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Sample records for belgian reactor 2

  1. Legal claims against Belgian reactors?; Rechtsmittel gegen belgische Reaktoren?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raetzke, Christian [CONLAR Consulting on Nuclear Law and Regulation, Leipzig (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    The Belgian reactors Tihange 2 and Doel 3 have been restarted in November 2015 after the problem of hydrogen flakes in the reactor pressure vessels had been investigated. The permission to restart has been the object both of critical statements by the German Federal Ministry of the Environment (BMUB) and of lawsuits filed with Belgian law courts by a group of German municipalities led by the city of Aachen and by the Land North-Rhine-Westphalia. According to a general principle of the law of nations, a state is not permitted to operate installations near its border, which cause significant environmental damage in a neighbouring state. However, it is not quite clear how this principle applies to the issue of potential accidents of nuclear power plants. According to the author, a tangible threat of an accident is required; mere doubts and concerns about the extent of safety margins are not sufficient.

  2. A CO2-strategy for BTC [Belgian Development Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailly, J. [Prospect C and S, Brussels (Belgium); Hanekamp, E. [Partners for Innovation, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2008-09-15

    The CO2 footprint is determined the CO2 strategy is developed for the Belgian Technical Cooperation (BTC). BTC is the Belgian agency for development cooperation, and finances development projects in 23 partner countries. The CO2 footprint covered BTC's activities in 2007 in all their offices worldwide. Footprint and strategy were finalised and adopted by the Executive Board at the end of 2008. Meanwhile, the BTC began with the introduction of the proposed strategy. Partners for Innovation and Prospect were asked to support the introduction of the strategy and to determine the CO2 footprint of 2008.

  3. Qualification of non-destructive examination for belgian nuclear reactor pressure vessel inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couplet, D. [TRACTEBEL, Brussels (Belgium); Francoise, T. [Intercontrole, 94 - Rungis (France)

    2001-07-01

    In Service Inspection (ISI) participates to the assessment of Nuclear Reactor Pressure Vessel Integrity. The performance of Non Destructive Examination (NDE) techniques must be demonstrated according to predefined objectives. The qualification process is essential to trust the reliability of the information provided by NDE. In Belgian Nuclear Power Plants, the qualification was conducted through a collaboration between the vendor and a technical group from the Electricity Utility. The important facts of this qualification will be presented: - the detailed definition of the inspection and qualifications objectives, based on a combination of the ASME code and the European Methodology for Qualification; - the systematic verification of the NDE performance and limitations, for each ISI objective, through an adequate combination of tests on blocks and technical justification; - the continuous improvement of the NDE procedure; - the feedback and the lessons learnt from site experience; - the necessary multi-disciplinary approach (NDE, degradation mechanisms, structural integrity)

  4. The BR2 high-flux reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponsard, Bernard [Belgian Nuclear Research Center (SCK-CEN), Mol (Belgium). BR2 Reactor

    2012-10-15

    The BR2 reactor is a 100 MW{sub th} High-Flux 'Material Testing Reactor' which first became operational in 1963 and has since been refurbished in 1995 to 1997. It is operated by the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, SCK CEN, in the framework of programmes related to the development of structural materials and nuclear fuels for fission and fusion reactors. Serious maintenance efforts are currently made by SCK CEN to secure its safe operation until at least 2023. This would guarantee the continuity of the activities in which the BR2 reactor is involved through its replacement by an Accelerator Driven System (ADS), MYRRHA, scheduled to be operated by SCK CEN from 2023. (orig.)

  5. VISIT OF BELGIAN FIRMS AT CERN: 2 - 3 APRIL 2003

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    14:00 to 17:30 hrs Wednesday 2nd 09:00 to 17:30 hrs Thursday 3rd Individual interviews will take place in different conference rooms or in technicians' offices. The firms will contact relevant users/technicians but any user wishing to make contact with a particular firm is welcome to use the contact details which are available from each secretariat of division or from the Purchasing web pages at the following URL http://spl-div.web.cern.ch/spl-div/member_states/exhibitions_visits.htm. List of Companies: 1. Advanco18. Link Software 2. Balteau SA19. MACQ Electronique SA 3. Barco NV20. Mecanique de Precision pour Equipments 4. Blonde SA21. Mecasoft SA 5. Britte SA22. Mockel SCA 6. Cablerie d'Eupen23. Notifier Benelux 7. Cegelec SA24. Opticable SA 8. SA Coppee - Courtoy NV25. Orthodyne SA 9. Denys NV26. Polmans Atelier Mecanique 10. DSI Sprl27. RESARM Engineering Plastics SA 11. Engetec SA28. SAMTECH 12. Gillam-Fei SA29. Schreder - Hazemeyer SA 13. G-Tec SA30. SYREG Sprl 14. Groupe Hamon31. Thales Communication...

  6. VISIT OF BELGIAN FIRMS AT CERN: 2 - 3 APRIL 2003

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    14:00 to 17:30 hrs Wednesday 2nd 09:00 to 17:30 hrs Thursday 3rd Individual interviews will take place in different conference rooms or in technicians' offices. The firms will contact relevant users/technicians but any user wishing to make contact with a particular firm is welcome to use the contact details which are available from each secretariat of division or from the Purchasing web pages at the following URL http://spl-div.web.cern.ch/spl-div/member_states/exhibitions_visits.htm. List of Companies: 1. Advanco18. Link Software 2. Balteau SA19. MACQ Electronique SA 3. Barco NV20. Mecanique de Precision pour Equipments 4. Blonde SA21. Mecasoft SA 5. Britte SA22. Mockel SCA 6. Cablerie d'Eupen23. Notifier Benelux 7. Cegelec SA24. Opticable SA 8. SA Coppee - Courtoy NV25. Orthodyne SA 9. Denys NV26. Polmans Atelier Mecanique 10. DSI Sprl27. RESARM Engineering Plastics SA 11. Engetec SA28. SAMTECH 12. Gillam-Fei SA29. Schreder - Hazemeyer SA 13. G-Tec SA30. SYREG Sprl30. SYREG Sprl 14. Groupe Hamon31. Thale...

  7. VISIT OF BELGIAN FIRMS AT CERN: 2 - 3 APRIL 2003

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    14:00 to 17:30 hrs Wednesday 2nd April 09:00 to 17:30 hrsThursday 3rd April Individual interviews will take place in different conference rooms or in technicians' offices. The firms will contact relevant users/technicians but any user wishing to make contact with a particular firm is welcome to use the contact details which are available from each secretariat of division or from the Purchasing web pages at the following URL http://spl-div.web.cern.ch/spl-div/member_states/exhibitions_visits.htm List of Companies: 1. Advanco13. Gillam-Fei SA25. Opticable SA 2. Balteau SA14. G-Tec SA26. Orthodyne SA 3. Barco NV15. Groupe Hamon27. Polmans Atelier Mecanique 4. Blonde SA16. HTMS NV28. RESARM Engineering Plastics SA 5. Britte SA17. IMCORP Europe29. SAMTECH 6. Cablerie d'Eupen18. Inductive Systems Europe NV30. Schreder - Hazemeyer SA 7. Cegelec SA19. Link Software31. SYREG Sprl 8. Clever House20. MACQ Electronique SA32. Thales Communications Belgium 9. SA Coppee - Courtoy NV21. Mecanique de Precision pour Equipm...

  8. Material test reactor fuel research at the BR2 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction of new, high performance material test reactor or the conversion of such reactors' core from high enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU) based fuel requires several fuel qualification steps. For the conversion of high performance reactors, high density dispersion or monolithic fuel types are being developed. The Uranium-Molybdenum fuel system has been selected as reference system for the qualification of LEU fuels. For reactors with lower performance characteristics, or as medium enriched fuel for high performance reactors, uranium silicide dispersion fuel is applied. However, on the longer term, the U-Mo based fuel types may offer a more efficient fuel alternative and-or an easier back-end solution with respect to the silicide based fuels. At the BR2 reactor of the Belgian nuclear research center, SCK-CEN in Mol, several types of fuel testing opportunities are present to contribute to such qualification process. A generic validation test for a selected fuel system is the irradiation of flat plates with representative dimensions for a fuel element. By flexible positioning and core loading, bounding irradiation conditions for fuel elements can be performed in a standard device in the BR2. For fuel element designs with curved plates, the element fabrication method compatibility of the fuel type can be addressed by incorporating a set of prototype fuel plates in a mixed driver fuel element of the BR2 reactor. These generic types of tests are performed directly in the primary coolant flow conditions of the BR2 reactor. The experiment control and interpretation is supported by detailed neutronic and thermal-hydraulic modeling of the experiments. Finally, the BR2 reactor offers the flexibility for irradiation of full size prototype fuel elements, as 200mm diameter irradiation channels are available. These channels allow the accommodation of various types of prototype fuel elements, eventually using a dedicated cooling loop to provide the

  9. Reactor BR2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubel, P

    2000-07-01

    The BR2 reactor is still SCK-CEN's most important nuclear facility. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. Various aspects concerning the operation of the BR2 Reactor, the utilisation of the CALLISTO loop and the irradiation programme, the BR2 R and D programme and the production of isotopes and of NTD-silicon are discussed. Progress and achievements in 1999 are reported.

  10. Balancing selection on CDH2 may be related to the behavioral features of the Belgian Malinois.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Cao

    Full Text Available The Belgian Malinois (BM is an excellent working dog that typically shows a circling behavior when placed in a confined space. Moreover, individuals showing moderate running in circles (one kind of obsessive compulsive behavior in confined spaces typically show better work performance compared to those without the circling behavior or to those with a serious circling behavior (which can be defined as an obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD. To determine whether the candidate gene CDH2, Cadherin 2, which is associated with OCD in the Doberman pinscher breed of dogs and in humans, was linked with this behavioral character in the BM, population genetic analyses were performed on a BM population and a natural population of the Chinese indigenous dog (CID. Many genetic signals of balancing selection were detected for one specific region of the CDH2 gene, which suggests that a genomic block, which is included in the CDH2 gene, experienced balancing selection in the BM, and that the CDH2 gene might be associated with the behavioral characteristics of the BM dog (a balance between circling behavior and work performance. Moreover one specific variant, G63913941A, which creates a predicted transcription factor-binding site, may be the key mutation in the CDH2 gene affecting the behavior of BMs by allowing the binding of a transcription factor and increasing CDH2 expression.

  11. Reactor BR2. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BR2 is a materials testing reactor and is still one of SCK-CEN's important nuclear facilities. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. During the last three years, the availability of the installation was maintained at an average level of 97.6 percent. In the year 2000, the reactor was operated for a total of 104 days at a mean power of 56 MW. In 2000, most irradiation experiments were performed in the CALLISTO PWR loop. The report describes irradiations achieved or under preparation in 2000, including the development of advanced facilities and concept studies for new programmes. An overview of the scientific irradiation programmes as well as of the R and D programme of the BR2 reactor in 2000 is given

  12. Reactor BR2. Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubel, P

    2002-04-01

    The BR2 materials testing reactor is one of SCK-CEN's most important nuclear facilities. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. In 2001, the reactor was operated for a total of 123 days at a mean power of 59 MW in order to satisfy the irradiation conditions of the internal and external programmes using mainly the CALLISTO PWR loop. The mean consumption of fresh fuel elements was 5.26 per 1000 MWd. Main achievements in 2001 included the development of a three-dimensional full-scale model of the BR2 reactor for simulation and prediction of irradiation conditions for various experiments; the construction of the FUTURE-MT device designed for the irradiation of fuel plates under representative conditions of geometry, neutron spectrum, heat flux and thermal-hydraulic conditions and the development of in-pile instrumentation and a data acquisition system.

  13. Reactor BR2. Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubel, P

    2001-04-01

    The BR2 is a materials testing reactor and is still one of SCK-CEN's important nuclear facilities. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. During the last three years, the availability of the installation was maintained at an average level of 97.6 percent. In the year 2000, the reactor was operated for a total of 104 days at a mean power of 56 MW. In 2000, most irradiation experiments were performed in the CALLISTO PWR loop. The report describes irradiations achieved or under preparation in 2000, including the development of advanced facilities and concept studies for new programmes. An overview of the scientific irradiation programmes as well as of the R and D programme of the BR2 reactor in 2000 is given.

  14. BR2 Reactor: Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The irradiations in the BR2 reactor are in collaboration with or at the request of third parties such as the European Commission, the IAEA, research centres and utilities, reactor vendors or fuel manufacturers. The reactor also contributes significantly to the production of radioisotopes for medical and industrial applications, to neutron silicon doping for the semiconductor industry and to scientific irradiations for universities. Along the ongoing programmes on fuel and materials development, several new irradiation devices are in use or in design. Amongst others a loop providing enhanced cooling for novel materials testing reactor fuel, a device for high temperature gas cooled fuel as well as a rig for the irradiation of metallurgical samples in a Pb-Bi environment. A full scale 3-D heterogeneous model of BR2 is available. The model describes the real hyperbolic arrangement of the reactor and includes the detailed 3-D space dependent distribution of the isotopic fuel depletion in the fuel elements. The model is validated on the reactivity measurements of several tens of BR2 operation cycles. The accurate calculations of the axial and radial distributions of the poisoning of the beryllium matrix by 3He, 6Li and 3T are verified on the measured reactivity losses used to predict the reactivity behavior for the coming decades. The model calculates the main functionals in reactor physics like: conventional thermal and equivalent fission neutron fluxes, number of displacements per atom, fission rate, thermal power characteristics as heat flux and linear power density, neutron/gamma heating, determination of the fission energy deposited in fuel plates/rods, neutron multiplication factor and fuel burn-up. For each reactor irradiation project, a detailed geometry model of the experimental device and of its neighborhood is developed. Neutron fluxes are predicted within approximately 10 percent in comparison with the dosimetry measurements. Fission rate, heat flux and

  15. Reactor Materials Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Walle, E

    2001-04-01

    The activities of the Reactor Materials Research Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. The programmes within the department are focussed on studies concerning (1) fusion, in particular mechanical testing; (2) Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC); (3) nuclear fuel; and (4) Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel (RPVS)

  16. High resolution mapping of the tropospheric NO2 distribution in three Belgian cities based on airborne APEX remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, Frederik; Merlaud, Alexis; Fayt, Caroline; Danckaert, Thomas; Iordache, Daniel; Meuleman, Koen; Deutsch, Felix; Adriaenssens, Sandy; Fierens, Frans; Van Roozendael, Michel

    2015-04-01

    An approach is presented to retrieve tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) vertical column densities (VCDs) and to map the NO2 two dimensional distribution at high resolution, based on Airborne Prism EXperiment (APEX) observations. APEX, developed by a Swiss-Belgian consortium on behalf of ESA (European Space Agency), is a pushbroom hyperspectral imager with a high spatial (approximately 3 m at 5000 m ASL), spectral (413 to 2421 nm in 533 narrow, contiguous spectral bands) and radiometric (14-bit) resolution. VCDs are derived, following a similar approach as described in the pioneering work of Popp et al. (2012), based on (1) spectral calibration and spatial binning of the observed radiance spectra in order to improve the spectral resolution and signal-to-noise ratio, (2) Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) analysis of the pre-processed spectra in the visible wavelength region, with a reference spectrum containing low NO2 absorption, in order to quantify the abundance of NO2 along the light path, based on its molecular absorption structures and (3) radiative transfer modeling for air mass factor calculation in order to convert slant to vertical columns. This study will be done in the framework of the BUMBA (Belgian Urban NO2 Monitoring Based on APEX hyperspectral data) project. Dedicated flights with APEX mounted in a Dornier DO-228 airplane, operated by Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), are planned to be performed in Spring 2015 above the three largest and most heavily polluted Belgian cities, i.e. Brussels, Antwerp and Liège. The retrieved VCDs will be validated by comparison with correlative ground-based and car-based DOAS observations. Main objectives are (1) to assess the operational capabilities of APEX to map the NO2 field over an urban area at high spatial and spectral resolution in a relatively short time and cost-effective way, and to characterise all aspects of the retrieval approach; (2) to use the APEX NO2 measurements

  17. Polyneuropathy in a young Belgian patient: A novel heterozygous mutation in the WNK1/HSN2 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Filette, Jeroen; Hasaerts, Danielle; Seneca, Sara; Gheldof, Alexander; Stouffs, Katrien; Keymolen, Kathelijn; Velkeniers, Brigitte

    2016-02-01

    Hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy (HSAN) is a rare condition, predominantly affecting the peripheral sensory nervous system, although variable motor and dysautonomic symptoms can be present. At least 7 clinical types of HSAN have been described, and different genetic mutations have been identified for each of these. HSAN IIA (OMIM #201300) is characterized by loss of pain and loss of temperature and touch sensation, with onset usually before the first decade. The mode of inheritance is autosomal recessive.(1) The causative gene, WNK1/HSN2, is located on locus 12p13.33 and is an isoform of the WNK1 (lysine deficient protein kinase 1) gene, which contains the HSN2 exon.(2,3) We describe 2 new heterozygous mutations in the WNK1/HSN2 gene in a Belgian patient with early-onset sensory polyneuropathy.

  18. Polyneuropathy in a young Belgian patient: A novel heterozygous mutation in the WNK1/HSN2 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Filette, Jeroen; Hasaerts, Danielle; Seneca, Sara; Gheldof, Alexander; Stouffs, Katrien; Keymolen, Kathelijn; Velkeniers, Brigitte

    2016-02-01

    Hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy (HSAN) is a rare condition, predominantly affecting the peripheral sensory nervous system, although variable motor and dysautonomic symptoms can be present. At least 7 clinical types of HSAN have been described, and different genetic mutations have been identified for each of these. HSAN IIA (OMIM #201300) is characterized by loss of pain and loss of temperature and touch sensation, with onset usually before the first decade. The mode of inheritance is autosomal recessive.(1) The causative gene, WNK1/HSN2, is located on locus 12p13.33 and is an isoform of the WNK1 (lysine deficient protein kinase 1) gene, which contains the HSN2 exon.(2,3) We describe 2 new heterozygous mutations in the WNK1/HSN2 gene in a Belgian patient with early-onset sensory polyneuropathy. PMID:27066579

  19. Strategic groups in the Belgian fishing fleet

    OpenAIRE

    Stouten, H.; A. HEENE; Gellynck, X.; Polet, H

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the heterogeneity of the Belgian fishing fleet based on “strategic groups”, a concept borrowed from the field of strategic management. Its objectives are: (1) to define strategic groups within the Belgian fishing fleet; (2) to examine the performance differences among these strategic groups; (3) to examine whether firms (i.e., vessels) move between strategic groups over time; and (4) to examine if firm-movement (i.e., vessel-movement) differs across strategic groups. In th...

  20. Analysis of HER2 expression and gene amplification in adenocarcinoma of the stomach and the gastro-oesophageal junction: rationale for the Belgian way of working.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouret-Mourin, A; Hoorens, A; De Hertogh, G; Vanderveken, J; Demetter, P; Van Cutsem, E

    2012-03-01

    The Human Epidermal growth factor Receptor 2 (HER2) has been established as a key player in the development of certain human tumors. ToGA trial has demonstrated that the addition of the monoclonal antibody blocking HER2 receptor, trastuzumab (Herceptin®), to chemotherapy significantly improves overall survival of patients with HER2-positive advanced or metastatic adenocarcinoma of the stomach or gastro-oesophageal junction. Therefore, it is essential that pathologists guarantee an accurate testing of HER2 status in these tumours. Following the international recommendations and the Belgian criteria for reimbursement of trastuzumab, a consortium of expert pathologists (Belgian Working Group Molecular Pathology) proposes an adaptation of the international guidelines in order to develop strategies for optimal performance, interpretation and reporting assays.

  1. The utility of different reactor types for the research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents a general view of the use of the different belgian research reactor i.e. venus reactor, BR-1 reactor, BR-2 reactor and BR-3 reactor. Particular attention is given to the programmes which is in the interest of international collaboration. In order to reach an efficient utilization of such reactors they require a specialized personnel groups to deal with the irradiation devices and radioactive materials and post irradiation examinations, creating a complete material testing station. (A.J.)

  2. Implementation of a program for type 2 diabetes based on the Chronic Care Model in a hospital-centered health care system: 'the Belgian experience'

    OpenAIRE

    Van Royen Paul; Vermeire Etienne; Wens Johan; Nobels Frank; Snauwaert Boris; Feyen Luc; Bastiaens Hilde; Sunaert Patricia; De Maeseneer Jan; De Sutter An; Willems Sara

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Most research publications on Chronic Care Model (CCM) implementation originate from organizations or countries with a well-structured primary health care system. Information about efforts made in countries with a less well-organized primary health care system is scarce. In 2003, the Belgian National Institute for Health and Disability Insurance commissioned a pilot study to explore how care for type 2 diabetes patients could be organized in a more efficient way in the Bel...

  3. Two Belgian University Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Huylebrouck

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bevacizumab (BEV, a humanized immunoglobulin G1 monoclonal antibody that inhibits VEGF has demonstrated activity against recurrent high-grade gliomas (HGG in phase II clinical trials. Patients and Methods. Data were collected from patients with recurrent HGG who initiated treatment with BEV outside a clinical trial protocol at two Belgian university hospitals. Results. 19 patients (11 M/8 F were administered a total of 138 cycles of BEV (median 4, range 1–31. Tumor response assessment by MRI was available for 15 patients; 2 complete responses and 3 partial responses for an objective response rate of 26% for the intent to treat population were observed on gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images; significant regressions on T2/FLAIR were documented in 10 out of 15 patients (67%. A reduced uptake on PET was documented in 3 out of 4 evaluable patients. The six-month progression-free survival was 21% (95% CI 2.7–39.5. Two patients had an ongoing tumor response and remained free from progression after 12 months of BEV treatment. Conclusions. The activity and tolerability of BEV were comparable to results from previous prospective phase II trials. Reduced uptake on PET suggests a metabolic response in addition to an antiangiogenic effect in some cases with favorable clinical outcome.

  4. BR2 reactor neutron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of reactor neutron beams is becoming increasingly more widespread for the study of some properties of condensed matter. It is mainly due to the unique properties of the ''thermal'' neutrons as regards wavelength, energy, magnetic moment and overall favorable ratio of scattering to absorption cross-sections. Besides these fundamental reasons, the impetus for using neutrons is also due to the existence of powerful research reactors (such as BR2) built mainly for nuclear engineering programs, but where a number of intense neutron beams are available at marginal cost. A brief introduction to the production of suitable neutron beams from a reactor is given. (author)

  5. Contribution of terrigenous rocks of South Belgian coal deposits in geological storage of CO2 : the sandstones case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, N.; Baele, J.-M.

    2009-04-01

    Sequestration of CO2 in unmined coal seams is one of the different options for storing CO2 in geological reservoirs. In favorable situations, it could be coupled with the retrieving of adsorbed methane from coal (ECBM), which can make this solution economically more attractive. However, in the case of South Belgian coal measures, both weak permeability of the coal and frequent faulting/folding of the seams are likely to decrease the efficiency of this technique. Westphalian A and B sediments from South Belgium are containing only about 2.5% vol. of coal; the other rocks consisting of shales/siltstones (~80%) and sandstones (~20%). For all these lithologies, the main processes of CO2 sequestration are 1) adsorption in coal and clay minerals that are partly forming shales, and within rock porosity in the case of sandstones and, to a lesser extent, in the shales/siltstone porosity. In a previous assessment of the sequestration potential in Westphalian coal measures of South Belgium, Baele et al. (2007) showed that coal and shales each account for 25% of the total sequestration potential, and the rest, i.e. 50%, is related to sandstones on a basis of 2% porosity. Beside their significant additional storage capacity, sandstones have also a better permeability than the other finer-grained and organic lithologies. Additionally, sandstones are known to occasionally cut the coal seams (wash-out), thus providing insights in increasing accessibility of injected CO2 into the coal. On the other hand, some sandstone banks are fossil braided rivers that induced peripheral fractures by differential compaction during burial diagenesis (Van Tongeren et al., 2000). These fractures are thus likely to have increased accessibility from high-injectivity sandstones to surrounding lithologies that could significantly contribute to storage capacity. The aim of this study is to refine the contribution of the westphalian South Belgium sandstones to the geological storage of CO2. Measurements

  6. Refurbishment of BR2 (Phase 4 and 5)[1997 Scientific Report of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubel, P.; Dekeyser, J.; Van der Auwera, J.

    1998-07-01

    The extensive refurbishment of the BR-2 materials testing reactor should allow another 10 to 15years of continued operation. The refurbishment programme is required in order to comply with modern safety standards, to enhance the reliability of operation, and to compensate for the ageing of the installations of a facility that has reached about 35 years of intensive service. The main objectives and achievements of phase 4 and 5 are described.

  7. Fuel cycle transition - A Belgian implementation scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the end of 2002 the total installed electric power in Belgium was 16,200 MWe of which 40% (6485 MWe) corresponds to the seven nuclear power plants installed on the two Belgian sites of Doel (4 power plants) and Tihange (3 power plants) and the 25% participation in the two French Units B1 and B2 at Chooz at the Belgian-French border. The nuclear installed power in Belgium is 5800 MWe. In 2003, the government decided to phase out the nuclear energy progressively by closing the Belgian NPPs after 40 years of operation. This means that the first generation units (Doel 1, Doel 2 and Tihange 1) will be closed in 2015 and the four other remaining units in 2022-2025. Nevertheless, this phase out is subject to various conditions: the guarantee of energy independence should not be affected and the engagement to respect the Kyoto agreement (reducing the CO2 production by 7.5% in 2010 as compared to the 1990 production). Thus the phase-out decision can be re-opened if the above mentioned conditions are not met. The paper has the following contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Actual fuel cycle; 3. Transition fuel cycle; 4. Calculations; 4.1. PWR modelling; 4.2. ADS modelling; 4.3. Calculation code; 5. Results; 5.1. PWR/EPR; 5.2. ADS; 6. Conclusions. In conclusion it is shown that the evaluated stock pile of waste in Belgium (with no increase of electricity demand) coming from the thermal reactors park is 4380 tons (52 t Pu, 9 t MA, 217 t FP) with phase out (i.e. between 1975, first PWR and 2025, last PWR) and 7825 tons (84 t Pu, 20 t MA, 381 t FP) without phase out (i.e. between 1975, first PWR and 2075, last EPR). According to this study, Belgium should keep all its first generation Pu for the eventual starting of the self burning FR. Indeed, the Pu needed to start the self burning FR is evaluated between 60 t and 90 t (based on 10 t to 15 t per GWe). With an homogeneous core loading, 54% of the MA could be eliminated after 24 years in three 600 MWth industrial ADS (corresponding

  8. The Belgian Nuclear Higher Education Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: BNEN, the Belgian Nuclear Higher Education Network has been created in 2001 by five Belgian universities and the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN) as a joint effort to maintain and further develop a high quality programme in nuclear engineering in Belgium. In a country where a substantial part of electricity generation will remain of nuclear origin for a number of years, there is a need for well educated and well trained engineers in this area. Public authorities, regulators and industry brought their support to this initiative. In the framework of the new architecture of higher education in Europe, the English name for this 60 ECTS programme is 'Master of Science in Nuclear Engineering'. To be admitted to this programme, students must already hold a university degree in engineering or equivalent. Linked with university research, benefiting from the human resources and infrastructure of SCK-CEN, encouraged and supported by the partners of the nuclear sector, this programme should be offered not only to Belgian students, but also more widely throughout Europe and the world. The master programme is a demanding programme where students with different high level backgrounds in engineering have to go through highly theoretical subjects like neutron physics, fluid flow and heat transfer modelling, and apply them to reactor design, nuclear safety and plant operation and control. At a more interdisciplinary level, the programme includes some important chapters of material science, with a particular interest for the fuel cycle. Radiation protection belongs also to the backbone of the programme. All the subjects are taught by academics appointed by the partner universities, whereas the practical exercises and laboratory sessions are supervised by researchers of SCK-CEN. The final thesis offers an opportunity for internship in industry or in a research laboratory. More information: http://www.sckcen.be/BNEN. (author)

  9. TA-2 Water Boiler Reactor Decommissioning Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durbin, M.E. (ed.); Montoya, G.M.

    1991-06-01

    This final report addresses the Phase 2 decommissioning of the Water Boiler Reactor, biological shield, other components within the biological shield, and piping pits in the floor of the reactor building. External structures and underground piping associated with the gaseous effluent (stack) line from Technical Area 2 (TA-2) Water Boiler Reactor were removed in 1985--1986 as Phase 1 of reactor decommissioning. The cost of Phase 2 was approximately $623K. The decommissioning operation produced 173 m{sup 3} of low-level solid radioactive waste and 35 m{sup 3} of mixed waste. 15 refs., 25 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Annual report for the steering committee of the association Euratom-Belgian State for fusion 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    1999-10-01

    This report is prepared for the annual steering committee meting of the Association Euratom - Belgian State in the area of fusion reactor technology. The Belgian contribution focuses on the assessment of the first wall and blanket materials under radiation and coolant interaction and on developments for the remote handling in maintenance activities. The period October 1998 to September 1999 is reported on.The fusion technology work performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN, the Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering of the Louvain University (Belgium) and S.A. Gradel, a Luxemburg-based organisation, is described.

  11. Annual report for the steering committee of the association Euratom-Belgian State for fusion 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is prepared for the annual steering committee meting of the Association Euratom - Belgian State in the area of fusion reactor technology. The Belgian contribution focuses on the assessment of the first wall and blanket materials under radiation and coolant interaction and on developments for the remote handling in maintenance activities. The period October 1998 to September 1999 is reported on.The fusion technology work performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN, the Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering of the Louvain University (Belgium) and S.A. Gradel, a Luxemburg-based organisation, is described

  12. Implementation of a program for type 2 diabetes based on the Chronic Care Model in a hospital-centered health care system: "the Belgian experience"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Royen Paul

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most research publications on Chronic Care Model (CCM implementation originate from organizations or countries with a well-structured primary health care system. Information about efforts made in countries with a less well-organized primary health care system is scarce. In 2003, the Belgian National Institute for Health and Disability Insurance commissioned a pilot study to explore how care for type 2 diabetes patients could be organized in a more efficient way in the Belgian healthcare setting, a setting where the organisational framework for chronic care is mainly hospital-centered. Methods Process evaluation of an action research project (2003–2007 guided by the CCM in a well-defined geographical area with 76,826 inhabitants and an estimated number of 2,300 type 2 diabetes patients. In consultation with the region a program for type 2 diabetes patients was developed. The degree of implementation of the CCM in the region was assessed using the Assessment of Chronic Illness Care survey (ACIC. A multimethod approach was used to evaluate the implementation process. The resulting data were triangulated in order to identify the main facilitators and barriers encountered during the implementation process. Results The overall ACIC score improved from 1.45 (limited support at the start of the study to 5.5 (basic support at the end of the study. The establishment of a local steering group and the appointment of a program manager were crucial steps in strengthening primary care. The willingness of a group of well-trained and motivated care providers to invest in quality improvement was an important facilitator. Important barriers were the complexity of the intervention, the lack of quality data, inadequate information technology support, the lack of commitment procedures and the uncertainty about sustainable funding. Conclusion Guided by the CCM, this study highlights the opportunities and the bottlenecks for adapting chronic care

  13. Loss-of-Flow and Loss-of-Pressure Simulations of the BR2 Research Reactor with HEU and LEU Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licht, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bergeron, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dionne, B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sikik, E. [Belgian Nuclear Research Center (SCK-CEN), Mol (Belgium); Van den Branden, G. [Belgian Nuclear Research Center (SCK-CEN), Mol (Belgium); Koonen, E. [Belgian Nuclear Research Center (SCK-CEN), Mol (Belgium)

    2016-01-01

    Belgian Reactor 2 (BR2) is a research and test reactor located in Mol, Belgium and is primarily used for radioisotope production and materials testing. The Materials Management and Minimization (M3) Reactor Conversion Program of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) is supporting the conversion of the BR2 reactor from Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) fuel to Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) fuel. The reactor core of BR2 is located inside a pressure vessel that contains 79 channels in a hyperboloid configuration (Figure 1). The core configuration is highly variable as each channel can contain a fuel assembly, a control or regulating rod, an experimental device, or a beryllium or aluminum plug. Because of this variability, a representative core configuration (Figure 2), based on current reactor use, has been defined for the fuel conversion analyses [1]. The code RELAP5/Mod 3.3 [2] was used to perform the transient thermal-hydraulic safety analyses of the BR2 reactor to support reactor conversion. The input model has been modernized relative to that historically used at BR2 taking into account the best modeling practices developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and BR2 engineers.

  14. TMI-2 reactor vessel plenum final lift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, D C

    1986-01-01

    Removal of the plenum assembly from the TMI-2 reactor vessel was necessary to gain access to the core region for defueling. The plenum was lifted from the reactor vessel by the polar crane using three specially designed pendant assemblies. It was then transferred in air to the flooded deep end of the refueling canal and lowered onto a storage stand where it will remain throughout the defueling effort. The lift and transfer were successfully accomplished on May 15, 1985 in just under three hours by a lift team located in a shielded area within the reactor building. The success of the program is attributed to extensive mockup and training activities plus thorough preparations to address potential problems. 54 refs.

  15. A Belgian Approach to Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Cheryl W.

    The paper reviews Belgian philosophy toward the education of learning disabled students and cites the differences between American behaviorally-oriented theory and Belgian emphasis on identifying the underlying causes of the disability. Academic methods observed in Belgium (including psychodrama and perceptual motor training) are discussed and are…

  16. TMI-2 reactor vessel head removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the safe removal and storage of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor vessel head. The head was removed in July 1984 to permit the removal of the plenum and the reactor core, which were damaged during the 1979 accident. From July 1982, plans and preparations were made using a standard head removal procedure modified by the necessary precautions and changes to account for conditions caused by the accident. After data acquisition, equipment and structure modifications, and training, the head was safely removed and stored; and the internals indexing fixture and a work platform were installed on top of the vessel. Dose rates during and after the operation were lower than expected; lessons were learned from the operation which will be applied to the continuing fuel removal operations activities

  17. TMI-2 reactor vessel head removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the safe removal and storage of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor vessel head. The head was removed in July 1984 to permit the removal of the plenum and the reactor core, which were damaged during the 1979 accident. From July 1982, plans and preparations were made using a standard head removal procedure modified by the necessary precautions and changes to account for conditions caused by the accident. After data acquisition, equipment and structure modifications, and training the head was safely removed and stored and the internals indexing fixture and a work platform were installed on top of the vessel. Dose rates during and after the operation were lower than expected; lessons were learned from the operation which will be applied to the continuing fuel removal operations activities

  18. ICONE-4: Proceedings. Volume 2: Advanced reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings for this conference are contained in 5 volumes. This volume is divided into the following areas: advanced reactor requirements; advanced reactor design and analysis; arrangement and construction; specific reactor designs; demonstration testing; safety systems and analysis; component demonstration testing; advanced reactor containment design; licensing topics and updates; accelerator applications and spallation sources; and advanced reactor development. Separate abstracts were prepared for most papers in this volume

  19. 105-B Reactor museum Phase 2 project supplement cost estimate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document serves as a supplement to BHI-0134, 105-B Reactor Museum Feasibility Assessment. The Phase 2 105-B Reactor assessment was performed to provide a basis for identifying and mitigating the hazards in specific areas of the B Reactor facility to support public tours

  20. Integrated modelling of the Belgian coastal zone

    OpenAIRE

    Delhez, E. J. M.; Carabin, G.

    2001-01-01

    The management of the water resources in coastal or delta plains asks for an integrated modelling of the water system at a regional scale. In the SALMON project, detailed descriptions of the groundwater, river and marine domains are provided by coupling appropriate numerical models of these different sub-systems.The application of this three-fold model to the Scheldt and Belgian Coastal Zone reveals a marked river plume extending along the Belgian Coast with strong offshore gradients. This pl...

  1. Dietary Intake of Artificial Sweeteners by the Belgian Population

    OpenAIRE

    Huvaere, Kevin; Vandevijvere, Stefanie Marie; Hasni, Moez; Vinkx, Christine; Van Loco, Joris

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In this study it was investigated whether the Belgian population older than 15 years was at risk of exceeding ADI levels of acesulfame-K, saccharin, cyclamate, aspartame, and sucralose through assessment of usual dietary intake of artificial sweeteners and specific consumption of table-top sweeteners. The conservative Tier 2 approach, for which an extensive label survey was performed, showed that mean usual intake was significantly lower than the respective ADIs for all sw...

  2. Planning and implementation of the Belgian nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the first part of the paper, the authors recall Belgian conditions, initially as regards primary energy (high degree of energy consumption and high degree of dependence on other countries), and then as regards electricity (divided up according to energy sources and types of producer). In the second part, the method used in Belgium for planning electrical power production is explained. Particular emphasis is placed on both the economic and technical assumptions made (trends in fuel costs, method of calculating investment costs, etc.). The development required, for the period 1982-92, of the means of production is stated in the light of the assumptions made. Fuel cycle planning (front and back ends) is also described with a review of the principal stages, namely supply of natural uranium, enrichment, reprocessing, treatment of irradiated fuel, and geological storage of wastes. The third and last part of the paper looks back at events in the implementation of the Belgian nuclear programme in chronological order. The beginnings of nuclear development in Belgium are recalled, as is the decision to construct the first three units (Doel 1, Doel 2 and Tihange 1), which were completed and put into service in 1975. The programme now under way is also briefly described, together with the characteristics of Belgian power stations, especially those concerned with safety. In conclusion, the paper outlines the main advantages of the nuclear option for a country as vulnerable where energy is concerned, as Belgium. (author)

  3. From pralines to multinationals. The economic history of Belgian chocolate

    OpenAIRE

    Garrone, Maria; Pieters, Hannah; Swinnen, Jo

    2015-01-01

    Belgium is associated with high-quality chocolate products and Belgian companies play an important role in cocoa processing. However, in historical perspective the global success and reputation of Belgian chocolate is a relatively recent phenomenon. Especially since the 1980s exports of "Belgian chocolates" have grown exponentially. We document the growth of the sector and discuss its determinants. Today, the very concept of "Belgian chocolate" faces challenges, as successful companies have b...

  4. Decommissioning of the BR3 PWR[1997 Scientific Report of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massaut, V.

    1998-07-01

    The dismantling and the decommissioning of nuclear installations at the end of their life-cycle is a new challenge to the nuclear industry. Different techniques and procedures for the dismantling of a nuclear power plant on an existing installation, the BR-3 pressurized-water reactor, are described. The scientific program, objectives, achievements in this research area at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN for 1997 are summarized.

  5. The SLOWPOKE-2 reactor with low enrichment uranium oxide fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A SLOWPOKE-2 reactor core contains less than 1 kg of highly enriched uranium (HEU) and the proliferation risk is very low. However, to overcome proliferation concerns a new low enrichment uranium (LEU) fuelled reactor core has been designed. This core contains approximately 180 fuel elements based on the Zircaloy-4 clad UOsub(2) CANDU fuel element, but with a smaller outside diameter. The physics characteristics of this new reactor core ensure the inherent safety of the reactor under all conceivable conditions and thus the basic SLOWPOKE safety philosophy which permits unattended operation is not affected

  6. Upgrading of the research reactors FRG-1 and FRG-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1972 for the research reactor FRG-2 we applied for a license to increase the power from 15 MW to 21 MW. During this procedure a public laying out of the safety report and an upgrading procedure for both research reactors - FRG-1 (5 MW) and FRG-2 - were required by the licensing authorities. After discussing the legal background for licensing procedures in the Federal Republic of Germany the upgrading for both research reactors is described. The present status and future licensing aspects for changes of our research reactors are discussed, too. (orig.)

  7. Annual report on JEN-1 and JEN-2 Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the annual report on the JEN-1 and JEN-2 reactors the main fractures of the reactor operations and maintenance are described. The reactor has been in operation for 2188 hours, what means 74% of the total working time. Maintenance and periodical tests have occupied the rest of the time. Maintenance operations are shown according to three main subjects, the main failures so as the reactor scrams are also described. Different date relating with radiation level and health Physics are also included. (Author)

  8. Performance communication of the Belgian Railway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelders, Dave; Verckens, Jan Pieter; Galetzka, Mirjam; Seydel, Erwin

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide an insight into performance communication from an important public service, i.e. the Belgian Railway, towards its employees (internal) and stakeholders (external). Design/methodology/approach – A qualitative research approach was taken in the form o

  9. Fusion reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN, activities related to fusion focus on environmental tolerance of opto-electronic components. The objective of this program is to contribute to the knowledge on the behaviour, during and after neutron irradiation, of fusion-reactor materials and components. The main scientific activities for 1997 are summarized

  10. Internal capital market efficiency of Belgian holding companies

    OpenAIRE

    Gautier, Axel; Malika HAMADI

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we raise the following two questions. (1) Do Belgian holding companies operate an internal capital market to transfer financial resources amongst their subsidiaries? And if yes, (2) is the internal capital market efficient? To answer the first question, we check if group cash flow is a determinant of the group members investment spending. The answer is positive if the holding company’s subsidiary is affiliated to a coordination center and negative otherwise. To ans...

  11. 2nd International technical meeting on small reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 2nd International Technical Meeting on Small Reactors was held on November 7-9, 2012 in Ottawa, Ontario. The meeting was hosted by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) and Canadian Nuclear Society (CNS). There is growing international interest and activity in the development of small nuclear reactor technology. This meeting provided participants with an opportunity to share ideas and exchange information on new developments. This Technical Meeting covered topics of interest to designers, operators, researchers and analysts involved in the design, development and deployment of small reactors for power generation and research. A special session focussed on small modular reactors (SMR) for generating electricity and process heat, particularly in small grids and remote locations. Following the success of the first Technical Meeting in November 2010, which captured numerous accomplishments of low-power critical facilities and small reactors, the second Technical Meeting was dedicated to the achievements, capabilities, and future prospects of small reactors. This meeting also celebrated the 50th Anniversary of the Nuclear Power Demonstration (NPD) reactor which was the first small reactor (20 MWe) to generate electricity in Canada.

  12. Assessment of the French and US embrittlement trend curves applied to RPV materials irradiated in the BR2 materials test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The irradiation embrittlement of reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) in monitored through the surveillance programs associated with predictive formulas, the so-called embrittlement trend curves. These formulas are generally empirically derived and contain the major embrittlement-inducing elements such as copper, nickel and phosphorus. There are a number of such trend curves used in various regulatory guides used in the US, France, Germany, Russia and Japan. These trend curves are often supported by surveillance data and regularly assessed in view of updated surveillance databases. With the recent worldwide move towards life extension of existing reactors above their initially-scheduled lifetime of 40 years, adequate and accurate modeling of irradiation embrittlement becomes a concern for long term operation. The aim of this work is to assess the performance of the embrittlement trend curves used in a regulatory perspective. The work presented here is limited to US and French trend curves because the reactor pressure vessels of the Belgian nuclear power plants are either Westinghouse or Framatome design. The chemical composition of the Belgian RPVs being very close to the one of the French 900 MW units, the French trend curve is used except for the Doel 1-2 units for which these curves are not applicable due to the higher copper content of the welds. In this case, the U.S. trend curves are used. The aim of this work is to evaluate the performance of the embrittlement trend curves used in a regulatory perspective to represent the experimental data obtained in the BR2 reactor. In particular, the French (FIM, FIS) and the US (Reg. Guide 1.99 Rev. 2, ASTM E900-02, EWO and EONY) formulas are of prime interest. The results obtained clearly show that the French trend curves tend to over-estimate the actual irradiation hardening while the US curves under-estimate it. Within the long term operation perspective, both over- and under-estimating are undesirable and therefore the

  13. Advertising budgeting practices of Belgian industrial marketers.

    OpenAIRE

    François, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    The author reports on the results of a survey of a random sample of 102 belgian industrial companies, which measured which budget setting processes companies use, how they set budgets and the resulting budget composition. The objective of the study was first to compare the results with international practice, and second to try to explain their budgeting practices as a function of company, product and market characteristics measured in the same survey. The major conclusions are mixed : on the ...

  14. Optical remote sensing of Belgian coastal waters

    OpenAIRE

    Ovidio, F.; K. Ruddick; Vasilkov, A.; Burenkov, V.

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarises the research conducted at MUMM in optical remote sensing of Belgian coastal waters during the period 1997-2000. The motivation for this research consists of the need to provide information for marine environmental management of coastal eutrophication and sediment transport related problems. The basic products provided by optical remote sensing are maps of chlorophyll concentration and total suspended matter. A key contribution has been made for the atmospheric correction...

  15. FMDP Reactor Alternative Summary Report: Volume 2 - CANDU heavy water reactor alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE/MD) initiated a detailed analysis activity to evaluate each of ten plutonium disposition alternatives that survived an initial screening process. This document, Volume 2 of a four volume report, summarizes the results of these analyses for the CANDU reactor based plutonium disposition alternative

  16. FMDP Reactor Alternative Summary Report: Volume 2 - CANDU heavy water reactor alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, S.R.; Spellman, D.J.; Bevard, B.B. [and others

    1996-09-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE/MD) initiated a detailed analysis activity to evaluate each of ten plutonium disposition alternatives that survived an initial screening process. This document, Volume 2 of a four volume report, summarizes the results of these analyses for the CANDU reactor based plutonium disposition alternative.

  17. Clonal Expansion of the Belgian Phytophthora ramorum Populations Based on New Microsatellite Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coexistence of both mating types A1 and A2 within the EU1 lineage of Phytophthora ramorum has only been observed in Belgium, begging the question whether sexual reproduction is occurring. A collection of 411 Belgian P. ramorum isolates was established during a seven year survey. Our main objective w...

  18. Non-suicidal self-injury among Dutch and Belgian adolescents: Personality, stress and coping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiekens, G.; Bruffaerts, R.; Nock, M.K.; Ven, M.O.M. van de; Witteman, C.L.M.; Mortier, P.; Demyttenaere, K.; Claes, L.

    2015-01-01

    Background This study examines: (1) the prevalence of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI) among Dutch and Belgian adolescents, (2) the associations between Big Five personality traits and NSSI engagement/versatility (i.e., number of NSSI methods), and (3) whether these associations are mediated by perce

  19. FRJ-2 research reactor (DIDO) at Forschungszentrum Juelich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raffel, Sieghard; Damm, Gunter [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    FRJ-2 is a research reactor of the British DIDO/PLUTO series, which uses heavy water (D{sub 2}O) in a sealed tank as a moderator and for cooling. In November 1962, it went into operation with a thermal output of 10 MW. The exhaustion of available reserves led to the output being increased in 1967 to 15 MW, and after structural alteration measures to 23 MW in 1972. Since final shutdown in May 2006, the FRJ-2 research reactor has been in the post-operational phase. The application for decommissioning and dismantling the FRJ-2 research reactor in one step was submitted to the nuclear licensing authority in North-Rhine Westphalia in 2007. FRJ-2 will be dismantled autonomously by Forschungszentrum Juelich. (orig.)

  20. IGORR 2: Proceedings of the 2. meeting of the International Group On Research Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International group on Research Reactors was formed to facilitate the sharing of knowledge and experience among those institutions and individuals who are actively working to design, build, and promote new research reactors or to make significant upgrades to existing facilities. Sessions during this second meeting were devoted to research reactor reports (GRENOBLE reactor, FRM-II, HIFAR, PIK, reactors at JAERI, MAPLE, ANS, NIST, MURR, TRIGA, BR-2, SIRIUS 2); other neutron sources; and two workshops were dealing with research and development results and needs and reports on progress in needed of R and D areas identified at IGORR 1

  1. Digital, remote control system for a 2-MW research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battle, R.E.; Corbett, G.K.

    1988-01-01

    A fault-tolerant programmable logic controller (PLC) and operator workstations have been programmed to replace the hard-wired relay control system in the 2-MW Bulk Shielding Reactor (BSR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In addition to the PLC and remote and local operator workstations, auxiliary systems for remote operation include a video system, an intercom system, and a fiber optic communication system. The remote control station, located at the High Flux Isotope Reactor 2.5 km from the BSR, has the capability of rector startup and power control. The system was designed with reliability and fail-safe features as important considerations. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  2. OTUS - Reactor inventory management system based on ORIGEN2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poellaenen, R.; Toivonen, H.; Lahtinen, J.; Ilander, T.

    1995-10-01

    ORIGEN2 is a computer code that calculates nuclide composition and other characteristics of nuclear fuel. The use of ORIGEN2 requires good knowledge in reactor physics. However, once the input has been defined for a particular reactor type, the calculations can be easily repeated for any burnup and decay time. This procedure produces large output files that are difficult to handle manually. A new computer code, known as OTUS, was designed to facilitate the postprocessing of the data. OTUS makes use of the inventory files precalculated with ORIGEN2 in a way that enables their versatile treatment for different safety analysis purposes. A data base is created containing a comprehensive set of ORIGEN2 calculations as a function of fuel burnup and decay time. OTUS is a reactor inventory management system for a microcomputer with Windows interface. Four major data operations are available: (1) Build data modifies ORIGEN2 output data into a suitable format, (2) View data enables flexible presentation of the data as such, (3) Different calculations, such as nuclide ratios and hot particle characteristics, can be performed for severe accident analyses, consequence analyses and research purposes, (4) Summary files contain both burnup dependent and decay time dependent inventory information related to the nuclide and the reactor specified. These files can be used for safeguards, radiation monitoring and safety assessment. (orig.) (22 refs., 29 figs.).

  3. 1997 Scientific Report[1997 Scientific Report of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govaerts, P.

    1998-07-01

    The 1997 Scientific Report of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN describes progress achieved in nuclear safety, radioactive waste management, radiation protection and safeguards. In the field of nuclear research, the main projects concern the behaviour of high-burnup and MOX fuel, the embrittlement of reactor pressure vessels, the irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking of reactor internals, and irradiation effects on materials of fusion reactors. In the field of radioactive waste management, progress in the following domains is reported: the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent fuel in a clay formation, the decommissioning of nuclear installations, the study of alternative waste-processing techniques. For radiation protection and safeguards, the main activities reported on are in the field of site and environmental restoration, emergency planning and response and scientific support to national and international programmes.

  4. Reproduction of the PSBR reactor with Exterminator-2; Reproduccion del reactor PSBR con exterminador-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar H, F. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1983-08-15

    To reproduce the reactor PSBR reported in (1), with the available version of the Exterminator-II in the ININ, they took the dimensions, composition specifications, effective sections of the different compositions (excepting those of the central thimble and of the moderator), the K{sub eff} and the factors of power (FP) for the different burners. Based on the comparison of the K{sub eff} and of the FP obtained with those reported the precision it is determined before in the reproduction of the reactor mentioned. (Author)

  5. Reactor physics recommissioning of Pickering NGS Units 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations following the rupture of Pickering Unit 1 pressure tube G16 in 1983, led to the shutdown of Units 1 and 2 for pressure tube replacement and numerous other upgrades. They were recommissioned in 1987 and 1988 respectively. This paper surveys the procedures used during the reactor physics recommissioning of these two reactors and presents the results of these measurements. Special note is made of the differences between this recommissioning work, and the initial commissioning of new CANDU reactors. From a physics point of view, the restarted units differed substantially from the original design. The main difference in the core configuration involved the conversion of 10 of the original adjuster rods into shutoff rods. The reactivities of the remaining adjusters were increased. These substantial changes to the core, together with the full core of fresh fuel, necessitated a complete set of reactor physics recommissioning experiments. Some of our procedures differed from those used to commission a new reactor. This was due mainly to the high levels of tritium in the moderator D2O and to radiological hazards on the reactivity deck. Also, the high residual activities in the rebuilt cores lead to increased difficulties in neutron monitoring and higher subcritical neutron count rates (hence a higher than usual reactor power at first criticality). In general the results of our recommissioning measurements closely matched the results of presimulations using the OHRFSP and SMOKIN computer codes. Results for Unit 2 were generally better than those for Unit 1. This was due to improved procedures which resulted from our experiences with Unit 1. (author). 4 tabs., 9 figs

  6. Standard- and extended-burnup PWR [pressurized-water reactor] and BWR [boiling-water reactor] reactor models for the ORIGEN2 computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to describe an updated set of reactor models for pressurized-water reactors (PWRs) and boiling-water reactors (BWRs) operating on uranium fuel cycles and the methods used to generate the information for these models. Since new fuel cycle schemes and reactor core designs are introduced from time to time by reactor manufacturers and fuel vendors, an effort has been made to update these reactor models periodically and to expand the data bases used by the ORIGEN2 computer code. In addition, more sophisticated computational techniques than previously available were used to calculate the resulting reactor model cross-section libraries. The PWR models were based on a Westinghouse design, while the BWR models were based on a General Electric BWR/6 design. The specific reactor types considered in this report are as follows (see Glossary for the definition of these and other terms): (1) PWR-US, (2) PWR-UE, (3) BWR-US, (4) BWR-USO, and (5) BWR-UE. Each reactor model includes a unique data library that may be used to simulate the buildup and deletion of isotopes in nuclear materials using the ORIGEN2 computer code. 33 refs., 44 tabs

  7. Optimized Control Rods of the BR2 Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalcheva, Silva; Koonen, E.

    2007-09-15

    At the present time the BR-2 reactor uses control elements with cadmium as neutron absorbing part. The lower section of the control element is a beryllium assembly cooled by light water. Due to the burn up of the lower end of the cadmium section during the reactor operation, the presently used rods for reactivity control of the BR-2 reactor have to be replaced by new ones. Considered are various types Control Rods with full active part of the following materials: cadmium (Cd), hafnium (Hf), europium oxide (Eu2O3) and gadolinium (Gd2O3). Options to decrease the burn up of the control rod material in the hot spot, such as use of stainless steel in the lower active part of the Control Rod are discussed. Comparison with the characteristics of the presently used Control Rods types is performed. The changing of the characteristics of different types Control Rods and the perturbation effects on the reactor neutronics during the BR-2 fuel cycle are investigated. The burn up of the Control Rod absorbing material, total and differential control rods worth, macroscopic and effective microscopic absorption cross sections, fuel and reactivity evolution are evaluated during approximately 30 operating cycles.

  8. Liquid film emergency for FRJ-2 type research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new, efficient emergency cooling procedure based on liquid film cooling was developed for FRJ-2 type research in reactors, which allows a higher power generation in the tubular fuel elements used and which represents an improvement of the engineered safeguards of the reactor. The problem of producing coherent liquid films on the outer surfaces of the four concentrically arranged thin fuel tubes without obstructive modifications of the fuel element design was solved by using radial water jets. These jets discharge into the drained fuel elements from the outside therby crossing the upper edges of the fuel tubes. In hydraulic experiments the influence of the geometry, of the jet velocity and of the water viscosity on the water supply to each fuel tube was measured and the conditions were evaluated where by each fuel tube in the reactor obtain sufficient cooling water taking account of variations in the various parameters. (orig./HP)

  9. Vitamin D inadequacy in Belgian postmenopausal osteoporotic women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collette Julien

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate serum vitamin D [25(OHD] concentrations are associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism, increased bone turnover and bone loss, which increase fracture risk. The objective of this study is to assess the prevalence of inadequate serum 25(OHD concentrations in postmenopausal Belgian women. Opinions with regard to the definition of vitamin D deficiency and adequate vitamin D status vary widely and there are no clear international agreements on what constitute adequate concentrations of vitamin D. Methods Assessment of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] and parathyroid hormone was performed in 1195 Belgian postmenopausal women aged over 50 years. Main analysis has been performed in the whole study population and according to the previous use of vitamin D and calcium supplements. Four cut-offs of 25(OHD inadequacy were fixed : Results Mean (SD age of the patients was 76.9 (7.5 years, body mass index was 25.7 (4.5 kg/m2. Concentrations of 25(OHD were 52.5 (21.4 nmol/L. In the whole study population, the prevalence of 25(OHD inadequacy was 91.3 %, 87.5 %, 43.1 % and 15.9% when considering cut-offs of 80, 75, 50 and 30 nmol/L, respectively. Women who used vitamin D supplements, alone or combined with calcium supplements, had higher concentrations of 25(OHD than non-users. Significant inverse correlations were found between age/serum PTH and serum 25(OHD (r = -0.23/r = -0.31 and also between age/serum PTH and femoral neck BMD (r = -0.29/r = -0.15. There is a significant positive relation between age and PTH (r = 0.16, serum 25(OHD and femoral neck BMD (r = 0.07. (P Vitamin D concentrations varied with the season of sampling but did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.09. Conclusion This study points out a high prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy in Belgian postmenopausal osteoporotic women, even among subjects receiving vitamin D supplements.

  10. Explorative genetic study of UBQLN2 and PFN1 in an extended Flanders-Belgian cohort of frontotemporal lobar degeneration patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dillen, Lubina; Van Langenhove, Tim; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu; Sarafov, Stayko; Tournev, Ivailo; Merlin, Celine; Cras, Patrick; Vandenberghe, Rik; De Deyn, Peter P.; Jordanova, Albena; Cruts, Marc; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; van der Zee, Julie

    2013-01-01

    UBQLN2 and PFN1 were recently associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We investigated a role for these ALS genes in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). We screened 328 FTLD, 17 FTLD-ALS, and 157 ALS patients. Patients originated from Flanders-Belgium except for 26 Bulgarian ALS pa

  11. Dental maturity in Belgian children using Demirjian's method and polynomial functions: new standard curves for forensic and clinical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaillet, N; Willems, G; Demirjian, A

    2004-12-01

    Dental maturity was studied from dental panoramic radiographs of 2523 Belgian children (1255 girls and 1268 boys) aged 2 to 18 years. The aim was to compare the efficiency of two methods of age prediction: Demirjian's method, using differently weighted scores, and polynomial functions. The two methods present some differences: Demirjian is used to determine the maturity score as a function of age and polynomial functions are used to determine age as a function of the maturity score. We present, for each method, gender-specific dental maturity tables and curves for Belgian children. Girls always present advanced dental maturity compared with boys. The polynomial functions are highly reliable (0.21% of incorrect classifications) and the percentile method, using Belgian weighted scores, is very accurate (+/- 2.08 years on average, between 2 and 16 years of age).

  12. Cronos 2: a neutronic simulation software for reactor core calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CRONOS2 software is that part of the SAPHYR code system dedicated to neutronic core calculations. CRONOS2 is a powerful tool for reactor design, fuel management and safety studies. Its modular structure and great flexibility make CRONOS2 an unique simulation tool for research and development for a wide variety of reactor systems. CRONOS2 is a versatile tool that covers a large range of applications from very fast calculations used in training simulators to time and memory consuming reference calculations needed to understand complex physical phenomena. CRONOS2 has a procedure library named CPROC that allows the user to create its own application environment fitted to a specific industrial use. (authors)

  13. Characterization of the Three Mile Island Unit-2 reactor building atmosphere prior to the reactor building purge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Three Mile Island Unit-2 reactor building atmosphere was sampled prior to the reactor building purge. Samples of the containment atmosphere were obtained using specialized sampling equipment installed through penetration R-626 at the 358-foot (109-meter) level of the TMI-2 reactor building. The samples were subsequently analyzed for radionuclide concentration and for gaseous molecular components (O2, N2, etc.) by two independent laboratories at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The sampling procedures, analysis methods, and results are summarized

  14. The German and Belgian accreditation models for diabetic foot services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morbach, Stephan; Kersken, Joachim; Lobmann, Ralf; Nobels, Frank; Doggen, Kris; Van Acker, Kristien

    2016-01-01

    The International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot recommends that auditing should be part of the organization of diabetic foot care, the efforts required for data collection and analysis being balanced by the expected benefits. In Germany legislature demands measures of quality management for in- and out-patient facilities, and, in 2003, the Germany Working Group on the Diabetic Foot defined and developed a certification procedure for diabetic foot centres to be recognized as 'specialized'. This includes a description of management facilities, treatment procedures and outcomes, as well as the organization of mutual auditing visits between the centres. Outcome data is collected at baseline and 6 months on 30 consecutive patients. By 2014 almost 24,000 cases had been collected and analysed. Since 2005 Belgian multidisciplinary diabetic foot clinics could apply for recognition by health authorities. For continued recognition diabetic foot clinics need to treat at least 52 patients with a new foot problem (Wagner 2 or more or active Charcot foot) per annum. Baseline and 6-month outcome data of these patients are included in an audit-feedback initiative. Although originally fully independent of each other, the common goal of these two initiatives is quality improvement of national diabetic foot care, and hence exchanges between systems has commenced. In future, the German and Belgian accreditation models might serve as templates for comparable initiatives in other countries. Just recently the International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot initiated a working group for further discussion of accreditation and auditing models (International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot AB(B)A Working Group).

