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Sample records for belgian organizations

  1. Positioning and role of public relations in large Belgian organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorp, B. van; Pauwels, L.M.A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the position and role of public relations in the hierarchical structure of Belgian organizations of at least 50 employees. Empirical data was collected from a web survey (n = 750) to find out to what extent principles of excellence in public relations are applied in Belgium. The

  2. Organ procurement after euthanasia: Belgian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ysebaert, D; Van Beeumen, G; De Greef, K; Squifflet, J P; Detry, O; De Roover, A; Delbouille, M-H; Van Donink, W; Roeyen, G; Chapelle, T; Bosmans, J-L; Van Raemdonck, D; Faymonville, M E; Laureys, S; Lamy, M; Cras, P

    2009-03-01

    Euthanasia was legalized in Belgium in 2002 for adults under strict conditions. The patient must be in a medically futile condition and of constant and unbearable physical or mental suffering that cannot be alleviated, resulting from a serious and incurable disorder caused by illness or accident. Between 2005 and 2007, 4 patients (3 in Antwerp and 1 in Liège) expressed their will for organ donation after their request for euthanasia was granted. Patients were aged 43 to 50 years and had a debilitating neurologic disease, either after severe cerebrovascular accident or primary progressive multiple sclerosis. Ethical boards requested complete written scenario with informed consent of donor and relatives, clear separation between euthanasia and organ procurement procedure, and all procedures to be performed by senior staff members and nursing staff on a voluntary basis. The euthanasia procedure was performed by three independent physicians in the operating room. After clinical diagnosis of cardiac death, organ procurement was performed by femoral vessel cannulation or quick laparotomy. In 2 patients, the liver, both kidneys, and pancreatic islets (one case) were procured and transplanted; in the other 2 patients, there was additional lung procurement and transplantation. Transplant centers were informed of the nature of the case and the elements of organ procurement. There was primary function of all organs. The involved physicians and transplant teams had the well-discussed opinion that this strong request for organ donation after euthanasia could not be waived. A clear separation between the euthanasia request, the euthanasia procedure, and the organ procurement procedure is necessary.

  3. Beer and Organic Labels: Do Belgian Consumers Care?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eline Poelmans

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigate whether beer drinkers are willing to pay a price premium for organic beer compared to conventional beer. Moreover, we identify subgroups of consumers with different preference patterns by investigating whether specific personal characteristics of the purchasers have an influence on this willingness-to-pay. Specifically, results are reported from a survey including a stated choice experiment of consumer decisions concerning beer purchases in Flanders (Belgium, focusing on organic labels. A non-probabilistic sampling method was used over the Internet and 334 responses were useable for the empirical analysis. Each respondent was asked to choose their preferred beer from a series of nine choice cards describing three different beer varieties. In this respect, we created a two-block design, each consisting of nine choice cards. Each respondent was randomly presented with one of the two blocks, so that an equal distribution of the blocks could be obtained. Overall, we find that our sample is statistically indifferent between a beer with an organic label and a similar beer without an organic label. This is in line with previous research that stated that consumers are unwilling to pay high price premiums for organic vice products, such as beer. We find no statistically different preferences for male or female respondents, or for members or non-members of nature protection organizations. However, we find a significant difference (p-value = 0.029 between primary beer shoppers who have a zero willingness-to-pay (WTP for organic beer compared to similar non-organic beer and the reference group that has a negative WTP of 14 Euro per 1.5 L for organic beer. In addition, the WTP for beer drinkers older than 40 (negative WTP of 22 Euro per 1.5 L and the WTP for frequent beer drinkers (zero WTP are statistically different from the reference group (p-value = 0.019 and 0.000 respectively.

  4. [Belgian medical houses: a post-68 accident or an enduring mode of organization?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drielsma, Pierre

    2009-03-29

    The names of health houses vary from one country to another and according to the specific organizational history of healthcare provision. Yet their current mode of organization and the type of services which they make available to the public largely tend to converge. One of their shared objectives is for health houses to constitute "a first line" of health and healthcare provision, amidst a general crisis of general medical practice but also among paramedical workers. Past and current experience in Belgium indicates that it is possible to ?make users happy' and to facilitate access to quality healthcare services for the most underprivileged sectors of the population. Recent studies argue that certain group practices may prove to be efficient, especially in terms of medical prescriptions. Defining the most appropriate mode of remuneration is a central issue, and while capitation is not altogether flawless, it appears to have enabled the adoption of a wide range of "virtuous" practices resulting in a harmonious whole that ensures high standards of healthcare provision. Belgian medical houses also reflect the preferences of young healthcare professionals. In Belgium, 20% of GPs under the age of thirty currently work in these organizations. If different causes are liable to have the same effects, it is because the GP profession is in crisis and is undergoing profound and significant changes, but also because multidisciplinary houses are the least unsatisfactory solution for overcoming current difficulties.

  5. Belgian Firms Visit CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Fifteen Belgian firms visited CERN last 2 and 3 April to present their know-how. Industrial sectors ranging from precision machining to electrical engineering and electronics were represented. And for the first time, companies from the Flemish and Brussels regions of the country joined their Walloon compatriots, who have come to CERN before. The visit was organised by Mr J.-M. Warêgne, economic and commercial attaché at the Belgian permanent mission for the French-speaking region, Mr J. Van de Vondel, his opposite number for the Flemish region, and Mrs E. Solowianiuk, economic and commercial counsellor at the Belgian permanent mission for the Brussels-Capital region.

  6. Belgian national report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthe, J.

    1998-01-01

    Status of Belgian nuclear power plants includes licensing, in-service inspection programs, state of electrical equipment and predictive maintenance. In terms of life management of NPPs degradation phenomena affect the design life of each component. Combination of in-service inspection, periodic testing, specific measurements, qualification test and overall experience supports maintenance programs and enable repairs and replacements in due time. These programs are part of continuous safety assessments performed. Managing NPP life encompasses technical aspects for safe and reliable operation and economical aspects. The approach of Belgian authorities resulted in high availability, competitive cost and reasonable long-term perspectives

  7. BNAIC 2008 : Proceedings of BNAIC 2008, the twentieth Belgian-Dutch Artificial Intelligence Conference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Anton; Pantic, Maja; Poel, Mannes; Hondorp, Hendri

    2008-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the 20th edition of the Belgian-Netherlands Conference on Artificial Intelligence. The conference was organized by the Human Media Interaction group of the University of Twente. As usual, the conference was under the auspices of the Belgian-Dutch Association for

  8. Two Belgian University Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Huylebrouck

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bevacizumab (BEV, a humanized immunoglobulin G1 monoclonal antibody that inhibits VEGF has demonstrated activity against recurrent high-grade gliomas (HGG in phase II clinical trials. Patients and Methods. Data were collected from patients with recurrent HGG who initiated treatment with BEV outside a clinical trial protocol at two Belgian university hospitals. Results. 19 patients (11 M/8 F were administered a total of 138 cycles of BEV (median 4, range 1–31. Tumor response assessment by MRI was available for 15 patients; 2 complete responses and 3 partial responses for an objective response rate of 26% for the intent to treat population were observed on gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images; significant regressions on T2/FLAIR were documented in 10 out of 15 patients (67%. A reduced uptake on PET was documented in 3 out of 4 evaluable patients. The six-month progression-free survival was 21% (95% CI 2.7–39.5. Two patients had an ongoing tumor response and remained free from progression after 12 months of BEV treatment. Conclusions. The activity and tolerability of BEV were comparable to results from previous prospective phase II trials. Reduced uptake on PET suggests a metabolic response in addition to an antiangiogenic effect in some cases with favorable clinical outcome.

  9. Emergency plan belgian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clymans, A.

    1989-01-01

    The Chernobyl disaster prompted authorities in Belgium to carry out a comprehensive review of all emergency plans and, in particular, those designed specifically for nuclear accidents. This review was aimed at determining what type of plans existed and to what extent such plans were operational. This paper sets out to present a broad overview of different aspects of this problem: organization of public emergency plans, co-ordination of operations, merits and demerits of centralization as opposed to decentralization, planning zones, obligation to release information to the public and relations with the media, and finally the international dimension to the problem. The author expresses the hope that the latter area will inspire practical suggestions [fr

  10. A Belgian Approach to Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Cheryl W.

    The paper reviews Belgian philosophy toward the education of learning disabled students and cites the differences between American behaviorally-oriented theory and Belgian emphasis on identifying the underlying causes of the disability. Academic methods observed in Belgium (including psychodrama and perceptual motor training) are discussed and are…

  11. Iron microbial communities in Belgian Frasnian carbonate mounds

    OpenAIRE

    Boulvain, F.; De Ridder, C.; Mamet, B.; Preat, A.; Gillan, D.

    2001-01-01

    The Belgian Frasnian carbonate mounds occur in three stratigraphic levels in an overall backstepping succession. Petit-Mont and Arche Members form the famous red and grey “marble” exploited for ornamental stone since Roman times. The evolution and distribution of the facies in the mounds is thought to be associated with ecologic evolution and relative sea-level fluctuations. Iron oxides exist in five forms in the Frasnian mounds; four are undoubtedly endobiotic organized structures: (1) micro...

  12. The Mandate System for the Belgian Public Prosecution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno BROUCKER

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The law of 22 December 1998 introduced the mandate system for the heads of the Public Prosecution offices, which were appointed permanent before that. Theoretically, such a system needs to enhance, within the organization, effectiveness, efficiency, responsabilisation, and goal-orientation. However, the mandate system within the Belgian Public Prosecution was introduced prematurely, for dubious reasons and in a precipitate manner. In the current situation, the position of the mandate holder is uncertain, with a bounded autonomy and a low wage increase. Moreover, it remains impossible to intervene in the policy of appointed heads of office (during their mandate, the efficiency and effectiveness is only increased in some prosecution offices and a contract containing actual management responsibilities is absent. In sum: there is a large gap between the theoretical principles of mandate systems and the way it is introduced in the Belgian Public Prosecution.

  13. The Belgian nuclear research centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moons, F.

    2001-01-01

    The Belgian Nuclear Research Centre is almost exclusively devoted to nuclear R and D and services and is able to generate 50% of its resources (out of 75 million Euro) by contract work and services. The main areas of research include nuclear reactor safety, radioactive waste management, radiation protection and safeguards. The high flux reactor BR2 is extensively used to test fuel and structural materials. PWR-plant BR3 is devoted to the scientific analysis of decommissioning problems. The Centre has a strong programme on the applications of radioisotopes and radiation in medicine and industry. The centre has plans to develop an accelerator driven spallation neutron source for various applications. It has initiated programmes to disseminate correct information on issues of nuclear energy production and non-energy nuclear applications to different target groups. It has strong linkages with the IAEA, OECD-NEA and the Euratom. (author)

  14. From pralines to multinationals: The economic history of Belgian chocolate

    OpenAIRE

    Garrone, Maria; Pieters, Hannah; Swinnen, Johan F. M.

    2016-01-01

    Belgium is associated with high-quality chocolate products and Belgian companies play an important role in cocoa processing. However, in historical perspective the global success and reputation of Belgian chocolate is a relatively recent phenomenon. Especially since the 1980s exports of "Belgian chocolates" have grown exponentially. We document the growth of the sector and discuss its determinants. Today, the very concept of "Belgian chocolate" faces challenges, as successful companies have b...

  15. Pressure Vessel Steel Research: Belgian Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Walle, E.; Fabry, A.; Ait Abderrahim, H.; Chaouadi, R.; D'hondt, P.; Puzzolante, J.L.; Van de Velde, J.; Van Ransbeeck, T.; Gerard, R.

    1994-03-01

    A review of the Belgian research activities on Nuclear Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels (RPVS) and on related Neutron Dosimetry Aspects is presented. Born out of the surveillance programmes of the Belgian nuclear power plants, this research has lead to the development of material saving techniques, like reconstitution and miniaturization, and to improved neutron dosimetry techniques. A physically- justified RPVS fracture toughness indexation methodology, supported by micro-mechanistic modelling, is based on the elaborate use of the instrumented Charpy impact signal. Computational tools for neutron dosimetry allow to reduce the uncertainties on surveillance capsule fluences significantly

  16. Pressure Vessel Steel Research: Belgian Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Walle, E; Fabry, A; Ait Abderrahim, H; Chaouadi, R; D` hondt, P; Puzzolante, J L; Van de Velde, J; Van Ransbeeck, T [Centre d` Etude de l` Energie Nucleaire, Mol (Belgium); Gerard, R [TRACTEBEL, Brussels (Belgium)

    1994-03-01

    A review of the Belgian research activities on Nuclear Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels (RPVS) and on related Neutron Dosimetry Aspects is presented. Born out of the surveillance programmes of the Belgian nuclear power plants, this research has lead to the development of material saving techniques, like reconstitution and miniaturization, and to improved neutron dosimetry techniques. A physically- justified RPVS fracture toughness indexation methodology, supported by micro-mechanistic modelling, is based on the elaborate use of the instrumented Charpy impact signal. Computational tools for neutron dosimetry allow to reduce the uncertainties on surveillance capsule fluences significantly.

  17. Proceedings of the 9th Dutch-Belgian Information Retrieval Workshop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aly, Robin; Hauff, C.; den Hamer, Ida; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Huibers, Theo W.C.; de Jong, Franciska M.G.

    Welcome to the 9th Dutch-Belgian Information Retrieval Workshop (DIR). I very well remember the DIR workshop in 2001 that was also organized in Twente. It took place exactly one day before my PhD defense, to give us the opportunity to have one of the PhD committee members, Stephen Robertson, as the

  18. Economic evaluation of reprocessing - Indicative Belgian position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-05-01

    This paper, which also appears as an Appendix to the final Working Group 4 report, forms part of the overall economic evaluation of reprocessing. The indicative national position and illustrative ''phase diagram'' for Belgium is presented. Other factors which influence the Belgian viewpoint and which are not included on the phase diagram are given

  19. Performance communication of the Belgian railway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelders, Dave; Verckens, Jan Pieter; Galetzka, Mirjam; Seydel, E.R.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide an insight into performance communication from an important public service, i.e. the Belgian Railway, towards its employees (internal) and stakeholders (external). Design/methodology/approach – A qualitative research approach was taken in the form of

  20. The Belgian Nuclear Higher Education Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moons, F.; D'Haeseleer, W.; Giot, M.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: BNEN, the Belgian Nuclear Higher Education Network has been created in 2001 by five Belgian universities and the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN) as a joint effort to maintain and further develop a high quality programme in nuclear engineering in Belgium. In a country where a substantial part of electricity generation will remain of nuclear origin for a number of years, there is a need for well educated and well trained engineers in this area. Public authorities, regulators and industry brought their support to this initiative. In the framework of the new architecture of higher education in Europe, the English name for this 60 ECTS programme is 'Master of Science in Nuclear Engineering'. To be admitted to this programme, students must already hold a university degree in engineering or equivalent. Linked with university research, benefiting from the human resources and infrastructure of SCK-CEN, encouraged and supported by the partners of the nuclear sector, this programme should be offered not only to Belgian students, but also more widely throughout Europe and the world. The master programme is a demanding programme where students with different high level backgrounds in engineering have to go through highly theoretical subjects like neutron physics, fluid flow and heat transfer modelling, and apply them to reactor design, nuclear safety and plant operation and control. At a more interdisciplinary level, the programme includes some important chapters of material science, with a particular interest for the fuel cycle. Radiation protection belongs also to the backbone of the programme. All the subjects are taught by academics appointed by the partner universities, whereas the practical exercises and laboratory sessions are supervised by researchers of SCK-CEN. The final thesis offers an opportunity for internship in industry or in a research laboratory. More information: http://www.sckcen.be/BNEN. (author)

  1. Belgian guidelines for economic evaluations: second edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiry, Nancy; Neyt, Mattias; Van De Sande, Stefaan; Cleemput, Irina

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to present the updated methodological guidelines for economic evaluations of healthcare interventions (drugs, medical devices, and other interventions) in Belgium. The update of the guidelines was performed by three Belgian health economists following feedback from users of the former guidelines and personal experience. The updated guidelines were discussed with a multidisciplinary team consisting of other health economists, assessors of reimbursement request files, representatives of Belgian databases and representatives of the drugs and medical devices industry. The final document was validated by three external validators that were not involved in the previous discussions. The guidelines give methodological guidance for the following components of an economic evaluation: literature review, perspective of the evaluation, definition of the target population, choice of the comparator, analytic technique and study design, calculation of costs, valuation of outcomes, definition of the time horizon, modeling, handling uncertainty and discounting. We present a reference case that can be considered as the minimal requirement for Belgian economic evaluations of health interventions. These guidelines will improve the methodological quality, transparency and uniformity of the economic evaluations performed in Belgium. The guidelines will also provide support to the researchers and assessors performing or evaluating economic evaluations.

  2. Measurement of the natural radiation of the Belgian territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillard, J.; Flemal, J.M.; Deworm, J.P.; Slegers, W.

    1989-01-01

    A measurement campaign of natural occuring radionuclides was set up on the Belgian territory in order to assess the doses received by the Belgian population. The results of the measurements are published together with a map of natural occuring radionuclides and exposure rates. (L.D.C.)

  3. Risk-return of Belgian SRI funds

    OpenAIRE

    Van Liedekerke, Luc; De Moor, Lieven; Vanwalleghem, Dieter

    2007-01-01

    We analyse the risk-return profile of Belgian SRI funds versus conventional investment funds. We apply a four-factor conditional Carhart model to establish whether there are significant differences in risk-return profile between an SRI portfolio and a conventional portfolio and test for learning effects in SRI funds. We show that there is no difference in risk-return profile between SRI and conventional funds. If return is not the problem, then what is it that limits the development of an SRI...

  4. Euthanasia: a "kit" sold in Belgian pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    (1) In France, legislation adopted in 2005 recognises the right of dying patients to refuse further treatment, and the right of physicians to ease their suffering with treatments that, due to adverse effects, may shorten their life. Measures deliberately aimed at hastening death are forbidden. (2) In Belgium, medical euthanasia was decriminalised in 2002, and can now be carried out either in hospital or at home. Nearly 20 cases of euthanasia are reported per month in Belgium. (3) A Belgian pharmacy chain now markets a "euthanasia kit".

  5. History of the Belgian nuclear power controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laes, E.

    2009-01-01

    Partly because nuclear energy technology continues to provoke profound controversy, the Flemish institute for technology assessment (viWTA) took the initiative to order a study aimed at mapping out the historical dynamics of the societal debate on nuclear energy. This study was carried out by the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN, under the research programme PISA) together with the Free university of Brussels (VUB, research group MEKO) in 2004. In 2007, the report was updated and published by Acco (Leuven) under the title Kernenergie (on)besproken. This study had three main objectives: 1) to discuss the societal debate on nuclear energy in Belgium in relation to major events (Chernobyl, TMI, etc.); 2) to elucidate the role of social actors in the controversy on both a national and international level and 3) to discuss possible alternatives for a better structuring of the debate in the future, building on existing approaches

  6. Focal epilepsy in the Belgian shepherd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berendt, Mette; Gulløv, Christina Hedal; Fredholm, Merete

    2009-01-01

    and deceased) were ascertained through a telephone interview using a standardised questionnaire regarding seizure history and phenomenology. Living dogs were invited to a detailed clinical evaluation. Litters more than five years of age, or where epilepsy was present in all offspring before the age of five......, were included in the calculations of inheritance. results: Out of 199 family members, 66 dogs suffered from epilepsy. The prevalence of epilepsy in the family was 33%. Fifty-five dogs experienced focal seizures with or without secondary generalisation, while four dogs experienced primary generalised...... seizures. In seven dogs, seizures could not be classified. The mode of inheritance of epilepsy was simple Mendelian. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This study identified that the Belgian shepherd suffers from genetically transmitted focal epilepsy. The seizure phenomenology expressed by family members have...

  7. Predicting the environmental risks of radioactive discharges from Belgian nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenhove, H.; Sweeck, L.; Vives i Batlle, J.; Wannijn, J.; Van Hees, M.; Camps, J.; Olyslaegers, G.; Miliche, C.; Lance, B.

    2013-01-01

    An environmental risk assessment (ERA) was performed to evaluate the impact on non-human biota from liquid and atmospheric radioactive discharges by the Belgian Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) of Doel and Tihange. For both sites, characterisation of the source term and wildlife population around the NPPs was provided, whereupon the selection of reference organisms and the general approach taken for the environmental risk assessment was established. A deterministic risk assessment for aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems was performed using the ERICA assessment tool and applying the ERICA screening value of 10 μGy h −1 . The study was performed for the radioactive discharge limits and for the actual releases (maxima and averages over the period 1999–2008 or 2000–2009). It is concluded that the current discharge limits for the Belgian NPPs considered do not result in significant risks to the aquatic and terrestrial environment and that the actual discharges, which are a fraction of the release limits, are unlikely to harm the environment. -- Highlights: • Impact of radioactive discharges by the Belgian NPPs of Doel and Tihange on wildlife was evaluated. • Deterministic risk assessment for aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems performed with the ERICA tool. • NPP discharge limits do not result in significant risks to the aquatic and terrestrial environment. • Actual discharges, a fraction of the release limits, are unlikely to harm the environment

  8. [Need for clinical guidelines for chronic periodontitis in general and specialized Belgian practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosyn, Jan; Thevissen, Eric; Reners, Michèle; Rompen, Eric; Klinge, Björn; De Bruyn, Hugo

    2008-01-01

    As the prevalence of periodontitis is more than 40 % in the adult Belgian population, periodontists are clearly understaffed to treat this disease in all patients. Therefore, it seems logic that mild forms of chronic periodontitis are treated by the general practitioner especially because Belgium lacks dental hygienists. Important prerequisites for organizing periodontal care as such relate to the general practitioner who should use the same techniques, have comparable communicative skills to motivate patients and create a similar amount of time for periodontal treatment as the specialist. After all, the patient has the right to qualitative treatment regardless of the level of education of the care provider. In order to guarantee this in general practice as much as possible, there is a need for clinical guidelines developed by specialists. These guidelines should not only support the general practitioner in treating disease; above all, they should assist the dentist in periodontal diagnosis. Hitherto, periodontal screening by general dentists seems to be infrequently performed even though reimbursement of the Dutch Periodontal Screening Index is implemented in the Belgian healthcare security system. In this manuscript possible explanations for this phenomenon are discussed. Apart from the need for guidelines in general practice, guidelines for surgical treatment seem compulsory to uniform treatment protocols in specialized practice. Extreme variation in the recommendation of surgery among Belgian specialists calls for consensus statements.

  9. Last developments in the Belgian disposal programme for low and intermediate short-lived waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyazis, Jean-Paul

    2006-01-01

    After an historical reminder of the several phases of the Belgian program for the disposal of low and medium level short-lived waste since the creation of ONDRAF/NIRAS and the bad results obtained in the 90's by using a pure technical approach, the presentation will explain the main lines of the new methodology developed, as a consequence of the government decision of 16 January 1998 in ONDRAF/NIRAS to improve local acceptance for the disposal project. The way local partnerships were created with four nuclear municipalities under the form of a non-profit organization with a clear mission, the functioning, on a voluntary base, of the different partnerships during four to six years and the concrete results obtained until now using this very innovative method will be addressed. The last developments of the Belgian program for the disposal of low and medium level and short-lived waste will be presented, including the recent and very important decision of the Belgian government of 23 June 2006 to dispose of the low and medium active short-lived waste in a surface disposal installation on the territory of the municipality Dessel. (author)

  10. The attitudes of Belgian adolescents towards peers with disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossaert, Goele; Colpin, Hilde; Pijl, Sip Jan; Petry, Katja

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to explore Belgian adolescents' attitudes towards peers with disabilities and to explore factors associated with these attitudes. Based on the theory of persuasive communication, this study focused on receiver variables (the "whom"), characteristics of students with disabilities

  11. The Health Risks of Belgian Illicit Indoor Cannabis Plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhove, Wouter; Cuypers, Eva; Bonneure, Arne-Jan; Gotink, Joachim; Stassen, Mirna; Tytgat, Jan; Van Damme, Patrick

    2018-04-10

    We assessed the prevalence of potential health hazards to intervention staff and cannabis growers in Belgian indoor cannabis plantations. Surface mold swab samples were taken at 16 Belgian indoor plantations contained mostly Penicillium sp. and Aspergillus sp. However, their precise health impact on intervention staff and illicit growers is unclear as no molds spore concentrations were measured. Atmospheric gas monitoring in the studied cannabis plantations did not reveal dangerous toxic substances. Health symptoms were reported by 60% of 221 surveyed police, but could not be linked to specific plantation characteristics. We conclude that Belgian indoor cannabis plantations pose a potential health threat to growers and intervention staff. AS there are currently no clear safety guidelines for seizure and dismantling of Belgian indoor cannabis plantations, we recommend first responders to follow strict safety rules when entering the growth rooms, which include wearing appropriate personal protective equipment. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  12. An analysis of Belgian Cannabis Social Clubs' supply practices: A shapeshifting model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardal, Mafalda

    2018-04-13

    Cannabis Social Clubs (CSCs) are associations of cannabis users that collectively organize the cultivation and distribution of cannabis. As this middle ground supply model has been active in Belgium for over a decade, this paper aims to examine CSCs' supply practices, noting any shifts from previously reported features of the model. We draw on interviews with directors of seven currently active Belgian CSCs (n = 21) and their cannabis growers (n = 23). This data was complemented by additional fieldwork, as well as a review of CSCs' key internal documents. Most Belgian CSCs are formally registered non-profit associations. One of the Belgian CSCs has developed a structure of sub-divisions and regional chapters. The Belgian CSCs supply cannabis to members only, and in some cases only medical users are admitted. CSCs rely on in-house growers, ensuring supply in a cooperative and closed-circuit way, despite changes to the distribution methods The associations are relatively small-scale and non-commercially driven. The introduction of formal quality control practices remains challenging. As the CSC model is often included in discussions about cannabis policy, but remains in most cases driven by self-regulatory efforts, it is important to take stock of how CSCs' supply function has been implemented in practice - as doing so will improve our understanding of the model and of the wider range of cannabis 'supply architectures'. This paper highlights the continuity and changes in CSC practices, noting the emergence of several different variants of the CSC model, which are classified in a first CSC typology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A quality control exercise of radionuclide calibrators among Belgian hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reher, D.F.G.; Merlo, P.

    1990-01-01

    On the initiative of the Belgian Association of Hospital Physicists, eleven Belgian hospitals participated in a quality control of radionuclide calibrators conducted in collaboration with the Central Bureau for Nuclear Measurements of the Commission of the European Communities. For practical reasons the nuclide 57 Co was chosen. The results from 20 different radionuclide calibrators show a fair agreement with a similar comparison carried out in 1980 in the UK. (orig.)

  14. Mechanical degradation processes: The Belgian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafaille, J.P.; Hennart, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    Design life is merely used in Belgium as a requirement in the 'Design Specification' of some components subjected to known degradation processes, such as stress induced fatigue, embrittlement (irradiation or other), various types of corrosion, wear, erosion, thermal aging (electrical insulation, ...), etc. Design life is in no way directly related to the duration of the plant operation. In that sense design life for the Belgian NPP components includes the values of 20, 30 and 40 years. The oldest plant (20 years design life) has been decommissioned in 1991. The most recent units (40 years design life) have still a good time to go. The intermediate units (30 years design life) started around 1975. Consequently components of these plants need be looked at to determine whether or not deteriorations have occurred. The paper presents the various known mechanical degradation processes and how they affect various components. Emphasis is laid on prevention, mitigation or repair measures that have been or are being taken to avoid that the 'Equipment design life' be the limiting factor in the duration of the plant operation. (author)

  15. Antimicrobial use in Belgian broiler production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persoons, Davy; Dewulf, Jeroen; Smet, Annemieke; Herman, Lieve; Heyndrickx, Marc; Martel, An; Catry, Boudewijn; Butaye, Patrick; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    2012-08-01

    The use of antimicrobials in production animals has become a worldwide concern in the face of rising resistance levels in commensal, pathogenic and zoonotic bacteria. In the years 2007 and 2008 antimicrobial consumption records were collected during two non consecutive production cycles in 32 randomly selected Belgian broiler farms. Antimicrobials were used in 48 of the 64 monitored production cycles, 7 farms did not use any antimicrobials in both production cycles, 2 farms only administered antimicrobials in one of the two production cycles, the other 23 farms applied antimicrobial treatment in both production cycles. For the quantification of antimicrobial drug use, the treatment incidences (TI) based on the defined daily doses (the dose as it should be applied: DDD) and used daily doses (the actual dose applied: UDD) were calculated. A mean antimicrobial treatment incidence per 1000 animals of 131.8 (standard deviation 126.8) animals treated daily with one DDD and 121.4 (SD 106.7) animals treated daily with one UDD was found. The most frequently used compounds were amoxicillin, tylosin and trimethoprim-sulphonamide with a mean TI(UDD) of 37.9, 34.8, and 21.7, respectively. The ratio of the UDD/DDD gives an estimate on correctness of dosing. Tylosin was underdosed in most of the administrations whereas amoxicillin and trimethoprim-sulphonamide were slightly overdosed in the average flock. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Inventory of nuclear liabilities - The Belgian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minon, Jean-Paul

    2003-01-01

    Like all countries that use radioactive materials for producing electricity or for other peaceful purposes, Belgium is faced with an important challenge: the safe management of all these materials, in both the short and long term. Of course there is a price to pay for this management, which in accordance with the ethical principle of inter-generational fairness should be borne mainly by the current generations. However, it is possible that when the moment has come, the financial resources to cover the costs of decommissioning and remediation of these installations, prove to be insufficient or even completely non-existent: this then results in a nuclear liability. This kind of situation can have several causes, such as an underestimation of the actual costs by the operator or the owner of the nuclear installation or by the holder or the owner of the radioactive materials, negligence, transfer of ownership of the nuclear installation or the nuclear site without transfer of the corresponding provisions, a reduction in the operating time, a bankruptcy as well as ignorance. Because it wishes to avoid the occurrence of new nuclear liabilities, the Belgian legislator, by virtue of article 9 of the programme law of 12.12.97, charged ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials, with collecting all the elements that are necessary in order to examine to which degree the decommissioning and remediation costs can be actually covered when the time comes. ONDRAF/NIRAS was specifically charged with ascertaining all facts of a technical and financial nature which should enable the minister responsible for energy to verify whether every operator or owner of a nuclear installation and every holder or owner of radioactive materials have provided in time for the requisite financial resources to cover the future costs of decommissioning and remediation. This evaluation of course also serves to enable the government to take the necessary

  17. Security and Privacy Improvements for the Belgian eID Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaeghe, Pieter; Lapon, Jorn; de Decker, Bart; Naessens, Vincent; Verslype, Kristof

    The Belgian Electronic Identity Card enables Belgian citizens to prove their identity digitally and to sign electronic documents. At the end of 2009, every Belgian citizen older than 12 years will have such an eID card. In the future, usage of the eID card may be mandatory. However, irresponsible use of the card may cause harm to individuals.

  18. The Belgian Nuclear Higher Education Network: Your way to the European Master in Nuclear Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moons, F.; D'haeseleer, W.; Giot, M.

    2004-01-01

    BNEN, the Belgian Nuclear Higher Education Network has been created in 2001 by five Belgian universities and the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK CEN) as a joint effort to maintain and further develop a high quality programme in nuclear engineering in Belgium. More information: http://www.sckcen.be/BNEN. (author)

  19. Different compositions of pharmaceuticals in Dutch and Belgian rivers explained by consumption patterns and treatment efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laak, ter T.L.; Kooij, P.J.F.; Tolkamp, H.; Hofman, J.

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, 43 pharmaceuticals and 18 transformation products were studied in the river Meuse at the Belgian-Dutch border and four tributaries of the river Meuse in the southern part of the Netherlands. The tributaries originate from Belgian, Dutch and mixed Dutch and Belgian catchments.

  20. A CO2-strategy for BTC [Belgian Development Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailly, J. [Prospect C and S, Brussels (Belgium); Hanekamp, E. [Partners for Innovation, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2008-09-15

    The CO2 footprint is determined the CO2 strategy is developed for the Belgian Technical Cooperation (BTC). BTC is the Belgian agency for development cooperation, and finances development projects in 23 partner countries. The CO2 footprint covered BTC's activities in 2007 in all their offices worldwide. Footprint and strategy were finalised and adopted by the Executive Board at the end of 2008. Meanwhile, the BTC began with the introduction of the proposed strategy. Partners for Innovation and Prospect were asked to support the introduction of the strategy and to determine the CO2 footprint of 2008.

  1. Introduction of mixed oxide fuel elements in the belgian cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlier, A.F.; Hollasky, N.A.

    1994-01-01

    The important amount of plutonium recovered from the reprocessing of spent fuel on the one hand, the national and international experience of the use of mixed oxide UO 2 -PuO 2 fuel in power reactors on the other hand, have led Belgian utilities to decide the introduction of Mixed-Oxide fuel in Doel unit 3 and Tihange unit 2 cores. The 'MOX' project has shown that it was possible without reducing safety or requiring modifications of the plant equipment. It has been approved by the Belgian 'Nuclear Safety Commission'. (authors). 1 tab., 2 figs

  2. EC initiatives promise mixed blessings: a Belgian utility perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraix, J.

    1992-01-01

    The potential effects on nuclear power of European Community initiatives are analysed from the viewpoint of a Belgian utility. The initiatives fall under the three broad headings of: East-West co-operation; completing the internal market; and carbon dioxide emission. (Author)

  3. Open Access to the Belgian Nuclear higher Education Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simons, S.

    2005-01-01

    Under the name of the Belgian Nuclear higher Education Network, five Belgian universities, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Universiteit Gent, Universite de Liege, Vrije Universiteit Brussel have established in 2002, in collaboration with the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN, a common Belgian Interuniversity Programme of the third cycle leading to the academic degree of Master of Science in Nuclear Engineering. Under the lead of the SCK-CEN a project to use and share the acquired experience of the Consortium BNEN - in order to support the realization of a common European Education Programme in Nuclear Engineering - has been accepted by the European Commission for funding under the EU's Sixth Research Framework Programme.The project wants to contribute actively to the development of a more harmonised approach for education in nuclear sciences and engineering in Europe. It brings the European higher Education Area closer to realization and helps to safeguard the necessary competence and expertise for the continued safe use of nuclear energy and other uses of radiation in industry and medicine in Europe. The project foresees input and participation from stakeholders from different countries of the enlarged European Union (EU-25) and will therefore contribute to the integration of the new member states into the European Research Area and thus to the enlargement of Europe. The set-up of the project foresees an active role for female experts with the intention to reinforce the place and role of women in science

  4. Decomposing dynamic profit inefficiency of Belgian dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ang, Frederic; Lansink, Alfons Oude

    2018-01-01

    This paper introduces a nonparametric framework for analysing dynamic profit inefficiency and applies this to a sample of Belgian, specialised dairy farms from 1996 to 2008. Profit inefficiency is decomposed into technical and allocative inefficiency. The paper also decomposes profit inefficiency

  5. Will Dutch Become Flemish? Autonomous Developments in Belgian Dutch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Velde, Hans; Kissine, Mikhail; Tops, Evie; van der Harst, Sander; van Hout, Roeland

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a series of studies of standard Dutch pronunciation in Belgium and the Netherlands is presented. The research is based on two speech corpora: a diachronic corpus of radio speech (1935-1995) and a synchronic corpus of Belgian and Netherlandic standard Dutch from different regions at the turn of the millennium. It is shown that two…

  6. Predicting the environmental risks of radioactive discharges from Belgian nuclear power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenhove, H; Sweeck, L; Vives I Batlle, J; Wannijn, J; Van Hees, M; Camps, J; Olyslaegers, G; Miliche, C; Lance, B

    2013-12-01

    An environmental risk assessment (ERA) was performed to evaluate the impact on non-human biota from liquid and atmospheric radioactive discharges by the Belgian Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) of Doel and Tihange. For both sites, characterisation of the source term and wildlife population around the NPPs was provided, whereupon the selection of reference organisms and the general approach taken for the environmental risk assessment was established. A deterministic risk assessment for aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems was performed using the ERICA assessment tool and applying the ERICA screening value of 10 μGy h(-1). The study was performed for the radioactive discharge limits and for the actual releases (maxima and averages over the period 1999-2008 or 2000-2009). It is concluded that the current discharge limits for the Belgian NPPs considered do not result in significant risks to the aquatic and terrestrial environment and that the actual discharges, which are a fraction of the release limits, are unlikely to harm the environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Safety culture in a Belgian nuclear research centre from a social science point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fucks, I.; Hardeman, F.

    2002-01-01

    This paper is the result of a reflection within the framework of a Ph.D. research at SCK-CEN (Belgian Nuclear Research Centre) in collaboration with the University of Liege. The starting point of the work was the 'safety culture' model presented in the IAEA report 75-INSAG-4. This model is applied to the working organization of the SCK-CEN, also considering the safety culture as an open concept given its multi dimensionality. The methodology is based on three methods: observations, focus groups and interviews. The fieldwork was limited to two main installations: a research reactor, and a dismantling site. The preliminary findings are based on the data resulting from 4 Focus Groups. The most prominent components of a safety culture and the multiplicity of safety cultures in a large organization such as SCK-CEN will be discussed. (author)

  8. Legal claims against Belgian reactors?; Rechtsmittel gegen belgische Reaktoren?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raetzke, Christian [CONLAR Consulting on Nuclear Law and Regulation, Leipzig (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    The Belgian reactors Tihange 2 and Doel 3 have been restarted in November 2015 after the problem of hydrogen flakes in the reactor pressure vessels had been investigated. The permission to restart has been the object both of critical statements by the German Federal Ministry of the Environment (BMUB) and of lawsuits filed with Belgian law courts by a group of German municipalities led by the city of Aachen and by the Land North-Rhine-Westphalia. According to a general principle of the law of nations, a state is not permitted to operate installations near its border, which cause significant environmental damage in a neighbouring state. However, it is not quite clear how this principle applies to the issue of potential accidents of nuclear power plants. According to the author, a tangible threat of an accident is required; mere doubts and concerns about the extent of safety margins are not sufficient.

  9. Dynamic Profit Inefficiency: A DEA Application to Belgian Dairy Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Ang, Frederic; Oude Lansink, Alfons

    2014-01-01

    Using a nonparametric framework, we analyze dynamic profit inefficiency for a sample of Belgian, specialized dairy farms from 1996–2008. Profit inefficiency is decomposed into contributions of output, input, and investment. Moreover, we identify the contributions of technical and allocative inefficiency in each input and output. The results suggest substantial profit inefficiency under the current dairy-quota system, mainly driven by an average underproduction of approximately 50 percent and ...

  10. Estimation of the furan contamination across the Belgian food chain

    OpenAIRE

    Scholl , Georges; Scippo , Marie-Louise; Eppe , Gauthier; De Pauw , Edwin; Saegerman , Claude

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The current paper provides the estimate of the furan content in Belgian foods. The objective of the study was to achieve the best food chain coverage with a restrictive number of samples (n=496). The geographic distribution, the different market chains and labels, but also the consumption frequencies were taken into account for the sampling plan construction. Weighting factors on contamination levels, consumption frequency and diversity of food items were applied to set ...

  11. Copyright and Wire Broadcasting Under Belgian Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namurois, Albert

    1975-01-01

    A discussion of a case whereby substantial damages, if not criminal proceedings, will sanction, according to circumstances, both television organizations and those who in certain conditions distribute their programs by wire or communicate them to the public. (Author/HB)

  12. The Odd One Out? Revisiting the Belgian Welfare State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cor Wagenaar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Michael Ryckewaert publication Building the Economic Backbone of the Belgian Welfare State. Infrastructure, planning and architecture 1945-1973 describes the evolution of the welfare state and Belgium, more specifically its spatial characteristics. This by now historical socio-political model had decidedly collectivist traits, culminating in the provision of social security networks and a vast expansion of the public domain. If collectivism was one of the key elements of the welfare state, the absence of centralized planning appears to make the Belgian variant somewhat problematic.Whereas in countries like the Netherlands, Germany and France, modernism became the house style of the welfare state, thanks to the massive investments in public housing, this did not happen in Belgium. Here, the De Taeye Act of 1948 sponsored the construction of individual, detached houses; not surprisingly, most clients preferred traditional architecture and refrained from modern experiments. Industrial parks, office buildings and shops, on the other hand, developed into the cornerstones of Belgian modern architecture after 1945. Both the low-density sprawl and the industrial parks depend heavily on the use of the car, which was accommodated by the construction of a network of highways.

  13. The Belgian initiative G1000. A feasible model of deliberative cyber democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Tejedor Fuentes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, after five hundred days without any stable form of government, a group of Belgian citizens from a wide range of social backgrounds launched a citizenship summit called 'G1000'. The aim of the event was to create citizen involvement in politics by stimulating participants to take part in debates about social issues and by applying innovative techniques of deliberative democracy. In order to verify whether the model mentioned meets the criteria of an “online democratic-deliberative” experiment, this article carried out a quantitative analysis of the G1000 based on the work of Fishkin, Chadwick and Habermas. According to the majority of authors who have contributed to the topic, including the spokesperson and organizer of the event, Vincent Jacquet the results demonstrate that the G1000 summit is, in fact, a genuine democratic-deliberative initiative.

  14. Antibiotic sensitivity and resistance in Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale strains from Belgian broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devriese, L A; De Herdt, P; Haesebrouck, F

    2001-06-01

    Establishing the antibiotic sensitivity of the avian respiratory pathogen Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale is difficult because of the organism's complex growth requirements and the unusually frequent occurrence of resistance. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of 10 antibiotics were determined for 45 strains of O. rhinotracheale from Belgian broiler chickens collected from 45 farms between 1995 and 1998. They were compared with the type strain, which was isolated from a turkey, and a strain isolated from a rook. All the broiler strains were resistant to lincomycin and to the beta-lactams ampicillin and ceftiofur. Less than 10% of the strains were sensitive to the macrolides tylosin and spiramycin, tilmicosin and flumequine. A few strains were sensitive to enrofloxacin and doxycycline. All strains were sensitive to tiamulin.

  15. Differences between Belgian and Brazilian group A Streptococcus epidemiologic landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Robert Smeesters

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Group A Streptococcus (GAS clinical and molecular epidemiology varies with location and time. These differences are not or are poorly understood. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We prospectively studied the epidemiology of GAS infections among children in outpatient hospital clinics in Brussels (Belgium and Brasília (Brazil. Clinical questionnaires were filled out and microbiological sampling was performed. GAS isolates were emm-typed according to the Center for Disease Control protocol. emm pattern was predicted for each isolate. 334 GAS isolates were recovered from 706 children. Skin infections were frequent in Brasília (48% of the GAS infections, whereas pharyngitis were predominant (88% in Brussels. The mean age of children with GAS pharyngitis in Brussels was lower than in Brasília (65/92 months, p<0.001. emm-typing revealed striking differences between Brazilian and Belgian GAS isolates. While 20 distinct emm-types were identified among 200 Belgian isolates, 48 were found among 128 Brazilian isolates. Belgian isolates belong mainly to emm pattern A-C (55% and E (42.5% while emm pattern E (51.5% and D (36% were predominant in Brasília. In Brasília, emm pattern D isolates were recovered from 18.5% of the pharyngitis, although this emm pattern is supposed to have a skin tropism. By contrast, A-C pattern isolates were infrequently recovered in a region where rheumatic fever is still highly prevalent. CONCLUSIONS: Epidemiologic features of GAS from a pediatric population were very different in an industrialised country and a low incomes region, not only in term of clinical presentation, but also in terms of genetic diversity and distribution of emm patterns. These differences should be taken into account for designing treatment guidelines and vaccine strategies.

  16. Impact of a VAP bundle in Belgian intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadot, Laurent; Huyghens, Luc; De Jaeger, Annick; Bourgeois, Marc; Biarent, Dominique; Higuet, Adeline; de Decker, Koen; Vander Laenen, Margot; Oosterlynck, Baudewijn; Ferdinande, Patrick; Reper, Pascal; Brimioulle, Serge; Van Cromphaut, Sophie; De Clety, Stéphane Clement; Sottiaux, Thierry; Damas, Pierre

    2018-05-21

    In order to decrease the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in Belgium, a national campaign for implementing a VAP bundle involving assessment of sedation, cuff pressure control, oral care with chlorhexidine and semirecumbent position, was launched in 2011-2012. This report will document the impact of this campaign. On 1 day, once a year from 2010 till 2016, except in 2012, Belgian ICUs were questioned about their ventilated patients. For each of these, data about the application of the bundle and the possible treatment for VAP were recorded. Between 36.6 and 54.8% of the 120 Belgian ICUs participated in the successive surveys. While the characteristics of ventilated patients remained similar throughout the years, the percentage of ventilated patients and especially the duration of ventilation significantly decreased before and after the national VAP bundle campaign. Ventilator care also profoundly changed: Controlling cuff pressure, head positioning above 30° were obtained in more than 90% of cases. Oral care was more frequently performed within a day, using more concentrated solutions of chlorhexidine. Subglottic suctioning also was used but in only 24.7% of the cases in the last years. Regarding the prevalence of VAP, it significantly decreased from 28% of ventilated patients in 2010 to 10.1% in 2016 (p ≤ 0.0001). Although a causal relationship cannot be inferred from these data, the successive surveys revealed a potential impact of the VAP bundle campaign on both the respiratory care of ventilated patients and the prevalence of VAP in Belgian ICUs encouraging them to follow the guidelines.

  17. Operating experience with diesel generators in Belgian nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merny, R. [Association Vincotte, Avenue du Roi 157, B-1060 Bruxelles/Brussels (Belgium)

    1986-02-15

    Various problems have occurred on the diesel generators in the Belgian nuclear power plants, independently of the D.G. manufacturer or from the operating crew. Furthermore no individual part of the D.G. can be incriminated as being the main cause of the incidents. The incidents reported in this paper are chosen because of the importance for the safety or for the long repair period. The unavailability of a D.G. can only be detected by periodic tests and controls. Combined with a good preventive maintenance, the risks of incidents can be reduced. (author)

  18. Operating experience with diesel generators in Belgian nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merny, R.

    1986-01-01

    Various problems have occurred on the diesel generators in the Belgian nuclear power plants, independently of the D.G. manufacturer or from the operating crew. Furthermore no individual part of the D.G. can be incriminated as being the main cause of the incidents. The incidents reported in this paper are chosen because of the importance for the safety or for the long repair period. The unavailability of a D.G. can only be detected by periodic tests and controls. Combined with a good preventive maintenance, the risks of incidents can be reduced. (author)

  19. The actual practice of air cleaning in Belgian nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goossens, W.R. [PEGO, Mol (Belgium)

    1995-02-01

    With 60% of its power generation from nuclear stations Belgium has 7 nuclear power stations in operation with a total capacity of 5.4 MWe. Enriched uranium is imported and converted to fuel assemblies. The actinides of reprocessed fuel are recycled as MOX fuel. A main waste conditioning operation has been performed in the PAMELA vitrifier. The actual practice of nuclear air cleaning in the Belgian PWR station DOEL-4 and in the PAMELA -vitrification plant for high level liquid waste is reviewed.

  20. Geological disposal in the Belgian context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heremans, R.H.; Baetsle, L.H.

    1985-01-01

    The way of studying the high-level and α-bearing waste burial problem can vary from one country to another. In Belgium, if the electronuclear power represents about 60% of the total electricity production, the installed capacity is however limited to 5500 MWe. Furthermore, Belgium is a small country, densely populated, and its geology does not allow a large choice of underground formations acceptable for safe waste disposal. In 1974, site specific investigations were started on a 700 hectares area in the NE part of the country where Belgium's main nuclear research center and some nuclear fuel cycle facilities are located. The formation considered is a tertiary age clay layer underlying the Mol-Dessel area. Study and research works were organized in the frame of successive five year programs. The main objectives of the research are presented. After 10 years of intensive field, laboratory and desk work the obtained results allowed to start of the drafting of Preliminary Safety and Feasibility report in view of the construction of a demonstration facility. The project was performed by the CEN/SCK in the frame of shared financing contracts with the CEC and ONDRAF/NIRAS

  1. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in food and feed on the Belgian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huybrechts, Bart; Callebaut, Alfons

    2015-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are widely distributed plant toxins with species dependent hepatotoxic, carcinogenic, genotoxic and pneumotoxic risks. In a recent European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) opinion, only two data sets from one European country were received for honey, while one feed data set was included. No data are available for food or feed samples from the Belgian market. We developed an LC-MS/MS method, which allowed the detection and quantification of 16 PAs in a broad range of matrices in the sub ng g(-1) range. The method was validated in milk, honey and hay and applied to honey, tea (Camellia sinensis), scented tea, herbal tea, milk and feed samples bought on the Belgian market. The results confirmed that tea, scented tea, herbal tea and honey are important food sources of pyrrolizidine alkaloid contamination in Belgium. Furthermore, we detected PAs in 4 of 63 commercial milk samples. A high incidence rate of PAs in lucerne (alfalfa)-based horse feed and in rabbit feed was detected, while bird feed samples were less contaminated. We report for the first time the presence of monocrotaline, intermedine, lycopsamine, heliotrine and echimidine in cat food.

  2. Genetic parameters for chronic progressive lymphedema in Belgian Draught Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Keyser, K; Janssens, S; Peeters, L M; Foqué, N; Gasthuys, F; Oosterlinck, M; Buys, N

    2014-12-01

    Genetic parameters for chronic progressive lymphedema (CPL)-associated traits in Belgian Draught Horses were estimated, using a multitrait animal model. Clinical scores of CPL in the four limbs/horse (CPLclin ), skinfold thickness and hair samples (hair diameter) were studied. Due to CPLclin uncertainty in younger horses (progressive CPL character), a restricted data set (D_3+) was formed, excluding records from horses under 3 years from the complete data set (D_full). Age, gender, coat colour and limb hair pigmentation were included as fixed, permanent environment and date of recording as random effects. Higher CPLclin certainty (D_3+) increased heritability coefficients of, and genetic correlations between traits, with CPLclin heritabilities (SE) for the respective data sets: 0.11 (0.06) and 0.26 (0.05). A large proportion of the CPLclin variance was attributed to the permanent environmental effect in D_full, but less in D_3+. Date of recording explained a proportion of variance from 0.09 ± 0.03 to 0.61 ± 0.08. Additive genetic correlations between CPLclin and both skinfold thickness and hair diameter showed the latter two traits cannot be used as a direct diagnostic aid for CPL. Due to the relatively low heritability of CPLclin , selection should focus on estimated breeding values (from repeated clinical examinations) to reduce CPL occurrence in the Belgian Draught Horse. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Knowledge and attitudes of nurses on pressure ulcer prevention: a cross-sectional multicenter study in Belgian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeckman, Dimitri; Defloor, Tom; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Vanderwee, Katrien

    2011-09-01

    Evidence-based guidelines for pressure ulcer prevention have been developed and promoted by authoritative organizations. However, nonadherence to these guidelines is frequently reported. Negative attitudes and lack of knowledge may act as barriers to using guidelines in clinical practice. To study the knowledge and attitudes of nurses about pressure ulcer prevention in Belgian hospitals and to explore the correlation between knowledge, attitudes, and the application of adequate prevention. A cross-sectional multicenter study was performed in a random sample of 14 Belgian hospitals, representing 207 wards. Out of that group, 94 wards were randomly selected (2105 patients). Clinical observations were performed to assess the adequacy of pressure ulcer prevention and pressure ulcer prevalence. From each participating ward, a random selection of at least five nurses completed an extensively validated knowledge and attitude instrument. In total, 553 nurses participated. A logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the correlation between knowledge, attitudes, and the application of adequate prevention. Pressure ulcer prevalence (Category I-IV) was 13.5% (284/2105). Approximately 30% (625/2105) of the patients were at risk (Bradenscore pressure ulcer). Only 13.9% (87/625) of these patients received fully adequate prevention whilst in bed and when seated. The mean knowledge and attitude scores were 49.7% and 71.3%, respectively. The application of adequate prevention on a nursing ward was significantly correlated with the attitudes of the nurses (OR = 3.07, p = .05). No independent correlation was found between knowledge and the application of adequate prevention (OR = 0.75, p = .71). Knowledge of nurses in Belgian hospitals about the prevention of pressure ulcers is inadequate. The attitudes of nurses toward pressure ulcers are significantly correlated with the application of adequate prevention. No correlation was found between knowledge and the

  4. Vitamin D inadequacy in Belgian postmenopausal osteoporotic women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collette Julien

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate serum vitamin D [25(OHD] concentrations are associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism, increased bone turnover and bone loss, which increase fracture risk. The objective of this study is to assess the prevalence of inadequate serum 25(OHD concentrations in postmenopausal Belgian women. Opinions with regard to the definition of vitamin D deficiency and adequate vitamin D status vary widely and there are no clear international agreements on what constitute adequate concentrations of vitamin D. Methods Assessment of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] and parathyroid hormone was performed in 1195 Belgian postmenopausal women aged over 50 years. Main analysis has been performed in the whole study population and according to the previous use of vitamin D and calcium supplements. Four cut-offs of 25(OHD inadequacy were fixed : Results Mean (SD age of the patients was 76.9 (7.5 years, body mass index was 25.7 (4.5 kg/m2. Concentrations of 25(OHD were 52.5 (21.4 nmol/L. In the whole study population, the prevalence of 25(OHD inadequacy was 91.3 %, 87.5 %, 43.1 % and 15.9% when considering cut-offs of 80, 75, 50 and 30 nmol/L, respectively. Women who used vitamin D supplements, alone or combined with calcium supplements, had higher concentrations of 25(OHD than non-users. Significant inverse correlations were found between age/serum PTH and serum 25(OHD (r = -0.23/r = -0.31 and also between age/serum PTH and femoral neck BMD (r = -0.29/r = -0.15. There is a significant positive relation between age and PTH (r = 0.16, serum 25(OHD and femoral neck BMD (r = 0.07. (P Vitamin D concentrations varied with the season of sampling but did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.09. Conclusion This study points out a high prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy in Belgian postmenopausal osteoporotic women, even among subjects receiving vitamin D supplements.

  5. Annual report for the steering committee of the association Euratom-Belgian State for fusion 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    1998-10-01

    This report is prepared for the annual steering committee meting of the Association Euratom - Belgian State in the area of fusion reactor technology. The Belgian contribution focuses on the assessment of the first wall and blanket materials under radiation and coolant interaction and on developments for the remote handling in maintenance activities. The period October 1997 to September 1998 is reported on.The fusion technology work performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN, the Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering of the Louvain University (Belgium) and S.A. Gradel, a Luxemburg-based organisation, is described.

  6. Annual report for the steering committee of the association Euratom-Belgian State for fusion 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    1999-10-01

    This report is prepared for the annual steering committee meting of the Association Euratom - Belgian State in the area of fusion reactor technology. The Belgian contribution focuses on the assessment of the first wall and blanket materials under radiation and coolant interaction and on developments for the remote handling in maintenance activities. The period October 1998 to September 1999 is reported on.The fusion technology work performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN, the Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering of the Louvain University (Belgium) and S.A. Gradel, a Luxemburg-based organisation, is described.

  7. Annual report for the steering committee of the association Euratom-Belgian State for fusion 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    1999-10-01

    This report is prepared for the annual steering committee meting of the Association Euratom - Belgian State in the area of fusion reactor technology. The Belgian contribution focuses on the assessment of the first wall and blanket materials under radiation and coolant interaction and on developments for the remote handling in maintenance activities. The period October 1998 to September 1999 is reported on.The fusion technology work performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN, the Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering of the Louvain University (Belgium) and S.A. Gradel, a Luxemburg-based organisation, is described

  8. Annual report for the steering committee of the association Euratom-Belgian State for fusion 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    1998-10-01

    This report is prepared for the annual steering committee meting of the Association Euratom - Belgian State in the area of fusion reactor technology. The Belgian contribution focuses on the assessment of the first wall and blanket materials under radiation and coolant interaction and on developments for the remote handling in maintenance activities. The period October 1997 to September 1998 is reported on.The fusion technology work performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN, the Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering of the Louvain University (Belgium) and S.A. Gradel, a Luxemburg-based organisation, is described

  9. The Quality of Work in the Belgian Service Voucher System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousaid, Sarah; Huegaerts, Kelly; Bosmans, Kim; Julià, Mireia; Benach, Joan; Vanroelen, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    Several European countries implemented initiatives to boost the growth of the domestic cleaning sector. Few studies investigated the quality of work in these initiatives, although effects on workers' health and on social health inequalities can be expected. This study contributes to the scant research on this subject, by investigating the quality of work in the Belgian service voucher system - a subsidized system for domestic work. The applied research methodology includes a qualitative content analysis of parliamentary debates, legislation and previous research about the service voucher system and of 40 in-depth interviews with service voucher workers. The study shows that the legal framework that regulates the system must be further enhanced in order to improve the quality of work in the service voucher system. In addition, the actors involved must be better controlled, and sanctioned in case of non-compliance with legislation. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. RECRUITING OLDER VOLUNTEERS: FINDINGS FROM THE BELGIAN AGEING STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah DURY

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there is a significant body of work concerning voluntary work, hardly any attention is given to volunteering of older individuals. Moreover, the potential volunteers among older adults is even less examined. Next to volunteering among olde r adults, the neighbou rhood becomes more salient when people age and this due to their more intense use and time spent in the neighbourhood. In response to these lacunae, the main purpose of this contribution is to examine the impact of subjective neighbourhood features on the recruitment potential for volunteering among older people. This study uses data collected from the Belgian Ageing Studies. 59.977 adults aged sixty and over living self-reliantly in 127 Flemish municipalities in Belgium participated in this study. A binary logistic regression is ap plied to analyse the key va riables characterizing potential volunteers. Our findings stress the need for recognizing the crucial importance of the locality when recruiting older adults for volunteer activities.

  11. Characteristics of suicide hotspots on the Belgian railway network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debbaut, Kevin; Krysinska, Karolina; Andriessen, Karl

    2014-01-01

    In 2004, railway suicide accounted for 5.3% of all suicides in Belgium. In 2008, Infrabel (Manager of the Belgian Railway Infrastructure) introduced a railway suicide prevention programme, including identification of suicide hotspots, i.e., areas of the railway network with an elevated incidence of suicide. The study presents an analysis of 43 suicide hotspots based on Infrabel data collected during field visits and semi-structured interviews conducted in mental health facilities in the vicinity of the hotspots. Three major characteristics of the hotspots were accessibility, anonymity, and vicinity of a mental health institution. The interviews identified several risk and protective factors for railway suicide, including the training of staff, introduction of a suicide prevention policy, and the role of the media. In conclusion, a comprehensive railway suicide prevention programme should continuously safeguard and monitor hotspots, and should be embedded in a comprehensive suicide prevention programme in the community.

  12. Belgian Workshop (November 2003) - Executive Summary and International Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The fourth workshop of the OECD/NEA Forum on Stakeholder Confidence (FSC) was hosted by ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste Management and enriched fissile materials. The central theme of the workshop was 'Dealing with interests, values and knowledge in managing risk' within the Belgian context of local partnerships for the long term management of low-level, short-lived radioactive waste. The four-day workshop started with a half-day session in Brussels giving a general introduction on the Belgian context and the local partnership methodology. This was followed by community visits to three local partnerships, PaLoFF in Fleurus-Farciennes, MONA in Mol, and STOLA in Dessel. After the visits, the workshop continued with two full-day sessions in Brussels. One hundred and nineteen registered participants, representing 13 countries, attended the workshop or participated in the community visits. About two thirds were Belgian stakeholders; the remainder came from FSC member organisations. The participants included representatives of municipal governments, civil society organisations, government agencies, industrial companies, the media, and international organisations as well as private citizens, consultants and academics. The four-day meeting was structured as follows: Day 1 morning was devoted to introductory presentations. Information was given on the general radioactive waste management context in Belgium. Regarding the management of LLW, and in particular the search for a disposal facility site, the workshop heard about the local partnership methodology developed by university researchers of the University of Antwerp and the Fondation Universitaire Luxembourgeoise (FUL). These partnerships between the potential host municipalities and the radwaste agency have the mission to develop an integrated facility proposal adapted to local conditions. Community visits took place on Day 1 afternoon and Day 2. Visits offered an opportunity for

  13. Treatment adherence in multiple sclerosis: a survey of Belgian neurologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Decoo D

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Danny Decoo,1 Mathieu Vokaer2 1Department of Neurology and Neurorehab, AZ Alma, Sijsele, Belgium; 2Multiple Sclerosis Clinic, Edith Cavell Hospital, CHIREC group, Brussels, Belgium Background: Poor treatment adherence is common among patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. This survey evaluated neurologists’ perception of treatment adherence among MS patients.Materials and methods: This questionnaire-based survey of Belgian neurologists treating MS patients was conducted between June and July 2014. Face-to-face interviews with the neurologists were based on a semistructured questionnaire containing questions regarding the perception of the treatment-adherence level.Results: A total of 41 neurologists participated in the survey. Of these, 88% indicated frequent discussions about treatment adherence as beneficial for treatment efficacy. The mean time spent on the treatment-adherence discussion during the initial consultation was 11 minutes, with 24% of doctors spending 5 minutes and 24% of doctors spending 10 minutes discussing this issue. The majority of neurologists (56% perceived the adherence level in MS as good, and 12% perceived it as excellent. The majority of neurologists (64% indicated intolerance as a main cause of poor adherence, and all neurologists reported insufficient efficacy as a consequence of nonadherence. The importance of adherence in the neurologists’ practice was evaluated on a scale of 1–10, with 1= “not very important” and 10= “very important”: 44% of doctors indicated a score of 10, and the mean score was 9.0.Conclusion: Belgian neurologists consider treatment adherence in MS as essential for the benefits of therapies. However, although neurologists are aware of the consequences of nonadherence, they generally spend limited time discussing the importance of treatment adherence with their patients. Keywords: multiple sclerosis, treatment adherence, physician survey

  14. Assessment of doses received by the Belgian population due to the Chernobyl releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govaerts, P.; Fieuw, G.; Deworm, J.P.; Zeevaert, Th.

    1986-01-01

    The consequences of the exposure during the first year and beyond the first year after the Chernobyl accident in terms of radiation effects on the Belgian population are discussed as well as some uncertainties in these evaluations. (A.F.)

  15. PCBs and OCPs in marine species from the Belgian North Sea and the Western Scheldt Estuary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voorspoels, S.; Covaci, A.; Maervoet, J.; Schepens, P. [Antwerp Univ., Wilrijk (Belgium). Toxicological Centre

    2004-09-15

    The use and/or production of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), such as 2,2-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (DDT), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and lindane ({gamma}-HCH) have been banned in most developed countries since the 1970's. Despite this measure, these compounds are among the most prevalent environmental pollutants and they can be found in various environmental compartments, both biotic and abiotic. Their widespread presence is due to their extremely persistant and lipophilic nature, resulting in enrichment throughout the food chain. Prolonged exposure to these pollutants can interfere with normal physiology and biochemistry3, resulting in adverse effects in various organisms, including starfish, shrimp, crabs, and fish4. Because humans readily consume seafood, such as shrimp, crab and various fish species, these organisms are of great scientific value to estimate the possible exposure to PCBs and OCPs through marine food sources. The area studied in this investigation covered both commercial fishing grounds (Belgian North Sea - BNS) and a recreational fishing area (Western Scheldt Estuary - SE). The drainage basin of the SE covers a very densely populated and highly industrialised region, causing a high level of pollution in the SE. In this work, PCBs and OCPs were determined in benthic invertebrates and different fish species from both BNS and SE in order to evaluate trends in levels, congener distribution, and geographical variation.

  16. Annual report for the steering committee of the association Euratom-Belgian State for fusion 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moons, F.; Bogaerts, W.; Decreton, M.; Biver, E.; Coenen, S.; Benoit, Ph.; Coheur, L.; Deboodt, P.; Andreev, D.

    1996-09-01

    This report is prepared for the annual steering committee meting of the Association Euratom - Belgian State for Fusion. The period October 1995 to September 1996 is reported on.The fusion technology work performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN, the Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering of the Louvain University (Belgium) and S.A. Gradel, a Luxemburg company, is described

  17. Empty pledges: A content analysis comparing Belgian and Dutch child-targeting food websites

    OpenAIRE

    Neyens, Evy; Smits, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Background: In the EU Pledge, the food industry has vowed to retain from unhealthy food promotion to children under the age of twelve. Nonetheless, food brands increasingly lure children to branded websites packed with unhealthy food and beverage advertising. This study first explores the prevalence of online marketing strategies on 49 Belgian and Dutch child-targeting food websites. Second, it examines the nutrient content of the advertised foods. Third, it scrutinizes whether Belgian and Du...

  18. Annual report for the steering committee of the association Euratom-Belgian State for fusion 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moons, F.; Bogaerts, W.; Decreton, M.; Biver, E.; Coenen, S.; Benoit, Ph.; Coheur, L.; Deboodt, P.; Andreev, D.

