WorldWideScience

Sample records for belgian organizations

  1. Organ procurement after euthanasia: Belgian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ysebaert, D; Van Beeumen, G; De Greef, K; Squifflet, J P; Detry, O; De Roover, A; Delbouille, M-H; Van Donink, W; Roeyen, G; Chapelle, T; Bosmans, J-L; Van Raemdonck, D; Faymonville, M E; Laureys, S; Lamy, M; Cras, P

    2009-03-01

    Euthanasia was legalized in Belgium in 2002 for adults under strict conditions. The patient must be in a medically futile condition and of constant and unbearable physical or mental suffering that cannot be alleviated, resulting from a serious and incurable disorder caused by illness or accident. Between 2005 and 2007, 4 patients (3 in Antwerp and 1 in Liège) expressed their will for organ donation after their request for euthanasia was granted. Patients were aged 43 to 50 years and had a debilitating neurologic disease, either after severe cerebrovascular accident or primary progressive multiple sclerosis. Ethical boards requested complete written scenario with informed consent of donor and relatives, clear separation between euthanasia and organ procurement procedure, and all procedures to be performed by senior staff members and nursing staff on a voluntary basis. The euthanasia procedure was performed by three independent physicians in the operating room. After clinical diagnosis of cardiac death, organ procurement was performed by femoral vessel cannulation or quick laparotomy. In 2 patients, the liver, both kidneys, and pancreatic islets (one case) were procured and transplanted; in the other 2 patients, there was additional lung procurement and transplantation. Transplant centers were informed of the nature of the case and the elements of organ procurement. There was primary function of all organs. The involved physicians and transplant teams had the well-discussed opinion that this strong request for organ donation after euthanasia could not be waived. A clear separation between the euthanasia request, the euthanasia procedure, and the organ procurement procedure is necessary. PMID:19328932

  2. De communicatiefunctie in Belgische organisaties: Hoe excellent is deze ingevuld? [Communications functions in Belgian organizations: How excellently are they implemented?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorp, B. van; Pauwels, L.M.A.

    2009-01-01

    This study presents data, which were obtained by a web survey (n = 750), concerning the position of communications in the hierarchical structure of Belgian organizations with at least 50 employees. Results show that 43 percent of the organizations in the sample have an integrated communications depa

  3. Belgian Firms Visit CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Fifteen Belgian firms visited CERN last 2 and 3 April to present their know-how. Industrial sectors ranging from precision machining to electrical engineering and electronics were represented. And for the first time, companies from the Flemish and Brussels regions of the country joined their Walloon compatriots, who have come to CERN before. The visit was organised by Mr J.-M. Warêgne, economic and commercial attaché at the Belgian permanent mission for the French-speaking region, Mr J. Van de Vondel, his opposite number for the Flemish region, and Mrs E. Solowianiuk, economic and commercial counsellor at the Belgian permanent mission for the Brussels-Capital region.

  4. Auditor Choice in the Belgian Nonprofit Sector: a Behavioral Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    REHEUL, Anne-Mie; Van Caneghem, Tom; Verbruggen, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates auditor choice in Belgian nonprofit organizations from a behavioral perspective. We investigate whether auditor choice in favor of an auditor with a high (versus low) level of sector specialization is associated with the importance that nonprofit organizations attach to six auditor attributes: competence/integrity/deontology, working relationship with management, audit fee, practical execution of the audit, client oriented analysis and suggestions, and sector expertise...

  5. MOLIERE PROJECT - Belgian National Report

    OpenAIRE

    Naedenoen, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    This document aims at introducing the restructuring phenomena in Belgium. It makes part of a larger project (called the MOLIERE project) undertaken by eleven European countries gathered to analyse restructurings. This national document follows a common reporting format: an introduction of the complex Belgian restructuring frameworks (1), a presentation of the main actors involved in the process (2), a synthesis of the measures created to anticipate change (3) and a synthesis of the measures ...

  6. impact of six multimodal country-wide campaigns to promote hand hygiene in belgian hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Fonguh, Sylvanus; Hammami, N; Catry, B; Simon, Anne; ICPIC

    2015-01-01

    Six campaigns sponsored by the Belgian federal government were organized to promote hand hygiene(HH) in Belgian hospitals between 2005 and 2015. The campaigns combined educational sessions for healthcare workers (HCWs), promotion of alcohol-based hand rubs, patient awareness and audits with performance feedback. Each campaign consisted of a pre-campaign data collection period, an awareness period with training and a post-campaign data collection period.

  7. BNAIC 2008: Proceedings 20th Belgian-Netherlands Conference on Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Nijholt, Anton; Pantic, Maja; Poel, Mannes; Hondorp, Hendri

    2008-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the 20th edition of the Belgian-Netherlands Conference on Artificial Intelligence. The conference was organized by the Human Media Interaction group of the University of Twente. As usual, the conference was under the auspices of the Belgian-Dutch Association for Artificial Intelligence (BNVKI) and the Dutch Research School for Information and Knowledge Systems (SIKS). The conference aims at presenting an overview of state-of-the-art research in artificial...

  8. A Belgian Approach to Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Cheryl W.

    The paper reviews Belgian philosophy toward the education of learning disabled students and cites the differences between American behaviorally-oriented theory and Belgian emphasis on identifying the underlying causes of the disability. Academic methods observed in Belgium (including psychodrama and perceptual motor training) are discussed and are…

  9. Emergency plan belgian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl disaster prompted authorities in Belgium to carry out a comprehensive review of all emergency plans and, in particular, those designed specifically for nuclear accidents. This review was aimed at determining what type of plans existed and to what extent such plans were operational. This paper sets out to present a broad overview of different aspects of this problem: organization of public emergency plans, co-ordination of operations, merits and demerits of centralization as opposed to decentralization, planning zones, obligation to release information to the public and relations with the media, and finally the international dimension to the problem. The author expresses the hope that the latter area will inspire practical suggestions

  10. The Mandate System for the Belgian Public Prosecution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno BROUCKER

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The law of 22 December 1998 introduced the mandate system for the heads of the Public Prosecution offices, which were appointed permanent before that. Theoretically, such a system needs to enhance, within the organization, effectiveness, efficiency, responsabilisation, and goal-orientation. However, the mandate system within the Belgian Public Prosecution was introduced prematurely, for dubious reasons and in a precipitate manner. In the current situation, the position of the mandate holder is uncertain, with a bounded autonomy and a low wage increase. Moreover, it remains impossible to intervene in the policy of appointed heads of office (during their mandate, the efficiency and effectiveness is only increased in some prosecution offices and a contract containing actual management responsibilities is absent. In sum: there is a large gap between the theoretical principles of mandate systems and the way it is introduced in the Belgian Public Prosecution.

  11. The Belgian nuclear research centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Belgian Nuclear Research Centre is almost exclusively devoted to nuclear R and D and services and is able to generate 50% of its resources (out of 75 million Euro) by contract work and services. The main areas of research include nuclear reactor safety, radioactive waste management, radiation protection and safeguards. The high flux reactor BR2 is extensively used to test fuel and structural materials. PWR-plant BR3 is devoted to the scientific analysis of decommissioning problems. The Centre has a strong programme on the applications of radioisotopes and radiation in medicine and industry. The centre has plans to develop an accelerator driven spallation neutron source for various applications. It has initiated programmes to disseminate correct information on issues of nuclear energy production and non-energy nuclear applications to different target groups. It has strong linkages with the IAEA, OECD-NEA and the Euratom. (author)

  12. Integrated modelling of the Belgian coastal zone

    OpenAIRE

    Delhez, E. J. M.; Carabin, G.

    2001-01-01

    The management of the water resources in coastal or delta plains asks for an integrated modelling of the water system at a regional scale. In the SALMON project, detailed descriptions of the groundwater, river and marine domains are provided by coupling appropriate numerical models of these different sub-systems.The application of this three-fold model to the Scheldt and Belgian Coastal Zone reveals a marked river plume extending along the Belgian Coast with strong offshore gradients. This pl...

  13. An ecosystem approach towards Belgian coastal policy

    OpenAIRE

    Vanden Eede, S.

    2013-01-01

    The Belgian coastal zone hosts a complex of space-use and resource-use activities with a myriad of pressures impairing environmental conditions both on the coastline and on coastal waters Specifically at the beach zone, predictions on sea level rise, intensified storms accelerated erosion and flood risk for the North Sea have led to the drafting of the Belgian Integrated Coastal Safety Plan. The preferred coastal defence measure is beach nourishment as it safeguards the natural dynamics of th...

  14. Strategic groups in the Belgian fishing fleet

    OpenAIRE

    Stouten, H.; A. HEENE; Gellynck, X.; Polet, H

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the heterogeneity of the Belgian fishing fleet based on “strategic groups”, a concept borrowed from the field of strategic management. Its objectives are: (1) to define strategic groups within the Belgian fishing fleet; (2) to examine the performance differences among these strategic groups; (3) to examine whether firms (i.e., vessels) move between strategic groups over time; and (4) to examine if firm-movement (i.e., vessel-movement) differs across strategic groups. In th...

  15. From pralines to multinationals. The economic history of Belgian chocolate

    OpenAIRE

    Garrone, Maria; Pieters, Hannah; Swinnen, Jo

    2015-01-01

    Belgium is associated with high-quality chocolate products and Belgian companies play an important role in cocoa processing. However, in historical perspective the global success and reputation of Belgian chocolate is a relatively recent phenomenon. Especially since the 1980s exports of "Belgian chocolates" have grown exponentially. We document the growth of the sector and discuss its determinants. Today, the very concept of "Belgian chocolate" faces challenges, as successful companies have b...

  16. Prospects for Revitalising the Belgian University System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecquet, Ignace

    1984-01-01

    Concerns of a researcher in a Belgian university regarding the trend toward policy implementation dominated by short- and medium-term budgetary considerations are outlined. The university system's heterogeneous, compartmentalized nature and potential are noted, along with the relationship to the government and the real danger of break-up of the…

  17. Performance communication of the Belgian Railway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelders, Dave; Verckens, Jan Pieter; Galetzka, Mirjam; Seydel, Erwin

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide an insight into performance communication from an important public service, i.e. the Belgian Railway, towards its employees (internal) and stakeholders (external). Design/methodology/approach – A qualitative research approach was taken in the form o

  18. Focal epilepsy in the Belgian shepherd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berendt, Mette; Gulløv, Christina Hedal; Fredholm, Merete

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To establish the mode of inheritance and describe the clinical features of epilepsy in the Belgian shepherd, taking the outset in an extended Danish dog family (199 individuals) of Groenendael and Tervueren with accumulated epilepsy. METHODS: Epilepsy positive individuals (living and...... deceased) were ascertained through a telephone interview using a standardised questionnaire regarding seizure history and phenomenology. Living dogs were invited to a detailed clinical evaluation. Litters more than five years of age, or where epilepsy was present in all offspring before the age of five...... seizures. In seven dogs, seizures could not be classified. The mode of inheritance of epilepsy was simple Mendelian. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This study identified that the Belgian shepherd suffers from genetically transmitted focal epilepsy. The seizure phenomenology expressed by family members have a...

  19. Optical remote sensing of Belgian coastal waters

    OpenAIRE

    Ovidio, F.; K. Ruddick; Vasilkov, A.; Burenkov, V.

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarises the research conducted at MUMM in optical remote sensing of Belgian coastal waters during the period 1997-2000. The motivation for this research consists of the need to provide information for marine environmental management of coastal eutrophication and sediment transport related problems. The basic products provided by optical remote sensing are maps of chlorophyll concentration and total suspended matter. A key contribution has been made for the atmospheric correction...

  20. Advertising budgeting practices of Belgian industrial marketers.

    OpenAIRE

    François, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    The author reports on the results of a survey of a random sample of 102 belgian industrial companies, which measured which budget setting processes companies use, how they set budgets and the resulting budget composition. The objective of the study was first to compare the results with international practice, and second to try to explain their budgeting practices as a function of company, product and market characteristics measured in the same survey. The major conclusions are mixed : on the ...

  1. The Belgian Nuclear Higher Education Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: BNEN, the Belgian Nuclear Higher Education Network has been created in 2001 by five Belgian universities and the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN) as a joint effort to maintain and further develop a high quality programme in nuclear engineering in Belgium. In a country where a substantial part of electricity generation will remain of nuclear origin for a number of years, there is a need for well educated and well trained engineers in this area. Public authorities, regulators and industry brought their support to this initiative. In the framework of the new architecture of higher education in Europe, the English name for this 60 ECTS programme is 'Master of Science in Nuclear Engineering'. To be admitted to this programme, students must already hold a university degree in engineering or equivalent. Linked with university research, benefiting from the human resources and infrastructure of SCK-CEN, encouraged and supported by the partners of the nuclear sector, this programme should be offered not only to Belgian students, but also more widely throughout Europe and the world. The master programme is a demanding programme where students with different high level backgrounds in engineering have to go through highly theoretical subjects like neutron physics, fluid flow and heat transfer modelling, and apply them to reactor design, nuclear safety and plant operation and control. At a more interdisciplinary level, the programme includes some important chapters of material science, with a particular interest for the fuel cycle. Radiation protection belongs also to the backbone of the programme. All the subjects are taught by academics appointed by the partner universities, whereas the practical exercises and laboratory sessions are supervised by researchers of SCK-CEN. The final thesis offers an opportunity for internship in industry or in a research laboratory. More information: http://www.sckcen.be/BNEN. (author)

  2. Religiosity, Values, and Acculturation: A Study of Turkish, Turkish-Belgian, and Belgian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gungor, Derya; Bornstein, Marc H.; Phalet, Karen

    2012-01-01

    We address the understudied religious dimension of acculturation in acculturating adolescents who combine a religious Islamic heritage with a secularized Christian mainstream culture. The religiosity of 197 Turkish-Belgian adolescents was compared with that of 366 age-mates in Turkey (the heritage culture) and 203 in Belgium (the mainstream…

  3. Geochemical behavior of trace elements in sub-tidal marine sediments of the Belgian coast

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Y.; Lesven, L.; Gillan, D.; K Sabbe; Billon, G.; De Galan, S.; Elskens, M.; Baeyens, W.; Leermakers, M.

    2009-01-01

    High resolution profiles of trace elements (Fe, Mn, Co, As, Cu, Cr, Ni and Pb) were assessed using the DET (Diffusive Equilibrium in Thin films) and DGT (Diffusive Gradients in Thin films) techniques in silty, organically enriched, sub-tidal sediments of the Belgian coast during late winter and spring 2008. The general chemical properties of the sediments such as dissolved oxygen, pH, Eh and sulfide profiles, controlling precipitation/ mobilization reactions, were determined with electrodes (...

  4. Perceived work ability and turnover intentions: a prospective study among Belgian healthcare workers

    OpenAIRE

    Derycke, Hanne; Clays, Els; Vlerick, Peter; D'hoore, William; Hasselhorn, Hans Martin; Braeckman, Lutgart

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To report a study exploring prospective relations between nurses' perceived work ability and three forms of turnover intentions, respectively, intent to leave the ward, organization and profession. BACKGROUND: Turnover of nursing staff is a major challenge for healthcare settings and for healthcare in general, urging the need to improve retention. DESIGN: Survey. METHODS: Based on the longitudinal data of the Belgian sample from the European Nurses' Early Exit study, a total of 1531 heal...

  5. Belgian Photography: Towards a Minor Photography.

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Baetens; Hilde Van Gelder; Mieke Bleyen

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: This article investigates Belgian photography from within the national framework. Using the notion of "banal nationalism" (Billig), it explores how even in the case of a nation wi...

  6. Belgian NPPS fit passive autocatalytic recombiners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because hydrogen production during severe accidents can endanger the containment or safety-graded equipment, the Belgian Utility requested Belgatom in 1989 to perform a comparative study between the possible mitigative measures. From the outcome of that study, the Utility decided to install Passive Autorcatalytic Recombiners (PARs) in the seven Belgian units and mandated Belgatom to carry out the project. The author presents the successive steps from the principle decision to the installation on site. A first section is devoted to the sizing of the catalytic surface and its distribution inside the containment. The results of the method are presented for the 5 units equipped before October 96. Besides the functional requirements, the catalyst must also resist to poisoning agents which can be released not only during severe accidents but also during normal operation or shutdown; the relevant qualification criteria are reminded in the second section. Because the installation of the PARs requires also the design of supports, recommendations are drawn to minimize the design effort and the assembling work. At last, the effectiveness of the PARs entirely relies on a catalyst material of which the potential has to be periodically controlled. A section briefly describes the in-service inspection and the related test procedures

  7. BRAMS --- the Belgian RAdio Meteor Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, H.; Ranvier, S.; Martinez Picar, A.; Gamby, E.; Calders, S.; Anciaux, M.; De Keyser, J.

    2014-07-01

    BRAMS is a new radio observing facility developed by the Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy (BISA) to detect and characterize meteors using forward scattering. It consists of a dedicated beacon located in the south-east of Belgium and in 25 identical receiving stations spread over the Belgian territory. The beacon transmits a pure sinusoidal wave at a frequency of 49.97 MHz with a power of 150 watts. A complete description of the BRAMS network and the data produced will be provided. The main scientific goals of the project are to compute fluxes, retrieve trajectories of individual objects, and determine physical parameters (speed, ionization, mass) for some of the observed meteor echoes. All these goals require a good knowledge of the radiation patterns of the transmitting and receiving antennas. Simulations have been made and will be validated with in-situ measurements using a UAV/drone equipped with a transmitter flying in the far-field region. The results will be provided. Each receiving station generates around 1 GB of data per day with typical numbers of sporadic meteor echoes of 1500--2000. An automatic detection method of these meteor echoes is therefore mandatory but is complicated by spurious echoes mostly due to airplanes. The latest developments of this automatic detection method will be presented and compared to manual counts for validation. Strong and weak points of the method will be presented as well as a possible alternative method using neural networks.

  8. History of the Belgian nuclear power controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partly because nuclear energy technology continues to provoke profound controversy, the Flemish institute for technology assessment (viWTA) took the initiative to order a study aimed at mapping out the historical dynamics of the societal debate on nuclear energy. This study was carried out by the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN, under the research programme PISA) together with the Free university of Brussels (VUB, research group MEKO) in 2004. In 2007, the report was updated and published by Acco (Leuven) under the title Kernenergie (on)besproken. This study had three main objectives: 1) to discuss the societal debate on nuclear energy in Belgium in relation to major events (Chernobyl, TMI, etc.); 2) to elucidate the role of social actors in the controversy on both a national and international level and 3) to discuss possible alternatives for a better structuring of the debate in the future, building on existing approaches

  9. Last developments in the Belgian disposal programme for low and intermediate short-lived waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After an historical reminder of the several phases of the Belgian program for the disposal of low and medium level short-lived waste since the creation of ONDRAF/NIRAS and the bad results obtained in the 90's by using a pure technical approach, the presentation will explain the main lines of the new methodology developed, as a consequence of the government decision of 16 January 1998 in ONDRAF/NIRAS to improve local acceptance for the disposal project. The way local partnerships were created with four nuclear municipalities under the form of a non-profit organization with a clear mission, the functioning, on a voluntary base, of the different partnerships during four to six years and the concrete results obtained until now using this very innovative method will be addressed. The last developments of the Belgian program for the disposal of low and medium level and short-lived waste will be presented, including the recent and very important decision of the Belgian government of 23 June 2006 to dispose of the low and medium active short-lived waste in a surface disposal installation on the territory of the municipality Dessel. (author)

  10. Predicting the environmental risks of radioactive discharges from Belgian nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An environmental risk assessment (ERA) was performed to evaluate the impact on non-human biota from liquid and atmospheric radioactive discharges by the Belgian Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) of Doel and Tihange. For both sites, characterisation of the source term and wildlife population around the NPPs was provided, whereupon the selection of reference organisms and the general approach taken for the environmental risk assessment was established. A deterministic risk assessment for aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems was performed using the ERICA assessment tool and applying the ERICA screening value of 10 μGy h−1. The study was performed for the radioactive discharge limits and for the actual releases (maxima and averages over the period 1999–2008 or 2000–2009). It is concluded that the current discharge limits for the Belgian NPPs considered do not result in significant risks to the aquatic and terrestrial environment and that the actual discharges, which are a fraction of the release limits, are unlikely to harm the environment. -- Highlights: • Impact of radioactive discharges by the Belgian NPPs of Doel and Tihange on wildlife was evaluated. • Deterministic risk assessment for aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems performed with the ERICA tool. • NPP discharge limits do not result in significant risks to the aquatic and terrestrial environment. • Actual discharges, a fraction of the release limits, are unlikely to harm the environment

  11. Exporting Ethnic Divisions? The Political Participation of Belgian Citizens Abroad

    OpenAIRE

    Lafleur, Jean-Michel

    2011-01-01

    The Belgian emigrants’ political participation in home country politics is an issue that has undergone several important developments since the end of the 1990s but has surprisingly been subject to very little research. The absence of the issue of emigration from the Belgian political agenda combined with the limited engagement of this population with the home country thus stands for the absence of research on the topic. The lack of academic interest, in turn, has favoured the development of ...

  12. Dietary habits during adolescence - results of the Belgian Adolux Study

    OpenAIRE

    Paulus, Dominique; Saint-Remy, Annie; JeanJean, Michel

    2001-01-01

    STUDY: To analyse the usual dietary habits of Belgian adolescents from a high cardiovascular risk population. METHODS: A food frequency questionnaire (57 items) was administered to the whole sample. Complementary questions specified some types of food (eg fat content). A subgroup of 234 adolescents gave detailed information on portion size (picture book and food samples). SETTING: Twenty-four secondary schools in the Belgian province of Luxembourg. SUBJECTS: A total of 1,526 adolesce...

  13. Survival Among Belgian Centenarians (1870-1894 Cohorts)

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Yuzhi; Zhang Chunyuan; Foulon, M.; D. Chambre; Poulain, M.

    2001-01-01

    Poulain Michel, Chambre Dany, Foulon Michel.- Survival Among Belgian Centenarians (1870-1894 Cohorts) Calculating the probability of dying among post-centenarians is problematic and often flawed by a high risk of error. This is partly due to the unreliability of statistical data on centenarians, and partly to the small populations concerned. The Belgian centenarian database of over 4,000 centenarians in the 1870 to 1894 birth cohorts used here endeavours to compensate for these two failings. ...

  14. Psychosocial predictors of actual turnover among Belgian health care workers

    OpenAIRE

    Derycke, Hanne; Vlerick, Peter; Clays, Els; D'hoore, William; Braeckman, Lutgart

    2010-01-01

    Background: Turnover of nursing staff is a major challenge for healthcare settings and for healthcare in general, urging the need to improve retention. Aim: The aim was to explore the prospective relations between personal and psychosocial work-related factors and actual turnover among Belgian healthcare workers. Methods: Predictors of actual turnover were assessed using the longitudinal Belgian data from the Nurses Early Exit Study (NEXT). Two self-administered questionnaires with a time...

  15. Fuel cycle transition - A Belgian implementation scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the end of 2002 the total installed electric power in Belgium was 16,200 MWe of which 40% (6485 MWe) corresponds to the seven nuclear power plants installed on the two Belgian sites of Doel (4 power plants) and Tihange (3 power plants) and the 25% participation in the two French Units B1 and B2 at Chooz at the Belgian-French border. The nuclear installed power in Belgium is 5800 MWe. In 2003, the government decided to phase out the nuclear energy progressively by closing the Belgian NPPs after 40 years of operation. This means that the first generation units (Doel 1, Doel 2 and Tihange 1) will be closed in 2015 and the four other remaining units in 2022-2025. Nevertheless, this phase out is subject to various conditions: the guarantee of energy independence should not be affected and the engagement to respect the Kyoto agreement (reducing the CO2 production by 7.5% in 2010 as compared to the 1990 production). Thus the phase-out decision can be re-opened if the above mentioned conditions are not met. The paper has the following contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Actual fuel cycle; 3. Transition fuel cycle; 4. Calculations; 4.1. PWR modelling; 4.2. ADS modelling; 4.3. Calculation code; 5. Results; 5.1. PWR/EPR; 5.2. ADS; 6. Conclusions. In conclusion it is shown that the evaluated stock pile of waste in Belgium (with no increase of electricity demand) coming from the thermal reactors park is 4380 tons (52 t Pu, 9 t MA, 217 t FP) with phase out (i.e. between 1975, first PWR and 2025, last PWR) and 7825 tons (84 t Pu, 20 t MA, 381 t FP) without phase out (i.e. between 1975, first PWR and 2075, last EPR). According to this study, Belgium should keep all its first generation Pu for the eventual starting of the self burning FR. Indeed, the Pu needed to start the self burning FR is evaluated between 60 t and 90 t (based on 10 t to 15 t per GWe). With an homogeneous core loading, 54% of the MA could be eliminated after 24 years in three 600 MWth industrial ADS (corresponding

  16. Mechanical degradation processes: The Belgian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Design life is merely used in Belgium as a requirement in the 'Design Specification' of some components subjected to known degradation processes, such as stress induced fatigue, embrittlement (irradiation or other), various types of corrosion, wear, erosion, thermal aging (electrical insulation, ...), etc. Design life is in no way directly related to the duration of the plant operation. In that sense design life for the Belgian NPP components includes the values of 20, 30 and 40 years. The oldest plant (20 years design life) has been decommissioned in 1991. The most recent units (40 years design life) have still a good time to go. The intermediate units (30 years design life) started around 1975. Consequently components of these plants need be looked at to determine whether or not deteriorations have occurred. The paper presents the various known mechanical degradation processes and how they affect various components. Emphasis is laid on prevention, mitigation or repair measures that have been or are being taken to avoid that the 'Equipment design life' be the limiting factor in the duration of the plant operation. (author)

  17. Different compositions of pharmaceuticals in Dutch and Belgian rivers explained by consumption patterns and treatment efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laak, ter T.L.; Kooij, P.J.F.; Tolkamp, H.; Hofman, J.

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, 43 pharmaceuticals and 18 transformation products were studied in the river Meuse at the Belgian-Dutch border and four tributaries of the river Meuse in the southern part of the Netherlands. The tributaries originate from Belgian, Dutch and mixed Dutch and Belgian catchments. I

  18. The Resilience Scale for Adults: Construct Validity and Measurement in a Belgian Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjemdal, Odin; Friborg, Oddgeir; Braun, Stephanie; Kempenaers, Chantal; Linkowski, Paul; Fossion, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    The Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA) was developed and has been extensively validated in Norwegian samples. The purpose of this study was to explore the construct validity of the Resilience Scale for Adults in a French-speaking Belgian sample and test measurement invariance between the Belgian and a Norwegian sample. A Belgian student sample (N =…

  19. Inventory of nuclear liabilities - The Belgian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Like all countries that use radioactive materials for producing electricity or for other peaceful purposes, Belgium is faced with an important challenge: the safe management of all these materials, in both the short and long term. Of course there is a price to pay for this management, which in accordance with the ethical principle of inter-generational fairness should be borne mainly by the current generations. However, it is possible that when the moment has come, the financial resources to cover the costs of decommissioning and remediation of these installations, prove to be insufficient or even completely non-existent: this then results in a nuclear liability. This kind of situation can have several causes, such as an underestimation of the actual costs by the operator or the owner of the nuclear installation or by the holder or the owner of the radioactive materials, negligence, transfer of ownership of the nuclear installation or the nuclear site without transfer of the corresponding provisions, a reduction in the operating time, a bankruptcy as well as ignorance. Because it wishes to avoid the occurrence of new nuclear liabilities, the Belgian legislator, by virtue of article 9 of the programme law of 12.12.97, charged ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials, with collecting all the elements that are necessary in order to examine to which degree the decommissioning and remediation costs can be actually covered when the time comes. ONDRAF/NIRAS was specifically charged with ascertaining all facts of a technical and financial nature which should enable the minister responsible for energy to verify whether every operator or owner of a nuclear installation and every holder or owner of radioactive materials have provided in time for the requisite financial resources to cover the future costs of decommissioning and remediation. This evaluation of course also serves to enable the government to take the necessary

  20. A CO2-strategy for BTC [Belgian Development Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailly, J. [Prospect C and S, Brussels (Belgium); Hanekamp, E. [Partners for Innovation, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2008-09-15

    The CO2 footprint is determined the CO2 strategy is developed for the Belgian Technical Cooperation (BTC). BTC is the Belgian agency for development cooperation, and finances development projects in 23 partner countries. The CO2 footprint covered BTC's activities in 2007 in all their offices worldwide. Footprint and strategy were finalised and adopted by the Executive Board at the end of 2008. Meanwhile, the BTC began with the introduction of the proposed strategy. Partners for Innovation and Prospect were asked to support the introduction of the strategy and to determine the CO2 footprint of 2008.

  1. Coastal flooding risk calculations for the Belgian coast

    OpenAIRE

    Verwaest, T.; Van der Biest, K.; Vanpoucke, Ph.; Reyns, J.; Vanderkimpen, P.; de Vos, L.; De Rouck, J.; Mertens, T.

    2009-01-01

    Coastal flooding risk calculations are carried out for the entire Belgian coastal zone to support the management ofthe coastal defence system. The floodprone low-lying coastal area has an average width of 20 km and is locatedon average 2 m below the surge level of an annual storm. The natural sea defences are sandy beaches anddunes, which have been strengthened by revetments in the coastal towns. The Belgian standard of coastalprotection is to be safe against a surge level with a return perio...

  2. European Influences in Spanish Popular Education: The Case of the Socialist "Casa Del Pueblo" of Madrid and the Belgian Model (1897-1929)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerena, Jean-Louis

    2006-01-01

    In Spain from the late nineteenth century, the "People's Houses" (Casas del Pueblo) corresponded to a desire to provide and organize a space of sociability for workers and their families. This formed part of the diverse Spanish popular education movement. This article focuses on the project to translate the model of the Belgian Maison du Peuple…

  3. EC initiatives promise mixed blessings: a Belgian utility perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential effects on nuclear power of European Community initiatives are analysed from the viewpoint of a Belgian utility. The initiatives fall under the three broad headings of: East-West co-operation; completing the internal market; and carbon dioxide emission. (Author)

  4. Belgian support programme to the IAEA for safeguards implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the Belgian Support Programme (BEL SP) is to contribute to the optimization of safeguards measures in accordance with INFCIRC/153 type agreements. This optimization has to take into account cost and effectiveness for the Agency, for the State System of Accounting and Control, for the plant operator and for EURATOM, which is considered an inherent partner. The Belgian support programme has undertaken a series of tasks covering the following domains: Non-destructive Measurement Technology (high resolution gamma spectroscopy, neutron measurements on powders, pins, assemblies and waste, test of Phonid, calorimetry on Pu samples, input tank calibration in a reprocessing plant, combined neutron and gamma measurements on irradiated fuel assemblies, allowing the estimation of burnup, plutonium content and cooling time, measurements of coincidence neutrons from fresh MOX fuel assemblies stored under water), System Studies, Analytical Measurements, Containment and surveillance, Training. Numerous field tests in Belgian in Belgian installations have led to a valuable contribution to the Support Programme to the IAEA, either on an individual basis or through a collaboration effort. In the past, the choice of tasks was based mainly on the availability of nuclear facilities; currently, the trend has shifted to technical contributions, system studies, possibly in a joint effort with other programmes. This approach follows the trend of on-going internationalisation of R and D

  5. The Dutch-Belgian beamline at the ESRF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsboom, M; Bras, W; Cerjak, I; Detollenaere, D; Glastra Van Loon, D; Goedtkindt, P; Konijnenburg, M; Lassing, P; Levine, Y K; Munneke, B; Oversluizen, M; Van Tol, R; Vlieg, E

    1998-05-01

    A brief description is given of the design principles and layout of the Dutch-Belgian beamline at the ESRF. This beamline optimizes the use of the available bending-magnet radiation fan by splitting the beam into two branches, each accommodating two experimental techniques. PMID:15263564

  6. Continuing Vocational Training in Belgian Companies: An Upward Tendency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyens, Dirk; Wouters, Karen

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: As part of the European continuing vocational training survey, this paper aims to give an overview of the evolutions in continuing vocational training (CVT) in Belgian companies, by comparing both the results of the survey of 1994 and those of 2000/2001. Design/methodology/approach: In Belgium 1,129 companies took part in the survey of…

  7. The attitudes of Belgian adolescents towards peers with disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossaert, Goele; Colpin, Hilde; Pijl, Sip Jan; Petry, Katja

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to explore Belgian adolescents' attitudes towards peers with disabilities and to explore factors associated with these attitudes. Based on the theory of persuasive communication, this study focused on receiver variables (the "whom"), characteristics of students with disabilities ("c

  8. Open Access to the Belgian Nuclear higher Education Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the name of the Belgian Nuclear higher Education Network, five Belgian universities, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Universiteit Gent, Universite de Liege, Vrije Universiteit Brussel have established in 2002, in collaboration with the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN, a common Belgian Interuniversity Programme of the third cycle leading to the academic degree of Master of Science in Nuclear Engineering. Under the lead of the SCK-CEN a project to use and share the acquired experience of the Consortium BNEN - in order to support the realization of a common European Education Programme in Nuclear Engineering - has been accepted by the European Commission for funding under the EU's Sixth Research Framework Programme.The project wants to contribute actively to the development of a more harmonised approach for education in nuclear sciences and engineering in Europe. It brings the European higher Education Area closer to realization and helps to safeguard the necessary competence and expertise for the continued safe use of nuclear energy and other uses of radiation in industry and medicine in Europe. The project foresees input and participation from stakeholders from different countries of the enlarged European Union (EU-25) and will therefore contribute to the integration of the new member states into the European Research Area and thus to the enlargement of Europe. The set-up of the project foresees an active role for female experts with the intention to reinforce the place and role of women in science

  9. Implementation of a program for type 2 diabetes based on the Chronic Care Model in a hospital-centered health care system: 'the Belgian experience'

    OpenAIRE

    Van Royen Paul; Vermeire Etienne; Wens Johan; Nobels Frank; Snauwaert Boris; Feyen Luc; Bastiaens Hilde; Sunaert Patricia; De Maeseneer Jan; De Sutter An; Willems Sara

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Most research publications on Chronic Care Model (CCM) implementation originate from organizations or countries with a well-structured primary health care system. Information about efforts made in countries with a less well-organized primary health care system is scarce. In 2003, the Belgian National Institute for Health and Disability Insurance commissioned a pilot study to explore how care for type 2 diabetes patients could be organized in a more efficient way in the Bel...

  10. Exploring Pupils' Perceptions of Teacher Racism in Their Context: A Case Study of Turkish and Belgian Vocational Education Pupils in a Belgian School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Peter A. J.

    2008-01-01

    This article employs ethnographic data gathered from one Belgian (Flemish) secondary school to explore the meaning Belgian and Turkish-speaking minority pupils enrolled in technical and vocational education attach to teacher racism and racial discrimination, and to explore variations between pupils in making claims of teacher racism. A symbolic…

  11. Safety culture in a Belgian nuclear research centre from a social science point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is the result of a reflection within the framework of a Ph.D. research at SCK-CEN (Belgian Nuclear Research Centre) in collaboration with the University of Liege. The starting point of the work was the 'safety culture' model presented in the IAEA report 75-INSAG-4. This model is applied to the working organization of the SCK-CEN, also considering the safety culture as an open concept given its multi dimensionality. The methodology is based on three methods: observations, focus groups and interviews. The fieldwork was limited to two main installations: a research reactor, and a dismantling site. The preliminary findings are based on the data resulting from 4 Focus Groups. The most prominent components of a safety culture and the multiplicity of safety cultures in a large organization such as SCK-CEN will be discussed. (author)

  12. Management and Program Effectiveness in Belgian Sports Clubs

    OpenAIRE

    A. BALDUCK; M. BUELENS; Maes, M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated management and program effectiveness using the competing values approach as theoretical framework. The sample consisted of 823 board and sports members of Belgian sports clubs. Two scales were developed. Factor analysis revealed 12 management and 9 program effectiveness dimensions. Reliability scores were acceptable. Results showed that both board and sports members rated the dimension atmosphere at management and program level as the most effective factor in sports cl...

  13. Characteristics and challenges of the modern Belgian veal industry

    OpenAIRE

    Pardon, Bart; CATRY, Boudewijn; Boone, Randy; Theys, Hubert; De Bleecker, Koen; Dewulf, Jeroen; Deprez, Piet

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the modern Belgian veal industry is situated in a European context, and an overview is provided of the major past, present and future challenges for veal production. The production of white veal requires a specific diet and housing conditions to assure a controlled iron anemic state resulting in pale carcasses. In response to the increasing public concern about animal welfare, legal limits for hemoglobin (in 1990), the provision of a minimum quality of solid feed to assure rumi...

  14. A survey of bacteria found in Belgian dairy farm products

    OpenAIRE

    N'Guessan, E.; Godrie, T.; de Laubier, J.; di Tanna, S.; Ringuet, M.; Sindic, M.

    2015-01-01

    Description of the subject. Due to the potential hazards caused by pathogenic bacteria, farm dairy production remains a challenge from the point of view of food safety. As part of a public program to support farm diversification and short food supply chains, farm dairy product samples including yogurt, ice cream, raw-milk butter and cheese samples were collected from 318 Walloon farm producers between 2006 and 2014. Objectives. Investigation of the microbiological quality of the Belgian dairy...

  15. Development path and capital structure of belgian biotechnology firms

    OpenAIRE

    Véronique Bastin; Albert Corhay; Georges Hübner; Pierre-Armand Michel

    2002-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between the evolution of real options values and associated financing policies for Belgian companies in the sector of bio-industries. Each firm's situation regarding the relevant types of real options is stylistically represented through a scenario tree. The consumption of a time-to-build or a growth option is respectively considered as a success or a failure in company development. Empirically, several variables enable us to locate each company along ...

  16. A Belgian traveler who acquired yellow fever in The Gambia

    OpenAIRE

    Colebunders, R; Mariage, J. L.; Coche, J. C.; Pirenne, B; Kempinaire, S.; Hantson, P.; Gompel, A; Niedrig, M; Van Esbroeck, M.; Bailey, R; Drosten, C.; Schmitz, H

    2002-01-01

    A 47-year-old Belgian woman acquired yellow fever during a 1-week vacation in The Gambia; she had never been vaccinated against yellow fever. She died of massive gastrointestinal bleeding 7 days after the onset of the first symptoms. This dramatic case demonstrates that it is important for persons to be vaccinated against yellow fever before they travel to countries where yellow fever is endemic, even if the country, like The Gambia, does not require travelers to be vaccinated.

  17. Internal finance and corporate investment: Belgian evidence with panel data

    OpenAIRE

    Barran, Fernando; Peeters, Marga

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the corporate investment decision under financial restrictions is investigated with Belgian firm data from 1984 to 1992. An investment Euler equation is derived from a dynamic optimization model with debt ceilings and an elastic credit supply. The model is estimated by GMM for different firm groups. An important aspect is that the sample is split according to a firm’s association with coordination centers. These centers have become the major external funding source of corpora...

  18. Dietary Intake of Artificial Sweeteners by the Belgian Population

    OpenAIRE

    Huvaere, Kevin; Vandevijvere, Stefanie Marie; Hasni, Moez; Vinkx, Christine; Van Loco, Joris

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In this study it was investigated whether the Belgian population older than 15 years was at risk of exceeding ADI levels of acesulfame-K, saccharin, cyclamate, aspartame, and sucralose through assessment of usual dietary intake of artificial sweeteners and specific consumption of table-top sweeteners. The conservative Tier 2 approach, for which an extensive label survey was performed, showed that mean usual intake was significantly lower than the respective ADIs for all sw...

  19. The Attitudes of Belgian Adolescents towards Peers with Disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Bossaert, Goele; Colpin, Hilde; Pijl, Sip Jan; Petry, Katja

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to explore Belgian adolescents' attitudes towards peers with disabilities and to explore factors associated with these attitudes. Based on the theory of persuasive communication, this study focused on receiver variables (the "whom"), characteristics of students with disabilities ("concerning who") and channel ("how"). An online survey was created and published on several popular websites for youngsters. Attitudes were assessed by means of the CATCH questionnair...

  20. Assessment of marine debris on the Belgian Continental Shelf

    OpenAIRE

    Van Cauwenberghe, L.; Claessens, M.; Vandegehuchte, M.B.; Mees, J.; Janssen, C. R.

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of marine litter in three environmental compartments of Belgian coastal waters was performed. Abundance, weight and composition of marine debris, including microplastics, was assessed by performing beach, sea surface and seafloor monitoring campaigns during two consecutive years. Plastic items were the dominant type of macrodebris recorded: over 95% of debris present in the three sampled marine compartments were plastic. In general, concentrations of macrodebris wer...

  1. A survey of bacteria found in Belgian dairy farm products

    OpenAIRE

    N'Guessan, Elise; Godrie, Thérèse; De Laubier, Juliette; Ringuet, Mélanie; Sindic, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Description of the subject. Due to the potential hazards caused by pathogenic bacteria, farm dairy production remains a challenge from the point of view of food safety. As part of a public program to support farm diversification and short food supply chains, farm dairy product samples including yogurt, ice cream, raw-milk butter and cheese samples were collected from 318 Walloon farm producers between 2006 and 2014. Objectives. Investigation of the microbiological quality of the Belgian da...

  2. Sustainable groundwater extraction in coastal areas: a Belgian example

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenbohede, A.; Van Houtte, E.; Lebbe, L.

    2009-01-01

    Water extractions in coastal areas have to deal with salt water intrusion and lowering of hydraulic heads in valuable ecosystems. Therefore, sustainable management of fresh water resources in these areas is crucial. This is illustrated here with two water extractions in the western Belgian coastal plain which extract groundwater from a phreatic dune aquifer. One water extraction faced problems with salt water intrusion, while lowering of hydraulic heads was an issue for both. To remedy the sa...

  3. Crisis behind the figures? Belgian trade unions between strength, paralysis and revitalisation

    OpenAIRE

    Faniel, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Unlike most of the trade unions in European countries, Belgian unions managed to preserve a high and stable union density, and strong institutional positions. However, their situation is not blissful and the condition of both the workforce and the unions has been worsening for three decades. This article looks at the strengths and weaknesses of Belgian unions and presents four initiatives of union revitalisation recently developed. The argument is that Belgian unions do not fully size the sco...

