose to present how the fabrication was conducted and what were the main obtained results and how the licensing of and the introduction into the R2 reactor are planned. (author)

  16. Methane combustion by moving bed fuel reactor with Fe2O3/Al2O3 oxygen carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Moving bed reactor employed to methane combustion using iron-based oxygen carrier. • Fe2O3/Al2O3 oxygen carriers was prepared and provided with applicable performance. • Carbon formation was enhanced with increased retention time at 900 °C. • Full CH4 conversion was reached without carbon formation by moving bed operation. • FeO and FeAl2O4 were formed in the reacted oxygen carriers out of the reactor. - Abstract: Fe2O3/Al2O3 composite oxygen carriers were prepared for chemical looping combustion (CLC) with methane in a lab-scale moving bed fuel reactor provided with reasonable crush strength, reactivity and recyclability. Carbon formation was observed during the combustion process in the empty bed at 900 °C through methane decomposition reaction, and was enhanced for experiments conducted with increased retention time. Carbon formation was obviously reduced for experiments conducted in the moving bed fuel reactor with oxygen carrier-to-fuel ratio (ϕ) higher than 1.14. The oxygen carriers that moving out of the moving bed reactor were composed of mainly FeO and FeAl2O4, characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The formation of FeO and FeAl2O4 indicated that further utilization of oxygen in iron-based oxygen carriers can be achieved by moving bed operation

  17. Carbon Dioxide, the Coolant Gas of the G2/G3 Reactors: Leaks, Analysis, Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper first describes very briefly the coolant gas circuits of the G2 and G3 reactors. The first part of the paper contains a detailed study of gas leaks together with relevant operating results. This study was carried out with the purpose of reducing still further the daily leakage rate and thus the operating costs of the reactors. The classification of CO2 circuits is based on the kinematics of the gas in the main reactor vessel and in the storage and feed systems. In this way a distinction is made between the feed circuits, the heat-exchange circuits and the leakage zones. While it cannot be claimed that this work alone has reduced by one-half the daily leakage rate between the initial operating period of the reactors and the present period of normal operation, it has certainly contributed to a greater understanding of the dynamics of the coolant gas and helped in the investigation of leaks. This study is virtually indispensable when the leakage rate is very low (3t/day) in relation to reactor capacity and it helps in the investigation of very small leaks. The second part of the paper describes various installations for chemical analysis and for measuring the activity of the coolant gas of the G2 and G3 reactors, presenting operating results for a period of several years. It also contains an outline of the various methods employed, of modifications and improvements to the original installations made with a view to providing more information about the sensitive and vital points in the installations and about the measurement parameters affecting the behaviour of the reactors (humidity, argon content, etc.). (author)

  18. Joint Assessment of ETRR-2 Research Reactor Operations Program, Capabilities, and Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A joint assessment meeting was conducted at the Egyptian Atomic Energy Agency (EAEA) followed by a tour of Egyptian Second Research Reactor (ETRR-2) on March 22 and 23, 2006. The purpose of the visit was to evaluate the capabilities of the new research reactor and its operations under Action Sheet 4 between the U.S. DOE and the EAEA, ''Research Reactor Operation'', and Action Sheet 6, ''Technical assistance in The Production of Radioisotopes''. Preliminary Recommendations of the joint assessment are as follows: (1) ETRR-2 utilization should be increased by encouraging frequent and sustained operations. This can be accomplished in part by (a) Improving the supply-chain management for fresh reactor fuel and alleviating the perception that the existing fuel inventory should be conserved due to unreliable fuel supply; and (b) Promulgating a policy for sample irradiation priority that encourages the use of the reactor and does not leave the decision of when to operate entirely at the discretion of reactor operations staff. (2) Each experimental facility in operation or built for a single purpose should be reevaluated to focus on those that most meet the goals of the EAEA strategic business plan. Temporary or long-term elimination of some experimental programs might be necessary to provide more focused utilization. There may be instances of emerging reactor applications for which no experimental facility is yet designed or envisioned. In some cases, an experimental facility may have a more beneficial use than the purpose for which it was originally designed. For example, (a) An effective Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) program requires nearby high quality medical facilities. These facilities are not available and are unlikely to be constructed near the Inshas site. Further, the BNCT facility is not correctly designed for advanced research and therapy programs using epithermal neutrons. (b) The ETRR-2 is frequently operated to provide color-enhanced gemstones but is

  19. On some issues of safety of research pulsed reactor IBR-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For over 26 years (since February 1984) the IBR-2 reactor has been a unique pulsed source of neutrons [1 - 3]. The periodic character of power pulse generation provides rich opportunities for carrying out experiments in condensed matter physics by the time-of-flight method. Nowhere but in Russia a project to create a reactor of the type has been realized [4]. The main reason is extremely strict safety requirements and uniqueness of the machine. Safe and reliable operation of IBR-2 is guaranteed by the emergency and control system as well as by regular investigation, diagnostics and monitoring of basic reactor parameters. In the paper it is shown how some fundamental peculiarities of IBR-2 physics influence its performance and safety.

  20. Extracted neutron beams experimental facilities and program of the first experiments at the IBR-2 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structural specific features of the IBR-2 pulse research biological hidered reactor. The characteristics of spectrometer for investigating the small angle neutron scattering and the CORA facility intended for investigating the structure and dynamics of condensed media by means of the therrol neutron scattering as well as the DN-2 diffractometer for investigating the atomic structure and crystallographic characteristics of monocrystals, having large (>10 A) elementary cell size and the equipment of the ultracold neutron channel are given. Biological shields of the reactor and experimental facilities are assembled of concrete blocks and standard building constructions and attains in the most dangerous regions 1 m. The shield ensures for the personnel a safety level of ionizing radiations and effectively shields the facilities from mutual effects caused by scattered radiation. The program of physical investigations planned at the IBR-2 continues the investigations started at the IBR-30 reactor

  1. Current status of advanced pelletized cold moderators development for IBR-2M research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The world's first advanced pelletized cold neutron moderator is prepared to be put into operation at the IBR-2M pulsed research reactor. It provides long-wavelength neutrons to the most of neutron spectrometers at the beams of the IBR-2M reactor. Aromatic hydrocarbons are used as a material for cold moderators. It is a very attractive material because of its high radiation resistance, good moderating properties, incombustibility, etc. It is shown that the idea of beads transport by a helium flow at cryogenic temperatures is successful. The recent progress and plans for moderator development at the IBR-2M reactor as well as the experimental results of beads transport are discussed in the paper

  2. Current status of advanced pelletized cold moderators development for IBR-2M research reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikov, S.; Belyakov, A.; Bulavin, M.; Mukhin, K.; Shabalin, E.; Verhoglyadov, A.

    2013-03-01

    The world's first advanced pelletized cold neutron moderator is prepared to be put into operation at the IBR-2M pulsed research reactor. It provides long-wavelength neutrons to the most of neutron spectrometers at the beams of the IBR-2M reactor. Aromatic hydrocarbons are used as a material for cold moderators. It is a very attractive material because of its high radiation resistance, good moderating properties, incombustibility, etc. It is shown that the idea of beads transport by a helium flow at cryogenic temperatures is successful. The recent progress and plans for moderator development at the IBR-2M reactor as well as the experimental results of beads transport are discussed in the paper.

  3. Power Quality Problems Mitigation using Dynamic Voltage Restorer in Egypt Thermal Research Reactor (ETRR-2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egypt thermal research reactor (ETRR-2) was subjected to several Power Quality Problems such as voltage sags/swells, harmonics distortion, and short interruption. ETRR-2 encompasses a wide range of loads which are very sensitive to voltage variations and this leads to several unplanned shutdowns of the reactor due to trigger of the Reactor Protection System (RPS). The Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) has recently been introduced to protect sensitive loads from voltage sags and other voltage disturbances. It is considered as one of the most efficient and effective solution. Its appeal includes smaller size and fast dynamic response to the disturbance. This paper describes a proposal of a DVR to improve power quality in ETRR-2 electrical distribution systems . The control of the compensation voltage is based on d-q-o algorithm. Simulation is carried out by Matlab/Simulink to verify the performance of the proposed method

  4. Conceptual System Design of a Supercritical CO2 cooled Micro Modular Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The S-CO2 Brayton cycle has many advantages for SMR's power conversion system. The S-CO2 cycle can achieve small component size and simple cycle layout as shown in Fig. 1. Therefore, a concept of one module containing the S-CO2 cooled fast reactor core and power conversion system is realizable. Thanks to the compact heat exchanger technology such as Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger (PCHE), the supercritical fluid with mediocre heat transfer performance can be utilized to a thermal cycle. This concept of fully modularized reactor is named as KAIST Micro Modular Reactor (MMR). It can achieve large economic by production in series, and transported in the land way or sea way. Based on the design results and dimensions of the reactor core and cycle components, the authors propose a conceptual layout of KAIST MMR. Based on this concept of reactor core, power conversion system, and decay heat removal system, the seasonal operation and transient analysis will be performed in the further works

  5. Conceptual System Design of a Supercritical CO2 cooled Micro Modular Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong Gu; Oh, Bongseong; Baik, Seung Joon; Yu, Hwanyeal; Kim, Yonghee; Lee, Jeong Ik [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The S-CO2 Brayton cycle has many advantages for SMR's power conversion system. The S-CO2 cycle can achieve small component size and simple cycle layout as shown in Fig. 1. Therefore, a concept of one module containing the S-CO2 cooled fast reactor core and power conversion system is realizable. Thanks to the compact heat exchanger technology such as Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger (PCHE), the supercritical fluid with mediocre heat transfer performance can be utilized to a thermal cycle. This concept of fully modularized reactor is named as KAIST Micro Modular Reactor (MMR). It can achieve large economic by production in series, and transported in the land way or sea way. Based on the design results and dimensions of the reactor core and cycle components, the authors propose a conceptual layout of KAIST MMR. Based on this concept of reactor core, power conversion system, and decay heat removal system, the seasonal operation and transient analysis will be performed in the further works.

  6. PCBs and OCPs in marine species from the Belgian North Sea and the Western Scheldt Estuary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voorspoels, S.; Covaci, A.; Maervoet, J.; Schepens, P. [Antwerp Univ., Wilrijk (Belgium). Toxicological Centre

    2004-09-15

    The use and/or production of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), such as 2,2-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (DDT), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and lindane ({gamma}-HCH) have been banned in most developed countries since the 1970's. Despite this measure, these compounds are among the most prevalent environmental pollutants and they can be found in various environmental compartments, both biotic and abiotic. Their widespread presence is due to their extremely persistant and lipophilic nature, resulting in enrichment throughout the food chain. Prolonged exposure to these pollutants can interfere with normal physiology and biochemistry3, resulting in adverse effects in various organisms, including starfish, shrimp, crabs, and fish4. Because humans readily consume seafood, such as shrimp, crab and various fish species, these organisms are of great scientific value to estimate the possible exposure to PCBs and OCPs through marine food sources. The area studied in this investigation covered both commercial fishing grounds (Belgian North Sea - BNS) and a recreational fishing area (Western Scheldt Estuary - SE). The drainage basin of the SE covers a very densely populated and highly industrialised region, causing a high level of pollution in the SE. In this work, PCBs and OCPs were determined in benthic invertebrates and different fish species from both BNS and SE in order to evaluate trends in levels, congener distribution, and geographical variation.

  7. Floating seaweed in the neustonic environment: A case study from Belgian coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandendriessche, Sofie; Vincx, Magda; Degraer, Steven

    2006-02-01

    Floating seaweeds form the most important natural component of all floating material found on the surface of oceans and seas. Notwithstanding the absence of natural rocky shores, ephemeral floating seaweed clumps are frequently encountered along the Belgian coast. From October 2002 to April 2003, seaweed samples and control samples (i.e. surface water samples from a seaweed-free area) were collected every other week. Multivariate analysis on neustonic macrofaunal abundances showed significant differences between seaweed and control samples in the fraction > 1 mm. Differences were less conspicuous in the 0.5-1 mm fraction. Seaweed samples were characterised by the presence of seaweed fauna e.g. Acari, Idotea baltica, Gammarus sp ., while control samples mainly contained Calanoida, Larvacea, Chaetognatha, and planktonic larvae of crustaceans and polychaetes. Seaweed samples (1 mm fraction) harboured considerably higher diversities (× 3), densities (× 18) and biomasses (× 49) compared to the surrounding water column (control samples). The impact of floating seaweeds on the neustonic environment was quantified by the calculation of the added values of seaweed samples considering biomass and density. These calculations resulted in mean added values of 311 ind m - 2 in density and 305 mg ADW m - 2 in biomass. The association degree per species was expressed as the mean percentage of individuals found in seaweed samples in proportion to the total density and biomass of that species (seaweed samples + control samples). Thirteen species showed an association percentage > 95%, and can therefore be considered members of the floating seaweed fauna.

  8. Pedometer-Determined Physical Activity and Its Comparison with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire in a Sample of Belgian Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cocker, Katrien; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2007-01-01

    Pedometer-determined physical activity (PA) levels in Belgian adults were provided and compared to PA scores reported in the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). The representative sample (N = 1,239) of the Belgian population took on average 9,655 (4,526) steps/day. According to pedometer indices 58.4% were insufficiently active.…

  9. The metallurgical properties of Zircaloy-2 relevant to its use in reactor pressure tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reviews the properties of the zirconium-base alloy Zircaloy as used in UK steam-generating heavy water reactor. It describes the major engineering requirements for this use and how the alloy can be fabricated. Some comparisons with other alloys and other metallurgical conditions are provided throughout the review. In the section on corrosion aspects the important effect of reactor irradiation in producing higher corrosion rates is emphasized by results obtained from surveillance samples taken after several years of large-scale reactor operation. In addition to oxidation effects the associated rate of hydrogen pickup is discussed and it is shown that reactor life exposure could lead to total loss of section of 0.20 mm with a total hydrogen pickup of about 100 ppm. Locally higher corrosion rates associated with nodular corrosion, and the conditions for stress corrosion are described. With regard to short-term mechanical properties, the major part of the discussion is devoted to fracture toughness aspects because of the embrittling effects of hydriding and of neutron irradiation. The experimental work shows that fast fracture could only occur under reactor conditions if a large defect was present, typically ten or more centimetres long and 80% of the wall thickness deep. Moreover, such large defects are likely to lead to leakage rather than fast fracture, satisfying 'leak-before-break' arguments. Information on fragmentation behaviour is also reported. Turning to time-dependent properties, emphasis is again put on information from long-term reactor measurements. The important aspect of irradiation-accelerated creep is reviewed with the evidence for an associated increase in strain-to-failure. It is concluded that the creep strain occurring during 25 full power years exposure to reactor conditions would not exceed 2 1/2%, a value well within the acceptable limit. (author)

  10. N2O Catalytic Decomposition – from Laboratory Experiment to Industry Reactor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Obalová, L.; Jirátová, Květa; Karásková, K.; Chromčáková, Ž.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 191, č. 1 (2012), s. 116-120. ISSN 0920-5861 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01020336 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : N2O * catalytic decomposition * fixed bed reactor Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.980, year: 2012

  11. Influence of the automatic regulator parameters on the power transition processes of the IBR-2 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the help of the IBR-2 reactor models based on a block structure with z-transformation of variable and experimentally determined parameters of feed-backs, the power transition processes at various values of parameters of the automatic regulator (AR) are calculated. It is shown, that at regular disturbances of a reactivity the best transition processes correspond to the greatest speed of the AR while the AR smoothing-unit is eliminated. The recommendations of selection of the AR parameters are given if there are random disturbances of a reactivity which have place at normal operation of the IBR-2 reactor. (author)

  12. Decay heat analysis of MNSR reactor core using ORIGEN-2 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Analysis of the decay heat parameters of the MNSR reactor was performed using the ORIGEN-2 code. • A new one-group cross-section data base of the ORlGEN-2 computer code for the MNSR was developed. • It is recommended to adopt the results of the ORIGIEN-2 code for future reactor safety analysis of MNSR. - Abstract: The knowledge of the decay heat of nuclear fuel is necessary for performing the reactor safety analysis, determining the heating load in fuel pools, shielding requirements on fuel discharge and transport routes when irradiated reactor fuel is transferred from the reactor, via some intermediate storage location, to the final disposal or the chemical reprocessing plant. In this study, analysis of the decay heat parameters of the Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR) including radioactivity, decay heat and the isotopic mass variation with time since reactor shutdown for the potential Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) (UO2-Zircaloy and U3Si-Al) and the standard Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) (HEU-Al4) cores has been performed using the ORIGEN-2 code. For this purpose, a new one-group cross-section data base of the ORlGEN-2 computer code for the MNSR with LEU and HEU fuels has been developed using the MCNP-4C code. The variation of fission products, actinides and daughters and activation products with post shutdown time for the standard core and the potential LEU cores have been considered in the analysis of the decay heat power resources. It was found that, all the three types of MNSR fuels show close agreement in the total decay heat, which is mainly due to the fission products. This behavior continued for about 1.0E05 days. After this time, the fission products decay heat became comparable with the corresponding actinides decay heat in which the standard HEU UAl4-Al fuel showed the smallest decay heat values while the potential LEU-UO2 fuel had the highest decay heat followed by the LEU-U3Si fuel. The time variation of the total radioactivity

  13. Compliance of Companies with Corporate Governance Codes: Case Study on Listed Belgian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven H. De Cleyn

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Listed and large companies become increasingly subject to internal and external pressure to comply with ethical and social standards. This article focuses on one aspect of this matter, namely the corporate governance issue. Within the framework of recent corporate scandals, this paper investigates whether and to which extent Belgian publicly listed SMEs comply with the Belgian Code on Corporate Governance after its first year of introduction, which has been constituted in the framework of the European Action Plan on Corporate Governance.In a sample of 78 Belgian listed SMEs, the compliance with the Code is analysed. After its first year of introduction, companies comply with on average 70% of the Code’s provisions. The most problematic topics in terms of disclosure of information seem to relate to (individual remuneration, private information and content of shareholders’ meetings.