    1996-09-01

    This report is prepared for the annual steering committee meting of the Association Euratom - Belgian State for Fusion. The period October 1995 to September 1996 is reported on.The fusion technology work performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN, the Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering of the Louvain University (Belgium) and S.A. Gradel, a Luxemburg company, is described.

  19. Maintenance Energy Requirements of Double-Muscled Belgian Blue Beef Cows

    OpenAIRE

    Fiems, Leo O.; De Boever, Johan L.; Vanacker, José M.; De Campeneere, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Double-muscled Belgian Blue animals are extremely lean, characterized by a deviant muscle fiber type with more fast-glycolytic fibers, compared to non-double-muscled animals. This fiber type may result in lower maintenance energy requirements. On the other hand, lean meat animals mostly have a higher rate of protein turnover, which requires more energy for maintenance. Therefore, maintenance requirements of Belgian Blue cows were investigated based on a zero body weight gain. T...

  20. Cooking up a culinary identity for Belgium. Gastrolinguistics in two Belgian cookbooks (19th century).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parys, Nathalie

    2013-12-01

    The notion of cookbooks as socio-historic markers in a society is generally accepted within food studies. As both representations and prescriptions of food practices, perceived habits and attitudes towards food, they represent a certain identity for their readers. This paper investigates the nature of the identity that Belgian cookbooks constructed through their rhetoric. An important part of this study is to explore how and to what extent explicit reference to Belgium was made. To this end recipe titles/labels and recipe comments used in two leading bourgeois cookbooks from nineteenth-century Belgium were subjected to a quantitative and qualitative content analysis. The analysis showed that clear attention was paid to national culinary preferences. In terms of a domestic culinary corpus, it became apparent that both the Dutch and French editions of these cookbooks promoted dishes that were ascribed a Belgian origin. Internationality, however, was also an important building block of Belgian culinary identity. It was part of the desire of Belgian bourgeoisie to connect with an international elite. It fit into the 'search for sophistication', which was also expressed through the high representation of the more costly meats and sweet dishes. In addition, other references associated with bourgeois norms and values, such as family, convenience and frugality, were additional building blocks of Belgian culinary identity. Other issues such as tradition, innovation and health, were also matters of concerns to these Belgian cookbooks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevalence and correlates of poor sleep quality and daytime sleepiness in Belgian truck drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braeckman, Lutgart; Verpraet, Rini; Van Risseghem, Marleen; Pevernagie, Dirk; De Bacquer, Dirk

    2011-03-01

    Sleepiness and sleep complaints are common among professional drivers. Sleepiness is a considerable problem not only because it affects the drivers' well-being, but also because of the consequences for performance and safety. Assessment of the (self-reported) prevalence and research into the risk factors are thus an important health issue and are also indispensable to prevent productivity loss and work-related accidents and injuries. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe sleeping, driving, and health characteristics of Belgian truck drivers and to determine occupational and individual factors associated with poor sleep quality and daytime sleepiness. Cross-sectional data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire that included the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and Berlin Questionnaire (BQ). The mean (SD) age of the 476 studied truck drivers was 42.7 (10.2) yrs and the mean (SD) body mass index was 27.3 (5.1) kg/m(2). Approximately 47% declared that they drove >50 h/wk and found their work schedule unrealistic. The mean (SD) PSQI score was 4.45 (2.7); poor quality of sleep (PSQI >5) was found in 27.2%. The mean (SD) ESS score was 6.79 (4.17); 18% had a score >10. The BQ indicated that 21.5% had a higher risk on obstructive sleep apnea. In multiple logistic regression analysis, low educational level (odds ratio [OR] 1.86), current smoking (OR 1.75), unrealistic work schedule (OR 1.75), and risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OR 2.97) were found to be independent correlates of daytime sleepiness. Poor sleep quality was significantly associated with poor self-perceived health (OR 1.95), unrealistic work schedule (OR 2.85), low job satisfaction (OR 1.91), and less driving experience (OR 1.73). These results show that poor sleep quality and daytime sleepiness were prevalent in Belgian truck drivers. Taking into account that several significant correlates with respect to these sleep problems were identified

  2. The radiological impact of the Belgian phosphate industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanmarcke, H.; Paridaens, J. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, SCK.CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2006-07-01

    The Belgian phosphate industry processes huge amounts of phosphate ore (1.5 to 2 Mton/year) for a wide range of applications, the most important being the production of phosphoric acid, fertilizers and cattle food. Marine phosphate ores show high specific activities of the natural uranium decay series (usually indicated by Ra-226) (e.g. 1200 to 1500 Bq/kg for Moroccan ore). Ores of magmatic origin generally contain less of the uranium and more of the thorium decay series (up to 500 Bq/kg). These radionuclides turn up in by-products, residues or product streams depending on the processing method and the acid used for the acidulation of the phosphate rock. Sulfuric acid is the most widely used, but also hydrochloric acid and nitric acid are applied in Belgium. For Flanders, the northern part of Belgium, we already have a clear idea of the production processes and waste streams. The five Flemish phosphate plants, from 1920 to 2000, handled 54 million ton of phosphate ore containing 65 TBq of radium-226 and 2.7 TBq of thorium- 232. The total surface area of the phosphogypsum and calcium fluoride sludge deposits amounts to almost 300 ha. There is also environmental contamination along two small rivers receiving the waste waters of the hydrochloric production process: the Winterbeek (> 200 ha) and the Grote Laak (12 ha). The data on the impact of the phosphate industry in the Walloon provinces in Belgium is less complete. A large plant produced in 2004 0.8 Mton of phosphogypsum, valorizing about 70 % of the gypsum in building materials (plaster, cement), in fertilizers, and in other products such as paper. The remainder was stored on a local disposal site. The radiological impact of the Belgian phosphate industry on the local population will be discussed. At present most contaminated areas are still recognizable as waste deposits and inaccessible to the population. However as gypsum deposits and other contaminated areas quickly blend in with the landscape, it is

  3. "The difference is in the tomato at the end": Understanding the motivations and practices of cannabis growers operating within Belgian Cannabis Social Clubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardal, Mafalda

    2018-03-11

    In Belgium, Cannabis Social Clubs (CSCs) collectively organize the cultivation and distribution of cannabis for the personal use of their members. In this paper we seek to improve understanding of the motivations and practices of cannabis growers operating within CSCs, shedding light on the cultivation process. We draw on data gathered through face-to-face semi-structured interviews with the directors of seven active Belgian CSCs (n = 21) and CSC growers (n = 23). These data are complemented by additional fieldwork and a review of policies relating to CSCs', including bylaws and growing protocols. The Belgian CSCs rely on single and multiple in-house grower arrangements. Most CSC growers had been cultivating cannabis prior to joining their current CSC, albeit growing in different contexts (non-commercial and commercial). The CSC growers discussed both ideological and pragmatic motives for operating within a CSC. Cultivation took place indoors and followed organic practices. Despite their small-scale (20 plants on average), the grow sites used specialized equipment. The growers reported receiving financial compensation to cover production costs. This paper offers new insights into a particular sector of domestic cannabis cultivation - CSC growers and their practices within those collectives - which has not been studied previously. The Belgian CSCs have decentralized production among small-scale grow sites, at a size comparable to that found in other small-scale cultivation studies. In terms of motivations and practices, CSC growers share some features typically ascribed to small-scale cannabis cultivators. At the same time, CSC growers seemed particularly engaged with the CSC model and willing to adhere to the (self-)regulated practices developed by the organizations. This had implications for the way cultivation was organized and for the role of the grower within the CSC. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Variability of patient safety culture in Belgian acute hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlayen, Annemie; Schrooten, Ward; Wami, Welcome; Aerts, Marc; Barrado, Leandro Garcia; Claes, Neree; Hellings, Johan

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to measure differences in safety culture perceptions within Belgian acute hospitals and to examine variability based on language, work area, staff position, and work experience. The Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture was distributed to hospitals participating in the national quality and safety program (2007-2009). Hospitals were invited to participate in a comparative study. Data of 47,136 respondents from 89 acute hospitals were used for quantitative analysis. Percentages of positive response were calculated on 12 dimensions. Generalized estimating equations models were fitted to explore differences in safety culture. Handoffs and transitions, staffing, and management support for patient safety were considered as major problem areas. Dutch-speaking hospitals had higher odds of positive perceptions for most dimensions in comparison with French-speaking hospitals. Safety culture scores were more positive for respondents working in pediatrics, psychiatry, and rehabilitation compared with the emergency department, operating theater, and multiple hospital units. We found an important gap in safety culture perceptions between leaders and assistants within disciplines. Administration and middle management had lower perceptions toward patient safety. Respondents working less than 1 year in the current hospital had more positive safety culture perceptions in comparison with all other respondents. Large comparative databases provide the opportunity to identify distinct high and low scoring groups. In our study, language, work area, and profession were identified as important safety culture predictors. Years of experience in the hospital had only a small effect on safety culture perceptions.

  5. Estimation of furan contamination across the Belgian food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, G; Scippo, M-L; De Pauw, E; Eppe, G; Saegerman, C

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an estimate of the furan content of Belgian foods. The objective of the study was to achieve the best food chain coverage with a restricted number of samples (n = 496). The geographic distribution, different market chains and labels, and consumption frequencies were taken into account in the construction of the sampling plan. Weighting factors such as contamination levels, consumption frequency and the diversity of food items were applied to set up the model. The very low detection capabilities (CC(β)) of the analytical methods used (sub-ppb) allowed reporting of 78.2% of the overall dataset above CC(β) and, in particular, 96.7% for the baby food category. The highest furan levels were found in powdered roasted bean coffee (1912 µg kg(-1)) with a mean of 756 µg kg(-1) for this category. Prepared meat, pasta and rice, breakfast cereals, soups, and baby food also showed high mean furan contents ranging from 16 to 43 µg kg(-1). Comparisons with contamination surveys carried out in other countries pointed out differences for the same food group and therefore contamination levels are related to the geographical origin of food items.

  6. Terminal patients in Belgian nursing homes: a cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoens, Steven; Kutten, Betty; Keirse, Emmanuel; Vanden Berghe, Paul; Beguin, Claire; Desmedt, Marianne; Deveugele, Myriam; Léonard, Christian; Paulus, Dominique; Menten, Johan

    2013-06-01

    Policy makers and health care payers are concerned about the costs of treating terminal patients. This study was done to measure the costs of treating terminal patients during the final month of life in a sample of Belgian nursing homes from the health care payer perspective. Also, this study compares the costs of palliative care with those of usual care. This multicenter, retrospective cohort study enrolled terminal patients from a representative sample of nursing homes. Health care costs included fixed nursing home costs, medical fees, pharmacy charges, other charges, and eventual hospitalization costs. Data sources consisted of accountancy and invoice data. The analysis calculated costs per patient during the final month of life at 2007/2008 prices. Nineteen nursing homes participated in the study, generating a total of 181 patients. Total mean nursing home costs amounted to 3,243 € per patient during the final month of life. Total mean nursing home costs per patient of 3,822 € for patients receiving usual care were higher than costs of 2,456 € for patients receiving palliative care (p = 0.068). Higher costs of usual care were driven by higher hospitalization costs (p < 0.001). This study suggests that palliative care models in nursing homes need to be supported because such care models appear to be less expensive than usual care and because such care models are likely to better reflect the needs of terminal patients.

  7. Severe polysaccharide storage myopathy in Belgian and Percheron draught horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, B A; Credille, K M; Lavoie, J P; Fatone, S; Guard, C; Cummings, J F; Cooper, B J

    1997-05-01

    A severe myopathy leading to death or euthanasia was identified in 4 Belgian and 4 Percheron draught horses age 2-21 years. Clinical signs ranged from overt weakness and muscle atrophy in 2 horses age 2 and 3 years, to recumbency with inability to rise in 6 horses age 4-21 years. In 5 horses there was mild to severe increases in muscle enzyme levels. Clinical diagnoses included equine motor neuron disease (2 horses), post anaesthetic myopathy (2 horses), exertional myopathy (2 horses), myopathy due to unknown (one horse), and equine protozoal myelitis (one horse). Characteristic histopathology of muscle from affected horses was the presence of excessive complex polysaccharide and/or glycogen, revealed by periodic acid-Schiff staining in all cases and by electron microscopy in one case. Evaluation of frozen section histochemistry performed on 2 cases indicated that affected fibres were Type 2 glycolytic fibres. Subsarcolemmal and intracytoplasmic vacuoles were most prominent in 3 horses age 2-4 years, and excessive glycogen, with little or no complex polysaccharide, was the primary compound stored in affected muscle in these young horses. Myopathic changes, including fibre size variation, fibre hypertrophy, internal nuclei, and interstitial fat infiltration, were most prominent in 5 horses age 6-21 years, and the accumulation of complex polysaccharide appeared to increase with age. Mild to moderate segmental myofibre necrosis was present in all cases.

  8. The usefulness of Belgian formulae in third molar-based age assessment of Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmik, Biyas; Acharya, Ashith B; Naikmasur, Venkatesh G

    2013-03-10

    The third molars are one of few useful predictors for assessing the degree of maturity in adolescence and young adulthood. It has application in age estimation in the age group of 14-23 years, in general, and in juvenile/adult status prediction, in particular. Using a 10-stage grading of third molars, Gunst et al. developed regression formulae on a large sample of Belgians (n=2513) for estimating age. Their research has been recommended as a 'reference study' in age estimation guidelines. The present study has ventured to determine if estimating age in Indians using the Belgian formulae produced results comparable to those reported in the Belgian study; in addition, this study attempts to determine if the same formulae predicted juvenile/adult status (age aged between 14 and 23 years. The OPGs included a mix of one, two, three and four third molars. In total, 916 teeth were assessed using the same 10-stage grading. Age in each OPG was estimated by applying the relevant Belgian regression formulae (regression formulae are available for one, two, three and four third molars). To determine if the formulae produced age estimates comparable to those in the Belgian study, the percentage of Indian subjects whose actual age fell within the 68% confidence interval (CI) (calculated from the ± 1 S.D. value available for each Belgian formula) was ascertained. If ≥ 68% of Indian subjects' age fell inside this interval, it indicates that the Belgian formulae are applicable in Indians. To assess the suitability of the Belgian formulae in predicting juvenile/adult status in Indians, the accuracy of the age estimation per se was not considered, rather, the number of correct age predictions only was noted. Overall, ≈ 74% of Indian subjects' actual age fell within the 68% CI; with regards to the Belgian formulae being able to correctly predict juvenile/adult status, 78% of all subjects were categorized to the correct age group (age estimation per se of Indians; however, the

  9. Emergence of bovine ehrlichiosis in Belgian cattle herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyot, Hugues; Ramery, Eve; O'Grady, Luke; Sandersen, Charlotte; Rollin, Frédéric

    2011-06-01

    Bovine ehrlichiosis is a tick-borne rickettsial disease caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The disease can also be transmitted to humans. Outbreaks in cattle have been described in many European countries. In Belgium, infections caused by A. phagocytophilum have been reported in humans and dogs; however, this paper details the first report of ehrlichiosis in cattle herds in Belgium. The first case described was in a dairy herd located in eastern Belgium. Clinical signs included hyperthermia, polypnea, and swelling of the limbs. The other case was diagnosed in a second, mixed purpose herd in western Belgium. Within the second herd, all of the affected animals came from the same pasture. All animals in that pasture showed recurrent hyperthermia, and some also showed signs of mastitis and late-term abortions. Blood smears and serology revealed the presence of A. phagocytophilum in the majority of animals with pyrexia. Furthermore, the presence of leptospirosis, Neospora caninum, and Q fever antibodies was tested by serological analysis, but all results were negative. Paired serology for Adenovirus, BHV-4, BHV-1, BVD, PI3, and RSV-B did not show any significant seroconversion. Milk samples from cows affected by mastitis revealed minor pathogens. Fecal testing for the presence of Dictyocaulus viviparus in the first herd was negative. Recurrent pyrexia in pastured cattle is a non-specific sign, and can be related to several different pathogens. Bovine ehrlichiosis is transmitted by the tick species Ixodes ricinus which is known to be present throughout Belgium. Belgian practitioners should include ehrlichiosis in their differential diagnosis when confronted with pastured cattle suffering from recurrent pyrexia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Antimicrobial prescribing behaviour in dogs and cats by Belgian veterinarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cleven, Alexia; Sarrazin, Steven; de Rooster, Hilde; Paepe, Dominique; Van der Meeren, Sofie; Dewulf, Jeroen

    2018-03-17

    The objective of this study is to survey general prescribing behaviour by Belgian companion animal veterinarians and to assess agreement of these practices with current treatment guidelines. Therefore an online survey was administered with five realistic and frequently occurring first-line cases to primary-care veterinary practitioners. For each case a predefined pattern of questions were asked about whether or not they would prescribe antimicrobials, if they would prescribe a non-antimicrobial treatment and if they would perform additional diagnostic steps. The responses were compared with recommendations in national guidelines and recent literature. The overall most prescribed antimicrobials were potentiated amoxicillin (43.0 per cent), fluoroquinolones (14.7 per cent), third-generation and fourth-generation cephalosporins (10.9 per cent) and tetracyclines (10.9 per cent). Only 48.3 per cent of the veterinarians complied with the guidelines in nearly all of the clinical scenarios (ie, prescribing antimicrobials when indicated, not prescribing antimicrobials when it is not indicated). Moreover, when prescribing highest priority critically important antimicrobials, susceptibility testing on bacterial cultures was performed in only 12.4 per cent of the prescriptions. The results showed that the prescribing behaviour of antimicrobial compounds by primary-care veterinary practitioners in dogs and cats is often not in agreement with national guidelines. Focus in improvement of this prescribing behaviour should be on performing the appropriate diagnostic steps and decreasing the use of highest priority critically important antimicrobials. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Physical fitness of elite Belgian soccer players by player position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Jan; Vaeyens, Roel; Steyaert, Adelheid; Vanden Bossche, Luc; Bourgois, Jan

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain an insight into the physical and physiological profile of elite Belgian soccer players with specific regard to the player's position on the field. The sample consisted of 289 adult players from 6 different first division teams. The players were divided into 5 subgroups (goalkeepers, center backs, full backs, midfielders, and strikers) according to their self-reported best position on the field. The subjects performed anaerobic (10-m sprint, 5 × 10-m shuttle run [SR], squat jump [SJ], and countermovement jump [CMJ]) and aerobic (incremental running protocol) laboratory tests. The strikers had significantly shorter sprinting times (5-, 5- to 10-m time, and SR) compared with the midfielders, center backs, and goalkeepers, whereas the full backs were also significantly faster compared with the goalkeepers and the center backs. The goalkeepers and the center backs displayed higher jumping heights (total mean SJ = 40.7 ± 4.6 cm and CMJ = 43.1 ± 4.9 cm) compared with the other 3 positions, whereas the strikers also jumped higher than the full backs and the midfielders did. Regarding the aerobic performance, both full backs and the midfielders (61.2 ± 2.7 and 60.4 ± 2.8 ml · min(-1) · kg(-1), respectively) had a higher VO2max compared with the strikers, center backs, and goalkeepers (56.8 ± 3.1, 55.6 ± 3.5, and 52.1 ± 5.0 ml · min(-1) · kg(-1), respectively). From this study, it could be concluded that players in different positions have different physiological characteristics. The results of this study might provide useful insights for individualized conditional training programs for soccer players. Aside from the predominant technical and tactical skills, a physical profile that is well adjusted to the position on the field might enhance game performance.

  12. Water holding capacity of meat from rabbits (Belgian Giant breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Tărnăuceanu Frunză

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Meat science has always been most interested in practical applications and macroscopic effects of internal/external factors in relation to water holding capacity (WHC. Research has been motivated by technological and sensory aspects, both finally linked to economic benefits. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of gender and different muscle groups from rabbits on WHC of their meat. Determining WHC was carried out by compression of the meat over filter paper between two plates. The biological material was collected from 56 Belgian Giant breed rabbits (25 males and 31 females. Aged 11-12 months, the rabbits had an average body weight of 11.5 kg. Measurements were performed on the muscles Longissimus dorsi (LD, Psoas major (PM and Semimembranosus (SM 24 hours after slaughter. The percentage of WHC was calculated as ratio (per cent of weight of released water to intact meat. WHC for females, in LD, had an average value of 8%, in PM it had an average value of 9.31%, and in SM it had an average value of 12.91%. For males, WHC in LD was 7.6%, in PM 8.23% and in SM 11.43%. The average value for WHC was higher for females than for males. Regarding the statistical significance of differences by gender, distinct significant differences for SM and very significant differences for PM were recorded. For PM, a higher average value of WHC is probably due to the smaller diameter of muscle fibres and also to water higher percentage of them.

  13. A survey of bacteria found in Belgian dairy farm products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N'Guessan, E.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. Due to the potential hazards caused by pathogenic bacteria, farm dairy production remains a challenge from the point of view of food safety. As part of a public program to support farm diversification and short food supply chains, farm dairy product samples including yogurt, ice cream, raw-milk butter and cheese samples were collected from 318 Walloon farm producers between 2006 and 2014. Objectives. Investigation of the microbiological quality of the Belgian dairy products using the guidelines provided by the European food safety standards. Method. The samples were collected within the framework of the self-checking regulation. In accordance with the European Regulation EC 2073/2005, microbiological analyses were performed to detect and count Enterobacteriaceae, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Results. Even when results met the microbiological safety standards, hygienic indicator microorganisms like E. coli and S. aureus exceeded the defined limits in 35% and 4% of butter and cheese samples, respectively. Unsatisfactory levels observed for soft cheeses remained higher (10% and 2% for S. aureus and L. monocytogenes respectively than those observed for pressed cheeses (3% and 1% and fresh cheeses (3% and 0% (P ≥ 0.05. Furthermore, the percentages of samples outside legal limits were not significantly higher in the summer months than in winter months for all mentioned bacteria. Conclusions. This survey showed that most farm dairy products investigated were microbiologically safe. However, high levels of hygiene indicators (e.g., E. coli in some products, like butter, remind us of applying good hygienic practices at every stage of the dairy production process to ensure consumer safety.

  14. Belgian nuclear forum - launching the public debate on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leclere, Robert; Van Landeghem, Yves

    2010-01-01

    In the past decades, public opinion on nuclear power was dominated by a 'sleeping', indifferent majority. Nothing moved until (a minority of) opponents began to stir. Their activism strongly contrasted with the low-profile attitude of the nuclear players and pushed a considerable part of the indifferent majority towards a more negative attitude. A 2007 opinion poll (IFOP) confirmed this trend. The poll also revealed a major lack of objective and factual information. Incorrect and incomplete arguments tended to demonize nuclear energy, and 'nuclear' became a brand polarizing public opinion. This had a negative impact on decision-makers and culminated in the Belgian phase-out law of 2003. Based on the opinion poll, the members of the Belgian Nuclear Forum decided to launch a public information campaign, which they would jointly finance, with these goals: - In 3 to 4 years time, create greater public awareness on energy matters and move public opinion towards a more positive attitude. - Gain recognition of nuclear energy's legitimate place in the mix, and of the importance of peaceful nuclear applications. - Attract attention to the Belgian know-how and the importance of the industry on the scientific and economical level. - Optimize conditions for important nuclear issues such as long-term operation of NPPs, new nuclear research projects (MYRRHA),.. A 'push-pull' approach was adopted: push communication to the public (campaign) to pull (involve) decision-makers and get nuclear back on the political agenda. The Forum also opted for a sustained, long-term effort based on public campaigning, public relations and public affairs. Considering its long-time absence from the public debate, the Forum and its agency Saatchi and Saatchi agreed upon the following principles to underpin the campaign: - No 'pro-campaign'; that would be highly unrealistic and have a negative effect; - No taboos: bring up both the pros and cons; - No emotions: bring reason into a mainly emotional

  15. The impact of gendered friendship patterns on the prevalence of homophobia among belgian late adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooghe, Marc

    2011-06-01

    In order to assess the determinants of homophobia among Belgian adolescents, a shortened version of the Homophobia scale (Wright et al., 1999) was included in a representative survey among Belgian adolescents (n = 4,870). Principal component analysis demonstrated that the scale was one-dimensional and internally coherent. The results showed that homophobia is still widespread among Belgian adolescents, despite various legal reforms in the country aiming to combat discrimination of gay women and men. A multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that boys, ethnic minorities, individuals with high levels of ethnocentrism and an instrumental worldview, Muslim minorities, and those with low levels of associational involvement scored significantly higher on the scale. While among boys an extensive friendship network was associated with higher levels of homophobia, the opposite phenomenon was found among girls. We discuss the possible relation between notions of masculinity within predominantly male adolescent friendship networks and social support for homophobia.

  16. Emerging contaminants in Belgian marine waters: single toxicant and mixture risks of pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessens, Michiel; Vanhaecke, Lynn; Wille, Klaas; Janssen, Colin R

    2013-06-15

    Knowledge on the effects of pharmaceuticals on aquatic marine ecosystems is limited. The aim of this study was therefore to establish the effect thresholds of pharmaceutical compounds occurring in the Belgian marine environment for the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, and subsequently perform an environmental risk assessment for these substances. Additionally, a screening-level risk assessment was performed for the pharmaceutical mixtures. No immediate risk for acute toxic effects of these compounds on P. tricornutum were apparent at the concentrations observed in the Belgian marine environment. In two Belgian coastal harbours however, a potential chronic risk was observed for the β-blocker propranolol. No additional risks arising from the exposure to mixtures of pharmaceuticals present in the sampling area could be detected. However, as risk characterization ratios for mixtures of up to 0.5 were observed, mixture effects could emerge should more compounds be taken into account. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Attitude of a group of Belgian stakeholders towards proposed agricultural countermeasures after a radioactive contamination: synthesis of the discussions within the Belgian EC-FARMING group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandecasteele, C.M.; Hardeman, F.; Pauwels, O.; Bernaerts, M.; Carle, B.; Sombre, L.

    2005-01-01

    In the case of radioactive contamination of the environment with an impact on the food chain, the remediation strategy will not only be based on scientific knowledge and technical experience, but will also be dictated by peculiarities of the country. These characteristics include the agro-industrial structure, the local and international economical contexts and the political configuration including the distribution of responsibilities and competencies. This paper identifies and illustrates the most relevant characteristics of the Belgian agricultural system and political environment; it also describes the past experience with food chain contamination, which is expected to influence the attitude of Belgian stakeholders, who would be involved in the setting up of countermeasure strategies for maintaining agricultural production and food safety. The picture drawn explains why several countermeasures aiming to reduce the contamination in food products, although scientifically sound and technically feasible, are hardly acceptable or even not acceptable at all, to the stakeholders

  18. Belgian nuclear forum - launching the public debate on nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leclere, Robert [Belgian Nuclear Forum, Gulledelle, 1200 Brussels (Belgium); Van Landeghem, Yves [Saatchi and Saatchi Belgium, Avenue Rogier, 1030 Brussels (Belgium)

    2010-07-01

    In the past decades, public opinion on nuclear power was dominated by a 'sleeping', indifferent majority. Nothing moved until (a minority of) opponents began to stir. Their activism strongly contrasted with the low-profile attitude of the nuclear players and pushed a considerable part of the indifferent majority towards a more negative attitude. A 2007 opinion poll (IFOP) confirmed this trend. The poll also revealed a major lack of objective and factual information. Incorrect and incomplete arguments tended to demonize nuclear energy, and 'nuclear' became a brand polarizing public opinion. This had a negative impact on decision-makers and culminated in the Belgian phase-out law of 2003. Based on the opinion poll, the members of the Belgian Nuclear Forum decided to launch a public information campaign, which they would jointly finance, with these goals: - In 3 to 4 years time, create greater public awareness on energy matters and move public opinion towards a more positive attitude. - Gain recognition of nuclear energy's legitimate place in the mix, and of the importance of peaceful nuclear applications. - Attract attention to the Belgian know-how and the importance of the industry on the scientific and economical level. - Optimize conditions for important nuclear issues such as long-term operation of NPPs, new nuclear research projects (MYRRHA),.. A 'push-pull' approach was adopted: push communication to the public (campaign) to pull (involve) decision-makers and get nuclear back on the political agenda. The Forum also opted for a sustained, long-term effort based on public campaigning, public relations and public affairs. Considering its long-time absence from the public debate, the Forum and its agency Saatchi and Saatchi agreed upon the following principles to underpin the campaign: - No 'pro-campaign'; that would be highly unrealistic and have a negative effect; - No taboos: bring up both the pros and cons; - No

  19. Antibiotic use and resistance in animals: Belgian initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daeseleire, Els; De Graef, Evelyne; Rasschaert, Geertrui; De Mulder, Thijs; Van den Meersche, Tina; Van Coillie, Els; Dewulf, Jeroen; Heyndrickx, Marc

    2016-05-01

    The widespread use of antibiotics in animals is causing concerns about the growing risk for development and the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Antibiotic consumption is higher in animals than in humans as reported in a joint publication of EFSA (European Food Safety Agency), ECDC (European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control), and EMA (European Medicines Agency) using data from 2011 and 2012. Both in humans and animals, positive associations between the consumption of antibiotics and resistant bacteria are observed. Responsible use of antibiotics in humans and animals should therefore be promoted. In this paper some general aspects of antibiotic resistance such as microbiological versus clinical resistance, intrinsic versus acquired resistance, resistance mechanisms, and transfer of resistance are briefly introduced. In 2012, the Belgian Center of Expertise on Antimicrobial Consumption and Resistance in Animals (AMCRA) was founded. Its mission is to collect and analyze all data related to antibiotic use and resistance in animals in Belgium and to communicate these findings in a neutral and objective manner. One of AMCRA's 10 objectives is a 50% reduction in antibiotic consumption in veterinary medicine in Belgium by 2020. The aim of this paper is to report on the achievements of this national project. The Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research (ILVO, Merelbeke-Melle), in collaboration with Ghent University, is currently working on three nationally funded projects on antibiotic resistance in animal husbandry. In the first project, an in vitro model is used to study the influence of low antibiotic concentrations due to carry-over after production and usage of medicated feed on the development of resistance in the pig gut. Part of that project is to develop a quantitative risk assessment model. A second project focuses on tracking excreted antibiotics used in pig rearing and their influence on the development of antibiotic resistance in pig

  20. The use of pesticides in Belgian illicit indoor cannabis plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuypers, Eva; Vanhove, Wouter; Gotink, Joachim; Bonneure, Arne; Van Damme, Patrick; Tytgat, Jan

    2017-08-01

    Cannabis (Cannabis spp.) use and cultivation continue to increase in many (European) countries. The illicit indoor cannabis plantations that supply Belgian and European cannabis markets create problems and concerns about health and safety of intervention staff, dismantling companies, the direct environment of cannabis plantations and, eventually, of cannabis users. Main risks may come from pesticide residues on plants, cultivation infrastructure and materials; left-over plant growth-promoting substances; mycotoxins from fungal pathogens on harvested plants; and/or high levels of cannabinoids in cannabis plant parts for consumption. In the present research, we report on pesticides found in illicit indoor cannabis plantations in Belgium. EN15662 QuEChERS extraction method and LC-MS/MS analysis were used to identify pesticides in indoor cannabis plantations and thus to evaluate the hazards associated with the use, cultivation and removal of cannabis plants in plantations as well as with dismantling activities in the cultivation rooms. We found pesticides in 64.3% of 72 cannabis plant samples and in 65.2% of 46 carbon filter cloth samples. Overall, 19 pesticides belonging to different chemical classes were identified. We found o-phenylphenol, bifenazate, cypermethrin, imidacloprid, propamocarb, propiconazole and tebuconazole, which is consistent with the commonly reported pesticides from literature. In only a few cases, pesticides found in bottles with a commercial label, were also identified in plant or stagnant water samples collected from the growth rooms where the bottles had been collected. We further revealed that, even though most pesticides have a low volatility, they could be detected from the carbon filters hanging at the ceiling of cultivation rooms. As a result, it is likely that pesticides also prevail in the plantation atmosphere during and after cultivation. The risk of inhaling the latter pesticides increases when plants sprayed with pesticides are

  1. Contribution of VPS35 genetic variability to LBD in the Flanders-Belgian population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstraeten, Aline; Wauters, Eline; Crosiers, David; Meeus, Bram; Corsmit, Ellen; Elinck, Ellen; Mattheijssens, Maria; Peeters, Karin; Cras, Patrick; Pickut, Barbara; Vandenberghe, Rik; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; De Deyn, Peter Paul; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; Theuns, Jessie

    VPS35 was recently identified as a novel autosomal dominant gene for Parkinson disease. In this study, we aimed to determine the contribution of simple and complex VPS35 variations to the genetic etiology of the spectrum of Lewy body disorders (LBD) in a Flanders-Belgian patient cohort (n = 677). We

  2. Performance Measurement in Belgian Hospitals : a state-of-the-art

    OpenAIRE

    Van Caillie, Didier; Rouhana, Rima; Santin, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    This communication proposes a global state-of-the-art around the central question : "How is performance measured and controlled in Belgian hospitals. As a first step in a global research project dedicated to the use of Balanced ScoreCard in publics hospitals around the world, it is essentially focused on global economic aspects and on major macroeconomic statistics.

  3. Non-suicidal self-injury among Dutch and Belgian adolescents: Personality, stress and coping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiekens, G.; Bruffaerts, R.; Nock, M.K.; Ven, M.O.M. van de; Witteman, C.L.M.; Mortier, P.; Demyttenaere, K.; Claes, L.

    2015-01-01

    Background This study examines: (1) the prevalence of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI) among Dutch and Belgian adolescents, (2) the associations between Big Five personality traits and NSSI engagement/versatility (i.e., number of NSSI methods), and (3) whether these associations are mediated by

  4. Cultural differences in complex addition: efficient Chinese versus adaptive Belgians and Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbo, Ineke; LeFevre, Jo-Anne

    2009-11-01

    In the present study, the authors tested the effects of working-memory load on math problem solving in 3 different cultures: Flemish-speaking Belgians, English-speaking Canadians, and Chinese-speaking Chinese currently living in Canada. Participants solved complex addition problems (e.g., 58 + 76) in no-load and working-memory load conditions, in which either the central executive or the phonological loop was loaded. The authors used the choice/no-choice method to obtain unbiased measures of strategy selection and strategy efficiency. The Chinese participants were faster than the Belgians, who were faster and more accurate than the Canadians. The Chinese also required fewer working-memory resources than did the Belgians and Canadians. However, the Chinese chose less adaptively from the available strategies than did the Belgians and Canadians. These cultural differences in math problem solving are likely the result of different instructional approaches during elementary school (practice and training in Asian countries vs. exploration and flexibility in non-Asian countries), differences in the number language, and informal cultural norms and standards. The relevance of being adaptive is discussed as well as the implications of the results in regards to the strategy choice and discovery simulation model of strategy selection (J. Shrager & R. S. Siegler, 1998).

  5. Where is the Frame? : Victims and Intruders in the Belgian Press Coverage of the Asylum Issue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorp, B. van

    2005-01-01

    In this article an empirically oriented conceptualization of frames is developed, using the issue of asylum and illegal immigration in the Belgian press as a test case. The methodological focus of this study is on the question of how these frames can be detected in the coverage. How can they be

  6. Clonal expansion of the Belgian Phytophthora ramorum populations based on new microsatellite markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Vercauteren; I. De Dobbelaere; N. J. Grünwald; P. Bonants; E. Van Bockstaele; M. Maes; K. Heungens

    2010-01-01

    Co-existence of both mating types A1 and A2 within the EU1 lineage of Phytophthora ramorum has only been observed in Belgium, which begs the question whether sexual reproduction is occurring. A collection of 411 Belgian P. ramorum isolates was established during a 7-year survey. Our main objectives were genetic characterization of this population to test for sexual...

  7. The labelling and reporting of euthanasia by Belgian physicians: a study of hypothetical cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smets, T.; Cohen, J.; Bilsen, J.; van Wesemael, Y.; Rurup, M.L.; Deliens, L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Belgium legalized euthanasia in 2002. Physicians must report each euthanasia case to the Federal Control and Evaluation Committee. This study examines which end-of-life decisions (ELDs) Belgian physicians label 'euthanasia', which ELDs they think should be reported and the physician

  8. Survey of the natural radiation of Belgian territory as determined by different methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deworm, J.P.; Slegers, W.; Gillard, J.; Flemal, J.M.; Culst, J.P.

    1988-01-01

    Measurement of the environmental exposure to natural radiation was performed by the Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology and the Nuclear Research Centre in Mol. The aim of the study was the estimation of the external doses from natural radioactivity received by the Belgian population and the setting up on a map of the territory of natural exposure rates measured using different methods. (author)

  9. Speaking Turkish in Belgian primary schools: teacher beliefs versus effective consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ağırdağ, O.; Jordens, K.; Van Houtte, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this mixed-method study, we explore teachers’ beliefs concerning the use of the Turkish language by Turkish children in Belgian primary schools, and we compare these findings with the effective consequences of language maintenance. The qualitative analyses revealed that teachers have very

  10. Dust suppression in Belgian coal mines. Situation at the beginning of 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preat, B; Vanstraelen, M

    1978-01-01

    Gives a general view of dust control in Belgian mines. Statistical data are presented in tables. Prior spraying, wet cutting, and water infusion and pneumatic drills with sprays are used; in some cases, two or more of these techniques are used together in the same face. (In French and In Dutch)

  11. Comparing Compositional Effects in Two Education Systems: The Case of the Belgian Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danhier, Julien; Martin, Émilie

    2014-01-01

    The Belgian educational field includes separate educational systems reflecting the division of the country into linguistic communities. Even if the French-speaking and the Dutch-speaking communities keep sharing important similarities in terms of funding rules and structures, they present a huge gap between their respective pupils' achievement.…

  12. The role of the sickness funds in the Belgian health care market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Nonneman (Nonneman); E.K.A. van Doorslaer (Eddy)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThis article reviews some of the salient features of the Belgian health care finance and delivery system. Special attention is paid to the role played by the third-party payers, i.e. the Health Insurance Associations (HIAs) in administering the compulsory national health insurance

  13. Development of clinical pharmacy in Belgian hospitals through pilot projects funded by the government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, A; Spinewine, A; Spriet, I; Steurbaut, S; Tulkens, P; Hecq, J D; Willems, L; Robays, H; Dhoore, M; Yaras, H; Vanden Bremt, I; Haelterman, M

    2018-04-30

    Objectives The goal is to develop clinical pharmacy in the Belgian hospitals to improve drug efficacy and to reduce drug-related problems. Methods From 2007 to 2014, financial support was provided by the Belgian federal government for the development of clinical pharmacy in Belgian hospitals. This project was guided by a national Advisory Working Group. Each funded hospital was obliged to describe yearly its clinical pharmacy activities. Results In 2007, 20 pharmacists were funded in 28 pilot hospitals; this number was doubled in 2009 to 40 pharmacists over 54 institutions, representing more than half of all acute Belgian hospitals. Most projects (72%) considered patient-related activities, whereas some projects (28%) had a hospital-wide approach. The projects targeted patients at admission (30%), during hospital stay (52%) or at discharge (18%). During hospital stay, actions were mainly focused on geriatric patients (20%), surgical patients (15%), and oncology patients (9%). Experiences, methods, and tools were shared during meetings and workshops. Structure, process, and outcome indicators were reported and strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats were described. The yearly reports revealed that the hospital board was engaged in the project in 87% of the cases, and developed a vision on clinical pharmacy in 75% of the hospitals. In 2014, the pilot phase was replaced by structural financing for clinical pharmacy in all acute Belgian hospitals. Conclusion The pilot projects in clinical pharmacy funded by the federal government provided a unique opportunity to launch clinical pharmacy activities on a broad scale in Belgium. The results of the pilot projects showed clear implementation through case reports, time registrations, and indicators. Tools for clinical pharmacy activities were developed to overcome identified barriers. The engagement of hospital boards and the results of clinical pharmacy activities persuaded the government to start structural

  14. Assessing the Organizational Climate in the Belgian Armed Forces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mylle, Jacques

    1998-01-01

    ... are. Organizational climate is defined as the synthetic, collective perception of a set of relatively stable internal aspects of the organization as experienced and described by the members of that organization.

  15. The mud deposits and the high turbidity in the Belgian-Dutch coastal zone, Southern Bight of the North Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Fettweis, M.; Van den Eynde, D.

    2003-01-01

    The suspended sediment processes and the mudfields found in the Belgian/Dutch coastal area (Southern North Sea) are discussed by presenting an integrated data-modelling approach of the suspended sediment transport along the Belgian-Dutch coast, using a fine-grid coupled 2D hydrodynamic and sediment transport model and existing field and literature data. These mudfields and turbidity maxima are situated in a well-mixed, highly energetic hydrodynamic environment. In the past the occurrence of t...

  16. An analysis of the public perception of flood risk on the Belgian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellens, Wim; Zaalberg, Ruud; Neutens, Tijs; Vanneuville, Wouter; De Maeyer, Philippe

    2011-07-01

    In recent years, perception of flood risks has become an important topic to policy makers concerned with risk management and safety issues. Knowledge of the public risk perception is considered a crucial aspect in modern flood risk management as it steers the development of effective and efficient flood mitigation strategies. This study aimed at gaining insight into the perception of flood risks along the Belgian coast. Given the importance of the tourism industry on the Belgian coast, the survey considered both inhabitants and residential tourists. Based on actual expert's risk assessments, a high and a low risk area were selected for the study. Risk perception was assessed on the basis of scaled items regarding storm surges and coastal flood risks. In addition, various personal and residence characteristics were measured. Using multiple regression analysis, risk perception was found to be primarily influenced by actual flood risk estimates, age, gender, and experience with previous flood hazards. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  17. The influence of a smoking ban on the profitability of Belgian restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schoenmaker, Sofie; Van Cauwenberge, Philippe; Vander Bauwhede, Heidi

    2013-05-01

    To examine whether the nationwide smoking ban, imposed in 2007, had an impact on the profitability of Belgian restaurants. Objective financial reporting data on 1613 restaurants were analysed with return on assets as the outcome measure. The data were collected from the Belfirst database and cover the period 2004-2009. To assess the impact of the smoking ban, a differences-in-differences estimation method was used, with bars serving as the control group. The regression model was estimated, while controlling for firm-specific characteristics and unobserved firm-level heterogeneity. The variable of interest is the interaction between the smoking ban dummy and the dummy for the treatment group. The coefficient of this variable is insignificant. The adoption of the nationwide smoking ban did not affect the profitability of Belgian restaurants.

  18. Application of American and French rules for the next belgian PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roch, M.; Cavaco, A.

    1987-01-01

    The licensing practice in Belgium is evolving from the precedent compliance with the USNRC rules (as applied to the 4 last Belgian PWRs) to a more sophisticated approach applied to the next Belgian PWR (N8), which incorporates a mixed compliance with the USNRC or with French rules, depending on the equipment, the structure or the system considered. In this paper, we present the approach concerning the licensing rules applicable to N8. The following aspects are covered: rules applicable to the NSSS; rules applicable to the BOP (codes of design for systems and structures); rules applicable to the equipment (code of construction for mechanical and electrical components); impact on the lay-out of the plant. Some examples of application of this methodology are given. (author)

  19. The Belgian experience on the backfitting and safety upgrading of old operating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brognon, T.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes the methodology for backfitting and safety upgrading during the reevaluation of the Belgian NPP's: first generation (Doel-1, Doel-2, Tihange-1) and second generation plants (Doel-3, Doel-4, Tihange-2 and Tihange-3). A list of essential safety subjects and topics is given. The experience has proved the feasibility of a safety upgrading of operating NPP without injury to its availability, the benefit of a close cooperation between owner, engineering company and safety authorities throughout the project. A global approach to solving numerous specific deficiencies along with the optimization of the investments regarding the safety improvement of the NPP is suggested. Further increase of the know-how will be achieved through the present Belgian programme along with similar activities abroad. (R.I.)

  20. SAFIR-2 and the Belgian methodological R and D programme on deep disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preter, Peter de

    2002-01-01

    Peter de Preter (NIRAS/ONDRAF, Belgium) provided an overview of the Belgian programme of research and development on deep disposal. The planned submission in December 2001 of SAFIR 2 (the second Safety Assessment and Feasibility Interim Report) would mark an important milestone, as the report would inform a decision by the Belgian government on the nature of future research. An independent committee of scientists established by NIRAS/ONDRAF had reviewed a draft version of the report. The committee was generally in agreement with the technical R and D priorities proposed in the report but suggested that there should be more integration of technical and societal aspects. The committee also recommended that a future research programme should compare the option of deep disposal with other strategies for long-term management of radioactive wastes. It was suggested that a strategic environmental assessment might provide an appropriate mechanism for comparing alternative management strategies, and would enable societal dimensions also to be addressed

  1. Use of Information, Product Innovation and Financial Performance on Belgian Glasshouse Holdings

    OpenAIRE

    Taragola, Nicole; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido; Van Lierde, Dirk

    2002-01-01

    In order to meet the changing needs and preferences of consumers it will be important for Belgian glasshouse growers to change from a production-driven to a customer-driven strategy. More than ever, use of information and product innovation become critical factors in the changing competitive environment. The aim of the research is to analyse the relationship between business and managerial characteristics, use of information sources, product innovation and financial performance of the firm. T...

  2. Invasive Aspergillus niger complex infections in a Belgian tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, E; Maertens, J; Meersseman, P; Saegeman, V; Dupont, L; Lagrou, K

    2014-05-01

    The incidence of invasive infections caused by the Aspergillus niger species complex was 0.043 cases/10 000 patient-days in a Belgian university hospital (2005-2011). Molecular typing was performed on six available A. niger complex isolates involved in invasive disease from 2010 to 2011, revealing A. tubingensis, which has higher triazole minimal inhibitory concentrations, in five out of six cases. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  3. Shaba II: The French and Belgian Intervention in Zaire in 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    morning. By 0500, the sun was climbing. Some of the foreigners were awake and preparing breakfast. Some looking out their doors found the streets...project and was equipped with its own aircraft. With two DC-3s, one Piper Aztec , and two Bell 206 helicopters, the company was already considering an...flew in to compliment the French and Belgians on the operation. Taken to visit the massacre site in the new town, the shocked dictator gasped, "My God

  4. How does the average Belgian view nuclear technology? Barometer assesses knowledge and risk perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcanu, C.; Perko, T.

    2011-01-01

    Irrespective of the choices made in the future, questions about nuclear safety, radiation protection and waste management will always be of topical interest. SCK-CEN has consciously opted for social research on risk perception, sustainable development, and communication. SCK-CEN founded the Barometer in 2002 in order to keep both feet firmly planted in society: a regular, large-scale survey amongst the Belgian population on radiation and nuclear technology. The findings of the third edition were published in 2010.

  5. Generic atorvastatin, the Belgian statin market and the cost-effectiveness of statin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoens, Steven; Sinnaeve, Peter R

    2013-02-01

    This study examines how the market entry of generic atorvastatin influences the Belgian statin market and the cost-effectiveness of statin therapy. Using IMS Health data, the Belgian 2000-2011 statin market was analyzed in terms of total expenditure, annual price of statin treatment, and patient numbers. A simulation analysis projected statin market shares from 2012 to 2015 following market entry of generic atorvastatin. This analysis was based on three scenarios regarding the number of patients taking specific statins. Savings associated with an atorvastatin price reduction of 50-70 % were calculated. A literature review of economic evaluations assessed the cost-effectiveness of generic atorvastatin. Statin expenditure increased from €113 million in 2000 to €285 million in 2011 due to higher expenditure on atorvastatin and rosuvastatin. Although the number of patients treated with simvastatin increased by nearly 800 %, the resulting increase in expenditure was partially offset by price reductions. Atorvastatin is projected to become the dominant product in the Belgian statin market (market share of 47-66 % by 2015). Annual savings would attain €108.6-€153.7 million for a 50 % reduction in the atorvastatin price and €152.0-€215.2 million for a 70 % price reduction. The literature suggests that generic atorvastatin is cost-effective as compared to simvastatin. The limited evidence about the cost-effectiveness of rosuvastatin as compared with generic atorvastatin is inconclusive. Generic atorvastatin is cost-effective as compared to simvastatin, is projected to become the dominant product in the Belgian statin market and is expected to generate substantial savings to health care payers.

  6. Reactor pressure vessel steels[1997 Scientific Report of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van De Velde, J.; Fabry, A.; Van Walle, E.; Chaouuadi, R.

    1998-07-01

    Research and development activities related to reactor pressure vessel steels during 1997 are reported. The objectives of activities of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN in this domain are: (1) to develop enhanced surveillance concepts by applying micromechanics and fracture-toughness tests to small specimens, and by performing damage modelling and microstructure characterization; (2) to demonstrate a methodology on a broad database; (3) to achieve regulatory acceptance and industrial use.

  7. Maintenance Energy Requirements of Double-Muscled Belgian Blue Beef Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiems, Leo O.; De Boever, Johan L.; Vanacker, José M.; De Campeneere, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Double-muscled Belgian Blue animals are extremely lean, characterized by a deviant muscle fiber type with more fast-glycolytic fibers, compared to non-double-muscled animals. This fiber type may result in lower maintenance energy requirements. On the other hand, lean meat animals mostly have a higher rate of protein turnover, which requires more energy for maintenance. Therefore, maintenance requirements of Belgian Blue cows were investigated based on a zero body weight gain. This technique showed that maintenance energy requirements of double-muscled Belgian Blue beef cows were close to the mean requirements of cows of other beef genotypes. Abstract Sixty non-pregnant, non-lactating double-muscled Belgian Blue (DMBB) cows were used to estimate the energy required to maintain body weight (BW). They were fed one of three energy levels for 112 or 140 days, corresponding to approximately 100%, 80% or 70% of their total energy requirements. The relationship between daily energy intake and BW and daily BW change was developed using regression analysis. Maintenance energy requirements were estimated from the regression equation by setting BW gain to zero. Metabolizable and net energy for maintenance amounted to 0.569 ± 0.001 and 0.332 ± 0.001 MJ per kg BW0.75/d, respectively. Maintenance energy requirements were not dependent on energy level (p > 0.10). Parity affected maintenance energy requirements (p < 0.001), although the small numerical differences between parities may hardly be nutritionally relevant. Maintenance energy requirements of DMBB beef cows were close to the mean energy requirements of other beef genotypes reported in the literature. PMID:26479139

  8. Waste disposal[1997 Scientific Report of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; Verstricht, J.; Van Iseghem, P.; Buyens, M.

    1998-07-01

    The primary mission of the Waste Disposal programme at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN is to propose, develop, and assess solutions for the safe disposal of radioactive waste. In Belgium, deep geological burial in clay is the primary option for the disposal of High-Level Waste and spent nuclear fuel. The main achievements during 1997 in the following domains are described: performance assessment, characterization of the geosphere, characterization of the waste, migration processes, underground infrastructure.

  9. Lifting off towards Open Government: a report from the EU Belgian Presidency Conference

    OpenAIRE

    BROSTER David; MISURACA GIANLUCA; BACIGALUPO Margherita

    2011-01-01

    This article summarises the main messages from the Lift off towards Open Government Conference, held on 15-16 December 2010, organised by the Belgian Presidency of the EU Council. It aims to disseminate these messages to the research and practitioner communities and to contribute to the current policy debate on the prospects of e-Government, now being shaped and implemented on local, regional, national and pan-European levels. First, the article outlines the progress of the EU discourse on e-...

  10. Generations and intention to leave current job : Belgian nurses in the workplace

    OpenAIRE

    De Vos, Nele

    2016-01-01

    This master thesis aims to identify work-related factors making Belgian nurses consider leaving their job voluntary and to compare the work-related factors across different generations. The purpose of this master thesis has a descriptive nature of research. The research approach chosen is a deductive approach and the research design chosen is a quantitative research design. Cluster sampling in combination with simple random sampling was used as sampling technique. 128 nurses were surveyed fro...

  11. Antibodies to elastin peptides in sera of Belgian Draught horses with chronic progressive lymphoedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Brantegem, L; de Cock, H E V; Affolter, V K; Duchateau, L; Hoogewijs, M K; Govaere, J; Ferraro, G L; Ducatelle, R

    2007-09-01

    Chronic progressive lymphoedema (CPL) is a recently recognised disease of the lymphatic system characterised by lesions in the skin of the lower legs in several draught horse breeds, including the Belgian Draught hourse. Clinical signs slowly progress and result in severe disfigurement of the limbs. Ideally, supportive treatment should be started early in the disease process. However early diagnosis and monitoring progression of CPL is still a challenge. Elastin changes, characterised by morphological alterations as well as increased desmosine levels, in the skin of the distal limbs of horses affected with CPL are probably associated with a marked release of elastin degradation products, which elicit production of circulating anti-elastin antibodies (AEAbs) in the serum. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of serum AEAbs may document elastin breakdown. An ELISA technique was used to evaluate levels of AEAbs in sera of 97 affected Belgian Draught horses that were clinically healthy except for possible skin lesions, associated with CPL in their distal limbs. The horses were divided into 5 groups according to the severity of these skin lesions: normal horses (Group 1, n = 36), horses with mild lesions (Group 2, n = 43), horses with moderate lesions (Group 3, n = 8), horses with severe lesions (Group 4, n = 10) and, as a control, healthy Warmblood horses, unaffected by the disease (Group 5, n = 83). Horses with clinical signs of CPL had significantly higher AEAb levels compared to clinically normal Belgian Draught horses and to healthy Warmblood horses. These levels correlated with severity of lesions. CPL in draught horses is associated with an increase of serum AEAbs. Evaluation of serum levels of AEAbs by ELISA might be a useful diagnostic aid for CPL. Pathological degradation of elastic fibres, resulting in deficient support of the distal lymphatics, is proposed as a contributing factor for CPL in Belgian Draught horses.

  12. Determination of contamination pathways of phthalates in food products sold on the Belgian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Holderbeke, Mirja; Geerts, Lieve; Vanermen, Guido; Servaes, Kelly; Sioen, Isabelle; De Henauw, Stefaan; Fierens, Tine

    2014-10-01

    As numerous studies have indicated that food ingestion is the most important exposure pathway to several phthalates, this study aimed to determine possible contamination pathways of phthalates in food products sold on the Belgian market. To do this, concentrations of eight phthalates (dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP)) were determined in 591 foods and 30 packaging materials. In general, the four most prominent phthalates in Belgian food products were DEHP, DiBP, DnBP and BBP. Special attention was given to the origin of these phthalates in bread, since high phthalate concentrations (especially DEHP) were determined in this frequently consumed food product. Phthalates seemed to occur in Belgian bread samples due to the use of contaminated ingredients (i.e. use of contaminated flour) as well as due to migration from phthalate containing contact materials used during production (e.g. coated baking trays). Also the results of the conducted concentration profiles of apple, bread, salami and two cheese types revealed the important role of processing - and not packaging - on phthalate contents in foods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Microbial diversity and metabolite composition of Belgian red-brown acidic ales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snauwaert, Isabel; Roels, Sanne P; Van Nieuwerburg, Filip; Van Landschoot, Anita; De Vuyst, Luc; Vandamme, Peter

    2016-03-16

    Belgian red-brown acidic ales are sour and alcoholic fermented beers, which are produced by mixed-culture fermentation and blending. The brews are aged in oak barrels for about two years, after which mature beer is blended with young, non-aged beer to obtain the end-products. The present study evaluated the microbial community diversity of Belgian red-brown acidic ales at the end of the maturation phase of three subsequent brews of three different breweries. The microbial diversity was compared with the metabolite composition of the brews at the end of the maturation phase. Therefore, mature brew samples were subjected to 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene (bacteria) and the internal transcribed spacer region (yeasts) and a broad range of metabolites was quantified. The most important microbial species present in the Belgian red-brown acidic ales investigated were Pediococcus damnosus, Dekkera bruxellensis, and Acetobacter pasteurianus. In addition, this culture-independent analysis revealed operational taxonomic units that were assigned to an unclassified fungal community member, Candida, and Lactobacillus. The main metabolites present in the brew samples were L-lactic acid, D-lactic acid, and ethanol, whereas acetic acid was produced in lower quantities. The most prevailing aroma compounds were ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, and ethyl octanoate, which might be of impact on the aroma of the end-products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Air crew exposure on board of long-haul flights of the Belgian airlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhaegen, F.; Poffijn, A.

    2000-01-01

    New European radiation protection recommendations state that measures need to be taken for flight crew members whose annual radiation exposure exceeds 1 mSv. This will be the case for flight crew members who accumulate most of their flying hours on long-haul flights. The Recommendations for the Implementation of the Basic Safety Standards Directive states that for annual exposure levels between 1 and 6 mSv individual dose estimates should be obtained, whereas for annual exposures exceeding 6 mSv, which might rarely occur, record keeping with appropriate medical surveillance is recommended. To establish the exposure level of Belgian air crews, radiation measurements were performed on board of a total of 44 long-haul flights of the Belgian airlines. The contribution of low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation (photons, electrons, protons) was assessed by using TLD-700H detectors. The exposure to high-LET radiation (mostly neutrons) was measured with bubble detectors. Results were compared to calculations with an adapted version of the computer code CARI. For the low-LET radiation the calculations were found to be in good agreement with the measurements. The measurements of the neutron dose were consistently lower than the calculations. With the current flight schedules used by the Belgian airlines, air crew members are unlikely to receive annual doses exceeding 4 mSv. (author)

  15. Job demands-resources predicting burnout and work engagement among Belgian home health care nurses: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Elst, Tinne; Cavents, Carolien; Daneels, Katrien; Johannik, Kristien; Baillien, Elfi; Van den Broeck, Anja; Godderis, Lode

    A better knowledge of the job aspects that may predict home health care nurses' burnout and work engagement is important in view of stress prevention and health promotion. The Job Demands-Resources model predicts that job demands and resources relate to burnout and work engagement but has not previously been tested in the specific context of home health care nursing. The present study offers a comprehensive test of the Job-Demands Resources model in home health care nursing. We investigate the main and interaction effects of distinctive job demands (workload, emotional demands and aggression) and resources (autonomy, social support and learning opportunities) on burnout and work engagement. Analyses were conducted using cross-sectional data from 675 Belgian home health care nurses, who participated in a voluntary and anonymous survey. The results show that workload and emotional demands were positively associated with burnout, whereas aggression was unrelated to burnout. All job resources were associated with higher levels of work engagement and lower levels of burnout. In addition, social support buffered the positive relationship between workload and burnout. Home health care organizations should invest in dealing with workload and emotional demands and stimulating the job resources under study to reduce the risk of burnout and increase their nurses' work engagement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Carcass and meat quality of dual-purpose chickens (Lohmann Dual, Belgian Malines, Schweizerhuhn) in comparison to broiler and layer chicken types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, S; Kreuzer, M; Siegrist, M; Mannale, K; Messikommer, R E; Gangnat, I D M

    2018-05-18

    Currently, there is an intensive ethical discussion about the practice of culling day-old layer cockerels. One solution to avoid this practice could be using dual-purpose types, where males are fattened for meat and females used for egg production. The aim of the present study was to compare fattening performance, carcass conformation, and composition as well as meat quality of Lohmann Dual, a novel dual-purpose type, and 2 traditional dual-purpose types (Belgian Malines and Schweizerhuhn) with 2 broiler types and 1 layer type (Lohmann Brown Plus). Broilers included a conventional line (Ross PM3) and a slower-growing line (Sasso 51) fulfilling requirements of organic farming. Nine birds of each type were fed on a conventional broiler diet. Feed intake and metabolizability of nitrogen and energy were recorded per pen (n = 3), the latter through excreta sampling. For each bird, carcass conformation was assessed, and weights of body, carcass, breast meat, legs, wings, and inner organs were determined. Additionally, breast angle, an indicator for carcass appeal, and skin color were recorded. Meat quality assessment included determinations of thaw and cooking loss, shear force, meat color, and proximate composition of the breast meat. None of the dual-purpose types (20 to 30 g ADG) performed as well in growth as the intensively growing broiler line (68 g ADG). However, Lohmann Dual could compete with the slower-growing broiler line (slower growth but better feed efficiency, similar in carcass weight and breast proportion). Also breast angle was quite similar between Lohmann Dual (100°) and the extensive broiler type (115°C) compared to the intensive broiler line (180°). Meat quality was most favorable in the intensive broilers with the smallest shear force and thawing loss, whereas meat quality was not different between the other types. The Schweizerhuhn performed only at the level of the layer hybrid, and the Belgian Malines was ranked only slightly better.

  17. Prevalence of external ear disorders in Belgian stray cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollez, Anouck; de Rooster, Hilde; Furcas, Alessandra; Vandenabeele, Sophie

    2018-02-01

    Objectives Feline otitis externa is a multifactorial dermatological disorder about which very little is known. The objective of this study was to map the prevalence of external ear canal disorders and the pathogens causing otitis externa in stray cats roaming around the region of Ghent, Belgium. Methods One hundred and thirty stray cats were randomly selected during a local trap-neuter-return programme. All cats were European Shorthairs. This study included clinical, otoscopic and cytological evaluation of both external ears of each cat. Prospective data used as parameters in this study included the sex, age and body condition score of each cat, as well as the presence of nasal and/or ocular discharge, and the results of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) Snap tests. Results Remarkably, very few (sub)clinical problems of the external ear canal were found in the stray cat population. Malassezia species was by far the most common organism found in the external ear canals of the 130 stray cats. A total of 96/130 (74%) cats were found to have Malassezia species organisms present in one or both ears based on the cytological examination. No correlation was found between the parameters of sex, age, body condition score, the presence of nasal and/or ocular discharge and FIV and FeLV status, and the presence of parasites, bacteria or yeasts. Conclusions and relevance This study provides more information about the normal state of the external ear canal of stray cats. The ears of most stray cats are relatively healthy. The presence of Malassezia species organisms in the external ear canal is not rare among stray cats.

  18. Stability of organic matter in soils of the Belgian Loess Belt upon erosion and deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.; Cammeraat, L.H.; Wang, Z.; Zhou, J.; Govers, G.; Kalbitz, K.

    2013-01-01

    Soil erosion has significant impacts on terrestrial carbon (C) dynamics. It removes C-rich topsoil and deposits it in lower areas, which might result in its stabilization against microbial decay. Subsequently, C-poor deeper horizons will be exposed, which also affects C stabilization. We analysed

  19. The Belgian nuclear higher education network: the evolution of an academic programme in nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkvens, T.; Coeck, M.

    2014-01-01

    The master-after-master in nuclear engineering provided by the Belgian Nuclear higher Education Network (BNEN) is a one-year, 60 ECTS programme which combines the expertise of six Belgian universities and SCK.CEN, the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, which participates through its Academy for Nuclear Science and Technology. It was created in close collaboration with representatives of academia, research centres, industry and other nuclear stakeholders. The BNEN consortium Due to its modular programme, BNEN is accessible for both full-time students (mainly young engineering graduates) as well as young professionals already employed in the nuclear industry. The programme is offered in English to facilitate the participation of international students. One of the important aspects of the BNEN programme is the fact that exercises and hands-on sessions in the specialised laboratories of SCK.CEN complement the theoretical classes to bring the students into contact with all facets of nuclear energy. Several of SCK.CEN's researchers provide valuable contributions to the programme through seminars and practical exercises. From their daily practices and responsibilities they give an expert view on the subjects that are being taught. In 2012, in the framework of an official accreditation process all aspects of the BNEN programme were audited by an international visitation panel. The most important outcome of this process is the current reform of the academic programme, which will be implemented in the academic year 2014-2015, taking into account the recommendations by the visitation panel. In this paper, the history of the BNEN programme will be discussed, the new BNEN programme will be presented as well as the process that has led to its implementation. (authors)

  20. Individual and environmental correlates of objectively measured sedentary time in Dutch and Belgian adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femke van Nassau

    Full Text Available As the detrimental health effects of sedentary behaviour are well established, insight into the individual and environmental factors that influence adults' sedentary behaviour is needed. Most studies to date rely on self-reported measures of sedentary time. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to examine individual and environmental correlates of objectively measured sedentary time in Dutch and Belgian adults. Between March and August 2014, Belgian (n = 133 and Dutch (n = 223 adults, recruited as sub-sample of the SPOTLIGHT survey, wore an ActiGraph accelerometer to provide objectively measured sedentary and moderate to vigorous physical activity time. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing sociodemographic (country of residence, age, gender and educational level, lifestyle (sleep, smoking, sugar-containing beverage consumption, alcohol intake, health (body mass index, self-rated health, work (employment status and type of work, happiness, physical environmental (owning a car, number of screens, socioeconomic status and residential density and social environmental factors (social network, social cohesion. Univariate and multivariable regression analyses showed that Belgian participants had a lower odds of being sedentary for at least 9 hours per day compared to Dutch participants. Women, older participants and those meeting the WHO recommendation for physical activity were also less likely to sit for 9 hours or more per day. Participants doing (heavy manual work or being in education, homemaker, unemployed had lower odds of being sedentary for at least 9 hours per day compared to participants with a sitting job. Those with a higher self-reported social network also had lower odds for sedentary time. No associations between physical and other social environmental characteristics and sedentary time were found. Our findings add to the growing evidence of factors associated with prolonged sedentary time in adults. These findings may

  1. A Blend of Romanism and Germanism: Experimental Science Instruction in Belgian State Secondary Education, 1880-1914

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onghena, Sofie

    2013-04-01

    A case study of secondary experimental science instruction in Belgium demonstrates the importance of cross-national communication in the study of science education. Belgian secondary science education in the years 1880-1914 had a clear internationalist dimension. French and German influences turn out to have been essential, stimulated by the fact that Belgium, as a result of its geographical position, considered itself as the centre of scientific relations between France and Germany, and as actually strengthened by its linguistic and cultural dualism in this regard. This pursuit of internationalist nationalism also affected the configuration of chemistry and physics as experimental courses at Belgian Royal State Schools, although the years preceding WWI are usually characterized as a period of rising nationalism in science, with countries such as Germany and France as prominent actors. To what extent did France and Germany influence Belgian debates on science education, science teachers' training, the use of textbooks, and the instalment of school laboratories and teaching collections?