  15. Dietary intake of artificial sweeteners by the Belgian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huvaere, Kevin; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Hasni, Moez; Vinkx, Christine; Van Loco, Joris

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether the Belgian population older than 15 years is at risk of exceeding ADI levels for acesulfame-K, saccharin, cyclamate, aspartame and sucralose through an assessment of usual dietary intake of artificial sweeteners and specific consumption of table-top sweeteners. A conservative Tier 2 approach, for which an extensive label survey was performed, showed that mean usual intake was significantly lower than the respective ADIs for all sweeteners. Even consumers with high intakes were not exposed to excessive levels, as relative intakes at the 95th percentile (p95) were 31% for acesulfame-K, 13% for aspartame, 30% for cyclamate, 17% for saccharin, and 16% for sucralose of the respective ADIs. Assessment of intake using a Tier 3 approach was preceded by optimisation and validation of an analytical method based on liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. Concentrations of sweeteners in various food matrices and table-top sweeteners were determined and mean positive concentration values were included in the Tier 3 approach, leading to relative intakes at p95 of 17% for acesulfame-K, 5% for aspartame, 25% for cyclamate, 11% for saccharin, and 7% for sucralose of the corresponding ADIs. The contribution of table-top sweeteners to the total usual intake (sucralose: 3.08 versus 3.03, expressed as mg kg(-1) bodyweight day(-1) at p95) showed that the latter group was not exposed to higher levels. It was concluded that the Belgian population is not at risk of exceeding the established ADIs for sweeteners. PMID:22088137

  16. Belgian Workshop (November 2003) - Executive Summary and International Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fourth workshop of the OECD/NEA Forum on Stakeholder Confidence (FSC) was hosted by ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste Management and enriched fissile materials. The central theme of the workshop was 'Dealing with interests, values and knowledge in managing risk' within the Belgian context of local partnerships for the long term management of low-level, short-lived radioactive waste. The four-day workshop started with a half-day session in Brussels giving a general introduction on the Belgian context and the local partnership methodology. This was followed by community visits to three local partnerships, PaLoFF in Fleurus-Farciennes, MONA in Mol, and STOLA in Dessel. After the visits, the workshop continued with two full-day sessions in Brussels. One hundred and nineteen registered participants, representing 13 countries, attended the workshop or participated in the community visits. About two thirds were Belgian stakeholders; the remainder came from FSC member organisations. The participants included representatives of municipal governments, civil society organisations, government agencies, industrial companies, the media, and international organisations as well as private citizens, consultants and academics. The four-day meeting was structured as follows: Day 1 morning was devoted to introductory presentations. Information was given on the general radioactive waste management context in Belgium. Regarding the management of LLW, and in particular the search for a disposal facility site, the workshop heard about the local partnership methodology developed by university researchers of the University of Antwerp and the Fondation Universitaire Luxembourgeoise (FUL). These partnerships between the potential host municipalities and the radwaste agency have the mission to develop an integrated facility proposal adapted to local conditions. Community visits took place on Day 1 afternoon and Day 2. Visits offered an opportunity for

  17. Reactor Core Internals Replacement of Ikata Units 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikata Units 1 and 2 have been in operation for a very long time. Unit 1, in particular, is one of the longest operating PWRs in Japan. In view of this history, preventive and proactive strategy has been adopted for the maintenance of major primary system components. Both units successfully completed the replacement of steam generators and reactor vessel heads approximately ten years ago. With regard to the reactor core internals, baffle former bolts (BFBs) were found to have been damaged by stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in 1989 at Bugey 2 in France. Since then, similar incidents have been reported in other European and U.S. plants, resulting in the replacement of failed BFBs. The BFB issue can be dealt with either by replacing bolts when damage is found or by replacing the entire core internals with those of a new design. Ikata Units 1 and 2 chose the latter and carried it out in 2004 and 2005, respectively.

  18. Focal epilepsy in the Belgian shepherd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berendt, Mette; Gulløv, Christina Hedal; Fredholm, Merete

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To establish the mode of inheritance and describe the clinical features of epilepsy in the Belgian shepherd, taking the outset in an extended Danish dog family (199 individuals) of Groenendael and Tervueren with accumulated epilepsy. METHODS: Epilepsy positive individuals (living...... and deceased) were ascertained through a telephone interview using a standardised questionnaire regarding seizure history and phenomenology. Living dogs were invited to a detailed clinical evaluation. Litters more than five years of age, or where epilepsy was present in all offspring before the age of five......, were included in the calculations of inheritance. results: Out of 199 family members, 66 dogs suffered from epilepsy. The prevalence of epilepsy in the family was 33%. Fifty-five dogs experienced focal seizures with or without secondary generalisation, while four dogs experienced primary generalised...

  19. Products and Services of Research Reactor ETRR-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority (EAEA) owns a new material testing research reactor (MTR) called ETRR-2. This reactor was commissioned in 1997 and is a swimming pool type using plate type Fuel elements with 20% enrichment. It is cooled and moderated by light water and uses beryllium as a reflector. Its maximum thermal power is 22 MW, with maximum thermal neutron flux of 2.7×l014 cm-2s-1 and can be operated up to one cycle, around 18 days, for the high fluence necessary for applying long irradiations for peaceful utilization and a wide range of applications. The reactor is a multipurpose utilization, containing different facilities for applying neutron activation analysis (NAA), radioisotope production (e.g., Ir-131, Co-60, P-32, Mo-99, etc.), neutron transmutation doping (NTD) of silicon ingots of 12.5 cm diameter and 30 cm in length, neutron radiography education for university students, research for scientists, and training for new operators. (author)

  20. Dietary habits during adolescence - results of the Belgian Adolux Study

    OpenAIRE

    Paulus, Dominique; Saint-Remy, Annie; JeanJean, Michel

    2001-01-01

    STUDY: To analyse the usual dietary habits of Belgian adolescents from a high cardiovascular risk population. METHODS: A food frequency questionnaire (57 items) was administered to the whole sample. Complementary questions specified some types of food (eg fat content). A subgroup of 234 adolescents gave detailed information on portion size (picture book and food samples). SETTING: Twenty-four secondary schools in the Belgian province of Luxembourg. SUBJECTS: A total of 1,526 adolesce...

  1. Survival Among Belgian Centenarians (1870-1894 Cohorts)

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Yuzhi; Zhang Chunyuan; Foulon, M.; D. Chambre; Poulain, M.

    2001-01-01

    Poulain Michel, Chambre Dany, Foulon Michel.- Survival Among Belgian Centenarians (1870-1894 Cohorts) Calculating the probability of dying among post-centenarians is problematic and often flawed by a high risk of error. This is partly due to the unreliability of statistical data on centenarians, and partly to the small populations concerned. The Belgian centenarian database of over 4,000 centenarians in the 1870 to 1894 birth cohorts used here endeavours to compensate for these two failings. ...

  2. Irradiation Scheme Design of 14C Production on 49-2 Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN; Zheng; LIU; Xing-min; XU; Zhi-long; ZHANG; Ya-dong

    2012-01-01

    <正>14C is a radioisotope of carbon, it is widely used in pharmacy, medical treatment, agriculture, reconnoiter and archaeology. 49-2 research reactor is a swimming pool style reactor which has operated for more than 40 years. The application of 49-2 reactor includes the radio nuclides production. Therefore, the technical scheme on 14C irradiation in 49-2 reactor should be prepared elaborately.

  3. Joint Estimation of Mark-up and Bargaining Power Parameters for Belgian Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Dobbelaere, Sabien

    2002-01-01

    This paper applies several extensions of Hall's (1988) methodology to analyse imperfections in both the product and the labour market for firms in the Belgian manufacturing industry over the period 1988-1995. We investigate (1) the heterogeneity in mark-up and bargaining power parameters among 17 sectors within the manufacturing industry, (2) whether higher bargaining power parameters are associated with higher mark-ups and (3) whether both parameters are influenced by cyclical and competitio...

  4. Diagnosis, pathophysiology and management of chronic migraine: a proposal of the Belgian Headache Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paemeleire, Koen; Louis, Paul; Magis, Delphine; Vandenheede, Michel; Versijpt, Jan; Vandersmissen, Bart; Schoenen, Jean

    2015-03-01

    Chronic migraine (CM) is a disabling neurological condition affecting 0.5-2 % of the population. In the current third edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders, medication overuse is no longer an exclusion criterion and CM is diagnosed in patients suffering from at least 15 headache days per month of which at least eight are related to migraine. CM is difficult to treat, and preventive treatment options are limited. We provide a pathogenetic model for CM, integrating the latest findings from neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies. On behalf of the Belgian Headache Society, we present a management algorithm for CM based on the international literature and adapted to the Belgian situation. Pharmacological treatment options are discussed, and recent data on transcranial and invasive neuromodulation studies in CM are reviewed. An integrated multimodal treatment programme may be beneficial to refractory patients, but at present, this approach is only supported by a limited number of observational studies and quite variable between centres.

  5. Phthalates dietary exposure and food sources for Belgian preschool children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sioen, Isabelle; Fierens, Tine; Van Holderbeke, Mirja; Geerts, Lieve; Bellemans, Mia; De Maeyer, Mieke; Servaes, Kelly; Vanermen, Guido; Boon, Polly E; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2012-11-01

    Numerous studies have indicated that for phthalates, the intake of contaminated foods is the most important exposure pathway for the general population. Up to now, data on dietary phthalate intake are scarce and - to the authors' knowledge - not available for the Belgian population. Therefore, the purpose of this study was: (1) to assess the long-term intake of the Belgian population for eight phthalates considering different exposure scenarios (benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP); di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP); dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP); di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP); diethyl phthalate (DEP); diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP); dimethyl phthalate (DMP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP)); (2) to evaluate the intake of BBP, DnBP, DEP and DEHP against tolerable daily intake (TDI) values; and (3) to assess the contribution of the different food groups to the phthalate intake. The intake assessment was performed using two Belgian food consumption databases, one with consumption data of preschool children (2.5 to 6.5 years old) and another of adults (≥15 years old), combined with a database of phthalate concentrations measured in over 550 food products sold on the Belgian market. Phthalate intake was calculated using the 'Monte Carlo Risk Assessment' programme (MCRA 7.0). The intake of DEHP was the highest, followed by DiBP. The intake of BBP, DnBP and DEP was far below the TDI for both children and adults. However, for DEHP, the 99th percentile of the intake distribution of preschoolers in the worst case exposure scenario was equal to 80% of the TDI, respectively. This is not negligible, since other exposure routes of DEHP exist for children as well (e.g. mouthing of toys). Bread was the most important contributor to the DEHP intake and this may deserve further exploration, since the origin of this phthalate in bread remains unclear.

  6. Fracture of feedwater pipe in Surry unit-2 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A trip occurred in the Surry unit-2 reactor at 14 : 21 on December 9, 1986, when the reactor was being operated at full power. Recently, the power company published a detailed report on the accident and an inspection report was released by the U.S. Nuclear Regulator Commission (NRC), suggesting that the fracture had resulted from corrosion in an elbow. Thus, the present report discusses in detail the rupture of the elbow, which was part of the secondary cooler feedwater pipe. The rupture was of the guillotine mode and took place instantaneously. Immediately after the reactor trip started, the three main steam valve systems closed and then the rupture of the elbow occurred. Visual examination has shown that the wall of the elbow had become smaller in thickness. A dimple pattern was found in the fracture surface, indicating that the rupture was of the ductile breaking type. It has been concluded that this extreme decrease in wall thickness was the result of corrosion. An ultrasonic test has detected some local pitting corrosion portions in the neighborhood of the longitudinal welding seam. No unusual microscopic metal structures were detected by microscopy. Macroscopic observation revealed that small defects had been formed along the fracture surface. (Nogami, K.)

  7. Supercritical CO2 direct cycle Gas Fast Reactor (SC-GFR) concept.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Steven Alan; Parma, Edward J., Jr.; Suo-Anttila, Ahti Jorma (Computational Engineering Analysis, Albuquerque, NM); Al Rashdan, Ahmad (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Tsvetkov, Pavel Valeryevich (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Vernon, Milton E.; Fleming, Darryn D.; Rochau, Gary Eugene

    2011-05-01

    This report describes the supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO{sub 2}) direct cycle gas fast reactor (SC-GFR) concept. The SC-GFR reactor concept was developed to determine the feasibility of a right size reactor (RSR) type concept using S-CO{sub 2} as the working fluid in a direct cycle fast reactor. Scoping analyses were performed for a 200 to 400 MWth reactor and an S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle. Although a significant amount of work is still required, this type of reactor concept maintains some potentially significant advantages over ideal gas-cooled systems and liquid metal-cooled systems. The analyses presented in this report show that a relatively small long-life reactor core could be developed that maintains decay heat removal by natural circulation. The concept is based largely on the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) commercial power plants operated in the United Kingdom and other GFR concepts.

  8. Once-through CANDU reactor models for the ORIGEN2 computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactor physics calculations have led to the development of two CANDU reactor models for the ORIGEN2 computer code. The model CANDUs are based on (1) the existing once-through fuel cycle with feed comprised of natural uranium and (2) a projected slightly enriched (1.2 wt % 235U) fuel cycle. The reactor models are based on cross sections taken directly from the reactor physics codes. Descriptions of the reactor models, as well as values for the ORIGEN2 flux parameters THERM, RES, and FAST, are given

  9. Once-through CANDU reactor models for the ORIGEN2 computer code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croff, A.G.; Bjerke, M.A.

    1980-11-01

    Reactor physics calculations have led to the development of two CANDU reactor models for the ORIGEN2 computer code. The model CANDUs are based on (1) the existing once-through fuel cycle with feed comprised of natural uranium and (2) a projected slightly enriched (1.2 wt % /sup 235/U) fuel cycle. The reactor models are based on cross sections taken directly from the reactor physics codes. Descriptions of the reactor models, as well as values for the ORIGEN2 flux parameters THERM, RES, and FAST, are given.

  10. Proceedings of 2. Yugoslav symposium on reactor physics, Part 2, Herceg Novi (Yugoslavia), 27-29 Sep 1966

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Volume 2 of the Proceedings of 2. Yugoslav symposium on reactor physics includes eight papers dealing with the following topics: method for measuring high anti reactivities of a reactor system; integration method for thermal reaction rate calculation; Determination of initial core configuration for BHWR-200 MWe; safety shutdowns and failures of the RA reactor equipment; determining the reactivity of absorption rods; measurements of thermal and fast neutron fluxes at the TRIGA reactor and other measurements during operation of the TRIGA reactor; mathematical modelling of the reactor safety; review of problems and methods for radiation risk assessment in the environment of a nuclear power plant

  11. Determination of contamination pathways of phthalates in food products sold on the Belgian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Holderbeke, Mirja; Geerts, Lieve; Vanermen, Guido; Servaes, Kelly; Sioen, Isabelle; De Henauw, Stefaan; Fierens, Tine

    2014-10-01

    As numerous studies have indicated that food ingestion is the most important exposure pathway to several phthalates, this study aimed to determine possible contamination pathways of phthalates in food products sold on the Belgian market. To do this, concentrations of eight phthalates (dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP)) were determined in 591 foods and 30 packaging materials. In general, the four most prominent phthalates in Belgian food products were DEHP, DiBP, DnBP and BBP. Special attention was given to the origin of these phthalates in bread, since high phthalate concentrations (especially DEHP) were determined in this frequently consumed food product. Phthalates seemed to occur in Belgian bread samples due to the use of contaminated ingredients (i.e. use of contaminated flour) as well as due to migration from phthalate containing contact materials used during production (e.g. coated baking trays). Also the results of the conducted concentration profiles of apple, bread, salami and two cheese types revealed the important role of processing - and not packaging - on phthalate contents in foods.

  12. Local stability tests in Dresden 2 boiling water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of a local stability test performed at Dresden Unit 2 in May 1983 to determine the effect of a new fuel element design on local channel stability. This test was performed because the diameter of the new fuel rods increases the heat transfer coefficient, making the reactor more responsive and, thus, more susceptible to instabilities. After four of the new fuel elements with a 9 x 9 array of fuel rods were loaded into Dresden 2, the test was performed by inserting an adjacent control rod all the way in and then withdrawing it to its original position at maximum speed. At the moment of the test, reactor conditions were 52.7% power and 38.9% flow. Both the new 9 x 9 fuel elements and the standard 8 x 8 ones proved to be locally stable when operating at minimum pump speed at the beginning of cycle in Dresden 2, and no significant difference was found between the behavior of the two fuel types. Finally, Dresden 2 showed a high degree of stability during control rod and normal noise type perturbations

  13. Neutron radiography and tomography facility at IBR-2 reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlenko, D. P.; Kichanov, S. E.; Lukin, E. V.; Rutkauskas, A. V.; Belushkin, A. V.; Bokuchava, G. D.; Savenko, B. N.

    2016-05-01

    An experimental station for investigations using neutron radiography and tomography was developed at the upgraded high-flux pulsed IBR-2 reactor. The 20 × 20 cm neutron beam is formed by the system of collimators with the characteristic parameter L/D varying from 200 to 2000. The detector system is based on a 6LiF/ZnS scintillation screen; images are recorded using a high-sensitivity video camera based on the high-resolution CCD matrix. The results of the first neutron radiography and tomography experiments at the developed facility are presented.

  14. TPDWR2: thermal power determination for Westinghouse reactors, Version 2. User's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TPDWR2 is a computer program which was developed to determine the amount of thermal power generated by any Westinghouse nuclear power plant. From system conditions, TPDWR2 calculates enthalpies of water and steam and the power transferred to or from various components in the reactor coolant system and to or from the chemical and volume control system. From these results and assuming that the reactor core is operating at constant power and is at thermal equilibrium, TPDWR2 calculates the thermal power generated by the reactor core. TPDWR2 runs on the IBM PC and XT computers when IBM Personal Computer DOS, Version 2.00 or 2.10, and IBM Personal Computer Basic, Version D2.00 or D2.10, are stored on the same diskette with TPDWR2

  15. Operating reactors licensing actions summary. Volume 5, No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Operating Reactors Licensing Actions Summary is designed to provide the management of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with an overview of licensing actions dealing with operating power and nonpower reactors. These reports utilize data collected from the Division of Licensing in the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and are prepared by the Office of Resource Management. This summary report is published primarily for internal NRC use in managing the Operating Reactors Licensing Actions Program

  16. Proceedings of the 1992 topical meeting on advances in reactor physics. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    This document, Volume 2, presents proceedings of the 1992 Topical Meeting on Advances in Reactor Physics on March 8--11, 1992 at Charleston, SC. Session topics were as follows: Transport Theory; Fast Reactors; Plant Analyzers; Integral Experiments/Measurements & Analysis; Core Computational Systems; Reactor Physics; Monte Carlo; Safety Aspects of Heavy Water Reactors; and Space-Time Core Kinetics. The individual reports have been cataloged separately. (FI)

  17. The radiological impact of the Belgian phosphate industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanmarcke, H.; Paridaens, J. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, SCK.CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2006-07-01

    The Belgian phosphate industry processes huge amounts of phosphate ore (1.5 to 2 Mton/year) for a wide range of applications, the most important being the production of phosphoric acid, fertilizers and cattle food. Marine phosphate ores show high specific activities of the natural uranium decay series (usually indicated by Ra-226) (e.g. 1200 to 1500 Bq/kg for Moroccan ore). Ores of magmatic origin generally contain less of the uranium and more of the thorium decay series (up to 500 Bq/kg). These radionuclides turn up in by-products, residues or product streams depending on the processing method and the acid used for the acidulation of the phosphate rock. Sulfuric acid is the most widely used, but also hydrochloric acid and nitric acid are applied in Belgium. For Flanders, the northern part of Belgium, we already have a clear idea of the production processes and waste streams. The five Flemish phosphate plants, from 1920 to 2000, handled 54 million ton of phosphate ore containing 65 TBq of radium-226 and 2.7 TBq of thorium- 232. The total surface area of the phosphogypsum and calcium fluoride sludge deposits amounts to almost 300 ha. There is also environmental contamination along two small rivers receiving the waste waters of the hydrochloric production process: the Winterbeek (> 200 ha) and the Grote Laak (12 ha). The data on the impact of the phosphate industry in the Walloon provinces in Belgium is less complete. A large plant produced in 2004 0.8 Mton of phosphogypsum, valorizing about 70 % of the gypsum in building materials (plaster, cement), in fertilizers, and in other products such as paper. The remainder was stored on a local disposal site. The radiological impact of the Belgian phosphate industry on the local population will be discussed. At present most contaminated areas are still recognizable as waste deposits and inaccessible to the population. However as gypsum deposits and other contaminated areas quickly blend in with the landscape, it is

  18. Annual report on JEN-1 and JEN-2 Reactors; Informe periodico de Reactores JEN-1 y JEN-2 correpondiente al ano 1972

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes Ponce de Leon, J.

    1974-07-01

    In the annual report on the JEN-1 and JEN-2 reactors the main fractures of the reactor operations and maintenance are described. The reactor has been in operation for 2188 hours, what means 74% of the total working time. Maintenance and periodical tests have occupied the rest of the time. Maintenance operations are shown according to three main subjects, the main failures so as the reactor scrams are also described. Different date relating with radiation level and health Physics are also included. (Author)

  19. Evaluation of CO2 emission in the life cycle of tokamak fusion power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global warming problem is one of the most serious problems which human beings are currently face. Carbon Dioxide (CO2) from power plants is considered one of the major causes of the global warming this study, CO2 emission from Tokamak fusion power plants are compared with those from conventional present power generating technologies. Plasma parameters are calculated by a systems code couples the ITER physics, TF coil shape, and cost calculation. CO2 emission from construction and operation is evaluated from summing up component volume times CO2 emission intensities of the composing materials. The uncountable components on such as reactor building, balance of plants, etc., are scaled from the ITER referenced power reactor (ITER-like) by use of Generomak model. Two important findings are revealed. Most important finding- is that CO2 emissions from fusion reactors are less than that from PV, and less than double of that from fission reactor. The other findings are that (i) most CO2 emissions from fusion reactors are from materials, (ii) CO2 emissions from reactor construction becomes almost 60% to 70%, rest from reactor operation, and (m) the RS reactor can reduce CO2 emission half compared with the ITER-like reactor. In conclusion, tokamak fusion reactors are excellent because of their small CO2 emission intensity, and they can be one of effective energy supply technologies to solve global warming. (author)

  20. Artificial intelligence in nuclear reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessment of four real fuzzy control applications at the MIT research reactor in the US, the FUGEN heavy water reactor in Japan, the BR1 research reactor in Belgium, and a TRIGA Mark III reactor in Mexico will be examined through a SWOT analysis (strengths, weakness, opportunities, and threats). Special attention will be paid to the current cooperation between the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK·CEN) and the Mexican Nuclear Centre (ININ) on AI-based intelligent control for nuclear reactor operation under the partial support of the National Council for Science and Technology of Mexico (CONACYT). (authors)

  1. Different compositions of pharmaceuticals in Dutch and Belgian rivers explained by consumption patterns and treatment efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laak, ter T.L.; Kooij, P.J.F.; Tolkamp, H.; Hofman, J.

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, 43 pharmaceuticals and 18 transformation products were studied in the river Meuse at the Belgian-Dutch border and four tributaries of the river Meuse in the southern part of the Netherlands. The tributaries originate from Belgian, Dutch and mixed Dutch and Belgian catchments. I

  2. The Resilience Scale for Adults: Construct Validity and Measurement in a Belgian Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjemdal, Odin; Friborg, Oddgeir; Braun, Stephanie; Kempenaers, Chantal; Linkowski, Paul; Fossion, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    The Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA) was developed and has been extensively validated in Norwegian samples. The purpose of this study was to explore the construct validity of the Resilience Scale for Adults in a French-speaking Belgian sample and test measurement invariance between the Belgian and a Norwegian sample. A Belgian student sample (N =…

  3. Terminal patients in Belgian nursing homes: a cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoens, Steven; Kutten, Betty; Keirse, Emmanuel; Vanden Berghe, Paul; Beguin, Claire; Desmedt, Marianne; Deveugele, Myriam; Léonard, Christian; Paulus, Dominique; Menten, Johan

    2013-06-01

    Policy makers and health care payers are concerned about the costs of treating terminal patients. This study was done to measure the costs of treating terminal patients during the final month of life in a sample of Belgian nursing homes from the health care payer perspective. Also, this study compares the costs of palliative care with those of usual care. This multicenter, retrospective cohort study enrolled terminal patients from a representative sample of nursing homes. Health care costs included fixed nursing home costs, medical fees, pharmacy charges, other charges, and eventual hospitalization costs. Data sources consisted of accountancy and invoice data. The analysis calculated costs per patient during the final month of life at 2007/2008 prices. Nineteen nursing homes participated in the study, generating a total of 181 patients. Total mean nursing home costs amounted to 3,243 € per patient during the final month of life. Total mean nursing home costs per patient of 3,822 € for patients receiving usual care were higher than costs of 2,456 € for patients receiving palliative care (p = 0.068). Higher costs of usual care were driven by higher hospitalization costs (p < 0.001). This study suggests that palliative care models in nursing homes need to be supported because such care models appear to be less expensive than usual care and because such care models are likely to better reflect the needs of terminal patients.

  4. Safety culture in a Belgian nuclear research centre from a social science point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is the result of a reflection within the framework of a Ph.D. research at SCK-CEN (Belgian Nuclear Research Centre) in collaboration with the University of Liege. The starting point of the work was the 'safety culture' model presented in the IAEA report 75-INSAG-4. This model is applied to the working organization of the SCK-CEN, also considering the safety culture as an open concept given its multi dimensionality. The methodology is based on three methods: observations, focus groups and interviews. The fieldwork was limited to two main installations: a research reactor, and a dismantling site. The preliminary findings are based on the data resulting from 4 Focus Groups. The most prominent components of a safety culture and the multiplicity of safety cultures in a large organization such as SCK-CEN will be discussed. (author)

  5. Conceptual Design Study of JSFR (2) - Reactor System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several innovative technologies are adopted in the JSFR design to meet the high level requirements for economic competitiveness in the design requirements. The cost-down approaches for JSFR are as follows. In order to reduce the amount of structural materials, the diameter of the reactor vessel shall be minimized and the reactor internal structures shall be simplified. The reduction of the reactor vessel diameter is achieved by adopting a advanced refueling system and the hot reactor vessel with high temperature wall. The flow velocity in the reactor upper plenum increases because the diameter of the reactor vessel is decreased. As the result, the coolant flow field in reactor upper plenum is severe. The optimization of the coolant flow field in the reactor upper plenum was carried out for prevention the cover gas entrainment and the vortex cavitations at the hot leg intake. In addition, structural integrities for seismic loadings and thermal loadings were evaluated because the design seismic loading was highly increased and the vessel wall is directly exposed to the thermal transients of the upper plenum. This paper describes the characteristics and the results of the design study of the reactor system. (author)

  6. RHTF 2, a 1200 MWe high temperature reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having adapted to French conditions the 1160 MWe G.A.C. reactor, Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique and French Industry have decided to design an High Temperature Reactor 1200 MWe based on the G.A.C. technology and taking into account the point of view of Electricite de France and the experience of C.E.A. and industry on the gas cooled reactor technology. The main objective of this work is to produce a reactor design having a low technical risk, good operability, with an emphasis on the safety aspects easing the licensing problems

  7. Calculations of reactor-accident consequences, Version 2. CRAC2: computer code user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CRAC2 computer code is a revision of the Calculation of Reactor Accident Consequences computer code, CRAC, developed for the Reactor Safety Study. The CRAC2 computer code incorporates significant modeling improvements in the areas of weather sequence sampling and emergency response, and refinements to the plume rise, atmospheric dispersion, and wet deposition models. New output capabilities have also been added. This guide is to facilitate the informed and intelligent use of CRAC2. It includes descriptions of the input data, the output results, the file structures, control information, and five sample problems

  8. CASSANDRE, 2-D Reactor Dynamic FEM Program with Thermohydraulic Feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: CASSANDRE is a two-dimensional (x-y or r-z) finite-elements neutronics code with thermohydraulic feedback for reactor dynamics prior to the disassembly phase. The code was conceived in order to be coupled with any thermohydraulics module, although thermohydraulics feedback is only considered in r-z geometry. In the steady state, criticality search is possible either by control-rod insertion or by homogeneous poisoning of the coolant. 2 - Method of solution: The program uses multigroup diffusion theory. Its main characteristics are the use of a generalized quasi-static model, the use of a flexible multigroup point-kinetics algorithm allowing for spectral matching, and the use of a finite elements description. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The user must prepare a cross section library

  9. Compensation by RGMS for misreading reactor power in case of D2O dilution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Sang Hoon; Park, Jae Yoon; Choi, Young San; Kim, Young Ki [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    In a research reactor Neutron Measurement System (NMS) which uses wide range fission chamber as neutron detector is applied to measure the reactor power. This system has rapid response to power and stable accuracy for wide range. But this has some concerns of relative measured values depending on the installed location of neutron detector and also may cause the loss of accuracy when dilution of heavy water in the D2O tank happens. The NMS is not only used for reactor control and but also used for reactor protection system. Accordingly faulted reactor power with high deviation for second case may lead unexpected increase of the reactor power. In order to prevent this occurrence, Reactor Gamma Measurement System (RGMS) is necessarily applied. Herein the structure, measuring method and application of RGMS will be introduced.

  10. Operating reactors licensing actions summary. Vol. 4, No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This summary is designed to provide the management of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with an overview of licensing actions dealing with operating power and nonpower reactors. These reports utilize data collected from the Division of Licensing in the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and are prepared by the Office of Resource Management

  11. EC initiatives promise mixed blessings: a Belgian utility perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential effects on nuclear power of European Community initiatives are analysed from the viewpoint of a Belgian utility. The initiatives fall under the three broad headings of: East-West co-operation; completing the internal market; and carbon dioxide emission. (Author)

  12. The attitudes of Belgian adolescents towards peers with disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossaert, Goele; Colpin, Hilde; Pijl, Sip Jan; Petry, Katja

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to explore Belgian adolescents' attitudes towards peers with disabilities and to explore factors associated with these attitudes. Based on the theory of persuasive communication, this study focused on receiver variables (the "whom"), characteristics of students with disabilities ("c

  13. Will Dutch Become Flemish? Autonomous Developments in Belgian Dutch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Velde, Hans; Kissine, Mikhail; Tops, Evie; van der Harst, Sander; van Hout, Roeland

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a series of studies of standard Dutch pronunciation in Belgium and the Netherlands is presented. The research is based on two speech corpora: a diachronic corpus of radio speech (1935-1995) and a synchronic corpus of Belgian and Netherlandic standard Dutch from different regions at the turn of the millennium. It is shown that two…

  14. Continuing Vocational Training in Belgian Companies: An Upward Tendency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyens, Dirk; Wouters, Karen

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: As part of the European continuing vocational training survey, this paper aims to give an overview of the evolutions in continuing vocational training (CVT) in Belgian companies, by comparing both the results of the survey of 1994 and those of 2000/2001. Design/methodology/approach: In Belgium 1,129 companies took part in the survey of…

  15. The impact of EU law on Belgian consumer law terminology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cauffman, C.

    2012-01-01

    The implementation of EU directives in the field of consumer law distorted the Belgian legal terminology. In particular, consumer law terminology often differs from civil law terminology. The meaning of traditional civil law concepts is no longer respected in the field of consumer law. Moreover, the

  16. Belgian experience in applying the {open_quotes}leak-before-break{close_quotes} concept to the primary loop piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerard, R.; Malekian, C.; Meessen, O. [Tractebel Energy Engineering, Brussels (Belgium)

    1997-04-01

    The Leak Before Break (LBB) concept allows to eliminate from the design basis the double-ended guillotine break of the primary loop piping, provided it can be demonstrated by a fracture mechanics analysis that a through-wall flaw, of a size giving rise to a leakage still well detectable by the plant leak detection systems, remains stable even under accident conditions (including the Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE)). This concept was successfully applied to the primary loop piping of several Belgian Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) units, operated by the Utility Electrabel. One of the main benefits is to permit justification of supports in the primary loop and justification of the integrity of the reactor pressure vessel and internals in case of a Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA) in stretch-out conditions. For two of the Belgian PWR units, the LBB approach also made it possible to reduce the number of large hydraulic snubbers installed on the primary coolant pumps. Last but not least, the LBB concept also facilitates the steam generator replacement operations, by eliminating the need for some pipe whip restraints located close to the steam generator. In addition to the U.S. regulatory requirements, the Belgian safety authorities impose additional requirements which are described in details in a separate paper. An novel aspect of the studies performed in Belgium is the way in which residual loads in the primary loop are taken into account. Such loads may result from displacements imposed to close the primary loop in a steam generator replacement operation, especially when it is performed using the {open_quote}two cuts{close_quotes} technique. The influence of such residual loads on the LBB margins is discussed in details and typical results are presented.

  17. DISSOLUTION OF ZIRCALOY 2 CLAD UO2 COMMERCIAL REACTOR FUEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessinger, G.; Thompson, M.

    2009-08-07

    The primary goal of this investigation was to evaluate the effectiveness of the chop-leach process, with nitric acid solvent, to produce a nominally 300 g/L [U] and 1 M [H{sup +}] product solution. The results of this study show that this processing technique is appropriate for applications in which a low free acid and moderately high U content are desired. The 7.75 L of product solution, which was over 450 g/L in U, was successfully diluted to produce about 13 L of solvent extraction feed that was 302 g/L in U with a [H{sup +}] in the range 0.8-1.2 M. A secondary goal was to test the effectiveness of this treatment for the removal of actinides from Zircaloy cladding to produce a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) cladding product. Analysis of the cladding shows that actinides are present in the cladding at a concentration of about 5000 {eta}Ci/g, which is about 50 times greater than the acceptable transuranium element limit in low level radioactive waste. It appears that the concentration of nitric acid used for this dissolution study (initial concentration 4 M, with 10 M added as the dissolution proceeded) was inadequate to completely digest the UO{sub 2} present in the spent fuel. The mass of insoluble material collected from the initial treatments with nitric acid, 340 g, was much higher than expected, and analysis of this insoluble residue showed that it contained at least 200 g U.

  18. Estimate of intake of sulfites in the Belgian adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandevijvere, S; Temme, E; Andjelkovic, M; De Wil, M; Vinkx, C; Goeyens, L; Van Loco, J

    2010-08-01

    An exposure assessment was performed to estimate the usual daily intake of sulfites in the Belgian adult population. Food consumption data were retrieved from the national food consumption survey. In a first step, individual food consumption data were multiplied with the maximum permitted use levels for sulfites, expressed as sulphur dioxide, per food group (Tier 2). In a second step, on the basis of a literature review of the occurrence of sulfites in different foods, the results of the Tier 2 exposure assessment and available occurrence data from the control programme of the competent authority, a refined list of foods was drafted for the quantification of sulphite. Quantification of sulphite was performed by a high-performance ion chromatography method with eluent conductivity detector in beers and potato products. Individual food consumption data were then multiplied with the actual average concentrations of sulfite per food group, or the maximum permitted levels in case actual levels were not available (partial Tier 3). Usual intakes were calculated using the Nusser method. The mean intake of sulfites was 0.34 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) (Tier 2), corresponding to 49% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) and 0.19 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1), corresponding to 27% of the ADI (partial Tier 3). The food group contributing most to the intake of sulfites was wines. The results showed that the intake of sulfites is likely to be below the ADI in Belgium. However, there are indications that high consumers of wine have an intake around the ADI.

  19. Computer code for the analyses of reactivity initiated accident of heavy water moderated and cooled research reactor 'EUREKA-2D'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codes, such as EUREKA and EUREKA-2 have been developed to analyze the reactivity initiated accident for light water reactor. These codes could not be applied directly for the analyses of heavy water moderated and cooled research reactor which are different from light water reactor not only on operation condition but also on reactor kinetic constants. EUREKA-2D which is modified EUREKA-2 is a code for the analyses of reactivity initiated accident of heavy water research reactors. Following items are modified: 1) reactor kinetic constants. 2) thermodynamic properties of coolant. 3) heat transfer equations. The feature of EUREKA-2D and an example of analysis are described in this report. (author)

  20. A survey of bacteria found in Belgian dairy farm products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N'Guessan, E.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. Due to the potential hazards caused by pathogenic bacteria, farm dairy production remains a challenge from the point of view of food safety. As part of a public program to support farm diversification and short food supply chains, farm dairy product samples including yogurt, ice cream, raw-milk butter and cheese samples were collected from 318 Walloon farm producers between 2006 and 2014. Objectives. Investigation of the microbiological quality of the Belgian dairy products using the guidelines provided by the European food safety standards. Method. The samples were collected within the framework of the self-checking regulation. In accordance with the European Regulation EC 2073/2005, microbiological analyses were performed to detect and count Enterobacteriaceae, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Results. Even when results met the microbiological safety standards, hygienic indicator microorganisms like E. coli and S. aureus exceeded the defined limits in 35% and 4% of butter and cheese samples, respectively. Unsatisfactory levels observed for soft cheeses remained higher (10% and 2% for S. aureus and L. monocytogenes respectively than those observed for pressed cheeses (3% and 1% and fresh cheeses (3% and 0% (P ≥ 0.05. Furthermore, the percentages of samples outside legal limits were not significantly higher in the summer months than in winter months for all mentioned bacteria. Conclusions. This survey showed that most farm dairy products investigated were microbiologically safe. However, high levels of hygiene indicators (e.g., E. coli in some products, like butter, remind us of applying good hygienic practices at every stage of the dairy production process to ensure consumer safety.

  1. Exploring Pupils' Perceptions of Teacher Racism in Their Context: A Case Study of Turkish and Belgian Vocational Education Pupils in a Belgian School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Peter A. J.

    2008-01-01

    This article employs ethnographic data gathered from one Belgian (Flemish) secondary school to explore the meaning Belgian and Turkish-speaking minority pupils enrolled in technical and vocational education attach to teacher racism and racial discrimination, and to explore variations between pupils in making claims of teacher racism. A symbolic…

  2. Mechanism of scaling on oxidation reactor wall in TiO2 synthesis by chloride process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU E; YUAN Zhang-fu; WANG Zhi; FANG Xian-Guo; GONG Jia-Zhu

    2006-01-01

    The mechanism of scaling on the oxidation reactor wall in TiO2 synthesis process was investigated. The formation of wall scale is mostly due to being deposited and sintered of TiO2 particle formed in the gas phase reaction of TiCl4 with O2. The gas-phase oxidation of TiCl4 was in a high temperature tubular flow reactor with quartz and ceramic rods put in center respectively. Scale layers are formed on reactor wall and two rods. Morphology and phase composition of them were characterized by transmission electron microscope(TEM), scan electron micrographs(SEM) and X-ray diffraction(XRD). The state of reactor wall has a little effect on scaling formation. With uneven temperature distribution along axial of reactor, the higher the reaction temperature is, the thicker the scale layer and the more compact the scale structure is.

  3. CO2 Absorption in a Lab-Scale Fixed Solid Bed Reactor: Modelling and Experimental Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Gabbrielli

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The CO2 absorption in a lab-scale fixed solid bed reactor filled with different solid sorbents has been studied under different operative conditions regarding temperature (20-200°C and input gas composition (N2, O2, CO2, H2O at 1bar pressure. The gas leaving the reactor has been analysed to measure the CO2 and O2 concentrations and, consequently, to evaluate the overall CO2 removal efficiency. In order to study the influence of solid sorbent type (i.e. CaO, coal bottom ash, limestone and blast furnace slag and of mass and heat transfer processes on CO2 removal efficiency, a one-dimensional time dependent mathematical model of the reactor, which may be considered a Plug Flow Reactor, has been developed. The quality of the model has been confirmed using the experimental results.

  4. Radical pluralism and free speech in online public spaces: the case of North Belgian extreme right discourses

    OpenAIRE

    Cammaerts, Bart

    2009-01-01

    Progressive political movements and activists are not the only ones appropriating Web 2.0 as a way to construct independent public spaces and voice counterhegemonic discourses. By looking at the other extreme of (post-)fascist movements, it will be shown that the internet also gives rise to anti-public spaces, voicing hatred and essentialist discourses. In this article, discourses of hate produced by North-Belgian (post-)fascist movements and activists will be analysed. Theoretically the anal...

  5. Belgian nuclear forum - launching the public debate on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past decades, public opinion on nuclear power was dominated by a 'sleeping', indifferent majority. Nothing moved until (a minority of) opponents began to stir. Their activism strongly contrasted with the low-profile attitude of the nuclear players and pushed a considerable part of the indifferent majority towards a more negative attitude. A 2007 opinion poll (IFOP) confirmed this trend. The poll also revealed a major lack of objective and factual information. Incorrect and incomplete arguments tended to demonize nuclear energy, and 'nuclear' became a brand polarizing public opinion. This had a negative impact on decision-makers and culminated in the Belgian phase-out law of 2003. Based on the opinion poll, the members of the Belgian Nuclear Forum decided to launch a public information campaign, which they would jointly finance, with these goals: - In 3 to 4 years time, create greater public awareness on energy matters and move public opinion towards a more positive attitude. - Gain recognition of nuclear energy's legitimate place in the mix, and of the importance of peaceful nuclear applications. - Attract attention to the Belgian know-how and the importance of the industry on the scientific and economical level. - Optimize conditions for important nuclear issues such as long-term operation of NPPs, new nuclear research projects (MYRRHA),.. A 'push-pull' approach was adopted: push communication to the public (campaign) to pull (involve) decision-makers and get nuclear back on the political agenda. The Forum also opted for a sustained, long-term effort based on public campaigning, public relations and public affairs. Considering its long-time absence from the public debate, the Forum and its agency Saatchi and Saatchi agreed upon the following principles to underpin the campaign: - No 'pro-campaign'; that would be highly unrealistic and have a negative effect; - No taboos: bring up both the pros and cons; - No emotions: bring reason into a mainly emotional

  6. The Mandate System for the Belgian Public Prosecution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno BROUCKER

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The law of 22 December 1998 introduced the mandate system for the heads of the Public Prosecution offices, which were appointed permanent before that. Theoretically, such a system needs to enhance, within the organization, effectiveness, efficiency, responsabilisation, and goal-orientation. However, the mandate system within the Belgian Public Prosecution was introduced prematurely, for dubious reasons and in a precipitate manner. In the current situation, the position of the mandate holder is uncertain, with a bounded autonomy and a low wage increase. Moreover, it remains impossible to intervene in the policy of appointed heads of office (during their mandate, the efficiency and effectiveness is only increased in some prosecution offices and a contract containing actual management responsibilities is absent. In sum: there is a large gap between the theoretical principles of mandate systems and the way it is introduced in the Belgian Public Prosecution.

  7. Reactor Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ait Abderrahim, A

    2001-04-01

    The Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis of reactor fuel. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are summarised.

  8. Belgian modified classification of Maastricht for donors after circulatory death

    OpenAIRE

    Evrard, Patrick; Belgian Working Group on DCD National Protocol; Lois, Fernande; Darius, Tom; De Pauw, Luc; Hantson, Philippe; Jacquemin, Dominique; Schamps, Geneviève; Van Deynse, Dominique; Rondelet, Benoît; Verschuren, Franck

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: "Non-heart-beating donors," or, in a more recent and international definition, "donors after circulatory death," are a potential and additional group of deceased persons who are able to add organs to the pool. METHODS: A new classification is proposed on the basis of the result of a consensus of experts issued from all Belgian transplant centers. RESULTS: The first level of definition is simple and based on whether the situation is uncontrolled (categories I and II) or contr...

  9. Auditor Choice in the Belgian Nonprofit Sector: a Behavioral Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    REHEUL, Anne-Mie; Van Caneghem, Tom; Verbruggen, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates auditor choice in Belgian nonprofit organizations from a behavioral perspective. We investigate whether auditor choice in favor of an auditor with a high (versus low) level of sector specialization is associated with the importance that nonprofit organizations attach to six auditor attributes: competence/integrity/deontology, working relationship with management, audit fee, practical execution of the audit, client oriented analysis and suggestions, and sector expertise...

  10. The Attitudes of Belgian Adolescents towards Peers with Disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Bossaert, Goele; Colpin, Hilde; Pijl, Sip Jan; Petry, Katja

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to explore Belgian adolescents' attitudes towards peers with disabilities and to explore factors associated with these attitudes. Based on the theory of persuasive communication, this study focused on receiver variables (the "whom"), characteristics of students with disabilities ("concerning who") and channel ("how"). An online survey was created and published on several popular websites for youngsters. Attitudes were assessed by means of the CATCH questionnair...

  11. A survey of bacteria found in Belgian dairy farm products

    OpenAIRE

    N'Guessan, E.; Godrie, T.; de Laubier, J.; di Tanna, S.; Ringuet, M.; Sindic, M.

    2015-01-01

    Description of the subject. Due to the potential hazards caused by pathogenic bacteria, farm dairy production remains a challenge from the point of view of food safety. As part of a public program to support farm diversification and short food supply chains, farm dairy product samples including yogurt, ice cream, raw-milk butter and cheese samples were collected from 318 Walloon farm producers between 2006 and 2014. Objectives. Investigation of the microbiological quality of the Belgian dairy...

  12. Internal finance and corporate investment: Belgian evidence with panel data

    OpenAIRE

    Barran, Fernando; Peeters, Marga

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the corporate investment decision under financial restrictions is investigated with Belgian firm data from 1984 to 1992. An investment Euler equation is derived from a dynamic optimization model with debt ceilings and an elastic credit supply. The model is estimated by GMM for different firm groups. An important aspect is that the sample is split according to a firm’s association with coordination centers. These centers have become the major external funding source of corpora...

  13. Characteristics and challenges of the modern Belgian veal industry

    OpenAIRE

    Pardon, Bart; CATRY, Boudewijn; Boone, Randy; Theys, Hubert; De Bleecker, Koen; Dewulf, Jeroen; Deprez, Piet

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the modern Belgian veal industry is situated in a European context, and an overview is provided of the major past, present and future challenges for veal production. The production of white veal requires a specific diet and housing conditions to assure a controlled iron anemic state resulting in pale carcasses. In response to the increasing public concern about animal welfare, legal limits for hemoglobin (in 1990), the provision of a minimum quality of solid feed to assure rumi...

  14. Assessment of marine debris on the Belgian Continental Shelf

    OpenAIRE

    Van Cauwenberghe, L.; Claessens, M.; Vandegehuchte, M.B.; Mees, J.; Janssen, C. R.

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of marine litter in three environmental compartments of Belgian coastal waters was performed. Abundance, weight and composition of marine debris, including microplastics, was assessed by performing beach, sea surface and seafloor monitoring campaigns during two consecutive years. Plastic items were the dominant type of macrodebris recorded: over 95% of debris present in the three sampled marine compartments were plastic. In general, concentrations of macrodebris wer...

  15. Sustainable groundwater extraction in coastal areas: a Belgian example

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenbohede, A.; Van Houtte, E.; Lebbe, L.

    2009-01-01

    Water extractions in coastal areas have to deal with salt water intrusion and lowering of hydraulic heads in valuable ecosystems. Therefore, sustainable management of fresh water resources in these areas is crucial. This is illustrated here with two water extractions in the western Belgian coastal plain which extract groundwater from a phreatic dune aquifer. One water extraction faced problems with salt water intrusion, while lowering of hydraulic heads was an issue for both. To remedy the sa...

  16. Crisis behind the figures? Belgian trade unions between strength, paralysis and revitalisation

    OpenAIRE

    Faniel, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Unlike most of the trade unions in European countries, Belgian unions managed to preserve a high and stable union density, and strong institutional positions. However, their situation is not blissful and the condition of both the workforce and the unions has been worsening for three decades. This article looks at the strengths and weaknesses of Belgian unions and presents four initiatives of union revitalisation recently developed. The argument is that Belgian unions do not fully size the sco...

  17. Methodology for reactor core physics analysis - part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computer codes used for reactor core physics analysis are described. The modifications introduced in the public codes and the technical basis for the codes developed by the FURNAS utility are justified. An evaluation of the impact of these modifications on the parameter involved in qualifying the methodology is included. (F.E.). 5 ref, 7 figs, 5 tabs

  18. Sophistication of burnup analysis system for fast reactor (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improvement on prediction accuracy for neutronics characteristics of fast reactor cores is one of the most important study domains in terms of both achievement of high economical plant efficiency based on reasonably advanced designs and increased reliability and safety margins. In former study, considerable improvement on prediction accuracy in neutronics design has been achieved in the development of the unified cross-section set as a fruit of a series of critical experiments such as JUPITER in application of the reactor constant adjustments. For design of fast reactor cores improvement of not only static characteristics but also burnup characteristics is very important. For such purpose, it is necessary to improve the prediction accuracy on burnup characteristics using actual burnup data of 'JOYO' and 'MONJU', experimental and prototype fast reactors. Recently, study on effective burnup method for minor actinides becomes important theme. However, there is a problem that analysis work tends to become inefficient for lack of functionality suitable for analysis of composition change due to burnup since the conventional analysis system is targeted to critical assembly systems. Therefore development of burnup analysis system for fast reactors with modularity and flexibility is being done that would contribute to actual core design work and improvement of prediction accuracy. In the previous study, we have developed a prototype system which has functions of performing core and burnup calculations using given constant files (PDS files) and information based on simple and easy user input data. It has also functions of fuel shuffling which is indispensable for power reactor analysis systems. In the present study, by extending the prototype system, features for handling of control rods and energy collapse of group constants have been designed and implemented. Computational results from the present analysis system are stored into restart files which can be accessible by

  19. MULTI-LOOP CONTROL DESIGN IN MULTIVARIABLE (2X2 CONTINUOUS STIRRED TANK REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Wahid

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With this study, the design and tuning of multi-loop for multivariable (2x2 CSTR will be made in order to achieve optimum CSTR control performance. This study used Bequette model reactor and MATLAB software and is expected to be able to cope with disturbances in the reactor so that the reactor system is able to stabilize quickly despite the distractions. In this study, the design will be made using multi-loop approach, along with PI controller as the next step. Then, BLT and auto-tune tuning method will be used in PI controller and given disturbances to both of tuning method. The controller performances are then compared. Results of the study are then analyzed for discussions and conclusions. Results from this study have shown that in terms of disturbance rejection, BLT is better than auto-tune based on comparison between both of controller performances. For IAE for the case of temperature, BLT is 30% better than auto-tune, but it is almost the same for the case of concentration. For settling time for the case of concentration, BLT is 30% better than auto-tune, and for the case of temperature, BLT is 18% better than auto-tune. For rise time for the case of concentration and temperature, BLT is 30% better than auto-tune.

  20. On the role of radiologists in the Belgian PROject on CAncer of the REctum, PROCARE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penninckx, F; Danse, E

    2006-01-01

    Radiologists are involved at all stages of the treatment of patients with rectum cancer: in the preoperative staging, in the diagnosis of postoperative complications, in the detection of recurrent or metastatic disease during follow-up, in the monitoring of the therapeutic effect of palliative therapy. PROCARE is a Belgian national project to improve outcome in all patients with rectum cancer. Guidelines were made by a multidisciplinary workgroup and are available on the web. Decentralised implementation of guidelines is organised by the scientific and professional organisations. It is planned that a central review committee of radiologists, delegated by the Royal Belgian Society of Radiology, will survey the quality of preoperative staging. Overall quality of care will be assured by registration in a specific national database starting in 2006. Participating teams will receive annual feedback. Radiologists should provide data on cTNM staging and cCRM. Differentiation between cT2 and cT3, cN0 and cN+, and measurement of the cCRM in mm are crucial as they have a relevant impact on treatment strategy. While spiral abdominal CT is adequate for cM staging, high-resolution MRI is highly recommended and, in fact, a necessity for locoregional staging because its adequacy is superior to that of CT-scan and EUS. However, EUS is mandatory when local excision is considered, i.e. for cT1N0 lesions. PMID:16607873

  1. Analysis of phthalates in food products and packaging materials sold on the Belgian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierens, T; Servaes, K; Van Holderbeke, M; Geerts, L; De Henauw, S; Sioen, I; Vanermen, G

    2012-07-01

    Phthalates are organic lipophilic compounds that are principally used as plasticiser to increase the flexibility of plastic polymers. Other applications are a.o. the use of phthalates in printing inks and lacquers. Human exposure to phthalates mainly occurs via food ingestion and can induce adverse health effects. In this study, the presence of eight phthalate compounds--dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP)--was investigated in 400 food products, divided over eleven groups, and packages sold on the Belgian market. For this purpose, suitable extraction techniques were developed and validated for four different matrices, namely high-fat foods, low-fat food products, aqueous-based beverages and packaging materials. The instrumental analysis was performed by means of gas chromatography-low resolution-mass spectrometry with electron impact ionisation (GC-EI-MS). A wide variety of phthalate concentrations was observed in the different groups. DEHP was found in the highest concentration in almost every group. Moreover, DEHP was the most abundant phthalate compound, followed by DiBP, DnBP and BBP. This survey is part of the PHTAL project, which is the first project that discusses phthalate contamination on the Belgian food market.

  2. A KINETIC MODEL FOR H2O2/UV PROCESS IN A COMPLETELY MIXED BATCH REACTOR. (R825370C076)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A dynamic kinetic model for the advanced oxidation process (AOP) using hydrogen peroxide and ultraviolet irradiation (H2O2/UV) in a completely mixed batch reactor (CMBR) is developed. The model includes the known elementary chemical and photochemical reac...

  3. Fast breeder reactors: Experience and trends. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA Symposium on ''Fast Breeder Reactors: Experience and Future Trends'' was held, at the invitation of the Government of France, in Lyons, France, on 22-26 July 1985. It was hosted by the French Commissariat a l'energie atomique and Electricite de France. The purpose of the Symposium was to review the experience gained so far in the field of LMFBRs, taking into account the constructional, operational, technological, economic and fuel cycle aspects, and to consider the developmental trends as well as the international co-operation in fast breeder reactor design and utilization. The Symposium was attended by almost 400 participants (340 participants, 35 observers and 20 journalists) from 25 countries and five international organizations. More than 80 papers were presented and discussed during six regular sessions and four poster sessions. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers

  4. Novel Catalytic Reactor for CO2 Reduction via Sabatier Process Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A novel short contact time Microlith Sabatier reactor system for CO2 reduction offers a significant advance in support of manned spaceflight. Compared to current...

  5. Novel, Regenerable Microlith Catalytic Reactor for CO2 Reduction via Bosch Process Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI) proposes to develop an extremely compact, lightweight and regenerable MicrolithREG catalytic CO2 reduction reactor, capable of...

  6. Advanced technologies for water cooled reactors 1990. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of the meeting was to review and discuss the status of national programmes, the progress achieved since the last meeting held in June 1988 in the field of advanced technologies and design trends for existing and future water cooled reactors. 24 specialists from 14 countries and the IAEA took part in the meeting and 12 papers were presented. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  7. Modification to ORIGEN2 for generating N Reactor source terms. Volume 2: ORIGEN2 N-Reactor output files

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This text is intended to be a brief outline of the ORIGEN2 computer code, which is a revised and updated version of the ORIGEN documented i report ORNL-4628 (May 1973). Included here are: a brief description of the functions of ORIGEN2; a listing of the major data sources; a listing of the published documentation concerning ORIGEN2; and an outline of the ORIGEN2 output organization. ORIGEN2 is a available from the ORNL Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC). Past experience has indicated that many users encounter considerable difficulty in finding the desired information in ORIGEN2 output which is sometimes rather massive. This section is intended as a brief outline of the organization of ORIGEN2 output.

  8. Keeping research reactors relevant: A pro-active approach for SLOWPOKE-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SLOWPOKE is a small, inherently safe, pool-type research reactor that was engineered and marketed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) in the 1970s and 80s. The original reactor, SLOWPOKE-1, was moved from Chalk River to the University of Toronto in 1970 and was operated until upgraded to the SLOWPOKE-2 reactor in 1973. In all, eight reactors in the two versions were produced and five are still in operation today, three having been decommissioned. All of the remaining reactors are designated as SLOWPOKE-2 reactors. These research reactors are prone to two major issues: aging components and lack of relevance to a younger audience. In order to combat these problems, one SLOWPOKE -2 facility has embraced a strategy that involves modernizing their reactor in order to keep the reactor up to date and relevant. In 2001, this facility replaced its aging analogue reactor control system with a digital control system. The system was successfully commissioned and has provided a renewed platform for student learning and research. The digital control system provides a better interface and allows flexibility in data storage and retrieval that was never possible with the analogue control system. This facility has started work on another upgrade to the digital control and instrumentation system that will be installed in 2010. The upgrade includes new computer hardware, updated software and a web-based simulation and training system that will allow licensed operators, students and researchers to use an online simulation tool for training, education and research. The tool consists of: 1) A dynamic simulation for reactor kinetics (e.g., core flux, power, core temperatures, etc). This tool is useful for operator training and student education; 2) Dynamic mapping of the reactor and pool container gamma and neutron fluxes as well as the vertical neutron beam tube flux. This research planning tool is used for various researchers who wish to do irradiations (e.g., neutron

  9. Status of IVO-FR2-Vg7 experiment for irradiation of fast reactor fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Report on the Seminar celebrated in Madrid between KfK (Karlsruhe) and JEN (Madrid) concerning a Joint Irradiation Program of Fast Reactor Fuel Rods. The design of fuel rods in general is defined, and, in particular of those with a density 94% DT and diameter 7.6 mm up to a burn-up of 7% FIMA, to be irradiated in the FR2 Reactor (Karlsruhe). Together with the design of NaK and single-wall capsules used in this irradiation, other possibilities of irradiation in the reactor will also be described. (auth.)

  10. Groundwater Monitoring Plan for the Reactor Technology Complex Operable Unit 2-13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard P. Wells

    2007-03-23

    This Groundwater Monitoring Plan describes the objectives, activities, and assessments that will be performed to support the on-going groundwater monitoring requirements at the Reactor Technology Complex, formerly the Test Reactor Area (TRA). The requirements for groundwater monitoring were stipulated in the Final Record of Decision for Test Reactor Area, Operable Unit 2-13, signed in December 1997. The monitoring requirements were modified by the First Five-Year Review Report for the Test Reactor Area, Operable Unit 2-13, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to focus on those contaminants of concern that warrant continued surveillance, including chromium, tritium, strontium-90, and cobalt-60. Based upon recommendations provided in the Annual Groundwater Monitoring Status Report for 2006, the groundwater monitoring frequency was reduced to annually from twice a year.