  14. Belgian nuclear forum - launching the public debate on nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leclere, Robert [Belgian Nuclear Forum, Gulledelle, 1200 Brussels (Belgium); Van Landeghem, Yves [Saatchi and Saatchi Belgium, Avenue Rogier, 1030 Brussels (Belgium)

    2010-07-01

    In the past decades, public opinion on nuclear power was dominated by a 'sleeping', indifferent majority. Nothing moved until (a minority of) opponents began to stir. Their activism strongly contrasted with the low-profile attitude of the nuclear players and pushed a considerable part of the indifferent majority towards a more negative attitude. A 2007 opinion poll (IFOP) confirmed this trend. The poll also revealed a major lack of objective and factual information. Incorrect and incomplete arguments tended to demonize nuclear energy, and 'nuclear' became a brand polarizing public opinion. This had a negative impact on decision-makers and culminated in the Belgian phase-out law of 2003. Based on the opinion poll, the members of the Belgian Nuclear Forum decided to launch a public information campaign, which they would jointly finance, with these goals: - In 3 to 4 years time, create greater public awareness on energy matters and move public opinion towards a more positive attitude. - Gain recognition of nuclear energy's legitimate place in the mix, and of the importance of peaceful nuclear applications. - Attract attention to the Belgian know-how and the importance of the industry on the scientific and economical level. - Optimize conditions for important nuclear issues such as long-term operation of NPPs, new nuclear research projects (MYRRHA),.. A 'push-pull' approach was adopted: push communication to the public (campaign) to pull (involve) decision-makers and get nuclear back on the political agenda. The Forum also opted for a sustained, long-term effort based on public campaigning, public relations and public affairs. Considering its long-time absence from the public debate, the Forum and its agency Saatchi and Saatchi agreed upon the following principles to underpin the campaign: - No 'pro-campaign'; that would be highly unrealistic and have a negative effect; - No taboos: bring up both the pros and cons; - No

  15. Tests of Neutron Spectrum Calculations with the Help of Foil Measurements in a D2O and in an H2O-Moderated Reactor and in Reactor Shields of Concrete an Iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foil measurements covering the fast, epithermal and thermal neutron energy regions have been made in the centre of the Swedish D2O-moderated reactor R1, in the pool reactor R2-0, and in different positions in reactor shields of iron, magnetite concrete and ordinary concrete. Neutron spectra have also been calculated for most of these positions, often with the help of a numerical integration of the Boltzmann equation. The measurements and the calculated spectra are presented

  16. Preliminary Design of S-CO{sub 2} Brayton Cycle for KAIST Micro Modular Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong Gu; Kim, Min Gil; Bae, Seong Jun; Lee, Jeong Ik [Korea Advanced Institue of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    This paper suggests a complete modular reactor with an innovative concept of reactor cooling by using a supercritical carbon dioxide directly. Authors propose the supercritical CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle (S-CO{sub 2} cycle) as a power conversion system to achieve small volume of power conversion unit (PCU) and to contain the core and PCU in one vessel for the full modularization. This study suggests a conceptual design of small modular reactor including PCU which is named as KAIST Micro Modular Reactor (MMR). As a part of ongoing research of conceptual design of KAIST MMR, preliminary design of power generation cycle was performed in this study. Since the targets of MMR are full modularization of a reactor system with S-CO{sub 2} coolant, authors selected a simple recuperated S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle as a power conversion system for KAIST MMR. The size of components of the S-CO{sub 2} cycle is much smaller than existing helium Brayton cycle and steam Rankine cycle, and whole power conversion system can be contained with core and safety system in one containment vessel. From the investigation of the power conversion cycle, recompressing recuperated cycle showed higher efficiency than the simple recuperated cycle. However the volume of heat exchanger for recompressing cycle is too large so more space will be occupied by heat exchanger in the recompressing cycle than the simple recuperated cycle. Thus, authors consider that the simple recuperated cycle is more suitable for MMR. More research for the KAIST MMR will be followed in the future and detailed information of reactor core and safety system will be developed down the road. More refined cycle layout and design of turbomachinery and heat exchanger will be performed in the future study.

  17. UO2 and PuO2 utilization in high temperature engineering test reactor with helium coolant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waris, Abdul; Aji, Indarta K.; Novitrian, Pramuditya, Syeilendra; Su'ud, Zaki

    2016-03-01

    High temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR) is one of high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) types which has been developed by Japanese Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). The HTTR is a graphite moderator, helium gas coolant, 30 MW thermal output and 950 °C outlet coolant temperature for high temperature test operation. Original HTTR uses UO2 fuel. In this study, we have evaluated the use of UO2 and PuO2 in form of mixed oxide (MOX) fuel in HTTR. The reactor cell calculation was performed by using SRAC 2002 code, with nuclear data library was derived from JENDL3.2. The result shows that HTTR can obtain its criticality condition if the enrichment of 235U in loaded fuel is 18.0% or above.

  18. Thermal neutron flux distribution in ET-RR-2 reactor thermal column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Mahmoud M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal column in the ET-RR-2 reactor is intended to promote a thermal neutron field of high intensity and purity to be used for following tasks: (a to provide a thermal neutron flux in the neutron transmutation silicon doping, (b to provide a thermal flux in the neutron activation analysis position, and (c to provide a thermal neutron flux of high intensity to the head of one of the beam tubes leading to the room specified for boron thermal neutron capture therapy. It was, therefore, necessary to determine the thermal neutron flux at above mentioned positions. In the present work, the neutron flux in the ET-RR-2 reactor system was calculated by applying the three dimensional diffusion depletion code TRITON. According to these calculations, the reactor system is composed of the core, surrounding external irradiation grid, beryllium block, thermal column and the water reflector in the reactor tank next to the tank wall. As a result of these calculations, the thermal neutron fluxes within the thermal column and at irradiation positions within the thermal column were obtained. Apart from this, the burn up results for the start up core calculated according to the TRITION code were compared with those given by the reactor designer.

  19. An experimental investigation of fission product release in SLOWPOKE-2 reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing radiation fields due to a release of fission products in the reactor container of several SLOWPOKE-2 reactors fuelled with a highly-enriched uranium (HEU) alloy core have been observed. It is believed that these increases are associated with the fuel fabrication where a small amount of uranium-bearing material is exposed to the coolant at the end-welds of the fuel element. To investigate this phenomenon samples of reactor water and gas from the headspace above the water have been obtained and examined by gamma spectrometry methods for reactors of various burnups at the University of Toronto, Ecole Polytechnique and Kanata Isotope Production Facility. An underwater visual examination of the fuel core at Ecole Polytechnique has also provided information on the condition of the core. This report (Volume 1) summarizes the equipment, analysis techniques and results of tests conducted at the various reactor sites. The data report is published as Volume 2. (author). 30 refs., 9 tabs., 20 figs

  20. TMI-2 Reactor Building source term measurements: surfaces and basement water and sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presented in this report are the results of radiochemical and elemental analyses performed on samples collected from the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor Building from August 1979 to December 1983. The quantities of fission products and core materials that were measured on the external surfaces in the Reactor Building or in the water and sediment in its basement are summarized. Recent analysis results for access panels removed from the air cooling assembly and for liquid and particulate samples collected from the Reactor Building sump and reactor coolant drain tank are included in the report. Measurements show that 59% of the 3H, 2.7% of the 90Sr, 15% of the 129I, 20% of the 131I, and 42% of the 137Cs originally in the core at the time of the accident could be accounted for outside the core in the Reactor Building. With the exceptions of 90Sr and 144Ce, the vast majority of each radionuclide released was found dispersed in the water and sediment in the basement

  1. TMI-2 Reactor Building source term measurements: surfaces and basement water and sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIsaac, C V; Keefer, D G

    1984-10-01

    Presented in this report are the results of radiochemical and elemental analyses performed on samples collected from the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor Building from August 1979 to December 1983. The quantities of fission products and core materials that were measured on the external surfaces in the Reactor Building or in the water and sediment in its basement are summarized. Recent analysis results for access panels removed from the air cooling assembly and for liquid and particulate samples collected from the Reactor Building sump and reactor coolant drain tank are included in the report. Measurements show that 59% of the /sup 3/H, 2.7% of the /sup 90/Sr, 15% of the /sup 129/I, 20% of the /sup 131/I, and 42% of the /sup 137/Cs originally in the core at the time of the accident could be accounted for outside the core in the Reactor Building. With the exceptions of /sup 90/Sr and /sup 144/Ce, the vast majority of each radionuclide released was found dispersed in the water and sediment in the basement.

  2. A review of the probabilistic safety assessment application to the TR-2 research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) to the TR-2 Research Reactor is presented. The level 1 PSA application involved: selection of accident initiators, mitigating functions and system definitions, event tree constructions and quantification, fault tree constructions and quantification, human reliability, component failure data base development, dependent failure analysis. Each of the steps of the analysis given above is reviewed briefly with highlights from the selected results. PSA application is found to be a practical tool for research reactor safety due to intense involvement of human interactions in an experimental facility. Insights gained from the application of PSA methodology to the TR-2 research reactor led to a significant safety review of the system

  3. A hydrophobic catalyst for recombining H2/D2 and O2 in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A catalyst is developed for efficient recombination of hydrogen and oxygen in presence of water vapor and without requirement of an external heat source. The catalyst, comprising of finely dispersed platinum on a large area polymeric sheet, is hydrophobic in nature and is therefore resistant to water poisoning. The recombination reaction is exothermic which results in the rise of catalyst temperature and hence in its high and automatically sustained catalytic activity. In order to prevent catalyst overheating, the catalyst sheet is sandwiched between the two perforated metallic plates, which help in maintaining the catalyst panel at an isothermal temperature below its melting point. The performance of this catalyst, evaluated on both bench and pilot plant scale, is found to be long lasting. Due to the flexible nature of this catalyst material, different convenient recombiner designs may be envisaged for use in nuclear reactors, either for reaction of radiolytically generated hydrogen and oxygen or for mitigation of hydrogen under severe accident conditions

  4. Reactor building integrity testing: A novel approach at Gentilly 2 - principles and methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1987, Hydro-Quebec embarked on an ambitious development program to provide the Gentilly 2 nuclear power station with an effective, yet practical reactor building Integrity Test. The Gentilly 2 Integrity Test employs an innovative approach based on the reference volume concept. It is identified as the Temperature Compensation Method (TCM) System. This configuration has been demonstrated at both high and low test pressure and has achieved extraordinary precision in the leak rate measurement. The Gentilly 2 design allows the Integrity Test to be performed at a nominal 3 kPa(g) test pressure during an (11) hour period with the reactor at full power. The reactor building Pressure Test by comparison, is typically performed at high pressure 124 kPa(g)) in a 7 day window during an annual outage. The Integrity Test was developed with the goal of demonstrating containment availability. Specifically it was purported to detect a leak or hole in the 'bottled-up' reactor building greater in magnitude than an equivalent pipe of 25 mm diameter. However it is considered feasible that the high precision of the Gentilly 2 TCM System Integrity Test and a stable reactor building leak characteristic will constitute sufficient grounds for the reduction of the Pressure Test frequency. It is noted that only the TCM System has, to this date, allowed a relevant determination of the reactor building leak rate at a nominal test pressure of 3 kPa(g). Classical method tests at low pressure have lead to inconclusive results due to the high lack of precision

  5. Inventory and forecasting of maritime emissions in the Belgian sea territory, an activity-based emission model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrooten, Liesbeth; De Vlieger, Ina; Int Panis, Luc; Styns, Karel; Torfs, Rudi

    Air quality policy has focussed on land-based emissions for decades. In recent years, it has become increasingly clear that emissions from sea-going vessels can no longer be ignored. There is a growing need for detailed emission inventories to evaluate the impact of this transport mode on air quality and health. In this paper we present MOPSEA, an activity-based emission model to determine emissions from sea-going vessels. The model considers shipping activities of sea-going vessels on Belgian territory, combined with individual vessel characteristics. We apply this model to study the effects of recent international efforts to reduce emissions from sea-going vessels in Belgian territorial waters for the current fleet and for two scenarios up to 2010. The emission model for Belgium, based on different vessel operating areas, reveals that most maritime emissions from the main engines will increase. CO 2 emissions will increase by 2-9% over the 2004-2010 period due to an increase in shipping activity. NO X emissions are projected to rise between 1% and 8% because the increase in activity offsets the reductions from the international maritime organisation (IMO) and European regulations. In contrast, SO 2 emissions will decrease by at least 50% in 6 years time. The switch of auxiliaries from heavy fuel oil to diesel oil at berth results in a large emission reduction (33%) for PM and small reductions for CO 2, NO X, CO and HC (4-5%). The choice between a bottom-up versus top-down approach can have important implications for the allocation of maritime emissions. The MOPSEA bottom-up model allocates only 0.7 Mton CO 2 to Belgium, compared to 24.2 Mton CO 2 based on bunker fuel inventories.

  6. Non-destructive method for internal quality determination of belgian endive (cichorium intybus l.)

    OpenAIRE

    De Baerdemaeker J.; Quenon V.

    2000-01-01

    A method and process were developed to nondestructively measure the length of the floral stalk in Belgian endive Cichorium intybus L. Current X-ray technology proved to be a feasible method. A detection algorithm was developed based on the minimal transmitted intensities along the length. The method is very accurate with an absolute precision of 4.9 mm and allows the study of the influence of storage conditions and time on the Belgian endive internal quality. The growth of the floral stalk is...

  7. Core and fuel feasibility study for improved flexibility on the Belgian Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A feasibility study has been performed for extended power modulations on Belgian NPPs. The goal is to make the existing nuclear power units in Belgium more flexible without implementing hardware modifications and guaranteeing safety at all times. As the critical part of the feasibility study, the impacts on the core behaviour and fuel performance have been studied in detail. It is concluded that all existing fuels loaded in the Belgian plants allow up to 30 power modulations per fuel cycle without changing the currently applied fuel cycle management. This is also supported by the extensive experience feedback of the fuel products for flexible operations in European countries. (author)

  8. Sand dynamics along the Belgian coast based on airborne hyperspectral data and lidar data

    OpenAIRE

    Deronde, B; Houthuys, R.; Sterckx, S.; Fransaer, D.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this project was to explore the possibilities of airborne hyperspectral data and airborne lidar data to study sand dynamics on the Belgian backshore and foreshore. The Belgian coast is formed by a sandy strip at the southern edge of the North Sea Basin which is commonly known as the Southern Bight. Since the beach is prone to structural and occasional erosion, it is very important to obtain a better understanding of the processes controlling it. The combination of multi-temporal h...

  9. A faunistic survey of the Belgian marine molluscs: a first progress report

    OpenAIRE

    Backeljau, T.

    1988-01-01

    A first step towards the compilation of a critical faunistic inventory of the Belgian marine mollusks, was the publication of a preliminary nomenclatural list in 1986. This list mentioned 136 species which until then bad been recorded alive in Belgium. Yet, such records do not necessarily mean that the species involved actually belong to our fauna. Hence, the next thing to do, was to start a more profound survey of the Belgian marine malacofauna in order to determine which species form well-e...