  2. Determining the marketing mix for a start-up travel agency aimed at the Belgian market

    OpenAIRE

    Hanák, Marek

    2014-01-01

    This thesis suggests a marketing mix consisting of 4 P's for a start-up travel agency. It created a product according to the quantitative research, n=140, and a qualitative research on the Belgian market. It includes the price of the product according to a competitor analysis, price expectation of the segment and a calculation of all costs connected with providing the service. It suggests also a promotion strategy aimed at the target audience and describes the place in terms point of sale ded...

  3. Advantages and disadvantages of the Belgian not-only-fault system for medical incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandersteegen, Tom; Marneffe, Wim; Vandijck, Dominique

    2017-02-01

    In 2010, the Belgian compensation system for medical incidents was reformed, in order to overcome some important deficiencies of court procedures. This resulted in a not-only-fault compensation system, following the establishment of the Fund for Medical Accidents (FMA). This paper seeks to clarify the main advantages and disadvantages of this reform. After all, the legislator paid little attention to the impact on physicians, who also seem to be insufficiently informed. However, currently the FMA experiences a significant delay in processing compensation requests. The true effects of the not-only-fault system for patients and physicians as well as for health care quality therefore still remain unclear today.

  4. Methods used to seismically upgrade. The safety related components of Belgian plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafaille, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    Belgian nuclear power amounts to about 6,000 MW, generated by seven plants that started operation as early as 1967. The latest plant started in 1985. Some of these plants were designed with no seismic requirements whatsoever. Even for those that had seismic requirements at the design stage, seismic demand was raised after design had been frozen (late during construction or at the 10 years revision). As a consequence all the plants had to undergo, to a variable extent, a seismic reevaluation and/or backfitting. Civil structures were concerned as well as electro-mechanical equipment and piping systems. The present paper deals with the mechanical aspect of the problem (equipment and piping). In order to minimize hardware modifications, advanced analytical techniques were used throughout the process, starting with the elaboration of a site specific spectrum, and using a full soil-structure interaction in order to get as 'realistic' as possible floor response spectra. In some instances, non linear elasto-plastic time history analysis was performed on piping-systems in order to qualify them without hardware modifications. In other cases a 'Load Coefficient Method' was used. Sometimes stresses or displacements taken from the original stress reports and scaled by comparison of applicable spectra, allowed to assess the seismic validity of the system under investigation. Seismic acceptability of installed active equipment is more difficult to demonstrate, as this is usually done by testing. This problem is a generic issue in the US, identified under the label USI-A-46 (Unresolved Safety Issue). It is treated by. a group of Utilities (SQUG = Seismic Qualification Utilities Group). The Belgian Utility is member of that group since 1985. The application of this program is starting in the US. SQUG methodology has been applied to three Belgian plants starting in 1988 and is now completed. The required fixes are being implemented. Experience gained in the process has been applied

  5. Contamination levels observed on the Belgian territory subsequent to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottens, E.

    1986-01-01

    A summary of the data from different laboratories concerning the fallout on the Belgian territory following the Chernobyl emissions is presented. The evolution of the particulate air activity at ground level, the integrated fallout captured in water, the deposition on soil surface directly for different localities in Belgium are given. The grass contamination, the milk contamination from individual farms, the concentration levels on leafy vegetables, surface waters and water basins and the contamination of meat during the month of May are presented. (A.F.)

  6. Part-time Work, Wages and Productivity:Evidence from Belgian Matched Panel Data

    OpenAIRE

    Garnero, Andrea; Kampelmann, Stephan; Rycx, François

    2013-01-01

    The authors use matched employer-employee panel data on Belgian private-sector firms to estimate the relationship between wage/productivity differentials and the firm’s labor composition in terms of part-time and sex. Findings suggest that the groups of women and part-timers generate employer rents, but also that the origin of these rents differs (relatively lower wages for women, relatively higher productivity for part-timers). Interactions between gender and part-time suggest that the posit...

  7. Dust control in Belgian coal mines. Position at the beginning of 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preat, B; Vanstraelen, M

    1975-01-01

    A general view is given of dust control in Belgian coal mines at the beginning of 1975. The statistical data received from the mines are presented in tabular form. The length and the output of coal faces treated by the classical methods of pre-spraying of the wall, wet cutting, water infusion and wet pneumatic picks are given separately; in some cases two or more of these techniques are used together on the same coalface. The number of rock headings in which different methods of dust control are used is also given.

  8. Assessing the Risk of K-loss within the Belgian TSO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, B.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Organisations lose knowledge. Considering knowledge as a valuable asset, attention must be paid to the risk of losing it. The contribution of this paper is to propose a model—the knowledge critical grid (KCG)—that aims at assessing the risk of knowledge loss. Applied within the Belgian TSO, this model focuses on community-of-practices and network issues. Grounded on five knowledge issues, the KCG intends to assess the knowledge volatility and vulnerability levels of an organisation and define the best relevant knowledge management actions. (author).

  9. Biodiversity of a wreck from the Belgian Continental Shelf: monitoring using scientific diving: preliminary results

    OpenAIRE

    Massin, Cl.; Norro, A.; Mallefet, J.

    2002-01-01

    Scientific diving from aboard the r/v Belgica has been employed to carry out a preliminary study of the macrofauna living on a wreck (the Birkenfels) located on the Belgian Continental Shelf (BCS). The study revealed an extremely rich sessile and slow moving fauna (at least 40 species), 3 jellyfish species and 8 fish species. The presence of at least 51 species represents a biodiversity of macrofauna on the wreck that is much higher than that found in nearly all known surrounding soft bottorn...

  10. Brominated flame retardants in Belgian little owl (Athene noctua) eggs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaspers, V.; Covaci, A.; Maervoet, J.; Dauwe, T.; Schepens, P.; Eens, M. [Antwerp Univ. (Belgium)

    2004-09-15

    Since the 1960s, polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), a class of brominated flame retardants (BFRs), are widely used in textiles, plastics, electronic equipment and other materials. Their massive use has led to the ubiquitous presence of PBDEs in the environment and in biota in which the PBDE levels seem to increase rapidly. High concentrations of some congeners may cause adverse effects in both wildlife and in human populations1 and this has led to the growing concern of scientists over the last decade and to the need for more data on environmental levels of PBDEs. The little owl (Athene noctua) is a small sedentary predator, which makes it a very suitable biomonitoring species. This owl species feeds on a variety of preys, including small mammals and birds, reptiles, amphibians, earthworms and beetles, depending on the season and the local circumstances. Because very limited information is available about contamination levels in the little owl, a study was conducted to determine the concentrations of PBDEs, polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in deserted or addled eggs of little owls in Belgium. Eggs have been used successfully as a monitoring tool for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in several studies. Although the analysis of POPs in deserted or addled eggs has clear limitations, these can be partially avoided by analysing only highly persistent components, for which the original composition will not change due to 'posthatching' microbiological degradation.

  11. Organics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chian, Edward S. K.; DeWalle, Foppe B.

    1978-01-01

    Presents water analysis literature for 1978. This review is concerned with organics, and it covers: (1) detergents and surfactants; (2) aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; (3) pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons; and (4) naturally occurring organics. A list of 208 references is also presented. (HM)

  12. Organizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callison, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on "organizers," tools or techniques that provide identification and classification along with possible relationships or connections among ideas, concepts, and issues. Discusses David Ausubel's research and ideas concerning advance organizers; the implications of Ausubel's theory to curriculum and teaching; "webbing," a…

  13. Risk perception of the Belgian population. Results of the public opinion survey in 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Aeken, K.; Turcanu, C.; Bombaerts, G.; Carle, B.; Hardeman, F.

    2007-01-01

    The Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN 2006 risk perception barometer is based on over 1000 Computer Assisted Personal Interviews, taken from persons selected to be representative for the Belgian 18+ population, and all realized in the period March 21st to April 12th 2006. Besides the classical background variables used to obtain the quota for representativity (age, language, habitat, gender and social class), we also included a series of questions assessing the sociological context and the psychological personality profile. The main topics in the survey were I) risk perception and confidence in authorities; II) acceptance of legal norms for food products; III) acceptance of countermeasures for the food chain in case of a radiological contamination and associated consumers behaviour; IV) energy; v) disposal of radioactive waste; vi) perception of the Chernobyl accident and its consequences. Some of the questions asked in 2006 are similar to those enquired in the SCK barometer of 2002, in order to study the time evolution of the risk perception associated with various issues. For the part related to acceptance of legal norms and of countermeasures for the food chain, simulated news bulletins were used in order to better reproduce the real-life context of a contamination.

  14. Application of the CALUX bioassay for epidemiological study. Analyses of Belgian human plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wouwe, N. van; Debacker, N.; Sasse, A. [Scientific Institute of Public Health, Brussels (BE)] (and others)

    2004-09-15

    The CALUX bioassay is a promising screening method for the detection of dioxin-like compounds. The observed good sensitivity, low number of false negative results as well as the good correlations with the GC-HRMS TEQ-values in case of feed and food analyses allow this method to climb in the first assessment methods' scale. The low amount of sample needed in addition to those latest advantages suggest that the CALUX bioassay could be a good screening method for epidemiological studies. The Belgian epidemiological study concerning the possible effect of the dioxin incident on the body burden of the Belgian population was an opportunity to test this method in comparison to the gold reference one: the GC-HRMS. The first part of this abstract presents epidemiological parameters (sensibility, specificity,) of the CALUX bioassay using CALUX TEQ-values as estimators of the TEQ-values of the 17 PCDD/Fs. The second part examines epidemiological determinants observed for CALUX and GCHRMS TEQ-values.

  15. All-Cause Mortality Among Belgian Military Radar Operators: A 40-Year Controlled Longitudinal Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degrave, Etienne; Autier, Philippe; Grivegnee, Andre-Robert; Zizi, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Background: It has been suggested that exposure to radiofrequency/microwaves radiations could be associated with greater health hazards and higher mortality. Methods: The all-cause mortality of 27,671 Belgian militaries who served from 1963 until 1994 in battalions equipped with radars for anti-aircraft defence was studied over the period 1968-2003. End of the seventies, technical modifications brought to the shielding of the micro-wave generators resulted in a reduction in irradiations. A control group was formed by 16,128 militaries who served during the same period in the same military area but who were never exposed to radars. Administrative procedures for identifying militaries and their vital status were equivalent in the radar and the control groups. Results: The age-standardized mortality ratio (SMR) in the radar battalions was 1.05 (95% CI: 0.95-1.16) in professional militaries, and 0.80 (95% CI: 0.75-0.85) in conscripts. In professional militaries no difference in mortality was found according to duration (less than, or five years or more) or to period of service (before 1978 or after 1977). Conclusions: During a 40-year period of observation, we found no increase in all-cause mortality in Belgian militaries who were in close contact with radar equipments of anti-aircraft defence battalions

  16. Intake of bisphenol A from canned beverages and foods on the Belgian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geens, Tinne; Apelbaum, Tali Zipora; Goeyens, Leo; Neels, Hugo; Covaci, Adrian

    2010-11-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), a contaminant which may be present in the coating of cans, was determined in 45 canned beverages and 21 canned food items from the Belgian market. Beverages had an average BPA concentration of 1.0 ng/ml, while canned foods had a higher average concentration of 40.3 ng/g. The amount of BPA present in food items was dependent on the type of can and sterilisation conditions rather than the type of food. For example, BPA was not detected in non-canned beverages (canned food items had a very low average concentration of 0.46 ng/g. Using detailed information from the Belgian food consumption survey, the BPA intake of adults through canned foods and beverages was estimated to be 1.05 µg/day or 0.015 µg/kg body weight/day (assuming an average adult weight of 70 kg). Intake assessments, based on urinary metabolite concentrations from the literature, resulted in slightly higher BPA intakes (range 0.028-0.059 µg/kg body weight/day). This suggests that sources other than canned foods and beverages contribute to BPA exposure in humans.

  17. Occupational stress, work-home interference and burnout among Belgian veterinary practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansez I

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There have been few formal studies on stress in veterinary surgeons and, in the rare studies available, stress is not examined jointly through the levels of job strain and job engagement, the sources of stress in the issue of work environment and the work-home interference. The authors' goal in this study was to analyse job engagement, job strain, burnout, work-home interference and job stress factors among 216 Belgian veterinary surgeons. Rural practice was compared to small animal and mixed activity. The mean job strain and job engagement level in veterinary surgeons was not higher than what we found in other working populations. However, 15.6% of the group were found to be suffering from high burnout. Rural practitioners had a lower level of job engagement than small animal veterinary surgeons. These small animal practitioners had a lower level of job strain than the mixed practitioners. The level of burnout did not differ significantly across the three types of activity. In comparison to other Belgian and Dutch workers, veterinary surgeons perceived more negative work-home interference. Bovine and mixed practitioners were the most concerned with this problem. The two most important sources of stress reported by bovine practitioners were relations to farmers and working time management (including emergencies and availability.

  18. Contribution of the Belgian hospital physicists association to quality assurance in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoornaert, M.Th.; Vynckier, S.; Dam, J. van; Bouiller, A.

    1997-01-01

    In 1987, the Belgian Hospital Physicists Association (BHPA) has started a program in order to uniformize the dosimetry in the Belgian radiotherapy centres. Several initiatives were taken: a) Dosimetry, of photon beams: Endorsement of the Dutch dosimetry, code of practice (NCS) (1), calibration of ionisation chambers in a common laboratory (Laboratory for standard dosimetry, RUG), on site visits where, besides mechanical checks of simulators and radiation units, absorbed dose was measured at different locations in a water phantom. Since 1987, a total of 23 centres were visited involving 18 simulators, 17 cobalt units and 22 linear accelerators with 33 photon beams. The energy of those photon beams ranged from 4 to 25 MeV (2). b) Dosimetry of electron beams: Endorsement of the Dutch dosimetry code of practice (3), calibration of several parallel plate chambers following the recommendations of the IAEA (4) and the NCS, on site visits for local measurements in electron beams. This program started last year. three centres were visited with a total of 23 energies ranging from 4.5 to 21 MeV. c) Elaboration of procedures and common reporting form for daily quality control will be published. (author)

  19. Preventive Care Use among the Belgian Elderly Population: Does Socio-Economic Status Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Hoeck

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the association between influenza and pneumococcus vaccination and blood cholesterol and blood sugar measurement by Belgian elderly respondents (≥65 years and socio-demographic characteristics, risk factors, health status and socio-economic status (SES. Methods: A cross-sectional study based on 4,544 non-institutionalized elderly participants of the Belgian Health Interview Surveys 2004 and 2008. Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed to examine the independent effect of socio-demographic characteristics, risk factors, health status and SES on the four preventive services. Results: After adjustment for age, sex, region, survey year, living situation, risk factors (body mass index, smoking status, physical activity and health status (self-assessed health and longstanding illness lower educated elderly were significantly less likely to report a blood cholesterol and blood sugar measurement. For instance, elderly participants with no degree or only primary education were less likely to have had a cholesterol and blood sugar measurement compared with those with higher education. Pneumococcus vaccination was not related to educational level, but lower income groups were more likely to have had a pneumococcus immunization. Influenza vaccination was not significantly related to SES. Conclusion: The results highlight the need to promote cholesterol and blood sugar measurement for lower SE groups, and pneumococcus immunization for the entire elderly population. Influenza immunization seems to be equally spread among different SE groups.

  20. Risk perception of the Belgian population. Results of the public opinion survey in 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Aeken, K.; Turcanu, C.; Bombaerts, G.; Carle, B.; Hardeman, F.

    2007-01-15

    The Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN 2006 risk perception barometer is based on over 1000 Computer Assisted Personal Interviews, taken from persons selected to be representative for the Belgian 18+ population, and all realized in the period March 21st to April 12th 2006. Besides the classical background variables used to obtain the quota for representativity (age, language, habitat, gender and social class), we also included a series of questions assessing the sociological context and the psychological personality profile. The main topics in the survey were I) risk perception and confidence in authorities; II) acceptance of legal norms for food products; III) acceptance of countermeasures for the food chain in case of a radiological contamination and associated consumers behaviour; IV) energy; v) disposal of radioactive waste; vi) perception of the Chernobyl accident and its consequences. Some of the questions asked in 2006 are similar to those enquired in the SCK barometer of 2002, in order to study the time evolution of the risk perception associated with various issues. For the part related to acceptance of legal norms and of countermeasures for the food chain, simulated news bulletins were used in order to better reproduce the real-life context of a contamination.

  1. The energy sources and nuclear energy - The point of view of the Belgian Catholic Church

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoenraet, Christian

    2000-01-01

    The problems related to the environment are reported regularly to the public by means of the newspapers, on radio and television. The story is the product of a journalistic process and in general does not bear much resemblance to the original event. The rate and type of reportage depend not only on the body of data available to the journalist but on the information sources the journalist chosen to use. The same story is reported in a positive or negative way. Finally people are overwhelmed by contradictory information and became uncertain or frightened. In order to provide the general public with objective information about nuclear energy in particular and to made a statement about the position of the Belgian Catholic Church concerning this matter, the results of the study were published in Dutch under the form of a book with the title 'The Energy Sources and Nuclear Energy - Comparative analysis and ethical thoughts written the same author. Thia paper is a short survey of the results of the study and to present the point of view of the Belgian Catholic Church in the energy debate

  2. Different Regional Approaches to Cultural diversity Interpreting the Belgian Cultural Diversity Policy Paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilke Adam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In Belgium, the authority over cultural diversity policies resulting from immigration has been devolved from the central state to the regions since 1970. Consequently, Flanders and Francophone Belgium have progressively developed divergent policy tools. By describing the divergent evolution of Francophone and Flemish cultural diversity policies, our paper demonstrates the existence of a “Belgian Cultural Diversity Paradox”, namely the existence of more multicultural minority rights in the region that has most experienced electoral success by an extreme-right anti-immigrant party (Flanders, and a more colour blind and radical secular approach in the region where anti-immigrant politicization is barely a factor (Francophone Belgium. This finding is counter-intuitive because an important strand of immigrant policy research has emphasized the relationship between the politicization of immigration and restrictive immigrant citizenship rights. Our paper demonstrates that the different degrees of politicization of immigration in Flanders and Francophone Belgium cannot fully account for divergent cultural diversity policies. By insisting on the historical path dependency of the linguistic and religious cleavages in Belgium and their overlap, this paper offers an addendum to the politicization approach. The historical linguistic and religious differences of the Belgian regions clearly mediate the impact of the politicization of immigration on both sides of the linguistic border.

  3. Reforming the Belgian market for orthotic braces: what can we learn from the international experience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoens, Steven; De Coster, Sandra; Moldenaers, Ingrid; Guillaume, Paul; Depoorter, Antony; Van den Steen, Dirk; Van de Sande, Stefaan; Debruyne, Hans; Ramaekers, Dirk; Lona, Murielle

    2008-05-01

    This article aims to review regulation governing outpatient orthotic braces (neck, wrist and knee braces) in France, the Netherlands and Sweden with a view to reforming the Belgian market. Information about the regulatory framework was derived from an analysis of legal texts and a survey completed by national experts. Strategies to keep down prices include public procurement in Sweden, maximum prices in France, and exclusion of expensive braces from reimbursement in the Netherlands. Reimbursement is linked to a medical indication or a chronic condition in France, the Netherlands and Sweden. To gain reimbursement, the cost-effectiveness of orthotic braces needs to be demonstrated in France and the Netherlands. Orthotic braces tend to be initially prescribed by a specialist physician and distributed by orthotists, medical equipment shops and/or community pharmacies. Extensive government intervention exists in the outpatient orthotic brace market in the countries studied. Our recommendations to reform the Belgian market for prefabricated orthotic braces are to separate reimbursement for service provision from reimbursement for braces; to set prices by means of a tendering process or an international price comparison; and to make reimbursement conditional on effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of braces.

  4. Drawing on international experience to reform the Belgian market for ostomy appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoens, Steven; Van den Steen, Dirk; Vanleene, Veerle; De Maré, Luc; Moldenaers, Ingrid; Debruyne, Hans; Ramaekers, Dirk

    2007-02-01

    This article aims to review the regulatory framework governing the Belgian ostomy appliance market in the light of the experience of Denmark, France, the Netherlands and Ontario (Canada) with regulation of ostomy appliances. Information about the regulatory framework was derived from the international literature, analysis of legal texts and a survey completed by national experts. The comparative analysis revealed that these countries have adopted varying approaches towards regulating their domestic ostomy appliance market. Strategies to keep down prices include public procurement in Denmark, maximum prices in France and exclusion of expensive appliances from reimbursement in the Netherlands. To contain public expenditure on ostomy appliances, consumption patterns are monitored in the Netherlands, the quantity of reimbursed appliances is limited in Belgium and public reimbursement is restricted in Ontario. Ostomy appliances are generally distributed by community pharmacies and medical equipment shops. In countries that emphasise home care delivery such as Denmark, domiciliary distributors dominate the market to the detriment of community pharmacies which do not seem to be able to offer this service at a competitive price. An avenue for reforming the Belgian ostomy appliance market is proposed which valorizes the role of ostomy care nurses in guiding the choice of ostomy appliances. Furthermore, it is recommended that a competitive tendering process determines the price of ostomy appliances, that reimbursement for service provision by distributors is separated from reimbursement of appliances, and that patients receive a fixed grant from the third-party payer to buy ostomy appliances.

  5. SCK-CEN 2006 barometer on risk perception of the Belgian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carle, B.

    2009-01-01

    Starting with 2000, the expert group Society and Policy Support carries out research on various aspects of risk governance. Measuring several risk perception items at regular intervals with the Belgian population is an important part of this research. SCK-CEN has organised a first risk perception barometer in 2002 and a second one in 2006. The 2006 barometer is based on 1063 Computer Assisted Personal Interviews, with a duration of approximately 35 minutes. The large scale of the survey ensures that general trends can be detected and allows specific and detailed analysis on subgroups of the population. Besides the classical background variables used to obtain a sample representative for the Belgian 18+ population (age, language, habitat, gender and social class), several questions were included assessing the sociological context and the psychological personality profile. A series of questions on risk perception, confidence in authorities and specific nuclear topics were repeated in 2006 and constitute a fixed core, allowing comparison over time in Belgium, as well as with the results from the IRSN French barometer. In addition, a number of topics such as acceptance of legal norms and management options for radioactively contaminated milk, energy, nuclear waste and the perception of the Chernobyl accident were covered in detail in the 2006 edition of the SCK-CEN barometer

  6. The Belgian regulatory framework for NORM industries : test-case of a phosphate production plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepin, Stephane; Dehandschutter, Boris; Poffijn, Andre; Michel Sonck

    2008-01-01

    According to the Belgian radiation protection regulatory framework, some categories of NORM industries must register to the competent Belgian radiation protection authority (FANC, Federal Agency for Nuclear Control). The facilities must provide a set of information which allows the authority to assess the radiological impact of the industrial activity on the workers, the population and the environment. If the dose exceeds or is likely to exceed 1 mSv/y, corrective measures have to be implemented. FANC has issued a methodology in order to define more precisely the data needed to evaluate the radiological impact. The methodology lists also the exposure pathways which have to be taken into account and the relevant parameters for the evaluation of the doses. The case of a phosphate production plant is discussed in more details: although the exposure of the workers in the production process as such is rather limited, the specific activity of some residues (calcium fluoride sludge) reaches around 10 kBq/kg of Ra-226. This sludge is disposed off in a specific landfill for which a program of radiological monitoring has been implemented. It includes periodic measurements of dose rate and radon concentration on the landfill. (author)

  7. Occupational stress, work-home interference and burnout among Belgian veterinary practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansez, I; Schins, F; Rollin, F

    2008-04-01

    There have been few formal studies on stress in veterinary surgeons and, in the rare studies available, stress is not examined jointly through the levels of job strain and job engagement, the sources of stress in the issue of work environment and the work-home interference. The authors' goal in this study was to analyse job engagement, job strain, burnout, work-home interference and job stress factors among 216 Belgian veterinary surgeons. Rural practice was compared to small animal and mixed activity. The mean job strain and job engagement level in veterinary surgeons was not higher than what we found in other working populations. However, 15.6% of the group were found to be suffering from high burnout. Rural practitioners had a lower level of job engagement than small animal veterinary surgeons. These small animal practitioners had a lower level of job strain than the mixed practitioners. The level of burnout did not differ significantly across the three types of activity. In comparison to other Belgian and Dutch workers, veterinary surgeons perceived more negative work-home interference. Bovine and mixed practitioners were the most concerned with this problem. The two most important sources of stress reported by bovine practitioners were relations to farmers and working time management (including emergencies and availability).

  8. Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo

    and considers many more. Mary Jo Hatch introduces the concept of organizations by presenting definitions and ideas drawn from the a variety of subject areas including the physical sciences, economics, sociology, psychology, anthropology, literature, and the visual and performing arts. Drawing on examples from......Most of us recognize that organizations are everywhere. You meet them on every street corner in the form of families and shops, study in them, work for them, buy from them, pay taxes to them. But have you given much thought to where they came from, what they are today, and what they might become...... prehistory and everyday life, from the animal kingdom as well as from business, government, and other formal organizations, Hatch provides a lively and thought provoking introduction to the process of organization....

  9. Agglomeration of a comprehensive model for the wind-driven sand transport at the Belgian Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strypsteen, Glenn; Rauwoens, Pieter

    2016-04-01

    Although a lot of research has been done in the area of Aeolian transport, it is only during the last years that attention has been drawn to Aeolian transport in coastal areas. In these areas, the physical processes are more complex, due to a large number of transport limiting parameters. In this PhD-project, which is now in its early stage, a model will be developed which relates the wind-driven sand transport at the Belgian coast with physical parameters such as the wind speed, humidity and grain size of the sand, and the slope of beach and dune surface. For the first time, the interaction between beach and dune dynamics is studied at the Belgian coast. The Belgian coastline is only 67km long, but densely populated and therefore subject to coastal protection and safety. The coast mostly consists of sandy beaches and dikes. Although, still 33km of dunes exist, whose dynamics are far less understood. The overall research approach consists of three pathways: (i) field measurements, (ii) physical model tests, and (iii) numerical simulations. Firstly and most importantly, several field campaigns will provide accurate data of meteo-marine conditions, morphology, and sand transport events on a wide beach at the Belgian Coastline. The experimental set-up consists of a monitoring station, which will provide time series of vegetation cover, shoreline position, fetch distances, surficial moisture content, wind speed and direction and transport processes. The horizontal and vertical variability of the event scale Aeolian sand transport is analyzed with 8 MWAC sand traps. Two saltiphones register the intensity and variations of grain impacts over time. Two meteo-masts, each with four anemometers and one wind vane, provide quantitative measurements of the wind flow at different locations on the beach. Surficial moisture is measured with a moisture sensor. The topography measurements are typically done with laser techniques. To start, two sites are selected for measurement

  10. Final disposal of high-level radioactive waste and/or long-living nuclear waste in a clay formation in the Belgian-Dutch border region; Definitieve berging van hoogradioactief en/of langlevend kernafval in een kleiformatie in de Belgisch-Nederlandse grensstreek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyns, W.

    2010-10-15

    Recently, the Belgian organization NIRAS presented its 'Draft Waste Plan'. In this plan NIRAS chooses clay as the reference option for final geological disposal of high-level radioactive and/or long-living nuclear waste (b and C waste). The author presents an overview of the current state of affairs in scientific research on underground storage of radioactive waste in Belgian clay layers. [Dutch] Recent presenteerde het Belgische NIRAS het 'Ontwerp Afvalplan'. In dit plan kiest NIRAS als referentieoptie voor definitieve geologische berging van hoogradioactief en/of langlevend kernafval (B- en C-afval) in klei. De auteur geeft een overzicht van de stand van zaken van wetenschappelijk onderzoek naar ondergrondse opslag van radioactief afval in Belgische kleilagen.

  11. Factors with regard to computerisation of the Dutch and the Belgian national general practitioner sentinel networks: a comparative analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schweikardt, C.; Casteren, V. van; Verheij, R.A.; Coppieters, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Background: A general practitioner (GP) sentinel network observes a sample of the population by supplying reports on the incidence and epidemiological characteristics of specific diseases and on procedures in primary health care. In the 1970s, the Dutch and the Belgian national GP sentinel networks

  12. In search of the creation of news frames in Flemish newspapers: The case of the Belgian ‘Syria warriors’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesman, J.L.J.; Berbers, A.; d'Haenens, L.; Van Gorp, B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the framing construction of Flemish newspaper journalists regarding the so-called ‘Syria-warriors’. When the Syrian conflict developed, the rebels against the Assad regim were joined by young muslims from Western European countries. Figures of the number of Belgian fighters

  13. Estimating internal pelvic sizes using external body measurements in the double-muscled Belgian Bleu beef breed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coopman, F.; Smet, S.; Gengler, N.; Haegeman, A.; Jacobs, K.; Poucke, van M.; Laevens, H.; Zeveren, van A.; Groen, A.F.

    2003-01-01

    In the double-muscled (DM) Belgian Blue beef (BBB) breed, caesarean section (CS) is being applied systematically as a management tool to prevent dystocia. As a matter of fact, CS is the only possible way of calving in the breed. High birth weight and a relatively small pelvic area are the main

  14. The Belgian Minister of Economy, Energy, Foreign Trade and Science Policy, Marc Verwilghen, with CERN's Director-General, Robert Aymar.

    CERN Multimedia

    Michel Blanc

    2005-01-01

    Marc Verwilghen, Belgian Minister of Economy, Energy, Foreign Trade and Science Policy, came to CERN on 8 April 2005, where he visited the CMS assembly hall and underground cavern, as well as the hall where the LHC superconducting magnets are being tested.

  15. Assessing fundamental motor skills in Belgian children aged 3-8 years highlights differences to US reference sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardid, Farid; Huyben, Floris; Lenoir, Matthieu; Seghers, Jan; De Martelaer, Kristine; Goodway, Jacqueline D; Deconinck, Frederik J A

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to understand the fundamental motor skills (FMS) of Belgian children using the process-oriented Test of Gross Motor Development, Second Edition (TGMD-2) and to investigate the suitability of using the United States (USA) test norms in Belgium. FMS were assessed using the TGMD-2. Gender, age and motor performance were examined in 1614 Belgian children aged 3-8 years (52.1% boys) and compared with the US reference sample. More proficient FMS performance was found with increasing age, from 3 to 6 years for locomotor skills and 3 to 7 years for object control skills. Gender differences were observed in object control skills, with boys performing better than girls. In general, Belgian children had lower levels of motor competence than the US reference sample, specifically for object control skills. The score distribution of the Belgian sample was skewed, with 37.4% scoring below average and only 6.9% scoring above average. This study supported the usefulness of the TGMD-2 as a process-oriented instrument to measure gross motor development in early childhood in Belgium. However, it also demonstrated that caution is warranted when using the US reference norms. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Medical Orders: Catholic and Protestant Missionary Medicine in the Belgian Congo 1880-1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokhieng Au

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The history of religious missions and the provisioning of western medical care in the region that was known as the Congo Free State and later the Belgian Congo reveals the complicated dynamics between competing religious missions vis à vis the Belgian colonial state. This essay highlights divisions between identities and purposes of different religious groups in medical care provisioning, focusing on the divide between the Catholic and Protestant churches. Because most Protestant missions in the Congo were American or British, the medical care provided by the Protestant church was outside of, and sometimes at odds with, the Belgian colonial state until the 1920s. In contrast, the Catholic Church served in an auxiliary role in the colonial state’s medical infrastructure. This was not an ideal situation, leading Catholic leaders to attempt to rework the church’s role in medical provisioning. Ultimately, mission, medicine, and empire were not always comfortable bedfellows. Medische Orders: katholieke en protestantse missiegeneeskunde in de Belgische Congo 1880-1940De geschiedenis van de religieuze missies en het voorzien in westerse medische gezondheidszorg in de Congo Vrijstaat – later de Belgische Congo – onthult de ingewikkelde dynamiek tussen de concurrerende religieuze missies vis à vis de Belgische koloniale staat. Dit artikel belicht verschillende religieuze groepen die medische zorg verleenden in deze regio en hun verdeeldheid inzake identiteiten en doelen. Hierbij wordt vooral gefocust op de tweedracht tussen de katholieke en protestantse kerk. Omdat de meeste protestantse missies die in de Congo gevestigd waren uit Amerika of Engeland kwamen, werd de medische zorg die zij verstrekten vaak buiten de Belgische koloniale staat om geleverd en leefden staat en protestantse kerk tot in de jaren 1920 soms op gespannen voet met elkaar. Dit staat in sterk contrast tot de katholieke kerk die wat betreft medische infrastructuur juist een

  17. RISCOM Applied to the Belgian Partnership Model: More and Deeper Levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bombaerts, Gunter; Bovy, Michel; Laes, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Technology participation is not a new concept. It has been applied in different settings in different countries. In this article, we report a comparing analysis of the RISCOM model in Sweden and the Belgian partnership model for low and intermediate short-lived nuclear waste. After a brief description of the partnerships and the RISCOM model, we apply the latter to the first and come to recommendations for the partnership model. The strength of the partnership approach is at the community level. In one of the villages, up to one percent of the population was motivated to discuss at least once a month for four years the nuts and bolts of the repository concept. The stress on the community level and the lack of a guardian includes a weakness as well. First of all, if communities come into competition, the inter-community discussions can start resembling local politics and can become less transparent. Local actors are concerned actors but actors at the national level are concerned as well. The local decisions influence how the waste will be transported. The local decisions also determine an extra cost of electricity. We therefore recommend a broad (in terms of territory) public debate on the participation experiments preceding and concluding the local participation process in which this local process maintains an important position. The conclusions of our comparative analysis are: (1) The guardian of the process at the national level is missing. Since the Belgian nuclear regulator plays a controlling role after the process, we recommend a technology assessment institute at the federal level. (2) We state that stretching in the partnership model can happen more profoundly and recommend a 'counter institute' at the European level. The role of non-participative actors should be valued. (3) Recursion levels can be taken as a point of departure for discussion about the problem framing. If people accept them, there is no problem. If people clearly mention issues that are

  18. RISCOM Applied to the Belgian Partnership Model: More and Deeper Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bombaerts, Gunter; Bovy, Michel; Laes, Erik [SCKCEN, Mol (Belgium). PISA

    2006-09-15

    Technology participation is not a new concept. It has been applied in different settings in different countries. In this article, we report a comparing analysis of the RISCOM model in Sweden and the Belgian partnership model for low and intermediate short-lived nuclear waste. After a brief description of the partnerships and the RISCOM model, we apply the latter to the first and come to recommendations for the partnership model. The strength of the partnership approach is at the community level. In one of the villages, up to one percent of the population was motivated to discuss at least once a month for four years the nuts and bolts of the repository concept. The stress on the community level and the lack of a guardian includes a weakness as well. First of all, if communities come into competition, the inter-community discussions can start resembling local politics and can become less transparent. Local actors are concerned actors but actors at the national level are concerned as well. The local decisions influence how the waste will be transported. The local decisions also determine an extra cost of electricity. We therefore recommend a broad (in terms of territory) public debate on the participation experiments preceding and concluding the local participation process in which this local process maintains an important position. The conclusions of our comparative analysis are: (1) The guardian of the process at the national level is missing. Since the Belgian nuclear regulator plays a controlling role after the process, we recommend a technology assessment institute at the federal level. (2) We state that stretching in the partnership model can happen more profoundly and recommend a 'counter institute' at the European level. The role of non-participative actors should be valued. (3) Recursion levels can be taken as a point of departure for discussion about the problem framing. If people accept them, there is no problem. If people clearly mention issues

  19. A federal audit of the Belgian radiotherapy departments in breast cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houtte, Paul van; Bourgois, Nicolas; Renard, Francoise; Huget, Philippe; D'hoore, William; Scalliet, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Background: The Belgian Federal College of Radiotherapy carried out an external audit of breast cancer patient documentation in the 26 Belgian radiotherapy centres. The objective was to assess compliance with the recommendations regarding minimal requirements for documentation of radiotherapy prescription and administration. All centres volunteered to take part in this audit. Methods: Two experienced radiation oncologists site-visited the departments over a 6 month period (Sept. 2003-Feb. 2004), with a list of items to be verified, including details on the surgery, the pathological report, details on systemic treatments, details on the radiotherapy prescription (and consistency with therapeutic guidelines) and delay surgery/radiotherapy. Findings: Three hundred and eighty-nine patients files were reviewed, for a total of 399 breast cancers (10 patients with bilateral cancer). Mean age was 57.8 y (range 29-96). Breast conservative surgery (BCS) was used in 71%; radical mastectomy in 29%. A complete pathological report was present in all files but 2 (99.5% conformity). 5.2% were treated for DCIS, 61.6% for pT1, 28.2% for pT2 and 5% for pT3-4. Data regarding resection margins were specified to be free in 76.2%, tangential in 12% (within 2 mm) and positive for DCIS in 3.8% or invasive cancer in 1.5% (no information, on margins in 6.5%). The pT stage was always specified, and consistent with the macroscopic and microscopic findings. Hormonal receptors were routinely assessed (94.7%), as well as Her2neu (87.4%). Axillary surgery was carried out in 92%, either by sentinel node biopsy or by complete clearance, in which case the median number of nodes analysed was 12 for all centres together (7-17). All radiotherapy prescriptions were in line with evidence-based standards of therapy (i.e., irradiation of breast after BCS or after mamectomy (in case of pN+), but one. The mean delay between surgery and radiotherapy was 5.5 weeks (SD 11days). Conclusion: There was a high

  20. Implementation of a program for type 2 diabetes based on the Chronic Care Model in a hospital-centered health care system: "the Belgian experience"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Royen Paul

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most research publications on Chronic Care Model (CCM implementation originate from organizations or countries with a well-structured primary health care system. Information about efforts made in countries with a less well-organized primary health care system is scarce. In 2003, the Belgian National Institute for Health and Disability Insurance commissioned a pilot study to explore how care for type 2 diabetes patients could be organized in a more efficient way in the Belgian healthcare setting, a setting where the organisational framework for chronic care is mainly hospital-centered. Methods Process evaluation of an action research project (2003–2007 guided by the CCM in a well-defined geographical area with 76,826 inhabitants and an estimated number of 2,300 type 2 diabetes patients. In consultation with the region a program for type 2 diabetes patients was developed. The degree of implementation of the CCM in the region was assessed using the Assessment of Chronic Illness Care survey (ACIC. A multimethod approach was used to evaluate the implementation process. The resulting data were triangulated in order to identify the main facilitators and barriers encountered during the implementation process. Results The overall ACIC score improved from 1.45 (limited support at the start of the study to 5.5 (basic support at the end of the study. The establishment of a local steering group and the appointment of a program manager were crucial steps in strengthening primary care. The willingness of a group of well-trained and motivated care providers to invest in quality improvement was an important facilitator. Important barriers were the complexity of the intervention, the lack of quality data, inadequate information technology support, the lack of commitment procedures and the uncertainty about sustainable funding. Conclusion Guided by the CCM, this study highlights the opportunities and the bottlenecks for adapting chronic care

  1. Computerized system of team make-up and work allocation in the Belgian Zolder mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rustanowicz, M.

    1979-01-01

    System of work allocation introduced in 1974 in the Zolder Coal Mine (NV Kempense Steenkolenmijnen) in Belgium is evaluated. The system is based on an IBM 370/158 computer. An information management system supervises the programing work. There are approximately 30 programs. Absenteeism in the Belgian coal mines is generally high at approximately 24% and some months as high as 40%. Therefore, introducing a computerized system of work allocation and team make-up was advantageous. Operation of the system is described on the levels of foreman, engineers and director of the mine. Advantages of the system are numerous. It enables optimization of team make-up and work allocation, shortens the time of allocation of work by a foreman, increases efficiency of foremen's work and provides the director with the means and information necessary for efficient decision making in improving the productivity of the mine. (5 refs.) (In Polish)

  2. Predicting mortality and incident immobility in older Belgian men by characteristics related to sarcopenia and frailty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, C; Goemaere, S; De Buyser, S

    2018-01-01

    and bone mineral density scores were the most important predictors. INTRODUCTION: Machine learning principles were used to predict 5-year mortality and 3-year incident severe immobility in a population of older men by frailty and sarcopenia characteristics. METHODS: Using prospective data from 1997 on 264......There is an increasing awareness of sarcopenia in older people. We applied machine learning principles to predict mortality and incident immobility in older Belgian men through sarcopenia and frailty characteristics. Mortality could be predicted with good accuracy. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D...... the most important predictors of immobility. Sarcopenia assessed by lean mass estimates was relevant to mortality prediction but not immobility prediction. CONCLUSIONS: Using advanced statistical models and a machine learning approach 5-year mortality can be predicted with good accuracy using a Bayesian...

  3. Piping design and analysis: Comparison between the Belgian applications of French and American rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daoust, P.H.; Geraets, L.H.; Lafaille, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    In the process of a feasibility study of a new nuclear power plant in Belgium, the French and American rules for piping design have been compared. The Belgian method rests on the American nuclear set of rules and uses the ASME code. French rules were initially based on the American rules (1978). Subsequent individual development led to a differentiation of the rules. Presently the mechanical part of the French rules is mainly contained in the RCC-P ('Regles de Conception et de Construction relatives aux Procedes') and the RCC-M ('Regles de Conception et de Construction des Materiels Mecaniques'). This paper compares the piping design rules from a general point of view; examples of applications allow to identify benefits or drawbacks of the use of ASME or RCCM codes. (orig.)

  4. Health effects[1997 Scientific Report of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahieu, L.

    1998-07-01

    The objectives of the research in the field of epidemiology , performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are (1) to study cancer mortality and morbidity in nuclear workers in Belgium; (2) to document the feasibility of retrospective cohort studies in Belgium; (3) to participate in the IARC study. For radiobiology, the main objectives are: (1) to elucidate the mechanisms of the effects of ionizing radiation on the mammalian embryo during the early phase of its development, (2) to assess the genetic risks of maternal exposure to ionizing radiation, (3) to elucidate the mechanisms by which damage to the brain and mental retardation are caused in man after prenatal irradiation. The main achievements in these domains for 1997 are presented.

  5. Economic aspects related to the shallow land disposal of nuclear waste: The Belgian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunsch, P.L.; Zaccai, H.; Miegroet, J. van

    1993-01-01

    The Belgian concept for shallow land disposal of low-level short-lived waste is approaching maturity. The paper presents its main design features, the construction and operating phases, and the economics of the project. The conclusion is that this concept is economically interesting when compared to the geological option. The financial approach adopted by Belgium is presented. Pros and cons of timely operation are discussed. Although it may look economically attractive to adopt a slow pace in implementing the concept, the paper shows that deferring decisions would be a risky attitude, in contradiction with fairness to future consumers. Such a conclusion derives from economic and financial arguments, considering that cost uncertainties, especially in the front-end, and financial management risk might be of overwhelming importance

  6. A Romanian – Belgian Comparison on Work Related Stereotypes and Behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Truţa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the larger context of controversies on West-European – East-European countries differences, the present paper analyzes a more specific intercultural difference that may have its roots in the dominating values of a West-European society vs. an East-European one. We refer mainly at the differences between the Romanian and the Belgian culture regarding the way individuals from the two countries see work, the way they relate to work, their beliefs and stereotypes regarding work, and their work related behaviours. The paper tries to outline the fact that the cultural differences on work related stereotypes and behaviours surpass the existing similarities that are a result of the multiple influences both societies were subject of.

  7. 1997 Scientific Report[1997 Scientific Report of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govaerts, P

    1998-07-01

    The 1997 Scientific Report of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN describes progress achieved in nuclear safety, radioactive waste management, radiation protection and safeguards. In the field of nuclear research, the main projects concern the behaviour of high-burnup and MOX fuel, the embrittlement of reactor pressure vessels, the irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking of reactor internals, and irradiation effects on materials of fusion reactors. In the field of radioactive waste management, progress in the following domains is reported: the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent fuel in a clay formation, the decommissioning of nuclear installations, the study of alternative waste-processing techniques. For radiation protection and safeguards, the main activities reported on are in the field of site and environmental restoration, emergency planning and response and scientific support to national and international programmes.

  8. COMPARISON OF TWO METHODS OF OPERATING THEATRE PLANNING: APPLICATION IN BELGIAN HOSPITAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sondes CHAABANE; Nadine MESKENS; Alain GUINET; Marius LAURENT

    2008-01-01

    Operating Theatre is the centre of the hospital management's efforts. It constitutes the most expensive sector with more than 10% of the intended operating budget of the hospital. To reduce the costs while maintaining a good quality of care, one of the solutions is to improve the existent planning and scheduling methods by improving the services and surgical specialty coordination or finding the best estimation of surgical case durations. The other solution is to construct an effective surgical case plan and schedule. The operating theatre planning and scheduling is the two important steps, which aim to make a surgical case programming with an objective of obtaining a realizable and efficient surgical case schedule. This paper focuses on the first step, the operating theatre planning problem. Two planning methods are introduced and compared. Real data of a Belgian university hospital "Tivoli" are used for the experiments.

  9. Piping design and analysis: comparison between the Belgian applications of French and American rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daoust, Ph.; Geraets, L.H.; Lafaille, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    In the process of a feasibility study of a new nuclear power plant in Belgium, the French and American rules for piping design have been compared. The Belgian method rests on the American nuclear set of rules and uses the ASME code. French rules were initially based on the American rules (1978). Subsequent individual development led to a differentiation of the rules. Presently, the mechanical part of the French rules is mainly contained in the RCCP ('Regles de Conception et de Construction relatives aux Procedes') and the RCCM ('Regles de Conception et de Construction des materiels Mecaniques'). This paper compares the piping design rules from a general point of view; examples of applications allow benefits or drawbacks of the use of ASME or RCCM codes to identified. (author)

  10. Sustainability of Global and Local Food Value Chains: An Empirical Comparison of Peruvian and Belgian Asparagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Schwarz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability of food value chains is an increasing concern for consumers, food companies and policy-makers. Global food chains are often perceived to be less sustainable than local food chains. Yet, thorough food chain analyses and comparisons of different food chains across sustainability dimensions are rare. In this article we analyze the local Belgian and global Peruvian asparagus value chains and explore their sustainability performance. A range of indicators linked to environmental, economic and social impacts is calculated to analyze the contribution of the supply chains to economic development, resource use, labor relations, distribution of added value and governance issues. Our findings suggest that none of the two supply chains performs invariably better and that there are trade-offs among and between sustainability dimensions. Whereas the global chain uses water and other inputs more intensively and generates more employment per unit of land and higher yields, the local chain generates more revenue per unit of land.

  11. Reciprocity and depressive symptoms in Belgian workers: a cross-sectional multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Bart; Clays, Els; Janssens, Heidi; De Bacquer, Dirk; Casini, Annalisa; Kittel, France; Braeckman, Lutgart

    2013-07-01

    This study examines the multidimensional association between reciprocity at work and depressive symptoms. Data from the Belgian BELSTRESS survey (32 companies; N = 24,402) were analyzed. Multilevel statistical procedures were used to account for company-level associations while controlling for individual-level associations. Different dimensions of individual reciprocity were negatively associated with depressive symptoms. On the company level, only vertical emotional reciprocity was negatively associated (β = -4.660; SE = 1.117) independently from individual reciprocity (β = -0.557; SE = 0.042). Complex interactions were found such that workplace reciprocity (1) may not uniformly benefit individuals and (2) related differently to depressive symptoms, depending on occupational group. This study extends the existing literature with evidence on the multidimensional, contextual, and cross-level interaction associations of reciprocity as a key aspect of social capital on depressive symptoms.

  12. Congomania in Academia. Recent Historical Research on the Belgian Colonial Past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E. Kiangu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Congo has recently been the subject of much academic research. This article discusses the major trends and developments. It primarily focuses on the Congo crisis of 1960, which was commemorated in 2010 and has been inquired into by many historians, including American, British and Russian ones. A comparison of their conclusions reveals that Flanders has largely come to terms with its colonial past, but that the French-speaking community has a more problematic memory. Belgian academia, by contrast, has left the old controversies about Leopold II and Lumumba behind and embarked on the path of new imperial history. It approaches the Congolese past from new angles and with new paradigms, such as reciprocity, science, exhibition, representation, etc. Congolese academia suffers from the economic problems of the country, but has managed to produce a number of studies, focusing mainly on regions, religion, and resistance. Strikingly, Congolese historians have little criticism of the colonial era.

  13. Qualification of non-destructive examination for belgian nuclear reactor pressure vessel inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couplet, D.; Francoise, T.

    2001-01-01

    In Service Inspection (ISI) participates to the assessment of Nuclear Reactor Pressure Vessel Integrity. The performance of Non Destructive Examination (NDE) techniques must be demonstrated according to predefined objectives. The qualification process is essential to trust the reliability of the information provided by NDE. In Belgian Nuclear Power Plants, the qualification was conducted through a collaboration between the vendor and a technical group from the Electricity Utility. The important facts of this qualification will be presented: - the detailed definition of the inspection and qualifications objectives, based on a combination of the ASME code and the European Methodology for Qualification; - the systematic verification of the NDE performance and limitations, for each ISI objective, through an adequate combination of tests on blocks and technical justification; - the continuous improvement of the NDE procedure; - the feedback and the lessons learnt from site experience; - the necessary multi-disciplinary approach (NDE, degradation mechanisms, structural integrity)

  14. Risk assessment for furan contamination through the food chain in Belgian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Georges; Huybrechts, Inge; Humblet, Marie-France; Scippo, Marie-Louise; De Pauw, Edwin; Eppe, Gauthier; Saegerman, Claude

    2012-08-01

    Young, old, pregnant and immuno-compromised persons are of great concern for risk assessors as they represent the sub-populations most at risk. The present paper focuses on risk assessment linked to furan exposure in children. Only the Belgian population was considered because individual contamination and consumption data that are required for accurate risk assessment were available for Belgian children only. Two risk assessment approaches, the so-called deterministic and probabilistic, were applied and the results were compared for the estimation of daily intake. A significant difference between the average Estimated Daily Intake (EDI) was underlined between the deterministic (419 ng kg⁻¹ body weight (bw) day⁻¹) and the probabilistic (583 ng kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹) approaches, which results from the mathematical treatment of the null consumption and contamination data. The risk was characterised by two ways: (1) the classical approach by comparison of the EDI to a reference dose (RfD(chronic-oral)) and (2) the most recent approach, namely the Margin of Exposure (MoE) approach. Both reached similar conclusions: the risk level is not of a major concern, but is neither negligible. In the first approach, only 2.7 or 6.6% (respectively in the deterministic and in the probabilistic way) of the studied population presented an EDI above the RfD(chronic-oral). In the second approach, the percentage of children displaying a MoE above 10,000 and below 100 is 3-0% and 20-0.01% in the deterministic and probabilistic modes, respectively. In addition, children were compared to adults and significant differences between the contamination patterns were highlighted. While major contamination was linked to coffee consumption in adults (55%), no item predominantly contributed to the contamination in children. The most important were soups (19%), dairy products (17%), pasta and rice (11%), fruit and potatoes (9% each).

  15. Transposition of the SQUG methodology to the Belgian NPP(nuclear power station)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detroux, P.; Aelbrecht, D.; Naisse, J.C.; Greer, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    The units of a Belgian Nuclear PowerStation had to be seismically reassessed after ten years of operation because the seismic requirements were upgraded from 0.1g to 0.17g free field ground acceleration. Seismic requalification of the active equipment was a critical problem as the current classical methods were too conservative and their application would have lead to unacceptable replacement or reinforcement of a lot of equipment. The approach based on the use of past experience of seismic behavior of non nuclear equipment was chosen; this methodology was developed by the Seismic Qualification Utility Group (SQUG); a group of U.S. utilities and had to be transposed to the Belgian N.P.P. This transposition is described in this paper. It affects different aspects of the methodology. First, the impact of specific requests of the Safety Authorities on the elaboration of the Safe Shutdown Equipment List (SSEL) shall be examined. Then it is explained why the tedious work of specific relay screening was avoided by taking advantage of initial design features for both Instrumentation and Control (I and C) and Electrical power distribution system; the impact on the Electrical SSEL is also described. Afterwards, it is presented how it was possible to conduct a specific existing seismic qualification at 0.1 g free field ground acceleration. Finally, the resolution of specific important problems that arose from the application of the SQUG methodology, is presented such as the definition of the grade level and the conservatism of the classical Amplified Floor Spectra (criterion 1), the calculation of the nozzle loads on mechanical equipment connected to long unbraced piping and the transfer of these loads to the anchorage. (author)

  16. Belgian citizens' and broiler producers' perceptions of broiler chicken welfare in Belgium versus Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhonacker, F; Tuyttens, F A M; Verbeke, Wim

    2016-07-01

    New EU regulations require more stringent country-of-origin labeling, while imports of broiler meat from non-EU countries are increasing. In light of these trends, we have studied citizens' and producers' perceptions of broiler meat originating from Belgium versus Brazil and their perception of broiler production in Belgium versus Brazil. A particular focus was the association between country of origin and perceived level of animal welfare. We also investigated the perception of scaling-up and outdoor access in terms of perceived level of animal welfare. Cross-sectional survey data was collected among Flemish citizens (n = 541) and broiler producers (n = 114). In accordance with literature on general farm animal welfare, both stakeholder types claimed to allocate great importance to broiler welfare and generally agreed with the Welfare Quality model of broiler welfare. Citizens disagreed with the producers that 1) consumers are not willing to pay more for higher welfare products, 2) that broilers suffer little, 3) that broiler welfare in current Belgian production units is generally non-problematic, 4) that scaling-up production units would not have a positive impact on profitability nor a profoundly negative impact on broiler welfare, and 5) that the impact of providing broilers with outdoor access is negative for consumers, farmers, and broilers. Country of origin had a strong influence on the perception of both broiler production and broiler meat. Belgian citizens, and producers (much more than citizens) considered nearly all aspects related to broiler production and broiler meat to be significantly superior for chicken produced in Belgium compared to Brazil. Further research should focus on how these perceptions influence purchase intentions and production decisions. Future avenues for research are to quantify market opportunities for country-of-origin labeling and to investigate to which extent stakeholders' perceptions correspond with reality. © 2016 Poultry

  17. Numerical modelling and hydrochemical characterisation of a fresh-water lens in the Belgian coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbohede, A.; Lebbe, L.

    2002-05-01

    The distribution of fresh and salt water in coastal aquifers is influenced by many processes. The influence of aquifer heterogeneity and human interference such as land reclamation is illustrated in the Belgian coastal plain where, around A.D. 1200, the reclamation of a tidally influenced environment was completed. The aquifer, which was filled with salt water, was thereafter freshened. The areal distribution of peat, clay, silt and sand influences the general flow and distribution of fresh and salt water along with the drainage pattern and results in the development of fresh-water lenses. The water quality in and around the fresh-water lenses below an inverted tidal channel ridge is surveyed. The hydrochemical evolution of the fresh water lens is reconstructed, pointing to cation exchange, solution of calcite and the oxidation of organic material as the major chemical reactions. The formation and evolution of the fresh water lens is modelled using a two-dimensional density-dependent solute transport model and the sensitivity of drainage and conductivities are studied. Drainage level mainly influences the depth of the fresh-water lens, whereas the time of formation is mainly influenced by conductivity. Résumé. La répartition de l'eau douce et de l'eau salée dans les aquifères littoraux est influencée par de nombreux mécanismes. L'influence de l'hétérogénéité de l'aquifère et des interférences anthropiques telles que la mise en valeur des terres est illustrée par la plaine côtière belge où, depuis l'an 1200, on a mis en valeur un environnement soumis aux marées. L'aquifère, qui contenait de l'eau salée, contient maintenant de l'eau douce. La distribution spatiale de tourbe, d'argile, de silt et de sable joue un rôle dans l'écoulement général et dans la répartition de l'eau douce et de l'eau salée le long du réseau de drainage et produit des lentilles d'eau douce. La qualité de l'eau dans et autour des lentilles d'eau douce sous une lev

  18. Mediation in the Belgian health care sector: analysis of a particular issue--the material scope of application of mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derèse, Marie-Noëlle

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, the material scope of application of mediation regulated in the Belgian Act of August 22nd, 2002 on Patient's Rights will be discussed in detail. In accordance with this Act, a mediator only has the competence to handle patients' complaints concerning the medical and care aspects of patients' rights, such as complaints relating to informed consent, access to medical files, etc. In practice, it has been observed that issues relating to administrative matters also give rise to complaints and that some patients do not know with whom they should lodge such complaints. Some clarification is necessary for a clear and proper complaints procedure that works. One possible solution is the creation of a single institution that would be in charge of handling both kinds of complaints. Such a solution has to be enacted in accordance with Belgian federalism.

  19. Towards a PSA harmonization French-Belgian comparison of the level 1 PSA for two similar PWR types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuy, P.; Corenwinder, F.; Lanore, J.M.; Gryffroy, D.; Gelder, P. de; Hulsmans, M.

    2002-06-01

    In the framework of the cooperation between French and Belgian regulatory authorities, a PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment) comparison exercise has been carried out for several years. This comparison deals with two PSA level 1 studies for internal events, performed for both power and shutdown states: the French PSA of the 900 MWe-series PWR, and the Belgian PSA of the Tihange 1 PWR, which both concern PWRs with a similar Framatome design. The purpose of this paper is to describe the PSA comparison methodology and to present, in a qualitative way, an overview of the insights obtained up to now. It also shows that such an 'a posteriori' benchmark exercise turns out to be a step towards PSA harmonization, and gives more confidence in the results of plant specific PSA when used for applications like precursor analysis or evaluations of importance to safety. (authors)

  20. Accidental release of iodine 131 by the IRE of the Fleurus site: return on experience by the Belgian safety authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandecasteele, C.M.; Sonck, M.; Degueldre, D.

    2010-01-01

    After a presentation of the activities of the IRE, the Belgian National Institute of Radio-elements, i.e. the production of radionuclides used in nuclear medicine, this report describes the process and chemical reaction which caused an accidental release of iodine 131. It analyzes the causes of this incident, and how the incident has been managed by the Belgian safety authority. It discusses the first assessment of radiological consequences, describes how the incident has been managed at the federal level, and how population and media have been informed. It discusses the actual radiological consequences through measurements performed on grass and vegetables (graphs and maps indicate contamination levels and contaminated areas), and through the assessment of exposure of adults and children by different ways. Lessons learned are then discussed

  1. Euthanasia embedded in palliative care. Responses to essentialistic criticisms of the Belgian model of integral end-of-life care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernheim, Jan L; Raus, Kasper

    2017-08-01

    The Belgian model of 'integral' end-of-life care consists of universal access to palliative care (PC) and legally regulated euthanasia. As a first worldwide, the Flemish PC organisation has embedded euthanasia in its practice. However, some critics have declared the Belgian-model concepts of 'integral PC' and 'palliative futility' to fundamentally contradict the essence of PC. This article analyses the various essentialistic arguments for the incompatibility of euthanasia and PC. The empirical evidence from the euthanasia-permissive Benelux countries shows that since legalisation, carefulness (of decision making) at the end of life has improved and there have been no significant adverse 'slippery slope' effects. It is problematic that some critics disregard the empirical evidence as epistemologically irrelevant in a normative ethical debate. Next, rejecting euthanasia because its prevention was a founding principle of PC ignores historical developments. Further, critics' ethical positions depart from the PC tenet of patient centeredness by prioritising caregivers' values over patients' values. Also, many critics' canonical adherence to the WHO definition of PC, which has intention as the ethical criterion is objectionable. A rejection of the Belgian model on doctrinal grounds also has nefarious practical consequences such as the marginalisation of PC in euthanasia-permissive countries, the continuation of clandestine practices and problematic palliative sedation until death. In conclusion, major flaws of essentialistic arguments against the Belgian model include the disregard of empirical evidence, appeals to canonical and questionable definitions, prioritisation of caregiver perspectives over those of patients and rejection of a plurality of respectable views on decision making at the end of life. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Level of zinc in the Belgian calamine-bearing lichens: Stereocaulon nanodes Tuck f tyroliense (nyl. ) M. Lamb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maquinay, A; Lamb, I M; Lambinon, J; Ramaut, J L

    1961-01-01

    It has been shown that Stereocaulon nanodes, a lichen species native to Belgian calamine-bearing soils takes up zinc and in some cases accumulates it in the thallus. This lichen, growing on a substrate slag with 700 p.p.m. of zinc may contain up to 3300 p.p.m. This abnormally high content as compared with the usual plant tolerance for this element does not seem to disturb its metabolism. 3 references, 4 tables.

  3. Structural and functional biological assessment of aggregate dredging intensity on the Belgian part of the North Sea

    OpenAIRE

    De Backer, A.; Hillewaert, H.; Van Hoey, G.; Wittoeck, J.; Hostens, K.

    2014-01-01

    Marine aggregate dredging in the Belgian part of the North Sea (BPNS) is restricted to four dedicated concession zones. Within these zones, there are areas under different dredging pressure, but with the advantage that these are situated within a similar habitat (cfr. similar sediment characteristics) . As such, this study assessed how different degrees of dredging pressure executed on a similar sandy habitat affect the benthic ecosystem. Possible responses of the macrobenthos on the dredging...

  4. Culture-Based Methods and Molecular Tools for Azole-Resistant Aspergillus fumigatus Detection in a Belgian University Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Montesinos, I.; Argudín, M. A.; Hites, M.; Ahajjam, F.; Dodémont, M.; Dagyaran, C.; Bakkali, M.; Etienne, I.; Jacobs, F.; Knoop, C.; Patteet, S.; Lagrou, K.

    2017-01-01

    Azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus is an increasing worldwide problem with major clinical implications. Surveillance is warranted to guide clinicians to provide optimal treatment to patients. To investigate azole resistance in clinical Aspergillus isolates in our institution, a Belgian university hospital, we conducted a laboratory-based surveillance between June 2015 and October 2016. Two different approaches were used: a prospective culture-based surveillance using VIPcheck on unselected...

  5. Influence of Geographical Origin and Flour Type on Diversity of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Traditional Belgian Sourdoughs▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Scheirlinck, Ilse; Van der Meulen, Roel; Van Schoor, Ann; Vancanneyt, Marc; De Vuyst, Luc; Vandamme, Peter; Huys, Geert

    2007-01-01

    A culture-based approach was used to investigate the diversity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in Belgian traditional sourdoughs and to assess the influence of flour type, bakery environment, geographical origin, and technological characteristics on the taxonomic composition of these LAB communities. For this purpose, a total of 714 LAB from 21 sourdoughs sampled at 11 artisan bakeries throughout Belgium were subjected to a polyphasic identification approach. The microbial composition of the tr...