  4. Risk analysis of marine activities in the Belgian part of the North Sea (RAMA): final report

    OpenAIRE

    Le Roy, D; Volckaert, A; Vermoote, S.; Wachter, B; Maes, F.; Coene, J.; Calewaert, J.-B.

    2006-01-01

    RAMA is a 2-year project (04/2004 - 04/2006) executed by two Belgian partners, Ecolas NV (Environmental Consultancy Agency) and the Maritime Institute (University of Ghent), and financed by the SPSD II research program, specific actions, of the Belgian Science Policy (BELPSO). RAMA aims to assess the environmental risks of spills by commercial shipping activities on the Belgian Part of the North Sea. Shipping patterns, transports of dangerous goods, probability of risks and the potential impa...

  5. Planning and implementation of the Belgian nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the first part of the paper, the authors recall Belgian conditions, initially as regards primary energy (high degree of energy consumption and high degree of dependence on other countries), and then as regards electricity (divided up according to energy sources and types of producer). In the second part, the method used in Belgium for planning electrical power production is explained. Particular emphasis is placed on both the economic and technical assumptions made (trends in fuel costs, method of calculating investment costs, etc.). The development required, for the period 1982-92, of the means of production is stated in the light of the assumptions made. Fuel cycle planning (front and back ends) is also described with a review of the principal stages, namely supply of natural uranium, enrichment, reprocessing, treatment of irradiated fuel, and geological storage of wastes. The third and last part of the paper looks back at events in the implementation of the Belgian nuclear programme in chronological order. The beginnings of nuclear development in Belgium are recalled, as is the decision to construct the first three units (Doel 1, Doel 2 and Tihange 1), which were completed and put into service in 1975. The programme now under way is also briefly described, together with the characteristics of Belgian power stations, especially those concerned with safety. In conclusion, the paper outlines the main advantages of the nuclear option for a country as vulnerable where energy is concerned, as Belgium. (author)

  6. Geriatric day hospital: opportunity or threat? A qualitative exploratory study of the referral behaviour of Belgian general practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyncke Veerle

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to address the challenges of an ageing population the Belgian government decided to allocate resources to the creation of geriatric day hospitals (GDHs. Although GDHs are meant to be a strategy to support general practitioners (GPs caring for the frail elderly, few Belgian GPs seem to refer to a GDH. This study aims to explore the barriers and facilitating factors of GPs' referral to GDHs. Methods A qualitative study using focus group discussions (FGDs was conducted. Fifteen FGDs were organized in the different Belgian regions (Flanders, Wallonia, Brussels. Results Contextual factors such as the unsatisfactory cooperation between hospital and GPs and organizational barriers such as the lack of communication on referral procedures between hospital and primary health care (PHC were identified. Lack of basic knowledge about the concept or the local organization of GDH seemed to be a problem. Unclear task descriptions, responsibilities and activities of a GDH formed prominent points of discussion in all FGDs. Nevertheless a lot of possible advantages and disadvantages of GDHs for the patient and for the GP were mentioned. Conclusions In the case of poor referral to GDHs, focusing on improving overall collaboration between primary and secondary health care is essential. This can be achieved by actively delivering adequate information, permanent communication and more involvement of PHC in the organization and functioning of GDHs. The absence of a transparent health care system with delineated role definitions, seems to hinder the integration of new initiatives like GDHs in the care process. Strategies to enhance referral to GDHs should use a comprehensive approach.

  7. Assessment of the radiological impact and associated risk to non-human biota from routine liquid discharges of the Belgian nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We performed an Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) to evaluate the impact on non-human biota from liquid radioactive effluents discharged by the Belgian Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) of Doel and Tihange. A deterministic risk assessment for aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems was performed using the ERICA tool and applying the ERICA screening value of 10 μGy.h-1. The ERA was performed for the radioactive discharge limits and for the actual releases (maxima and averages over the last 10 years, 1999-2008). All ERICA reference organisms were considered and depending on the assessment situation, additional reference organisms were included in the analysis. It can be concluded that the current discharge limits for the Belgian NPPs do not result in significant risks to the aquatic and terrestrial environment and that the actual discharges, which are a fraction of the liquid discharge limits, are unlikely to harm the environment. (authors)

  8. The Influence of the 1974 Oil Crisis on Sectoral Growth Rates in the Belgian Economy

    OpenAIRE

    F.BOSSIER; D. DUWEIN

    1981-01-01

    This paper briefly presents and analyses the behaviour of the different sectors of the Belgian economy during the period 1965-1978. Special attention is paid to the influence of the 1974 oil crisis on sectors of the Belgian economy. It is shown that the 1974 shock had different consequences according to the energy components of the sector

  9. Differences between Belgian and Brazilian group A Streptococcus epidemiologic landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Robert Smeesters

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Group A Streptococcus (GAS clinical and molecular epidemiology varies with location and time. These differences are not or are poorly understood. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We prospectively studied the epidemiology of GAS infections among children in outpatient hospital clinics in Brussels (Belgium and Brasília (Brazil. Clinical questionnaires were filled out and microbiological sampling was performed. GAS isolates were emm-typed according to the Center for Disease Control protocol. emm pattern was predicted for each isolate. 334 GAS isolates were recovered from 706 children. Skin infections were frequent in Brasília (48% of the GAS infections, whereas pharyngitis were predominant (88% in Brussels. The mean age of children with GAS pharyngitis in Brussels was lower than in Brasília (65/92 months, p<0.001. emm-typing revealed striking differences between Brazilian and Belgian GAS isolates. While 20 distinct emm-types were identified among 200 Belgian isolates, 48 were found among 128 Brazilian isolates. Belgian isolates belong mainly to emm pattern A-C (55% and E (42.5% while emm pattern E (51.5% and D (36% were predominant in Brasília. In Brasília, emm pattern D isolates were recovered from 18.5% of the pharyngitis, although this emm pattern is supposed to have a skin tropism. By contrast, A-C pattern isolates were infrequently recovered in a region where rheumatic fever is still highly prevalent. CONCLUSIONS: Epidemiologic features of GAS from a pediatric population were very different in an industrialised country and a low incomes region, not only in term of clinical presentation, but also in terms of genetic diversity and distribution of emm patterns. These differences should be taken into account for designing treatment guidelines and vaccine strategies.

  10. Operating experience with diesel generators in Belgian nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various problems have occurred on the diesel generators in the Belgian nuclear power plants, independently of the D.G. manufacturer or from the operating crew. Furthermore no individual part of the D.G. can be incriminated as being the main cause of the incidents. The incidents reported in this paper are chosen because of the importance for the safety or for the long repair period. The unavailability of a D.G. can only be detected by periodic tests and controls. Combined with a good preventive maintenance, the risks of incidents can be reduced. (author)

  11. Internal capital market efficiency of Belgian holding companies

    OpenAIRE

    Gautier, Axel; Malika HAMADI

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we raise the following two questions. (1) Do Belgian holding companies operate an internal capital market to transfer financial resources amongst their subsidiaries? And if yes, (2) is the internal capital market efficient? To answer the first question, we check if group cash flow is a determinant of the group members investment spending. The answer is positive if the holding company’s subsidiary is affiliated to a coordination center and negative otherwise. To ans...

  12. Migration and americanisation: The special case of Belgian economics.

    OpenAIRE

    Maes, Ivo; Buyst, Erik

    2005-01-01

    One of the distinguishing features of Belgian economics is that, from the early 1920s, so many of Belgium's best economists pursued postgraduate studies at top American universities, a case of ‘temporary’ migration. This was made possible by the fellowships granted by the Commission for Relief in Belgium, a legacy of the First World War. After a stay in the US of a few years, most returned to Belgium. However, they maintained strong links with the US. Also, they tried to recreate in Belgium t...

  13. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in food and feed on the Belgian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huybrechts, Bart; Callebaut, Alfons

    2015-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are widely distributed plant toxins with species dependent hepatotoxic, carcinogenic, genotoxic and pneumotoxic risks. In a recent European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) opinion, only two data sets from one European country were received for honey, while one feed data set was included. No data are available for food or feed samples from the Belgian market. We developed an LC-MS/MS method, which allowed the detection and quantification of 16 PAs in a broad range of matrices in the sub ng g(-1) range. The method was validated in milk, honey and hay and applied to honey, tea (Camellia sinensis), scented tea, herbal tea, milk and feed samples bought on the Belgian market. The results confirmed that tea, scented tea, herbal tea and honey are important food sources of pyrrolizidine alkaloid contamination in Belgium. Furthermore, we detected PAs in 4 of 63 commercial milk samples. A high incidence rate of PAs in lucerne (alfalfa)-based horse feed and in rabbit feed was detected, while bird feed samples were less contaminated. We report for the first time the presence of monocrotaline, intermedine, lycopsamine, heliotrine and echimidine in cat food. PMID:26373269

  14. The attitudes of Belgian adolescents towards peers with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossaert, Goele; Colpin, Hilde; Pijl, Sip Jan; Petry, Katja

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to explore Belgian adolescents' attitudes towards peers with disabilities and to explore factors associated with these attitudes. Based on the theory of persuasive communication, this study focused on receiver variables (the "whom"), characteristics of students with disabilities ("concerning who") and channel ("how"). An online survey was created and published on several popular websites for youngsters. Attitudes were assessed by means of the CATCH questionnaire among 167 adolescents between 11 and 20 years old. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were conducted. Belgian adolescents had fairly tolerant attitudes towards peers with disabilities. Factors associated with more positive attitudes were being female, and viewing a video introduction of a peer with a disability before assessing attitudes. Factors such as having a parent, sibling or good friend with a disability and frequent contact with persons with disabilities did not remain significant in the overall model. The way in which students with disabilities are presented to their peers is very important. Further research is needed among larger samples, including more diverse variables, concerning the former mentioned categories, and also concerning the source (the "who") and message (the "what"). PMID:21257288

  15. Annual report for the steering committee of the association Euratom-Belgian State for fusion 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is prepared for the annual steering committee meting of the Association Euratom - Belgian State in the area of fusion reactor technology. The Belgian contribution focuses on the assessment of the first wall and blanket materials under radiation and coolant interaction and on developments for the remote handling in maintenance activities. The period October 1998 to September 1999 is reported on.The fusion technology work performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN, the Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering of the Louvain University (Belgium) and S.A. Gradel, a Luxemburg-based organisation, is described

  16. Annual report for the steering committee of the association Euratom-Belgian State for fusion 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is prepared for the annual steering committee meting of the Association Euratom - Belgian State in the area of fusion reactor technology. The Belgian contribution focuses on the assessment of the first wall and blanket materials under radiation and coolant interaction and on developments for the remote handling in maintenance activities. The period October 1997 to September 1998 is reported on.The fusion technology work performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN, the Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering of the Louvain University (Belgium) and S.A. Gradel, a Luxemburg-based organisation, is described

  17. Annual report for the steering committee of the association Euratom-Belgian State for fusion 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    1999-10-01

    This report is prepared for the annual steering committee meting of the Association Euratom - Belgian State in the area of fusion reactor technology. The Belgian contribution focuses on the assessment of the first wall and blanket materials under radiation and coolant interaction and on developments for the remote handling in maintenance activities. The period October 1998 to September 1999 is reported on.The fusion technology work performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN, the Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering of the Louvain University (Belgium) and S.A. Gradel, a Luxemburg-based organisation, is described.

  18. Assessment of the acrylamide intake of the Belgian population and the effect of mitigation strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Claeys, Wendie Liliane; Baert, Katleen; Mestdagh, Frédéric; Vercammen, Jan; Daenens, Paul; Meulenaer, Bruno De; Maghuin-Rogister, Guy; Huyghebaert, André

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The acrylamide (AA) intake of the Belgian consumer was calculated based on AA monitoring data of the Belgian Federal Agency for the Safety of the Food Chain (FASFC) and consumption data of the Belgian food consumption survey coordinated by the Scientific Institute for Public Health (3214 participants of 15 years or older). The average AA exposure, calculated probabilistically, was 0.4 ?g/kg bw/day (P97.5 = 1.6 ?g/kg bw/day) with as main contributors to the average intake c...

  19. Severe Accident Management Measures Introduced in Belgian NPP's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In response to the Belgian Safety Authorities' request to address the severe accident issue within a decennial safety review, Tractebel, on behalf of the Belgian Utility, Electrabel, examined in detail specific severe accident topics and provided the Utility with several measures that could be implemented to reduce the risk associated with beyond-design accidents. The present paper summarizes the key elements of the approach applied in Belgium: - Presentation of plant-specific studies related to severe accident issues; - Use of PSA results; - Inputs of international R and D projects; - Selection and justification of severe accident measures; - Comparative study between possible mitigative measures; - Definition and justification of implemented severe accident management strategies. The vulnerability to severe accidents as well as the potential causes of containment failures have been identified leading to the study of possible countermeasures taking into account the combination of conservative design and post-TMI measures already implemented . A section of the paper will also be devoted to the specific study made for the selection, the sizing and the implementation of hydrogen control means. After the description of the selected measures implemented, the paper also describes the content of the 'Severe Accident Management Guidelines' developed by Tractebel for the Tihange NPPs and for the Doel NPPs. This project aimed at providing the operators with procedures or guidelines enabling to deal with complex situations not formally considered in the standard Emergency Response Guidelines, including accidents in which a significant portion of the core melts. The objective of these SAMG's programs is to indicate actions that must bring the plant to a controlled stable state and, above all, mitigate any challenges to the fission product barriers. The plant personnel must use the available plant information to determine the best severe accident management measures. Obviously

  20. Vitamin D inadequacy in Belgian postmenopausal osteoporotic women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collette Julien

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate serum vitamin D [25(OHD] concentrations are associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism, increased bone turnover and bone loss, which increase fracture risk. The objective of this study is to assess the prevalence of inadequate serum 25(OHD concentrations in postmenopausal Belgian women. Opinions with regard to the definition of vitamin D deficiency and adequate vitamin D status vary widely and there are no clear international agreements on what constitute adequate concentrations of vitamin D. Methods Assessment of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] and parathyroid hormone was performed in 1195 Belgian postmenopausal women aged over 50 years. Main analysis has been performed in the whole study population and according to the previous use of vitamin D and calcium supplements. Four cut-offs of 25(OHD inadequacy were fixed : Results Mean (SD age of the patients was 76.9 (7.5 years, body mass index was 25.7 (4.5 kg/m2. Concentrations of 25(OHD were 52.5 (21.4 nmol/L. In the whole study population, the prevalence of 25(OHD inadequacy was 91.3 %, 87.5 %, 43.1 % and 15.9% when considering cut-offs of 80, 75, 50 and 30 nmol/L, respectively. Women who used vitamin D supplements, alone or combined with calcium supplements, had higher concentrations of 25(OHD than non-users. Significant inverse correlations were found between age/serum PTH and serum 25(OHD (r = -0.23/r = -0.31 and also between age/serum PTH and femoral neck BMD (r = -0.29/r = -0.15. There is a significant positive relation between age and PTH (r = 0.16, serum 25(OHD and femoral neck BMD (r = 0.07. (P Vitamin D concentrations varied with the season of sampling but did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.09. Conclusion This study points out a high prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy in Belgian postmenopausal osteoporotic women, even among subjects receiving vitamin D supplements.

  1. Digital radiographic equipment in the Belgian dental office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gijbels, F; Debaveye, D; Vanderstappen, M; Jacobs, R

    2005-01-01

    A survey was performed among Belgian dentists to evaluate the use and management of digital radiographic equipment. The majority of respondents work as general dental practitioners. One out of eight sets of equipment for extraoral exposures is digital. For intraoral radiography, 30% of the equipment is digital. While exposure time is reduced by about 50% for digital intraoral radiography compared with conventional radiography, no differences can be found between different conventional film speed classes. Appropriate collimation of the radiation beam is only sparingly used. Beam aiming devices to hold the film and position the radiation beam are not used by the majority of dentists. While 25% of the respondents stand behind a protective wall during exposure, 8% of dentists remain next to the patient during exposure while assisting in holding the film inside the mouth. A minority of the latter practitioners wear lead aprons. PMID:16461489

  2. Characteristics of suicide hotspots on the Belgian railway network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debbaut, Kevin; Krysinska, Karolina; Andriessen, Karl

    2014-01-01

    In 2004, railway suicide accounted for 5.3% of all suicides in Belgium. In 2008, Infrabel (Manager of the Belgian Railway Infrastructure) introduced a railway suicide prevention programme, including identification of suicide hotspots, i.e., areas of the railway network with an elevated incidence of suicide. The study presents an analysis of 43 suicide hotspots based on Infrabel data collected during field visits and semi-structured interviews conducted in mental health facilities in the vicinity of the hotspots. Three major characteristics of the hotspots were accessibility, anonymity, and vicinity of a mental health institution. The interviews identified several risk and protective factors for railway suicide, including the training of staff, introduction of a suicide prevention policy, and the role of the media. In conclusion, a comprehensive railway suicide prevention programme should continuously safeguard and monitor hotspots, and should be embedded in a comprehensive suicide prevention programme in the community. PMID:24020492

  3. Can Belgian nuclear power stations work for longer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2008 Paul Magnette, former Minister of Climate and Energy, requested the GEMIX Commission - a team of Belgian and international energy specialists - to examine the energy future of Belgium. Within this framework, it was planned to examine ideal energy mixes to ensure the energy supplies of Belgium, to secure our competitive position and to ensure that environmental and climate objectives are achieved. In the framework of this study, the GEMIX Commission asked SCK-CEN to evaluate the lifetime of the commercial nuclear power plants at Doel and Tihange. In particular, the Commission wanted to know whether it is technically feasible and safe to keep these power plants open for longer than 40 years, the lifetime stipulated in the 2003 Nuclear Energy Extrication Act. The article gives a summary overview of the expert opinion of SCK-CEN to the Gemix Commission.

  4. Belgian Workshop (November 2003) - Executive Summary and International Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fourth workshop of the OECD/NEA Forum on Stakeholder Confidence (FSC) was hosted by ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste Management and enriched fissile materials. The central theme of the workshop was 'Dealing with interests, values and knowledge in managing risk' within the Belgian context of local partnerships for the long term management of low-level, short-lived radioactive waste. The four-day workshop started with a half-day session in Brussels giving a general introduction on the Belgian context and the local partnership methodology. This was followed by community visits to three local partnerships, PaLoFF in Fleurus-Farciennes, MONA in Mol, and STOLA in Dessel. After the visits, the workshop continued with two full-day sessions in Brussels. One hundred and nineteen registered participants, representing 13 countries, attended the workshop or participated in the community visits. About two thirds were Belgian stakeholders; the remainder came from FSC member organisations. The participants included representatives of municipal governments, civil society organisations, government agencies, industrial companies, the media, and international organisations as well as private citizens, consultants and academics. The four-day meeting was structured as follows: Day 1 morning was devoted to introductory presentations. Information was given on the general radioactive waste management context in Belgium. Regarding the management of LLW, and in particular the search for a disposal facility site, the workshop heard about the local partnership methodology developed by university researchers of the University of Antwerp and the Fondation Universitaire Luxembourgeoise (FUL). These partnerships between the potential host municipalities and the radwaste agency have the mission to develop an integrated facility proposal adapted to local conditions. Community visits took place on Day 1 afternoon and Day 2. Visits offered an opportunity for

  5. Dietary intake of artificial sweeteners by the Belgian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huvaere, Kevin; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Hasni, Moez; Vinkx, Christine; Van Loco, Joris

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether the Belgian population older than 15 years is at risk of exceeding ADI levels for acesulfame-K, saccharin, cyclamate, aspartame and sucralose through an assessment of usual dietary intake of artificial sweeteners and specific consumption of table-top sweeteners. A conservative Tier 2 approach, for which an extensive label survey was performed, showed that mean usual intake was significantly lower than the respective ADIs for all sweeteners. Even consumers with high intakes were not exposed to excessive levels, as relative intakes at the 95th percentile (p95) were 31% for acesulfame-K, 13% for aspartame, 30% for cyclamate, 17% for saccharin, and 16% for sucralose of the respective ADIs. Assessment of intake using a Tier 3 approach was preceded by optimisation and validation of an analytical method based on liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. Concentrations of sweeteners in various food matrices and table-top sweeteners were determined and mean positive concentration values were included in the Tier 3 approach, leading to relative intakes at p95 of 17% for acesulfame-K, 5% for aspartame, 25% for cyclamate, 11% for saccharin, and 7% for sucralose of the corresponding ADIs. The contribution of table-top sweeteners to the total usual intake (sucralose: 3.08 versus 3.03, expressed as mg kg(-1) bodyweight day(-1) at p95) showed that the latter group was not exposed to higher levels. It was concluded that the Belgian population is not at risk of exceeding the established ADIs for sweeteners. PMID:22088137

  6. Belgian nuclear power life extension and fuss about nuclear rents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear decision-making is embedded in slowly evolving political, economic and financial institutions. Belgium houses extended nuclear activities, mostly under French control, for example: SUEZ-GDF and EDF own all Belgian nuclear power plants. But a 2003 law mandates the closure of Belgium's nuclear power plants at a service age of 40 years; only force majeure could lift the strict obligation. Opposition to the law argued with climate change danger, financial losses, and loss-of-load risks. The financial issue got interwoven with a fuzzy debate on the definition, height and appropriation of “nuclear rents”. As plausible hypothesis is adopted: the prospected transfer of hundreds millions of euro from power companies to the public interest will create public support for life extension. But the nuclear rents discussion had faded in July 2012 when the Belgian government admitted a 10-year life extension for TIHANGE I (962 MW) and imposed the closure of the 2×433 MW DOEL I and II. Loss-of-load risk was the government's only public argument. The opacity of the decision process and its “fifty–fifty” outcome do not allow proper testing of the hypothesis. The case illustrates that politicians cannot bind their followers except through the deployment of alternative power sources. - Highlights: • Nuclear phase-out is only successful when alternative supplies are deployed. • Politicians cannot bind their successors by words or by lawgiving. • The phase-out law exemplifies the disruption of a strong nuclear lock-in. • Life extension exemplifies the disruption of the phase-out law. • The impact of imprecise nuclear rents on life extension could not be tested

  7. Assessment of doses received by the Belgian population due to the Chernobyl releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consequences of the exposure during the first year and beyond the first year after the Chernobyl accident in terms of radiation effects on the Belgian population are discussed as well as some uncertainties in these evaluations. (A.F.)

  8. The Labour Market as the Driving Force of Belgian Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielemans, Willy

    1988-01-01

    An examination of internal and external forces on Belgian higher education suggests that the system is too closely controlled by economic and political forces in the labor market, which threatens to distort university life and higher education in general. (MSE)

  9. PCBs and OCPs in marine species from the Belgian North Sea and the Western Scheldt Estuary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voorspoels, S.; Covaci, A.; Maervoet, J.; Schepens, P. [Antwerp Univ., Wilrijk (Belgium). Toxicological Centre

    2004-09-15

    The use and/or production of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), such as 2,2-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (DDT), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and lindane ({gamma}-HCH) have been banned in most developed countries since the 1970's. Despite this measure, these compounds are among the most prevalent environmental pollutants and they can be found in various environmental compartments, both biotic and abiotic. Their widespread presence is due to their extremely persistant and lipophilic nature, resulting in enrichment throughout the food chain. Prolonged exposure to these pollutants can interfere with normal physiology and biochemistry3, resulting in adverse effects in various organisms, including starfish, shrimp, crabs, and fish4. Because humans readily consume seafood, such as shrimp, crab and various fish species, these organisms are of great scientific value to estimate the possible exposure to PCBs and OCPs through marine food sources. The area studied in this investigation covered both commercial fishing grounds (Belgian North Sea - BNS) and a recreational fishing area (Western Scheldt Estuary - SE). The drainage basin of the SE covers a very densely populated and highly industrialised region, causing a high level of pollution in the SE. In this work, PCBs and OCPs were determined in benthic invertebrates and different fish species from both BNS and SE in order to evaluate trends in levels, congener distribution, and geographical variation.

  10. MERIS imagery of Belgian coastal waters: mapping of suspended particulate matter and chlorophyll-a

    OpenAIRE

    Ruddick, K.; PARK, Y.; B. Nechad

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a first application-oriented analysis of MERIS products for Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) and Chlorophyll-a (CHL) concentration in Belgian coastal waters. Regional algorithms designed for Belgian waters have been implemented and compared with the standard MERIS products, termed Total Suspended Matter and Algal2 respectively. The standard and regional SPM products seem robust and give similar data. Notwithstanding a more complete match-up validation analysis, these pr...

  11. Working Paper 13-09 - Qualitative Employment Multipliers for the Belgian Environmental Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Adja Awa Sissoko; Bart Van den Cruyce

    2009-01-01

    The present paper computes cumulative employment generated by the Belgian environmental industry. Relying on Belgian input-output tables for the year 2000 and on detailed employment data (SAM sub ]matrix), we investigate the patterns of the employment in the environmental industry, by considering the worker types differentiated by gender, educational attainment or a combination of these characteristics. The employment multiplier analysis of environmental employment reveals some interesting di...

  12. Compliance of Companies with Corporate Governance Codes: Case Study on Listed Belgian

    OpenAIRE

    Sven H. De Cleyn

    2014-01-01

    Listed and large companies become increasingly subject to internal and external pressure to comply with ethical and social standards. This article focuses on one aspect of this matter, namely the corporate governance issue. Within the framework of recent corporate scandals, this paper investigates whether and to which extent Belgian publicly listed SMEs comply with the Belgian Code on Corporate Governance after its first year of introduction, which has been constituted in the framework of the...

  13. A nationwide Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture in Belgian Hospitals: Analysis and Benchmarking

    OpenAIRE

    Vlayen, Annemie; Hellings, Johan; Claes, Neree; Schrooten, Ward

    2010-01-01

    Objective To measure patient safety culture in Belgian hospitals and to examine the homogeneous grouping of underlying safety culture dimensions. Methods The Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture was distributed organisation-wide in 180 Belgian hospitals participating in the federal program on quality and safety between 2007 and 2009. Participating hospitals were invited to submit their data to a comparative database. Homogeneous groups of underlying safety culture dimensions were sou...

  14. Annual report for the steering committee of the association Euratom-Belgian State for fusion 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moons, F.; Bogaerts, W.; Decreton, M.; Biver, E.; Coenen, S.; Benoit, Ph.; Coheur, L.; Deboodt, P.; Andreev, D.

    1996-09-01

    This report is prepared for the annual steering committee meting of the Association Euratom - Belgian State for Fusion. The period October 1995 to September 1996 is reported on.The fusion technology work performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN, the Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering of the Louvain University (Belgium) and S.A. Gradel, a Luxemburg company, is described.

  15. Annual report for the steering committee of the association Euratom-Belgian State for fusion 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is prepared for the annual steering committee meting of the Association Euratom - Belgian State for Fusion. The period October 1995 to September 1996 is reported on.The fusion technology work performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN, the Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering of the Louvain University (Belgium) and S.A. Gradel, a Luxemburg company, is described

  16. The radiological impact of the Belgian phosphate industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Belgian phosphate industry processes huge amounts of phosphate ore (1.5 to 2 Mton/year) for a wide range of applications, the most important being the production of phosphoric acid, fertilizers and cattle food. Marine phosphate ores show high specific activities of the natural uranium decay series (usually indicated by Ra-226) (e.g. 1200 to 1500 Bq/kg for Moroccan ore). Ores of magmatic origin generally contain less of the uranium and more of the thorium decay series (up to 500 Bq/kg). These radionuclides turn up in by-products, residues or product streams depending on the processing method and the acid used for the acidulation of the phosphate rock. Sulfuric acid is the most widely used, but also hydrochloric acid and nitric acid are applied in Belgium. For Flanders, the northern part of Belgium, we already have a clear idea of the production processes and waste streams. The five Flemish phosphate plants, from 1920 to 2000, handled 54 million ton of phosphate ore containing 65 TBq of radium-226 and 2.7 TBq of thorium- 232. The total surface area of the phosphogypsum and calcium fluoride sludge deposits amounts to almost 300 ha. There is also environmental contamination along two small rivers receiving the waste waters of the hydrochloric production process: the Winterbeek (> 200 ha) and the Grote Laak (12 ha). The data on the impact of the phosphate industry in the Walloon provinces in Belgium is less complete. A large plant produced in 2004 0.8 Mton of phosphogypsum, valorizing about 70 % of the gypsum in building materials (plaster, cement), in fertilizers, and in other products such as paper. The remainder was stored on a local disposal site. The radiological impact of the Belgian phosphate industry on the local population will be discussed. At present most contaminated areas are still recognizable as waste deposits and inaccessible to the population. However as gypsum deposits and other contaminated areas quickly blend in with the landscape, it is

  17. Contact allergy caused by methylisothiazolinone: the Belgian-French experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Olivier; Goossens, An; Giordano-Labadie, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    The chemical Kathon CG(®), a mixture of the preservatives methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI) and methylisothiazolinone (MI), was the leading cause of a worldwide epidemic of contact-allergic reactions in the eighties. From 2000 on, MI alone became allowed in industrial products and in 2005 authorities gave a green light for its use in leave-on and rinse-off cosmetics up to a maximum concentration of 100 ppm (0.01%). Following initial occupational cases, a continuously increasing number of consumers sensitized to MI have been reported and both Belgian and French allergy groups decided to routinely test MI in their baseline series from 2010 onwards. Two multicenter studies, comprising 8,680 and 7,874 patients in Belgium and France respectively, both clearly show the rise in contact allergy caused by MI, with a spectacular sensitization rate of ∼ 6.0% in 2012, even increasing to 7.0% in 2013. Mostly middle-aged women, presenting with facial-and/or hand dermatitis, were affected, although very young children were reported as well. Furthermore, the data confirmed that sensitization is primarily caused by cosmetics (mostly leave-on, but also rinse-off), household detergents and water-based paint. This unprecedented outbreak of contact sensitization to a preservative agent in Europe, and beyond, should have alerted the authorities much sooner and meanwhile the need for safer use concentrations of MI in cosmetics, detergents and industrial products is becoming more urgent every day. PMID:26412037

  18. Irradiation of Fuel Elements in the Belgian BR3 Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under a contract concluded by EURATOM and CEN-BelgoNucléaire, fuel rods containing plutonium-enriched uranium were irradiated in the Belgian BR3 reactor with the object of evaluating the behaviour of plutonium fuel elements in power reactors. The first experiment consisted in introducing 12 fuel elements fabricated by vibration and compacting followed by swaging into a core assembly of the BR3 pressurized-water power reactor. Irradiation was carried out for a period corresponding to 4820 h at full power. Subsequent examination of the fuel rods showed that they had been unaffected by irradiation. A second series of experiments is being carried out in collaboration with the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority. These experiments involve irradiating an assembly of 37 plutonium-enriched fuel elements, some compacted and others of the pellet type, in the BR3/VN power reactor. The fabrication of the vibrocompacted elements and the thermal studies relating to the assembly are briefly described. (author)

  19. The Belgian nuclear education network, 5th academic year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In a country where a substantial part of the electricity generation will remain of nuclear origin for a number of years, there is a need for well educated and well trained engineers in this area. Public authorities, regulators and industry brought their support to this initiative. In 2001, the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK CEN and five Belgian universities signed a consortium agreement to set up an education programme in nuclear engineering. This academic year, a sixth university, ULB, joined the programme. The universities involved are now: KUL (Leuven), UG (Ghent), VUB (Brussels), UCL (Louvain-la-Neuve), ULg (Liege) and ULB (Brussels). These seven partners have engaged themselves anew to provide students and young-professionals with a high-standard nuclear engineering programme. The BNEN academic programme is a one-year (60 ECTS) Master-after-Master programme open for holders of a Master degree in engineering. The programme consists of ten courses to be followed mandatory (41 ECTS), the opportunity to select a number of advanced courses at will (up to 4 ECTS worth) and a Master thesis (15 ECTS). The subjects of the courses range form nuclear physics, nuclear reactor theory, nuclear thermo hydraulics to reactor plant operation and control, radiation protection and safeguards and nuclear materials. It also includes courses on nuclear energy and the nuclear fuel cycle. All courses are given in a modular fashion, i.e. the students get a course in the duration of one up to three weeks of continuous lectures and lab sessions. Attention is indeed paid to the fact that most courses are not only theoretical ones, but many of them have exercise sessions and laboratory sessions associated with them. These sessions are organised and thought by the scientific staff at SCK CEN. The number of students enrolling for the BNEN has seen a serious growth since the start of the initiative. The programme does not serve only 'full-time' students, i.e. people having

  20. The Belgian laboratory for standard dosimetry calibrations used in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting from the end of the year 2008, the RDC (Radiation Protection dosimetry and Calibrations) expertise group of SCK CEN took over the calibration and research activities at the Laboratory for Standard Dosimetry Ghent. The laboratory runs under a collaboration between SCK CEN and the University of Ghent, with the support of Federal Agency for Nuclear Control (FANC). The calibrations in Ghent were stopped at the beginning of 2008 and then restarted at the end of 2008. A new 60Co source was installed at Ghent, a Theratron 780 unit. All the calibration setups installed in the past to the old 60Co source had to move to the new source and measurement history had to be acquired. The calibration of cylindrical and plane-parallel ionization chambers in terms of absorbed dose to water was defined as the first priority, since there was an urgent need from the Belgian hospitals. These calibrations are presently done in Ghent as secondary standard calibrations, traceable to the water calorimeter of VSL, Delft, The Netherlands and following the recommendations from TRS-398 protocol. The second priority was restarting the calibrations of cylindrical ionization chambers in terms of air kerma. A cylindrical graphite ionization chamber of type CC01 is used for the absolute measurement of air kerma. Both setups are fully operational. Special efforts were done to implement the SCK CEN quality assurance (QA) system regarding ISO 17025 accreditation. The activity at the laboratory in Ghent was integrated as part of the Laboratory for Nuclear Calibrations (LNK-from the Dutch translation) of the SCK-CEN. Most of the activities of the LNK are already accredited by Belgian Accreditation Body (BELAC) with respect to the ISO-17025 standards. The quality assurance procedures were prepared and are routinely followed for the two new setups mentioned above: calibrations in terms of absorbed dose to water and air kerma in 60Co beam. During the preparation of the quality assurance procedures

  1. Pedometer-Determined Physical Activity and Its Comparison with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire in a Sample of Belgian Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cocker, Katrien; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2007-01-01

    Pedometer-determined physical activity (PA) levels in Belgian adults were provided and compared to PA scores reported in the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). The representative sample (N = 1,239) of the Belgian population took on average 9,655 (4,526) steps/day. According to pedometer indices 58.4% were insufficiently active.…

  2. A survey of bacteria found in Belgian dairy farm products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N'Guessan, E.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. Due to the potential hazards caused by pathogenic bacteria, farm dairy production remains a challenge from the point of view of food safety. As part of a public program to support farm diversification and short food supply chains, farm dairy product samples including yogurt, ice cream, raw-milk butter and cheese samples were collected from 318 Walloon farm producers between 2006 and 2014. Objectives. Investigation of the microbiological quality of the Belgian dairy products using the guidelines provided by the European food safety standards. Method. The samples were collected within the framework of the self-checking regulation. In accordance with the European Regulation EC 2073/2005, microbiological analyses were performed to detect and count Enterobacteriaceae, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Results. Even when results met the microbiological safety standards, hygienic indicator microorganisms like E. coli and S. aureus exceeded the defined limits in 35% and 4% of butter and cheese samples, respectively. Unsatisfactory levels observed for soft cheeses remained higher (10% and 2% for S. aureus and L. monocytogenes respectively than those observed for pressed cheeses (3% and 1% and fresh cheeses (3% and 0% (P ≥ 0.05. Furthermore, the percentages of samples outside legal limits were not significantly higher in the summer months than in winter months for all mentioned bacteria. Conclusions. This survey showed that most farm dairy products investigated were microbiologically safe. However, high levels of hygiene indicators (e.g., E. coli in some products, like butter, remind us of applying good hygienic practices at every stage of the dairy production process to ensure consumer safety.

  3. Compliance of Companies with Corporate Governance Codes: Case Study on Listed Belgian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven H. De Cleyn

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Listed and large companies become increasingly subject to internal and external pressure to comply with ethical and social standards. This article focuses on one aspect of this matter, namely the corporate governance issue. Within the framework of recent corporate scandals, this paper investigates whether and to which extent Belgian publicly listed SMEs comply with the Belgian Code on Corporate Governance after its first year of introduction, which has been constituted in the framework of the European Action Plan on Corporate Governance.In a sample of 78 Belgian listed SMEs, the compliance with the Code is analysed. After its first year of introduction, companies comply with on average 70% of the Code’s provisions. The most problematic topics in terms of disclosure of information seem to relate to (individual remuneration, private information and content of shareholders’ meetings.

  4. Régulation du télétravail et dialogue social. Le cas de la Belgique Telework regulation and social dialogue. The Belgian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan De Schampheleire

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Dans le contexte belge, le télétravail se diffuse surtout de manière informelle pour des catégories de salariés disposant d’une certaine autonomie dans l’organisation de leur travail. La question de la régulation collective du télétravail se pose toutefois aux différents niveaux de la concertation sociale. Au niveau local, quelques entreprises pionnières se sont engagées dans la voie d’un encadrement concerté du télétravail. Les arrangements collectifs ou individuels qui s’en dégagent rendent alors compte des spécificités de l’organisation et du personnel. L’impulsion vient à présent du niveau national où une convention collective de travail a été conclue, en application de l’accord-cadre européen sur le télétravail de 2002. Cet article s’intéresse donc aux modalités de la négociation d’entreprise et au nouveau cadre interprofessionnel.Within a Belgian context, telework has been primarily developed in an informal way. Most importantly, it has involved workers who have autonomy in their organization of work. Introducing telework on a larger scale, however, requires consultation and negotiation on the various levels of collective industrial relations. Some Belgian pioneering enterprises have formalized telework. This has led to collective and individual arrangements that take into account the specificity of the organization and its personnel. At present, there is an impulse coming from a new Belgian collective agreement, which applies the 2002 European framework agreement on telework. This article thus focuses on the negotiation of telework with reference to enterprise agreements and the new collective agreement.

  5. Belgian nuclear forum - launching the public debate on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past decades, public opinion on nuclear power was dominated by a 'sleeping', indifferent majority. Nothing moved until (a minority of) opponents began to stir. Their activism strongly contrasted with the low-profile attitude of the nuclear players and pushed a considerable part of the indifferent majority towards a more negative attitude. A 2007 opinion poll (IFOP) confirmed this trend. The poll also revealed a major lack of objective and factual information. Incorrect and incomplete arguments tended to demonize nuclear energy, and 'nuclear' became a brand polarizing public opinion. This had a negative impact on decision-makers and culminated in the Belgian phase-out law of 2003. Based on the opinion poll, the members of the Belgian Nuclear Forum decided to launch a public information campaign, which they would jointly finance, with these goals: - In 3 to 4 years time, create greater public awareness on energy matters and move public opinion towards a more positive attitude. - Gain recognition of nuclear energy's legitimate place in the mix, and of the importance of peaceful nuclear applications. - Attract attention to the Belgian know-how and the importance of the industry on the scientific and economical level. - Optimize conditions for important nuclear issues such as long-term operation of NPPs, new nuclear research projects (MYRRHA),.. A 'push-pull' approach was adopted: push communication to the public (campaign) to pull (involve) decision-makers and get nuclear back on the political agenda. The Forum also opted for a sustained, long-term effort based on public campaigning, public relations and public affairs. Considering its long-time absence from the public debate, the Forum and its agency Saatchi and Saatchi agreed upon the following principles to underpin the campaign: - No 'pro-campaign'; that would be highly unrealistic and have a negative effect; - No taboos: bring up both the pros and cons; - No emotions: bring reason into a mainly emotional

  6. Belgian nuclear forum - launching the public debate on nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leclere, Robert [Belgian Nuclear Forum, Gulledelle, 1200 Brussels (Belgium); Van Landeghem, Yves [Saatchi and Saatchi Belgium, Avenue Rogier, 1030 Brussels (Belgium)

    2010-07-01

    In the past decades, public opinion on nuclear power was dominated by a 'sleeping', indifferent majority. Nothing moved until (a minority of) opponents began to stir. Their activism strongly contrasted with the low-profile attitude of the nuclear players and pushed a considerable part of the indifferent majority towards a more negative attitude. A 2007 opinion poll (IFOP) confirmed this trend. The poll also revealed a major lack of objective and factual information. Incorrect and incomplete arguments tended to demonize nuclear energy, and 'nuclear' became a brand polarizing public opinion. This had a negative impact on decision-makers and culminated in the Belgian phase-out law of 2003. Based on the opinion poll, the members of the Belgian Nuclear Forum decided to launch a public information campaign, which they would jointly finance, with these goals: - In 3 to 4 years time, create greater public awareness on energy matters and move public opinion towards a more positive attitude. - Gain recognition of nuclear energy's legitimate place in the mix, and of the importance of peaceful nuclear applications. - Attract attention to the Belgian know-how and the importance of the industry on the scientific and economical level. - Optimize conditions for important nuclear issues such as long-term operation of NPPs, new nuclear research projects (MYRRHA),.. A 'push-pull' approach was adopted: push communication to the public (campaign) to pull (involve) decision-makers and get nuclear back on the political agenda. The Forum also opted for a sustained, long-term effort based on public campaigning, public relations and public affairs. Considering its long-time absence from the public debate, the Forum and its agency Saatchi and Saatchi agreed upon the following principles to underpin the campaign: - No 'pro-campaign'; that would be highly unrealistic and have a negative effect; - No taboos: bring up both the pros and cons; - No

  7. Non-destructive method for internal quality determination of belgian endive (cichorium intybus l.)

    OpenAIRE

    De Baerdemaeker J.; Quenon V.

    2000-01-01

    A method and process were developed to nondestructively measure the length of the floral stalk in Belgian endive Cichorium intybus L. Current X-ray technology proved to be a feasible method. A detection algorithm was developed based on the minimal transmitted intensities along the length. The method is very accurate with an absolute precision of 4.9 mm and allows the study of the influence of storage conditions and time on the Belgian endive internal quality. The growth of the floral stalk is...