  10. Environmental impact of Pakistan Research Reactor-2 following a hypothetical radiological release accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental impact of Pakistan Research Reactor-2 (PARR-2) following a hypothetical accident is presented. It is shown that with 100% core meltdown and multiple failures, PARR-2 does not pose any catastrophic consequences. Conservative estimates show that radiation levels in the Low Population Zone (LPZ) adjacent to the PARR-2 building, which in this case is the PINSTECH building, remains below the established limits. (author)

  11. Development of sodium facilities for NSRR fast breeder reactor fuel tests. 2. Sodium capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to commercialize fast reactors, which are expected to be long-term transmutes of plutonium and long half life radioactive wastes (such as americium) from light water reactors, safety research under accident conditions and establishment of the safety guidelines are essential. Sodium facilities, such as, (1) Purification/charging loop and test loop, and (2) Proto-type Sodium capsule, were developed and fabricated in order to pulse irradiate fast breeder reactor fuels in the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) of JAERI for investigation on fuel behavior under transient over-power conditions. This report presents the purpose, outlines, specifications, capabilities and operation results of the proto-type sodium capsule. Two kinds of capsule, i.e., the stagnant sodium capsule and the sodium loop, were designed to pulse irradiate Fast Reactor (FR) fuels in the NSRR under sodium cooling conditions with and without flow, respectively. Because the capsules have to safely contain chemically active sodium at high temperature and stand the pressure pulses by the sodium hummer which might be generated at fuel failure, the development of the capsule is essential for realizing the research. Thus, proto-type sodium loop, which consisted of doubly sealed container, sodium pump and flow meter, was developed. In addition, two type of flange structure for the stagnant capsule and loop was leak tested at high pressures, in order to confirm its sealing capability at room and high temperature conditions. (author)

  12. Optical and electrical study of Ar-C2 H2 and N2-C2 H2 RF-excited plasmas in a small cylindrical reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An optical and electrical investigation were carried out of organic plasmas obtained from DC and RF discharges in mixtures of Arc-C2 H2 in a small cylindrical reactor operating under pressures ranging from 0.3 to 1.0 Torr. The Actinometric Optical Emission Spectroscopy was used to follow the trends of C H and H species in the reactive plasma, for different pressures and power coupled to the reactor. The results showed a decreasing of C H concentration with the increasing of pressure and DC power and an increasing of the H concentration with the increasing of the pressure. The electrical investigation was performed using pulsed Langmuir probe technique, indicating typical electronic temperature around 2 eV. The effects of film deposition on the probe tip surface was analyzed using. Ar as reference gas. The results obtained indicated application of the probe during few period of sweep cycle. (author). 8 refs, 5 figs

  13. Dose Rates Near Water Moderator of the IBR-2 Reactor Experiment and Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Golikov, V V; Shabalin, E P

    2002-01-01

    Adsorbed dose rates in metals and in hydrogenous materials (polyethylene and water) have been measured at the neutron beam channel No. 3 of the IBR-2 reactor just behind the light water moderator [1]. Three methods have been applied; all of them gave the comparable results, if accounting for some corrections due to nonuniformity of the irradiation field. In metals (copper) it appeared to be 0.013 W/g/MW of the reactor power with an accuracy to {\\pm}3%; in polyethylene and water - (0.090\\pm 0.009) and (0.053\\pm 0.003) W/g/MW, respectively.

  14. Dose Rates Near Water Moderator of the IBR-2 Reactor: Experiment and Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Golikov, V V; Shabalin, E P

    2002-01-01

    Adsorbed dose rates in metals and in hydrogenous materials (polyethylene and water) have been measured at the neutron beam channel No. 3 of the IBR-2 reactor just behind the light water moderator [1]. Three methods have been applied; all of them gave the comparable results, if accounting for some corrections due to nonuniformity of the irradiation field. In metals (copper) it appeared to be 0.013 W/g/MW of the reactor power with an accuracy to {\\pm}3%; in polyethylene and water - (0.090\\pm 0.009) and (0.053\\pm 0.003) W/g/MW, respectively.

  15. Attitude of a group of Belgian stakeholders towards proposed agricultural countermeasures after a radioactive contamination: synthesis of the discussions within the Belgian EC-FARMING group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the case of radioactive contamination of the environment with an impact on the food chain, the remediation strategy will not only be based on scientific knowledge and technical experience, but will also be dictated by peculiarities of the country. These characteristics include the agro-industrial structure, the local and international economical contexts and the political configuration including the distribution of responsibilities and competencies. This paper identifies and illustrates the most relevant characteristics of the Belgian agricultural system and political environment; it also describes the past experience with food chain contamination, which is expected to influence the attitude of Belgian stakeholders, who would be involved in the setting up of countermeasure strategies for maintaining agricultural production and food safety. The picture drawn explains why several countermeasures aiming to reduce the contamination in food products, although scientifically sound and technically feasible, are hardly acceptable or even not acceptable at all, to the stakeholders

  16. The 5th surveillance testing for Kori unit 2 reactor vessel materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Kee Ok; Kim, Byoung Chul; Lee, Sam Lai; Choi, Kwon Jae; Gong, Un Sik; Chang, Jong Hwa; Joo, Yong Sun; Ahn, Sang Bok; Hong, Joon Hwa [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2001-03-01

    Surveillance testing for reactor vessel materials is performed in order to evaluate the irradiation embrittlement due to neutrons during operation and set the condition of safe operation of nuclear reactor. The 5th surveillance testing was performed completely by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute at Taejeon after the capsule was transported from Kori site including its removal from reactor. Fast neutron fluences for capsules were calculated and various testing including mechanical and chemistry analysis were performed in order to evaluate the integrity of Kori unit 2 reactor vessel during the operation until life time. The evaluation results are as follows; Fast neutron fluences for capsules V, R, P, T and N are 2.837E+18, 1.105E+19, 2.110E+19, 3.705E+19 and 4.831E+19n/cm{sup 2}, respectively. The bias factor, the ratio of measurement/calculation, was 0.918 for the 1st through 5th testing and the calculational uncertainty, 11.6% satisfied the requirement of USNRC Reg.Guide DG-1053, 20%. The best estimated neutron fluence for reactor vessel inside surface was 1.898E+19n/cm{sup 2} based on the end of 15th fuel cycle and it was predicted that the fluences of vessel inside surface at 32, 40, 48 and 56EFPY would reach 4.203E+19, 5.232E+19, 6.262E+19 and 7.291E+19n/cm{sup 2} based on the current calculation. The result through this analysis for Kori unit 2 showed that there would be no problem for the pressurized thermal shock(PTS) during the operation until design life. 49 refs., 35 figs., 48 tabs. (Author)

  17. 2nd Canada-China joint workshop on supercritical-water-cooled reactors (CCSC-2010)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 2nd Canada-China Joint Workshop on Supercritical-Water-Cooled Reactors (CCSC-2010) was held in Toronto, Ontario, Canada on April 25-25, 2010. This joint workshop aimed at providing a forum for discussion of advancements and issues, sharing information and technology transfer, and establishing future collaborations on research and developments for supercritical water-cooled reactors (SCWR) between Canadian and Chinese research organizations. Participants were those involved in research and development of SCWR core design, materials, chemistry, corrosion, thermalhydraulics, and safety analysis at organizations in Canada and China. Papers related to the following topics were of interest to the workshop: reactor core and fuel designs; materials, chemistry and corrosion; thermalhydraulics and safety analysis; balance of plant; and other applications.

  18. Decontamination and decommissioning project of the TRIGA Mark-2 and 3 research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the review on the decommissioning plan and environmental impact assessment report by the KINS, the number of the inquired items were two hundred and fifty one, and the answers were made and sent until September 10, 1999, as the screened review results were reported to Ministry of Science and Technology(MOST) in December 14, 1999, all the reviews on the licence were over. Radioactive liquid wastes of 400 tons generated during the operation of the research reactors including reactor vessels are stored in the facility of the research reactor 1 and 2. Those liquid wastes have the low-level-radioactivity which can be discharged to the surroundings, but was wholly treated to be vaporized naturally by means of the increased numbers of the natural vaporization disposal facilities with the annual capacity of 200 tons for the purpose of the minimized environmental contamination

  19. Outline of construction planning on No. 2 Reactor of the Shika Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hokuriku Electric Co., Ltd. carries out the expansion of the Shika Nuclear Power Plant No.2 (ABWR) to start its in March 2006. It is situated in north neighboring side of No. 1 reactor under operation at present, and its main buildings are planned to position a reactor building at mountain side and a turbine building at sea side as well as those in the No. 1 reactor. And, cooling water for steam condenser was taken in from an intake opening built at north side of the lifting space situated at the front of the power plant, and discharged into seawater from a flashing opening positioned about 600 m offing. Here were described on outline of main civil engineering such as base excavation engineering, concrete caisson production, oceanic establishment engineering, and facility for steam condenser, and characteristics of the engineering. (G.K.)

  20. Modeling the Pyrochemical Reduction of Spent UO2 Fuel in a Pilot-Scale Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A kinetic model has been derived for the reduction of oxide spent nuclear fuel in a radial flow reactor. In this reaction, lithium dissolved in molten LiCl reacts with UO2 and fission product oxides to form a porous, metallic product. As the reaction proceeds, the depth of the porous layer around the exterior of each fuel particle increases. The observed rate of reaction has been found to be only dependent upon the rate of diffusion of lithium across this layer, consistent with a classic shrinking core kinetic model. This shrinking core model has been extended to predict the behavior of a hypothetical, pilot-scale reactor for oxide reduction. The design of the pilot-scale reactor includes forced flow through baskets that contain the fuel particles. The results of the modeling indicate that this is an essential feature in order to minimize the time needed to achieve full conversion of the fuel

  1. Decontamination and decommissioning project of the TRIGA Mark-2 and 3 research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, K. J.; Baik, S. T.; Chung, U. S.; Jung, K. H.; Park, S. K.; Lee, B. J.; Kim, J. K.; Yang, S. H

    2000-01-01

    During the review on the decommissioning plan and environmental impact assessment report by the KINS, the number of the inquired items were two hundred and fifty one, and the answers were made and sent until September 10, 1999, as the screened review results were reported to Ministry of Science and Technology(MOST) in December 14, 1999, all the reviews on the licence were over. Radioactive liquid wastes of 400 tons generated during the operation of the research reactors including reactor vessels are stored in the facility of the research reactor 1 and 2. Those liquid wastes have the low-level-radioactivity which can be discharged to the surroundings, but was wholly treated to be vaporized naturally by means of the increased numbers of the natural vaporization disposal facilities with the annual capacity of 200 tons for the purpose of the minimized environmental contamination.

  2. RETRAN code analysis of Tsuruga-2 plant chemical volume control system (CVCS) reactor coolant leakage incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JAPC purchased RETRAN, a program for transient thermal hydraulic analysis of complex fluid flow system, from the U.S. Electric Power Research Institute in 1992. Since then, JAPC has been utilizing RETRAN to evaluate safety margins of actual plant operation, in coping with troubles (investigating trouble causes and establishing countermeasures), and supporting reactor operation (reviewing operational procedures etc.). In this paper, a result of plant analysis performed on a CVCS reactor primary coolant leakage incident which occurred at JAPC's Tsuruga-2 plant (4-loop PWR, 3423 MWt, 1160 MW) on July 12 of 1999 and, based on the result, we made a plan to modify our operational procedure for reactor primary coolant leakage events in order to make earlier plant shutdown and this reduced primary coolant leakage. (author)

  3. Evaluation of power reactor fuel rod analysis capabilities. Phase 2: topical report. Volume 2. Code evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FRAPCON-2 (V1M5) was applied to generate fuel performance predictions for selected rods of a recently evaluated power reactor data sample. Rod design, operational, and performance data was obtained from the EPRI Fuel Performance Data Base. The data was systematically processed to generate code input parameters. After initial debugging, FRAPCON-2 was applied for benchmark studies to qualify revised cladding creepdown, growth, and fission gas release models. Benchmark results indicated improved gas release and clad deformation modeling, but increased computer requirements and mechanical conservatism during hard PCI. Comparisons between measured and calculated fuel and cladding deformation, fission gas release, internal pressure, gas composition, and cladding corrosion are presented and interpreted relative to code error magnitudes, distributions, and trends versus rod design and operating parameters. The results indicate that FRAPCON-2 (V1M5) is an improved code having adequate capability for best estimate analysis of moderate duty fuel rod performance, up to average burnups of at least 40 GWD/MTU. The main model limitations involve lack of certain physical effects which can generally be compensated for when setting up input or interpreting results; namely, densification effect on decreasing pellet relocation, swelling accomodation by fuel porosity, cladding creepout effect on PCI stress relaxation, and coolant chemistry and pellet impurity effects on clad ID and OD corrosion. 26 refs., 32 figs., 13 tabs

  4. Reactor pressure vessel steels ASME SA533B and SA508 C1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents the results of the microstructural studies of steels SA533B and SA508 C1.2 obtained in connection with a programme initiated to gather and create information needed for the assessment of structural integrity of the reactor pressure vessels. The as-quenched and variably tempered microstructures were studied with optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopes. (author)

  5. Space- and time-dependent reactor dynamics on the basis of a 2D FEM programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The time-dependent reactor equations are solved using the FEM, and the results are compared with a 2D benchmark problem. It is shown schematically how the basic element of a stationary programme, the search for eigenvalues, may be used without alterations in a dynamic calculation. Also, proposals are made for improving the economy of matrix processing in a FEM programme. (RW)

  6. Irradiation facility at the IBR-2 reactor for investigation of material radiation hardness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulavin, M.; Cheplakov, A.; Kukhtin, V.; Kulagin, E.; Kulikov, S.; Shabalin, E.; Verkhoglyadov, A.

    2015-01-01

    Description of the irradiation facility and available parameters of the neutron and gamma exposures including the maximal integrated doses are presented in the paper. The research capabilities for radiation hardness tests of materials in high intensity beam of fast neutrons at the IBR-2 reactor of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna (Russia) are outlined.

  7. Irradiation facility at the IBR-2 reactor for investigating material radiation hardness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulavin, M. V.; Verkhoglyadov, A. E.; Kulikov, S. A.; Kulagin, E. N.; Kukhtin, V. V.; Cheplakov, A. P.; Shabalin, E. P.

    2015-03-01

    A description of the irradiation facility and available parameters of neutron and gamma exposures, including the maximum integrated doses, are presented in the paper. The research capabilities for radiation hardness tests of materials in a high-intensity beam of fast neutrons at the IBR-2 reactor of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna (Russia) are outlined.