  6. Improved Emergency Preparedness For Management Of The Food chain Via Stakeholder Involvement: Belgian and European Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardeman, Frank; Carle, Benny [SCK.CEN, the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Turcanu, Catrinel [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Av. F. Roosevelt 50, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Vandecasteele, Christian [FANC, Federal Agency for Nuclear Control, Ravensteinstraat 36, 1000 Brussels (Belgium)

    2006-07-01

    Initiatives involving stakeholder engagement have gained increasing importance in sustainable decision making for many risk-related issues. This paper describes a Belgian experience within a European context related to food management options in the event of a radioactive contamination of the food chain. Under the auspices of the European Commission's 5. Framework Programme, the F.A.R.M.I.N.G. (F.A.R.M.I.N.G. 2000) project (co-ordinated by H.P.A.) a stakeholder network was established in a number of European countries, following a successful approach originally adopted in the UK. In a comparable approach, national working groups were thus established in Belgium, Finland, France and Greece in order to organise stakeholder panels and to discuss the outcomes of scientific and technical research related to management options for the food chain. The results of these panels were exchanged between participating Member States and on a wider international basis at the W.I.S.D.O.M.2. workshop in 2003. The F.A.R.M.I.N.G. project had many achievements and there were also several important lessons learned for Belgium (Vandecasteele et al., 2005): Firstly, many stakeholders showed a real interest in tackling problems relating to food chain contamination; Secondly, the Belgian agricultural system is very intensive and technically and economically optimised, making many of the options envisaged difficult to implement; thirdly, the applicability of management options is also limited by political and legal issues (e.g. competencies, environmental legislation), operational constraints (e.g. waste treatment, supplies of materials), societal and ethical aspects (e.g. milk disposal to sea, animal welfare), and economics (e.g. who pays the intervention cost?); fourthly, there is a now a greater awareness of these problems in both the food production sector and among the experts involved in emergency management; Fifthly, increased attention is now given in Belgium to the medium and

  7. Improved Emergency Preparedness For Management Of The Food chain Via Stakeholder Involvement: Belgian and European Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardeman, Frank; Carle, Benny; Turcanu, Catrinel; Vandecasteele, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Initiatives involving stakeholder engagement have gained increasing importance in sustainable decision making for many risk-related issues. This paper describes a Belgian experience within a European context related to food management options in the event of a radioactive contamination of the food chain. Under the auspices of the European Commission's 5. Framework Programme, the F.A.R.M.I.N.G. (F.A.R.M.I.N.G. 2000) project (co-ordinated by H.P.A.) a stakeholder network was established in a number of European countries, following a successful approach originally adopted in the UK. In a comparable approach, national working groups were thus established in Belgium, Finland, France and Greece in order to organise stakeholder panels and to discuss the outcomes of scientific and technical research related to management options for the food chain. The results of these panels were exchanged between participating Member States and on a wider international basis at the W.I.S.D.O.M.2. workshop in 2003. The F.A.R.M.I.N.G. project had many achievements and there were also several important lessons learned for Belgium (Vandecasteele et al., 2005): Firstly, many stakeholders showed a real interest in tackling problems relating to food chain contamination; Secondly, the Belgian agricultural system is very intensive and technically and economically optimised, making many of the options envisaged difficult to implement; thirdly, the applicability of management options is also limited by political and legal issues (e.g. competencies, environmental legislation), operational constraints (e.g. waste treatment, supplies of materials), societal and ethical aspects (e.g. milk disposal to sea, animal welfare), and economics (e.g. who pays the intervention cost?); fourthly, there is a now a greater awareness of these problems in both the food production sector and among the experts involved in emergency management; Fifthly, increased attention is now given in Belgium to the medium and long

  8. Comparison of composition and quality traits of meat from young finishing bulls from Belgian Blue, Limousin and Aberdeen Angus breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuvelier, C; Clinquart, A; Hocquette, J F; Cabaraux, J F; Dufrasne, I; Istasse, L; Hornick, J L

    2006-11-01

    Thirty-six young finishing bulls from three breeds (Belgian Blue, Limousin and Aberdeen Angus) were fattened over five months with finishing diets based either on sugar-beet pulp or on cereals. Nutritional quality traits of meat - fat content and fatty acid composition with emphasis on the n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids - along with some organoleptic quality traits were measured. The Belgian Blue bulls had the lowest intramuscular fat content associated with lower saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid contents. The polyunsaturated fatty acid content did not differ to a large extent between the breeds, the Aberdeen Angus bulls showing slightly higher values. Relative to energy intake, the overall contribution of meat to the n-3 fatty acid recommended intake was small, whatever the breed. By contrast, the contribution of meat to daily fat intake was of greater importance, especially for the Aberdeen Angus bulls. The quality traits of meat varied also according to the breed: compared to the Aberdeen Angus, the Belgian Blue bull meat had the stablest colour, the highest drip and the lowest cooking losses. The meat of Limousin bulls had intermediate characteristics for all the parameters.

  9. Psychometric properties of the Belgian coach version of the coach-athlete relationship questionnaire (CART-Q).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balduck, A-L; Jowett, S

    2010-10-01

    The study examined the psychometric properties of the Belgian coach version of the Coach-Athlete Relationship Questionnaire (CART-Q). The questionnaire includes three dimensions (Closeness, Commitment, and Complementarity) in a model that intends to measure the quality of the coach-athlete relationship. Belgian coaches (n=144) of athletes who performed at various competition levels in such sports as football, basketball, and volleyball responded to the CART-Q and to the Leadership Scale for Sport (LSS). A confirmatory factor analysis proved to be slightly more satisfactory for a three-order factor model, compared with a hierarchical first-order factor model. The three factors showed acceptable internal consistency scores. Moreover, functional associations between the three factors and coach leadership behaviors were found offering support to the instrument's concurrent validity. The findings support previous validation studies and verify the psychometric properties of the CART-Q applied to Belgian coaches of team sports. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. The Human Face of Health News: A Multi-Method Analysis of Sourcing Practices in Health-Related News in Belgian Magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Dobbelaer, Rebeca; Van Leuven, Sarah; Raeymaeckers, Karin

    2018-05-01

    Health journalists are central gatekeepers who select, frame, and communicate health news to a broad audience, but the selection and content of health news are also influenced by the sources journalists, rely on (Hinnant, Len-Rios, & Oh, 2012). In this paper, we examine whether the traditional elitist sourcing practices (e.g., research institutions, government) are still important in a digitalized news environment where bottom-up non-elite actors (e.g., patients, civil society organizations) can act as producers (Bruns, 2003). Our main goal, therefore, is to detect whether sourcing practices in health journalism can be linked with strategies of empowerment. We use a multi-method approach combining quantitative and qualitative research methods. First, two content analyses are developed to examine health-related news in Belgian magazines (popular weeklies, health magazines, general interest magazines, and women's magazines). The analyses highlight sourcing practices as visible in the texts and give an overview of the different stakeholders represented as sources. In the first wave, the content analysis includes 1047 health-related news items in 19 different Belgian magazines (March-June 2013). In the second wave, a smaller sample of 202 health-related items in 10 magazines was studied for follow-up reasons (February 2015). Second, to contextualize the findings of the quantitative analysis, we interviewed 16 health journalists and editors-in-chief. The results illustrate that journalists consider patients and blogs as relevant sources for health news; nonetheless, elitist sourcing practices still prevail at the cost of bottom-up communication. However, the in-depth interviews demonstrate that journalists increasingly consult patients and civil society actors to give health issues a more "human" face. Importantly, the study reveals that this strategy is differently applied by the various types of magazines. While popular weeklies and women's magazines give a voice to

  11. Modelling water and {sup 36}Cl cycling in a Belgian pine forest - Model for {sup 36}Cl cycling in a Belgian pine forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vives i Batlle, Jordi; Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Gielen, Sienke [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2014-07-01

    A simplified, 1-D soil-groundwater-vegetation model to represent the cycling of water and of {sup 36}Cl in a Belgian Scots pine forest is presented and discussed. The model contains a soil column with layers of different (but uniform) field capacity and soil porosity, which are penetrated by tree roots. Flow through porous media is assumed to circulate according to Darcy and Philips laws, using empirical soil hydraulic properties without recourse to Richards' equation. The vegetation is represented by means of a compartment model including simplified representation of sap flow, translocation and litterfall in relation to different parts of the tree. The water table height is variable according to the balance between precipitation, capillary rise, solar radiation, plant uptake and evapotranspiration. The influence of local fluvial sources of water can also be evaluated in a simplified way as a losing/gaining stream input to the soil column. Time dependent data on temperature, solar irradiation, rainfall, crop coefficient and leaf area index (LAI) are used as input to the model in order to calculate evapotranspiration and a simplified approach to foliar interception. The chlorine flux follows the water flux in both soil and the trees, using retardation in soil and experimentally measured translocation factors within the plant. The chlorine flux is optimised and validated with recourse to a previous {sup 36}Cl compartment model. Although considered to be a relatively simple model, initial results suggest a reasonable consistency between previously published water balance and field measurements in a Scots pine stand from the vicinity of Mol, Belgium. The mean soil water content is predicted to be around 25%, the plant water is stored in the order roots > plant above roots > leaf surfaces, water table height below ground fluctuates between 2.1 and 2.6 m compared with a measured water table height of 1.8 - 20 m and pine transpiration is less than 1.2 mm/d compared

  12. Sustainable employability for older workers: an explorative survey of belgian companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbrugghe, Mathieu; Kuipers, Yoline; Vriesacker, Bart; Peeters, Ilse; Mortelmans, Katrien

    2016-01-01

    The European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (EU-OSHA) is developing an online e-guide, which will provide tips and practical information for each EU country (in their national language(s)) on ageing and occupational health and safety. The e-guide will be launched in 2016 as part of the EU-OSHA campaign on Healthy Workplaces for all ages. The e-guide will present evidence, tools and practical examples of how companies can take action and effectively promote sustainable employability. As part of the development of the e-guide, a cross-sectional study was conducted to survey Belgian employers in April 2015 to determine their specific needs concerning older workers' occupational health and safety issues. Researchers from Milieu Ltd. (Brussels, Belgium), the consultancy company coordinating the e-guide project, and Mensura Occupational Health Services (Brussels, Belgium) developed a 13-item questionnaire. The survey addressed the needs and importance given to sustainable employability of older workers in Belgian companies and evaluated corporate knowledge regarding relevant national policies. The questionnaire was distributed electronically to the management of 22,084 private-sector companies affiliated with Mensura. Ten percent (n = 2133) of recipients opened the e-mail, and 37 % (n = 790) of these completed the questionnaire. In 89 % of the responding companies, sustainable employability of workers aged ≥55 years plays an important role; 70 % have no active sustainable employability policy/initiative; 18 % experience difficulties promoting sustainable employability; and 86 % indicate no need for support to promote sustainable employability. Respondents noted the following health complaints among workers aged ≥55 years: work-related health problems (31 %), stress (26 %), work agreements/type of work (17 %), work/life balance (15 %), and career development and/or training (9 %). Topics concerning health and well-being of workers aged ≥55

  13. Unwanted Behaviors and Nuisance Behaviors Among Neighbors in a Belgian Community Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaux, Emilie; Groenen, Anne; Uzieblo, Katarzyna

    2015-06-30

    Unwanted behaviors between (ex-)intimates have been extensively studied, while those behaviors within other contexts such as neighbors have received much less scientific consideration. Research indicates that residents are likely to encounter problem behaviors from their neighbors. Besides the lack of clarity in the conceptualization of problem behaviors among neighbors, little is known on which types of behaviors characterize neighbor problems. In this study, the occurrence of two types of problem behaviors encountered by neighbors was explored within a Belgian community sample: unwanted behaviors such as threats and neighbor nuisance issues such as noise nuisance. By clearly distinguishing those two types of behaviors, this study aimed at contributing to the conceptualization of neighbor problems. Next, the coping strategies used to deal with the neighbor problems were investigated. Our results indicated that unwanted behaviors were more frequently encountered by residents compared with nuisance problems. Four out of 10 respondents reported both unwanted pursuit behavior and nuisance problems. It was especially unlikely to encounter nuisance problems in isolation of unwanted pursuit behaviors. While different coping styles (avoiding the neighbor, confronting the neighbor, and enlisting help from others) were equally used by the stalked participants, none of them was perceived as being more effective in reducing the stalking behaviors. Strikingly, despite being aware of specialized help services such as community mediation services, only a very small subgroup enlisted this kind of professional help. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Belgian coca-cola-related outbreak: intoxication, mass sociogenic illness, or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallay, A; Van Loock, F; Demarest, S; Van der Heyden, J; Jans, B; Van Oyen, H

    2002-01-15

    An epidemic of health complaints occurred in five Belgian schools in June 1999. A qualitative investigation described the scenario. The role of soft drinks was assessed by using a case-control study. Cases were students complaining of headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, or trembling. Controls were students present at school on the day of the outbreak but not taken ill. An analysis was performed separately for school A, where the outbreak started, and was pooled for schools B-E. In school A, the attack rate (13.2%) was higher than in schools B-E (3.6%, relative risk = 3.6, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.5, 5.3). Exclusive consumption of regular Coca-Cola (school A: odds ratio (OR) = 29.7, 95% CI: 1.32, 663.6; schools B-E: OR = 7.3, 95% CI: 2.9, 18.0) and low mental health score (school A: OR = 16.1, 95% CI: 1.3, 201.9; schools B-E: OR = 3.1, 95% CI: 1.5, 6.6) were independently associated with the illness. In schools B-E, consumption of Fanta, consumption of Coca-Cola light, and female gender were also associated with the illness. It seems reasonable to attribute the first cases of illness in school A to regular Coca-Cola consumption. However, mass sociogenic illness could explain the majority of the other cases.

  15. Lessons Learned from a Five-year Evaluation of the Belgian Safety Culture Oversight Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, B.

    2016-01-01

    The Belgian Regulatory Body has implemented a Safety Culture oversight process since 2010. In a nutshell, this process is based on field observations provided by inspectors or safety analysts during any contact with a licencee (inspections, meetings, phone calls, etc). These observations are recorded within an observation (excel) sheet—aiming at describing factual and contextual issues — and are linked to IAEA Safety Culture attributes. It should be stressed that the purpose of the process is not to give a comprehensive view of a licencee safety culture but to address findings that require attention or action on the part of a licencee. In other words, gathering safety culture observations aims at identifying cultural, organizational or behavioural issues in order to feed a regulatory response to potential problems. Safety Culture Observations (SCO) are then fully integrated in routine inspection activities and must be seen as an input of the overall oversight process. As a result, the assessment of the SCO is inserted within the yearly safety evaluation report performed by Bel V and transmitted to the licencee. However, observing safety culture is not a natural approach for engineers. Guidance, training and coaching must be provided in order to open up safety dimensions to be captured. In other words, a SCO process requires a continuous support in order to promote a holistic and systemic view of safety.

  16. Advertisements in French and Belgian ‘Little Reviews’, 1890–1930: Visual Techniques and Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Védrine

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Between the 1880s and the 1920s, advertising proved fundamental to art and literature reviews since it fostered a new link between visual and consumerist culture. This article is based on fin de siècle and avant-garde magazines read in dialogue. It samples French and Belgian magazines illustrating innovations to 1880s periodicals and 1920s modernist magazines. The paper highlights the use of visual techniques in advertisements (page design, typography, etc. that strengthen aesthetic and political stances. Advertising rhetoric masks aesthetic manifestos but also social and political agenda, revealed by visual displays of text. Publicity is also an important medium for poetic experimentation, embedded in ordinary advertising design already in the 1890s. Its subversive use informs new means of artistic expression, considered avant-garde innovations (collage, cadavre exquis, or typographic combinations. Advertising later represents new modernist stances within avant-garde magazines. Surrealism and Dada exploited publicity to promote their revolutionary aesthetic. In the 1920s, advertising being increasingly professionalized, specific designers used new visual means, strengthened artistic exchanges, and gradually erased the division between art and commercial culture in magazines. Thus modernism became part of a visual culture resonant with consumer commodities. Advertising ultimately exemplifies an interesting change in periodicals’ patterns, across literature and art reviews to the mainstream press, through posters, and decorative or architectural designs.

  17. Levels of contamination for various pollutants present in Belgian human plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wouwe, N. Van; Goeyens, L. [Scientific Inst. of Public Health, Brussels (Belgium); Covaci, A. [Toxicological Center, Univ. of Antwerp, Wilrijk (Belgium); Kannan, K. [Wadsworth Center, New York State Dept. of Health, Albany, NY (United States); Gordon, J.; Chu, A. [Xenobiotic Detection System Inc., Durham, NC (United States); Eppe, G.; Pauw, E. De [Center of Analysis of residues in Traces (CART), Univ. of Liege (Belgium)

    2004-09-15

    During the last century, numerous compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) or organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), were banned because of their bioaccumulative and toxic properties, while other compounds, such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), appeared on the market and consequently in the environment. The experiences gained from accidents involving PBBs, PCBs or PCDD/Fs are useful to conduct scientific investigations focused on preventing similar catastrophies with the newly introduced compounds. Several studies have reported potential increase in the concentration of PBDEs in food and wildlife. Monitoring the levels of toxic chemicals is therefore useful to understand the exposure pathways, sources and trends. The aim of the paper is to present actual contamination's levels of various pollutants in human plasma from Belgium. Several classes of pollutants, such PCDD/Fs, PCBs and OCPs were determined in 20 human plasmas. In addition, perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and related fluorochemicals, which are of current concern, were measured. Although anticipated, concentrations of PBDEs in the same samples were not yet determined. Through this study, a good approximation of the contamination level in Belgian human is given, allowing thus comparison with concentrations observed in other countries.

  18. Safety or efficiency?: strategies and conflicting interests in Belgian road-safety policy, 1920-1940.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Donald

    2015-04-01

    After World War I, automobile ownership became a mass phenomenon in Belgium, as in most other industrialized countries. Unfortunately, road-casualty figures soon followed. By the mid-1930s, traffic accidents had become the main cause of accidental deaths. There was clearly a need for a renewed road-safety policy. Public authorities in Belgium, however, were suspiciously reluctant to take new measures. While there was a public outcry for more severe regulation of motorized traffic and several MPs backed bills to this effect, motoring associations lobbied against traffic legislation reforms. In order to understand the Belgian government's hesitation, this article looks at the key strategies of the actors involved in the decision-making process concerning traffic policy. Such strategies included, among others: the creation of detailed traffic-accident statistics, revision of traffic legislation, and support for mass traffic-education campaigns. Eventually, public officials stepped in and created a new technocratic traffic regime in the 1930s, yet their prime concern was not road-user safety, but the efficiency of traffic streams.

  19. Social security status and mortality in Belgian and Spanish male workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Xavier; Vanroelen, Christophe; Deboosere, Patrick; Benavides, Fernando G

    2016-01-01

    To assess differences in mortality rates between social security statuses in two independent samples of Belgian and Spanish male workers. Study of two retrospective cohorts (Belgium, n=23,607; Spain, n=44,385) of 50-60 year old male employees with 4 years of follow-up. Mortality rate ratios (MRR) were estimated using Poisson regression models. Mortality for subjects with permanent disability was higher than for the employed, for both Belgium [MRR=4.56 (95% CI: 2.88-7.21)] and Spain [MRR=7.15 (95% CI: 5.37-9.51)]. For the unemployed/early retirees, mortality was higher in Spain [MRR=1.64 (95% CI: 1.24-2.17)] than in Belgium [MRR=0.88 (95% CI: 0.46-1.71)]. MRR differences between Belgium and Spain for unemployed workers could be partly explained because of differences between the two social security systems. Future studies should further explore mortality differences between countries with different social security systems. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Network inter-connectivity and capacity reservation behaviour: an investigation of the Belgian gas transmission network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuijpers, Ch.; Woitrin, D.

    2009-01-01

    Lack of cross-border integration explains largely why natural gas markets remain basically national in scope, with levels of concentration similarly high as when the liberalization process commenced. This paper presents the results of an assessment of the upstream/downstream capacity of the Belgian natural gas transmission network which is highly interconnected with adjacent networks and fosters important transit activities. It is shown that the tendency to a better market coupling still suffers from important mismatches of capacity provisions on both sides of cross-border interconnections. Moreover, shippers use gas transmission networks more and more from a commercial portfolio perspective which goes beyond the traditional security of supply purpose of network designs. Capacity booking rates appear to be significantly higher than the underlying physical gas flows. From these findings, the paper contributes to a better understanding of the market barrier created by contractual congestion at cross-border interconnection points. The paper argues that contractual congestion is a symptom of suboptimal cooperation of adjacent network operators and lack of effective mechanisms to bring booked but non-used capacity back to the market, rather than an indicator for an overall need to increase investment budgets. (authors)

  1. Online communication predicts Belgian adolescents' initiation of romantic and sexual activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbosch, Laura; Beyens, Ine; Vangeel, Laurens; Eggermont, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Online communication is associated with offline romantic and sexual activity among college students. Yet, it is unknown whether online communication is associated with the initiation of romantic and sexual activity among adolescents. This two-wave panel study investigated whether chatting, visiting dating websites, and visiting erotic contact websites predicted adolescents' initiation of romantic and sexual activity. We analyzed two-wave panel data from 1163 Belgian adolescents who participated in the MORES Study. We investigated the longitudinal impact of online communication on the initiation of romantic relationships and sexual intercourse using logistic regression analyses. The odds ratios of initiating a romantic relationship among romantically inexperienced adolescents who frequently used chat rooms, dating websites, or erotic contact websites were two to three times larger than those of non-users. Among sexually inexperienced adolescents who frequently used chat rooms, dating websites, or erotic contact websites, the odds ratios of initiating sexual intercourse were two to five times larger than that among non-users, even after a number of other relevant factors were introduced. This is the first study to demonstrate that online communication predicts the initiation of offline sexual and romantic activity as early as adolescence. Practitioners and parents need to consider the role of online communication in adolescents' developing sexuality. • Adolescents increasingly communicate online with peers. • Online communication predicts romantic and sexual activity among college students. What is New: • Online communication predicts adolescents' offline romantic activity over time. • Online communication predicts adolescents' offline sexual activity over time.

  2. Carcass and meat quality in double-muscled Belgian Blue bulls and cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiems, L O; De Campeneere, S; Van Caelenbergh, W; De Boever, J L; Vanacker, J M

    2003-03-01

    Carcass and meat quality of 37 bulls and 91 cows of the Belgian Blue breed (double-muscled type) were compared. Age at slaughter averaged 648±73 and 1820±689 days, respectively. Both groups of cattle were finished on maize silage supplemented with concentrate, and were slaughtered at about 750 kg live weight. Females had a lower (P=0.004) cold carcass weight (469.7 kg) in comparison with bulls (500.8 kg), due to a reduced dressing percentage (63.8 vs. 66.6; P M. longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle (2.3 vs. 1.1%; P <0.001) were higher for females than for males. The LT of cows was darker (lower L* and higher a*-value; P <0.001), had a better waterholding capacity (P⩽0.063) and was slightly more tender (P=0.120) than the LT of bulls. Increasing parity reduced dressing percentage and increased LT lightness (L*-value) in cows. Several carcass (SEUROP-grading, composition, LT-area) and meat quality traits (protein and fat contents, drip and cooking losses, a*-value) were better correlated with carcass weight than parity. It is concluded that meat quality of the aged LT of cows is not negatively affected by age, while some carcass quality traits decreased with advancing age. Carcass quality traits adjusted for age at slaughter were better for bulls, but LT meat quality characteristics were at least as good for females as for males.

  3. Maintenance Energy Requirements of Double-Muscled Belgian Blue Beef Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo O. Fiems

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sixty non-pregnant, non-lactating double-muscled Belgian Blue (DMBB cows were used to estimate the energy required to maintain body weight (BW. They were fed one of three energy levels for 112 or 140 days, corresponding to approximately 100%, 80% or 70% of their total energy requirements. The relationship between daily energy intake and BW and daily BW change was developed using regression analysis. Maintenance energy requirements were estimated from the regression equation by setting BW gain to zero. Metabolizable and net energy for maintenance amounted to 0.569 ± 0.001 and 0.332 ± 0.001 MJ per kg BW0.75/d, respectively. Maintenance energy requirements were not dependent on energy level (p > 0.10. Parity affected maintenance energy requirements (p < 0.001, although the small numerical differences between parities may hardly be nutritionally relevant. Maintenance energy requirements of DMBB beef cows were close to the mean energy requirements of other beef genotypes reported in the literature.

  4. Maintenance Energy Requirements of Double-Muscled Belgian Blue Beef Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiems, Leo O; De Boever, Johan L; Vanacker, José M; De Campeneere, Sam

    2015-02-13

    Sixty non-pregnant, non-lactating double-muscled Belgian Blue (DMBB) cows were used to estimate the energy required to maintain body weight (BW). They were fed one of three energy levels for 112 or 140 days, corresponding to approximately 100%, 80% or 70% of their total energy requirements. The relationship between daily energy intake and BW and daily BW change was developed using regression analysis. Maintenance energy requirements were estimated from the regression equation by setting BW gain to zero. Metabolizable and net energy for maintenance amounted to 0.569 ± 0.001 and 0.332 ± 0.001 MJ per kg BW(0.75)/d, respectively. Maintenance energy requirements were not dependent on energy level (p > 0.10). Parity affected maintenance energy requirements (p < 0.001), although the small numerical differences between parities may hardly be nutritionally relevant. Maintenance energy requirements of DMBB beef cows were close to the mean energy requirements of other beef genotypes reported in the literature.

  5. Risk factors for ceftiofur resistance in Escherichia coli from Belgian broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persoons, D; Haesebrouck, F; Smet, A; Herman, L; Heyndrickx, M; Martel, A; Catry, B; Berge, A C; Butaye, P; Dewulf, J

    2011-05-01

    A cross-sectional study on 32 different Belgian broiler farms was performed in 2007 and 2008 to identify risk factors for ceftiofur resistance in Escherichia coli. On each farm, one E. coli colony was isolated from 30 random birds. Following susceptibility testing of 14 antimicrobials, an on-farm questionnaire was used to obtain information on risk factors. Using a multilevel logistic regression model two factors were identified at the animal level: resistance to amoxicillin and to trimethoprim-sulfonamide. On the farm level, besides antimicrobial use, seven management factors were found to be associated with the occurrence of ceftiofur resistance in E. coli from broilers: poor hygienic condition of the medicinal treatment reservoir, no acidification of drinking water, more than three feed changes during the production cycle, hatchery of origin, breed, litter material used, and treatment with amoxicillin. This study confirms that not only on-farm antimicrobial therapy, but also management- and hatchery-related factors influence the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance.

  6. An assessment of personality disorders with the Five-Factor Model among Belgian inmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiry, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Many international studies report a high prevalence of personality disorders among inmates on the basis of (semi)-structured diagnostic interviews. The present study proposes a self-reported evaluation of personality disorders using the NEO PI-R. The sample consists of 244 male and 18 female inmates (N=262) who were psychologically assessed. The analysis of the five psychological domains shows that the French-speaking Belgian inmates are as stable, as extroverted, more closed, more agreeable and more conscientious than the normative sample. The NEO PI-R facets are also analyzed. The mean Cohen's d (.26) is small. Two personality disorders have medium effect sizes: obsessive compulsive personality disorder (high) and histrionic personality (low). Small effect sizes exist for antisocial personality (low), psychopathy (low), narcissistic personality (low), schizoid personality (high) and borderline personality (low). In our view, the context of the assessment can partially explain these results but not entirely. The results do not confirm previous studies and question the high rates of psychiatric prevalence in prison. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Why Collaborative Care for Depressed Patients is so Difficult: A Belgian Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris Van den Broeck

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Although current guidelines recommend collaborative care for severely depressed patients, few patients get adequate treatment. In this study we aimed to identify the thresholds for interdisciplinary collaboration amongst practitioners when treating severely depressed patients. In addition, we aimed to identify specific and feasible steps that may add to improved collaboration amongst first and second level Belgian health care providers when treating depressed patients. In two standard focus groups (n = 8; n = 12, general practitioners and psychiatrists first outlined current practice and its shortcomings. In a next phase, the same participants were gathered in nominal groups to identify and prioritise steps that could give rise to improved collaboration. Thematic analyses were performed. Though some barriers for interdisciplinary collaboration may seem easy to overcome, participants stressed the importance of certain boundary conditions on a macro- (e.g., financing of care, secure communication technology and meso-level (e.g., support for first level practitioner. Findings are discussed against the background of frameworks on collaboration in healthcare and recent developments in mental health care.

  8. Epidemiology of infective endocarditis in a large Belgian non-referral hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poesen, K; Pottel, H; Colaert, J; De Niel, C

    2014-06-01

    Guidelines for diagnosis of infective endocarditis are largely based upon epidemiological studies in referral hospitals. Referral bias, however, might impair the validity of guidelines in non-referral hospitals. Recent studies in non-referral care centres on infective endocarditis are sparse. We conducted a retrospective epidemiological study on infective endocarditis in a large non-referral hospital in a Belgian city (Kortrijk). The medical record system was searched for all cases tagged with a putative diagnosis of infective endocarditis in the period 2003-2010. The cases that fulfilled the modified Duke criteria for probable or definite infective endocarditis were included. Compared to referral centres, an older population with infective endocarditis, and fewer predisposing cardiac factors and catheter-related infective endocarditis is seen in our population. Our patients have fewer prosthetic valve endocarditis as well as fewer staphylococcal endocarditis. Our patients undergo less surgery, although mortality rate seems to be highly comparable with referral centres, with nosocomial infective endocarditis as an independent predictor of mortality. The present study suggests that characteristics of infective endocarditis as well as associative factors might differ among non-referral hospitals and referral hospitals.

  9. Risk perception of the Belgian population. Results of the public opinion survey in 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perko, T.; Turcanu, C.; Schroeder, J.; Carle, B.

    2010-02-15

    The SCK-CEN 2009 risk perception barometer is based on over 1000 Computer Assisted Personal Interviews, taken from persons selected to be representative for the Belgian 18+ population, and all realized in the period July and August 2009. An additional sample , N = 100 is taken from the for the population living in the communities of Lambusart and Wanfercee-Baulet in the municipality of Fleurus. Besides the classical background variables used to obtain the quota for representatively (age, language, habitat, gender and social class), we also included a series of questions assessing the communication and sociological context. The main topics in the survey were I) risk perception and confidence in authorities; II) Attitude towards science and technology and attitudes toward nuclear energy; III) stake holders engagement; IV)acceptance of legal norms for food products; v) media use; vi) evaluation of nuclear actors; VII) psychometric risk characteristics; VII) safety behaviour and anomy; ix) knowledge about nuclear domain; x) risk communication; xi) consumer's attitude towards food with radioactive contamination. Some of the questions asked in 2009 are similar to those enquired in the SCK barometer of 2006 and 2002, in order to study the time evolution of the risk perception associated with various issues.

  10. Media content analysis of the Fukushima accident in two Belgian newspapers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perko, T.; Turcanu, C.; Geenen, D.; Mamane, N.; Van Rooy, L.

    2011-01-01

    In case of a nuclear accident, the media play a major role in communicating with the public. It is therefore crucial to know what messages are the media delivering in a nuclear emergency and how do they frame the event. Analysing the media reporting on the Fukushima nuclear accident can benefit nuclear emergency management in two major aspects. On the one hand, such analysis shows how to deliver risk messages effectively through the media and on the other hand, it brings insights into the information that has to be communicated by the emergency managers to the mass media. The media analysis of the nuclear accident in Fukushima reported here was done by means of discourse and content analysis. The coding method followed explicit rules of coding and enabled large quantities of data to be categorized. The newspapers included in the analysis were the Belgian newspapers Le Soir (French language) and De Standaard (Dutch language). The media news were obtained from press clippings by Media data base at University Antwerp - MEDIARGUS for the period between 11th of March to 11th of May, 2011.

  11. Radar rainfall estimation of stratiform winter precipitation in the Belgian Ardennes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazenberg, P.; Leijnse, H.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2011-02-01

    Radars are known for their ability to obtain a wealth of information about spatial storm field characteristics. Unfortunately, rainfall estimates obtained by this instrument are known to be affected by multiple sources of error. Especially for stratiform precipitation systems, the quality of radar rainfall estimates starts to decrease at relatively close ranges. In the current study, the hydrological potential of weather radar is analyzed during a winter half-year for the hilly region of the Belgian Ardennes. A correction algorithm is proposed which corrects the radar data for errors related to attenuation, ground clutter, anomalous propagation, the vertical profile of reflectivity (VPR), and advection. No final bias correction with respect to rain gauge data was implemented because such an adjustment would not add to a better understanding of the quality of the radar data. The impact of the different corrections is assessed using rainfall information sampled by 42 hourly rain gauges. The largest improvement in the quality of the radar data is obtained by correcting for ground clutter. The impact of VPR correction and advection depends on the spatial variability and velocity of the precipitation system. Overall during the winter period, the radar underestimates the amount of precipitation as compared to the rain gauges. Remaining differences between both instruments can be attributed to spatial and temporal variability in the type of precipitation, which has not been taken into account.

  12. French Adaptation of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory in a Belgian French-Speaking Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Stéphanie; Kempenaers, Chantal; Linkowski, Paul; Loas, Gwenolé

    2016-01-01

    The Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) is the most widely used self-report scale to assess the construct of narcissism, especially in its grandiosity expression. Over the years, several factor models have been proposed in order to improve the understanding of the multidimensional aspect of this construct. The available data are heterogeneous, suggesting one to at least seven factors. In this study, we propose a French adaptation of the NPI submitted to a sample of Belgian French-speaking students ( n = 942). We performed a principal component analysis on a tetrachoric correlation matrix to explore its factor structure. Unlike previous studies, our study shows that a first factor explains the largest part of the variance. Internal consistency is excellent and we reproduced the sex differences reported when using the original scale. Correlations with social desirability are taken into account in the interpretation of our results. Altogether, the results of this study support a unidimensional structure for the NPI using the total score as a self-report measure of the Narcissistic Personality Disorder in its grandiose form. Future studies including confirmatory factor analysis and gender invariance measurement are also discussed.

  13. The role of the sickness funds in the Belgian health care market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonneman, W; van Doorslaer, E

    1994-11-01

    This article reviews some of the salient features of the Belgian health care finance and delivery system. Special attention is paid to the role played by the third-party payers, i.e. the Health Insurance Associations (HIAs) in administering the compulsory national health insurance program. It is shown how, despite extensive government regulation, the markets for GP, specialist and hospital services exhibit fierce competition of the non-price variety. Next, the paper considers the three problems perceived to be the most pressing ones at present: (i) the problem of raising sufficient revenues to cover the public share of health expenditures; (ii) the (related) cost containment problem; and (iii) the problem of ensuring efficiency through appropriate incentive mechanisms. Finally, two recently proposed options for reform are discussed and complemented with a third proposal based on the ideas of regulated competition. It is concluded that strengthening the role of the third-party payers remains crucial in any attempt to reshape the system to make it efficient and affordable while keeping it equitable.

  14. Evolution of marine storminess in the Belgian part of the North Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Van den Eynde

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Severe storms have affected European coast lines in the past but knowledge on changes in storminess for the last decades is still sparse. Climate change is assumed to be a main driving factor with the potential to induce changes on the intensity, duration and frequency of powerful marine storms, including a long-term influence on peak wind speeds, surges and waves. It is, therefore, important to investigate whether in the last decades changes in the magnitude of storms, their duration and frequency could be observed. Understanding trends in storminess in the last decades will help to better prepare coastal managers for future events, taking into account potential changes on storm occurrence and magnitude to improve planning of mitigation and adaptation strategies. The purpose of this study was to focus on the evolution of extreme wind conditions, wave height and storm surge levels in the North Sea Region, especially in the Belgian part of the North Sea (BPNS. Based on the analysis performed it is concluded that no clear trend can be observed for the occurrence of significant increasing extreme wind speeds over the BPNS. Furthermore, one can conclude that not enough scientific evidence is available to support scenarios with increased wave height or storminess.

  15. How does a Belgian health care provider deal with a request for emergency contraception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peremans, Lieve; Verhoeven, Veronique; Philips, Hilde; Denekens, Joke; Van Royen, Paul

    2007-12-01

    To evaluate how Belgian health care providers deal with a request for emergency contraception. In 2002-2003 we conducted 12 focus groups with pharmacists, general practitioners and school physicians. A skilled moderator accompanied by an observer conducted the focus groups using a semi-structured screenplay. All these health care providers agree with the free access to emergency contraception (EC), but experience considerable frustration with regard to the practical aspects and the legal framework. General practitioners (GPs) claim to spend a lot of time on requests for EC and they are concerned about the quality of the counselling provided in pharmacies. Pharmacists are creative when giving counselling in the pharmacy, but there is, nevertheless, a problem with a lack of privacy. School physicians are frustrated that there is no legal possibility to respond to a request for EC when they feel they are ideally placed to advise adolescents. The over-the-counter sale of EC offers women better access, but many barriers still interfere with optimal care. Pharmacists experience a lack of skills to communicate with adolescents and a lack of privacy to give counselling. GPs have good intentions, but are confronted with a lack of willingness on the part of the patients and also financial barriers. School physicians want more possibilities to help adolescents.

  16. Spatial and temporal trends in alcohol consumption in Belgian cities: A wastewater-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boogaerts, Tim; Covaci, Adrian; Kinyua, Juliet; Neels, Hugo; van Nuijs, Alexander L N

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, scientific evidence has emerged that wastewater-based epidemiology can deliver complementary information concerning the use of different substances of abuse. In this study, the potential of wastewater-based epidemiology in monitoring spatial and temporal trends in alcohol consumption in different populations in Belgium has been examined. Concentrations of ethyl sulphate, a minor Phase-II metabolite of ethanol, in 163 influent wastewater samples from eight wastewater treatment plants in Belgium in the period 2013-2015 were measured with liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry and used to estimate alcohol consumption. The highest levels of alcohol consumption were detected in the metropoles Antwerp and Brussels compared to smaller villages. Annual variations were detected, with a higher alcohol consumption measured in 2013 compared with 2014. The weekly pattern showed a clear week and weekend difference in alcohol use, with intermediate levels on Monday and Friday. The results were extrapolated and a use of 5.6L pure alcohol per year per inhabitant aged 15+ has been estimated in Belgium. The comparison with available information on drinking habits of the Belgian population further demonstrated the usefulness of the wastewater-based epidemiology approach. This is the largest wastewater-based epidemiology study monitoring alcohol consumption to date, demonstrating that objective and quick information on spatio-temporal trends in alcohol consumption on a local and (inter)national scale can be obtained. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Balancing selection on CDH2 may be related to the behavioral features of the Belgian Malinois.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Cao

    Full Text Available The Belgian Malinois (BM is an excellent working dog that typically shows a circling behavior when placed in a confined space. Moreover, individuals showing moderate running in circles (one kind of obsessive compulsive behavior in confined spaces typically show better work performance compared to those without the circling behavior or to those with a serious circling behavior (which can be defined as an obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD. To determine whether the candidate gene CDH2, Cadherin 2, which is associated with OCD in the Doberman pinscher breed of dogs and in humans, was linked with this behavioral character in the BM, population genetic analyses were performed on a BM population and a natural population of the Chinese indigenous dog (CID. Many genetic signals of balancing selection were detected for one specific region of the CDH2 gene, which suggests that a genomic block, which is included in the CDH2 gene, experienced balancing selection in the BM, and that the CDH2 gene might be associated with the behavioral characteristics of the BM dog (a balance between circling behavior and work performance. Moreover one specific variant, G63913941A, which creates a predicted transcription factor-binding site, may be the key mutation in the CDH2 gene affecting the behavior of BMs by allowing the binding of a transcription factor and increasing CDH2 expression.

  18. Risk perception of the Belgian population. Results of the public opinion survey in 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perko, T.; Turcanu, C.; Schroeder, J.; Carle, B.

    2010-01-01

    The SCK-CEN 2009 risk perception barometer is based on over 1000 Computer Assisted Personal Interviews, taken from persons selected to be representative for the Belgian 18+ population, and all realized in the period July and August 2009. An additional sample , N = 100 is taken from the for the population living in the communities of Lambusart and Wanfercee-Baulet in the municipality of Fleurus. Besides the classical background variables used to obtain the quota for representatively (age, language, habitat, gender and social class), we also included a series of questions assessing the communication and sociological context. The main topics in the survey were I) risk perception and confidence in authorities; II) Attitude towards science and technology and attitudes toward nuclear energy; III) stake holders engagement; IV)acceptance of legal norms for food products; v) media use; vi) evaluation of nuclear actors; VII) psychometric risk characteristics; VII) safety behaviour and anomy; ix) knowledge about nuclear domain; x) risk communication; xi) consumer's attitude towards food with radioactive contamination. Some of the questions asked in 2009 are similar to those enquired in the SCK barometer of 2006 and 2002, in order to study the time evolution of the risk perception associated with various issues.

  19. NEK1 genetic variability in a Belgian cohort of ALS and ALS-FTD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung Phuoc; Van Mossevelde, Sara; Dillen, Lubina; De Bleecker, Jan L; Moisse, Matthieu; Van Damme, Philip; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; van der Zee, Julie

    2018-01-01

    We evaluated the genetic impact of the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) risk gene never in mitosis gene a-related kinase 1 (NEK1) in a Belgian cohort of 278 patients with ALS (n = 245) or ALS with frontotemporal dementia (ALS-FTD, n = 33) and 609 control individuals. We identified 2 ALS patients carrying a loss-of-function (LOF) mutation, p.Leu854Tyrfs*2 and p.Tyr871Valfs*17, that was absent in the control group. A third LOF variant p.Ser1036* was present in 2 sibs with familial ALS but also in an unrelated control person. Missense variants were common in both patients (3.6%) and controls (3.0%). The missense variant, p.Arg261His, which was previously associated with ALS risk, was detected with a minor allele frequency of 0.90% in patients compared to 0.33% in controls. Taken together, NEK1 LOF variants accounted for 1.1% of patients, although interpretation of pathogenicity and penetrance is complicated by the observation of occasional LOF variants in unaffected individuals (0.16%). Furthermore, enrichment of additional ALS gene mutations was observed in NEK1 carriers, suggestive of a "second hit" model were NEK1 variants may modify disease presentation of driving mutations. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Ageing management of baffle former bolts in Belgian nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somville, F.; Gerard, R.; Bosch, R.W.; Bertolis, D.; Vissers, S.

    2015-01-01

    The Pressurized Water Reactors internals support the reactor core, distribute the coolant flow through the core, and guide and protect the rod control cluster assemblies and in-core instrumentation. The baffle-to-former bolts are used in Pressurized Water Reactors to attach the baffle plates to the former plates in the reactor vessel lower internals. The resulting structure forms a boundary for the flow of coolant and provides lateral support to the fuel assemblies. Some edge bolts are also present, assembling together the baffle plates. After an operating time of the order of 120.000 hours, some bolts exhibit cracking at the junction of the head and the shank of the bolt. Examinations of failed bolts have made it possible to identify the cause of cracking as irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC). Up to now, baffle bolt cracking has been detected in units older than 15 years, where the baffle bolts are not cooled (no holes in the former to allow a water flow on the bolt shank). In Belgium, the concerned units are Tihange 1 and Doel 1-2. The paper summarizes the experience with baffle bolts cracking in Belgian units and the strategy implemented to mitigate this problem, consisting of structural integrity analyses, baffle bolts inspections and replacement, and research programs in the field of IASCC, including examinations of highly irradiated replaced bolts. (authors)

  1. Analysis of the Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Austrian and Belgian Wheat Germplasm within a Regional Context Based on DArT Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. El-Esawi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of crop genetic diversity and structure provides valuable information needed to broaden the narrow genetic base as well as to enhance the breeding and conservation strategies of crops. In this study, 95 Austrian and Belgian wheat cultivars maintained at the Centre for Genetic Resources (CGN in the Netherlands were characterised using 1052 diversity array technology (DArT markers to evaluate their genetic diversity, relationships and population structure. The rarefacted allelic richness recorded in the Austrian and Belgian breeding pools (A25 = 1.396 and 1.341, respectively indicated that the Austrian germplasm contained a higher genetic diversity than the Belgian pool. The expected heterozygosity (HE values of the Austrian and Belgian pools were 0.411 and 0.375, respectively. Moreover, the values of the polymorphic information content (PIC of the Austrian and Belgian pools were 0.337 and 0.298, respectively. Neighbour-joining tree divided each of the Austrian and Belgian germplasm pools into two genetically distinct groups. The structure analyses of the Austrian and Belgian pools were in a complete concordance with their neighbour-joining trees. Furthermore, the 95 cultivars were compared to 618 wheat genotypes from nine European countries based on a total of 141 common DArT markers in order to place the Austrian and Belgian wheat germplasm in a wider European context. The rarefacted allelic richness (A10 varied from 1.224 (Denmark to 1.397 (Austria. Cluster and principal coordinates (PCoA analyses divided the wheat genotypes of the nine European countries into two main clusters. The first cluster comprised the Northern and Western European wheat genotypes, whereas the second included the Central European cultivars. The structure analysis of the 618 European wheat genotypes was in a complete concordance with the results of cluster and PCoA analyses. Interestingly, a highly significant difference was recorded between regions (26.53%. In

  2. Contamination levels observed on the Belgian territory subsequent to the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoof, J van [State University of Ghent, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Gent (Belgium); Maghuin-Rogister, G [Universite de Liege, Brussels (Belgium)

    1986-07-01

    Contaminated air masses reached the Belgian territory from the South during the night of the first to the second of May. At this stage however the origin of this contamination was already identified through earlier observations over the Scandinavian area and the subsequent message about the reactor accident at the Chernobyl site. Later on radioactive clouds were also detected over the central part of Europe, demonstrating the persistent nature of the emissions from the damaged reactor. Consequently the influence on the Belgian territory was not unexpected. The authorities called on the SCK/CEN at Mol, and the IRE at Fleurus to assist the IHE at Brussels in collecting the necessary data for judging the radiological situation in our country. The KMI/IRM at Brussels was involved for the follow-up of meteorological conditions and analysis of the trajectories of contaminated air masses. Early detection possibilities for the arrival of contaminated air were provided by the continuous environmental monitoring apparatus for ambient {gamma}-dose rate or for {beta} activity of airborne dust, available at nuclear institutions and nuclear power plants. On detection of enhanced air radioactivity, the sampling period of routine air dust samplers was significantly shortened to allow for the hour to hour renewal of data for gross {beta} activity as a general indication of the evolution of the air contamination. {gamma}-spectrometric analysis of those filters provided the necessary data for the estimation of the dose equivalent due to inhalation. Ground deposition data at the location of the participating institutions were obtained by daily analysis of the radioactivity contents of a water container collecting both dust and rainwater. Field gamma spectrometry was used later on at a number of other locations, to estimate the integrated ground deposition of radioactivity and its distribution over the country. As the grazing season was just started or was about to be started in the

  3. Contamination levels observed on the Belgian territory subsequent to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoof, J. van; Maghuin-Rogister, G.

    1986-01-01

    Contaminated air masses reached the Belgian territory from the South during the night of the first to the second of May. At this stage however the origin of this contamination was already identified through earlier observations over the Scandinavian area and the subsequent message about the reactor accident at the Chernobyl site. Later on radioactive clouds were also detected over the central part of Europe, demonstrating the persistent nature of the emissions from the damaged reactor. Consequently the influence on the Belgian territory was not unexpected. The authorities called on the SCK/CEN at Mol, and the IRE at Fleurus to assist the IHE at Brussels in collecting the necessary data for judging the radiological situation in our country. The KMI/IRM at Brussels was involved for the follow-up of meteorological conditions and analysis of the trajectories of contaminated air masses. Early detection possibilities for the arrival of contaminated air were provided by the continuous environmental monitoring apparatus for ambient γ-dose rate or for Β activity of airborne dust, available at nuclear institutions and nuclear power plants. On detection of enhanced air radioactivity, the sampling period of routine air dust samplers was significantly shortened to allow for the hour to hour renewal of data for gross Β activity as a general indication of the evolution of the air contamination. γ-spectrometric analysis of those filters provided the necessary data for the estimation of the dose equivalent due to inhalation. Ground deposition data at the location of the participating institutions were obtained by daily analysis of the radioactivity contents of a water container collecting both dust and rainwater. Field gamma spectrometry was used later on at a number of other locations, to estimate the integrated ground deposition of radioactivity and its distribution over the country. As the grazing season was just started or was about to be started in the following days for

  4. Active living neighborhoods: is neighborhood walkability a key element for Belgian adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meester, Femke; Van Dyck, Delfien; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte; Sallis, James F; Cardon, Greet

    2012-01-04

    In adult research, neighborhood walkability has been acknowledged as an important construct among the built environmental correlates of physical activity. Research into this association has only recently been extended to adolescents and the current empirical evidence is not consistent. This study investigated whether neighborhood walkability and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) are associated with physical activity among Belgian adolescents and whether the association between neighborhood walkability and physical activity is moderated by neighborhood SES and gender. In Ghent (Belgium), 32 neighborhoods were selected based on GIS-based walkability and SES derived from census data. In total, 637 adolescents (aged 13-15 year, 49.6% male) participated in the study. Physical activity was assessed using accelerometers and the Flemish Physical Activity Questionnaire. To analyze the associations between neighborhood walkability, neighborhood SES and individual physical activity, multivariate multi-level regression analyses were conducted. Only in low-SES neighborhoods, neighborhood walkability was positively associated with accelerometer-based moderate to vigorous physical activity and the average activity level expressed in counts/minute. For active transport to and from school, cycling for transport during leisure time and sport during leisure time no association with neighborhood walkability nor, with neighborhood SES was found. For walking for transport during leisure time a negative association with neighborhood SES was found. Gender did not moderate the associations of neighborhood walkability and SES with adolescent physical activity. Neighborhood walkability was related to accelerometer-based physical activity only among adolescent boys and girls living in low-SES neighborhoods. The relation of built environment to adolescent physical activity may depend on the context.

  5. Active living neighborhoods: is neighborhood walkability a key element for Belgian adolescents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Meester Femke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In adult research, neighborhood walkability has been acknowledged as an important construct among the built environmental correlates of physical activity. Research into this association has only recently been extended to adolescents and the current empirical evidence is not consistent. This study investigated whether neighborhood walkability and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES are associated with physical activity among Belgian adolescents and whether the association between neighborhood walkability and physical activity is moderated by neighborhood SES and gender. Methods In Ghent (Belgium, 32 neighborhoods were selected based on GIS-based walkability and SES derived from census data. In total, 637 adolescents (aged 13-15 year, 49.6% male participated in the study. Physical activity was assessed using accelerometers and the Flemish Physical Activity Questionnaire. To analyze the associations between neighborhood walkability, neighborhood SES and individual physical activity, multivariate multi-level regression analyses were conducted. Results Only in low-SES neighborhoods, neighborhood walkability was positively associated with accelerometer-based moderate to vigorous physical activity and the average activity level expressed in counts/minute. For active transport to and from school, cycling for transport during leisure time and sport during leisure time no association with neighborhood walkability nor, with neighborhood SES was found. For walking for transport during leisure time a negative association with neighborhood SES was found. Gender did not moderate the associations of neighborhood walkability and SES with adolescent physical activity. Conclusions Neighborhood walkability was related to accelerometer-based physical activity only among adolescent boys and girls living in low-SES neighborhoods. The relation of built environment to adolescent physical activity may depend on the context.

  6. Earthquakes as collapse precursors at the Han-sur-Lesse Cave in the Belgian Ardennes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelbeeck, Thierry; Quinif, Yves; Verheyden, Sophie; Vanneste, Kris; Knuts, Elisabeth

    2018-05-01

    Collapse activation is an ongoing process in the evolution of karstic networks related to the weakening of cave vaults. Because collapses are infrequent, few have been directly observed, making it challenging to evaluate the role of external processes in their initiation and triggering. Here, we study the two most recent collapses in the Dôme chamber of the Han-sur-Lesse Cave (Belgian Ardenne) that occurred on or shortly after 3rd December 1828 and between the 13th and 14th of March 1984. Because of the low probability that the two earthquakes that generated the strongest ground motions in Han-sur-Lesse since 1800, on 23rd February 1828 (Mw = 5.1 in Central Belgium) and 8th November 1983 (Mw = 4.8 in Liège) occurred by coincidence less than one year before these collapses, we suggest that the collapses are related to these earthquakes. We argue that the earthquakes accelerated the cave vault instability, leading to the collapses by the action of other factors weakening the host rock. In particular, the 1828 collapse was likely triggered by a smaller Mw = 4.2 nearby earthquake. The 1984 collapse followed two months of heavy rainfall that would have increased water infiltration and pressure in the rock mass favoring destabilization of the cave ceiling. Lamina counting of a stalagmite growing on the 1828 debris dates the collapse at 1826 ± 9 CE, demonstrating the possibility of dating previous collapses with a few years of uncertainty. Furthermore, our study opens new perspectives for studying collapses and their chronology both in the Han-sur-Lesse Cave and in other karstic networks. We suggest that earthquake activity could play a stronger role than previously thought in initiating cave collapses.

  7. Non-suicidal self-injury among Dutch and Belgian adolescents: Personality, stress and coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiekens, G; Bruffaerts, R; Nock, M K; Van de Ven, M; Witteman, C; Mortier, P; Demyttenaere, K; Claes, L

    2015-09-01

    This study examines: (1) the prevalence of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI) among Dutch and Belgian adolescents, (2) the associations between Big Five personality traits and NSSI engagement/versatility (i.e., number of NSSI methods), and (3) whether these associations are mediated by perceived stress and coping. A total of 946 Flemish (46%) and Dutch (54%) non-institutionalized adolescents (Mean age=15.52; SD=1.34, 44% females) were surveyed. Measures included the NSSI subscale of the Self-Harm-Inventory, the Dutch Quick Big Five Personality questionnaire, the Perceived Stress Scale and the Utrecht Coping List for Adolescents. Examination of zero-order correlations was used to reveal associations, and hierarchical regression analysis was used to reveal potential mediators which were further examined within parallel mediation models by using a bootstrapping-corrected procedure. Lifetime prevalence of NSSI was 24.31%. Neuroticism; perceived stress; and distractive, avoidant, depressive, and emotional coping were positively associated with NSSI engagement, whereas Agreeableness, Conscientiousness; and active, social, and optimistic coping were negatively associated with NSSI engagement. Observed relationships between personality traits and NSSI engagement were consistently explained by perceived stress and depressive coping. A higher versatility of NSSI was not associated with any Big Five personality trait, but was associated with higher scores on perceived stress and depressive coping and with lower scores on active and optimistic coping. Our study suggests that a specific personality constellation is associated with NSSI engagement via high stress levels and a typical depressive reaction pattern to handle stressful life events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Correction of self-reported BMI based on objective measurements: a Belgian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drieskens, S; Demarest, S; Bel, S; De Ridder, K; Tafforeau, J

    2018-01-01

    Based on successive Health Interview Surveys (HIS), it has been demonstrated that also in Belgium obesity, measured by means of a self-reported body mass index (BMI in kg/m 2 ), is a growing public health problem that needs to be monitored as accurately as possible. Studies have shown that a self-reported BMI can be biased. Consequently, if the aim is to rely on a self-reported BMI, adjustment is recommended. Data on measured and self-reported BMI, derived from the Belgian Food Consumption Survey (FCS) 2014 offers the opportunity to do so. The HIS and FCS are cross-sectional surveys based on representative population samples. This study focused on adults aged 18-64 years (sample HIS = 6545 and FCS = 1213). Measured and self-reported BMI collected in FCS were used to assess possible misreporting. Using FCS data, correction factors (measured BMI/self-reported BMI) were calculated in function of a combination of background variables (region, gender, educational level and age group). Individual self-reported BMI of the HIS 2013 were then multiplied with the corresponding correction factors to produce a corrected BMI-classification. When compared with the measured BMI, the self-reported BMI in the FCS was underestimated (mean 0.97 kg/m 2 ). 28% of the obese people underestimated their BMI. After applying the correction factors, the prevalence of obesity based on HIS data significantly increased (from 13% based on the original HIS data to 17% based on the corrected HIS data) and approximated the measured one derived from the FCS data. Since self-reported calculations of BMI are underestimated, it is recommended to adjust them to obtain accurate estimates which are important for decision making.

  9. Sampling, prevalence and characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus on two Belgian pig farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Dewaele

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the spread of MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus on two Belgian pig farms. Pigs of different ages (from farrowing to slaughter age and sows as well as the barn environment were screened extensively on two occasions three months apart. A subset of MRSA isolates was tested for antimicrobial susceptibility to 16 antibiotics and was further characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Ninety-five percent and 77% of the tested pigs on farm A and farm B, respectively, were colonized with MRSA. MRSA positive animals were detected in all age categories sampled on each sampling day. Piglets were already colonized in the farrowing unit with the same or other MRSA strains than their mother. The prevalence of MRSA colonized pigs increased significantly after weaning and decreased during the fattening period. Pigs carried MRSA mainly in the nares, followed by the perineum and skin and to a lesser degree the rectum. A pig could be contaminated or colonized with different MRSA strains at the same time. The barn environment was also found to be contaminated with different MRSA strains, including the air inlet and outlet. All isolates tested on both farms were resistant to both tetracycline and trimethoprim, while they were susceptible to rifampicin, mupirocin and linezolid. There was a significant difference in resistance prevalence between the two farms for the antibiotics gentamicin, kanamycin, tobramycin, tylosin, lincomycin and quinupristin/dalfopristin. Furthermore, several antibiotic resistance profiles were observed within one farm. This study clearly indicates that several MRSA strains circulate on one farm, from the nursery unit to the fattening unit. This is important to consider when attempts are made to remediate these farms.

  10. Doses of radioiodine administered for hyperthyroidism: a sampling of Belgian nuclear medicine physician's attitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tondeur Dejonckheere, Marianne; Glinoer, Daniel; Verelst, Jean; Sand, Alain; Ham, Hamphrey

    2005-01-01

    Full text: While radioiodine (RI) is a well established treatment for hyperthyroidism, there is no consensus regarding the administration of fixed or calculated doses. Guidelines from scientific societies do not specify the preferable approach, nor the parameters to be used in order to calculate the latter. Therefore, the doses might, for the same patient, be different with regard to the chosen procedure. This study was undertaken to assess the variability of RI amounts administered in Belgium in various cases of hyperthyroidism. 21 Belgian nuclear medicine physicians issued from different departments and universities participated into the study. They received a file with clinical and biological data, iodine turnover rate, scintigraphic images and calculated thyroid surfaces from 10 patients (8 females, 2 males), 30-77 yrs suffering from hyperthyroidism of various etiologies: 7 patients had clinically overt hyperthyroidism and 3 subclinical hyperthyroidism; 7 patients had toxic goiters of various size (Graves' disease), 2 multi nodular goiter and 1 toxic nodule. None suffered from cardiac anomalies or ophthalmopathy. Participants were asked to define the amount of RI they would give in each case. Answers were received during a 8-week period. Analysing data from case 1 to case 10, the ranges of the proposed doses varied between 8 and 22 milli Curies (mCi) (sd : 2.4 - 6.07). Considering all the patients, the proposed doses varied between 2 mCi and 25 mCi. Analysing answers among the 21 participants, mean proposed doses varied between 4.5 and 17.3 mCi (sd: 0.69 - 7.99). Conclusion: These results demonstrate a wide variability among nuclear medicine physicians in the proposed RI doses and confirm that in Belgium there is no uniformity in the procedure used to determine the amount of RI to administer for various causes of hyperthyroidism. This emphasizes the notion that the determination of the amount of RI to be administered remains a matter of debate. (author)

  11. Laboratory corrosion tests on candidate high-level waste container materials: Results from the Belgian programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druyts, F.; Kursten, B.; Iseghem, P. Van

    2004-01-01

    The Belgian SAFIR-2 concept foresees the geological disposal of conditioned high-level radioactive waste in stainless steel containers and overpacks placed in a concrete gallery backfilled with Boom clay or a bentonite-type backfill. In addition to earlier in situ experiments, we used a laboratory approach to investigate the corrosion properties of selected stainless steels in Boom clay and bentonite environments. In the SAFIR-2 concept, AISI 316L hMo is the main candidate overpack material. As an alternative, we also investigated the higher alloyed stainless steel UHB 904L. Our study focused on localised corrosion and in particular pitting. We used cyclic potentiodynamic polarisation measurements to determine the pit nucleation potential E NP and the protection potential E PP . The evolution of the corrosion potential with time was determined by monitoring the open circuit potential in synthetic clay-water over extended periods. In this paper we present and discuss some results from our laboratory programme, focusing on long-term interactions between the stainless steel overpack and the backfill materials. We describe in particular the influence of chloride and thio-sulphate ions on the pitting corrosion behaviour. The results show that, under geochemical conditions typical for geological disposal, i.e. [Cl-] ∼ 30 mg/L for a Boom clay backfill and [Cl-] ∼ 90 mg/L for a bentonite backfill, neither AISI 316L hMo nor UHB 904L is expected to present pitting problems. An important factor in the long-term prediction of the corrosion behaviour however, is the robustness of the model for the evolution of the geochemistry of the backfill. Indeed, at chloride levels higher than 1000 mg/L, we predict pitting corrosion for AISI 316L hMo. (authors)

  12. Does legal physician-assisted dying impede development of palliative care? The Belgian and Benelux experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambaere, Kenneth; Bernheim, Jan L

    2015-08-01

    In 2002, physician-assisted dying was legally regulated in the Netherlands and Belgium, followed in 2009 by Luxembourg. An internationally frequently expressed concern is that such legislation could stunt the development of palliative care (PC) and erode its culture. To study this, we describe changes in PC development 2005-2012 in the permissive Benelux countries and compare them with non-permissive countries. Focusing on the seven European countries with the highest development of PC, which include the three euthanasia-permissive and four non-permissive countries, we compared the structural service indicators for 2005 and 2012 from successive editions of the European Atlas of Palliative Care. As an indicator for output delivery of services to patients, we collected the amounts of governmental funding of PC 2002-2011 in Belgium, the only country where we could find these data. The rate of increase in the number of structural PC provisions among the compared countries was the highest in the Netherlands and Luxembourg, while Belgium stayed on a par with the UK, the benchmark country. Belgian government expenditure for PC doubled between 2002 and 2011. Basic PC expanded much more than endowment-restricted specialised PC. The hypothesis that legal regulation of physician-assisted dying slows development of PC is not supported by the Benelux experience. On the contrary, regulation appears to have promoted the expansion of PC. Continued monitoring of both permissive and non-permissive countries, preferably also including indicators of quantity and quality of delivered care, is needed to evaluate longer-term effects. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Effect of cull potatoes in the diet for finishing Belgian Blue double-muscled cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiems, L O; De Boever, J L; Vanacker, J M; De Brabander, D L

    2013-01-01

    The use of culled potatoes was investigated in Belgian Blue double-muscled finishing cows, confined in tie stalls. The control diet (Treatment 1) consisted of concentrate and maize silage (50/50 on a dry matter (DM) basis). Potatoes either replaced 60% maize silage (Treatment 2) or 60% concentrate (Treatment 3). Diets were formulated to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous. They were fed ad libitum. Approximately 18 kg potatoes were fed daily in Treatments 2 and 3. Daily gain was not significantly altered; it decreased from 1.09 kg (Treatment 1) to 1.04 kg (Treatment 2) or increased to 1.20 kg (Treatment 3), although potatoes stimulated DM intake by 5% to 8% (P < 0.05). Feed conversion was unaffected in comparison with the control diet, when expressed in terms of DM, but energy efficiency (MJ/kg live weight gain) was substantially lower for Treatment 2 compared with Treatment 1 (89.9 v. 79.0; P = 0.046). Carcass weight, grading and composition were not affected by treatments, but potatoes increased dressing percentage (P = 0.009). Treatment had no significant effect on meat quality parameters. However, potatoes (Treatments 2 and 3) tended to decrease moisture content (P = 0.090) and tended to increase drip loss (P = 0.059) compared with Treatment 1. Because of a better animal performance and a lower feed cost, it is most appropriate to use potatoes as a replacement for concentrate. Feeding large amounts of potatoes besides concentrate may have an adverse effect on the fibrousness of the diet, resulting in a tendency (-5%) for a reduced daily gain and a lower energy efficiency (P < 0.05).