  11. ORIGEN2 model and results for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croff, A G; Bjerke, M A

    1982-06-01

    Reactor physics calculations and literature information acquisition have led to the development of a Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR) model for the ORIGEN2 computer code. The model is based on cross sections taken directly from physics codes. Details are presented concerning the physical description of the fuel assemblies, the fuel management scheme, irradiation parameters, and initial material compositions. The ORIGEN2 model for the CRBR has been implemented, resulting in the production of graphical and tabular characteristics (radioactivity, thermal power, and toxicity) of CRBR spent fuel, high-level waste, and fuel-assembly structural material waste as a function of decay time. Characteristics for pressurized water reactors (PWRs), commercial liquid-metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs), and the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) have also been included in this report for comparison with the CRBR data.

  12. The Influence of the 1974 Oil Crisis on Sectoral Growth Rates in the Belgian Economy

    OpenAIRE

    F.BOSSIER; D. DUWEIN

    1981-01-01

    This paper briefly presents and analyses the behaviour of the different sectors of the Belgian economy during the period 1965-1978. Special attention is paid to the influence of the 1974 oil crisis on sectors of the Belgian economy. It is shown that the 1974 shock had different consequences according to the energy components of the sector

  13. Condensed matter research at the modernized IBR-2 reactor: from functional materials to nanobiotechnologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenov, V. L.; Balagurov, A. M.; Kozlenko, D. P.

    2016-07-01

    An overview of the main scientific areas of condensed matter research, which are extended with the use of the IBR-2 high-flux research reactor, is presented. It is demonstrated that the spectrometer facility of the upgraded reactor has great potential for studying the structural, magnetic, and dynamical properties of novel functional materials and nanobiosystems, which ensures the leading position of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in neutron research of condensed matter for the long-term prospect.

  14. Synergistic Water-Treatment Reactors Using a TiO2-Modified Ti-Mesh Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Fujishima

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The recent applications of a TiO2-modified Ti-mesh filter (TMiP™ for water purification are summarized with newly collected data including biological assays as well as sewage water treatment. The water purification reactors consist of the combination of a TMiP, a UV lamp, an excimer VUV lamp, and an ozonation unit. The water purification abilities of the reactor were evaluated by decomposition of organic contaminants, inactivation of waterborne pathogens, and treatment efficiency for sewage water. The UV-C/TMiP/O3 reactor disinfected E. coli in aqueous suspension in approximately 1 min completely, and also decreased the number of E. coli in sewage water in 15 min dramatically. The observed rate constants of 7.5 L/min and 1.3 L/min were calculated by pseudo-first-order kinetic analysis respectively. Although organic substances in sewage water were supposed to prevent the UV-C/TMiP/O3 reactor from purifying water, the reactor reduced E. coli in sewage water continuously. On the other hand, although much higher efficiencies for decomposition of organic pollutants in water were achieved in the excimer/TMiP reactor, the disinfection activity of the reactor for waterborne pathogens was not as effective as the other reactors. The difference of efficiency between organic pollutants and waterborne pathogens in the excimer/TMiP reactor may be due to the size, the structure, and the decomposition mechanism of the organic pollutants and waterborne pathogens. These results show that a suitable system assisted by synergy of photocatalysts and other technologies such as ozonation has a huge potential as a practical wastewater purification system.

  15. Innovation and research in reactor safety. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The second part of this article contains the continued survey of the advanced development of measures of engineered safeguards and facilities for accident management, referring in greater detail to digital safety and instrumentation and control systems, studies carried out at national research centers, and new facilities. Another topic considered in a separate chapter is the mitigation of the consequences of severe accidents. Irrespective of numerous improvements in accident prevention, reactor safety research in the past decade was characterized by its concentration on severe accidents. The objective of restricting the consequences of hypothetical severe accidents to the plant building was approached in mitigating emergency measures developed and, in some part, also implemented. In addition, analytical methods in the field of severe accidents were expanded, and technologies were developed and validated which seek to stabilize the core melt and to control the phenomena associated with core meltdown. On the whole, light water reactors incorporating the innovations mentioned above attain a safety level which, combined with corresponding efforts in the economic sector, is a prerequisite of the renaissance of nuclear technology in the beginning century. (orig.)

  16. Nordic study on reactor waste. Technical part 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important part of the Nordic studies on system- and safety analysis of the management of low and medium level radioactive waste from nuclear power plants, is the safety analysis of a Reference System. This reference system was established within the study and is described in this Technical Part 1. The reference system covers waste management Schemes that are potential possibilities in either one of the four participating Nordic countries. The reference system is based on: a power reactor system consisting of 6 BWR's of 500 MWe each, operated simultaneously over the same 30 year period, and deep bed granular ion exchange resin wastes from the Reactor Water Clean-Up System (RWCS and powdered ion exchange resin from the Spent Fuel Pool Cleanup System (SFPCS)). Both waste types are supposed to be solidified by mixing with cement and bitumen. Two basic types of containers are considered. Standard 200 liter steel drums and specially made cubicreinforced concrete moulds with a net volume of 1 m3. The Nordic study assumes temporary storage of the solidified waste for a maximum of 50 years before the waste is transferred to the disposal site. Transportation of the waste from the storage facilitiy to the disposal site will be by road or sea. Three different disposal facilities are considered: Shallow land burial, near surface concrete bunker, and rock cavern with about 30 m granite cover. (EG)

  17. Synthesis of digital control systems for nuclear reactors, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to elaborate a closed-loop digital control system to regulate a reactor during commanded changes of power level, making use of the optimal control and trajectories derived in the previous paper. Simple application of this optimal control scheme alone would not permit satisfactory control of the reactor, on account of various external disturbances that would affect the control in actual practice. This difficulty has been overcome by linearizing the system equations around the optimal control and trajectories derived as above, and thereto applying modern control theory. The feedback control system is first examined for a case where all requisite state variables are accessible. Then for the case where not all state variables are thus accessible, a method is devised for estimating the inaccessible variables. The estimates are obtained by detecting the accessible state variables a given number of times during each control stage, using the generalized inverse. A closed-loop system is constituted by incorporating this method of estimation into the feedback circuit. The resulting system is shown to provide amply satisfactory performance in terms of response time and the accuracy. (auth.)

  18. Development of a TiO2-coated optical fiber reactor for water decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to built and to study a photo-reactor composed by TiO2-coated optical fibers for water decontamination. The physico-chemical characteristics and the optical properties of the TiO2 coating were first studied. Then, the influences of different parameters as the coating thickness, the coating length and the coating volume were investigated both on the light transmission in the TiO2- coated fiber and on the photo-catalytic activity of the fiber for a model compound (malic acid). The photo-catalytic degradation of malic acid was optimized using the experimental design methodology allowing to build a multi-fiber reactor comprising 57 optical fibers. The photo-degradation of malic acid was conducted in the multi-fiber reactor and it was demonstrated that the multi-fiber reactor was more efficient than the single-fiber reactor at the same fibers density. Finally, the multi-fiber reactor was applied to the photo-degradation of a fungicide, called fenamidone, and a degradation pathway was proposed. (author)

  19. Safety analysis for core conversion (from HEU to LEU) of Pakistan research reactor-2 (PARR-2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PARR-2 (Pakistan Research Reactor-2), an MNSR (Miniature Neutron Source Reactor) is to be converted from HEU (High Enriched Uranium) to LEU (Low Enriched Uranium) fuel, along with all current MNSRs in various other countries. The purpose of conversion is to minimize the use of HEU for non-proliferation of high-grade nuclear fuel. The present report presents thermal hydraulic and safety analyses of PARR-2 using existing HEU fuel as well as proposed LEU fuel. Presently, the core is comprised of 90.2% enriched UAl4-Al fuel. There are 344 fuel pins of 5.5 mm diameter. The core has a total of 994.8 g of U235. Standard computer code PARET/ANL (version 1992) was employed to perform steady-state and transient analyses. Various parameters were computed, which included: coolant outlet, maximum clad surface and maximum fuel centerline temperatures; and peak power and corresponding peak core temperatures resulting from a transient initiated by 4 mK positive reactivity insertion. Results were compared with the reported data in Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). It was found that the PARET results were in reasonable agreement with the manufacturer's results. Calculations were also carried out for the proposed LEU core with two suggested fuel pin sizes (5.5 mm and 5.1 mm diameter with 12.6% and 12.3% enrichment, respectively). Comparison of the LEU results with the existing HEU fuel has been made and discussed.

  20. Differences between Belgian and Brazilian group A Streptococcus epidemiologic landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Robert Smeesters

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Group A Streptococcus (GAS clinical and molecular epidemiology varies with location and time. These differences are not or are poorly understood. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We prospectively studied the epidemiology of GAS infections among children in outpatient hospital clinics in Brussels (Belgium and Brasília (Brazil. Clinical questionnaires were filled out and microbiological sampling was performed. GAS isolates were emm-typed according to the Center for Disease Control protocol. emm pattern was predicted for each isolate. 334 GAS isolates were recovered from 706 children. Skin infections were frequent in Brasília (48% of the GAS infections, whereas pharyngitis were predominant (88% in Brussels. The mean age of children with GAS pharyngitis in Brussels was lower than in Brasília (65/92 months, p<0.001. emm-typing revealed striking differences between Brazilian and Belgian GAS isolates. While 20 distinct emm-types were identified among 200 Belgian isolates, 48 were found among 128 Brazilian isolates. Belgian isolates belong mainly to emm pattern A-C (55% and E (42.5% while emm pattern E (51.5% and D (36% were predominant in Brasília. In Brasília, emm pattern D isolates were recovered from 18.5% of the pharyngitis, although this emm pattern is supposed to have a skin tropism. By contrast, A-C pattern isolates were infrequently recovered in a region where rheumatic fever is still highly prevalent. CONCLUSIONS: Epidemiologic features of GAS from a pediatric population were very different in an industrialised country and a low incomes region, not only in term of clinical presentation, but also in terms of genetic diversity and distribution of emm patterns. These differences should be taken into account for designing treatment guidelines and vaccine strategies.

  1. Operating experience with diesel generators in Belgian nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various problems have occurred on the diesel generators in the Belgian nuclear power plants, independently of the D.G. manufacturer or from the operating crew. Furthermore no individual part of the D.G. can be incriminated as being the main cause of the incidents. The incidents reported in this paper are chosen because of the importance for the safety or for the long repair period. The unavailability of a D.G. can only be detected by periodic tests and controls. Combined with a good preventive maintenance, the risks of incidents can be reduced. (author)

  2. Hemophilia A in a Belgian Shepherd Malinois dog: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavazza, A; Lubas, G; Trotta, M; Caldin, M

    2014-08-01

    This case report presents a Belgian Shepherd Malinois dog affected by hemophilia A recognized at the age of seven months. The clinical follow-up including all the diagnostic procedures leading to the final diagnosis and the course of this disorder are presented. This is a typical proband case demonstrating the appearance of this genetic disease in a breed never involved by this coagulation disorder so far documented that started an intensive and laborious plan to reduce the incidence of hemophilia A and the further appearance of new cases.

  3. Health effects[1997 Scientific Report of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahieu, L.

    1998-07-01

    The objectives of the research in the field of epidemiology , performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are (1) to study cancer mortality and morbidity in nuclear workers in Belgium; (2) to document the feasibility of retrospective cohort studies in Belgium; (3) to participate in the IARC study. For radiobiology, the main objectives are: (1) to elucidate the mechanisms of the effects of ionizing radiation on the mammalian embryo during the early phase of its development, (2) to assess the genetic risks of maternal exposure to ionizing radiation, (3) to elucidate the mechanisms by which damage to the brain and mental retardation are caused in man after prenatal irradiation. The main achievements in these domains for 1997 are presented.

  4. Salmonella surveillance and control at post-harvest in the Belgian pork meat chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhalle, L; Saegerman, C; Farnir, F; Korsak, N; Maes, D; Messens, W; De Sadeleer, L; De Zutter, L; Daube, G

    2009-05-01

    Salmonella remains the primary cause of reported bacterial food borne disease outbreaks in Belgium. Pork and pork products are recognized as one of the major sources of human salmonellosis. In contrast with the primary production and slaughterhouse phases of the pork meat production chain, only a few studies have focussed on the post-harvest stages. The goal of this study was to evaluate Salmonella and Escherichia coli contamination at the Belgian post-harvest stages. E. coli counts were estimated in order to evaluate the levels of faecal contamination. The results of bacteriological analysis from seven cutting plants, four meat-mincing plants and the four largest Belgian retailers were collected from official and self-monitoring controls. The prevalence of Salmonella in the cutting plants and meat-mincing plants ranged from 0% to 50%. The most frequently isolated serotype was Salmonella typhimurium. The prevalence in minced meat at retail level ranged from 0.3% to 4.3%. The levels of Salmonella contamination estimated from semi-quantitative analysis of data relating to carcasses, cuts of meat and minced meat were equal to -3.40+/-2.04 log CFU/cm(2), -2.64+/-1.76 log CFU/g and -2.35+/-1.09 log CFU/g, respectively. The E. coli results in meat cuts and minced meat ranged from 0.21+/-0.50 to 1.23+/-0.89 log CFU/g and from 1.33+/-0.58 to 2.78+/-0.43 log CFU/g, respectively. The results showed that faecal contamination still needs to be reduced, especially in specific individual plants. PMID:19269567

  5. Development of an underwater remote manipulator system for use in TMI-2 [Three Mile Island Unit 2] reactor defueling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defueling operations in the original core region of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor vessel were conducted with long-handled tools that were manually positioned by operators on a rotating work platform over the reactor vessel. The difficulties encountered with these operations led GPU Nuclear Corporation (GPU) to consider other means of operation when defueling the core support assembly and reactor vessel lower head, which is ∼12 m (40 ft) below the work platform. GPU determined a heavy-duty remote manipulator system could be an effective alternative. The MANFRED (MANipulators For REactor Defueling) system was thus developed for this purpose by Ocean Systems Engineering and International Submarine Engineering under contract to GPU. The paper includes a description of MANFRED present status, and lessons learned

  6. Development of a Novel Catalytic Membrane Reactor for Heterogeneous Catalysis in Supercritical CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiro Yokoyama

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel type of high-pressure membrane reactor has been developed for hydrogenation in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2. The main objectives of the design of the reactor are the separate feeding of hydrogen and substrate in scCO2 for safe reactions in a continuous flow process, and to reduce the reaction time. By using this new reactor, hydrogenation of cinnamaldehyde into hydrocinnamaldehyde has been successfully carried out with 100% selectivity at 50 °C in 10 MPa (H2: 1 MPa, CO2: 9 MPa with a flow rate of substrate ranging from 0.05 to 1.0 mL/min.

  7. Technical improvements in 19th century Belgian window glass production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauriks, Leen; Collette, Quentin; Wouters, Ine; Belis, Jan

    Glass was used since the Roman age in the building envelope, but it became widely applied together with iron since the 19th century. Belgium was a major producer of window glass during the nineteenth century and the majority of the produced window glass was exported all over the world. Investigating the literature on the development of 19th century Belgian window glass production is therefore internationally relevant. In the 17th century, wood was replaced as a fuel by coal. In the 19th century, the regenerative tank furnace applied gas as a fuel in a continuous glass production process. The advantages were a clean production, a more constant and higher temperature in the furnace and a fuel saving. The French chemist Nicolas Leblanc (1787-1793) and later the Belgian chemist Ernest Solvay (1863) invented processes to produce alkali out of common salt. The artificial soda ash improved the quality and aesthetics of the glass plates. During the 19th century, the glass production was industrialized, influencing the operation of furnaces, the improvement of raw materials as well as the applied energy sources. Although the production process was industrialized, glassblowing was still the work of an individual. By improving his work tools, he was able to create larger glass plates. The developments in the annealing process followed this evolution. The industry had to wait until the invention of the drawn glass in the beginning of the 20th century to fully industrialise the window glass manufacture process.

  8. The attitudes of Belgian adolescents towards peers with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossaert, Goele; Colpin, Hilde; Pijl, Sip Jan; Petry, Katja

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to explore Belgian adolescents' attitudes towards peers with disabilities and to explore factors associated with these attitudes. Based on the theory of persuasive communication, this study focused on receiver variables (the "whom"), characteristics of students with disabilities ("concerning who") and channel ("how"). An online survey was created and published on several popular websites for youngsters. Attitudes were assessed by means of the CATCH questionnaire among 167 adolescents between 11 and 20 years old. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were conducted. Belgian adolescents had fairly tolerant attitudes towards peers with disabilities. Factors associated with more positive attitudes were being female, and viewing a video introduction of a peer with a disability before assessing attitudes. Factors such as having a parent, sibling or good friend with a disability and frequent contact with persons with disabilities did not remain significant in the overall model. The way in which students with disabilities are presented to their peers is very important. Further research is needed among larger samples, including more diverse variables, concerning the former mentioned categories, and also concerning the source (the "who") and message (the "what"). PMID:21257288

  9. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in food and feed on the Belgian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huybrechts, Bart; Callebaut, Alfons

    2015-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are widely distributed plant toxins with species dependent hepatotoxic, carcinogenic, genotoxic and pneumotoxic risks. In a recent European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) opinion, only two data sets from one European country were received for honey, while one feed data set was included. No data are available for food or feed samples from the Belgian market. We developed an LC-MS/MS method, which allowed the detection and quantification of 16 PAs in a broad range of matrices in the sub ng g(-1) range. The method was validated in milk, honey and hay and applied to honey, tea (Camellia sinensis), scented tea, herbal tea, milk and feed samples bought on the Belgian market. The results confirmed that tea, scented tea, herbal tea and honey are important food sources of pyrrolizidine alkaloid contamination in Belgium. Furthermore, we detected PAs in 4 of 63 commercial milk samples. A high incidence rate of PAs in lucerne (alfalfa)-based horse feed and in rabbit feed was detected, while bird feed samples were less contaminated. We report for the first time the presence of monocrotaline, intermedine, lycopsamine, heliotrine and echimidine in cat food. PMID:26373269

  10. RISCOM Applied to the Belgian Partnership Model: More and Deeper Levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technology participation is not a new concept. It has been applied in different settings in different countries. In this article, we report a comparing analysis of the RISCOM model in Sweden and the Belgian partnership model for low and intermediate short-lived nuclear waste. After a brief description of the partnerships and the RISCOM model, we apply the latter to the first and come to recommendations for the partnership model. The strength of the partnership approach is at the community level. In one of the villages, up to one percent of the population was motivated to discuss at least once a month for four years the nuts and bolts of the repository concept. The stress on the community level and the lack of a guardian includes a weakness as well. First of all, if communities come into competition, the inter-community discussions can start resembling local politics and can become less transparent. Local actors are concerned actors but actors at the national level are concerned as well. The local decisions influence how the waste will be transported. The local decisions also determine an extra cost of electricity. We therefore recommend a broad (in terms of territory) public debate on the participation experiments preceding and concluding the local participation process in which this local process maintains an important position. The conclusions of our comparative analysis are: (1) The guardian of the process at the national level is missing. Since the Belgian nuclear regulator plays a controlling role after the process, we recommend a technology assessment institute at the federal level. (2) We state that stretching in the partnership model can happen more profoundly and recommend a 'counter institute' at the European level. The role of non-participative actors should be valued. (3) Recursion levels can be taken as a point of departure for discussion about the problem framing. If people accept them, there is no problem. If people clearly mention issues that are

  11. RISCOM Applied to the Belgian Partnership Model: More and Deeper Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bombaerts, Gunter; Bovy, Michel; Laes, Erik [SCKCEN, Mol (Belgium). PISA

    2006-09-15

    Technology participation is not a new concept. It has been applied in different settings in different countries. In this article, we report a comparing analysis of the RISCOM model in Sweden and the Belgian partnership model for low and intermediate short-lived nuclear waste. After a brief description of the partnerships and the RISCOM model, we apply the latter to the first and come to recommendations for the partnership model. The strength of the partnership approach is at the community level. In one of the villages, up to one percent of the population was motivated to discuss at least once a month for four years the nuts and bolts of the repository concept. The stress on the community level and the lack of a guardian includes a weakness as well. First of all, if communities come into competition, the inter-community discussions can start resembling local politics and can become less transparent. Local actors are concerned actors but actors at the national level are concerned as well. The local decisions influence how the waste will be transported. The local decisions also determine an extra cost of electricity. We therefore recommend a broad (in terms of territory) public debate on the participation experiments preceding and concluding the local participation process in which this local process maintains an important position. The conclusions of our comparative analysis are: (1) The guardian of the process at the national level is missing. Since the Belgian nuclear regulator plays a controlling role after the process, we recommend a technology assessment institute at the federal level. (2) We state that stretching in the partnership model can happen more profoundly and recommend a 'counter institute' at the European level. The role of non-participative actors should be valued. (3) Recursion levels can be taken as a point of departure for discussion about the problem framing. If people accept them, there is no problem. If people clearly mention issues

  12. TiO2 Solar Photocatalytic Reactor Systems: Selection of Reactor Design for Scale-up and Commercialization—Analytical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmine Abdel-Maksoud

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available For the last four decades, viability of photocatalytic degradation of organic compounds in water streams has been demonstrated. Different configurations for solar TiO2 photocatalytic reactors have been used, however pilot and demonstration plants are still countable. Degradation efficiency reported as a function of treatment time does not answer the question: which of these reactor configurations is the most suitable for photocatalytic process and optimum for scale-up and commercialization? Degradation efficiency expressed as a function of the reactor throughput and ease of catalyst removal from treated effluent are used for comparing performance of different reactor configurations to select the optimum for scale-up. Comparison included parabolic trough, flat plate, double skin sheet, shallow ponds, shallow tanks, thin-film fixed-bed, thin film cascade, step, compound parabolic concentrators, fountain, slurry bubble column, pebble bed and packed bed reactors. Degradation efficiency as a function of system throughput is a powerful indicator for comparing the performance of photocatalytic reactors of different types and geometries, at different development scales. Shallow ponds, shallow tanks and fountain reactors have the potential of meeting all the process requirements and a relatively high throughput are suitable for developing into continuous industrial-scale treatment units given that an efficient immobilized or supported photocatalyst is used.

  13. New reactor concepts; Nieuwe rectorconcepten - nouveaux reacteurs nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meskens, G.; Govaerts, P.; Baugnet, J.-M.; Delbrassine, A

    1998-11-01

    The document gives a summary of new nuclear reactor concepts from a technological point of view. Belgium supports the development of the European Pressurized-Water Reactor, which is an evolutionary concept based on the European experience in Pressurized-Water Reactors. A reorientation of the Belgian choice for this evolutionary concept may be required in case that a decision is taken to burn plutonium, when the need for flexible nuclear power plants arises or when new reactor concepts can demonstrate proved benefits in terms of safety and cost.

  14. VISIT OF BELGIAN FIRMS AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    2 - 3 APRIL 2001 14h00 to 17h30 Monday 2nd 09h00 to 17h30 Tuesday 3rd The firms will be in the Main Building - Pas Perdus and Mezzanine List of Companies: Alcatel ETCA Amos S.A. Asco Industries N.V. Barco N.V. Belgatom Capaul S.A. Comelec S.A. Groupe Hamon HTMS (High Tech Metal Seals) N.V. Kelatron S.A. Mécanique de Précision pour Equipements Mecasoft S.A. Pauwels International N.V. Penders & Vanherle Elektrotechniek N.V. Resarm Engineering Plastics S.A. Simonis Plastic S.A. Techspace Aero S.A. Verhaert Design & Development N.V. Detailed information on the companies is also available on the Web: http://spl-purchasing.web.cern.ch/spl-purchasing/exhibitions_visits.htm For further information please contact Mrs C.L. Jullien-Woringer (tel. 73722-76360)

  15. Joint Assessment of ETRR-2 Research Reactor Operations Program, Capabilities, and Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A joint assessment meeting was conducted at the Egyptian Atomic Energy Agency (EAEA) followed by a tour of Egyptian Second Research Reactor (ETRR-2) on March 22 and 23, 2006. The purpose of the visit was to evaluate the capabilities of the new research reactor and its operations under Action Sheet 4 between the U.S. DOE and the EAEA, ''Research Reactor Operation'', and Action Sheet 6, ''Technical assistance in The Production of Radioisotopes''. Preliminary Recommendations of the joint assessment are as follows: (1) ETRR-2 utilization should be increased by encouraging frequent and sustained operations. This can be accomplished in part by (a) Improving the supply-chain management for fresh reactor fuel and alleviating the perception that the existing fuel inventory should be conserved due to unreliable fuel supply; and (b) Promulgating a policy for sample irradiation priority that encourages the use of the reactor and does not leave the decision of when to operate entirely at the discretion of reactor operations staff. (2) Each experimental facility in operation or built for a single purpose should be reevaluated to focus on those that most meet the goals of the EAEA strategic business plan. Temporary or long-term elimination of some experimental programs might be necessary to provide more focused utilization. There may be instances of emerging reactor applications for which no experimental facility is yet designed or envisioned. In some cases, an experimental facility may have a more beneficial use than the purpose for which it was originally designed. For example, (a) An effective Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) program requires nearby high quality medical facilities. These facilities are not available and are unlikely to be constructed near the Inshas site. Further, the BNCT facility is not correctly designed for advanced research and therapy programs using epithermal neutrons. (b) The ETRR-2 is frequently operated to provide color-enhanced gemstones but is

  16. Pesticides for apicultural and/or agricultural application found in Belgian honey bee wax combs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravoet, Jorgen; Reybroeck, Wim; de Graaf, Dirk C

    2015-05-01

    In a Belgian pilot study honey bee wax combs from ten hives were analyzed on the presence of almost 300 organochlorine and organophosphorous compounds by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS. Traces of 18 pesticides were found and not a single sample was free of residues. The number of residues found per sample ranged from 3 to 13, and the pesticides found could be categorized as (1) pesticides for solely apicultural (veterinary) application, (2) pesticides for solely agricultural (crop protection) application, (3) pesticides for mixed agricultural and apicultural (veterinary) application. The frequencies and quantities of some environmental pollutants bear us high concerns. Most alarming was the detection of lindane (gamma-HCH) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (including its breakdown product dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene), two insecticides that are banned in Europe. The present comprehensive residue analysis, however, also reveals residues of pesticides never found in beeswax before, i.e. DEET, propargite and bromophos.

  17. Chemical analyses of dredged spoil disposal sites at the Belgian part of the North Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Witte, Bavo; Ruttens, Ann; Ampe, Bart; Waegeneers, Nadia; Gauquie, Johanna; Devriese, Lisa; Cooreman, Kris; Parmentier, Koen

    2016-08-01

    The chemical status of five dredged spoil disposal sites in the Belgian Part of the North Sea is evaluated. A linear mixed-effect model was applied to PCB, PAH and heavy metal data from 2005 to 2014. No decrease in PCB concentrations was found, with even an increase at two disposal sites. Hg/AL ratios increased with 62% at one disposal site (BR&WS2) from 2005 to 2006 to 2013-2014. Cu and Zn concentrations increased at two disposal sites. Additional harbour sampling suggests that the latter is possibly linked to antifouling paints. Based on OSPAR environmental assessment criteria, the current chemical status of the sites suggests no chronic effect of dredged spoil disposal. However, increasing time trend data for PCB, Hg, Cu and Zn demonstrate the importance of monitoring to identify adverse trends. PMID:27176939

  18. Radiological optimization[1997 Scientific Report of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeevaert, T.

    1998-07-01

    Radiological optimization is one of the basic principles in each radiation-protection system and it is a basic requirement in the safety standards for radiation protection in the European Communities. The objectives of the research, performed in this field at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN, are: (1) to implement the ALARA principles in activities with radiological consequences; (2) to develop methodologies for optimization techniques in decision-aiding; (3) to optimize radiological assessment models by validation and intercomparison; (4) to improve methods to assess in real time the radiological hazards in the environment in case of an accident; (5) to develop methods and programmes to assist decision-makers during a nuclear emergency; (6) to support the policy of radioactive waste management authorities in the field of radiation protection; (7) to investigate existing software programmes in the domain of multi criteria analysis. The main achievements for 1997 are given.

  19. Conceptual System Design of a Supercritical CO2 cooled Micro Modular Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong Gu; Oh, Bongseong; Baik, Seung Joon; Yu, Hwanyeal; Kim, Yonghee; Lee, Jeong Ik [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The S-CO2 Brayton cycle has many advantages for SMR's power conversion system. The S-CO2 cycle can achieve small component size and simple cycle layout as shown in Fig. 1. Therefore, a concept of one module containing the S-CO2 cooled fast reactor core and power conversion system is realizable. Thanks to the compact heat exchanger technology such as Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger (PCHE), the supercritical fluid with mediocre heat transfer performance can be utilized to a thermal cycle. This concept of fully modularized reactor is named as KAIST Micro Modular Reactor (MMR). It can achieve large economic by production in series, and transported in the land way or sea way. Based on the design results and dimensions of the reactor core and cycle components, the authors propose a conceptual layout of KAIST MMR. Based on this concept of reactor core, power conversion system, and decay heat removal system, the seasonal operation and transient analysis will be performed in the further works.

  20. The metallurgical properties of Zircaloy-2 relevant to its use in reactor pressure tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reviews the properties of the zirconium-base alloy Zircaloy as used in UK steam-generating heavy water reactor. It describes the major engineering requirements for this use and how the alloy can be fabricated. Some comparisons with other alloys and other metallurgical conditions are provided throughout the review. In the section on corrosion aspects the important effect of reactor irradiation in producing higher corrosion rates is emphasized by results obtained from surveillance samples taken after several years of large-scale reactor operation. In addition to oxidation effects the associated rate of hydrogen pickup is discussed and it is shown that reactor life exposure could lead to total loss of section of 0.20 mm with a total hydrogen pickup of about 100 ppm. Locally higher corrosion rates associated with nodular corrosion, and the conditions for stress corrosion are described. With regard to short-term mechanical properties, the major part of the discussion is devoted to fracture toughness aspects because of the embrittling effects of hydriding and of neutron irradiation. The experimental work shows that fast fracture could only occur under reactor conditions if a large defect was present, typically ten or more centimetres long and 80% of the wall thickness deep. Moreover, such large defects are likely to lead to leakage rather than fast fracture, satisfying 'leak-before-break' arguments. Information on fragmentation behaviour is also reported. Turning to time-dependent properties, emphasis is again put on information from long-term reactor measurements. The important aspect of irradiation-accelerated creep is reviewed with the evidence for an associated increase in strain-to-failure. It is concluded that the creep strain occurring during 25 full power years exposure to reactor conditions would not exceed 2 1/2%, a value well within the acceptable limit. (author)

  1. Safety analysis for core conversion (from HEU to LEU) of Pakistan research reactor-2 (PARR-2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bokhari, Ishtiaq Hussain, E-mail: ishtiaq@pinstech.org.p [Nuclear Engineering Division, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Pervez, Showket [Nuclear Engineering Division, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2010-01-15

    PARR-2 (Pakistan Research Reactor-2), an MNSR (Miniature Neutron Source Reactor) is to be converted from HEU (High Enriched Uranium) to LEU (Low Enriched Uranium) fuel, along with all current MNSRs in various other countries. The purpose of conversion is to minimize the use of HEU for non-proliferation of high-grade nuclear fuel. The present report presents thermal hydraulic and safety analyses of PARR-2 using existing HEU fuel as well as proposed LEU fuel. Presently, the core is comprised of 90.2% enriched UAl{sub 4}-Al fuel. There are 344 fuel pins of 5.5 mm diameter. The core has a total of 994.8 g of U{sup 235}. Standard computer code PARET/ANL (version 1992) was employed to perform steady-state and transient analyses. Various parameters were computed, which included: coolant outlet, maximum clad surface and maximum fuel centerline temperatures; and peak power and corresponding peak core temperatures resulting from a transient initiated by 4 mK positive reactivity insertion. Results were compared with the reported data in Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). It was found that the PARET results were in reasonable agreement with the manufacturer's results. Calculations were also carried out for the proposed LEU core with two suggested fuel pin sizes (5.5 mm and 5.1 mm diameter with 12.6% and 12.3% enrichment, respectively). Comparison of the LEU results with the existing HEU fuel has been made and discussed.

  2. Active species in a large volume N{sub 2}-O{sub 2} post-discharge reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutasi, K [Centro de Fisica dos Plasmas, Instituto Superior Tecnico Lisboa 1049-001 (Portugal); Pintassilgo, C D [Centro de Fisica dos Plasmas, Instituto Superior Tecnico Lisboa 1049-001 (Portugal); Loureiro, J [Centro de Fisica dos Plasmas, Instituto Superior Tecnico Lisboa 1049-001 (Portugal); Coelho, P J [Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon 1049-001 (Portugal)

    2007-04-07

    A large volume post-discharge reactor placed downstream from a flowing N{sub 2}-O{sub 2} microwave discharge is modelled using a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. The density distributions of the most populated active species present in the reactor-O({sup 3}P), O{sub 2}(a {sup 1} {delta}{sub g}), O{sub 2}(b{sup 1}{sigma}{sub g}{sup +}), NO(X {sup 2} {pi}), NO(A {sup 2} {sigma}{sup +}), NO(B {sup 2} {pi}), NO{sub 2}(X), O{sub 3}, O{sub 2}(X{sup 3}{sigma}{sub g}{sup -}) and N({sup 4}S)-are calculated and the main source and loss processes for each species are identified for two discharge conditions: (i) p = 2 Torr, f = 2450 MHz, and (ii) p = 8 Torr, f = 915 MHz; in the case of a N{sub 2}-2%O{sub 2} mixture composition and gas flow rate of 2 x 10{sup 3} sccm. The modification of the species relative densities by changing the oxygen percentage in the initial gas mixture composition, in the 0.2%-5% range, are presented. The possible tuning of the species concentrations in the reactor by changing the size of the connecting afterglow tube between the active discharge and the large post-discharge reactor is investigated as well.

  3. Risk assessment for furan contamination through the food chain in Belgian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Georges; Huybrechts, Inge; Humblet, Marie-France; Scippo, Marie-Louise; De Pauw, Edwin; Eppe, Gauthier; Saegerman, Claude

    2012-08-01

    Young, old, pregnant and immuno-compromised persons are of great concern for risk assessors as they represent the sub-populations most at risk. The present paper focuses on risk assessment linked to furan exposure in children. Only the Belgian population was considered because individual contamination and consumption data that are required for accurate risk assessment were available for Belgian children only. Two risk assessment approaches, the so-called deterministic and probabilistic, were applied and the results were compared for the estimation of daily intake. A significant difference between the average Estimated Daily Intake (EDI) was underlined between the deterministic (419 ng kg⁻¹ body weight (bw) day⁻¹) and the probabilistic (583 ng kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹) approaches, which results from the mathematical treatment of the null consumption and contamination data. The risk was characterised by two ways: (1) the classical approach by comparison of the EDI to a reference dose (RfD(chronic-oral)) and (2) the most recent approach, namely the Margin of Exposure (MoE) approach. Both reached similar conclusions: the risk level is not of a major concern, but is neither negligible. In the first approach, only 2.7 or 6.6% (respectively in the deterministic and in the probabilistic way) of the studied population presented an EDI above the RfD(chronic-oral). In the second approach, the percentage of children displaying a MoE above 10,000 and below 100 is 3-0% and 20-0.01% in the deterministic and probabilistic modes, respectively. In addition, children were compared to adults and significant differences between the contamination patterns were highlighted. While major contamination was linked to coffee consumption in adults (55%), no item predominantly contributed to the contamination in children. The most important were soups (19%), dairy products (17%), pasta and rice (11%), fruit and potatoes (9% each). PMID:22632631

  4. Different periods of feed restriction before compensatory growth in Belgian Blue bulls: II. Plasma metabolites and hormones

    OpenAIRE

    Hornick, Jean-Luc; Van Eenaeme, Christian; Diez, Marianne; Minet, Vincent; Istasse, Louis

    1998-01-01

    Plasma metabolites and hormones were studied in 16 double-muscled Belgian Blue bulls maintained at low growth (.5 kg/d) for 114 (G2), 243 (G3), or 419 (G4) d (low growth period, LGP) before fattening (rapid growth period, RGP). Animals from the control group (CG) were fed a diet high in energy and protein. The animals from G2, G3, and G4 were fed a restricted amount of a diet low in energy and protein during LGP and the same diet as CG during RGP. Plasma glucose, alpha-amino nitrogen (AAN), N...

  5. Tests of Neutron Spectrum Calculations with the Help of Foil Measurements in a D2O and in an H2O-Moderated Reactor and in Reactor Shields of Concrete an Iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foil measurements covering the fast, epithermal and thermal neutron energy regions have been made in the centre of the Swedish D2O-moderated reactor R1, in the pool reactor R2-0, and in different positions in reactor shields of iron, magnetite concrete and ordinary concrete. Neutron spectra have also been calculated for most of these positions, often with the help of a numerical integration of the Boltzmann equation. The measurements and the calculated spectra are presented

  6. Visit of Belgian Firms at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    FP Department

    2009-01-01

    25 – 26 MAY 2009 09h00 to 17h00 Monday 25 May 09h00 to 17h00 Tuesday 26 May Individual interviews will take place in technicians’ offices. The firms will contact relevant users/technicians but any user wishing to make contact with a particular firm is welcome to use the contact details which are available from each secretariat of department or from the GS Department web pages at the following URL: http://gs-dep.web.cern.ch/gs-dep/groups/sem/ls/Industrial_Exhibitions.htm List of Companies: 1. Automation Services and Consulting BVBA 2. Burrick NV, (PLC) 3. Cissoid 4. DB Engineering 5. Design, Drafting & Services BVBA 6. Entelec Control Systems 7. GILLAM-Fei S.A. 8. HPC 9. ICSENSE 10. IWT – Enterprise Europe Flanders 11. Jema SA 12. Mecasoft SA 13. SA Polmans 14. Rapid-Torc 15. Resarm Engineering Plastics SA 16. Sentera Europa NV 17. SLC BVBA 18. Stocker Industrie SA 19. Technord 20. Tecnubel 21. Winlock BVBA For further information please contact Caroline Laignel GS-DI 737...

  7. Recent historical changes on the Belgian Meuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When a nuclear power station was installed on the Meuse in central Belgium, the impact of thermal, radioactive, and chemical waste on the water of the Neuse and on its biocenoses was studied. Three successive periods of development of the channel bed and the flood plain in Belgium have occurred, and their hydrological, physicochemical, and ecological consequences have been examined. Since the last century, the ecosystem of the Meuse has undergone, due to the increasing activity of man, modifications of increasing importance: marked reduction of the water flow, a drastic increase in the suspended material being transported, a degree of eutrophication of the water, and the disturbance of the original floral and faunal communities. The causes of this evolution of the Meuse can be itemized as different types of human interference in descending order of importance: (1) occupation of the catchment area; (2) encroachment on the flood plain; (3) encroachment on the channel bed; (4) destruction of habitats; (5) water pollution; (6) overexploitation of fish-breeding stocks; and (7) introduction of foreign species. Thought should be given to restoring damaged sectors by recreating shallow riverside zones suitable for aquatic macrophytes, for the macroinvertebrates which are linked to them, and for the reproduction of many species of fish. The example of human interference on the Meuse. 47 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs

  8. Influence of the automatic regulator parameters on the power transition processes of the IBR-2 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the help of the IBR-2 reactor models based on a block structure with z-transformation of variable and experimentally determined parameters of feed-backs, the power transition processes at various values of parameters of the automatic regulator (AR) are calculated. It is shown, that at regular disturbances of a reactivity the best transition processes correspond to the greatest speed of the AR while the AR smoothing-unit is eliminated. The recommendations of selection of the AR parameters are given if there are random disturbances of a reactivity which have place at normal operation of the IBR-2 reactor. (author)

  9. Preliminary Design of S-CO{sub 2} Brayton Cycle for KAIST Micro Modular Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong Gu; Kim, Min Gil; Bae, Seong Jun; Lee, Jeong Ik [Korea Advanced Institue of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    This paper suggests a complete modular reactor with an innovative concept of reactor cooling by using a supercritical carbon dioxide directly. Authors propose the supercritical CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle (S-CO{sub 2} cycle) as a power conversion system to achieve small volume of power conversion unit (PCU) and to contain the core and PCU in one vessel for the full modularization. This study suggests a conceptual design of small modular reactor including PCU which is named as KAIST Micro Modular Reactor (MMR). As a part of ongoing research of conceptual design of KAIST MMR, preliminary design of power generation cycle was performed in this study. Since the targets of MMR are full modularization of a reactor system with S-CO{sub 2} coolant, authors selected a simple recuperated S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle as a power conversion system for KAIST MMR. The size of components of the S-CO{sub 2} cycle is much smaller than existing helium Brayton cycle and steam Rankine cycle, and whole power conversion system can be contained with core and safety system in one containment vessel. From the investigation of the power conversion cycle, recompressing recuperated cycle showed higher efficiency than the simple recuperated cycle. However the volume of heat exchanger for recompressing cycle is too large so more space will be occupied by heat exchanger in the recompressing cycle than the simple recuperated cycle. Thus, authors consider that the simple recuperated cycle is more suitable for MMR. More research for the KAIST MMR will be followed in the future and detailed information of reactor core and safety system will be developed down the road. More refined cycle layout and design of turbomachinery and heat exchanger will be performed in the future study.

  10. TMI-2 Reactor Building source term measurements: surfaces and basement water and sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presented in this report are the results of radiochemical and elemental analyses performed on samples collected from the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor Building from August 1979 to December 1983. The quantities of fission products and core materials that were measured on the external surfaces in the Reactor Building or in the water and sediment in its basement are summarized. Recent analysis results for access panels removed from the air cooling assembly and for liquid and particulate samples collected from the Reactor Building sump and reactor coolant drain tank are included in the report. Measurements show that 59% of the 3H, 2.7% of the 90Sr, 15% of the 129I, 20% of the 131I, and 42% of the 137Cs originally in the core at the time of the accident could be accounted for outside the core in the Reactor Building. With the exceptions of 90Sr and 144Ce, the vast majority of each radionuclide released was found dispersed in the water and sediment in the basement

  11. TMI-2 Reactor Building source term measurements: surfaces and basement water and sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIsaac, C V; Keefer, D G

    1984-10-01

    Presented in this report are the results of radiochemical and elemental analyses performed on samples collected from the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor Building from August 1979 to December 1983. The quantities of fission products and core materials that were measured on the external surfaces in the Reactor Building or in the water and sediment in its basement are summarized. Recent analysis results for access panels removed from the air cooling assembly and for liquid and particulate samples collected from the Reactor Building sump and reactor coolant drain tank are included in the report. Measurements show that 59% of the /sup 3/H, 2.7% of the /sup 90/Sr, 15% of the /sup 129/I, 20% of the /sup 131/I, and 42% of the /sup 137/Cs originally in the core at the time of the accident could be accounted for outside the core in the Reactor Building. With the exceptions of /sup 90/Sr and /sup 144/Ce, the vast majority of each radionuclide released was found dispersed in the water and sediment in the basement.

  12. An experimental investigation of fission product release in SLOWPOKE-2 reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing radiation fields due to a release of fission products in the reactor container of several SLOWPOKE-2 reactors fuelled with a highly-enriched uranium (HEU) alloy core have been observed. It is believed that these increases are associated with the fuel fabrication where a small amount of uranium-bearing material is exposed to the coolant at the end-welds of the fuel element. To investigate this phenomenon samples of reactor water and gas from the headspace above the water have been obtained and examined by gamma spectrometry methods for reactors of various burnups at the University of Toronto, Ecole Polytechnique and Kanata Isotope Production Facility. An underwater visual examination of the fuel core at Ecole Polytechnique has also provided information on the condition of the core. This report (Volume 1) summarizes the equipment, analysis techniques and results of tests conducted at the various reactor sites. The data report is published as Volume 2. (author). 30 refs., 9 tabs., 20 figs

  13. Assessment of the acrylamide intake of the Belgian population and the effect of mitigation strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Claeys, Wendie Liliane; Baert, Katleen; Mestdagh, Frédéric; Vercammen, Jan; Daenens, Paul; Meulenaer, Bruno De; Maghuin-Rogister, Guy; Huyghebaert, André

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The acrylamide (AA) intake of the Belgian consumer was calculated based on AA monitoring data of the Belgian Federal Agency for the Safety of the Food Chain (FASFC) and consumption data of the Belgian food consumption survey coordinated by the Scientific Institute for Public Health (3214 participants of 15 years or older). The average AA exposure, calculated probabilistically, was 0.4 ?g/kg bw/day (P97.5 = 1.6 ?g/kg bw/day) with as main contributors to the average intake c...

  14. Belgian citizens' and broiler producers' perceptions of broiler chicken welfare in Belgium versus Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhonacker, F; Tuyttens, F A M; Verbeke, Wim

    2016-07-01

    New EU regulations require more stringent country-of-origin labeling, while imports of broiler meat from non-EU countries are increasing. In light of these trends, we have studied citizens' and producers' perceptions of broiler meat originating from Belgium versus Brazil and their perception of broiler production in Belgium versus Brazil. A particular focus was the association between country of origin and perceived level of animal welfare. We also investigated the perception of scaling-up and outdoor access in terms of perceived level of animal welfare. Cross-sectional survey data was collected among Flemish citizens (n = 541) and broiler producers (n = 114). In accordance with literature on general farm animal welfare, both stakeholder types claimed to allocate great importance to broiler welfare and generally agreed with the Welfare Quality model of broiler welfare. Citizens disagreed with the producers that 1) consumers are not willing to pay more for higher welfare products, 2) that broilers suffer little, 3) that broiler welfare in current Belgian production units is generally non-problematic, 4) that scaling-up production units would not have a positive impact on profitability nor a profoundly negative impact on broiler welfare, and 5) that the impact of providing broilers with outdoor access is negative for consumers, farmers, and broilers. Country of origin had a strong influence on the perception of both broiler production and broiler meat. Belgian citizens, and producers (much more than citizens) considered nearly all aspects related to broiler production and broiler meat to be significantly superior for chicken produced in Belgium compared to Brazil. Further research should focus on how these perceptions influence purchase intentions and production decisions. Future avenues for research are to quantify market opportunities for country-of-origin labeling and to investigate to which extent stakeholders' perceptions correspond with reality.

  15. Formation of NO from N2/O2 mixtures in a flow reactor: Toward an accurate prediction of thermal NO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abian, Maria; Alzueta, Maria U.; Glarborg, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We have conducted flow reactor experiments for NO formation from N2/O2 mixtures at high temperatures and atmospheric pressure, controlling accurately temperature and reaction time. Under these conditions, atomic oxygen equilibrates rapidly with O2. The experimental results were interpreted......, is recommended for use in kinetic modeling....

  16. UO2 and PuO2 utilization in high temperature engineering test reactor with helium coolant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waris, Abdul; Aji, Indarta K.; Novitrian, Pramuditya, Syeilendra; Su'ud, Zaki

    2016-03-01

    High temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR) is one of high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) types which has been developed by Japanese Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). The HTTR is a graphite moderator, helium gas coolant, 30 MW thermal output and 950 °C outlet coolant temperature for high temperature test operation. Original HTTR uses UO2 fuel. In this study, we have evaluated the use of UO2 and PuO2 in form of mixed oxide (MOX) fuel in HTTR. The reactor cell calculation was performed by using SRAC 2002 code, with nuclear data library was derived from JENDL3.2. The result shows that HTTR can obtain its criticality condition if the enrichment of 235U in loaded fuel is 18.0% or above.

  17. Decontamination and decommissioning project of the TRIGA Mark-2 and 3 research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the review on the decommissioning plan and environmental impact assessment report by the KINS, the number of the inquired items were two hundred and fifty one, and the answers were made and sent until September 10, 1999, as the screened review results were reported to Ministry of Science and Technology(MOST) in December 14, 1999, all the reviews on the licence were over. Radioactive liquid wastes of 400 tons generated during the operation of the research reactors including reactor vessels are stored in the facility of the research reactor 1 and 2. Those liquid wastes have the low-level-radioactivity which can be discharged to the surroundings, but was wholly treated to be vaporized naturally by means of the increased numbers of the natural vaporization disposal facilities with the annual capacity of 200 tons for the purpose of the minimized environmental contamination

  18. Decontamination and decommissioning project of the TRIGA Mark-2 and 3 research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, K. J.; Baik, S. T.; Chung, U. S.; Jung, K. H.; Park, S. K.; Lee, B. J.; Kim, J. K.; Yang, S. H

    2000-01-01

    During the review on the decommissioning plan and environmental impact assessment report by the KINS, the number of the inquired items were two hundred and fifty one, and the answers were made and sent until September 10, 1999, as the screened review results were reported to Ministry of Science and Technology(MOST) in December 14, 1999, all the reviews on the licence were over. Radioactive liquid wastes of 400 tons generated during the operation of the research reactors including reactor vessels are stored in the facility of the research reactor 1 and 2. Those liquid wastes have the low-level-radioactivity which can be discharged to the surroundings, but was wholly treated to be vaporized naturally by means of the increased numbers of the natural vaporization disposal facilities with the annual capacity of 200 tons for the purpose of the minimized environmental contamination.

  19. Characteristics of suicide hotspots on the Belgian railway network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debbaut, Kevin; Krysinska, Karolina; Andriessen, Karl

    2014-01-01

    In 2004, railway suicide accounted for 5.3% of all suicides in Belgium. In 2008, Infrabel (Manager of the Belgian Railway Infrastructure) introduced a railway suicide prevention programme, including identification of suicide hotspots, i.e., areas of the railway network with an elevated incidence of suicide. The study presents an analysis of 43 suicide hotspots based on Infrabel data collected during field visits and semi-structured interviews conducted in mental health facilities in the vicinity of the hotspots. Three major characteristics of the hotspots were accessibility, anonymity, and vicinity of a mental health institution. The interviews identified several risk and protective factors for railway suicide, including the training of staff, introduction of a suicide prevention policy, and the role of the media. In conclusion, a comprehensive railway suicide prevention programme should continuously safeguard and monitor hotspots, and should be embedded in a comprehensive suicide prevention programme in the community.

  20. Characteristics of suicide hotspots on the Belgian railway network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debbaut, Kevin; Krysinska, Karolina; Andriessen, Karl

    2014-01-01

    In 2004, railway suicide accounted for 5.3% of all suicides in Belgium. In 2008, Infrabel (Manager of the Belgian Railway Infrastructure) introduced a railway suicide prevention programme, including identification of suicide hotspots, i.e., areas of the railway network with an elevated incidence of suicide. The study presents an analysis of 43 suicide hotspots based on Infrabel data collected during field visits and semi-structured interviews conducted in mental health facilities in the vicinity of the hotspots. Three major characteristics of the hotspots were accessibility, anonymity, and vicinity of a mental health institution. The interviews identified several risk and protective factors for railway suicide, including the training of staff, introduction of a suicide prevention policy, and the role of the media. In conclusion, a comprehensive railway suicide prevention programme should continuously safeguard and monitor hotspots, and should be embedded in a comprehensive suicide prevention programme in the community. PMID:24020492

  1. The 5th surveillance testing for Kori unit 2 reactor vessel materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Kee Ok; Kim, Byoung Chul; Lee, Sam Lai; Choi, Kwon Jae; Gong, Un Sik; Chang, Jong Hwa; Joo, Yong Sun; Ahn, Sang Bok; Hong, Joon Hwa [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2001-03-01

    Surveillance testing for reactor vessel materials is performed in order to evaluate the irradiation embrittlement due to neutrons during operation and set the condition of safe operation of nuclear reactor. The 5th surveillance testing was performed completely by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute at Taejeon after the capsule was transported from Kori site including its removal from reactor. Fast neutron fluences for capsules were calculated and various testing including mechanical and chemistry analysis were performed in order to evaluate the integrity of Kori unit 2 reactor vessel during the operation until life time. The evaluation results are as follows; Fast neutron fluences for capsules V, R, P, T and N are 2.837E+18, 1.105E+19, 2.110E+19, 3.705E+19 and 4.831E+19n/cm{sup 2}, respectively. The bias factor, the ratio of measurement/calculation, was 0.918 for the 1st through 5th testing and the calculational uncertainty, 11.6% satisfied the requirement of USNRC Reg.Guide DG-1053, 20%. The best estimated neutron fluence for reactor vessel inside surface was 1.898E+19n/cm{sup 2} based on the end of 15th fuel cycle and it was predicted that the fluences of vessel inside surface at 32, 40, 48 and 56EFPY would reach 4.203E+19, 5.232E+19, 6.262E+19 and 7.291E+19n/cm{sup 2} based on the current calculation. The result through this analysis for Kori unit 2 showed that there would be no problem for the pressurized thermal shock(PTS) during the operation until design life. 49 refs., 35 figs., 48 tabs. (Author)

  2. A hydrophobic catalyst for recombining H2/D2 and O2 in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A catalyst is developed for efficient recombination of hydrogen and oxygen in presence of water vapor and without requirement of an external heat source. The catalyst, comprising of finely dispersed platinum on a large area polymeric sheet, is hydrophobic in nature and is therefore resistant to water poisoning. The recombination reaction is exothermic which results in the rise of catalyst temperature and hence in its high and automatically sustained catalytic activity. In order to prevent catalyst overheating, the catalyst sheet is sandwiched between the two perforated metallic plates, which help in maintaining the catalyst panel at an isothermal temperature below its melting point. The performance of this catalyst, evaluated on both bench and pilot plant scale, is found to be long lasting. Due to the flexible nature of this catalyst material, different convenient recombiner designs may be envisaged for use in nuclear reactors, either for reaction of radiolytically generated hydrogen and oxygen or for mitigation of hydrogen under severe accident conditions

  3. Space- and time-dependent reactor dynamics on the basis of a 2D FEM programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The time-dependent reactor equations are solved using the FEM, and the results are compared with a 2D benchmark problem. It is shown schematically how the basic element of a stationary programme, the search for eigenvalues, may be used without alterations in a dynamic calculation. Also, proposals are made for improving the economy of matrix processing in a FEM programme. (RW)

  4. Proceedings of the fourth CSNI specialist meeting on fuel-coolant interaction in nuclear reactor safety - Volumes 2+3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the volumes 2 and 3 of the proceedings of the fourth CSNI specialist meeting on fuel-coolant interaction in nuclear reactor safety that was held in Bournemouth, UK, 2-5 april 1979: seven papers for session IV (Specific and well-characterized integral FCI experiments), five papers for Session V (FCI studies directly related to reactor conditions), and seven papers for Session VI (Implications of FCI for reactor safety studies). Session VII presents two panel discussions, the first one related to the science of fuel coolant interactions, the second one to reactor safety implications

  5. Cluster analysis for investigation of the dynamics of pulse energy noise at the IBR-2M reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of study of the dynamics of the noise component of IBR-2M using cluster analysis methods are presented. It is shown that spectral density changes of pulse energy fluctuations after the reactor nominal power 2 MW have a transition region of duration ~ 3 days. During the operation of the reactor the noise structure is divided into four stable structures, three of them describing the noise transition region. The fourth stable structure is independent of the reactor's noise level and operation time. The noise transition region is caused by the vibration of moving reflectors in the process of heating after increasing of the reactor power.

  6. Computational design of parameters of IRT-2M fuel with enrichment below 20% for low power research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article focuses briefly on characteristics of a possible procedure during reduction of fuel enrichment of two research reactors in the Czech Republic, i.e., LVR-15 research reactor (power up to 15 MW) at NRI Rez and VR-1 training reactor (power up to 5 kW) at CTU Prague. Both reactors are now operating with fuel enriched to 36% of 235U. While the LVR-15 reactor uses Russian IRT-2M fuel, the VR-1 reactor has been operating on IRT-3M fuel for five years already. The goal for both reactors until now was to use Russian IRT-4M fuel with 235U enrichment below 20%. The original idea that the LVR-15 reactor would go through the IRT-3M fuel during the transition to IRT-4M fuel now seems baseless. The article hence shows a possible solution to the current situation for the VR-1 reactor. A convenient solution (based on consultations with the Russian producer) could be a preparation of fuel of IRT-2M geometry with enrichment to 20% of 235U. Such a fuel would not be intended for power research reactors in the first step but for reactors with power up to 100 - 200 kW. The article presents a proposal of this fuel (said proposal was created on the basis of many years' standing experience of operation at VR-1 reactor) and verifying calculations for selected configurations. As for enrichment, matrix, and content of uranium the proposal is based on verified capability of the Russian producer. Emphasis is placed on the necessity of the fuel having a long lifetime in the light water reactors. (author)

  7. Fluid flow and mass transfer characteristics of enhanced CO2 capture in a minichannel reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Enhanced CO2 capture using aqueous DEA in a microreactor. • Observed flow patterns and calculated interfacial area by high-speed visualization. • Achieved close to 100% absorption efficiency under certain operating conditions. • Compared pressure drop and Sherwood number with predictions from model. • Mass transfer coefficient 2–4 orders of magnitude higher than conventional reactors. - Abstract: CO2 absorption using amine solvents can be significantly enhanced by the use of microscale reactors having high surface area to volume ratio. The present paper reports an experimental investigation of the fluid flow and mass transfer characteristics during reactive gas–liquid absorption in a minichannel reactor. Absorption of CO2 mixed with N2 into aqueous diethanolamine was studied in a channel having hydraulic diameter of 762 μm and a circular cross-sectional geometry. High-speed imaging of the two-phase flow was conducted to visualize the flow regimes. Image-processing analysis of the acquired flow patterns was performed to determine the interfacial area. The performance of the reactor was studied with respect to the absorption efficiency, pressure drop, mass transfer coefficient, interfacial area, enhancement factor, and Sherwood number. Parametric studies investigating the effects of phase superficial velocity, liquid reactant concentration, and CO2 concentration in the gas phase were performed and are discussed. High levels of absorption efficiency, close to 100%, were observed under certain operating conditions. An empirical model for the Sherwood number was developed and compared against experimental data. The mass transfer coefficient was found to be higher at reduced channel lengths, which was attributed to improved utilization of the absorption capacity of the amine solution for a given reactor volume. The presently achieved values of mass transfer coefficient and specific interfacial area are between 1 and 4 orders of magnitude

  8. Efficient H2O2/CH3COOH oxidative desulfurization/denitrification of liquid fuels in sonochemical flow-reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcio Gaudino, Emanuela; Carnaroglio, Diego; Boffa, Luisa; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Moreira, Elizabeth M; Nunes, Matheus A G; Dressler, Valderi L; Flores, Erico M M

    2014-01-01

    The oxidative desulfurization/denitrification of liquid fuels has been widely investigated as an alternative or complement to common catalytic hydrorefining. In this process, all oxidation reactions occur in the heterogeneous phase (the oil and the polar phase containing the oxidant) and therefore the optimization of mass and heat transfer is of crucial importance to enhancing the oxidation rate. This goal can be achieved by performing the reaction in suitable ultrasound (US) reactors. In fact, flow and loop US reactors stand out above classic batch US reactors thanks to their greater efficiency and flexibility as well as lower energy consumption. This paper describes an efficient sonochemical oxidation with H2O2/CH3COOH at flow rates ranging from 60 to 800 ml/min of both a model compound, dibenzotiophene (DBT), and of a mild hydro-treated diesel feedstock. Four different commercially available US loop reactors (single and multi-probe) were tested, two of which were developed in the authors' laboratory. Full DBT oxidation and efficient diesel feedstock desulfurization/denitrification were observed after the separation of the polar oxidized S/N-containing compounds (S≤5 ppmw, N≤1 ppmw). Our studies confirm that high-throughput US applications benefit greatly from flow-reactors. PMID:23735892

  9. Measurement of (23)Na(n,2n) cross section in well-defined reactor spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Košťál, Michal; Švadlenková, Marie; Baroň, Petr; Milčák, Ján; Mareček, Martin; Uhlíř, Jan

    2016-05-01

    The present paper aims to compare the calculated and experimental reaction rates of (23)Na(n,2n)(22)Na in a well-defined reactor spectra of a special core assembled in the LR-0 reactor. The experimentally determined reaction rate, derived using gamma spectroscopy of irradiated NaF sample, is used for average cross section determination. The resulting value averaged in spectra is 0.91±0.02µb. This cross-section is important as it is included in International Reactor Dosimetry and Fusion File and is also relevant to the correct estimation of long-term activity of Na coolant in Sodium Fast Reactors. The calculations were performed with the MCNP6 code using ENDF/B-VII.0, JEFF-3.1, JEFF-3.2, JENDL-3.3, JENDL-4, ROSFOND-2010 and CENDL-3.1 nuclear data libraries. Generally the best C/E agreement, within 2%, was found using the ROSFOND-2010 data set, whereas the worst, as high as 40%, was found using the ENDF/B-VII.0. PMID:26894323

  10. Measurement of (23)Na(n,2n) cross section in well-defined reactor spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Košťál, Michal; Švadlenková, Marie; Baroň, Petr; Milčák, Ján; Mareček, Martin; Uhlíř, Jan

    2016-05-01

    The present paper aims to compare the calculated and experimental reaction rates of (23)Na(n,2n)(22)Na in a well-defined reactor spectra of a special core assembled in the LR-0 reactor. The experimentally determined reaction rate, derived using gamma spectroscopy of irradiated NaF sample, is used for average cross section determination. The resulting value averaged in spectra is 0.91±0.02µb. This cross-section is important as it is included in International Reactor Dosimetry and Fusion File and is also relevant to the correct estimation of long-term activity of Na coolant in Sodium Fast Reactors. The calculations were performed with the MCNP6 code using ENDF/B-VII.0, JEFF-3.1, JEFF-3.2, JENDL-3.3, JENDL-4, ROSFOND-2010 and CENDL-3.1 nuclear data libraries. Generally the best C/E agreement, within 2%, was found using the ROSFOND-2010 data set, whereas the worst, as high as 40%, was found using the ENDF/B-VII.0.