  8. Regulatory Steps Taken to Licensing the Operation of ETRR-2 Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ETRR-2 is a 22 MW, MTR type research reactor. It went critical for the first time on Nov. 1997. A preliminary operational license has been issued on Sept. 1998. This license is valid from initial core up to the equilibrium core

  9. Burn up calculations for ETRR 1 and ETRR 2 reactors with wims and origen codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For ETRR -1 and ETRR - 2 research reactor, the 235 U depletion is determined with wims and origen codes the two calculated results show good agreement with each other. The buildup of different fission products (important from both the safety and protection point of view) is also calculated. The radioactivity and decay heat of the spent fuel is determined up to 30 years

  10. Formation of the high-spin Hf-179m2 isomer in reactor irradiations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karamian, S. A.; Carroll, J. J.; Adam, Jindřich; Kulagin, EN.; Shabalin, EP.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 4 (2004), s. 438-441. ISSN 1054-660X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME 134 Keywords : reactor irradiation * high-spin Hf-179m2 Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.836, year: 2004

  11. SCALE-4 analysis of pressurized water reactor critical configurations. Volume 3: Surry Unit 1 Cycle 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The requirements of ANSI/ANS 8.1 specify that calculational methods for away-from-reactor criticality safety analyses be validated against experimental measurements. If credit for the negative reactivity of the depleted (or spent) fuel isotopics is desired, it is necessary to benchmark computational methods against spent fuel critical configurations. This report summarizes a portion of the ongoing effort to benchmark away-from-reactor criticality analysis methods using selected critical configurations from commercial pressurized-water reactors. The analysis methodology selected for all the calculations in this report is based on the codes and data provided in the SCALE-4 code system. This volume of the report documents the SCALE system analysis of two reactor critical configurations for Surry Unit 1 Cycle 2. This unit and cycle were chosen for a previous analysis using a different methodology because detailed isotopics from multidimensional reactor calculations were available from the Virginia Power Company. These data permitted a direct comparison of criticality calculations using the utility-calculated isotopics, with those using, the isotopics generated by the SCALE-4 SAS2H sequence. These reactor critical benchmarks have been reanalyzed using the methodology described above. The two benchmark critical calculations were the beginning-of-cycle (BOC) startup at hot, zero-power (HZP) and an end-of-cycle (EOC) critical at hot, full-power (HFP) critical conditions. These calculations were used to check for consistency in the calculated results for different burnup, downtime, temperature, xenon, and boron conditions. The keff results were 1.0014 and 1.0113, respectively, with a standard deviation of 0.0005

  12. Fluid flow and mass transfer characteristics of enhanced CO2 capture in a minichannel reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Enhanced CO2 capture using aqueous DEA in a microreactor. • Observed flow patterns and calculated interfacial area by high-speed visualization. • Achieved close to 100% absorption efficiency under certain operating conditions. • Compared pressure drop and Sherwood number with predictions from model. • Mass transfer coefficient 2–4 orders of magnitude higher than conventional reactors. - Abstract: CO2 absorption using amine solvents can be significantly enhanced by the use of microscale reactors having high surface area to volume ratio. The present paper reports an experimental investigation of the fluid flow and mass transfer characteristics during reactive gas–liquid absorption in a minichannel reactor. Absorption of CO2 mixed with N2 into aqueous diethanolamine was studied in a channel having hydraulic diameter of 762 μm and a circular cross-sectional geometry. High-speed imaging of the two-phase flow was conducted to visualize the flow regimes. Image-processing analysis of the acquired flow patterns was performed to determine the interfacial area. The performance of the reactor was studied with respect to the absorption efficiency, pressure drop, mass transfer coefficient, interfacial area, enhancement factor, and Sherwood number. Parametric studies investigating the effects of phase superficial velocity, liquid reactant concentration, and CO2 concentration in the gas phase were performed and are discussed. High levels of absorption efficiency, close to 100%, were observed under certain operating conditions. An empirical model for the Sherwood number was developed and compared against experimental data. The mass transfer coefficient was found to be higher at reduced channel lengths, which was attributed to improved utilization of the absorption capacity of the amine solution for a given reactor volume. The presently achieved values of mass transfer coefficient and specific interfacial area are between 1 and 4 orders of magnitude

  13. Study on the thermohydraulic characteristics of marine nuclear reactors, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental critical heat flux data were obtained with Freon-113 in an annular geometry. Range of system pressure was 2 to 3 kg/cm2 abs, mass flux 1.65 to 6.5x106kg/m2. hr and inlet subcooling 0.9 to 350C. At low mass flux, experimental results agreed with the values predicted by means of Ahmad's correlation within +-20%. However, at high mass flux, the difference between the experimental and predicted values became relatively large. (auth.)

  14. Proceedings of the fourth CSNI specialist meeting on fuel-coolant interaction in nuclear reactor safety - Volumes 2+3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the volumes 2 and 3 of the proceedings of the fourth CSNI specialist meeting on fuel-coolant interaction in nuclear reactor safety that was held in Bournemouth, UK, 2-5 april 1979: seven papers for session IV (Specific and well-characterized integral FCI experiments), five papers for Session V (FCI studies directly related to reactor conditions), and seven papers for Session VI (Implications of FCI for reactor safety studies). Session VII presents two panel discussions, the first one related to the science of fuel coolant interactions, the second one to reactor safety implications

  15. Cluster analysis for investigation of the dynamics of pulse energy noise at the IBR-2M reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of study of the dynamics of the noise component of IBR-2M using cluster analysis methods are presented. It is shown that spectral density changes of pulse energy fluctuations after the reactor nominal power 2 MW have a transition region of duration ~ 3 days. During the operation of the reactor the noise structure is divided into four stable structures, three of them describing the noise transition region. The fourth stable structure is independent of the reactor's noise level and operation time. The noise transition region is caused by the vibration of moving reflectors in the process of heating after increasing of the reactor power.

  16. Performance analysis of photocatalytic CO2 reduction in optical fiber monolith reactor with multiple inverse lights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A new optical fiber monolith reactor model for CO2 reduction was developed. • Methanol concentration versus fiber location and operation parameters was obtained. • Reaction efficiency increases by 31.1% due to the four fibers and inverse layout. • With increasing space of fiber and channel center, methanol concentration increases. • Methanol concentration increases as the vapor ratio and light intensity increase. - Abstract: Photocatalytic CO2 reduction seems potential to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and produce renewable energy. A new model of photocatalytic CO2 reduction in optical fiber monolith reactor with multiple inverse lights was developed in this study to improve the conversion of CO2 to CH3OH. The new light distribution equation was derived, by which the light distribution was modeled and analyzed. The variations of CH3OH concentration with the fiber location and operation parameters were obtained by means of numerical simulation. The results show that the outlet CH3OH concentration is 31.1% higher than the previous model, which is attributed to the four fibers and inverse layout. With the increase of the distance between the fiber and the monolith center, the average CH3OH concentration increases. The average CH3OH concentration also rises as the light input and water vapor percentage increase, but declines with increasing the inlet velocity. The maximum conversion rate and quantum efficiency in the model are 0.235 μmol g−1h−1 and 0.0177% respectively, both higher than previous internally illuminated monolith reactor (0.16 μmol g−1h−1 and 0.012%). The optical fiber monolith reactor layout with multiple inverse lights is recommended in the design of photocatalytic reactor of CO2 reduction

  17. On-line reactor building integrity testing at Gentilly-2 (summary of results 1987-1994)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1987, Hydro-0uebec embarked on an ambitious development program to provide the Gentilly-2 Nuclear Power Station with an effective and practical Reactor Building Containment integrity Test (CIT). In October 1992, the inaugural low pressure (3 kPa(g) nominal) CIT at 100% F.P was performed. The test was conclusive and the CIT was declared In-Service for containment integrity verification on-line. Five subsequent CITs performed in 1993 and 1994 have demonstrated the expected leak rate results and good reliability. The outstanding feature of the CITs is the demonstrated accurary of better than 5% of the measured leak rate. The CIT was developed with the primary goal of demonstrating 'overall' containment availability. Specifically it was designed to detect a 25 mm. diameter leak or hole in the Reactor Building. However, the remarkable CIT accuracy allows reliable detection of a 2 mm. hole. The Gentilly-2 CIT is an innovative approach based on the Temperature Compensation Method (TCM) which uses a reference volume composed of an extensive tubular network of several different diameters. This eliminates the need to track numerous temperature points. A second independent tubular network includes numerous humidity sampling points, thereby enabling the mearurernent of minute pressure variations inside the Reactor Building, independant of the spatial and temporal humidity behaviour. This Gentilly-2 TOM System has been demonstrated to work at both high and low test pressures. The GentiIly-2 design allows the CIT to be performed at a nominal 3 kPa(g) test pressure during a 12-hour period (28 hours total with alignment time) with the reactor at full power. The traditional Reactor Building Pressure Test (RBPT) is typically performed at high pressure (124 kPa(g) in a 5-day critical path window (7 days total with alignment time) during an annual shutdown

  18. Modifications to ORIGEN2 for generating N Reactor source terms. Volume 3: ORIGEN2 N-Reactor output files

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This text is intended to be a brief outline of the ORIGEN2 computer code which is a revised and updated version of the ORIGEN documented in report ORNL-4628 (May 1973). Included here are: a brief description of the functions of ORIGEN2; a listing of the major data sources; a listing of the published documentation concerning ORIGEN2; and an outline of the ORIGEN2 output organization. ORIGEN2 is available from the ORNL Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC). Past experience has indicated that many users encounter considerable difficulty in finding the desired information in a ORIGEN2 output which is sometimes rather massive. This section is intended as a brief outline of the organization of ORIGEN2 output

  19. Modifications to ORIGEN2 for generating N Reactor source terms. Volume 3: ORIGEN2 N-Reactor output files

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This text is intended to be a brief outline of the ORIGEN2 computer code which is a revised and updated version of the ORIGEN documented in report ORNL-4628 (May 1973). Included here are: a brief description of the functions of ORIGEN2; a listing of the major data sources; a listing of the published documentation concerning ORIGEN2; and an outline of the ORIGEN2 output organization. ORIGEN2 is available from the ORNL Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC). Past experience has indicated that many users encounter considerable difficulty in finding the desired information in a ORIGEN2 output which is sometimes rather massive. This section is intended as a brief outline of the organization of ORIGEN2 output.

  20. Measurement of (23)Na(n,2n) cross section in well-defined reactor spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Košťál, Michal; Švadlenková, Marie; Baroň, Petr; Milčák, Ján; Mareček, Martin; Uhlíř, Jan

    2016-05-01

    The present paper aims to compare the calculated and experimental reaction rates of (23)Na(n,2n)(22)Na in a well-defined reactor spectra of a special core assembled in the LR-0 reactor. The experimentally determined reaction rate, derived using gamma spectroscopy of irradiated NaF sample, is used for average cross section determination. The resulting value averaged in spectra is 0.91±0.02µb. This cross-section is important as it is included in International Reactor Dosimetry and Fusion File and is also relevant to the correct estimation of long-term activity of Na coolant in Sodium Fast Reactors. The calculations were performed with the MCNP6 code using ENDF/B-VII.0, JEFF-3.1, JEFF-3.2, JENDL-3.3, JENDL-4, ROSFOND-2010 and CENDL-3.1 nuclear data libraries. Generally the best C/E agreement, within 2%, was found using the ROSFOND-2010 data set, whereas the worst, as high as 40%, was found using the ENDF/B-VII.0. PMID:26894323

  1. Passive Decay Heat Removal System Options for S-CO{sub 2} Cooled Micro Modular Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Jangsik; Jeong, Yong Hoon; Lee, Jeong Ik [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    To achieve modularization of whole reactor system, Micro Modular Reactor (MMR) which has been being developed in KAIST took S-CO{sub 2} Brayton power cycle. The S-CO{sub 2} power cycle is suitable for SMR due to high cycle efficiency, simple layout, small turbine and small heat exchanger. These characteristics of S-CO{sub 2} power cycle enable modular reactor system and make reduced system size. The reduced size and modular system motived MMR to have mobility by large trailer. Due to minimized on-site construction by modular system, MMR can be deployed in any electricity demand, even in isolated area. To achieve the objective, fully passive safety systems of MMR were designed to have high reliability when any offsite power is unavailable. In this research, the basic concept about MMR and Passive Decay Heat Removal (PDHR) system options for MMR are presented. LOCA, LOFA, LOHS and SBO are considered as DBAs of MMR. To cope with the DBAs, passive decay heat removal system is designed. Water cooled PDHR system shows simple layout, but has CCF with reactor systems and cannot cover all DBAs. On the other hand, air cooled PDHR system with two-phase closed thermosyphon shows high reliability due to minimized CCF and is able to cope with all DBAs. Therefore, the PDHR system of MMR will follows the air-cooled PDHR system and the air cooled system will be explored.

  2. Study of UO/sub 2/ wafer fuel for very high-power research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, T.C.; Jankus, V.Z.; Rest, J.; Billone, M.C.

    1980-11-01

    The Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor Program is aimed at reducing fuel enrichment to < 20% in those research and test reactors presently using highly enriched uranium fuel. UO/sub 2/ caramel fuel is one of the most promising new types of reduced-enrichment fuel for use in research reactors with very high power density. Parametric studies have been carried out to determine the maximum specific power attainable without significant fission-gas release for UO/sub 2/ wafers ranging from 0.75 to 1.50 mm in thickness. The results indicate that (1) all the fuel designs considered in this study are predicted not to fail under full-power operation up to a burnup of 1.09 x 10/sup 21/ fis/cm/sup 3/; (2) for all fuel designs, failure is predicted at approximately the same fuel centerline temperature for a given burnup; (3) the thinner the wafer, and wider the margin for fuel specific power between normal operation and increased-power operation leading to fuel failure; (4) increasing the coolant pressure in the reactor core could improve fuel performance by maintaining the fuel at a higher power level without failure for a given burnup; and (5) for a given power level, fuel failure will occur earlier at a higher cladding surface temperature and/or under power-cycling conditions. 12 figures, 7 tables.

  3. Level-2 PSA for the Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor MONJU Applied to the Accident Management Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JNES independently evaluated the three events it selected - PLOHS, LORL and ATWS events - and reviewed the results of the Level 2 PSA carried out by JAEA. Regarding ATWS events, the organization carried out a qualitative evaluation of the results of JAEA's evaluation and carried out a quantitative evaluation of the containment failure frequency (CFF) in relation to PLOHS and LORL events. In JNES's independent evaluation of PLOHS and LORL events, accident scenarios in the three phases - the plant response phase, the core damage phase and the containment vessel response phase - were analyzed. The phenomenal event trees were quantified by applying the information about phenomena specific to fast reactors, including plant thermal-hydraulic analysis at the time of core damage, boundary structure analysis, analysis of the characteristics of the disrupted core, the results of sodium-concrete reaction tests, and the results of hydrogen diffusion induced combustion tests, to the PRDs. As the result, the total CFF before the preparation of the AM measures was rated at 9.2E-9/reactor year (CDF at 2.7E-7/reactor year), and it has been confirmed that these numerical values are well below the power reactor performance goal indicator values (CDF: 10-4/year or so; CFF: 10-5/year or so) even before the preparation of the AM measures. (author)

  4. Computational design of parameters of IRT-2M fuel with enrichment below 20% for low power research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article focuses briefly on characteristics of a possible procedure during reduction of fuel enrichment of two research reactors in the Czech Republic, i.e., LVR-15 research reactor (power up to 15 MW) at NRI Rez and VR-1 training reactor (power up to 5 kW) at CTU Prague. Both reactors are now operating with fuel enriched to 36% of 235U. While the LVR-15 reactor uses Russian IRT-2M fuel, the VR-1 reactor has been operating on IRT-3M fuel for five years already. The goal for both reactors until now was to use Russian IRT-4M fuel with 235U enrichment below 20%. The original idea that the LVR-15 reactor would go through the IRT-3M fuel during the transition to IRT-4M fuel now seems baseless. The article hence shows a possible solution to the current situation for the VR-1 reactor. A convenient solution (based on consultations with the Russian producer) could be a preparation of fuel of IRT-2M geometry with enrichment to 20% of 235U. Such a fuel would not be intended for power research reactors in the first step but for reactors with power up to 100 - 200 kW. The article presents a proposal of this fuel (said proposal was created on the basis of many years' standing experience of operation at VR-1 reactor) and verifying calculations for selected configurations. As for enrichment, matrix, and content of uranium the proposal is based on verified capability of the Russian producer. Emphasis is placed on the necessity of the fuel having a long lifetime in the light water reactors. (author)

  5. Micro-scale H2–CO2 Dynamics in a Hydrogenotrophic Methanogenic Membrane Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Robledo, Emilio; Ottosen, Lars D. M.; Voigt, Niels V.; Kofoed, M. W.; Revsbech, Niels P.

    2016-01-01

    Biogas production is a key factor in a sustainable energy supply. It is possible to get biogas with very high methane content if the biogas reactors are supplied with exogenous hydrogen, and one of the technologies for supplying hydrogen is through gas permeable membranes. In this study the activity and stratification of hydrogen consumption above such a membrane was investigated by use of microsensors for hydrogen and pH. A hydrogenotrophic methanogenic community that was able to consume the hydrogen flux within 0.5 mm of the membrane with specific rates of up to 30 m3 H2 m-3 day-1 developed within 3 days in fresh manure and was already established at time zero when analyzing slurry from a biogas plant. The hydrogen consumption was dependent on a simultaneous carbon dioxide supply and was inhibited when carbon dioxide depletion elevated the pH to 9.2. The activity was only partially restored when the carbon dioxide supply was resumed. Bioreactors supplied with hydrogen gas should thus be carefully monitored and either have the hydrogen supply disrupted or be supplemented with carbon dioxide when the pH rises to values about 9. PMID:27582736

  6. Micro-scale H2-CO2 Dynamics in a Hydrogenotrophic Methanogenic Membrane Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Robledo, Emilio; Ottosen, Lars D M; Voigt, Niels V; Kofoed, M W; Revsbech, Niels P

    2016-01-01

    Biogas production is a key factor in a sustainable energy supply. It is possible to get biogas with very high methane content if the biogas reactors are supplied with exogenous hydrogen, and one of the technologies for supplying hydrogen is through gas permeable membranes. In this study the activity and stratification of hydrogen consumption above such a membrane was investigated by use of microsensors for hydrogen and pH. A hydrogenotrophic methanogenic community that was able to consume the hydrogen flux within 0.5 mm of the membrane with specific rates of up to 30 m(3) H2 m(-3) day(-1) developed within 3 days in fresh manure and was already established at time zero when analyzing slurry from a biogas plant. The hydrogen consumption was dependent on a simultaneous carbon dioxide supply and was inhibited when carbon dioxide depletion elevated the pH to 9.2. The activity was only partially restored when the carbon dioxide supply was resumed. Bioreactors supplied with hydrogen gas should thus be carefully monitored and either have the hydrogen supply disrupted or be supplemented with carbon dioxide when the pH rises to values about 9. PMID:27582736

  7. Small Angle Scattering at the IBR-2 Reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Gordeliy, V I

    2002-01-01

    This is a short review intended to h. the eminent Russian physicist Professor Yu. M. Ostanevich, laureate of the 2000 Award of the Russian Federation on Science and Technology for substantial contribution to the development of highly effective SANS spectrometer at IBR-2. Not pretending to highlight all the numerous sides of his scientific activities, in this review we wanted to emphasize his decisive role in installation of the unique spectrometer at IBR-2 and his notable contribution to the development and investigation of different scientific fields at this spectrometer.