  14. Neuropsychiatric Inventory data in a Belgian sample of elderly persons with and without dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Squelard GP

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Gilles P Squelard,1 Pierre A Missotten,1 Louis Paquay,2 Jan A De Lepeleire,2 Frank JVM Buntinx,2 Ovide Fontaine,1 Stephane R Adam,1 Michel JD Ylieff11Clinical Psychology of Ageing, Qualidem Research Project, University of Liège (ULg, Liège, Belgium; 2KU Leuven, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Leuven, BelgiumBackground/aims: This study assesses and compares prevalence of psychological and behavioral symptoms in a Belgian sample of people with and without dementia.Methods: A total of 228 persons older than 65 years with dementia and a group of 64 non-demented persons were assessed using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI in 2004.Results: Within the group without dementia, the most frequent symptoms were depression, agitation, and irritability. Within the group with dementia, the most common symptoms were depression, irritability, apathy, and agitation. Prevalence of delusions (P < 0.05, hallucinations (P < 0.05, anxiety (P < 0.05, agitation (P < 0.05, apathy (P < 0.01, aberrant motor behavior (P < 0.01, and eating disorders (P < 0.05 were significantly higher in the group with dementia.Conclusion: Depression, elation, irritability, disinhibition, and sleeping disorders are not specific to dementia. Agitation, apathy, anxiety, and delusions are more frequent in dementia but were not specific to the dementia group because their prevalence rates were close to 10% in the group without dementia. Hallucinations, aberrant motor behavior, and eating disorders are specific to dementia. The distinction between specific and nonspecific symptoms may be useful for etiological research on biological, psychological, and environmental factors.Keywords: behavior, behavior disorders, epidemiology, dementia, psychiatric symptoms, neuropsychiatry

  15. Implementation of a quality improvement initiative in Belgian diabetic foot clinics: feasibility and initial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doggen, Kris; Van Acker, Kristien; Beele, Hilde; Dumont, Isabelle; Félix, Patricia; Lauwers, Patrick; Lavens, Astrid; Matricali, Giovanni A; Randon, Caren; Weber, Eric; Van Casteren, Viviane; Nobels, Frank

    2014-07-01

    This article aims to describe the implementation and initial results of an audit-feedback quality improvement initiative in Belgian diabetic foot clinics. Using self-developed software and questionnaires, diabetic foot clinics collected data in 2005, 2008 and 2011, covering characteristics, history and ulcer severity, management and outcome of the first 52 patients presenting with a Wagner grade ≥ 2 diabetic foot ulcer or acute neuropathic osteoarthropathy that year. Quality improvement was encouraged by meetings and by anonymous benchmarking of diabetic foot clinics. The first audit-feedback cycle was a pilot study. Subsequent audits, with a modified methodology, had increasing rates of participation and data completeness. Over 85% of diabetic foot clinics participated and 3372 unique patients were sampled between 2005 and 2011 (3312 with a diabetic foot ulcer and 111 with acute neuropathic osteoarthropathy). Median age was 70 years, median diabetes duration was 14 years and 64% were men. Of all diabetic foot ulcers, 51% were plantar and 29% were both ischaemic and deeply infected. Ulcer healing rate at 6 months significantly increased from 49% to 54% between 2008 and 2011. Management of diabetic foot ulcers varied between diabetic foot clinics: 88% of plantar mid-foot ulcers were off-loaded (P10-P90: 64-100%), and 42% of ischaemic limbs were revascularized (P10-P90: 22-69%) in 2011. A unique, nationwide quality improvement initiative was established among diabetic foot clinics, covering ulcer healing, lower limb amputation and many other aspects of diabetic foot care. Data completeness increased, thanks in part to questionnaire revision. Benchmarking remains challenging, given the many possible indicators and limited sample size. The optimized questionnaire allows future quality of care monitoring in diabetic foot clinics. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. New psychoactive substances in oral fluid of French and Belgian drivers in 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richeval, Camille; Wille, Sarah Maria Richarda; Nachon-Phanithavong, Mélodie; Samyn, Nele; Allorge, Delphine; Gaulier, Jean-Michel

    2018-04-06

    Driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) is a worldwide problem with potentially major judiciary and life-threatening consequences. Up to now, only classical drugs of abuse (DOA) are tested for DUID detection. A challenging issue for drafting up-dated international drug policies is to take into account the recent and expanding new psychoactive substances (NPS) market. NPS consist in various narcotic or psychotropic drugs, most of them having a "legal" status, that replicate chemical structures and/or pharmacological effects of classical DOA. Although it is obvious that NPS can lead to impaired driving, the prevalence of NPS use in a DUID context is unknown since the applied roadside screening tests are not yet adapted for these compounds. Between January and December 2016, a total of 391 oral fluid specimens were obtained from used roadside immunochemical test devices for DOA (Drugwipe-5S ® device). These specimens were analyzed using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry and high resolution mass spectrometry. NPS (mainly cathinone derivatives) were detected in 33 out of the 391 oral fluid samples. This NPS positivity rate of 8.4% in oral fluid of drivers who were submitted to a roadside drug testing in 2016 in France and in Belgium is comparable to the available blood data (NPS positivity rate of 7%) observed in 2015 in similar populations. Our results demonstrate the reality of driving after NPS use in French and Belgian drivers who were submitted to a roadside DOA test. As there is a lack of on-site detection methods to screen for NPS, the detection of NPS in a rapid and cost-effective DUID detection strategy is currently impossible. The expanding use of NPS, notably by drivers as reported here, and the inability of currently used drug detection tests, should be urgently addressed by road safety and law enforcement authorities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Belgian experience in applying the {open_quotes}leak-before-break{close_quotes} concept to the primary loop piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerard, R.; Malekian, C.; Meessen, O. [Tractebel Energy Engineering, Brussels (Belgium)

    1997-04-01

    The Leak Before Break (LBB) concept allows to eliminate from the design basis the double-ended guillotine break of the primary loop piping, provided it can be demonstrated by a fracture mechanics analysis that a through-wall flaw, of a size giving rise to a leakage still well detectable by the plant leak detection systems, remains stable even under accident conditions (including the Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE)). This concept was successfully applied to the primary loop piping of several Belgian Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) units, operated by the Utility Electrabel. One of the main benefits is to permit justification of supports in the primary loop and justification of the integrity of the reactor pressure vessel and internals in case of a Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA) in stretch-out conditions. For two of the Belgian PWR units, the LBB approach also made it possible to reduce the number of large hydraulic snubbers installed on the primary coolant pumps. Last but not least, the LBB concept also facilitates the steam generator replacement operations, by eliminating the need for some pipe whip restraints located close to the steam generator. In addition to the U.S. regulatory requirements, the Belgian safety authorities impose additional requirements which are described in details in a separate paper. An novel aspect of the studies performed in Belgium is the way in which residual loads in the primary loop are taken into account. Such loads may result from displacements imposed to close the primary loop in a steam generator replacement operation, especially when it is performed using the {open_quote}two cuts{close_quotes} technique. The influence of such residual loads on the LBB margins is discussed in details and typical results are presented.

  18. Belgian experience in applying the open-quotes leak-before-breakclose quotes concept to the primary loop piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerard, R.; Malekian, C.; Meessen, O.

    1997-01-01

    The Leak Before Break (LBB) concept allows to eliminate from the design basis the double-ended guillotine break of the primary loop piping, provided it can be demonstrated by a fracture mechanics analysis that a through-wall flaw, of a size giving rise to a leakage still well detectable by the plant leak detection systems, remains stable even under accident conditions (including the Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE)). This concept was successfully applied to the primary loop piping of several Belgian Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) units, operated by the Utility Electrabel. One of the main benefits is to permit justification of supports in the primary loop and justification of the integrity of the reactor pressure vessel and internals in case of a Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA) in stretch-out conditions. For two of the Belgian PWR units, the LBB approach also made it possible to reduce the number of large hydraulic snubbers installed on the primary coolant pumps. Last but not least, the LBB concept also facilitates the steam generator replacement operations, by eliminating the need for some pipe whip restraints located close to the steam generator. In addition to the U.S. regulatory requirements, the Belgian safety authorities impose additional requirements which are described in details in a separate paper. An novel aspect of the studies performed in Belgium is the way in which residual loads in the primary loop are taken into account. Such loads may result from displacements imposed to close the primary loop in a steam generator replacement operation, especially when it is performed using the open-quote two cutsclose quotes technique. The influence of such residual loads on the LBB margins is discussed in details and typical results are presented

  19. Limits in the application of the Belgian Act of 10 April 1971 to industrial accidents due to irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafontaine, M.

    1988-01-01

    This paper analyses Belgian legislation applicable to industrial accidents. These are sudden occurrences which provoke bodily injury the causes of which are exterior to the body of the injured person. Accute irradiation is covered by this definition and the victim will also benefit from presumptive evidence. However compensation for stochastic sub-acute injuries from ionizing radiation, in the framework of insurance law, may be open to dispute given the definition of an industrial accident, the short prescription period and the burden of proof required for compensation of delayed injuries (NEA) [fr

  20. Assessment of management alternatives for LWR wastes. Volume 4. Description of a Belgian scenario for PWR waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crustin, J.; Glibert, R.

    1993-01-01

    This report deals with the description of a management route for PWR waste relying to a certain extent on Belgian practices in this particular area. This description, which aims at providing input data for subsequent cost evaluation, includes all management steps which are usually implemented for solid, liquid and gaseous wastes from their production up to the interim storage of the final waste products. This study is part of an overall theoretical exercise aimed at evaluating a selection of management routes for LWR waste based on economical and radiological criteria

  1. Scintigraphic examinations during pregnancy and in breast-feeding women: a survey of Belgian nuclear medicine physician's attitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tondeur, M.; Ham, H.; Sand, A.

    2003-01-01

    Radiation protection is of major importance in pregnant and breast feeding women. This work was undertaken to assess the practices of Belgian nuclear medicine physicians towards performing diagnostic tests during pregnancy and in breast feeding women. A questionnaire was sent to 201 Belgian nuclear medicine physicians; 82 answers (41 %) were received. 51 % of the responding physicians agree to perform lung perfusion scan during pregnancy provided a reduced dose is administered, 33% refuse to perform it during first three months and 24% refuse to perform it for pregnancies older than three months. For the Tc-99m ventilation scan 79% and 66% refuse to perform it before and after first three months. Better agreement was observed for other Tc-99m scintigraphies or tests using other radionuclides. In breast feeding women 89% agree to perform Tc-99m tests provided a breast feeding break; however, the duration of this break appears variable. The need for obtaining a written informed consent appears controversial. Given the variability of the attitudes of nuclear medicine physicians, official guidelines for nuclear medicine diagnostic tests during pregnancy is needed. (authors)

  2. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH Concentration at Birth in Belgian Neonates and Cognitive Development at Preschool Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Trumpff

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the study was to investigate the effect of MID during late pregnancy, assessed by the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH concentration at neonatal screening, on cognitive development of preschool children. A retrospective cohort study including 311 Belgian preschool children of 4–6 years old was conducted. Children were selected at random from the total list of neonates screened in 2008, 2009, and 2010 by the Brussels new-born screening center. Infants with congenital hypothyroidism, low birth weight, and/or prematurity were excluded from the selection. The selected children were stratified by gender and TSH-range (0.45–15 mIU/L. Cognitive abilities were assessed using Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence—third edition. In addition, several socioeconomic, parental, and child confounding factors were assessed. Neonatal TSH concentration—a surrogate marker for MID—was not associated with Full Scale and Performance IQ scores in children. Lower Verbal IQ scores were found in children with neonatal TSH values comprised between 10–15 mIU/L compared to lower TSH levels in univariate analysis but these results did not hold when adjusting for confounding factors. Current levels of iodine deficiency among pregnant Belgian women may not be severe enough to affect the neurodevelopment of preschool children.

  3. Estimation of chemical carcass composition from 8th rib characteristics with Belgian blue double-muscled bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Campeneere, S; Fiems, L O; Van de Voorde, G; Vanacker, J M; Boucque, C V; Demeyer, D I

    1999-01-01

    Characteristics from the 8th rib cut: chemical composition, tissue composition after dissection, specific gravity (SG) and m. longissimus thoracis (LT) composition, collected on 17 Belgian Blue double-muscled fattening bulls were used to generate equations for predicting chemical carcass composition. Carcass composition was best predicted from chemical analysis of the 8th rib cut and the empty body weight (EBW) of the bull. Carcass chemical fat content (CCF, kg) was predicted from the 8th rib cut fat content (ether extract, 8RF, kg) by the following regression: CCF=1.94+27.37 8RF (R(2)=0.957, RSD =9.89%). A higher coefficient was found for carcass water (CCW, kg) predicted from 8RF and EBW: CCW=-2.26+0.28 EBW-34.28 8RF (R(2)=0.997, RSD=1.48%). No parameter was found to improve the prediction of CCP from EBW solely: CCP=-0.86+0.08 EBW (R(2) =0.992, RSD=2.61%). Prediction equations based solely on LT composition had low R(2) values of between 0.38 and 0.67, whereas no significant equations were found using SG. However, equations based on EBW had R(2) values between 0.78 and 0.99. Chemical components of the 8th rib cut in combination with EBW are most useful in predicting the chemical composition of the carcass of Belgian-Blue double-muscled bulls.

  4. Shell Shock and the Kloppe: war neuroses amongst British and Belgian troops during and after the First World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Fiona; Van Everbroeck, Christine

    2014-01-01

    During the First World War combatants of all armies were prey to nervous disorders or psychological breakdown. These war neuroses were a response to the highly-industrialised nature of the warfare as well as to the fatigue engendered over four years of intense conflict. Yet while fear and mental breakdown were universal, national responses varied. A comparison of British and Belgian shell shock indicates that men suffered in very similar ways but that symptoms met with rather different responses: in Britain treatment and diagnostic regimes stressed the importance of class difference and shell shock was often linked to cowardice. These issues were not of overriding importance in the Belgian army. In the longer term shell shock became, and remained, a topic of political and social concern in Britain whereas in Belgium men suffering from kloppe (extreme fear) tended to be forgotten and the topic has not excited much popular interest or scholarly attention. Yet despite these differences one overarching theme remains clear, namely that despite the extensive experience of war neuroses during and after the First World War, there still remains a fierce stigma about the mental wounds of war.

  5. Treatment patterns in moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis: results from a Belgian cross-sectional study (DISCOVER).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Julien; Ghislain, Pierre-Dominique; Lambert, Jo; Cauwe, Bénédicte; Van den Enden, Maria

    2017-08-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate current treatment patterns and achievement of treatment goals in Belgian patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis. This cross-sectional observational study (DISCOVER) was conducted in 2011 - 2012 in Belgian dermatology centers. Patient data were collected during a single visit and included information on psoriasis management and severity (PASI and DLQI). Treatment success was defined according to the current European consensus treatment goal algorithm. Of the 556 patients included in the study, 38.1% reported no current treatment or only topicals, 34.2% were being treated with traditional systemics and/or phototherapy, and 29.5% with biologics. Methotrexate (11.7%) was the most commonly prescribed traditional systemic and adalimumab (14.2%) was the most commonly prescribed biologic agent at the time of the study. The percentage of patients achieving treatment goals was significantly higher in biologic-treated patients (73.1%) compared to those using traditional systemics (50.6%), phototherapy (41.1%), or no treatment/only topicals (20.9%; p psoriasis in the DISCOVER study were undertreated despite the severity of their disease. Undertreatment of psoriasis remains a problem in Belgium and more effective educational strategies are needed to ensure the best treatment outcome for these patients. [Formula: see text].

  6. Influence of geographical origin and flour type on diversity of lactic acid bacteria in traditional Belgian sourdoughs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheirlinck, Ilse; Van der Meulen, Roel; Van Schoor, Ann; Vancanneyt, Marc; De Vuyst, Luc; Vandamme, Peter; Huys, Geert

    2007-10-01

    A culture-based approach was used to investigate the diversity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in Belgian traditional sourdoughs and to assess the influence of flour type, bakery environment, geographical origin, and technological characteristics on the taxonomic composition of these LAB communities. For this purpose, a total of 714 LAB from 21 sourdoughs sampled at 11 artisan bakeries throughout Belgium were subjected to a polyphasic identification approach. The microbial composition of the traditional sourdoughs was characterized by bacteriological culture in combination with genotypic identification methods, including repetitive element sequence-based PCR fingerprinting and phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase (pheS) gene sequence analysis. LAB from Belgian sourdoughs belonged to the genera Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Leuconostoc, Weissella, and Enterococcus, with the heterofermentative species Lactobacillus paralimentarius, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus pontis as the most frequently isolated taxa. Statistical analysis of the identification data indicated that the microbial composition of the sourdoughs is mainly affected by the bakery environment rather than the flour type (wheat, rye, spelt, or a mixture of these) used. In conclusion, the polyphasic approach, based on rapid genotypic screening and high-resolution, sequence-dependent identification, proved to be a powerful tool for studying the LAB diversity in traditional fermented foods such as sourdough.

  7. Influence of Geographical Origin and Flour Type on Diversity of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Traditional Belgian Sourdoughs▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheirlinck, Ilse; Van der Meulen, Roel; Van Schoor, Ann; Vancanneyt, Marc; De Vuyst, Luc; Vandamme, Peter; Huys, Geert

    2007-01-01

    A culture-based approach was used to investigate the diversity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in Belgian traditional sourdoughs and to assess the influence of flour type, bakery environment, geographical origin, and technological characteristics on the taxonomic composition of these LAB communities. For this purpose, a total of 714 LAB from 21 sourdoughs sampled at 11 artisan bakeries throughout Belgium were subjected to a polyphasic identification approach. The microbial composition of the traditional sourdoughs was characterized by bacteriological culture in combination with genotypic identification methods, including repetitive element sequence-based PCR fingerprinting and phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase (pheS) gene sequence analysis. LAB from Belgian sourdoughs belonged to the genera Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Leuconostoc, Weissella, and Enterococcus, with the heterofermentative species Lactobacillus paralimentarius, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus pontis as the most frequently isolated taxa. Statistical analysis of the identification data indicated that the microbial composition of the sourdoughs is mainly affected by the bakery environment rather than the flour type (wheat, rye, spelt, or a mixture of these) used. In conclusion, the polyphasic approach, based on rapid genotypic screening and high-resolution, sequence-dependent identification, proved to be a powerful tool for studying the LAB diversity in traditional fermented foods such as sourdough. PMID:17675431

  8. Analysis of the particular spill characteristics observed by the Belgian aerial surveillance program during the Tricolor incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, M.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation described the Tricolor oil spill incident, the remote sensing equipment used to monitor the spill, the observed spill characteristics and the flight data assessment. The spill occurred on December 14, 2002 following a collision between the carrier Tricolor and the container vessel Kariba in French waters in the Zone of Joint Responsibility, close to the Belgian and English borders. The Tricolor sank and 3 more vessels collided with the wreck in the five weeks following the collision, spilling several 100 tons of mostly heavy fuel oil into the sea. The remote sensing equipment aboard Belgian surveillance aircraft noted that freshly spilled oil formed a network of widespread dark oil trails surrounded by light oil fractions. The spill volumes were estimated to be high because of the large extent of the polluted area. Nine months following the spill, the emulsified oil trails had a density close to that of seawater. It was assumed that a cold and thick emulsion had formed and became trapped inside the wreck. Upon release, the emulsion could submerse and resurface. The incident demonstrated that early stage oil sample analysis could help interpret slick behaviour by means of remote sensing. 9 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig

  9. The association between objective walkability, neighborhood socio-economic status, and physical activity in Belgian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Haese, Sara; Van Dyck, Delfien; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte; Cardon, Greet

    2014-08-23

    Objective walkability is an important correlate of adults' physical activity. Studies investigating the relation between walkability and children's physical activity are scarce. However, in order to develop effective environmental interventions, a profound investigation of this relation is needed in all age groups. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between objective walkability and different domains of children's physical activity, and to investigate the moderating effect of neighborhood socio-economic status in this relation. Data were collected between December 2011 and May 2013 as part of the Belgian Environmental Physical Activity Study in children. Children (9-12 years old; n = 606) were recruited from 18 elementary schools in Ghent (Belgium). Children together with one of their parents completed the Flemish Physical Activity Questionnaire and wore an accelerometer for 7 consecutive days. Children's neighborhood walkability was calculated using geographical information systems. Multilevel cross-classified modeling was used to determine the relationship between children's PA and objectively measured walkability and the moderating effect of neighborhood SES in this relation. In low SES neighborhoods walkability was positively related to walking for transportation during leisure time (β = 0.381 ± 0.124; 95% CI = 0.138, 0.624) and was negatively related to sports during leisure time (β = -0.245 ± 0.121; 95% CI = -0.482, -0.008). In high socio-economic status neighborhoods, walkability was unrelated to children's physical activity. No relations of neighborhood walkability and neighborhood socio-economic status with cycling during leisure time, active commuting to school and objectively measured moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity were found. No univocal relation between neighborhood walkability and physical activity was found in 9-12 year old children. Results from international adult studies

  10. HIV positive asylum seekers receiving the order to leave the Belgian territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeester, Remy; Legrand, Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

    In a human rights based approach, the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe has recently released a resolution about migrants and refugees and the fight against HIV (1). It states that "an HIV positive migrant should never be expelled when it is clear that he will not receive adequate health care and assistance in the country to which he is being sent back. To do otherwise would amount to a death sentence for that person." Nevertheless, in Belgium, for the last 2 years, none of the HIV-infected migrants in care in the AIDS Reference Centers (ARC) received the right to stay in Belgium for medical reasons. We identified all HIV-infected asylum seekers in care between 1 July 2012 and 1 July 2014 in the ARC of Charleroi, Belgium, and we analyzed their medical and social files. Among the 302 patients in active follow up in our ARC, 45 HIV positive asylum seekers were in care during the last 2 years. Male/female ratio was 0/96. Mean age was 35 years. Countries of origin and reasons for migration are detailed in the Table 1. 18% (8/45) knew their seropositivity before arriving in Europe. All the patients introduced an asylum request, 29 (64%) have received a negative answer and an order to leave the territory, 4 (9%) were regularized for non-medical reasons (see Table 1), 4 (9%) are waiting for an answer and for 8 (18%) outcome is unknown due to lost follow up (LFU). 31 (69%) patients have also introduced a request to stay for medical reasons: 18 (58%) have received a refusal, 7 (23%) are still waiting for an answer, and 6 (19%) are LFU. Only 23 (51%) patients are still in care in our ARC on 1 July 2014 (see Table 1). The immigration office bases its decisions on availability of the treatment in the country even if accessible only to a limited number of patients. Decisions taken by the Belgian authorities for the last two years concerning HIV-infected asylum seekers do not guarantee the continuity of care of those patients and push them towards illegality. Such

  11. "Belgian black and red marbles" as potential candidates for Global Heritage Stone Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourneur, Francis; Pereira, Dolores

    2016-04-01

    The Paleozoic substrate of South Belgium is rich in compact limestones, able to take a good polished finishing and to be used as "marbles". Among them, the black and red varieties were and still are of special importance, intensively exploited and largely exported, almost worldwide. The pure black marbles were extracted mostly from Frasnian (Upper Devonian) and Viséan (Lower Carboniferous) strata, in many localities like Namur, Dinant, Theux and Basècles. Today only the Frasnian variety is still exploited in a spectacular underground quarry in Golzinne, close to the town of Gembloux. These black marbles, already known in Antiquity, were exported since the Middle Age, first in Western Europe, then, from the 19th c., at a larger scale, almost worldwide. Among their most frequent uses figured of course funeral objects, like the epitaph of the Pope Adrian the 1st, offered by Charlemagne and preserved in the St-Pieter basilica in Rom. Another famous reference is the tombs of the Dukes of Burgundy in Dijon, with white crystalline marble and alabaster. The red marbles are limestones from reefal origin, forming mudmounds more or less rich in fossils of Late Frasnian (Late Devonian) age. They show a strong variability in colors, from dark red to light pinkish grey, and in texture, with many sedimentary structures and/or tectonic veins. The outcrops are non-stratified, which allows extraction of large blocks, for example for high columns. Known in the Roman time, they were intensively exploited since at least the 16th c. During the 19th and beginning of 20th c., more than hundred quarries were active in South Belgium, from Rance at West to Chaudfontaine at East, around Philippeville and Rochefort. They were largely used both in civil and religious buildings, mostly for inside decoration, for examples as altars or fireplaces. Among the most symbolic places, the Belgian red marbles were massively employed in Versailles, like in the famous "Galerie des Glaces". But many

  12. Belgian and Spanish consumption data and consumer handling practices for fresh fruits and vegetables useful for further microbiological and chemical exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacxsens, L; Ibañez, I Castro; Gómez-López, V M; Fernandes, J Araujo; Allende, A; Uyttendaele, M; Huybrechts, I

    2015-04-01

    A consumer survey was organized in Spain and Belgium to obtain consumption data and to gain insight into consumer handling practices for fresh vegetables consumed raw or minimally processed (i.e., heads of leafy greens, bell peppers, tomatoes, fresh herbs, and precut and packed leafy greens) and fruits to be consumed without peeling (i.e., apples, grapes, strawberries, raspberries, other berries, fresh juices, and precut mixed fruit). This information can be used for microbiological and/or chemical food safety research. After extensive cleanup of rough databases for missing and extreme values and age correction, information from 583 respondents from Spain and 1,605 respondents from Belgium (18 to 65 years of age) was retained. Daily intake (grams per day) was calculated taking into account frequency and seasonality of consumption, and distributions were obtained that can be used in quantitative risk assessment for chemical hazards with chronic effects on human health. Data also were recalculated to obtain discrete distributions of consumption per portion and the corresponding frequency of consumption, which can be used in acute microbiological risk assessment or outbreak investigations. The ranked median daily consumption of fruits and vegetables was similar in Spain and Belgium: apple > strawberry > grapes > strawberries and raspberries; and tomatoes > leafy greens > bell peppers > fresh herbs. However, vegetable consumption was higher (in terms of both portion and frequency of consumption) in Spain than in Belgium, whereas the opposite was found for fruit consumption. Regarding consumer handling practices related to storage time and method, Belgian consumers less frequently stored their fresh produce in a refrigerator and did so for shorter times compared with Spanish consumers. Washing practices for lettuce heads and packed leafy greens also were different. The survey revealed differences between these two countries in consumption and consumer handling practices

  13. Generalisability of the results of the Dutch-Belgian randomised controlled lung cancer CT screening trial (NELSON) : Does self-selection play a role?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Aalst, C. M.; van Iersel, C. A.; van Klaveren, R. J.; Frenken, F. J. M.; Fracheboud, J.; Otto, S. J.; de Jong, P. A.; Oudkerk, M.; de Koning, H. J.

    The degree of self-selection in the Dutch-Belgian randomised controlled lung cancer screening trial (NELSON) was determined to assess the generalisability of the study results. 335,441 (mainly) men born in 1928-1953 received a questionnaire. Of the respondents (32%), eligible subjects were invited

  14. The news is in the frame: A journalist-centered approach to the frame-building process of the Belgian Syria fighters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesman, J.L.J.; Berbers, A.; d'Haenens, L.; Van Gorp, B.

    2017-01-01

    This article seeks to understand the genesis of frame-building based on the early coverage of the Belgian Syria fighters in the four leading newspapers in Flanders, the Dutch-speaking part of Belgium. For a period of 6 weeks, a frame analysis of news stories was linked to reconstruction interviews

  15. A Nonsense Mutation in FAM161A Is a Recurrent Founder Allele in Dutch and Belgian Individuals With Autosomal Recessive Retinitis Pigmentosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Schil, Kristof; Klevering, B. Jeroen; Leroy, Bart P.; Pott, Jan Willem R.; Bandah-Rozenfeld, Dikla; Zonneveld-Vrieling, Marijke N.; Sharon, Dror; den Hollander, Anneke I.; Cremers, Frans P. M.; De Baere, Elfride; Collin, Rob W. J.; van den Born, L. Ingeborgh

    PURPOSE. To identify mutations in FAM161A underlying autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (arRP) in the Dutch and Belgian populations and to investigate whether common FAM161A-associated phenotypic features could be identified. METHODS. Homozygosity mapping, amplification-refractory mutation

  16. Comparison of external morphological traits of newborns to inner morpholical traits of the dam in the double-muscled Belgian Blue Beef breed.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coopman, F.; Gengler, N.; Groen, A.F.; Smet, de S.; Zeveren, van A.

    2004-01-01

    In the double-muscled (DM) Belgian Blue Beef (BBB) breed, caesarean section (CS) is used as a routine management tool to prevent dystocia. This practice is criticized on animal welfare grounds. With unassisted (natural) births, difficulties arise because of disproportion between the sizes of the

  17. The Exchange Program of the Belgian American Educational Foundation 1920-1940 : An Institutional Perspective on Persona Formation (1920-1940)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huistra, P.A.; Wils, Kaat

    2016-01-01

    In this article we propose an institutional perspective on persona formation. Not unlike individual scientists, institutions such as funding bodies took an active interest in shaping the scientific persona. As a case in point, we discuss the Belgian American Educational Foundation (BAEF) that sent

  18. Roads to Success in the Belgian French Community's Higher Education System: Predictors of Dropout and Degree Completion at the Université Libre De Bruxelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias Ortiz, Elena; Dehon, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study the factors that influence both dropout and (4-year) degree completion throughout university by applying the set of discrete-time methods for competing risks in event history analysis, as described in Scott and Kennedy (2005). In the French-speaking Belgian community, participation rates are very high given that higher…

  19. Do managerial incentives drive cost behavior? Evidence about the role of the zero earnings benchmark for labor cost behavior in Belgian private firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dierynck, B.; Landsman, W.R.; Renders, A.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of managerial incentives to meet or beat the zero earnings benchmark on labor cost behavior of private Belgian firms. We posit that relative to managers of firms reporting healthy profits, managers meeting or beating the zero earnings benchmark will increase

  20. Species diversity and metabolic impact of the microbiota are low in spontaneously acidified Belgian sausages with an added starter culture of Staphylococcus carnosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, M; Myter, N; De Vuyst, L; Leroy, F

    2012-04-01

    Quality of fermented sausages is affected by acidifying lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and colour- and flavour-promoting coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), whether or not used as starter culture. Artisan fermented sausages are often perceived as superior to industrial variants, partially because of the specific microbiota due to spontaneous acidification, which may be considered as an artisan characteristic. Therefore, two kinds of spontaneously acidified Belgian sausages were prepared (Belgian-type salami and Boulogne sausage), but with addition of a Staphylococcus carnosus culture. The Belgian-type salami was made from pork and beef, whereas the Boulogne sausage contained pork and horse meat. In all cases, Lactobacillus sakei was the dominant LAB species present on the raw materials and during fermentation, whereas enterococci remained present in the background. Enterobacteriaceae vanished after fermentation. The CNS species diversity on the raw materials was large and differed between the pork, beef, and horse meat. Nevertheless, this species diversity was annihilated during fermentation by the added S. carnosus culture. The volatiles fraction was mainly composed of aldehydes that originated from lipid oxidation and spices-derived compounds. Aromatic compounds that are typically associated to CNS activity, such as end-products from the metabolism of branched-chain amino acids, were not present in the Belgian-type salami and only marginally present in the Boulogne sausage. In conclusion, spontaneous acidification of Belgian-type fermented sausages leads to dominance of L. sakei and is no guarantee for bacterial contribution to the aroma profile when S. carnosus is added as a starter culture. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mutations in Splicing Factor Genes Are a Major Cause of Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa in Belgian Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppieters, Frauke; Roels, Dimitri; De Jaegere, Sarah; Flipts, Helena; De Zaeytijd, Julie; Walraedt, Sophie; Claes, Charlotte; Fransen, Erik; Van Camp, Guy; Depasse, Fanny; Casteels, Ingele; de Ravel, Thomy

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP) is characterized by an extensive genetic heterogeneity, implicating 27 genes, which account for 50 to 70% of cases. Here 86 Belgian probands with possible adRP underwent genetic testing to unravel the molecular basis and to assess the contribution of the genes underlying their condition. Methods Mutation detection methods evolved over the past ten years, including mutation specific methods (APEX chip analysis), linkage analysis, gene panel analysis (Sanger sequencing, targeted next-generation sequencing or whole exome sequencing), high-resolution copy number screening (customized microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization). Identified variants were classified following American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) recommendations. Results Molecular genetic screening revealed mutations in 48/86 cases (56%). In total, 17 novel pathogenic mutations were identified: four missense mutations in RHO, five frameshift mutations in RP1, six mutations in genes encoding spliceosome components (SNRNP200, PRPF8, and PRPF31), one frameshift mutation in PRPH2, and one frameshift mutation in TOPORS. The proportion of RHO mutations in our cohort (14%) is higher than reported in a French adRP population (10.3%), but lower than reported elsewhere (16.5–30%). The prevalence of RP1 mutations (10.5%) is comparable to other populations (3.5%-10%). The mutation frequency in genes encoding splicing factors is unexpectedly high (altogether 19.8%), with PRPF31 the second most prevalent mutated gene (10.5%). PRPH2 mutations were found in 4.7% of the Belgian cohort. Two families (2.3%) have the recurrent NR2E3 mutation p.(Gly56Arg). The prevalence of the recurrent PROM1 mutation p.(Arg373Cys) was higher than anticipated (3.5%). Conclusions Overall, we identified mutations in 48 of 86 Belgian adRP cases (56%), with the highest prevalence in RHO (14%), RP1 (10.5%) and PRPF31 (10.5%). Finally, we expanded the molecular

  2. Effect of supplementation on the performance of grazing Belgian Blue double-muscled heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiems, L O; De Boever, J L; Vanacker, J M

    2013-11-01

    Six experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of a feed supplement on the performance of grazing Belgian Blue double-muscled (BBDM) heifers with an initial weight and age of 195 ± 43 kg and 190 ± 52 days. Treatments included were: Exp. 1: supplementation with beet pulp (BP): 2 kg/day per head v. ad libitum intake; Exp. 2: supplementation ad libitum with BP v. a mixture of BP and soybean meal (SBM; BP/SBM ratio of 80/20; FW (fresh weight) basis); Exp. 3: supplementation with 4 kg/day per head of a mixture of BP/SBM (80/20; FW basis) v. BP/formaldehyde-treated SBM (BP/FSBM); Exp. 4: supplementation with 4 kg/day per head of a mixture with a similar protein content (125 g DVE per kg dry matter (DM)), consisting of 80/20 BP/SBM v. 92/8 BP/FSBM; Exp. 5: supplementation with 3 kg/day per head of a mixture of BP/SBM (80/20; FW basis) v. BP/DDGS (dried distillers grains and solubles; 70/30, FW basis); and Exp. 6: supplementation with 3 kg/day per head of 80/20 BP/SBM v. maize silage (MS) and SBM, on the basis of a similar protein concentration in the DM as the 80/20 BP/SBM supplement, and fed at a similar amount of DM as in the BP/SBM group. Supplementing BP ad libitum did not affect daily gain (0.54 v. 0.48 kg) and partial feed conversion (3.62 kg on average) compared with 2 kg/day. Supplying SBM besides BP increased growth rate compared with BP (0.87 v. 0.62 kg/day; P 0.10), but blood urea levels were reduced by FSBM (P < 0.05). DDGS tended to increase growth rate (0.77 v. 0.59 kg/day; P < 0.10) compared with BP/SBM, without effect on partial feed conversion. Replacing BP by MS did not affect daily gain, but partial feed conversion tended to be higher (3.21 v. 3.60 kg/kg body weight (BW) gain; P = 0.062). Increasing the supplement (80/20 BP/SBM) level from 3 to 4 kg daily, corresponding to 1.02% and 1.18% of the mean BW, respectively, resulted in a tendency (P = 0.121) for an increased growth rate. Grazing BBDM heifers of <1 year of age necessitate extra

  3. The impact of occupational hazards and traumatic events among Belgian emergency physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somville, Francis J; De Gucht, Véronique; Maes, Stan

    2016-04-27

    Emergency Physicians (EPs) are regularly confronted with work related traumatic events and hectic work conditions. Several studies mention a high incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and psychosomatic complaints in EP. The main objective of this study is to examine the contribution of demographics, traumatic events, life events, the occurrence of occupational hazards and social support to post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), psychological distress, fatigue, somatic complaints and job satisfaction in Emergency Physicians. For this study questionnaires were distributed to Belgian Emergency Physicians, These include, as determinants socio-demographic characteristics, traumatic events, life events, the occurrence of physical hazards, occurrences of violence, occurrence of situations that increase the risk of burnout and social support by supervisors and colleagues (LQWQ-Med), and as outcomes PTSS (IES), psychological distress (BSI), somatic complaints (PHQ 15), perceived fatigue (CIS20 R) and job satisfaction (LQWQ-MD). The response rate was 52.3 %. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed to examine the association between the determinants and each of the outcomes. Emergency Physicians are particularly vulnerable to post-traumatic and chronic stress consequences due to repetitive exposure to work related traumatic incidents such as serious injuries or death of a child/adolescent. One out of three Emergency Physicians met sub-clinical levels of anxiety and 14.5 % met a clinical level of PTSD, short for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Levels of fatigue were high but not directly related to traumatic events and occupational hazards. Social support from colleagues was found to have a beneficial effect on these complaints. Job satisfaction seems to have a protective factor. All of these not only affect the Emergency Physicians themselves, but can also have an adverse impact on patient care. EPs are, according to our and other studies

  4. BeTemper: thermal characterisation of the Belgian subsoil for shallow geothermal applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitclerc, Estelle; Dusar, Michiel; Declercq, Pierre-Yves; Vanbrabant, Yves

    2015-04-01

    -ray Diffraction equipment, while the EDS (Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy) and EBSD (Electron BackScattered Diffraction) modules is applied in order to evaluate the chemical and micro-textural content. Special attention is given to lithologies having a variable λ values to assess the influence of porosity and/or minor mineralogical phases on the heat transfer. The sample selection is conducted in order to be representative of the various lithologies composing the Belgian subsoil, taking into account their mineralogical composition, petrological texture along with their degree of alteration. A special emphasis is given to densely populated areas (eg. Sambre & Meuse valleys and large cities of Flanders). with the highest geothermal demands. Petitclerc, E., Dusar, M., Declercq, P-Y., Hoes, H., Laenen, B., Dagrain,F., Vanbrabant, Y., 2013. Overview and perspectives on shallow geothermal energy in Belgium. Proceedings SG6-12, EGC2013, Pisa, June 2013. Popov, Y., Bayuk, I., Parshin, A., Miklashevskiy, D., Novikov, S., Chekhonin, E., 2012. New methods and instruments for determination of reservoir thermal properties. Thirty-Seventh Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California, January 30 - February 1, 2012. SGP-TR-194. Popov, Y., Pribnow, D.F.C., Sass, J.H, Williams, C., Burkhardt, H., 1999. Characterization of rock thermal conductivity by high-resolution optical scanning. Geothermics 28, pp 253-276.

  5. Strategic choices in the Belgian Supercontainer design and its treatment in a safety case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Geet, Maarten; Weetjens, Eef

    2012-01-01

    Maarten Van Geet of Ondraf/Niras discussed various aspects relating to the selection of a supercontainer disposal concept for HLW and spent fuel disposal, including an OPC concrete buffer. The previous Belgian reference disposal concept was briefly described, and it was noted that several assessments and reviews of that concept had raised questions over its feasibility, operational safety, and ability to provide containment of the wastes throughout the thermal phase, i.e., the period when temperatures in the repository will be significantly above the ambient temperature of the host rock because of radioactive decay of the wastes. In light of these findings, Ondraf/Niras worked through a process of multi-criteria options appraisal (Figure 10) with the aim of coming to a new reference concept with better characteristics. Three main types of disposal concept were considered: A supercontainer design, in which the overpack would be emplaced in the disposal gallery as an integrated unit including a cementitious buffer. The buffer would provide radiological shielding. - A borehole design, in which the overpack would be emplaced in a borehole perpendicular to the disposal gallery. - A sleeve design, in which the overpack would be emplaced in a metal sleeve that would be emplaced in the disposal gallery prior to the overpack. In the latter two concepts, separate measures would be needed to provide radiation shielding during waste transport and handling. Several broad assessment criteria were considered; engineered robustness, host-rock perturbation, intrinsic robustness (of materials characterisation and modelling), ease of demonstration, technical operation, flexibility, and financial feasibility. The result of scoring the different design options against these criteria and various sub-criteria led to the selection of the supercontainer concept as the current reference concept and design. Key reasons for this selection included: - The requirement for watertight containment

  6. A Belgian survey on the diagnosis of asthma–COPD overlap syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cataldo D

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Didier Cataldo,1 Jean-Louis Corhay,1 Eric Derom,2 Renaud Louis,1 Eric Marchand,3,4 Alain Michils,5 Vincent Ninane,6 Rudi Peché,7 Charles Pilette,8 Walter Vincken,9 Wim Janssens10 1Department of Respiratory Diseases, CHU Liège, University of Liège, Liège, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, 3Department of Respiratory Medicine, CHU – UCL – Namur, Université catholique de Louvain, Yvoir, 4Molecular Physiology Research Unit (URPhyM-NARILIS, Laboratory of General Physiology, University of Namur, Namur, 5Chest Department, Erasme University Hospital, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, 6Department of Respiratory Medicine, University Hospital Saint-Pierre, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, 7Department of Respiratory Medicine, University Hospital Vésale, Montigny-le-Tilleul, 8Department of Respiratory Medicine, Cliniques universitaires St Luc, Université Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, 9Respiratory Division, University Hospital Brussels (UZ Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, 10Department of Respiratory Diseases, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium Introduction: Patients with chronic airway disease may present features of both asthma and COPD, commonly referred to as asthma–COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS. Recommendations on their diagnosis are diffuse and inconsistent. This survey aimed to identify consensus on criteria for diagnosing ACOS.Methods: A Belgian expert panel developed a survey on ACOS diagnosis, which was completed by 87 pulmonologists. Answers chosen by ≥70% of survey respondents were considered as useful criteria for ACOS diagnosis. The two most frequently selected answers were considered as major criteria, others as minor criteria. The expert panel proposed a minimal requirement of two major criteria and one minor criterion for ACOS diagnosis. Respondents were also asked which criteria are important for considering inhaled corticosteroids prescription in a

  7. World Health Organization on nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    A report published by the World Health Organization in cooperation with, and at the instigation of, the Belgian authorities, is summarised. The report was prepared by an international multidisciplinary working group, and concentrated on the somatic and genetic risks from ionising radiation, the environmental effects of nuclear power from the mining of uranium to the disposal of waste and the probability and consequences of accidents, sabotage and theft of nuclear materials. In general positive to nuclear power, the report nevertheless recommends for RESEARCH AND EVALUATION IN SEVERAL SECTORS: The duties of the authorities in providing full and open information on the consequences of the exploitation of nuclear power are emphasised. (JIW)

  8. Organizing for manufacturing innovation. The case of Flexible Manufacturing Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boer, Harry; Krabbendam, Koos

    1992-01-01

    addressing the manufacturing innovation process are even fewer and provide little insight into its true nature. Consequently, little is known about the effective organization of such processes. In the present article an organization model of manufacturing innovation is described, and its practicability...... the implementation of new technology effectively. This is not surprising, considering the innovative nature of this process. Although there is a host of literature on innovation, organization and (the benefits of) new technology, the literature in which these areas are linked together is scarce. Publications...... assessed using the results of seven case studies of the implementation of flexible manufacturing systems in British, Belgian and Dutch mechanical engineering companies....

  9. Cross-cultural differences in lay attitudes and utilisation of antibiotics in a Belgian and a Dutch city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschepper, Reginald; Vander Stichele, Robert H; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M

    Cultural differences are probably an important factor in the considerable variation in antibiotic use between countries. The objective of this study was to explore local cultural differences in the lay perspective on coping with URTD and using antibiotics. We interviewed 30 persons in a Dutch and a Belgian city. Twenty-one were interviewed a second time after 3 months. Between the first and second interview, they noted in a diary all URTD episodes experienced by themselves and their family members (N=69) and how they coped with them. The Dutch participants labelled most URTD episodes as "common cold" or "flu". The Flemish participants labelled most of their URTD episodes as "bronchitis" and used more antibiotics. Four categories of antibiotic users could be distinguished. Participants with a Protestant background were more sceptical about medicines than those with a Catholic background. A thorough understanding of the cultural context is necessary to design effective campaigns to promote rational antibiotic use.

  10. Daredevils and early birds: Belgian pioneers in automobile racing and aerial sports during the belle époque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameye, Thomas; Gils, Bieke; Delheye, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    During the belle époque, Belgium was a trend-setting nation in many domains, including motorised sports. Belgian automobile racers and pilots shattered world records and became international stars. Striking was the shift in sports. Indeed, around 1896, sporting members of the leisure class stepped from the bicycle into the automobile and, around 1908, from the automobile into the airplane. Although these motorised sports were extremely expensive, this article shows that sportsmen and sportswomen from the working class could achieve upward social mobility through their performances. The achievements of these motorised pioneers had a major impact and wide-ranging significance. They laid the foundations for the expansion of the automobile industry and the emergence of civilian and military aviation.

  11. Belgian Contribution to the IAEA CRP-IV Programme on Assuring Structural Integrity of Reactor Pressure Vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Walle, E.; Chaouadi, R.; Scibetta, M.; Puzzolante, J.L.; Fabry, A.; Van de Velde, J.

    1997-10-01

    This report contains the actual status of the Belgian contribution to the IAEA CRP-IV program. Besides Charpy-V impact tests on as-received CRP-IV JRQ-specimens, fracture toughness tests were performed on two geometries: PCCV-specimens and CRB-specimens. The Charpy-V impact results correspond very well with the as-received CRP-III results. The fracture toughness data are also very consistent with identical tests recently performed on remaining as-received CRP-III material. Irradiated broken Charpy-V samples were reconstituted and tested in PCCV-mode. This was done in order to investigate the evolution of the ASME-curve versus the evolution of the mastercurve with irradiation. Initial results were reported. A new CHIVAS-irradiation in the CALLISTO-loop of the BR-2-reactor to support this investigation, is under preparation

  12. Stigma, Social Structure, and the Biomedical Framework: Exploring the Stigma Experiences of Inpatient Service Users in Two Belgian Psychiatric Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sercu, Charlotte; Bracke, Piet

    2017-07-01

    The study discusses the stigma experiences of service users in mental health care, within the debate on the role of the biomedical framework for mental health care and power relations in society. Interview data of inpatient users ( n = 42) and care providers ( n = 43) from two Belgian psychiatric hospitals were analyzed using a constructivist grounded theory approach: Findings offer insight into how stigma experiences are affected by social structure. Stigma seemed to be related to the relation between care providers and service users their social position. The concept "mental health literacy" is used to frame this finding. In paying attention to the specific cultural and normative context, which influences the relationship between mental health literacy and stigma, it is further possible to cast some light on the meaning of the biomedical model for the construction and maintenance of power relations in mental health care and broader society.

  13. Training Activities to Maintain Competences in Nuclear Safety and Security: A Case Study of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesteloot, N.; Clarijs, T.; Coeck, M.; Vermeersch, F.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: The Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, SCK•CEN, is one of the largest research centers in Belgium. More than 700 employees advance research into nuclear energy and ionizing radiation for civilian use, and develop nuclear technologies for socially valuable purposes. Next to independent fundamental and applied research SCK-CEN provides advice, training, services and products. This paper describes the general approach towards the continuous professional development of all SCK-CEN personnel. The objective of these training activities is to maintain and increase the required competences, in order to optimize the output and the wellbeing on the work floor. Given the nature of the SCK-CEN activities, special attention is given to themes like radiation protection, security and industrial safety. A combination of classical face-to-face training, e-learning and on-the-job training is offered during the onboarding and further career path of an SCK-CEN employee. (author

  14. Genetic association study of WNT10B polymorphisms with BMD and adiposity parameters in Danish and Belgian males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Camp, Jasmijn K; Beckers, Sigri; Zegers, Doreen

    2013-01-01

    . The second population, called SIBLOS, includes 922 Belgian men (34 ± 5 years old) and contains siblings selected from over 500 families. Four tagSNPs (rs833840, rs833841, rs10875902 and rs4018511) that capture variation of ten SNPs (MAF > 5 %) in a 15.2 kb region spanning the WNT10B gene and its flanking...... a previously shown negative effect on BMD. No significant associations were observed in the SIBLOS population. In the present study, no association between WNT10B polymorphisms and adiposity parameters was found. However, our results clearly illustrate a role for WNT10B variants in determining human BMD...

  15. Strategy for a consistent selection of radionuclide migration parameters for the Belgian safety and feasibility case-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggeman, C.; Maes, N.; Salah, S.; Brassinnes, S.; Van Geet, M.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The purpose of this presentation is to describe the strategy for the selection of retention and migration parameters for safety-relevant nuclides that was developed in the framework of the Belgian Safety and Feasibility Case SFC-1. A geochemical database containing state-of-the-art retention and migration parameters of all safety-relevant radionuclides, is ideally based on a thermodynamic understanding and an ability to accurately describe the geochemical and transport behaviour of all these radionuclides under the geochemical conditions that are considered for a reference host formation. In Belgium, this reference formation is Boom Clay. The parameters will be used in Performance Assessment (PA) calculations, and therefore must also be adapted to PA models. Since these models currently use only a four parameters for every radionuclide, the whole geochemical and transport behaviour must be comprised to a very limited parameter set that describe on the one hand chemical retention within the Boom Clay formation, and on the other hand transport through the Boom Clay formation. Chemical retention considers two concepts: 1) a concentration limit (S), which represents the mobile concentration of a nuclide present in the aqueous phase under undisturbed far field Boom Clay conditions; 2) a retardation (R/Kd) factor, which represents the uptake of a mobile nuclide by the inorganic and organic phases present in the Boom Clay formation. For mobility/migration two additional concepts are introduced: 3) the diffusion accessible porosity (η), which is the total physical space available for transport of a nuclide. The maximum value of η is limited by the water content of the formation; 4) the pore diffusion coefficient (Dp), which represents the transport velocity of a nuclide in a diffusion-dominated system. Within the framework of SFC-1, primary focus is laid on the compilation of parameter ranges, instead of individual &apos

  16. Presence and mechanisms of acquired antimicrobial resistance in Belgian Brachyspira hyodysenteriae isolates belonging to different clonal complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahu, M; Pasmans, F; Vranckx, K; De Pauw, N; Vande Maele, L; Vyt, Philip; Vandersmissen, Tamara; Martel, A; Haesebrouck, F; Boyen, F

    2017-08-01

    Swine dysentery (SD) is an economically important disease for which antimicrobial treatment still occupies an important place to control outbreaks. However, acquired antimicrobial resistance is increasingly observed in Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. In this study, the Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) of six antimicrobial compounds for 30 recent Belgian B. hyodysenteriae isolates were determined using a broth microdilution method. In addition, relevant regions of the 16S rRNA, 23S rRNA and the L3 protein encoding genes were sequenced to reveal mutations associated with acquired resistance. Finally, a phylogeny was reconstructed using minimal spanning tree analysis of multi locus sequence typing of the isolates. For lincomycin, doxycycline, tylosin and tylvalosin, at least 70% of the isolates did not belong to the wild-type population and were considered to have acquired resistance. For valnemulin and tiamulin, this was over 50%. In all isolates with acquired resistance to doxycycline, the G1058C mutation was present in their 16S rRNA gene. All isolates showing acquired resistance to lincomycin and both macrolides displayed the A2058T mutation in their 23S rRNA gene. Other mutations in this gene and the N148S mutation in the L3 protein were present in both wild-type isolates and isolates considered to have acquired resistance. Multi locus sequence analysis revealed a previously undescribed clonal complex, with 4 novel sequence types in which the majority of isolates showed acquired resistance to all tested antimicrobial products. In conclusion, acquired antimicrobial resistance is widespread among Belgian B. hyodysenteriae isolates. The emergence of multi-resistant clonal complexes can pose a threat to swine industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Taxonomic structure and stability of the bacterial community in belgian sourdough ecosystems as assessed by culture and population fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheirlinck, Ilse; Van der Meulen, Roel; Van Schoor, Ann; Vancanneyt, Marc; De Vuyst, Luc; Vandamme, Peter; Huys, Geert

    2008-04-01

    A total of 39 traditional sourdoughs were sampled at 11 bakeries located throughout Belgium which were visited twice with a 1-year interval. The taxonomic structure and stability of the bacterial communities occurring in these traditional sourdoughs were assessed using both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. A total of 1,194 potential lactic acid bacterium (LAB) isolates were tentatively grouped and identified by repetitive element sequence-based PCR, followed by sequence-based identification using 16S rRNA and pheS genes from a selection of genotypically unique LAB isolates. In parallel, all samples were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of V3-16S rRNA gene amplicons. In addition, extensive metabolite target analysis of more than 100 different compounds was performed. Both culturing and DGGE analysis showed that the species Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Lactobacillus paralimentarius, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus pontis dominated the LAB population of Belgian type I sourdoughs. In addition, DGGE band sequence analysis demonstrated the presence of Acetobacter sp. and a member of the Erwinia/Enterobacter/Pantoea group in some samples. Overall, the culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches each exhibited intrinsic limitations in assessing bacterial LAB diversity in Belgian sourdoughs. Irrespective of the LAB biodiversity, a large majority of the sugar and amino acid metabolites were detected in all sourdough samples. Principal component-based analysis of biodiversity and metabolic data revealed only little variation among the two samples of the sourdoughs produced at the same bakery. The rare cases of instability observed could generally be linked with variations in technological parameters or differences in detection capacity between culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches. Within a sampling interval of 1 year, this study reinforces previous observations that the bakery environment

  18. Taxonomic Structure and Stability of the Bacterial Community in Belgian Sourdough Ecosystems as Assessed by Culture and Population Fingerprinting▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheirlinck, Ilse; Van der Meulen, Roel; Van Schoor, Ann; Vancanneyt, Marc; De Vuyst, Luc; Vandamme, Peter; Huys, Geert

    2008-01-01

    A total of 39 traditional sourdoughs were sampled at 11 bakeries located throughout Belgium which were visited twice with a 1-year interval. The taxonomic structure and stability of the bacterial communities occurring in these traditional sourdoughs were assessed using both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. A total of 1,194 potential lactic acid bacterium (LAB) isolates were tentatively grouped and identified by repetitive element sequence-based PCR, followed by sequence-based identification using 16S rRNA and pheS genes from a selection of genotypically unique LAB isolates. In parallel, all samples were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of V3-16S rRNA gene amplicons. In addition, extensive metabolite target analysis of more than 100 different compounds was performed. Both culturing and DGGE analysis showed that the species Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Lactobacillus paralimentarius, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus pontis dominated the LAB population of Belgian type I sourdoughs. In addition, DGGE band sequence analysis demonstrated the presence of Acetobacter sp. and a member of the Erwinia/Enterobacter/Pantoea group in some samples. Overall, the culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches each exhibited intrinsic limitations in assessing bacterial LAB diversity in Belgian sourdoughs. Irrespective of the LAB biodiversity, a large majority of the sugar and amino acid metabolites were detected in all sourdough samples. Principal component-based analysis of biodiversity and metabolic data revealed only little variation among the two samples of the sourdoughs produced at the same bakery. The rare cases of instability observed could generally be linked with variations in technological parameters or differences in detection capacity between culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches. Within a sampling interval of 1 year, this study reinforces previous observations that the bakery environment

  19. Systeme de fautes et correction phonetique par la methode verbo-tonale des francophones belges qui apprenent l'espagnol (Phonetic Correction and the Verbo-tonal Method for Teaching Spanish to French-speaking Belgians)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento Padilla, Jose

    1974-01-01

    Describes experiments in the field of phonetic correction. Several techniques used at the University of Mons for teaching Spanish pronunciation to French-speaking Belgians are explained. (Text is in French.) (PMP)

  20. Culture-general and -specific associations of attachment avoidance and anxiety with perceived parental warmth and psychological control among Turk and Belgian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güngör, Derya; Bornstein, Marc H

    2010-10-01

    Both the adolescent peer attachment and perceived parenting style literatures emphasize the role of the quality of the parent-child relationship in children's healthy adjustment beyond the family, but few studies have investigated links between adolescents' peer attachment and perceptions of parenting. We investigate relations of adolescents' perceptions of warmth and psychological control from parents with avoidance and anxiety in attachment to close friends in two contrasting cultures. Altogether, 262 Turk and 263 Belgian youth between 14 and 18 years of age participated. Cross-culturally, attachment avoidance was negatively related to maternal warmth, and attachment anxiety positively related to maternal and paternal control and negatively to paternal warmth. Beyond these general relations, attachment avoidance was associated with paternal psychological control in Belgians but not in Turks. The study provides cross-cultural evidence for specific relations between peer attachment and perceived parenting and suggests a culture-specific pathway for the development of attachment avoidance.

  1. The impact of age on the reservation wage: the role of employment efficacy and work intention: a study in the Belgian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Coen, An; Forrier, Anneleen; Sels, Luc

    2015-04-01

    This study explores the relationship between age and reservation wage. The authors investigate whether individuals' attitudes toward employment, that is, their "employment efficacy" and "work intention," mediate this relationship. The authors examine this in the Belgian labor market, where substantial differences exist between blue-collar workers, white-collar workers, and civil servants regarding payment systems, employment protection, and pension benefits. Path analysis on a sample of 22,796 Belgian workers aged 18 to 60 years reveals a reverse U-shaped relationship between age and the reservation wage via employment efficacy and a U-shaped relationship via work intention. In addition, study analyses also show a direct relationship between age and the reservation wage. The effects vary with employment status. The authors discuss implications for theory, practice, and future research. © The Author(s) 2012.

  2. Does Financial Hardship Explain Differences Between Belgian and South African Unemployed Regarding Experiences of Unemployment, Employment Commitment, and Job Search Behaviour?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter Vleugels

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate whether Belgian and South African unemployed differed regarding three psychological dimensions of unemployment: affect (experiences of unemployment, attitudes (employment commitment, and behaviour (job search intensity. Moreover, we expected country of residence to indirectly influence unemployed people's experiences, employment commitment, and job search intensity via financial hardship. A cross-sectional survey design was used to test our hypotheses. Data were sampled from unemployed people in the Brussels area in Belgium ('N' = 305, and the Potchefstroom area in South Africa ('N' = 381. The results indicated that, compared to the Belgian unemployed, the South African unemployed experienced their unemployment as more negative, were more committed towards employment and more intensively searched for work. Moreover, country of residence indirectly influenced unemployed people's experiences, employment commitment, and job search intensity via financial hardship. Some policy recommendations are suggested.

  3. The Belgian commitment to pharmaceutical quality: a model policy to improve quality assurance of medicines available through humanitarian and development programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravinetto, Raffaella; Roosen, Tim; Dujardin, Catherine

    2018-01-01

    Today, a combination of globalization of pharmaceutical production, lack of regulatory harmonization, and weakness of Medicines Regulatory Authorities, creates the "perfect conditions" for poor-quality medicine to circulate in the global market and to penetrate the less-regulated countries. Medicines regulation is the responsibility of the national regulatory authorities in the recipient country, but in the poorer countries, in practice, the responsibility of supply of quality-assured medicines is often taken by Non-Governmental Organizations and other implementers. But with some notable exceptions, many donors lack a pharmaceutical procurement policy with adequate quality requirements; and many implementers lack the skills and expertise needed to orient themselves in the complex web of global pharmaceutical supply. Thus, patients served by humanitarian or development programs may remain exposed to the risk of poor-quality medicines. When public money is used to purchase medicines for medical programs to be carried out overseas, adequate policies should be in place to assure that the same quality requirements are set that would be required for medicines marketed in the "donor" country. We will describe here a policy recently adopted in Belgium, i.e. the "Commitment to Quality Assurance for Pharmaceutical Products", signed in October 2017 by the Vice Prime Minister and Minister for Development Cooperation and 19 Belgian implementing agencies. By signing the new policy, the counterparts committed to ensure quality of medicines in the programs funded by Belgium's Official Development Assistance, and to build quality-assurance capacity in the recipient countries. Implementers are requested to integrate in their financing applications a section for pharmaceutical quality assurance, with a justified budget. They are also invited to consider how costs could be rationalized and mutualized by aligning the strengths of the various implementers. This model policy has the

  4. Prevalence of the AMHR2 mutation in Miniature Schnauzers and genetic investigation of a Belgian Malinois with persistent Müllerian duct syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, M M; Ekenstedt, K J; Minor, K M; Lim, C K; Leegwater, Paj; Furrow, E

    2018-04-01

    Persistent Müllerian duct syndrome (PMDS) is a sex-limited disorder in which males develop portions of the female reproductive tract. Important consequences of PMDS are cryptorchidism and its sequelae of infertility and increased risk of testicular cancer. Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and its receptor (AMHR2) induce the regression of the Müllerian ducts in male embryos. In Miniature Schnauzer dogs, the genetic basis has been identified as an autosomal recessive nonsense mutation in AMHR2, but the allele frequency of the mutation is unknown. Thus, the primary objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of the AMHR2 mutation in North American Miniature Schnauzers, in order to ascertain the value of genetic testing in this breed. An additional objective was to determine whether mutations in AMH or AMHR2 were responsible for PMDS in a Belgian Malinois; this would aid development of a genetic test for the Belgian Malinois breed. Genomic DNA from 216 Miniature Schnauzers (including one known PMDS case) was genotyped for the AMHR2 mutation, and DNA from a single PMDS-affected Belgian Malinois was sequenced for all coding exons of AMH and AMHR2. The Miniature Schnauzer cohort had an AMHR2 mutation allele frequency of 0.16 and a carrier genotypic frequency of 0.27. The genetic basis for PMDS in the Belgian Malinois was not determined, as no coding or splicing mutations were identified in either AMH or AMHR2. These findings support a benefit to AMHR2 mutation testing Miniature Schnauzers used for breeding or with cryptorchidism. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. An attempt to reconstruct geodynamically the Belgian palaeogene basin from mineralogical clay data, from radioelement (U, Th, K2O) geochemistry and palynology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinif, Yves; Mercier, Monique; Dupuis Christian; Roche, Emile

    1983-01-01

    By analysing clay mineralogy, U-Th-K 2 O geochemistry and palynology data, we find that the Belgian Palaeogene is dominated by the action of a biostasic period toward the end of the lower Eocene. At the middle Eocene starts a new phase, at least a rhexistasic one at the begining. In the Basin, the geochemical and mineralogical traces of this phase just start from the upper Eocene [fr

  6. Use of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for the detection and surveillance of marine oil spills in the Belgian part of the North Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnay, E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discussed the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) deployed by the Belgian Army in order to detect oil spills as well as for intelligence, reconnaissance and surveillance missions. The UAV are fitted with a dual sensor gyro-stabilized turret which combines a daylight camera and a thermal infrared camera. Live images of the sensors are transmitted in real time to control stations. All Belgian marine pollution surveillance platforms are coordinated by the Maritime Security Center of the Belgian Coast Guard. Satellite surveillance services provide real time information related to potential oil spills and other anomalies on the sea surface. Stand-by helicopters are also used for the rapid assessment of reported spills. The B-Hunter system is undetectable due to its small size and low noise signature, and can be used for the continuous monitoring of specific areas or for the tracking of suspect vessels. The system will also be used to monitor the progress of oil spill response operations as well as to provide information and guidance to response vessels. 6 refs., 2 figs

  7. Use of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for the detection and surveillance of marine oil spills in the Belgian part of the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnay, E. [Federal Public Service Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment, Brussels (Belgium)

    2009-07-01

    This paper discussed the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) deployed by the Belgian Army in order to detect oil spills as well as for intelligence, reconnaissance and surveillance missions. The UAV are fitted with a dual sensor gyro-stabilized turret which combines a daylight camera and a thermal infrared camera. Live images of the sensors are transmitted in real time to control stations. All Belgian marine pollution surveillance platforms are coordinated by the Maritime Security Center of the Belgian Coast Guard. Satellite surveillance services provide real time information related to potential oil spills and other anomalies on the sea surface. Stand-by helicopters are also used for the rapid assessment of reported spills. The B-Hunter system is undetectable due to its small size and low noise signature, and can be used for the continuous monitoring of specific areas or for the tracking of suspect vessels. The system will also be used to monitor the progress of oil spill response operations as well as to provide information and guidance to response vessels. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Integration of gamma measuring equipment into an Agusta A109BA helicopter of the Belgian Armed Forces for use in emergency situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paridaens, J.

    2007-01-01

    In case of a nuclear emergency, accidental releases of radioactive material might cause large scale environmental contamination. After the emergency has been brought under control, and the radioactive releases have settled on the ground, it is essential to map as quickly as possible the extent of the contaminated area and to evaluate the severity of the contamination. Airborne gamma measurements are known to be an effective means for quickly and safely mapping and evaluating large scale contaminations of gamma-emitting radio nuclides. We wanted to integrate gamma measuring equipment, based on a NaI detector, into an Agusta A109BA helicopter of the Belgian armed forces. This was done within the framework of ''Aid to the Nation'', a special program developed by the Belgian Armed Forces for facilitating cooperation between the armed forces and civilian organisations, for projects that are to the benefit of the Belgian Nation. Working in this framework, we also want to develop the necessary procedures that will allow quick and efficient deployment of the measuring capability in case of an emergency

  9. Pitfalls on the way towards the acceptance of a disposal site of LLW in a densely populated country. The Belgian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooft, E.; Decamps, F.