  11. Study of UO/sub 2/ wafer fuel for very high-power research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, T.C.; Jankus, V.Z.; Rest, J.; Billone, M.C.

    1980-11-01

    The Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor Program is aimed at reducing fuel enrichment to < 20% in those research and test reactors presently using highly enriched uranium fuel. UO/sub 2/ caramel fuel is one of the most promising new types of reduced-enrichment fuel for use in research reactors with very high power density. Parametric studies have been carried out to determine the maximum specific power attainable without significant fission-gas release for UO/sub 2/ wafers ranging from 0.75 to 1.50 mm in thickness. The results indicate that (1) all the fuel designs considered in this study are predicted not to fail under full-power operation up to a burnup of 1.09 x 10/sup 21/ fis/cm/sup 3/; (2) for all fuel designs, failure is predicted at approximately the same fuel centerline temperature for a given burnup; (3) the thinner the wafer, and wider the margin for fuel specific power between normal operation and increased-power operation leading to fuel failure; (4) increasing the coolant pressure in the reactor core could improve fuel performance by maintaining the fuel at a higher power level without failure for a given burnup; and (5) for a given power level, fuel failure will occur earlier at a higher cladding surface temperature and/or under power-cycling conditions. 12 figures, 7 tables.

  12. Level-2 PSA for the Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor MONJU Applied to the Accident Management Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JNES independently evaluated the three events it selected - PLOHS, LORL and ATWS events - and reviewed the results of the Level 2 PSA carried out by JAEA. Regarding ATWS events, the organization carried out a qualitative evaluation of the results of JAEA's evaluation and carried out a quantitative evaluation of the containment failure frequency (CFF) in relation to PLOHS and LORL events. In JNES's independent evaluation of PLOHS and LORL events, accident scenarios in the three phases - the plant response phase, the core damage phase and the containment vessel response phase - were analyzed. The phenomenal event trees were quantified by applying the information about phenomena specific to fast reactors, including plant thermal-hydraulic analysis at the time of core damage, boundary structure analysis, analysis of the characteristics of the disrupted core, the results of sodium-concrete reaction tests, and the results of hydrogen diffusion induced combustion tests, to the PRDs. As the result, the total CFF before the preparation of the AM measures was rated at 9.2E-9/reactor year (CDF at 2.7E-7/reactor year), and it has been confirmed that these numerical values are well below the power reactor performance goal indicator values (CDF: 10-4/year or so; CFF: 10-5/year or so) even before the preparation of the AM measures. (author)

  13. Performance analysis of photocatalytic CO2 reduction in optical fiber monolith reactor with multiple inverse lights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A new optical fiber monolith reactor model for CO2 reduction was developed. • Methanol concentration versus fiber location and operation parameters was obtained. • Reaction efficiency increases by 31.1% due to the four fibers and inverse layout. • With increasing space of fiber and channel center, methanol concentration increases. • Methanol concentration increases as the vapor ratio and light intensity increase. - Abstract: Photocatalytic CO2 reduction seems potential to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and produce renewable energy. A new model of photocatalytic CO2 reduction in optical fiber monolith reactor with multiple inverse lights was developed in this study to improve the conversion of CO2 to CH3OH. The new light distribution equation was derived, by which the light distribution was modeled and analyzed. The variations of CH3OH concentration with the fiber location and operation parameters were obtained by means of numerical simulation. The results show that the outlet CH3OH concentration is 31.1% higher than the previous model, which is attributed to the four fibers and inverse layout. With the increase of the distance between the fiber and the monolith center, the average CH3OH concentration increases. The average CH3OH concentration also rises as the light input and water vapor percentage increase, but declines with increasing the inlet velocity. The maximum conversion rate and quantum efficiency in the model are 0.235 μmol g−1h−1 and 0.0177% respectively, both higher than previous internally illuminated monolith reactor (0.16 μmol g−1h−1 and 0.012%). The optical fiber monolith reactor layout with multiple inverse lights is recommended in the design of photocatalytic reactor of CO2 reduction

  14. A novel condensation reactor for efficient CO2 to methanol conversion for storage of renewable electric energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.J.; Brilman, D.W.F.

    2015-01-01

    A novel reactor design for the conversion of CO2 and H2 to methanol is developed. The conversion limitations because of thermodynamic equilibrium are bypassed via in situ condensation of a water/methanol mixture. Two temperatures zones inside the reactor ensure optimal catalyst activity (high temper

  15. Addition of bevacizumab to chemotherapy in acute myeloid leukemia at older age : a randomized phase 2 trial of the Dutch-Belgian Cooperative Trial Group for Hemato-Oncology (HOVON) and the Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research (SAKK)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossenkoppele, Gert J; Stussi, Georg; Maertens, Johan; van Montfort, Kees; Biemond, Bart J; Breems, Dimitri; Ferrant, August; Graux, Carlos; de Greef, Georgine E; Halkes, C J M; Hoogendoorn, Mels; Hollestein, Rene M; Jongen-Lavrencic, Mojca; Levin, Mark D; van de Loosdrecht, Arjan A; van Marwijk Kooij, Marinus; van Norden, Yvette; Pabst, Thomas; Schouten, Harry C; Vellenga, Edo; Verhoef, Gregor E G; de Weerdt, Okke; Wijermans, Pierre; Passweg, Jakob R; Löwenberg, Bob

    2012-01-01

    An urgent need for new treatment modalities is emerging in elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We hypothesized that targeting VEGF might furnish an effective treatment modality in this population. Elderly patients with AML were randomly assigned in this phase 2 study (n = 171) to rec

  16. Addition of bevacizumab to chemotherapy in acute myeloid leukemia at older age: A randomized phase 2 trial of the Dutch-Belgian Cooperative Trial Group for Hemato-Oncology (HOVON) and the Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research (SAKK)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.J. Ossenkoppele (Gert); G. Stussi (Georg); J. Maertens (Johan); C.A.G.M. Montfort (Kees); B.J. Biemond (Bart); D.A. Breems (Dimitri); A. Ferrant (Augustin); C. Graux (Carlos); G.E. de Greef (Georgine); C.J.M. Halkes (Constantijn ); M. Hoogendoorn (Mels); L.M. Hollestein (Loes); M. Jongen-Lavrencic (Mojca); M.-D. Levin (Mark-David); A.A. van de Loosdrecht (Arjan); M. Van Marwijk Kooij (Marinus); Y. van Norden (Yvette); T. Pabst (Thomas); H. Schouten (Harry); E. Vellenga (Edo); G.E.G. Verhoef (Gregor); O. de Weerdt (O.); P.W. Wijermans (Pierre); J. Passweg (Jakob Robert); B. Löwenberg (Bob)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAn urgent need for new treatment modalities is emerging in elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We hypothesized that targeting VEGF might furnish an effective treatment modality in this population. Elderly patients with AML were randomly assigned in this phase 2 study (n =

  17. Working Paper 13-09 - Qualitative Employment Multipliers for the Belgian Environmental Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Adja Awa Sissoko; Bart Van den Cruyce

    2009-01-01

    The present paper computes cumulative employment generated by the Belgian environmental industry. Relying on Belgian input-output tables for the year 2000 and on detailed employment data (SAM sub ]matrix), we investigate the patterns of the employment in the environmental industry, by considering the worker types differentiated by gender, educational attainment or a combination of these characteristics. The employment multiplier analysis of environmental employment reveals some interesting di...

  18. A nationwide Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture in Belgian Hospitals: Analysis and Benchmarking

    OpenAIRE

    Vlayen, Annemie; Hellings, Johan; Claes, Neree; Schrooten, Ward

    2010-01-01

    Objective To measure patient safety culture in Belgian hospitals and to examine the homogeneous grouping of underlying safety culture dimensions. Methods The Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture was distributed organisation-wide in 180 Belgian hospitals participating in the federal program on quality and safety between 2007 and 2009. Participating hospitals were invited to submit their data to a comparative database. Homogeneous groups of underlying safety culture dimensions were sou...

  19. Compliance of Companies with Corporate Governance Codes: Case Study on Listed Belgian

    OpenAIRE

    Sven H. De Cleyn

    2014-01-01

    Listed and large companies become increasingly subject to internal and external pressure to comply with ethical and social standards. This article focuses on one aspect of this matter, namely the corporate governance issue. Within the framework of recent corporate scandals, this paper investigates whether and to which extent Belgian publicly listed SMEs comply with the Belgian Code on Corporate Governance after its first year of introduction, which has been constituted in the framework of the...

  20. Annual report for the steering committee of the association Euratom-Belgian State for fusion 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moons, F.; Bogaerts, W.; Decreton, M.; Biver, E.; Coenen, S.; Benoit, Ph.; Coheur, L.; Deboodt, P.; Andreev, D.

    1996-09-01

    This report is prepared for the annual steering committee meting of the Association Euratom - Belgian State for Fusion. The period October 1995 to September 1996 is reported on.The fusion technology work performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN, the Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering of the Louvain University (Belgium) and S.A. Gradel, a Luxemburg company, is described.

  1. Status and perspective of development of cold moderators at the IBR-2 reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikov, S.; Shabalin, E.

    2012-03-01

    The modernized IBR-2M reactor will start its operation with three water grooved moderators in 2011. Afterwards, they will be exchanged by a new complex of moderators. The complex consists of three so-called kombi-moderators, each of them containing a pre-moderator, a cold moderator, grooved ambient water moderators and post-moderators. They are mounted onto three moveable trolleys that serve to deliver and install moderators near the reactor core. The project is divided in three stages. In 2012 the first stage of development of complex of moderators will be finished. The water grooved moderator will be replaced with the new kombi-moderator for beams #7, 8, 10, 11. Main parameters of moderators for this direction will be studied then. The next stages will be done for beams #2-3 and for beams #1, 9, 4-6, consequently. Cold moderator chambers at the modernized IBR-2 reactor are filled with thousands of beads (~3.5 - 4 mm in diameter) of moderating material. The cold helium gas flow delivers beads from the charging device to the moderator during the fulfillment process and cools down them during the reactor cycle. The mixture of aromatic hydrocarbons (mesithylen and m-xylen) has been chosen as moderating material. The explanation of the choice of material for novel cold neutron moderators, configuration of moderator complex for the modernized IBR-2 reactor and the main results of optimization of moderator complex for the third stage of moderator development are discussed in the article.

  2. Destruction of H2S Gas with a Combined Plasma Photolysis (CPP) Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张虹; 纪天一; 张仁熙; 侯惠奇

    2012-01-01

    A combined plasma photolysis (CPP) reactor that utilized the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma together with DBD-driven KrI^* excimer ultraviolet emission was applied to the decomposition of H2S gas. The effects of applied voltage, input current, gas flow velocity, original concentration as well as the ratio of Kr/I2 mixture on H2S removal efficiency were investigated. Gas streams containing H2S were separately treated with single DBD and CPP reactor under the same conditions. In comparison to DBD, CPP could greatly enhance the H2S removal efficiency at the same applied voltage, inlet gas concentration and gas flow velocity. In addition, the reaction mechanism was also discussed in this paper.

  3. Surface radiation properties of ThO/sub 2/ and other reactor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, S.H.; Ma, H.H.

    1979-12-01

    This technical report summarizes the results obtained on surface radiation properties of ThO/sub 2/ and other related reactor materials. Specifically, the present study provides surface radiation properties of three nuclear reactor materials; thorium dioxide, sodium and steel (99 Fe + 1 C). First, based on transmission spectra and Kramers-Kronig analysis, the complex refractive index, which is fundamental to surface radiation property calculations, of ThO/sub 2/ is presented over a wide spectral range. Then depending on the contacting media, three types of the surface are considered. They are the interfaces between ThO/sub 2/ and Sodium, ThO/sub 2/ and Steel (99 Fe + 1 C) as well as ThO/sub 2/ and a gas. For each interface, the spectral interface reflectance from one side of the medium to the other side is evaluated for all wavelengths.

  4. Modifications to ORIGEN2 for generating N Reactor source terms. Volume 3: ORIGEN2 N-Reactor output files

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This text is intended to be a brief outline of the ORIGEN2 computer code which is a revised and updated version of the ORIGEN documented in report ORNL-4628 (May 1973). Included here are: a brief description of the functions of ORIGEN2; a listing of the major data sources; a listing of the published documentation concerning ORIGEN2; and an outline of the ORIGEN2 output organization. ORIGEN2 is available from the ORNL Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC). Past experience has indicated that many users encounter considerable difficulty in finding the desired information in a ORIGEN2 output which is sometimes rather massive. This section is intended as a brief outline of the organization of ORIGEN2 output.

  5. Report on the operation in 1973 of the FR 2 research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Also in 1973, the heavy-water moderated research and testing reactor FR 2 was operated to schedule at 44 MW nominal power. Again, the availability of the plant was slightly improved. Experimental utilization through instrumented irradiation capsules strongly increased as compared to the previous year. Up to 16 capsule test rigs at a time were inserted in the reactor. As to the beam tube experiments, up to 13 experiments covering a total of 18 test rigs were conducted simultaneously at the 12 reasonably usable beam holes. At the beginning of the year all of the positions available were occupied by 5 loop experiments. Isotope production reached its highest value with a total of 2,372 irradiated capsules (1.3% more than the year before). Some remarkable figures characterized the year 1973: On August 16, 1973 ten years of full power operation at a nominal power of 12 and 44 MW, respectively, had been reached. On July 24, 1973 the 50,000th isotope irradiation was performed in the reactor and on December 26, 1973 a total energy release of 100,000 MWd was recorded. Moreover, the 125,000th visitor of the reactor was welcomed on December 6, 1973. (orig./UA)

  6. Isovaleraldehyde elimination by UV/TiO2 photocatalysis: comparative study of the process at different reactors configurations and scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assadi, Aymen Amine; Bouzaza, Abdelkrim; Wolbert, Dominique; Petit, Philippe

    2014-10-01

    A proposal for scaling-up the photocatalytic reactors is described and applied to the coated catalytic walls with a thin layer of titanium dioxide under the near ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. In this context, the photocatalytic degradation of isovaleraldehyde in gas phase is studied. In fact, the removal capacity is compared at different continuous reactors: a photocatalytic cylindrical reactor, planar reactor, and pilot unit. Results show that laboratory results can be useful for reactor design and scale-up. The flowrate increases lead to the removal capacity increases also. For example, with pilot unit, when flowrate extends four times, the degradation rate varies from 0.14 to 0.38 g h(-1) mcat (-2). The influence of UV intensity is also studied. When this parameter increases, both degradation rate and overall mineralization are enhanced. Moreover, the effects of inlet concentration, flowrate, geometries, and size of reactors on the removal capacity are also studied.

  7. SoLid: Search for Oscillation with a 6Li Detector at the BR2 research reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Michiels, Ianthe

    2016-01-01

    In the past decades, various nuclear reactor neutrino experiments have measured a deficit in the flux of antineutrinos coming from the reactor at short reactor-detector distances, when compared to theoretical calculations. One of the experiments designed to investigate this reactor antineutrino anomaly is the SoLid experiment. It uses the compact BR2 research reactor from the SCK-CEN in Mol, Belgium, to perform reactor antineutrino flux measurements at very short baseline. These proceedings discuss the general detection concepts of the SoLid experiment and its novel detector technology. The performance of the SoLid design is demonstrated with some results of the analysis of the data gathered with the experiment's first large scale test module, SM1.

  8. Reactor defuelling gets under way. TMI 2 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rider, R.L.

    1986-04-01

    Last October the recovery of TMI 2 entered the most important phase so far with the start of defuelling. Planning the defuelling has been difficult because the condition of the core below the layer of loose rubble is completely unknown, and a flexible array of tools and procedures has had to be developed. These tools and procedures are described.

  9. Micro-scale H2-CO2 Dynamics in a Hydrogenotrophic Methanogenic Membrane Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Robledo, Emilio; Ottosen, Lars D M; Voigt, Niels V; Kofoed, M W; Revsbech, Niels P

    2016-01-01

    Biogas production is a key factor in a sustainable energy supply. It is possible to get biogas with very high methane content if the biogas reactors are supplied with exogenous hydrogen, and one of the technologies for supplying hydrogen is through gas permeable membranes. In this study the activity and stratification of hydrogen consumption above such a membrane was investigated by use of microsensors for hydrogen and pH. A hydrogenotrophic methanogenic community that was able to consume the hydrogen flux within 0.5 mm of the membrane with specific rates of up to 30 m(3) H2 m(-3) day(-1) developed within 3 days in fresh manure and was already established at time zero when analyzing slurry from a biogas plant. The hydrogen consumption was dependent on a simultaneous carbon dioxide supply and was inhibited when carbon dioxide depletion elevated the pH to 9.2. The activity was only partially restored when the carbon dioxide supply was resumed. Bioreactors supplied with hydrogen gas should thus be carefully monitored and either have the hydrogen supply disrupted or be supplemented with carbon dioxide when the pH rises to values about 9. PMID:27582736

  10. Micro-scale H2–CO2 Dynamics in a Hydrogenotrophic Methanogenic Membrane Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Robledo, Emilio; Ottosen, Lars D. M.; Voigt, Niels V.; Kofoed, M. W.; Revsbech, Niels P.

    2016-01-01

    Biogas production is a key factor in a sustainable energy supply. It is possible to get biogas with very high methane content if the biogas reactors are supplied with exogenous hydrogen, and one of the technologies for supplying hydrogen is through gas permeable membranes. In this study the activity and stratification of hydrogen consumption above such a membrane was investigated by use of microsensors for hydrogen and pH. A hydrogenotrophic methanogenic community that was able to consume the hydrogen flux within 0.5 mm of the membrane with specific rates of up to 30 m3 H2 m-3 day-1 developed within 3 days in fresh manure and was already established at time zero when analyzing slurry from a biogas plant. The hydrogen consumption was dependent on a simultaneous carbon dioxide supply and was inhibited when carbon dioxide depletion elevated the pH to 9.2. The activity was only partially restored when the carbon dioxide supply was resumed. Bioreactors supplied with hydrogen gas should thus be carefully monitored and either have the hydrogen supply disrupted or be supplemented with carbon dioxide when the pH rises to values about 9. PMID:27582736

  11. Core design calculations of IRIS reactor using modified CORD-2 code package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Core design calculations, with thermal-hydraulic feedback, for the first cycle of the IRIS reactor were performed using the modified CORD-2 code package. WIMSD-5B code is applied for cell and cluster calculations with two different 69-group data libraries (ENDF/BVI rev. 5 and JEF-2.2), while the nodal code GNOMER is used for diffusion calculations. The objective of the calculation was to address basic core design problems for innovative reactors with long fuel cycle. The results were compared to our results obtained with CORD-2 before the modification and to preliminary results obtained with CASMO code for a similar problem without thermal-hydraulic feedback.(author)

  12. Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS). Final report. Volume 2. Commercial fusion synfuels plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donohue, M.L.; Price, M.E. (eds.)

    1984-07-01

    Volume 2 contains the following chapters: (1) synfuels; (2) physics base and parameters for TMR; (3) high-temperature two-temperature-zone blanket system for synfuel application; (4) thermochemical hydrogen processes; (5) interfacing the sulfur-iodine cycle; (6) interfacing the reactor with the thermochemical process; (7) tritium control in the blanket system; (8) the sulfur trioxide fluidized-bed composer; (9) preliminary cost estimates; and (10) fuels beyond hydrogen. (MOW)

  13. Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS). Final report. Volume 2. Commercial fusion synfuels plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume 2 contains the following chapters: (1) synfuels; (2) physics base and parameters for TMR; (3) high-temperature two-temperature-zone blanket system for synfuel application; (4) thermochemical hydrogen processes; (5) interfacing the sulfur-iodine cycle; (6) interfacing the reactor with the thermochemical process; (7) tritium control in the blanket system; (8) the sulfur trioxide fluidized-bed composer; (9) preliminary cost estimates; and (10) fuels beyond hydrogen

  14. Performance and fuel cycle cost study of the R2 reactor with HEU and LEU fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pond, R.B.; Freese, K.E.; Matos, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    A systematic study of the experiment performance and fuel cycle costs of the 50 MW R2 reactor operated by Studsvik Energiteknik AB has been performed using the current R2 HEU fuel, a variety of LEU fuel element designs, and two core-box/reflector configurations. The results include the relative performance of both in-core and ex-core experiments, control rod worths, and relative annual fuel cycle costs.

  15. In-pile modelling of nuclear fuel element for the MTR type reactors. Pt. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhadi, Kazem [AEOI, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Radiations Application Research School

    2014-06-15

    In part two of the present paper, neutronic properties of the pool-type research reactor core are used to assess the similitude laws derived for out-of-pile modelling of the fuel element. The benchmark reactor used for this purpose is an IAEA 5 MW thermal pool-type research reactor currently in operation. The neutronic properties analysis are based on typical 2 200 m/sec and neutrons having 0.025 eV energy. The non-leakage capability of the system is estimated in terms of diffusion length. Also the slowing down power and the moderating ratio of the modelled methanol coolant are calculated in terms of lethargy of the diffusing medium. It is shown that the Iron which is substituted for Aluminium cladding is a relatively low absorber of neutrons but has a high neutron leakage. Methanol which replaced ordinary water as coolant is not a suitable coolant due to high neutrons absorbing substance. It is concluded that although Iron as a cladding material and methanol as a coolant meet the modelling out-of-pile criteria but are not satisfying neutronic properties. Therefore, use of them as a model clad and coolant are not suggested for research reactors. (orig.)

  16. Energy Multiplier Module (EM{sup 2}) - advanced small modular reactor for electricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertch, T.; Schleicher, R.; Choi, H.; Rawls, J., E-mail: timothy.bertch@ga.com [General Atomics, San Diego, California (United States)

    2013-07-01

    In order to provide cost effective nuclear energy in other than large reactor, large grid applications, fission technology needs to make further advances. 'Convert and burn' fast reactors offer long life cores, improved fuel utilization, reduced waste and other benefits while achieving cost effective energy production in a smaller reactor. General Atomics' Energy Multiplier Module (EM{sup 2}), a helium-cooled compact fast reactor that augments its fissile fuel load with either depleted uranium (DU) or used nuclear fuel (UNF). The convert and burn in-situ provides 250 MWe with a 30 year core life. High temperature provides a simple, high efficiency direct cycle gas turbine which along with modular construction, fewer systems, road shipment and minimum on site construction support cost effectiveness. Additional advantages in fuel cycle, non-proliferation and siting flexibility and its ability to meet all safety requirements make for an attractive power source, especially in remote and small grid regions. (author)

  17. In-situ stripping of H{sub 2}S in gasoil hydrodesulphurization - reactor design considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nava, J.A.O.; Krishna, R. [Amsterdam Univ., Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2004-02-01

    In order to meet future diesel specifications the sulphur content of diesel would need to be reduced to below 50 ppm. This requirement would require improved reactor configurations. In this study we examine the benefits of counter-current contacting of gas oil with H{sub 2}, over conventional co-current contacting in a trickle bed hydrodesulphurization (HDS) reactor. In counter-current contacting, we achieve in-situ stripping of H{sub 2}S from the liquid phase; this is beneficial to the HDS kinetics. A comparison simulation study shows that counter-current contacting would require about 20% lower catalyst load than co-current contacting. However, counter-current contacting of gas and liquid phases in conventionally used HDS catalysts, of 1.5 mm sizes, is not possible due to flooding limitations. The catalysts need to be housed in special wire gauze envelopes as in the catalytic bales or KATAPAK-S configurations. A preliminary hardware design of a counter-current HDS reactor using catalytic bales was carried out in order to determine the technical feasibility. Using a realistic sulphur containing feedstock, the target of 50 ppm S content of desulphurized oil could be met in a reactor of reasonable dimensions. The study also underlines the need for accurate modelling of thermal effects during desulphurization. Our study also shows that interphase mass transfer is unlikely to be a limiting factor and there is a need to develop improved reactor configurations allowing for increased catalyst loading, at the expense of gas-liquid interfacial area. (Author)

  18. Fluidized Bed Membrane Reactors for Ultra Pure H2 Production—A Step forward towards Commercialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Helmi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research the performance of a fluidized bed membrane reactor for high temperature water gas shift and its long term stability was investigated to provide a proof-of-concept of the new system at lab scale. A demonstration unit with a capacity of 1 Nm3/h of ultra-pure H2 was designed, built and operated over 900 h of continuous work. Firstly, the performance of the membranes were investigated at different inlet gas compositions and at different temperatures and H2 partial pressure differences. The membranes showed very high H2 fluxes (3.89 × 10−6 mol·m−2·Pa−1·s−1 at 400 °C and 1 atm pressure difference with a H2/N2 ideal perm-selectivity (up to 21,000 when integrating five membranes in the module beyond the DOE 2015 targets. Monitoring the performance of the membranes and the reactor confirmed a very stable performance of the unit for continuous high temperature water gas shift under bubbling fluidization conditions. Several experiments were carried out at different temperatures, pressures and various inlet compositions to determine the optimum operating window for the reactor. The obtained results showed high hydrogen recovery factors, and very low CO concentrations at the permeate side (in average <10 ppm, so that the produced hydrogen can be directly fed to a low temperature PEM fuel cell.

  19. Performance Estimation of Supercritical Co2 Micro Modular Reactor (MMR) for Varying Cooling Air Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Yoonhan; Kim, Seong Gu; Cho, Seong Kuk; Lee, Jeong Ik [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    A Small Modular Reactor (SMR) receives interests for the various application such as electricity co-generation, small-scale power generation, seawater desalination, district heating and propulsion. As a part of SMR development, supercritical CO2 Micro Modular Reactor (MMR) of 36.2MWth in power is under development by the KAIST research team. To enhance the mobility, the entire system including the power conversion system is designed for the full modularization. Based on the preliminary design, the thermal efficiency is 31.5% when CO2 is sufficiently cooled to the design temperature. A supercritical CO2 MMR is designed to supply electricity to the remote regions. The ambient temperature of the area can influence the compressor inlet temperature as the reactor is cooled with the atmospheric air. To estimate the S-CO2 cycle performance for various environmental conditions, A quasi-static analysis code is developed. For the off design performance of S-CO2 turbomachineries, the experimental result of Sandia National Lab (SNL) is utilized.

  20. A gas-phase reactor powered by solar energy and ethanol for H2 production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the view of H2 as the future energy vector, we presented here the development of a homemade photo-reactor working in gas phase and easily interfacing with fuel cell devices, for H2 production by ethanol dehydrogenation. The process generates acetaldehyde as the main co-product, which is more economically advantageous with respect to the low valuable CO2 produced in the alternative pathway of ethanol photoreforming. The materials adopted as photocatalysts are based on TiO2 substrates but properly modified with noble (Au) and not-noble (Cu) metals to enhance light harvesting in the visible region. The samples were characterized by BET surface area analysis, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and UV–visible Diffusive Reflectance Spectroscopy, and finally tested in our homemade photo-reactor by simulated solar irradiation. We discussed about the benefits of operating in gas phase with respect to a conventional slurry photo-reactor (minimization of scattering phenomena, no metal leaching, easy product recovery, etc.). Results showed that high H2 productivity can be obtained in gas phase conditions, also irradiating titania photocatalysts doped with not-noble metals. - Highlights: • A gas-phase photoreactor for H2 production by ethanol dehydrogenation was developed. • The photocatalytic behaviours of Au and Cu metal-doped TiO2 thin layers are compared. • Benefits of operating in gas phase with respect to a slurry reactor are presented. • Gas phase conditions and use of not-noble metals are the best economic solution

  1. Summary of IEA-R1 research a reactor licensing related to its power increase from 2 to 10 MW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is a summary of IEA-R1 research reactor licensing related to its power increase from 2 to 10 MW. It reports also safety requirements, fuel elements, and reactor control modifications inherent to power increase. (A.C.A.S.)

  2. Joint Assessment of ETRR-2 Research Reactor Operations Program, Capabilities, and Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissani, M; O' Kelly, D S

    2006-05-08

    A joint assessment meeting was conducted at the Egyptian Atomic Energy Agency (EAEA) followed by a tour of Egyptian Second Research Reactor (ETRR-2) on March 22 and 23, 2006. The purpose of the visit was to evaluate the capabilities of the new research reactor and its operations under Action Sheet 4 between the U.S. DOE and the EAEA, ''Research Reactor Operation'', and Action Sheet 6, ''Technical assistance in The Production of Radioisotopes''. Preliminary Recommendations of the joint assessment are as follows: (1) ETRR-2 utilization should be increased by encouraging frequent and sustained operations. This can be accomplished in part by (a) Improving the supply-chain management for fresh reactor fuel and alleviating the perception that the existing fuel inventory should be conserved due to unreliable fuel supply; and (b) Promulgating a policy for sample irradiation priority that encourages the use of the reactor and does not leave the decision of when to operate entirely at the discretion of reactor operations staff. (2) Each experimental facility in operation or built for a single purpose should be reevaluated to focus on those that most meet the goals of the EAEA strategic business plan. Temporary or long-term elimination of some experimental programs might be necessary to provide more focused utilization. There may be instances of emerging reactor applications for which no experimental facility is yet designed or envisioned. In some cases, an experimental facility may have a more beneficial use than the purpose for which it was originally designed. For example, (a) An effective Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) program requires nearby high quality medical facilities. These facilities are not available and are unlikely to be constructed near the Inshas site. Further, the BNCT facility is not correctly designed for advanced research and therapy programs using epithermal neutrons. (b) The ETRR-2 is frequently operated to

  3. Control of the sulfide (S2-) concentration for optimal zinc removal by sulfide precipitation in a continuously stirred tank reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeken, A.H.M.; Akoto, L.; Pol, L.W.H.; Weijma, J.

    2003-01-01

    Precipitation of Zn2+ with S2− was studied at room temperature in a continuously stirred tank reactor of 0.5 l to which solutions of ZnSO4 (800–5800 mg Zn2+/l) and Na2S were supplied. The pH was controlled at 6.5 and S2− concentration in the reactor was controlled at set point values ranging from 3.

  4. Nuclear Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogerton, John

    1964-01-01

    This pamphlet describes how reactors work; discusses reactor design; describes research, teaching, and materials testing reactors; production reactors; reactors for electric power generation; reactors for supply heat; reactors for propulsion; reactors for space; reactor safety; and reactors of tomorrow. The appendix discusses characteristics of U.S. civilian power reactor concepts and lists some of the U.S. reactor power projects, with location, type, capacity, owner, and startup date.

  5. Uniform coating of TiO2 thin films on particles by rotating cylindrical PCVD reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Joo; Baeg, Jin-Ook; Moon, Sang-Jin; Kim, Kyo-Seon

    2009-07-01

    We analyzed TiO2 thin film growth on glass particles in a rotating cylindrical plasma chemical vapor deposition (PCVD) reactor and numerically investigated the effects of several process variables on the film growth. An increase in titanium tetra-isopropoxide (TTIP) or O2 partial pressure can enhance the film growth rate on the particles because the concentration of TiO(x), which is the main precursor for thin film growth, becomes higher in the reactor. As the particle diameter decreases, the TiO(x) concentration increases and the thin film on the particles grows more quickly. The neutral-radical reaction between TTIP and O radicals for TiO(x) generation in TTIP + O2 plasmas can be important to enhance the thin film growth rate on the particles. The growth rate of TiO2 film predicted in this study was 1 approximately 20 nm/min, which is in good agreement with the published experimental results. This study suggests that a uniform TiO2 thin film on particles can be obtained by using a rotating cylindrical PCVD reactor. PMID:19916444

  6. Fulvic acid degradation using nanoparticle TiO2 in a submerged membrane photocatalysis reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Jian-feng; JI Min; AN Ding-nian

    2005-01-01

    The degradation of fulvic acid(FA) by nanoparticle TiO2 in a submerged membrane photocatalysis(SMPC) reactor was studied.In this reactor, photocatalytic oxidation and membrane separation co-occured. The continuous air supplier provided O2 for the photocatalytical reaction and mixed the solution through an airflow controller. The particle TiO2 could automatically settle due to gravity without particle agglomeration so it could be easily separated by microfiltration(MF) membrane. It was efficient to maintain high flux of membranes. The effects of operational parameters on the photocatalytic oxidation rate of FA were investigated. Results indicated that photocatalyst at 0.5 g/L and airflow at 0.06 m3/h were the optimum condition for the removal of fulvic acid, the removal efficiency was higher in acid media than that in alkaline media. The effects of different filtration duration on permeate flux rate of MF with P25 powder and with nanoparticle TiO2 were compared. Experimental results indicated that the permeate flux rate of MF was improved and the membrane fouling phenomenon was reduced with the addition of nanoparticle TiO2 catalyst compared with conventional P25 powder. Therefore, this submerged membrane photocatalysis reactor can faciliate potential application of photocatalytic oxidation process in drinking water treatment.

  7. A model reconstruction of riverine nutrient fluxes and eutrophication in the Belgian Coastal Zone since 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passy, P.; Gypens, N.; Billen, G.; Garnier, J.; Thieu, V.; Rousseau, V.; Callens, J.; Parent, J.-Y.; Lancelot, C.

    2013-12-01

    The OSPAR convention signed in 1992 by 15 European states including Belgium and France pledged to reduce the nutrient (nitrogen N and phosphorus P) loads from land-based sources to the Channel and the North Sea to half of what they were in 1985. In this paper, we use a river basin-coastal sea chain model to describe the evolution of nutrient loads to the Belgian Costal Zone originating from the Seine, Somme and Scheldt watersheds from 1984 to 2007 in order to assess the N and P reduction with respect to the OSPAR goals and the resulting effect on coastal eutrophication, especially Phaeocystis blooms. Since the early 1990s, most nutrient reduction actions have been devoted to domestic and industrial wastewater treatment, resulting in a sharp P decrease between 1984 and 2007: from 260 to 90 kgP km- 2 for the Seine River and from 215 to 110 kgP km- 2 for the Scheldt River. In spite of improved N treatment of wastewater, there is no clear decrease of N loads, which mostly originate from leaching intensively cultivated arable lands. N fluxes at the outlet of the Seine and Scheldt rivers were, respectively, 1990 and 2210 kgN km- 2 in 1984 and 1830 and 1390 kgN km- 2 in 2007. However, this relatively low decrease appears to be more influenced by hydrological conditions than by better efficiency of N use in agriculture. We conclude from this analysis that the OSPAR objectives for P have been achieved, whereas for N radical changes in agricultural practices are still required. The P reduction achieved allows, for the period of concern, a 50% decrease of Phaeocystis colony blooms in the Belgian Coastal Zone, both in magnitude and duration. However, the simulated decrease, of maximum abundance, i.e., from 60 · 106 in 1984 to 30 · 106 cells l- 1 in 2007, is still insufficient when compared to the ecological-quality indicator of 4 · 106 cells l- 1. A further decrease of nutrients is still necessary to decrease undesirable blooms more satisfactorily.

  8. Use of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for the detection and surveillance of marine oil spills in the Belgian part of the North Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discussed the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) deployed by the Belgian Army in order to detect oil spills as well as for intelligence, reconnaissance and surveillance missions. The UAV are fitted with a dual sensor gyro-stabilized turret which combines a daylight camera and a thermal infrared camera. Live images of the sensors are transmitted in real time to control stations. All Belgian marine pollution surveillance platforms are coordinated by the Maritime Security Center of the Belgian Coast Guard. Satellite surveillance services provide real time information related to potential oil spills and other anomalies on the sea surface. Stand-by helicopters are also used for the rapid assessment of reported spills. The B-Hunter system is undetectable due to its small size and low noise signature, and can be used for the continuous monitoring of specific areas or for the tracking of suspect vessels. The system will also be used to monitor the progress of oil spill response operations as well as to provide information and guidance to response vessels. 6 refs., 2 figs

  9. Chemical Effects of CO2 Concentration on Soot Formation in Jet-stirred/Plug-flow Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张引弟; 娄春; 刘德华; 李勇; 阮龙飞

    2013-01-01

    Soot formation was investigated numerically with CO2 addition in a jet-stirred/plug-flow reactor (JSR/PFR) C2H4/O2/N2 reactor (C/O ratio of 2.2) at atmospheric pressure. An updated Kazakov mechanism empha-sizes the effect of the O2/CO2 atmosphere instead of an O2/N2 one in the premixed flame. The soot formation was taken into account in the JSR/PFR for C2H4/O2/N2. The effects of CO2 addition on soot formation in different C2H4/O2/CO2/N2 atmospheres were studied, with special emphasis on the chemical effect. The simulation shows that the endothermic reaction CO2+H CO+OH is responsible of the reduction of hydrocarbon intermediates in the CO2 added combustion through the supplementary formation of hydroxyl radicals. The competition of CO2 for H radical through the above forward reaction with the single most important chain branching reaction H+O2 O+OH reduces significantly the fuel burning rate. The chemical effects of CO2 cause a significant increase in residence time and mole fractions of CO and OH, significant decreases in some intermediates (H, C2H2), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, C6H6 and C16H10, etc.) and soot volume fraction. The CO2 addition will leads to a decrease by only about 5%to 20%of the maximum mole fractions of some C3 to C10 hydrocarbon intermediates. The sensitivity analysis and reaction-path analysis results show that C2H4 reaction path and products are altered due to the CO2 addition.

  10. CO2 Storage Properties of Nanostructured Carbons by a Microwave Plasma Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Mi Tian; Congxiao Shang

    2015-01-01

    Nanostructured carbon was successfully produced by methane cracking in a relatively low-energy cold plasma reactor designed in-house. A followed thermal treatment was carried out to further enhance its porosity. The modified plasma carbon was then employed for CO2 adsorption at 25°C. The as-synthesized plasma carbon and the modified carbon were characterized by BET surface area/pore size analyzer, Raman spectra, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show thermal modification...

  11. Software for neutron activation analysis at reactor IBR-2, FLNP, JINR

    CERN Document Server

    Zlokazov, V B

    2004-01-01

    A Delphi program suite, developed for processing gamma-spectra of induced activity of nuclei, obtained from the neutron activation measurements at the reactor IBR-2, FLNF, JINR, is reported. This suite contains components, intended for carrying out all the operations of the analysis cycle, starling with a data acquisition program for gamma -spectrometers Gamma (written in C++ Builder) and including Delphi programs for steps of the analysis. (6 refs).

  12. Microfluidic reactor synthesis and photocatalytic behavior of Cu@Cu{sub 2}O nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Lei, E-mail: xulei_kmust@aliyun.com [National Local Joint Laboratory of Engineering Application of Microwave Energy and Equipment Technology, Faculty of Metallurgical and Energy Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Srinivasakannan, C. [Chemical Engineering Program, The Petroleum Institute, PO Box 253, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Peng, Jinhui, E-mail: jhpeng@kmust.edu.cn [National Local Joint Laboratory of Engineering Application of Microwave Energy and Equipment Technology, Faculty of Metallurgical and Energy Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Yan, Mi [Faculty of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Zhang, Di [Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Zhang, Libo [National Local Joint Laboratory of Engineering Application of Microwave Energy and Equipment Technology, Faculty of Metallurgical and Energy Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • The Cu@Cu{sub 2}O nanocomposites were synthesized in microfluidic reactor followed by oxidation process. • The Cu@Cu{sub 2}O composite particle is on nanoscale exhibiting an open bicontinuous structure. • The amount of Cu{sub 2}O can be controlled by varying drying temperature. • The binary Cu@Cu{sub 2}O–H{sub 2}O{sub 2} systems exhibit an excellent photocatalyst for degradation methylene blue under UV irradiation. - Abstract: The Cu@Cu{sub 2}O nanocomposites were synthesized by solution-phase synthesis of Cu nanoparticles in microfluidic reactor at room temperature, followed by controlling the oxidation process. The size, morphology, elemental compositions, and the chemical composition on the surface of Cu@Cu{sub 2}O nanocomposite were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Experimental results demonstrated that the surface of the Cu nanoparticles was oxidized to Cu{sub 2}O which serves as the shell of nanoparticle. The amount of Cu{sub 2}O can be controlled by varying the drying temperature. Additionally the binary Cu@Cu{sub 2}O nanocomposite along with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} exhibited its potential as an excellent photocatalyst for degradation of methylene blue (MB) under UV irradiation.

  13. Handbook of nuclear engineering: vol 1: nuclear engineering fundamentals; vol 2: reactor design; vol 3: reactor analysis; vol 4: reactors of waste disposal and safeguards

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The Handbook of Nuclear Engineering is an authoritative compilation of information regarding methods and data used in all phases of nuclear engineering. Addressing nuclear engineers and scientists at all academic levels, this five volume set provides the latest findings in nuclear data and experimental techniques, reactor physics, kinetics, dynamics and control. Readers will also find a detailed description of data assimilation, model validation and calibration, sensitivity and uncertainty analysis, fuel management and cycles, nuclear reactor types and radiation shielding. A discussion of radioactive waste disposal, safeguards and non-proliferation, and fuel processing with partitioning and transmutation is also included. As nuclear technology becomes an important resource of non-polluting sustainable energy in the future, The Handbook of Nuclear Engineering is an excellent reference for practicing engineers, researchers and professionals.

  14. Micro-scale H2-CO2 dynamics in a hydrogenotrophic methanogenic membrane reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Robledo, Emilio; Ottosen, Lars Ditlev Mørck; Voigt, Niels Vinther;

    2016-01-01

    Biogas production is a key factor in a sustainable energy supply. It is possible to get biogas with very high methane content if the biogas reactors are supplied with exogenous hydrogen, and one of the technologies for supplying hydrogen is through gas permeable membranes. In this study the activ......Biogas production is a key factor in a sustainable energy supply. It is possible to get biogas with very high methane content if the biogas reactors are supplied with exogenous hydrogen, and one of the technologies for supplying hydrogen is through gas permeable membranes. In this study...

  15. MASTER-2.0: Multi-purpose analyzer for static and transient effects of reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Byung Oh; Song, Jae Seung; Joo, Han Gyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-01-01

    MASTER-2.0 (Multi-purpose Analyzer for Static and Transient Effects of Reactors) is a nuclear design code based on the two group diffusion theory to calculate the steady-state and transient pressurized water reactor core in a 3-dimensional Cartesian or hexagonal geometry. Its neutronics model solves the space-time dependent neutron diffusion equations with NIM(Nodal Integration Method), NEM (Nodal Expansion Method), AFEN (Analytic Function Expansion Nodal Method)/NEM Hybrid Method, NNEM (Non-linear Nodal Expansion Method) or NANM (Non-linear Analytic Nodal Method) for a Cartesian geometry and with AFEN/NEM Hybrid Method or NLFM (Non-linear Local Fine-Mesh Method) for a hexagonal one. Coarse mesh rebalancing, Krylov Subspace method and asymptotic extrapolation method are implemented to accelerate the convergence of iteration process. Master-2.0 performs microscopic depletion calculations using microscopic cross sections provided by CASMO-3 or HELIOS and also has the reconstruction capability of pin information by use of MSS-IAS (Method of Successive Smoothing with Improved Analytic Solution). For the thermal-hydraulic calculation, fuel temperature table or COBRA3-C/P model can be used selectively. In addition, MASTER-2.0 is designed to cover various PWRs including SMART as well as WH-and CE-type reactors, providing all data required in their design procedures. (author). 39 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Development of UO2/PuO2 dispersed in uranium matrix CERMET fuel system for fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CERMET fuel with either PuO2 or enriched UO2 dispersed in uranium metal matrix has a strong potential of becoming a fuel for the liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors (LMR’s). In fact it may act as a bridge between the advantages and disadvantages associated with the two extremes of fuel systems (i.e. ceramic fuel and metallic fuel) for fast reactors. At Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), R and D efforts are on to develop this CERMET fuel by powder metallurgy route. This paper describes the development of flow sheet for preparation of UO2 dispersed in uranium metal matrix pellets for three different compositions i.e. U–20 wt%UO2, U–25 wt%UO2 and U–30 wt%UO2. It was found that the sintered pellets were having excellent integrity and their linear mass was higher than that of carbide fuel pellets used in Fast Breeder Test Reactor programme (FBTR) in India. The pellets were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique for phase analysis and lattice parameter determination. The optical microstructures were developed and reported for all the three different U–UO2 compositions.

  17. The importance of arthropod pests in Belgian pome fruit orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangels, Eva; De Schaetzen, Charles; Hayen, Guy; Paternotte, Edouard; Gobin, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    Located in temperate, maritime climate with frequent rainfall, crop protection in Belgian orchards is dominated by fungicides. Though, the importance of arthropod pests should not be underestimated. Pcfruit, the former Research station of Gorsem, has been maintaining a warning system for fruit pests in Belgium since 1944. Therefore, various pests and beneficial's and their life cycle stages have been monitored in Gorsem and in different observation posts across Belgium, being part of a monitoring network. Although up to 3000 arthropod species are present in pome fruit orchards, about 25% can be considered as harmful and another 25% as beneficial. Out of those species, around 100 harmful and 50 beneficial organisms are omnipresent. The list of monitored species is extended yearly for upcoming or difficult to control organisms. Integrated pest management was introduced in the eighties, with the accent on using selective pesticides and saving beneficial organisms. A shift in pesticide use affected the importance of secondary pests, together with recent exceptional climatic conditions. Following many years of monitoring insects and mites and editing warning bulletins in our station, a ranking of the economical importance of different pest species is presented.

  18. [Orphan diseases and orphan medicines: a Belgian and European study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Alain; Mergaert, Lut; Fostier, Christel; Cleemput, Irina; Simoens, Steven

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze policies concerning orphan medicines, used to treat patients suffering from a rare disease. The decisions about orphan designation and marketing authorization of orphan medicines are taken at European level, but each Member State is responsible for decisions regarding reimbursement. The European measures to encourage the development of orphan medicines, such as market exclusivity for a period of ten years, seem to be successful. However, this market exclusivity should be revised once the profitability of such medicines has clearly been demonstrated. Our study recommends the implementation of patient registries at the European level in order to describe the natural evolution of rare diseases and the efficacy of orphan medicines, the majority of which are relatively expensive. In 2008, Belgian social security services reimbursed orphan medicines for an amount of 66 million euro, accounting for more than 5% of the hospital pharmaceutical budget. The reimbursement of an orphan medicine to an individual patient is subject to multiple conditions. Our study recommends that a unique counter within the NIHDI is created which centralizes all reimbursement requests. The reimbursement of an orphan medicine must be linked to the provision of standardized information needed for a patient register. The NIHDI administration could then, in collaboration with external experts, evaluate reimbursement requests and ensure a coherent application of reimbursement criteria. PMID:20183989

  19. The Development of Neutron Radiography and Tomography on a SLOWPOKE-2 Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, L. G. I.; Lewis, W. J.; Hungler, P. C.

    Development of neutron radiography at the Royal Military College of Canada (RMC) started by trying to interest the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) in this new non-destructive testing (NDT) technique. A Californium-252 based device was ordered and then installed at RMC for development of applicable techniques for aircraft by the first author. A second and transportable device was then designed, modified and used in trials at RCAF Bases and other locations for one year. This activity was the only foreign loan of the U.S. Californium Loan Program. Around this time, SLOWPOKE-2 reactors were being installed at four Canadian universities, while a new science and engineering building was being built at RMC. A reactor pool was incorporated and efforts to procure a reactor succeeded a decade later with a SLOWPOKE-2 reactor being installed at RMC. The only modification by the vendor for RMC was a thermal column replacing an irradiation site inside the reactor container for a later installation of a neutron beam tube (NBT). Development of a working NBT took several years, starting with the second author. A demonstration of the actual worth of neutron radiography took place with a CF-18 Hornet aircraft being neutron and X-radiographed at McClellan Air Force Base, Sacramento, CA. This inspection was followed by one of the rudders that had indications of water ingress being radiographed successfully at RMC just after the NBT became functional. The next step was to develop a neutron radioscopy system (NRS), initially employing film and then digital imaging, and is in use today for all flight control surfaces (FCS). With the third author, a technique capable of removing water from affected FCS was developed at RMC. Heating equipment and a vacuum system were utilized to carefully remove the water. This technique was proven using a sequence of near real time neutron images obtained during the drying process. The results of the drying process were correlated with a relative humidity

  20. A Conceptual Study of a Supercritical CO2-Cooled Micro Modular Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwanyeal Yu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A neutronics conceptual study of a supercritical CO2-cooled micro modular reactor (MMR has been performed in this work. The suggested MMR is an extremely compact and truck-transportable nuclear reactor. The thermal power of the MMR is 36.2 MWth and it is designed to have a 20-year lifetime without refueling. A salient feature of the MMR is that all the components including the generator are integrated in a small reactor vessel. For a minimal volume and long lifetime of the MMR core, a fast neutron spectrum is utilized in this work. To enhance neutron economy and maximize the fuel volume fraction in the core, a high-density uranium mono-nitride U15N fuel is used in the fast-spectrum MMR. Unlike the conventional supercritical CO2-cooled fast reactors, a replaceable fixed absorber (RFA is introduced in a unique way to minimize the excess reactivity and the power peaking factor of the core. For a compact core design, the drum-type control absorber is adopted as the primary reactivity control mechanism. In this study, the neutronics analyses and depletions have been performed by using the continuous energy Monte Carlo Serpent code with the evaluated nuclear data file ENDF/B-VII.1 Library. The MMR core is characterized in view of several important safety parameters such as control system worth, fuel temperature coefficient (FTC and coolant void reactivity (CVR, etc. In addition, a preliminary thermal-hydraulic analysis has also been performed for the hottest channel of the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST MMR.

  1. Ultrasonic reinspection of Pilgrim-I reactor vessel nozzle N2B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boston Edison Company provided NRC with ultrasonic test data from the periodic inspections of Pilgrim I carried out in 1974 and again in 1976. The ultrasonic test data specifically concerned the recirculation inlet nozzle N2B which contained a flaw in the seven-inch thick weldment joining the nozzle to the pressure vessel. This ultrasonic test data was used to plot the dimensions of the flaw within the wall, to draw conclusions on any flaw growth, to determine 50 percent DAC dimensions, and to deduce the most conservative or largest possible flaw size. This work was done on a consulting basis for the Division of Operating Reactors/Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of NRC at their request

  2. Analysis of cracked core spray piping from the Quad Cities Unit 2 boiling water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diercks, D.R.; Gaitonde, S.M.

    1982-09-01

    The results of a metallurgical analysis of leaking cracks detected in the core spray injection piping of Commonwealth Edison Company's Quad Cities Unit 2 Boiling Water Reactor are described. The cracks were present in a welded 105/sup 0/ elbow assembly in the line, and were found to be caused by intergranular stress corrosion cracking associated with the probable presence of dissolved oxygen in the reactor cooling water and the presence of grain boundary sensitization and local residual stresses induced by welding. The failure is unusual in several respects, including the very large number of cracks (approximately 40) present in the failed component, the axial orientation of the cracks, and the fact that at least one crack completely penetrated a circumferential weld. Virtually all of the cracking occurred in forged material, and the microstructural evidence presented suggests that the orientation of the cracks was influenced by the presence of axially banded delta ferrite in the microstructure of the forged components.

  3. Summary of the Advanced Reactor Design Criteria (ARDC) Phase 2 Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holbrook, Mark Raymond [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report provides an end-of-year summary reflecting the progress and status of proposed regulatory design criteria for advanced non-LWR designs in accordance with the Level 3 milestone in M3AT-15IN2001017 in work package AT-15IN200101. These criteria have been designated as ARDC, and they provide guidance to future applicants for addressing the GDC that are currently applied specifically to LWR designs. The report provides a summary of Phase 2 activities related to the various tasks associated with ARDC development and the subsequent development of example adaptations of ARDC for Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) and modular High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) designs.

  4. Tank Design Evaluation Of TRIGA Mark II Reactor For 2 MW Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    . Design calculation, safety factor choosing, and welding procedure on tank design of Bandung nuclear reactor for 2 MW power have been evaluated. For design calculation, the evaluation has especially done based on material strength input which was used on tank thickness calculation. Evaluation on safety factor choosing has been done by comparing the result of final calculation after inputting the value of safety factor to the physics condition will be occurred. On welding procedure, the evaluation has been carried to see the chance will be occurred if the excising design followed. From this evaluation, it can be concluded that the calculation just done to meet the result of the calculation to the thickness of material has been excised so it can be assumed as proper material of tank reactor

  5. Evaluation of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor building decontamination process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decontamination activities from the cleanup of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor Building are generating a variety of waste streams. Solid wastes being disposed of in commercial shallow land burial include trash and rubbish, ion-exchange resins (Epicor-II) and strippable coatings. The radwaste streams arising from cleanup activities currently under way are characterized and classified under the waste classification scheme of 10 CFR Part 61. It appears that much of the Epicor-II ion-exchange resin being disposed of in commerical land burial will be Class B and require stabilization if current radionuclide loading practices continue to be followed. Some of the trash and rubbish from the cleanup of the reactor building so far would be Class B. Strippable coatings being used at TMI-2 were tested for leachability of radionuclides and chelating agents, thermal stability, radiation stability, stability under immersion and biodegradability. Actual coating samples from reactor building decontamination testing were evaluated for radionuclide leaching and biodegradation

  6. Shipment of Taiwanese research reactor spent nuclear fuel (Phase 2): Environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposed action is to transport approximately 1100 spent fuel rods from a foreign research reactor in Taiwan by sea to Hampton Roads, Virginia, and then overland by truck to the receiving basin for offsite fuels at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) for reprocessing to recover uranium and plutonium. The analysis of the impacts of the proposed action have been evaluated and shown to have negligible impact on the local environments. The calculations have been completed using the RADTRAN III code. PWR spent fuel was analyzed as a benchmark to link the calculations in this analysis to those in earlier environmental documentation. Cumulative total, maximum annual, and per shipment risks were calculated. The results indicate that the PWR spent fuel shipment risks are somewhat lower than those previously estimated. The cumulative and maximum annual normal, or incident-free, risks associated with the shipment of Taiwanese research reactor spent fuel is a factor of 10 lower than that for PWR fuel, and the cumulative and maximum annual accident radiological risks are a factor of about 2.2 lower than that for PWR spent fuel. As a result, the port risks are about a factor of 10 larger than the risk of overland transport. All of the risks calculated are small. The PWR risk values are similar to those judged by the NRC to be small enough not to warrant increased stringency in regulations. The Taiwanese research reactor spent fuel shipment risk values are smaller yet. 51 refs., 22 tabs

  7. Evaluation of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor building decontamination process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dougherty, D.; Adams, J. W.

    1983-08-01

    Decontamination activities from the cleanup of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor Building are generating a variety of waste streams. Solid wastes being disposed of in commercial shallow land burial include trash and rubbish, ion-exchange resins (Epicor-II) and strippable coatings. The radwaste streams arising from cleanup activities currently under way are characterized and classified under the waste classification scheme of 10 CFR Part 61. It appears that much of the Epicor-II ion-exchange resin being disposed of in commerical land burial will be Class B and require stabilization if current radionuclide loading practices continue to be followed. Some of the trash and rubbish from the cleanup of the reactor building so far would be Class B. Strippable coatings being used at TMI-2 were tested for leachability of radionuclides and chelating agents, thermal stability, radiation stability, stability under immersion and biodegradability. Actual coating samples from reactor building decontamination testing were evaluated for radionuclide leaching and biodegradation.

  8. Verification of spectral burn-up codes on 2D fuel assemblies of the GFR demonstrator ALLEGRO reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Čerba, Štefan, E-mail: stefan.cerba@stuba.sk [Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Institute of Nuclear and Physical Engineering, Ilkovičova 3, 812 19 Bratislava (Slovakia); Vrban, Branislav; Lüley, Jakub [Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Institute of Nuclear and Physical Engineering, Ilkovičova 3, 812 19 Bratislava (Slovakia); Dařílek, Petr [VUJE a.s., Okružná 5, 918 64 Trnava (Slovakia); Zajac, Radoslav, E-mail: radoslav.zajac@vuje.sk [VUJE a.s., Okružná 5, 918 64 Trnava (Slovakia); Nečas, Vladimír; Haščik, Ján [Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Institute of Nuclear and Physical Engineering, Ilkovičova 3, 812 19 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Verification of the MCNPX, HELIOS and SCALE codes. • MOX and ceramic fuel assembly. • Gas-cooled fast reactor. • Burnup calculation. - Abstract: The gas-cooled fast reactor, which is one of the six GEN IV reactor concepts, is characterized by high operational temperatures and a hard neutron spectrum. The utilization of commonly used spectral codes, developed mainly for LWR reactors operated in the thermal/epithermal neutron spectrum, may be connected with systematic deviations since the main development effort of these codes has been focused on the thermal part of the neutron spectrum. To be able to carry out proper calculations for fast systems the used codes have to account for neutron resonances including the self-shielding effect. The presented study aims at verifying the spectral HELIOS, MCNPX and SCALE codes on the basis of depletion calculations of 2D MOX and ceramic fuel assemblies of the ALLEGRO gas-cooled fast reactor demonstrator in infinite lattice.

  9. Dynamic modeling of a H2O-permselective membrane reactor to enhance methanol synthesis from syngas considering catalyst deactivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.Farsi; A.Jahanmiri

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,the effect of water vapor removal on methanol synthesis capacity from syngas in a fixed-bed membrane reactor is studied considering long-term catalyst deactivation.A dynamic heterogeneous one-dimensional mathematical model that is composed of two sides is developed to predict the performance of this configuration.In this configuration,conventional methanol reactor is supported by an aluminasilica composite membrane layer for water vapor removal from reaction zone.To verify the accuracy of the considered model and assumptions,simulation results of the conventional methanol reactor is compared with the industrial plant data under the same process condition.The membrane reactor improves catalyst life time and enhances CO2 conversion to methanol by overcoming the limitation imposed by thermodynamic equilibrium.This configuration has enhanced the methanol production capacity about 4.06% compared with the industrial methanol reactor during the production time.