  8. Core and fuel feasibility study for improved flexibility on the Belgian Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A feasibility study has been performed for extended power modulations on Belgian NPPs. The goal is to make the existing nuclear power units in Belgium more flexible without implementing hardware modifications and guaranteeing safety at all times. As the critical part of the feasibility study, the impacts on the core behaviour and fuel performance have been studied in detail. It is concluded that all existing fuels loaded in the Belgian plants allow up to 30 power modulations per fuel cycle without changing the currently applied fuel cycle management. This is also supported by the extensive experience feedback of the fuel products for flexible operations in European countries. (author)

  9. Sand dynamics along the Belgian coast based on airborne hyperspectral data and lidar data

    OpenAIRE

    Deronde, B; Houthuys, R.; Sterckx, S.; Fransaer, D.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this project was to explore the possibilities of airborne hyperspectral data and airborne lidar data to study sand dynamics on the Belgian backshore and foreshore. The Belgian coast is formed by a sandy strip at the southern edge of the North Sea Basin which is commonly known as the Southern Bight. Since the beach is prone to structural and occasional erosion, it is very important to obtain a better understanding of the processes controlling it. The combination of multi-temporal h...

  10. A faunistic survey of the Belgian marine molluscs: a first progress report

    OpenAIRE

    Backeljau, T.

    1988-01-01

    A first step towards the compilation of a critical faunistic inventory of the Belgian marine mollusks, was the publication of a preliminary nomenclatural list in 1986. This list mentioned 136 species which until then bad been recorded alive in Belgium. Yet, such records do not necessarily mean that the species involved actually belong to our fauna. Hence, the next thing to do, was to start a more profound survey of the Belgian marine malacofauna in order to determine which species form well-e...

  11. Attitude of a group of Belgian stakeholders towards proposed agricultural countermeasures after a radioactive contamination: synthesis of the discussions within the Belgian EC-FARMING group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the case of radioactive contamination of the environment with an impact on the food chain, the remediation strategy will not only be based on scientific knowledge and technical experience, but will also be dictated by peculiarities of the country. These characteristics include the agro-industrial structure, the local and international economical contexts and the political configuration including the distribution of responsibilities and competencies. This paper identifies and illustrates the most relevant characteristics of the Belgian agricultural system and political environment; it also describes the past experience with food chain contamination, which is expected to influence the attitude of Belgian stakeholders, who would be involved in the setting up of countermeasure strategies for maintaining agricultural production and food safety. The picture drawn explains why several countermeasures aiming to reduce the contamination in food products, although scientifically sound and technically feasible, are hardly acceptable or even not acceptable at all, to the stakeholders

  12. Can metacognition compensate for intelligence in the first year of Belgian higher education?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minnaert, A

    1996-01-01

    This study reports on the effects of metacognitive knowledge and skills compensating for intelligence in relation to academic performance in the first year of Belgian higher education. About 600 freshmen of educational sciences, medicine and psychology participated in this project. Tasks and questio

  13. Comparing Compositional Effects in Two Education Systems: The Case of the Belgian Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danhier, Julien; Martin, Émilie

    2014-01-01

    The Belgian educational field includes separate educational systems reflecting the division of the country into linguistic communities. Even if the French-speaking and the Dutch-speaking communities keep sharing important similarities in terms of funding rules and structures, they present a huge gap between their respective pupils'…

  14. Performance Measurement in Belgian Hospitals : a state-of-the-art

    OpenAIRE

    Van Caillie, Didier; Rouhana, Rima; Santin, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    This communication proposes a global state-of-the-art around the central question : "How is performance measured and controlled in Belgian hospitals. As a first step in a global research project dedicated to the use of Balanced ScoreCard in publics hospitals around the world, it is essentially focused on global economic aspects and on major macroeconomic statistics.

  15. Clonal Expansion of the Belgian Phytophthora ramorum Populations Based on New Microsatellite Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coexistence of both mating types A1 and A2 within the EU1 lineage of Phytophthora ramorum has only been observed in Belgium, begging the question whether sexual reproduction is occurring. A collection of 411 Belgian P. ramorum isolates was established during a seven year survey. Our main objective w...

  16. Osteochondrosis of the occipital condyles and atlanto-occipital dysplasia in a Belgian horse

    OpenAIRE

    Muirhead, Tammy; McClure, J.T.; Bourque, Andrea; Pack, LeeAnn

    2003-01-01

    A lesion in the cervical region of a 14-month-old Belgian gelding with severe ataxia was suspected. Necropsy revealed symmetric focal cartilage defects compatible with osteochondrosis of the occipital condyles and atlanto-occipital dysplasia. To our knowledge this is the first equine report of symmetrical osteochondrosis of the occipital condyles causing neurologic signs.

  17. The role of the sickness funds in the Belgian health care market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Nonneman (Nonneman); E.K.A. van Doorslaer (Eddy)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThis article reviews some of the salient features of the Belgian health care finance and delivery system. Special attention is paid to the role played by the third-party payers, i.e. the Health Insurance Associations (HIAs) in administering the compulsory national health insurance progra

  18. Chikungunya infection confirmed in a Belgian traveller returning from Phuket (Thailand)

    OpenAIRE

    Bottieau, E; Van Esbroeck, M.; Cnops, L.; Clerinx, J; van Gompel, A.

    2009-01-01

    Chikungunya infection has been increasingly reported in international travellers following its epidemic re-emergence in the Indian Ocean islands in 2006 and its spread to southern Asia thereafter. We describe the first case of chikungunya in a Belgian traveller returning from Phuket, Thailand and discuss the potential implications of chikungunya cases imported to European countries for patient management and public health.

  19. Speaking Turkish in Belgian primary schools: teacher beliefs versus effective consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Ağırdağ; K. Jordens; M. Van Houtte

    2014-01-01

    In this mixed-method study, we explore teachers’ beliefs concerning the use of the Turkish language by Turkish children in Belgian primary schools, and we compare these findings with the effective consequences of language maintenance. The qualitative analyses revealed that teachers have very negativ

  20. Mechanical testing and microstructural characterization of pressure vessel at decommissioned Belgian BR3 Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper was a discussion of a proposal to perform mechanical testing and microstructural characterization of the annealed reactor vessel of the Belgian BR-3 reactor. Motivation for this effort was discussed, and a preliminary cost estimate for some of the tasks was also presented

  1. Intestinal parasite analysis in organic sediments collected from a 16th-century Belgian archeological site Análise de parasitos intestinais em sedimentos orgânicos coletados de sítio arqueológico belga do século XVI

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Fernandes; Luiz Fernando Ferreira; Marcelo Luiz Carvalho Gonçalves; Françoise Bouchet; Carlos Henrique Klein; Takumi Iguchi; Luciana Sianto; Adauto Araujo

    2005-01-01

    Parasite eggs found in organic remains collected from medieval structures in Raversijde (medieval name: Walraversijde), a village on the northern coast of Belgium, are discussed. The eggs were identified as Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura, both human parasites. Species identification allowed elucidating the origin of the organic sediments and the structures, in this case latrines used by humans. Capillaria sp. and free-living nematode larvae were also found in the latrine. Althou...

  2. Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) mapping from MERIS imagery. Calibration of a regional algorithm for the Belgian coastal waters

    OpenAIRE

    B. Nechad; De Cauwer, V.; PARK, Y.; Ruddick, K. G.

    2003-01-01

    A hydro-optical algorithm based on reflectance at 555nm has been used in the past for suspended particulate matter concentrations (SPM) retrieval from SeaWiFS over the Belgian coastal (case II) waters in Southern North Sea. The extra spectral resolution of MERIS offers the possibility of improvements, though necessitates algorithm recalibration. This study presents the calibration of the hydro-optical model used to derive SPM from MERIS reflectance for Belgian coastal waters. The model is bas...

  3. Adapting to the system or the student? Exploring teacher adaptations to disadvantaged students in an English and Belgian secondary school

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Peter; Van Houtte , Mieke

    2011-01-01

    This article builds on research on teacher adaptations to students by exploring how a Belgian and English national context influence teachers’ definitions of educational success, their explanations of educational failure and allocation of scarce educational resources to disadvantaged students. Ethnographic data from one Flemish (Belgian) and one English secondary, multicultural school suggest that teachers in both schools adapt their expectations to students in line with the perceived ability...

  4. The Belgian experience on the backfitting and safety upgrading of old operating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the methodology for backfitting and safety upgrading during the reevaluation of the Belgian NPP's: first generation (Doel-1, Doel-2, Tihange-1) and second generation plants (Doel-3, Doel-4, Tihange-2 and Tihange-3). A list of essential safety subjects and topics is given. The experience has proved the feasibility of a safety upgrading of operating NPP without injury to its availability, the benefit of a close cooperation between owner, engineering company and safety authorities throughout the project. A global approach to solving numerous specific deficiencies along with the optimization of the investments regarding the safety improvement of the NPP is suggested. Further increase of the know-how will be achieved through the present Belgian programme along with similar activities abroad. (R.I.)

  5. SAFIR-2 and the Belgian methodological R and D programme on deep disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter de Preter (NIRAS/ONDRAF, Belgium) provided an overview of the Belgian programme of research and development on deep disposal. The planned submission in December 2001 of SAFIR 2 (the second Safety Assessment and Feasibility Interim Report) would mark an important milestone, as the report would inform a decision by the Belgian government on the nature of future research. An independent committee of scientists established by NIRAS/ONDRAF had reviewed a draft version of the report. The committee was generally in agreement with the technical R and D priorities proposed in the report but suggested that there should be more integration of technical and societal aspects. The committee also recommended that a future research programme should compare the option of deep disposal with other strategies for long-term management of radioactive wastes. It was suggested that a strategic environmental assessment might provide an appropriate mechanism for comparing alternative management strategies, and would enable societal dimensions also to be addressed

  6. Sensitivity analyses of thermal bridges: confrontation with the new Belgian EPB-methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Delghust, Marc; Huyghe, Willem; Janssens, Arnold

    2011-01-01

    As governments continue to impose more and higher energetic requirements for buildings, they also need better assessment-tools to take into account as many parameters as possible. This results in continuous developments of new calculation methods and softwares, where a balance has to be found between practicality and accuracy. To answer this problem, specifically with regard to the thermal bridges, the three Belgian regions developed a new and common pragmatic approach for assessing therma...

  7. The Gay Men Sex Studies: prevalence of sexual dysfunctions in Belgian HIV+ gay men

    OpenAIRE

    Vansintejan J; Janssen J; Van De Vijver E; Vandevoorde J; Devroey D

    2013-01-01

    Johan Vansintejan, Joris Janssen, Erwin Van De Vijver, Jan Vandevoorde, Dirk Devroey Department of Family Medicine, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Brussels, Belgium Abstract: The aim of this Internet-based survey was to investigate the prevalence and associated predictors of sexual dysfunctions in Belgian self-reported HIV-positive men who have sex with other men. Of the 72 participants, 56% had a mild-to-severe erectile dysfunction, and 15% reported a hypoactive sexual desire disorder. Th...

  8. The Gay Men Sex Studies: prevalence of sexual dysfunctions in Belgian HIV+ gay men

    OpenAIRE

    Vansintejan, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Johan Vansintejan, Joris Janssen, Erwin Van De Vijver, Jan Vandevoorde, Dirk Devroey Department of Family Medicine, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Brussels, Belgium Abstract: The aim of this Internet-based survey was to investigate the prevalence and associated predictors of sexual dysfunctions in Belgian self-reported HIV-positive men who have sex with other men. Of the 72 participants, 56% had a mild-to-severe erectile dysfunction, and 15% reported a hypoactive sexual desire disorder. T...

  9. Average daily nitrate and nitrite intake in the Belgian population older than 15 years

    OpenAIRE

    Temme, Liesbeth; Vandevijvere, Stefanie Marie; Vinkx, Christine; Huybrechts, Inge; Goeyens, Leo; Van Oyen, Herman

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the dietary intake of nitrate and nitrite in Belgium. The nitrate content of processed vegetables, cheeses and meat products was analyzed. These data were completed by data from non-targeted official control and from literature. In addition, the nitrite content of meat products was measured. Concentration data for nitrate and nitrite were linked to food consumption data of the Belgian Food Consumption Survey. This study included 3245 res...

  10. Estimating an Ex Ante Cost Function for Belgian Arable Crop Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Kristiana; Baudry, Alexandre; De Blander, Rembert; Frahan, Bruno Henry de; Polome, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    We estimate a farm-level cost function for Belgian crop farms using FADN data over the study period 1996-2006. We rely on an estimation of farmers' expected yields at the time cropping decisions are made rather than actual yields observed in the FADN data. The use of an ex ante cost function improves the cost function estimation. We subsequently suggest how our cost function can be used in simulations to analyze farmer response to changes in output price risk.

  11. Waste disposal[1997 Scientific Report of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; Verstricht, J.; Van Iseghem, P.; Buyens, M.

    1998-07-01

    The primary mission of the Waste Disposal programme at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN is to propose, develop, and assess solutions for the safe disposal of radioactive waste. In Belgium, deep geological burial in clay is the primary option for the disposal of High-Level Waste and spent nuclear fuel. The main achievements during 1997 in the following domains are described: performance assessment, characterization of the geosphere, characterization of the waste, migration processes, underground infrastructure.

  12. Use of Information, Product Innovation and Financial Performance on Belgian Glasshouse Holdings

    OpenAIRE

    Taragola, Nicole; Huylenbroeck, Guido Van; Van Lierde, Dirk

    2002-01-01

    In order to meet the changing needs and preferences of consumers it will be important for Belgian glasshouse growers to change from a production-driven to a customer-driven strategy. More than ever, use of information and product innovation become critical factors in the changing competitive environment. The aim of the research is to analyse the relationship between business and managerial characteristics, use of information sources, product innovation and financial performance of the firm. T...

  13. Mafia Practices and Italian Entrepreneurial Activities in the Belgian Food Sector. Research Objectives

    OpenAIRE

    De Biase, Marco

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to study the social and economic processes which encourage the spread of mafia practices among some Italian entrepreneurs in the Belgian food sector. My working hypothesis is that mafia practices are violent and predatory strategies to monopolize the economic market, which rely on the use of heterogeneous and cross-class social networks. In this view, these activities of old and new Italian entrepreneurs in Belgium are not the result of the exportation of mafia methods thro...

  14. New Belgian Law on Research on Human Embryos: Trust in Progress Through Medical Science

    OpenAIRE

    Pennings, G

    2003-01-01

    The new Belgian law on research on embryos in vitro accepts all types of research directed at therapeutic purposes and at increased medical knowledge. This includes research for germline and somatic gene therapy, therapeutic cloning, and the development of embryonic stem cell lines. As this presupposes the creation of embryos for research, this too is allowed. Other goals like sex selection for nonmedical reasons, eugenic practices and reproductive cloning are prohibited. In general, the law ...

  15. Recent changes in saving behaviour by Belgian households : the impact of uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Raïsa Basselier; Geert Langenus

    2014-01-01

    Belgian households save a lot in comparison to the average for the euro area. Recently, the household saving rate has shown large swings. During the great recession, it temporarily jumped to a record high but since then it has gradually fallen to record lows. Different factors of a structural or cyclical nature may account for these swings. The objective of the article is to gauge to what extent uncertainty related to the general economic outlook or households’ income prospects has contribute...

  16. Joint Estimation of Mark-up and Bargaining Power Parameters for Belgian Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Dobbelaere, Sabien

    2002-01-01

    This paper applies several extensions of Hall's (1988) methodology to analyse imperfections in both the product and the labour market for firms in the Belgian manufacturing industry over the period 1988-1995. We investigate (1) the heterogeneity in mark-up and bargaining power parameters among 17 sectors within the manufacturing industry, (2) whether higher bargaining power parameters are associated with higher mark-ups and (3) whether both parameters are influenced by cyclical and competitio...

  17. Signs of neurotoxicity in a Belgian Blue herd after ingestion of moulded silage

    OpenAIRE

    Guyot, Hugues; Sandersen, Charlotte; Brihoum, Mounir; Vandeputte, Sébastien; Rollin, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    After ingestion of moulded beet pulp silage, cases of cerebro-cortical necrosis (CCN) and mortalities were observed in a dual purpose Belgian Blue (BB) herd. Contamination with Paecilomyces spp., a mould that produces byssochlamic acid, malformins and patulin, was proven. Twenty-five days after progressive introduction of beet pulp silage into the ration, most of the animals showed diminished appetite, excessive salivation and decreased milk production. Some of them showed a...

  18. Adaptation of the European crop growth monitoring system to the Belgian conditions.

    OpenAIRE

    Buffet, D.; Dehem, Didier; Wouters, K.; Tychon, Bernard; Oger, Robert; Veroustraete, F.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the Belgian Crop Growth Monitoring System (B-CGMS) is the elaboration of an integrated information system predicting reliable, timely and objective estimates of crop yields and monitoring calamity sites at regional scales. Seven major crops are concerned by the project : winter wheat, winter barley, fodder maize, winter rape seed, potatoes, sugar beet and permanent meadow. The main tasks in the adaptation of the European model come down to the completion and the improvement of the ...

  19. An empirical study on human resource planning in Belgian production companies

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Bergh, Jorne; Belien, Jeroen; Hoskens, Brent

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates human resource planning in Belgian production companies. First, a literature study is developed to serve as a basis for the results of the empirical research. The literature study is mainly based on papers in the field of operations research that provide interesting insights such as the research-application gap, which is the lack of implementation of models provided by literature. The most important part of this paper is the empirical research. The empirical research i...

  20. Salt water infiltration in two artificial sea inlets in the Belgian dune area

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenbohede, A.; Lebbe, L.; Gysens, S.; Delecluyse, K.; DeWolf, P.

    2008-01-01

    In the dune area of the Westhoek Nature Reserve, situated in the western Belgian coastal plain, two artificial tidal inlets were made aiming to enhance biodiversity. The infiltration of salt water in these tidal inlets was carefully monitored because a fresh water lens is present in the phreatic dune aquifer. This forms an important source of fresh water which is for instance exploited by a water company. The infiltration was monitored over a period of two years by means of electromagnetic bo...

  1. Psychological dimensions of unemployment: a gender comparison between Belgian and South African unemployed.

    OpenAIRE

    Yannick Griep; Sebastiaan Rothmann; Wouter Vleugels; Hans De Witte

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to compare South African and Belgian unemployed in their subjective experience of unemployment, committed towards employment and job search behaviour. We also considered gender differences regarding the psychological dimensions of unemployment between Belgium and South Africa. A cross-sectional survey design was used. Unemployed people were sampled from the Potchefstroom area in South Africa (N = 381) and the Brussels area in Belgium (N = 305). The Experiences of Unemploymen...

  2. Information Availability, Information Quality and the Financial Structure of Belgian SME's.

    OpenAIRE

    Van Campenhout, Geert; Van Caneghem, Tom

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we test whether the amount and/or quality of financial statement information affect the financial structure of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). We explore this issue for Belgian SMEs because there are important differences in disclosure and audit requirements among them. Consistent with the traditional view that asymmetric or incomplete information restricts access to external funds, our results indicate that both the amount and the quality of financial statement information...

  3. Long-term changes in oil pollution off the Belgian coast: evidence from beached bird monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Seys, J.; Offringa, H; P. Meire; Van Waeyenberge, J.; Kuijken, E.

    2002-01-01

    Trends in oil pollution in the southernmost (Belgian) part of the North Sea were analysed using a dataset of 37 years (1962-99) of annual national beached bird surveys conducted in February each year. The most abundant seabird groups represented in the beached birds were auks (31 %), gulls (28%), scoters (17%) and Kittiwake (9%). Oil rates of most bird species/taxa indicate a decline in oil pollution, though only Larus-gulls, Common Guillemot and Razorbill show significant reductions. The slo...

  4. Software support for manufacturing operations in Belgian SMEs: one size fits all?

    OpenAIRE

    Desmarey, Thierry; Degryse, Kris; Cottyn, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Manufacturing companies face a big challenge to bridge the gap between their business and manufacturing processes. The urge to increase efficiency makes it necessary to align the business and manufacturing processes. Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) experience several barriers to adopt software support for manufacturing operations. This paper gives an overview of a research study conducted in Belgian SMEs. The research studied the current adoption of software support for manufacturin...

  5. Sustainability of Global and Local Food Value Chains: An Empirical Comparison of Peruvian and Belgian Asparagus

    OpenAIRE

    Jana Schwarz; Monica Schuster; Bernd Annaert; Miet Maertens; Erik Mathijs

    2016-01-01

    The sustainability of food value chains is an increasing concern for consumers, food companies and policy-makers. Global food chains are often perceived to be less sustainable than local food chains. Yet, thorough food chain analyses and comparisons of different food chains across sustainability dimensions are rare. In this article we analyze the local Belgian and global Peruvian asparagus value chains and explore their sustainability performance. A range of indicators linked to environmental...

  6. Floating seaweed in the neustonic environment: a case study from Belgian coastal waters

    OpenAIRE

    Vandendriessche, S; Vincx, M.; Degraer, S.

    2007-01-01

    Floating seaweeds form the most important natural component of all floating material found on the surface of oceans and seas. Notwithstanding the absence of natural rocky shores, ephemeral floating seaweed clumps are frequently encountered along the Belgian coast. From October 2002 to April 2003, seaweed samples and control samples (i.e. surface water samples from a seaweed-free area) were collected every other week. Multivariate analysis on neustonic macrofaunal abundances showed significant...

  7. Using Firm-Level Data to Assess Gender Wage Discrimination in the Belgian Labour Market

    OpenAIRE

    Borowczyk Martins, Daniel; Vandenberghe, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we explore a matched employer-employee data set to investigate the presence of gender wage discrimination in the Belgian private economy labour market. We identify and measure gender wage discrimination from firm-level data using a labour index decomposition pioneered by Hellerstein and Neumark (1995), which allows us to compare direct estimates of a gender productivity differential with those of a gender labour costs differential. We take advantage of the panel structure of the...

  8. Firm-level Evidence on Gender Wage Discrimination in the Belgian Private Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenberghe, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we explore a matched employer-employee data set to investigate the presence of gender wage discrimination in the Belgian private economy labour market. Contrary to many existing papers, we analyse gender wage discrimination using an independent productivity measure. Using firm-level data, we are able to compare direct estimates of a gender productivity differential with those of a gender wage differential. We take advantage of the panel structure to identify gender-related diffe...

  9. Grid Integration of Large-scale Wind Turbines Equipped With Full Converters: Belgian Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    De Rijcke, Simon; Ergun, Hakan; De Vos, Kristof; Driesen, Johan

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a study regarding the integration of wind power into the Belgian electricity system. The main focus of this study is the contribution of wind power plants to reduce voltage deviations due to load and wind power variations. It is shown, how wind power plants can maintain and improve the voltage in the existing electricity network using their reactive power operation characteristics. To cover a broad variety of study cases, two different locations with differ...

  10. RV Belgica II: The new Belgian research vessel to replace the existing RV A962 Belgica

    OpenAIRE

    Naudts, L.; Cox, D.; Roose, P.; Monteny, F.

    2014-01-01

    For 30 years RV Belgica has been the marine infrastructure for Belgian marine scientists working on the Belgian Part of the North Sea and in the marine realm stretching from Norway, over Ireland to Morocco. Even if the ship is still performing research activities for more than 180 days per year, the increasing number of technical breakdowns and the rising maintenance cost associated with her age makes the replacement by a new RV Belgica II a necessity for the Belgian marine science community.

  11. Intestinal parasite analysis in organic sediments collected from a 16th-century Belgian archeological site Análise de parasitos intestinais em sedimentos orgânicos coletados de sítio arqueológico belga do século XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Fernandes

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Parasite eggs found in organic remains collected from medieval structures in Raversijde (medieval name: Walraversijde, a village on the northern coast of Belgium, are discussed. The eggs were identified as Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura, both human parasites. Species identification allowed elucidating the origin of the organic sediments and the structures, in this case latrines used by humans. Capillaria sp. and free-living nematode larvae were also found in the latrine. Although neither parasite burden nor prevalence rates could be measured, the abundance of human intestinal parasite eggs indicated a high infection rate in the village residents, reflecting very poor sanitation.Este artigo discute os achados de ovos de parasitos em vestígios orgânicos de estruturas medievais do século XVI, escavados no solo, encontrados em Walraversijde, vilarejo atualmente denominado Raversijde, litoral norte da Bélgica. Nestas estruturas encontraram-se numerosos ovos de Ascaris lumbricoides e Trichuris trichiura, ambos parasitos humanos. Neste trabalho, o diagnóstico dos parasitos serviu para identificar a origem humana do sedimento e as estruturas medievais como latrinas. Encontraram-se outros ovos de parasito identificado como Capillaria sp. e larvas de nematódeos. Embora não tenha sido possível calcular cargas parasitárias, a quantidade de ovos de helmintos intestinais, parasitos de humanos, sugere condições precárias de higiene e altos níveis de infecção.

  12. Microbial diversity and metabolite composition of Belgian red-brown acidic ales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snauwaert, Isabel; Roels, Sanne P; Van Nieuwerburg, Filip; Van Landschoot, Anita; De Vuyst, Luc; Vandamme, Peter

    2016-03-16

    Belgian red-brown acidic ales are sour and alcoholic fermented beers, which are produced by mixed-culture fermentation and blending. The brews are aged in oak barrels for about two years, after which mature beer is blended with young, non-aged beer to obtain the end-products. The present study evaluated the microbial community diversity of Belgian red-brown acidic ales at the end of the maturation phase of three subsequent brews of three different breweries. The microbial diversity was compared with the metabolite composition of the brews at the end of the maturation phase. Therefore, mature brew samples were subjected to 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene (bacteria) and the internal transcribed spacer region (yeasts) and a broad range of metabolites was quantified. The most important microbial species present in the Belgian red-brown acidic ales investigated were Pediococcus damnosus, Dekkera bruxellensis, and Acetobacter pasteurianus. In addition, this culture-independent analysis revealed operational taxonomic units that were assigned to an unclassified fungal community member, Candida, and Lactobacillus. The main metabolites present in the brew samples were L-lactic acid, D-lactic acid, and ethanol, whereas acetic acid was produced in lower quantities. The most prevailing aroma compounds were ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, and ethyl octanoate, which might be of impact on the aroma of the end-products. PMID:26802571

  13. Air crew exposure on board of long-haul flights of the Belgian airlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New European radiation protection recommendations state that measures need to be taken for flight crew members whose annual radiation exposure exceeds 1 mSv. This will be the case for flight crew members who accumulate most of their flying hours on long-haul flights. The Recommendations for the Implementation of the Basic Safety Standards Directive states that for annual exposure levels between 1 and 6 mSv individual dose estimates should be obtained, whereas for annual exposures exceeding 6 mSv, which might rarely occur, record keeping with appropriate medical surveillance is recommended. To establish the exposure level of Belgian air crews, radiation measurements were performed on board of a total of 44 long-haul flights of the Belgian airlines. The contribution of low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation (photons, electrons, protons) was assessed by using TLD-700H detectors. The exposure to high-LET radiation (mostly neutrons) was measured with bubble detectors. Results were compared to calculations with an adapted version of the computer code CARI. For the low-LET radiation the calculations were found to be in good agreement with the measurements. The measurements of the neutron dose were consistently lower than the calculations. With the current flight schedules used by the Belgian airlines, air crew members are unlikely to receive annual doses exceeding 4 mSv. (author)

  14. Distribution of doses resulting from cosmic rays exposure for Belgian airlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Belgian Radiation Protection Act of 2001 requires air line companies registered in Belgium to evaluate the doses resulting from the exposure of their crew to cosmic radiation. If the annual dose of 1 mSv is exceeded, the crew must be informed about their individual doses and pregnant women have to be protected, among other measures. The Federal Agency for Nuclear Control (FANC, the competent Belgian radiation protection authority) has issued guidelines in order to help air line companies to fulfil their duties. Following the publication of these guidelines, all commercial Belgian air line companies have sent data on the exposure of their personnel. These data and, in particular, the distribution of the doses are presented. Except in the cases of small 'air taxi' companies, which fly only on very short distances and low altitudes, a significant number of air crew members gets doses of more than 1 mSv/y. The maximum value amounts to ∼ 4 mSv/y. The computer codes used by the companies in order to evaluate the individual doses are PCAIRE, CARI and IASON-FREE. The FANC imposed the concerned companies to reassess yearly the individual doses. (author)

  15. Belgian canine population and purebred study for forensics by improved mitochondrial DNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmyter, Stijn; Gijsbers, Leonie

    2012-01-01

    In canine population studies for forensics, the mitochondrial DNA is profiled by sequencing the two hyper variable regions, HV1 and HV2 of the control region. In a first effort to create a Belgian population database some samples showed partially poor sequence quality. We demonstrated that a nuclear pseudogene was co-amplified with the mtDNA control region. Using a new combination of primers this adverse result was no longer observed and sequencing quality was improved. All former samples with poor sequence data were reanalyzed. Furthermore, the forensic canine population study was extended to 208 breed and mixed dogs. In total, 58 haplotypes were identified, resulting in an exclusion capacity of 0.92. The profile distribution of the Belgian population sample was not significantly different from those observed in population studies of three other countries. In addition to the total population study 107 Belgian registered pedigree dogs of six breeds were profiled. Per breed, the obtained haplotypes were supplemented with those from population and purebred studies. The combined data revealed that some haplotypes were more or less prominent present in particular dog breeds. The statistically significant differences in haplotype distribution between breeds and population sample can have consequences on mtDNA databasing and matching probabilities in forensics. PMID:21489897

  16. Enrichment and shifts in macrobenthic assemblages in an offshore wind farm area in the Belgian part of the North Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Delphine A; Deschutter, Yana; Vincx, Magda; Vanaverbeke, Jan

    2014-04-01

    The growing development of offshore wind energy installations across the North Sea is producing new hard anthropogenic structures in the natural soft sediments, causing changes to the surrounding macrobenthos. The extent of modification in permeable sediments around a gravity based wind turbine in the Belgian part of the North Sea was investigated in the period 2011-2012, along four gradients (south-west, north-east, south-east, north-west). Sediment grain size significantly reduced from 427 μm at 200 m to 312 ± 3 μm at 15 m from the foundation along the south-west and north-west gradients. The organic matter content increased from 0.4 ± 0.01% at 100 m to 2.5 ± 0.9% at 15 m from the foundation. The observed changes in environmental characteristics triggered an increase in the macrobenthic density from 1390 ± 129 ind m⁻² at 200 m to 18 583 ± 6713 ind m⁻² at 15 m together with an enhanced diversity from 10 ± 2 at 200 m to 30 ± 5 species per sample at 15 m. Shifts in species dominance were also detected with a greater dominance of the ecosystem-engineer Lanice conchilega (16-25%) close to the foundation. This study suggests a viable prediction of the effects offshore wind farms could create to the naturally occurring macrobenthos on a large-scale. PMID:24373388

  17. Validation of the IMMIDIET food frequency questionnaire in an adult Belgian population: a report from the Belgian case-control study on bladder cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, M T; Kellen, E; Zeegers, M P; van Dongen, M C J M S; Dagnelie, P C; Muls, E; Buntinx, F

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of the IMMIDIET food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) used to collect dietary data for the Belgian case-control study on bladder cancer. Thirty-seven men and women aged 50 years and older were recruited from the University Hospital in Leuven, Belgium. Participants completed the IMMIDIET FFQ, a 7-day diet diary and a 24-hour diet recall. Median intakes and inter-quartile ranges were calculated for 27 foods and nutrients from each dietary assessment method. All dietary factors were log-transformed and adjusted for energy using the nutrient density method. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to compare the different dietary assessment methods. Bland-Altman plots were also used to assess levels of agreement between the dietary methods. Energy, fruit and vegetable intake estimates were higher from the IMMIDIET FFQ compared with the two reference methods.The highest deattenuated correlations between the FFQ and 7-day diary were meat (0.58), bread (0.44), fruit (0.38) and fish (0.38). The highest deattenuated correlations between the FFQ and 24-hour recall were for fruit (0.72), fat (0.48), alcohol (0.44), cholesterol (0.42), monounsaturated fatty acid (0.42) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (0.41). Generally, correlation was lower for the micro-nutrients except for phosphorus (0.42), vitamin C (0.41) and calcium (0.40). The IMMIDIET FFQ is an appropriate instrument to measure usual dietary intake for the Belgian case-control study on bladder cancer risk. Further investigation of nutritional assessment methods is necessary. PMID:21485759

  18. Adapting to the System or the Student? Exploring Teacher Adaptations to Disadvantaged Students in an English and a Belgian Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Peter A. J.; Van Houtte, Mieke

    2011-01-01

    This article builds on research on teacher adaptations to students by exploring how Belgian and English national contexts influence teachers' definitions of educational success, their explanations of educational failure, and their allocation of scarce educational resources to disadvantaged students. Ethnographic data from one Flemish (Belgian) and…

  19. The Belgian nuclear higher education network: the evolution of an academic programme in nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The master-after-master in nuclear engineering provided by the Belgian Nuclear higher Education Network (BNEN) is a one-year, 60 ECTS programme which combines the expertise of six Belgian universities and SCK.CEN, the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, which participates through its Academy for Nuclear Science and Technology. It was created in close collaboration with representatives of academia, research centres, industry and other nuclear stakeholders. The BNEN consortium Due to its modular programme, BNEN is accessible for both full-time students (mainly young engineering graduates) as well as young professionals already employed in the nuclear industry. The programme is offered in English to facilitate the participation of international students. One of the important aspects of the BNEN programme is the fact that exercises and hands-on sessions in the specialised laboratories of SCK.CEN complement the theoretical classes to bring the students into contact with all facets of nuclear energy. Several of SCK.CEN's researchers provide valuable contributions to the programme through seminars and practical exercises. From their daily practices and responsibilities they give an expert view on the subjects that are being taught. In 2012, in the framework of an official accreditation process all aspects of the BNEN programme were audited by an international visitation panel. The most important outcome of this process is the current reform of the academic programme, which will be implemented in the academic year 2014-2015, taking into account the recommendations by the visitation panel. In this paper, the history of the BNEN programme will be discussed, the new BNEN programme will be presented as well as the process that has led to its implementation. (authors)

  20. Life cycle modeling of energy matrix scenarios, Belgian power and partial heat mixes as case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► An LCA modeling approach is proposed for energy systems. ► A simplified Belgian energy system with and without nuclear power is optimized. ► A sustainability pathway is obtained from successive scenario optimizations. ► Reduction of GWP without nuclear power is limited under modeled conditions. ► Biomass potential implies an increase of toxicity and land occupation indicators. - Abstract: The present paper introduces a life cycle modeling approach for representing actual demand of energy or energy intensive products delivered within a system (electricity, heat, etc.) for optimization of the energy mix, according to some of the available life cycle impact assessments (LCIAs). Unlike classical LCA modeling approach, the real amount of several energy products leaving the system and the interactions due to the presence of multi-output processes are considered within the present approach. As a case study, future scenarios are obtained for the Belgian electricity mix production and the heat mix potentially substituted by CHP or biomass, switching between abandoning or not power from nuclear energy. The possibility of using natural gas, biomass for cogeneration, wind power and solar photovoltaic energy are considered within the availability ranges of these resources. Finally, results are presented from successive optimizations according to the sustainability potential defined in a previous paper. A pathway to a more sustainable Belgian energy system is obtained. Finally it is concluded that under the modeling conditions and without nuclear energy it is not possible to obtain a reduction of GHGs and despite diminishing of non-renewable resource consumption, a rising of toxicity is obtained

  1. Quality assurance of automatic exposure control devices for digital radiography: Belgian approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 2001, an annual quality control of medical X-ray equipment by a medical physics expert (MPE) is obligatory in Belgium. The minimal standards that a system should achieve are defined in the RP91 document. After some years of experience, there was a consensus that the MPE activities would benefit from a more explicit text that would take full account of the challenges of the on-going digitization. A working group of Belgian physicists was formed within the Belgian Hospital Physicists Association to create a more extended and detailed protocol, to harmonize the test procedures among the physicists and to test digital detectors appropriately. The aim of the group was to make sure that image quality and patient dose are well balanced and that the automatic exposure controller functions well for all conditions of beam quality and patient thickness. The most important chapter of the new Belgian protocol concerns the testing of the AEC for digital radiography detectors (DR) and computed radiography plates (CR). These tests are not described in the RP91. Conventional X-ray systems using film radiography have to give similar optical densities. On digital systems, the optical density is fixed by the processing and not at all related to exposure. The approaches to test film-screen can therefore not be applied to digital detectors. The hypothesis of the test procedure is the following: as the image quality of a digital detector is not contrast limited but dose limited, it is the amount of noise in the image which limits the image quality. Therefore, the goal of the AEC calibration should be to keep the SNR constant at all thicknesses and beam qualities. As described by Doyle and Martin, we aim to control the SNR by measuring the exposure indication (EI) or pixel value (PV) of the detector. We report on a practical approach, that has been developed in our team

  2. Influence of dabigatran and rivaroxaban on routine coagulation assays. A nationwide Belgian survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Blerk, Marjan; Bailleul, Els; Chatelain, Bernard; Demulder, Anne; Devreese, Katrien; Douxfils, Jonathan; Jochmans, Kristin; Mullier, François; Wijns, Walter; Soumali, Mohamed Rida; Coucke, Wim; Vernelen, Kris; Van de Walle, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The Belgian national External Quality Assessment Scheme performed a nationwide survey using lyophilised plasma samples spiked with dabigatran or rivaroxaban to demonstrate to the Belgian clinical laboratories how these drugs affect their routine coagulation assays prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen and antithrombin. Virtually all Belgian laboratories performing routine coagulation testing (189/192) participated in the survey. Both, dabigatran and rivaroxaban significantly prolonged the PT and aPTT in a concentration- and reagent-dependent manner. PT reagents were more influenced by rivaroxaban than by dabigatran and aPTT reagents more influenced by dabigatran than by rivaroxaban. Among PT reagents, Neoplastin R® was the most sensitive to rivaroxaban and Innovin® and Thromborel S® the least sensitive. Converting PT results to INR only increased the variability between reagents. Among aPTT reagents, Actin FSL® was the least sensitive to dabigatran while the other aPTT reagents showed slightly higher sensitivities. The presence of dabigatran led to falsely reduced fibrinogen concentrations when measured with a low thrombin concentration reagent. The presence of dabigatran caused an overestimation of the antithrombin level when measured with a thrombin-based activity assay and the presence of rivaroxaban an overestimation of the antithrombin level when measured with a FXa-based assay. Instrument-related differences were found for all tested parameters. In conclusion, this paper provides detailed information on the effect of dabigatran and rivaroxaban on routine coagulation assays as performed with a large number of reagent/instrument combinations. PMID:25231101

  3. New trends in the Belgian programme on nuclear air cleaning technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Belgian Programme on nuclear air cleaning technology the Mercurex process has been developed to trap iodine compounds from dissolver off-gases. Krypton is removed with the help of a cryogenic distillation unit. The various gas cleaning units have been integrated in a gas purification test loop for dissolver off-gas at a through put of 25 m3 gas h-1. The separation of tritium from liquid reprocessing effluents is being developed according to the ELEX-process. New research is started on the capture of semi-volatile ruthenium compounds

  4. Contamination levels observed on the Belgian territory subsequent to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary of the data from different laboratories concerning the fallout on the Belgian territory following the Chernobyl emissions is presented. The evolution of the particulate air activity at ground level, the integrated fallout captured in water, the deposition on soil surface directly for different localities in Belgium are given. The grass contamination, the milk contamination from individual farms, the concentration levels on leafy vegetables, surface waters and water basins and the contamination of meat during the month of May are presented. (A.F.)

  5. Hundred and eighty years of fleet dynamics in the Belgian sea fisheries

    OpenAIRE

    Lescrauwaet, A.-K.; Fockedey, N.; Debergh, H.; Vincx, M.; Mees, J.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the impact of fisheries on the commercial fish stocks requires detailed catch statistics and data on the dynamics of fleet and catch effort, at least before industrial fishing started. Most time-series on the fleet dynamics start after the 1980s, at times when major changes in fleet characteristics had already taken place. In the present paper, the results of the integration of data on fleet size (from 1830), tonnage (from 1842) and engine power (kW, from 1912) of the Belgian se...

  6. Determining the marketing mix for a start-up travel agency aimed at the Belgian market

    OpenAIRE

    Hanák, Marek

    2014-01-01

    This thesis suggests a marketing mix consisting of 4 P's for a start-up travel agency. It created a product according to the quantitative research, n=140, and a qualitative research on the Belgian market. It includes the price of the product according to a competitor analysis, price expectation of the segment and a calculation of all costs connected with providing the service. It suggests also a promotion strategy aimed at the target audience and describes the place in terms point of sale ded...

  7. Modelling of density dependent groundwater flow in the south-western Belgian coastal plain

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenbohede, A.; Linster, T.; Lebbe, L.

    2005-01-01

    The study area is situated at the landward border of the Belgian western coastal plain at the right bank of the river Ijzer. The phreatic aquifer is of quaternary age. Until about the 12th century, the hydrology of the area was influenced by the North Sea. The area was criss-crossed by tidal channels and gullies and the aquifer was mainly filled with salt water. From about 1100 AD, the area was gradually reclaimed, halting the influence of the sea. The channels silted up. Fresh water started ...

  8. Methods used to seismically upgrade. The safety related components of Belgian plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belgian nuclear power amounts to about 6,000 MW, generated by seven plants that started operation as early as 1967. The latest plant started in 1985. Some of these plants were designed with no seismic requirements whatsoever. Even for those that had seismic requirements at the design stage, seismic demand was raised after design had been frozen (late during construction or at the 10 years revision). As a consequence all the plants had to undergo, to a variable extent, a seismic reevaluation and/or backfitting. Civil structures were concerned as well as electro-mechanical equipment and piping systems. The present paper deals with the mechanical aspect of the problem (equipment and piping). In order to minimize hardware modifications, advanced analytical techniques were used throughout the process, starting with the elaboration of a site specific spectrum, and using a full soil-structure interaction in order to get as 'realistic' as possible floor response spectra. In some instances, non linear elasto-plastic time history analysis was performed on piping-systems in order to qualify them without hardware modifications. In other cases a 'Load Coefficient Method' was used. Sometimes stresses or displacements taken from the original stress reports and scaled by comparison of applicable spectra, allowed to assess the seismic validity of the system under investigation. Seismic acceptability of installed active equipment is more difficult to demonstrate, as this is usually done by testing. This problem is a generic issue in the US, identified under the label USI-A-46 (Unresolved Safety Issue). It is treated by. a group of Utilities (SQUG = Seismic Qualification Utilities Group). The Belgian Utility is member of that group since 1985. The application of this program is starting in the US. SQUG methodology has been applied to three Belgian plants starting in 1988 and is now completed. The required fixes are being implemented. Experience gained in the process has been applied

  9. Lessons learned from the decommissioning of the Belgian pressurized water test reactor BR3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BR3 plant was operated with the main objective of testing advanced PWR fuels under irradiation conditions similar to those encountered in large commercial PWR plants. In 1989, it was selected as one of the pilot projects of the European Commission for its R and D programme on Decommissioning of nuclear installations. With the decommissioning of the BR3 reactor, the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK·CEN gained a lot of experiences in the field of decommissioning. This paper describes the main phases carried out in the decommissioning project up till now and will discuss the main lessons to learn. (author)

  10. How frequently do prices change? Evidence based on the micro data underlying the Belgian CPI

    OpenAIRE

    Aucremanne, Luc; Dhyne, Emmanuel

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the degree of price rigidity in Belgian consumer prices, using a large database. As to the observed degree of rigidity, the results reveal a substantial amount of heterogeneity, not only across but also within product categories. While prices turn out to be perfectly flexible for some product categories, they tend to be very sticky for others. Each month, nearly 17 p.c. of the consumer prices change on average and the median duration of a price spell is close to 13 months....