    2000-01-01

    Until the international moratorium of 1983, Belgium relied on sea disposal for its low-level waste. Since then, ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Belgian waste management agency, has launched studies to look for land-based solutions. These studies, which are still on-going, have gone through various phases. The sometimes harsh reactions in public opinion and the recommendations of independent experts, however, progressively led ONDRAF/NIRAS to question its work methodology. January 16, 1998 was a milestone in Belgian's nuclear waste management. On that day, the Belgian federal government opted for a final, or potentially final, solution for the long-term management of short-lived, low-level radioactive waste, a solution that also had to be progressive, flexible, and reversible. At the same time, the government entrusted new missions to ONDRAF/NIRAS in particular that of developing methods to enable the integration of final repository project proposals at the local level and restricted the number of potential sites for final disposal to the four already existing nuclear sites in Belgium and to possibly interested local districts. The government's decision of January 16, 1998, forced ONDRAF/NIRAS to change its strategy. It set up a new work programme and worked out an innovative methodology. This new methodology aims to generate, at the level of the interested towns and villages, draft projects for a final repository supported by a wide public consensus. (author)

  10. The Association between Belgian Older Adults' Physical Functioning and Physical Activity: What Is the Moderating Role of the Physical Environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Holle, Veerle; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; Gheysen, Freja; Van Dyck, Delfien; Deforche, Benedicte; Van de Weghe, Nico; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2016-01-01

    Better physical functioning in the elderly may be associated with higher physical activity levels. Since older adults spend a substantial part of the day in their residential neighborhood, the neighborhood physical environment may moderate associations between functioning and older adults' physical activity. The present study investigated the moderating role of the objective and perceived physical environment on associations between Belgian older adults' physical functioning and transport walking, recreational walking, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Data from 438 older adults were included. Objective physical functioning was assessed using the Short Physical Performance Battery. Potential moderators included objective neighborhood walkability and perceptions of land use mix diversity, access to recreational facilities, access to services, street connectivity, physical barriers for walking, aesthetics, crime-related safety, traffic speeding-related safety, and walking infrastructure. Transport and recreational walking were self-reported, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was assessed through accelerometers. Multi-level regression analyses were conducted using MLwiN to examine two-way interactions between functioning and the environment on both walking outcomes. Based on a previous study where environment x neighborhood income associations were found for Belgian older adults' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, three-way functioning x environment x income interactions were examined for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Objectively-measured walkability moderated the association between functioning and transport walking; this positive association was only present in high-walkable neighborhoods. Moreover, a three-way interaction was observed for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Only in high-income, high-walkable neighborhoods, there was a positive association between functioning and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. No

  11. Effectiveness and tolerability of second-line therapy with vildagliptin versus other oral agents in type 2 diabetes (EDGE): post-hoc subanalysis of the Belgian data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoste, J; Daci, E; Mathieu, C

    2014-06-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of vildagliptin versus other oral glucose-lowering drugs added to antidiabetic monotherapy in Belgian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, in comparison to the global EDGE study results. This is a pre-specified post-hoc subanalysis of the Belgian patient cohort from a worldwide 1-year observational study that compared the effectiveness and tolerability of vildagliptin to other oral antidiabetic agents in type 2 diabetes patients failing monotherapy with oral glucose-lowering agents (EDGE). A total of 1793 Belgian patients were enrolled. Physicians could add any oral antidiabetic drug and patients entered either into the vildagliptin or the comparator cohort. The primary effectiveness and tolerability endpoint was defined as the proportion of patients having a treatment response (HbA1c reduction from baseline to month 12 endpoint >0·3%) without hypoglycemia, weight gain, peripheral oedema, or gastrointestinal side-effects. In the Belgian population, 37·8% of patients in the vildagliptin group and 32·8% in the comparator group had a decrease in HbA1c of >0·3% without the predefined tolerability issues of hypoglycemia, weight gain, oedema or, gastrointestinal complaints (primary endpoint), resulting in an unadjusted odds ratio of 1·24 (95% CI: 0·96-1·61). Mean HbA1c change from baseline was -0·81% in the vildagliptin cohort and -0·75% in the comparator cohort. Overall, vildagliptin was well tolerated with similarly low incidences of total adverse events (14·9% versus 14·5% in the compactor group) and serious adverse events (2·7% versus 2·5% in the comparator group). In this EDGE subgroup of Belgian patients with type 2 diabetes who do not achieve the glycemic targets with monotherapy, a similar trend as in the global EDGE study was observed. Adding vildagliptin as a second oral glucose-lowering agent resulted in lowering HbA1c to <7% without weight gain, hypoglycemia or peripheral oedema in a higher proportion of

  12. Effective combination of DIC, AE, and UPV nondestructive techniques on a scaled model of the Belgian nuclear waste container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliopoulos, Sokratis N.; Areias, Lou; Pyl, Lincy; Vantomme, John; Van Marcke, Philippe; Coppens, Erik; Aggelis, Dimitrios G.

    2015-03-01

    Protecting the environment and future generations against the potential hazards arising from high-level and heat emitting radioactive waste is a worldwide concern. Following this direction, the Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials has come up with the reference design which considers the geological disposal of the waste in purely indurated clay. In this design the wastes are first post-conditioned in massive concrete structures called Supercontainers before being transported to the underground repositories. The Supercontainers are cylindrical structures which consist of four engineering barriers that from the inner to the outer surface are namely: the overpack, the filler, the concrete buffer and possibly the envelope. The overpack, which is made of carbon steel, is the place where the vitrified wastes and spent fuel are stored. The buffer, which is made of concrete, creates a highly alkaline environment ensuring slow and uniform overpack corrosion as well as radiological shielding. In order to evaluate the feasibility to construct such Supercontainers two scaled models have so far been designed and tested. The first scaled model indicated crack formation on the surface of the concrete buffer but the absence of a crack detection and monitoring system precluded defining the exact time of crack initiation, as well as the origin, the penetration depth, the crack path and the propagation history. For this reason, the second scaled model test was performed to obtain further insight by answering to the aforementioned questions using the Digital Image Correlation, Acoustic Emission and Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity nondestructive testing techniques.

  13. Sample substitution can be an acceptable data-collection strategy: the case of the Belgian Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarest, Stefaan; Molenberghs, Geert; Van der Heyden, Johan; Gisle, Lydia; Van Oyen, Herman; de Waleffe, Sandrine; Van Hal, Guido

    2017-11-01

    Substitution of non-participating households is used in the Belgian Health Interview Survey (BHIS) as a method to obtain the predefined net sample size. Yet, possible effects of applying substitution on response rates and health estimates remain uncertain. In this article, the process of substitution with its impact on response rates and health estimates is assessed. The response rates (RR)-both at household and individual level-according to the sampling criteria were calculated for each stage of the substitution process, together with the individual accrual rate (AR). Unweighted and weighted health estimates were calculated before and after applying substitution. Of the 10,468 members of 4878 initial households, 5904 members (RRind: 56.4%) of 2707 households (RRhh: 55.5%) participated. For the three successive (matched) substitutes, the RR dropped to 45%. The composition of the net sample resembles the one of the initial samples. Applying substitution did not produce any important distorting effects on the estimates. Applying substitution leads to an increase in non-participation, but does not impact the estimations.

  14. Belgian class II nuclear facilities such as irradiators and accelerators. Regulatory Body attention points and operating experience feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minne, Etienne; Peters, Christelle; Mommaert, Chantal; Kennes, Christian; Cortenbosch, Geert; Schmitz, Frederic; Haesendonck, Michel van [Bel V, Brussels (Belgium); Carlier, Pascal; Schrayen, Virginie; Wertelaers, An [Federal Agency for Nuclear Control, Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-11-15

    The aim of this paper is to present the Regulatory Body attention points and the operating experience feedback from Belgian ''class IIA'' facilities such as industrial and research irradiators, bulk radionuclides producers and conditioners. Reinforcement of the nuclear safety and radiation protection has been promoted by the Federal Agency for Nuclear Control (FANC) since 2009. This paper is clearly a continuation of the former paper [1] presenting the evolution in the regulatory framework relative to the creation of Bel V, the subsidiary of the FANC, and to the new ''class IIA'' covering heavy installations such as those mentioned above. Some lessons learnt are extracted from the operating experience feedback based on the events declared to the authorities. Even though a real willingness to meet the new safety requirements is observed among the ''class IIA'' licensees, promoting the safety culture, the nuclear safety and radiation protection remains an endless challenge for the Regulatory Body.

  15. Interactions between Neighborhood Social Environment and Walkability to Explain Belgian Older Adults’ Physical Activity and Sedentary Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerle Van Holle

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined associations between neighborhood social factors and physical activity (PA and sedentary behavior (SB in older adults. Furthermore, possible moderating effects of neighborhood walkability were explored. Data from 431 community-dwelling Belgian older adults (≥65 years were analyzed. Neighborhood social factors included measures of neighboring, social trust and cohesion and social diversity. Neighborhood walkability was measured objectively. Outcome measures were self-reported weekly minutes of domain-specific walking and TV viewing, and accelerometer-assessed weekly minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA and overall SB. A higher frequency of talking to neighbors was associated with higher levels of self-reported walking for transport and for recreation. Moderation analyses showed that only in highly-walkable neighborhoods, higher social diversity of the neighborhood environment was associated with more transport walking; and talking to neighbors and social interactions among neighbors were negatively associated with overall SB and television viewing, respectively. Findings suggest that a combination of a favorable neighborhood social and physical environment are important to promote older adults’ PA and limit SB.

  16. From science to popularization, and back--the science and journalism of the Belgian economist Gustave de Molinari.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dijck, Maarten

    2008-09-01

    Sociologists and historians of science, such as Richard Whitley and Stephen Hilgartner, identified a culturally dominant discourse of science popularization in the broader society. In this dominant view, a clear distinction is maintained between scientific knowledge and popularized knowledge. Popularization of science is seen as the process of transmitting real science to a lay public. This discourse on science popularization was criticized by Whitley and Hilgartner as an inadequate simplification. Yet, the battered traditional model of popularization remains remarkably resistant to these theoretical attacks. In this paper I will argue, based on research of the output of the Belgian economist Gustave de Molinari (1819-1912), and more specifically, his opinion on the role of government in economic life, that the boundary between science and popularization in political economy is not clear and that the status of scientists fluctuates over time and in different contexts. It is therefore impossible for historians or economists to distinguish science from popularization based on the essential characteristics or intrinsic quality of the work. De Molinari's ideas are followed through the different media of science and journalism. Although de Molinari himself differentiated between his scientific and "popular" work, the boundary between science and popularization proves to be highly permeable, in both directions.

  17. Reform of the Belgian Justice System: Changes to the Role of Jurisdiction Chief, the Empowerment of Local Managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Dupont

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The last waves of reform that affected, and continue to affect, the Belgian legal system led to an injunction for increased responsibility on the part of local managers, the jurisdiction chiefs. This tendency was initiated in the 1990s, with the introduction of a managerial logic into the legal sphere, whereby local initiatives took precedence in the absence of any clear and binding direction. The 2014 reform project, through its three constituent pillars, led to the strengthening of this logic, to the point where it became an important subject. The jurisdiction chiefs were therefore confronted with a new type of responsibility in that they became responsible for the dissemination of managerial discourse within their local body, for the implementation of change, and, consequently, for the success of this change, while at the same time, being confronted by a state and by political authorities that preferred to take a back-seat role. By observing, from an exploratory perspective, the developments caused by this transformational dynamic with regard to the role and function of the jurisdiction chiefs, our contribution highlights the wide range of receptions and appropriations of the reform project, and the concepts supporting the founding trio of pillars, based on five emerging, empirically-established subjects.

  18. Information Sources as Explanatory Variables for the Belgian Health-Related Risk Perception of the Fukushima Nuclear Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyncke, Bart; Perko, Tanja; Van Gorp, Baldwin

    2017-03-01

    The media play an important role in risk communication, providing information about accidents, both nearby and far away. Each media source has its own presentation style, which could influence how the audience perceives the presented risk. This study investigates the explanatory power of 12 information sources (traditional media, new media, social media, and interpersonal communication) for the perceived risk posed by radiation released from the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant on respondents' own health and that of the population in general. The analysis controlled for attitude toward nuclear energy, gender, education, satisfaction with the media coverage, and duration of attention paid to the coverage. The study uses a large empirical data set from a public opinion survey, which is representative for the Belgian population with respect to six sociodemographic variables. Results show that three information sources are significant regressors of perceived health-related risk of the nuclear accident: television, interpersonal communication, and the category of miscellaneous online sources. More favorable attitudes toward nuclear power, longer attention to the coverage, and higher satisfaction with the provided information lead to lower risk perception. Taken together, the results suggest that the media can indeed have a modest influence on how the audience perceives a risk. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  19. [The Belgian and French medicine and the "Ordres" facing the "jewish question" during the Second World War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noterman, J

    2014-01-01

    The attitude of the medical community and the "Ordres" to the "jewish question" differs in Belgium and France. This difference originates before the Second World War. Xenophobia and antisemitism were stronger in France. In addition, the Belgian capitulation of May 1940 and the armistice of June 22 in France do not represent the same situation. In France, a legal government, under the direction of Marshal Pétain, took a series of xenophobic measures of which the Jews were the first victims. In Belgium, in the absence of any government, the General Secretaries in Ministries were the ones who had to apply the antijewish measures dictated by the German occupant. By law, they could not legislate on the political level. The "Ordre", of French physicians was created in late 1940 by the Vichy government. In Belgium, the "Ordre " had existed since 1938 but had been unable to meet in the absence of implement decrees. An "Ordre bis" was created in late 1941, the legality of which was questioned by many lawyers and physicians. The French "Ordre" was to apply the antijewish measures by taking responsibility for the selection of Jewish physicians entitled to practice. In Belgium, the "Ordre" frowned upon by the physicians, played no official role in this regard. It simply applied the antijewish measures dictated by the Germans without protesting. After the conflict, the leaders of the "Ordres" had a different fate in both countries. In France, they escaped sentences. In Belgium, they were heavily condemned.

  20. The Belgian demonstration programme for the disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernier, F.; Demarche, M.

    2006-01-01

    The EIG EURIDICE is responsible for performing large-scale tests, technical demonstrations and experiments so as to assess the feasibility of a final disposal of vitrified radioactive waste in deep clay layers. This programme is part of the Belgian Research and Development programme managed by ONDRAF/NIRAS. The research infrastructure includes the Underground Research Facilities HADES (URF HADES) in the Boom Clay geological formation and surface facilities. The achievements of the demonstration programme are the demonstration of the construction of shafts and galleries at industrial scale, the characterisation of the hydro-mechanical response of the host rock, and the 'OPHELIE mock-up' a large scale hydration test under thermal load of pre-fabricated bentonite blocks. The future works will consist mainly in the realisation of the 'PRACLAY experiments' including a large scale heater test. The results of this test will constitute an important input for the Safety and Feasibility Cases 1 (SFC-1, 2013) and 2 (SFC-2, 2020). (author)

  1. From corporate governance to hospital governance. Authority, transparency and accountability of Belgian non-profit hospitals' board and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eeckloo, Kristof; Van Herck, Gustaaf; Van Hulle, Cynthia; Vleugels, Arthur

    2004-04-01

    As a result of multiple developments in health care and health care policy, hospital administrators, policy makers and researchers are increasingly challenged to reflect on the meaning of good hospital governance and how they can implement it in the hospital organisations. The question arises whether and to what extent governance models that have been developed within the corporate world can be valuable for these reflections. Due to the unique societal position of hospitals--which involves a large diversity of stakeholders--the claim for autonomy of various highly professional groups and the lack of clear business objectives, principles of corporate governance cannot be translated into the hospital sector without specific adjustments. However, irrespective of these contextual differences, corporate governance can provide for a comprehensive 'frame of reference', to which the hospital sector will have to give its own interpretation. A multidisciplinary research unit of the university of Leuven has taken the initiative to develop a governance model for Belgian hospitals. As part of the preliminary research work a survey has been performed among 82 hospitals of the Flemish Community on their governance structure, the composition of the governance entities, the partition of competencies and the relationship between management and medical staff.

  2. The preanalytical optimization of blood cultures: a review and the clinical importance of benchmarking in 5 Belgian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Elise; Smismans, Annick; Cartuyvels, Reinoud; Coppens, Guy; Van Vaerenbergh, Kristien; Van den Abeele, Anne-Marie; Frans, Johan

    2012-05-01

    Bloodstream infections remain a major challenge in medicine. Optimal detection of pathogens is only possible if the quality of preanalytical factors is thoroughly controlled. Since the laboratory is responsible for this preanalytical phase, the quality control of critical factors should be integrated in its quality control program. The numerous recommendations regarding blood culture collection contain controversies. Only an unambiguous guideline permits standardization and interlaboratory quality control. We present an evidence-based concise guideline of critical preanalytical determinants for blood culture collection and summarize key performance indicators with their concomitant target values. In an attempt to benchmark, we compared the true-positive rate, contamination rate, and collected blood volume of blood culture bottles in 5 Belgian hospital laboratories. The true-positive blood culture rate fell within previously defined acceptation criteria by Baron et al. (2005) in all 5 hospitals, whereas the contamination rate exceeded the target value in 4 locations. Most unexpected, in each of the 5 laboratories, more than one third of the blood culture bottles were incorrectly filled, irrespective of the manufacturer of the blood culture vials. As a consequence of this shortcoming, one manufacturer recently developed an automatic blood volume monitoring system. In conclusion, clear recommendations for standardized blood culture collection combined with quality control of critical factors of the preanalytical phase are essential for diagnostic blood culture improvement. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevalence and co-prevalence of comorbidities in Belgian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a transversal, descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Michel P; Dath, Nicolas

    2018-02-01

    Most patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have at least one comorbid chronic disease. These comorbidities increase disease burden and costs and may impact the selection of glucose-lowering therapies. The aim of our study was to describe the prevalence and co-prevalence of comorbidities in patients with T2DM in Belgium. This was a single centre, transversal, descriptive study performed at Saint-Luc University Hospital, Brussels, Belgium. T2DM patients aged >18 years presenting to the outpatient diabetes clinic and regularly followed (≥1 year) between July 2011 and 2016 were included in the database. Information on descriptive characteristics was collected and several comorbidities were assessed. Overall, 778 patients were included. The median age was 68 years. The most frequently observed comorbidities were hypertension (85.5%), metabolic syndrome (MetS; 84.6%) and non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis (71.7%). 78.5% of the T2DM patients had ≥4 comorbidities. The highest co-prevalence of comorbidities was the combination of MetS and hypertension (75.8%), MetS and overweight (60.5%), and hypertension and overweight (56.6%). The observed prevalence and co-prevalence of comorbidities in T2DM Belgian patients was high, with 95.0% patients having at least two comorbid conditions.

  4. Consumers' perceptions regarding tradeoffs between food and fuel expenditures: A case study of U.S. and Belgian fuel users

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skipper, Daniel; Popp, Michael; Vickery, Gina; Van de Velde, Liesbeth; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido; Verbeke, Wim

    2009-01-01

    Biofuels have been suggested as a sustainable alternative to fossil-based fuels, but when produced with inputs traditionally used as food and feed grain, the production of biofuels has contributed to price increases in the food sector. In the fall of 2006, a survey was administered to compare consumer perceptions regarding the tradeoff between renewable fuels and food in the United States (U.S.) (n = 242) and Belgium (n = 363). Results show that respondents in both countries prefer lower food prices to lower fuel prices (67.6% in the U.S. and 78.9% in Belgium). A logit model was estimated to determine which variables impacted whether a consumer favored policies that lower fuel prices at the cost of higher food prices. While the sample of Belgian respondents appeared to realize that lower fuel prices eventually had to come at the cost of higher food prices, the sample of U.S. respondents felt domestic agriculture could provide some low-cost, environmentally friendly alternatives with little impact on food prices. Accessible public transportation in Belgium acted as an important fuel saving strategy in that country and led respondents to emphasize food price decreases over fuel price decreases. Also, respondents with heightened awareness towards the environment recognized that the expansion of renewable fuels may need to come at the cost of higher food prices. These attitudes were similar in both countries. Finally, in both countries older respondents placed more importance on lower food prices than lower fuel prices. (author)

  5. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE DISTRIBUTION STRATEGY IN CHANGING MARKET ENVIRONMENT : Case: Belgian Brewery Van Honsebrouck in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Louckx, Yulia

    2014-01-01

    The efficient distribution strategy formulation becomes vital to the success and survival of any organization, especially when it is involved in international trade. Today’s world is particularly challenging due to rapidly changing market conditions. Therefore, in order to able to compete, satisfy customers, and meet the needs of other stakeholders profitably, it is crucial for any company to make profound market environment analyses, react to changes in the market and adjust strategies accor...

  6. Temperature, productivity and sediment characteristics as drivers of seasonal and spatial variations of dissolved methane in the near-shore coastal areas (Belgian coastal zone, North Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Alberto V.; Speeckaert, Gaëlle; Champenois, Willy; Scranton, Mary I.; Gypens, Nathalie

    2017-04-01

    The open ocean is a modest source of CH4 to the atmosphere compared to other natural and anthropogenic CH4 emissions. Coastal regions are more intense sources of CH4 to the atmosphere than open oceanic waters, in particular estuarine zones. The CH4 emission to the atmosphere from coastal areas is sustained by riverine inputs and methanogenesis in the sediments due to high organic matter (OM) deposition. Additionally, natural gas seeps are sources of CH4 to bottom waters leading to high dissolved CH4 concentrations in bottom waters (from tenths of nmol L-1 up to several µmol L-1). We report a data set of dissolved CH4 concentrations obtained at nine fixed stations in the Belgian coastal zone (Southern North Sea), during one yearly cycle, with a bi-monthly frequency in spring, and a monthly frequency during the rest of the year. This is a coastal area with multiple possible sources of CH4 such as from rivers and gassy sediments, and where intense phytoplankton blooms are dominated by the high dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) producing micro-algae Phaeocystis globosa, leading to DMSP and dimethylsulfide (DMS) concentrations. Furthermore, the BCZ is a site of important OM sedimentation and accumulation unlike the rest of the North Sea. Spatial variations of dissolved CH4 concentrations were very marked with a minimum yearly average of 9 nmol L-1 in one of the most off-shore stations and maximum yearly average of 139 nmol L-1 at one of the most near-shore stations. The spatial variations of dissolved CH4 concentrations were related to the organic matter (OM) content of sediments, although the highest concentrations seemed to also be related to inputs of CH4 from gassy sediments associated to submerged peat. In the near-shore stations with fine sand or muddy sediments with a high OM content, the seasonal cycle of dissolved CH4 concentration closely followed the seasonal cycle of water temperature, suggesting the control of methanogenesis by temperature in these OM

  7. Education and Training possibilities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coeck, M.

    2007-01-01

    Thanks to its thorough experience in the field of peaceful applications of nuclear science and technology SCK-CEN has garnered a reputation as an outstanding centre of not only research, but also education and training (E and T). The E and T activities at SCK-CEN cover a. o. reactor physics, reactor operation, reactor engineering, radiation protection, decommissioning and waste management. Our courses are directed to the nuclear industry, the medical and the non-nuclear industry, national and international policy organizations, the academic world and the general public. E and T programs are also organized in cooperation with universities, technical universities, nuclear power plants and public and private health services. In addition, the SCK-CEN is involved in international E and T research networks and programs such as ENETRAP, EUTERP, EUNDETRAF, CETRAD, BNEN and ENEN. Next to courses, SCK-CEN also offers students the possibility to perform their research work at our laboratories. Final-year students and Ph.D. candidates can enter a programme defined by an SCK-CEN mentor, in close collaboration with a university promotor. Post-docs are mainly recruited in specialised research domains that reflect the priority programmes and R and D topics of our institute

  8. Impact of feedstock, land use change, and soil organic carbon on energy and greenhouse gas performance of biomass cogeneration technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Njakou Djomo , Sylvestre; Witters , N.; Van Dael , M.; Gabrielle , Benoit; Ceulemans , R.

    2015-01-01

    Bioenergy (i.e., bioheat and bioelectricity) could simultaneously address energy insecurity and climate change. However, bioenergy’s impact on climate change remains incomplete when land use changes (LUC), soil organic carbon (SOC) changes, and the auxiliary energy consumption are not accounted for in the life cycle. Using data collected from Belgian farmers, combined heat and power (CHP) operators, and a life cycle approach, we compared 40 bioenergy pathways to a fossil-fuel CHP system. B...

  9. Fifty Shades of Belgian Gray: The Prevalence of BDSM-Related Fantasies and Activities in the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holvoet, Lien; Huys, Wim; Coppens, Violette; Seeuws, Jantien; Goethals, Kris; Morrens, Manuel

    2017-09-01

    Bondage and discipline, dominance and submission, and sadism and masochism (BDSM) is gaining popularity through the mainstream media. Nevertheless, very little is known about the prevalence of BDSM-related fantasies and activities in the general population. To determine the prevalence of BDSM fantasies and behavioral involvement in four different age groups of the general population in Belgium. By use of a cross-sectional survey questionnaire, the level of interest in several BDSM-related activities was investigated in a sample representative of the general Belgian population (N = 1,027). The questionnaire evaluated interest in 54 BDSM activities and 14 fetishes. Self-identification as BDSM practitioner, situational context of BDSM practice, age at awareness of these interests, and transparency to others were queried. Individual item scores and summary scores on four BDSM categories were included in the analyses. A high interest in BDSM-related activities in the general population was found because 46.8% of the total sample had ever performed at least one BDSM-related activity and an additional 22% indicated having (had) fantasies about it. Interestingly, 12.5% of the total population indicated performing at least one BDSM-related activity on a regular basis. When asked whether they saw themselves as being interested in BDSM, 26% stated this to be the case and 7.6% self-identified as BDSM practitioners. Interests in dominant and submissive activities were comparable and, remarkably, were highly intercorrelated. BDSM and fetish interests were significantly higher in men than in women. The older group (48-65 years) had significantly lower BDSM scores compared with their younger peers. Of participants with a BDSM interest, 61.4% became aware of it before 25 years of age. There is a high level of interest in BDSM in the general population, which strongly argues against stigmatization and pathologic characterization of these interests. This is the first thorough study

  10. Contribution from Belgium - Belgian contribution to the PWG1 Generic Study on Undetected Failures of Safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincke, Marc

    1997-01-01

    In the frame of its participation to the PWG 1 generic study on 'Undetected Failures of Safety Systems', AVN performed a search of such cases among the Belgian plants, using the proposed criterion: to find significant events where equipment remained inoperable, or would have been unable to fulfil correctly its safety function for an extended period of time until their condition was discovered. An extended period of time means one cycle duration or several test interval periods at least; if unknown, it has to be estimated w.r.t. plant lifetime. Note that non safety systems preventing safety systems to perform their function are to be included. As a first information source, a screening of AVN's DIANE (Domestic Information about Nuclear Events) database, for undetected failures of safety systems was performed. This database is used to store and retrieve information on a selection of events which have occurred in the Belgian NPPs since 1985. The sources of information are the incident reports which AVN receives from the utilities, completed with the reports of our inspectors on site. The coding system used within this database is based on the IRS Coding Manual. This coding system does not always allow for an easy retrieval of events related to a specific subject. In addition the DIANE-coding system does not allow for direct retrieval of undetected failures. In a first step, the following systems were scanned: reactor coolant system, reactor heat removal system, emergency core cooling system, chemical and volume control, containment spray, main and auxiliary feedwater, component cooling water, control rod drives. For each system, records were selected by examining their title. Careful reading of the 64 reports selected this way finally led to two cases compatible with the criteria. The decennial revision studies formed a second set of information sources. An inquiry to AVN's engineers responsible for the decennial revision projects allowed to

  11. Ensuring food safety in food donations: Case study of the Belgian donation/acceptation chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boeck, E; Jacxsens, L; Goubert, H; Uyttendaele, M

    2017-10-01

    The food donation process in Belgium is mapped and analyzed to identify bottlenecks in compliance with the legal framework and implementation of food safety management, based on literature search and interviews with stakeholders (donors, acceptors, regulators and facilitators) in Belgium and at EU level. The study revealed that the food donation/acceptation chain is far less structured and organized than the conventional food supply chain. The fragmented landscape of many small food banks and charity organizations (acceptors), often directed by and working with volunteers without training in food safety and lack of knowledge of legal food hygiene requirements is a bottleneck to generate trust among food donors and restricts the provision of perishable products in food donations. Lack of refrigerated transport and insufficient cold/freezing capacity in food banks and charity organizations was identified as a barrier to distribute perishable products. Furthermore, in two cities in Flanders (Belgium), at some food donation centers, donated perishable food samples (n=72) were taken and subjected to microbiological analysis to determine their overall food quality, hygiene and food safety status. Twenty-two of 72 analyzed samples showed marginal microbiological quality based on numbers of yeast, lactic acid bacteria or total viable count. In three samples Listeria monocytogenes was detected per 25g among which one ready-to-eat cooked meat product which showed increased numbers of L. monocytogenes (3.5logCFU/g) and Enterobacteriaceae (6.7logCFU/g). Overall, in Belgium, most of the donated foods considers nonperishable foods, with more or less half of the food collected by the food banks being purchased with funds from FEAD (Fund for European Aid to the Most Deprived) and thus not derived from food losses. Efforts are being made by facilitators to provide a platform for better coordination of donors and acceptors to make more efficient use of food losses. Regulators at the

  12. Pandemic A/H1N1v influenza 2009 in hospitalized children: a multicenter Belgian survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blumental Sophie

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the 2009 influenza A/H1N1v pandemic, children were identified as a specific "at risk" group. We conducted a multicentric study to describe pattern of influenza A/H1N1v infection among hospitalized children in Brussels, Belgium. Methods From July 1, 2009, to January 31, 2010, we collected epidemiological and clinical data of all proven (positive H1N1v PCR and probable (positive influenza A antigen or culture pediatric cases of influenza A/H1N1v infections, hospitalized in four tertiary centers. Results During the epidemic period, an excess of 18% of pediatric outpatients and emergency department visits was registered. 215 children were hospitalized with proven/probable influenza A/H1N1v infection. Median age was 31 months. 47% had ≥ 1 comorbid conditions. Febrile respiratory illness was the most common presentation. 36% presented with initial gastrointestinal symptoms and 10% with neurological manifestations. 34% had pneumonia. Only 24% of the patients received oseltamivir but 57% received antibiotics. 10% of children were admitted to PICU, seven of whom with ARDS. Case fatality-rate was 5/215 (2%, concerning only children suffering from chronic neurological disorders. Children over 2 years of age showed a higher propensity to be admitted to PICU (16% vs 1%, p = 0.002 and a higher mortality rate (4% vs 0%, p = 0.06. Infants less than 3 months old showed a milder course of infection, with few respiratory and neurological complications. Conclusion Although influenza A/H1N1v infections were generally self-limited, pediatric burden of disease was significant. Compared to other countries experiencing different health care systems, our Belgian cohort was younger and received less frequently antiviral therapy; disease course and mortality were however similar.

  13. Observational Study of a French and Belgian Multicenter Cohort of 23 Patients Diagnosed in Adulthood With Mevalonate Kinase Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durel, Cécile-Audrey; Aouba, Achille; Bienvenu, Boris; Deshayes, Samuel; Coppéré, Brigitte; Gombert, Bruno; Acquaviva-Bourdain, Cécile; Hachulla, Eric; Lecomte, Frédéric; Touitou, Isabelle; Ninet, Jacques; Philit, Jean-Baptiste; Messer, Laurent; Brouillard, Marc; Girard-Madoux, Marie-Hélène; Moutschen, Michel; Raison-Peyron, Nadia; Hutin, Pascal; Duffau, Pierre; Trolliet, Pierre; Hatron, Pierre-Yves; Heudier, Philippe; Cevallos, Ramiro; Lequerré, Thierry; Brousse, Valentine; Lesire, Vincent; Audia, Sylvain; Maucort-Boulch, Delphine; Cuisset, Laurence; Hot, Arnaud

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the clinical and biological features of Mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD) in patients diagnosed in adulthood. This is a French and Belgian observational retrospective study from 2000 to 2014. To constitute the cohort, we cross-check the genetic and biochemical databases. The clinical, enzymatic, and genetic data were gathered from medical records. Twenty-three patients were analyzed. The mean age at diagnosis was 40 years, with a mean age at onset of symptoms of 3 years. All symptomatic patients had fever. Febrile attacks were mostly associated with arthralgia (90.9%); lymphadenopathy, abdominal pain, and skin lesions (86.4%); pharyngitis (63.6%); cough (59.1%); diarrhea, and hepatosplenomegaly (50.0%). Seven patients had psychiatric symptoms (31.8%). One patient developed recurrent seizures. Three patients experienced renal involvement (13.6%). Two patients had angiomyolipoma (9.1%). All but one tested patients had elevated serum immunoglobulin (Ig) D level. Twenty-one patients had genetic diagnosis; most of them were compound heterozygote (76.2%). p.Val377Ile was the most prevalent mutation. Structural articular damages and systemic AA amyloidosis were the 2 most serious complications. More than 65% of patients displayed decrease in severity and frequency of attacks with increasing age, but only 35% achieved remission. MKD diagnosed in adulthood shared clinical and genetic features with classical pediatric disease. An elevated IgD concentration is a good marker for MKD in adults. Despite a decrease of severity and frequency of attacks with age, only one-third of patients achieved spontaneous remission.

  14. Child-targeted on-pack communications in Belgian supermarkets: associations with nutritional value and type of brand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Goele; Smits, Tim

    2017-09-14

    Persuasive on-pack marketing strategies, such as colourful images and games, affect children's preferences and requests. The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of these child-directed (i.e. aimed at children) strategies on food packages at a Belgian retailer. Although previous research already demonstrated the frequency of most of these techniques directed at children, this paper extends to food pricing and facing strategies (i.e. the number of items from the same product aligned next to each other in the supermarket shelves) which were unstudied till now. Moreover, the association between the use of these strategies, the products' (un)healthiness and their type of brand (national vs. private) is investigated. The content analysis found that 372 food products contained one or more child-directed marketing strategies on-pack, all these communications were coded; the products could be classified in 15 food categories. On average, 3.9 (Min = 1; Max = 8) food promotion techniques were used per package. Unhealthiness of products was rated according to Food Standards Agency (FSA) Nutrient Profile UK. We found that 89.2% of all products with child-directed strategies were considered to be unhealthy. The presence of marketing strategies was associated with higher product unhealthiness, but did not differ much between types of brand. Overall, these findings suggest that (unhealthy) foods aimed at children typically feature many on-pack persuasive communications, which implies that policy makers should (continue to) monitor this. These findings highlight the need for further research to investigate the impact of on-pack communications on children's consumption. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Electronic medical file exchange between on-duty care providers and the attending paediatrician: a Belgian paediatric pilot project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deneyer, M; Hachimi-Idrissi, S; Michel, L; Nyssen, M; De Moor, G; Vandenplas, Y

    2012-01-01

    The authors propose the introduction of a pilot project: "paediatric core file exchange in emergencies" (PCF-EXEM) which enables the exchange of medical data between the attending paediatrician (AP), holder of the medical record, and on-duty medical units (i.e. general practitioners, paediatricians, surgeons, emergency physicians,...). This project is based on two pillars: a protected server (PCF-server) containing paediatric core files (PCF), with important clinical data that should be available for the physician in order to quickly get a clear insight into the relevant clinical medical history of the child, and secondly, the possibility to provide feedback to the attending physician about the findings recorded during the on-call duty. The permanent availability of health data on the PCF-server and the possibility to provide feedback represent together the PCF-EXEM-project. This project meets the demand of the care providers to have relevant medical information permanently available in order to guarantee high quality care in emergency situations. The frail balance between the right to informative privacy and professional confidentiality on the one hand and the right to quality health care on the other hand has been taken into account. The technical and practical feasibility of this project is described. The objectives and vision of the PCF-EXEM project are conform to Belgian legislation concerning the processing of medical data and are in line with the still under consideration European projects which are focusing on interoperability and the development of a common access control to databanks containing health data for care providers. PCF-EXEM could therefore be a model for other EU countries as well.

  16. Gender, TIMI risk score and in-hospital mortality in STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI: results from the Belgian STEMI registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevaert, Sofie A; De Bacquer, Dirk; Evrard, Patrick; Convens, Carl; Dubois, Philippe; Boland, Jean; Renard, Marc; Beauloye, Christophe; Coussement, Patrick; De Raedt, Herbert; de Meester, Antoine; Vandecasteele, Els; Vranckx, Pascal; Sinnaeve, Peter R; Claeys, Marc J

    2014-01-22

    The relationship between the predictive performance of the TIMI risk score for STEMI and gender has not been evaluated in the setting of primary PCI (pPCI). Here, we compared in-hospital mortality and predictive performance of the TIMI risk score between Belgian women and men undergoing pPCI. In-hospital mortality was analysed in 8,073 (1,920 [23.8%] female and 6,153 [76.2%] male patients) consecutive pPCI-treated STEMI patients, included in the prospective, observational Belgian STEMI registry (January 2007 to February 2011). A multivariable logistic regression model, including TIMI risk score variables and gender, evaluated differences in in-hospital mortality between men and women. The predictive performance of the TIMI risk score according to gender was evaluated in terms of discrimination and calibration. Mortality rates for TIMI scores in women and men were compared. Female patients were older, had more comorbidities and longer ischaemic times. Crude in-hospital mortality was 10.1% in women vs. 4.9% in men (OR 2.2; 95% CI: 1.82-2.66, pdiscrimination and calibration in women as well as in men (c-statistic=0.84 [95% CI: 0.809-0.866], goodness-of-fit p=0.53 and c-statistic=0.89 [95% CI: 0.873-0.907], goodness-of-fit p=0.13, respectively), but mortality prediction for TIMI scores was better in men (p=0.02 for TIMI score x gender interaction). In the Belgian STEMI registry, pPCI-treated women had a higher in-hospital mortality rate even after correcting for TIMI risk score variables. The TIMI risk score was effective in predicting in-hospital mortality but performed slightly better in men. The database was registered with clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00727623).

  17. Acceptability and Perceived Benefits and Risks of Public and Patient Involvement in Health Care Policy: A Delphi Survey in Belgian Stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleemput, Irina; Christiaens, Wendy; Kohn, Laurence; Léonard, Christian; Daue, François; Denis, Alain

    2015-06-01

    In systems with public health insurance, coverage decisions should reflect social values. Deliberation among stakeholders could achieve this goal, but rarely involves patients and citizens directly. This study aimed at evaluating the acceptability, and the perceived benefits and risks, of public and patient involvement (PPI) in coverage decision making to Belgian stakeholders. A two-round Delphi survey was conducted among all stakeholder groups. The survey was constructed on the basis of interviews with 10 key stakeholders and a review of the literature on participation models. Consensus was defined as 65% or more of the respondents agreeing with a statement and less than 15% disagreeing. Eighty stakeholders participated in both rounds. They were defined as the Delphi panel. Belgian stakeholders are open toward PPI in coverage decision processes. Benefits are expected to exceed risks. The preferred model for involvement is to consult citizens or patients, within the existing decision-making structures and at specific milestones in the process. Consulting citizens and patients is a higher level of involvement than merely informing them and a lower level than letting them participate actively. Consultation involves asking nonbinding advice on (parts of) the decision problem. According to the Delphi panel, the benefits of PPI could be increasing awareness among members of the general public and patients about the challenges and costs of health care, and enriched decision processes with expertise by experience from patients. Potential risks include subjectivity, insufficient resources to participate and weigh on the process, difficulties in finding effective ways to express a collective opinion, the risk of manipulation, and lobbying or power games of other stakeholders. PPI in coverage decision-making processes is acceptable to Belgian stakeholders, be it in different ways for different types of decisions. Benefits are expected to outweigh risks. Copyright © 2015

  18. The future of hospital laboratories. Position statement from the Royal Belgian Society of Clinical Chemistry (RBSCC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Michel R; Wallemacq, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    To face the economic pressures arising from the current socio-economic conjuncture, hospital laboratories are endangered by an increasing trend towards the outsourcing of clinical laboratory tests to external (mega-) laboratories. This should allow hospitals to meet their economic requirements, but with an increased risk of loss of medical quality and, mid- to long-term, loss of cost effectiveness of healthcare at the national level. To anticipate current developments (economical and technological) that inevitably will affect the future of laboratory medicine, hospital laboratories should be proactive and enhance efficiency, reduce costs by consolidation, integrate into regional networks, and form alliances or partnerships. To create additional value, the core competency of laboratory professionals must be refocused to provide medical knowledge services (consultative support to clinicians) related to in vitro diagnostic testing. To integrate cost-efficiency with medical quality, implementation of a matricial organization - operational vs. biomedical level - could be an interesting approach. This integrated structure should create total quality of laboratory testing, managing the entire medical diagnostic cycle from the pre-preanalytical to post-postanalytical phase.

  19. Holy smoke in medieval funerary rites: chemical fingerprints of frankincense in southern Belgian incense burners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeten, Jan; Deforce, Koen; Challe, Sophie; De Vos, Dirk; Degryse, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    potential for organic chemical analyses of incense residues.

  20. Characterization of mandibular molar root and canal morphology using cone beam computed tomography and its variability in Belgian and Chilean population samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Andres; Jacobs, Reinhilde; Lambrechts, Paul; Brizuela, Claudia; Cabrera, Carolina; Concha, Guillermo; Pedemonte, Maria Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    This study used cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) to characterize mandibular molar root and canal morphology and its variability in Belgian and Chilean population samples. We analyzed the CBCT images of 515 mandibular molars (257 from Belgium and 258 from Chile). Molars meeting the inclusion criteria were analyzed to determine (1) the number of roots; (2) the root canal configuration; (3) the presence of a curved canal in the cross-sectional image of the distal root in the mandibular first molar and (4) the presence of a C-shaped canal in the second mandibular molar. A descriptive analysis was performed. The association between national origin and the presence of a curved or C-shaped canal was evaluated using the chi-squared test. The most common configurations in the mesial root of both molars were type V and type III. In the distal root, type I canal configuration was the most common. Curvature in the cross-sectional image was found in 25% of the distal canals of the mandibular first molars in the Belgian population, compared to 11% in the Chilean population. The prevalence of C-shaped canals was 10% or less in both populations. In cases of unclear or complex root and canal morphology in the mandibular molars, CBCT imaging might assist endodontic specialists in making an accurate diagnosis and in treatment planning

  1. Different clinical, virological, serological and tissue tropism outcomes of two new and one old Belgian type 1 subtype 1 porcine reproductive and respiratory virus (PRRSV) isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydas, Ilias S.; Trus, Ivan; Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine

    2015-01-01

    in the highest respiratory disease scores and longest period of fever. Gross lung lesions were more pronounced for 13V091 (13%), than for 13V117 (7%) and 07V063 (11%). The nasal shedding and viremia was also most extensive with 13V091. The 13V091 group showed the highest virus replication in conchae, tonsils......In this study, the pathogenic behavior of PRRSV 13V091 and 13V117, isolated in 2013 from two different Belgian farms with enzootic respiratory problems shortly after weaning in the nursery, were compared with the Belgian strain 07V063 isolated in 2007. Full-length genome sequencing was performed....... It can be concluded that (i) 13V091 is a highly pathogenic type 1 subtype 1 PRRSV strain that replicates better than 07V063 and 13V117 and has a strong tropism for sialoadhesin-cells and (ii) despite the close genetic relationship between 13V117 and 07V063, 13V117 has an increased nasal replication...

  2. Concentration mechanisms of uranium in the mineralized fractures of the Lower Devonian of the Belgian Ardennes - The case of the Oizy area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlet, J.M.; Doremus, P.; Quinif, Y.

    1987-01-01

    During a reconnaissance survey for uranium in the Belgian Paleozoic several anomalies or U occurrences have been discovered in the Lower Devonian by a car-borne radiometric survey. These anomalies appear in relation with mobilization and reconcentration processes at the boundary of redox fronts or following alteration fronts in the detrital series of the Lower Devonian. This paper describes the Oizy anomaly which occurs in a fracturated zone of the Gedinnian formations of the Ardenne Anticline and puts it back in the general context of the U concentrations of the Lower Devonian of the Belgian Ardennes. After a lithostratigraphic, structural and radiometric study of the quarry where the U concentrations occur, a laboratory study of the surrounding rocks has been performed by various techniques (γ- and α-spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, autoradiography and low-level counting technique, analytical chemistry). One can conclude that the mineralized fractures of Oizy are due to a downward remobilization of U by subsurface processes during post-Hercynian periods. 26 refs.; 11 figs.; 1 plate; 2 tabs

  3. Effect of energy restriction and re-alimentation in Belgian Blue double-muscled beef cows on digestibility and metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiems, L O; Vanacker, J M; De Boever, J L; van Caelenbergh, W; Aerts, J M; De Brabander, D L

    2007-02-01

    Four groups of five non-lactating and non-pregnant Belgian Blue double-muscled (BBDM) cows were used to investigate the effect of energy level (E) on digestion, and blood and urine metabolites. The energy levels of the groups, applied indoors during a 140-day restriction period, were 100%, 90%, 80% or 70% of their energy requirements (E100, E90, E80, E70) respectively. Afterwards, animals grazed on the same swards for 203 days (re-alimentation period). Balance trials were conducted at the end of the restriction period (BT1) and at the end of the re-alimentation period (BT2). Blood was sampled at the end of these trials. Diets consisted of maize silage and straw (80/20 on a dry matter basis) and a mineral-vitamin premix, fed at the appropriate E during BT1, or maize silage and a mineral-vitamin premix, fed at 125% of the maintenance requirements, during BT2. Significant increases of the digestibility coefficients were found during BT1 when E decreased, resulting in a better net energy capture of 7% for E70 compared with E100 (p < 0.05). Slightly, but non-significantly higher digestibility coefficients were observed for decreasing E during BT2. Plasma concentrations of glucose and creatinine did not differ between treatments during BT1, while differences were found for triacylglycerols and alpha-amino nitrogen. A tendency for a linear increase was observed for non-esterified fatty acids with decreasing E. Differences in blood metabolite concentrations disappeared in BT2. Urinary creatinine excretion was not affected by E, while body nitrogen loss increased linearly with energy restriction in BT1. No differences were found during BT2, suggesting that non-lactating and non-pregnant BBDM cows are able to adapt to a cyclic change of body weight and body reserves. These data show that restricted cows mobilized body fat as well as body protein. It is concluded that the qualitative aspects of metabolism during energy restriction are comparable in double-muscled cows with

  4. Variability of nursing care by APR-DRG and by severity of illness in a sample of nine Belgian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirson, Magali; Delo, Caroline; Di Pierdomenico, Lionel; Laport, Nancy; Biloque, Veronique; Leclercq, Pol

    2013-10-10

    As soon as Diagnosis related Groups (DRG) were introduced in many hospital financing systems, most nursing research revealed that DRG were not very homogeneous with regard to nursing care. However, few studies are based on All Patient refined Diagnosis related Groups (APR-DRGs) and few of them use recent data. Objectives of this study are: (1) to evaluate if nursing activity is homogeneous by APR-DRG and by severity of illness (SOI) (2) to evaluate the outlier's rate associated with the nursing activity and (3) to compare nursing cost homogeneity per DRG and SOI. Study done in 9 Belgian hospitals on a selection of APR-DRG with more than 30 patients (7 638 inpatient stays). The evaluation of the homogeneity is based on coefficients of variation (CV). The 75th percentile + 1.5 × inter-quartile range was used to select high outliers. 25th percentile -1.5 × inter-quartile range was used to select low outliers. Nursing costs per ward were distributed on inpatient stays of each ward following two techniques (the LOS vs. the number of nursing care minutes per stay). The homogeneity of LOS by DRG and by SOI is relatively good (CV: 0.56). The homogeneity of the nursing activity by DRG is less good (CVs between 0.36 and 1.54) and is influenced by nursing activity outliers (high outliers' rate: 5.19%, low outliers' rate: 0.14%). The outlier's rate varies according to the studied variable. The high outliers' rate is higher for nursing activity than for LOS. The homogeneity of nursing costs is higher when costs are based on the LOS of patients than when based on minutes of nursing care (CVs between 0.26 and 1.46 for nursing costs based on LOS and between 0.49 and 2.04 for nursing costs based on minutes of nursing care). It is essential that the calculation of nursing cost by stay and by DRG for hospital financing purposes was based on nursing activity data, that more reflect resources used in wards, and not on LOS data. The only way to obtain this information is

  5. The Belgian repository of fundamental atomic data and stellar spectra (BRASS). I. Cross-matching atomic databases of astrophysical interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverick, M.; Lobel, A.; Merle, T.; Royer, P.; Martayan, C.; David, M.; Hensberge, H.; Thienpont, E.

    2018-04-01

    Context. Fundamental atomic parameters, such as oscillator strengths, play a key role in modelling and understanding the chemical composition of stars in the Universe. Despite the significant work underway to produce these parameters for many astrophysically important ions, uncertainties in these parameters remain large and can propagate throughout the entire field of astronomy. Aims: The Belgian repository of fundamental atomic data and stellar spectra (BRASS) aims to provide the largest systematic and homogeneous quality assessment of atomic data to date in terms of wavelength, atomic and stellar parameter coverage. To prepare for it, we first compiled multiple literature occurrences of many individual atomic transitions, from several atomic databases of astrophysical interest, and assessed their agreement. In a second step synthetic spectra will be compared against extremely high-quality observed spectra, for a large number of BAFGK spectral type stars, in order to critically evaluate the atomic data of a large number of important stellar lines. Methods: Several atomic repositories were searched and their data retrieved and formatted in a consistent manner. Data entries from all repositories were cross-matched against our initial BRASS atomic line list to find multiple occurrences of the same transition. Where possible we used a new non-parametric cross-match depending only on electronic configurations and total angular momentum values. We also checked for duplicate entries of the same physical transition, within each retrieved repository, using the non-parametric cross-match. Results: We report on the number of cross-matched transitions for each repository and compare their fundamental atomic parameters. We find differences in log(gf) values of up to 2 dex or more. We also find and report that 2% of our line list and Vienna atomic line database retrievals are composed of duplicate transitions. Finally we provide a number of examples of atomic spectral lines

  6. Belgian speleothems from the Last Interglacial: insights in the onset of glacial conditions in north western Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansteenberge, Stef; Verheyden, Sophie; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, Lawrence R.; Keppens, Eddy; Claeys, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    Currently, a dataset combining at least four speleothems from two different cave systems in southern Belgium (Han-sur-Lesse and Remouchamps) is being constructed to improve the understanding of the termination of the Eemian and the millennial to decadal variability of the Early Glacial times in north western Europe. Here, one of those speleothems is presented. The Han-stm-9 (or 'Triptyque') speleothem is a broken, 68 cm long and candle-shaped stalagmite from the Han-sur-Lesse cave system. The stalagmite was collected in summer 2013 within the southern part of the cave network and was dated between ~126 and ~99ka. Most likely, climate optimum conditions during the 130-125ka interval are linked to the growth of this and other speleothems from Belgian caves. This particular speleothem gained interest because of the partial conformity with the continental interglacial period in northern western Europe (130 - 118ka) and its dense calcite composition with visible layering, excluding post-depositional deformation. Furthermore, the stalagmite displays a complex growth history, with large variations in growth rates (ranging from and periods of ceased speleothem formation. Two hiatuses, with a distinct macroscopic expression, occur. The first one starts at 118.4ka and lasts until 113.0ka. A second hiatus is situated between ~108ka and 103.7ka. A trend in growth rate, consisting of slow growth gradually increasing towards very fast speleothem formation before both hiatuses, is observed. These intervals with very high growth rates, for instance around 118ka, enable high-resolution climate reconstructions via stable isotopes (δ18O and δ13C) and trace elements (Mg, Sr, Ba and P), down to centennial and decadal scale. The timing of the first hiatus corresponds with Greenland Stadial 26 and with the generally accepted termination of the Eemian in northern Europe at 119-118ka. Also, preliminary stable isotope studies have indicated a large detoriation of δ13C occurring right

  7. Effectiveness of the Self-Regulation eHealth Intervention "MyPlan1.0." on Physical Activity Levels of Recently Retired Belgian Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyck, Delfien; Plaete, Jolien; Cardon, Greet; Crombez, Geert; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2016-01-01

    The study purpose was to test the effectiveness of the self-regulation eHealth intervention "MyPlan1.0." to increase physical activity (PA) in recently retired Belgian adults. This study was a randomized controlled trial with three points of follow-up/modules (baseline to 1-week to 1-month follow-up). In total, 240 recently retired…

  8. Belgian national report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthe, J.

    1995-01-01

    At last IWG-LMNPP meeting, the approach on nuclear power plant life management in Belgium was presented. The present report focuses on results of in-service monitoring of major equipment, specifically reactor internals, reactor top-head penetrations and steam generators. Status of major backfitting on steam generators and balance of plant is developed as well as developments in the field of thermal stratification and qualification of ultrasonic inspection methods and personnel for in-service inspection. (author). (Abstract only)

  9. Belgian firms visiting CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    FP Department

    2009-01-01

    25 – 26 MAY 2009 09.00 to 17.00 Monday 25 May 09.00 to 17.00 Tuesday 26 May Individual interviews will take place in technicians’ offices. The firms will contact relevant users/technicians but any user wishing to make contact with a particular firm is welcome to use the contact details which are available from each departmental secretariat or from the GS Department web pages here. List of Companies:Automation Services and Consulting BVBA Burrick NV, (PLC) Cissoid DB Engineering Design, Drafting & Services BVBA Entelec Control Systems GILLAM-Fei S.A. HPC ICSENSE IWT – Enterprise Europe Flanders Jema SA Mecasoft SA SA Polmans Rapid-Torc Resarm Engineering Plastics SA Sentera Europa NV SLC BVBA Stocker Industrie SA Technord Tecnubel Winlock BVBA For further information please contact Caroline Laignel (GS-DI 73722) or Karine Robert (GS-SEM-LS 74407).

  10. Relationship between neighborhood walkability and older adults' physical activity: results from the Belgian Environmental Physical Activity Study in Seniors (BEPAS Seniors).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Holle, Veerle; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; Van Dyck, Delfien; Deforche, Benedicte; Van de Weghe, Nico; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2014-08-23

    Adequate knowledge on environmental correlates of physical activity (PA) in older adults is needed to develop effective health promotion initiatives. However, research in this age group is scarce and most existing studies were conducted in North America. The present study aimed to examine relationships between GIS-based neighborhood walkability and objective and self-reported PA in community-dwelling Belgian older adults. Furthermore, moderating effects of neighborhood income levels were investigated. The Belgian Environmental Physical Activity Study (BEPAS) for Seniors is a cross-sectional study in older adults (≥65 yrs) and was conducted between October 2010 and September 2012. Data from 438 older adults living in 20 neighborhoods across Ghent (Belgium) were analyzed. Stratification of selected neighborhoods was based upon objective walkability and neighborhood income. Participants wore an accelerometer during seven consecutive days to obtain objective levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Self-reported levels of transportation walking/cycling and recreational walking/cycling were assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (long, last 7 days version) adapted for the elderly. Multi-level regression analyses were conducted. Findings showed a positive relationship between neighborhood walkability and weekly minutes of older adults' self-reported walking for transportation (B = 4.63 ± 1.05;p walkability and accelerometer-derived low-light PA (B = -1.38 ± 0.62;p = 0.025). Walkability was not related to any measure of recreational PA. A walkability x income interaction was found for accelerometer-derived MVPA (B = -1.826 ± 1.03;p = 0.075), showing only a positive association between walkability and MVPA in low-income neighborhood residents. This was the first European study to examine walkability-PA relationships in older adults. These Belgian findings suggest that a high neighborhood walkability relates to higher levels

  11. The history of Belgian assisted reproduction technology cycle registration and control: a case study in reducing the incidence of multiple pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Neubourg, D; Bogaerts, K; Wyns, C; Albert, A; Camus, M; Candeur, M; Degueldre, M; Delbaere, A; Delvigne, A; De Sutter, P; Dhont, M; Dubois, M; Englert, Y; Gillain, N; Gordts, S; Hautecoeur, W; Lesaffre, E; Lejeune, B; Leroy, F; Ombelet, W; Perrier D'Hauterive, S; Vandekerckhove, F; Van der Elst, J; D'Hooghe, T

    2013-10-01

    What is the effect of a legal limitation of the number of embryos that can be transferred in an assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycle on the multiple delivery rate? The Belgian national register shows that the introduction of reimbursement of ART laboratory costs in July 2003, and the imposition of a legal limitation of the number of embryos transferred in the same year, were associated with a >50% reduction of the multiple pregnancy rate from 27 to 11% between 2003 and the last assessment in 2010, without any reduction of the pregnancy rate per cycle. Individual Belgian IVF centres have published their results since the implementation of the law, and these show a decrease in the multiple pregnancy rate on a centre by centre basis. However, the overall national picture remains unpublished. Cohort study from 1990 to 2010 of all ART cycles in Belgium (2685 cycles in 1990 evolving to 19 110 cycles in 2010), with a retrospective analysis from 1990 to 2000 and prospective online data collection since 2001. Registration evolved from paper written reports per centre to a compulsory online registration of all ART cycles. From 2001 up to mid-2009, data were collected from Excel spread sheets or MS Access files into an MS Access database. Since mid-2009, data collection is done via a remote and secured web-based system (www.belrap.be) where centres can upload their data and get immediate feedback about missing data, errors and inconsistencies. National Belgian registration data show that reimbursement of IVF laboratory costs in July 2003, coupled to a legal limitation in the number of embryos transferred in utero, were associated with a 50% reduction of the multiple pregnancy rate from 27 to 11% without reduction of the pregnancy rate per cycle, and with an increase in the number of fresh and frozen ART cycles due to improved access to treatment. There is potential underreporting of complications of ART treatment, pregnancy outcome and neonatal health. Over the 20

  12. Cost effectiveness of atorvastatin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a pharmacoeconomic analysis of the collaborative atorvastatin diabetes study in the belgian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annemans, L; Marbaix, S; Webb, K; Van Gaal, L; Scheen, A

    2010-01-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have a high risk of developing cardiovascular (CV) disease. The clinical benefit of use of statins in patients with type 2 diabetes has been demonstrated in several randomized, controlled trials, including the CARDS clinical trial. Based on the clinical CARDS data, the favourable cost effectiveness of atorvastatin 10 mg in patients with type 2 diabetes has been demonstrated in countries such as the UK and France. This study aimed to estimate the cost effectiveness in the Belgian setting of atorvastatin 10 mg compared with no treatment for the primary prevention of CV events in type 2 diabetes patients without a history of CV disease. A Markov model with 1-year cycles was developed to simulate the CV event and death risk according to the therapeutic approach initiated. The transition probabilities for CV events in the 'no statin treatment' group were derived from the risk equations reported from the large UKPDS. Risk reductions from the CARDS clinical trial were used to adjust these CV event probabilities in the atorvastatin 10 mg treatment group. The characteristics of type 2 diabetes patients without a CV history were derived from the Belgian OCAPI survey. The public healthcare payers' perspective was taken into account for costing. The direct medical costs of CV events were based on the Public Health Authorities' hospital database for acute care costs and on the literature for the follow-up costs. The impact on the reimbursement system of generic entry to the market was considered in the drug cost. Costs were valued as at year 2009; costs and outcomes were discounted at 3% and 1.5%, respectively. Based on a 5-year time horizon, atorvastatin was demonstrated to be cost effective with an incremental cost/quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) of euro 16,681. Over a lifetime horizon (25 years), atorvastatin was demonstrated to be a cost-saving therapeutic intervention. At a threshold of euro 30,000/QALY, atorvastatin had a 98

  13. An experiment in democracy: observing the Belgian local partnerships for the management of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webler, T.

    2004-01-01

    Observations are offered on the FSC workshop and the Belgian local partnerships from the perspective of public participation theory and practice. A distinction is drawn between participatory democratic theory and pluralism in order to point out that partnerships exemplify the latter and are thus susceptible to the main shortcoming of pluralism, which is that the stakeholders become a club of experts, distant from the individual citizens. A model of risk decision making based on the notions of analysis and deliberation is presented as a means for analytically scrutinizing the workshop and the partnerships. The workshop successfully diversified deliberation by invoking numerous features including: Small group work, informal venues, stimulating short presentations, involvement of local stakeholders, rapporteurs, community visits, and structured discussion. One shortcoming of the workshop was that it could have displayed more continuity with previous workshops and also convey a sense of progress on the issues of interest. A second shortcoming was that it invoked a very singular dimension of risk (to human health) without devoting adequate attention to the other dimensions of risk (economic, ecological, psychological, sociological, and ethical). The partnerships performed well in many ways; in particular the following features were evaluated as being positive: genuine commitment by partnership staff and leadership to involve all stakeholders, some degree of self-selection by participants (voluntary participation), widespread education and outreach, a flexible timetable, genuine commitment from ONDRAF/NIRAS to see the process through, clear, capable, and respected leadership. Finally, the simple survival of the partnerships in Mal and Dessel suggest popular legitimacy and buy-in by participants. A handful of more critical observations were made about the partnerships as well. First, the near absence of women strikes a chord of concern that women may not feel comfortable

  14. Thyroidectomy over a quarter of a century in the Belgian Ardennes: a retrospective study of 1207 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, G

    2008-01-01

    represented 2.8%. After 1986, 921 patients underwent thyroid surgery and 64 cancers were found (7%). The cases of the three youngest whose thyroid cancer appeared after 1986 should also be noted. They were aged 13, 14 and 19 in April 1986 and had developed cancer 13 to 15 years after the Chernobyl accident. It can be said that a meticulous surgical technique followed by an experienced surgeon who continually repeats the same procedures can reduce the number of postoperative complications in thyroid surgery and that the link between cancer of the thyroid in the Belgian population after 1986 and radiation exposure caused by the radioactive cloud released by the explosion of the Chernobyl nuclear plant is still open for debate. Nothing is certain and the numbers of thyroid cancers should continue to be documented in the coming years especially for patients aged less than 10 year old in April 1986.

  15. Experimental studies of the effect of irradiation on the anaerobic corrosion of carbon steel in relation to the Belgian supercontainer concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy B.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes recent results from an investigation of the effects of γ-radiation on the anaerobic corrosion of carbon steel in cement, in relation to the Belgian Supercontainer Concept for radioactive waste disposal. Anaerobic corrosion rates were measured by monitoring hydrogen evolution and the corresponding electrochemical behaviour was investigated by measuring open circuit potential and linear polarisation resistance. The test medium was alkaline simulated porewater, at γ-irradiation dose rates of 0 and 25 Gy hr−1, temperatures of 25 °C and 80 °C and chloride concentrations of 0 and 100 mg/l. The effects of radiation on the corrosion behaviour were found to be small.

  16. Experimental studies of the effect of irradiation on the anaerobic corrosion of carbon steel in relation to the Belgian supercontainer concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, N. R.; Fennell, P. A. H.; Rance, A. P.; Winsley, R. J.; Reddy, B.; Kursten, B.

    2011-04-01

    This paper describes recent results from an investigation of the effects of γ-radiation on the anaerobic corrosion of carbon steel in cement, in relation to the Belgian Supercontainer Concept for radioactive waste disposal. Anaerobic corrosion rates were measured by monitoring hydrogen evolution and the corresponding electrochemical behaviour was investigated by measuring open circuit potential and linear polarisation resistance. The test medium was alkaline simulated porewater, at γ-irradiation dose rates of 0 and 25 Gy hr-1, temperatures of 25 °C and 80 °C and chloride concentrations of 0 and 100 mg/l. The effects of radiation on the corrosion behaviour were found to be small.

  17. The impact of the directive on payment services in the internal market on Danish and Belgian legislation on fraudulent payment transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henschel, Rene Franz; Steenot, Reinhard

    2010-01-01

    In December 2007, the European Directive on payment services in the internal market was published in the Official Journal of the European Union. This directive, which has to be transposed into national legislation. This directive, which has to be transposed into national legislation before 1...... out in what way the directive had or will have an impact on Danish and Belgian legislation. More specifically, we will examine how the rules incorporated in the European directive, which is based on the principle of maximum harmonisation, are implemented in Belgium and Denmark, whether...... the implementations are in accordance with the directive and, finally, whether the directive and the implementations reduce or strengthen the protection of payment service users in the two countries and promote the creation of a common internal market for payment services....

  18. The influence of age, sex, bulb position, visual feedback, and the order of testing on maximum anterior and posterior tongue strength and endurance in healthy belgian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderwegen, Jan; Guns, Cindy; Van Nuffelen, Gwen; Elen, Rik; De Bodt, Marc

    2013-06-01

    This study collected data on the maximum anterior and posterior tongue strength and endurance in 420 healthy Belgians across the adult life span to explore the influence of age, sex, bulb position, visual feedback, and order of testing. Measures were obtained using the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument (IOPI). Older participants (more than 70 years old) demonstrated significantly lower strength than younger persons at the anterior and the posterior tongue. Endurance remains stable throughout the major part of life. Gender influence remains significant but minor throughout life, with males showing higher pressures and longer endurance. The anterior part of the tongue has both higher strength and longer endurance than the posterior part. Mean maximum tongue pressures in this European population seem to be lower than American values and are closer to Asian results. The normative data can be used for objective assessment of tongue weakness and subsequent therapy planning of dysphagic patients.

  19. A Costa Rican family affected with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease due to the myelin protein zero (MPZ p.Thr124Met mutation shares the Belgian haplotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Leal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The p.Thr124Met mutation in the myelin protein zero (MPZ causes the Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2J, a peripheral neuropathy with additional symptoms as pupillary alterations and deafness. It was observed in several families around the world originating e. g. from Germany, Belgium, Japan, Italy and North America. Here we report Central American patients originating from a family in Costa Rica carrying this mutation. Clinical, electrophysiological and molecular analysis of patients and controls were performed, including gene and linked markers´ sequencing. Carriers share almost the entire haplotype with two non related Belgian CMT patients. As a result of the haplotype analysis, based on ten markers (seven SNPs, two microsatellites and an intronic polyA stretch, the founder effect hypothesis for this allele migration is suggestive. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (4: 1285-1293. Epub 2014 December 01.

  20. Digital image correlation, acoustic emission and ultrasonic pulse velocity for the detection of cracks in the concrete buffer of the Belgian nuclear supercontainer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliopoulos, Sokratis; Tsangouri, Eleni; Aggelis, Dimitrios G.; Pyl, Lincy; Areias, Lou; Vrije Univ., Brussels

    2014-01-01

    The long term management of high-level and heat emitting radioactive waste is a worldwide concern, as it directly influences the environment and future generations. To address this issue, the Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials has come up with the conceptual design of a massive concrete structure called Supercontainer. The feasibility to construct these structures is being evaluated through a number of scaled models that are tested using classical as well as state of the art measurement techniques. In the current paper, the results obtained from the simultaneous application of the Digital Image Correlation (DIC), the Acoustic Emission (AE) and the Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity (UPV) nondestructive testing techniques on the second scaled model for the detection and monitoring of cracks will be presented.