  10. The usefulness of Belgian formulae in third molar-based age assessment of Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmik, Biyas; Acharya, Ashith B; Naikmasur, Venkatesh G

    2013-03-10

    The third molars are one of few useful predictors for assessing the degree of maturity in adolescence and young adulthood. It has application in age estimation in the age group of 14-23 years, in general, and in juvenile/adult status prediction, in particular. Using a 10-stage grading of third molars, Gunst et al. developed regression formulae on a large sample of Belgians (n=2513) for estimating age. Their research has been recommended as a 'reference study' in age estimation guidelines. The present study has ventured to determine if estimating age in Indians using the Belgian formulae produced results comparable to those reported in the Belgian study; in addition, this study attempts to determine if the same formulae predicted juvenile/adult status (age aged between 14 and 23 years. The OPGs included a mix of one, two, three and four third molars. In total, 916 teeth were assessed using the same 10-stage grading. Age in each OPG was estimated by applying the relevant Belgian regression formulae (regression formulae are available for one, two, three and four third molars). To determine if the formulae produced age estimates comparable to those in the Belgian study, the percentage of Indian subjects whose actual age fell within the 68% confidence interval (CI) (calculated from the ± 1 S.D. value available for each Belgian formula) was ascertained. If ≥ 68% of Indian subjects' age fell inside this interval, it indicates that the Belgian formulae are applicable in Indians. To assess the suitability of the Belgian formulae in predicting juvenile/adult status in Indians, the accuracy of the age estimation per se was not considered, rather, the number of correct age predictions only was noted. Overall, ≈ 74% of Indian subjects' actual age fell within the 68% CI; with regards to the Belgian formulae being able to correctly predict juvenile/adult status, 78% of all subjects were categorized to the correct age group (age estimation per se of Indians; however, the

  11. Modeling of fuel-rod behavior during reactor power cycling and ramping experiments with computer code FRAPCON-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modelling of fuel-rod behavior during reactor power cycling and ramping (including power-cooling mismatch experiments) with the computer code FRAPCON-2 is discussed. FRAPCON-2 computer calculations, using different mechanical models (Rigid Pellet, Deformable Pellet and Finite Element Mechanical Models) are compared with experimental results. The range of conditions over which FRAPCON-2 may be applied for PWR fuel rod behavior modelling during reactor power cycling and ramping are illustrated

  12. Improved Emergency Preparedness For Management Of The Food chain Via Stakeholder Involvement: Belgian and European Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Initiatives involving stakeholder engagement have gained increasing importance in sustainable decision making for many risk-related issues. This paper describes a Belgian experience within a European context related to food management options in the event of a radioactive contamination of the food chain. Under the auspices of the European Commission's 5. Framework Programme, the F.A.R.M.I.N.G. (F.A.R.M.I.N.G. 2000) project (co-ordinated by H.P.A.) a stakeholder network was established in a number of European countries, following a successful approach originally adopted in the UK. In a comparable approach, national working groups were thus established in Belgium, Finland, France and Greece in order to organise stakeholder panels and to discuss the outcomes of scientific and technical research related to management options for the food chain. The results of these panels were exchanged between participating Member States and on a wider international basis at the W.I.S.D.O.M.2. workshop in 2003. The F.A.R.M.I.N.G. project had many achievements and there were also several important lessons learned for Belgium (Vandecasteele et al., 2005): Firstly, many stakeholders showed a real interest in tackling problems relating to food chain contamination; Secondly, the Belgian agricultural system is very intensive and technically and economically optimised, making many of the options envisaged difficult to implement; thirdly, the applicability of management options is also limited by political and legal issues (e.g. competencies, environmental legislation), operational constraints (e.g. waste treatment, supplies of materials), societal and ethical aspects (e.g. milk disposal to sea, animal welfare), and economics (e.g. who pays the intervention cost?); fourthly, there is a now a greater awareness of these problems in both the food production sector and among the experts involved in emergency management; Fifthly, increased attention is now given in Belgium to the medium and long

  13. Improved Emergency Preparedness For Management Of The Food chain Via Stakeholder Involvement: Belgian and European Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardeman, Frank; Carle, Benny [SCK.CEN, the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Turcanu, Catrinel [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Av. F. Roosevelt 50, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Vandecasteele, Christian [FANC, Federal Agency for Nuclear Control, Ravensteinstraat 36, 1000 Brussels (Belgium)

    2006-07-01

    Initiatives involving stakeholder engagement have gained increasing importance in sustainable decision making for many risk-related issues. This paper describes a Belgian experience within a European context related to food management options in the event of a radioactive contamination of the food chain. Under the auspices of the European Commission's 5. Framework Programme, the F.A.R.M.I.N.G. (F.A.R.M.I.N.G. 2000) project (co-ordinated by H.P.A.) a stakeholder network was established in a number of European countries, following a successful approach originally adopted in the UK. In a comparable approach, national working groups were thus established in Belgium, Finland, France and Greece in order to organise stakeholder panels and to discuss the outcomes of scientific and technical research related to management options for the food chain. The results of these panels were exchanged between participating Member States and on a wider international basis at the W.I.S.D.O.M.2. workshop in 2003. The F.A.R.M.I.N.G. project had many achievements and there were also several important lessons learned for Belgium (Vandecasteele et al., 2005): Firstly, many stakeholders showed a real interest in tackling problems relating to food chain contamination; Secondly, the Belgian agricultural system is very intensive and technically and economically optimised, making many of the options envisaged difficult to implement; thirdly, the applicability of management options is also limited by political and legal issues (e.g. competencies, environmental legislation), operational constraints (e.g. waste treatment, supplies of materials), societal and ethical aspects (e.g. milk disposal to sea, animal welfare), and economics (e.g. who pays the intervention cost?); fourthly, there is a now a greater awareness of these problems in both the food production sector and among the experts involved in emergency management; Fifthly, increased attention is now given in Belgium to the medium and

  14. Evaluation of radionuclide penetration of structural concrete surfaces in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The March 28, 1979 loss-of-coolant accident at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) resulted in the exposure of ∼3000 m2 of reactor building internal concrete surfaces to both liquid-and vapor-borne contaminants. The period of contact between the major structural concrete surfaces and the aqueous solutions of mixed fission products ranged from a few days to several years. Exclusive of the reactor building basement impingement walls above a height of 1.6 m, all concrete surfaces were protected with an epoxy-based coating. This coating provides a tough, easily decontaminated surface for the concrete during normal operation and maintenance cycles. At the completion of the gross decontamination of the accessible reactor building elevations in 1982, exposure rates remained elevated above expected levels as indicated by early decontamination factors. Exposure rate measurements and small-scale scarification samples of the reactor building surfaces demonstrated that the protective coatings and concrete in the reactor building had absorbed radionuclides, thereby creating a large fixed source. In September 1983, a concrete core sampling program was conducted in the TMI-2 reactor building to assess the depth of contaminant penetration into the coatings and concrete on elevations 93m and 106 m. Sampling of the reactor building basement concrete surfaces [elevation 86 m] was deferred until 1985 and 1986 to provide lead time for remote systems development

  15. Uniaxial in-reactor creep of Zircaloy-2: Stress, flux, and temperature dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinti, F.

    1983-01-01

    Results of several uniaxial in-reactor creep tests, carried out in a temperature range of 553 to 623 K on Zircaloy-2 cold-worked specimens in fast flux (E > 1 MeV) from 1.2 X 10/sup 17/ to 1.1 X 10/sup 18/ n X m/sup -2/ X s and in a stress range from 98 to 157 MPa, are presented. The effects of instantaneous flux and applied tensile stress are investigated, and the available data correlated by functional relationship. The effect of the temperature on the creep rate in the presence and absence of flux is also investigated and discussed.

  16. Radiation dose to premature new-borns in the belgian neonatal intensive care units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the neonatal intensive care units (NICU), premature new-borns may be exposed to important doses. Because of their increased radiosensitivity and longer life expectancy, dose optimisation is of importance. The present study aimed at evaluating the dose of the most common radiographs in the Belgian NICU. Entrance surface kerma (ESK) and kerma area product (KAP) were collected in 17 NICU (among 19 in Belgium). Median ESK ranged from 13 to 172 μGy and from 8 to 117 μGy for chest and combined chest-abdomen radiographs, respectively; median KAP ranged from 1.4 to 14.2 mGy cm2 and from 3.8 to 28.1 mGy cm2 for chest and combined chest-abdomen radiographs, respectively. Those differences were due to large variations in the examination settings. Diagnostic reference levels (DRL) were set for chest and combined chest-abdomen radiographs. Though the radiograph dose was usually low, the cumulative dose per stay could be high. The wide, intercentre differences indicate that there is scope for dose reduction. The use of DRL should contribute to achieve this object. (authors)

  17. System Definition Document: Reactor Data Necessary for Modeling Plutonium Disposition in Catawba Nuclear Station Units 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (USDOE) has contracted with Duke Engineering and Services, Cogema, Inc., and Stone and Webster (DCS) to provide mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication and reactor irradiation services in support of USDOE's mission to dispose of surplus weapons-grade plutonium. The nuclear station units currently identified as mission reactors for this project are Catawba Units 1 and 2 and McGuire Units 1 and 2. This report is specific to Catawba Nuclear Station Units 1 and 2, but the details and materials for the McGuire reactors are very similar. The purpose of this document is to present a complete set of data about the reactor materials and components to be used in modeling the Catawba reactors to predict reactor physics parameters for the Catawba site. Except where noted, Duke Power Company or DCS documents are the sources of these data. These data are being used with the ORNL computer code models of the DCS Catawba (and McGuire) pressurized-water reactors

  18. Removal of CO2 in a multistage fluidized bed reactor by diethanol amine impregnated activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Dipa; Samal, Debi Prasad; Meikap, Bhim C

    2016-07-28

    To mitigate the emission of carbon dioxide (CO2), we have developed and designed a four-stage fluidized bed reactor. There is a counter current exchange between solid adsorbent and gas flow. In this present investigation diethanol amine (DEA) impregnated activated carbon made from green coconut shell was used as adsorbent. This type of adsorbent not only adsorbs CO2 due to the presence of pore but also chemically reacts with CO2 and form secondary zwitterions. Sampling and analysis of CO2 was performed using Orsat apparatus. The effect of initial CO2 concentration, gas velocity, solid rate, weir height etc. on removal efficiency of CO2 have been investigated and presented. The percentage removal of CO2 has been found close to 80% under low gas flow rate (0.188 m/s), high solid flow rate (4.12 kg/h) and weir height of 50 mm. From this result it has been found out that multistage fluidized bed reactor may be a suitable equipment for removal of CO2 from flue gas. PMID:27163861

  19. Increasing the power of FiR 1 TRIGA reactor by a factor of 2 1/2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An early domestic reactor engineering project was increasing the neutron flux of the Triga Mark II reactor in Otaniemi by a factor of 2 1/2, thirty-five years ago. The thermal power of the facility was increased from 100 kW to 250 kW by modifications made in the fuel loading, control rods, control and protection systems, radiation shielding structures and in the heat removal system. This improved the efficiency of the plant and reduced time requirements in proportion for physical research, isotope production and medical irradiations. Experimental runs were made at 318 kW power, and the final approval inspection for continuous operation at 250 kW was completed on August 3, 1967. (author)

  20. Status of the NGNP Fuel Experiment AGR-2 Irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaine Grover

    2012-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program will be irradiating up to seven separate low enriched uranium (LEU) tri-isotopic (TRISO) particle fuel (in compact form) experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). These irradiations and fuel development are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States, and will be irradiated over the next several years to demonstrate and qualify new TRISO coated particle fuel for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, to qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, to support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, and to provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination (PIE) and safety testing. The experiments, which will each consist of at least six separate capsules, will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with individual on-line temperature monitoring and control of each capsule. The sweep gas will also have on-line fission product monitoring on its effluent to track performance of the fuel in each individual capsule during irradiation. The first experiment (designated AGR-1) started irradiation in December 2006 and was completed in November 2009. The second experiment (AGR-2), which utilized the same experiment design as well as control and monitoring systems as AGR-1, started irradiation in June 2010 and is currently scheduled to be completed in April 2013. The design of this experiment and support systems will be briefly discussed, followed by the progress and status of the experiment to date.

  1. Estimate of control rods effectiveness of the RP-0 reactor 7A2 core by the rod-drop method using a compensated ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Value estimate results of the four control rods by the rod-drop method are presented using the 'point reactor model' for the RP-0 reactor 7A2 core employing the inverse kinetics neutronic noise equipment and a compensated ionization chamber located in the E2 core. At every moment, the reactor power was known and it was calibrated with the same equipment

  2. Pedometer-Determined Physical Activity and Its Comparison with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire in a Sample of Belgian Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cocker, Katrien; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2007-01-01

    Pedometer-determined physical activity (PA) levels in Belgian adults were provided and compared to PA scores reported in the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). The representative sample (N = 1,239) of the Belgian population took on average 9,655 (4,526) steps/day. According to pedometer indices 58.4% were insufficiently active.…

  3. Processing practices contributing to Campylobacter contamination in Belgian chicken meat preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampers, Imca; Habib, Ihab; Berkvens, Dirk; Dumoulin, Ann; Zutter, Lieven De; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2008-12-10

    The aim of this study was to obtain insight into processing practices in the poultry sector contributing to the variability in Campylobacter contamination in Belgian chicken meat preparations. This was achieved by company profiling of eleven food business operators, in order to evaluate variation of processing management, in addition to statistical modelling of microbiological testing results for Campylobacter spp. contamination in 656 end product samples. Almost half (48%) of chicken meat preparation samples were positive for Campylobacter spp. Results revealed a statistically significant variation in Campylobacter contamination between 11 chicken meat producers across Belgium at both quantitative and qualitative detection levels. All producers provided Campylobacter-positive samples, but prevalence ranged from 9% up to 85% at single producer level. The presence or addition of skin during production of chicken meat preparations resulted in almost 2.2-fold increase in the probability of a sample being positive for Campylobacter, while chicken meat preparations made from frozen meat, or partly containing pre-frozen meat, had a significant (Odds Ratio=0.41; CI 95% 0.18:0.98) lower probability of being positive for Campylobacter. However, the quantitative results indicated that the positive freezing effect on Campylobacter count was compromised by the presence and/or adding of skin.

  4. Floating seaweed in the neustonic environment: A case study from Belgian coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandendriessche, Sofie; Vincx, Magda; Degraer, Steven

    2006-02-01

    Floating seaweeds form the most important natural component of all floating material found on the surface of oceans and seas. Notwithstanding the absence of natural rocky shores, ephemeral floating seaweed clumps are frequently encountered along the Belgian coast. From October 2002 to April 2003, seaweed samples and control samples (i.e. surface water samples from a seaweed-free area) were collected every other week. Multivariate analysis on neustonic macrofaunal abundances showed significant differences between seaweed and control samples in the fraction > 1 mm. Differences were less conspicuous in the 0.5-1 mm fraction. Seaweed samples were characterised by the presence of seaweed fauna e.g. Acari, Idotea baltica, Gammarus sp ., while control samples mainly contained Calanoida, Larvacea, Chaetognatha, and planktonic larvae of crustaceans and polychaetes. Seaweed samples (1 mm fraction) harboured considerably higher diversities (× 3), densities (× 18) and biomasses (× 49) compared to the surrounding water column (control samples). The impact of floating seaweeds on the neustonic environment was quantified by the calculation of the added values of seaweed samples considering biomass and density. These calculations resulted in mean added values of 311 ind m - 2 in density and 305 mg ADW m - 2 in biomass. The association degree per species was expressed as the mean percentage of individuals found in seaweed samples in proportion to the total density and biomass of that species (seaweed samples + control samples). Thirteen species showed an association percentage > 95%, and can therefore be considered members of the floating seaweed fauna.

  5. Neutralization of Alkaline Wasterwater with CO{sub 2} in a continuous flow jet loop reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Dae Yeop; Kim, Mi Ran; Lim, Jun Heok; Lee, Tae Yoon; Lee, Jea Keun [Pukyong National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    This paper investigates the feasibility of applying the jet loop reactor for the neutralization of alkaline wastewater using carbon dioxide (CO2). In this study, pH changes and CO2 removal characteristics were examined by changing influent flow rate of alkaline wastewater (initial pH=10.1) and influent CO2 flow rates. Influent flow rates of alkaline wastewater (QL,in) ranged between 0.9 and 6.6 L/min, and inlet gas flow rate (QG,in) of 1 and 6 L/min in a lab-scale continuous flow jet loop reactor. The outlet pH of wastewater was maintained at 7.2 when the ratio (QL,in/QG,in) of QL,in and QG,in was 1.1. However, the CO2 removal efficiency and the outlet pH of wastewater were increased when QL,in/QG,in ratio was higher than 1.1. Throughout the experiments, the maximum CO2 removal efficiency and the outlet pH of wastewater were 98.06% and 8.43 at the condition when QG,in and QL,in were 2 L/min and 4 L/min, respectively.

  6. Guide for licensing evaluations using CRAC2: A computer program for calculating reactor accident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A version of the CRAC2 computer code applicable for use in analyses of consequences and risks of reactor accidents in case work for environmental statements has been implemented for use on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Data General MV/8000 computer system. Input preparation is facilitated through the use of an interactive computer program which operates on an IBM personal computer. The resulting CRAC2 input deck is transmitted to the MV/8000 by using an error-free file transfer mechanism. To facilitate the use of CRAC2 at NRC, relevant background material on input requirements and model descriptions has been extracted from four reports - ''Calculations of Reactor Accident Consequences,'' Version 2, NUREG/CR-2326 (SAND81-1994) and ''CRAC2 Model Descriptions,'' NUREG/CR-2552 (SAND82-0342), ''CRAC Calculations for Accident Sections of Environmental Statements, '' NUREG/CR-2901 (SAND82-1693), and ''Sensitivity and Uncertainty Studies of the CRAC2 Computer Code,'' NUREG/CR-4038 (ORNL-6114). When this background information is combined with instructions on the input processor, this report provides a self-contained guide for preparing CRAC2 input data with a specific orientation toward applications on the MV/8000. 8 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs

  7. Guide for licensing evaluations using CRAC2: A computer program for calculating reactor accident consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, J.E.; Roussin, R.W.; Gilpin, H.

    1988-12-01

    A version of the CRAC2 computer code applicable for use in analyses of consequences and risks of reactor accidents in case work for environmental statements has been implemented for use on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Data General MV/8000 computer system. Input preparation is facilitated through the use of an interactive computer program which operates on an IBM personal computer. The resulting CRAC2 input deck is transmitted to the MV/8000 by using an error-free file transfer mechanism. To facilitate the use of CRAC2 at NRC, relevant background material on input requirements and model descriptions has been extracted from four reports - ''Calculations of Reactor Accident Consequences,'' Version 2, NUREG/CR-2326 (SAND81-1994) and ''CRAC2 Model Descriptions,'' NUREG/CR-2552 (SAND82-0342), ''CRAC Calculations for Accident Sections of Environmental Statements, '' NUREG/CR-2901 (SAND82-1693), and ''Sensitivity and Uncertainty Studies of the CRAC2 Computer Code,'' NUREG/CR-4038 (ORNL-6114). When this background information is combined with instructions on the input processor, this report provides a self-contained guide for preparing CRAC2 input data with a specific orientation toward applications on the MV/8000. 8 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  8. Direct In Situ Quantification of HO2 from a Flow Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumfield, Brian; Sun, Wenting; Ju, Yiguang; Wysocki, Gerard

    2013-03-21

    The first direct in situ measurements of hydroperoxyl radical (HO2) at atmospheric pressure from the exit of a laminar flow reactor have been carried out using mid-infrared Faraday rotation spectroscopy. HO2 was generated by oxidation of dimethyl ether, a potential renewable biofuel with a simple molecular structure but rich low-temperature oxidation chemistry. On the basis of the results of nonlinear fitting of the experimental data to a theoretical spectroscopic model, the technique offers an estimated sensitivity of measurement of this species will aid in quantitative modeling of low-temperature and high-pressure combustion kinetics.

  9. Robinson 2 reactor vessel: pressurized thermal shock analysis for a small-break LOCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marston, T.; Griesbach, T.; Chao, J.; Chexal, B.; Norris, D.; Nickell, B.; Layman, B.

    1984-08-01

    A best-estimate Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS) analysis was performed for a three-inch diameter hot-leg small-break loss-of-coolant accident for the Robinson 2 plant. This plant specific analysis was performed using EPRI's linked set of codes for PTS analysis. The analysis shows that with the H.B. Robinson 2 reactor pressure vessel, a hot-leg small-break loss-of-coolant accident does not pose a significant health or safety concern to the public for at least 40 years of operation.

  10. CO{sub 2} capture by aqueous solutions of glucosamine in a bubble column reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Abuin, A.; Gomez-Diaz, D.; Navaza, J.M.; Vidal-Tato, I. [University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago De Compostela (Spain)

    2010-08-01

    The present work analyses the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture process by means of absorption with chemical reaction with glucosamine aqueous solutions, using a bubble column reactor (BCR). Experimental results indicate that this reagent has a similar behaviour to other common amines (i.e. monoethanolamine, widely used in CO{sub 2} capture), as regarding the capture rate of this acidic gas. The value of the mass transfer coefficient corresponding to the liquid phase has been determined, and the effect of different operation conditions upon the value of that coefficient has also been analysed (amine concentration, pH and gas flow-rate).

  11. Research reactor core conversion guidebook. V.2: Analysis (Appendices A-F)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume 2 consists of detailed Appendices, covering safety analyses for generic 10 MW reactor, safety analysis - probabilistic methods, methods for preventing LOCA, radiological consequence analyses, examples of safety report amendments and safety specifications. Included in Volume 2 are example analyses for cores with with highly enriched uranium and low enriched uranium fuels showing differences that can be expected in the safety parameters and radiological consequences of postulated accidents. There are seven examples of licensing documents related to core conversion and two examples of methods for determining power limits for safety specifications in the document. Refs, figs, bibliographies and tabs

  12. New generation of data acquisition and data storage systems of the IBR-2 reactor spectrometers complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikov, S. A.; Prikhodko, V. I.

    2016-07-01

    The paper presents an overview of works on the creation of data acquisition and data storage systems, which have been carried out in the Department of the IBR-2 spectrometers complex (DCS) of the Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics (FLNP) over the past 15 years (before, during, and after the modernization of the IBR-2 reactor). These systems represent a unified set of identical (from the viewpoint of hardware) modules limited in type but functionally complete, wherein distinctions in parameters, functional capabilities, encoding, correction and preliminary data processing procedures specific to each spectrometer are realized on the level of microprograms, electronic tables, and integrated software control system.

  13. CO2 Energy Reactor - Integrated Mineral Carbonation: Perspectives on Lab-Scale Investigation and Products Valorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael M Santos

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To overcome the challenges of mineral CO2 sequestration, Innovation Concepts B.V. is developing a unique proprietary Gravity Pressure Vessel (GPV reactor technology, and has focussed on generating reaction products of high economic value. The GPV provides intense process conditions through hydrostatic pressurization and heat exchange integration that harvests exothermic reaction energy, thereby reducing energy demand of conventional reactor designs, in addition to offering other benefits. In this paper, a perspective on the status of this technology and outlook for the future is provided. To date, laboratory-scale tests of the envisioned process have been performed in a tubular rocking autoclave reactor. The mineral of choice has been olivine (~Mg1.6Fe2+0.4(SiO4 + ppm Ni/Cr, although asbestos, steel slags and oil shale residues are also under investigation. The effect of several process parameters on reaction extent and product properties have been tested: CO2 pressure, temperature, residence time, additives (buffers, lixiviants, chelators, oxidizers, solids loading, and mixing rate. The products (carbonates, amorphous silica and chromite have been physically separated (based on size, density and magnetic properties, characterized (for chemistry, mineralogy and morphology and tested in intended applications (as pozzolanic carbon-negative building material. Economically, it is found that product value is the main driver for mineral carbonation, rather than, or in addition to, the sequestered CO2. The approach of using a GPV and focusing on valuable reaction products could thus make CO2 mineralization a feasible and sustainable industrial process.

  14. Numerical investigation on photocatalytic CO2 reduction by solar energy in double-skin sheet reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • It is a new trial to investigate photocatalytic CO2 reduction performance in DSSR. • A 3D computational model in DSSR is developed and numerically simulated. • Methanol concentration increases as water vapor ratio and day light flux increase. • It decreases with increasing inflow velocity and number of parallel channels. • The small channel width–height ratio will lead to a low production efficiency. - Abstract: Double-skin sheet reactor (DSSR) attracts attention in recent years due to the simple design and high mass transfer, but its application to photocatalytic CO2 reduction with immobilized catalyst is still a new trial. In this paper, the three-dimensional models describing the photocatalytic CO2 reduction in DSSR by means of solar energy were developed and numerically simulated, on the basis of the transient and continuous solar light distributions. A performance evaluation approach was proposed to guide the structural optimization of DSSR in photocatalytic CO2 reduction. The effects of operation parameters and reactor structures on CH3OH concentration were analyzed and discussed. The results show that the outlet CH3OH concentration of 2.68 × 10−4 mol m−3 in DSSR is much greater than that of 1.77 × 10−5 mol m−3 in optical fiber monolith reactor under the same conditions. It increases as both the inlet water vapor concentration ratio and day-average light flux increase, but decreases with increasing the inlet velocity, all of which are beneficial to the CH3OH productivity. The CH3OH concentration will decrease with the increase of the number of parallel-flow channels, but increase thanks to the rise in the width–height ratio and inserting flow guiding pieces, which are recommended for higher CH3OH concentration in the design of DSSR

  15. Compliance of Companies with Corporate Governance Codes: Case Study on Listed Belgian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven H. De Cleyn

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Listed and large companies become increasingly subject to internal and external pressure to comply with ethical and social standards. This article focuses on one aspect of this matter, namely the corporate governance issue. Within the framework of recent corporate scandals, this paper investigates whether and to which extent Belgian publicly listed SMEs comply with the Belgian Code on Corporate Governance after its first year of introduction, which has been constituted in the framework of the European Action Plan on Corporate Governance.In a sample of 78 Belgian listed SMEs, the compliance with the Code is analysed. After its first year of introduction, companies comply with on average 70% of the Code’s provisions. The most problematic topics in terms of disclosure of information seem to relate to (individual remuneration, private information and content of shareholders’ meetings.

  16. Gas Reactor International Cooperative program. Pebble bed reactor plant: screening evaluation. Volume 2. Conceptual balance of plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report consists of three volumes which describe the design concepts and screening evaluation for a 3000 MW(t) Pebble Bed Reactor Multiplex Plant (PBR-MX). The Multiplex plant produces both electricity and transportable chemical energy via the thermochemical pipeline (TCP). The evaluation was limited to a direct cycle plant which has the steam generators and steam reformers in the primary circuit. This volume describes the conceptual balance-of-plant (BOP) design and was prepared by United Engineers and Constructors, Inc. of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The major emphasis of the BOP study was a preliminary design of an overall plant to provide a basis for future studies

  17. Enhanced Hydrogen Production Integrated with CO2 Separation in a Single-Stage Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahesh Iyer; Himanshu Gupta; Danny Wong; Liang-Shih Fan

    2005-09-30

    Hydrogen production from coal gasification can be enhanced by driving the equilibrium limited Water Gas Shift reaction forward by incessantly removing the CO{sub 2} by-product via the carbonation of calcium oxide. This project aims at using the OSU patented high-reactivity mesoporous precipitated calcium carbonate sorbent for removing the CO{sub 2} product. Preliminary experiments demonstrate the show the superior performance of the PCC sorbent over other naturally occurring calcium sorbents. Gas composition analyses show the formation of 100% pure hydrogen. Novel calcination techniques could lead to smaller reactor footprint and single-stage reactors that can achieve maximum theoretical H{sub 2} production for multicyclic applications. Sub-atmospheric calcination studies reveal the effect of vacuum level, diluent gas flow rate, thermal properties of the diluent gas and the sorbent loading on the calcination kinetics which play an important role on the sorbent morphology. Steam, which can be easily separated from CO{sub 2}, is envisioned to be a potential diluent gas due to its enhanced thermal properties. Steam calcination studies at 700-850 C reveal improved sorbent morphology over regular nitrogen calcination. A mixture of 80% steam and 20% CO{sub 2} at ambient pressure was used to calcine the spent sorbent at 820 C thus lowering the calcination temperature. Regeneration of calcium sulfide to calcium carbonate was achieved by carbonating the calcium sulfide slurry by bubbling CO{sub 2} gas at room temperature.

  18. High temperature CO2 capture using calcium oxide sorbent in a fixed-bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gas-solid reaction and breakthrough curve of CO2 capture using calcium oxide sorbent at high temperature in a fixed-bed reactor are of great importance, and being influenced by a number of factors makes the characterization and prediction of these a difficult problem. In this study, the operating parameters on reaction between solid sorbent and CO2 gas at high temperature were investigated. The results of the breakthrough curves showed that calcium oxide sorbent in the fixed-bed reactor was capable of reducing the CO2 level to near zero level with the steam of 10 vol%, and the sorbent in CaO mixed with MgO of 40 wt% had extremely low capacity for CO2 capture at 550 deg. C. Calcium oxide sorbent after reaction can be easily regenerated at 900 deg. C by pure N2 flow. The experimental data were analyzed by shrinking core model, and the results showed reaction rates of both fresh and regeneration sorbents with CO2 were controlled by a combination of the surface chemical reaction and diffusion of product layer.

  19. PR-EDB: Power Reactor Embrittlement Data Base, Version 2. Revision 2, Program description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stallmann, F.W.; Wang, J.A.; Kam, F.B.K.; Taylor, B.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Investigations of regulatory issues such as vessel integrity over plant life, vessel failure, and sufficiency of current codes Standard Review Plans (SRP`s) and Guides for license renewal can be greatly expedited by the use of a well-designed computerized data base. Also, such a data base is essential for the validation of embrittlement prediction models by researchers. The Power Reactor Embrittlement Data Base (PR-EDB) is such a comprehensive collection of data for US commercial nuclear reactors. The current version of the PR-EDB contains the Charpy test data that were irradiated in 252 capsules of 96 reactors and consists of 207 data points for heat-affected-zone (HAZ) materials (98 different HAZ), 227 data points for weld materials (105 different welds), 524 data points for base materials (136 different base materials), including 297 plate data points (85 different plates), 119 forging data points (31) different forging), and 108 correlation monitor materials data points (3 different plates). The data files are given in dBASE format and can be accessed with any computer using the DOS operating system. ``User-friendly`` utility programs are used to retrieve and select specific data, manipulate data, display data to the screen or printer, and to fit and plot Charpy impact data. The results of several studies investigated are presented in Appendix D.

  20. Experimental Studies on Assemblies 1 and 2 of the Fast Reactor FR-0. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a first part of this report, published as AE-195, an account was given of critical mass determinations and measurements of flux distribution and reaction ratios in the first assemblies of the fast zero power reactor FR0. This second part of the report deals with various investigations involving the measurement of reactivity. Control rod calibrations have been made using the positive period, the inverse multiplication, the rod drop and the pulsed source techniques, and show satisfactory agreement between the various methods. The reactivity worths of samples of different materials and different sizes have been measured at the core centre. Comparisons with perturbation calculations show that the regular and adjoint fluxes are well predicted in the central region of the core. The variation in the prompt neutron life-time with reactivity has been studied by means of the pulsed source and the Rossi-α techniques. Comparison with one region calculations reveals large discrepancies, indicating that this simple model is inadequate. Some investigations of streaming effects in an empty channel in the reactor and of interaction effects between channels have been made and are compared with theoretical estimates. Measurements of the reactivity worth of an air gap between the reactor halves and of the temperature coefficient are also described in the report. The work has been performed as a joint effort by AB Atomenergi and the Research Institute of National Defence

  1. Feedback from dismantling operations (level 2) on EDF's first generation reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EDF's policy as regards the dismantling of the reactors that have ceased commercial operation, namely the eight power plants of the first generation and the Creys-Malville power plant, is explained. Generally speaking, prior to the year 2001, EDF had opted for the de-construction of these power plants to comply with a 'long wait' scenario, which consisted of waiting for a period of 5 to 10 years to achieve IAEA level 2 (partial release of the site), then postponing the total de-construction of the facilities for 25 to 50 years. Today, EDF has decided to undertake the total de-construction of these reactors, which have ceased commercial operation, over a period of 25 years. The purpose of this document is to present: - The reactors concerned, their background and their 'regulatory' situation, - The main operations performed and/or currently in progress, - The main elements of feedback from such operations, shedding light on the approach adopted in 2001. The installations concerned by the de-construction programme are as follows: - The 8 power plants of the first generation, which were built during the fifties and sixties and ceased commercial operation between 1973 and 1994, namely: Brennilis (industrial prototype using heavy water technology, jointly operated by EDF and CEA), the 6 power units of the NUGG type (natural uranium gas graphite) at Chinon, Saint-Laurent des Eaux and Bugey and the PWR reactor at Chooz A, - The storage silos at Saint-Laurent, where the sleeves for the fuel assemblies of reactors SLA1 and SLA2 are stored, corresponding to approximately 2000 tonnes of graphite, - The Creys-Malville reactor, FBR (fast breeder reactor) shut down in accordance with a government decision, which is currently undergoing decommissioning. At the current stage, our feedback from the dismantling operations carried out on nuclear facilities is based on (i) the work carried out or in progress that will make it possible to achieve the equivalent of IAEA level 2 in the

  2. Syngas production in a novel perovskite membrane reactor with co-feed of CO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Ying Wei; Liu Huang; Jun Tang; Ling Yi Zhou; Zhong Li; Hai Hui Wang

    2011-01-01

    Partial oxidation of methane (POM) co-fed with CO2 to syngas in a novel catalytic BaCo0.6Fe0.2Ta0.2O3-d oxygen permeable membrane reactor was successfully reported. Adding CO2 to the partial oxidation of methane reaction not only alters the ratio of CO/H2, but also increases the oxygen permeation flux and CH4 conversion. Around 96% CH4 conversion with more than 93% CO2 conversion and 100% CO selectivity is achieved, which shows an excellent reaction performance. A steady oxygen permeation flux of 15 mL/(cm2 min) is obtained during the 100-h operation, which shows good stability as well.

  3. Belgian nuclear forum - launching the public debate on nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leclere, Robert [Belgian Nuclear Forum, Gulledelle, 1200 Brussels (Belgium); Van Landeghem, Yves [Saatchi and Saatchi Belgium, Avenue Rogier, 1030 Brussels (Belgium)

    2010-07-01

    In the past decades, public opinion on nuclear power was dominated by a 'sleeping', indifferent majority. Nothing moved until (a minority of) opponents began to stir. Their activism strongly contrasted with the low-profile attitude of the nuclear players and pushed a considerable part of the indifferent majority towards a more negative attitude. A 2007 opinion poll (IFOP) confirmed this trend. The poll also revealed a major lack of objective and factual information. Incorrect and incomplete arguments tended to demonize nuclear energy, and 'nuclear' became a brand polarizing public opinion. This had a negative impact on decision-makers and culminated in the Belgian phase-out law of 2003. Based on the opinion poll, the members of the Belgian Nuclear Forum decided to launch a public information campaign, which they would jointly finance, with these goals: - In 3 to 4 years time, create greater public awareness on energy matters and move public opinion towards a more positive attitude. - Gain recognition of nuclear energy's legitimate place in the mix, and of the importance of peaceful nuclear applications. - Attract attention to the Belgian know-how and the importance of the industry on the scientific and economical level. - Optimize conditions for important nuclear issues such as long-term operation of NPPs, new nuclear research projects (MYRRHA),.. A 'push-pull' approach was adopted: push communication to the public (campaign) to pull (involve) decision-makers and get nuclear back on the political agenda. The Forum also opted for a sustained, long-term effort based on public campaigning, public relations and public affairs. Considering its long-time absence from the public debate, the Forum and its agency Saatchi and Saatchi agreed upon the following principles to underpin the campaign: - No 'pro-campaign'; that would be highly unrealistic and have a negative effect; - No taboos: bring up both the pros and cons; - No

  4. Code manual for CONTAIN 2.0: A computer code for nuclear reactor containment analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CONTAIN 2.0 computer code is an integrated analysis tool used for predicting the physical conditions, chemical compositions, and distributions of radiological materials inside a containment building following the release of material from the primary system in a light-water reactor accident. It can also predict the source term to the environment. CONTAIN 2.0 is intended to replace the earlier CONTAIN 1.12, which was released in 1991. The purpose of this Code Manual is to provide full documentation of the features and models in CONTAIN 2.0. Besides complete descriptions of the models, this Code Manual provides a complete description of the input and output from the code. CONTAIN 2.0 is a highly flexible and modular code that can run problems that are either quite simple or highly complex. An important aspect of CONTAIN is that the interactions among thermal-hydraulic phenomena, aerosol behavior, and fission product behavior are taken into account. The code includes atmospheric models for steam/air thermodynamics, intercell flows, condensation/evaporation on structures and aerosols, aerosol behavior, and gas combustion. It also includes models for reactor cavity phenomena such as core-concrete interactions and coolant pool boiling. Heat conduction in structures, fission product decay and transport, radioactive decay heating, and the thermal-hydraulic and fission product decontamination effects of engineered safety features are also modeled. To the extent possible, the best available models for severe accident phenomena have been incorporated into CONTAIN, but it is intrinsic to the nature of accident analysis that significant uncertainty exists regarding numerous phenomena. In those cases, sensitivity studies can be performed with CONTAIN by means of user-specified input parameters. Thus, the code can be viewed as a tool designed to assist the knowledge reactor safety analyst in evaluating the consequences of specific modeling assumptions

  5. Irradiation performance of (Th,Pu)O2 fuel under Pressurized Water Reactor conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, B.; Lemehov, S.; Wéber, M.; Parthoens, Y.; Gysemans, M.; McGinley, J.; Somers, J.; Verwerft, M.

    2016-04-01

    This paper examines the in-pile safety performance of (Th,Pu)O2 fuel pins under simulated Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) conditions. Both sol-gel and SOLMAS produced (Th,Pu)O2 fuels at enrichments of 7.9% and 12.8% in Pu/HM have been irradiated at SCK·CEN. The irradiation has been performed under PWR conditions (155 bar, 300 °C) in a dedicated loop of the BR-2 reactor. The loop is instrumented with flow and temperature monitors at inlet and outlet, which allow for an accurate measurement of the deposited enthalpy. Between 2004 and 2006, four fuel segments were irradiated, with on-line recording of centerline temperature and rod pressure of the two instrumented rods and intermittent non-destructive hot-cell investigations of the other two non-instrumented rods. At the end of 2006, the instrumented rods were unloaded for hot-cell investigations. The hot-cell investigations reduced uncertainties in the power history to build a reliable and consistent irradiation history which can be used to assess and validate fuel performance codes. The on-line recorded temperatures of the instrumented rods are presented in this paper and are compared to corresponding calculations on the basis of the power history. One of the non-instrumented rods was re-inserted in the reactor in 2012 and attained a peak burnup level of 37 GWd/tHM by the end of 2014. The combined data set of on-line measurements and post irradiation examinations enables further code validation. In this context, the results of the in-house MACROS code of SCK·CEN have been compared with the experimental results. The code contains dedicated (Th,Pu)O2 models for the calculation of the thermal conductivity as a function of the burnup and models that determine the radial power profile within the pellet.

  6. Code manual for CONTAIN 2.0: A computer code for nuclear reactor containment analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, K.K.; Williams, D.C.; Griffith, R.O.; Gido, R.G.; Tadios, E.L.; Davis, F.J.; Martinez, G.M.; Washington, K.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tills, J. [J. Tills and Associates, Inc., Sandia Park, NM (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The CONTAIN 2.0 computer code is an integrated analysis tool used for predicting the physical conditions, chemical compositions, and distributions of radiological materials inside a containment building following the release of material from the primary system in a light-water reactor accident. It can also predict the source term to the environment. CONTAIN 2.0 is intended to replace the earlier CONTAIN 1.12, which was released in 1991. The purpose of this Code Manual is to provide full documentation of the features and models in CONTAIN 2.0. Besides complete descriptions of the models, this Code Manual provides a complete description of the input and output from the code. CONTAIN 2.0 is a highly flexible and modular code that can run problems that are either quite simple or highly complex. An important aspect of CONTAIN is that the interactions among thermal-hydraulic phenomena, aerosol behavior, and fission product behavior are taken into account. The code includes atmospheric models for steam/air thermodynamics, intercell flows, condensation/evaporation on structures and aerosols, aerosol behavior, and gas combustion. It also includes models for reactor cavity phenomena such as core-concrete interactions and coolant pool boiling. Heat conduction in structures, fission product decay and transport, radioactive decay heating, and the thermal-hydraulic and fission product decontamination effects of engineered safety features are also modeled. To the extent possible, the best available models for severe accident phenomena have been incorporated into CONTAIN, but it is intrinsic to the nature of accident analysis that significant uncertainty exists regarding numerous phenomena. In those cases, sensitivity studies can be performed with CONTAIN by means of user-specified input parameters. Thus, the code can be viewed as a tool designed to assist the knowledge reactor safety analyst in evaluating the consequences of specific modeling assumptions.

  7. Radiation Damage Assessment in the Reactor Pressure Vessel of the Integral Inherently Safe Light Water Reactor (I2S-LWR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaspoehler Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major limiting factors to nuclear reactors lifetime is the radiation-induced material damage in the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV. While older reactors were designed assuming a 40-year operating lifetime, new reactor designs are expected to have lifetimes up to 100 years. For safe operation, the integrity of the RPV must be ensured against significant material property changes. In this work, typical neutron damage indicators are calculated in the RPV of the I2S-LWR (Integral Inherently Safe LWR Power Plant, including DPA (displacements per atom and fast neutron fluence (>1 MeV and >0.1MeV. I2S-LWR is a PWR of integral design, which means that its wider downcomer provides additional shielding to the vessel. However, its higher core power density and longer lifetime may offset this advantage. In order to accurately represent the neutron environment for RPV damage assessment, a detailed model based on the preliminary design specifications of the I2S-LWR was developed to be used in the MAVRIC (Monaco with Automated Variance Reduction using Importance Calculations sequence of the Scale6.1 code package. MAVRIC uses the CADIS (Consistent Adjoint-Driven Importance Sampling methodology to bias a fixed-source MC (Monte Carlo simulation. To establish the upper limit of a bounding envelope, a flat-source distribution was used. For the low limit, a center-peaked source was generated using the KENO-VI criticality sequence assuming uniform fresh fuel core. Results based on the preliminary I2S-LWR model show that DPA rates and fast fluence rates are conservatively 75% lower than in typical PWRs being operated currently in the US.

  8. Inventory and forecasting of maritime emissions in the Belgian sea territory, an activity-based emission model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrooten, Liesbeth; De Vlieger, Ina; Int Panis, Luc; Styns, Karel; Torfs, Rudi

    Air quality policy has focussed on land-based emissions for decades. In recent years, it has become increasingly clear that emissions from sea-going vessels can no longer be ignored. There is a growing need for detailed emission inventories to evaluate the impact of this transport mode on air quality and health. In this paper we present MOPSEA, an activity-based emission model to determine emissions from sea-going vessels. The model considers shipping activities of sea-going vessels on Belgian territory, combined with individual vessel characteristics. We apply this model to study the effects of recent international efforts to reduce emissions from sea-going vessels in Belgian territorial waters for the current fleet and for two scenarios up to 2010. The emission model for Belgium, based on different vessel operating areas, reveals that most maritime emissions from the main engines will increase. CO 2 emissions will increase by 2-9% over the 2004-2010 period due to an increase in shipping activity. NO X emissions are projected to rise between 1% and 8% because the increase in activity offsets the reductions from the international maritime organisation (IMO) and European regulations. In contrast, SO 2 emissions will decrease by at least 50% in 6 years time. The switch of auxiliaries from heavy fuel oil to diesel oil at berth results in a large emission reduction (33%) for PM and small reductions for CO 2, NO X, CO and HC (4-5%). The choice between a bottom-up versus top-down approach can have important implications for the allocation of maritime emissions. The MOPSEA bottom-up model allocates only 0.7 Mton CO 2 to Belgium, compared to 24.2 Mton CO 2 based on bunker fuel inventories.

  9. Characterization of ubiquitinated intraneuronal inclusions in a novel Belgian frontotemporal lobar degeneration family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirici, Daniel; Vandenberghe, Rik; Rademakers, Rosa; Dermaut, Bart; Cruts, Marc; Vennekens, Krist'l; Cuijt, Ivy; Lübke, Ursula; Ceuterick, Chantal; Martin, Jean-Jacques; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; Kumar-Singh, Samir

    2006-03-01

    The most common histologic feature in patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is intracellular brain inclusions of yet uncharacterized proteins that react with antiubiquitin (Ub) antibodies, but not with tau or synuclein (FTLD-U). We identified a four-generation Belgian FTLD family in which 8 patients had dominantly inherited FTLD. In one patient, we showed frontotemporal atrophy with filamentous Ub-positive intracellular inclusions in absence of tau pathology or any alterations in the levels of soluble tau. We characterized the cellular and subcellular localization and morphology of the inclusions. Ub-positive inclusions predominantly occurred within neurons (>97%), but were also observed within oligodendroglia (approximately 2%) and microglia (INI) were up to approximately four-fold more frequent than the cytoplasmic inclusions, although the latter were more specific to neurons. The INIs frequently appeared spindle-shaped and 3-dimensional confocal reconstructions identified flattened, leaf-like structures. Ultrastructurally, straight 10- to 18-nm-diameter filaments constituted the spindle-shaped inclusions that occurred in close proximity to the nuclear membrane. Staining for HSP40, p62, and valosin/p97 was observed in only a minority of the inclusions. Whereas the precise nature of the protein remains elusive, characterization of such familial FTLD-U patients would be helpful in identifying a common denominator in the pathogenesis of familial and the more prevalent sporadic FTLD-U.

  10. Core and fuel feasibility study for improved flexibility on the Belgian Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A feasibility study has been performed for extended power modulations on Belgian NPPs. The goal is to make the existing nuclear power units in Belgium more flexible without implementing hardware modifications and guaranteeing safety at all times. As the critical part of the feasibility study, the impacts on the core behaviour and fuel performance have been studied in detail. It is concluded that all existing fuels loaded in the Belgian plants allow up to 30 power modulations per fuel cycle without changing the currently applied fuel cycle management. This is also supported by the extensive experience feedback of the fuel products for flexible operations in European countries. (author)

  11. Non-destructive method for internal quality determination of belgian endive (cichorium intybus l.)

    OpenAIRE

    De Baerdemaeker J.; Quenon V.

    2000-01-01

    A method and process were developed to nondestructively measure the length of the floral stalk in Belgian endive Cichorium intybus L. Current X-ray technology proved to be a feasible method. A detection algorithm was developed based on the minimal transmitted intensities along the length. The method is very accurate with an absolute precision of 4.9 mm and allows the study of the influence of storage conditions and time on the Belgian endive internal quality. The growth of the floral stalk is...

  12. CO2 Reduction Assembly Prototype Using Microlith-Based Sabatier Reactor for Ground Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junaedi, Christian; Hawley, Kyle; Walsh, Dennis; Roychoudhury, Subir; Abney, Morgan B.; Perry, Jay L.

    2014-01-01

    The utilization of CO2 to produce life support consumables, such as O2 and H2O, via the Sabatier reaction is an important aspect of NASA's cabin Atmosphere Revitalization System (ARS) and In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) architectures for both low-earth orbit and long-term manned space missions. Carbon dioxide can be reacted with H2, obtained from the electrolysis of water, via Sabatier reaction to produce methane and H2O. Methane can be stored and utilized as propellant while H2O can be either stored or electrolyzed to produce oxygen and regain the hydrogen atoms. Depending on the application, O2 can be used to replenish the atmosphere in human-crewed missions or as an oxidant for robotic and return missions. Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI), with support from NASA, has previously developed an efficient and compact Sabatier reactor based on its Microlith® catalytic technology and demonstrated the capability to achieve high CO2 conversion and CH4 selectivity (i.e., =90% of the thermodynamic equilibrium values) at high space velocities and low operating temperatures. This was made possible through the use of high-heat-transfer and high-surface-area Microlith catalytic substrates. Using this Sabatier reactor, PCI designed, developed, and demonstrated a stand-alone CO2 Reduction Assembly (CRA) test system for ground demonstration and performance validation. The Sabatier reactor was integrated with the necessary balance-of-plant components and controls system, allowing an automated, single "push-button" start-up and shutdown. Additionally, the versatility of the test system prototype was demonstrated by operating it under H2-rich (H2/CO2 of >4), stoichiometric (ratio of 4), and CO2-rich conditions (ratio of <4) without affecting its performance and meeting the equilibrium-predicted water recovery rates. In this paper, the development of the CRA test system for ground demonstration will be discussed. Additionally, the performance results from testing the system at

  13. KINETICS OF TEMPER EMBRITTLEMENT IN 2.25Cr-1Mo STEEL USED FOR HOT-WALL HYDROFINING REACTORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.Z.Tan

    2004-01-01

    Based on the theory of grain boundary segregation,a kinetics model of temper embrittlement caused by long-term service for hot-wall hydrofining reactors was studied.The kinetics model was applied to phosphorus(P)segregation in 2.25Cr-1Mo steel used for a hot-wall hydrofining reactor,and the kinetics of grain boundary segregation of impurity P in the steel exposed to the process environment of the hydrofining reactor was calculated on the basis of the model.The Auger electron spectroscopy test was performed in order to determine the grain boundary concentration of P.The experimental result is agreement with the theoretical calculated data.The results show that the kinetics equation is reasonable for predicting the levels of grain boundary segregation of impurity P in 2.25Cr-1Mo steel used for hot-wall hydrofining reactors.

  14. Alteration in reactor installation (addition of Unit 2) in the Sendai Nuclear Power Station of Kyushu Electric Power Co., Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The deliveration by the Nuclear Safety Commission was commenced on the alteration in reactor installation, as it had been inquired by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. The alteration is the additional installation of the reactor No. 2 in the Sendai Nuclear Power Station, Kyushu Electric Power Co., Inc. It is a PWR power plant with thermal output of about 2,660 MW (electric output of 890 MW), to be installed, adjoining to the reactor No. 1 of the same type and capacity under construction. In the examination by MITI, it was confirmed that the technological capabilities for its construction and operation and the radiation protection measures in power generation are both sufficient. The contents of the examination include the siting conditions, the location and construction of reactor facilities, etc. (J.P.N.)

  15. Level-2 PSA for the prototype fast breeder reactor MONJU applied to the accident management review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An accident management guideline (AMG) of the prototype fast breeder reactor MONJU has been presented to Nuclear and Industry Safety Agency (NISA) of METI by Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) with an evaluation result of an effectiveness of the AMG by employing Level-1 and Level-2 PSAs. Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES) evaluated the three events - PLOHS, LORL and ATWS events - and scrutinized the results of the Level-2 PSA carried out by JAEA from the view point of an accident management (AM) review. Regarding ATWS events, we have carried out a qualitative evaluation of the results of JAEA's evaluation and carried out a quantitative evaluation of the containment failure frequency (CFF) in relation to Protected-Loss-of-Heat-Sink (PLOHS) and Loss-of-Reactor-Level (LORL) events. Evaluation of the containment failure probability CFF has been conducted based on the results of the Level-1 PSA by employing the code system developed by JNES. We conducted a close examination of the procedure that JAEA followed to evaluate CFFs in PLOHS and LORL events. It was confirmed that JAEA's Level-2 PSA quantified the phenomenal event trees was expanded in the three processes - the plant response process, the core damage process and the containment vessel response process - based on various analytical and experimental evidence and otherwise followed much the same basic evaluation procedures employed by JNES. As for PLOHS and LORL, quantitative evaluation of CFF was conducted according to the following procedures: Development of an event flow diagram, Development of a phenomenal event tree, Quantification of the phenomenal event tree, Evaluation of containment failure frequencies, and Evaluation of the effectiveness of the AM measures. In the evaluation of the PLOHS and LORL events, the following analytical codes were used; Plant dynamic characteristic analytical code (NALAP-II), Nuclear characteristics analytical system (ARCADIAN-FBR/MVP), Nuclear dynamics analysis code

  16. Computational analysis of supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle power conversion system for fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Computational analysis of S-CO2 Brayton cycle power conversion system. ► Validation of numerical model with literature data. ► Recompression S-CO2 Brayton cycle thermal efficiency of 42.44%. ► Reheating concept to enhance the cycle thermal efficiency. ► Higher efficiency achieved by the proposed concept. - Abstract: The Optimized Supercritical Cycle Analysis (OSCA) code is being developed to analyze the design of a supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO2) driven Brayton cycle for a fusion reactor as part of the Modular Optimal Balance Integral System (MOBIS). This system is based on a recompression Brayton cycle. S-CO2 is adopted as the working fluid for MOBIS because of its easy availability, high density and low chemical reactivity. The reheating concept is introduced to enhance the cycle thermal efficiency. The helium-cooled lithium lead model AB of DEMO fusion reactor is used as reference in this paper.

  17. Simultaneous Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removal by Denitrifying Dephosphatation in a (AO)2 Sequencing Batch Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yan-ping; PENG Yong-zhen; WANG Shu-ying; WANG Shao-po

    2005-01-01

    A 24 L working volume reactor was used for the research on simultaneous phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) removal by denitrifying dephosphatation in an anaerobic-oxid-anoxic-oxid sequencing batch reactor ((AO)2SBR) system. The durations of each phase are: anaerobic 1.5 h, aerobic 2.5 h, anoxic 1.5 h, post-aerobic 0.5 h, settling 1.0 h, fill 0.5 h. The successful removal of nitrogen and phosphorus is achieved in a stable (AO)2SBR. The effluent P concentrations is below 1 mg/L, and the COD,TN and P average removal efficiency is 88.9%, 77.5% and 88.7%, respectively. The batch experiment results show that the durations of aerobic and anoxic phase influence the P removal efficiency. Some feature points are found on the DO, ORP and pH curves to demonstrate the complete of phosphate release and phosphate uptake. These feature points can be used for the control of (AO)2 SBR.

  18. OH radical generation in a photocatalytic reactor using TiO2 nanotube plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kangpyung; Ku, Haemin; Pak, Daewon

    2016-04-01

    In order to use TiO2 nanotubes grown on a Ti plate as a photocatalyst, self-organized oxide nanotube layers were grown by anodization in a glycerol based electrolyte. The ultimate conditions for the synthesis of the TiO2 nanotube array on the Ti plate were investigated by comparing the morphology, length, and inner diameter of the nanotubes. They were significantly affected by the applied anodic voltage, anodization time, and composition of the electrolyte such as the water and fluoride ion concentration. The crystallographic structures of TiO2 nanotubes before and after annealing were compared. The photocatalytic reactor used in this study consisted of two parallel and closely spaced TiO2 nanotube plates. The plates were squares while a UV lamp was inserted perpendicularly to them. OH radical generation in the photocatalytic reactor was monitored by using a probe compound, parachlorobenzoate (pCBA). The steady state OH radical concentration was compared depending on the length of nanotubes and crystallographic structure. The longer the nanotubes, the higher the steady state OH radical concentration.

  19. ACRR [Annular Core Research Reactor] fission product release tests: ST-1 and ST-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two experiments (ST-1 and ST-2) have been performed in the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACER) at Sandia National Laboratories (SNLA) to obtain time-resolved data on the release of fission products from irradiated fuels under light water reactor (LWR) severe accident conditions. Both experiments were conducted in a highly reducing environment at maximum fuel temperatures of greater than 2400 K. These experiments were designed specifically to investigate the effect of increased total pressure on fission product release; ST-1 was performed at approximately 0.16 MPa and ST-2 was run at 1.9 MPa, whereas other parameters were matched as closely as possible. Release rate data were measured for Cs, I, Ba, Sr, Eu, Te, and U. The release rates were higher than predicted by existing codes for Ba, Sr, Eu, and U. Te release was very low, but Te did not appear to be sequestered by the zircaloy cladding; it was evenly distributed in the fuel. In addition, in posttest analysis a unique fuel morphology (fuel swelling) was observed which may have enhanced fission product release, especially in the high pressure test (ST-2). These data are compared with analytical results from the CORSOR correlation and the VICTORIA computer model. 8 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Methane Conversion to C2 Hydrocarbons in Solid State Oxide Electrolyte Membrane Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jun; ZHAO Ling; ZHU Zhong-nan; XI Dan-li

    2005-01-01

    Provskite-type catalysts, Ln0.6 Sr0.4 FexCo1-x O3 (Ln = Nd,Pr, Gd, Sm, La, 0<x<1) and Ln0.8Na0.2CoO3(Ln= La,Gd, Sm) were synthesized, their catalytic properties in the oxidative coupling of methane (OCM) were examined in a fixed-bed reactor. The former group presented higher activity in the OCM, but the main product was carbon dioxide. While the later group showed lower activity but much higher selectivity to C2 hydrocarbons compared with the former. Electrochemical measurements were conducted in a solid oxide membrane reactor with La0.8 Na0.2CoO3 as catalyst. The results showed that methane was oxidized to carbon dioxide and ethane by two parallel reactions. Ethane was oxidized to ethene and carbon dioxide. A fraction of ethene was oxidized deeply to carbon dioxide. The total selectivity to C2 hydrocarbons exceeded 70%. Based on the experimental results, a kinetic model was suggested to describe the reaction results.

  1. OH radical generation in a photocatalytic reactor using TiO2 nanotube plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kangpyung; Ku, Haemin; Pak, Daewon

    2016-04-01

    In order to use TiO2 nanotubes grown on a Ti plate as a photocatalyst, self-organized oxide nanotube layers were grown by anodization in a glycerol based electrolyte. The ultimate conditions for the synthesis of the TiO2 nanotube array on the Ti plate were investigated by comparing the morphology, length, and inner diameter of the nanotubes. They were significantly affected by the applied anodic voltage, anodization time, and composition of the electrolyte such as the water and fluoride ion concentration. The crystallographic structures of TiO2 nanotubes before and after annealing were compared. The photocatalytic reactor used in this study consisted of two parallel and closely spaced TiO2 nanotube plates. The plates were squares while a UV lamp was inserted perpendicularly to them. OH radical generation in the photocatalytic reactor was monitored by using a probe compound, parachlorobenzoate (pCBA). The steady state OH radical concentration was compared depending on the length of nanotubes and crystallographic structure. The longer the nanotubes, the higher the steady state OH radical concentration. PMID:26855214

  2. The SLOWPOKE-2 nuclear reactor at the Royal Military College of Canada: applications for the Canadian Armed Forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Royal Military College of Canada (RMCC) has a 20 kW SLOWPOKE-2 nuclear research reactor which is used for teaching and research.Since its commissioning, the reactor facility and instruments have been continuously upgraded to develop and enhance nuclear capabilities for the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF). Specific applications of neutron activation analysis (NAA), delayed neutron counting (DNC) and neutron imaging relevant to the CAF are discussed. (author)

  3. Applicability of anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) to enhance colour removal in mesophilic UASB reactors treating textile wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    P. I. M. Firmino; M. E. R. da Silva; F. S. B. Mota; A.B. dos Santos

    2011-01-01

    This work assessed the applicability of the redox mediator anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) to enhance colour removal in mesophilic UASB reactors treating textile wastewater under different operational conditions, such as different electron donor (ethanol) concentrations and different HRT. The anaerobic reactors were able to remove reasonably well the colour of the textile wastewater (35-63%) even when operated with a relatively short HRT (6 h), being a good option for textile effluents p...