  11. Taxes and Corporate Financing Decisions – Evidence from the Belgian ACE Reform

    OpenAIRE

    aus dem Moore, Nils

    2014-01-01

    We contribute to the empirical literature on the debt bias of corporate income taxation through a micro-econometric evaluation of the so-called ACE corporate tax reform in Belgium based on firm-level accounting data. We interpret the tax reform that came into effect in January 2006 as an economic quasi experiment. We identify its causal impact on the leverage ratio of Belgian corporations by means of a difference-in-differences (DiD) approach, using corporations from the UK as comparison grou...

  12. Experiences with a continuous vibration monitoring system on rotating machines in the Belgian power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the availability of turbogenerators is very important, especially for nuclear plants, some Belgian power plants asked Laborelec to develop a better vibration monitoring with analysis capabilities and the possibility to record data. The main goal was to have a better insight in the vibrational behaviour of some critical machines and to limit the outages due to vibrational problems. The first prototype of a computerised monitoring system was installed in 1985 to survey the Doel 4 turbine from the beginning. Meanwhile 39 turbines have been equipped ranging from 125 MW, 25 years old, fossil fuel plants to large 1000 MW nuclear plants. Some reactor coolant pumps were instrumented too. (orig.)

  13. Application of the CALUX bioassay for epidemiological study. Analyses of Belgian human plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wouwe, N. van; Debacker, N.; Sasse, A. [Scientific Institute of Public Health, Brussels (BE)] (and others)

    2004-09-15

    The CALUX bioassay is a promising screening method for the detection of dioxin-like compounds. The observed good sensitivity, low number of false negative results as well as the good correlations with the GC-HRMS TEQ-values in case of feed and food analyses allow this method to climb in the first assessment methods' scale. The low amount of sample needed in addition to those latest advantages suggest that the CALUX bioassay could be a good screening method for epidemiological studies. The Belgian epidemiological study concerning the possible effect of the dioxin incident on the body burden of the Belgian population was an opportunity to test this method in comparison to the gold reference one: the GC-HRMS. The first part of this abstract presents epidemiological parameters (sensibility, specificity,) of the CALUX bioassay using CALUX TEQ-values as estimators of the TEQ-values of the 17 PCDD/Fs. The second part examines epidemiological determinants observed for CALUX and GCHRMS TEQ-values.

  14. Different Regional Approaches to Cultural diversity Interpreting the Belgian Cultural Diversity Policy Paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilke Adam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In Belgium, the authority over cultural diversity policies resulting from immigration has been devolved from the central state to the regions since 1970. Consequently, Flanders and Francophone Belgium have progressively developed divergent policy tools. By describing the divergent evolution of Francophone and Flemish cultural diversity policies, our paper demonstrates the existence of a “Belgian Cultural Diversity Paradox”, namely the existence of more multicultural minority rights in the region that has most experienced electoral success by an extreme-right anti-immigrant party (Flanders, and a more colour blind and radical secular approach in the region where anti-immigrant politicization is barely a factor (Francophone Belgium. This finding is counter-intuitive because an important strand of immigrant policy research has emphasized the relationship between the politicization of immigration and restrictive immigrant citizenship rights. Our paper demonstrates that the different degrees of politicization of immigration in Flanders and Francophone Belgium cannot fully account for divergent cultural diversity policies. By insisting on the historical path dependency of the linguistic and religious cleavages in Belgium and their overlap, this paper offers an addendum to the politicization approach. The historical linguistic and religious differences of the Belgian regions clearly mediate the impact of the politicization of immigration on both sides of the linguistic border.

  15. Preventive Care Use among the Belgian Elderly Population: Does Socio-Economic Status Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Hoeck

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the association between influenza and pneumococcus vaccination and blood cholesterol and blood sugar measurement by Belgian elderly respondents (≥65 years and socio-demographic characteristics, risk factors, health status and socio-economic status (SES. Methods: A cross-sectional study based on 4,544 non-institutionalized elderly participants of the Belgian Health Interview Surveys 2004 and 2008. Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed to examine the independent effect of socio-demographic characteristics, risk factors, health status and SES on the four preventive services. Results: After adjustment for age, sex, region, survey year, living situation, risk factors (body mass index, smoking status, physical activity and health status (self-assessed health and longstanding illness lower educated elderly were significantly less likely to report a blood cholesterol and blood sugar measurement. For instance, elderly participants with no degree or only primary education were less likely to have had a cholesterol and blood sugar measurement compared with those with higher education. Pneumococcus vaccination was not related to educational level, but lower income groups were more likely to have had a pneumococcus immunization. Influenza vaccination was not significantly related to SES. Conclusion: The results highlight the need to promote cholesterol and blood sugar measurement for lower SE groups, and pneumococcus immunization for the entire elderly population. Influenza immunization seems to be equally spread among different SE groups.

  16. The energy sources and nuclear energy - The point of view of the Belgian Catholic Church

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems related to the environment are reported regularly to the public by means of the newspapers, on radio and television. The story is the product of a journalistic process and in general does not bear much resemblance to the original event. The rate and type of reportage depend not only on the body of data available to the journalist but on the information sources the journalist chosen to use. The same story is reported in a positive or negative way. Finally people are overwhelmed by contradictory information and became uncertain or frightened. In order to provide the general public with objective information about nuclear energy in particular and to made a statement about the position of the Belgian Catholic Church concerning this matter, the results of the study were published in Dutch under the form of a book with the title 'The Energy Sources and Nuclear Energy - Comparative analysis and ethical thoughts written the same author. Thia paper is a short survey of the results of the study and to present the point of view of the Belgian Catholic Church in the energy debate

  17. On the role of radiologists in the Belgian PROject on CAncer of the REctum, PROCARE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penninckx, F; Danse, E

    2006-01-01

    Radiologists are involved at all stages of the treatment of patients with rectum cancer: in the preoperative staging, in the diagnosis of postoperative complications, in the detection of recurrent or metastatic disease during follow-up, in the monitoring of the therapeutic effect of palliative therapy. PROCARE is a Belgian national project to improve outcome in all patients with rectum cancer. Guidelines were made by a multidisciplinary workgroup and are available on the web. Decentralised implementation of guidelines is organised by the scientific and professional organisations. It is planned that a central review committee of radiologists, delegated by the Royal Belgian Society of Radiology, will survey the quality of preoperative staging. Overall quality of care will be assured by registration in a specific national database starting in 2006. Participating teams will receive annual feedback. Radiologists should provide data on cTNM staging and cCRM. Differentiation between cT2 and cT3, cN0 and cN+, and measurement of the cCRM in mm are crucial as they have a relevant impact on treatment strategy. While spiral abdominal CT is adequate for cM staging, high-resolution MRI is highly recommended and, in fact, a necessity for locoregional staging because its adequacy is superior to that of CT-scan and EUS. However, EUS is mandatory when local excision is considered, i.e. for cT1N0 lesions. PMID:16607873

  18. Occupational stress, work-home interference and burnout among Belgian veterinary practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansez I

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There have been few formal studies on stress in veterinary surgeons and, in the rare studies available, stress is not examined jointly through the levels of job strain and job engagement, the sources of stress in the issue of work environment and the work-home interference. The authors' goal in this study was to analyse job engagement, job strain, burnout, work-home interference and job stress factors among 216 Belgian veterinary surgeons. Rural practice was compared to small animal and mixed activity. The mean job strain and job engagement level in veterinary surgeons was not higher than what we found in other working populations. However, 15.6% of the group were found to be suffering from high burnout. Rural practitioners had a lower level of job engagement than small animal veterinary surgeons. These small animal practitioners had a lower level of job strain than the mixed practitioners. The level of burnout did not differ significantly across the three types of activity. In comparison to other Belgian and Dutch workers, veterinary surgeons perceived more negative work-home interference. Bovine and mixed practitioners were the most concerned with this problem. The two most important sources of stress reported by bovine practitioners were relations to farmers and working time management (including emergencies and availability.

  19. Risk perception of the Belgian population. Results of the public opinion survey in 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Aeken, K.; Turcanu, C.; Bombaerts, G.; Carle, B.; Hardeman, F.

    2007-01-15

    The Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN 2006 risk perception barometer is based on over 1000 Computer Assisted Personal Interviews, taken from persons selected to be representative for the Belgian 18+ population, and all realized in the period March 21st to April 12th 2006. Besides the classical background variables used to obtain the quota for representativity (age, language, habitat, gender and social class), we also included a series of questions assessing the sociological context and the psychological personality profile. The main topics in the survey were I) risk perception and confidence in authorities; II) acceptance of legal norms for food products; III) acceptance of countermeasures for the food chain in case of a radiological contamination and associated consumers behaviour; IV) energy; v) disposal of radioactive waste; vi) perception of the Chernobyl accident and its consequences. Some of the questions asked in 2006 are similar to those enquired in the SCK barometer of 2002, in order to study the time evolution of the risk perception associated with various issues. For the part related to acceptance of legal norms and of countermeasures for the food chain, simulated news bulletins were used in order to better reproduce the real-life context of a contamination.

  20. SCK-CEN 2006 barometer on risk perception of the Belgian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting with 2000, the expert group Society and Policy Support carries out research on various aspects of risk governance. Measuring several risk perception items at regular intervals with the Belgian population is an important part of this research. SCK-CEN has organised a first risk perception barometer in 2002 and a second one in 2006. The 2006 barometer is based on 1063 Computer Assisted Personal Interviews, with a duration of approximately 35 minutes. The large scale of the survey ensures that general trends can be detected and allows specific and detailed analysis on subgroups of the population. Besides the classical background variables used to obtain a sample representative for the Belgian 18+ population (age, language, habitat, gender and social class), several questions were included assessing the sociological context and the psychological personality profile. A series of questions on risk perception, confidence in authorities and specific nuclear topics were repeated in 2006 and constitute a fixed core, allowing comparison over time in Belgium, as well as with the results from the IRSN French barometer. In addition, a number of topics such as acceptance of legal norms and management options for radioactively contaminated milk, energy, nuclear waste and the perception of the Chernobyl accident were covered in detail in the 2006 edition of the SCK-CEN barometer

  1. Risk perception of the Belgian population. Results of the public opinion survey in 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN 2006 risk perception barometer is based on over 1000 Computer Assisted Personal Interviews, taken from persons selected to be representative for the Belgian 18+ population, and all realized in the period March 21st to April 12th 2006. Besides the classical background variables used to obtain the quota for representativity (age, language, habitat, gender and social class), we also included a series of questions assessing the sociological context and the psychological personality profile. The main topics in the survey were I) risk perception and confidence in authorities; II) acceptance of legal norms for food products; III) acceptance of countermeasures for the food chain in case of a radiological contamination and associated consumers behaviour; IV) energy; v) disposal of radioactive waste; vi) perception of the Chernobyl accident and its consequences. Some of the questions asked in 2006 are similar to those enquired in the SCK barometer of 2002, in order to study the time evolution of the risk perception associated with various issues. For the part related to acceptance of legal norms and of countermeasures for the food chain, simulated news bulletins were used in order to better reproduce the real-life context of a contamination.

  2. The Belgian regulatory framework for NORM industries : test-case of a phosphate production plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the Belgian radiation protection regulatory framework, some categories of NORM industries must register to the competent Belgian radiation protection authority (FANC, Federal Agency for Nuclear Control). The facilities must provide a set of information which allows the authority to assess the radiological impact of the industrial activity on the workers, the population and the environment. If the dose exceeds or is likely to exceed 1 mSv/y, corrective measures have to be implemented. FANC has issued a methodology in order to define more precisely the data needed to evaluate the radiological impact. The methodology lists also the exposure pathways which have to be taken into account and the relevant parameters for the evaluation of the doses. The case of a phosphate production plant is discussed in more details: although the exposure of the workers in the production process as such is rather limited, the specific activity of some residues (calcium fluoride sludge) reaches around 10 kBq/kg of Ra-226. This sludge is disposed off in a specific landfill for which a program of radiological monitoring has been implemented. It includes periodic measurements of dose rate and radon concentration on the landfill. (author)

  3. The Belgian Minister of Economy, Energy, Foreign Trade and Science Policy, Marc Verwilghen, with CERN's Director-General, Robert Aymar.

    CERN Multimedia

    Michel Blanc

    2005-01-01

    Marc Verwilghen, Belgian Minister of Economy, Energy, Foreign Trade and Science Policy, came to CERN on 8 April 2005, where he visited the CMS assembly hall and underground cavern, as well as the hall where the LHC superconducting magnets are being tested.

  4. Work related neck and upper limb symptoms (RSI) : high risk occupations and risk factors in the Belgian working population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blatter, B.M.; Bongers, P.M.; Witte, H. de

    1999-01-01

    In this study on prevalence and risk factors for work related neck or upper limb symptoms in the Belgian working population, the researchers have found an overall prevalence of work and upper limb symptoms occurring in the past 12 months of 39%. High risk occupations for neck and shoulder symptoms w

  5. A federal audit of the Belgian radiotherapy departments in breast cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The Belgian Federal College of Radiotherapy carried out an external audit of breast cancer patient documentation in the 26 Belgian radiotherapy centres. The objective was to assess compliance with the recommendations regarding minimal requirements for documentation of radiotherapy prescription and administration. All centres volunteered to take part in this audit. Methods: Two experienced radiation oncologists site-visited the departments over a 6 month period (Sept. 2003-Feb. 2004), with a list of items to be verified, including details on the surgery, the pathological report, details on systemic treatments, details on the radiotherapy prescription (and consistency with therapeutic guidelines) and delay surgery/radiotherapy. Findings: Three hundred and eighty-nine patients files were reviewed, for a total of 399 breast cancers (10 patients with bilateral cancer). Mean age was 57.8 y (range 29-96). Breast conservative surgery (BCS) was used in 71%; radical mastectomy in 29%. A complete pathological report was present in all files but 2 (99.5% conformity). 5.2% were treated for DCIS, 61.6% for pT1, 28.2% for pT2 and 5% for pT3-4. Data regarding resection margins were specified to be free in 76.2%, tangential in 12% (within 2 mm) and positive for DCIS in 3.8% or invasive cancer in 1.5% (no information, on margins in 6.5%). The pT stage was always specified, and consistent with the macroscopic and microscopic findings. Hormonal receptors were routinely assessed (94.7%), as well as Her2neu (87.4%). Axillary surgery was carried out in 92%, either by sentinel node biopsy or by complete clearance, in which case the median number of nodes analysed was 12 for all centres together (7-17). All radiotherapy prescriptions were in line with evidence-based standards of therapy (i.e., irradiation of breast after BCS or after mamectomy (in case of pN+), but one. The mean delay between surgery and radiotherapy was 5.5 weeks (SD 11days). Conclusion: There was a high

  6. RISCOM Applied to the Belgian Partnership Model: More and Deeper Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bombaerts, Gunter; Bovy, Michel; Laes, Erik [SCKCEN, Mol (Belgium). PISA

    2006-09-15

    Technology participation is not a new concept. It has been applied in different settings in different countries. In this article, we report a comparing analysis of the RISCOM model in Sweden and the Belgian partnership model for low and intermediate short-lived nuclear waste. After a brief description of the partnerships and the RISCOM model, we apply the latter to the first and come to recommendations for the partnership model. The strength of the partnership approach is at the community level. In one of the villages, up to one percent of the population was motivated to discuss at least once a month for four years the nuts and bolts of the repository concept. The stress on the community level and the lack of a guardian includes a weakness as well. First of all, if communities come into competition, the inter-community discussions can start resembling local politics and can become less transparent. Local actors are concerned actors but actors at the national level are concerned as well. The local decisions influence how the waste will be transported. The local decisions also determine an extra cost of electricity. We therefore recommend a broad (in terms of territory) public debate on the participation experiments preceding and concluding the local participation process in which this local process maintains an important position. The conclusions of our comparative analysis are: (1) The guardian of the process at the national level is missing. Since the Belgian nuclear regulator plays a controlling role after the process, we recommend a technology assessment institute at the federal level. (2) We state that stretching in the partnership model can happen more profoundly and recommend a 'counter institute' at the European level. The role of non-participative actors should be valued. (3) Recursion levels can be taken as a point of departure for discussion about the problem framing. If people accept them, there is no problem. If people clearly mention issues

  7. RISCOM Applied to the Belgian Partnership Model: More and Deeper Levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technology participation is not a new concept. It has been applied in different settings in different countries. In this article, we report a comparing analysis of the RISCOM model in Sweden and the Belgian partnership model for low and intermediate short-lived nuclear waste. After a brief description of the partnerships and the RISCOM model, we apply the latter to the first and come to recommendations for the partnership model. The strength of the partnership approach is at the community level. In one of the villages, up to one percent of the population was motivated to discuss at least once a month for four years the nuts and bolts of the repository concept. The stress on the community level and the lack of a guardian includes a weakness as well. First of all, if communities come into competition, the inter-community discussions can start resembling local politics and can become less transparent. Local actors are concerned actors but actors at the national level are concerned as well. The local decisions influence how the waste will be transported. The local decisions also determine an extra cost of electricity. We therefore recommend a broad (in terms of territory) public debate on the participation experiments preceding and concluding the local participation process in which this local process maintains an important position. The conclusions of our comparative analysis are: (1) The guardian of the process at the national level is missing. Since the Belgian nuclear regulator plays a controlling role after the process, we recommend a technology assessment institute at the federal level. (2) We state that stretching in the partnership model can happen more profoundly and recommend a 'counter institute' at the European level. The role of non-participative actors should be valued. (3) Recursion levels can be taken as a point of departure for discussion about the problem framing. If people accept them, there is no problem. If people clearly mention issues that are

  8. Genetic parameters and estimated breeding values of insect bite hypersensitivity in Belgian Warmblood horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Liesbet M; Janssens, Steven; Brebels, Machteld; Buys, Nadine

    2015-12-01

    Genetic factors involved in susceptibility to insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) in Belgian Warmblood horses (BWP) were investigated. Data relating to 3409 horses were collected using a questionnaire, administered to owners during sport competitions, BWP breeding days, breeder visits and after phone calls. Horses were classified as IBH-affected or unaffected, based on two 'disease classifiers': a lifetime record, based on owner information (life_status) and another based on whether or not the horse was showing clinical signs at the time of questioning (clin_status). IBH prevalence was 10% based on life_status, and 6.2% based on clin_status. The heritabilities estimated using threshold animal models varied from 0.65 to 0.78 on the underlying scale (0.18-0.26 on the observed scale). These research findings indicate that susceptibility to IBH is a heritable trait in BWP. PMID:26586216

  9. Chemical analyses of dredged spoil disposal sites at the Belgian part of the North Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Witte, Bavo; Ruttens, Ann; Ampe, Bart; Waegeneers, Nadia; Gauquie, Johanna; Devriese, Lisa; Cooreman, Kris; Parmentier, Koen

    2016-08-01

    The chemical status of five dredged spoil disposal sites in the Belgian Part of the North Sea is evaluated. A linear mixed-effect model was applied to PCB, PAH and heavy metal data from 2005 to 2014. No decrease in PCB concentrations was found, with even an increase at two disposal sites. Hg/AL ratios increased with 62% at one disposal site (BR&WS2) from 2005 to 2006 to 2013-2014. Cu and Zn concentrations increased at two disposal sites. Additional harbour sampling suggests that the latter is possibly linked to antifouling paints. Based on OSPAR environmental assessment criteria, the current chemical status of the sites suggests no chronic effect of dredged spoil disposal. However, increasing time trend data for PCB, Hg, Cu and Zn demonstrate the importance of monitoring to identify adverse trends. PMID:27176939

  10. COMPARISON OF TWO METHODS OF OPERATING THEATRE PLANNING: APPLICATION IN BELGIAN HOSPITAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sondes CHAABANE; Nadine MESKENS; Alain GUINET; Marius LAURENT

    2008-01-01

    Operating Theatre is the centre of the hospital management's efforts. It constitutes the most expensive sector with more than 10% of the intended operating budget of the hospital. To reduce the costs while maintaining a good quality of care, one of the solutions is to improve the existent planning and scheduling methods by improving the services and surgical specialty coordination or finding the best estimation of surgical case durations. The other solution is to construct an effective surgical case plan and schedule. The operating theatre planning and scheduling is the two important steps, which aim to make a surgical case programming with an objective of obtaining a realizable and efficient surgical case schedule. This paper focuses on the first step, the operating theatre planning problem. Two planning methods are introduced and compared. Real data of a Belgian university hospital "Tivoli" are used for the experiments.

  11. Engineering for Operation of a Future Belgian Deep Geological Repository for ILW and HLW - 12379

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Belgium, an advanced conceptual design is being elaborated for deep geologic disposal of high level waste (HLW) and for low and intermediate level waste (LILW) not amenable for surface disposal. The concept is based on a shielded steel and concrete container for disposal of HLW, i.e., the Super-container. LILW will be disposed of in separately designed concrete caissons. The reference host rock is the Boom Clay, a poorly indurated clay formation in northeastern Belgium. Investigations into the potential host rock are conducted at the HADES underground research laboratory in Mol, Belgium. In 2009 the Belgian Agency for Management of Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials (ONDRAF/NIRAS) initiated a four year research project aimed at confirming the fundamental feasibility of building and operating a repository. The goal of the program is to demonstrate at a detailed conceptual level that the proposed geologic disposal system can be safely constructed, operated, and progressively closed. Part of the broader research efforts being conducted includes evaluations optimization of the waste transportation shaft, subsurface transportation system, ventilation system, and evaluation of backfilling and sealing concepts for the repository design. The potential for implementation of a waste retrieval strategy encompassing the first 100 years after emplacement is also considered. In the framework of a four year research program aimed at confirming the fundamental feasibility of building and operating a repository in poorly indurated clay design studies have been underway to optimize the waste transportation shaft, subsurface transportation system, and ventilation system. Additionally backfilling and sealing concepts proposed for the potential repository have been reviewed in conjunction with impacts related to the potential future inclusion of a retrievability requirement in governing regulations. The main engineering challenges in the Belgian repository concept are

  12. Brief report: Citizenship concepts among adolescents. Evidence from a survey among Belgian 16-year olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejaeghere, Yves; Hooghe, Marc

    2009-06-01

    In this research note we investigate the occurrence of citizenship concepts among adolescents in Belgium. The analysis is based on the Belgian Youth Survey (2006), which is a representative survey among 6330 16-year olds in the country. Citizenship concepts were shown to be multi-dimensional, with distinct factors for conventional or electoral participation and civic engagement. A third, weaker factor could be distinguished covering obedience to the law. This structure is largely in line with earlier comparative analysis. An exploratory analysis suggests that these factors have different outcomes on actual or intended political participation behavior of adolescents. We discuss the relevance of these findings with regard to the current debates on civic education and civic engagement among younger age cohorts. PMID:19264354

  13. Qualification of non-destructive examination for belgian nuclear reactor pressure vessel inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couplet, D. [TRACTEBEL, Brussels (Belgium); Francoise, T. [Intercontrole, 94 - Rungis (France)

    2001-07-01

    In Service Inspection (ISI) participates to the assessment of Nuclear Reactor Pressure Vessel Integrity. The performance of Non Destructive Examination (NDE) techniques must be demonstrated according to predefined objectives. The qualification process is essential to trust the reliability of the information provided by NDE. In Belgian Nuclear Power Plants, the qualification was conducted through a collaboration between the vendor and a technical group from the Electricity Utility. The important facts of this qualification will be presented: - the detailed definition of the inspection and qualifications objectives, based on a combination of the ASME code and the European Methodology for Qualification; - the systematic verification of the NDE performance and limitations, for each ISI objective, through an adequate combination of tests on blocks and technical justification; - the continuous improvement of the NDE procedure; - the feedback and the lessons learnt from site experience; - the necessary multi-disciplinary approach (NDE, degradation mechanisms, structural integrity)

  14. Congomania in Academia. Recent Historical Research on the Belgian Colonial Past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E. Kiangu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Congo has recently been the subject of much academic research. This article discusses the major trends and developments. It primarily focuses on the Congo crisis of 1960, which was commemorated in 2010 and has been inquired into by many historians, including American, British and Russian ones. A comparison of their conclusions reveals that Flanders has largely come to terms with its colonial past, but that the French-speaking community has a more problematic memory. Belgian academia, by contrast, has left the old controversies about Leopold II and Lumumba behind and embarked on the path of new imperial history. It approaches the Congolese past from new angles and with new paradigms, such as reciprocity, science, exhibition, representation, etc. Congolese academia suffers from the economic problems of the country, but has managed to produce a number of studies, focusing mainly on regions, religion, and resistance. Strikingly, Congolese historians have little criticism of the colonial era.

  15. 1997 Scientific Report[1997 Scientific Report of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govaerts, P.

    1998-07-01

    The 1997 Scientific Report of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN describes progress achieved in nuclear safety, radioactive waste management, radiation protection and safeguards. In the field of nuclear research, the main projects concern the behaviour of high-burnup and MOX fuel, the embrittlement of reactor pressure vessels, the irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking of reactor internals, and irradiation effects on materials of fusion reactors. In the field of radioactive waste management, progress in the following domains is reported: the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent fuel in a clay formation, the decommissioning of nuclear installations, the study of alternative waste-processing techniques. For radiation protection and safeguards, the main activities reported on are in the field of site and environmental restoration, emergency planning and response and scientific support to national and international programmes.

  16. Radiological optimization[1997 Scientific Report of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeevaert, T.

    1998-07-01

    Radiological optimization is one of the basic principles in each radiation-protection system and it is a basic requirement in the safety standards for radiation protection in the European Communities. The objectives of the research, performed in this field at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN, are: (1) to implement the ALARA principles in activities with radiological consequences; (2) to develop methodologies for optimization techniques in decision-aiding; (3) to optimize radiological assessment models by validation and intercomparison; (4) to improve methods to assess in real time the radiological hazards in the environment in case of an accident; (5) to develop methods and programmes to assist decision-makers during a nuclear emergency; (6) to support the policy of radioactive waste management authorities in the field of radiation protection; (7) to investigate existing software programmes in the domain of multi criteria analysis. The main achievements for 1997 are given.

  17. Sustainability of Global and Local Food Value Chains: An Empirical Comparison of Peruvian and Belgian Asparagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Schwarz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability of food value chains is an increasing concern for consumers, food companies and policy-makers. Global food chains are often perceived to be less sustainable than local food chains. Yet, thorough food chain analyses and comparisons of different food chains across sustainability dimensions are rare. In this article we analyze the local Belgian and global Peruvian asparagus value chains and explore their sustainability performance. A range of indicators linked to environmental, economic and social impacts is calculated to analyze the contribution of the supply chains to economic development, resource use, labor relations, distribution of added value and governance issues. Our findings suggest that none of the two supply chains performs invariably better and that there are trade-offs among and between sustainability dimensions. Whereas the global chain uses water and other inputs more intensively and generates more employment per unit of land and higher yields, the local chain generates more revenue per unit of land.

  18. Health effects[1997 Scientific Report of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahieu, L.

    1998-07-01

    The objectives of the research in the field of epidemiology , performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are (1) to study cancer mortality and morbidity in nuclear workers in Belgium; (2) to document the feasibility of retrospective cohort studies in Belgium; (3) to participate in the IARC study. For radiobiology, the main objectives are: (1) to elucidate the mechanisms of the effects of ionizing radiation on the mammalian embryo during the early phase of its development, (2) to assess the genetic risks of maternal exposure to ionizing radiation, (3) to elucidate the mechanisms by which damage to the brain and mental retardation are caused in man after prenatal irradiation. The main achievements in these domains for 1997 are presented.

  19. Behaviour of the steam generators in the Belgian nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a brief review of the degradations occurring on tubes of Inconel 600 in steam generators of PWR power stations emphasis is put on the conditioning of the secondary water and more particularly on the condensate treatment in the units of Doel which work on heavily polluted brackish water. The important role of non-destructive testing and eddy-current testing is also pointed out, method developed by Laborelec. The operational experience shows that Belgian stations are nearly not concerned by the degradations mostly found in power stations in other countries which shows the efficiency of the conditioning of the secondary water. On the other hand, other problems have occurred, resulting from: damage caused by foreign objects; fouling of tube before commissioning, cracking of bends and at the limit of the dudgeoning and leaking plugs. (AF)

  20. The Belgian coal tips: geomorphic and pedogenetic research with community service and educational aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyssen, Jan; Vermeersch, Dominiek; Diependaele, Stijn; van Ranst, Eric; Derycke, Anja; Corexenos, Pavlos; Palmers, Jo; Poesen, Jean

    2010-05-01

    Coal tips are composed of various materials, essentially sterile rock but also waste such as mine wood, scrap metal as well as scoria from surface facilities. Rocks composing Belgian coal tips belong to the Westfalian and Namurian (approx. 320 Ma) and include psammites, schists and coal residues. Currently, these coal tips are increasingly regarded as socio-cultural heritage. Worldwide, several studies have focused on the factors controlling the magnitude of geomorphic processes, such as nature of slope material, vegetation type and cover, the role of self-ignition and combustion, time and slope gradient. In the international literature, research gaps concern particular processes, such as causes and consequences of the widespread tree toppling and root throw, rock fragment movement at the surface, or gully control by check dams. Especially spatially distributed erosion rates by the various processes active on coal tips, neither sediment budgets seem ever to have been established. The same holds for regional (subcontinental) variability in slope processes on coal tips. The many Belgian coal tips that have not been levelled provide a unique opportunity for geomorphological and pedogenetical studies, which have so far demonstrated the existence of: - correlations between the intensity of observed geomorphic processes and a broad range of bio-physical explanatory factors; - strong and reciprocal influences between the vegetation of coal tips and the morphology of the colonised slopes; - absence of strong relations between gully activity and slope angle, resulting from the narrow range of slope gradients on coal tips; - possibilities to locate landslide risk zones through combined use of Digital Elevation Models and thermographic imagery; - presence of neoformed minerals on burning/burned coal tips, which impact the soil forming processes as well as soil quality.

  1. Average daily nitrate and nitrite intake in the Belgian population older than 15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temme, E H M; Vandevijvere, S; Vinkx, C; Huybrechts, I; Goeyens, L; Van Oyen, H

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the dietary intake of nitrate and nitrite in Belgium. The nitrate content of processed vegetables, cheeses and meat products was analysed. These data were completed by data from non-targeted official control and from the literature. In addition, the nitrite content of meat products was measured. Concentration data for nitrate and nitrite were linked to food consumption data of the Belgian Food Consumption Survey. This study included 3245 respondents, aged 15 years and older. Food intakes were estimated by a repeated 24-h recall using EPIC-SOFT. Only respondents with two completed 24-h recalls (n=3083) were included in the analysis. For the intake assessment, average concentration data and individual consumption data were combined. Usual intake of nitrate/nitrite was calculated using the Nusser method. The mean usual daily intake of nitrate was 1.38 mg kg(-1) bodyweight (bw) day(-1) and the usual daily intake at the 97.5 percentile was 2.76 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1). Exposure of the Belgian population to nitrate at a mean intake corresponded to 38% of the ADI (while 76% at the 97.5 percentile). For the average consumer, half of the intake was derived from vegetables (especially lettuce) and 20% from water and water-based drinks. The average daily intake of nitrate and nitrite from cheese and meat products was low (0.2% and 6% of the ADI at average intake, respectively). Scenario analyses with a higher consumption of vegetables or a higher nitrate concentration in tap water showed a significant higher intake of nitrate. Whether this is beneficial or harmful must be further assessed. PMID:21728895

  2. Risk assessment for furan contamination through the food chain in Belgian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Georges; Huybrechts, Inge; Humblet, Marie-France; Scippo, Marie-Louise; De Pauw, Edwin; Eppe, Gauthier; Saegerman, Claude

    2012-08-01

    Young, old, pregnant and immuno-compromised persons are of great concern for risk assessors as they represent the sub-populations most at risk. The present paper focuses on risk assessment linked to furan exposure in children. Only the Belgian population was considered because individual contamination and consumption data that are required for accurate risk assessment were available for Belgian children only. Two risk assessment approaches, the so-called deterministic and probabilistic, were applied and the results were compared for the estimation of daily intake. A significant difference between the average Estimated Daily Intake (EDI) was underlined between the deterministic (419 ng kg⁻¹ body weight (bw) day⁻¹) and the probabilistic (583 ng kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹) approaches, which results from the mathematical treatment of the null consumption and contamination data. The risk was characterised by two ways: (1) the classical approach by comparison of the EDI to a reference dose (RfD(chronic-oral)) and (2) the most recent approach, namely the Margin of Exposure (MoE) approach. Both reached similar conclusions: the risk level is not of a major concern, but is neither negligible. In the first approach, only 2.7 or 6.6% (respectively in the deterministic and in the probabilistic way) of the studied population presented an EDI above the RfD(chronic-oral). In the second approach, the percentage of children displaying a MoE above 10,000 and below 100 is 3-0% and 20-0.01% in the deterministic and probabilistic modes, respectively. In addition, children were compared to adults and significant differences between the contamination patterns were highlighted. While major contamination was linked to coffee consumption in adults (55%), no item predominantly contributed to the contamination in children. The most important were soups (19%), dairy products (17%), pasta and rice (11%), fruit and potatoes (9% each). PMID:22632631

  3. Salmonella surveillance and control at post-harvest in the Belgian pork meat chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhalle, L; Saegerman, C; Farnir, F; Korsak, N; Maes, D; Messens, W; De Sadeleer, L; De Zutter, L; Daube, G

    2009-05-01

    Salmonella remains the primary cause of reported bacterial food borne disease outbreaks in Belgium. Pork and pork products are recognized as one of the major sources of human salmonellosis. In contrast with the primary production and slaughterhouse phases of the pork meat production chain, only a few studies have focussed on the post-harvest stages. The goal of this study was to evaluate Salmonella and Escherichia coli contamination at the Belgian post-harvest stages. E. coli counts were estimated in order to evaluate the levels of faecal contamination. The results of bacteriological analysis from seven cutting plants, four meat-mincing plants and the four largest Belgian retailers were collected from official and self-monitoring controls. The prevalence of Salmonella in the cutting plants and meat-mincing plants ranged from 0% to 50%. The most frequently isolated serotype was Salmonella typhimurium. The prevalence in minced meat at retail level ranged from 0.3% to 4.3%. The levels of Salmonella contamination estimated from semi-quantitative analysis of data relating to carcasses, cuts of meat and minced meat were equal to -3.40+/-2.04 log CFU/cm(2), -2.64+/-1.76 log CFU/g and -2.35+/-1.09 log CFU/g, respectively. The E. coli results in meat cuts and minced meat ranged from 0.21+/-0.50 to 1.23+/-0.89 log CFU/g and from 1.33+/-0.58 to 2.78+/-0.43 log CFU/g, respectively. The results showed that faecal contamination still needs to be reduced, especially in specific individual plants. PMID:19269567

  4. Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo

    Most of us recognize that organizations are everywhere. You meet them on every street corner in the form of families and shops, study in them, work for them, buy from them, pay taxes to them. But have you given much thought to where they came from, what they are today, and what they might become in...... considers many more. Mary Jo Hatch introduces the concept of organizations by presenting definitions and ideas drawn from the a variety of subject areas including the physical sciences, economics, sociology, psychology, anthropology, literature, and the visual and performing arts. Drawing on examples from...... prehistory and everyday life, from the animal kingdom as well as from business, government, and other formal organizations, Hatch provides a lively and thought provoking introduction to the process of organization....

  5. Community structure of the macrobenthos of an important Belgian wintering area for the Common Scoter (Melanitta nigra)

    OpenAIRE

    Degraer, S.; Vincx, M.; P. Meire; Offringa, H

    1998-01-01

    The shallow western Belgian Coastbanks are important wintering areas for the Common Scoters, reflecting the ecological importance of this environment. The diet of these seaducks consists of macrobenthos, mainly bivalves. The availability of these bivalves along the Belgian west-coast has been poorly documented and it is not clear to what extent the spatial distribution of the Scoters and the bivalves are linked. In October 1994, 40 macrobenthic samples were taken in the area. Multivariate tec...

  6. Working Paper 12-03 - An assessment of the risks to the medium-term outlook of the Belgian international economic environment

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Meyermans; Patrick Van Brusselen

    2003-01-01

    Each year, the Federal Planning Bureau (fpb) prepares a medium-term outlook for the Belgian economy with its macro-econometric hermes model. One of the key inputs of this exercise is a baseline scenario for the Belgian international economic environment, which includes an outlook for the output, imports, prices and financial variables of the major trading partners of Belgium. Traditionally, this international environment is based on the medium-term outlook presented by the European Commission...

  7. Numerical modelling and hydrochemical characterisation of a fresh-water lens in the Belgian coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbohede, A.; Lebbe, L.

    2002-05-01

    The distribution of fresh and salt water in coastal aquifers is influenced by many processes. The influence of aquifer heterogeneity and human interference such as land reclamation is illustrated in the Belgian coastal plain where, around A.D. 1200, the reclamation of a tidally influenced environment was completed. The aquifer, which was filled with salt water, was thereafter freshened. The areal distribution of peat, clay, silt and sand influences the general flow and distribution of fresh and salt water along with the drainage pattern and results in the development of fresh-water lenses. The water quality in and around the fresh-water lenses below an inverted tidal channel ridge is surveyed. The hydrochemical evolution of the fresh water lens is reconstructed, pointing to cation exchange, solution of calcite and the oxidation of organic material as the major chemical reactions. The formation and evolution of the fresh water lens is modelled using a two-dimensional density-dependent solute transport model and the sensitivity of drainage and conductivities are studied. Drainage level mainly influences the depth of the fresh-water lens, whereas the time of formation is mainly influenced by conductivity. Résumé. La répartition de l'eau douce et de l'eau salée dans les aquifères littoraux est influencée par de nombreux mécanismes. L'influence de l'hétérogénéité de l'aquifère et des interférences anthropiques telles que la mise en valeur des terres est illustrée par la plaine côtière belge où, depuis l'an 1200, on a mis en valeur un environnement soumis aux marées. L'aquifère, qui contenait de l'eau salée, contient maintenant de l'eau douce. La distribution spatiale de tourbe, d'argile, de silt et de sable joue un rôle dans l'écoulement général et dans la répartition de l'eau douce et de l'eau salée le long du réseau de drainage et produit des lentilles d'eau douce. La qualité de l'eau dans et autour des lentilles d'eau douce sous une lev

  8. Accidental release of iodine 131 by the IRE of the Fleurus site: return on experience by the Belgian safety authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a presentation of the activities of the IRE, the Belgian National Institute of Radio-elements, i.e. the production of radionuclides used in nuclear medicine, this report describes the process and chemical reaction which caused an accidental release of iodine 131. It analyzes the causes of this incident, and how the incident has been managed by the Belgian safety authority. It discusses the first assessment of radiological consequences, describes how the incident has been managed at the federal level, and how population and media have been informed. It discusses the actual radiological consequences through measurements performed on grass and vegetables (graphs and maps indicate contamination levels and contaminated areas), and through the assessment of exposure of adults and children by different ways. Lessons learned are then discussed

  9. Effects of Strategic Human Resource Alignment Mechanisms on Firm Productivity in Belgian Medium-sized and Large Enterprises.

    OpenAIRE

    De Feyter, Tim; Guerry, Marie-Anne

    2010-01-01

    This article studies the relationships of different strategic human resource alignment mechanisms and firms productivity, by using data on 610 Belgian medium-sized and large enterprises. The results show that efforts to achieve a fit between strategic objectives and human resource practices are associated with higher productivity, regardless the alignment mode. Furthermore, it is found that organizational capacities to adapt to changing circumstances and employee remuneration are important co...

  10. Case report : A suspicion of cortico-cerebral necrosis in a Belgian Blue herd after ingestion of moulded silage

    OpenAIRE

    Guyot, Hugues; Sandersen, Charlotte; Aliaoui, Hamani; Brihoum, Mounir; Vandeputte, Sébastien; Rollin, Frédéric

    2004-01-01

    After ingestion of moulded beet pulp silage, cases of cortico-cerebral necrosis (CCN) and mortalities have been observed in a Belgian Blue (BB) herd. Contamination with Paecilomyces spp., a mould that produces byssochlamic acid, malformins and patulin, has been proven. Among these toxins, patulin is known to have cancerogenic, immunosuppressive and tremorgenic effects, but also acts on the respiratory and digestive systems. Twenty-five days after progressive introduction of bee...

  11. Hydroclimatic modulation of diatom/Phaeocystis blooms in nutrient-enriched Belgian coastal waters (North Sea)

    OpenAIRE

    Breton, E.; Rousseau, V.; Parent, J.-Y.; Ozer, J.; C. Lancelot

    2006-01-01

    Statistical analysis of 14 yr (1988-2001) of intensive phytoplankton monitoring at Station 330 in the central Belgian Coastal Zone (BCZ, Southern Bight of the North Sea) indicates that the long-term diatom biomass trend and the spring dominance of Phaeocystis colonies over diatoms are determined by the combined effect of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and freshwater and continental nitrate carried by the Scheldt. The strong correlation between diatoms and the NAO index is largely explai...

  12. School assessment policy and practice in Belgian secondary education with specific reference to vocational education and training

    OpenAIRE

    Verhoeven, Jef; Devos, Geert

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the relationship between assessment practices and assessment policy and between general policy and assessment policy as teachers experience it in Belgian secondary schools in Flanders. Since the attainment targets of general, technical, and vocational education are different, this research explored whether teachers in the three forms of secondary education define these relationships differently. Our results enable us to argue that teachers in vocational education appear ...