  1. Occurrence of Organophosphorus Flame Retardants and Plasticizers (PFRs) in Belgian Foodstuffs and Estimation of the Dietary Exposure of the Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poma, Giulia; Sales, Carlos; Bruyland, Bram; Christia, Christina; Goscinny, Séverine; Van Loco, Joris; Covaci, Adrian

    2018-02-20

    The occurrence of 14 organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticizers (PFRs) was investigated in 165 composite food samples purchased from the Belgian market and divided into 14 food categories, including fish, crustaceans, mussels, meat, milk, cheese, dessert, food for infants, fats and oils, grains, eggs, potatoes and derived products, other food (stocks), and vegetables. Seven PFRs [namely, tri-n-butyl phosphate (TnBP), tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCIPP), tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP), triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), 2-ethylhexyldiphenyl phosphate (EHDPHP), and tris(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (TEHP)] were detected at concentrations above quantification limits. Fats and oils were the most contaminated category, with a total PFR concentration of 84.4 ng/g of wet weight (ww), followed by grains (36.9 ng/g of ww) and cheese (20.1 ng/g of ww). Our results support the hypothesis that PFR contamination may occur during industrial processing and manipulation of food products (e.g., packaging, canning, drying, etc.). Considering the daily average intake of food for the modal adult Belgian (15-64 years of age), the dietary exposure to sum PFRs was estimated to be ≤7500 ± 1550 ng/day [103 ± 21 ng/kg of body weight (bw)/day]. For individual PFRs, TPHP contributed on average 3400 ng/day (46.6 ng/kg of bw/day), TCIPP 1350 ng/day (18.5 ng/kg of bw/day), and EHDPHP 1090 ng/day (15 ng/kg of bw/day), values that were lower than their corresponding health-based reference doses. The mean dietary exposure mainly originated from grains (39%), followed by fats and oils (21%) and dairy products (20%). No significant differences between the intakes of adult men and women were observed.

  2. The Desire of Parenthood: Intuitive Co-parental Behaviors and Quality of Couple Relationship among Italian and Belgian Same-Sex and Opposite-Sex Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miscioscia, Marina; Blavier, Adelaide; Pagone, Paolo R.; Simonelli, Alessandra

    2017-01-01

    Studies that focused on family issues have allowed a great understanding of the aspects related to its subsystems, such as parenting desire and its expectations, couples’ satisfaction and quality of child’s outcomes. All these aspects are greatly interconnected and contribute to the creation of specific family dynamics, such as the quality of family interactions. The present study focuses on intuitive co-parental behaviors and the quality of couple relationship observed during the decision process (intention and desire) to be (or become) parents. Our first goal was to explore these aspects in a cross-national sample made of Italian and Belgian heterosexual, lesbian and gay couples. We then aimed to evaluate if the degree of internalized homophobia affects co-parental alliance. The quality of couple relationship and co-parental behaviors have been evaluated through the recruitment of a group of 115 stable heterosexual, gay and lesbian couples (230 individuals, 20–50 years of age) without children, who wanted to become parents. We used the Prenatal Lausanne Trilogue Play to evaluate the Co-parental Alliance; the couple’s satisfaction was assessed with the Dyadic Adjustment Scale and the Internalized Homophobia with the MISS-LG. In line with the existent literature, the analysis did not find any difference between lesbian, gay and heterosexual couples in terms of co-parental alliance. High levels of couple adjustment lead to better parental performances among both Italian and Belgian couples. The results suggest also that sexual stigma differs from one country to another, and it has an impact on the capability of managing co-parenting. Clinical implications should be verified in further longitudinal studies in order to observe the impact on the inter-generational transmission of psychopathology. PMID:28261120

  3. The Belgian approach and status on the radiological surveillance of radioactive substances in metal scrap and non-radioactive waste and the financing of orphan sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braeckeveldt, Marnix; Preter, Peter De; Michiels, Jan; Pepin, Stephane; Schrauben, Manfred; Wertelaers, An

    2007-01-01

    Numerous facilities in the non-nuclear sector in Belgium (e.g. in the non-radioactive waste processing and management sector and in the metal recycling sector) have been equipped with measuring ports for detecting radioactive substances. These measuring ports prevent radioactive sources or radioactive contamination from ending up in the material fluxes treated by the sectors concerned. They thus play an important part in the protection of the workers and the people living in the neighbourhood of the facilities, as well as in the protection of the population and the environment in general. In 2006, Belgium's federal nuclear control agency (FANC/AFCN) drew up guidelines for the operators of non-nuclear facilities with a measuring port for detecting radioactive substances. These guidelines describe the steps to be followed by the operators when the port's alarm goes off. Following the publication of the European guideline 2003/122/EURATOM of 22 December 2003 on the control of high-activity sealed radioactive sources and orphan sources, a procedure has been drawn up by FANC/AFCN and ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Belgian National Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials, to identify the responsible to cover the costs relating to the further management of detected sealed sources and if not found to declare the sealed source as an orphan source. In this latter case and from mid-2006 the insolvency fund managed by ONDRAF/NIRAS covers the cost of radioactive waste management. At the request of the Belgian government, a financing proposal for the management of unsealed orphan sources as radioactive waste was also established by FANC/AFCN and ONDRAF/NIRAS. This proposal applies the same approach as for sealed sources and thus the financing of unsealed orphan sources will also be covered by the insolvency fund. (authors)

  4. A Belgian Serosurveillance/Seroprevalence Study of Diphtheria, Tetanus and Pertussis Using a Luminex xMAP Technology-Based Pentaplex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raissa Nadège Caboré

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Serosurveillance and seroprevalence studies are an essential tool to monitor vaccine-preventable diseases. We have developed a magnetic bead-based pentaplex immunoassay (MIA for the simultaneous detection of IgG antibodies against diphtheria toxin (DT, tetanus toxin (TT, pertussis toxin (PT, filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA and pertactin (Prn. The in-house pentaplex MIA showed a good correlation with commercial ELISAs with correlation coefficients between 0.89 for PT and 0.98 for TT. Intra- and inter-assay variability was <10%. A total of 670 anonymized serum samples collected in 2012 in Belgian adults (ages 20–29.9 years were analyzed. Geometric mean concentrations (GMC were 0.2 (0.13–0.29 IU/mL for DT, 0.63 (0.45–0.82 IU/mL for TT, 3.9 (2.6–5.8 IU/mL for PT, 16.3 (11.7–22.7 IU/mL for FHA and 15.4 (10.1–23.6 IU/mL for Prn. Antibody concentrations were below the protective level of 0.1 IU/mL in 26.4% of the sera for DT and in 8.6% of the sera for TT. Anti-PT IgG concentrations indicative of recent pertussis infection (>125 IU/mL were detected in 1.2% of the subjects. High anti-PT antibodies were not correlated with high antibodies against any of the four other vaccine antigens. This pentaplex MIA will be used for a new large-scale Belgian serosurveillance/seroprevalence study of diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis.

  5. The Belgian Investments in Mass Transit of the Cities in Russian Empire at the End of the XIXth and at the Beginning of the XXth Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya V. Shpakov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the process of realization of long-term investment in the city transport projects of the Russian Empire at the end of the XIX and the beginning of the XX centuries. The authors analyze the reasons for the attractiveness of the Russian transport sector for the Belgian companies, the main stages of their integration into the economy of the Russian Empire, examine the legal and operational features of the transport activities of joint stock companies with foreign borrowed capital. There is also analysis of the volumes of the invested funds, description of the authorized capital size and the transport companies’ securities. On the basis of the comparison of the annual profit interest, the article explains the relatively small presence of the empire companies with Russian capital in the urban transport market. Analyzing the annual financial results of the joint stock Belgian transport companies, the authors fix a number of loss-making companies in the provincial towns. The article presents an attempt to explain this phenomenon on the basis of the problems in urban transportation in several cities. Examining the peculiarities of doing transport business in the cities, the article reflects the aspirations of the owners of corporations to maximize their profits at the expense of the quality of transport service. At the beginning of the XX century such companies’ policy led to the negative assessment of the way of solving transport problems of cities at the expense of foreign capital state by the Russian Empire. The authors come to the conclusion that trying to find the most appropriate solution of the question, the empire authorities offered the city transport companies to build their own resources by attracting loans in the state banks and to use of the funds from the bond issues.

  6. Socioeconomic disparities in lung cancer mortality in Belgian men and women (2001-2011: does it matter who you live with?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrien Vanthomme

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ample studies have observed an adverse association between individual socioeconomic position (SEP and lung cancer mortality. Moreover, the presence of a partner has shown to be a crucial determinant of health. Yet, few studies have assessed whether partner’s SEP affects health in addition to individual SEP. This paper will study whether own SEP (education, partner’s SEP (partner’s education and own and partner’s SEP combined (housing conditions, are associated with lung cancer mortality in Belgium. Methods Data consist of the Belgian 2001 census linked to register data on cause-specific mortality for 2001–2011. The study population includes all married or cohabiting Belgian inhabitants aged 40–84 years. Age-standardized lung cancer mortality rates (direct standardization and mortality rate ratios (Poisson regression were computed for the different SEP groups. Results In men, we observed a clear inverse association between all SEP indicators (own and partner’s education, and housing conditions and lung cancer mortality. Men benefit from having a higher educated partner in terms of lower lung cancer mortality rates. These observations hold for both middle-aged and older men. For women, the picture is less uniform. In middle-aged and older women, housing conditions is inversely associated with lung cancer mortality. As for partner’s education, for middle-aged women, the association is rather weak whereas for older women, there is no such association. Whereas the educational level of middle-aged women is inversely associated with lung cancer mortality, in older women this association disappears in the fully adjusted model. Conclusions Both men and women benefit from being in a relationship with a high-educated partner. It seems that for men, the educational level of their partner is of great importance while for women the housing conditions is more substantial. Both research and policy interventions should allow

  7. Knowledge and attitudes of nurses on pressure ulcer prevention: a cross-sectional multicenter study in Belgian hospitals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beeckman, D.; Defloor, T.; Schoonhoven, L.; Vanderwee, K.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence-based guidelines for pressure ulcer prevention have been developed and promoted by authoritative organizations. However, nonadherence to these guidelines is frequently reported. Negative attitudes and lack of knowledge may act as barriers to using guidelines in clinical

  8. Growth curves of crossbred cows sired by Hereford, Angus, Belgian Blue, Brahman, Boran, and Tuli bulls, and the fraction of mature body weight and height at puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freetly, H C; Kuehn, L A; Cundiff, L V

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth curves of females to determine if mature size and relative rates of maturation among breeds differed. Body weight and hip height data were fitted to the nonlinear function BW = f(age) = A - Be(k×age), where A is an estimate of mature BW and k determines the rate that BW or height moves from B to A. Cows represented progeny from 28 Hereford, 38 Angus, 25 Belgian Blue, 34 Brahman, 8 Boran, and 9 Tuli sires. Bulls from these breeds were mated by AI to Angus, Hereford, and MARC III composite (1/4 Angus, 1/4 Hereford, 1/4 Red Poll, and 1/4 Pinzgauer) cows to produce calves in 1992, 1993, and 1994. These matings resulted in 516 mature cows whose growth curves were subsequently evaluated. Hereford-sired cows tended to have heavier mature BW, as estimated by parameter A, than Angus- (P=0.09) and Brahman-sired cows (P=0.06), and were heavier than the other breeds (P Angus-sired cows were heavier than Boran- (P Angus-sired cows did not differ from Brahman-sired cows (P=0.94). Brahman-sired cows had a heavier mature BW than Boran- (P Angus-sired cows matured faster (k) than cows sired by Hereford (P=0.03), Brahman (P Angus-sired cows (P=0.09), and had reached a greater proportion of their mature BW at puberty than had Hereford- (P < 0.001), Tuli- (P < 0.001), and Belgian Blue-sired cows (P < 0.001). Within species of cattle, the relative range in proportion of mature BW at puberty (Bos taurus 0.56 through 0.58, and Bos indicus 0.60) was highly conserved, suggesting that proportion of mature BW is a more robust predictor of age at puberty across breeds than is absolute weight or age. © 2011 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.

  9. What factors determine Belgian general practitioners' approaches to detecting and managing substance abuse? A qualitative study based on the I-Change Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketterer, Frederic; Symons, Linda; Lambrechts, Marie-Claire; Mairiaux, Philippe; Godderis, Lode; Peremans, Lieve; Remmen, Roy; Vanmeerbeek, Marc

    2014-06-14

    General practitioners (GPs) are considered to play a major role in detecting and managing substance abuse. However, little is known about how or why they decide to manage it. This study investigated the factors that influence GP behaviours with regard to the abuse of alcohol, illegal drugs, hypnotics, and tranquilisers among working Belgians. Twenty Belgian GPs were interviewed. De Vries' Integrated Change Model was used to guide the interviews and qualitative data analyses. GPs perceived higher levels of substance abuse in urban locations and among lower socioeconomic groups. Guidelines, if they existed, were primarily used in Flanders. Specific training was unevenly applied but considered useful. GPs who accepted abuse management cited strong interpersonal skills and available multidisciplinary networks as facilitators.GPs relied on their clinical common sense to detect abuse or initiate management. Specific patients' situations and their social, psychological, or professional dysfunctions were cited as cues to action.GPs were strongly influenced by their personal representations of abuse, which included the balance between their professional responsibilities toward their patients and the patients' responsibilities in managing their own health as well the GPs' abilities to cope with unsatisfying patient outcomes without reaching professional exhaustion. GPs perceived substance abuse along a continuum ranging from a chronic disease (whose management was part of their responsibility) to a moral failing of untrustworthy people. Alcohol and cannabis were more socially acceptable than other drugs. Personal experiences of emotional burdens (including those regarding substance abuse) increased feelings of empathy or rejection toward patients.Multidisciplinary practices and professional experiences were cited as important factors with regard to engaging GPs in substance abuse management. Time constraints and personal investments were cited as important barriers

  10. The use of portable equipment for the activity concentration index determination of building materials: method validation and survey of building materials on the Belgian market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stals, M.; Verhoeven, S.; Bruggeman, M.; Pellens, V.; Schroeyers, W.; Schreurs, S.

    2014-01-01

    The Euratom BSS requires that in the near future (2015) the building materials for application in dwellings or buildings such as offices or workshops are screened for NORM nuclides. The screening tool is the activity concentration index (ACI). Therefore it is expected that a large number of building materials will be screened for NORM and thus require ACI determination. Nowadays, the proposed standard for determination of building material ACI is a laboratory analyses technique with high purity germanium spectrometry and 21 days equilibrium delay. In this paper, the B-NORM method for determination of building material ACI is assessed as a faster method that can be performed on-site, alternative to the aforementioned standard method. The B-NORM method utilizes a LaBr 3 (Ce) scintillation probe to obtain the spectral data. Commercially available software was applied to comprehensively take into account the factors determining the counting efficiency. The ACI was determined by interpreting the gamma spectrum from 226 Ra and its progeny; 232 Th progeny and 40 K. In order to assess the accuracy of the B-NORM method, a large selection of samples was analyzed by a certified laboratory and the results were compared with the B-NORM results. The results obtained with the B-NORM method were in good correlation with the results obtained by the certified laboratory, indicating that the B-NORM method is an appropriate screening method to assess building material ACI. The B-NORM method was applied to analyze more than 120 building materials on the Belgian market. No building materials that exceed the proposed reference level of 1 mSv/year were encountered. -- Highlights: • Many building materials will have to be tested for NORM activity concentrations. • An on-site NORM analysis method has been developed and validated. • Over 120 building materials on the Belgian market have been analyzed with this method. • The Euratom BSS reference level of 1 mSv/year excess dose will

  11. Organization within Organization Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopdrup-Hjorth, Thomas

    This paper explores how prevalent contemporary problematizations of organizations coincide with a widespread assessment that Organization Studies (OS) has run out of steam. This impasse, the paper argues, is largely due to the emergence of an organization-phobia that has come to seize several...... strands of theorizing. By attending to the wide-ranging and far-reaching history of this organization-phobia, the paper argues that OS has become increasingly incapable of speaking about its core object. I show how organizations went from being conceptualized as entities of major importance to becoming...... credibility and legitimacy to begin with, the organization-phobia resulting from this history has been implicated in dismantling organizations, and in making OS progressively irrelevant to a wider public....

  12. Implicit attitudes to sexual partner concurrency vary by sexual orientation but not by gender-A cross sectional study of Belgian students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Chris R; Wolfs, Kenny; Osbak, Kara; van Lankveld, Jacques; Van Hal, Guido

    2018-01-01

    High rates of sexual partner concurrency have been shown to facilitate the spread of various sexually transmitted infections. Assessments of explicit attitudes to concurrency have however found little difference between populations. Implicit attitudes to concurrency may vary between populations and play a role in generating differences in the prevalence of concurrency. We developed a concurrency implicit associations test (C-IAT) to assess if implicit attitudes towards concurrency may vary between individuals and populations and what the correlates of these variations are. A sample of 869 Belgian students (mean age 23, SD 5.1) completed an online version of the C-IAT together with a questionnaire concerning sexual behavior and explicit attitudes to concurrency. The study participants C-IATs demonstrated a strong preference for monogamy (-0.78, SD = 0.41). 93.2% of participants had a pro-monogamy C-IAT. There was no difference in this implicit preference for monogamy between heterosexual men and women. Men who have sex with men and women who have sex with women were more likely to exhibit implicit but not explicit preferences for concurrency compared to heterosexual men and women. Correlates of the C-IAT varied between men and women.

  13. Mutual exchange between Polish and Belgian magazines: a case study in cultural mobility within the interwar network of the avant-garde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Wenderski

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In January 1924, Flemish avant-garde magazine Het Overzicht published a list of its congenial modernist for­ma­tions named ‘Het Netwerk’. It named nineteen magazines from Europe, the United States and Brazil, including the Polish magazine Zwrotnica. It exemplified the close and direct relationships within the supranational network of the avant-garde. Various formations belonging to this network, both bigger and smaller nodes, were linked to each other, often directly through befriended artists and writers. It did not only concern places such as Paris or Berlin, but also less pivotal nodes of the avant-garde network. In this paper I will present a case study of two countries, namely Poland and Belgium, as an example of European interwar cultural mobility. Joined in their pursuit of modern art, and crossing national and linguistic frontiers, Polish, French and Dutch-language magazines exchanged and re-printed each other’s texts and artworks, a practice also discussed in the correspondence between their representatives. Based on such tangible traces I will describe the cultural mobility and mutual exchange between the Polish and Belgian modernist journals, and attempt to shed light on the features, dynamics, and key figures of the network.

  14. Atmospheric lead and heavy metal pollution records from a Belgian peat bog spanning the last two millenia: Human impact on a regional to global scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vleeschouwer, Francois de [URAP, Departement de Geologie, Universite de Liege, Allee du 6 Aout B18 Sart Tilman B4000 - Liege (Belgium)]. E-mail: fdevleeschouwer@student.ulg.ac.be; Gerard, Laetitia [URAP, Departement de Geologie, Universite de Liege, Allee du 6 Aout B18 Sart Tilman B4000 - Liege (Belgium); Goormaghtigh, Catherine [Unite de recherche: ' Isotopes, Petrologie et Environnement' , Departement des Sciences de la Terre et de l' Environnement, CP 160/02 Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Avenue FD. Roosevelt, 50, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Mattielli, Nadine [Unite de recherche: ' Isotopes, Petrologie et Environnement' , Departement des Sciences de la Terre et de l' Environnement, CP 160/02 Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Avenue FD. Roosevelt, 50, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Le Roux, Gael [Institute of Environmental Geochemistry, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 236 B-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Fagel, Nathalie [URAP, Departement de Geologie, Universite de Liege, Allee du 6 Aout B18 Sart Tilman B4000 - Liege (Belgium)

    2007-05-15

    Europe has been continuously polluted throughout the last two millennia. During the Roman Empire, these pollutions were mainly from ore extraction and smelting across Europe. Then, during the Middle Ages and the Early times of Industrial revolution (i.e. 1750), these pollutions extended to coal burning and combustion engine. Belgian ombrotrophic peat bogs have proved an effective archive of these pollutants and provide the opportunity to reconstruct the history of atmospheric deposition in NW Europe. The results of recent and past trace metal accumulation and Pb isotopes from a one-meter peat core (in the Misten peat bog) have been derived using XRF and Nu-plasma MC-ICP-MS. Combined with {sup 14}C and {sup 210}Pb dates these data have enabled us to trace fluxes in anthropogenic pollution back to original Roman times. Several periods of well-known Pb pollution events are clearly recorded including the Early and Late Roman Empire, the Middle Ages and the second industrial revolution. Also recorded is the introduction of leaded gasoline, and more recently the introduction of unleaded gasoline. Lead isotopes in this site have also enabled us to fingerprint several regional and global sources of anthropogenic particles.

  15. Atmospheric lead and heavy metal pollution records from a Belgian peat bog spanning the last two millenia. Human impact on a regional to global scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vleeschouwer, Francois; Gerard, Laetitia; Fagel, Nathalie [URAP, Departement de Geologie, Universite de Liege, Allee du 6 Aout B18 Sart Tilman B4000 - Liege (Belgium); Goormaghtigh, Catherine; Mattielli, Nadine [Unite de recherche: ' ' Isotopes, Petrologie et Environnement' ' , Departement des Sciences de la Terre et de l' Environnement, CP 160/02 Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Avenue FD. Roosevelt, 50, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Le Roux, Gael [Institute of Environmental Geochemistry, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 236 B-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2007-05-15

    Europe has been continuously polluted throughout the last two millennia. During the Roman Empire, these pollutions were mainly from ore extraction and smelting across Europe. Then, during the Middle Ages and the Early times of Industrial revolution (i.e. 1750), these pollutions extended to coal burning and combustion engine. Belgian ombrotrophic peat bogs have proved an effective archive of these pollutants and provide the opportunity to reconstruct the history of atmospheric deposition in NW Europe. The results of recent and past trace metal accumulation and Pb isotopes from a one-meter peat core (in the Misten peat bog) have been derived using XRF and Nu-plasma MC-ICP-MS. Combined with {sup 14}C and {sup 210}Pb dates these data have enabled us to trace fluxes in anthropogenic pollution back to original Roman times. Several periods of well-known Pb pollution events are clearly recorded including the Early and Late Roman Empire, the Middle Ages and the second industrial revolution. Also recorded is the introduction of leaded gasoline, and more recently the introduction of unleaded gasoline. Lead isotopes in this site have also enabled us to fingerprint several regional and global sources of anthropogenic particles. (author)

  16. Implicit attitudes to sexual partner concurrency vary by sexual orientation but not by gender-A cross sectional study of Belgian students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris R Kenyon

    Full Text Available High rates of sexual partner concurrency have been shown to facilitate the spread of various sexually transmitted infections. Assessments of explicit attitudes to concurrency have however found little difference between populations. Implicit attitudes to concurrency may vary between populations and play a role in generating differences in the prevalence of concurrency. We developed a concurrency implicit associations test (C-IAT to assess if implicit attitudes towards concurrency may vary between individuals and populations and what the correlates of these variations are. A sample of 869 Belgian students (mean age 23, SD 5.1 completed an online version of the C-IAT together with a questionnaire concerning sexual behavior and explicit attitudes to concurrency. The study participants C-IATs demonstrated a strong preference for monogamy (-0.78, SD = 0.41. 93.2% of participants had a pro-monogamy C-IAT. There was no difference in this implicit preference for monogamy between heterosexual men and women. Men who have sex with men and women who have sex with women were more likely to exhibit implicit but not explicit preferences for concurrency compared to heterosexual men and women. Correlates of the C-IAT varied between men and women.

  17. Microbial characterization of probiotics–Advisory report of the Working Group “8651 Probiotics” of the Belgian Superior Health Council (SHC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huys, Geert; Botteldoorn, Nadine; Delvigne, Frank; Vuyst, Luc De; Heyndrickx, Marc; Pot, Bruno; Dubois, Jean-Jacques; Daube, Georges

    2013-01-01

    When ingested in sufficient numbers, probiotics are expected to confer one or more proven health benefits on the consumer. Theoretically, the effectiveness of a probiotic food product is the sum of its microbial quality and its functional potential. Whereas the latter may vary much with the body (target) site, delivery mode, human target population, and health benefit envisaged microbial assessment of the probiotic product quality is more straightforward. The range of stakeholders that need to be informed on probiotic quality assessments is extremely broad, including academics, food and biotherapeutic industries, healthcare professionals, competent authorities, consumers, and professional press. In view of the rapidly expanding knowledge on this subject, the Belgian Superior Health Council installed Working Group “8651 Probiotics” to review the state of knowledge regarding the methodologies that make it possible to characterize strains and products with purported probiotic activity. This advisory report covers three main steps in the microbial quality assessment process, i.e. (i) correct species identification and strain-specific typing of bacterial and yeast strains used in probiotic applications, (ii) safety assessment of probiotic strains used for human consumption, and (iii) quality of the final probiotic product in terms of its microbial composition, concentration, stability, authenticity, and labeling. PMID:23801655

  18. The long-term safety and performance analyses of the surface disposal facility for the Belgian category a waste at Dessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cool, Wim; Vermarien, Elise; Wacquier, William [ONDRAF/NIRAS Avenue des Arts 14, BE-1210 Bruxelles (Belgium); Perko, Janez [SCK-CEN Boeretang 200, BE-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2013-07-01

    ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials, and its partners have developed long-term safety and performance analyses in the framework of the license application for a surface disposal facility for low level radioactive waste (category A waste) at Dessel, Belgium. This paper focusses on the methodology of the safety assessments and on key results from the application of this methodology. An overview is given (1) of the performance analyses for the containment safety function of the disposal system and (2) of the radiological impact analyses confirming that radiological impacts are below applicable reference values and constraints and leading to radiological criteria for the waste and the facility. In this discussion, multiple indicators for performance and safety are used to illustrate the multi-faceted nature of long-term performance and safety of the surface disposal. This contributes to the multiple lines of reasoning for confidence building that a positive decision to proceed to the next stage of construction is justified. (authors)

  19. An open randomized controlled study comparing an online text-based scenario and a serious game by Belgian and Swiss pharmacy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Jérôme; Bawab, Noura; De Mooij, Jeremy; Sutter Widmer, Denise; Szilas, Nicolas; De Vriese, Carine; Bugnon, Olivier

    2018-03-01

    To compare online learning tools, looped, branch serious game (SG) and linear text-based scenario (TBS), among a sample of Belgian and Swiss pharmacy students. Open randomized controlled study. The lesson was based on the case of a benign cough in a healthy child. A randomized sample of 117 students: only the Swiss students had attended a previous lecture on coughs. Participation rate, pre- and post-experience Likert scales and students' clinical knowledge were measured. Our primary hypothesis was demonstrated: students favored the SG even if navigation was rated as more complex, and students who performed the SG better understood the aim of pharmacist triage in case of cough. The influence of the SG appeared to be linked to the presence of a previous lecture in the curriculum. SG and TBS are effective to teach pharmacist triage. Higher SG complexity should be used to teach the aim of pharmacist triage in the case of a specific disease and could be an alternative to simulated patients. A simpler TBS does not require a previous lecture and a debriefing to be fully effective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Design of a medical record review study on the incidence and preventability of adverse events requiring a higher level of care in Belgian hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlayen Annemie

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse events are unintended patient injuries that arise from healthcare management resulting in disability, prolonged hospital stay or death. Adverse events that require intensive care admission imply a considerable financial burden to the healthcare system. The epidemiology of adverse events in Belgian hospitals has never been assessed systematically. Findings A multistage retrospective review study of patients requiring a transfer to a higher level of care will be conducted in six hospitals in the province of Limburg. Patient records are reviewed starting from January 2012 by a clinical team consisting of a research nurse, a physician and a clinical pharmacist. Besides the incidence and the level of causation and preventability, also the type of adverse events and their consequences (patient harm, mortality and length of stay will be assessed. Moreover, the adequacy of the patient records and quality/usefulness of the method of medical record review will be evaluated. Discussion This paper describes the rationale for a retrospective review study of adverse events that necessitate a higher level of care. More specifically, we are particularly interested in increasing our understanding in the preventability and root causes of these events in order to implement improvement strategies. Attention is paid to the strengths and limitations of the study design.

  1. Prospective casemix-based funding, analysis and financial impact of cost outliers in all-patient refined diagnosis related groups in three Belgian general hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirson, Magali; Martins, Dimitri; Jackson, Terri; Dramaix, Michèle; Leclercq, Pol

    2006-03-01

    This study examined the impact of cost outliers in term of hospital resources consumption, the financial impact of the outliers under the Belgium casemix-based system, and the validity of two "proxies" for costs: length of stay and charges. The cost of all hospital stays at three Belgian general hospitals were calculated for the year 2001. High resource use outliers were selected according to the following rule: 75th percentile +1.5 xinter-quartile range. The frequency of cost outliers varied from 7% to 8% across hospitals. Explanatory factors were: major or extreme severity of illness, longer length of stay, and intensive care unit stay. Cost outliers account for 22-30% of hospital costs. One-third of length-of-stay outliers are not cost outliers, and nearly one-quarter of charges outliers are not cost outliers. The current funding system in Belgium does not penalize hospitals having a high percentage of outliers. The billing generated by these patients largely compensates for costs generated. Length of stay and charges are not a good approximation to select cost outliers.

  2. Overview of the Belgian programme for the surveillance of the territory and the implications of the international recommendations or directives on the monitoring programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sombre, L.; Lambotte, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    The Royal Decree of 20 th July has entrusted the Federal Agency for Nuclear Control (FANC) with the task of controlling the territorial radioactivity and the doses received by the population. Within this agenda, a monitoring programme has been developed over many years, in order to follow the main potential exposure pathways of the population. In practice, several potential vectors of contamination are controlled: air (and rain), surface water (including sediments and biota), soils around nuclear installations, food chain, drinking water etc. To carry out such work, the FANC has collaborated with public or private reputable organisations: The Centre of Nuclear Energy Studies of Mol, The National Institute of Radionuclides of Fleurus, and The Louis Pasteur Public Health Institute of Brussels. A synthesis of this monitoring programme will be presented and the most important deductions will be pointed out. For many years, the tendency has been for tighter control of artificial and natural radioactivity in the environment. This has been achieved by increasingly stringent regulations, regarding environmental monitoring efforts, from international organisations (EC, OSPAR, IAEA). In this context, the FANC in Belgium, is involved in a process that will lead to the adaptation of the Belgian monitoring programme. Different aspects of these adaptations and of their consequences will be presented for illustrative purposes

  3. Organ Donation After Euthanasia in the Netherlands: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijngaarden, A K S; van Westerloo, D J; Ringers, J

    2016-11-01

    In 2014, there was still a shortage of available organs for transplantation, and 1044 patients were waiting for an organ in the Netherlands. Maximizing the pool of organ donors is part of the solution. In 2001, the Dutch Termination of Life on Request and Assisted Suicide Act was adopted, legalizing euthanasia under strict conditions. In 2010, 3136 reports were made of euthanasia and assisted suicide; in 2014, 5306 reports were made. Among them were patients with a desire to donate their organs after their deaths. Although a potential source of donor organs, only a few cases of organ donation after active euthanasia have been described. Since 2012, 16 combinations of these procedures have been performed in the Netherlands. The literature mentions 16 Belgian cases between 2005 and 2013. This limited number can be the result of lack of knowledge about this subject among healthcare professionals or because of practical, ethical, and/or legal considerations. Performing this combination has possible advantages, both in number as well as in transplantation outcomes. By describing a recent case in our center, we will try to outline the state of the art in the Netherlands and disseminate knowledge about the possibilities and limitations of organ donation after active euthanasia. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Understanding the life of a sandy beach polychaete of functional importance - Scolelepis squamata (Polychaeta: Spionidae) on Belgian sandy beaches (northeastern Atlantic, North Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speybroeck, Jeroen; Alsteens, Lotte; Vincx, Magda; Degraer, Steven

    2007-08-01

    The cosmopolitan sandy beach polychaete Scolelepis squamata constitutes an important food resource for juvenile flatfish and wading birds in the northeastern Atlantic, thus playing an important role in sandy beach ecosystem functioning. However, its population dynamics and life history in this part of the world have gone widely uninvestigated. Eight beach transects on Belgian sandy beaches were sampled monthly from October 2003 until October 2004, in order to investigate seasonal trends in the species' abundance, biomass, secondary production, and patterns in reproduction and zonation. Average density, modal density and modal biomass (ash-free dry weight) (mean average density = 169 ± 9 SE ind/m 2; mean modal density = 505 ± 38 SE ind/m 2; mean modal biomass = 0.25 ± 0.02 SE g/m 2) did not exhibit major seasonal changes, whereas average biomass (0.081 ± 0.005 SE g/m 2) and individuals and biomass per strip transect (IST = 16286 ± 1330 SE ind/m; BMST = 7.8 + 0.7 SE g/m) did, peaking in May 2004. Production was calculated at 1.9 g/(m 2*year) (size-frequency method, SFM) and 0.88 g/(m 2*year) (mass specific growth rate method, MSGR) and mean annual biomass was 0.797 g/m 2; resulting in a P/B ratio of 2.40/year (SFM) and 1.11/year (MSGR), which is intermediate to moderately low compared to other polychaete species. Gravid individuals were found from February until August and a single recruitment period was observed from July until September. An average sex ratio of 1.41 ± 0.08 SE was calculated, with a female predominance. Highest densities (>200 ind/m 2) were mostly found above 3 m above MLLWS and at a median grain size from 190 to 320 μm. Average modal or peak density along each transect was situated from 3.95 m up to 4.40 m above MLLWS, in contrast to some other studies where the species was restricted to mid-tidal levels. Significant differences in elevation of peak density were found between non-gravid (411 ± 4 SE cm) and gravid (402 ± 5 SE cm) animals

  5. The last glacial inception in continental northwestern Europe: characterization and timing of the Late Eemian Aridity Pulse (LEAP) recorded in multiple Belgian speleothems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansteenberge, Stef; Verheyden, Sophie; Quinif, Yves; Genty, Dominique; Blamart, Dominique; Deprez, Maxim; Van Stappen, Jeroen; Cnudde, Veerle; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Claeys, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    Interglacial-glacial transitions represent important turnovers in the climate system. In contrast with glacial terminations, they are described as a more gradual cooling. So far, the last interglacial has yielded a wealth of knowledge regarding climate dynamics during past warm periods. On top of the assumed gradual temperature drop starting at 119 ka, evidence for the presence of a drastic drying/cooling event in northern Europe has been observed. In lake records from Germany, a distinct shift in pollen assembly at 117.5 ka is interpreted as the consequence of a short dry event lasting 470 years, defined as the Late Eemian Aridity Pulse (LEAP, Sirocko et al., 2005). In a Belgian stalagmite from Han-sur-Lesse Cave, the LEAP is characterized by a 5‰ increase in δ13C occurring in just 200 years. The δ13C enrichment is dated at 117.5 ka and associated with a vegetation change above the cave, induced by a drying and/or cooling event (Vansteenberge et al., 2016). Also, within North Atlantic sediment cores, an increase in ice rafted debris was linked to the occurrence of a colder period at 117 ka (Irvali et al., 2016). Its coevality with the LEAP indicates a likely more regional extent than previously thought. Up to now, no independent chronology exists and little is known about the continental climatic expression of the LEAP. This study aims at 1) constructing an improved and independent chronology for the LEAP event, 2) characterizing this event in terms of its climatic expression and 3) placing the LEAP within the context of an interglacial-glacial transition. For this, two additional speleothems (Han-8, RSM-17) from two different Belgian caves (Han-sur-Lesse, Remouchamps) are added to the existing Han-9 dataset. Exceptionally high growth rates (0.5 mm yr-1) and a presumed annual layering of the RSM-17 sample enable an annual to decadal resolution to investigate the LEAP. U-Th age models covering the glacial inception are constructed with 25 dates on the three

  6. Readiness of the Belgian network of sentinel general practitioners to deliver electronic health record data for surveillance purposes: results of survey study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanthomme Katrien

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to proceed from a paper based registration to a surveillance system that is based on extraction of electronic health records (EHR, knowledge is needed on the number and representativeness of sentinel GPs using a government-certified EHR system and the quality of EHR data for research, expressed in the compliance rate with three criteria: recording of home visits, use of prescription module and diagnostic subject headings. Methods Data were collected by annual postal surveys between 2005 and 2009 among all sentinel GPs. We tested relations between four key GP characteristics (age, gender, language community, practice organisation and use of a certified EHR system by multivariable logistic regression. The relation between EHR software package, GP characteristics and compliance with three quality criteria was equally measured by multivariable logistic regression. Results A response rate of 99% was obtained. Of 221 sentinel GPs, 55% participated in the surveillance without interruption from 2005 onwards, i.e. all five years, and 78% were participants in 2009. Sixteen certified EHR systems were used among 91% of the Dutch and 63% of the French speaking sentinel GPs. The EHR software package was strongly related to the community and only one EHR system was used by a comparable number of sentinel GPs in both communities. Overall, the prescription module was always used and home visits were usually recorded. Uniform subject headings were only sometimes used and the compliance with this quality criterion was almost exclusively related to the EHR software package in use. Conclusions The challenge is to progress towards a sentinel network of GPs delivering care-based data that are (partly extracted from well performing EHR systems and still representative for Belgian general practice.

  7. Quality of care and variability in lung cancer management across Belgian hospitals: a population-based study using routinely available data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrijens, France; De Gendt, Cindy; Verleye, Leen; Robays, Jo; Schillemans, Viki; Camberlin, Cécile; Stordeur, Sabine; Dubois, Cécile; Van Eycken, Elisabeth; Wauters, Isabelle; Van Meerbeeck, Jan P

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate the quality of care for all patients diagnosed with lung cancer in Belgium based on a set of evidence-based quality indicators and to study the variability of care between hospitals. A retrospective study based on linked data from the cancer registry, insurance claims and vital status for all patients diagnosed with lung cancer between 2010 and 2011. Evidence-based quality indicators were identified from a systematic literature search. A specific algorithm to attribute patients to a centre was developed, and funnel plots were used to assess variability of care between centres. None. The proportion of patients who received appropriate care as defined by the indicator. Secondary outcome included the variability of care between centres. Twenty indicators were measured for a total of 12 839 patients. Good results were achieved for 60-day post-surgical mortality (3.9%), histopathological confirmation of diagnosis (93%) and for the use of PET-CT before treatment with curative intent (94%). Areas to be improved include the reporting of staging information to the Belgian Cancer Registry (80%), the use of brain imaging for clinical stage III patients eligible for curative treatment (79%), and the time between diagnosis and start of first active treatment (median 20 days). High variability between centres was observed for several indicators. Twenty-three indicators were found relevant but could not be measured. This study highlights the feasibility to develop a multidisciplinary set of quality indicators using population-based data. The main advantage of this approach is that not additional registration is required, but the non-measurability of many relevant indicators is a hamper. It allows however to easily point to areas of large variability in care.

  8. Biochemical verification of the self-reported smoking status of screened male smokers of the Dutch-Belgian randomized controlled lung cancer screening trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Aalst, Carlijn M; de Koning, Harry J

    2016-04-01

    Smoking is the main cause of lung cancer, so data linked to smoking behaviour are important in lung cancer screening trials. However, self-reporting data concerning smoking behaviour are mainly used. The aim of this study was to biochemically determine the validity and reliability of self-reported smoking status among smokers at high risk for developing lung cancer participating in the Dutch-Belgian lung cancer screening (NELSON) trial. For this sub study, a random sample of 475 men was selected who were scheduled for the fourth screening round in the NELSON trial. They were asked to complete a short questionnaire to verify the smoking behaviour for the previous seven days and a blood sample was collected to measure the cotinine level. The validity (sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV)) and reliability (Kappa) of the self-reported smoking status compared to the cotinine level (as golden standard) were determined. Both a completed questionnaire as well as a cotinine level were available for 199 (41.9%) participants. Based on these data, Se and Sp were respectively 98% (95%-Confidence Interval (CI): 91-99) and 98% (95%-CI: 93-100). PPV and NPV were 98% and 96% and Kappa was 0.96. In conclusion, the validity of the self-reported smoking status turned out to be reliable amongst men at high risk for developing lung cancer who participate in the NELSON lung cancer screening trial. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Older patients’ attitudes towards and experiences of patient-physician end-of-life communication: a secondary analysis of interviews from British, Dutch and Belgian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Natalie

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Older patients often experience sub-standard communication in the palliative phase of illness. Due to the importance of good communication in patient-centred end-of-life care, it is essential to understand the factors which influence older patients’ communication with physicians. This study examines older patients’ attitudes towards, and experiences of, patient-physician end-of-life (EoL communication in three European countries. Methods A secondary analysis of interviews from British, Dutch and Belgian patients over the age of 60 with a progressive terminal illness was conducted. Cross-cutting themes were identified using a thematic approach. Results Themes from 30 interviews (Male n = 20, Median age 78.5 included: confidence and trust; disclosure and awareness; and participation in decision-making. Confidence and trust were reinforced by physicians’ availability, time and genuine attention and hindered by misdiagnoses and poor communication style. Most participants preferred full disclosure, though some remained deliberately ill-informed to avoid distress. Patients expressed a variety of preferences for and experiences of involvement in medical EoL decision-making and a few complained that information was only provided about the physician's preferred treatment. Conclusions A variety of experiences and attitudes regarding disclosure and participation in decision-making were reported from each country, suggesting that communication preferences are highly individual. It is important that physicians are sensitive to this diversity and avoid stereotyping. In regard to communication style, physicians are advised to provide clear explanations, avoid jargon, and continually check understanding. Both the ‘informed’ and the ‘shared’ patient-physician decision-making models assume patients make rational choices based on a clear understanding of treatment options. This idealized situation was often not reflected in

  10. Older patients’ attitudes towards and experiences of patient-physician end-of-life communication: a secondary analysis of interviews from British, Dutch and Belgian patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Older patients often experience sub-standard communication in the palliative phase of illness. Due to the importance of good communication in patient-centred end-of-life care, it is essential to understand the factors which influence older patients’ communication with physicians. This study examines older patients’ attitudes towards, and experiences of, patient-physician end-of-life (EoL) communication in three European countries. Methods A secondary analysis of interviews from British, Dutch and Belgian patients over the age of 60 with a progressive terminal illness was conducted. Cross-cutting themes were identified using a thematic approach. Results Themes from 30 interviews (Male n = 20, Median age 78.5) included: confidence and trust; disclosure and awareness; and participation in decision-making. Confidence and trust were reinforced by physicians’ availability, time and genuine attention and hindered by misdiagnoses and poor communication style. Most participants preferred full disclosure, though some remained deliberately ill-informed to avoid distress. Patients expressed a variety of preferences for and experiences of involvement in medical EoL decision-making and a few complained that information was only provided about the physician's preferred treatment. Conclusions A variety of experiences and attitudes regarding disclosure and participation in decision-making were reported from each country, suggesting that communication preferences are highly individual. It is important that physicians are sensitive to this diversity and avoid stereotyping. In regard to communication style, physicians are advised to provide clear explanations, avoid jargon, and continually check understanding. Both the ‘informed’ and the ‘shared’ patient-physician decision-making models assume patients make rational choices based on a clear understanding of treatment options. This idealized situation was often not reflected in patients’ experiences. PMID

  11. Assessment of plasma anti-elastin antibodies for use as a diagnostic aid for chronic progressive lymphoedema in Belgian Draught Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Keyser, K; Berth, M; Christensen, N; Willaert, S; Janssens, S; Ducatelle, R; Goddeeris, B M; De Cock, H E V; Buys, N

    2015-01-15

    Diagnosis of chronic progressive lymphoedema (CPL) in draught horses, including the Belgian Draught Horse, is mainly based on clinical evaluation of typical lower limb lesions. A deficient perilymphatic elastic support, caused by a pathological elastin degradation in skin and subcutis, has been suggested as a contributing factor for CPL. Elastin degradation products induce the generation of anti-elastin Ab (AEAb), detectable in horse serum by ELISA. For a clinically healthy group of draught horses, a significantly lower average AEAb-level than 3 clinically affected groups (mild, moderate and severe symptoms) was demonstrated previously. To improve CPL-diagnosis, we evaluated the AEAb-ELISA as an in vitro diagnostic aid in individual horses. Test reproducibility was assessed, performing assays independently in 2 laboratories on a total of 345 horses. Possible factors associated with AEAb-levels (age, gender, pregnancy, test lab and date of blood collection) were analyzed using a mixed statistical model. Results were reproducible in both laboratories. AEAb-levels in moderately and severely affected horses were significantly higher than in healthy horses. Nevertheless, this was only demonstrated in barren mares, and, there was a very large overlap between the clinical groups. Consequently, even when a high AEAb cut-off was handled to obtain a reasonable specificity of 90%, a very low sensitivity (21%) of AEAb for CPL-diagnosis was obtained. Results on the present sample demonstrate that the described ELISA procedure is of no use as a diagnostic test for CPL in individual horses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Readiness of the Belgian network of sentinel general practitioners to deliver electronic health record data for surveillance purposes: results of survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffin, Nicole; Bossuyt, Nathalie; Vanthomme, Katrien; Van Casteren, Viviane

    2010-06-25

    In order to proceed from a paper based registration to a surveillance system that is based on extraction of electronic health records (EHR), knowledge is needed on the number and representativeness of sentinel GPs using a government-certified EHR system and the quality of EHR data for research, expressed in the compliance rate with three criteria: recording of home visits, use of prescription module and diagnostic subject headings. Data were collected by annual postal surveys between 2005 and 2009 among all sentinel GPs. We tested relations between four key GP characteristics (age, gender, language community, practice organisation) and use of a certified EHR system by multivariable logistic regression. The relation between EHR software package, GP characteristics and compliance with three quality criteria was equally measured by multivariable logistic regression. A response rate of 99% was obtained. Of 221 sentinel GPs, 55% participated in the surveillance without interruption from 2005 onwards, i.e. all five years, and 78% were participants in 2009. Sixteen certified EHR systems were used among 91% of the Dutch and 63% of the French speaking sentinel GPs. The EHR software package was strongly related to the community and only one EHR system was used by a comparable number of sentinel GPs in both communities. Overall, the prescription module was always used and home visits were usually recorded. Uniform subject headings were only sometimes used and the compliance with this quality criterion was almost exclusively related to the EHR software package in use. The challenge is to progress towards a sentinel network of GPs delivering care-based data that are (partly) extracted from well performing EHR systems and still representative for Belgian general practice.

  13. Molecular Epidemiology and Clinical Impact of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii Complex in a Belgian Burn Wound Center.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel De Vos

    Full Text Available Multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and its closely related species A. pittii and A. nosocomialis, all members of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii (Acb complex, are a major cause of hospital acquired infection. In the burn wound center of the Queen Astrid military hospital in Brussels, 48 patients were colonized or infected with Acb complex over a 52-month period. We report the molecular epidemiology of these organisms, their clinical impact and infection control measures taken. A representative set of 157 Acb complex isolates was analyzed using repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR (DiversiLab and a multiplex PCR targeting OXA-51-like and OXA-23-like genes. We identified 31 rep-PCR genotypes (strains. Representatives of each rep-type were identified to species by rpoB sequence analysis: 13 types to A. baumannii, 10 to A. pittii, and 3 to A. nosocomialis. It was assumed that isolates that belonged to the same rep-type also belonged to the same species. Thus, 83.4% of all isolates were identified to A. baumannii, 9.6% to A. pittii and 4.5% to A. nosocomialis. We observed 12 extensively drug resistant Acb strains (10 A. baumannii and 2 A. nosocomialis, all carbapenem-non-susceptible/colistin-susceptible and imported into the burn wound center through patients injured in North Africa. The two most prevalent rep-types 12 and 13 harbored an OXA-23-like gene. Multilocus sequence typing allocated them to clonal complex 1 corresponding to EU (international clone I. Both strains caused consecutive outbreaks, interspersed with periods of apparent eradication. Patients infected with carbapenem resistant A. baumannii were successfully treated with colistin/rifampicin. Extensive infection control measures were required to eradicate the organisms. Acinetobacter infection and colonization was not associated with increased attributable mortality.

  14. Molecular Epidemiology and Clinical Impact of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii Complex in a Belgian Burn Wound Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilocq, Florence; Jennes, Serge; Verbeken, Gilbert; Rose, Thomas; Keersebilck, Elkana; Bosmans, Petra; Pieters, Thierry; Hing, Mony; Heuninckx, Walter; De Pauw, Frank; Soentjens, Patrick; Merabishvili, Maia; Deschaght, Pieter; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Bogaerts, Pierre; Glupczynski, Youri; Pot, Bruno; van der Reijden, Tanny J.; Dijkshoorn, Lenie

    2016-01-01

    Multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and its closely related species A. pittii and A. nosocomialis, all members of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii (Acb) complex, are a major cause of hospital acquired infection. In the burn wound center of the Queen Astrid military hospital in Brussels, 48 patients were colonized or infected with Acb complex over a 52-month period. We report the molecular epidemiology of these organisms, their clinical impact and infection control measures taken. A representative set of 157 Acb complex isolates was analyzed using repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) (DiversiLab) and a multiplex PCR targeting OXA-51-like and OXA-23-like genes. We identified 31 rep-PCR genotypes (strains). Representatives of each rep-type were identified to species by rpoB sequence analysis: 13 types to A. baumannii, 10 to A. pittii, and 3 to A. nosocomialis. It was assumed that isolates that belonged to the same rep-type also belonged to the same species. Thus, 83.4% of all isolates were identified to A. baumannii, 9.6% to A. pittii and 4.5% to A. nosocomialis. We observed 12 extensively drug resistant Acb strains (10 A. baumannii and 2 A. nosocomialis), all carbapenem-non-susceptible/colistin-susceptible and imported into the burn wound center through patients injured in North Africa. The two most prevalent rep-types 12 and 13 harbored an OXA-23-like gene. Multilocus sequence typing allocated them to clonal complex 1 corresponding to EU (international) clone I. Both strains caused consecutive outbreaks, interspersed with periods of apparent eradication. Patients infected with carbapenem resistant A. baumannii were successfully treated with colistin/rifampicin. Extensive infection control measures were required to eradicate the organisms. Acinetobacter infection and colonization was not associated with increased attributable mortality. PMID:27223476

  15. Knowledge Organization = Information Organization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    Are the terms ―information organization‖ (IO), ―organization of information‖ (OI) and ―information architecture‖ (IA) synonyms for knowledge organization (KO)? This study uses bibliometric methods, among others, to determine some relations between these terms and their meanings. Apparently the data...... shows that these terms should not be considered synonyms because each of the terms IO, OI, IA and KO produce a different set of high ranked authors, journals and papers. In many cases the terms are, however, used interchangeably (and thus indicating synonymity) and it is argued that the underlying...

  16. Organ Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organ donation takes healthy organs and tissues from one person for transplantation into another. Experts say that the organs ... and bone marrow Cornea Most organ and tissue donations occur after the donor has died. But some ...

  17. Fermilab | About | Organization | Fermilab Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Industry Students and teachers Media Organization Fermilab Organization Organization Fermilab Org Chart Accelerator Division Accelerator Physics Center CMS Center Core Computing Division ESH&Q FESS Finance Section LBNF Project Line Organization LBNF Project Director LCLS-II

  18. Ruling of the Administrative Court of the Council of State of the Netherlands concerning the Appeal Lodged by Certain Environmental Protection Organizations (7th August 1981)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-12-01

    In June 1981, a Joint Dutch-Belgian-Swiss radioactive waste disposal operation into the Atlantic was scheduled to take place under the NEA Multilateral Consultation and Surveillance Mechanism for Sea Dumping of Radioactive Waste. The operation was suspended because, on the basis of the 1979 Environmental Protection (General Provisions) Act of the Netherlands, certain environmental protection organizations lodged an appeal against the licence for this operation before the Netherlands Administrative Court of the Council of State, which decided to suspend the operation before deciding on the merits of the case. On 7 August 1981, the Court dismissed the appeal in this Ruling. (NEA) [fr

  19. Hair mercury and urinary cadmium levels in Belgian children and their mothers within the framework of the COPHES/DEMOCOPHES projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirard, Catherine; Koppen, Gudrun; De Cremer, Koen; Van Overmeire, Ilse; Govarts, Eva; Dewolf, Marie-Christine; Van De Mieroop, Els; Aerts, Dominique; Biot, Pierre; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Schwedler, Gerda

    2014-01-01

    A harmonized human biomonitoring pilot study was set up within the frame of the European projects DEMOCOPHES and COPHES. In 17 European countries, biomarkers of some environmental pollutants, including urinary cadmium and hair mercury, were measured in children and their mothers in order to obtain European-wide comparison values on these chemicals. The Belgian participant population consisted in 129 school children (6–11 years) and their mothers (≤ 45 years) living in urban or rural areas of Belgium. The geometric mean levels for mercury in hair were 0.383 μg/g and 0.204 μg/g for respectively mothers and children. Cadmium in mother's and children's urine was detected at a geometric mean concentration of respectively 0.21 and 0.04 μg/l. For both biomarkers, levels measured in the mothers and their child were correlated. While the urinary cadmium levels increased with age, no trend was found for hair mercury content, except the fact that mothers hold higher levels than children. The hair mercury content increased significantly with the number of dental amalgam fillings, explaining partially the higher levels in the mothers by their higher presence rate of these amalgams compared to children. Fish or seafood consumption was the other main parameter determining the mercury levels in hair. No relationship was found between smoking status and cadmium or mercury levels, but the studied population included very few smokers. Urinary cadmium levels were higher in both mothers and children living in urban areas, while for mercury this difference was only significant for children. Our small population showed urinary cadmium and hair mercury levels lower than the health based guidelines suggested by the WHO or the JECFA (Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives). Only 1% had cadmium level slightly higher than the German HBM-I value (1 μg/l for adults), and 9% exceeded the 1 μg mercury/g hair suggested by the US EPA. - Highlights: • Hair mercury and urinary

  20. Hair mercury and urinary cadmium levels in Belgian children and their mothers within the framework of the COPHES/DEMOCOPHES projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirard, Catherine, E-mail: c.pirard@chu.ulg.ac.be [CHU of Liege, Laboratory of Clinical, Forensic and Environmental Toxicology, CHU (B35), 4000 Liege (Belgium); Koppen, Gudrun, E-mail: gudrun.koppen@vito.be [Flemish Institute of Technological Research, Environmental Risk and Health Unit, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); De Cremer, Koen, E-mail: Koen.DeCremer@wiv-isp.be [Scientific Institute of Public Health, Juliette Wytsmanstraat 14, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Van Overmeire, Ilse, E-mail: ilse.vanovermeire@wiv-isp.be [Scientific Institute of Public Health, Juliette Wytsmanstraat 14, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Govarts, Eva, E-mail: eva.govarts@vito.be [Flemish Institute of Technological Research, Environmental Risk and Health Unit, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Dewolf, Marie-Christine, E-mail: marie_christine.dewolf@hainaut.be [Provincial Institute Hainaut Vigilance Sanitaire — Hainaut Hygiène Publique en (HVS-HPH), Boulevard Sainctelette, 55, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Van De Mieroop, Els, E-mail: Els.VanDeMieroop@pih.provant.be [Provincial Institute for Hygiene (PIH), Boomgaardstraat 22 bus 1, 2600 Antwerpen (Belgium); Aerts, Dominique, E-mail: dominique.aerts@milieu.belgie.be [Federal Public Service Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment, Place Victor Horta 40/10, 1060 Brussels (Belgium); Biot, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.biot@environnement.belgique.be [Federal Public Service Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment, Place Victor Horta 40/10, 1060 Brussels (Belgium); Casteleyn, Ludwine, E-mail: Ludwine.Casteleyn@med.kuleuven.be [University of Leuven, Center for Human Genetics, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Kolossa-Gehring, Marike, E-mail: marike.kolossa@uba.de [Federal Environment Agency, Corrensplatz 1, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Schwedler, Gerda, E-mail: Gerda.Schwedler@uba.de [Federal Environment Agency, Corrensplatz 1, 14195 Berlin (Germany); and others

    2014-02-01

    A harmonized human biomonitoring pilot study was set up within the frame of the European projects DEMOCOPHES and COPHES. In 17 European countries, biomarkers of some environmental pollutants, including urinary cadmium and hair mercury, were measured in children and their mothers in order to obtain European-wide comparison values on these chemicals. The Belgian participant population consisted in 129 school children (6–11 years) and their mothers (≤ 45 years) living in urban or rural areas of Belgium. The geometric mean levels for mercury in hair were 0.383 μg/g and 0.204 μg/g for respectively mothers and children. Cadmium in mother's and children's urine was detected at a geometric mean concentration of respectively 0.21 and 0.04 μg/l. For both biomarkers, levels measured in the mothers and their child were correlated. While the urinary cadmium levels increased with age, no trend was found for hair mercury content, except the fact that mothers hold higher levels than children. The hair mercury content increased significantly with the number of dental amalgam fillings, explaining partially the higher levels in the mothers by their higher presence rate of these amalgams compared to children. Fish or seafood consumption was the other main parameter determining the mercury levels in hair. No relationship was found between smoking status and cadmium or mercury levels, but the studied population included very few smokers. Urinary cadmium levels were higher in both mothers and children living in urban areas, while for mercury this difference was only significant for children. Our small population showed urinary cadmium and hair mercury levels lower than the health based guidelines suggested by the WHO or the JECFA (Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives). Only 1% had cadmium level slightly higher than the German HBM-I value (1 μg/l for adults), and 9% exceeded the 1 μg mercury/g hair suggested by the US EPA. - Highlights: • Hair mercury and

  1. Nailfold capillaroscopy for prediction of novel future severe organ involvement in systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Vanessa; Riccieri, Valeria; Pizzorni, Carmen; Decuman, Saskia; Deschepper, Ellen; Bonroy, Carolien; Sulli, Alberto; Piette, Yves; De Keyser, Filip; Cutolo, Maurizio

    2013-12-01

    Assessment of associations of nailfold videocapillaroscopy (NVC) scleroderma (systemic sclerosis; SSc) ("early," "active," and "late") with novel future severe clinical involvement in 2 independent cohorts. Sixty-six consecutive Belgian and 82 Italian patients with SSc underwent NVC at baseline. Images were blindly assessed and classified into normal, early, active, or late NVC pattern. Clinical evaluation was performed for 9 organ systems (general, peripheral vascular, skin, joint, muscle, gastrointestinal tract, lung, heart, and kidney) according to the Medsger disease severity scale (DSS) at baseline and in the future (18-24 months of followup). Severe clinical involvement was defined as category 2 to 4 per organ of the DSS. Logistic regression analysis (continuous NVC predictor variable) was performed. The OR to develop novel future severe organ involvement was stronger according to more severe NVC patterns and similar in both cohorts. In simple logistic regression analysis the OR in the Belgian/Italian cohort was 2.16 (95% CI 1.19-4.47, p = 0.010)/2.33 (95% CI 1.36-4.22, p = 0.002) for the early NVC SSc pattern, 4.68/5.42 for the active pattern, and 10.14/12.63 for the late pattern versus the normal pattern. In multiple logistic regression analysis, adjusting for disease duration, subset, and vasoactive medication, the OR was 2.99 (95% CI 1.31-8.82, p = 0.007)/1.88 (95% CI 1.00-3.71, p = 0.050) for the early NVC SSc pattern, 8.93/3.54 for the active pattern, and 26.69/6.66 for the late pattern versus the normal pattern. Capillaroscopy may be predictive of novel future severe organ involvement in SSc, as attested by 2 independent cohorts.

  2. Un guide colonial. Le Guide du Voyageur au Congo belge et au Ruanda-Urundi A colonial guidebook. Travel guide to Belgian Congo and Ruanda-Urundi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Nicolaï

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Le Guide, qui a connu cinq éditions pendant les dix dernières années du Congo belge, est un archétype du guide colonial. L’article rappelle d’abord la naissance du tourisme en Afrique centrale et ses caractéristiques. Fasciné longtemps par les mythes des Monts de la Lune et des sources du Nil, le tourisme congolais est, au départ, essentiellement élitiste, orienté surtout vers la grande chasse sportive. Gorilles de montagne, ascensions du Ruwenzori, danseurs Tutsi, Parc National Albert, pêcheurs wagenia deviennent les icônes d’un tourisme attiré en ordre principal par le Kivu, les Grands Lacs, Stanleyville et secondairement le Katanga. Le premier guide, édité par Vicicongo, en 1934, s’intitule d’ailleurs Congo-Nil. Tous ces mythes et ces décors se retrouvent dans quelques grands films américains d’aventure du début des années 50.L’article décrit ensuite la genèse du Guide, ses caractéristiques générales, son plan, son contenu. Beaucoup d’informations générales, pas de véritables circuits mais plutôt des itinéraires routiers. Produit par les services officiels d’information de la Colonie, le Guide a, parmi ses objectifs, de montrer la persistance et les résultats de l’action civilisatrice de la Belgique. Il affirme que le Congo n’est pas un pays d’art ni d’histoire et accorde donc une part prépondérante au milieu naturel. Il fournit une image tronquée de son histoire et exprime sur ses habitants les préjugés de l’époque.L’article se termine par quelques réflexions sur les tentatives d’un reporter d’une chaîne de télévision et d’un photographe d’utiliser le Guide de 1958 pour parcourir le pays un demi-siècle plus tard.The Travel Guide to Belgian Congo and Ruanda-Urundi, of which five editions were released during the last ten years of Belgian Congo, is an archetypal colonial guide.The paper first highlights the emergence and the features of tourism in Central Africa

  3. 28 March 2014 - Italian Minister of Education, University and Research S. Giannini welcomed by CERN Director-General R. Heuer and Director for Research and Scientific Computing S. Bertolucci in the ATLAS experimental cavern with Former Collaboration Spokesperson F. Gianotti. Signature of the guest book with Belgian State Secretary for the Scientific Policy P. Courard.

    CERN Multimedia

    Gadmer, Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

    28 March 2014 - Italian Minister of Education, University and Research S. Giannini welcomed by CERN Director-General R. Heuer and Director for Research and Scientific Computing S. Bertolucci in the ATLAS experimental cavern with Former Collaboration Spokesperson F. Gianotti. Signature of the guest book with Belgian State Secretary for the Scientific Policy P. Courard.

  4. Organic superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulaevskij, L.N.; Shchegolev, I.F.

    1986-01-01

    Main achievements in creating new organic conducting materials - synthetic metals and superconductors, are considered. The processes of superconductivity occurrence in organic materials are discussed. It is shown that conjugated bonds between C and H atoms in organic molecules play an important role in this case. At present ''crystal direction'' in organic superconductor synthesis is mainly developed. Later on, organic superconductor crystals are supposed to be introduced into usual polymers, e.g. polyethylene

  5. Calculation on the impacts of forestation, afforestation and reforestation on the C-sequestration potential in Belgian forests ecosystems. COST E21 Workshop. Contribution of forests and forestry to mitigate greenhouse effects. Joensuu (Finland. 28-30 Sep 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrin D.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The Belgian climate policy is formulated at the federal level, requiring cooperation between regional and federal administrations. Around a fifth of the total area of Belgium is covered by forests. Around 80/ of the productive forests are in the Walloon region. Reported values for land use change and forestry categories give a potential of 2,057 kt eq. CO2 per year. Given the existing regional forest inventories (RFI: RFI1 for 1984 and RFI2 for 1999, an estimate has been made to consolidate reported data. Afforestation, deforestation and reforestation activities are calculated according the Intergovernemental Panel on Climate Change special report on land use, land use change and forestry.

  6. Arrangement between the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) and the Belgian Government for Exchange of Technical Information in Regulatory Matters and in Cooperation in Safety Research and in Standards Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This Arrangement was concluded on 6 June 1978 between the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Belgian Government for exchange of technical information in regulatory matters and in co-operation in safety research and in standards development. Both Parties agree to exchange, as available, technical information related to the regulation of safety and the environmental impact of designated nuclear energy facilities and to safety research of designated types of nuclear facilities. As regards co-operation in safety research, the execution of joint programmes and projects under which activities are divided between the two Parties will be agreed on a case by case basis. The Parties further agree to co-operate in the development of regulatory standards applicable to the designated nuclear facilities. The Arrangement is valid for 5 years and may be extended. (NEA) [fr

  7. Hb Melusine and Hb Athens-Georgia: potentially underreported in the Belgian population? Four cases demonstrating the lack of detection using common CE-HPLC methods either for glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) analysis or Hb variant screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Bart; Brandt, Inger; Desmet, Koenraad; Harteveld, Cornelis L; Kieffer, Davy

    2016-12-01

    Suspected hemoglobin (Hb) variants, detected during HbA 1C measurements should be further investigated, determining the extent of the interference with each method. This is the first report of Hb Melusine and Hb Athens-Georgia in Caucasian Belgian patients. Intervention & Technique: Since common CE-HPLC methods for HbA 1C analysis or Hb variant screening are apparently unable to detect these Hb variants, their presence might be underestimated. HbA 1C analysis using CZE, however, alerted for their presence. Moreover, in case of Hb Melusine, even Hb variant screening using CZE was unsuccessful in its detection. Fortunately, carriage of Hb Melusine or Hb Athens-Georgia variants has no clinical implications and, as shown in this report, no apparent difference in HbA 1C should be expected.