  4. Chemical-looping gasification of biomass in a 10k Wth interconnected fluidized bed reactor using Fe2 O3/Al2 O3 oxygen carrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUSEYIN Sozen; WEI Guo-qiang; LI Hai-bin; HE Fang; HUANG Zhen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is to design and operate a 10 kW hot chemical-looping gasification ( CLG) unit using Fe2 O3/Al2 O3 as an oxygen carrier and saw dust as a fuel. The effect of the operation temperature on gas composition in the air reactor and the fuel reactor, and the carbon conversion of biomass to CO2 and CO in the fuel reactor have been experimentally studied. A total 60 h run has been obtained with the same batch of oxygen carrier of iron oxide supported with alumina. The results show that CO and H2 concentrations are increased with increasing temperature in the fuel reactor. It is also found that with increasing fuel reactor temperature, both the amount of residual char in the fuel reactor and CO2 concentration of the exit gas from the air reactor are degreased. Carbon conversion rate and gasification efficiency are increased by increasing temperature and H2 production at 870 ℃reaches the highest rate. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and BET-surface area tests have been used to characterize fresh and reacted oxygen carrier particles. The results display that the oxygen carrier activity is not declined and the specific surface area of the oxygen carrier particles is not decreased significantly.

  5. FX2-TH: a two-dimensional nuclear reactor kinetics code with thermal-hydraulic feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shober, R.A.; Daly, T.A.; Ferguson, D.R.

    1978-10-01

    FX2-TH is a two-dimensional, time-dependent nuclear reactor kinetics program with thermal and hydraulic feedback. The neutronics model used is multigroup neutron diffusion theory. The following geometry options are available: x, r, x-y, r-z, theta-r, and triangular. FX2-TH contains two basic thermal and hydraulic models: a simple adiabatic fuel temperature calculation, and a more detailed model consisting of an explicit representation of a fuel pin, gap, clad, and coolant. FX2-TH allows feedback effects from both fuel temperature (Doppler) and coolant temperature (density) changes. FX2-TH will calculate a consistent set of steady state conditions by iterating between the neutronics and thermal-hydraulics until convergence is reached. The time-dependent calculation is performed by the use of the improved quasistatic method. A disk editing capability is available. FX2-TH is operational on IBM system 360 or 370 computers and on the CDC 7600.

  6. Transients and safety testing of LMFBR fuel pins in the reactor BR2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testing of the behaviour of LMFBR fuel pins under operational transients has been performed in the reactor BR2 at S.C.K./C.E.N.-Mol (Belgium) since 1981 in the framework of the DEBENE programme ''SNR-Betriebstransienten-experimente''. A special purpose sodium loop, called ''VIC'', has therefore been developed to allow off-nominal and transient experiments on single fuel pins under realistic fast reactor operating conditions. Two basic types of tests can be run, either separately or simultaneously: fission power alteration, e.g. steady overpower runs, power cycling and fast transient overpower (TOP); mismatch of the sodium cooling, e.g. operation with reduced sodium flow and transient loss of flow (LOF). The loop allows the loading and testing of pre-irradiated fuel pins. In the field of safety oriented tests, the programme ''MOL 7 C'' investigates the LMFBR fuel element behaviour under locally blocked cooling conditions and the possible failure propagation. The work is jointly carried out by the Karlsruhe center KfK (FRG) and S.C.K./C.E.N.-Mol (Belgium). The related in-pile tests in the reactor BR2 have started in 1977 and are performed in a fully integrated sodium loop. The test section contains a 30-rod bundle with fresh or pre-irradiated fuel pins. A local porous blockage within the fuel bundle initiates severe local damage to the central rods. Important informations are obtained with respect to the problems of pin to pin propagation and the long term behaviour of a fuel subassembly with defect pins. The MOL 7 C loop system can also be used to run operational transients on a fuel bundle with representative fuel pins. The paper describes the irradiation devices VIC and MOL 7 C from their technological point of view and depicts their field of testing applications. Also the major experiments already performed and relevant irradiation data are reviewed

  7. A Conceptual Study on a Supercritical CO2-cooled KAIST Micro Modular Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, HwanYeal; Hartanto, Donny; Kim, Yonghee [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) are nuclear reactors that are completely built in a factory and shipped to the designated site for installation. As such, the SMR is especially advantageous as a flexible and cost-effective energy source for remote and isolated areas. Furthermore, the concept requires a relatively low capital cost, which makes it attractive for developing countries with limited electricity grid. In addition, the SMR concepts also generate more interest after the Fukushima accident since it can easily be designed with a passive decay heat removal system. One of the major advantages of a water-cooled SMR is its relatively small core size. Nonetheless, in spite of its small core size, the volume and area required for its steam-cycle power conversion unit is still significant. In this study, neutronics feasibility of a fully compact and transportable KAIST micro-modular reactor (MMR) was demonstrated. Rated thermal power of the core was 36.2 MWth with total weight of about 39.6 tons. The core was loaded with 15.5 w/o uranium mono-nitride U15N fuels in order to achieve a targeted lifetime of 20 EFPYs. To achieve targeted lifetime, initial excess reactivity of the core should be quite high, around 4,707 pcm. To reduce the high excess reactivity to about 2,500 pcm, a replaceable burnable absorber was utilized in the design. As a result, the MMR has a 20-year lifetime with a relatively small burnup reactivity swing. Several important safety parameters of the KAIST MMR core were also determined in this study. The Doppler reactivity coefficients and CVRs were demonstrated to negative. Worth of the primary control drums and secondary control rod were much higher than initial excess reactivity.

  8. Loop facility for investigating of BRIG-300 reactor fuel elements with dissociating N2O4 coolant on ''Mariya'' reactor (PPR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction of a gas-cooled loop facility with a dissociating coolant N2O4 is designed that allows the fuel element to be tested under the simultaneous effect of the reactor irradiation and chemically active N2O4 with fast neutron density of (4-6)x1014 neutr./(cm2xs) and pressure of 16.0 MPa. The schematic drawing of the facility and loop channel construction are presented. The principle of the facility operation is described

  9. Decontamination and Decommissioning Project of the TRIGA Mark - 2 and 3 research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, K. J.; Baik, S. T.; Chung, U. S.; Park, S. K.; Moon, J. S.; Jung, K. H.; Lee, B. J.; Kim, J. K.; Kim, K. H

    1999-02-01

    Design work for the D and D began in 1998, and expected to be finished at the end of February 1999. Base on the D and D design, the decommissioning plan and the environmental impact assessment report have been completed and submitted to the MOST for licensing at the end of 1998. These documents are being reviewing at the KINS. It is expected that the licensing from authority will be come out at the end of September 1999. Then D and D practical work will be started in the latter half of the year 1999 and completed by 2002. The first practical work of the D and D will be the KRR-2 reactor hall to transform the hall as a temporary storage of radioactive waste produced during the D and D work. Meanwhile, all the spent fuel from KRR-1 and 2 were safely transported to us at the middle of 1998. The D and D project was originally planned, to be finished by the end of the year 1999. This project were lately modified and extended until the end of the year 2002 because of the interim storage of radioactive wastes arising from the D and D work. These radioactive wastes will be stored at the KRR-2 reactor hall until a disposal facility is operational. (author)

  10. Photocatalytic Degradation of Aniline Using TiO2 Nanoparticles in a Vertical Circulating Photocatalytic Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Shahrezaei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalytic degradation of aniline in the presence of titanium dioxide (TiO2 and ultraviolet (UV illumination was performed in a vertical circulating photocatalytic reactor. The effects of catalyst concentration (0–80 mg/L, initial pH (2–12, temperature (293–323 K, and irradiation time (0–120 min on aniline photodegradation were investigated in order to obtain the optimum operational conditions. The results reveal that the aniline degradation efficiency can be effectively improved by increasing pH from 2 to 12 and temperature from 313 to 323 K. Besides, the effect of temperature on aniline photo degradation was found to be unremarkable in the range of 293–313 K. The optimum catalyst concentration was about 60 mg/L. The Langmuir Hinshelwood kinetic model could successfully elucidate the effects of the catalyst concentration, pH, and temperature on the rate of heterogeneous photooxidation of aniline. The data obtained by applying the Langmuir Hinshelwood treatment are consistent with the available kinetic parameters. The activated energy for the photocatalytic degradation of aniline is 20.337 kj/mol. The possibility of the reactor use in the treatment of a real petroleum refinery wastewater was also investigated. The results of the experiments indicated that it can therefore be potentially applied for the treatment of wastewater contaminated by different organic pollutants.

  11. Decontamination and Decommissioning Project of the TRIGA Mark - 2 and 3 research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Design work for the D and D began in 1998, and expected to be finished at the end of February 1999. Base on the D and D design, the decommissioning plan and the environmental impact assessment report have been completed and submitted to the MOST for licensing at the end of 1998. These documents are being reviewing at the KINS. It is expected that the licensing from authority will be come out at the end of September 1999. Then D and D practical work will be started in the latter half of the year 1999 and completed by 2002. The first practical work of the D and D will be the KRR-2 reactor hall to transform the hall as a temporary storage of radioactive waste produced during the D and D work. Meanwhile, all the spent fuel from KRR-1 and 2 were safely transported to us at the middle of 1998. The D and D project was originally planned, to be finished by the end of the year 1999. This project were lately modified and extended until the end of the year 2002 because of the interim storage of radioactive wastes arising from the D and D work. These radioactive wastes will be stored at the KRR-2 reactor hall until a disposal facility is operational. (author)

  12. Microchannel Reactor System Design & Demonstration For On-Site H2O2 Production by Controlled H2/O2 Reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adeniyi Lawal

    2008-12-09

    We successfully demonstrated an innovative hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production concept which involved the development of flame- and explosion-resistant microchannel reactor system for energy efficient, cost-saving, on-site H2O2 production. We designed, fabricated, evaluated, and optimized a laboratory-scale microchannel reactor system for controlled direct combination of H2 and O2 in all proportions including explosive regime, at a low pressure and a low temperature to produce about 1.5 wt% H2O2 as proposed. In the second phase of the program, as a prelude to full-scale commercialization, we demonstrated our H2O2 production approach by ‘numbering up’ the channels in a multi-channel microreactor-based pilot plant to produce 1 kg/h of H2O2 at 1.5 wt% as demanded by end-users of the developed technology. To our knowledge, we are the first group to accomplish this significant milestone. We identified the reaction pathways that comprise the process, and implemented rigorous mechanistic kinetic studies to obtain the kinetics of the three main dominant reactions. We are not aware of any such comprehensive kinetic studies for the direct combination process, either in a microreactor or any other reactor system. We showed that the mass transfer parameter in our microreactor system is several orders of magnitude higher than what obtains in the macroreactor, attesting to the superior performance of microreactor. A one-dimensional reactor model incorporating the kinetics information enabled us to clarify certain important aspects of the chemistry of the direct combination process as detailed in section 5 of this report. Also, through mathematical modeling and simulation using sophisticated and robust commercial software packages, we were able to elucidate the hydrodynamics of the complex multiphase flows that take place in the microchannel. In conjunction with the kinetics information, we were able to validate the experimental data. If fully implemented across the whole

  13. Combined treatment of SO2 and high resistivity fly ash using a pulse energized electron reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combined removal of SO2 and high resistivity fly ash has been demonstrated in a pulse energized electron reactor (PEER). The PEER system which was originally developed for the removal of SO2 utilizes a positive pulse streamer corona discharge in a non-uniform field geometry. In performance tests on SO2, more than 90% was removed with an advantageously small power requirement. Combined treatment performance was demonstrated by introducing high resistivity fly ash into the test gas and the PEER is significantly more efficient than a conventional electrostatic precipitator operated with a dc voltage. Observations show that the PEER agglomerates the fly ash and further that the SO2 removal efficiency is improved by the presence of fly ash. The electrode configuration and performance results make retrofit consideration attractive

  14. Diffraction Experiments at the IBR-2 Pulsed Reactor with Methane Cold Neutron Source

    CERN Document Server

    Balagurov, A M; Mironova, G M; Pole, A V; Simkin, V G

    2000-01-01

    A new methane cold neutron source has been tested at the IBR-2 pulsed reactor at the Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics. In a paper the results of experiments at neutron diffractometers HRFD and DN-2 which are placed at the IBR-2 from the methane moderator side are given. A comparison with the results obtained with the conventional water comb-like moderator is performed. The perspectives of the cold source for various kinds of neutron diffraction experiments, including atomic and magnetic structural analysis and real time experiments are discussed. It is shown, that for a huge number of the experiments which are performing at both HRFD and DN-2 the methane cold neutron source provides the better conditions than water comb-like moderator.

  15. Thermal design of heat-exchangeable reactors using a dry-sorbent CO2 capture multi-step process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study proposes a multi-stage CO2 capture process that incorporates heat-exchangeable fluidized-bed reactors. For continuous multi-stage heat exchange, three dry regenerable sorbents: K2CO3, MgO, and CaO, were used to create a three-stage temperature-dependent reaction chain for CO2 capture, corresponding to low (50–150 °C), middle (350–650 °C), and high (750–900 °C) temperature stages, respectively. Heat from carbonation in the high and middle temperature stages was used for regeneration for the middle and low temperature stages. The feasibility of this process is depending on the heat-transfer performance of the heat-exchangeable fluidized bed reactors as the focus of this study. The three-stage CO2 capture process for a 60 Nm3/h CO2 flow rate required a reactor area of 0.129 and 0.130 m2 for heat exchange between the mid-temperature carbonation and low-temperature regeneration stages and between the high-temperature carbonation and mid-temperature regeneration stages, respectively. The reactor diameter was selected to provide dense fluidization conditions for each bed with respect to the desired flow rate. The flow characteristics and energy balance of the reactors were confirmed using computational fluid dynamics and thermodynamic analysis, respectively. - Highlights: • CO2 capture process is proposed using a multi-stage process. • Reactor design is conducted considering heat exchangeable scheme. • Reactor surface is designed by heat transfer characteristics of fluidized bed

  16. Conceptual design of tokamak high power reactor (A-SSTR2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the last decade of JAERI reactor design studies, an advanced commercial reactor concept (A-SSTR2) that meets both economical and environmental requirements has been proposed. The A-SSTR2 is a compact power reactor (Rp = 6.2 m, ap = 1.5 m, Ip = 12 MA) with a high fusion power (Pf = 4 GW) and a net thermal efficiency of 51%. The machine configuration is simplified by eliminating the center solenoid (CS) coil system. An SiC/SiC composite for the blanket structure material, helium gas cooling with a pressure of 10 MPa and an outlet temperature of 900degC, and TiH2 for the bulk shield material are introduced. For the toroidal field (TF) coil, a high temperature (Tc) superconducting wire made of bismuth with a maximum field of 23 T and a critical current density of 1,000 A/mm2 at a temperature of 20 K is applied. In spite of the CS-less configuration, a computer simulation gives satisfactory plasma equilibria, plasma initiation process, and current ramp-up scenario. The current ramp-up time is about 22 hours. The MHD stabilities for the ballooning mode and the ideal low n kink-modes are confirmed. The stabilization of n = 1 and n = 2 kink modes requires a shell position closer than 1.4 times and 1.2 times the plasma minor radius, respectively. With regard to the divertor thermal condition, it was found that a neon gas-seeded divertor plasma with a fraction of ∼2.5% gives a thermal load reduction at the divertor plate from 460 MW to 100 MW and a plasma temperature drop at the divertor plate from 200 eV to 20 ∼ 30 eV. By increasing the shield thickness by about 15 cm, the total radwaste is dramatically reduced. The radwaste percentage relative to the total waste is reduced from 92 wt.% to 17 wt.%. (author)

  17. New Reactor Siting, Licensing and Construction Experience. Proceedings of the 2. CNRA International Workshop on 'New Reactor Siting, Licensing and Construction Experience'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the proceedings from the 2. Workshop on New Reactor Siting, Licensing and Construction Experience. A total of 45 specialists from 16 countries and international organisations attended. The meeting was sponsored by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities and hosted by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (U.S.NRC). The objectives of the workshop were to provide a forum to exchange information on lessons learned from siting, licensing and constructing new nuclear power plants around the world. Key focus areas included siting practices and regulatory positions that have been enhanced as a result of the Fukushima accident; lessons learned from licensing and design review approaches and challenges, construction experience and recommendations for regulatory oversight; and regulatory cooperation on generic and design specific issues through the MDEP specific working groups. The workshop was structured in 4 technical sessions, each followed by ample time for panel discussions. The first technical session was devoted to regulatory cooperation on generic and design specific issues, MDEP working groups (EPR, AP1000), vendor inspection co-operation, digital I and C, and codes and standards. The second technical session was intended to discuss and share regulatory positions on siting practices and enhancements as a result of lessons learned from Fukushima accident. The third technical session addressed the construction experience and regulatory oversight of new reactor construction activities. And the fourth technical session included presentations on the lessons learned from regulatory licensing reviews of new reactor designs

  18. Thermal analysis on N2 and S-CO2 Brayton cycle for the energy conversion system of small scale ultra-long cycle fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ultra-long cycle fast reactor (UCFR) is one of the SFR designs operating in a long cycle without refueling. The operational mechanism of long cycle fast reactor is once-through fuel cycle through breed and burn system. The benefits of long cycle fast reactor include capital/operation cost reductions, low proliferation risk, and the interim storage of light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel. For the power conversion system of next generation nuclear reactor, Brayton cycle has been mainly considered. Brayton cycle not only increases overall thermal efficiency in corresponding temperature range of GenIV reactors, but also solves sodium-water reaction issues. As a working fluid in Brayton cycle, many inactive gases are selected. For the power conversion system of next generation nuclear reactor, Brayton cycle has been mainly considered. Among the candidates for working fluid in Brayton power cycle, S-CO2 and N2 are analyzed in thermal aspect. For the major parameters including maximum system pressure, isentropic efficiencies of compressor and turbine, and pinch point, S-CO2 cycle shows the highest thermal performance. However, N2 cycle without intermediate loop gives comparable thermal performance, if high pressure around 70 bar and high isentropic efficiency of each component are maintained

  19. Organization of remote control of spectrometers at the IBR-2M reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of network infrastructure in Dubna creates conditions for the remote supervision/control of experiment at the IBR-2M reactor beyond the JINR local network. The opportunity of observing an experiment from outside makes it possible to respond to errors or unforeseen, to save the reactor time. The principles of organization and peculiarities of implementation of the WebSonix system consisting of the central web-site and communication facilities for spectrometers are considered in the paper. The system allows one to reflect the actual condition of all the components of the instrument, survey log files, visualize the accumulated spectra and to control the experimental procedure on the instruments controlled by the software complex Sonix+ (OS Windows XP). The system is an independent instrument, it is easy to extend or change and easy to adapt to the instrument data specifics. The system is implemented using the PHP and Python scripts. The OS GNU/Linux Debian and web-server Apache 2 are installed on the web-site computer

  20. The Oak Ridge Research Reactor: Safety analysis: Volume 2, Supplement 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Oak Ridge Research Reactor (ORR) was constructed in the mid 1950s. Since it is an older facility, the issue of life-limiting conditions or material deterioration resulting from prolonged exposure to the normal operating environment is an item that should be addressed in the safety analysis for the ORR. Life-limiting conditions were considered in the original design of ORR; but due to the limited data that were available at that time on material performance in research reactors, various studies were completed during the first 10 years of operation at ORR to verify the applicable life-limiting parameters. Based on today's knowledge of life limiting conditions and the previous 30 years of operating experience at the ORR facility, the three specific areas of concern are addressed in this supplement: (1) embrittlement of the structures due to radiation damage, which is described in Section 2; (2) fatigue due to the effects of both thermal cycling and vibration, which is addressed in Section 3; and (3) the effects of corrosion on the integrity of the primary system, which is described in Section 4. The purpose of this document is to provide a review of the applicable safety studies which have been performed, and to state the status of the ORR with regard to embrittlement, fatigue (due to thermal cycling and vibration), and corrosion

  1. Integrated photocatalytic-biological reactor for accelerated 2,4,6-trichlorophenol degradation and mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongming; Sun, Xia; Chen, Lujun; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2012-02-01

    An integrated photocatalytic-biological reactor (IPBR) was used for accelerated degradation and mineralization of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) through simultaneous, intimate coupling of photocatalysis and biodegradation in one reactor. Intimate coupling was realized by circulating the IPBR's liquid contents between a TiO(2) film on mat glass illuminated by UV light and honeycomb ceramics as biofilm carriers. Three protocols-photocatalysis alone (P), biodegradation alone (B), and integrated photocatalysis and biodegradation (photobiodegradation, P&B)-were used for degradation of different initial TCP concentrations. Intimately coupled P&B also was compared with sequential P and B. TCP removal by intimately coupled P&B was faster than that by P and B alone or sequentially coupled P and B. Because photocatalysis relieved TCP inhibition to biodegradation by decreasing its concentration, TCP biodegradation could become more important over the full batch P&B experiments. When phenol, an easy biodegradable compounds, was added to TCP in order to promote TCP mineralization by means of secondary utilization, P&B was superior to P and B in terms of mineralization of TCP, giving 95% removal of chemical oxygen demand. Cl(-) was only partially released during P experiments (24%), and this corresponded to its poor mineralization in P experiments (32%). Thus, intimately coupled P&B in the IPBR made it possible obtain the best features of each: rapid photocatalytic transformation in parallel with mineralization of photocatalytic products.

  2. D-T burning plasma characteristics in an A=2 tokamak reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石秉仁

    2005-01-01

    The deuterium-tritium (D-T) burning plasma characteristic in an aspect ratio A=2 tokamak reactor is studied based on a simple equilibrium configuration, the Soloviev-type configuration. Operation limits for the Troyon beta value and for the Greenwald density value as well as for the ITER H-mode confinement scaling are used as the benchmark.It is found that in addition to suitable elongation, large triangularity has advantage for arriving at high beta value and obtaining high fusion power output. Compared to the present ITER design, the A=2 system can have very good merit for the avoidance of disruptions by setting rather high edge q value while keeping relatively large total toroidal current.The main disadvantage of decreasing the aspect ratio is due to the loss of more useful space in the inward region that leads to the decrease of toroidal magnetic field in the plasma region, then worsening the fusion merit. Our analysis and calculation also present a trade-off in this respect. Due to simple equilibrium configuration assumed, some other important issues such as the bootstrap current alignment cannot be optimized. However, the present analysis can offer an insight into the advantages of the medium aspect ratio reactor system that is a blank in present-day tokamak study.

  3. Modelling water and 36Cl cycling in a Belgian pine forest - Model for 36Cl cycling in a Belgian pine forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simplified, 1-D soil-groundwater-vegetation model to represent the cycling of water and of 36Cl in a Belgian Scots pine forest is presented and discussed. The model contains a soil column with layers of different (but uniform) field capacity and soil porosity, which are penetrated by tree roots. Flow through porous media is assumed to circulate according to Darcy and Philips laws, using empirical soil hydraulic properties without recourse to Richards' equation. The vegetation is represented by means of a compartment model including simplified representation of sap flow, translocation and litterfall in relation to different parts of the tree. The water table height is variable according to the balance between precipitation, capillary rise, solar radiation, plant uptake and evapotranspiration. The influence of local fluvial sources of water can also be evaluated in a simplified way as a losing/gaining stream input to the soil column. Time dependent data on temperature, solar irradiation, rainfall, crop coefficient and leaf area index (LAI) are used as input to the model in order to calculate evapotranspiration and a simplified approach to foliar interception. The chlorine flux follows the water flux in both soil and the trees, using retardation in soil and experimentally measured translocation factors within the plant. The chlorine flux is optimised and validated with recourse to a previous 36Cl compartment model. Although considered to be a relatively simple model, initial results suggest a reasonable consistency between previously published water balance and field measurements in a Scots pine stand from the vicinity of Mol, Belgium. The mean soil water content is predicted to be around 25%, the plant water is stored in the order roots > plant above roots > leaf surfaces, water table height below ground fluctuates between 2.1 and 2.6 m compared with a measured water table height of 1.8 - 20 m and pine transpiration is less than 1.2 mm/d compared with a measured

  4. Modelling water and {sup 36}Cl cycling in a Belgian pine forest - Model for {sup 36}Cl cycling in a Belgian pine forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vives i Batlle, Jordi; Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Gielen, Sienke [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2014-07-01

    A simplified, 1-D soil-groundwater-vegetation model to represent the cycling of water and of {sup 36}Cl in a Belgian Scots pine forest is presented and discussed. The model contains a soil column with layers of different (but uniform) field capacity and soil porosity, which are penetrated by tree roots. Flow through porous media is assumed to circulate according to Darcy and Philips laws, using empirical soil hydraulic properties without recourse to Richards' equation. The vegetation is represented by means of a compartment model including simplified representation of sap flow, translocation and litterfall in relation to different parts of the tree. The water table height is variable according to the balance between precipitation, capillary rise, solar radiation, plant uptake and evapotranspiration. The influence of local fluvial sources of water can also be evaluated in a simplified way as a losing/gaining stream input to the soil column. Time dependent data on temperature, solar irradiation, rainfall, crop coefficient and leaf area index (LAI) are used as input to the model in order to calculate evapotranspiration and a simplified approach to foliar interception. The chlorine flux follows the water flux in both soil and the trees, using retardation in soil and experimentally measured translocation factors within the plant. The chlorine flux is optimised and validated with recourse to a previous {sup 36}Cl compartment model. Although considered to be a relatively simple model, initial results suggest a reasonable consistency between previously published water balance and field measurements in a Scots pine stand from the vicinity of Mol, Belgium. The mean soil water content is predicted to be around 25%, the plant water is stored in the order roots > plant above roots > leaf surfaces, water table height below ground fluctuates between 2.1 and 2.6 m compared with a measured water table height of 1.8 - 20 m and pine transpiration is less than 1.2 mm/d compared

  5. Removal of NO and SO2 in Corona Discharge Plasma Reactor with Water Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺元吉; 董丽敏; 杨嘉祥

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a novel type of a corona discharge plasma reactor was designed, which consists of needle-plate-combined electrodes, in which a series of needle electrodes are placed in a glass container filled with flue gas, and a plate electrode is immersed in the water. Based on this model, the removal of NO and SO2 was tested experimentally. In addition, the effect of streamer polarity on the reduction of SO2 and NO was investigated in detail. The experimental results show that the corona wind formed between the high-voltage needle electrode and the water by corona discharge enhances the cleaning efficiency of the flue gas because of the presence of water,and the cleaning efficiency will increase with the increase of applied dc voltage within a definite range. The removal efficiency of SO2 up to 98%, and about 85% of NOx removal under suitable conditions is obtained in our experiments.

  6. Osteochondrosis of the occipital condyles and atlanto-occipital dysplasia in a Belgian horse

    OpenAIRE

    Muirhead, Tammy; McClure, J.T.; Bourque, Andrea; Pack, LeeAnn

    2003-01-01

    A lesion in the cervical region of a 14-month-old Belgian gelding with severe ataxia was suspected. Necropsy revealed symmetric focal cartilage defects compatible with osteochondrosis of the occipital condyles and atlanto-occipital dysplasia. To our knowledge this is the first equine report of symmetrical osteochondrosis of the occipital condyles causing neurologic signs.

  7. The role of the sickness funds in the Belgian health care market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Nonneman (Nonneman); E.K.A. van Doorslaer (Eddy)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThis article reviews some of the salient features of the Belgian health care finance and delivery system. Special attention is paid to the role played by the third-party payers, i.e. the Health Insurance Associations (HIAs) in administering the compulsory national health insurance progra

  8. Can metacognition compensate for intelligence in the first year of Belgian higher education?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minnaert, A

    1996-01-01

    This study reports on the effects of metacognitive knowledge and skills compensating for intelligence in relation to academic performance in the first year of Belgian higher education. About 600 freshmen of educational sciences, medicine and psychology participated in this project. Tasks and questio

  9. Comparing Compositional Effects in Two Education Systems: The Case of the Belgian Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danhier, Julien; Martin, Émilie

    2014-01-01

    The Belgian educational field includes separate educational systems reflecting the division of the country into linguistic communities. Even if the French-speaking and the Dutch-speaking communities keep sharing important similarities in terms of funding rules and structures, they present a huge gap between their respective pupils'…

  10. Speaking Turkish in Belgian primary schools: teacher beliefs versus effective consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Ağırdağ; K. Jordens; M. Van Houtte

    2014-01-01

    In this mixed-method study, we explore teachers’ beliefs concerning the use of the Turkish language by Turkish children in Belgian primary schools, and we compare these findings with the effective consequences of language maintenance. The qualitative analyses revealed that teachers have very negativ

  11. Radial distribution of UO2 and Gd2O3 in fuel cells of a BWR Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fuel system that is used at the moment in a power plant based on power reactors BWR, includes as much like the one of its substantial parts to the distribution of the fissile materials like a distribution of burnt poisons within each one of the cells which they constitute the fuel assemblies, used for the energy generation. Reason why at the beginning of a new operation cycle in a reactor of this type, the reactivity of the nucleus should be compensated by the exhaustion of the assemblies that it moves away of the nucleus for their final disposition. This compensation is given by means of the introduction of the recharge fuel, starting from the UO2 enriched in U235, and of the Gadolinium (Gd2O3). The distribution of these materials not only defines the requirements of energy generation, but in certain measures also the form in that the margins will behave to the limit them thermal during the operation of the reactor. These margins must be taken into account for the safe and efficient extraction of the energy of the fuel. In this work typical fuel cells appear that are obtained by means of the use of a emulation model of an ants colony. This model allows generating from a possible inventory of values of enrichment of U235, as well as of concentration of Gadolinium a typical fuel cell, which consists of an arrangement of lOxlO rods, of which 92 contain U235, some of these rods contain a concentration of Gd2O3 and 8 of the total contain only water. The search of each cell finishes when the value of the Local Peak Power Factor (LPPF) in the cell reaches a minimal value, or when a pre established value of iterations is reached. The cell parameters are obtained from the results of the execution of the code HELIOS, which incorporates like a part integral of the search algorithm. (Author)

  12. Neuropsychiatric Inventory data in a Belgian sample of elderly persons with and without dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Squelard GP

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Gilles P Squelard,1 Pierre A Missotten,1 Louis Paquay,2 Jan A De Lepeleire,2 Frank JVM Buntinx,2 Ovide Fontaine,1 Stephane R Adam,1 Michel JD Ylieff11Clinical Psychology of Ageing, Qualidem Research Project, University of Liège (ULg, Liège, Belgium; 2KU Leuven, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Leuven, BelgiumBackground/aims: This study assesses and compares prevalence of psychological and behavioral symptoms in a Belgian sample of people with and without dementia.Methods: A total of 228 persons older than 65 years with dementia and a group of 64 non-demented persons were assessed using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI in 2004.Results: Within the group without dementia, the most frequent symptoms were depression, agitation, and irritability. Within the group with dementia, the most common symptoms were depression, irritability, apathy, and agitation. Prevalence of delusions (P < 0.05, hallucinations (P < 0.05, anxiety (P < 0.05, agitation (P < 0.05, apathy (P < 0.01, aberrant motor behavior (P < 0.01, and eating disorders (P < 0.05 were significantly higher in the group with dementia.Conclusion: Depression, elation, irritability, disinhibition, and sleeping disorders are not specific to dementia. Agitation, apathy, anxiety, and delusions are more frequent in dementia but were not specific to the dementia group because their prevalence rates were close to 10% in the group without dementia. Hallucinations, aberrant motor behavior, and eating disorders are specific to dementia. The distinction between specific and nonspecific symptoms may be useful for etiological research on biological, psychological, and environmental factors.Keywords: behavior, behavior disorders, epidemiology, dementia, psychiatric symptoms, neuropsychiatry

  13. Reactor Physics Training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    University courses in nuclear reactor physics at the universities consist of a theoretical description of the physics and technology of nuclear reactors. In order to demonstrate the basic concepts in reactor physics, training exercises in nuclear reactor installations are also desirable. Since the number of reactor facilities is however strongly decreasing in Europe, it becomes difficult to offer to students a means for demonstrating the basic concepts in reactor physics by performing training exercises in nuclear installations. Universities do not generally possess the capabilities for performing training exercises. Therefore, SCK-CEN offers universities the possibility to perform (on a commercial basis) training exercises at its infrastructure consisting of two research reactors (BR1 and VENUS). Besides the organisation of training exercises in the framework of university courses, SCK-CEN also organizes theoretical courses in reactor physics for the education and training of nuclear reactor operators. It is indeed a very important subject to guarantee the safe operation of present and future nuclear reactors. In this framework, an understanding of the fundamental principles of nuclear reactor physics is also necessary for reactor operators. Therefore, the organisation of a basic Nuclear reactor physics course at the level of reactor operators in the initial and continuous training of reactor operators has proven to be indispensable. In most countries, such training also results from the direct request from the safety authorities to assure the high level of competence of the staff in nuclear reactors. The objectives this activity are: (1) to provide training and education activities in reactor physics for university students and (2) to organise courses in nuclear reactor physics for reactor operators

  14. CO2 capture by means of an enzyme-based reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, R. M.; Ge, J-J; Qin, Y-J; McGregor, M. L.; Trachtenberg, M. C.

    2003-01-01

    We report a means for efficient and selective extraction of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) at low to medium concentration from mixed gas streams. CO(2) capture was accomplished by use of a novel enzyme-based, facilitated transport contained liquid membrane (EBCLM) reactor. The parametric studies we report explore both structural and operational parameters of this design. The structural parameters include carbonic anhydrase (CA) concentration, buffer concentration and pH, and liquid membrane thickness. The operational parameters are temperature, humidity of the inlet gas stream, and CO(2) concentration in the feed stream. The data show that this system effectively captures CO(2) over the range 400 ppm to at least 100,000 ppm, at or around ambient temperature and pressure. In a single pass across this homogeneous catalyst design, given a feed of 0.1% CO(2), the selectivity of CO(2) versus N(2) is 1,090 : 1 and CO(2) versus O(2) is 790 :1. CO(2) permeance is 4.71 x 10(-8) molm(-2) Pa(-1) sec(-1). The CLM design results in a system that is very stable even in the presence of dry feed and sweep gases.

  15. Abatement of fluorinated compounds using a 2.45 GHz microwave plasma torch with a reverse vortex plasma reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.H.; Cho, C.H.; Shin, D.H. [Plasma Technology Research Center, National Fusion Research Institute, 814-2 Oxikdo-dong, Gunsan-city, Jeollabuk-do (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Y.C., E-mail: ychong@nfri.re.kr [Plasma Technology Research Center, National Fusion Research Institute, 814-2 Oxikdo-dong, Gunsan-city, Jeollabuk-do (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Y.W. [Plasma Technology Research Center, National Fusion Research Institute, 814-2 Oxikdo-dong, Gunsan-city, Jeollabuk-do (Korea, Republic of); School of Advanced Green Energy and Environments, Handong Global University, Heunghae-eup, Buk-gu, Pohang-city, Gyeongbuk (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-30

    Highlights: • We developed a microwave plasma torch with reverse vortex reactor (RVR). • We calculated a volume fraction and temperature distribution of discharge gas and waste. • The performance of reverse vortex reactor increased from 29% to 43% than conventional vortex reactor. - Abstract: Abatement of fluorinated compounds (FCs) used in semiconductor and display industries has received an attention due to the increasingly stricter regulation on their emission. We have developed a 2.45 GHz microwave plasma torch with reverse vortex reactor (RVR). In order to design a reverse vortex plasma reactor, we calculated a volume fraction and temperature distribution of discharge gas and waste gas in RVR by ANSYS CFX of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation code. Abatement experiments have been performed with respect to SF{sub 6}, NF{sub 3} by varying plasma power and N{sub 2} flow rates, and FCs concentration. Detailed experiments were conducted on the abatement of NF{sub 3} and SF{sub 6} in terms of destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). The DRE of 99.9% for NF{sub 3} was achieved without an additive gas at the N{sub 2} flow rate of 150 liter per minute (L/min) by applying a microwave power of 6 kW with RVR. Also, a DRE of SF{sub 6} was 99.99% at the N{sub 2} flow rate of 60 L/min using an applied microwave power of 6 kW. The performance of reverse vortex reactor increased about 43% of NF{sub 3} and 29% of SF{sub 6} abatements results definition by decomposition energy per liter more than conventional vortex reactor.

  16. Abatement of fluorinated compounds using a 2.45 GHz microwave plasma torch with a reverse vortex plasma reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We developed a microwave plasma torch with reverse vortex reactor (RVR). • We calculated a volume fraction and temperature distribution of discharge gas and waste. • The performance of reverse vortex reactor increased from 29% to 43% than conventional vortex reactor. - Abstract: Abatement of fluorinated compounds (FCs) used in semiconductor and display industries has received an attention due to the increasingly stricter regulation on their emission. We have developed a 2.45 GHz microwave plasma torch with reverse vortex reactor (RVR). In order to design a reverse vortex plasma reactor, we calculated a volume fraction and temperature distribution of discharge gas and waste gas in RVR by ANSYS CFX of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation code. Abatement experiments have been performed with respect to SF6, NF3 by varying plasma power and N2 flow rates, and FCs concentration. Detailed experiments were conducted on the abatement of NF3 and SF6 in terms of destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). The DRE of 99.9% for NF3 was achieved without an additive gas at the N2 flow rate of 150 liter per minute (L/min) by applying a microwave power of 6 kW with RVR. Also, a DRE of SF6 was 99.99% at the N2 flow rate of 60 L/min using an applied microwave power of 6 kW. The performance of reverse vortex reactor increased about 43% of NF3 and 29% of SF6 abatements results definition by decomposition energy per liter more than conventional vortex reactor

  17. Analysis of the hydrogen bubble concerns in the Three-Mile Island Unit-2 Reactor vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, S.; Schmidt, K.H.; Honekamp, J.R. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

    1983-01-01

    After the accident at the Three-Mile Island Reactor, press reports appeared about a non-condensable bubble in the reactor vessel. Danger of explosion was reported to be imminent. We analyzed all possible sources of non-condensable gases and determined that a continuing growth of the bubble during several days after the accident was not possible. (1) Most of the initial hydrogen in the bubble was produced by the reaction of the Zircaloy cladding with the super-heated water. (2) During the first 16 hr after shutdown, when boiling of the primary coolant water took place, in the worst case stoichiometric amounts of hydrogen and oxygen could have been produced by radiolysis, leading to a maximum amount of oxygen in the bubble, of 0.7% of the hydrogen, which is well below the explosion limit. (3) After this 16 hr period, when boiling had totally ceased, no further oxygen could have been produced by radiolysis of the primary cooling water. On the contrary, oxygen was recombined with hydrogen due to radiolysis at such a rate that the oxygen in the water was completely removed in less than five minutes. The subsequent rate of removal of oxygen from the bubble by dissolution and radiolysis depended essentially on the rate of dissolution.

  18. TRANSV2: a thermal-hydraulic analysis code for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TRANSV2 is a thermal-hydraulic analysis code to be used in MTR-type research. It was developed to study the reactor in steady-state condition and to analyze loss of flow accidents (LOFA) produced by operational accidents such as blackout, pump failure and pump stick. Depending on the case to be analyzed, the user has the option to give the time dependent flow rate, the scram reactivity curve and the axial power distribution as input data. The hydraulic transient could be analyzed using an analytical solution, the pump characteristic curves or polynomials to approximate the characteristic curve of a typical single suction pump. The program has also a complete heat transfer correlations package to be applied to both downward flow and upward flow. Some particular cases of accidents could be also studied using this program, such as the case in which one pump failed without scram. This report presents a description of the program, including the input data description and the program listing. The last part of the report gives some results obtained for the up-graded JRR-3 reactor in the case of blackout as a benchmark problem. (author)

  19. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF SWIRLING FLOWS IN OXIDATION REACTORS FOR TiO2 MANUFACTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi; Cheng; Aiwei; Ye; Fei; Liu; Fei; Wei

    2006-01-01

    The oxidation reactor plays a key role in producing rutile titanium dioxide (TiO2) from vapor-phase titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) by employing a swirling flow operation for enhanced gas mixing. This work aims to understand the effect of reactor configuration on the 3-D swirling flow field using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. Considering the anisotropic turbulence involved, the Reynolds stress model is applied to describe the complex swirling flow together with the cross-flow mixing of gases. The results show significant effect of the flow angle between the wall jet of air stream (representing TiCl4 in practice) and the axial direction on the initial flow field of cross-flow mixing, where 60°gives smooth profiles of axial velocity development while 90° may provide the fastest mixing between the jet and the axial bulk flow. The pipe shape for the reaction and developing zone, i.e., straight, expanding and shrinking, shows slight influence on the hydrodynamics.

  20. Design of two-stage membrane reactor for the conversion of coke-oven gas to H2 and CO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhibin Yang; Yuwen Zhang; Xueguang Wang; Weizhong Ding

    2014-01-01

    The catalyst function was achieved in two regions in an oxygen permeation membrane reactor:H2 dissociated and reacted with lattice oxygen or oxygen ions to form H2O near the membrane surface. The H2O formed could react with the residual CH4 away from the membrane surface area.

  1. Description and user's manual of light water reactor fuel analysis code FEMAXI-IV (Ver.2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FEMAXI-IV is an advanced version of FEMAXI-III, the analysis code of light water reactor fuel behavior in which various functions and improvements have been incorporated. The present report describes in detail the basic theories and structure, the models and numerical solutions applied, and the material properties adopted in the version 2 which is an improved version of the first version of FEMAXI-IV. In FEMAXI-IV (Ver.2), bugs have been fixed, pellet thermal conductivity properties have been updated, and thermal-stress-induced FP gas release model have been incorporated. In order to facilitate effective and wide-ranging application of the code, types and methods of input/output of the code are also described, and a sample output in an actual form is included. (author)

  2. Nuclear computerized library for assessing reactor reliability (NUCLARR): Part 2, Guide to operations: User's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability (NUCLARR) is an automated data base management system for processing and storing human error probability and hardware component failure data. The NUCLARR system software resides on an IBM (or compatible) personal micro-computer. NUCLARR can be used by the end user to furnish data inputs for both human and hardware reliability analysis in support of a variety of risk assessment activities. The NUCLARR system is documented in a five-volume series of reports. Volume IV of this series is the User's Guide for operating the NUCLARR software and is presented in three parts. This volume, Part 2: Guide to Operations, contains the instructions and basic procedures for using the NUCLARR software. Part 2 provides guidance and information for getting started, performing the desired functions, and making the most efficient use of the system's features

  3. Kinetic Model of Fixed Bed Reactor with Immobilized Microorganisms for Removing Low-Concentration SO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of the analysis of the process of treating low concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) gas in a fixed bed reactor, a kinetic model is proposed for this process after taking into consideration the effects of internal diffusion, cell concentration, and production yield of microorganisms but ignoring the effect of external diffusion. The results obtained from the model simulation show that this model can indicate the influence of the process factors, Cin, η, μmax, Cx, A, h, Km, and Q, on the removal of SO2 and that the prediction of the results by this model is also satisfactory. This kinetic model can also provide some very important indications regarding the preparation of immobilized microorganisms, selection and domestication of proper species of microorganisms, as well as the design of bioreactors.

  4. Prevalence and origin of HIV-1 group M subtypes among patients attending a Belgian hospital in 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoeck, Joke; Van Dooren, Sonia; Van Laethem, Kristel; Derdelinckx, Inge; Van Wijngaerden, Eric; De Clercq, Erik; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke

    2002-04-23

    HIV-1 group M strains are usually subtyped based on gag and/or env gene sequences. In our lab, part of the pol gene sequence was available in order to determine the genotypic anti-HIV drug resistance profile. To estimate the prevalence of the different HIV-1 subtypes in patients visiting the University Hospitals in Leuven in 1999 and for whom a genotypic drug resistance test was needed, we tried to use the pol sequence for subtyping. Recombination was investigated by similarity plots and bootscanning and subtyping was performed by phylogenetic analysis. The overall region spanning the entire protease and 747 nucleotides of the reverse transcriptase proved very suitable for subtyping, although there was a low phylogenetic signal at the beginning of the reverse transcriptase (nucleotides 0-250), as we demonstrated by likelihood mapping. Of the 41 samples analyzed, 21 belonged to subtype B. Of the other 20 non-B strains, 9 belonged to subtype C, 2 to subtype D and 1 to subtype A, G, H and J, respectively, 3 were CRF_02 (Circulating Recombinant Form), 1 was recombinant with a novel breakpoint and 1 sample was untypable. Although subtype B is still the most prevalent subtype in Belgium, it seems to be responsible for only half of the infections in this study. We could also document that the prevalence of subtype C is high in the Belgian native patients, especially among the heterosexually infected population. This could possibly be an indication for an epidemic spread of HIV-1 subtype C in Belgium, as for one third of these patients, no link to an endemic region could be found. The other non-B subtypes and the recombinants are mainly introduced by immigrants or by Belgian citizens traveling abroad. PMID:11955642

  5. A semi-probabilistic modelling approach for the estimation of dietary exposure to phthalates in the Belgian adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierens, T; Standaert, A; Cornelis, C; Sioen, I; De Henauw, S; Willems, H; Bellemans, M; De Maeyer, M; Van Holderbeke, M

    2014-12-01

    In this study, a semi-probabilistic modelling approach was applied for the estimation of the long-term human dietary exposure to phthalates--one of world's most used families of plasticisers. Four phthalate compounds were considered: diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Intake estimates were calculated for the Belgian adult population and several subgroups of this population for two considered scenarios using an extended version of the EN-forc model. The highest intake rates were found for DEHP, followed by DnBP, BBP and DEP. In the Belgian adult population, men and young adults generally had the highest dietary phthalate intake estimates. Nevertheless, predicted dietary intake rates for all four investigated phthalates were far below the corresponding tolerable daily intake (TDI) values (i.e. P99 intake values were 6.4% of the TDI at most), which is reassuring because adults are also exposed to phthalates via other contamination pathways (e.g. dust ingestion and inhalation). The food groups contributing most to the dietary exposure were grains and grain-based products for DEP, milk and dairy products for DnBP, meat and meat products or grains and grain-based products (depending on the scenario) for BBP and meat and meat products for DEHP. Comparison of the predicted intake results based on modelled phthalate concentrations in food products with intake estimates from other surveys (mostly based on measured concentrations) showed that the extended version of the EN-forc model is a suitable semi-probabilistic tool for the estimation and evaluation of the long-term dietary intake of phthalates in humans.

  6. COOLOD-N2: a computer code, for the analyses of steady-state thermal-hydraulics in research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The COOLOD-N2 code provides a capability for the analyses of the steady-state thermal-hydraulics of research reactors. This code is revised version of the COOLOD-N code, and is applicable not only for research reactors in which plate-type fuel is adopted, but also for research reactors in which rod-type fuel is adopted. In the code, subroutines to calculate temperature distribution in rod-type fuel have been newly added to the COOLOD-N code. The COOLOD-N2 code can calculate fuel temperatures under both forced convection cooling mode and natural convection cooling mode as well as COOLOD-N code. In the COOLOD-N2 code, a 'Heat Transfer package' is used for calculating heat transfer coefficient, DNB heat flux etc. The 'Heat Transfer package' is subroutine program and is especially developed for research reactors in which plate-type fuel is adopted. In case of rod-type fuel, DNB heat flux is calculated by both the 'Heat Transfer package' and Lund DNB heat flux correlation which is popular for TRIGA reactor. The COOLOD-N2 code also has a capability of calculating ONB temperature, the heat flux at onset of flow instability as well as DNB heat flux. (author)

  7. Sodium Fast Reactor Core Definitions (version 1.2 - September 19)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) has defined the key research goals for advanced sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFR): - improved safety performance, specifically a demonstration of favourable transient behaviour under accident conditions; - improved economic competitiveness; - demonstration of flexible management of nuclear materials, in particular, waste reduction through minor actinide burning. With respect to SFR safety performance, one of the foremost GIF objective is to design cores that can passively avoid damage when the control rods fail to scram in response to postulated accident initiators (e.g., inadvertent reactivity insertion or loss of coolant flow). The analysis of such unprotected transients depends primarily on the physical properties of the fuel and the reactivity feedback coefficients of the core. Under the auspices of the Working Party on Reactor and System (WPRS), a mandate has been proposed to work towards a shared analysis of the feedback and transient behaviour of next generation SFR concepts. In order to achieve these goals, a step-by-step analysis approach has been proposed: 1. Compile a 'state of the art' report: review past and recent studies performed in the framework of sodium fast reactor and build a bibliographic repository which would stress core transient behaviours as a function of fuel characteristics (oxide, carbide, nitride and metal). 2. Perform a parametric study based on two different core sizes: large size core (3600 MW thermal) and medium size core (1500-2500 MW thermal). For both cores sizes three types of fuel are proposed: oxide, carbide and metal. This comparative study is aimed at identifying the advantages and drawbacks for each concept based on nominal performances and global safety parameters: - Neutronics characterisation of global parameters (k-eff, power and flux distributions, void effect, Doppler, etc.); - Feed-back coefficient evaluation, discussion and agreement on corresponding calculation

  8. Design of a Novel Fluidized Bed Reactor To Enhance Sorbent Performance in CO2 Capture Systems Using CaO

    OpenAIRE

    Diego de Paz, María Elena; Arias Rozada, Borja; Grasa, Gemma; Abanades García, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    This work deals with the modeling and design of a novel bubbling fluidized bed reactor that aims to improve the CO2 carrying capacity of CaO particles in CO2 capture systems by calcium looping (CaL). Inside the new reactor (the recarbonator) the particles that arrive from the carbonator of the CaL system react with a concentrated stream of CO2, thereby increasing their carbonate content up to a certain value, which can be predicted by means of the model proposed. The recarbonator model presen...

  9. Application of cluster analysis and autoregressive neural networks for the noise diagnostics of the IBR-2M reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepelyshev, Yu. N.; Tsogtsaikhan, Ts.; Ososkov, G. A.

    2016-09-01

    The pattern recognition methodologies and artificial neural networks were used widely for the IBR-2M pulsed reactor noise diagnostics. The cluster analysis allows a detailed study of the structure and fast reactivity effects of IBR-2M and nonlinear autoregressive neural network (NAR) with local feedback connection allows predicting slow reactivity effects. In this work we present results of a study on pulse energy noise dynamics and prediction of liquid sodium flow rate through the core of the IBR-2M reactor using cluster analysis and an artificial neural network.

  10. Safeguarding research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is organized in four sections, including the introduction. The second section contains a discussion of the characteristics and attributes of research reactors important to safeguards. In this section, research reactors are described according to their power level, if greater than 25 thermal megawatts, or according to each fuel type. This descriptive discussion includes both reactor and reactor fuel information of a generic nature, according to the following categories. 1. Research reactors with more than 25 megawatts thermal power, 2. Plate fuelled reactors, 3. Assembly fuelled reactors. 4. Research reactors fuelled with individual rods. 5. Disk fuelled reactors, and 6. Research reactors fuelled with aqueous homogeneous fuel. The third section consists of a brief discussion of general IAEA safeguards as they apply to research reactors. This section is based on IAEA safeguards implementation documents and technical reports that are used to establish Agency-State agreements and facility attachments. The fourth and last section describes inspection activities at research reactors necessary to meet Agency objectives. The scope of the activities extends to both pre and post inspection as well as the on-site inspection and includes the examination of records and reports relative to reactor operation and to receipts, shipments and certain internal transfers, periodic verification of fresh fuel, spent fuel and core fuel, activities related to containment and surveillance, and other selected activities, depending on the reactor

  11. Reactor Physics Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Raedt, C

    2000-07-01

    The Reactor Physics and Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis on reactor fuel. This expertise is applied within the Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Research Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments. Progress and achievements in 1999 in the following areas are reported on: (1) investigations on the use of military plutonium in commercial power reactors; (2) neutron and gamma calculations performed for BR-2 and for other reactors; (3) the updating of neutron and gamma cross-section libraries; (4) the implementation of reactor codes; (6) the management of the UNIX workstations; and (6) fuel cycle studies.

  12. Hydrogen uptake in Zircaloy-2 reactor fuel claddings studied with elastic recoil detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekhara, S.; Doyle, B. L.; Enos, D. G.; Clark, B. G.

    2013-04-01

    The recent trend towards a high burn-up discharge spent nuclear fuel necessitates a thorough understanding of hydrogen uptake in Zr-based cladding materials that encapsulate spent nuclear fuel. Although it is challenging to experimentally replicate exact conditions in a nuclear reactor that lead to hydrogen uptake in claddings, in this study we have attempted to understand the kinetics of hydrogen uptake by first electrolytically charging Zircaloy-2 (Zr-2) cladding material for various durations (100 to 2,600 s), and subsequently examining hydrogen ingress with elastic recoil detection (ERD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). To understand the influence of irradiation damage defects on hydrogen uptake, an analogous study was performed on ion - irradiated (0.1, 1 and 25 dpa) Zr-2. Analysis of ERD data from the un-irradiated Zr-2 suggests that the growth of the hydride layer is diffusion controlled, and preliminary TEM results support this assertion. In un-irradiated Zr-2, the diffusivity of hydrogen in the hydride phase was found to be approximately 1.1 × 10-11 cm2/s, while the diffusivity in the hydride phase for lightly irradiated (0.1 and 1 dpa) Zr-2 is an order of magnitude lower. Irradiation to 25 dpa results in a hydrogen diffusivity that is comparable to the un-irradiated Zr-2. These results are compared with existing literature on hydrogen transport in Zr - based materials.

  13. Surface activity and radiation field measurements of the TMI-2 reactor building gross decontamination experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIsaac, C V

    1983-10-01

    Surface samples were collected from concrete and metal surfaces within the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor Building on December 15 and 17, 1981 and again on March 25 and 26, 1982. The Reactor Building was decontaminated by hydrolasing during the period between these dates. The collected samples were analyzed for radionuclide concentration at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The sampling equipment and procedures, and the analysis methods and results are discussed. The measured mean surface concentrations of /sup 137/Cs and /sup 90/Sr on the 305-ft elevation floor before decontamination were, respectively, 3.6 +- 0.9 and 0.17 +- 0.04 ..mu..Ci/cm/sup 2/. Their mean concentrations on the 347-ft elevation floor were about the same. On both elevations, walls were found to be considerably less contaminated than floors. The fractions of the core inventories of /sup 137/Cs, /sup 90/Sr, and /sup 129/I deposited on Reactor Building surfaces prior to decontamination were calculated using their mean concentrations on various types of surfaces. The calculated values for these three nuclides are 3.5 +- 0.4 E-4, 2.4 +- 0.8 E-5, and 5.7 +- 0.5 E-4, respectively. The decontamination operations reduced the /sup 137/Cs surface activity on the 305- and 347-ft elevations by factors of 20 and 13, respectively. The /sup 90/Sr surface activity reduction was the same for both floors, that being a factor of 30. On the whole, decontamination of vertical surfaces was not achieved. Beta and gamma exposure rates that were measured during surface sampling were examined to determine the degree to which they correlated with measured surface activities. The data were fit with power functions of the form y = ax/sup b/. As might be expected, the beta exposure rates showed the best correlation. Of the data sets fit with the power function, the set of December 1981 beta exposure exhibited the least scatter. The coefficient of determination for this set was calculated to be 0.915.

  14. Rate Coefficient Determinations for H + NO2 → OH + NO from High Pressure Flow Reactor Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Francis M; Dryer, Frederick L

    2015-07-16

    Rate coefficients for the reaction H + NO2 → OH + NO (R1) have been determined over the nominal temperature and pressure ranges of 737-882 K and 10-20 atm, respectively, from measurements in two different flow reactor facilities: one laminar and one turbulent. Considering the existing database of experimental k1 measurements, the present conditions add measurements of k1 at previously unconsidered temperatures between ∼820-880 K, as well as at pressures that exceed existing measurements by over an order of magnitude. Experimental measurements of NOx-perturbed H2 oxidation have been interpreted by a quasi-steady state NOx plateau (QSSP) method. At the QSSP conditions considered here, overall reactivity is sensitive only to the rates of R1 and H + O2 + M → HO2 + M (R2.M). Consequently, the ratio of k1 to k2.M may be extracted as a simple algebraic function of measured NO2, O2, and total gas concentrations with only minimal complication (within measurement uncertainty) due to treatment of overall gas composition M that differs slightly from pure bath gas B. Absolute values of k1 have been determined with reference to the relatively well-known, pressure-dependent rate coefficients of R2.B for B = Ar and N2. Rate coefficients for the title reaction determined from present experimental interpretation of both laminar and turbulent flow reactor results appear to be in very good agreement around a representative value of 1.05 × 10(14) cm(3) mol(-1) s(-1) (1.74 × 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)). Further, the results of this study agree both with existing low pressure flash photolysis k1 determinations of Ko and Fontijn (J. Phys. Chem. 95 3984) near 760 K as well as a present fit to the theoretical expression of Su et al. (J. Phys. Chem. A 106 8261). These results indicate that, over the temperature range considered in this study and up to at least 20 atm, net chemistry due to stabilization of the H-NO2 reaction intermediate to form isomers of HNO2 may proceed at

  15. Enhanced photodegradation of phenolic compounds by adding TiO2 to soil in a rotary reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jing-xian; CHEN Shuo; QUAN Xie; ZHAO Hui-min; ZHAO Ya-zhi

    2006-01-01

    Photodegradation ofpentachlorophenol (PCP) and p-nitrophenol (PNP) in soil was carried out in a designed rotary reactor,which can provide the soil particles with continually uniform irradiation, and on a series of thin soil layers. TiO2, as a kind of environmental friendly photocatalyst, was introduced to the soil to enhance the processes. Compared with that on the soil layers,photodegradation of PCP at initial concentration of 60 mg/kg was improved dramatically in the rotary reactor no matter whether TiO2 was added, with an increase of 3.0 times in the apparent first-order rate constants. The addition of 1 wt% TiO2 furthered the improvement by 1.4 times. Without addition of TiO2, PNP (initial concentration of 60 mg/kg) photodegradation rate in the rotary reactor was similar to that on the soil layers. When 1 wt% additional TiO2 was added, PNP photodegradation was enhanced obviously,and the enhancement in the rotary reactor was 2 times of that on the soil layers, which may be attributed to the higher frequency of the contact between PNP on soil particles and the photocatalyst. The effect of soil pH and initial concentrations of the target compounds on the photodegradation in the rotary reactor was investigated. The order of the degradation rate at different soil pH was relative to the aggregation of soil particles during mixing in the rotary reactor. Photodegradation of PCP and PNP at different initial concentrations showed that addition of TiO2 to enhance the photodegradation was more suitable for contaminated soil with higher concentration of PCP, while was effective for contaminated soil at each PNP concentration tested in our study.