  13. A stop-gain in the laminin, alpha 3 gene causes recessive junctional epidermolysis bullosa in Belgian Blue cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Sartelet, Arnaud; Harland, Chad; Tamma, Nico; Karim, Latifa; Bayrou, Calixte; Li, Wanbo; Ahariz, Naïma; Coppieters, Wouter; Georges, Michel; Charlier, Carole

    2015-01-01

    Four newborn purebred Belgian Blue calves presenting a severe form of epidermolysis bullosa were recently referred to our heredo-surveillance platform. SNP array genotyping followed by autozygosity mapping located the causative gene in a 8.3-Mb interval on bovine chromosome 24. Combining information from (i) whole-genome sequencing of an affected calf, (ii) transcriptomic data from a panel of tissues and (iii) a list of functionally ranked positional candidates pinpointed a private G to A nuc...

  14. Serosurvey for viruses associated with reproductive failure in newly introduced gilts and in multiparous sows in Belgian sow herds

    OpenAIRE

    Lefebvre, David; Van Reeth, Kristien; Vangroenweghe, Fr; Maes, Dominiek; Van Driessche, E; Laitat, M.; Nauwynck, Hans

    2009-01-01

    A serosurvey for viruses associated with reproductive disorders was conducted in 25 conventional Belgian farms. Serum antibody titers for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine parvovirus (PPV), porcine enteroviruses (PEV) and swine influenza viruses (SIV) were determined in gilts and sows. All the animals were seropositive for PCV2 and >95% were seropositive for all 4 embryopathogenic PEV serotypes. Consequently, special prevent...

  15. A generalised dynamic factor model for the Belgian economy - Useful business cycle indicators and GDP growth forecasts

    OpenAIRE

    Christophe Van Nieuwenhuyze

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims to extract the common variation in a data set of 509 conjunctural series as an indication of the Belgian business cycle. The data set contains information on business and consumer surveys of Belgium and its neighbouring countries, macroeconomic variables and some worldwide watched indicators such as the ISM and the OECD confidence indicators. The statistical framework used is the One-sided Generalised Dynamic Factor Model developed by Forni, Hallin, Lippi and Reichlin (2005). ...

  16. Structural and functional biological assessment of aggregate dredging intensity on the Belgian part of the North Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Backer, A De; Hillewaert, H.; Van Hoey, G; Wittoeck, J.; Hostens, K.

    2014-01-01

    Marine aggregate dredging in the Belgian part of the North Sea (BPNS) is restricted to four dedicated concession zones. Within these zones, there are areas under different dredging pressure, but with the advantage that these are situated within a similar habitat (cfr. similar sediment characteristics) . As such, this study assessed how different degrees of dredging pressure executed on a similar sandy habitat affect the benthic ecosystem. Possible responses of the macrobenthos on the dredging...

  17. Confirmed Zika virus infection in a Belgian traveler returning from Guatemala, and the diagnostic challenges of imported cases into Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smet, Birgit; Van den Bossche, Dorien; van de Werve, Charlotte; Mairesse, Jacques; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Michiels, Jo; Ariën, Kevin K; Van Esbroeck, Marjan; Cnops, Lieselotte

    2016-07-01

    We report the first laboratory-confirmed Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in a Belgian traveler after a three week holiday in Guatemala, December 2015. This case along with other imported cases into Europe emphases once again the need for accurate diagnostic tools for this rapidly emerging virus. The challenge is to diagnose patients in the acute phase, which appears short, as serological testing is complicated by cross-reactivity, vaccination status and scarce availability of specific ZIKV tests. PMID:27128355

  18. Ecological status evaluation of the quality element macro-invertebrates for the Belgian coast (2007-2009)

    OpenAIRE

    Van Hoey, G.; Derweduwen, J; Hillewaert, H.; Hostens, K.; Pecceu, E.; Wittoeck, J.

    2010-01-01

    The Water Framework Directive (WFD; 2000/60/EG) aims to achieve a good ecological and chemical quality status of the European waters (Rivers, Lakes, coastal- and transitional waters). The quality status is determined based on the evaluation of different quality elements, e.g. macro-invertebrates. Macro-invertebrates are good indicators for detecting anthropogenic impacts and ecological degradation. The Belgian Coastal water body (< 1 nautical mile) is a small area, but this environment is hig...

  19. «One Difference Is Enough»: Towards a History of Disability in Belgian Congo (1908-1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyne Verhaegen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to investigate the educational initiatives provided for Congolese people with disabilities during the Belgian colonization, 1908-1960. We found out disability strongly influenced the foundation of the Belgian colony and that it can be assumed that a significant number of Congolese in the Belgian colony were disabled. Yet no historical research about this subject can be found. The subject seemed to be hardly neglected and overlooked. It is this particular contradiction or silence in historiography that this article wants to elucidate. For this purpose, various and sometimes conflicting sources have been consulted. In addition to basic literature on the Belgian colonization and more specific literature on disability in relation to culture, various archives, such as audiovisual material and oral witnesses of this particular period have been included in this research. Our main finding is that in most of the colonial period little or no educational initiatives were provided for Congolese people with disabilities. This we explain by the very limited differentiation which was made between the Congolese themselves. We argue that the black man as such was considered as a rather alien figure and consequently the additional factor of disability remained hardly unnoticed. In the last years of the colonization an increased amount of educational initiatives emerged, which this article explains by the probable increased differentiation between blacks towards the end of the colonization. How to reference this article Verhaegen, E., Verstraete, P., & Depaepe, M. (2016. «One Difference Is Enough»: Hacia una historia de la discapacidad en el Congo Belga (1908-1960. Espacio, Tiempo y Educación, 3(1, 407-420. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14516/ete.2016.003.001.19

  20. Economic Importance of the Belgian Ports: Report 2005. Flemish maritime ports and Liège port complex

    OpenAIRE

    Lagneaux, Frédéric

    2007-01-01

    This paper is an annual publication issued by the Microeconomic Analysis service of the National Bank of Belgium. The Flemish maritime ports - Antwerp, Ghent, Ostend, Zeebrugge - and the Autonomous Port of Liège play a major role in their respective regional economies and in the Belgian economy, not only in terms of industrial activity but also as intermodal centres facilitating the commodity flow. This update paper provides an extensive overview of the economic importance and development of ...

  1. Economic Importance of the Belgian Ports : Report 2005. Flemish maritime ports and Liège port complex

    OpenAIRE

    Frédéric Lagneaux

    2007-01-01

    This paper is an annual publication issued by the Microeconomic Analysis service of the National Bank of Belgium. The Flemish maritime ports - Antwerp, Ghent, Ostend, Zeebrugge - and the Autonomous Port of Liège play a major role in their respective regional economies and in the Belgian economy, not only in terms of industrial activity but also as intermodal centres facilitating the commodity flow. This update paper provides an extensive overview of the economic importance and development of ...

  2. The HELENA online food frequency questionnaire: reproducibility and comparison with four 24-hour recalls in Belgian-Flemish adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Vereecken, Carine; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Maes, Lea

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objectives To investigate the reproducibility of the HELENA food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), developed as a basis for an online tailored intervention and to compare the FFQ with four computerized 24-hour recalls. Subjects/methods A convenience sample of 48 Belgian-Flemish adolescents completed four computerized 24-hour recalls, the FFQ and a retest one to two weeks later. Correlations, the Wilcoxons Signed Rank test and Bland and Altmans plots were used to...

  3. Radical pluralism and free speech in online public spaces: the case of North Belgian extreme right discourses

    OpenAIRE

    Cammaerts, Bart

    2009-01-01

    Progressive political movements and activists are not the only ones appropriating Web 2.0 as a way to construct independent public spaces and voice counterhegemonic discourses. By looking at the other extreme of (post-)fascist movements, it will be shown that the internet also gives rise to anti-public spaces, voicing hatred and essentialist discourses. In this article, discourses of hate produced by North-Belgian (post-)fascist movements and activists will be analysed. Theoretically the anal...

  4. Did the « Pax Electrica » agreements reduce the Suez’ power relationship on Elia, the Belgian electricity grid manager ?

    OpenAIRE

    Levy, Marc

    2009-01-01

    The company Elia, which manages the grid system of electricity in Belgium, is mainly controlled by the principal producer of electricity, Electrabel, and by political powers. The Belgian state has recently constrained the French group to yield 3% of its stake in Elia as foreseen in the Pax Electrica agreements. This article studies the impact of this transfer by means of the Banzhaf index that measures the intensity of control. The results show that theoretically these agreements change the p...

  5. Looking for the European Voter: Split-Ticket Voting in the Belgian Regional and European Elections of 2009 and 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Kelbel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available While European elections are often seen as remote from EU issues, considerations specifically linked to the EU came to the forefront in the wake of the 2014 European elections: the economic and financial crisis, the new process of designation of the European Commission President, and the alleged increase of Eurosceptic votes. This increased salience of political debates about the EU asks for a reconsideration of the ‘second-order nature’ of European elections. In this context, as in 2009, the Belgian electorate voted for the regional and European levels on the very same day. Belgian voters were thus offered the opportunity to split their ticket between both levels. This allows comparing the occurrence and determinants of these ‘immediate switching’ behaviours in 2014 with those of the presumably less politicized EP elections in 2009. We do that by employing the 2009 and 2014 PartiRep Election Study data. On the one hand, the article shows that split-ticket voting cannot be explained by economic voting, European identity, and attitudes towards integration in 2014. On the other hand, the unique configuration of the Belgian elections enables us to observe that the introduction of Spitzenkandidaten did enhance split-ticket voting for voters who could directly vote for this candidate (in Flanders, while this did not increase split-ticket voting among voters who could only indirectly support the candidate (in Wallonia.

  6. Improved Emergency Preparedness For Management Of The Food chain Via Stakeholder Involvement: Belgian and European Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardeman, Frank; Carle, Benny [SCK.CEN, the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Turcanu, Catrinel [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Av. F. Roosevelt 50, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Vandecasteele, Christian [FANC, Federal Agency for Nuclear Control, Ravensteinstraat 36, 1000 Brussels (Belgium)

    2006-07-01

    Initiatives involving stakeholder engagement have gained increasing importance in sustainable decision making for many risk-related issues. This paper describes a Belgian experience within a European context related to food management options in the event of a radioactive contamination of the food chain. Under the auspices of the European Commission's 5. Framework Programme, the F.A.R.M.I.N.G. (F.A.R.M.I.N.G. 2000) project (co-ordinated by H.P.A.) a stakeholder network was established in a number of European countries, following a successful approach originally adopted in the UK. In a comparable approach, national working groups were thus established in Belgium, Finland, France and Greece in order to organise stakeholder panels and to discuss the outcomes of scientific and technical research related to management options for the food chain. The results of these panels were exchanged between participating Member States and on a wider international basis at the W.I.S.D.O.M.2. workshop in 2003. The F.A.R.M.I.N.G. project had many achievements and there were also several important lessons learned for Belgium (Vandecasteele et al., 2005): Firstly, many stakeholders showed a real interest in tackling problems relating to food chain contamination; Secondly, the Belgian agricultural system is very intensive and technically and economically optimised, making many of the options envisaged difficult to implement; thirdly, the applicability of management options is also limited by political and legal issues (e.g. competencies, environmental legislation), operational constraints (e.g. waste treatment, supplies of materials), societal and ethical aspects (e.g. milk disposal to sea, animal welfare), and economics (e.g. who pays the intervention cost?); fourthly, there is a now a greater awareness of these problems in both the food production sector and among the experts involved in emergency management; Fifthly, increased attention is now given in Belgium to the medium and

  7. Improved Emergency Preparedness For Management Of The Food chain Via Stakeholder Involvement: Belgian and European Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Initiatives involving stakeholder engagement have gained increasing importance in sustainable decision making for many risk-related issues. This paper describes a Belgian experience within a European context related to food management options in the event of a radioactive contamination of the food chain. Under the auspices of the European Commission's 5. Framework Programme, the F.A.R.M.I.N.G. (F.A.R.M.I.N.G. 2000) project (co-ordinated by H.P.A.) a stakeholder network was established in a number of European countries, following a successful approach originally adopted in the UK. In a comparable approach, national working groups were thus established in Belgium, Finland, France and Greece in order to organise stakeholder panels and to discuss the outcomes of scientific and technical research related to management options for the food chain. The results of these panels were exchanged between participating Member States and on a wider international basis at the W.I.S.D.O.M.2. workshop in 2003. The F.A.R.M.I.N.G. project had many achievements and there were also several important lessons learned for Belgium (Vandecasteele et al., 2005): Firstly, many stakeholders showed a real interest in tackling problems relating to food chain contamination; Secondly, the Belgian agricultural system is very intensive and technically and economically optimised, making many of the options envisaged difficult to implement; thirdly, the applicability of management options is also limited by political and legal issues (e.g. competencies, environmental legislation), operational constraints (e.g. waste treatment, supplies of materials), societal and ethical aspects (e.g. milk disposal to sea, animal welfare), and economics (e.g. who pays the intervention cost?); fourthly, there is a now a greater awareness of these problems in both the food production sector and among the experts involved in emergency management; Fifthly, increased attention is now given in Belgium to the medium and long

  8. Modelling water and 36Cl cycling in a Belgian pine forest - Model for 36Cl cycling in a Belgian pine forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simplified, 1-D soil-groundwater-vegetation model to represent the cycling of water and of 36Cl in a Belgian Scots pine forest is presented and discussed. The model contains a soil column with layers of different (but uniform) field capacity and soil porosity, which are penetrated by tree roots. Flow through porous media is assumed to circulate according to Darcy and Philips laws, using empirical soil hydraulic properties without recourse to Richards' equation. The vegetation is represented by means of a compartment model including simplified representation of sap flow, translocation and litterfall in relation to different parts of the tree. The water table height is variable according to the balance between precipitation, capillary rise, solar radiation, plant uptake and evapotranspiration. The influence of local fluvial sources of water can also be evaluated in a simplified way as a losing/gaining stream input to the soil column. Time dependent data on temperature, solar irradiation, rainfall, crop coefficient and leaf area index (LAI) are used as input to the model in order to calculate evapotranspiration and a simplified approach to foliar interception. The chlorine flux follows the water flux in both soil and the trees, using retardation in soil and experimentally measured translocation factors within the plant. The chlorine flux is optimised and validated with recourse to a previous 36Cl compartment model. Although considered to be a relatively simple model, initial results suggest a reasonable consistency between previously published water balance and field measurements in a Scots pine stand from the vicinity of Mol, Belgium. The mean soil water content is predicted to be around 25%, the plant water is stored in the order roots > plant above roots > leaf surfaces, water table height below ground fluctuates between 2.1 and 2.6 m compared with a measured water table height of 1.8 - 20 m and pine transpiration is less than 1.2 mm/d compared with a measured

  9. Modelling water and {sup 36}Cl cycling in a Belgian pine forest - Model for {sup 36}Cl cycling in a Belgian pine forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vives i Batlle, Jordi; Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Gielen, Sienke [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2014-07-01

    A simplified, 1-D soil-groundwater-vegetation model to represent the cycling of water and of {sup 36}Cl in a Belgian Scots pine forest is presented and discussed. The model contains a soil column with layers of different (but uniform) field capacity and soil porosity, which are penetrated by tree roots. Flow through porous media is assumed to circulate according to Darcy and Philips laws, using empirical soil hydraulic properties without recourse to Richards' equation. The vegetation is represented by means of a compartment model including simplified representation of sap flow, translocation and litterfall in relation to different parts of the tree. The water table height is variable according to the balance between precipitation, capillary rise, solar radiation, plant uptake and evapotranspiration. The influence of local fluvial sources of water can also be evaluated in a simplified way as a losing/gaining stream input to the soil column. Time dependent data on temperature, solar irradiation, rainfall, crop coefficient and leaf area index (LAI) are used as input to the model in order to calculate evapotranspiration and a simplified approach to foliar interception. The chlorine flux follows the water flux in both soil and the trees, using retardation in soil and experimentally measured translocation factors within the plant. The chlorine flux is optimised and validated with recourse to a previous {sup 36}Cl compartment model. Although considered to be a relatively simple model, initial results suggest a reasonable consistency between previously published water balance and field measurements in a Scots pine stand from the vicinity of Mol, Belgium. The mean soil water content is predicted to be around 25%, the plant water is stored in the order roots > plant above roots > leaf surfaces, water table height below ground fluctuates between 2.1 and 2.6 m compared with a measured water table height of 1.8 - 20 m and pine transpiration is less than 1.2 mm/d compared

  10. A model reconstruction of riverine nutrient fluxes and eutrophication in the Belgian Coastal Zone since 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passy, P.; Gypens, N.; Billen, G.; Garnier, J.; Thieu, V.; Rousseau, V.; Callens, J.; Parent, J.-Y.; Lancelot, C.

    2013-12-01

    The OSPAR convention signed in 1992 by 15 European states including Belgium and France pledged to reduce the nutrient (nitrogen N and phosphorus P) loads from land-based sources to the Channel and the North Sea to half of what they were in 1985. In this paper, we use a river basin-coastal sea chain model to describe the evolution of nutrient loads to the Belgian Costal Zone originating from the Seine, Somme and Scheldt watersheds from 1984 to 2007 in order to assess the N and P reduction with respect to the OSPAR goals and the resulting effect on coastal eutrophication, especially Phaeocystis blooms. Since the early 1990s, most nutrient reduction actions have been devoted to domestic and industrial wastewater treatment, resulting in a sharp P decrease between 1984 and 2007: from 260 to 90 kgP km- 2 for the Seine River and from 215 to 110 kgP km- 2 for the Scheldt River. In spite of improved N treatment of wastewater, there is no clear decrease of N loads, which mostly originate from leaching intensively cultivated arable lands. N fluxes at the outlet of the Seine and Scheldt rivers were, respectively, 1990 and 2210 kgN km- 2 in 1984 and 1830 and 1390 kgN km- 2 in 2007. However, this relatively low decrease appears to be more influenced by hydrological conditions than by better efficiency of N use in agriculture. We conclude from this analysis that the OSPAR objectives for P have been achieved, whereas for N radical changes in agricultural practices are still required. The P reduction achieved allows, for the period of concern, a 50% decrease of Phaeocystis colony blooms in the Belgian Coastal Zone, both in magnitude and duration. However, the simulated decrease, of maximum abundance, i.e., from 60 · 106 in 1984 to 30 · 106 cells l- 1 in 2007, is still insufficient when compared to the ecological-quality indicator of 4 · 106 cells l- 1. A further decrease of nutrients is still necessary to decrease undesirable blooms more satisfactorily.

  11. Belgian Global Approach on the Radiological Surveillance of Radioactive Orphan Sources and Radioactive Substances in Scrap Metal and Non-Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to enhance the control of radioactive sources, the Belgian Federal Agency for Nuclear Control has created a global approach on the radiological surveillance of radioactive orphan sources and radioactive substances in scrap metal and non-radioactive waste. As one of the European leaders, Belgium has had since late 2011 a strong legal basis to organize the effective monitoring of possible presence of radioactive material in conventional waste. An important aspect includes the financial solution related to the orphan source problem. Again, a legal basis and a workable system have been put in place. The financial solution resulted from the concern that the protection of the population and the environment should not depend on the liability of the finder of an orphan source. The monitoring results of 2012 are illustrated in detail, and the mandatory reporting of alarms are analysed by sector, origin, type of material and seriousness. The figures, statistics and conclusions that can be drawn are discussed extensively. Finally, the challenges and difficulties of this system are discussed. Past and future challenges receive the necessary attention. (author)

  12. Levels of contamination for various pollutants present in Belgian human plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wouwe, N. Van; Goeyens, L. [Scientific Inst. of Public Health, Brussels (Belgium); Covaci, A. [Toxicological Center, Univ. of Antwerp, Wilrijk (Belgium); Kannan, K. [Wadsworth Center, New York State Dept. of Health, Albany, NY (United States); Gordon, J.; Chu, A. [Xenobiotic Detection System Inc., Durham, NC (United States); Eppe, G.; Pauw, E. De [Center of Analysis of residues in Traces (CART), Univ. of Liege (Belgium)

    2004-09-15

    During the last century, numerous compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) or organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), were banned because of their bioaccumulative and toxic properties, while other compounds, such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), appeared on the market and consequently in the environment. The experiences gained from accidents involving PBBs, PCBs or PCDD/Fs are useful to conduct scientific investigations focused on preventing similar catastrophies with the newly introduced compounds. Several studies have reported potential increase in the concentration of PBDEs in food and wildlife. Monitoring the levels of toxic chemicals is therefore useful to understand the exposure pathways, sources and trends. The aim of the paper is to present actual contamination's levels of various pollutants in human plasma from Belgium. Several classes of pollutants, such PCDD/Fs, PCBs and OCPs were determined in 20 human plasmas. In addition, perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and related fluorochemicals, which are of current concern, were measured. Although anticipated, concentrations of PBDEs in the same samples were not yet determined. Through this study, a good approximation of the contamination level in Belgian human is given, allowing thus comparison with concentrations observed in other countries.

  13. [The Belgian project for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases: a model of multifactorial prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornitzer, M

    1989-01-01

    Résults are presented from the "belgian heart disease prevention project, part of the WHO european collaborative trial in the multifactorial prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD)". 19.409 men aged 40-59 yr took part; they were employed in thirty factories which formed the allocation units for a randomised controlled trial lasting 5-6 yr. The intervention package consisted largely of health education promoting a cholesterol-lowering diet, smoking cessation, weight control, physical activity, and treatment of arterial hypertension. A programme of information was supplemented by face-to-face counselling at the workplace by two physicians attached to the project. The coronary risk profile was reduced in the intervention group, compared with that in the control group, especially during the first 4 yr, by effects on serum cholesterol, number of cigarettes smoked daily, and arterial blood-pressure. Total mortality was 17.5% lower in the intervention group than in the control group (p = 0.038); coronary mortality was reduced by a non-significant 20.8% whereas CHD incidence (non-fatal myocardial infarction plus fatal myocardial infarction plus sudden deaths) was reduced by 24.5%, (P = 0.031). Non-fatal myocardial infarction (not a major end-point) was similarly reduced by 26.1% (p = 0.030). PMID:2679938

  14. Media content analysis of the Fukushima accident in two Belgian newspapers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In case of a nuclear accident, the media play a major role in communicating with the public. It is therefore crucial to know what messages are the media delivering in a nuclear emergency and how do they frame the event. Analysing the media reporting on the Fukushima nuclear accident can benefit nuclear emergency management in two major aspects. On the one hand, such analysis shows how to deliver risk messages effectively through the media and on the other hand, it brings insights into the information that has to be communicated by the emergency managers to the mass media. The media analysis of the nuclear accident in Fukushima reported here was done by means of discourse and content analysis. The coding method followed explicit rules of coding and enabled large quantities of data to be categorized. The newspapers included in the analysis were the Belgian newspapers Le Soir (French language) and De Standaard (Dutch language). The media news were obtained from press clippings by Media data base at University Antwerp - MEDIARGUS for the period between 11th of March to 11th of May, 2011.

  15. Risk perception of the Belgian population. Results of the public opinion survey in 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SCK-CEN 2009 risk perception barometer is based on over 1000 Computer Assisted Personal Interviews, taken from persons selected to be representative for the Belgian 18+ population, and all realized in the period July and August 2009. An additional sample , N = 100 is taken from the for the population living in the communities of Lambusart and Wanfercee-Baulet in the municipality of Fleurus. Besides the classical background variables used to obtain the quota for representatively (age, language, habitat, gender and social class), we also included a series of questions assessing the communication and sociological context. The main topics in the survey were I) risk perception and confidence in authorities; II) Attitude towards science and technology and attitudes toward nuclear energy; III) stake holders engagement; IV)acceptance of legal norms for food products; v) media use; vi) evaluation of nuclear actors; VII) psychometric risk characteristics; VII) safety behaviour and anomy; ix) knowledge about nuclear domain; x) risk communication; xi) consumer's attitude towards food with radioactive contamination. Some of the questions asked in 2009 are similar to those enquired in the SCK barometer of 2006 and 2002, in order to study the time evolution of the risk perception associated with various issues.

  16. Balancing selection on CDH2 may be related to the behavioral features of the Belgian Malinois.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Cao

    Full Text Available The Belgian Malinois (BM is an excellent working dog that typically shows a circling behavior when placed in a confined space. Moreover, individuals showing moderate running in circles (one kind of obsessive compulsive behavior in confined spaces typically show better work performance compared to those without the circling behavior or to those with a serious circling behavior (which can be defined as an obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD. To determine whether the candidate gene CDH2, Cadherin 2, which is associated with OCD in the Doberman pinscher breed of dogs and in humans, was linked with this behavioral character in the BM, population genetic analyses were performed on a BM population and a natural population of the Chinese indigenous dog (CID. Many genetic signals of balancing selection were detected for one specific region of the CDH2 gene, which suggests that a genomic block, which is included in the CDH2 gene, experienced balancing selection in the BM, and that the CDH2 gene might be associated with the behavioral characteristics of the BM dog (a balance between circling behavior and work performance. Moreover one specific variant, G63913941A, which creates a predicted transcription factor-binding site, may be the key mutation in the CDH2 gene affecting the behavior of BMs by allowing the binding of a transcription factor and increasing CDH2 expression.

  17. Network inter-connectivity and capacity reservation behaviour: an investigation of the Belgian gas transmission network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lack of cross-border integration explains largely why natural gas markets remain basically national in scope, with levels of concentration similarly high as when the liberalization process commenced. This paper presents the results of an assessment of the upstream/downstream capacity of the Belgian natural gas transmission network which is highly interconnected with adjacent networks and fosters important transit activities. It is shown that the tendency to a better market coupling still suffers from important mismatches of capacity provisions on both sides of cross-border interconnections. Moreover, shippers use gas transmission networks more and more from a commercial portfolio perspective which goes beyond the traditional security of supply purpose of network designs. Capacity booking rates appear to be significantly higher than the underlying physical gas flows. From these findings, the paper contributes to a better understanding of the market barrier created by contractual congestion at cross-border interconnection points. The paper argues that contractual congestion is a symptom of suboptimal cooperation of adjacent network operators and lack of effective mechanisms to bring booked but non-used capacity back to the market, rather than an indicator for an overall need to increase investment budgets. (authors)

  18. Identification of a novel idiopathic epilepsy locus in Belgian Shepherd dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seppälä, Eija H.; Koskinen, Lotta L.E.; Gulløv, Christina Hedal;

    2012-01-01

    Epilepsy is the most common neurological disorder in dogs, with an incidence ranging from 0.5% to up to 20% in particular breeds. Canine epilepsy can be etiologically defined as idiopathic or symptomatic. Epileptic seizures may be classified as focal with or without secondary generalization, or a...... mutation. It would establish the affected breed as a novel therapeutic model, help to develop a DNA test for breeding purposes and introduce a novel candidate gene for human idiopathic epilepsies.......Epilepsy is the most common neurological disorder in dogs, with an incidence ranging from 0.5% to up to 20% in particular breeds. Canine epilepsy can be etiologically defined as idiopathic or symptomatic. Epileptic seizures may be classified as focal with or without secondary generalization, or as...... primary generalized. Nine genes have been identified for symptomatic (storage diseases) and one for idiopathic epilepsy in different breeds. However, the genetic background of common canine epilepsies remains unknown. We have studied the clinical and genetic background of epilepsy in Belgian Shepherds. We...

  19. The Gay Men Sex Studies: prevalence of sexual dysfunctions in Belgian HIV+ gay men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vansintejan J

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Johan Vansintejan, Joris Janssen, Erwin Van De Vijver, Jan Vandevoorde, Dirk Devroey Department of Family Medicine, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB, Brussels, Belgium Abstract: The aim of this Internet-based survey was to investigate the prevalence and associated predictors of sexual dysfunctions in Belgian self-reported HIV-positive men who have sex with other men. Of the 72 participants, 56% had a mild-to-severe erectile dysfunction, and 15% reported a hypoactive sexual desire disorder. The prevalence of premature ejaculation and anodyspareunia was 18% for both. Independent predictors for erectile dysfunction were frequency of masturbation, frequency of sex with partner, use of erectile enhancement drugs, having a passive sex role, and not having a steady relationship. Independent predictors for hypoactive sexual desire disorder were frequency of masturbation and having a lower lifetime number of sexual partners. Independent predictors for premature ejaculation were not having a steady relationship, having a lower lifetime number of sexual partners, and a lower level of education. The only independent predictor for anodyspareunia was having an active sex role. Keywords: homosexuality/male, sexual dysfunction, HIV, epidemiology

  20. Radiation dose to premature new-borns in the belgian neonatal intensive care units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the neonatal intensive care units (NICU), premature new-borns may be exposed to important doses. Because of their increased radiosensitivity and longer life expectancy, dose optimisation is of importance. The present study aimed at evaluating the dose of the most common radiographs in the Belgian NICU. Entrance surface kerma (ESK) and kerma area product (KAP) were collected in 17 NICU (among 19 in Belgium). Median ESK ranged from 13 to 172 μGy and from 8 to 117 μGy for chest and combined chest-abdomen radiographs, respectively; median KAP ranged from 1.4 to 14.2 mGy cm2 and from 3.8 to 28.1 mGy cm2 for chest and combined chest-abdomen radiographs, respectively. Those differences were due to large variations in the examination settings. Diagnostic reference levels (DRL) were set for chest and combined chest-abdomen radiographs. Though the radiograph dose was usually low, the cumulative dose per stay could be high. The wide, intercentre differences indicate that there is scope for dose reduction. The use of DRL should contribute to achieve this object. (authors)

  1. Risk perception of the Belgian population. Results of the public opinion survey in 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perko, T.; Turcanu, C.; Schroeder, J.; Carle, B.

    2010-02-15

    The SCK-CEN 2009 risk perception barometer is based on over 1000 Computer Assisted Personal Interviews, taken from persons selected to be representative for the Belgian 18+ population, and all realized in the period July and August 2009. An additional sample , N = 100 is taken from the for the population living in the communities of Lambusart and Wanfercee-Baulet in the municipality of Fleurus. Besides the classical background variables used to obtain the quota for representatively (age, language, habitat, gender and social class), we also included a series of questions assessing the communication and sociological context. The main topics in the survey were I) risk perception and confidence in authorities; II) Attitude towards science and technology and attitudes toward nuclear energy; III) stake holders engagement; IV)acceptance of legal norms for food products; v) media use; vi) evaluation of nuclear actors; VII) psychometric risk characteristics; VII) safety behaviour and anomy; ix) knowledge about nuclear domain; x) risk communication; xi) consumer's attitude towards food with radioactive contamination. Some of the questions asked in 2009 are similar to those enquired in the SCK barometer of 2006 and 2002, in order to study the time evolution of the risk perception associated with various issues.

  2. Evolution of marine storminess in the Belgian part of the North Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Van den Eynde

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Severe storms have affected European coast lines in the past but knowledge on changes in storminess for the last decades is still sparse. Climate change is assumed to be a main driving factor with the potential to induce changes on the intensity, duration and frequency of powerful marine storms, including a long-term influence on peak wind speeds, surges and waves. It is, therefore, important to investigate whether in the last decades changes in the magnitude of storms, their duration and frequency could be observed. Understanding trends in storminess in the last decades will help to better prepare coastal managers for future events, taking into account potential changes on storm occurrence and magnitude to improve planning of mitigation and adaptation strategies. The purpose of this study was to focus on the evolution of extreme wind conditions, wave height and storm surge levels in the North Sea Region, especially in the Belgian part of the North Sea (BPNS. Based on the analysis performed it is concluded that no clear trend can be observed for the occurrence of significant increasing extreme wind speeds over the BPNS. Furthermore, one can conclude that not enough scientific evidence is available to support scenarios with increased wave height or storminess.

  3. Floating seaweed in the neustonic environment: A case study from Belgian coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandendriessche, Sofie; Vincx, Magda; Degraer, Steven

    2006-02-01

    Floating seaweeds form the most important natural component of all floating material found on the surface of oceans and seas. Notwithstanding the absence of natural rocky shores, ephemeral floating seaweed clumps are frequently encountered along the Belgian coast. From October 2002 to April 2003, seaweed samples and control samples (i.e. surface water samples from a seaweed-free area) were collected every other week. Multivariate analysis on neustonic macrofaunal abundances showed significant differences between seaweed and control samples in the fraction > 1 mm. Differences were less conspicuous in the 0.5-1 mm fraction. Seaweed samples were characterised by the presence of seaweed fauna e.g. Acari, Idotea baltica, Gammarus sp ., while control samples mainly contained Calanoida, Larvacea, Chaetognatha, and planktonic larvae of crustaceans and polychaetes. Seaweed samples (1 mm fraction) harboured considerably higher diversities (× 3), densities (× 18) and biomasses (× 49) compared to the surrounding water column (control samples). The impact of floating seaweeds on the neustonic environment was quantified by the calculation of the added values of seaweed samples considering biomass and density. These calculations resulted in mean added values of 311 ind m - 2 in density and 305 mg ADW m - 2 in biomass. The association degree per species was expressed as the mean percentage of individuals found in seaweed samples in proportion to the total density and biomass of that species (seaweed samples + control samples). Thirteen species showed an association percentage > 95%, and can therefore be considered members of the floating seaweed fauna.

  4. Risk factors and effect of selective removal on retroviral infections prevalence in Belgian stray cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garigliany, M; Jolly, S; Dive, M; Bayrou, C; Berthemin, S; Robin, P; Godenir, R; Petry, J; Dahout, S; Cassart, D; Thiry, E; Desmecht, D; Saegerman, C

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of several risk/protective factors and predictors on the prevalence of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) infections in 302 stray cats captured during a trap-neuter-release programme in a mixed urban-rural area from Belgium, from 2010 to 2012. The impact of selective removal of FIV-positive cats on the apparent prevalence in the remaining population over this three-year period was also assessed. The seroprevalences over three years were 18.8 per cent for FIV and 0.7 per cent for FeLV. For FIV, the seroprevalence decreased significantly from the first year of the programme (2010; 30.5 per cent) to the last (2012; 13.1 per cent). Sex (male) and age (adult and old cats) were risk factors, while the year of sampling (years 2011 and 2012) was a protective factor. Age, sex and location were the most relevant predictors of FIV status. The data presented in this study revealed a very high FIV seroprevalence in Belgian stray cats, while FeLV was almost absent. The selective removal of positive cats had a drastic effect on the FIV seroprevalence in the remaining cat population. PMID:26744011

  5. The Belgian PCB/dioxin incident: analysis of the food chain contamination and health risk evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Alfred; Broeckaert, Fabrice; De Poorter, Geert; De Cock, Ann; Hermans, Cédric; Saegerman, Claude; Houins, Gilbert

    2002-01-01

    The Belgian PCB incident occurred at the end of January 1999 when a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contaminated with dioxins was accidentally added to a stock of recycled fat used in the production of animal feeds. Although signs of poultry poisoning were noticed by February, 1999, the source and the extent of the contamination were discovered only in May 1999, when it appeared that more than 2500 farms could have been supplied with contaminated feeds. This resulted in a major food crisis, which rapidly extended to the whole country and could be resolved only by the implementation of a large PCB/dioxin food monitoring program. Screening for PCB contamination was based on the determination of the seven PCB markers. When PCB concentrations exceeded the tolerance levels of 0.1 (milk), 0.2 (poultry, bovine, and pig meat), or 1 (animal feed) microg/g fat, dioxins (17 PCDD/Fs congeners) were also determined. At the end of December 1999, the database contained the results of more than 55,000 PCB and 500 dioxin analyses. The study of PCB levels and profiles in contaminated feeds delivered to poultry or pig farms confirmed that the Belgian PCB incident was due to a single source of PCB oil introduced into the food chain at the end of January 1999. This PCB oil had a congeners pattern closely matched to a mixture of Aroclor 1260/1254 in the proportion 75/25. The total amount of PCBs added to recycled fats was estimated at 50 kg (sum of the seven markers) or approximately 150 kg total PCBs, which corresponds to about 100 liters of PCB oil. This PCB mixture contained about 1g TEQ dioxins (more than 90- contributed by PCDFs) and about 2g TEQ dioxin-like PCBs. The proportions of PCB 52 and 101 congeners were fairly constant in animal feeds, excluding the possibility of secondary contamination due to fat recycling from contaminated animals. The highest concentrations of PCBs and dioxins were found in poultry and especially in the reproduction animals (hens and chicks

  6. Detection and identification of xerophilic fungi in Belgian chocolate confectionery factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Nikki; Van Coillie, Els; Van Pamel, Els; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Devlieghere, Frank; Vlaemynck, Geertrui

    2015-04-01

    Chocolate confectionery fillings are generally regarded as microbiologically stable. The stability of these fillings is largely due to the general practice of adding either alcohol or preservatives. Consumer demands are now stimulating producers to move away from adding alcohol or other preservatives to their confectionery fillings and instead to search for innovative formulations. Such changes in composition can influence the shelf life of the product and may lead to spoilage by xerophilic fungi. The aim of this study was to test whether the production environment of Belgian chocolate confectionery factories and common ingredients of chocolate confectioneries could be potential sources of contamination with xerophilic fungal species. In the factory environment, the general and strictly xerophilic fungal spore load was determined using an RCS Air Sampler device in combination with DG18 and MY50G medium, respectively. Four basic ingredients of chocolate confectionery fillings were also examined for fungal spore levels using a direct plating technique. Detected fungi were identified to species level by a combination of morphological characterization and sequence analysis. Results indicated a general fungal spore load in the range of 50-250 colony forming units per cubic meter of air (CFU/m(3) air) and a more strict xerophilic spore load below 50 CFU/m(3) air. These results indicate rather low levels of fungal spores present in the factory environment. The most prevalent fungi in the factory environment were identified as Penicillium spp., particularly Penicillium brevicompactum. Examination of the basic ingredients of confectionery fillings revealed nuts to be the most likely potential source of direct contamination. In nuts, the most prevalent fungal species identified were Eurotium, particularly Eurotium repens. PMID:25475302

  7. Losses of glyphosate and AMPA via drainflow in a typical Belgian residential area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ting; Boënne, Wesley; van Griensven, Ann; Seuntjens, Piet; Bronders, Jan; Desmet, Nele

    2014-05-01

    Urban hard surfaces are considered as important facilitators for pesticide transport into urban streams. To obtain concurrent high-resolution data for a detailed investigation on the losses of pesticide runoff from hard surfaces, a monitoring campaign was performed in a typical Belgian residential area (9.5 ha) between 7 May and 7 August, 2013. The campaign yielded a concurrent dataset of rainfall (1-mm rainfall interval), discharge (1-min interval), glyphosate application by the residents and the occurrences of glyphosate and its major degradation product - aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in the separated storm drainage outflow during 12 rainfall events. In addition, detailed information was obtained on the spatial characteristics of the study area. The resulting dataset allows us to investigate the relevance of catchment hydrology, urban surface properties and pesticide application to the transport and losses of glyphosate in a residential environment. During the campaign, glyphosate was only applied by local residents, mainly on their private driveways. As a result of their continuous use, both glyphosate and AMPA were detected in all analysed outflow samples, with maximum concentrations of 6.1 μg/L and 5.8 μg/L, respectively. Overall, the storm drainage system collected 0.43% of the applied amount of glyphosate. However, this loss rate varied considerably among rainfall events, ranging from 0.04% to 23.36%. According to statistical analysis of the 12 rainfall events, the loss rate was significantly correlated with three factors: the application amount prior to a rainfall event (p glyphosate application and the start of the rainfall event (negatively, p glyphosate. Furthermore, three types of glyphosate runoff were classified by a clustering analysis based on these factors: events dominated by runoff availability (runoff-limited), dominated by glyphosate availability (pesticide-limited) and controlled by both runoff and glyphosate availability. To sum up

  8. The Belgian PCB/dioxin incident: a critical review of health risks evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, A; Fierens, S

    2002-01-01

    The Belgian PCB/dioxin incident is a food contamination that occurred in Belgium in January 1999 when a tank of recycled fats used to produce animal feeds was accidentally contaminated by approximately 100 L of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) oil containing 50 kg PCBs expressed as the sum of the seven markers, 1 g (TEQ) dioxins (PCDD/Fs) and 2 g toxic equivalent (TEQ) dioxin-like PCBs. The incident was discovered when a poultry poisoning resembling the classic chick edema disease broke out in several farms that had received contaminated feeds. The delay in making public this incident resulted in a major political and food crisis and caused much concern in the population. We review here the health risk evaluations that were made after this incident and we assess the likelihood of the different scenarios by taking into account recent data on the real scale of the contamination and on the dioxin body burden of the general population in Belgium. These new data confirm that the incident was too limited in time and in scale to have increased the PCB/dioxin body burden of the general population at large, a conclusion supported by a survey of dioxin levels in blood conducted at the end of 1999. Only farmers in poultry farms affected by the incident (about 30 farms) and having regularly consumed their own products could have increased their PCB/dioxin body burden. It is unlikely, however, that these farmers could have increased their PCB/dioxin body burden above levels prevailing in the 1980s or now found in communities regularly consuming seafood. PMID:12396678

  9. Active living neighborhoods: is neighborhood walkability a key element for Belgian adolescents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Meester Femke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In adult research, neighborhood walkability has been acknowledged as an important construct among the built environmental correlates of physical activity. Research into this association has only recently been extended to adolescents and the current empirical evidence is not consistent. This study investigated whether neighborhood walkability and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES are associated with physical activity among Belgian adolescents and whether the association between neighborhood walkability and physical activity is moderated by neighborhood SES and gender. Methods In Ghent (Belgium, 32 neighborhoods were selected based on GIS-based walkability and SES derived from census data. In total, 637 adolescents (aged 13-15 year, 49.6% male participated in the study. Physical activity was assessed using accelerometers and the Flemish Physical Activity Questionnaire. To analyze the associations between neighborhood walkability, neighborhood SES and individual physical activity, multivariate multi-level regression analyses were conducted. Results Only in low-SES neighborhoods, neighborhood walkability was positively associated with accelerometer-based moderate to vigorous physical activity and the average activity level expressed in counts/minute. For active transport to and from school, cycling for transport during leisure time and sport during leisure time no association with neighborhood walkability nor, with neighborhood SES was found. For walking for transport during leisure time a negative association with neighborhood SES was found. Gender did not moderate the associations of neighborhood walkability and SES with adolescent physical activity. Conclusions Neighborhood walkability was related to accelerometer-based physical activity only among adolescent boys and girls living in low-SES neighborhoods. The relation of built environment to adolescent physical activity may depend on the context.