  8. A novel condensation reactor for efficient CO2 to methanol conversion for storage of renewable electric energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.J.; Brilman, D.W.F.

    2015-01-01

    A novel reactor design for the conversion of CO2 and H2 to methanol is developed. The conversion limitations because of thermodynamic equilibrium are bypassed via in situ condensation of a water/methanol mixture. Two temperatures zones inside the reactor ensure optimal catalyst activity (high temper

  9. Experiments with the initial erections of the Angra-2 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main erection services for Angra 2 will be contracted 11/95; the actual services will start in 02/96. FURNAS and NUCLEN decided to anticipate some services related to the main erection; the present paper presents the situation of these initial erection services, as well as the experience gained so far. (author)

  10. Reactor defuelling gets under way. TMI 2 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rider, R.L.

    1986-04-01

    Last October the recovery of TMI 2 entered the most important phase so far with the start of defuelling. Planning the defuelling has been difficult because the condition of the core below the layer of loose rubble is completely unknown, and a flexible array of tools and procedures has had to be developed. These tools and procedures are described.

  11. Destruction of H2S Gas with a Combined Plasma Photolysis (CPP) Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张虹; 纪天一; 张仁熙; 侯惠奇

    2012-01-01

    A combined plasma photolysis (CPP) reactor that utilized the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma together with DBD-driven KrI^* excimer ultraviolet emission was applied to the decomposition of H2S gas. The effects of applied voltage, input current, gas flow velocity, original concentration as well as the ratio of Kr/I2 mixture on H2S removal efficiency were investigated. Gas streams containing H2S were separately treated with single DBD and CPP reactor under the same conditions. In comparison to DBD, CPP could greatly enhance the H2S removal efficiency at the same applied voltage, inlet gas concentration and gas flow velocity. In addition, the reaction mechanism was also discussed in this paper.

  12. Destruction of H2S Gas with a Combined Plasma Photolysis (CPP) Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Ji, Tianyi; Zhang, Renxi; Hou, Huiqi

    2012-02-01

    A combined plasma photolysis (CPP) reactor that utilized the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma together with DBD-driven KrI* excimer ultraviolet emission was applied to the decomposition of H2S gas. The effects of applied voltage, input current, gas flow velocity, original concentration as well as the ratio of Kr/I2 mixture on H2S removal efficiency were investigated. Gas streams containing H2S were separately treated with single DBD and CPP reactor under the same conditions. In comparison to DBD, CPP could greatly enhance the H2S removal efficiency at the same applied voltage, inlet gas concentration and gas flow velocity. In addition, the reaction mechanism was also discussed in this paper.

  13. Modelling water and 36Cl cycling in a Belgian pine forest - Model for 36Cl cycling in a Belgian pine forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simplified, 1-D soil-groundwater-vegetation model to represent the cycling of water and of 36Cl in a Belgian Scots pine forest is presented and discussed. The model contains a soil column with layers of different (but uniform) field capacity and soil porosity, which are penetrated by tree roots. Flow through porous media is assumed to circulate according to Darcy and Philips laws, using empirical soil hydraulic properties without recourse to Richards' equation. The vegetation is represented by means of a compartment model including simplified representation of sap flow, translocation and litterfall in relation to different parts of the tree. The water table height is variable according to the balance between precipitation, capillary rise, solar radiation, plant uptake and evapotranspiration. The influence of local fluvial sources of water can also be evaluated in a simplified way as a losing/gaining stream input to the soil column. Time dependent data on temperature, solar irradiation, rainfall, crop coefficient and leaf area index (LAI) are used as input to the model in order to calculate evapotranspiration and a simplified approach to foliar interception. The chlorine flux follows the water flux in both soil and the trees, using retardation in soil and experimentally measured translocation factors within the plant. The chlorine flux is optimised and validated with recourse to a previous 36Cl compartment model. Although considered to be a relatively simple model, initial results suggest a reasonable consistency between previously published water balance and field measurements in a Scots pine stand from the vicinity of Mol, Belgium. The mean soil water content is predicted to be around 25%, the plant water is stored in the order roots > plant above roots > leaf surfaces, water table height below ground fluctuates between 2.1 and 2.6 m compared with a measured water table height of 1.8 - 20 m and pine transpiration is less than 1.2 mm/d compared with a measured

  14. Modelling water and {sup 36}Cl cycling in a Belgian pine forest - Model for {sup 36}Cl cycling in a Belgian pine forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vives i Batlle, Jordi; Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Gielen, Sienke [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2014-07-01

    A simplified, 1-D soil-groundwater-vegetation model to represent the cycling of water and of {sup 36}Cl in a Belgian Scots pine forest is presented and discussed. The model contains a soil column with layers of different (but uniform) field capacity and soil porosity, which are penetrated by tree roots. Flow through porous media is assumed to circulate according to Darcy and Philips laws, using empirical soil hydraulic properties without recourse to Richards' equation. The vegetation is represented by means of a compartment model including simplified representation of sap flow, translocation and litterfall in relation to different parts of the tree. The water table height is variable according to the balance between precipitation, capillary rise, solar radiation, plant uptake and evapotranspiration. The influence of local fluvial sources of water can also be evaluated in a simplified way as a losing/gaining stream input to the soil column. Time dependent data on temperature, solar irradiation, rainfall, crop coefficient and leaf area index (LAI) are used as input to the model in order to calculate evapotranspiration and a simplified approach to foliar interception. The chlorine flux follows the water flux in both soil and the trees, using retardation in soil and experimentally measured translocation factors within the plant. The chlorine flux is optimised and validated with recourse to a previous {sup 36}Cl compartment model. Although considered to be a relatively simple model, initial results suggest a reasonable consistency between previously published water balance and field measurements in a Scots pine stand from the vicinity of Mol, Belgium. The mean soil water content is predicted to be around 25%, the plant water is stored in the order roots > plant above roots > leaf surfaces, water table height below ground fluctuates between 2.1 and 2.6 m compared with a measured water table height of 1.8 - 20 m and pine transpiration is less than 1.2 mm/d compared

  15. Status and perspective of development of cold moderators at the IBR-2 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modernized IBR-2M reactor will start its operation with three water grooved moderators in 2011. Afterwards, they will be exchanged by a new complex of moderators. The complex consists of three so-called kombi-moderators, each of them containing a pre-moderator, a cold moderator, grooved ambient water moderators and post-moderators. They are mounted onto three moveable trolleys that serve to deliver and install moderators near the reactor core. The project is divided in three stages. In 2012 the first stage of development of complex of moderators will be finished. The water grooved moderator will be replaced with the new kombi-moderator for beams nos. 7, 8, 10, 11. Main parameters of moderators for this direction will be studied then. The next stages will be done for beams nos. 2-3 and for beams nos. 1, 9, 4-6, consequently. Cold moderator chambers at the modernized IBR-2 reactor are filled with thousands of beads (∼3.5 - 4 mm in diameter) of moderating material. The cold helium gas flow delivers beads from the charging device to the moderator during the fulfillment process and cools down them during the reactor cycle. The mixture of aromatic hydrocarbons (mesithylen and m-xylen) has been chosen as moderating material. The explanation of the choice of material for novel cold neutron moderators, configuration of moderator complex for the modernized IBR-2 reactor and the main results of optimization of moderator complex for the third stage of moderator development are discussed in the article.

  16. Status and perspective of development of cold moderators at the IBR-2 reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikov, S.; Shabalin, E.

    2012-03-01

    The modernized IBR-2M reactor will start its operation with three water grooved moderators in 2011. Afterwards, they will be exchanged by a new complex of moderators. The complex consists of three so-called kombi-moderators, each of them containing a pre-moderator, a cold moderator, grooved ambient water moderators and post-moderators. They are mounted onto three moveable trolleys that serve to deliver and install moderators near the reactor core. The project is divided in three stages. In 2012 the first stage of development of complex of moderators will be finished. The water grooved moderator will be replaced with the new kombi-moderator for beams #7, 8, 10, 11. Main parameters of moderators for this direction will be studied then. The next stages will be done for beams #2-3 and for beams #1, 9, 4-6, consequently. Cold moderator chambers at the modernized IBR-2 reactor are filled with thousands of beads (~3.5 - 4 mm in diameter) of moderating material. The cold helium gas flow delivers beads from the charging device to the moderator during the fulfillment process and cools down them during the reactor cycle. The mixture of aromatic hydrocarbons (mesithylen and m-xylen) has been chosen as moderating material. The explanation of the choice of material for novel cold neutron moderators, configuration of moderator complex for the modernized IBR-2 reactor and the main results of optimization of moderator complex for the third stage of moderator development are discussed in the article.

  17. Radiation measurements in the reactors G 2 and G 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results are given of numerous radiation measurements: - for the various working sites - for the various zones (circuit room,etc) - during the discharging operations - far various active materials (CO2, plugs etc). They show that in general the protection has been suitably designed and that the majority of radio-protection problems are due to the elements activated in the pile and transported outside the vessel. (authors)

  18. Can metacognition compensate for intelligence in the first year of Belgian higher education?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minnaert, A

    1996-01-01

    This study reports on the effects of metacognitive knowledge and skills compensating for intelligence in relation to academic performance in the first year of Belgian higher education. About 600 freshmen of educational sciences, medicine and psychology participated in this project. Tasks and questio

  19. Comparing Compositional Effects in Two Education Systems: The Case of the Belgian Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danhier, Julien; Martin, Émilie

    2014-01-01

    The Belgian educational field includes separate educational systems reflecting the division of the country into linguistic communities. Even if the French-speaking and the Dutch-speaking communities keep sharing important similarities in terms of funding rules and structures, they present a huge gap between their respective pupils'…

  20. Performance Measurement in Belgian Hospitals : a state-of-the-art

    OpenAIRE

    Van Caillie, Didier; Rouhana, Rima; Santin, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    This communication proposes a global state-of-the-art around the central question : "How is performance measured and controlled in Belgian hospitals. As a first step in a global research project dedicated to the use of Balanced ScoreCard in publics hospitals around the world, it is essentially focused on global economic aspects and on major macroeconomic statistics.

  1. Osteochondrosis of the occipital condyles and atlanto-occipital dysplasia in a Belgian horse

    OpenAIRE

    Muirhead, Tammy; McClure, J.T.; Bourque, Andrea; Pack, LeeAnn

    2003-01-01

    A lesion in the cervical region of a 14-month-old Belgian gelding with severe ataxia was suspected. Necropsy revealed symmetric focal cartilage defects compatible with osteochondrosis of the occipital condyles and atlanto-occipital dysplasia. To our knowledge this is the first equine report of symmetrical osteochondrosis of the occipital condyles causing neurologic signs.

  2. The role of the sickness funds in the Belgian health care market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Nonneman (Nonneman); E.K.A. van Doorslaer (Eddy)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThis article reviews some of the salient features of the Belgian health care finance and delivery system. Special attention is paid to the role played by the third-party payers, i.e. the Health Insurance Associations (HIAs) in administering the compulsory national health insurance progra

  3. Chikungunya infection confirmed in a Belgian traveller returning from Phuket (Thailand)

    OpenAIRE

    Bottieau, E; Van Esbroeck, M.; Cnops, L.; Clerinx, J; van Gompel, A.

    2009-01-01

    Chikungunya infection has been increasingly reported in international travellers following its epidemic re-emergence in the Indian Ocean islands in 2006 and its spread to southern Asia thereafter. We describe the first case of chikungunya in a Belgian traveller returning from Phuket, Thailand and discuss the potential implications of chikungunya cases imported to European countries for patient management and public health.

  4. Speaking Turkish in Belgian primary schools: teacher beliefs versus effective consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Ağırdağ; K. Jordens; M. Van Houtte

    2014-01-01

    In this mixed-method study, we explore teachers’ beliefs concerning the use of the Turkish language by Turkish children in Belgian primary schools, and we compare these findings with the effective consequences of language maintenance. The qualitative analyses revealed that teachers have very negativ

  5. Report on the operation in 1973 of the FR 2 research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Also in 1973, the heavy-water moderated research and testing reactor FR 2 was operated to schedule at 44 MW nominal power. Again, the availability of the plant was slightly improved. Experimental utilization through instrumented irradiation capsules strongly increased as compared to the previous year. Up to 16 capsule test rigs at a time were inserted in the reactor. As to the beam tube experiments, up to 13 experiments covering a total of 18 test rigs were conducted simultaneously at the 12 reasonably usable beam holes. At the beginning of the year all of the positions available were occupied by 5 loop experiments. Isotope production reached its highest value with a total of 2,372 irradiated capsules (1.3% more than the year before). Some remarkable figures characterized the year 1973: On August 16, 1973 ten years of full power operation at a nominal power of 12 and 44 MW, respectively, had been reached. On July 24, 1973 the 50,000th isotope irradiation was performed in the reactor and on December 26, 1973 a total energy release of 100,000 MWd was recorded. Moreover, the 125,000th visitor of the reactor was welcomed on December 6, 1973. (orig./UA)

  6. the effect of design changes of cooling tower on the performance of ETRR-2 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    the egyptian testing and research reactor(ETRR-2) were established in 1998 with maximum power 22 MW for research purposes. two induced draft cooling towers with different specifications was installed inh the system, a replaced (old) cooling tower was in operation from 1998 to 2003, and the present (new) cooling tower was in operation from 2003 till now. the reactor was put into operation since 1998 but it faced a lot of problems in the cooling system concerning with the thermal load dissipation. some efforts guided to study this problem to evaluate the old and present cooling tower to decide if the present cooling tower achieves a good performance in the reactor cooling system and to know why the old cooling tower have to be replaced ? and to avoid thermal problems in the future to satisfy the stable operation. in this work the study of the cooling system of the ETRR-2 is presented. this study is based on analytical, numerical and measurement investigations of the cooling system following three parts. he first part depicts the analytical solution of integrated cooling system of the reactor, the second part depicts the numerical solution of the cooling tower packing , and the third part is the evaluation of the cooling system using cooling technology, institute procedure (CTI)

  7. Safety and environmental aspects of the Apollo-L2 D-3He reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on Apollo-L2, a D-3He fueled tokamak reactor design that utilizes direct conversion. The reactor shield is made of steel and cooled with water. Three different austenitic steel alloys (PCA, 316 SS and Tenelon) were chosen to study the impact of material selection on the environmental and safety attractiveness of the reactor. The thermal response of the different shields following a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) was determined up to two weeks after an unscheduled shutdown of the reactor. The Tenelon structure encountered the highest temperature increase following the accident. The maximum temperature a Tenelon first wall reaches is 500degreeC. The nickel-stabilized steel structures (PCA and 316 SS) result in the highest off-site dose due to its high radioactive cobalt content. 58Co and 60Co are the major contributors to the calculated dose. The low temperature of the structure during a LOCA results in the release of a very small fraction of the radioactive inventory at the onset of an accident. Hence, the Apollo-L2 design achieves the inherent safety criteria with respect to activation products

  8. Hybrid reliability model for nuclear reactor safety system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dependability of critical safety systems needs to be quantitatively determined in order to verify their effectiveness, e.g. with regard to regulatory requirements. Since modular redundant safety systems are not required for normal operation, their reliability is strongly dependent on periodic inspection. Several modeling methods for the quantitative assessment of dependability are described in the literature, with a broad variation in complexity and modeling power. Static modeling techniques such as fault tree analysis (FTA) or reliability block diagrams (RBD) are not capable of capturing redundancy and repair or test activities. Dynamic state space based models such as continuous time Markov chains (CTMC) are more powerful but often result in very large, intractable models. Moreover, exponentially distributed state residence times are not a correct representation of actual residence times associated with repair activities or periodic inspection. In this study, a hybrid model combines a system level RBD with a CTMC to describe the dynamics. The effects of periodic testing are modeled by redistributing state probabilities at deterministic test times. Applying the method to the primary safety shutdown system of the BR2(Belgian Reactor 2)—nuclear research reactor, resulted in a quantitative as well as a qualitative assessment of its reliability.