  16. Production of high concentrations of H2O2 in a bioelectrochemical reactor fed with real municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modin, Oskar; Fukushi, Kensuke

    2013-01-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems can be used to energy-efficiently produce hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) from wastewater. Organic compounds in the wastewater are oxidized by microorganisms using the anode as electron acceptor. H2O2 is produced by reduction of oxygen on the cathode. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time production of high concentrations of H2O2 production from real municipal wastewater. A concentration of 2.26 g/L H2O2 was produced in 9 h at 8.3 kWh/kgH2O2. This concentration could potentially be useful for membrane cleaning at membrane bioreactor wastewater treatment plants. With an acetate-containing nutrient medium as anode feed, a H2O2 concentration of 9.67 g/L was produced in 21 h at an energy cost of 3.0 kWh/kgH2O2. The bioelectrochemical reactor used in this study suffered from a high internal resistance, most likely caused by calcium carbonate deposits on the cathode-facing side of the cation exchange membrane separating the anode and cathode compartments. PMID:24527636

  17. Steady-State Thermal-Hydraulics Analyses for the Conversion of the BR2 Reactor to LEU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licht, J. R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bergeron, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dionne, B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Van den Branden, G. [SCK CEN (Belgium); Kalcheva, S. [SCK CEN (Belgium); Sikik, E. [SCK CEN (Belgium); Koonen, E. [SCK CEN (Belgium)

    2015-12-01

    BR2 is a research reactor used for radioisotope production and materials testing. It’s a tank-in-pool type reactor cooled by light water and moderated by beryllium and light water (Figure 1). The reactor core consists of a beryllium moderator forming a matrix of 79 hexagonal prisms in a hyperboloid configuration; each having a central bore that can contain a variety of different components such as a fuel assembly, a control or regulating rod, an experimental device, or a beryllium or aluminum plug. Based on a series of tests, the BR2 operation is currently limited to a maximum allowable heat flux of 470 W/cm2 to ensure fuel plate integrity during steady-state operation and after a loss-of-flow/loss-of-pressure accident.

  18. Melting of contaminated steel scrap from the dismantling of the CO2 systems of gas cooled, graphite moderated nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G2 and G3 are the natural Uranium cooled reactors Graphite/Gas. The two reactors were designed for both plutonium and electricity production (45 MWe). The dismantling of the reactors at stage 2 has produced more than 4 000 tonnes of contaminated scrap. Because of their large mass and low residual contamination level, the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) considered various possibilities for the processing of these metallic products in order to reduce the volume of waste going to be stored. After different studies and tests of several processes and the evaluation of their results, the choice to melt the dismantled pipeworks was taken. It was decided to build the Nuclear Steel Melting Facility known as INFANTE, in cooperation with a steelmaker (AHL). The realization time schedule for the INFANTE lasted 20 months. It included studies, construction and the licensing procedure. (authors). 2 tabs., 3 figs

  19. Fuel reactor modelling in chemical-looping combustion of coal: 2. simulation and optimization

    OpenAIRE

    García Labiano, Francisco; Diego Poza, Luis F. de; Gayán Sanz, Pilar; Abad Secades, Alberto; Adánez Elorza, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Chemical-Looping Combustion of coal (CLCC) is a promising process to carry out coal combustion with carbon capture. The process should be optimized in order to maximize the carbon capture and the combustion efficiency in the fuel reactor, which will depend on the reactor design and the operational conditions. In this work, a mathematical model of the fuel reactor is used to make predictions about the performance of the CLCC process and simulate the behaviour of the system ...

  20. Non-motor symptoms in a Flanders-Belgian population of 215 Parkinson’s disease patients as assessed by the Non-Motor Symptoms Questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Crosiers, David; Pickut, Barbara; Theuns, Jessie; De Deyn, Peter Paul; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; Martinez-Martin, Pablo; Chaudhuri, K. Ray; Cras, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Background: Non-motor symptoms (NMS) in Parkinson’s disease (PD) are frequent, increase the patients’ disability and have an important negative impact on their quality of life. Methods: We used a Dutch translation of the Non-Motor Symptoms Questionnaire (NMSQuest) to identify NMS in a population of 215 Belgian PD patients. Results: A median number of 8 NMS was reported per patient. Urinary urgency (59.2 %), nocturia (56.9 %), insomnia (45.8 %), attention problems (45.5 %) and orthostatism (41...

  1. Study of a H2 separating membrane reactor for methane steam reforming at conditions relevant for power processes with CO2 capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a one dimensional, steady state model for a catalytic membrane reactor used for methane steam reforming. We have solved the model for conditions that could be relevant for integration of the reactor in a power process with CO2 capture. The model behaved as expected when several important system parameters were varied. The results show that the operating conditions for the membrane reactor will have a great impact on the design of the power process. It is therefore crucial to understand the behavior of the membrane reactor if one wants to integrate it in a power process with CO2 capture. The best choice of operating conditions must be found through consideration of the whole power process

  2. Fast reactor safety: proceedings of the international topical meeting. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The emphasis of this meeting was on the safety-related aspects of fast reactor design, analysis, licensing, construction, and operation. Relative to past meetings, there was less emphasis on the scientific and technological basis for accident assessment. Because of its broad scope, the meeting attracted 217 attendees from a wide cross section of the design, safety analysis, and safety technology communities. Eight countries and two international organizations were represented. A total of 126 papers were presented, with contributions from the United States, France, Japan, the United Kingdom, Germany, and Italy. Sessions covered in Volume 2 include: safety design concepts; operational transient experiments; analysis of seismic and external events; HCDA-related codes, analysis, and experiments; sodium fires; instrumentation and control/PPS design; whole-core accident analysis codes; and impact of safety design considerations on future LMFBR developments

  3. Fast reactor safety: proceedings of the international topical meeting. Volume 2. [R

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-07-01

    The emphasis of this meeting was on the safety-related aspects of fast reactor design, analysis, licensing, construction, and operation. Relative to past meetings, there was less emphasis on the scientific and technological basis for accident assessment. Because of its broad scope, the meeting attracted 217 attendees from a wide cross section of the design, safety analysis, and safety technology communities. Eight countries and two international organizations were represented. A total of 126 papers were presented, with contributions from the United States, France, Japan, the United Kingdom, Germany, and Italy. Sessions covered in Volume 2 include: safety design concepts; operational transient experiments; analysis of seismic and external events; HCDA-related codes, analysis, and experiments; sodium fires; instrumentation and control/PPS design; whole-core accident analysis codes; and impact of safety design considerations on future LMFBR developments.

  4. N2O emissions from a one stage partial nitrification/anammox process in moving bed biofilm reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jingjing; Trela, Jozef; Plaza, Elzbieta; Tjus, Kåre

    2013-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from wastewater treatment are getting increased attention because their global warming potential is around 300 times that of carbon dioxide. The aim of the study was to measure nitrous oxide emissions from one stage partial nitrification/anammox (Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation) reactors, where nitrogen is removed in a biological way. The first part of the experimental study was focused on the measurements of nitrous oxide emissions from two pilot scale reactors in the long term; one reactor with intermittent aeration at 25 °C and the other reactor with continuous aeration at 22-23 °C. The second part of the experiment was done to evaluate the influence of different nitrogen loads and aeration strategies, described by the ratio between the non-aerated and aerated phase and the dissolved oxygen concentrations, on nitrous oxide emissions from the process. The study showed that 0.4-2% of the nitrogen load was converted into nitrous oxide from two reactors. With higher nitrogen load, the amount of nitrous oxide emission was also higher. A larger fraction of nitrous oxide was emitted to the gas phase while less was emitted with the liquid effluent. It was also found that nitrous oxide emissions were similar under intermittent and continuous aeration.

  5. Simulation of a channel blockage transient in the Angra 2 Nuclear Reactor using a RELAP5-3D model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Mantecon, Javier; Costa, Antonella L.; Veloso, Maria Auxiliadora F.; Pereira, Claubia; Reis, Patricia A.L.; Scari, Maria E., E-mail: mantecon1987@gmail.com, E-mail: antonella@nuclear.ufmg.br, E-mail: dora@nuclear.ufmg.br, E-mail: claubia@nuclear.ufmg.br, E-mail: patricialire@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: melizabethscari@yahoo.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    The Angra 2 Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) is a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) type with electrical output of about 1350 MW. The RELAP5-3D code was used to develop a detailed thermal hydraulic model of such reactor using reference data from the Angra 2 Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). In this work, a blockage transient has been investigated at full power operation. The transient herein considered is related to total obstruction of a core cooling channel of one fuel assembly. The calculations were performed using a point kinetic model. The reactor behavior after this transient was analyzed and the time evolution of cladding and coolant temperatures mass flow and void fraction are presented. (author)

  6. Multiyear Serological Surveillance of Notifiable Influenza A Viruses in Belgian Poultry: A Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marché, Sylvie; Houdart, Philippe; van den Berg, Thierry; Lambrecht, Bénédicte

    2015-12-01

    Surveillance of notifiable avian influenza (NAI) virus is mandatory in European member states, and each year a serological survey is performed to detect H5 and H7 circulation in poultry holdings. In Belgium, this serological monitoring is a combination of a stratified and a risk-based approach and is applied to commercial holdings with more than 200 birds. Moreover, a competitive nucleoprotein (NP) ELISA has been used as first screening method since 2010. A retrospective analysis of the serological monitoring performed from 2007 through 2013 showed sporadic circulation of notifiable low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) viruses in Belgian holdings with a fluctuating apparent flock seroprevalence according to years and species. Overall, the highest apparent flock seroprevalence was detected for the H5 subtype in domestic Anatidae, with 20%-50% for breeding geese and 4%-9% for fattening ducks. Positive serology against non-H5/H7 viruses was also observed in the same species with the use of the IDScreen influenza A antibody competition ELISA kit (ID-vet NP ELISA), and confirmed by isolation of H2, H3, H6, and H9 LPAI viruses. Among Galliformes, the apparent flock seroprevalence was lower, ranging between 0.3% and 1.3%. Circulation of notifiable LPAI viruses was only observed in laying hens with a similar seroprevalence for H5 and H7. Based on ID-vet NP ELISA results, no circulation of LPAI viruses, regardless the subtype, was observed in breeding chickens and fattening turkeys. Retrospectively, the use of an ELISA as first-line test not only reduced the number of hemagglutination inhibition tests to be performed, but also gave a broader evaluation of the prevalence of LPAI viruses in general, and might help to identify the most at-risk farms.

  7. Multiyear Serological Surveillance of Notifiable Influenza A Viruses in Belgian Poultry: A Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marché, Sylvie; Houdart, Philippe; van den Berg, Thierry; Lambrecht, Bénédicte

    2016-05-01

    Surveillance of notifiable avian influenza (NAI) virus is mandatory in European member states, and each year a serological survey is performed to detect H5 and H7 circulation in poultry holdings. In Belgium, this serological monitoring is a combination of a stratified and a risk-based approach and is applied to commercial holdings with more than 200 birds. Moreover, a competitive nucleoprotein (NP) ELISA has been used as first screening method since 2010. A retrospective analysis of the serological monitoring performed from 2007 through 2013 showed sporadic circulation of notifiable low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) viruses in Belgian holdings with a fluctuating apparent flock seroprevalence according to years and species. Overall, the highest apparent flock seroprevalence was detected for the H5 subtype in domestic Anatidae, with 20%-50% for breeding geese and 4%-9% for fattening ducks. Positive serology against non-H5/H7 viruses was also observed in the same species with the use of the IDScreen influenza A antibody competition ELISA kit (ID-vet NP ELISA), and confirmed by isolation of H2, H3, H6, and H9 LPAI viruses. Among Galliformes, the apparent flock seroprevalence was lower, ranging between 0.3% and 1.3%. Circulation of notifiable LPAI viruses was only observed in laying hens with a similar seroprevalence for H5 and H7. Based on ID-vet NP ELISA results, no circulation of LPAI viruses, regardless the subtype, was observed in breeding chickens and fattening turkeys. Retrospectively, the use of an ELISA as first-line test not only reduced the number of hemagglutination inhibition tests to be performed, but also gave a broader evaluation of the prevalence of LPAI viruses in general, and might help to identify the most at-risk farms. PMID:27309088

  8. Development of the body size in stallions of selected Bohemian-Moravian Belgian horse, Silesian Noriker and Noriker breeds in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan NAVRÁTIL

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the basic body measurements (stick height at withers - KVH, tape height at withers - KVP, chest perimeter - OHR, shin perimeter - OHOL from data available from the 40th years of the 20th century in the Bohemian-Moravian Belgian horse, Silesian Noriker and Noriker breeds. The evaluation included a total of 1,080 stallions aged 2-3 years, used in mating and breeding. Processing and evaluation of a data set was done using Microsoft Office Excel and the statistical program SAS 9.3. Numerous statistically significant differences were found among the evaluated breeds (P < 0.05 to 0.01. The highest values of KVH, KVP and OHR were achieved by stallions of Bohemian-Moravian Belgian horse. The increase of the basic dimensions from 40´s years to 70´s – 90´s years was found during a detailed evaluation focusing on decade of stallions’ birth year. After year 2000, there was a dramatic +drop in the values of the fundamental physical dimensions. Statistically significant differences (P < 0.05 to 0.01 were evaluated primarily between stallions born in the 70´s years, and most other decades. A declining tendency in all assessed dimensions was observed during evaluation of the race and decade interaction effect mainly for the Czech-Moravian Belgian horse stallions born from 70´s, respectively 80´s. Apparent downward trend between the 90´s and stallions born after year 2000 was detected especially for stallions of Silesian Noriker breed. Decline of body size parameters was not observed for stallions of Noriker breed. The more likely slightly increased tendencies for KVH, KVP, OHR and OHOL were determined in Noriker stallions.

  9. Treatment of Remazol Brilliant Blue Dye Effluent by Advanced Photo Oxidation Process in TiO2/UV and H2O2/UV reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Verma

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced oxidation processes involving TiO2/UV and H2O2/UV were evaluated for their potential use in decolorization of textile dye effluents. A coil photo reactor, consisting of UV radiation source and a spiral coil coated with TiO2, was used to treat synthetic effluent of Remazol Brilliant Blue dye. The TiO2 coating was performed using the sol-gel technique. The effects of UV radiation, TiO2 coatings and dye concentration were studied and the results were compared to dye treatment involving H2O2. The maximum dye removal efficiencies were 7.3, 12.2 and 12.5 % for uncoated, single coat and dual coat of TiO2, respectively. The decolorization efficiency was inversely related to dye concentration of the effluent. The treatments with UV only, TiO2 only, UV+TiO2, H2O2 only and UV+H2O2 resulted in color reduction of 7.6, 2.3, 12.5, 4.1 and 99.9 % respectively. The maximum decolorization occurred in ≤ 100 min in all cases. The temperature varied from 29.2 to 54.7°C for UV+TiO2 treatment and no change in reactor temperature was observed when UV was not used.

  10. Studies on Hydrogen Selective Silica Membranes and the Catalytic Reforming of CH4 with CO2 in a Membrane Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Doohwan

    2003-01-01

    In this work the synthesis, characterization, and gas transport properties of hydrogen selective silica membranes were studied along with the catalytic reforming of CH4 with CO2 (CH4 + CO z 2 CO + 2 H2) in a hydrogen separation membrane reactor. The silica membranes were prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of a thin SiO2 layer on porous supports (Vycor glass and alumina) using thermal decomposition of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) in an inert atmosphere. These membranes displayed h...

  11. An analysis of postulated accident for 49-2 Swimming Pool Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal hydrodynamic code RETRAN-02 is used for safety analysis of Swimming Pool Reactor. Accident of partial-loss of flow, loss of offsite electric power and unexpected reactivity insertion are analysed and discussed. These results will be helpful for operation safety of the reactor

  12. Assessment of the CO2 fixation capacity of Anabaena sp. ATCC 33047 outdoor cultures in vertical flat-panel reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clares, Marta E; Moreno, José; Guerrero, Miguel G; García-González, Mercedes

    2014-10-10

    The extent of biological CO2 fixation was evaluated for outdoor cultures of the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. ATCC 33047. Culture conditions were optimized indoors in bubble-column photochemostats operating in continuous mode, subjected to irradiance cycles mimicking the light regime outdoors. Highest values achieved for CO2 fixation rate and biomass productivity were 1 and 0.6 g L(-1) day(-1), respectively. The comparison among different reactors operating simultaneously - open pond, horizontal tubular reactor and vertical flat-panel - allowed to assess their relative efficiency for the outdoor development of Anabaena cultures. Despite the higher volumetric CO2 fixation capacity (and biomass productivity) exhibited by the tubular photobioreactor, yield of the flat-panel reactor was 50% higher than that of the tubular option on a per area basis, reaching values over 35 g CO2 fixed m(-2) d(-1). The flat-panel reactor actually represents a most suitable system for CO2 capture coupled to the generation of valuable biomass by Anabaena cultures.

  13. Plasma nitridation of silicon by N2 and NH3 in PECVD reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakardjieva, V. S.; Alexieva, Z. I.; Beshkov, G. D.; Mateev, E. S.

    2010-04-01

    The effect was investigated of nitrogen and ammonia plasma treatment of monocrystalline Si wafers. The experiments were carried out in a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition reactor. The wafers were subjected to N2 and NH3 plasma treatment for varying times at temperature of 380 °C. The plasma treated surfaces were studied by transmission electron microscopy with C-Pt replicas, reflection high-energy electron diffraction and Auger electron spectroscopy. The results point to the growth of an amorphous layer on the surface. The Auger electron spectroscopy depth profiles obtained by sputtering show the presence of an oxynitride layer with varying composition depending on the time of plasma treatment. The Auger electron spectroscopy analysis shows that after 60 s of treatment in N2 plasma, the nitrogen content is 8 at.%, while after 300 s it is 22 at.%, the thickness of the oxynitride nanolayer being 2.5-7.2 nm. In the case of NH3 plasma the thickness calculated from the sputtering time (from 50 s to 15 min) varies between 2 and 12 nm, and the nitrogen content, between 5 and 35 at.%.

  14. CO2 sequestration by carbonation of steelmaking slags in an autoclave reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, E-E; Pan, Shu-Yuan; Chen, Yi-Hung; Chu, Hsiao-Wen; Wang, Chu-Fang; Chiang, Pen-Chi

    2011-11-15

    Carbon dioxide (CO(2)) sequestration experiments using the accelerated carbonation of three types of steelmaking slags, i.e., ultra-fine (UF) slag, fly-ash (FA) slag, and blended hydraulic slag cement (BHC), were performed in an autoclave reactor. The effects of reaction time, liquid-to-solid ratio (L/S), temperature, CO(2) pressure, and initial pH on CO(2) sequestration were evaluated. Two different CO(2) pressures were chosen: the normal condition (700 psig) and the supercritical condition (1300 psig). The carbonation conversion was determined quantitatively by using thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). The major factors that affected the conversion were reaction time (5 min to 12h) and temperature (40-160°C). The BHC was found to have the highest carbonation conversion of approximately 68%, corresponding to a capacity of 0.283 kg CO(2)/kg BHC, in 12h at 700 psig and 160°C. In addition, the carbonation products were confirmed to be mainly in CaCO(3), which was determined by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) to analyze samples before and after carbonation. Furthermore, reaction kinetics were expressed with a surface coverage model, and the carbon footprint of the developed technology in this investigation was calculated by a life cycle assessment (LCA). PMID:21889848

  15. Development of the fast reactor group constant set JFS-3-J3.2R based on the JENDL-3.2

    CERN Document Server

    Chiba, G

    2002-01-01

    It is reported that the fast reactor group constant set JFS-3-J3.2 based on the newest evaluated nuclear data library JENDL3.2 has a serious error in the process of applying the weighting function. As the error affects greatly nuclear characteristics, and a corrected version of the reactor constant set, JFS-3-J3.2R, was developed, as well as lumped FP cross sections. The use of JFS-3-J3.2R improves the results of analyses especially on sample Doppler reactivity and reaction rate in the blanket region in comparison with those obtained using the JFS-3-J3.2.

  16. Transformations and destruction of nitrogen oxidesNO, NO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O - in a pulsed corona discharge reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xudong Hu; Ji-Jun Zhanga; Suresh Mukhnahallipatna; Jerry Hamann; Mark J. Biggs; Pradeep Agarwal [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (USA). Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering

    2003-09-01

    There has been an increasing interest in the removal of NOx from combustion gases using electrical discharges, especially pulsed corona discharge reactors. In this study, the transformations and destruction of nitrogen oxides NO, NO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O were investigated in a pulsed corona discharge reactor. Gas mixtures NO in N{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O in N{sub 2}, NO{sub 2} in N{sub 2} and NO N{sub 2}O NO{sub 2} in N{sub 2} were allowed to flow through the reactor with initial concentrations, flow rates and energy input as operating variables. The reactor effluent gas stream was analyzed for N{sub 2}O, NO, NO{sub 2}, by means of an FTIR spectrometer. In some experiments, oxygen was measured using a gas chromatograph. Reaction mechanisms were proposed for the transformations and destruction of the different nitrogen oxides within a unified model structure. The corresponding reaction rates were integrated into a simple reactor model for the pulsed corona discharge reactor. The reactor model brings forth the coupling between reaction rates, electrical discharge parameters, and fluid flow within the reactor. It was recognized that the electron-impact dissociation of the background gas N{sub 2} leads to both ionic and radical product species. In fact, ionic reactions were found responsible for N{sub 2}O destruction. Radical reactions were dominant in the transformation and destruction of NO and NO{sub 2}. However, decomposition of N{sub 2}{sup +} ions also leads to indirect production of N radicals; this appears to be a less-power intensive route for NO destruction though longer residence times may be necessary. In addition, the decomposition of N{sub 2}{sup +} ions limits the N{sub 2}O destruction that can be achieved. Comparison with our experimental data, as well as data in the literature, was very encouraging. 36 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. ENHANCED HYDROGEN PRODUCTION INTEGRATED WITH CO2 SEPARATION IN A SINGLE-STAGE REACTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himanshu Gupta; Mahesh Iyer; Bartev Sakadjian; Liang-Shih Fan

    2005-04-01

    Hydrogen production by the water gas shift reaction (WGSR) is equilibrium limited due to thermodynamic constrains. However, this can be overcome by continuously removing the product CO{sub 2}, thereby driving the WGSR in the forward direction to enhance hydrogen production. This project aims at using a high reactivity, mesoporous calcium based sorbent (PCC-CaO) for removing CO{sub 2} using reactive separation scheme. Preliminary results have shown that PCC-CaO dominates in its performance over naturally occurring limestone towards enhanced hydrogen production. However, maintenance of high reactivity of the sorbent over several reaction-regeneration cycles warrants effective regeneration methods. We have identified sub-atmospheric calcination (vacuum) as vital regeneration technique that helps preserve the sorbent morphology. Sub-atmospheric calcination studies reveal the significance of vacuum level, diluent gas flow rate, thermal properties of diluent gas, and sorbent loading on the kinetics of calcination and the morphology of the resultant CaO sorbent. Steam, which can be easily separated from CO{sub 2}, has been envisioned as a potential diluent gas due to its better thermal properties resulting in effective heat transfer. A novel multi-fixed bed reactor was designed which isolates the catalyst bed from the sorbent bed during the calcination step. This should prevent any potential catalyst deactivation due to oxidation by CO{sub 2} during the regeneration phase.

  18. Characterization and Application of the Thermal Neutron Radiography Beam in the Egyptian Second Experimental and Training Research Reactor (ETRR-2)

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Abou Mandour; R. M. Megahid; Hassan, M.H.; T. M. Abd El Salam

    2007-01-01

    The Experimental, Training, Research Reactor (ETRR-2) is an open-pool multipurpose reactor (MPR) with a core power of 22 MWth cooled and moderated by light water and reflected with beryllium. It has four neutron beams and a thermal column as the main experimental devices. The neutron radiography facility unit utilizes one of the radial beam tubes. The track-etch technique using nitrocellulose films and converter screen is applied. In this work, the radial neutron beam for the thermal neutron ...

  19. Applicability of anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS to enhance colour removal in mesophilic UASB reactors treating textile wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. I. M. Firmino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This work assessed the applicability of the redox mediator anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS to enhance colour removal in mesophilic UASB reactors treating textile wastewater under different operational conditions, such as different electron donor (ethanol concentrations and different HRT. The anaerobic reactors were able to remove reasonably well the colour of the textile wastewater (35-63% even when operated with a relatively short HRT (6 h, being a good option for textile effluents pre-treatment. Aditionally, colour removal efficiency was positively influenced not only by the addition of ethanol as external electron donor, but also by the initial wastewater absorbance. Although the applicability of AQDS is reported in the literature to enhance remarkably colour removal from synthetic dye-containing wastewaters, especially for recalcitrant azo dyes, the same effect was not evident in the present study with the textile wastewater tested, since the reactors did not show significant differences on decolourisation capacity.

  20. 76 FR 23630 - Office of New Reactors; Proposed Revision 2 to Standard Review Plan, Section 1.0 on Introduction...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ...), Section 1.0, ``Introduction and Interfaces'' (Agencywide Documents Access and Management System (ADAMS... COMMISSION Office of New Reactors; Proposed Revision 2 to Standard Review Plan, Section 1.0 on Introduction..., Rockville, Maryland 20852. NRC's Agencywide Documents Access and Management System (ADAMS):...

  1. Application of DSPs in Data Acquisition Systems for Neutron Scattering Experiments at the IBR—2 Pulsed Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V.Butenko; B.Gebauer; 等

    2001-01-01

    DSPs are widely used in data acquisition systems on neutron spectrometers at the IBR-2 pulsed reactor.In this report several electronic blocks,based on the DSP of the TMS 320CXXXX family by the TI firm and intended to solve different tasks in DAQ systems,are described.

  2. Analysis and improvement of AGM temperature transmitter using in TQNPC D2O reactor for anti-electromagnetic interference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper simply introduces the configuration of AGM temperature transmitter measuring and control loop that using in TQNPC D2O reactor, especially analyses the anti-electromagnetic interference property of AGM temperature transmitter and illustrates the improvement that be done. The main purpose is to provide one effective method of field problem analyzing and solving. (author)

  3. Film formation on the surface of magnesium-beryllium PMB-2 alloy in a diphenyl mixture under reactor irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A film growth on the surfaces of PMB-2 magnesium-beryllium alloy specimens in a diphenyl mixture under reactor irradiation was studies. It is shown that film thickness increases linearly with absorbed dose up to 3500 Mrad. The possibility of film washing off the specimen surfaces by boiling in the diphenyl mixture is investigated

  4. Cyclization of citronellal in a supercritical solvent in a flow reactor in the presence of Al2O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anikeev, V. I.; Il'ina, I. V.; Volcho, K. P.; Salakhutdinov, N. F.

    2012-12-01

    The reactivity of citronellal under supercritical solvent conditions in a flow reactor in the presence of Al2O3 is examined. It is shown that at 160°C, the main transformation product of citronellal is isopulegol, and when the temperature is increased to 190°C, they are monoterpenes with a para-menthane framework and myrcene.

  5. Belgian recommendations on ANA, anti-dsDNA and anti-ENA antibody testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Blerk, M; Bossuyt, X; Humbel, R; Mewis, A; Servais, G; Tomasi, J P; Van Campenhout, C; Van Hoovels, L; Vercammen, M; Damoiseaux, J; Coucke, W; Van de Walle, P

    2014-04-01

    Autoantibodies to nuclear antigens, i.e. antinuclear antibodies (ANA), antibodies to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and extractable nuclear antigens (ENA), are useful as diagnostic markers for a variety of autoimmune diseases. In March 2010, the Belgian national External Quality Assessment Scheme sent a questionnaire on ANA, anti-dsDNA and anti-ENA antibody testing designed by the Dutch EASI (European Autoimmunity Standardization Initiative) team, to all clinical laboratories performing ANA testing. Virtually all laboratories completed the questionnaire (97·7%, 127/130). This paper discusses the results of this questionnaire and provides valuable information on the state-of-the-art of ANA, anti-dsDNA and anti-ENA antibody testing as practiced in the Belgian laboratories. In addition, this work presents practical recommendations developed by the members of the advisory board of the scheme as a result of the outcome of this study.

  6. Synthesis of a nanosilica supported CO2 sorbent in a fluidized bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • CaO coating at atmospheric pressure is applied on silica nanoparticles in a fluidized bed. • Atmospheric pressure would facilitate scaling-up of the process. • The conditions for the coating process at atmospheric pressure are discussed. • The CO2 sorbent capacity is demonstrated by TGA in carbonation/calcination. • STEM-EDX shows the presence of CaO on the surface of the nanoparticles. - Abstract: CaO has been deposited on a nanosilica powder matrix by a procedure based on atomic layer deposition (ALD) in a fluidized bed reactor at atmospheric pressure following a potentially scalable process. In previous works ALD in gas fluidized bed has been mostly performed under reduced pressure, which hampers scaling-up the production technology. The material synthesized in the present work is tested as CO2 solid sorbent at calcium looping conditions. Multicyclic thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) shows that the nanosilica support stabilizes the capture capacity of CaO. EDX-STEM analysis illustrates the presence of Ca well distributed on the surface of the SiO2 nanoparticles

  7. Synthesis of a nanosilica supported CO{sub 2} sorbent in a fluidized bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soria-Hoyo, C., E-mail: cshoyo@us.es [Facultad de Física, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Valverde, J.M. [Facultad de Física, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Ommen, J.R. van [Department of Chemical Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Product and Process Engineering, Julianalaan 136, 2628 BL Delft (Netherlands); Sánchez-Jiménez, P.E.; Pérez-Maqueda, L.A.; Sayagués, M.J. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales (CSIC – Universidad de Sevilla), Americo Vespucio 49, 41092 Sevilla (Spain)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • CaO coating at atmospheric pressure is applied on silica nanoparticles in a fluidized bed. • Atmospheric pressure would facilitate scaling-up of the process. • The conditions for the coating process at atmospheric pressure are discussed. • The CO{sub 2} sorbent capacity is demonstrated by TGA in carbonation/calcination. • STEM-EDX shows the presence of CaO on the surface of the nanoparticles. - Abstract: CaO has been deposited on a nanosilica powder matrix by a procedure based on atomic layer deposition (ALD) in a fluidized bed reactor at atmospheric pressure following a potentially scalable process. In previous works ALD in gas fluidized bed has been mostly performed under reduced pressure, which hampers scaling-up the production technology. The material synthesized in the present work is tested as CO{sub 2} solid sorbent at calcium looping conditions. Multicyclic thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) shows that the nanosilica support stabilizes the capture capacity of CaO. EDX-STEM analysis illustrates the presence of Ca well distributed on the surface of the SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles.

  8. Fast breeder reactors insertion in a D2O - natural U nuclear power plants park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model for the evolution of Argentine's installed nuclear power for the next 40 years is presented. The consequences of fast breeder reactors' introduction are studied in both autarchic Pu cycle and a limited reprocessing system. The passage of a reactor park like the national, of natural U - heavy water to one of fast breeder reactors, can only be obtained in a very long term due, fundamentally, to the need of Pu produced for those to feed the last ones. (M.E.L.)

  9. Sensitivity analyses of thermal bridges: confrontation with the new Belgian EPB-methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Delghust, Marc; Huyghe, Willem; Janssens, Arnold

    2011-01-01

    As governments continue to impose more and higher energetic requirements for buildings, they also need better assessment-tools to take into account as many parameters as possible. This results in continuous developments of new calculation methods and softwares, where a balance has to be found between practicality and accuracy. To answer this problem, specifically with regard to the thermal bridges, the three Belgian regions developed a new and common pragmatic approach for assessing therma...

  10. The Gay Men Sex Studies: prevalence of sexual dysfunctions in Belgian HIV+ gay men

    OpenAIRE

    Vansintejan J; Janssen J; Van De Vijver E; Vandevoorde J; Devroey D

    2013-01-01

    Johan Vansintejan, Joris Janssen, Erwin Van De Vijver, Jan Vandevoorde, Dirk Devroey Department of Family Medicine, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Brussels, Belgium Abstract: The aim of this Internet-based survey was to investigate the prevalence and associated predictors of sexual dysfunctions in Belgian self-reported HIV-positive men who have sex with other men. Of the 72 participants, 56% had a mild-to-severe erectile dysfunction, and 15% reported a hypoactive sexual desire disorder. Th...

  11. The Gay Men Sex Studies: prevalence of sexual dysfunctions in Belgian HIV+ gay men

    OpenAIRE

    Vansintejan, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Johan Vansintejan, Joris Janssen, Erwin Van De Vijver, Jan Vandevoorde, Dirk Devroey Department of Family Medicine, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Brussels, Belgium Abstract: The aim of this Internet-based survey was to investigate the prevalence and associated predictors of sexual dysfunctions in Belgian self-reported HIV-positive men who have sex with other men. Of the 72 participants, 56% had a mild-to-severe erectile dysfunction, and 15% reported a hypoactive sexual desire disorder. T...

  12. Waste disposal[1997 Scientific Report of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; Verstricht, J.; Van Iseghem, P.; Buyens, M.

    1998-07-01

    The primary mission of the Waste Disposal programme at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN is to propose, develop, and assess solutions for the safe disposal of radioactive waste. In Belgium, deep geological burial in clay is the primary option for the disposal of High-Level Waste and spent nuclear fuel. The main achievements during 1997 in the following domains are described: performance assessment, characterization of the geosphere, characterization of the waste, migration processes, underground infrastructure.

  13. New Belgian Law on Research on Human Embryos: Trust in Progress Through Medical Science

    OpenAIRE

    Pennings, G

    2003-01-01

    The new Belgian law on research on embryos in vitro accepts all types of research directed at therapeutic purposes and at increased medical knowledge. This includes research for germline and somatic gene therapy, therapeutic cloning, and the development of embryonic stem cell lines. As this presupposes the creation of embryos for research, this too is allowed. Other goals like sex selection for nonmedical reasons, eugenic practices and reproductive cloning are prohibited. In general, the law ...

  14. Software support for manufacturing operations in Belgian SMEs: one size fits all?

    OpenAIRE

    Desmarey, Thierry; Degryse, Kris; Cottyn, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Manufacturing companies face a big challenge to bridge the gap between their business and manufacturing processes. The urge to increase efficiency makes it necessary to align the business and manufacturing processes. Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) experience several barriers to adopt software support for manufacturing operations. This paper gives an overview of a research study conducted in Belgian SMEs. The research studied the current adoption of software support for manufacturin...

  15. Adaptation of the European crop growth monitoring system to the Belgian conditions.

    OpenAIRE

    Buffet, D.; Dehem, Didier; Wouters, K.; Tychon, Bernard; Oger, Robert; Veroustraete, F.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the Belgian Crop Growth Monitoring System (B-CGMS) is the elaboration of an integrated information system predicting reliable, timely and objective estimates of crop yields and monitoring calamity sites at regional scales. Seven major crops are concerned by the project : winter wheat, winter barley, fodder maize, winter rape seed, potatoes, sugar beet and permanent meadow. The main tasks in the adaptation of the European model come down to the completion and the improvement of the ...

  16. Information Availability, Information Quality and the Financial Structure of Belgian SME's.

    OpenAIRE

    Van Campenhout, Geert; Van Caneghem, Tom

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we test whether the amount and/or quality of financial statement information affect the financial structure of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). We explore this issue for Belgian SMEs because there are important differences in disclosure and audit requirements among them. Consistent with the traditional view that asymmetric or incomplete information restricts access to external funds, our results indicate that both the amount and the quality of financial statement information...

  17. Perceived work ability and turnover intentions: a prospective study among Belgian healthcare workers

    OpenAIRE

    Derycke, Hanne; Clays, Els; Vlerick, Peter; D'hoore, William; Hasselhorn, Hans Martin; Braeckman, Lutgart

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To report a study exploring prospective relations between nurses' perceived work ability and three forms of turnover intentions, respectively, intent to leave the ward, organization and profession. BACKGROUND: Turnover of nursing staff is a major challenge for healthcare settings and for healthcare in general, urging the need to improve retention. DESIGN: Survey. METHODS: Based on the longitudinal data of the Belgian sample from the European Nurses' Early Exit study, a total of 1531 heal...

  18. Using Firm-Level Data to Assess Gender Wage Discrimination in the Belgian Labour Market

    OpenAIRE

    Borowczyk Martins, Daniel; Vandenberghe, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we explore a matched employer-employee data set to investigate the presence of gender wage discrimination in the Belgian private economy labour market. We identify and measure gender wage discrimination from firm-level data using a labour index decomposition pioneered by Hellerstein and Neumark (1995), which allows us to compare direct estimates of a gender productivity differential with those of a gender labour costs differential. We take advantage of the panel structure of the...

  19. Firm-level Evidence on Gender Wage Discrimination in the Belgian Private Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenberghe, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we explore a matched employer-employee data set to investigate the presence of gender wage discrimination in the Belgian private economy labour market. Contrary to many existing papers, we analyse gender wage discrimination using an independent productivity measure. Using firm-level data, we are able to compare direct estimates of a gender productivity differential with those of a gender wage differential. We take advantage of the panel structure to identify gender-related diffe...

  20. Average daily nitrate and nitrite intake in the Belgian population older than 15 years

    OpenAIRE

    Temme, Liesbeth; Vandevijvere, Stefanie Marie; Vinkx, Christine; Huybrechts, Inge; Goeyens, Leo; Van Oyen, Herman

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the dietary intake of nitrate and nitrite in Belgium. The nitrate content of processed vegetables, cheeses and meat products was analyzed. These data were completed by data from non-targeted official control and from literature. In addition, the nitrite content of meat products was measured. Concentration data for nitrate and nitrite were linked to food consumption data of the Belgian Food Consumption Survey. This study included 3245 res...

  1. Use of Information, Product Innovation and Financial Performance on Belgian Glasshouse Holdings

    OpenAIRE

    Taragola, Nicole; Huylenbroeck, Guido Van; Van Lierde, Dirk

    2002-01-01

    In order to meet the changing needs and preferences of consumers it will be important for Belgian glasshouse growers to change from a production-driven to a customer-driven strategy. More than ever, use of information and product innovation become critical factors in the changing competitive environment. The aim of the research is to analyse the relationship between business and managerial characteristics, use of information sources, product innovation and financial performance of the firm. T...

  2. Mafia Practices and Italian Entrepreneurial Activities in the Belgian Food Sector. Research Objectives

    OpenAIRE

    De Biase, Marco

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to study the social and economic processes which encourage the spread of mafia practices among some Italian entrepreneurs in the Belgian food sector. My working hypothesis is that mafia practices are violent and predatory strategies to monopolize the economic market, which rely on the use of heterogeneous and cross-class social networks. In this view, these activities of old and new Italian entrepreneurs in Belgium are not the result of the exportation of mafia methods thro...

  3. Floating seaweed in the neustonic environment: a case study from Belgian coastal waters

    OpenAIRE

    Vandendriessche, S; Vincx, M.; Degraer, S.

    2007-01-01

    Floating seaweeds form the most important natural component of all floating material found on the surface of oceans and seas. Notwithstanding the absence of natural rocky shores, ephemeral floating seaweed clumps are frequently encountered along the Belgian coast. From October 2002 to April 2003, seaweed samples and control samples (i.e. surface water samples from a seaweed-free area) were collected every other week. Multivariate analysis on neustonic macrofaunal abundances showed significant...

  4. Estimating an Ex Ante Cost Function for Belgian Arable Crop Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Kristiana; Baudry, Alexandre; De Blander, Rembert; Frahan, Bruno Henry de; Polome, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    We estimate a farm-level cost function for Belgian crop farms using FADN data over the study period 1996-2006. We rely on an estimation of farmers' expected yields at the time cropping decisions are made rather than actual yields observed in the FADN data. The use of an ex ante cost function improves the cost function estimation. We subsequently suggest how our cost function can be used in simulations to analyze farmer response to changes in output price risk.

  5. Analysis of business demography using markov chains : an application to Belgian data

    OpenAIRE

    François Coppens; Fabienne Verduyn

    2009-01-01

    This paper applies the theory of finite Markov chains to analyse the demographic evolution of Belgian enterprises. While other methodologies concentrate on the entry and exit of firms, the Markov approach also analyses migrations between economic sectors. Besides helping to provide a fuller picture of the evolution of the population, Markov chains also enable forecasts of its future composition to be made, as well as the computation of average lifetimes of companies by branch of activity. The...

  6. Analysis of business demography using markov chains: an application to Belgian data

    OpenAIRE

    Coppens, François; Verduyn, Fabienne

    2009-01-01

    This paper applies the theory of finite Markov chains to analyse the demographic evolution of Belgian enterprises. While other methodologies concentrate on the entry and exit of firms, the Markov approach also analyses migrations between economic sectors. Besides helping to provide a fuller picture of the evolution of the population, Markov chains also enable forecasts of its future composition to be made, as well as the computation of average lifetimes of companies by branch of activity. The...

  7. Salt water infiltration in two artificial sea inlets in the Belgian dune area

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenbohede, A.; Lebbe, L.; Gysens, S.; Delecluyse, K.; DeWolf, P.

    2008-01-01

    In the dune area of the Westhoek Nature Reserve, situated in the western Belgian coastal plain, two artificial tidal inlets were made aiming to enhance biodiversity. The infiltration of salt water in these tidal inlets was carefully monitored because a fresh water lens is present in the phreatic dune aquifer. This forms an important source of fresh water which is for instance exploited by a water company. The infiltration was monitored over a period of two years by means of electromagnetic bo...

  8. Psychological dimensions of unemployment: a gender comparison between Belgian and South African unemployed.

    OpenAIRE

    Yannick Griep; Sebastiaan Rothmann; Wouter Vleugels; Hans De Witte

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to compare South African and Belgian unemployed in their subjective experience of unemployment, committed towards employment and job search behaviour. We also considered gender differences regarding the psychological dimensions of unemployment between Belgium and South Africa. A cross-sectional survey design was used. Unemployed people were sampled from the Potchefstroom area in South Africa (N = 381) and the Brussels area in Belgium (N = 305). The Experiences of Unemploymen...

  9. The productivity and export spillovers of the internationalisation behaviour of Belgian firms

    OpenAIRE

    Michel Dumont; Bruno Merlevede; Christophe Piette; Glenn Rayp

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses to what extent the decision to start exporting may be subject to spillovers of the internationalisation behaviour of other (foreign and domestic) firms. We distinguish between two possible channels: effects on productivity and effects on the perceived level of sunk costs of exporting. For both channels, we consider geographical and activity or industry-based linkages between firms. For a sample Belgian firms we find evidence of significant spillovers on productivity as wel...

  10. An empirical study on human resource planning in Belgian production companies

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Bergh, Jorne; Belien, Jeroen; Hoskens, Brent

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates human resource planning in Belgian production companies. First, a literature study is developed to serve as a basis for the results of the empirical research. The literature study is mainly based on papers in the field of operations research that provide interesting insights such as the research-application gap, which is the lack of implementation of models provided by literature. The most important part of this paper is the empirical research. The empirical research i...

  11. N Reactor

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The last of Hanfordqaodmasdkwaspemas7ajkqlsmdqpakldnzsdflss nine plutonium production reactors to be built was the N Reactor.This reactor was called a dual purpose...

  12. Power measurement in the 7A2 configuration of the RP-0 reactor using the neutron noise technique connected to a compensated ionized chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of the neutron noise measurements carried out in the 7A2 configuration of the RP-0 reactor using the BC3 rod to reach criticality are presented. These measurements were carried out using a compensated ionized chamber (CIC) located at E2 position. Finally, potential calibration of the march chamber 4 from the reactor instrumentation is presented

  13. Purification and Chemical Control of Molten Li2BeF 4 for a Fluoride Salt Cooled Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, Brian Christopher

    Out of the many proposed generation IV, high-temperature reactors, the molten salt reactor (MSR) is one of the most promising. The first large scale MSR, the molten salt reactor experiment (MSRE), operated from 1965 to 1969 using Li2BeF4, or flibe, as a coolant and solvent for uranium fluoride fuel, at maximum temperatures of 654°C, for over 15000 hours. The MSRE experienced no concept breaking surprises and was considered a success. Newly proposed designs of molten salt reactors use solid fuels, making them less exotic compared to the MSRE. However, any molten salt reactor will require a great deal of research pertaining to the chemical and mechanical mastery of molten salts in order to prepare it for commercialization. To supplement the development of new molten salt reactors, approximately 100 kg of flibe was purified using the standard hydrofluorination process. Roughly half of the purified salt was lithium-7 enriched salt from the secondary loop of the MSRE. Purification rids the salt of impurities and reduces its capacity for corrosion, also known as the redox potential. The redox potential of flibe was measured at various stages of purification for the first time using a dynamic beryllium reference electrode. These redox measurements have been superimposed with metal impurities measurements found by neutron activation analysis. Lastly, reductions of flibe with beryllium metal have been investigated. Over reductions have been performed, which have shown to decrease redox potential while seemingly creating a beryllium-beryllium halide system. Recommendations of the lowest advisable redox potential for corrosion tests are included along with suggestions for future work.

  14. Efficient synthesis of ammonia from N2 and H2 alone in a ferroelectric packed-bed DBD reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ramírez, A.; Cotrino, J.; Lambert, R. M.; González-Elipe, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    A detailed study of ammonia synthesis from hydrogen and nitrogen in a planar dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor was carried out. Electrical parameters were systematically varied, including applied voltage and frequency, electrode gap, and type of ferroelectric material (BaTiO3 versus PZT). For selected operating conditions, power consumption and plasma electron density were estimated from Lissajous diagrams and by application of the Bolsig  +  model, respectively. Optical emission spectroscopy was used to follow the evolution of plasma species (\\text{N}{{\\text{H}}*},{{\\text{N}}*},~{N}2+~\\text{and} ~{N}2* ) as a function of applied voltage with both types of ferroelectric material. PZT gave both greater energy efficiency and higher ammonia yield than BaTiO3: 0.9 g NH3 kWh-1 and 2.7% single pass N2 conversion, respectively. This performance is substantially superior to previously published findings on DBD synthesis of NH3 from N2 and H2 alone. The influence of electrical working parameters, the beneficial effect of PZT and the importance of controlling reactant residence time are rationalized in a reaction model that takes account of the principal process variables

  15. Predicting the environmental risks of radioactive discharges from Belgian nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An environmental risk assessment (ERA) was performed to evaluate the impact on non-human biota from liquid and atmospheric radioactive discharges by the Belgian Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) of Doel and Tihange. For both sites, characterisation of the source term and wildlife population around the NPPs was provided, whereupon the selection of reference organisms and the general approach taken for the environmental risk assessment was established. A deterministic risk assessment for aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems was performed using the ERICA assessment tool and applying the ERICA screening value of 10 μGy h−1. The study was performed for the radioactive discharge limits and for the actual releases (maxima and averages over the period 1999–2008 or 2000–2009). It is concluded that the current discharge limits for the Belgian NPPs considered do not result in significant risks to the aquatic and terrestrial environment and that the actual discharges, which are a fraction of the release limits, are unlikely to harm the environment. -- Highlights: • Impact of radioactive discharges by the Belgian NPPs of Doel and Tihange on wildlife was evaluated. • Deterministic risk assessment for aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems performed with the ERICA tool. • NPP discharge limits do not result in significant risks to the aquatic and terrestrial environment. • Actual discharges, a fraction of the release limits, are unlikely to harm the environment

  16. Benchmark calculation of APOLLO-2 and SLAROM-UF in a fast reactor lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A lattice cell benchmark calculation is carried out for APOLLO2 and SLAROM-UF on the infinite lattice of a simple pin cell featuring a fast reactor. The accuracy in k-infinity and reaction rates is investigated in their reference and standard level calculations. In the 1. reference level calculation, APOLLO2 and SLAROM-UF agree with the reference value of k-infinity obtained by a continuous energy Monte Carlo calculation within 50 pcm. However, larger errors are observed in a particular reaction rate and energy range. The major problem common to both codes is in the cross section library of 239Pu in the unresolved energy range. In the 2. reference level calculation, which is based on the ECCO 1968 group structure, both results of k-infinity agree with the reference value within 100 pcm. The resonance overlap effect is observed by several percents in cross sections of heavy nuclides. In the standard level calculation based on the APOLLO2 library creation methodology, a discrepancy appears by more than 300 pcm. A restriction is revealed in APOLLO2. Its standard cross section library does not have a sufficiently small background cross section to evaluate the self shielding effect on 56Fe cross sections. The restriction can be removed by introducing the mixture self-shielding treatment recently introduced to APOLLO2. SLAROM-UF original standard level calculation based on the JFS-3 library creation methodology is the best among the standard level calculations. Improvement from the SLAROM-UF standard level calculation is achieved mainly by use of a proper weight function for light or intermediate nuclides. (author)

  17. Development of a Prototype Algal Reactor for Removing CO2 from Cabin Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vrajen; Monje, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    Controlling carbon dioxide in spacecraft cabin air may be accomplished using algal photobioreactors (PBRs). The purpose of this project was to evaluate the use of a commercial microcontroller, the Arduino Mega 2560, for measuring key photioreactor variables: dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, light, and carbon dioxide. The Arduino platform is an opensource physical computing platform composed of a compact microcontroller board and a C++/C computer language (Arduino 1.0.5). The functionality of the Arduino platform can be expanded by the use of numerous add-ons or 'shields'. The Arduino Mega 2560 was equipped with the following shields: datalogger, BNC shield for reading pH sensor, a Mega Moto shield for controlling CO2 addition, as well as multiple sensors. The dissolved oxygen (DO) probe was calibrated using a nitrogen bubbling technique and the pH probe was calibrated via an Omega pH simulator. The PBR was constructed using a 2 L beaker, a 66 L box for addition of CO2, a micro porous membrane, a diaphragm pump, four 25 watt light bulbs, a MasterFiex speed controller, and a fan. The algae (wild type Synechocystis PCC6803) was grown in an aerated flask until the algae was dense enough to used in the main reactor. After the algae was grown, it was transferred to the 2 L beaker where CO2 consumption and O2 production was measured using the microcontroller sensor suite. The data was recorded via the datalogger and transferred to a computer for analysis.

  18. Irradiation of Superheater Test Fuel Elements in the Steam Loop of the R2 Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design, fabrication, irradiation results, and post-irradiation examination for three superheater test fuel elements are described. During the spring of 1966 these clusters, each consisting of six fuel rods, were successfully exposed in the superheater loop No. 5 in the R2 reactor for a maximum of 24 days at a maximum outer cladding surface temperature of ∼ 650 deg C. During irradiation the linear heat rating of the rods was in the range 400-535 W/cm. The diameter of the UO2 pellets was 11.5 and 13.0 mm; the wall thickness of the 20/25 Nb and 20/35 cladding was in every case 0.4 mm. The diametrical gap between fuel and cladding was one of the main parameters and was chosen to be 0.05, 0.07 and 0.10 mm. These experiments, to be followed by one high cladding temperature irradiation (∼ 750 deg C) and one long time irradiation (∼ 6000 MWd/tU), were carried out to demonstrate the operational capability of short superheater test fuel rods at steady and transient operational environments for the Marviken superheater fuel elements and also to provide confirmation of design criteria for the same fuel elements

  19. Large-scale Samples Irradiation Facility at the IBR-2 Reactor in Dubna

    CERN Document Server

    Cheplakov, A P; Golubyh, S M; Kaskanov, G Ya; Kulagin, E N; Kukhtin, V V; Luschikov, V I; Shabalin, E P; León-Florián, E; Leroy, C

    1998-01-01

    The irradiation facility at the beam line no.3 of the IBR-2 reactor of the Frank Laboratory for Neutron Physics is described. The facility is aimed at irradiation studies of various objects with area up to 800 cm$^2$ both at cryogenic and ambient temperatures. The energy spectra of neutrons are reconstructed by the method of threshold detector activation. The neutron fluence and $\\gamma$ dose rates are measured by means of alanine and thermoluminescent dosimeters. The boron carbide and lead filters or $(n/\\gamma)$ converter provide beams of different ratio of doses induced by neutrons and photons. For the lead filter, the flux of fast neutrons with energy more than 0.1 MeV is $1.4 \\cdot 10^{10}$ \\fln and the neutron dose is about 96\\% of the total radiation dose. For the $(n/\\gamma)$ converter, the $\\gamma$ dose rate is $\\sim$500 Gy h$^{-1}$ which is about 85\\% of the total dose. The radiation hardness tests of GaAs electronics and materials for the ATLAS detector to be put into operation at the Large Hadron ...

  20. Report on Task 2 in the special working group of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishimoto, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-10-01

    Under international cooperation of four parties of U.S.A., EU, Russia, and Japan, the Engineering Design Activity (EDA) on the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) began in June, 1992, the actions were finished their initial six years programs in 1998, but were not transferred to its construction. Then, an investigation on design option to intend to reduce its construction cost to it's a half was conducted by three years elongation of EDA, for which a Special Working Group (SWG) was established at the 13th ITER boards of directors. The work of this Task 2 was to evaluate some impacts to the Nuclear Fusion Development Program. The report of the Task 2 consists of five chapters, where general nuclear fusion development were discussed at a center of Tokamak. In special, on Chapter 4: Comparison with the other routes, for a modular route claimed by U.S.A., some earnest discussions were conducted by U.S.A. and other three parties, to be anxious to for U.S.A. to suggest to withdraw this work. In this report, four points of Japanese claims on security of flexibility capable of conducting advanced Tokamak research in ITER, safety proof due to positive introduction and test of low activation materials to ITER, and so forth, were all reflected. In the SWG, an opinion that the nuclear fusion program in the world was prepared to start to ITER was agreed by all members. (G.K.)

  1. Report on Task 2 in the special working group of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under international cooperation of four parties of U.S.A., EU, Russia, and Japan, the Engineering Design Activity (EDA) on the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) began in June, 1992, the actions were finished their initial six years programs in 1998, but were not transferred to its construction. Then, an investigation on design option to intend to reduce its construction cost to it's a half was conducted by three years elongation of EDA, for which a Special Working Group (SWG) was established at the 13th ITER boards of directors. The work of this Task 2 was to evaluate some impacts to the Nuclear Fusion Development Program. The report of the Task 2 consists of five chapters, where general nuclear fusion development were discussed at a center of Tokamak. In special, on Chapter 4: Comparison with the other routes, for a modular route claimed by U.S.A., some earnest discussions were conducted by U.S.A. and other three parties, to be anxious to for U.S.A. to suggest to withdraw this work. In this report, four points of Japanese claims on security of flexibility capable of conducting advanced Tokamak research in ITER, safety proof due to positive introduction and test of low activation materials to ITER, and so forth, were all reflected. In the SWG, an opinion that the nuclear fusion program in the world was prepared to start to ITER was agreed by all members. (G.K.)

  2. First experience with the new solid methane moderator at the IBR-2 reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beliakov, A.A.; Shabalin, E.P. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Tretyakov, I.T. [Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2001-03-01

    In the 1999 Fall the solid methane moderator (CM) has been installed and tested at full power at the IBR-2 pulsed reactor. Its main features are a beryllium reflector and a light water premoderator. Radiation load on the methane was three times as much as that of IPNS facility, namely, 0.1 W/g. Effects of temperature, operation time, concentration of a hydrogen scavenger, and annealing procedure on both neutron and service performances were studied. Maximum operation time of a newly loaded portion of methane was 4 days. In this time around 30% of methane is transformed into hydrogen, ethane, and high molecular hydrocarbons, and yet no deterioration in cold neutron intensity was detected. Among new knowledges, the most important are two facts observed: two-fold decrease in hydrogen formation rate when methane is poisoned with 2.5% to 5% of ethylene, and low formation rate of solid, inremovable products of radiolysis - (1.5/3)10{sup -7} g/J, which means that after 10 years of operation the methane chamber will be filled with only 100 g of residue. Gain of factor 20 in cold neutron flux was obtained as compared to the routine grooved light water moderator. Presently, it is the highest among the intense pulsed neutron sources. (author)

  3. Reactor safety issues resolved by the 2D/3D program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 2D/3D Program studied multidimensional thermal-hydraulics in a PWR core and primary system during the end-of-blowdown and post-blowdown phases of a large-break LOCA (LBLOCA), and during selected small-break LOCA (SBLOCA) transients. The program included tests at the Cylindrical Core Test Facility (CCTF), the Slab Core Test Facility (SCTF), and the Upper Plenum Test Facility (UPTF), and computer analyses using TRAC. Tests at CCTF investigated core thermal-hydraulics and overall system behavior while tests at SCTF concentrated on multidimensional core thermal-hydraulics. The UPTF tests investigated two-phase flow behavior in the downcomer, upper plenum, tie plate region, and primary loops. TRAC analyses evaluated thermal-hydraulic behavior throughout the primary system in tests as well as in PWRs. This report summarizes the test and analysis results in each of the main areas where improved information was obtained in the 2D/3D Program. The discussion is organized in terms of the reactor safety issues investigated. This report was prepared in a coordination among US, Germany and Japan. US and Germany have published the report as NUREG/IA-0127 and GRS-101 respectively. (author)

  4. Reactor safety issues resolved by the 2D/3D Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 2D/3D Program studied multidimensional thermal-hydraulics in a PWR core and primary system during the end-of-blowdown and post-blowdown phases of a large-break LOCA (LBLOCA), and during selected small-break LOCA (SBLOCA) transients. The program included tests at the Cylindrical Core Test Facility (CCTF), the Slab Core Test Facility (SCTF), and the Upper Plenum Test Facility (UPTF), and computer analyses using TRAC. Tests at CCTF investigated core thermal-hydraulics and overall system behavior while tests at SCTF concentrated on multidimensional core thermal-hydraulics. The UPTF tests investigated two-phase flow behavior in the downcomer, upper plenum, tie plate region, and primary loops. TRAC analyses evaluated thermal-hydraulic behavior throughout the primary system in tests as well as in PWRs. This report summarizes the test and analysis results in each of the main areas where improved information was obtained in the 2D/3D Program. The discussion is organized in terms of the reactor safety issues investigated

  5. Reactor dynamics experiment of nuclear ship Mutsu using pseudo random signal. 2. The second experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Koji; Shimazaki, Junya; Nabeshima, Kunihiko; Ochiai, Masaaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Shinohara, Yoshikuni; Inoue, Kimihiko

    1995-01-01

    In order to investigate dynamics of the reactor plant of the nuclear ship Mutsu, the second reactor noise experiment using pseudo random binary sequences (PRBS) was performed on August 30, 1991 in the third experimental navigation. The experiments using both reactivity and load disturbances were performed at 50% of reactor power and under a quiet sea condition. Each PRBS was applied by manual operation of the control rod or the main steam valve. Various signals of the plant responses and of the acceleration of ship motion were measured. Furthermore, natural reactor noise signals were measured after each PRBS experiment in order to evaluate the effects of the PRBS disturbances. This paper summarizes the planning of the experiment, the instruction for the experiment and logs, the data recording conditions, recorded signal wave forms and the results of power spectral analysis. (author).

  6. Design of a reactor inlet temperature controller for EBR-2 using state feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new reactor inlet temperature controller for pool type liquid-metal reactors has been developed and will be tested in EBR-II. The controller makes use of modern control techniques to take into account stratification and mixing in the cold pool during normal operation. Secondary flowrate is varied so that the reactor inlet temperature tracks a setpoint while reactor outlet temperature, primary flowrate and secondary cold leg temperature are treated as exogenous disturbances and are free to vary. A disturbance rejection technique minimizes the effect of these disturbances on inlet temperature. A linear quadratic regulator improves inlet temperature response. Tests in EBR-II will provide experimental data for assessing the performance improvements that modern control can produce over the existing EBR-II analog inlet temperature controller. 10 refs., 8 figs

  7. Thermal hydraulic transient study of 3 MW TRIGA Mark-II research reactor of Bangladesh using the EUREKA-2/RR code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Reactor power transition time depends on magnitude and form of reactivity. ► This time also depends on existing reactor power during reactivity insertion. ► Pattern of power transition depends on form of reactivity insertion. ► Doppler’s effect is seen for lower reactivity insertion when reactor power is low. ► EUREKA-2/RR code performs well for RIA and LOFA of TRIGA Mark-II research reactor. - Abstract: EUREKA-2/RR code has been used for the analyses of reactivity insertion accident (RIA) and loss of flow accident (LOFA) of 3 MW TRIGA Mark-II research reactor of Bangladesh. Transient characteristics of different parameters such as core power, fuel temperature, clad temperature, departure from nucleate boiling ratio (DNBR) due to the different form and magnitude of reactivity insertion has been focused. It is found from the analysis that the magnitude of insertion reactivity and the reactor operating power during this insertion impose a total effect on the core safety. Also, transient effects on reactor were studied for 15% loss of flow of the primary coolant. Provided the scram system is available, the reactor is found to shutdown safely in both cases. From these two studies in series, it is seen that EUREKA-2/RR is well suited for the analyses of reactor safety parameters with good approximations.