  10. Criterion distances and correlates of active transportation to school in Belgian older adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Bourdeaudhuij Ilse

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since physical activity levels in older adolescents have the potential to be increased by stimulating active transportation to school (ATS, the most important correlates of ATS should be determined before developing interventions, especially in those adolescents for whom the distance to school is feasible for active commuting. The main aims of this study were to determine criterion distances for ATS in Belgian older adolescents, to examine multidimensional correlates of ATS in adolescents living within a feasible distance from school and to investigate the associations of ATS with total physical activity and with other physical activities besides ATS. Methods In total, 1281 older adolescents (17-18 years from 20 general secondary schools in East- and West-Flanders completed a questionnaire on physical activity behaviors, demographic factors and psychosocial and physical environmental correlates of physical activity. Distance to school was objectively measured using Routenet online route planner. Results In total, 58.4% of the participants commuted actively to school. The criterion distance for ATS could be set at eight kilometers for cycling and two kilometers for walking. For those adolescents living within a feasible distance for ATS, gender, smoking status, walkability of the neighborhood and social modeling were associated with transportation mode choice. ATS was positively associated with total physical activity, but not significantly related to min/week of other physical activities. Conclusions For older adolescents living within eight kilometers of their school, interventions taking into account the correlates found to be related to ATS could possibly be effective to enhance ATS and to increase total physical activity levels. In the context of the overall physical activity decline in adolescence, also interventions targeting physical activity behaviors of adolescents living further away from school might be needed, but

  11. Opinion of Belgian Egg Farmers on Hen Welfare and Its Relationship with Housing Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadig, Lisanne M.; Ampe, Bart A.; Van Gansbeke, Suzy; Van den Bogaert, Tom; D’Haenens, Evelien; Heerkens, Jasper L.T.; Tuyttens, Frank A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Until 2012, laying hens in the EU were often housed in conventional cages that offered limited space and few opportunities to perform highly motivated behaviors. Conventional cages are now banned in the EU in order to improve animal welfare. In this study, egg farmers were surveyed (winter 2013–2014) to assess whether they perceived any changes in animal welfare since changing housing systems, what role hen welfare played in choosing a new housing system, and which aspects of hen welfare they find most important. The data show that the answers differ depending on which housing system the farmers currently use and whether they had used conventional cages in the past. Abstract As of 2012, the EU has banned the use of conventional cages (CC) for laying hens, causing a shift in housing systems. This study’s aim was to gain insight into farmers’ opinions on hen health and welfare in their current housing systems. A survey was sent to 218 Belgian egg farmers, of which 127 (58.3%) responded, with 84 still active as egg farmer. Hen welfare tended to be less important in choosing the housing system for farmers with cage than with non-cage systems. Respondents currently using cage systems were more satisfied with hen health than respondents with non-cage systems. Reported mortality increased with farm size and was higher in furnished cages than in floor housing. Feather pecking, cannibalism, smothering and mortality were perceived to be higher in current housing systems than in CC, but only by respondents who shifted to non-cage systems from previously having had CC. Health- and production-related parameters were scored to be more important for hen welfare as compared to behavior-related parameters. Those without CC in the past rated factors relating to natural behavior to be more important for welfare than those with CC. This difference in opinion based on farmer backgrounds should be taken into account in future research. PMID:26703742

  12. Sunscreen use and skin protection behaviour on the Belgian beach: a comparison 9 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devos, Steven A; Van der Endt, Johannes D; Broeckx, Walter; Vandaele, Mark; del Marmol, Veronique; Roseeuw, Diane; Maselis, Thomas

    2012-09-01

    Public health campaigns encourage people to protect themselves against skin cancer by using sunscreens and taking other protective measures. The objective is to estimate the impact of these campaigns on the rise of awareness among the general public. This study explores the prevalence and predictors of solar protection behaviour in a sample of beachgoers and compares these results to another similar study carried out 9 years earlier (i.e. summer 2001). During the month of August 2010, a total of 408 participants (144 men and 264 women) were randomly selected on their way to the Belgian beach in the city of Ostend, Belgium. The solar protection behaviour of each participant was assessed by direct observation and an interview. The exact same questions were asked as in 2001. The general risk awareness stays the same for skin aging and skin cancer but gets higher for sunburn. When we control these results for sex, the overall higher general awareness is completely because of the higher awareness of the female subgroup. As in 2001, risk awareness is considerably higher in the female subgroup than in the male one. As in 2001, sunscreen cream was the most popular preventive behaviour in 2010 (use of sunscreen with sun protection factor 15 or higher reported by 66.4%), followed by timed sun exposure (46.8%), use of clothing and hats (36.8%) and shade (34.1%). As in summer 2001 the sunscreen use is more popular in the female population. The use of protective clothing and hats is more popular in the male group. As solar protection has become part of the beach behaviour routine, there is room for improvement for their more frequent application, the use of a higher sun protection factor (15+), timed sunbathing, more use of clothing and hats and seeking shade. The results of this study can assist in evaluating the effectiveness of present sun-protection campaigns and health education programmes. PMID:22273847

  13. Multiyear Serological Surveillance of Notifiable Influenza A Viruses in Belgian Poultry: A Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marché, Sylvie; Houdart, Philippe; van den Berg, Thierry; Lambrecht, Bénédicte

    2016-05-01

    Surveillance of notifiable avian influenza (NAI) virus is mandatory in European member states, and each year a serological survey is performed to detect H5 and H7 circulation in poultry holdings. In Belgium, this serological monitoring is a combination of a stratified and a risk-based approach and is applied to commercial holdings with more than 200 birds. Moreover, a competitive nucleoprotein (NP) ELISA has been used as first screening method since 2010. A retrospective analysis of the serological monitoring performed from 2007 through 2013 showed sporadic circulation of notifiable low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) viruses in Belgian holdings with a fluctuating apparent flock seroprevalence according to years and species. Overall, the highest apparent flock seroprevalence was detected for the H5 subtype in domestic Anatidae, with 20%-50% for breeding geese and 4%-9% for fattening ducks. Positive serology against non-H5/H7 viruses was also observed in the same species with the use of the IDScreen influenza A antibody competition ELISA kit (ID-vet NP ELISA), and confirmed by isolation of H2, H3, H6, and H9 LPAI viruses. Among Galliformes, the apparent flock seroprevalence was lower, ranging between 0.3% and 1.3%. Circulation of notifiable LPAI viruses was only observed in laying hens with a similar seroprevalence for H5 and H7. Based on ID-vet NP ELISA results, no circulation of LPAI viruses, regardless the subtype, was observed in breeding chickens and fattening turkeys. Retrospectively, the use of an ELISA as first-line test not only reduced the number of hemagglutination inhibition tests to be performed, but also gave a broader evaluation of the prevalence of LPAI viruses in general, and might help to identify the most at-risk farms. PMID:27309088

  14. An inquiry of the opinions of the French and Belgian populations as regards risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IRSN (France) and SCK-CEN (Belgium), two institutes of research and expertise in radiation protection and nuclear safety, simultaneously organised a very similar public opinion survey in their respective countries in November 2002. The study explores subjects such as: major people's concerns, perception of environmental risks, perception of risks in general, the role of experts in decision making, opinions on nuclear matters and aspects of nuclear emergency preparedness. In each country, more than 1000 citizens representing the general public have been consulted in face-to-face interviews. The field work has been performed by professional companies (BVA in France and Research International in Belgium). The paper shows that industrial and technological risks are not perceived as one of the major public concerns, although many other risks, of different nature are considered to be high. The actions of the authorities to provide protection against the consequences of many risks or disasters are not considered to be sufficient, and many respondents claim not to believe the information they receive. There exists a large difference between the opinion of French and Belgian public, and within the different language groups in Belgium, with regard to who should be in charge of the control of the hazardous industries. Many of the 'actors' within the nuclear industry are not known by the respondents. The perception of the technical competence or the truth being told shows large variations between the main actors (such as members of the nuclear industry, the government or the media). Majorities within the population believe that a disaster as serious as the Chernobyl one can happen in their country and that in case of a nuclear accident, the authorities would not be capable to protect the population adequately

  15. Neuropsychiatric Inventory data in a Belgian sample of elderly persons with and without dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Squelard GP

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Gilles P Squelard,1 Pierre A Missotten,1 Louis Paquay,2 Jan A De Lepeleire,2 Frank JVM Buntinx,2 Ovide Fontaine,1 Stephane R Adam,1 Michel JD Ylieff11Clinical Psychology of Ageing, Qualidem Research Project, University of Liège (ULg, Liège, Belgium; 2KU Leuven, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Leuven, BelgiumBackground/aims: This study assesses and compares prevalence of psychological and behavioral symptoms in a Belgian sample of people with and without dementia.Methods: A total of 228 persons older than 65 years with dementia and a group of 64 non-demented persons were assessed using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI in 2004.Results: Within the group without dementia, the most frequent symptoms were depression, agitation, and irritability. Within the group with dementia, the most common symptoms were depression, irritability, apathy, and agitation. Prevalence of delusions (P < 0.05, hallucinations (P < 0.05, anxiety (P < 0.05, agitation (P < 0.05, apathy (P < 0.01, aberrant motor behavior (P < 0.01, and eating disorders (P < 0.05 were significantly higher in the group with dementia.Conclusion: Depression, elation, irritability, disinhibition, and sleeping disorders are not specific to dementia. Agitation, apathy, anxiety, and delusions are more frequent in dementia but were not specific to the dementia group because their prevalence rates were close to 10% in the group without dementia. Hallucinations, aberrant motor behavior, and eating disorders are specific to dementia. The distinction between specific and nonspecific symptoms may be useful for etiological research on biological, psychological, and environmental factors.Keywords: behavior, behavior disorders, epidemiology, dementia, psychiatric symptoms, neuropsychiatry

  16. Sampling, prevalence and characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus on two Belgian pig farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Dewaele

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the spread of MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus on two Belgian pig farms. Pigs of different ages (from farrowing to slaughter age and sows as well as the barn environment were screened extensively on two occasions three months apart. A subset of MRSA isolates was tested for antimicrobial susceptibility to 16 antibiotics and was further characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Ninety-five percent and 77% of the tested pigs on farm A and farm B, respectively, were colonized with MRSA. MRSA positive animals were detected in all age categories sampled on each sampling day. Piglets were already colonized in the farrowing unit with the same or other MRSA strains than their mother. The prevalence of MRSA colonized pigs increased significantly after weaning and decreased during the fattening period. Pigs carried MRSA mainly in the nares, followed by the perineum and skin and to a lesser degree the rectum. A pig could be contaminated or colonized with different MRSA strains at the same time. The barn environment was also found to be contaminated with different MRSA strains, including the air inlet and outlet. All isolates tested on both farms were resistant to both tetracycline and trimethoprim, while they were susceptible to rifampicin, mupirocin and linezolid. There was a significant difference in resistance prevalence between the two farms for the antibiotics gentamicin, kanamycin, tobramycin, tylosin, lincomycin and quinupristin/dalfopristin. Furthermore, several antibiotic resistance profiles were observed within one farm. This study clearly indicates that several MRSA strains circulate on one farm, from the nursery unit to the fattening unit. This is important to consider when attempts are made to remediate these farms.

  17. EPLAN-pulse; A midterm model for the evaluation of Belgian electricity production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lissens, G. (VITO, Energy division, Mol (Belgium))

    1993-01-01

    The model presented, EPLAN, simulates the electricity production system in Belgium, the relevant decision making processes, investments in new generating capacity, the emissions of power plants (NO[sub x], SO[sub 2], particles, gypsum and nuclear waste), the costs of the system and its fuel use. The model in its present state is developed around a core model of the University of Antwerp to evaluate capacity planning of the Belgian electricity producers, and has been enhanced in many ways at VITO, the Flemish Institute for Technological Research. It should be made clear from the start that emission forecasts in the electricity sector are not eligible for trend extrapolation or other statistical methods on their own. Data on production and emissions of the electricity sector between 1980 and 1990 show an increase in production of electricity of some 30%, while emissions of SO[sub 2] went down by more than 70% and emission of NO[sub x] declined by more than 30%, which is illustrative for the previous statement. The dependency of emissions on technology make that emission forecasting in the electricity sector cannot be done by models other than those which take into account each technology that is eligible for investment over the specified time horizon. Combining technological parameters with social, environmental and economic principles is what EPLAN is supposed to do. Much of its merits are thus attributable to the expertise of the developer of the social, technological, environmental and economic scenarios, for which EPLAN allows full flexibility. Fuel price scenarios, demand scenarios, efficiencies of every single production unit, type of demand curve, efficiency of emission reduction technologies, and many more are easy to define and it takes only very little time for an experienced EPLAN-operator to install a completely new scenario or add a new technology. (au).

  18. Laboratory corrosion tests on candidate high-level waste container materials: Results from the Belgian programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Belgian SAFIR-2 concept foresees the geological disposal of conditioned high-level radioactive waste in stainless steel containers and overpacks placed in a concrete gallery backfilled with Boom clay or a bentonite-type backfill. In addition to earlier in situ experiments, we used a laboratory approach to investigate the corrosion properties of selected stainless steels in Boom clay and bentonite environments. In the SAFIR-2 concept, AISI 316L hMo is the main candidate overpack material. As an alternative, we also investigated the higher alloyed stainless steel UHB 904L. Our study focused on localised corrosion and in particular pitting. We used cyclic potentiodynamic polarisation measurements to determine the pit nucleation potential ENP and the protection potential EPP. The evolution of the corrosion potential with time was determined by monitoring the open circuit potential in synthetic clay-water over extended periods. In this paper we present and discuss some results from our laboratory programme, focusing on long-term interactions between the stainless steel overpack and the backfill materials. We describe in particular the influence of chloride and thio-sulphate ions on the pitting corrosion behaviour. The results show that, under geochemical conditions typical for geological disposal, i.e. [Cl-] ∼ 30 mg/L for a Boom clay backfill and [Cl-] ∼ 90 mg/L for a bentonite backfill, neither AISI 316L hMo nor UHB 904L is expected to present pitting problems. An important factor in the long-term prediction of the corrosion behaviour however, is the robustness of the model for the evolution of the geochemistry of the backfill. Indeed, at chloride levels higher than 1000 mg/L, we predict pitting corrosion for AISI 316L hMo. (authors)

  19. Multiyear Serological Surveillance of Notifiable Influenza A Viruses in Belgian Poultry: A Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marché, Sylvie; Houdart, Philippe; van den Berg, Thierry; Lambrecht, Bénédicte

    2015-12-01

    Surveillance of notifiable avian influenza (NAI) virus is mandatory in European member states, and each year a serological survey is performed to detect H5 and H7 circulation in poultry holdings. In Belgium, this serological monitoring is a combination of a stratified and a risk-based approach and is applied to commercial holdings with more than 200 birds. Moreover, a competitive nucleoprotein (NP) ELISA has been used as first screening method since 2010. A retrospective analysis of the serological monitoring performed from 2007 through 2013 showed sporadic circulation of notifiable low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) viruses in Belgian holdings with a fluctuating apparent flock seroprevalence according to years and species. Overall, the highest apparent flock seroprevalence was detected for the H5 subtype in domestic Anatidae, with 20%-50% for breeding geese and 4%-9% for fattening ducks. Positive serology against non-H5/H7 viruses was also observed in the same species with the use of the IDScreen influenza A antibody competition ELISA kit (ID-vet NP ELISA), and confirmed by isolation of H2, H3, H6, and H9 LPAI viruses. Among Galliformes, the apparent flock seroprevalence was lower, ranging between 0.3% and 1.3%. Circulation of notifiable LPAI viruses was only observed in laying hens with a similar seroprevalence for H5 and H7. Based on ID-vet NP ELISA results, no circulation of LPAI viruses, regardless the subtype, was observed in breeding chickens and fattening turkeys. Retrospectively, the use of an ELISA as first-line test not only reduced the number of hemagglutination inhibition tests to be performed, but also gave a broader evaluation of the prevalence of LPAI viruses in general, and might help to identify the most at-risk farms. PMID:26629630

  20. Belgian experience in applying the {open_quotes}leak-before-break{close_quotes} concept to the primary loop piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerard, R.; Malekian, C.; Meessen, O. [Tractebel Energy Engineering, Brussels (Belgium)

    1997-04-01

    The Leak Before Break (LBB) concept allows to eliminate from the design basis the double-ended guillotine break of the primary loop piping, provided it can be demonstrated by a fracture mechanics analysis that a through-wall flaw, of a size giving rise to a leakage still well detectable by the plant leak detection systems, remains stable even under accident conditions (including the Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE)). This concept was successfully applied to the primary loop piping of several Belgian Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) units, operated by the Utility Electrabel. One of the main benefits is to permit justification of supports in the primary loop and justification of the integrity of the reactor pressure vessel and internals in case of a Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA) in stretch-out conditions. For two of the Belgian PWR units, the LBB approach also made it possible to reduce the number of large hydraulic snubbers installed on the primary coolant pumps. Last but not least, the LBB concept also facilitates the steam generator replacement operations, by eliminating the need for some pipe whip restraints located close to the steam generator. In addition to the U.S. regulatory requirements, the Belgian safety authorities impose additional requirements which are described in details in a separate paper. An novel aspect of the studies performed in Belgium is the way in which residual loads in the primary loop are taken into account. Such loads may result from displacements imposed to close the primary loop in a steam generator replacement operation, especially when it is performed using the {open_quote}two cuts{close_quotes} technique. The influence of such residual loads on the LBB margins is discussed in details and typical results are presented.

  1. PM2.5 and NOx from traffic: human health impacts, external costs and policy implications from the Belgian perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Michiels, Hans; Mayeres, Inge; Int Panis, Luc; De Nocker, Luc; DEUTSCH Felix; Lefebvre, Wouter

    2012-01-01

    This article employs an optimized impact pathway approach to marginal external health costs that relies on high-resolution dispersion models calibrated for Belgium and the surrounding areas. Per tonne, the MEHC PM2.5 is found to be many times larger than MEHC NOx, which is currently negative. Further, the impact of Belgian PM2.5 emissions in the immediate area of generation is significantly larger than the impact on more distant areas; the opposite is true for NOx. The MEHCs of both pollutant...

  2. PLIM. Overview of the Belgian situation in an international framework; PLIM. Overzicht van het Belgisch gebeuren in een internationaal kader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Velde, J.; Van Wale, E.; Arien, B.; Decreton, M.; Vankeerberghen, M

    1998-09-01

    Plant Life Management (PLIM) is discussed from an international perspective. PLIM consists in the management of a system technology for the exploitation of nuclear power plants taking into account a number of criteria including the design specifications of a nuclear power plant; the operational follow-up of structures, systems, components and human resources; the socio-political climate; the economic relevance. Terminology and various aspects related to the life time of nuclear power plants are discussed. PLIM approaches in different countries are described and the role of international organisations with respect to PLIM are discussed. Special emphasis is on the Belgian context.

  3. Microstructured optical fiber Bragg grating-based strain and temperature sensing in the concrete buffer of the Belgian supercontainer concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geernaert, Thomas; Sulejmani, Sanne; Sonnenfeld, Camille; Luyckx, Geert; Chah, Karima; Areias, Lou; Mergo, Pawel; Urbanczyk, Waclaw; Van Marcke, Philippe; Coppens, Erik; Thienpont, Hugo; Berghmans, Francis

    2014-05-01

    We present the use of microstructured optical fiber Bragg grating-based sensors for strain and temperature monitoring inside the concrete buffer of the Belgian supercontainer concept, demonstrated in a half-scale test in 2013. This test incorporated several optical fiber sensors inside the concrete buffer for production and condition monitoring. The optical fiber sensors presented here consist of small carbon-reinforced composite plates in which highly birefringent Butterfly microstructured optical fibers, equipped with fiber Bragg gratings, were embedded. The double reflection spectrum of these MOFGBs allows to simultaneously monitor strain and temperature, as confirmed by comparison with data obtained from thermocouples and vibrating-wire sensors installed near the MOFBGs.

  4. An Explorative Mapping of the Belgian Social Media Marketing Value Network and Its Usage of Personal Identifiable Information

    OpenAIRE

    Heyman, Rob; Pierson, Jo

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown an increase in both disclosure of personal data and means to gather this data on social media such as Facebook. Little research has been done to analyze what happens with this data and how it circulates between different actors. The aim of this research is to map a subset of the Belgian social media marketing companies as a value network and how these actors use social media users’ data for marketing campaigns. The answer to this research question was obtained through exper...

  5. Inventory and forecasting of maritime emissions in the Belgian sea territory, an activity-based emission model

    OpenAIRE

    Schrooten, Liesbeth; De Vlleger, Ina; Panis, Luc Int; Styns, Karel; TORFS, Rudi

    2008-01-01

    Air quality policy has focussed on land-based emissions for decades. In recent years, it has become increasingly clear that emissions from sea-going vessels can no longer be ignored. There is a growing need for detailed emission inventories to evaluate the impact of this transport mode on air quality and health.In this paper we present MOPSEA, an activity-based emission model to determine emissions from sea-going vessels. The model considers shipping activities of sea-going vessels on Belgian...

  6. Assessment of management alternatives for LWR wastes. Volume 4. Description of a Belgian scenario for PWR waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report deals with the description of a management route for PWR waste relying to a certain extent on Belgian practices in this particular area. This description, which aims at providing input data for subsequent cost evaluation, includes all management steps which are usually implemented for solid, liquid and gaseous wastes from their production up to the interim storage of the final waste products. This study is part of an overall theoretical exercise aimed at evaluating a selection of management routes for LWR waste based on economical and radiological criteria

  7. More than just water - Planning scenarios for a sustainable development of the Belgian part of the North Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Vanden Abeele, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Although the sea is one of the most decisive factors for the planning of any coastal region, Belgian planners and policymakers have been doing it with their back towards the sea. But in the face of new spatial claims for more marine transport, windmill farms, sand and gravel extraction, and even nature conservation, policymakers are forced to rethink the role of this seemingly endless surface of water. In the future this role will become even more important as the sea level will rise due to c...

  8. Scintigraphic examinations during pregnancy and in breast-feeding women: a survey of Belgian nuclear medicine physician's attitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation protection is of major importance in pregnant and breast feeding women. This work was undertaken to assess the practices of Belgian nuclear medicine physicians towards performing diagnostic tests during pregnancy and in breast feeding women. A questionnaire was sent to 201 Belgian nuclear medicine physicians; 82 answers (41 %) were received. 51 % of the responding physicians agree to perform lung perfusion scan during pregnancy provided a reduced dose is administered, 33% refuse to perform it during first three months and 24% refuse to perform it for pregnancies older than three months. For the Tc-99m ventilation scan 79% and 66% refuse to perform it before and after first three months. Better agreement was observed for other Tc-99m scintigraphies or tests using other radionuclides. In breast feeding women 89% agree to perform Tc-99m tests provided a breast feeding break; however, the duration of this break appears variable. The need for obtaining a written informed consent appears controversial. Given the variability of the attitudes of nuclear medicine physicians, official guidelines for nuclear medicine diagnostic tests during pregnancy is needed. (authors)

  9. Analysis of the particular spill characteristics observed by the Belgian aerial surveillance program during the Tricolor incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation described the Tricolor oil spill incident, the remote sensing equipment used to monitor the spill, the observed spill characteristics and the flight data assessment. The spill occurred on December 14, 2002 following a collision between the carrier Tricolor and the container vessel Kariba in French waters in the Zone of Joint Responsibility, close to the Belgian and English borders. The Tricolor sank and 3 more vessels collided with the wreck in the five weeks following the collision, spilling several 100 tons of mostly heavy fuel oil into the sea. The remote sensing equipment aboard Belgian surveillance aircraft noted that freshly spilled oil formed a network of widespread dark oil trails surrounded by light oil fractions. The spill volumes were estimated to be high because of the large extent of the polluted area. Nine months following the spill, the emulsified oil trails had a density close to that of seawater. It was assumed that a cold and thick emulsion had formed and became trapped inside the wreck. Upon release, the emulsion could submerse and resurface. The incident demonstrated that early stage oil sample analysis could help interpret slick behaviour by means of remote sensing. 9 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig

  10. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH Concentration at Birth in Belgian Neonates and Cognitive Development at Preschool Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Trumpff

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the study was to investigate the effect of MID during late pregnancy, assessed by the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH concentration at neonatal screening, on cognitive development of preschool children. A retrospective cohort study including 311 Belgian preschool children of 4–6 years old was conducted. Children were selected at random from the total list of neonates screened in 2008, 2009, and 2010 by the Brussels new-born screening center. Infants with congenital hypothyroidism, low birth weight, and/or prematurity were excluded from the selection. The selected children were stratified by gender and TSH-range (0.45–15 mIU/L. Cognitive abilities were assessed using Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence—third edition. In addition, several socioeconomic, parental, and child confounding factors were assessed. Neonatal TSH concentration—a surrogate marker for MID—was not associated with Full Scale and Performance IQ scores in children. Lower Verbal IQ scores were found in children with neonatal TSH values comprised between 10–15 mIU/L compared to lower TSH levels in univariate analysis but these results did not hold when adjusting for confounding factors. Current levels of iodine deficiency among pregnant Belgian women may not be severe enough to affect the neurodevelopment of preschool children.

  11. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) Concentration at Birth in Belgian Neonates and Cognitive Development at Preschool Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumpff, Caroline; De Schepper, Jean; Vanderfaeillie, Johan; Vercruysse, Nathalie; Van Oyen, Herman; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo; Tafforeau, Jean; Vanderpas, Jean; Vandevijvere, Stefanie

    2015-11-01

    The main objective of the study was to investigate the effect of MID during late pregnancy, assessed by the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration at neonatal screening, on cognitive development of preschool children. A retrospective cohort study including 311 Belgian preschool children of 4-6 years old was conducted. Children were selected at random from the total list of neonates screened in 2008, 2009, and 2010 by the Brussels new-born screening center. Infants with congenital hypothyroidism, low birth weight, and/or prematurity were excluded from the selection. The selected children were stratified by gender and TSH-range (0.45-15 mIU/L). Cognitive abilities were assessed using Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-third edition. In addition, several socioeconomic, parental, and child confounding factors were assessed. Neonatal TSH concentration-a surrogate marker for MID-was not associated with Full Scale and Performance IQ scores in children. Lower Verbal IQ scores were found in children with neonatal TSH values comprised between 10-15 mIU/L compared to lower TSH levels in univariate analysis but these results did not hold when adjusting for confounding factors. Current levels of iodine deficiency among pregnant Belgian women may not be severe enough to affect the neurodevelopment of preschool children. PMID:26540070

  12. HIV positive asylum seekers receiving the order to leave the Belgian territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remy Demeester

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In a human rights based approach, the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe has recently released a resolution about migrants and refugees and the fight against HIV (1. It states that “an HIV positive migrant should never be expelled when it is clear that he will not receive adequate health care and assistance in the country to which he is being sent back. To do otherwise would amount to a death sentence for that person.” Nevertheless, in Belgium, for the last 2 years, none of the HIV-infected migrants in care in the AIDS Reference Centers (ARC received the right to stay in Belgium for medical reasons. Methods: We identified all HIV-infected asylum seekers in care between 1 July 2012 and 1 July 2014 in the ARC of Charleroi, Belgium, and we analyzed their medical and social files. Results: Among the 302 patients in active follow up in our ARC, 45 HIV positive asylum seekers were in care during the last 2 years. Male/female ratio was 0/96. Mean age was 35 years. Countries of origin and reasons for migration are detailed in the Table 1. 18% (8/45 knew their seropositivity before arriving in Europe. All the patients introduced an asylum request, 29 (64% have received a negative answer and an order to leave the territory, 4 (9% were regularized for non-medical reasons (see Table 1, 4 (9% are waiting for an answer and for 8 (18% outcome is unknown due to lost follow up (LFU. 31 (69% patients have also introduced a request to stay for medical reasons: 18 (58% have received a refusal, 7 (23% are still waiting for an answer, and 6 (19% are LFU. Only 23 (51% patients are still in care in our ARC on 1 July 2014 (see Table 1. The immigration office bases its decisions on availability of the treatment in the country even if accessible only to a limited number of patients. Conclusions: Decisions taken by the Belgian authorities for the last two years concerning HIV-infected asylum seekers do not guarantee the continuity of care of

  13. The attitude of Belgian social insurance physicians towards evidence-based practice and clinical practice guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aertgeerts Bert

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence-based medicine has broadened its scope and is starting to reach insurance medicine. Although still in its initial stages, physicians in the area of insurance medicine should keep up-to-date with the evidence on various diseases in order to correctly assess disability and to give appropriate advice about health care reimbursement. In order to explore future opportunities of evidence-based medicine to improve daily insurance medicine, there is a need for qualitative studies to better understand insurance physicians' perceptions of EBM. The present study was designed to identify the attitude of insurance physicians towards evidence-based medicine and clinical practice guidelines, and to determine their ability to access, retrieve and appraise the health evidence and the barriers for applying evidence to practice. Methods A cross-sectional survey study was carried out among all Dutch-speaking insurance physicians employed at one of the six Belgian social insurance sickness funds and at the National Institute of Disability and Health care Insurance (n = 224. Chi-square tests were used to compare nominal and ordinal variables. Student's t-tests, ANOVA, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis were used to compare means of continuous variables for different groups. Results The response rate was 48.7%. The majority of respondents were positive towards evidence-based medicine and clinical practice guidelines. Their knowledge of EBM was rather poor. Perceived barriers for applying evidence to practice were mainly time and lack of EBM skills. Conclusion Although the majority of physicians were positive towards EBM and welcomed more guidelines, the use of evidence and clinical practice guidelines in insurance medicine is low at present. It is in the first place important to eradicate the perceived inertia which limits the use of EBM and to further investigate the EBM principles in the context of insurance medicine. Available high

  14. Microbiota characterization of a Belgian protected designation of origin cheese, Herve cheese, using metagenomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcenserie, V; Taminiau, B; Delhalle, L; Nezer, C; Doyen, P; Crevecoeur, S; Roussey, D; Korsak, N; Daube, G

    2014-10-01

    Herve cheese is a Belgian soft cheese with a washed rind, and is made from raw or pasteurized milk. The specific microbiota of this cheese has never previously been fully explored and the use of raw or pasteurized milk in addition to starters is assumed to affect the microbiota of the rind and the heart. The aim of the study was to analyze the bacterial microbiota of Herve cheese using classical microbiology and a metagenomic approach based on 16S ribosomal DNA pyrosequencing. Using classical microbiology, the total counts of bacteria were comparable for the 11 samples of tested raw and pasteurized milk cheeses, reaching almost 8 log cfu/g. Using the metagenomic approach, 207 different phylotypes were identified. The rind of both the raw and pasteurized milk cheeses was found to be highly diversified. However, 96.3 and 97.9% of the total microbiota of the raw milk and pasteurized cheese rind, respectively, were composed of species present in both types of cheese, such as Corynebacterium casei, Psychrobacter spp., Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris, Staphylococcus equorum, Vagococcus salmoninarum, and other species present at levels below 5%. Brevibacterium linens were present at low levels (0.5 and 1.6%, respectively) on the rind of both the raw and the pasteurized milk cheeses, even though this bacterium had been inoculated during the manufacturing process. Interestingly, Psychroflexus casei, also described as giving a red smear to Raclette-type cheese, was identified in small proportions in the composition of the rind of both the raw and pasteurized milk cheeses (0.17 and 0.5%, respectively). In the heart of the cheeses, the common species of bacteria reached more than 99%. The main species identified were Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris, Psychrobacter spp., and Staphylococcus equorum ssp. equorum. Interestingly, 93 phylotypes were present only in the raw milk cheeses and 29 only in the pasteurized milk cheeses, showing the high diversity of the microbiota

  15. "Belgian black and red marbles" as potential candidates for Global Heritage Stone Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourneur, Francis; Pereira, Dolores

    2016-04-01

    The Paleozoic substrate of South Belgium is rich in compact limestones, able to take a good polished finishing and to be used as "marbles". Among them, the black and red varieties were and still are of special importance, intensively exploited and largely exported, almost worldwide. The pure black marbles were extracted mostly from Frasnian (Upper Devonian) and Viséan (Lower Carboniferous) strata, in many localities like Namur, Dinant, Theux and Basècles. Today only the Frasnian variety is still exploited in a spectacular underground quarry in Golzinne, close to the town of Gembloux. These black marbles, already known in Antiquity, were exported since the Middle Age, first in Western Europe, then, from the 19th c., at a larger scale, almost worldwide. Among their most frequent uses figured of course funeral objects, like the epitaph of the Pope Adrian the 1st, offered by Charlemagne and preserved in the St-Pieter basilica in Rom. Another famous reference is the tombs of the Dukes of Burgundy in Dijon, with white crystalline marble and alabaster. The red marbles are limestones from reefal origin, forming mudmounds more or less rich in fossils of Late Frasnian (Late Devonian) age. They show a strong variability in colors, from dark red to light pinkish grey, and in texture, with many sedimentary structures and/or tectonic veins. The outcrops are non-stratified, which allows extraction of large blocks, for example for high columns. Known in the Roman time, they were intensively exploited since at least the 16th c. During the 19th and beginning of 20th c., more than hundred quarries were active in South Belgium, from Rance at West to Chaudfontaine at East, around Philippeville and Rochefort. They were largely used both in civil and religious buildings, mostly for inside decoration, for examples as altars or fireplaces. Among the most symbolic places, the Belgian red marbles were massively employed in Versailles, like in the famous "Galerie des Glaces". But many

  16. The role of Callionymus lyra (L.) and C. reticulatus in the life cycle of Lernaeocera lusci in Belgian coastal waters (Southern Bight of the North Sea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Damme, P.A.; Maertens, D.; Arrumm, A.; Hamerlynck, O.; Ollevier, F.

    1993-01-01

    A survey of the dragonet Callionymus lyra and the reticulated dragonet C. reticulatus from Belgian coastal waters (Southern Bight of the North Sea) in June 1991 revealed 34% of dragonets infected with 1–7 Lernaeocera lusci. This same parasite infected 9% of the reticulated dragonets (mean intensity

  17. Comparison of external morphological traits of newborns to inner morpholical traits of the dam in the double-muscled Belgian Blue Beef breed.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coopman, F.; Gengler, N.; Groen, A.F.; Smet, de S.; Zeveren, van A.

    2004-01-01

    In the double-muscled (DM) Belgian Blue Beef (BBB) breed, caesarean section (CS) is used as a routine management tool to prevent dystocia. This practice is criticized on animal welfare grounds. With unassisted (natural) births, difficulties arise because of disproportion between the sizes of the new

  18. The Five-Factor Personality Inventory as a Measure of the Five-Factor Model: Belgian, American, and Hungarian Comparisons with the NEO-PI-R

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fruyt, Filip; McCrae, Robert R.; Szirmak, Zsofia; Nagy, Janos

    2004-01-01

    The lexically based Five-Factor Personality Inventory (FFPI) was correlated with the factors and facets of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) in Belgian (N = 265), American (N = 116), and Hungarian (N = 320) samples. Results were similar across the three cultures. Analysis of orthogonalized FFPI factors showed that three of…

  19. Regional scale characterization of the topographic control on soil organic carbon spatial distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, François; Van Wesemael, Bas; Van Bogaert, Patrick; EGU General Assembly 2012 (ed.)

    2013-01-01

    The influence of geomorphology on the spatial distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) has been studied for a large range of scales and conditions. The larger SOC stocks found in dry valleys and concave footslopes of the Belgian loam belt have been explained jointly by the transfer of sediments along the slope and the reduced decomposition rate of buried organic matter. While erosion effect on SOC has been simulated at the hillslope scale, it is generally not considered in SOC inventories an...

  20. Regional scale characterization of the topographic control on soil organic carbon spatial distribution.

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, François

    2013-01-01

    The influence of geomorphology on the spatial distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) has been studied for a large range of scales and conditions. The larger SOC stocks found in dry valleys and concave footslopes of the Belgian loam belt have been explained jointly by the transfer of sediments along the slope and the reduced decomposition rate of buried organic matter. While erosion effect on SOC has been simulated at the hillslope scale, it is generally not considered in SOC inventories an...

  1. High resolution mapping of the tropospheric NO2 distribution in three Belgian cities based on airborne APEX remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, Frederik; Merlaud, Alexis; Fayt, Caroline; Danckaert, Thomas; Iordache, Daniel; Meuleman, Koen; Deutsch, Felix; Adriaenssens, Sandy; Fierens, Frans; Van Roozendael, Michel

    2015-04-01

    An approach is presented to retrieve tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) vertical column densities (VCDs) and to map the NO2 two dimensional distribution at high resolution, based on Airborne Prism EXperiment (APEX) observations. APEX, developed by a Swiss-Belgian consortium on behalf of ESA (European Space Agency), is a pushbroom hyperspectral imager with a high spatial (approximately 3 m at 5000 m ASL), spectral (413 to 2421 nm in 533 narrow, contiguous spectral bands) and radiometric (14-bit) resolution. VCDs are derived, following a similar approach as described in the pioneering work of Popp et al. (2012), based on (1) spectral calibration and spatial binning of the observed radiance spectra in order to improve the spectral resolution and signal-to-noise ratio, (2) Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) analysis of the pre-processed spectra in the visible wavelength region, with a reference spectrum containing low NO2 absorption, in order to quantify the abundance of NO2 along the light path, based on its molecular absorption structures and (3) radiative transfer modeling for air mass factor calculation in order to convert slant to vertical columns. This study will be done in the framework of the BUMBA (Belgian Urban NO2 Monitoring Based on APEX hyperspectral data) project. Dedicated flights with APEX mounted in a Dornier DO-228 airplane, operated by Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), are planned to be performed in Spring 2015 above the three largest and most heavily polluted Belgian cities, i.e. Brussels, Antwerp and Liège. The retrieved VCDs will be validated by comparison with correlative ground-based and car-based DOAS observations. Main objectives are (1) to assess the operational capabilities of APEX to map the NO2 field over an urban area at high spatial and spectral resolution in a relatively short time and cost-effective way, and to characterise all aspects of the retrieval approach; (2) to use the APEX NO2 measurements

  2. BeTemper: thermal characterisation of the Belgian subsoil for shallow geothermal applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitclerc, Estelle; Dusar, Michiel; Declercq, Pierre-Yves; Vanbrabant, Yves

    2015-04-01

    -ray Diffraction equipment, while the EDS (Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy) and EBSD (Electron BackScattered Diffraction) modules is applied in order to evaluate the chemical and micro-textural content. Special attention is given to lithologies having a variable λ values to assess the influence of porosity and/or minor mineralogical phases on the heat transfer. The sample selection is conducted in order to be representative of the various lithologies composing the Belgian subsoil, taking into account their mineralogical composition, petrological texture along with their degree of alteration. A special emphasis is given to densely populated areas (eg. Sambre & Meuse valleys and large cities of Flanders). with the highest geothermal demands. Petitclerc, E., Dusar, M., Declercq, P-Y., Hoes, H., Laenen, B., Dagrain,F., Vanbrabant, Y., 2013. Overview and perspectives on shallow geothermal energy in Belgium. Proceedings SG6-12, EGC2013, Pisa, June 2013. Popov, Y., Bayuk, I., Parshin, A., Miklashevskiy, D., Novikov, S., Chekhonin, E., 2012. New methods and instruments for determination of reservoir thermal properties. Thirty-Seventh Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California, January 30 - February 1, 2012. SGP-TR-194. Popov, Y., Pribnow, D.F.C., Sass, J.H, Williams, C., Burkhardt, H., 1999. Characterization of rock thermal conductivity by high-resolution optical scanning. Geothermics 28, pp 253-276.

  3. Prevalence and origin of HIV-1 group M subtypes among patients attending a Belgian hospital in 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoeck, Joke; Van Dooren, Sonia; Van Laethem, Kristel; Derdelinckx, Inge; Van Wijngaerden, Eric; De Clercq, Erik; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke

    2002-04-23

    HIV-1 group M strains are usually subtyped based on gag and/or env gene sequences. In our lab, part of the pol gene sequence was available in order to determine the genotypic anti-HIV drug resistance profile. To estimate the prevalence of the different HIV-1 subtypes in patients visiting the University Hospitals in Leuven in 1999 and for whom a genotypic drug resistance test was needed, we tried to use the pol sequence for subtyping. Recombination was investigated by similarity plots and bootscanning and subtyping was performed by phylogenetic analysis. The overall region spanning the entire protease and 747 nucleotides of the reverse transcriptase proved very suitable for subtyping, although there was a low phylogenetic signal at the beginning of the reverse transcriptase (nucleotides 0-250), as we demonstrated by likelihood mapping. Of the 41 samples analyzed, 21 belonged to subtype B. Of the other 20 non-B strains, 9 belonged to subtype C, 2 to subtype D and 1 to subtype A, G, H and J, respectively, 3 were CRF_02 (Circulating Recombinant Form), 1 was recombinant with a novel breakpoint and 1 sample was untypable. Although subtype B is still the most prevalent subtype in Belgium, it seems to be responsible for only half of the infections in this study. We could also document that the prevalence of subtype C is high in the Belgian native patients, especially among the heterosexually infected population. This could possibly be an indication for an epidemic spread of HIV-1 subtype C in Belgium, as for one third of these patients, no link to an endemic region could be found. The other non-B subtypes and the recombinants are mainly introduced by immigrants or by Belgian citizens traveling abroad. PMID:11955642

  4. Inventory and forecasting of maritime emissions in the Belgian sea territory, an activity-based emission model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrooten, Liesbeth; De Vlieger, Ina; Int Panis, Luc; Styns, Karel; Torfs, Rudi

    Air quality policy has focussed on land-based emissions for decades. In recent years, it has become increasingly clear that emissions from sea-going vessels can no longer be ignored. There is a growing need for detailed emission inventories to evaluate the impact of this transport mode on air quality and health. In this paper we present MOPSEA, an activity-based emission model to determine emissions from sea-going vessels. The model considers shipping activities of sea-going vessels on Belgian territory, combined with individual vessel characteristics. We apply this model to study the effects of recent international efforts to reduce emissions from sea-going vessels in Belgian territorial waters for the current fleet and for two scenarios up to 2010. The emission model for Belgium, based on different vessel operating areas, reveals that most maritime emissions from the main engines will increase. CO 2 emissions will increase by 2-9% over the 2004-2010 period due to an increase in shipping activity. NO X emissions are projected to rise between 1% and 8% because the increase in activity offsets the reductions from the international maritime organisation (IMO) and European regulations. In contrast, SO 2 emissions will decrease by at least 50% in 6 years time. The switch of auxiliaries from heavy fuel oil to diesel oil at berth results in a large emission reduction (33%) for PM and small reductions for CO 2, NO X, CO and HC (4-5%). The choice between a bottom-up versus top-down approach can have important implications for the allocation of maritime emissions. The MOPSEA bottom-up model allocates only 0.7 Mton CO 2 to Belgium, compared to 24.2 Mton CO 2 based on bunker fuel inventories.