  9. Neuropsychiatric Inventory data in a Belgian sample of elderly persons with and without dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Squelard GP

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Gilles P Squelard,1 Pierre A Missotten,1 Louis Paquay,2 Jan A De Lepeleire,2 Frank JVM Buntinx,2 Ovide Fontaine,1 Stephane R Adam,1 Michel JD Ylieff11Clinical Psychology of Ageing, Qualidem Research Project, University of Liège (ULg, Liège, Belgium; 2KU Leuven, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Leuven, BelgiumBackground/aims: This study assesses and compares prevalence of psychological and behavioral symptoms in a Belgian sample of people with and without dementia.Methods: A total of 228 persons older than 65 years with dementia and a group of 64 non-demented persons were assessed using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI in 2004.Results: Within the group without dementia, the most frequent symptoms were depression, agitation, and irritability. Within the group with dementia, the most common symptoms were depression, irritability, apathy, and agitation. Prevalence of delusions (P < 0.05, hallucinations (P < 0.05, anxiety (P < 0.05, agitation (P < 0.05, apathy (P < 0.01, aberrant motor behavior (P < 0.01, and eating disorders (P < 0.05 were significantly higher in the group with dementia.Conclusion: Depression, elation, irritability, disinhibition, and sleeping disorders are not specific to dementia. Agitation, apathy, anxiety, and delusions are more frequent in dementia but were not specific to the dementia group because their prevalence rates were close to 10% in the group without dementia. Hallucinations, aberrant motor behavior, and eating disorders are specific to dementia. The distinction between specific and nonspecific symptoms may be useful for etiological research on biological, psychological, and environmental factors.Keywords: behavior, behavior disorders, epidemiology, dementia, psychiatric symptoms, neuropsychiatry

  10. Core design calculations of IRIS reactor using modified CORD-2 code package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Core design calculations, with thermal-hydraulic feedback, for the first cycle of the IRIS reactor were performed using the modified CORD-2 code package. WIMSD-5B code is applied for cell and cluster calculations with two different 69-group data libraries (ENDF/BVI rev. 5 and JEF-2.2), while the nodal code GNOMER is used for diffusion calculations. The objective of the calculation was to address basic core design problems for innovative reactors with long fuel cycle. The results were compared to our results obtained with CORD-2 before the modification and to preliminary results obtained with CASMO code for a similar problem without thermal-hydraulic feedback.(author)

  11. Surface radiation properties of ThO2 and other reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study provides surface radiation properties of three nuclear reactor materials; thorium dioxide, sodium and steel (99 Fe + 1 C). First, based on transmission spectra and Kramers-Kronig analysis, the complex refractive index, which is fundamental to surface radiation property calculations, of ThO2 is presented over a wide spectral range. Then depending on the contacting media, three types of the surfaces are considered. They are the interfaces between ThO2 and Sodium, ThO2 and Steel (99 Fe + 1 C) as well as ThO2 and a gas. For each interface, the spectral interface reflectance from one side of the medium to the other side is evaluated for all wavelengths. These spectral properties are further integrated to yield the total hemisperical properties over a temperature range, 1200 to 60000K, of interest to reactor safety analysis

  12. SoLid: Search for Oscillation with a 6Li Detector at the BR2 research reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Michiels, Ianthe

    2016-01-01

    In the past decades, various nuclear reactor neutrino experiments have measured a deficit in the flux of antineutrinos coming from the reactor at short reactor-detector distances, when compared to theoretical calculations. One of the experiments designed to investigate this reactor antineutrino anomaly is the SoLid experiment. It uses the compact BR2 research reactor from the SCK-CEN in Mol, Belgium, to perform reactor antineutrino flux measurements at very short baseline. These proceedings discuss the general detection concepts of the SoLid experiment and its novel detector technology. The performance of the SoLid design is demonstrated with some results of the analysis of the data gathered with the experiment's first large scale test module, SM1.

  13. Model of dynamics of the IBR-2M pulsed reactor for analysis of fast transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of the program system MATLAB the nonlinear dynamics model of the IBR-2M pulsed reactor which links values of variables at discrete moments (at moments of appearance of power pulses) is established. The testing by means of modeling calculated processes in the IBR-2M shows the correctness of the model. A preliminary estimate of the transfer coefficient of the linear part of the automatic regulator is obtained.

  14. Performance and fuel cycle cost study of the R2 reactor with HEU and LEU fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pond, R.B.; Freese, K.E.; Matos, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    A systematic study of the experiment performance and fuel cycle costs of the 50 MW R2 reactor operated by Studsvik Energiteknik AB has been performed using the current R2 HEU fuel, a variety of LEU fuel element designs, and two core-box/reflector configurations. The results include the relative performance of both in-core and ex-core experiments, control rod worths, and relative annual fuel cycle costs.

  15. Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS). Final report. Volume 2. Commercial fusion synfuels plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume 2 contains the following chapters: (1) synfuels; (2) physics base and parameters for TMR; (3) high-temperature two-temperature-zone blanket system for synfuel application; (4) thermochemical hydrogen processes; (5) interfacing the sulfur-iodine cycle; (6) interfacing the reactor with the thermochemical process; (7) tritium control in the blanket system; (8) the sulfur trioxide fluidized-bed composer; (9) preliminary cost estimates; and (10) fuels beyond hydrogen

  16. Performance and fuel cycle cost study of the R2 reactor with HEU and LEU fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A systematic study of the experiment performance and fuel cycle costs of the 50 MW R2 reactor operated by Studsvik Energiteknik AB has been performed using the current R2 HEU fuel, a variety of LEU fuel element designs, and two core-box/reflector configurations. The results include the relative performance of both in-core and ex-core experiments, control rod worths, and relative annual fuel cycle costs. (author)

  17. Performance Estimation of Supercritical Co2 Micro Modular Reactor (MMR) for Varying Cooling Air Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Yoonhan; Kim, Seong Gu; Cho, Seong Kuk; Lee, Jeong Ik [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    A Small Modular Reactor (SMR) receives interests for the various application such as electricity co-generation, small-scale power generation, seawater desalination, district heating and propulsion. As a part of SMR development, supercritical CO2 Micro Modular Reactor (MMR) of 36.2MWth in power is under development by the KAIST research team. To enhance the mobility, the entire system including the power conversion system is designed for the full modularization. Based on the preliminary design, the thermal efficiency is 31.5% when CO2 is sufficiently cooled to the design temperature. A supercritical CO2 MMR is designed to supply electricity to the remote regions. The ambient temperature of the area can influence the compressor inlet temperature as the reactor is cooled with the atmospheric air. To estimate the S-CO2 cycle performance for various environmental conditions, A quasi-static analysis code is developed. For the off design performance of S-CO2 turbomachineries, the experimental result of Sandia National Lab (SNL) is utilized.

  18. French Fuel Elements for Natural Uranium-Graphite-CO2 Reactors: Experience Gained and Future Prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize fuel element development for this reactor type in France in the light of the experience gained with these elements. Progress in the laboratory in work on basic materials (uranium alloys and magnesium alloys) and on the design and assembly of the fuel elements is very briefly recapitulated from the first G2 element studies (1954) to the current work on EDF3 and beyond. The following are then considered: (1) Experience gained in fabricating the G2, G3. EDF1 and EDF2 fuel elements, i.e. (a) the technical problems of mass production, (b) the production cost and the effects on it of the ever-increasing complexity of proposed elements and (c) planning problems, transition from prototype to mass production; (2) In-Pile operating experience with elements actually used in the G2 and G3 reactors, and the experimental irradiations carried out on EDF1 and EDF2. Finally, an attempt is made to determine the cost of the fuel cycle for this reactor type and future developments. (author)

  19. Assessment of United States industry structural codes and standards for application to advanced nuclear power reactors: Appendices. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Throughout its history, the USNRC has remained committed to the use of industry consensus standards for the design, construction, and licensing of commercial nuclear power facilities. The existing industry standards are based on the current class of light water reactors and as such may not adequately address design and construction features of the next generation of Advanced Light Water Reactors and other types of Advanced Reactors. As part of their on-going commitment to industry standards, the USNRC commissioned this study to evaluate US industry structural standards for application to Advanced Light Water Reactors and Advanced Reactors. The initial review effort included (1) the review and study of the relevant reactor design basis documentation for eight Advanced Light Water Reactors and Advanced Reactor Designs, (2) the review of the USNRCs design requirements for advanced reactors, (3) the review of the latest revisions of the relevant industry consensus structural standards, and (4) the identification of the need for changes to these standards. The results of these studies were used to develop recommended changes to industry consensus structural standards which will be used in the construction of Advanced Light Water Reactors and Advanced Reactors. Over seventy sets of proposed standard changes were recommended and the need for the development of four new structural standards was identified. In addition to the recommended standard changes, several other sets of information and data were extracted for use by USNRC in other on-going programs. This information included (1) detailed observations on the response of structures and distribution system supports to the recent Northridge, California (1994) and Kobe, Japan (1995) earthquakes, (2) comparison of versions of certain standards cited in the standard review plan to the most current versions, and (3) comparison of the seismic and wind design basis for all the subject reactor designs

  20. The BR1 research facilities to calibrate fuzzy logic technology for nuclear reactor control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last three decades SCK-CEN has participated in various international programmes using the BR1 (Belgian Reactor 1) facilities for various research and calibration purposes. The BR1 has proved to be an excellent for calibration and validation of techniques, integral nuclear data validation, activation analysis, characterisation of materials by neutron transmission, and physics experiments. Moreover, the knowledge, built up at BR1 has lead to the best calibration conditions for applying fuzzy logic control (FLC) for nuclear reactor control

  1. A gas-phase reactor powered by solar energy and ethanol for H2 production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the view of H2 as the future energy vector, we presented here the development of a homemade photo-reactor working in gas phase and easily interfacing with fuel cell devices, for H2 production by ethanol dehydrogenation. The process generates acetaldehyde as the main co-product, which is more economically advantageous with respect to the low valuable CO2 produced in the alternative pathway of ethanol photoreforming. The materials adopted as photocatalysts are based on TiO2 substrates but properly modified with noble (Au) and not-noble (Cu) metals to enhance light harvesting in the visible region. The samples were characterized by BET surface area analysis, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and UV–visible Diffusive Reflectance Spectroscopy, and finally tested in our homemade photo-reactor by simulated solar irradiation. We discussed about the benefits of operating in gas phase with respect to a conventional slurry photo-reactor (minimization of scattering phenomena, no metal leaching, easy product recovery, etc.). Results showed that high H2 productivity can be obtained in gas phase conditions, also irradiating titania photocatalysts doped with not-noble metals. - Highlights: • A gas-phase photoreactor for H2 production by ethanol dehydrogenation was developed. • The photocatalytic behaviours of Au and Cu metal-doped TiO2 thin layers are compared. • Benefits of operating in gas phase with respect to a slurry reactor are presented. • Gas phase conditions and use of not-noble metals are the best economic solution

  2. Prevalence and origin of HIV-1 group M subtypes among patients attending a Belgian hospital in 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoeck, Joke; Van Dooren, Sonia; Van Laethem, Kristel; Derdelinckx, Inge; Van Wijngaerden, Eric; De Clercq, Erik; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke

    2002-04-23

    HIV-1 group M strains are usually subtyped based on gag and/or env gene sequences. In our lab, part of the pol gene sequence was available in order to determine the genotypic anti-HIV drug resistance profile. To estimate the prevalence of the different HIV-1 subtypes in patients visiting the University Hospitals in Leuven in 1999 and for whom a genotypic drug resistance test was needed, we tried to use the pol sequence for subtyping. Recombination was investigated by similarity plots and bootscanning and subtyping was performed by phylogenetic analysis. The overall region spanning the entire protease and 747 nucleotides of the reverse transcriptase proved very suitable for subtyping, although there was a low phylogenetic signal at the beginning of the reverse transcriptase (nucleotides 0-250), as we demonstrated by likelihood mapping. Of the 41 samples analyzed, 21 belonged to subtype B. Of the other 20 non-B strains, 9 belonged to subtype C, 2 to subtype D and 1 to subtype A, G, H and J, respectively, 3 were CRF_02 (Circulating Recombinant Form), 1 was recombinant with a novel breakpoint and 1 sample was untypable. Although subtype B is still the most prevalent subtype in Belgium, it seems to be responsible for only half of the infections in this study. We could also document that the prevalence of subtype C is high in the Belgian native patients, especially among the heterosexually infected population. This could possibly be an indication for an epidemic spread of HIV-1 subtype C in Belgium, as for one third of these patients, no link to an endemic region could be found. The other non-B subtypes and the recombinants are mainly introduced by immigrants or by Belgian citizens traveling abroad. PMID:11955642

  3. Evaluation of nuclear facility decommissioning projects. Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor building decontamination. Summary status report. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document summarizes information relating to decontamination of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor building. The report covers activities for the period of June 1, 1979 through March 29, 1985. The data collected from activity reports, reactor containment entry records, and other sources were entered into a computerized data system which permits extraction/manipulation of specific information which can be used in planning for recovery from an accident similar to that experienced at TMI-2 on March 28, 1979. This report contains summaries of man-hours, manpower, and radiation exposures incurred during decontamination of the reactor building. Support activities conducted outside of radiation areas are excluded from the scope of this report. Computerized reports included in this document are: a chronological summary listing work performed relating to reactor building decontamination for the period specified; and summary reports for each major task during the period. Each task summary is listed in chronological order for zone entry and subtotaled for the number of personnel entries, exposures, and man-hours. Manually-assembled table summaries are included for: labor and exposures by department and labor and exposures by major activity

  4. Evaluation of nuclear facility decommissioning projects. Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor building decontamination. Summary status report. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerge, D.H.; Miller, R.L.; Scotti, K.S.

    1986-05-01

    This document summarizes information relating to decontamination of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor building. The report covers activities for the period of June 1, 1979 through March 29, 1985. The data collected from activity reports, reactor containment entry records, and other sources were entered into a computerized data system which permits extraction/manipulation of specific information which can be used in planning for recovery from an accident similar to that experienced at TMI-2 on March 28, 1979. This report contains summaries of man-hours, manpower, and radiation exposures incurred during decontamination of the reactor building. Support activities conducted outside of radiation areas are excluded from the scope of this report. Computerized reports included in this document are: a chronological summary listing work performed relating to reactor building decontamination for the period specified; and summary reports for each major task during the period. Each task summary is listed in chronological order for zone entry and subtotaled for the number of personnel entries, exposures, and man-hours. Manually-assembled table summaries are included for: labor and exposures by department and labor and exposures by major activity.

  5. In-pile modelling of nuclear fuel element for the MTR type reactors. Pt. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhadi, Kazem [AEOI, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Radiations Application Research School

    2014-06-15

    In part two of the present paper, neutronic properties of the pool-type research reactor core are used to assess the similitude laws derived for out-of-pile modelling of the fuel element. The benchmark reactor used for this purpose is an IAEA 5 MW thermal pool-type research reactor currently in operation. The neutronic properties analysis are based on typical 2 200 m/sec and neutrons having 0.025 eV energy. The non-leakage capability of the system is estimated in terms of diffusion length. Also the slowing down power and the moderating ratio of the modelled methanol coolant are calculated in terms of lethargy of the diffusing medium. It is shown that the Iron which is substituted for Aluminium cladding is a relatively low absorber of neutrons but has a high neutron leakage. Methanol which replaced ordinary water as coolant is not a suitable coolant due to high neutrons absorbing substance. It is concluded that although Iron as a cladding material and methanol as a coolant meet the modelling out-of-pile criteria but are not satisfying neutronic properties. Therefore, use of them as a model clad and coolant are not suggested for research reactors. (orig.)