  8. Licensed operating reactors. Status summary report data as of January 31, 1986. Volume 10, No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is divided into three sections: the first contains monthly highlights and statistics for commercial operating units, and errata from previously reported data; the second is a compilation of detailed information on each unit, provided by NRC Regional Offices, IE Headquarters and the Utilities; and the third section is an appendix for miscellaneous information such as spent fuel storage capability, reactor years of experience and non-power reactors in the United States

  9. REACTOR HAVING NaK-UO$sub 2$ SLURRY HELICALLY POSITIONED IN A GRAPHITE MODERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodin, M.B.; Carter, J.C.

    1962-05-15

    A reactor utilizing 20% enriched uranium consists of a central graphite island in cylindrical form, with a spiral coil of tubing fitting against the central island. An external graphite moderator is placed around the central island and coil. A slurry of uranium dioxide dispersed in alkali metal passes through the coil to transfer heat externally to the reactor. There are also conventional controls for regulating the nuclear reaction. (AEC)

  10. Uranium redistribution under oxidizing conditions in Oklo natural reactor zone 2, Gabon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isobe, H.; Ohnuki, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Murakami, T. [Ehime Univ., Matsuyama, Ehime (Japan); Gauthier-Lafaye, F. [CNRS, Strasbourg (France). Centre de Geochemie de la Surface

    1995-12-31

    This mineralogical study was completed to elucidate the relationships between uranium distribution and alteration products of the host rock of natural reactor zone clays just below the reactor core. Uraninite is preserved without any alteration in the reactor core. Uranium minerals are found to be present in the fractures in the reactor zone clays associated with iron-mineral veins, galena and Ti-bearing minerals. Uranium, for which the phases could not be identified, occurs in iron-mineral veins and the iron-mineral rim of pyrite grains in the reactor zone clays. Uranium is not associated with granular iron minerals occurring in the illite matrix of the reactor zone clays. The degree of crystallinity and uranium content of the three iron-bearing alteration products suggest that they formed under different conditions; the granular iron minerals, under alteration conditions where uranium was not mobilized while the iron-mineral veins and the iron-mineral rim of pyrite, under conditions in which uranium is mobilized after the formation of the granular iron minerals.

  11. Commercial products and services of research reactors. Proceedings of a technical meeting held in Vienna 28 June - 2 July 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the number of operational research reactors is steadily decreasing, more than half of those that remain are greatly underutilized and, in most cases, underfunded. To continue to play a key role in the development of peaceful uses of nuclear technology, the remaining research reactors will need to provide useful products and services to private, national and regional customers, in some cases with adequate revenue generation for reliable, safe and secure facility management and operation. In the light of declining governmental financial support and the need for improved physical security and conversion to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel, many research reactors have been challenged to generate income to offset increasing operational and maintenance costs. The renewed interest in nuclear power (and therefore in nuclear education and training), the global expansion of diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine, and the extensive use of semiconductors in electronics and in other areas have created new opportunities for research reactors, prominent among them, markets for products and services in regions and countries without such facilities. It is clear that such initiatives towards greater self-reliance will need to address such aspects as market surveys, marketing and business plans, and cost of delivery services. It will also be important to better inform present and future potential end users of research reactor services of the capabilities and products that can be provided. This publication is a compilation of material from an IAEA technical meeting on 'Commercial Products and Services of Research Reactors', held in Vienna, Austria, from 28 June to 2 July 2010. The overall objective of the meeting was to exchange information on good practices and to provide concrete examples, in technical presentations and brainstorming discussions, to promote and facilitate the development of commercial applications of research reactors. The meeting also aimed to enhance

  12. First results of the deployment of a SoLid detector module at the SCK-CEN BR2 reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Ryder, Nick

    2015-01-01

    The SoLid experiment aims to resolve the reactor neutrino anomaly by searching for electron-to-sterile anti-neutrino oscillations. The search will be performed between 5.5 and 10 m from the highly enriched uranium core of the BR2 reactor at SCK-CEN. The experiment utilises a novel approach to anti-neutrino detection based on a highly segmented, composite scintillator detector design. High experimental sensitivity can be achieved using a combination of high neutron-gamma discrimination using 6 LiF:ZnS(Ag) and precise localisation of the inverse beta decay products. This compact detector system requires limited passive shielding as it relies on spacial topology to determine the different classes of backgrounds. The first full scale, 288 kg, detector module was deployed at the BR2 reactor in November 2014. A phased three tonne experimental deployment will begin in the second half of 2016, allowing a precise search for oscillations that will resolve the reactor anomaly using a three tonne detector running for thr...

  13. Analysis of supercritical CO{sub 2} cycle control strategies and dynamic response for Generation IV Reactors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moisseytsev, A.; Sienicki, J. J. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

    2011-04-12

    The analysis of specific control strategies and dynamic behavior of the supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton cycle has been extended to the two reactor types selected for continued development under the Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Initiative; namely, the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) and the Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR). Direct application of the standard S-CO{sub 2} recompression cycle to the VHTR was found to be challenging because of the mismatch in the temperature drop of the He gaseous reactor coolant through the He-to-CO{sub 2} reactor heat exchanger (RHX) versus the temperature rise of the CO{sub 2} through the RHX. The reference VHTR features a large temperature drop of 450 C between the assumed core outlet and inlet temperatures of 850 and 400 C, respectively. This large temperature difference is an essential feature of the VHTR enabling a lower He flow rate reducing the required core velocities and pressure drop. In contrast, the standard recompression S-CO{sub 2} cycle wants to operate with a temperature rise through the RHX of about 150 C reflecting the temperature drop as the CO{sub 2} expands from 20 MPa to 7.4 MPa in the turbine and the fact that the cycle is highly recuperated such that the CO{sub 2} entering the RHX is effectively preheated. Because of this mismatch, direct application of the standard recompression cycle results in a relatively poor cycle efficiency of 44.9%. However, two approaches have been identified by which the S-CO{sub 2} cycle can be successfully adapted to the VHTR and the benefits of the S-CO{sub 2} cycle, especially a significant gain in cycle efficiency, can be realized. The first approach involves the use of three separate cascaded S-CO{sub 2} cycles. Each S-CO{sub 2} cycle is coupled to the VHTR through its own He-to-CO{sub 2} RHX in which the He temperature is reduced by 150 C. The three respective cycles have efficiencies of 54, 50, and 44%, respectively, resulting in a net cycle

  14. Nuclear reactor control with fuzzy logic approaches - strengths, weakness, opportunities, and threats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the special track on 'Lessons learned from computational intelligence in nuclear applications' at the forthcoming FLINS 2004 conference on Applied Computational Intelligence (Blankenberge, Belgium, September 1-3, 2004), research experiences on fuzzy logic techniques in applications of nuclear reactor control operation are critically reviewed in this presentation. Assessment of four real fuzzy control applications at the MIT research reactor in the US, the FUGEN heavy water reactor in Japan, the BR1 research reactor in Belgium, and a TRIGA Mark III reactor in Mexico will be examined thought a SWOT analysis (strengths, weakness, opportunities, and threats). Special attention will be paid to the current cooperation between the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN) and the Mexican Nuclear Centre (ININ) on the fuzzy logic control for nuclear reactor control project under the partial support of the National Council for Science and Technology of Mexico (CONACYT). (Author)

  15. Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) for the removal of Hg2+ and Cd2+ from synthetic petrochemical factory wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → We assessed SBR performances to treat synthetic wastewater containing Hg2+ and Cd2+. → SBR was able to remove 76-90% of Hg2+ and 96-98% of Cd2+. → COD removal efficiency and MLVSS was affected by Hg2+ and Cd2+ concentrations. → Removal was not only biological process but also by biosorption process of sludge. - Abstract: Petrochemical factories which manufacture vinyl chloride monomer and poly vinyl chloride (PVC) are among the largest industries which produce wastewater contains mercury and cadmium. The objective of this research is to evaluate the performance of a lab-scale Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) to treat a synthetic petrochemical wastewater containing mercury and cadmium. After acclimatization of the system which lasted 60 days, the SBR was introduced to mercury and cadmium in low concentrations which then was increased gradually to 9.03 ± 0.02 mg/L Hg and 15.52 ± 0.02 mg/L Cd until day 110. The SBR performance was assessed by measuring Chemical Oxygen Demand, Total and Volatile Suspended Solids as well as Sludge Volume Index. At maximum concentrations of the heavy metals, the SBR was able to remove 76-90% of Hg2+ and 96-98% of Cd2+. The COD removal efficiency and MLVSS (microorganism population) in the SBR was affected by mercury and cadmium concentrations in influent. Different species of microorganisms such as Rhodospirilium-like bacteria, Gomphonema-like algae, and sulfate reducing-like bacteria were identified in the system. While COD removal efficiency and MLVSS concentration declined during addition of heavy metals, the appreciable performance of SBR in removal of Hg2+ and Cd2+ implies that the removal in SBR was not only a biological process, but also by the biosorption process of the sludge.

  16. H2 recovery and CO2 capture after water–gas shift reactor using synthesis gas from coal gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a combined test of the WGS (water–gas shift) reactor and a Pd-based composite membrane was carried out for pre-combustion CO2 capture in a coal gasifier. The two series of WGS reactions, i.e., a high-temperature shift and a low-temperature shift, were performed under a gas composition of 60% CO and 40% H2 at 2100 kPa to imitate coal gasification. The CO2 enrichment and H2 recovery tests at 673 K and 2100 kPa with the high-pressure membrane module after the WGS reaction presented the enriched CO2 concentration and H2 recovery ratios of ∼92% and ∼96%, respectively. The long-term stability test showed that the CO2 concentration decreased to 78.2%, and CO was generated and reached to 8.8% in the retentate stream after 47 h because of reverse WGS and CO2 hydrogenation reaction on 316L stainless steel module. The stability test for ∼3137 h showed that these catalytic activities could be successfully prevented using steel with higher Cr and Ni contents, such as 310S. The WGS-membrane combination test using the outlet gas from a real coal gasifier was continued for ∼100 h and showed that the WGS catalysts and membrane module made of 310S would be stable under real conditions. - Highlights: • A WGS/membrane combined test using the outlet gas from real coal gasifier was carried out. • The 316L stainless steel catalysed the RWGS and CO2 hydrogenation. • The catalytic activities could be successfully prevented using steel with a higher Cr and Ni content

  17. Combined catalytic partial oxidation and CO2 reforming of methane over ZrO2-modified Ni/SiO2 catalysts using fluidized-bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickel on zirconium-modified silica was prepared and tested as a catalyst for reforming methane with CO2 and O2 in a fluidized-bed reactor. A conversion of CH4 near thermodynamic equilibrium and low H2/CO ratio (12/CO2-temperature reaction (H2-TPR), CO2-temperature desorption (CO2-TPD) and transmission election microscope (TEM) techniques. Ni sintering was a major reason for the deactivation of pure Ni/SiO2 catalysts, while Ni dispersed highly on a zirconium-promoted Ni/SiO2 catalyst. The different kinds of surface Ni species formed on ZrO2-promoted catalysts might be responsible for its high activity and good resistance to Ni sintering

  18. Conceptual Design of S-CO2 Brayton Cycle Radial Turbomachinery for KAIST Micro Modular Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KAIST proposed a new SMR design, which utilizes S-CO2 as the working fluid. It was named as KAIST MMR. Compared with existing SMR concepts, KAIST MMR has advantages of achieving smaller volume of power conversion unit (PCU) and containing the core and PCU in one vessel for the complete modularization. Authors noticed that the compressor and turbine assumed performances of KAIST MMR were conservatively selected previously. Thus, this paper tries to address the best estimate values of each turbomachinery in 10MWe class KAIST MMR. The turbomachinery size of the S-CO2 cycle is smaller than helium Brayton cycle and steam Rankine cycle. The suggested SMR concept adopts passive cooling system by using air. This method can cool reactor without external electricity supply. Small size and more flexible installation in the inland area will be necessary characteristics for the future nuclear application in the water limited region. KAIST MMR meets all these requirements by utilizing S-CO2 as a working fluid. This paper presents the work for further increasing the system performance by estimating the component efficiency more realistically. The cycle layout adopted for the application is S-CO2 recuperated Brayton cycle. The best efficiency of compressor and turbine was evaluated to be 84.94% and 90.94%, respectively. By using KAIST in-house code, thermal efficiency and net output were increased to 35.81% and 12.45MWe, respectively, for the same core thermal power. More refined cycle layout and suitable turbomachinery design will be performed in the near future

  19. Highly Selective H2 Separation Zeolite Membranes for Coal Gasification Membrane Reactor Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei Hong; Richard D. Noble; John L. Falconer

    2006-09-24

    Zeolite membranes are thermally, chemically, and mechanically stable. They also have tunable molecular sieving and catalytic ability. These unique properties make zeolite membrane an excellent candidate for use in catalytic membrane reactor applications related to coal conversion and gasification, which need high temperature and high pressure range separation in chemically challenging environment where existing technologies are inefficient or unable to operate. Small pore, good quality, and thin zeolite membranes are needed for highly selective H{sub 2} separation from other light gases (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO). However, zeolite membranes have not been successful for H{sub 2} separation from light gases because the zeolite pores are either too big or the membranes have a large number of defects. The objective of this study is to develop zeolite membranes that are more suitable for H{sub 2} separation. In an effort to tune the size of zeolite pores and/or to decrease the number of defects, medium-pore zeolite B-ZSM-5 (MFI) membranes were synthesized and silylated. Silylation on B-ZSM-5 crystals reduced MFI-zeolite pore volume, but had little effect on CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption. Silylation on B-ZSM-5 membranes increased H{sub 2} selectivity both in single component and in mixtures with CO{sub 2}CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, or N2. Single gas and binary mixtures of H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} were separated through silylated B-ZSM-5 membranes at feed pressures up to 1.7 MPa and temperatures up to 773 K. For one BZSM-5 membrane after silylation, the H2/CO{sub 2} separation selectivity at 473 K increased from 1.4 to 37, whereas the H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} separation selectivity increased from 1.6 to 33. Hydrogen permeance through a silylated B-ZSM-5 membrane was activated, but the CO{sub 2} and CH4 permeances decreased slightly with temperature in both single gas and in mixtures. Therefore, the H{sub 2} permeance and H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} and H{sup 2} /CH{sub 4

  20. Calculation of the cost of Generating Power in a Fast Reactor by the Discounting Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of calculating the discounted cost of fuel cycles, using a computer, was presented during the 2nd Nuclear Meeting of the Forum Atómico Español held in Madrid during 27-28 October 1966. This method had been developed for optimization studies in relation to a 1000-MW(e) fast reactor under the ''Fast Reactors'' partnership agreement concluded between Euratom and the Belgian Government. The object of the paper is to describe how the method is applied and to analyse the initial results obtained with it. The calculational code, for use with an IBM 360 computer, consists of two parts. In the first part, the reactor characteristics necessary for the economic computations are determined; these consist essentially of the initial and final composition of the fuel (isotopic composition, plutonium content, proportion of inert material, fuel weight) and the time during which the fuel remains in the reactor. These characteristics are computed for each zone of the core, and of the axial and radial breeding blankets. In the second part of the code, the fuel cycle characteristics are first calculated: doubling time and various factors required for feasibility studies (loading and unloading factors, inventory factors in terms of natural uranium or 239Pu equivalent). The various specific costs are then determined by means of sub-routines. The discounting calculations are performed for each reactor zone and combined into two separate groups: costs discounted to the time of reactor start-up and costs discounted to shut-down. Two approaches are then possible, depending on whether the fissile material is purchased or leased from a national or international organization (this in turn depends on whether private ownership of fissile materials is permitted). The costs, expressed in kWh, are then grouped by zone and by type of operation (transport, manufacture, etc.), and sub-divided into fixed and variable costs, and operating and capital costs. The method has been applied to the

  1. Biological CO2 conversion to acetate in subsurface coal-sand formation using a high-pressure reactor system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko eOhtomo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Geological CO2 sequestration in unmineable subsurface oil/gas fields and coal formations has been proposed as a means of reducing anthropogenic greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere. However, the feasibility of injecting CO2 into subsurface depends upon a variety of geological and economic conditions, and the ecological consequences are largely unpredictable. In this study, we developed a new flow-through-type reactor system to examine potential geophysical, geochemical and microbiological impacts associated with CO2 injection by simulating in situ pressure (0–100 MPa and temperature (0–70°C conditions. Using the reactor system, anaerobic artificial fluid and CO2 (flow rate: 0.002 and 0.00001 mL/min, respectively were continuously supplemented into a column comprised of bituminous coal and sand under a pore pressure of 40 MPa (confined pressure: 41 MPa at 40°C for 56 days. 16S rRNA gene analysis of the bacterial components showed distinct spatial separation of the predominant taxa in the coal and sand over the course of the experiment. Cultivation experiments using sub-sampled fluids revealed that some microbes survived, or were metabolically active, under CO2-rich conditions. However, no methanogens were activated during the experiment, even though hydrogenotrophic and methylotrophic methanogens were obtained from conventional batch-type cultivation at 20°C. During the reactor experiment, the acetate and methanol concentration in the fluids increased while the δ13Cacetate, H2 and CO2 concentrations decreased, indicating the occurrence of homo-acetogenesis. 16S rRNA genes of homo-acetogenic spore-forming bacteria related to the genus Sporomusa were consistently detected from the sandstone after the reactor experiment. Our results suggest that the injection of CO2 into a natural coal-sand formation preferentially stimulates homo-acetogenesis rather than methanogenesis, and that this process is accompanied by biogenic CO2 conversion to

  2. Characterization of mandibular molar root and canal morphology using cone beam computed tomography and its variability in Belgian and Chilean population samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Andres; Jacobs, Reinhilde; Lambrechts, Paul [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Brizuela, Claudia; Cabrera, Carolina; Concha, Guillermo; Pedemonte, Maria Eugenia [Universidad de los Andes, Santiago (Chile)

    2015-06-15

    This study used cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) to characterize mandibular molar root and canal morphology and its variability in Belgian and Chilean population samples. We analyzed the CBCT images of 515 mandibular molars (257 from Belgium and 258 from Chile). Molars meeting the inclusion criteria were analyzed to determine (1) the number of roots; (2) the root canal configuration; (3) the presence of a curved canal in the cross-sectional image of the distal root in the mandibular first molar and (4) the presence of a C-shaped canal in the second mandibular molar. A descriptive analysis was performed. The association between national origin and the presence of a curved or C-shaped canal was evaluated using the chi-squared test. The most common configurations in the mesial root of both molars were type V and type III. In the distal root, type I canal configuration was the most common. Curvature in the cross-sectional image was found in 25% of the distal canals of the mandibular first molars in the Belgian population, compared to 11% in the Chilean population. The prevalence of C-shaped canals was 10% or less in both populations. In cases of unclear or complex root and canal morphology in the mandibular molars, CBCT imaging might assist endodontic specialists in making an accurate diagnosis and in treatment planning.

  3. Characterization of mandibular molar root and canal morphology using cone beam computed tomography and its variability in Belgian and Chilean population samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study used cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) to characterize mandibular molar root and canal morphology and its variability in Belgian and Chilean population samples. We analyzed the CBCT images of 515 mandibular molars (257 from Belgium and 258 from Chile). Molars meeting the inclusion criteria were analyzed to determine (1) the number of roots; (2) the root canal configuration; (3) the presence of a curved canal in the cross-sectional image of the distal root in the mandibular first molar and (4) the presence of a C-shaped canal in the second mandibular molar. A descriptive analysis was performed. The association between national origin and the presence of a curved or C-shaped canal was evaluated using the chi-squared test. The most common configurations in the mesial root of both molars were type V and type III. In the distal root, type I canal configuration was the most common. Curvature in the cross-sectional image was found in 25% of the distal canals of the mandibular first molars in the Belgian population, compared to 11% in the Chilean population. The prevalence of C-shaped canals was 10% or less in both populations. In cases of unclear or complex root and canal morphology in the mandibular molars, CBCT imaging might assist endodontic specialists in making an accurate diagnosis and in treatment planning

  4. Silicon Carbide Nanoparticles Produced by CO2 Laser Pyrolysis of SiH4/C2H2 Gas Mixtures in a Flow Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsed CO2-laser-induced decomposition of different mixtures of SiH4 and C2H2 in a flow reactor has been employed to produce silicon carbide clusters and nanoparticles with varying content of carbon. The as-synthesized species were extracted from the reaction zone by a conical nozzle and expanded into the source chamber of a cluster beam apparatus where, after having traversed a differential chamber, they were analyzed with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Thin films of silicon carbide nanoclusters were produced by depositing the clusters at low energy on potassium bromide and sapphire windows mounted into the differential chamber. At the same time, Si and SiC nanoparticles were collected in a filter placed into the exhaust line of the flow reactor. Both beam and powder samples were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy. The close resemblance of the spectra suggests that the composition of the beam and powder particles obtained during the same run is nearly identical. XRD spectroscopy could only be employed for the investigation of the powders. It was found that CO2 laser pyrolysis is ideally suited to produce silicon carbide nanoparticles with a high degree of crystallinity. Nanopowders produced from the pyrolysis of a stoichiometric (2:1) mixture of SiH4/C2H2 were found to contain particles or domains of pure silicon. The characteristic silicon features in the FTIR and XRD spectra, however, disappeared when C2H2 was applied in excess

  5. The Neutronic And Power Distribution Calculations For Triga 2 MW Reactor Using WIMS-D/4 And Citation Codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    . The neutronic calculation has been carried out for TRIGA 2 MW reactor. These included criticality flux and power distributions. Computer code Citation which solves 7-groups, 3-dimensional hexagonal geometry has been used. The multi groups-cross-section is generated by the WIMS-D/4 code.This 7-group-39x39x38-mesh-points problem takes about 90 minutes on the Pentium-133 MHz PC. The calculation of the initial core of TRIGA 2 MW reactor shows that the excess reactivity of the core is 7,8% and the thermal fluxes in the irradiation positions are between 1.0-2.9*1013n cm-2s-1. The results are about 10% deviate from those calculated by General Atomics. In the initial core, the highest power is produced in the C-9 position. The fuel element in this position produces 30.7 k W thermal power

  6. Results of Reactor Materials Experiments Investigating 2-D Core-Concrete Interaction and Debris Coolability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The OECD-sponsored Melt Coolability and Concrete Interaction (MCCI) program is conducting reactor materials experiments and associated analysis to achieve the following objectives: 1) resolution of the ex-vessel debris coolability issue, and 2) address remaining uncertainties related to long-term two-dimensional molten core-concrete interactions under both wet and dry cavity conditions. Achievement of these two objectives will demonstrate the efficacy of severe accident management guidelines for existing plants and provide the technical basis for better containment designs of future plants. With respect to the second objective, there remain uncertainties in the models that evaluate the lateral vs. axial power split during core-concrete interaction because of a lack of truly two-dimensional experiment data. As a first step in bridging this gap, a large scale Core-Concrete Interaction experiment (CCI-1) has been conducted as part of the MCCI program. This test investigated the interaction of a 400 kg core-oxide melt with a crucible made of siliceous concrete along two walls and the base. The two remaining walls were made of non-ablative magnesium oxide. The initial phase of the test was conducted under dry conditions. After a predefined ablation depth was achieved, the cavity was flooded to obtain data on the coolability of a core melt after core-concrete interaction has progressed for some time. This paper provides a description of the test facility and an overview of results from this test. (authors)

  7. PHISICS improvements and comparative study with ERANOS 2.2 on the GEN-IV lead-cooled fast reactor concept, ALFRED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent improvements in the PHISICS code are listed and discussed. Also, the assessment of the PHISICS code for fast reactor design applications is considered. For this purpose a comparison with the deterministic code ERANOS 2.2 and the stochastic MCNPX is performed on the lead-cooled concept ALFRED. The results indicate good general agreement between the codes on the integral quantities usually of interest in reactor design. Also the analysis highlighted PHISICS's possibility of keeping low the computational time even when using higher order approximations. (author)

  8. Compilation of reports of the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards, 1957-1984. Volume 2. Project Reviews G-P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This six-volume compilation contains over 1000 reports prepared by the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards from September 1957 through December 1984. The reports are divided into two groups: Part 1: ACRS Reports on Project Reviews, and Part 2: ACRS Reports on Generic Subjects. Part 1 contains ACRS reports alphabetized by project name and within project name by chronological order. Part 2 categorizes the reports by the most appropriate generic subject area and within subject area by chronological order

  9. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a reference boiling water reactor power station. Classification of decommissioning wastes. Addendum 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactive wastes expected to result from decommissioning of the reference boiling water reactor power station are reviewed and classified in accordance with 10 CFR 61. The 18,949 cubic meters of waste from DECON are classified as follows: Class A, 97.5%; Class B, 2.0%; Class C, 0.3%. About 0.2% (47 cubic meters) of the waste would be generally unacceptable for disposal using near-surface disposal methods

  10. Updated Generation IV Reactors Integrated Materials Technology Program Plan, Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corwin, William R [ORNL; Burchell, Timothy D [ORNL; Halsey, William [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Hayner, George [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); Katoh, Yutai [ORNL; Klett, James William [ORNL; McGreevy, Timothy E [ORNL; Nanstad, Randy K [ORNL; Ren, Weiju [ORNL; Snead, Lance Lewis [ORNL; Stoller, Roger E [ORNL; Wilson, Dane F [ORNL

    2005-12-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Program will address the research and development (R&D) necessary to support next-generation nuclear energy systems. Such R&D will be guided by the technology roadmap developed for the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) over two years with the participation of over 100 experts from the GIF countries. The roadmap evaluated over 100 future systems proposed by researchers around the world. The scope of the R&D described in the roadmap covers the six most promising Generation IV systems. The effort ended in December 2002 with the issue of the final Generation IV Technology Roadmap [1.1]. The six most promising systems identified for next generation nuclear energy are described within the roadmap. Two employ a thermal neutron spectrum with coolants and temperatures that enable hydrogen or electricity production with high efficiency (the Supercritical Water Reactor - SCWR and the Very High Temperature Reactor - VHTR). Three employ a fast neutron spectrum to enable more effective management of actinides through recycling of most components in the discharged fuel (the Gas-cooled Fast Reactor - GFR, the Lead-cooled Fast Reactor - LFR, and the Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor - SFR). The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) employs a circulating liquid fuel mixture that offers considerable flexibility for recycling actinides, and may provide an alternative to accelerator-driven systems. A few major technologies have been recognized by DOE as necessary to enable the deployment of the next generation of advanced nuclear reactors, including the development and qualification of the structural materials needed to ensure their safe and reliable operation. Accordingly, DOE has identified materials as one of the focus areas for Gen IV technology development.

  11. High temperature reactor: Driving force to convert CO2 to fuel - HTR2008-58132

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rapidly increasing cost of petroleum products and uncertainty of long-term supply have prompted the U.S. military to aggressively pursue production of alternative fuels (synfuels) such as coal-to-liquids (CTL). U.S. Air Force is particularly active in this effort while the entire military is involved in simultaneously developing fuel specifications for alternative fuels that enable a single fuel for the entire battle space; all ground vehicles, aircraft and fuel cells. By limiting its focus on coal, tar sands and oil shale resources, the military risks violating federal law which requires the use of synfuels that have life cycle greenhouse gas emissions less than or equal to emissions from conventional petroleum fuels. A climate-friendly option would use a high temperature nuclear reactor to split water. The hydrogen (H2) would be used in the reverse water gas shift (RWGS) to react with carbon dioxide (CO2) to produce carbon monoxide (CO) and water. The oxygen (O2) would be fed into a supercritical (SC) coal furnace. The flue gas CO2 emissions would be stripped of impurities before reacting with H2 in a RWGS process. Resultant carbon monoxide (CO) is fed, with additional H2, (extra H2 needed to adjust the stoichiometry: 2 moles H2 to one mole CO) into a conventional Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) to produce a heavy wax which is cracked and isomerized and refined to Jet Propulsion 8 (JP-8) and Jet Propulsion 5 (JP-5) fuels. The entire process offers valuable carbon-offsets and multiple products that contribute to lower syn-fuel costs and to comply with the federal limitation imposed on syn-fuel purchases. While the entire process is not commercially available, component parts are being researched; their physical and chemical properties understood and some are state-of-the-art technologies. An international consortium should complete physical, chemical and economic flow sheets to determine the feasibility of this concept that, if pursued, has broad applications

  12. Synthesis of Biodiesel Using ZrO2 Polycrystalline Ceramic Foam Catalyst in a Tubular Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yunpu; Fan Liangliang; Dai Leilei; Liu Yuhuan; Ruan Roger; Liu Shitao; Zhang Xueqin; Wan Yiqin

    2015-01-01

    With the help of the ceramic foam research efforts and preparation techniques, the ZrO2 polycrystalline ceramic foam catalyst was synthesized, and its characteristics, including the crystal structure, the phase composition, the acid–base properties, and the microstructure, were analyzed by XRD, SEM, Py-IR, and BET techniques. The performance of the ZrO2 polycrystalline ceramic foam catalyst in a tubular reactor was investigated via biodiesel synthesis using S. wilsoniana oil and methanol. The effects of reaction conditions (i.e., reaction temperature, reaction pressure, and volume ratio of methanol to S. wilsoniana oil) on transesteriifcation efifciency were investigated, and the reaction conditions were optimized using RSM. The optimum reaction temperature, reaction pressure, and volume ratio of methanol to S. wilsoniana oil were de-termined to be 290℃, 10 MPa, and 4:1, respectively. Under this condition, the FAME content in the product oil reached 98.38%. The performance of the ZrO2 polycrystalline ceramic foam catalyst synthesized in this work for biodiesel synthesis from S. wilsoniana oil with a moisture content of 7.1%and an acid value of 130.697 mg KOH/g was examined, and the FAME content in the product oil was found to be 93%and 97.67%, respectively. The FAME content in the product oil ex-ceeded 97%after ifve consecutive cycles (12 h per cycle of use) of the catalyst. The proposed catalyst represents a new type of solid catalyst with excellent acid resistance, water resistance, esteriifcation efifciency, and catalytic stability.

  13. Thermal hydraulic and neutron kinetic simulation of the Angra 2 reactor using a RELAP5/PARCS coupled model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Patricia A.L.; Costa, Antonella L.; Hamers, Adolfo R.; Pereira, Claubia; Rodrigues, Thiago D.A.; Mantecon, Javier G.; Veloso, Maria A.F., E-mail: patricialire@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: antonella@nuclear.ufmg.br, E-mail: adolforomerohamers@hotmail.com, E-mail: claubia@nuclear.ufmg.br, E-mail: thiagodanielbh@gmail.com, E-mail: mantecon1987@gmail.com, E-mail: dora@nuclear.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Instituto Nacional de Ciencias e Tecnologia de Reatores Nucleares Inovadores (INCT/CNPq), Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Miro, Rafael; Verdu, Gumersindo, E-mail: rmiro@iqn.upv.es, E-mail: gverdu@iqn.upv.es [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (Spain). Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    The computational advances observed in the last two decades have been provided direct impact on the researches related to nuclear simulations, which use several types of computer codes, including coupled between them, allowing representing with very accuracy the behavior of nuclear plants. Studies of complex scenarios in nuclear reactors have been improved by the use of thermal-hydraulic (TH) and neutron kinetics (NK) coupled codes. This technique consists in incorporating three-dimensional (3D) neutron modeling of the reactor core into codes, mainly to simulate transients that involve asymmetric core spatial power distributions and strong feedback effects between neutronics and reactor thermal-hydraulics. Therefore, this work presents preliminary results of TH RELAP5 and the NK PARCS calculations applied to model of the Angra 2 reactor. The WIMSD-5B code has been used to generate the macroscopic cross sections used in the NK code. The results obtained are satisfactory and represent important part of the development of this methodology. The next step is to couple the codes. (author)

  14. Assessment of Extent and Degree of Thermal Damage to Polymeric Materials in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal damage to susceptible materials in accessible regions of the TMI-2 reactor building shows damage-distribution patterns that indicate non-uniform intensity of exposure. No clear explanation for non-uniformity is found in existing evidence; e.g., in some regions a lack of thermally susceptible materials frustrates analysis. Elsewhere, burned materials are present next to materials that seem similar but appear unscathed-leading to conjecture that the latter materials preferentially absorb water vapor during periods of high local steam concentration. Most of the polar crane pendant shows heavy burns on one half of its circumferential surface. This evidence suggests that the polar crane pendant side that experienced heaviest burn damage was exposed to intense radiant energy from a transient fire plume in the reactor containment volume. Tests and simple heat-transfer calculations based on pressure and temperature records from the accident show that the atmosphere inside the reactor building was probably 8% hydrogen in air, a value not inconsistent with the extent of burn damage. Burn-pattern geography indicates uniform thermal exposure in the dome volume to the 406-ft level (about 6 ft below the polar crane girder), partial thermal exposure in the volume between the 406- and 347-ft levels as indicated by the polar crane cable, and lack of damage to most thermally susceptible materials in the west quadrant of the reactor building; some evidence of thermal exposure Is seen in the free volume between the 305- and 347-ft levels. (author)

  15. Analysis of supercritical CO{sub 2} cycle control strategies and dynamic response for Generation IV Reactors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moisseytsev, A.; Sienicki, J. J. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

    2011-04-12

    The analysis of specific control strategies and dynamic behavior of the supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton cycle has been extended to the two reactor types selected for continued development under the Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Initiative; namely, the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) and the Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR). Direct application of the standard S-CO{sub 2} recompression cycle to the VHTR was found to be challenging because of the mismatch in the temperature drop of the He gaseous reactor coolant through the He-to-CO{sub 2} reactor heat exchanger (RHX) versus the temperature rise of the CO{sub 2} through the RHX. The reference VHTR features a large temperature drop of 450 C between the assumed core outlet and inlet temperatures of 850 and 400 C, respectively. This large temperature difference is an essential feature of the VHTR enabling a lower He flow rate reducing the required core velocities and pressure drop. In contrast, the standard recompression S-CO{sub 2} cycle wants to operate with a temperature rise through the RHX of about 150 C reflecting the temperature drop as the CO{sub 2} expands from 20 MPa to 7.4 MPa in the turbine and the fact that the cycle is highly recuperated such that the CO{sub 2} entering the RHX is effectively preheated. Because of this mismatch, direct application of the standard recompression cycle results in a relatively poor cycle efficiency of 44.9%. However, two approaches have been identified by which the S-CO{sub 2} cycle can be successfully adapted to the VHTR and the benefits of the S-CO{sub 2} cycle, especially a significant gain in cycle efficiency, can be realized. The first approach involves the use of three separate cascaded S-CO{sub 2} cycles. Each S-CO{sub 2} cycle is coupled to the VHTR through its own He-to-CO{sub 2} RHX in which the He temperature is reduced by 150 C. The three respective cycles have efficiencies of 54, 50, and 44%, respectively, resulting in a net cycle

  16. Experimental determination of neutron capture cross sections of fast reactor structure materials integrated in intermediate energy spectra. Vol. 2: description of experimental structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A selection of technical documents is given concerning the experimental determination of the neutron capture cross-sections of fast reactor structural materials (Fe, Cr, Ni...) integrated over the intermediate energy spectra. The experimental structure project and modifications of the reactor RB2 for this experiment, together with criticality and safety calculations, are presented

  17. The catalytic hydrogenation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene in a continuous stirred three-phase slurry reactor with an evaporting solvent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.; Janssen, H.J.; Kwast, van der H.J.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental study of the catalytic hydorgenation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT) in a mini-installation with a continuously operated stirred three-phase slurry reactor and an evaporating solvent is discussed. Some characteristic properties of the reactor system and the influence of the operating par

  18. Fission product release from UO2 during irradiation. Diffusion data and their application to reactor fuel pins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Release of fission product species from UO2, and to a limited extent from (U, Pu)02 was studied using small scale in-reactor experiments in which these interacting variables may be separated, as far as is possible, and their influences assessed. Experiments were at fuel ratings appropriate to water reactor fuel elements and both single crystal and poly-crystalline specimens were used. They employed highly enriched uranium such that the relative number of fissions occurring in plutonium formed by neutron capture was small. The surface to volume ratio (S/V) of the specimens was well defined thus reducing the uncertainties in the derivation of diffusion coefficients. These experiments demonstrate many of the important characteristics of fission product behaviour in UO2 during irradiation. The samples used for these experiments were small being always less than 1g with a fissile content usually between 2 and 5mg. Polycrystalline materials were taken from batches of production fuel prepared by conventional pressing and sintering techniques. The enriched single crystals were grown from a melt of sodium and potassium chloride doped with UO2 powder 20% 235U content. The irradiations were performed in the DIDO reactor at Harwell. The neutron flux at the specimen was 4x1016 neutrons m-2s-1 providing a heat rating within the samples of 34.5 MW/teU

  19. HIBALL - a conceptual heavy ion beam driven fusion reactor study. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary concept for a heavy-ion beam driven inertial confinement fusion power plant is presented. The high repetition rate of the RF accelerator driver is utilized to serve four reactor chambers alternatingly. In the chambers a novel first-wall protection scheme is used. At a target gain of 83 the total net electrical output is 3.8 GW. The recirculating power fraction is below 15%. The main goal of the comprehensive HIBALL study (which is continuing) is to demonstrate the compatibility of the design of the driver, the target and the reactor chambers. Though preliminary, the present design is essentially self-consistent. Tentative cost estimates are given. The costs compare well with those found in similar studies on other types of fusion reactors. (orig.)

  20. Conceptual design of magnets with CIC conductors for LHD-type reactors FFHR2m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LHD-type reactors have attractive features for fusion power plants, such as no requirement of a current drive and a wide space between the helical coils for the maintenance of in-vessel components. One disadvantage was considered the requirement of a large major radius to attain the self-ignition condition with a sufficient space for blankets. According to the recent reactor studies based on experimental results in LHD, the major radius of plasma is set at 14 to 17 m with the central toroidal field of 6 to 4 T. The stored magnetic energy is estimated at 120 to 130 GJ. Both the major radius and the magnetic energy are three times as large as those for ITER. We intend to summarize the requirements for superconducting magnets of the LHD-type reactors and propose a conceptual design of the magnets with cable-in-conduit (CIC) conductors based on the technology for ITER. (author)

  1. Fuel performance in the Barsebeck boiling water reactors (Unit 1 and 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sydkraft is the largest privately owned utility in Sweden. It serves about 20% of the Swedish population with about 12 TWh of electric power per year, of which 64% is nuclear (1978 figures). The two identical 590 MWE ASEA-ATOM boiling water reactors in Barsebeck have been in operation since 1975 and 1977 respectively. Fission product activity in the primary circuits and in the off-gas systems is extremely low and indicate a near perfect fuel condition. Operating restrictions limiting the effect of pellet cladding interaction have been in use since initial start-up and testing. A few events involving rapid power increases above the preconditioned power level have occurred without causing fuel failures. It is believed that an analysis of power reactor operational transients, which did not cause fuel failures, can be useful to design more adequate and less conservative rules for the operation of nuclear reactor cores

  2. Licensed operating reactors: Status summary report, Data as of 2-28-87

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Operating Units Status Report- Licensed Operating Reactors provides data on the operation of nuclear units as timely and accurately as possible. This information is collected by the Office of Administration and Resources Management from the Headquarters staff of NRC's Office of Enforcement (OE), from NRC's Regional Offices, and from utilities. The three sections of the report are: monthly highlights and statistics for commercial operating units, and errata from previously reported data; a compilation of detailed information on each unit, provided by NRC's Regional Offices, OE Headquarters and the utilities; and an appendix for miscellaneous information such as spent fuel storage capability, reactor-years of experience and non-power reactors in the US. It is hoped the report is helpful to all agencies and individuals interested in maintaining an awareness of the US energy situation as a whole

  3. Conceptual Design of Magnets with CIC Conductors for LHD-type Reactors FFHR2m

    OpenAIRE

    Imagawa, Shinsaku; SAGARA, Akio; Kozaki, Yasuji

    2008-01-01

    LHD-type reactors have attractive features for fusion power plants, such as no requirement of a current drive and a wide space between the helical coils for the maintenance of in-vessel components. One disadvantage was considered the requirment of a large major radius to attain the self-ignition condition with a sufficient space for blankets. According to the recent reactor studies based on experimental results in LHD, the major radius of plasma is set at 14 to 17 m with the central toroidal ...

  4. The pre-licensing of a multi-purpose hybrid research reactor for high-tech applications 'MYRRHA'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Belgian Nuclear Research Centre in Mol has been working for several years on the design of a multi-purpose flexible irradiation facility in order to replace the ageing BR2, a multipurpose materials testing reactor (MTR), in operation since 1962. MYRRHA, a flexible fast spectrum research reactor is conceived as an accelerator driven system (ADS), able to operate in sub-critical and critical modes. It contains a proton accelerator of 600 MeV, a spallation target and a multiplying medium with MOX fuel, cooled by liquid lead-bismuth (Pb-Bi). Since February 2011, the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre has engaged in a 'pre-licensing' process with the regulatory authority for an estimated period up to mid 2014. The paper presents on the one hand the objectives of the pre-licensing phase as well as its implementation process and on the other hand, 2 implementing instruments which have been developed by the regulatory authority providing guidance to the designer of MYRRHA in order to meet the pre-licensing phase objectives. The first instrument is a strategic note for the design and operation of MYRRHA where as the second instrument is a guidance document for the format and content of a design options and provisions file (DOPF). Both instruments have been developed taking into account that MYRRHA is an irradiation facility using a Generation IV nuclear power system's type technology (liquid metal cooled fast neutron reactor). The strategic note overview aims to cover the safety approach as well as the security requirements and safeguards obligation applicable to MYRRHA. In particular, in the strategic note, a specific attention has been paid in order to ensure that a safety, security and safeguards integrated approach will drive the development of the MYRRHA design. The safety approach focuses on the safety goals and the minimum safety objectives set by the regulatory authority for this innovative design. The DOPF overview presents its objectives and structure resuming

  5. COMBINING A SEQUENCING BATCH REACTOR WITH HETEROGENEOUS PHOTOCATALYSIS (TiO2/UV) FOR TREATING A PENCIL MANUFACTURER'S WASTEWATER

    OpenAIRE

    R. N. Padovan; E. B. Azevedo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) was combined with heterogeneous photocatalysis (TiO2/UV) as a tertiary treatment for a pencil manufacturer's wastewater. The SBR removed almost all Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) from the wastewater, although color was barely removed. Photocatalysis was optimized using a factorial design. Final COD, Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC), and color removals were 95%, 80%, and 93%, respectively. Treated wastewater showed no ecotoxicity towards Lactuca sativa. Co...

  6. Visible-Light-Responsive Photocatalysis: Ag-Doped TiO2 Catalyst Development and Reactor Design Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, Janelle L.; Hintze, Paul E.; Meier, Anne; Shah, Malay G.; Devor, Robert W.; Surma, Jan M.; Maloney, Phillip R.; Bauer, Brint M.; Mazyck, David W.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the alteration of titanium dioxide to become visible-light-responsive (VLR) has been a major focus in the field of photocatalysis. Currently, bare titanium dioxide requires ultraviolet light for activation due to its band gap energy of 3.2 eV. Hg-vapor fluorescent light sources are used in photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) reactors to provide adequate levels of ultraviolet light for catalyst activation; these mercury-containing lamps, however, hinder the use of this PCO technology in a spaceflight environment due to concerns over crew Hg exposure. VLR-TiO2 would allow for use of ambient visible solar radiation or highly efficient visible wavelength LEDs, both of which would make PCO approaches more efficient, flexible, economical, and safe. Over the past three years, Kennedy Space Center has developed a VLR Ag-doped TiO2 catalyst with a band gap of 2.72 eV and promising photocatalytic activity. Catalyst immobilization techniques, including incorporation of the catalyst into a sorbent material, were examined. Extensive modeling of a reactor test bed mimicking air duct work with throughput similar to that seen on the International Space Station was completed to determine optimal reactor design. A bench-scale reactor with the novel catalyst and high-efficiency blue LEDs was challenged with several common volatile organic compounds (VOCs) found in ISS cabin air to evaluate the system's ability to perform high-throughput trace contaminant removal. The ultimate goal for this testing was to determine if the unit would be useful in pre-heat exchanger operations to lessen condensed VOCs in recovered water thus lowering the burden of VOC removal for water purification systems.

  7. The Low Temperature Oxidation of 2,7-Dimethyloctane in a Pressurized Flow Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid, Farinaz

    The complexity of real fuels has fostered the use of simple mixtures of hydrocarbons whose combustion behavior approximates that of real fuels in both experimental and computational studies to develop models of the combustion of the real fuel. These simple mixtures have been called surrogates. Lightly branched paraffins are an important class of constituents in gasoline, diesel and aviation turbine fuels and therefore are primary candidates for use as a component in a surrogate. Unfortunately, fundamental studies on combustion characteristics of high molecular weight mono- and di-methylated iso-paraffins are scarce. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the low-temperature oxidation of 2,7-dimethyloctane (2,7-DMO) (C10H22), a lightly branched isomer of decane. Replicate 2,7-DMO oxidation experiments were conducted in a pressurized flow reactor (PFR) over the temperature range of 550 -- 850 K, at a pressure of 8 atm and an equivalence ratio of 0.3 in 4.21% oxygen / nitrogen. The reactivity was mapped by continuous monitoring of CO, CO 2, and O2 using a non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) carbon monoxide / carbon dioxide analyzer and an electrochemical oxygen sensor. For examining the underlying reaction chemistry, detailed speciation of samples was performed at selected temperatures using a gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector coupled to a mass spectrometer. Comparable oxidation experiments for n-decane were carried out to examine the unique effects of branching on fuel reactivity and distribution of major stable intermediates. For both isomers, the onset of negative temperature coefficient (NTC) region was observed near 700 K, with the reactivity decreasing with increasing the temperature. The flow reactor study of n-decane oxidation confirmed that the isomerization reduces the amount of CO produced at peak reactivity. In addition to reaction inhibition, branching affected the distribution of C2-C 4 olefin intermediates. While the oxidation of

  8. The system for diagnostics and monitoring of the IBR-2 reactor state. Data acquisition, accumulation, and storage the information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Powerful pulsed neutron sources (PNS) containing hyperactive components of plutonium or uranium that are potentially dangerous for people and environment. That is why the development of reliable and effective systems for diagnostics of PNS is an urgent present-day task. This work's objective is development and construction the informative and diagnostic system located on the IBR-2 pulsed reactor operating in the Frank Laboratory of Neutron physics in Joint Institute of Nuclear Research (Dubna, Russia). The fact that each neutron pulsed source is a unique physical installation is important methodologically for this work. That influenced the choice of rather general concept of PNS measuring and diagnostic system development. The system is based on the principle of main parameters measurement, defining the PNS stability, reliability and safety, filtering the most informative features in noise, vibration and dynamic condition of PNS and further analysis of the factors that caused changes in certain defined features. Measuring systems of this kind, the systems of multi-parameter analysis using mutually complementary different diagnostic algorithms, can provide informative and diagnostic support of nearly any PNS type. The system includes a number of subsystems of 70 reactor parameters measuring and processing, including noise, technological, vibrational etc ones. The system basic concept is a three-level distributed real-time system consisting of a number of workstations and measuring subsystems. The standard PC-computers are used as the workstations. The measuring stations provide synchronized measurement of a number of reactor parameters (up to 70) of different nature with frequency sampling of 25, 5 and 1 Hz and their transfer to the operative data base. The main and operative data bases are set on the server. All the system users have access to this server through the Ethernet and WEB-server. The second-level workstation has the monitoring function, i

  9. Validation of the IMMIDIET food frequency questionnaire in an adult Belgian population: a report from the Belgian case-control study on bladder cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, M T; Kellen, E; Zeegers, M P; van Dongen, M C J M S; Dagnelie, P C; Muls, E; Buntinx, F

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of the IMMIDIET food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) used to collect dietary data for the Belgian case-control study on bladder cancer. Thirty-seven men and women aged 50 years and older were recruited from the University Hospital in Leuven, Belgium. Participants completed the IMMIDIET FFQ, a 7-day diet diary and a 24-hour diet recall. Median intakes and inter-quartile ranges were calculated for 27 foods and nutrients from each dietary assessment method. All dietary factors were log-transformed and adjusted for energy using the nutrient density method. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to compare the different dietary assessment methods. Bland-Altman plots were also used to assess levels of agreement between the dietary methods. Energy, fruit and vegetable intake estimates were higher from the IMMIDIET FFQ compared with the two reference methods.The highest deattenuated correlations between the FFQ and 7-day diary were meat (0.58), bread (0.44), fruit (0.38) and fish (0.38). The highest deattenuated correlations between the FFQ and 24-hour recall were for fruit (0.72), fat (0.48), alcohol (0.44), cholesterol (0.42), monounsaturated fatty acid (0.42) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (0.41). Generally, correlation was lower for the micro-nutrients except for phosphorus (0.42), vitamin C (0.41) and calcium (0.40). The IMMIDIET FFQ is an appropriate instrument to measure usual dietary intake for the Belgian case-control study on bladder cancer risk. Further investigation of nutritional assessment methods is necessary. PMID:21485759

  10. Adapting to the System or the Student? Exploring Teacher Adaptations to Disadvantaged Students in an English and a Belgian Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Peter A. J.; Van Houtte, Mieke

    2011-01-01

    This article builds on research on teacher adaptations to students by exploring how Belgian and English national contexts influence teachers' definitions of educational success, their explanations of educational failure, and their allocation of scarce educational resources to disadvantaged students. Ethnographic data from one Flemish (Belgian) and…

  11. Nuclear Engineering Computer Modules: Reactor Dynamics, RD-1 and RD-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onega, Ronald J.

    The objective of the Reactor Dynamics Module, RD-1, is to obtain the kinetics equation without feedback and solve the kinetics equations numerically for one to six delayed neutron groups for time varying reactivity insertions. The computer code FUMOKI (Fundamental Mode Kinetics) will calculate the power as a function of time for either uranium or…

  12. Inertial Fusion Energy reactor design studies: Prometheus-L, Prometheus-H. Volume 2, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waganer, L.M.; Driemeyer, D.E.; Lee, V.D.

    1992-03-01

    This report contains a review of design studies for Inertial Confinement reactor. This second of three volumes discussions is some detail the following: Objectives, requirements, and assumptions; rationale for design option selection; key technical issues and R&D requirements; and conceptual design selection and description.

  13. Decontamination and decommissioning project status of the TRIGA mark-2±3 research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TRIGA Mark-II, the first research reactor in Korea, has operated since 1962, and the second one, TRIGA Mark-III since 1972. Both of them had their operation phased out in 1995 due to their lives and operation of the new research reactor, HANARO at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) in Taejeon. Decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) project of the TRIGA Mark-II and Mark-III was started in January 1997 and will be completed in December 2002. In the first year of the project, work was performed in preparation of the decommissioning plan, start of the environmental impact assessment and setup licensing procedure and documentation for the project with cooperation of Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS). In 1998, Hyundai Engineering Company (HEC) is the main contractor to do design and licensing documentation for the D and D of both reactors. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) is technical assisting partner of HEC. The decommissioning plan document was submitted to the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) for the decommissioning license in December 1998, and it expecting to be issued a license at the end of September 1999. The goal of this project is to release the reactor site and buildings as an unrestricted area. This paper summarizes current status and future plan for the D and D project

  14. Experimental computer-controlled instrumentation system for the research reactor DR2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goodstein, L.P.

    1969-01-01

    An instrumentation system has been developed for one of the Danish Atomic Energy Commission's research reactors as part of an experiment on the advantages to be gained by the use of digital computers in a process plant application. Problem areas to be investigated include (a) reliability and safety...

  15. Source driven breeding thermal power reactors, Pt. 2. Using lithium-free neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of fusion devices operating in the semi-catalyzed deuterium (SCD) mode and of high energy proton accelerators to provide the neutron sources for driving subcritical breeding light water power reactors is assessed. The assessment is done by studying the energy balance of the resulting source driven light water reactors (SDLWR) and comparing it with the energy balance of the reference light water hybrid reactors (LWHR) driven by a D-T neutron source (DT-LWHR). The conditions the non-DT neutron sources should satisfy in order to make the SDLWR viable power reactors are identified. It is found that in order for a SCD-LWHR to have the same overall efficiency as a DT-LWHR, the fusion energy gain of the SCD device should be at least one half that of the DT device. The efficiency of ADLWRs using uranium targets is comparable with that of DT-LWHRs having a fusion energy gain of unity. Advantages and disadvantages of the DT-LWHR, SCD-LWHR and ADLWR are discussed

  16. Comparison of decommissioning options for the example of 2 research reactors of type TRIGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For decommissioning of nuclear facilities usually the two decommissioning strategies 'immediate dismantling' or 'deferred dismantling (safe enclosure)' are applied. In general, immediate dismantling is regarded as the more advantageous and more preferable option. Accordingly, immediate dismantling is the mostly selected option. Nevertheless, only in a case by case analysis it can be shown, which decommissioning option is the better one e. g. with respect to technical aspects or to a use of the facility / remaining facility. For two real decommissioning projects of two similar research reactors of TRIGA type GRS with support of the operator, German Cancer Research Center Heidelberg, performed a study on possible advantages of the two different strategies selected. While the first research reactor, TRIGA HD I, was dismantled immediately, the second research reactor, TRIGA HD II, was dismantled after a 20 years period of safe enclosure. As a result, it could be shown, that the selected different decommissioning strategies reflected the special conditions of each both research reactor in best way, so that a clear preference for one of the two decommissioning strategies can not be deduced. The slides of the presentation have been added at the end of the paper. (authors)

  17. Enrichment and shifts in macrobenthic assemblages in an offshore wind farm area in the Belgian part of the North Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Delphine A; Deschutter, Yana; Vincx, Magda; Vanaverbeke, Jan

    2014-04-01

    The growing development of offshore wind energy installations across the North Sea is producing new hard anthropogenic structures in the natural soft sediments, causing changes to the surrounding macrobenthos. The extent of modification in permeable sediments around a gravity based wind turbine in the Belgian part of the North Sea was investigated in the period 2011-2012, along four gradients (south-west, north-east, south-east, north-west). Sediment grain size significantly reduced from 427 μm at 200 m to 312 ± 3 μm at 15 m from the foundation along the south-west and north-west gradients. The organic matter content increased from 0.4 ± 0.01% at 100 m to 2.5 ± 0.9% at 15 m from the foundation. The observed changes in environmental characteristics triggered an increase in the macrobenthic density from 1390 ± 129 ind m⁻² at 200 m to 18 583 ± 6713 ind m⁻² at 15 m together with an enhanced diversity from 10 ± 2 at 200 m to 30 ± 5 species per sample at 15 m. Shifts in species dominance were also detected with a greater dominance of the ecosystem-engineer Lanice conchilega (16-25%) close to the foundation. This study suggests a viable prediction of the effects offshore wind farms could create to the naturally occurring macrobenthos on a large-scale. PMID:24373388

  18. Conceptual process design of a CaO/Ca(OH)2 thermochemical energy storage system using fluidized bed reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses a thermochemical energy storage process using a CaO/Ca(OH)2 chemical loop. A single circulating fluidized bed reactor is proposed to carry out the hydration-dehydration alternating reactions. During the energy discharge step, steam is fed to the reactor and used as a fluidizing gas and as a reactant with the CaO coming from a silo, enabling heat to be recovered at a sufficiently high temperature (around 743 K) from the hydration reaction taking place in the fluidized bed. During the dehydration of Ca(OH)2 (energy charging step), heat (i.e. from a concentrated solar field) is stored in thermochemical form as CaO by using steam as a fluidizing gas. A basic process integration scheme for a reference case with a power output of 100 MWt is analysed in this work, by solving the mass and energy balances during charging and discharging steps and by calculating the volume of the silos and characteristic dimensions of the fluidized bed reactor. The effective energy storage densities of the CaO silo is shown to be over 260 kWh/m3 with reasonable activities of the solids when storing CaO solids in the silo at around 813 K. - Highlights: • Novel process concept using CaO/Ca(OH)2 cycle for thermochemical energy storage . • Design of a circulating fluidized bed reactor coupled with low cost solid storage silos. • Reaction under steam at 743–813 K for both hydration/dehydration shown to be effective. • Εnergy storage density over 260 kWh/m3 for solids with increment in conversion of 0.6

  19. Psychometric properties of the Belgian coach version of the coach-athlete relationship questionnaire (CART-Q).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balduck, A-L; Jowett, S

    2010-10-01

    The study examined the psychometric properties of the Belgian coach version of the Coach-Athlete Relationship Questionnaire (CART-Q). The questionnaire includes three dimensions (Closeness, Commitment, and Complementarity) in a model that intends to measure the quality of the coach-athlete relationship. Belgian coaches (n=144) of athletes who performed at various competition levels in such sports as football, basketball, and volleyball responded to the CART-Q and to the Leadership Scale for Sport (LSS). A confirmatory factor analysis proved to be slightly more satisfactory for a three-order factor model, compared with a hierarchical first-order factor model. The three factors showed acceptable internal consistency scores. Moreover, functional associations between the three factors and coach leadership behaviors were found offering support to the instrument's concurrent validity. The findings support previous validation studies and verify the psychometric properties of the CART-Q applied to Belgian coaches of team sports. PMID:19804577

  20. Influence of dabigatran and rivaroxaban on routine coagulation assays. A nationwide Belgian survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Blerk, Marjan; Bailleul, Els; Chatelain, Bernard; Demulder, Anne; Devreese, Katrien; Douxfils, Jonathan; Jochmans, Kristin; Mullier, François; Wijns, Walter; Soumali, Mohamed Rida; Coucke, Wim; Vernelen, Kris; Van de Walle, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The Belgian national External Quality Assessment Scheme performed a nationwide survey using lyophilised plasma samples spiked with dabigatran or rivaroxaban to demonstrate to the Belgian clinical laboratories how these drugs affect their routine coagulation assays prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen and antithrombin. Virtually all Belgian laboratories performing routine coagulation testing (189/192) participated in the survey. Both, dabigatran and rivaroxaban significantly prolonged the PT and aPTT in a concentration- and reagent-dependent manner. PT reagents were more influenced by rivaroxaban than by dabigatran and aPTT reagents more influenced by dabigatran than by rivaroxaban. Among PT reagents, Neoplastin R® was the most sensitive to rivaroxaban and Innovin® and Thromborel S® the least sensitive. Converting PT results to INR only increased the variability between reagents. Among aPTT reagents, Actin FSL® was the least sensitive to dabigatran while the other aPTT reagents showed slightly higher sensitivities. The presence of dabigatran led to falsely reduced fibrinogen concentrations when measured with a low thrombin concentration reagent. The presence of dabigatran caused an overestimation of the antithrombin level when measured with a thrombin-based activity assay and the presence of rivaroxaban an overestimation of the antithrombin level when measured with a FXa-based assay. Instrument-related differences were found for all tested parameters. In conclusion, this paper provides detailed information on the effect of dabigatran and rivaroxaban on routine coagulation assays as performed with a large number of reagent/instrument combinations. PMID:25231101