  8. Organic salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankamah Yeboah, Isaac; Nielsen, Max; Nielsen, Rasmus

    . This study identifies the price premium on organic salmon in the Danish retail sale sector using consumer panel scanner data for households by applying the hedonic price model while permitting unobserved heterogeneity between households. A premium of 20% for organic salmon is found. Since this premium...... is closer to organic labeled agriculture products than to ecolabelled capture fisheries products, it indicates that consumers value organic salmon as an agriculture product more than fisheries product....

  9. Organic chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-08-01

    This book with sixteen chapter explains organic chemistry on linkage isomerism such as alkane, cycloalkane, alkene, aromatic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, aromatic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, organic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, organic halogen compound, alcohol, ether, aldehyde and ketone, carboxylic acid, dicarboxylic acid, fat and detergent, amino, carbohydrate, amino acid and protein, nucleotide and nucleic acid and spectroscopy, a polymer and medical chemistry. Each chapter has introduction structure and characteristic and using of organic chemistry.

  10. Organ Trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A.E. Ambagtsheer (Frederike)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractOrgan trade constitutes the sale and purchase of organs for financial or material gain. Although prohibited since the 1980s, an increasing number of reports indicate its proliferation across the globe. Yet, many knowledge gaps exist on organ trade, in particular on the demand -and

  11. Designing Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    changed dramatically with the advent of: new communication systems, adaptive mechanisms, information technology, knowledge management systems, innovation processes and more. This book systemically examines these developments and their impact on OD with contributions from leading scholars in the area....... The individual chapters are organized into five sections: (1) Putting Contingency Theory in its Place, (2) Focus on Individuals who make up the Organization, (3) Innovation Processes and Organization Design, (4) Adaptation and Technology, and (5) Design for Performance. Each chapter examines aspects of the books...... is a benchmark publication in the field of organization design. By focusing on recent developments in organization design, this book will help to create more thoughtful research and stronger empirical analyses in this important area of management and organization....

  12. Organic spintronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naber, W J M; Faez, S; Wiel, W G van der

    2007-01-01

    We review the emerging field of organic spintronics, where organic materials are applied as a medium to transport and control spin-polarized signals. The contacts for injecting and detecting spins are formed by ferromagnetic metals, oxides, or inorganic semiconductors. First, the basic concepts of spintronics and organic electronics are addressed, and phenomena which are in particular relevant for organic spintronics are highlighted. Experiments using different organic materials, including carbon nanotubes, organic thin films, self-assembled monolayers and single molecules are then reviewed. Observed magnetoresistance points toward successful spin injection and detection, but spurious magnetoresistance effects can easily be confused with spin accumulation. A few studies report long spin relaxation times and lengths, which forms a promising basis for further research. We conclude with discussing outstanding questions and problems. (topical review)

  13. Organic electroluminescence

    CERN Document Server

    Kafafi, Zakya H

    2005-01-01

    Organic light-emitting diode(OLED) technology has achieved significant penetration in the commercial market for small, low-voltage and inexpensive displays. Present and future novel technologies based on OLEDs involve rigid and flexible flat panel displays, solid-state lighting, and lasers. Display applications may range from hand-held devices to large flat panel screens that can be rolled up or hung flat on a wall or a ceiling. Organic Electroluminescence gives an overview of the on-going research in the field of organic light-emitting materials and devices, covering the principles of electroluminescence in organic thin films, as well as recent trends, current applications, and future potential uses. The book begins by giving a background of organic electroluminescence in terms of history and basic principles. It offers details on the mechanism(s) of electroluminescence in thin organic films. It presentsin-depth discussions of the parameters that control the external electroluminescence quantum efficien...

  14. Organic optoelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Wenping; Gong, Xiong; Zhan, Xiaowei; Fu, Hongbing; Bjornholm, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Written by internationally recognized experts in the field with academic as well as industrial experience, this book concisely yet systematically covers all aspects of the topic.The monograph focuses on the optoelectronic behavior of organic solids and their application in new optoelectronic devices. It covers organic electroluminescent materials and devices, organic photonics, materials and devices, as well as organic solids in photo absorption and energy conversion. Much emphasis is laid on the preparation of functional materials and the fabrication of devices, from materials synthesis a

  15. Organic synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lallemand, J.Y.; Fetizon, M.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Organic Synthesis Chemistry laboratory (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The laboratory activities are centered on the chemistry of natural products, which have a biological activity and on the development of new reactions, useful in the organic synthesis. The research works involve the following domains: the natural products chemistry which are applied in pharmacology, the plants and insects chemistry, the organic synthesis, the radical chemistry new reactions and the bio-organic physicochemistry. The published papers, the congress communications and the thesis are listed [fr

  16. Organization aspect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grefen, P.W.P.J.; Mehandjiev, N.; Mehandjiev, N.; Grefen, P.W.P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Following the BOAT framework discussed in Chapter 1, this chapter describes the organization aspect of the CrossWork approach. It shows how the business requirements identified in the previous chapter can be fulfilled by dynamic organization structures and business processes in Networks of

  17. Organic hydrotrioxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shereshovets, Valerii V; Khursan, Sergei L; Komissarov, Vladilen D; Tolstikov, Genrikh A

    2001-01-01

    The results of studies on the synthesis, structure, thermochemistry and oxidising capacity of organic hydrotrioxides are generalised. Particular emphasis is placed on the analysis of thermal and catalytic decomposition of ROOOH and on generation of free radicals and singlet molecular oxygen. Problems concerning the mechanisms of formation and decomposition of organic hydrotrioxides are also considered. The bibliography includes 154 references.

  18. Government Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause Hansen, Hans; Salskov-Iversen, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    , with clearly defined boundaries between the public and private; and in terms of polycentrism, where power and authority are seen as dispersed among state and nonstate organizations, including business and civil society organizations. Globalization and new media technologies imply changes in the relationship...... democracy and the public sphere; and discourse approaches to studying the intersections of government, organizational change, and information and communication technology....

  19. Matching Organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to know FAQ Living donation What is living donation? Organs Types Being a living donor First steps Being ... brochures What Every Patient Needs to Know Living Donation Multiple Listing Visit UNOS Store Learn more How organs are matched How to become a living donor ...

  20. Organ Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to know FAQ Living donation What is living donation? Organs Types Being a living donor First steps Being ... brochures What Every Patient Needs to Know Living Donation Multiple Listing Visit UNOS Store Learn more How organs are matched How to become a living donor ...

  1. Questions and answers on the Belgian model of integral end-of-life care: experiment? Prototype? : "Eu-euthanasia": the close historical, and evidently synergistic, relationship between palliative care and euthanasia in Belgium: an interview with a doctor involved in the early development of both and two of his successors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernheim, Jan L; Distelmans, Wim; Mullie, Arsène; Ashby, Michael A

    2014-12-01

    This article analyses domestic and foreign reactions to a 2008 report in the British Medical Journal on the complementary and, as argued, synergistic relationship between palliative care and euthanasia in Belgium. The earliest initiators of palliative care in Belgium in the late 1970s held the view that access to proper palliative care was a precondition for euthanasia to be acceptable and that euthanasia and palliative care could, and should, develop together. Advocates of euthanasia including author Jan Bernheim, independent from but together with British expatriates, were among the founders of what was probably the first palliative care service in Europe outside of the United Kingdom. In what has become known as the Belgian model of integral end-of-life care, euthanasia is an available option, also at the end of a palliative care pathway. This approach became the majority view among the wider Belgian public, palliative care workers, other health professionals, and legislators. The legal regulation of euthanasia in 2002 was preceded and followed by a considerable expansion of palliative care services. It is argued that this synergistic development was made possible by public confidence in the health care system and widespread progressive social attitudes that gave rise to a high level of community support for both palliative care and euthanasia. The Belgian model of so-called integral end-of-life care is continuing to evolve, with constant scrutiny of practice and improvements to procedures. It still exhibits several imperfections, for which some solutions are being developed. This article analyses this model by way of answers to a series of questions posed by Journal of Bioethical Inquiry consulting editor Michael Ashby to the Belgian authors.

  2. Designing Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Book Description The design of organizations has been an ongoing concern of management theory and practice over the past several decades. Over this time, there has been little change in the fundamental theory, principles and concepts of Organization Design (OD). Recently organizational life has...... changed dramatically with the advent of: new communication systems, adaptive mechanisms, information technology, knowledge management systems, innovation processes and more. This book systemically examines these developments and their impact on OD with contributions from leading scholars in the area...... is a benchmark publication in the field of organization design. By focusing on recent developments in organization design, this book will help to create more thoughtful research and stronger empirical analyses in this important area of management and organization....

  3. Organic photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Within the International Conference and Exhibition at 16th September,2010 at the Maritim Hotel (Wuerzburg, Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) History of Organic Photovoltaics (Niyazi Serdar Sariciftci); (2) PV Activities at the ZAE Bayern (Vladimir Dyakonov); (3) Progress in Solid State DSC (Peter Erk); (4) Polymer Semiconductors for OPV (Mats Andersson); (5) Fullerene Derivative N-Types in Organic Solar Cells (David Kronholm); (6) Modelling Charge-Transport in Organic Photovoltaic Materials (Jenny Nelson); (7) Multi Junction Modules R and D Status and Outlook (Paul Blom); (8) Imaging Technologies for Organic Solar Cells (Jonas Bachmann); (9) Production of Multi-junction Organic Photovoltaic Cells and Modules (Martin Pfeiffer); (10) Upscaling of Polymer Solar Cell Fabrication Using Full Roll-to-roll Processing (Frederik Christian Krebs); (11) Industrial Aspects and Large Scale OPV Production (Jens Hauch).

  4. Organic aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penner, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    Organic aerosols scatter solar radiation. They may also either enhance or decrease concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei. This paper summarizes observed concentrations of aerosols in remote continental and marine locations and provides estimates for the sources of organic aerosol matter. The anthropogenic sources of organic aerosols may be as large as the anthropogenic sources of sulfate aerosols, implying a similar magnitude of direct forcing of climate. The source estimates are highly uncertain and subject to revision in the future. A slow secondary source of organic aerosols of unknown origin may contribute to the observed oceanic concentrations. The role of organic aerosols acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) is described and it is concluded that they may either enhance or decrease the ability of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols to act as CCN

  5. Organ dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, Dean C.; Egbert, Stephen D.; Otis, Mark D.; Kuhn, Thomas; Kerr, George D.; Eckerman, Keith F.; Cristy, Mark; Ryman, Jeffrey C.; Tang, Jabo S.; Maruyama, Takashi

    1987-01-01

    This chapter describes the technical approach, complicating factors, and sensitivities and uncertainties of calculations of doses to the organs of the A-bomb survivors. It is the object of the effort so described to provide data that enables the dosimetry system to determine the fluence, kerma, absorbed dose, and similar quantities in 14 organs and the fetus, specified as being of radiobiological interest. This object was accomplished through the use of adjoint Monte Carlo computations, which use a number of random particle histories to determine the relationship of incident neutrons and gamma rays to those transported to a target organ. The system uses these histories to correlate externally-incident energy- and angle-differential fluences with the fluence spectrum (energy differential only) within the target organ. In order for the system to work in the most efficient manner possible, two levels of data were provided. The first level, represented by approximately 6,000 random adjoint-particle histories, enables the computation of the fluence spectrum with sufficient precision to provide statistically reliable (± 6 %) mean doses within any given organ. With this limited history inventory, the system can be run rapidly for all survivors. Mean organ dose and dose uncertainty are obtainable in this mode. The second mode of operation enables the system to produce a good approximation to fluence spectrum within any organ or to produce the dose in each of an array of organ subvolumes. To be statistically reliable, this level of detail requires far more random histories, approximately 40,000 per organ. Thus, operation of the dosimetry system in this mode (i.e., with this data set) is intended to be on an as-needed, organ-specific basis, since the system run time is eight times that in the mean dose mode. (author)

  6. The effect of a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention on objectively measured physical activity in Belgian preschool boys and girls of high and low SES: the ToyBox-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Craemer, Marieke; De Decker, Ellen; Verloigne, Maïté; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Manios, Yannis; Cardon, Greet

    2014-03-14

    The ToyBox-study developed an evidence- and theory-based intervention to improve preschoolers' energy balance-related behaviours - including physical activity (PA) - by targeting the kindergarten environment and involving their parents/caregivers. The present study aimed to examine the effect of the ToyBox-intervention on increasing Belgian preschoolers' objectively measured PA levels. A sample of 472 preschoolers (4.43 ± 0.55 years; 55.1% boys) from 27 kindergartens (15 intervention, 12 control kindergartens) in Flanders, Belgium were included in the data analyses. Preschoolers wore an ActiGraph accelerometer for six consecutive days and were included in the data analyses if they had a minimum of two weekdays and one weekend day, both at baseline and follow-up (one year later). Preschoolers' PA outcomes were estimated for an average day, weekday, weekend day, during school hours, and during after school hours. To assess intervention effects, multilevel repeated measures analyses were conducted for the total sample, and for sub-groups (according to sex, kindergarten levels of socio-economic status (SES) and risk groups (low levels of PA at baseline)) of preschoolers. Small intervention effects were found in the total sample. Most intervention effects were found in boys and in preschoolers from high SES kindergartens. Boys from the intervention group had an increase in vigorous PA (ß=1.47, p=0.03) and moderate-to-vigorous PA (ß=1.27, p=0.03) from baseline to follow-up, whereas PA levels in boys from the control group stagnated or decreased. In preschoolers from high SES kindergartens, the largest effects were found for PA outcomes during school hours and during after school hours. The results from the Belgian sample demonstrate that effects of the PA-component of the ToyBox-intervention on objectively measured PA were found in preschool boys and in preschoolers from high SES kindergartens, which means that the ToyBox-intervention was mainly effective in those sub

  7. The organization of organ procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prottas, J M

    1989-01-01

    The American organ procurement system has improved and matured in the last five years. At the same time, the basic challenges facing it have remained substantially the same because the moral and legal framework of the system has not changed. Success at organ procurement continues to depend on the voluntary cooperation of medical professionals and the families of potential organ donors. The generosity of the American public is so great that the primary challenge facing organ procurement agencies is obtaining cooperation from hospitals and medical professionals. This calls for a "marketing" orientation aimed at those hospitals and professionals who are most likely to treat potential donors. The last five years have seen a more general acceptance of this appreciation of the central task of organ procurement. As a result, the overall effectiveness of the system has improved, as measured by the number of organs procured on a per capita basis and by the number of multiorgan donors obtained. Much of this improvement can be attributed to the diffusion of organizational techniques and approaches, and this diffusion has been encouraged by the involvement of national organizations and public bodies in the organ procurement community. The system remains uneven in its effectiveness and further improvement is possible. It is also possible that the next general round of improvement will result from the application of businesslike information management and marketing techniques.

  8. Organ donation and transplantation statistics in Belgium for 2012 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desschans, B; Evrard, P

    2014-11-01

    The 2012 and 2013 solid organ transplantation statistics were presented during the annual meeting of the Belgian Transplant Society. All data presented were collected from Eurotransplant International Foundation and/or from all individual Belgian transplant centers. It was demonstrated that the highest number of deceased donors detected (1310) from which 47.8% were an effective organ donor that corresponded to 29 per million inhabitants (pmi) in 2012 and 27.4 pmi in 2013. Out of 626 effective deceased organ donors, 491 (79%) were donors after brain death (DBD) and 135 (21%) donors after circulatory death (DCD), respectively. The majority (125/135; 93%) of DCD donors were DCD Maastricht category III donors and there were 7 (5%) donations following euthanasia. Family refusal tended to be lower for DCD (10.4%) compared to DBD donors (13.4%). Despite the increasing DCD donation rate, DBD donation remains stable in Belgium. The donor age is still increasing, reaching a median age of 53 years (range 0-90). Spontaneous intracranial bleeding (39.3%) and cranio-cerebral trauma (25%) remained the most frequent reasons of death. The number of living related kidney transplantations (57 in 2012 and 63 in 2013) followed the international trend albeit in Belgium it is still very limited. Nevertheless this activity could explain that the number of patients waiting for kidney transplantation (770) reached an absolute minimum in 2013. Except the reduced waiting list for lung transplantation (from 119 patients in 2011 to 85 in 2013), the waiting list remained stable for the other organs but almost 200 patients still died while on the waiting list. Belgium demonstrated the highest number of effective organ donors that corresponded to 29 per million inhabitants (pmi) in 2012 and 27.4 pmi in 2013. Thus far, and in contrast with other countries, there is no erosion of DBD in the DCD donor organ pool, but it is the important responsibility of all transplant centers and donor hospitals to

  9. Organic photovoltaics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demming, Anna; Krebs, Frederik C; Chen, Hongzheng

    2013-01-01

    's supply, even at our increasingly ravenous rate of global energy consumption [1]. But it's not what you have got it's what you do with it. Hence the intense focus on photovoltaic research to find more efficient ways to harness energy from the Sun. Recently much of this research has centred on organic...... solar cells since they offer simple, low-cost, light-weight and large-area flexible photovoltaic structures. This issue with guest editors Frederik C Krebs and Hongzheng Chen focuses on some of the developments at the frontier of organic photovoltaic technology. Improving the power conversion efficiency...... of organic photovoltaic systems, while maintaining the inherent material, economic and fabrication benefits, has absorbed a great deal of research attention in recent years. Here significant progress has been made with reports now of organic photovoltaic devices with efficiencies of around 10%. Yet operating...

  10. Organ Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Error Mental Health in Children and Adolescents Nanotechnology Nature, Human Nature, and Biotechnology Neonatal Care Newborn ... 415. Sean Vincent Murphy and Anthony Atala, "Organ Engineering: Combining Stem Cells, Biomaterials, and Bioreactors to Produce ...

  11. Organic Conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jan Rud; Jacobsen, Claus S.; Rindorf, Grethe

    1975-01-01

    2,3,6,7-Tetramethyl-1,4,5,8-tetraselenafulvalene reacts with 2,5-dimethyl-7,7′,8,8′-tetracyano-p-quinodi-methane to give a highly conducting organic solid.......2,3,6,7-Tetramethyl-1,4,5,8-tetraselenafulvalene reacts with 2,5-dimethyl-7,7′,8,8′-tetracyano-p-quinodi-methane to give a highly conducting organic solid....

  12. Organic superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerome, D; Ribault, M [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Lab. de Physique des Solides; Bechgaard, K [Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark). H.C. Oersted Inst.

    1980-07-10

    The history of superconductivity is traced and the recent discovery of the property in organic materials is discussed. It has been shown that in those organic chemicals in which flat molecules are stacked like tiles, conditions are created in which electrons can flow unhindered. It is reasonable to believe that superconductivity at 20k is now a feasible goal though the dream of resistance-less conduction at room temperature still appears a remote dream.

  13. Organic superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerome, D.; Ribault, M.; Bechgaard, K.

    1980-01-01

    The history of superconductivity is traced and the recent discovery of the property in organic materials is discussed. It has been shown that in those organic chemicals in which flat molecules are stacked like tiles, conditions are created in which electrons can flow unhindered. It is reasonable to believe that superconductivity at 20k is now a feasible goal though the dream of resistance-less conduction at room temperature still appears a remote dream. (UK)

  14. Colloidal organization

    CERN Document Server

    Okubo, Tsuneo

    2015-01-01

    Colloidal Organization presents a chemical and physical study on colloidal organization phenomena including equilibrium systems such as colloidal crystallization, drying patterns as an example of a dissipative system and similar sized aggregation. This book outlines the fundamental science behind colloid and surface chemistry and the findings from the author's own laboratory. The text goes on to discuss in-depth colloidal crystallization, gel crystallization, drying dissipative structures of solutions, suspensions and gels, and similar-sized aggregates from nanosized particles. Special emphas

  15. Organization Design

    OpenAIRE

    Milton Harris; Artur Raviv

    2002-01-01

    This paper attempts to explain organization structure based on optimal coordination of interactions among activities. The main idea is that each manager is capable of detecting and coordinating interactions only within his limited area of expertise. Only the CEO can coordinate company wide interactions. The optimal design of the organization trades off the costs and benefits of various configurations of managers. Our results consist of classifying the characteristics of activities and manager...

  16. The Role of Network Administrative Organizations in the Development of Social Capital in Inter‐Organizational Food Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie M. Lefebvre

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the role of network administrative organizations (NAOs in the development of social capital in inter‐organizational networks aiming at supporting their members to innovate in the food sector through interacting with one another. A multi‐case study approach is used whereby three Belgian inter‐organizational networks are investigated i.e. Wagralim, Réseau‐Club and Flanders Food. Our study shows that there are many options available to NAOs to build social capital within the networks they are responsible for; options which we propose to categorize in three main distinct groups: creation of boundary objects, careful selection of members and effective communication.

  17. Virtual Organizations: Beyond Network Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Gabriel CRETU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most used buzz-words in (e-business literature of the last decade is virtual organization. The term "virtual" can be identified in all sorts of combinations regarding the business world. From virtual products to virtual processes or virtual teams, everything that is “touched” by the computer’s processing power instantly becomes virtual. Moreover, most of the literature treats virtual and network organizations as being synonyms. This paper aims to draw a much more distinctive line between the two concepts. Providing a more coherent description of what virtual organization might be is also one of our intentions.

  18. Showing results? An analysis of the perceptions of internal and external stakeholders of the public performance communication by the Belgian and Dutch Railways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelders, Dave; Galetzka, Mirjam; Verckens, Jan Pieter; Seydel, E.R.

    2008-01-01

    Information Quarterly, 15: 153–156). In Belgium and the Netherlands, one Performance measurement and communicating about it with the broader public is not self-evident if one looks at public services organizations (Hernon, 1998 P. Hernon, The government performance and results act. Government

  19. A cross-cultural comparison of tonal synchrony and pitch imitation in the vocal dialogs of Belgian Flemish-speaking and Mexican Spanish-speaking mother-infant dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Puyvelde, Martine; Loots, Gerrit; Gillisjans, Lobcke; Pattyn, Nathalie; Quintana, Carmen

    2015-08-01

    This study reports a cross-cultural comparison of the vocal pitch patterns of 15 Mexican Spanish-speaking and 15 Belgian Flemish-speaking dyads, recorded during 5min of free-play in a laboratory setting. Both cultures have a tradition of dyadic face-to-face interaction but differ in language origins (i.e., Romanic versus Germanic). In total, 374 Mexican and 558 Flemish vocal exchanges were identified, analyzed and compared for their incidence of tonal synchrony (harmonic/pentatonic series), non-tonal synchrony (with/without imitations) and pitch and/or interval imitations. The main findings revealed that dyads in both cultures rely on tonal synchrony using similar pitch ratios and timing patterns. However, there were significant differences in the infants' vocal pitch imitation behavior. Additional video-analyzes on the contingency patterns involved in pitch imitation showed a cross-cultural difference in the maternal selective reinforcement of pitch imitation. The results are interpreted with regard to linguistic, developmental and cultural aspects and the 'musilanguage' model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Validity and Reproducibility of a Self-Administered Semi-Quantitative Food-Frequency Questionnaire for Estimating Usual Daily Fat, Fibre, Alcohol, Caffeine and Theobromine Intakes among Belgian Post-Menopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selin Bolca

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ was developed and validated to assess the usual daily fat, saturated, mono-unsaturated and poly-unsaturated fatty acid, fibre, alcohol, caffeine, and theobromine intakes among Belgian post-menopausal women participating in dietary intervention trials with phyto-oestrogens. The relative validity of the FFQ was estimated by comparison with 7 day (d estimated diet records (EDR, n 64 and its reproducibility was evaluated by repeated administrations 6 weeks apart (n 79. Although the questionnaire underestimated significantly all intakes compared to the 7 d EDR, it had a good ranking ability (r 0.47-0.94; weighted κ 0.25-0.66 and it could reliably distinguish extreme intakes for all the estimated nutrients, except for saturated fatty acids. Furthermore, the correlation between repeated administrations was high (r 0.71-0.87 with a maximal misclassification of 7% (weighted κ 0.33-0.80. In conclusion, these results compare favourably with those reported by others and indicate that the FFQ is a satisfactorily reliable and valid instrument for ranking individuals within this study population.

  1. Validity and reproducibility of a self-administered semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire for estimating usual daily fat, fibre, alcohol, caffeine and theobromine intakes among Belgian post-menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolca, Selin; Huybrechts, Inge; Verschraegen, Mia; De Henauw, Stefaan; Van de Wiele, Tom

    2009-01-01

    A novel food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was developed and validated to assess the usual daily fat, saturated, mono-unsaturated and poly-unsaturated fatty acid, fibre, alcohol, caffeine, and theobromine intakes among Belgian post-menopausal women participating in dietary intervention trials with phyto-oestrogens. The relative validity of the FFQ was estimated by comparison with 7 day (d) estimated diet records (EDR, n 64) and its reproducibility was evaluated by repeated administrations 6 weeks apart (n 79). Although the questionnaire underestimated significantly all intakes compared to the 7 d EDR, it had a good ranking ability (r 0.47-0.94; weighted kappa 0.25-0.66) and it could reliably distinguish extreme intakes for all the estimated nutrients, except for saturated fatty acids. Furthermore, the correlation between repeated administrations was high (r 0.71-0.87) with a maximal misclassification of 7% (weighted kappa 0.33-0.80). In conclusion, these results compare favourably with those reported by others and indicate that the FFQ is a satisfactorily reliable and valid instrument for ranking individuals within this study population.

  2. [Artificial organs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raguin, Thibaut; Dupret-Bories, Agnès; Debry, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Research has been fighting against organ failure and shortage of donations by supplying artificial organs for many years. With the raise of new technologies, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, many organs can benefit of an artificial equivalent: thanks to retinal implants some blind people can visualize stimuli, an artificial heart can be proposed in case of cardiac failure while awaiting for a heart transplant, artificial larynx enables laryngectomy patients to an almost normal life, while the diabetic can get a glycemic self-regulation controlled by smartphones with an artificial device. Dialysis devices become portable, as well as the oxygenation systems for terminal respiratory failure. Bright prospects are being explored or might emerge in a near future. However, the retrospective assessment of putative side effects is not yet sufficient. Finally, the cost of these new devices is significant even if the advent of three dimensional printers may reduce it. © 2017 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  3. Organic Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Würtz, Rolf P

    2008-01-01

    Organic Computing is a research field emerging around the conviction that problems of organization in complex systems in computer science, telecommunications, neurobiology, molecular biology, ethology, and possibly even sociology can be tackled scientifically in a unified way. From the computer science point of view, the apparent ease in which living systems solve computationally difficult problems makes it inevitable to adopt strategies observed in nature for creating information processing machinery. In this book, the major ideas behind Organic Computing are delineated, together with a sparse sample of computational projects undertaken in this new field. Biological metaphors include evolution, neural networks, gene-regulatory networks, networks of brain modules, hormone system, insect swarms, and ant colonies. Applications are as diverse as system design, optimization, artificial growth, task allocation, clustering, routing, face recognition, and sign language understanding.

  4. Safety organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, M.

    1984-06-01

    After a rapid definition of a nuclear basis installation, the national organization of nuclear safety in France is presented, as also the main organizations concerned and their functions. This report shows how the licensing procedure leading to the construction and exploitation of such installations is applied in the case of nuclear laboratories of research and development: examinations of nuclear safety problems are carried out at different levels: - centralized to define the frame out of which the installation has not to operate, - decentralized to follow in a more detailed manner its evolution [fr

  5. Organizing Valuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauge, Amalie Martinus

    With this dissertation I take up a problem currently traversing popular, political and academic arenas, namely the potential demise of values in public organizations allegedly instigated by management tools deriving from industrial sectors. Taking a pragmatic stance, inspired by John Dewey......, this dissertation sets out to develop a practical and situation-based understanding of the relationship between these management tools, values and organizations, which can contribute to pushing forward the currently detached and polarized debates over New Public Management. In this endeavor the dissertation engages...

  6. Transnational Organizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lasse Folke; Seabrooke, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    An ongoing question for institutional theory is how organizing occurs transnationally, where institution building occurs in a highly ambiguous environment. This article suggests that at the core of transnational organizing is competition and coordination within professional and organizational...... professionals’ operate in two-level professional and organizational networks to control issues. This two-level network provides the context for action in which professionals do their institutional work. The two-level network carries information about professional incentives and also norms about how issues...

  7. Empirical evidence for a four factor framework of personality disorder organization: multigroup confirmatory factor analysis of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory - III Personality Disorder Scales across Belgian and Danish data samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossi, Gina; Elklit, Ask; Simonsen, Erik

    2010-01-01

    factor models, a priori specified using structures found by Dyce, O’Connor, Parkins, and Janzen (1997), were fitted to the data. The best fitting model was a four factor structure (RMSEA = .066, GFI = .98, CFI = .93) with partially invariant factor loadings. The robustness of this four-factor model...

  8. Organic Nanodiamonds

    OpenAIRE

    Zapata, Todd; Bennett, Neil; Struzhkin, Viktor; Fei, Yingwei; Jelezko, Fedor; Biskupek, Johannes; Kaiser, Ute; Reuter, Rolf; Wrachtrup, Joerg; Ghannam, Fahad Al; Hemmer, Philip

    2017-01-01

    Nano-crystalline diamond is a new carbon phase with numerous intriguing physical and chemical properties and applications. Small doped nanodiamonds for example do find increased use as novel quantum markers in biomedical applications. However, growing doped nanodiamonds below sizes of 5 nm with controlled composition has been elusive so far. Here we grow nanodiamonds under conditions where diamond-like organic seed molecules do not decompose. This is a key first step toward engineered growth ...

  9. IVS Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    International VLBI Service (IVS) is an international collaboration of organizations which operate or support Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) components. The goals are: To provide a service to support geodetic, geophysical and astrometric research and operational activities. To promote research and development activities in all aspects of the geodetic and astrometric VLBI technique. To interact with the community of users of VLBI products and to integrate VLBI into a global Earth observing system.

  10. Organic Nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balzer, Frank; Schiek, Manuela; Al-Shamery, Katharina

    Single crystalline nanowires from fluorescing organic molecules like para-phenylenes or thiophenes are supposed to become key elements in future integrated optoelectronic devices [1]. For a sophisticated design of devices based on nanowires the basic principles of the nanowire formation have...... atomic force microscopy and from polarized far-field optical microscopy for various prototypical molecules are reproduced by electrostatic and Monte Carlo calculations. Based on the crystal structure, predictions on the growth habit from other conjugated molecules become in reach....

  11. Organized DFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takashi; Honma, Michio; Itoh, Hiroyuki; Iriki, Nobuyuki; Kobayashi, Sachiko; Miyazaki, Norihiko; Onodera, Toshio; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Yoshioka, Nobuyuki; Arima, Sumika; Kadota, Kazuya

    2009-04-01

    The category and objective of DFM production management are shown. DFM is not limited to an activity within a particular unit process in design and process. A new framework for DFM is required. DFM should be a total solution for the common problems of all processes. Each of them must be linked to one another organically. After passing through the whole of each process on the manufacturing platform, quality of final products is guaranteed and products are shipped to the market. The information platform is layered with DFM, APC, and AEC. Advanced DFM is not DFM for partial optimization of the lithography process and the design, etc. and it should be Organized DFM. They are managed with high-level organizational IQ. The interim quality between each step of the flow should be visualized. DFM will be quality engineering if it is Organized DFM and common metrics of the quality are provided. DFM becomes quality engineering through effective implementation of common industrial metrics and standardized technology. DFM is differential technology, but can leverage standards for efficient development.

  12. Socio-Demographic, Social-Cognitive, Health-Related and Physical Environmental Variables Associated with Context-Specific Sitting Time in Belgian Adolescents: A One-Year Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busschaert, Cedric; Ridgers, Nicola D.; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Cardon, Greet; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; De Cocker, Katrien

    2016-01-01

    Introduction More knowledge is warranted about multilevel ecological variables associated with context-specific sitting time among adolescents. The present study explored cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of ecological domains of sedentary behaviour, including socio-demographic, social-cognitive, health-related and physical-environmental variables with sitting during TV viewing, computer use, electronic gaming and motorized transport among adolescents. Methods For this longitudinal study, a sample of Belgian adolescents completed questionnaires at school on context-specific sitting time and associated ecological variables. At baseline, complete data were gathered from 513 adolescents (15.0±1.7 years). At one-year follow-up, complete data of 340 participants were available (retention rate: 66.3%). Multilevel linear regression analyses were conducted to explore cross-sectional correlates (baseline variables) and longitudinal predictors (change scores variables) of context-specific sitting time. Results Social-cognitive correlates/predictors were most frequently associated with context-specific sitting time. Longitudinal analyses revealed that increases over time in considering it pleasant to watch TV (p electronic gaming. Conclusions Future intervention studies aiming to decrease TV viewing and computer use should acknowledge the importance of the behaviour of siblings and the pleasure adolescents experience during these screen-related behaviours. In addition, more time parents or care givers spent sitting may lead to more sitting during TV viewing of the adolescents, so that a family-based approach may be preferable for interventions. Experimental study designs are warranted to confirm the present findings. PMID:27936073

  13. Socio-Demographic, Social-Cognitive, Health-Related and Physical Environmental Variables Associated with Context-Specific Sitting Time in Belgian Adolescents: A One-Year Follow-Up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busschaert, Cedric; Ridgers, Nicola D; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Cardon, Greet; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; De Cocker, Katrien

    2016-01-01

    More knowledge is warranted about multilevel ecological variables associated with context-specific sitting time among adolescents. The present study explored cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of ecological domains of sedentary behaviour, including socio-demographic, social-cognitive, health-related and physical-environmental variables with sitting during TV viewing, computer use, electronic gaming and motorized transport among adolescents. For this longitudinal study, a sample of Belgian adolescents completed questionnaires at school on context-specific sitting time and associated ecological variables. At baseline, complete data were gathered from 513 adolescents (15.0±1.7 years). At one-year follow-up, complete data of 340 participants were available (retention rate: 66.3%). Multilevel linear regression analyses were conducted to explore cross-sectional correlates (baseline variables) and longitudinal predictors (change scores variables) of context-specific sitting time. Social-cognitive correlates/predictors were most frequently associated with context-specific sitting time. Longitudinal analyses revealed that increases over time in considering it pleasant to watch TV (p time of parents/care givers (p time of siblings (p time in considering it pleasant to use a computer in leisure time (p time of siblings (p importance of the behaviour of siblings and the pleasure adolescents experience during these screen-related behaviours. In addition, more time parents or care givers spent sitting may lead to more sitting during TV viewing of the adolescents, so that a family-based approach may be preferable for interventions. Experimental study designs are warranted to confirm the present findings.

  14. Entangling Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Anete Mikkala Camille

    2018-01-01

    The chapter accounts for the process of becoming of a changed practice within the area of disability care in the Municipality of Aalborg in Denmark. Across a period of a few months in the fall of 2015 a group of employees across the organization and an action researcher from Aalborg University (t....../ability and thereby the model opened the possibility for reworking the binary of ability/disability to the benefit of restorying the citizen’s ability in the practices of changing the disability care....

  15. Organic superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerome, D.

    1980-01-01

    We present the experimental evidences for the existence of a superconducting state in the Quasi One Dimensional organic conductor (TMTSF) 2 PF 6 . Superconductivity occuring at 1 K under 12 kbar is characterized by a zero resistance diamagnetic state. The anistropy of the upper critical field of this type II superconductor is consistent with the band structure anistropy. We present evidences for the existence of large superconducting precursor effects giving rise to a dominant paraconductive contribution below 40 K. We also discuss the anomalously large pressure dependence of T sb(s), which drops to 0.19 K under 24 kbar in terms of the current theories. (author)

  16. Organic photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna; Krebs, Frederik C.; Chen, Hongzheng

    2013-12-01

    Energy inflation, the constant encouragement to economize on energy consumption and the huge investments in developing alternative energy resources might seem to suggest that there is a global shortage of energy. Far from it, the energy the Sun beams on the Earth each hour is equivalent to a year's supply, even at our increasingly ravenous rate of global energy consumption [1]. But it's not what you have got it's what you do with it. Hence the intense focus on photovoltaic research to find more efficient ways to harness energy from the Sun. Recently much of this research has centred on organic solar cells since they offer simple, low-cost, light-weight and large-area flexible photovoltaic structures. This issue with guest editors Frederik C Krebs and Hongzheng Chen focuses on some of the developments at the frontier of organic photovoltaic technology. Improving the power conversion efficiency of organic photovoltaic systems, while maintaining the inherent material, economic and fabrication benefits, has absorbed a great deal of research attention in recent years. Here significant progress has been made with reports now of organic photovoltaic devices with efficiencies of around 10%. Yet operating effectively across the electromagnetic spectrum remains a challenge. 'The trend is towards engineering low bandgap polymers with a wide optical absorption range and efficient hole/electron transport materials, so that light harvesting in the red and infrared region is enhanced and as much light of the solar spectrum as possible can be converted into an electrical current', explains Mukundan Thelakkat and colleagues in Germany, the US and UK. In this special issue they report on how charge carrier mobility and morphology of the active blend layer in thin film organic solar cells correlate with device parameters [2]. The work contributes to a better understanding of the solar-cell characteristics of polymer:fullerene blends, which form the material basis for some of the most

  17. Entangled Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Anete Mikkala Camille

    the model opened the possibility for reworking the binary. The offset of the becoming of the revised model for cooperation was taken from a quantum approach to organizational development and change coined as ‘Organizational scenography’ as part of the methodology of Material Storytelling (Strand 2012). Here...... to embrace other dis/ability care facilities and dis/ability care workers/professionals nearby as well as the neighborhood of the village of citizens surrounding these facilities. Thus reworking previously upheld cuts between areas of responsibility of the Municipality/relatives and of Municipality...... for the employees and thereby support the bringing about of a cultural transformation. A changed relationality indeed brought about though reworking the binary dis/able. From the standpoint of a diffractive methodology (Barad 2007) the paper accounts for this project by being organized in four parts that together...

  18. Organizing Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Bojesen, Anders

    This paper invites to discuss the processes of individualization and organizing being carried out under what we might see as an emerging regime of change. The underlying argumentation is that in certain processes of change, competence becomes questionable at all times. The hazy characteristics...... of this regime of change are pursued through a discussion of competencies as opposed to qualifications illustrated by distinct cases from the Danish public sector in the search for repetitive mechanisms. The cases are put into a general perspective by drawing upon experiences from similar change processes...... in MNCs. The paper concludes by asking whether we can escape from a regime of competence in a world defined by a rhetoric of change and create a more promising world in which doubt and search serve as a strategy for gaining knowledge and professionalism that improve on our capability for mutualism....

  19. transplanted organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafal Szadujkis-Szadurski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Rho-kinase and GTP-ase Rho are important regulators of vascular tone and blood pressure. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Rho-kinase in artery reactions induced by angiotensin II (ANG II and the effects of ischemia-reperfusion injury as well as the function of intra- and extracellular calcium in these reactions. Experiments were performed on mesenteric superior arteries procured from cadaveric organ donors and conserved under the same conditions as transplanted kidneys. The vascular contraction in reaction to ANG II was measured in the presence of Rho-kinase inhibitor Y-27632, after ischemia and reperfusion, in Ca2+ and Ca2+-free solution. The maximal response to ANG II was reduced after ischemia, while an increase was observed after reperfusion. Vascular contraction induced by ANG II was decreased by Y-27632. Y-27632 reduced vascular contraction after reperfusion, both in Ca2+ and Ca2+-free solution. Reperfusion augments vascular contraction in reaction to ANG II. The Rho-kinase inhibitor Y-27632 reduces the hypersensitivity to ANG II after reperfusion mediated by both intra- and extracellular calcium. These results confirm the role of Rho-kinase in receptor-independent function of ANG II and in reperfusion-induced hypersensitivity.

  20. 78 FR 58576 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Europe Limited; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... gas and power in the Dutch, Belgian and German markets. The clearing of ICE Endex Contracts will be... safeguards, protections and risk management procedures, as discussed herein. The ICE Endex Contracts that...

  1. Hierarchical organization versus self-organization

    OpenAIRE

    Busseniers, Evo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we try to define the difference between hierarchical organization and self-organization. Organization is defined as a structure with a function. So we can define the difference between hierarchical organization and self-organization both on the structure as on the function. In the next two chapters these two definitions are given. For the structure we will use some existing definitions in graph theory, for the function we will use existing theory on (self-)organization. In the t...

  2. The electrochemical oxidation of organic waste and activated graphite by Ag2+ in nitric acid: a literature study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Alsenoy, V.; Rahier, A.

    1996-08-01

    Organic wastes and activated moderator graphite can be processed by means of combustion, but the incineration of organic waste poses emission problems. The Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN has experience with the treatment of organic wastes. Moreover, the treatment of radioactive graphite will be required since the BR-1 reactor is moderated with 492 tons of graphite. The strong oxidising properties of Ag 2+ are already used in the chemical and nuclear industry to destroy organic waste. We aim to apply the process on radioactive graphite, organic resins and effluents. The reaction mechanisms will be studied, taking into account the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of the different reactions involved. As a first step, this document gives a literature study of the electrochemical oxidation using Ag 2+ . This document presents a thorough literature study, and shows that the oxidative properties of the Ag 2+ ion, which can easily be formed in nitric acid by means of electrolysis, make it an ideal candidate to oxidize organic molecules into carbon dioxide and water on a perfectly well controlled manner. The process has already been used to destroy explosives and toxic organic waste in the nuclear and chemical industry. Chemical, thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of some of the reactions involved are already known and described, other reaction mechanisms are still unknown. On the basis of the information collected so far, the Research and Development group of the Radioactive Waste and Cleanup unit has proposed to start a research programme to define, test, demonstrate and finally apply a safe process for the treatment of radioactive organic material and graphite by electrochemical oxidation using Ag 2+ . Available data confirm that the oxidation of organic material can be carried out safely, leading to the formation of water and carbon dioxide

  3. The electrochemical oxidation of organic waste and activated graphite by Ag{sup 2+} in nitric acid: a literature study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Alsenoy, V.; Rahier, A.

    1996-08-01

    Organic wastes and activated moderator graphite can be processed by means of combustion, but the incineration of organic waste poses emission problems. The Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN has experience with the treatment of organic wastes. Moreover, the treatment of radioactive graphite will be required since the BR-1 reactor is moderated with 492 tons of graphite. The strong oxidising properties of Ag{sup 2+} are already used in the chemical and nuclear industry to destroy organic waste. We aim to apply the process on radioactive graphite, organic resins and effluents. The reaction mechanisms will be studied, taking into account the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of the different reactions involved. As a first step, this document gives a literature study of the electrochemical oxidation using Ag{sup 2+}. This document presents a thorough literature study, and shows that the oxidative properties of the Ag{sup 2+} ion, which can easily be formed in nitric acid by means of electrolysis, make it an ideal candidate to oxidize organic molecules into carbon dioxide and water on a perfectly well controlled manner. The process has already been used to destroy explosives and toxic organic waste in the nuclear and chemical industry. Chemical, thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of some of the reactions involved are already known and described, other reaction mechanisms are still unknown. On the basis of the information collected so far, the Research and Development group of the Radioactive Waste and Cleanup unit has proposed to start a research programme to define, test, demonstrate and finally apply a safe process for the treatment of radioactive organic material and graphite by electrochemical oxidation using Ag{sup 2+}. Available data confirm that the oxidation of organic material can be carried out safely, leading to the formation of water and carbon dioxide.

  4. Sequential versus Organized Rehearsal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weist, Richard M.; Crawford, Charlotte

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to test the hypothesis that organization in rehearsal is a necessary condition for organization in recall; that is, if recall is organized, then rehearsal must have been organized. (Author)

  5. Belgian experience with radiation technologies for sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonet, H.; Dardenne, P.; Herier, A.

    1998-01-01

    Belgium pioneered in non energetic applications of nuclear science. In 1970, the National Institute for Radioisotopes (IRE) was founded on the ground of the experience acquired at the CEN/SCK, for developing nuclear techniques oriented to the well-being of population. In 1978 IRE started operation of 2 γ-irradiation units with a 2.25 million Ci Co 60 , source having a capacity for sterilization of more than 100 m 3 of product per day. this installation is currently operated by Griffith-Mediris (Group Griffith Micro Science) and has accumulated 20 years of experience for irradiation of foodstuffs, medical appliances and pharmaceuticals. In 1986, IRE was producing radioisotopes from accelerators and joined UCL for founding Ion Beam Applications (IBA) company which shortly became the world leader for design and delivery of cyclotrons. More recently, on the basis of French CEA patent, IBA developed the Rhodotron, an e-beam accelerator, with an X-ray option, which is now facing commercial success i area of ionization of food and medical appliances. IRE developed also expertise for the back-end of these activities i.e. final disposal of radioactive sealed source and dismantling of the installations. (author)

  6. Visit of the King of the Belgians

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2009-01-01

    19 février 2009 - Sa Majesté Albert II, Roi des Belges et le Ministre du Climat et de l’Energie P. Magnette visitent le site experimental de CMS au Point 5 du LHC avec le Directeur de la Recherche et de l’Informatique S. Bertolucci et le Porte-parole de la Collaboration CMS T. Virdee. Tirage 02 à 08: Sa Majesté Albert II, Roi des Belges signe le livre d'or dans le SDX5 en présence du Directeur des accélérateurs et de la technologie S. Myers et du Directeur de la recherche et de l’informatique S. Bertolucci; Tirage 09 à 22: Sa Majesté Albert II, Roi des Belges et le Ministre du Climat et de l’Energie P. Magnette visitent le tunnel du LHC avec le Chef du Projet sLHC L. Evans et K. Cornelis. Tirage 23 à 35: Sa Majesté Albert II, Roi des Belges et le Ministre du Climat et de l’Energie P. Magnette visitent la cerne expérimentale de CMS avec W. Van Doninck (VUB), D. Favart (UCL) et le Porte-parole de la Collaboration T. Virdee. Tirage 36 à 50: Welcome line au Point 5 du LHC: Accueil en t...

  7. Sourcing of Accounting: Evidence from Belgian SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    P. EVERAERT; G. SARENS; J. ROMMEL

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Firstly, this paper investigates the sourcing strategy of small and medium sized companies (SMEs) in terms of accounting tasks. Secondly, this paper also attempts to find motivations for the sourcing strategy of accounting. Thirdly, this paper investigates whether the sourcing strategy is related to firm size, industry and familiarity with outsourcing of other support tasks. The following accounting tasks are considered in this study: (1) entry of invoices and financial transactions,...

  8. Belgian research on fusion beryllium waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druyts, F.; Mallants, D.; Sillen, X.; Iseghem, P. Van

    2004-01-01

    Future fusion power plants will generate important quantities of neutron irradiated beryllium. Although recycling is the preferred management option for this waste, this may not be technically feasible for all of the beryllium, because of its radiological characteristics. Therefore, at SCK·CEN, we initiated a research programme aimed at studying aspects of the disposal of fusion beryllium, including waste characterisation, waste acceptance criteria, conditioning methods, and performance assessment. One of the main issues to be resolved is the development of fusion-specific waste acceptance criteria for surface or deep geological disposal, in particular with regard to the tritium content. In case disposal is the only solution, critical nuclides can be immobilised by conditioning the waste. As a first approach to immobilising beryllium waste, we investigated the vitrification of beryllium. Corrosion tests were performed on both metallic and vitrified beryllium to provide source data for performance assessment. Finally, a first step in performance assessment was undertaken. (author)

  9. VISIT OF BELGIAN FIRMS AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    2 - 3 APRIL 2001 14h00 to 17h30 Monday 2nd 09h00 to 17h30 Tuesday 3rd The firms will be in the Main Building - Pas Perdus and Mezzanine List of Companies: Alcatel ETCA Amos S.A. Asco Industries N.V. Barco N.V. Belgatom Capaul S.A. Comelec S.A. Groupe Hamon HTMS (High Tech Metal Seals) N.V. Kelatron S.A. Mécanique de Précision pour Equipements Mecasoft S.A. Pauwels International N.V. Penders & Vanherle Elektrotechniek N.V. Resarm Engineering Plastics S.A. Simonis Plastic S.A. Techspace Aero S.A. Verhaert Design & Development N.V. Detailed information on the companies is also available on the Web: http://spl-purchasing.web.cern.ch/spl-purchasing/exhibitions_visits.htm For further information please contact Mrs C.L. Jullien-Woringer (tel. 73722-76360)

  10. Visit of Belgian firms at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Caroline Laignel - FI

    2006-01-01

    3 - 4 APRIL 2006 9.00 a.m. to 5.00 p.m. Monday 3 April 9.00 a.m. to 5.00 p.m. Tuesday 4 April Individual interviews will take place in technicians' offices. The firms will contact relevant users/technicians but any user wishing to make contact with a particular firm is welcome to use the contact details which are available from each departmental secretariat or from the Purchasing web pages at the following URL http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm List of Companies: Alcatel Alenia Space Etca ALM ATS Vanwers Cegelec SA Cherokee Europe Cincom Systems International SA DB Engineering BVBA FOS & S BVBA GDM Electronics NV Gemaco SA LMS International NV Management Centre Europe MD Technology Mecasoft SA N.E.T. Research Polmans SA Resarm Engineering Plastics SA Sogeti Belux Syreg SA Tein Telecom SA Groupe Vincott For further information please contact Mrs C. Laignel FI-DI 73722.

  11. Visit of Belgian firms to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    25 – 26 MAY 2009 09.00 to 17.00 Monday 25 May 09.00 to 17.00 Tuesday 26 May Individual interviews will take place in technicians’ offices. The firms will contact relevant users/technicians but any user wishing to make contact with a particular firm is welcome to use the contact details which are available from each departmental secretariat or from the GS Department web pages. List of Companies: Automation Services and Consulting BVBA Burrick NV, (PLC) Cissoid DB Engineering Design, Drafting & Services BVBA Entelec Control Systems GILLAM-Fei S.A. HPC ICSENSE IWT – Enterprise Europe Flanders Jema SA Mecasoft SA SA Polmans Rapid-Torc Resarm Engineering Plastics SA Sentera Europa NV SLC BVBA Stocker Industrie SA Technord Tecnubel Winlock BVBA For further information please contact Caroline Laignel (GS-DI 73722) or Karine Robert (GS-SEM-LS 74407).

  12. Visit of Belgian Firms at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    FP Department

    2009-01-01

    25 – 26 MAY 2009 09h00 to 17h00 Monday 25 May 09h00 to 17h00 Tuesday 26 May Individual interviews will take place in technicians’ offices. The firms will contact relevant users/technicians but any user wishing to make contact with a particular firm is welcome to use the contact details which are available from each secretariat of department or from the GS Department web pages at the following URL: http://gs-dep.web.cern.ch/gs-dep/groups/sem/ls/Industrial_Exhibitions.htm List of Companies: 1. Automation Services and Consulting BVBA 2. Burrick NV, (PLC) 3. Cissoid 4. DB Engineering 5. Design, Drafting & Services BVBA 6. Entelec Control Systems 7. GILLAM-Fei S.A. 8. HPC 9. ICSENSE 10. IWT – Enterprise Europe Flanders 11. Jema SA 12. Mecasoft SA 13. SA Polmans 14. Rapid-Torc 15. Resarm Engineering Plastics SA 16. Sentera Europa NV 17. SLC BVBA 18. Stocker Industrie SA 19. Technord 20. Tecnubel 21. Winlock BVBA For further information please contact Caroline Laignel GS-DI 737...

  13. Ordered organic-organic multilayer growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Stephen R; Lunt, Richard R

    2015-01-13

    An ordered multilayer crystalline organic thin film structure is formed by depositing at least two layers of thin film crystalline organic materials successively wherein the at least two thin film layers are selected to have their surface energies within .+-.50% of each other, and preferably within .+-.15% of each other, whereby every thin film layer within the multilayer crystalline organic thin film structure exhibit a quasi-epitaxial relationship with the adjacent crystalline organic thin film.

  14. Organizing education by drawing on organization studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romme, A.G.L.

    2003-01-01

    This study explores how scholars researching organizations and organizing processes can use and exploit their knowledge not only in terms of course contents, but also in organizing and managing students' learning activity. A design-oriented research approach is used in order to develop grounded

  15. Organic waste treatment with organically modified clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.C.; Pancoski, S.E.; Alther, G.

    1989-01-01

    The use of organically modified clays in hazardous waste management applications offers a significant new and untapped potential. These clays may be used in the stabilization of organic wastes and organically contaminated soils, for waste water treatment, for oil spill control, for liner systems beneath fuel oil storage tanks, and as a component within liner systems of hazardous waste storage treatment and disposal facilities. Organically modified clays (organophilic clays) may be employed in each of these systems to adsorb organic waste constituents, enhancing the performance of the applications

  16. New Statute of the Nuclear Energy Research Centre (CEN), copy of Act No. 1429, amended by Act No. 1145 and Act No. 5652, respectively published in the annexes of the Belgian Official Gazette of 28 March 1963, 3 March 1966 and 17 September 1970

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1963-01-01

    The Statute of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (CEN) lays down the objects of the Centre which consist of undertaking research on the applications of nuclear energy, promoting scientific and technical studies of such applications, carrying out advanced technological research on other topics in the country's scientific and technological programmes; and at the public authorities' request co-ordinating such research by all means available to it. The CEN is run by a Board of Directors selected by representatives of the nuclear industry, scientific and university circles as well as by the Government. The Statute also provides for the rules of procedure of the Board as well as for the Centre's budget and management under the responsibility of a Director General appointed by the Board. Finally, the CEN is declared as being an establishment created in the public interest, and any amendment to its Statute must obtain the prior approval of the King. (NEA) [fr

  17. Agriculture: Organic Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic Farming - Organically grown food is food grown and processed using no synthetic fertilizers or pesticides. Pesticides derived from natural sources (such as biological pesticides) may be used in producing organically grown food.

  18. Organizations Utilize Lateral Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Jacqueline C.

    2017-01-01

    The structures that subscribe to different organization play a major role and determine how information flows throughout an organization as well as the reporting structure within the organization. In some organization, decision making rely with the top management, and in other organizations, decision making responsibilities may be distributed within the organization. The latter part is what mainly constitutes a lateral structural arrangement where various departments work hand in hand in achi...

  19. Yersinia enterocolitica organism (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This picture shows the organism Yersinia enterocolitica . Yersinia organisms cause a wide range of disease but are most often associated with diarrhea or gastrointestinal symptoms. Yersinia infection is ...

  20. Theology and Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier Sørensen, Bent; Spoelstra, Sverre; Höpfl, Heather

    2012-01-01

    of religious practices in organizations. Instead, theology of organization recognizes that the way we think about and act in organizations is profoundly structured by theological concepts. In this editorial to the special issue we have three aims: to outline what theology of organization is, to show how...

  1. Soluble organic nutrient fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert G. Qualls; Bruce L. Haines; Wayne Swank

    2014-01-01

    Our objectives in this study were (i) compare fluxes of the dissolved organic nutrients dissolved organic carbon (DOC), DON, and dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) in a clearcut area and an adjacent mature reference area. (ii) determine whether concentrations of dissolved organic nutrients or inorganic nutrients were greater in clearcut areas than in reference areas,...

  2. China's Organic Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Paull, John

    2008-01-01

    Agriculture in China is at the onset of an Organic Revolution. From 2000 to 2006, China has moved from 45th to 2nd position in the world in number of hectares under organic management. China now has more land under organic horticulture than any other country. In the year 2005/2006, China added 12% to the world’s organic area. This accounted for 63% of the world’s annual increase in organic land, and China now has 11% of the world’s organically managed land. The antecedents to China’s Organic ...

  3. Soil organic matter studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A total of 77 papers were presented and discussed during this symposium, 37 are included in this Volume II. The topics covered in this volume include: biochemical transformation of organic matter in soils; bitumens in soil organic matter; characterization of humic acids; carbon dating of organic matter in soils; use of modern techniques in soil organic matter research; use of municipal sludge with special reference to heavy metals constituents, soil nitrogen, and physical and chemical properties of soils; relationship of soil organic matter and plant metabolism; interaction between agrochemicals and organic matter; and peat. Separate entries have been prepared for those 20 papers which discuss the use of nuclear techniques in these studies

  4. The Visual Dimension in Organizing, Organization and Organization Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Theo; Meyer, Renate; Hollerer, Markus

    2013-01-01

    With the unprecedented rise in the use of visuals, and its undeniable omnipresence in organizational contexts, as well as in the individual's everyday life, organization and management science has recently started to pay closer attention to the to date under-theorized "visual mode" of discourse...... and meaning constriction, Building primarily on insights from the phenomenological tradition in organization theory and from social semiotics, this article sets out to consolidate previous scholarly efforts and to sketch a fertile future research agenda, After briefly exploring the working of visuals, we...... introduce the methodological and theoretical roots of visual studies in a number of disciplines that have a long-standing tradition of incorporating the visual. We then continue by extensively reviewing work in the field of organization and management studies: More specifically, we present five distinct...

  5. Priority volatile organic compounds in surface waters of the southern North Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huybrechts, Tom; Dewulf, Jo; Langenhove, Herman van

    2005-01-01

    The occurrence of 25 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was studied from April 1998 to October 2000 in the southern North Sea. Target VOCs were selected from lists of priority pollutants for the marine environment and included, e.g., chlorinated short-chain hydrocarbons (CHCs), monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs), and chlorinated monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (CMAHs). Water samples were taken from the Channel, the Belgian Continental Shelf, the mouth of the Scheldt estuary and the Southern Bight, and were analysed by purge-and-trap and high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. All data were produced by analyses deemed 'in control' by a rigorous quality assurance/quality control program provided by QUASIMEME (Quality Assurance of Information for Marine Environmental Monitoring in Europe). Chloroform and trichloroethene were commonly detected at concentrations up to 1900 and 270 ng l -1 , respectively. The other CHCs were generally found below 5 ng l -1 , and rarely exceeded 10 ng l -1 . Concentrations of MAHs were at least one order of magnitude higher than those of the CHCs. The higher levels were attributed to anthropogenic emissions from oil-related activities in coastal areas. CMAHs, except chlorobenzene and 1,4-dichlorobenzene, were hardly detected in North Sea waters. The levels of several CHCs and MAHs were shown to decrease compared to previous investigations in 1994-1995, probably as a result of on-going emission reduction efforts. The occurrence of 1,1,1-trichloroethane, for instance, was substantially reduced since the Montreal Protocol was implemented in 1995. - Volatile aromatics are a major group of volatile organic compounds in the North Sea, and are attributed to discharges from shipping and oil related activities

  6. MARKETING ORGANIZATION ACTIVITY IN SPORTS ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Župljanin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sports organizations as "sui generis" organizations inevitably have to adopt the concept of marketing as a business philosophy, if you want to survive and develop its activities in the modern business environment. Supply and demand as the market, and psychological phenomena are inherent in sports organizations. Sport is a special area of human activity in which marketing has a specific place and role. Sports and sporting events are also a massive public and media events and high level of interest involving multi-million audience. Between direct and indirect participants of these events takes place appropriate communication sociological, psychological and marketing character. The aim of this paper is to present the possibility of more efficient operation of sports organizations using and adopting the marketing concept as a philosophy of action.

  7. Organic Solvent Tropical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COWLEY, W.L.

    2000-01-01

    This report provides the basis for closing the organic solvent safety issue. Sufficient information is presented to conclude that risk posed by an unmitigated organic solvent fire is within risk evaluation guidelines

  8. Organics in radwaste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, N.K.

    1988-10-01

    Seventeen papers, each processed separately cover the types of organic materials in radioactive wastes, their effect on repository performance and destruction of organics, including incineration, peroxide and wet oxidation and acid and biological digestion. (U.K.)

  9. Organizing design work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, John Damm

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of the kind of understanding of organizing that is implied by design theories for project managers' understanding and organizing of design work. Five theories and their organizing consequences for project managers organizing of design work...... are analyzed. The paper contributes to design research and organization studies by putting the organizing of design projects on the research agenda. It also contributes by demonstrating the importance of being aware of the ontological and epistemological assumptions and organizing consequences of different...... design theories. The selected theories of design thus represent different views on what design is, address different design areas and are based on different ontological and epistemological assumptions that influence their views on how design processes should be organized....

  10. Organ Improvisation - An Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fidom, J.

    2008-01-01

    Whereas musicological attention to improvisation tended to neglect organ improvisation,new initiatives, both musically and musicologically, indicate an imminent rehabilitation. Such rehabilitation is more than justified: organ improvisation is the only unbroken western improvisation tradition,

  11. Understanding Identity and Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Thøger

    2013-01-01

    The article reviews the book "Understanding Identity and Organizations," by Kate Kenny, Andrea Whitle, and Hugh Wilmott.......The article reviews the book "Understanding Identity and Organizations," by Kate Kenny, Andrea Whitle, and Hugh Wilmott....

  12. Organic electrochemical transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Rivnay, Jonathan; Inal, Sahika; Salleo, Alberto; Owens, Ró isí n M.; Berggren, Magnus; Malliaras, George G.

    2018-01-01

    Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) make effective use of ion injection from an electrolyte to modulate the bulk conductivity of an organic semiconductor channel. The coupling between ionic and electronic charges within the entire volume

  13. Organic optoelectronic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yongfang

    2015-01-01

    This volume reviews the latest trends in organic optoelectronic materials. Each comprehensive chapter allows graduate students and newcomers to the field to grasp the basics, whilst also ensuring that they have the most up-to-date overview of the latest research. Topics include: organic conductors and semiconductors; conducting polymers and conjugated polymer semiconductors, as well as their applications in organic field-effect-transistors; organic light-emitting diodes; and organic photovoltaics and transparent conducting electrodes. The molecular structures, synthesis methods, physicochemical and optoelectronic properties of the organic optoelectronic materials are also introduced and described in detail. The authors also elucidate the structures and working mechanisms of organic optoelectronic devices and outline fundamental scientific problems and future research directions. This volume is invaluable to all those interested in organic optoelectronic materials.

  14. Behaviour in an Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Klímová, Kateřina

    2009-01-01

    Diploma thesis "The behavior in the organization" at a practical level, integrates the knowledge of psychology, sociology and management. It explains bahavior of people in the organization, which seeks to use this knowledge for the benefit of the organizaton and its management. It focuses on individual differences among people in the organization, organizational culture, relationships between people in workplace, organizational structure, communication within the organization, motivation, dev...

  15. Organic photovoltaic films

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Jenny

    2002-01-01

    Organic electronic materials are of interest for future applications in solar cells. Although results for single layer organic materials have been disappointing, high photocurrent quantum efficiencies can be achieved in composite systems including both electron donating and electron accepting components. Efficiencies of over 2% have now been reported in four different types of organic solar cell. Performance is limited by the low red absorption of organic materials, poor charge transport, and...

  16. The Matrix Organization Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gattiker, Urs E.; Ulhøi, John Parm

    1999-01-01

    This paper gives a short overview of matrix structure and technology management. It outlines some of the characteristics and also points out that many organizations may actualy be hybrids (i.e. mix several ways of organizing to allocate resorces effectively).......This paper gives a short overview of matrix structure and technology management. It outlines some of the characteristics and also points out that many organizations may actualy be hybrids (i.e. mix several ways of organizing to allocate resorces effectively)....

  17. Values in Organic Farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgård, Bente; Pedersen, Kirsten Bransholm; Land, Birgit

    The study focuses on the recent debate about what is, or what constitutes, organic farming and what is the right path for organic farming in the future. The study is based on a critical discourse analysis of the controversy about suspending the private standard for organic farming adopted by the ...

  18. Organic chemistry in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    Organic cosmochemistry, organic materials in space exploration, and biochemistry of man in space are briefly surveyed. A model of Jupiter's atmosphere is considered, and the search for organic molecules in the solar system and in interstellar space is discussed. Materials and analytical techniques relevant to space exploration are indicated, and the blood and urine analyses performed on Skylab are described.

  19. Building synthetic cellular organization

    OpenAIRE

    Polka, Jessica K.; Silver, Pamela A.

    2013-01-01

    The elaborate spatial organization of cells enhances, restricts, and regulates protein–protein interactions. However, the biological significance of this organization has been difficult to study without ways of directly perturbing it. We highlight synthetic biology tools for engineering novel cellular organization, describing how they have been, and can be, used to advance cell biology.

  20. Nanostructured Organic Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radziwon, Michal Jędrzej; Rubahn, Horst-Günter; Madsen, Morten

    Recent forecasts for alternative energy generation predict emerging importance of supporting state of art photovoltaic solar cells with their organic equivalents. Despite their significantly lower efficiency, number of application niches are suitable for organic solar cells. This work reveals...... the principles of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells fabrication as well as summarises major differences in physics of their operation....