  5. Culture-general and -specific associations of attachment avoidance and anxiety with perceived parental warmth and psychological control among Turk and Belgian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güngör, Derya; Bornstein, Marc H

    2010-10-01

    Both the adolescent peer attachment and perceived parenting style literatures emphasize the role of the quality of the parent-child relationship in children's healthy adjustment beyond the family, but few studies have investigated links between adolescents' peer attachment and perceptions of parenting. We investigate relations of adolescents' perceptions of warmth and psychological control from parents with avoidance and anxiety in attachment to close friends in two contrasting cultures. Altogether, 262 Turk and 263 Belgian youth between 14 and 18 years of age participated. Cross-culturally, attachment avoidance was negatively related to maternal warmth, and attachment anxiety positively related to maternal and paternal control and negatively to paternal warmth. Beyond these general relations, attachment avoidance was associated with paternal psychological control in Belgians but not in Turks. The study provides cross-cultural evidence for specific relations between peer attachment and perceived parenting and suggests a culture-specific pathway for the development of attachment avoidance. PMID:20079527

  6. Factors influencing microbiological and chemical composition of South-Belgian raw sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillemet TA.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater treatment plants produce sludges which are likely to contain microbial pathogens, metallic trace elements and organic micropollutants. The aim of this study was to assess factors influencing the quality of raw sludge, i.e. freshly-produced and non-treated sludge. The survey of raw sludge quality was conducted each season over a year with controlled factors such as sludge type (primary or biological; rural or urban area origin and seasonal evolution. Quality of raw sludge was characterized by the determination of microbiological (Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, enterococci, spores of Clostridium perfringens and chemical parameters (metallic trace elements, organic index. The organic index is a new parameter based on a gas chromatography method and developed in this study in order to estimate global organic semi-volatile load in sludge. Results showed significant differences in raw sludge quality depending on controlled factors. Thus, E. coli, and enterococci concentrations were higher in primary and biological urban raw sludge compared to biological rural sludge. Concentrations of Hg and organic semi-volatile compounds, estimated by organic index, were higher in primary urban raw sludge than biological sludges of rural or urban origin. As, Ni and Co loads were higher in biological rural raw sludge compared to primary and biological urban sludge. Spores of C. perfringens concentration in raw sludge was lower in autumn. Organic index in raw sludge was lower in spring and in summer. In conclusion, results showed that sludge quality varies significantly, depending of sludge type and seasonal evolution.

  7. An attempt to reconstruct geodynamically the Belgian palaeogene basin from mineralogical clay data, from radioelement (U, Th, K2O) geochemistry and palynology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By analysing clay mineralogy, U-Th-K2O geochemistry and palynology data, we find that the Belgian Palaeogene is dominated by the action of a biostasic period toward the end of the lower Eocene. At the middle Eocene starts a new phase, at least a rhexistasic one at the begining. In the Basin, the geochemical and mineralogical traces of this phase just start from the upper Eocene

  8. Colonial Legacy in the Great Lakes Region. Has British and Belgian colonialism affected economic development differently in Burindi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda?

    OpenAIRE

    Hildigunnur Engilbertsdóttir 1983

    2011-01-01

    The effects of Belgian and British colonization strategies on the subsequent post-independent economic growth in colonies in the Great Lakes region are studied with a comparative analysis of certain key economic and socio-economic indicators. Different explanations of cross-country disparities in post-colonial development are examined with a focus on the impact of institutions on economic growth. The choice of countries was based on the fact that they share certain characteristics, such as: a...

  9. Would you care for some integrated care in your fragmented health system? A participatory action research to improve integration between levels of care in a Belgian urban setting.

    OpenAIRE

    Belche, Jean; Duchesnes, Christiane; Darras, Christian; Van der Vennet, Jean; Monet, Francis; Unger, Jean-Pierre; Giet, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Integration between levels of care is not facilitated by the Belgian health system. Indeed, patients have uninhibited access to every level of care, there is no gatekeeping system, and no structural coordination between levels of care. Meanwhile, on one hand, the occurrence of more complex care situations in the ambulatory setting is enhancing the need for coordination while on the other hand, hospitals face financial constraints to provide care in the community. The aim of the research ...

  10. Does Financial Hardship Explain Differences Between Belgian and South African Unemployed Regarding Experiences of Unemployment, Employment Commitment, and Job Search Behaviour?

    OpenAIRE

    Wouter Vleugels; Sebastiaan Rothmann; Yannick Griep; Hans De Witte

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether Belgian and South African unemployed differed regarding three psychological dimensions of unemployment: affect (experiences of unemployment), attitudes (employment commitment), and behaviour (job search intensity). Moreover, we expected country of residence to indirectly influence unemployed people’s experiences, employment commitment, and job search intensity via financial hardship. A cross-sectional survey design was used to test our hypo...

  11. Proteomic profiling of bovine M. longissimus lumborum from Crossbred Aberdeen Angus and Belgian Blue sired steers varying in genetic merit for carcass weight

    OpenAIRE

    Keady, S.M.; Kenny, D. A.; Ohlendieck, Kay; Doyle, Sean; Keane, M G; Waters, S. M.

    2013-01-01

    Bovine skeletal muscle is a tissue of significant value to the beef industry and global economy. Proteomic analyses offer the opportunity to detect molecular mechanisms regulating muscle growth and intramuscular fat accumulation. The current study aimed to investigate differences in protein abundance in skeletal muscle tissue of cattle from two breeds of contrasting maturity (early vs. late maturing), adiposity, and muscle growth potential, namely, Belgian Blue (BB)...

  12. Use of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for the detection and surveillance of marine oil spills in the Belgian part of the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnay, E. [Federal Public Service Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment, Brussels (Belgium)

    2009-07-01

    This paper discussed the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) deployed by the Belgian Army in order to detect oil spills as well as for intelligence, reconnaissance and surveillance missions. The UAV are fitted with a dual sensor gyro-stabilized turret which combines a daylight camera and a thermal infrared camera. Live images of the sensors are transmitted in real time to control stations. All Belgian marine pollution surveillance platforms are coordinated by the Maritime Security Center of the Belgian Coast Guard. Satellite surveillance services provide real time information related to potential oil spills and other anomalies on the sea surface. Stand-by helicopters are also used for the rapid assessment of reported spills. The B-Hunter system is undetectable due to its small size and low noise signature, and can be used for the continuous monitoring of specific areas or for the tracking of suspect vessels. The system will also be used to monitor the progress of oil spill response operations as well as to provide information and guidance to response vessels. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Integration of gamma measuring equipment into an Agusta A109BA helicopter of the Belgian Armed Forces for use in emergency situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In case of a nuclear emergency, accidental releases of radioactive material might cause large scale environmental contamination. After the emergency has been brought under control, and the radioactive releases have settled on the ground, it is essential to map as quickly as possible the extent of the contaminated area and to evaluate the severity of the contamination. Airborne gamma measurements are known to be an effective means for quickly and safely mapping and evaluating large scale contaminations of gamma-emitting radio nuclides. We wanted to integrate gamma measuring equipment, based on a NaI detector, into an Agusta A109BA helicopter of the Belgian armed forces. This was done within the framework of ''Aid to the Nation'', a special program developed by the Belgian Armed Forces for facilitating cooperation between the armed forces and civilian organisations, for projects that are to the benefit of the Belgian Nation. Working in this framework, we also want to develop the necessary procedures that will allow quick and efficient deployment of the measuring capability in case of an emergency

  14. Use of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for the detection and surveillance of marine oil spills in the Belgian part of the North Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discussed the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) deployed by the Belgian Army in order to detect oil spills as well as for intelligence, reconnaissance and surveillance missions. The UAV are fitted with a dual sensor gyro-stabilized turret which combines a daylight camera and a thermal infrared camera. Live images of the sensors are transmitted in real time to control stations. All Belgian marine pollution surveillance platforms are coordinated by the Maritime Security Center of the Belgian Coast Guard. Satellite surveillance services provide real time information related to potential oil spills and other anomalies on the sea surface. Stand-by helicopters are also used for the rapid assessment of reported spills. The B-Hunter system is undetectable due to its small size and low noise signature, and can be used for the continuous monitoring of specific areas or for the tracking of suspect vessels. The system will also be used to monitor the progress of oil spill response operations as well as to provide information and guidance to response vessels. 6 refs., 2 figs

  15. Pitfalls on the way towards the acceptance of a disposal site of LLW in a densely populated country. The Belgian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Until the international moratorium of 1983, Belgium relied on sea disposal for its low-level waste. Since then, ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Belgian waste management agency, has launched studies to look for land-based solutions. These studies, which are still on-going, have gone through various phases. The sometimes harsh reactions in public opinion and the recommendations of independent experts, however, progressively led ONDRAF/NIRAS to question its work methodology. January 16, 1998 was a milestone in Belgian's nuclear waste management. On that day, the Belgian federal government opted for a final, or potentially final, solution for the long-term management of short-lived, low-level radioactive waste, a solution that also had to be progressive, flexible, and reversible. At the same time, the government entrusted new missions to ONDRAF/NIRAS in particular that of developing methods to enable the integration of final repository project proposals at the local level and restricted the number of potential sites for final disposal to the four already existing nuclear sites in Belgium and to possibly interested local districts. The government's decision of January 16, 1998, forced ONDRAF/NIRAS to change its strategy. It set up a new work programme and worked out an innovative methodology. This new methodology aims to generate, at the level of the interested towns and villages, draft projects for a final repository supported by a wide public consensus. (author)

  16. Consumers' perceptions regarding tradeoffs between food and fuel expenditures: A case study of U.S. and Belgian fuel users

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofuels have been suggested as a sustainable alternative to fossil-based fuels, but when produced with inputs traditionally used as food and feed grain, the production of biofuels has contributed to price increases in the food sector. In the fall of 2006, a survey was administered to compare consumer perceptions regarding the tradeoff between renewable fuels and food in the United States (U.S.) (n = 242) and Belgium (n = 363). Results show that respondents in both countries prefer lower food prices to lower fuel prices (67.6% in the U.S. and 78.9% in Belgium). A logit model was estimated to determine which variables impacted whether a consumer favored policies that lower fuel prices at the cost of higher food prices. While the sample of Belgian respondents appeared to realize that lower fuel prices eventually had to come at the cost of higher food prices, the sample of U.S. respondents felt domestic agriculture could provide some low-cost, environmentally friendly alternatives with little impact on food prices. Accessible public transportation in Belgium acted as an important fuel saving strategy in that country and led respondents to emphasize food price decreases over fuel price decreases. Also, respondents with heightened awareness towards the environment recognized that the expansion of renewable fuels may need to come at the cost of higher food prices. These attitudes were similar in both countries. Finally, in both countries older respondents placed more importance on lower food prices than lower fuel prices. (author)

  17. Interactions between Neighborhood Social Environment and Walkability to Explain Belgian Older Adults’ Physical Activity and Sedentary Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerle Van Holle

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined associations between neighborhood social factors and physical activity (PA and sedentary behavior (SB in older adults. Furthermore, possible moderating effects of neighborhood walkability were explored. Data from 431 community-dwelling Belgian older adults (≥65 years were analyzed. Neighborhood social factors included measures of neighboring, social trust and cohesion and social diversity. Neighborhood walkability was measured objectively. Outcome measures were self-reported weekly minutes of domain-specific walking and TV viewing, and accelerometer-assessed weekly minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA and overall SB. A higher frequency of talking to neighbors was associated with higher levels of self-reported walking for transport and for recreation. Moderation analyses showed that only in highly-walkable neighborhoods, higher social diversity of the neighborhood environment was associated with more transport walking; and talking to neighbors and social interactions among neighbors were negatively associated with overall SB and television viewing, respectively. Findings suggest that a combination of a favorable neighborhood social and physical environment are important to promote older adults’ PA and limit SB.

  18. Effective combination of DIC, AE, and UPV nondestructive techniques on a scaled model of the Belgian nuclear waste container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliopoulos, Sokratis N.; Areias, Lou; Pyl, Lincy; Vantomme, John; Van Marcke, Philippe; Coppens, Erik; Aggelis, Dimitrios G.

    2015-03-01

    Protecting the environment and future generations against the potential hazards arising from high-level and heat emitting radioactive waste is a worldwide concern. Following this direction, the Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials has come up with the reference design which considers the geological disposal of the waste in purely indurated clay. In this design the wastes are first post-conditioned in massive concrete structures called Supercontainers before being transported to the underground repositories. The Supercontainers are cylindrical structures which consist of four engineering barriers that from the inner to the outer surface are namely: the overpack, the filler, the concrete buffer and possibly the envelope. The overpack, which is made of carbon steel, is the place where the vitrified wastes and spent fuel are stored. The buffer, which is made of concrete, creates a highly alkaline environment ensuring slow and uniform overpack corrosion as well as radiological shielding. In order to evaluate the feasibility to construct such Supercontainers two scaled models have so far been designed and tested. The first scaled model indicated crack formation on the surface of the concrete buffer but the absence of a crack detection and monitoring system precluded defining the exact time of crack initiation, as well as the origin, the penetration depth, the crack path and the propagation history. For this reason, the second scaled model test was performed to obtain further insight by answering to the aforementioned questions using the Digital Image Correlation, Acoustic Emission and Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity nondestructive testing techniques.

  19. [The Belgian and French medicine and the "Ordres" facing the "jewish question" during the Second World War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noterman, J

    2014-01-01

    The attitude of the medical community and the "Ordres" to the "jewish question" differs in Belgium and France. This difference originates before the Second World War. Xenophobia and antisemitism were stronger in France. In addition, the Belgian capitulation of May 1940 and the armistice of June 22 in France do not represent the same situation. In France, a legal government, under the direction of Marshal Pétain, took a series of xenophobic measures of which the Jews were the first victims. In Belgium, in the absence of any government, the General Secretaries in Ministries were the ones who had to apply the antijewish measures dictated by the German occupant. By law, they could not legislate on the political level. The "Ordre", of French physicians was created in late 1940 by the Vichy government. In Belgium, the "Ordre " had existed since 1938 but had been unable to meet in the absence of implement decrees. An "Ordre bis" was created in late 1941, the legality of which was questioned by many lawyers and physicians. The French "Ordre" was to apply the antijewish measures by taking responsibility for the selection of Jewish physicians entitled to practice. In Belgium, the "Ordre" frowned upon by the physicians, played no official role in this regard. It simply applied the antijewish measures dictated by the Germans without protesting. After the conflict, the leaders of the "Ordres" had a different fate in both countries. In France, they escaped sentences. In Belgium, they were heavily condemned. PMID:24908952

  20. A stop-gain in the laminin, alpha 3 gene causes recessive junctional epidermolysis bullosa in Belgian Blue cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartelet, Arnaud; Harland, Chad; Tamma, Nico; Karim, Latifa; Bayrou, Calixte; Li, Wanbo; Ahariz, Naima; Coppieters, Wouter; Georges, Michel; Charlier, Carole

    2015-10-01

    Four newborn purebred Belgian Blue calves presenting a severe form of epidermolysis bullosa were recently referred to our heredo-surveillance platform. SNP array genotyping followed by autozygosity mapping located the causative gene in a 8.3-Mb interval on bovine chromosome 24. Combining information from (i) whole-genome sequencing of an affected calf, (ii) transcriptomic data from a panel of tissues and (iii) a list of functionally ranked positional candidates pinpointed a private G to A nucleotide substitution in the LAMA3 gene that creates a premature stop codon (p.Arg2609*) in exon 60, truncating 22% of the corresponding protein. The LAMA3 gene encodes the alpha 3 subunit of the heterotrimeric laminin-332, a key constituent of the lamina lucida that is part of the skin basement membrane connecting epidermis and dermis layers. Homozygous loss-of-function mutations in this gene are known to cause severe junctional epidermolysis bullosa in human, mice, horse, sheep and dog. Overall, our data strongly support the causality of the identified gene and mutation. PMID:26370913

  1. The determination of technetium-99 in the brown marine alga Fucus spiralis collected along the Belgian coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The brown alga Fucus spiralis (Fucales) grows along the Belgian coast in sufficient amount to permit regular sampling. The algae were collected at four different places (Nieuwpoort, Oostende, Blankenberge and Zeebrugge) from March 1985 to February 1986. The concentration of 99Tc (Bq kg-1 dry weight) in whole plants was found to increase as a function of time. In addition, analyses on separated parts have revealed that, generally, apical fragments possess a lower content of 99Tc than the middle and basal ones. These results suggest that the old tissues of the algae, present in middle and basal fragments, have integrated technetium uptake over a period of a few years, in contrast to the young ones of the apices, which have probably fixed this radionuclide only during a short period of time. The concentration factors, evaluated on the basis of 3 mBq 99Tc l-1 seawater, varied from 8,000 to 36,000 in whole plants, reaching however 51,000 in middle fragments. These figures are of the same order of magnitude than those reported for related species of Fucus collected along the French coast of the Channel. It adds further evidence that Fucus spiralis may be used as a bioindicator for 99Tc contamination of coastal waters. 18 refs.; 10 figs.; 1 table

  2. From corporate governance to hospital governance. Authority, transparency and accountability of Belgian non-profit hospitals' board and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eeckloo, Kristof; Van Herck, Gustaaf; Van Hulle, Cynthia; Vleugels, Arthur

    2004-04-01

    As a result of multiple developments in health care and health care policy, hospital administrators, policy makers and researchers are increasingly challenged to reflect on the meaning of good hospital governance and how they can implement it in the hospital organisations. The question arises whether and to what extent governance models that have been developed within the corporate world can be valuable for these reflections. Due to the unique societal position of hospitals--which involves a large diversity of stakeholders--the claim for autonomy of various highly professional groups and the lack of clear business objectives, principles of corporate governance cannot be translated into the hospital sector without specific adjustments. However, irrespective of these contextual differences, corporate governance can provide for a comprehensive 'frame of reference', to which the hospital sector will have to give its own interpretation. A multidisciplinary research unit of the university of Leuven has taken the initiative to develop a governance model for Belgian hospitals. As part of the preliminary research work a survey has been performed among 82 hospitals of the Flemish Community on their governance structure, the composition of the governance entities, the partition of competencies and the relationship between management and medical staff. PMID:15033548

  3. Annual general assembly of the royal belgian society of radiology (rbrs), brussels, 20.11.2010

    OpenAIRE

    Lemort, Pr. Dr. Marc

    2010-01-01

    I am happy to welcome you to this session of the Annual Symposium of the RBRS devoted to « New Trends in Oncological Imaging ». There are two underlying statements in this title: first a specificity of oncologic imaging that goes beyond organ specificity and second a clear evolution in the expectations from the imaging techniques on part of the oncologists, which is following a paradigm change in cancer treatment.

  4. Analytical approaches for quantification of emerging micropollutants in the Belgian coastal zone

    OpenAIRE

    Wille, K.

    2011-01-01

    In the last decade, there has been a growing public and scientific concern regarding the occurrence and potential harmful effects of chemicals of emerging concern (CECs) in the aquatic environment. However, little attention has been paid so far to their prevalence and quantification in marine ecosystems. To study and evaluate the fate, effects, and environmental and human risks posed by these emerging contaminants, information regarding their presence in marine waters and organisms is urgentl...

  5. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE DISTRIBUTION STRATEGY IN CHANGING MARKET ENVIRONMENT : Case: Belgian Brewery Van Honsebrouck in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Louckx, Yulia

    2014-01-01

    The efficient distribution strategy formulation becomes vital to the success and survival of any organization, especially when it is involved in international trade. Today’s world is particularly challenging due to rapidly changing market conditions. Therefore, in order to able to compete, satisfy customers, and meet the needs of other stakeholders profitably, it is crucial for any company to make profound market environment analyses, react to changes in the market and adjust strategies accor...

  6. Education and Training possibilities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thanks to its thorough experience in the field of peaceful applications of nuclear science and technology SCK-CEN has garnered a reputation as an outstanding centre of not only research, but also education and training (E and T). The E and T activities at SCK-CEN cover a. o. reactor physics, reactor operation, reactor engineering, radiation protection, decommissioning and waste management. Our courses are directed to the nuclear industry, the medical and the non-nuclear industry, national and international policy organizations, the academic world and the general public. E and T programs are also organized in cooperation with universities, technical universities, nuclear power plants and public and private health services. In addition, the SCK-CEN is involved in international E and T research networks and programs such as ENETRAP, EUTERP, EUNDETRAF, CETRAD, BNEN and ENEN. Next to courses, SCK-CEN also offers students the possibility to perform their research work at our laboratories. Final-year students and Ph.D. candidates can enter a programme defined by an SCK-CEN mentor, in close collaboration with a university promotor. Post-docs are mainly recruited in specialised research domains that reflect the priority programmes and R and D topics of our institute

  7. Observational Study of a French and Belgian Multicenter Cohort of 23 Patients Diagnosed in Adulthood With Mevalonate Kinase Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durel, Cécile-Audrey; Aouba, Achille; Bienvenu, Boris; Deshayes, Samuel; Coppéré, Brigitte; Gombert, Bruno; Acquaviva-Bourdain, Cécile; Hachulla, Eric; Lecomte, Frédéric; Touitou, Isabelle; Ninet, Jacques; Philit, Jean-Baptiste; Messer, Laurent; Brouillard, Marc; Girard-Madoux, Marie-Hélène; Moutschen, Michel; Raison-Peyron, Nadia; Hutin, Pascal; Duffau, Pierre; Trolliet, Pierre; Hatron, Pierre-Yves; Heudier, Philippe; Cevallos, Ramiro; Lequerré, Thierry; Brousse, Valentine; Lesire, Vincent; Audia, Sylvain; Maucort-Boulch, Delphine; Cuisset, Laurence; Hot, Arnaud

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the clinical and biological features of Mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD) in patients diagnosed in adulthood. This is a French and Belgian observational retrospective study from 2000 to 2014. To constitute the cohort, we cross-check the genetic and biochemical databases. The clinical, enzymatic, and genetic data were gathered from medical records. Twenty-three patients were analyzed. The mean age at diagnosis was 40 years, with a mean age at onset of symptoms of 3 years. All symptomatic patients had fever. Febrile attacks were mostly associated with arthralgia (90.9%); lymphadenopathy, abdominal pain, and skin lesions (86.4%); pharyngitis (63.6%); cough (59.1%); diarrhea, and hepatosplenomegaly (50.0%). Seven patients had psychiatric symptoms (31.8%). One patient developed recurrent seizures. Three patients experienced renal involvement (13.6%). Two patients had angiomyolipoma (9.1%). All but one tested patients had elevated serum immunoglobulin (Ig) D level. Twenty-one patients had genetic diagnosis; most of them were compound heterozygote (76.2%). p.Val377Ile was the most prevalent mutation. Structural articular damages and systemic AA amyloidosis were the 2 most serious complications. More than 65% of patients displayed decrease in severity and frequency of attacks with increasing age, but only 35% achieved remission. MKD diagnosed in adulthood shared clinical and genetic features with classical pediatric disease. An elevated IgD concentration is a good marker for MKD in adults. Despite a decrease of severity and frequency of attacks with age, only one-third of patients achieved spontaneous remission. PMID:26986117

  8. Iodine deficiency among Belgian pregnant women not fully corrected by iodine-containing multivitamins: a national cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Amsalkhir, Sihame; Mourri, Ahmed Bensouda; Van Oyen, Herman; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo

    2013-06-28

    Low iodine intake during pregnancy may cause thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women and their newborn. In the present study, iodine status among a nation-wide representative sample of Belgian pregnant women in the first and third trimester of pregnancy was determined, and determinants of iodine status were assessed 1 year after the introduction of bread fortified with iodised salt. The women were selected according to a multistage proportionate-to-size sampling design. Urine samples were collected and a general questionnaire was completed face to face with the study nurse. The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) among pregnant women (n 1311) was 124.1mg/l and 122.6 mg/g creatinine when corrected for urinary creatinine. The median UIC in the first trimester (118.3 mg/l) was significantly lower than that in the third trimester (131.0 mg/l) but significantly higher than among non-pregnant women (84.8 mg/l). Iodine-containing supplement intake was reported by 60.8% of the women and 57.4% of the women took this supplement daily. The risk of iodine deficiency was significantly higher in younger women, in women not taking iodine-containing supplements, with low consumption of milk and dairy drinks and during autumn. Women with a higher BMI had a higher risk of iodine deficiency but the risk was lower in women who reported alcohol consumption. The median UIC during pregnancy indicates iodine deficiency in Belgium and some women are at a higher risk of deficiency. The current low iodine intake in women of childbearing age precludes the correction of iodine deficiency in pregnant women supplemented with multivitamins containing 150 mg iodine as recommended. PMID:23084115

  9. Un modèle du secteur énergétique belge A Model of the Belgian Energy Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilmot J. F.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'article présente un modèle du secteur énergétique belge basé sur une représentation fouillée des secteurs pétrolier, charbonnier, gazier et électrique, notamment au niveau des courbes de charge particulièrement désagrégées. La structure modulaire de ce modèle qui permet d'utiliser chacun des modules sectoriels de manière indépendante est largement discutée car elle permet une utilisation particulièrement flexible et adaptée aux besoins. Comme pour la plupart des modèles, construits dans le domaine, il est fait appel à la programmation linéaire qui permet l'utilisation de codes commerciaux très développés. Pour terminer, une étude de cas permet de mieux visualiser les résultats obtenus avec ce modèle. This article describes a model of the Belgian energy sector based on a detailed representation of the oil, coal, gas and electricity sectors, especially with regard to the particularly disaggregate load curves. The modular structure of this model, enabling it to use each sectorial module independently, is extensively discussed because it makes the model especially flexible and well suited for its needs. Like most models built in this field, it makes use of linear programming, thus enabling it to use highly sophisticated commercial codes. To conclude, a case study provides a clearer visualization of the results obtained with this model.

  10. Pandemic A/H1N1v influenza 2009 in hospitalized children: a multicenter Belgian survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blumental Sophie

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the 2009 influenza A/H1N1v pandemic, children were identified as a specific "at risk" group. We conducted a multicentric study to describe pattern of influenza A/H1N1v infection among hospitalized children in Brussels, Belgium. Methods From July 1, 2009, to January 31, 2010, we collected epidemiological and clinical data of all proven (positive H1N1v PCR and probable (positive influenza A antigen or culture pediatric cases of influenza A/H1N1v infections, hospitalized in four tertiary centers. Results During the epidemic period, an excess of 18% of pediatric outpatients and emergency department visits was registered. 215 children were hospitalized with proven/probable influenza A/H1N1v infection. Median age was 31 months. 47% had ≥ 1 comorbid conditions. Febrile respiratory illness was the most common presentation. 36% presented with initial gastrointestinal symptoms and 10% with neurological manifestations. 34% had pneumonia. Only 24% of the patients received oseltamivir but 57% received antibiotics. 10% of children were admitted to PICU, seven of whom with ARDS. Case fatality-rate was 5/215 (2%, concerning only children suffering from chronic neurological disorders. Children over 2 years of age showed a higher propensity to be admitted to PICU (16% vs 1%, p = 0.002 and a higher mortality rate (4% vs 0%, p = 0.06. Infants less than 3 months old showed a milder course of infection, with few respiratory and neurological complications. Conclusion Although influenza A/H1N1v infections were generally self-limited, pediatric burden of disease was significant. Compared to other countries experiencing different health care systems, our Belgian cohort was younger and received less frequently antiviral therapy; disease course and mortality were however similar.

  11. Second Belgian Workshop on animal endocrinology held in Leuven (Belgium, 15 November 2000. ABSTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renaville R. (Ed.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The special topics of the workshop focused on leptin mechanism in ruminant and poultry. One of the essential roles of this hormone is to inform the organism about the level of fat reserves. The leptin gene is expressed in ruminants and poultry adipose tissues. Recent results on variations in plasma leptin and/or levels of leptin mRNA in adipose tissues show positive effects of body fatness and feeding level, and an inhibitory beta-adrenergic effect in cattle. In other respects, in vitro leptin production is stimulated by glucocorticoids and insulin, whose effects are inhibited by growth hormone. Progress in knowledge about leptin will allow to better understand and control the adaptations of energy metabolism and reproductive activity of ruminants to seasonal variations in day length and food supply, as well as variations in carcass fatness of growing animal.

  12. Marine biological valuation of the shallow Belgian coastal zone:a space-use conflict example within the context of marine spatial planning

    OpenAIRE

    Vanden Eede, S.; Laporta, L.; Deneudt, K.; Stienen, Eric; Derous, S.; Degraer, S.; Vincx, M.

    2014-01-01

    The Belgian coastal zone hosts a complex of space-use and resource-use activities with a myriad of pressures. Specifically at the beaches, predictions on sea-level rise, storms and flood risk from the North Sea have led to several big coastal defence projects. Management of sandy beaches is a multi-faceted and complex endeavor, where the interests of several stakeholders need to be combined.In this paper, we used the marine biological valuation (BV) method in order to (1) analyse the spatial ...

  13. Non-motor symptoms in a Flanders-Belgian population of 215 Parkinson’s disease patients as assessed by the Non-Motor Symptoms Questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Crosiers, David; Pickut, Barbara; Theuns, Jessie; De Deyn, Peter Paul; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; Martinez-Martin, Pablo; Chaudhuri, K. Ray; Cras, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Background: Non-motor symptoms (NMS) in Parkinson’s disease (PD) are frequent, increase the patients’ disability and have an important negative impact on their quality of life. Methods: We used a Dutch translation of the Non-Motor Symptoms Questionnaire (NMSQuest) to identify NMS in a population of 215 Belgian PD patients. Results: A median number of 8 NMS was reported per patient. Urinary urgency (59.2 %), nocturia (56.9 %), insomnia (45.8 %), attention problems (45.5 %) and orthostatism (41...

  14. Annual activity cycle of adult brown trout (Salmo trutta L.): A radio-telemetry study in a small stream of the Belgian Ardenne

    OpenAIRE

    Ovidio, Michaël

    1999-01-01

    During a study period of 26 months, twenty trout (26.0-57.0 cm FL; 198-1,685 g) were daily located from 16 to 466 days in a small stream of the Belgian Ardenne, the Aisne stream (tributary of the river Ourthe) in order to characterize their annual pattern of mobility. Daily movements were more frequent and longer during the spawning period (October-December) than at any other time of the year. Upstream migrations (max.: 25 km) generally occurred during October and the first fortnight of Novem...

  15. Holy Smoke in Medieval Funerary Rites: Chemical Fingerprints of Frankincense in Southern Belgian Incense Burners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeten, Jan; Deforce, Koen; Challe, Sophie; De Vos, Dirk; Degryse, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    high potential for organic chemical analyses of incense residues. PMID:25391130

  16. Holy smoke in medieval funerary rites: chemical fingerprints of frankincense in southern Belgian incense burners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Baeten

    , demonstrates the high potential for organic chemical analyses of incense residues.

  17. Reactive Clay Minerals in a land use sequence of disturbed soils of the Belgian Loam Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barao, Lucia; Vandevenne, Floor; Ronchi, Benedicta; Meire, Patrick; Govers, Gerard; Struyf, Eric

    2014-05-01

    Clay minerals play a key role in soil biogeochemistry. They can stabilize organic matter, improve water storage, increase cation exchange capacity of the soil (CEC) and lower nutrient leaching. Phytoliths - the biogenic silica bodies (BSi) deposited in cell walls of plants - are important Si pools in soil horizons due to their higher solubility compared to minerals. They provide the source of Si for plant uptake in short time scales, as litter dissolves within soils. In a recent study, we analyzed the BSi pool differences across a set of different land uses (forests, pastures, croplands) in 6 long-term disturbed (multiple centuries) soil sites in the Belgium Loam Belt. Results from a simultaneous chemical extraction in 0.5M NaOH of Si and Al, showed that soils were depleted in the BSi pool while showing high levels of reactive secondary clay minerals, mainly in the deeper horizons and especially in the forests and the croplands. During the extraction, clays were similar in reactivity to the biogenic pool of phytoliths. In order to study the kinetics in a more natural environment, batch dissolution experiments were conducted. Samples from different soil depths for each land use site (0.5 g) were mixed with 0.5 L of demineralised water modified to pH 4, 7 and 10. Subsamples of 2 ml were taken during 3 months. In the end of the period, results for pH 7 showed that in the pastures, where reactive clays were almost absent, the ratio Si/RSi (defined as the Si concentration in the end of the batch experiment divided by the reactive silica extracted from the soil with the alkaline extraction) was lower than 0.005%. The same ratio was higher in the mineral horizons of forests (Si/RSi>0.01%) and croplands (0.005% < Si/RSi <0.01%) where clay minerals were the dominant fraction. These preliminary results highlight the clay minerals' strong potential for Si mobilization. More attention should be paid to this important fraction as it can contribute strongly to Si availability

  18. Characterization of mandibular molar root and canal morphology using cone beam computed tomography and its variability in Belgian and Chilean population samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Andres; Jacobs, Reinhilde; Lambrechts, Paul [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Brizuela, Claudia; Cabrera, Carolina; Concha, Guillermo; Pedemonte, Maria Eugenia [Universidad de los Andes, Santiago (Chile)

    2015-06-15

    This study used cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) to characterize mandibular molar root and canal morphology and its variability in Belgian and Chilean population samples. We analyzed the CBCT images of 515 mandibular molars (257 from Belgium and 258 from Chile). Molars meeting the inclusion criteria were analyzed to determine (1) the number of roots; (2) the root canal configuration; (3) the presence of a curved canal in the cross-sectional image of the distal root in the mandibular first molar and (4) the presence of a C-shaped canal in the second mandibular molar. A descriptive analysis was performed. The association between national origin and the presence of a curved or C-shaped canal was evaluated using the chi-squared test. The most common configurations in the mesial root of both molars were type V and type III. In the distal root, type I canal configuration was the most common. Curvature in the cross-sectional image was found in 25% of the distal canals of the mandibular first molars in the Belgian population, compared to 11% in the Chilean population. The prevalence of C-shaped canals was 10% or less in both populations. In cases of unclear or complex root and canal morphology in the mandibular molars, CBCT imaging might assist endodontic specialists in making an accurate diagnosis and in treatment planning.

  19. Characterization of mandibular molar root and canal morphology using cone beam computed tomography and its variability in Belgian and Chilean population samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study used cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) to characterize mandibular molar root and canal morphology and its variability in Belgian and Chilean population samples. We analyzed the CBCT images of 515 mandibular molars (257 from Belgium and 258 from Chile). Molars meeting the inclusion criteria were analyzed to determine (1) the number of roots; (2) the root canal configuration; (3) the presence of a curved canal in the cross-sectional image of the distal root in the mandibular first molar and (4) the presence of a C-shaped canal in the second mandibular molar. A descriptive analysis was performed. The association between national origin and the presence of a curved or C-shaped canal was evaluated using the chi-squared test. The most common configurations in the mesial root of both molars were type V and type III. In the distal root, type I canal configuration was the most common. Curvature in the cross-sectional image was found in 25% of the distal canals of the mandibular first molars in the Belgian population, compared to 11% in the Chilean population. The prevalence of C-shaped canals was 10% or less in both populations. In cases of unclear or complex root and canal morphology in the mandibular molars, CBCT imaging might assist endodontic specialists in making an accurate diagnosis and in treatment planning

  20. Drug use in relation to clinical activities as an instrument for prospective drug budgeting. The Belgian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closon, M C; Crott, R; Even-Adin, D

    1996-03-01

    In an effort to control escalating health expenditures, especially in hospitals, many countries are planning or experimenting with prospective budgeting systems. Belgium is no exception and has recently introduced, with some success, limited fixed charges per hospital admission and/or per hospitalisation day for laboratory tests and radiographic investigations. More recently, the focus has shifted to hospital drug expenditures, which have shown high growth rates over the past few years. Until now, such expenditures have been reimbursed on a fee-for-service system, often with limited out-of-pocket charges for hospitalised patients. In order to curb the growth of drug expenditures, it is appropriate to investigate whether the financing of hospital drugs through a prospective budgeting system could be a feasible solution. Therefore, we constructed a database of over 270 000 admissions from a sample of 23 Belgian general and teaching (university) hospitals for the year 1991. Data were obtained from the official Minimum Basic Data Set or Résumé Clinique Minimum, which contains summarised clinical and administrative information, plus detailed expenditures (including medications) for each hospital stay. This information allowed us to categorize each stay into an appropriate diagnosis-related group (DRG). Our first descriptive analysis identified a number of major variables that influenced patients' drug expenditures: all-patient DRG (APDRG), age, disease severity, length of stay in an intensive care unit, emergency admission, death during hospitalisation, and hospital type (teaching or general). A covariance analysis was then performed on all hospital stays combined, and separately on surgical and medical stays. The results indicated that these variables taken together account for between 56.5 and 76.3% of drug expenditures in medical and surgical stays, respectively, with the major variance explained by differences in APDRG category. However, when the data were

  1. Belgian firms visiting CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    FP Department

    2009-01-01

    25 – 26 MAY 2009 09.00 to 17.00 Monday 25 May 09.00 to 17.00 Tuesday 26 May Individual interviews will take place in technicians’ offices. The firms will contact relevant users/technicians but any user wishing to make contact with a particular firm is welcome to use the contact details which are available from each departmental secretariat or from the GS Department web pages here. List of Companies:Automation Services and Consulting BVBA Burrick NV, (PLC) Cissoid DB Engineering Design, Drafting & Services BVBA Entelec Control Systems GILLAM-Fei S.A. HPC ICSENSE IWT – Enterprise Europe Flanders Jema SA Mecasoft SA SA Polmans Rapid-Torc Resarm Engineering Plastics SA Sentera Europa NV SLC BVBA Stocker Industrie SA Technord Tecnubel Winlock BVBA For further information please contact Caroline Laignel (GS-DI 73722) or Karine Robert (GS-SEM-LS 74407).

  2. An experiment in democracy: observing the Belgian local partnerships for the management of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Observations are offered on the FSC workshop and the Belgian local partnerships from the perspective of public participation theory and practice. A distinction is drawn between participatory democratic theory and pluralism in order to point out that partnerships exemplify the latter and are thus susceptible to the main shortcoming of pluralism, which is that the stakeholders become a club of experts, distant from the individual citizens. A model of risk decision making based on the notions of analysis and deliberation is presented as a means for analytically scrutinizing the workshop and the partnerships. The workshop successfully diversified deliberation by invoking numerous features including: Small group work, informal venues, stimulating short presentations, involvement of local stakeholders, rapporteurs, community visits, and structured discussion. One shortcoming of the workshop was that it could have displayed more continuity with previous workshops and also convey a sense of progress on the issues of interest. A second shortcoming was that it invoked a very singular dimension of risk (to human health) without devoting adequate attention to the other dimensions of risk (economic, ecological, psychological, sociological, and ethical). The partnerships performed well in many ways; in particular the following features were evaluated as being positive: genuine commitment by partnership staff and leadership to involve all stakeholders, some degree of self-selection by participants (voluntary participation), widespread education and outreach, a flexible timetable, genuine commitment from ONDRAF/NIRAS to see the process through, clear, capable, and respected leadership. Finally, the simple survival of the partnerships in Mal and Dessel suggest popular legitimacy and buy-in by participants. A handful of more critical observations were made about the partnerships as well. First, the near absence of women strikes a chord of concern that women may not feel comfortable

  3. Digital image correlation, acoustic emission and ultrasonic pulse velocity for the detection of cracks in the concrete buffer of the Belgian nuclear supercontainer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long term management of high-level and heat emitting radioactive waste is a worldwide concern, as it directly influences the environment and future generations. To address this issue, the Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials has come up with the conceptual design of a massive concrete structure called Supercontainer. The feasibility to construct these structures is being evaluated through a number of scaled models that are tested using classical as well as state of the art measurement techniques. In the current paper, the results obtained from the simultaneous application of the Digital Image Correlation (DIC), the Acoustic Emission (AE) and the Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity (UPV) nondestructive testing techniques on the second scaled model for the detection and monitoring of cracks will be presented.

  4. Digital image correlation, acoustic emission and ultrasonic pulse velocity for the detection of cracks in the concrete buffer of the Belgian nuclear supercontainer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iliopoulos, Sokratis; Tsangouri, Eleni; Aggelis, Dimitrios G.; Pyl, Lincy [Vrije Univ., Brussels (Belgium). Dept. of Mechanics of Materials and Constructions; Vantomme, John [Vrije Univ., Brussels (Belgium). Dept. of Mechanics of Materials and Constructions; Royal Military Academy, Brussels (Belgium). Civil and Material Engineering Dept.; Marcke, Philippe van [ONDRAF/NIRAS (Belgium); Areias, Lou [EURIDICE GIE/SCK.CEN, Mol (Belgium); Vrije Univ., Brussels (Belgium). Dept. of Mechanics of Materials and Constructions

    2014-11-01

    The long term management of high-level and heat emitting radioactive waste is a worldwide concern, as it directly influences the environment and future generations. To address this issue, the Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials has come up with the conceptual design of a massive concrete structure called Supercontainer. The feasibility to construct these structures is being evaluated through a number of scaled models that are tested using classical as well as state of the art measurement techniques. In the current paper, the results obtained from the simultaneous application of the Digital Image Correlation (DIC), the Acoustic Emission (AE) and the Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity (UPV) nondestructive testing techniques on the second scaled model for the detection and monitoring of cracks will be presented.