  6. Energy Multiplier Module (EM{sup 2}) - advanced small modular reactor for electricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertch, T.; Schleicher, R.; Choi, H.; Rawls, J., E-mail: timothy.bertch@ga.com [General Atomics, San Diego, California (United States)

    2013-07-01

    In order to provide cost effective nuclear energy in other than large reactor, large grid applications, fission technology needs to make further advances. 'Convert and burn' fast reactors offer long life cores, improved fuel utilization, reduced waste and other benefits while achieving cost effective energy production in a smaller reactor. General Atomics' Energy Multiplier Module (EM{sup 2}), a helium-cooled compact fast reactor that augments its fissile fuel load with either depleted uranium (DU) or used nuclear fuel (UNF). The convert and burn in-situ provides 250 MWe with a 30 year core life. High temperature provides a simple, high efficiency direct cycle gas turbine which along with modular construction, fewer systems, road shipment and minimum on site construction support cost effectiveness. Additional advantages in fuel cycle, non-proliferation and siting flexibility and its ability to meet all safety requirements make for an attractive power source, especially in remote and small grid regions. (author)

  7. Radionuclide distribution in TMI-2 reactor building basement liquids and solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large quantities of radioactive water and some core debris solids were released to the reactor building basement during the March 1979 accident at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2). A reactor building basement sampling and analysis program is underway to support fission product mass balance and source term studies, TMI-2 accident analysis, and decontamination planning. Liquid and solid samples were collected from a variety of locations to determine the composition, quantity, and distribution of the debris and fission products released to the basement environment. Basement water sources, sample history, and sampling techniques are discussed. Fuel, radionuclide content and elemental composition of liquid and solid samples are presented. Conclusions are presented on the partitioning of fission products within liquids and solids and on the transport paths within the basement area

  8. Burnup calculations of TR-2 Research Reactor with Monteburns Monte Carlo Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In this study, some neutronic calculations of first and second core cycles of 5 MW pool type TR-2 Research Reactor have been performed using Multi-Step Monte Carlo Burnup Code System MONTEBURNS and the results were compared with the values of experiments and other codes. Time dependent keff distribution and burnup ratios belong to first and second core cycles of TR-2 Research Reactor were compared and quite good consistence in the results were observed. After modeling the first and second core cycles of TR-2 with MCNP5 Monte Carlo code, MCNP5 used in MONTEBURNS code has been parallelized in 8 HP ProLiant BL680C G5 systems with 4 quad-core Intel Xeon E7330 CPU, utilizing the MPI parallel protocol and simulations were performed on the 128 cores Linux parallel computing machine system. The computation time was reduced by parallelization of MONTEBURNS which uses MCNP in many steps. (authors)

  9. Measurement of cold neutron spectra using a model cryogenic moderator of the IBR-2M reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikov, S. A.; Kalinin, I. V.; Morozov, V. M.; Novikov, A. G.; Puchkov, A. V.; Chernikov, A. N.; Shabalin, E. P.

    2010-01-01

    The method and results of an experiment to determine the cold neutron spectrum from solid mesitylene at moderator temperatures of 10-50 K are presented. This study was performed at the DIN-2PI spectrometer of the IBR-2 reactor. The objective of the study was to verify the system of constants used in the Monte Carlo simulation of cryogenic neutron moderators of the IBR-2M reactor and to obtain the cold neutron yield as a function of the moderator temperature. Satisfactory agreement between the experimental and calculated neutron spectra at a mesitylene temperature of 20 K has been obtained; the ratio of cold neutron intensities at 10 and 50 K is ˜1.8.

  10. LTA'S manufacturing for JHR fuel qualification program in BR2 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the frame of the JHR fuel qualification program, CEA awarded to AREVA-CERCA an order for the manufacture and delivery of twelve Lead Test Assemblies. These assemblies are made in MEU U3Si2 type fuel plates using AlFeNi cladding. They are dedicated to experimental tests performed in the BR2 reactor, with the purpose of demonstrating the good behaviour of the fuel elements under operating conditions representative of the JHR normal operation. The main challenges were to manufacture new designed fuel assemblies with specific constraints on the geometry and on the manufacturing margins, due to the high performances required for the JHR reactor; as well as to deal with the insertion of burnable poisons in the U3Si2 type fuel plates. This paper is focused on manufacturing developments performed along the project so as to finally successfully produce the LTA's fuel elements. (author)

  11. Joint Assessment of ETRR-2 Research Reactor Operations Program, Capabilities, and Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissani, M; O' Kelly, D S

    2006-05-08

    A joint assessment meeting was conducted at the Egyptian Atomic Energy Agency (EAEA) followed by a tour of Egyptian Second Research Reactor (ETRR-2) on March 22 and 23, 2006. The purpose of the visit was to evaluate the capabilities of the new research reactor and its operations under Action Sheet 4 between the U.S. DOE and the EAEA, ''Research Reactor Operation'', and Action Sheet 6, ''Technical assistance in The Production of Radioisotopes''. Preliminary Recommendations of the joint assessment are as follows: (1) ETRR-2 utilization should be increased by encouraging frequent and sustained operations. This can be accomplished in part by (a) Improving the supply-chain management for fresh reactor fuel and alleviating the perception that the existing fuel inventory should be conserved due to unreliable fuel supply; and (b) Promulgating a policy for sample irradiation priority that encourages the use of the reactor and does not leave the decision of when to operate entirely at the discretion of reactor operations staff. (2) Each experimental facility in operation or built for a single purpose should be reevaluated to focus on those that most meet the goals of the EAEA strategic business plan. Temporary or long-term elimination of some experimental programs might be necessary to provide more focused utilization. There may be instances of emerging reactor applications for which no experimental facility is yet designed or envisioned. In some cases, an experimental facility may have a more beneficial use than the purpose for which it was originally designed. For example, (a) An effective Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) program requires nearby high quality medical facilities. These facilities are not available and are unlikely to be constructed near the Inshas site. Further, the BNCT facility is not correctly designed for advanced research and therapy programs using epithermal neutrons. (b) The ETRR-2 is frequently operated to

  12. Report on the operation of the FR2 research reactor in 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research and material testing reactor and the largescale testing facilities were operated in a successful and safe mode in 1974. On May 26, 1974 FR2 attained 50,000 operating hours at full load and at 44 MW reactor power. The experimental utilization of the reactor continued to be good. As to the beam guide experiments, the testing facilities were expanded at the R 1 channel by installation of a plug provided with a double beam guide. Up to 13 beam guide experiments in total were performed with 20 testing facilities. Following successful completion of experiments carried out in the heavy water pressurized loop (exp. FR2/58) on January 20, 1974 four large-scale test facilities (loop experiments) were still operating. The facilities used for isotope production were extended by a gas activation system (exp. FR2/104) and by irradiation rigs allowing to dope very pure silicon (exp. FR2/108). In special irradiation rigs (exp. FR2/107) irradiations were performed for the first time of 100 kg of scandium labeled see sand on behalf of Landesamt fuer Wasserhaushalt und Kuesten, Kiel. (orig./HR)

  13. Uniform coating of TiO2 thin films on particles by rotating cylindrical PCVD reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Joo; Baeg, Jin-Ook; Moon, Sang-Jin; Kim, Kyo-Seon

    2009-07-01

    We analyzed TiO2 thin film growth on glass particles in a rotating cylindrical plasma chemical vapor deposition (PCVD) reactor and numerically investigated the effects of several process variables on the film growth. An increase in titanium tetra-isopropoxide (TTIP) or O2 partial pressure can enhance the film growth rate on the particles because the concentration of TiO(x), which is the main precursor for thin film growth, becomes higher in the reactor. As the particle diameter decreases, the TiO(x) concentration increases and the thin film on the particles grows more quickly. The neutral-radical reaction between TTIP and O radicals for TiO(x) generation in TTIP + O2 plasmas can be important to enhance the thin film growth rate on the particles. The growth rate of TiO2 film predicted in this study was 1 approximately 20 nm/min, which is in good agreement with the published experimental results. This study suggests that a uniform TiO2 thin film on particles can be obtained by using a rotating cylindrical PCVD reactor. PMID:19916444

  14. Summary of IEA-R1 research a reactor licensing related to its power increase from 2 to 10 MW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is a summary of IEA-R1 research reactor licensing related to its power increase from 2 to 10 MW. It reports also safety requirements, fuel elements, and reactor control modifications inherent to power increase. (A.C.A.S.)

  15. EPLAN-pulse; A midterm model for the evaluation of Belgian electricity production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lissens, G. (VITO, Energy division, Mol (Belgium))

    1993-01-01

    The model presented, EPLAN, simulates the electricity production system in Belgium, the relevant decision making processes, investments in new generating capacity, the emissions of power plants (NO[sub x], SO[sub 2], particles, gypsum and nuclear waste), the costs of the system and its fuel use. The model in its present state is developed around a core model of the University of Antwerp to evaluate capacity planning of the Belgian electricity producers, and has been enhanced in many ways at VITO, the Flemish Institute for Technological Research. It should be made clear from the start that emission forecasts in the electricity sector are not eligible for trend extrapolation or other statistical methods on their own. Data on production and emissions of the electricity sector between 1980 and 1990 show an increase in production of electricity of some 30%, while emissions of SO[sub 2] went down by more than 70% and emission of NO[sub x] declined by more than 30%, which is illustrative for the previous statement. The dependency of emissions on technology make that emission forecasting in the electricity sector cannot be done by models other than those which take into account each technology that is eligible for investment over the specified time horizon. Combining technological parameters with social, environmental and economic principles is what EPLAN is supposed to do. Much of its merits are thus attributable to the expertise of the developer of the social, technological, environmental and economic scenarios, for which EPLAN allows full flexibility. Fuel price scenarios, demand scenarios, efficiencies of every single production unit, type of demand curve, efficiency of emission reduction technologies, and many more are easy to define and it takes only very little time for an experienced EPLAN-operator to install a completely new scenario or add a new technology. (au).

  16. Laboratory corrosion tests on candidate high-level waste container materials: Results from the Belgian programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Belgian SAFIR-2 concept foresees the geological disposal of conditioned high-level radioactive waste in stainless steel containers and overpacks placed in a concrete gallery backfilled with Boom clay or a bentonite-type backfill. In addition to earlier in situ experiments, we used a laboratory approach to investigate the corrosion properties of selected stainless steels in Boom clay and bentonite environments. In the SAFIR-2 concept, AISI 316L hMo is the main candidate overpack material. As an alternative, we also investigated the higher alloyed stainless steel UHB 904L. Our study focused on localised corrosion and in particular pitting. We used cyclic potentiodynamic polarisation measurements to determine the pit nucleation potential ENP and the protection potential EPP. The evolution of the corrosion potential with time was determined by monitoring the open circuit potential in synthetic clay-water over extended periods. In this paper we present and discuss some results from our laboratory programme, focusing on long-term interactions between the stainless steel overpack and the backfill materials. We describe in particular the influence of chloride and thio-sulphate ions on the pitting corrosion behaviour. The results show that, under geochemical conditions typical for geological disposal, i.e. [Cl-] ∼ 30 mg/L for a Boom clay backfill and [Cl-] ∼ 90 mg/L for a bentonite backfill, neither AISI 316L hMo nor UHB 904L is expected to present pitting problems. An important factor in the long-term prediction of the corrosion behaviour however, is the robustness of the model for the evolution of the geochemistry of the backfill. Indeed, at chloride levels higher than 1000 mg/L, we predict pitting corrosion for AISI 316L hMo. (authors)

  17. The Belgian PCB/dioxin incident: analysis of the food chain contamination and health risk evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Alfred; Broeckaert, Fabrice; De Poorter, Geert; De Cock, Ann; Hermans, Cédric; Saegerman, Claude; Houins, Gilbert

    2002-01-01

    The Belgian PCB incident occurred at the end of January 1999 when a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contaminated with dioxins was accidentally added to a stock of recycled fat used in the production of animal feeds. Although signs of poultry poisoning were noticed by February, 1999, the source and the extent of the contamination were discovered only in May 1999, when it appeared that more than 2500 farms could have been supplied with contaminated feeds. This resulted in a major food crisis, which rapidly extended to the whole country and could be resolved only by the implementation of a large PCB/dioxin food monitoring program. Screening for PCB contamination was based on the determination of the seven PCB markers. When PCB concentrations exceeded the tolerance levels of 0.1 (milk), 0.2 (poultry, bovine, and pig meat), or 1 (animal feed) microg/g fat, dioxins (17 PCDD/Fs congeners) were also determined. At the end of December 1999, the database contained the results of more than 55,000 PCB and 500 dioxin analyses. The study of PCB levels and profiles in contaminated feeds delivered to poultry or pig farms confirmed that the Belgian PCB incident was due to a single source of PCB oil introduced into the food chain at the end of January 1999. This PCB oil had a congeners pattern closely matched to a mixture of Aroclor 1260/1254 in the proportion 75/25. The total amount of PCBs added to recycled fats was estimated at 50 kg (sum of the seven markers) or approximately 150 kg total PCBs, which corresponds to about 100 liters of PCB oil. This PCB mixture contained about 1g TEQ dioxins (more than 90- contributed by PCDFs) and about 2g TEQ dioxin-like PCBs. The proportions of PCB 52 and 101 congeners were fairly constant in animal feeds, excluding the possibility of secondary contamination due to fat recycling from contaminated animals. The highest concentrations of PCBs and dioxins were found in poultry and especially in the reproduction animals (hens and chicks

  18. Chemical Effects of CO2 Concentration on Soot Formation in Jet-stirred/Plug-flow Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张引弟; 娄春; 刘德华; 李勇; 阮龙飞

    2013-01-01

    Soot formation was investigated numerically with CO2 addition in a jet-stirred/plug-flow reactor (JSR/PFR) C2H4/O2/N2 reactor (C/O ratio of 2.2) at atmospheric pressure. An updated Kazakov mechanism empha-sizes the effect of the O2/CO2 atmosphere instead of an O2/N2 one in the premixed flame. The soot formation was taken into account in the JSR/PFR for C2H4/O2/N2. The effects of CO2 addition on soot formation in different C2H4/O2/CO2/N2 atmospheres were studied, with special emphasis on the chemical effect. The simulation shows that the endothermic reaction CO2+H CO+OH is responsible of the reduction of hydrocarbon intermediates in the CO2 added combustion through the supplementary formation of hydroxyl radicals. The competition of CO2 for H radical through the above forward reaction with the single most important chain branching reaction H+O2 O+OH reduces significantly the fuel burning rate. The chemical effects of CO2 cause a significant increase in residence time and mole fractions of CO and OH, significant decreases in some intermediates (H, C2H2), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, C6H6 and C16H10, etc.) and soot volume fraction. The CO2 addition will leads to a decrease by only about 5%to 20%of the maximum mole fractions of some C3 to C10 hydrocarbon intermediates. The sensitivity analysis and reaction-path analysis results show that C2H4 reaction path and products are altered due to the CO2 addition.

  19. Non-motor symptoms in a Flanders-Belgian population of 215 Parkinson’s disease patients as assessed by the Non-Motor Symptoms Questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Crosiers, David; Pickut, Barbara; Theuns, Jessie; De Deyn, Peter Paul; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; Martinez-Martin, Pablo; Chaudhuri, K. Ray; Cras, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Background: Non-motor symptoms (NMS) in Parkinson’s disease (PD) are frequent, increase the patients’ disability and have an important negative impact on their quality of life. Methods: We used a Dutch translation of the Non-Motor Symptoms Questionnaire (NMSQuest) to identify NMS in a population of 215 Belgian PD patients. Results: A median number of 8 NMS was reported per patient. Urinary urgency (59.2 %), nocturia (56.9 %), insomnia (45.8 %), attention problems (45.5 %) and orthostatism (41...

  20. Performance of small reactors at universities for teaching, research, training and service (TRTS): thirty five years' experience with the Dalhousie University SLOWPOKE-2 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Dalhousie University SLOWPOKE-2 Reactor (DUSR) facility, operated during 1976-2011, was the only research reactor in Atlantic Canada as well as the only one associated with a chemistry department in a Canadian university. The most outstanding features of the facility included: a rapid (100 ms) cyclic pneumatic sample transfer system, a permanently installed Cd-site, and a Compton-suppression gamma-ray spectrometer. The usage encompassed fundamental as well as applied studies in various fields using neutron activation analysis (NAA). The facility was used for training undergraduate/graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, technicians, and visiting scientists, and for cooperative projects with other universities, research organizations and industries. (author)

  1. Current status of restoration work for obstacle and upper core structure in reactor vessel of experimental fast reactor 'JOYO'. 2. Replacement of upper core structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the experimental fast reactor Joyo, it was confirmed that the top of the irradiation test sub-assembly of MARICO-2 (material testing rig with temperature control) had bent onto the in-vessel storage rack as an obstacle and had damaged the upper core structure (UCS) in 2007. As a part of the restoration work, UCS replacement was begun at March 24, 2014 and was completed at December 17. In-vessel repair (including observation) for sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs) is distinct from that for light water reactors and necessitates independent development. Application of developed in-vessel repair techniques to operation and maintenance of SFRs enhanced their safety and integrity. There is little UCS replacement experience in the world and this experience and insights, which were accumulated in the replacement work of in-vessel large structure (UCS) used for more than 30 years, are expected to improve the in-vessel repair techniques in SFRs. (author)

  2. Microfluidic reactor synthesis and photocatalytic behavior of Cu@Cu2O nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The Cu@Cu2O nanocomposites were synthesized in microfluidic reactor followed by oxidation process. • The Cu@Cu2O composite particle is on nanoscale exhibiting an open bicontinuous structure. • The amount of Cu2O can be controlled by varying drying temperature. • The binary Cu@Cu2O–H2O2 systems exhibit an excellent photocatalyst for degradation methylene blue under UV irradiation. - Abstract: The Cu@Cu2O nanocomposites were synthesized by solution-phase synthesis of Cu nanoparticles in microfluidic reactor at room temperature, followed by controlling the oxidation process. The size, morphology, elemental compositions, and the chemical composition on the surface of Cu@Cu2O nanocomposite were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Experimental results demonstrated that the surface of the Cu nanoparticles was oxidized to Cu2O which serves as the shell of nanoparticle. The amount of Cu2O can be controlled by varying the drying temperature. Additionally the binary Cu@Cu2O nanocomposite along with H2O2 exhibited its potential as an excellent photocatalyst for degradation of methylene blue (MB) under UV irradiation

  3. Control system of pelletized cold neutron moderator at the IBR-2 reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyakov, A.; Bulavin, M.; Chernikov, A.; Churakov, A.; Kulikov, S.; Litvinenko, E.; Mukhin, K.; Petrenko, A.; Petukhova, T.; Sirotin, A.; Shabalin, E.; Shirokov, V.; Verhoglyadov, A.

    2015-11-01

    The unique pelletized cold neutron moderator CM-202 at the IBR-2 reactor was put into test operation and have already worked more than 2000 hours. Normal, fast and trouble-free operation of the cryogenic moderator requires strict adherence to technological conditions (fast charging and discharging of moderator chamber, maintenance of required temperature and pressure at different parts of cryogenic system). The system of control and measuring equipment, designed for cryogenic moderator of the IBR-2 reactor, satisfies all the requirements and is simple to use. Access to the system of measuring instruments is organized via network. The working cycles of moderator confirmed the reliability and stable operation of the whole control system.

  4. Revision of fast reactor group constant set JFS-3-J2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To improve the fast reactor group constant set JFS-3-J2 to be applicable for high burnup reactor calculations, group constants for 155 fission product nuclides and the lumped group cross sections for four mother fission isotopes of U-235, U-238, Pu-239 and Pu-241 have been generated. Furthermore, the group constants for higher actinides such as Am and Cm have been produced on the basis of the JENDL-2 nuclear data, so as to be able to use for TRU-transmutation calculations. Benchmark test of this revised set has been performed by analysing the 21 fast critical experimental assemblies. Benchmark calculation system based on one-dimensional Sn-method has been developed to investigate the accuracy of one-dimensional diffusion calculations. Significant difference between the results obtained with the diffusion and transport calculations was observed for small cores and the assemblies with iron or nickel reflector. (author)

  5. Thermal-hydraulic assessment of topaz irradiation processes at the ETRR-2 research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work is carried out in order to evaluate the cooling process of irradiated topaz at the Egyptian Second Research Reactor (ETRR-2). A mathematical model is developed to simulate the cooling process of a part of the irradiation grid containing one topaz irradiation box. The coolant flow rate distribution through the model channels is estimated taken into consideration the buoyancy effect in each channel. The coolant temperature distributions along the model channels are predicted as well. The COSMOS/M finite element code is used to estimate the temperature distribution through one irradiated topaz stone. The predicted coolant and surface temperature values show the efficient cooling of topaz stones irradiated at the ETRR-2 research reactor. (orig.)

  6. Development of UO2/PuO2 dispersed in uranium matrix CERMET fuel system for fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CERMET fuel with either PuO2 or enriched UO2 dispersed in uranium metal matrix has a strong potential of becoming a fuel for the liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors (LMR’s). In fact it may act as a bridge between the advantages and disadvantages associated with the two extremes of fuel systems (i.e. ceramic fuel and metallic fuel) for fast reactors. At Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), R and D efforts are on to develop this CERMET fuel by powder metallurgy route. This paper describes the development of flow sheet for preparation of UO2 dispersed in uranium metal matrix pellets for three different compositions i.e. U–20 wt%UO2, U–25 wt%UO2 and U–30 wt%UO2. It was found that the sintered pellets were having excellent integrity and their linear mass was higher than that of carbide fuel pellets used in Fast Breeder Test Reactor programme (FBTR) in India. The pellets were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique for phase analysis and lattice parameter determination. The optical microstructures were developed and reported for all the three different U–UO2 compositions.

  7. Geomechanical Analysis of Underground Coal Gasification Reactor Cool Down for Subsequent CO2 Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarhosis, Vasilis; Yang, Dongmin; Kempka, Thomas; Sheng, Yong

    2013-04-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) is an efficient method for the conversion of conventionally unmineable coal resources into energy and feedstock. If the UCG process is combined with the subsequent storage of process CO2 in the former UCG reactors, a near-zero carbon emission energy source can be realised. This study aims to present the development of a computational model to simulate the cooling process of UCG reactors in abandonment to decrease the initial high temperature of more than 400 °C to a level where extensive CO2 volume expansion due to temperature changes can be significantly reduced during the time of CO2 injection. Furthermore, we predict the cool down temperature conditions with and without water flushing. A state of the art coupled thermal-mechanical model was developed using the finite element software ABAQUS to predict the cavity growth and the resulting surface subsidence. In addition, the multi-physics computational software COMSOL was employed to simulate the cavity cool down process which is of uttermost relevance for CO2 storage in the former UCG reactors. For that purpose, we simulated fluid flow, thermal conduction as well as thermal convection processes between fluid (water and CO2) and solid represented by coal and surrounding rocks. Material properties for rocks and coal were obtained from extant literature sources and geomechanical testings which were carried out on samples derived from a prospective demonstration site in Bulgaria. The analysis of results showed that the numerical models developed allowed for the determination of the UCG reactor growth, roof spalling, surface subsidence and heat propagation during the UCG process and the subsequent CO2 storage. It is anticipated that the results of this study can support optimisation of the preparation procedure for CO2 storage in former UCG reactors. The proposed scheme was discussed so far, but not validated by a coupled numerical analysis and if proved to be applicable it could

  8. CO2 Storage Properties of Nanostructured Carbons by a Microwave Plasma Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Mi Tian; Congxiao Shang

    2015-01-01

    Nanostructured carbon was successfully produced by methane cracking in a relatively low-energy cold plasma reactor designed in-house. A followed thermal treatment was carried out to further enhance its porosity. The modified plasma carbon was then employed for CO2 adsorption at 25°C. The as-synthesized plasma carbon and the modified carbon were characterized by BET surface area/pore size analyzer, Raman spectra, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show thermal modification...

  9. Reactor pressure vessel steels ASTM A533B and A508 Cl.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the tensile test results of steels ASTM A533B and A508 Cl.2 obtained in connection with a programme initiated to gather and create information needed for the assessment of the structural integrity of the reactor pressure vessels. The tensile properties were studied between -196 and 300 degC varying austenitizing and tempering temperatures and having two different carbon contents for the heats of A533B. (author)

  10. Neutron Radiography Facility at IBR-2 High Flux Pulsed Reactor: First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlenko, D. P.; Kichanov, S. E.; Lukin, E. V.; Rutkauskas, A. V.; Bokuchava, G. D.; Savenko, B. N.; Pakhnevich, A. V.; Rozanov, A. Yu.

    A neutron radiography and tomography facilityhave been developed recently at the IBR-2 high flux pulsed reactor. The facility is operated with the CCD-camera based detector having maximal field of view of 20x20 cm, and the L/D ratio can be varied in the range 200 - 2000. The first results of the radiography and tomography experiments with industrial materials and products, paleontological and geophysical objects, meteorites, are presented.

  11. Software for neutron activation analysis at reactor IBR-2, FLNP, JINR

    CERN Document Server

    Zlokazov, V B

    2004-01-01

    A Delphi program suite, developed for processing gamma-spectra of induced activity of nuclei, obtained from the neutron activation measurements at the reactor IBR-2, FLNF, JINR, is reported. This suite contains components, intended for carrying out all the operations of the analysis cycle, starling with a data acquisition program for gamma -spectrometers Gamma (written in C++ Builder) and including Delphi programs for steps of the analysis. (6 refs).

  12. Development of a new control software package for Pakistan Research Reactor-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of a new control software package for Pakistan Research Reactor-2 is presented. The software operates in different modes which comprises of surveillance, pre-operational self tests, operator, supervisor and robotic control. The control logic critically damp the system minimizing power overshoots. The software, handles multiple abnormal conditions, provides an elaborate access control and maintains startup/shutdown record. The report describes the functional details and covers the operational aspects of the new control software. (author)

  13. Criticality calculations for the spent fuel storage pools for Etrr1 and Etrr2 reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A criticality analysis of two spent fuel storage pools for Etrr1 and Etrr2 research reactors was performed. The multiplication factor for the pools was calculated as a function of relevant lattice physics parameters. Monte Carlo code MNCP-4A code was used in the criticality calculations. The results were compared with those given by CITATION code and results obtained formerly during the design phase of the pools with the MONK 6.3 code. Safety of the pools was confirmed. (author)

  14. Tests to control the power distribution in the IRT-2,000 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of the investigations of a few structures of such control systems carried out with the help of the IRT 2,000 MIFI reactor in the years 1973/74 are presented in the present work. Within the framework of this study, the successful test of using the transmitter of the direct loading in equipment to control the neutron field was carried out. (orig./TK)

  15. Use of PC based data acquisition systems, connected to reactor shutdown system No. 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intention of this material is to present the experience in use and future development of PC Based Data Acquisition Systems (DAS), connected to Reactor Shutdown System (SDS) number 1 and number 2, at Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Unit 1 (U1). Two major aspects, regarding the purpose of using DAS, are the subject of the material: post-event analysis and system impairments evaluation; economic penalties reduced. (author)

  16. Y2K issues for real time computer systems for fast breeder test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presentation shows the classification of real time systems related to operation, control and monitoring of the fast breeder test reactor. Software life cycle includes software requirement specification, software design description, coding, commissioning, operation and management. A software scheme in supervisory computer of fast breeder test rector is described with the twenty years of experience in design, development, installation, commissioning, operation and maintenance of computer based supervision control system for nuclear installation with a particular emphasis on solving the Y2K problem

  17. The Belgian PCB/dioxin incident: a critical review of health risks evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, A; Fierens, S

    2002-01-01

    The Belgian PCB/dioxin incident is a food contamination that occurred in Belgium in January 1999 when a tank of recycled fats used to produce animal feeds was accidentally contaminated by approximately 100 L of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) oil containing 50 kg PCBs expressed as the sum of the seven markers, 1 g (TEQ) dioxins (PCDD/Fs) and 2 g toxic equivalent (TEQ) dioxin-like PCBs. The incident was discovered when a poultry poisoning resembling the classic chick edema disease broke out in several farms that had received contaminated feeds. The delay in making public this incident resulted in a major political and food crisis and caused much concern in the population. We review here the health risk evaluations that were made after this incident and we assess the likelihood of the different scenarios by taking into account recent data on the real scale of the contamination and on the dioxin body burden of the general population in Belgium. These new data confirm that the incident was too limited in time and in scale to have increased the PCB/dioxin body burden of the general population at large, a conclusion supported by a survey of dioxin levels in blood conducted at the end of 1999. Only farmers in poultry farms affected by the incident (about 30 farms) and having regularly consumed their own products could have increased their PCB/dioxin body burden. It is unlikely, however, that these farmers could have increased their PCB/dioxin body burden above levels prevailing in the 1980s or now found in communities regularly consuming seafood. PMID:12396678

  18. Multiyear Serological Surveillance of Notifiable Influenza A Viruses in Belgian Poultry: A Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marché, Sylvie; Houdart, Philippe; van den Berg, Thierry; Lambrecht, Bénédicte

    2016-05-01

    Surveillance of notifiable avian influenza (NAI) virus is mandatory in European member states, and each year a serological survey is performed to detect H5 and H7 circulation in poultry holdings. In Belgium, this serological monitoring is a combination of a stratified and a risk-based approach and is applied to commercial holdings with more than 200 birds. Moreover, a competitive nucleoprotein (NP) ELISA has been used as first screening method since 2010. A retrospective analysis of the serological monitoring performed from 2007 through 2013 showed sporadic circulation of notifiable low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) viruses in Belgian holdings with a fluctuating apparent flock seroprevalence according to years and species. Overall, the highest apparent flock seroprevalence was detected for the H5 subtype in domestic Anatidae, with 20%-50% for breeding geese and 4%-9% for fattening ducks. Positive serology against non-H5/H7 viruses was also observed in the same species with the use of the IDScreen influenza A antibody competition ELISA kit (ID-vet NP ELISA), and confirmed by isolation of H2, H3, H6, and H9 LPAI viruses. Among Galliformes, the apparent flock seroprevalence was lower, ranging between 0.3% and 1.3%. Circulation of notifiable LPAI viruses was only observed in laying hens with a similar seroprevalence for H5 and H7. Based on ID-vet NP ELISA results, no circulation of LPAI viruses, regardless the subtype, was observed in breeding chickens and fattening turkeys. Retrospectively, the use of an ELISA as first-line test not only reduced the number of hemagglutination inhibition tests to be performed, but also gave a broader evaluation of the prevalence of LPAI viruses in general, and might help to identify the most at-risk farms. PMID:27309088

  19. Multiyear Serological Surveillance of Notifiable Influenza A Viruses in Belgian Poultry: A Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marché, Sylvie; Houdart, Philippe; van den Berg, Thierry; Lambrecht, Bénédicte

    2015-12-01

    Surveillance of notifiable avian influenza (NAI) virus is mandatory in European member states, and each year a serological survey is performed to detect H5 and H7 circulation in poultry holdings. In Belgium, this serological monitoring is a combination of a stratified and a risk-based approach and is applied to commercial holdings with more than 200 birds. Moreover, a competitive nucleoprotein (NP) ELISA has been used as first screening method since 2010. A retrospective analysis of the serological monitoring performed from 2007 through 2013 showed sporadic circulation of notifiable low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) viruses in Belgian holdings with a fluctuating apparent flock seroprevalence according to years and species. Overall, the highest apparent flock seroprevalence was detected for the H5 subtype in domestic Anatidae, with 20%-50% for breeding geese and 4%-9% for fattening ducks. Positive serology against non-H5/H7 viruses was also observed in the same species with the use of the IDScreen influenza A antibody competition ELISA kit (ID-vet NP ELISA), and confirmed by isolation of H2, H3, H6, and H9 LPAI viruses. Among Galliformes, the apparent flock seroprevalence was lower, ranging between 0.3% and 1.3%. Circulation of notifiable LPAI viruses was only observed in laying hens with a similar seroprevalence for H5 and H7. Based on ID-vet NP ELISA results, no circulation of LPAI viruses, regardless the subtype, was observed in breeding chickens and fattening turkeys. Retrospectively, the use of an ELISA as first-line test not only reduced the number of hemagglutination inhibition tests to be performed, but also gave a broader evaluation of the prevalence of LPAI viruses in general, and might help to identify the most at-risk farms. PMID:26629630

  20. Mixed core management: Use of 93% and 72% enriched uranium in the BR2 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BR2 reactor, put into operation in 1963 and refurbished from July 1995 till April 1997, is a 100 MW high-flux Materials Testing Reactor, using 93% 235U enriched uranium as standard fuel, light water as coolant and beryllium as moderator. The present operating regime consists of five irradiation cycles per year at an operating power between 50 and 70 MW; each cycle is characterized by 21 days operation. In the framework of a 'qualification programme', six 72% 235U fuel elements fabricated with uranium recovered from the reprocessing of BR2 spent fuel at UKAEA-Dounreay have been successfully irradiated in the period 1994-1995 reaching a maximum mean burnup of 48% without the release of fission products. Since 1998, this type of fuel element is irradiated routinely together with standard 93% 235U fuel elements in order to optimize the utilization of the available HEU inventory. The purpose of this paper is to present the strategy developed in order to optimize the mixed core management of the BR2 reactor. (author)