  5. A Belgian Serosurveillance/Seroprevalence Study of Diphtheria, Tetanus and Pertussis Using a Luminex xMAP Technology-Based Pentaplex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caboré, Raissa Nadège; Piérard, Denis; Huygen, Kris

    2016-01-01

    Serosurveillance and seroprevalence studies are an essential tool to monitor vaccine-preventable diseases. We have developed a magnetic bead-based pentaplex immunoassay (MIA) for the simultaneous detection of IgG antibodies against diphtheria toxin (DT), tetanus toxin (TT), pertussis toxin (PT), filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) and pertactin (Prn). The in-house pentaplex MIA showed a good correlation with commercial ELISAs with correlation coefficients between 0.89 for PT and 0.98 for TT. Intra- and inter-assay variability was 125 IU/mL) were detected in 1.2% of the subjects. High anti-PT antibodies were not correlated with high antibodies against any of the four other vaccine antigens. This pentaplex MIA will be used for a new large-scale Belgian serosurveillance/seroprevalence study of diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis. PMID:27171114

  6. Syndemic and other risk factors for unprotected anal intercourse among an online sample of Belgian HIV negative men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wim, Vanden Berghe; Christiana, Nöstlinger; Marie, Laga

    2014-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are confronted with different health problems. Next to a higher HIV prevalence and a higher reporting of depressive symptoms and other mental health problems, there is also evidence of substance dependence and sexual compulsivity occurring simultaneously. Using a sample of 591 HIV-negative Belgian MSM, we examine the relationships between depressive symptoms and other risk factors of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) practice with casual partners. These risk factors include depressive symptoms, sexual behavioural indicators, individual risk perception of UAI, intrapersonal factors measured by the sexual sensation seeking scale, substance use, sources of social support and social norming regarding condom use and finally the location where or media through which men find sex partners. Our findings show that multifactorial, intertwined factors contribute to the explanation of UAI among MSM at risk for HIV infection. These findings underline the need for an integrated sexual health approach for MSM. PMID:23681697

  7. The role of biochemical of bone turnover markers in osteoporosis and metabolic bone disease: a consensus paper of the Belgian Bone Club.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalier, E; Bergmann, P; Bruyère, O; Delanaye, P; Durnez, A; Devogelaer, J-P; Ferrari, S L; Gielen, E; Goemaere, S; Kaufman, J-M; Toukap, A Nzeusseu; Reginster, J-Y; Rousseau, A-F; Rozenberg, S; Scheen, A J; Body, J-J

    2016-07-01

    The exact role of biochemical markers of bone turnover in the management of metabolic bone diseases remains a topic of controversy. In this consensus paper, the Belgian Bone Club aimed to provide a state of the art on the use of these biomarkers in different clinical or physiological situations like in postmenopausal women, osteoporosis in men, in elderly patients, in patients suffering from bone metastasis, in patients with chronic renal failure, in pregnant or lactating women, in intensive care patients, and in diabetics. We also gave our considerations on the analytical issues linked to the use of these biomarkers, on potential new emerging biomarkers, and on the use of bone turnover biomarkers in the follow-up of patients treated with new drugs for osteoporosis. PMID:27026330

  8. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in sFRP4 are associated with bone and body composition related parameters in Danish but not in Belgian men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boudin, Eveline; Piters, Elke; Nielsen, Torben Leo;

    2012-01-01

    replicate the results found in the Danish cohort but we found one SNP (rs2598116) associated with height. In conclusion, genetic variation in sFRP4 has an influence on hip fracture risk, percentage body fat and height in a Danish male population. However, we were unable to replicate these results in an......) in a decrease in bone density and bone strength. Finally, we observed in the Danish population age specific associations with height and fat mass. In the Belgian population we tried to replicate the results of three SNPs with BMD and body composition parameters. Unfortunately, we were not able to...... populations. Based on these data we decided to perform an association study between common variants in sFRP4, BMD, hip geometry parameters and body composition parameters in a population consisting of 1383 Danish men (783 aged 20-29 years; 600 aged 60-74 years). Afterwards we tried to replicate the...

  9. The Belgian Investments in Mass Transit of the Cities in Russian Empire at the End of the XIXth and at the Beginning of the XXth Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya V. Shpakov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the process of realization of long-term investment in the city transport projects of the Russian Empire at the end of the XIX and the beginning of the XX centuries. The authors analyze the reasons for the attractiveness of the Russian transport sector for the Belgian companies, the main stages of their integration into the economy of the Russian Empire, examine the legal and operational features of the transport activities of joint stock companies with foreign borrowed capital. There is also analysis of the volumes of the invested funds, description of the authorized capital size and the transport companies’ securities. On the basis of the comparison of the annual profit interest, the article explains the relatively small presence of the empire companies with Russian capital in the urban transport market. Analyzing the annual financial results of the joint stock Belgian transport companies, the authors fix a number of loss-making companies in the provincial towns. The article presents an attempt to explain this phenomenon on the basis of the problems in urban transportation in several cities. Examining the peculiarities of doing transport business in the cities, the article reflects the aspirations of the owners of corporations to maximize their profits at the expense of the quality of transport service. At the beginning of the XX century such companies’ policy led to the negative assessment of the way of solving transport problems of cities at the expense of foreign capital state by the Russian Empire. The authors come to the conclusion that trying to find the most appropriate solution of the question, the empire authorities offered the city transport companies to build their own resources by attracting loans in the state banks and to use of the funds from the bond issues.

  10. The Belgian approach and status on the radiological surveillance of radioactive substances in metal scrap and non-radioactive waste and the financing of orphan sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerous facilities in the non-nuclear sector in Belgium (e.g. in the non-radioactive waste processing and management sector and in the metal recycling sector) have been equipped with measuring ports for detecting radioactive substances. These measuring ports prevent radioactive sources or radioactive contamination from ending up in the material fluxes treated by the sectors concerned. They thus play an important part in the protection of the workers and the people living in the neighbourhood of the facilities, as well as in the protection of the population and the environment in general. In 2006, Belgium's federal nuclear control agency (FANC/AFCN) drew up guidelines for the operators of non-nuclear facilities with a measuring port for detecting radioactive substances. These guidelines describe the steps to be followed by the operators when the port's alarm goes off. Following the publication of the European guideline 2003/122/EURATOM of 22 December 2003 on the control of high-activity sealed radioactive sources and orphan sources, a procedure has been drawn up by FANC/AFCN and ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Belgian National Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials, to identify the responsible to cover the costs relating to the further management of detected sealed sources and if not found to declare the sealed source as an orphan source. In this latter case and from mid-2006 the insolvency fund managed by ONDRAF/NIRAS covers the cost of radioactive waste management. At the request of the Belgian government, a financing proposal for the management of unsealed orphan sources as radioactive waste was also established by FANC/AFCN and ONDRAF/NIRAS. This proposal applies the same approach as for sealed sources and thus the financing of unsealed orphan sources will also be covered by the insolvency fund. (authors)

  11. On the distribution and population dynamics of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in the Belgian part of the North Sea and Westerschelde estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansteenbrugge, Lies; Ampe, Bart; De Troch, Marleen; Vincx, Magda; Hostens, Kris

    2015-09-01

    The spatio-temporal distribution and population dynamics of the non-indigenous ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi A. Agassiz 1865 were investigated through monthly and quarterly surveys in 2011-2012 at several locations in the Belgian part of the North Sea, the main coastal ports and the adjacent Westerschelde estuary. M. leidyi occurred from August to December, but was never found more than 30 km offshore. Densities were generally low (average 0.8 ± SD 2.8 ind m(-3)) compared to other invaded European systems. Highest densities of M. leidyi were found in the semi-enclosed basin (port of Oostende; 18.4 ind m(-3)) and Westerschelde estuary (1.9 ind m(-3)). The presence of larvae and sudden appearance of high numbers across the size distribution in August indicated that ports and estuaries may act as sources, populating the adjacent coastal area. The zero-inflated logistic regression model showed that there is a higher chance of finding M. leidyi (presence) when temperature declines from late summer onwards. Combined with a negative binomial regression, our model suggests that increasing M. leidyi densities are associated with decreasing autumn temperatures, low wave height (low energetic systems) and low dissolved oxygen concentrations Although densities remained relatively low since its first appearance in 2007, a permanent population seems to be established in Belgian waters. As population outbursts may occur with only a small change in environmental parameters, further monitoring of this notorious invasive species is recommended. PMID:26263834

  12. A Belgian Serosurveillance/Seroprevalence Study of Diphtheria, Tetanus and Pertussis Using a Luminex xMAP Technology-Based Pentaplex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raissa Nadège Caboré

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Serosurveillance and seroprevalence studies are an essential tool to monitor vaccine-preventable diseases. We have developed a magnetic bead-based pentaplex immunoassay (MIA for the simultaneous detection of IgG antibodies against diphtheria toxin (DT, tetanus toxin (TT, pertussis toxin (PT, filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA and pertactin (Prn. The in-house pentaplex MIA showed a good correlation with commercial ELISAs with correlation coefficients between 0.89 for PT and 0.98 for TT. Intra- and inter-assay variability was <10%. A total of 670 anonymized serum samples collected in 2012 in Belgian adults (ages 20–29.9 years were analyzed. Geometric mean concentrations (GMC were 0.2 (0.13–0.29 IU/mL for DT, 0.63 (0.45–0.82 IU/mL for TT, 3.9 (2.6–5.8 IU/mL for PT, 16.3 (11.7–22.7 IU/mL for FHA and 15.4 (10.1–23.6 IU/mL for Prn. Antibody concentrations were below the protective level of 0.1 IU/mL in 26.4% of the sera for DT and in 8.6% of the sera for TT. Anti-PT IgG concentrations indicative of recent pertussis infection (>125 IU/mL were detected in 1.2% of the subjects. High anti-PT antibodies were not correlated with high antibodies against any of the four other vaccine antigens. This pentaplex MIA will be used for a new large-scale Belgian serosurveillance/seroprevalence study of diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis.

  13. Empirical evidence for a four factor framework of personality disorder organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossi, Gina; Elklit, Ask; Simonsen, Erik

    2010-01-01

    The factor structure of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (Millon, Millon, Davis, & Grossman, 2006) personality disorder scales was analyzed using multigroup confirmatory factor analysis on data obtained from a Danish (N = 2030) and a Belgian (N = 1210) sample. Two-, three-, and four...... clearly supports the efforts to organize future personality disorder description in a four-factor framework by corroborating four domains that were predominant in dimensional models (Widiger & Simonsen, 2005): Factor 1, 2, 3, and 4 respectively corresponded to emotional dysregulation versus stability...

  14. Terminal care in older patients in hospital: development of a quality indicator set and its first application in a retrospective comparison of patients treated in acute geriatric unit and a palliative care unit of a Belgian university hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Cools, Annelies; Vaneechoutte, Delphine; Van Den Noortgate, Nele; VERSLUYS, KAREN; De Laat, Martine; Petrovic, Mirko; Piers, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Background: Care at the end-of-life of geriatric inpatients is of increasing importance. Nevertheless, limited research has been conducted on this subject so far. Objectives: To compose a set of quality indicators (QIs) which measure the quality of terminal care for geriatric inpatients and to compare the quality of end-of-life care between the Acute Geriatric Unit (AGU) and the Palliative Care Unit (PCU). Design: Retrospective case study. Setting: Belgian university hospital. Par...

  15. Characterization of a genetically heterogeneous porcine rotavirus C, and other viruses present in the fecal virome of a non-diarrheic Belgian piglet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theuns, Sebastiaan; Conceição-Neto, Nádia; Zeller, Mark; Heylen, Elisabeth; Roukaerts, Inge D M; Desmarets, Lowiese M B; Van Ranst, Marc; Nauwynck, Hans J; Matthijnssens, Jelle

    2016-09-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies are becoming increasingly accessible, leading to an expanded interest in the composition of the porcine enteric virome. In the present study, the fecal virome of a non-diarrheic Belgian piglet was determined. Although the virome of only a single piglet was analyzed, some interesting data were obtained, including the second complete genome of a pig group C rotavirus (RVC). This Belgian strain was only distantly related to the only other completely characterized pig RVC strain, Cowden. Its relatedness to RVC strains from other host species was also analyzed and the porcine strain found in our study was only distantly related to RVCs detected in humans and cows. The gene encoding the outer capsid protein VP7 belonged to the rare porcine G3 genotype, which might be serologically distinct from most other pig RVC strains. A putative novel RVC VP6 genotype was identified as well. A group A rotavirus strain also present in this fecal sample contained the rare pig genotype combination G11P[27], but was only partially characterized. Typical pig RVA genotypes I5, A8, and T7 were found for the viral proteins VP6, NSP1, and NSP3, respectively. Interestingly, the fecal virome of the piglet also contained an astrovirus and an enterovirus, of which the complete genomes were characterized. Results of the current study indicate that many viruses may be present simultaneously in fecal samples of non-diarrheic piglets. In this study, these viruses could not be directly associated with any disease, but still they might have had a potential subclinical impact on pig growth performance. The fast evolution of NGS will be a powerful tool for future diagnostics in veterinary practice. Its application will certainly lead to better insights into the relevance of many (sub)clinical enteric viral infections, that may have remained unnoticed using traditional diagnostic techniques. This will stimulate the development of new and durable prophylactic

  16. The UP4FUN Intervention Effect on Breaking Up Sedentary Time in 10- to 12-Year-Old Belgian Children: The ENERGY-Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verloigne, Maïté; Berntsen, Sveinung; Ridgers, Nicola D; Cardon, Greet; Chinapaw, Mai; Altenburg, Teatske; Brug, Johannes; Bere, Elling; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Van Lippevelde, Wendy; Maes, Lea

    2015-05-01

    There are currently no studies available reporting intervention effects on breaking up children's sedentary time. This study examined the UP4FUN intervention effect on objectively measured number of breaks in sedentary time, number of sedentary bouts (≥ 10 mins) and total and average amount of time spent in those sedentary bouts among 10- to 12-year-old Belgian children. The total sample included 354 children (mean age: 10.9 ± 0.7 years; 59% girls) with valid ActiGraph accelerometer data at pre- and posttest. Only few and small intervention effects were found, namely on total time spent in sedentary bouts immediately after school hours (4-6PM; β = -3.51mins) and on average time spent in sedentary bouts before school hours (6-8.30AM; β = -4.83mins) and immediately after school hours in favor of children from intervention schools (β = -2.71mins). Unexpectedly, girls from intervention schools decreased the number of breaks during school hours (8.30AM-4PM; β = -23.45breaks) and increased the number of sedentary bouts on a weekend day (β = +0.90bouts), whereas girls in control schools showed an increase in number of breaks and a decrease in number of bouts. In conclusion, UP4FUN did not have a consistent or substantial effect on breaking up children's sedentary time and these data suggest that more intensive and longer lasting interventions are needed. PMID:25389211

  17. Mutual exchange between Polish and Belgian magazines: a case study in cultural mobility within the interwar network of the avant-garde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Wenderski

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In January 1924, Flemish avant-garde magazine Het Overzicht published a list of its congenial modernist for­ma­tions named ‘Het Netwerk’. It named nineteen magazines from Europe, the United States and Brazil, including the Polish magazine Zwrotnica. It exemplified the close and direct relationships within the supranational network of the avant-garde. Various formations belonging to this network, both bigger and smaller nodes, were linked to each other, often directly through befriended artists and writers. It did not only concern places such as Paris or Berlin, but also less pivotal nodes of the avant-garde network. In this paper I will present a case study of two countries, namely Poland and Belgium, as an example of European interwar cultural mobility. Joined in their pursuit of modern art, and crossing national and linguistic frontiers, Polish, French and Dutch-language magazines exchanged and re-printed each other’s texts and artworks, a practice also discussed in the correspondence between their representatives. Based on such tangible traces I will describe the cultural mobility and mutual exchange between the Polish and Belgian modernist journals, and attempt to shed light on the features, dynamics, and key figures of the network.

  18. Influence of Angus and Belgian Blue bulls mated to Hereford x Brahman cows on growth, carcass traits, and longissimus steak shear force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidner, T D; Humes, P E; Wyatt, W E; Franke, D E; Persica, M A; Gentry, G T; Blouin, D C

    2009-03-01

    Steers and heifers were generated from Angus (A) and Belgian Blue (BB) sires mated to Brahman x Hereford (B x H) F(1) cows to characterize their growth, carcass traits, and LM shear force. A total of 120 B x H cows purchased from 2 herds and 35 bulls (14 A and 21 BB) produced calves during the 5-yr project. After the stocker phase, a representative sample of A- and BB-sired heifers and steers were transported to the Iberia Research Station to be fed a high-concentrate diet. The remaining cattle were transported to a commercial feedlot facility. Each pen of cattle from the commercial feedlot was slaughtered when it was estimated that heifers and steers had 10 mm of fat or greater. The BB-sired calves were heavier at birth (P yield (P grade than carcasses from BB-sired calves. Tenderness, as measured by shear force of the steaks aged for 7 d, was similar for A- and BB-sired calves. However, steaks aged for 14 d from the A-sired calves had a reduced shear force (P grades, whereas the heifer carcasses had larger LM area per 100 kg of carcass weight. In conclusion, the BB-sired calves had heavier carcass weights and greater cutability, whereas the A-sired calves had a greater degree of marbling and greater quality grade, and steaks from carcasses of A-sired calves were more tender as measured by shear force at 14 d. PMID:19028864

  19. Technical Note: Spectral representation of spatial correlations in variational assimilation with grid point models and application to the belgian assimilation system for chemical observations (BASCOE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Errera

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The formulation of the background error covariances represented in the spectral space is discussed in the context of univariate assimilation relying on a grid point model, leaving out all the aspects of balances between the different control variables needed in meteorological assimilation. The spectral transform operations are discussed in the case of a spherical harmonics basis and we stress that there is no need for an inverse spectral transform and of a Gaussian grid. The analysis increments are thus produced directly on the model grid. The practice of producing analysis increments on a horizontal Gaussian grid and then interpolating on a equally spaced grid is also shown to produce a degradation of the analysis. The method discussed in this paper allows the implementation of separable and non-separable spatial correlations. The separable formulation has been implemented in the Belgian Assimilation System for Chemical ObsErvations (BASCOE and its impact on the assimilation of O3 observed by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS is shown. To promote the use of this method by other non-meteorological variational systems and in particular chemistry, the Fortran code developed is made available to the community.

  20. Technical Note: Spectral representation of spatial correlations in variational assimilation with grid point models and application to the Belgian Assimilation System for Chemical Observations (BASCOE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Errera

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The formulation of the background error covariances represented in the spectral space is discussed in the context of univariate assimilation relying on a grid point model, leaving out all the aspects of balances between the different control variables needed in meteorological assimilation. The spectral transform operations are discussed in the case of a spherical harmonics basis and we stress that there is no need for an inverse spectral transform and of a Gaussian grid. The analysis increments are thus produced directly on the model grid. The practice of producing analysis increments on a horizontal Gaussian grid and then interpolating to an equally spaced grid is also shown to produce a degradation of the analysis. The method discussed in this paper allows the implementation of separable and non-separable spatial correlations. The separable formulation has been implemented in the Belgian Assimilation System for Chemical ObsErvations (BASCOE and its impact on the assimilation of O3 observed by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS is shown. To promote the use of this method by other non-meteorological variational systems and in particular chemistry, the Fortran code developed is made available to the community.

  1. Differentiating between Underwater Construction Noise of Monopile and Jacket Foundations for Offshore Windmills: A Case Study from the Belgian Part of the North Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Michel Jules Norro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Steel monopiles, jackets requiring four steel pinpiles, and gravity-based foundations were applied in offshore wind farms in the Belgian part of the North Sea. This paper compares the underwater noise generated during the piling activities of steel monopiles at the Belwind wind farm (Blighbank with that of jacket pinpiles at the C-Power project (Thorntonbank. Underwater noise was measured at various distances from the pile driving location. The underwater noise was quantified by its zero to peak sound pressure level (, unweighted sound exposure level (SEL, cumulative SEL, and 1/3 octave spectra. No significant differences in could be demonstrated (monopile : 179–194 dB re 1 μPa, jacket : 172–189 dB re 1 μPa. SEL showed no statistical difference between monopile and jacket and varied between 145 and 168 dB re 1 μPa2s. Furthermore, near identical spectra were measured for both types of piling. Piling of the jacket pinpiles took, however, about 2.5 times the time of the monopile. When standardised to megawatt installed per foundation both types of piling scored near equally. As an illustration, the radius of major behavioural disturbance ( dB re 1 μPa in the harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena was estimated by a model at 16 km for monopiles and at 8 km for jacket.

  2. Atmospheric lead and heavy metal pollution records from a Belgian peat bog spanning the last two millenia: Human impact on a regional to global scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Europe has been continuously polluted throughout the last two millennia. During the Roman Empire, these pollutions were mainly from ore extraction and smelting across Europe. Then, during the Middle Ages and the Early times of Industrial revolution (i.e. 1750), these pollutions extended to coal burning and combustion engine. Belgian ombrotrophic peat bogs have proved an effective archive of these pollutants and provide the opportunity to reconstruct the history of atmospheric deposition in NW Europe. The results of recent and past trace metal accumulation and Pb isotopes from a one-meter peat core (in the Misten peat bog) have been derived using XRF and Nu-plasma MC-ICP-MS. Combined with 14C and 210Pb dates these data have enabled us to trace fluxes in anthropogenic pollution back to original Roman times. Several periods of well-known Pb pollution events are clearly recorded including the Early and Late Roman Empire, the Middle Ages and the second industrial revolution. Also recorded is the introduction of leaded gasoline, and more recently the introduction of unleaded gasoline. Lead isotopes in this site have also enabled us to fingerprint several regional and global sources of anthropogenic particles

  3. Reverse genetic screen for loss-of-function mutations uncovers a frameshifting deletion in the melanophilin gene accountable for a distinctive coat color in Belgian Blue cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wanbo; Sartelet, Arnaud; Tamma, Nico; Coppieters, Wouter; Georges, Michel; Charlier, Carole

    2016-02-01

    In the course of a reverse genetic screen in the Belgian Blue cattle breed, we uncovered a 10-bp deletion (c.87_96del) in the first coding exon of the melanophilin gene (MLPH), which introduces a premature stop codon (p.Glu32Aspfs*1) in the same exon, truncating 94% of the protein. Recessive damaging mutations in the MLPH gene are well known to cause skin, hair, coat or plumage color dilution phenotypes in numerous species, including human, mice, dog, cat, mink, rabbit, chicken and quail. Large-scale array genotyping undertaken to identify p.Glu32Aspfs*1 homozygous mutant animals revealed a mutation frequency of 5% in the breed and allowed for the identification of 10 homozygous mutants. As expression of a colored coat requires at least one wild-type allele at the co-dominant Roan locus encoded by the KIT ligand gene (KITLG), homozygous mutants for p.Ala227Asp corresponding with the missense mutation were excluded. The six remaining colored calves displayed a distinctive dilution phenotype as anticipated. This new coat color was named 'cool gray'. It is the first damaging mutation in the MLPH gene described in cattle and extends the already long list of species with diluted color due to recessive mutations in MLPH and broadens the color palette of gray in this breed. PMID:26582259

  4. Cross-cultural differences in the practices of hotel managers: A study of Dutch and Belgian hotel managers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Jansen-Verbeke (Myriam)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractIn the service sector there has been debate and research on whether it is the culture of the organization or that of the location that shapes hotel management practice - particularly given the internationalization of certain, mostly US-style practices. Here Myriam Jansen-Verbeke and Lies

  5. Off shore wind farms change the benthic pelagic coupling in the Belgian Part of the North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanaverbeke, Jan; Coates, Delphine; Braeckman, Ulrike; Soetaert, Karline; Moens, Tom

    2016-04-01

    Since Europe enforced renewable energy target figures upon its member states through the implementation of two main European Directives 11 2001/77/EC and 2009/28/EC, the development of offshore wind farms (OWF) has accelerated. Belgium installed OWFs on sandbanks, characterized by permeable sediments, low in organic matter content and a species-poor macrofaunal community with species occurring in low densities. A detailed monitoring campaign in the immediate vicinity of a wind turbine (1-200m), revealed a significant decrease in median grain size and permeability, coinciding with a 6-fold increase in organic matter content. The observed fining of the sediment is explained by an altered benthic-pelagic coupling in the area. The wind turbines are colonized by an abundant fouling community producing high amounts of detritus and faeces, a continuous additional source of organic matter. The changes in sediment composition, and the availability of additional organic matter resulted in drastic increase in macrofaunal densities (from 1390 ind m-2 to 18600 ind m-2), and a change from a species-poor community to a species-rich community dominated by the ecosystem engineer Lanice conchilega. Large densities of L. conchilega, as observed in our samples, are known to trap fine material from the water column, which can result in a further decrease of sediment permeability in the vicinity of the wind turbines. A preliminary experiment, where permeable sediments were subjected to artificial fining, showed a decreased penetration depth of advective water currents and a reduced trapping of diatoms by the sediment in finer sediments. Additionally, sediment community oxygen consumption rates, and efflux of NH4+ from the sediment, measured after a simulated phytoplankton bloom, decreased significantly when sediment permeability was reduced. We hypothesize that the combination of the altered macrofaunal community composition, together with the changes in the physical properties of the

  6. Spatial variation in phytoplankton dynamics in the Belgian coastal zone of the North Sea studied by microscopy, HPLC-CHEMTAX and underway fluorescence recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muylaert, Koenraad; Gonzales, Rhia; Franck, Melanie; Lionard, Marie; Van der Zee, Claar; Cattrijsse, André; Sabbe, Koen; Chou, Lei; Vyverman, Wim

    2006-05-01

    Spatial variation in the succession of phytoplankton in the Belgian Coastal Zone (BCZ) was investigated by monitoring phytoplankton biomass and community composition using microscopical cell counts, HPLC pigment analyses and in vivo fluorescence recordings. Monthly monitoring of phytoplankton community composition at five stations revealed a succession of three distinct diatom communities. The succession of these three communities was the same at each site, but the succession from the winter-spring to the summer community occurred one month earlier and the succession from the summer to the autumn community one month later at the SW than at the NE stations of the BCZ. Monthly monitoring of chlorophyll a at ten fixed sites and inspection of in vivo fluorescence recordings during various cruises of RV 'Zeeleeuw' indicated that the spring bloom started about one month earlier in the SW part of the BCZ than in the NE part. The spatial difference in the onset of the spring bloom was ascribed to the higher water column turbidity at the NE coast compared to the SW coast. Although a Phaeocystis bloom occurred at all monitoring stations, a clear spatial variation in the magnitude of such blooms was observed, with more intense blooms at the NE coast than at the SW coast. A close relation was observed between the intensity of the Phaeocystis bloom and the availability of inorganic nutrients (N and P) before the onset of the bloom. Comparison of microscopical cell counts and CHEMTAX analysis of accessory pigment data indicated that HPLC analysis may be a useful tool for monitoring Phaeocystis in the North Sea. The presence of chlorophyll c3 containing diatoms, however, probably resulted in the detection of small quantities of Phaeocystis by HPLC-CHEMTAX analysis when microscopical analyses showed that the species was absent.

  7. Diversity and ecology survey of mosquitoes potential vectors in Belgian equestrian farms: A threat prevention of mosquito-borne equine arboviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukraa, Slimane; de La Grandiere, Maria A; Bawin, Thomas; Raharimalala, Fara N; Zimmer, Jean-Yves; Haubruge, Eric; Thiry, Etienne; Francis, Frédéric

    2016-02-01

    Emergence of West Nile Virus was recently recorded in several European countries, which can lead to severe health problems in horse populations. Europe is also at risk of introduction of mosquito-borne equine alphavirus from Americas. Prevention of these arboviruses requires a clear understanding of transmission cycles, especially their vectors. To characterize mosquito fauna, their ecology and identify potential vectors of equine arboviruses in Belgium, entomological surveys of six equestrian farms located in the Wolloon Region were conducted during 2011-2012. The harvest of mosquitoes was based on larval sampling (272 samples from 111 breeding sites) and monthly adults trapping (CO2-baited traps, Mosquito Magnet Liberty Plus). Among 51,493 larvae and 319 adult mosquitoes collected, morphological identification showed the presence of 11 species: Anopheles claviger (Meigen), An. maculipennis s.l. (Meigen), An. plumbeus (Stephens), Culex hortensis (Ficalbi), Cx. territans (Walker), Cx. pipiens s.l. L., Cx. torrentium (Martini), Coquillettidia richiardii (Ficalbi), Culiseta annulata (Schrank), Aedes cantans (Meigen), Ae. geniculatus (Olivier). Molecular identification of Cx. pipiens species complex allowed the detection of three molecular forms, Pipiens (92.3%), Molestus (4.6%) and Hybrid (3.1%). Larvae of Cx. pipiens sl and Cx. torrentium were omnipresent and the most abundant species. Water troughs, ponds and slurry (liquid manure) were the most favorable breeding sites of mosquito larvae. Based upon behavior and ecology of the identified mosquito species, Studied Belgian equestrian farms seem to provide a suitable environment and breeding sites for the proliferation of potential vectors of arboviruses and those being a real nuisance problem for horses and neighboring inhabitants. PMID:26775817

  8. Readiness of the Belgian network of sentinel general practitioners to deliver electronic health record data for surveillance purposes: results of survey study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanthomme Katrien

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to proceed from a paper based registration to a surveillance system that is based on extraction of electronic health records (EHR, knowledge is needed on the number and representativeness of sentinel GPs using a government-certified EHR system and the quality of EHR data for research, expressed in the compliance rate with three criteria: recording of home visits, use of prescription module and diagnostic subject headings. Methods Data were collected by annual postal surveys between 2005 and 2009 among all sentinel GPs. We tested relations between four key GP characteristics (age, gender, language community, practice organisation and use of a certified EHR system by multivariable logistic regression. The relation between EHR software package, GP characteristics and compliance with three quality criteria was equally measured by multivariable logistic regression. Results A response rate of 99% was obtained. Of 221 sentinel GPs, 55% participated in the surveillance without interruption from 2005 onwards, i.e. all five years, and 78% were participants in 2009. Sixteen certified EHR systems were used among 91% of the Dutch and 63% of the French speaking sentinel GPs. The EHR software package was strongly related to the community and only one EHR system was used by a comparable number of sentinel GPs in both communities. Overall, the prescription module was always used and home visits were usually recorded. Uniform subject headings were only sometimes used and the compliance with this quality criterion was almost exclusively related to the EHR software package in use. Conclusions The challenge is to progress towards a sentinel network of GPs delivering care-based data that are (partly extracted from well performing EHR systems and still representative for Belgian general practice.

  9. Organization within Organization Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopdrup-Hjorth, Thomas

    This paper explores how prevalent contemporary problematizations of organizations coincide with a widespread assessment that Organization Studies (OS) has run out of steam. This impasse, the paper argues, is largely due to the emergence of an organization-phobia that has come to seize several...... strands of theorizing. By attending to the wide-ranging and far-reaching history of this organization-phobia, the paper argues that OS has become increasingly incapable of speaking about its core object. I show how organizations went from being conceptualized as entities of major importance to becoming...... associated with all kinds of ills. Through this history, organizations as distinct entities have been rendered so problematic that they have gradually come to be removed from the center of OS. The costs of this have been rather significant. Besides undermining the grounds that gave OS intellectual...

  10. Knowledge Organization = Information Organization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    Are the terms ―information organization‖ (IO), ―organization of information‖ (OI) and ―information architecture‖ (IA) synonyms for knowledge organization (KO)? This study uses bibliometric methods, among others, to determine some relations between these terms and their meanings. Apparently the data...

  11. Hair mercury and urinary cadmium levels in Belgian children and their mothers within the framework of the COPHES/DEMOCOPHES projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A harmonized human biomonitoring pilot study was set up within the frame of the European projects DEMOCOPHES and COPHES. In 17 European countries, biomarkers of some environmental pollutants, including urinary cadmium and hair mercury, were measured in children and their mothers in order to obtain European-wide comparison values on these chemicals. The Belgian participant population consisted in 129 school children (6–11 years) and their mothers (≤ 45 years) living in urban or rural areas of Belgium. The geometric mean levels for mercury in hair were 0.383 μg/g and 0.204 μg/g for respectively mothers and children. Cadmium in mother's and children's urine was detected at a geometric mean concentration of respectively 0.21 and 0.04 μg/l. For both biomarkers, levels measured in the mothers and their child were correlated. While the urinary cadmium levels increased with age, no trend was found for hair mercury content, except the fact that mothers hold higher levels than children. The hair mercury content increased significantly with the number of dental amalgam fillings, explaining partially the higher levels in the mothers by their higher presence rate of these amalgams compared to children. Fish or seafood consumption was the other main parameter determining the mercury levels in hair. No relationship was found between smoking status and cadmium or mercury levels, but the studied population included very few smokers. Urinary cadmium levels were higher in both mothers and children living in urban areas, while for mercury this difference was only significant for children. Our small population showed urinary cadmium and hair mercury levels lower than the health based guidelines suggested by the WHO or the JECFA (Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives). Only 1% had cadmium level slightly higher than the German HBM-I value (1 μg/l for adults), and 9% exceeded the 1 μg mercury/g hair suggested by the US EPA. - Highlights: • Hair mercury and urinary

  12. Hair mercury and urinary cadmium levels in Belgian children and their mothers within the framework of the COPHES/DEMOCOPHES projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirard, Catherine, E-mail: c.pirard@chu.ulg.ac.be [CHU of Liege, Laboratory of Clinical, Forensic and Environmental Toxicology, CHU (B35), 4000 Liege (Belgium); Koppen, Gudrun, E-mail: gudrun.koppen@vito.be [Flemish Institute of Technological Research, Environmental Risk and Health Unit, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); De Cremer, Koen, E-mail: Koen.DeCremer@wiv-isp.be [Scientific Institute of Public Health, Juliette Wytsmanstraat 14, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Van Overmeire, Ilse, E-mail: ilse.vanovermeire@wiv-isp.be [Scientific Institute of Public Health, Juliette Wytsmanstraat 14, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Govarts, Eva, E-mail: eva.govarts@vito.be [Flemish Institute of Technological Research, Environmental Risk and Health Unit, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Dewolf, Marie-Christine, E-mail: marie_christine.dewolf@hainaut.be [Provincial Institute Hainaut Vigilance Sanitaire — Hainaut Hygiène Publique en (HVS-HPH), Boulevard Sainctelette, 55, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Van De Mieroop, Els, E-mail: Els.VanDeMieroop@pih.provant.be [Provincial Institute for Hygiene (PIH), Boomgaardstraat 22 bus 1, 2600 Antwerpen (Belgium); Aerts, Dominique, E-mail: dominique.aerts@milieu.belgie.be [Federal Public Service Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment, Place Victor Horta 40/10, 1060 Brussels (Belgium); Biot, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.biot@environnement.belgique.be [Federal Public Service Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment, Place Victor Horta 40/10, 1060 Brussels (Belgium); Casteleyn, Ludwine, E-mail: Ludwine.Casteleyn@med.kuleuven.be [University of Leuven, Center for Human Genetics, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Kolossa-Gehring, Marike, E-mail: marike.kolossa@uba.de [Federal Environment Agency, Corrensplatz 1, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Schwedler, Gerda, E-mail: Gerda.Schwedler@uba.de [Federal Environment Agency, Corrensplatz 1, 14195 Berlin (Germany); and others

    2014-02-01

    A harmonized human biomonitoring pilot study was set up within the frame of the European projects DEMOCOPHES and COPHES. In 17 European countries, biomarkers of some environmental pollutants, including urinary cadmium and hair mercury, were measured in children and their mothers in order to obtain European-wide comparison values on these chemicals. The Belgian participant population consisted in 129 school children (6–11 years) and their mothers (≤ 45 years) living in urban or rural areas of Belgium. The geometric mean levels for mercury in hair were 0.383 μg/g and 0.204 μg/g for respectively mothers and children. Cadmium in mother's and children's urine was detected at a geometric mean concentration of respectively 0.21 and 0.04 μg/l. For both biomarkers, levels measured in the mothers and their child were correlated. While the urinary cadmium levels increased with age, no trend was found for hair mercury content, except the fact that mothers hold higher levels than children. The hair mercury content increased significantly with the number of dental amalgam fillings, explaining partially the higher levels in the mothers by their higher presence rate of these amalgams compared to children. Fish or seafood consumption was the other main parameter determining the mercury levels in hair. No relationship was found between smoking status and cadmium or mercury levels, but the studied population included very few smokers. Urinary cadmium levels were higher in both mothers and children living in urban areas, while for mercury this difference was only significant for children. Our small population showed urinary cadmium and hair mercury levels lower than the health based guidelines suggested by the WHO or the JECFA (Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives). Only 1% had cadmium level slightly higher than the German HBM-I value (1 μg/l for adults), and 9% exceeded the 1 μg mercury/g hair suggested by the US EPA. - Highlights: • Hair mercury and

  13. Proteomic profiling of bovine M. longissimus lumborum from Crossbred Aberdeen Angus and Belgian Blue sired steers varying in genetic merit for carcass weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keady, Sarah M; Kenny, David A; Ohlendieck, Kay; Doyle, Sean; Keane, M G; Waters, Sinéad M

    2013-02-01

    Bovine skeletal muscle is a tissue of significant value to the beef industry and global economy. Proteomic analyses offer the opportunity to detect molecular mechanisms regulating muscle growth and intramuscular fat accumulation. The current study aimed to investigate differences in protein abundance in skeletal muscle tissue of cattle from two breeds of contrasting maturity (early vs. late maturing), adiposity, and muscle growth potential, namely, Belgian Blue (BB) × Holstein Friesian and Aberdeen Angus (AA) × Holstein Friesian. Twenty AA (n = 10) and BB (n = 10) sired steers, the progeny of sires of either high or low genetic merit, expressed as expected progeny difference for carcass weight (EPDcwt), and bred through AI, were evaluated as 4 genetic groups, BB-High, BB-Low, AA-High, and AA-Low (n = 5 per treatment). Chemical composition analysis of M. longissimus lumborum showed greater protein and moisture and decreased lipid concentrations for BB-sired compared with AA-sired steers. To investigate the effects of both sire breed and EPDcwt on M. longissimus lumborum, proteomic analysis was performed using 2-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry. Proteins were identified from their peptide sequences, using the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and Swiss-prot databases. Metabolic enzymes involved in glycolysis (glycogen phosphorylase, phosphoglycerate mutase) and the citric acid cycle (aconitase 2, oxoglutarate dehydrogenase) were increased in AA- vs. BB-sired steers. Expression of proteins involved in cell structure, such as myosin light chain isoforms and troponins I and T, were also altered due to sire breed. Furthermore, heat shock protein β-1 and peroxiredoxin 6, involved in cell defense, had increased abundance in muscle of AA-sired relative to BB-sired steers. Protein abundance of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, enolase-3, and pyruvate kinase was greater in AA-sired animals of High compared with Low

  14. Un guide colonial. Le Guide du Voyageur au Congo belge et au Ruanda-Urundi A colonial guidebook. Travel guide to Belgian Congo and Ruanda-Urundi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Nicolaï

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Le Guide, qui a connu cinq éditions pendant les dix dernières années du Congo belge, est un archétype du guide colonial. L’article rappelle d’abord la naissance du tourisme en Afrique centrale et ses caractéristiques. Fasciné longtemps par les mythes des Monts de la Lune et des sources du Nil, le tourisme congolais est, au départ, essentiellement élitiste, orienté surtout vers la grande chasse sportive. Gorilles de montagne, ascensions du Ruwenzori, danseurs Tutsi, Parc National Albert, pêcheurs wagenia deviennent les icônes d’un tourisme attiré en ordre principal par le Kivu, les Grands Lacs, Stanleyville et secondairement le Katanga. Le premier guide, édité par Vicicongo, en 1934, s’intitule d’ailleurs Congo-Nil. Tous ces mythes et ces décors se retrouvent dans quelques grands films américains d’aventure du début des années 50.L’article décrit ensuite la genèse du Guide, ses caractéristiques générales, son plan, son contenu. Beaucoup d’informations générales, pas de véritables circuits mais plutôt des itinéraires routiers. Produit par les services officiels d’information de la Colonie, le Guide a, parmi ses objectifs, de montrer la persistance et les résultats de l’action civilisatrice de la Belgique. Il affirme que le Congo n’est pas un pays d’art ni d’histoire et accorde donc une part prépondérante au milieu naturel. Il fournit une image tronquée de son histoire et exprime sur ses habitants les préjugés de l’époque.L’article se termine par quelques réflexions sur les tentatives d’un reporter d’une chaîne de télévision et d’un photographe d’utiliser le Guide de 1958 pour parcourir le pays un demi-siècle plus tard.The Travel Guide to Belgian Congo and Ruanda-Urundi, of which five editions were released during the last ten years of Belgian Congo, is an archetypal colonial guide.The paper first highlights the emergence and the features of tourism in Central Africa

  15. 28 March 2014 - Italian Minister of Education, University and Research S. Giannini welcomed by CERN Director-General R. Heuer and Director for Research and Scientific Computing S. Bertolucci in the ATLAS experimental cavern with Former Collaboration Spokesperson F. Gianotti. Signature of the guest book with Belgian State Secretary for the Scientific Policy P. Courard.

    CERN Multimedia

    Gadmer, Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

    28 March 2014 - Italian Minister of Education, University and Research S. Giannini welcomed by CERN Director-General R. Heuer and Director for Research and Scientific Computing S. Bertolucci in the ATLAS experimental cavern with Former Collaboration Spokesperson F. Gianotti. Signature of the guest book with Belgian State Secretary for the Scientific Policy P. Courard.

  16. Calculation on the impacts of forestation, afforestation and reforestation on the C-sequestration potential in Belgian forests ecosystems. COST E21 Workshop. Contribution of forests and forestry to mitigate greenhouse effects. Joensuu (Finland. 28-30 Sep 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrin D.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The Belgian climate policy is formulated at the federal level, requiring cooperation between regional and federal administrations. Around a fifth of the total area of Belgium is covered by forests. Around 80/ of the productive forests are in the Walloon region. Reported values for land use change and forestry categories give a potential of 2,057 kt eq. CO2 per year. Given the existing regional forest inventories (RFI: RFI1 for 1984 and RFI2 for 1999, an estimate has been made to consolidate reported data. Afforestation, deforestation and reforestation activities are calculated according the Intergovernemental Panel on Climate Change special report on land use, land use change and forestry.

  17. Organ Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their death. One strategy is simply to permit organ sale by changing the National Organ Transplant Act (NOTA), the federal law that bans organ sales. Then, individuals would be free to broker contracts ...

  18. Matching Organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Donor Organs With Transplant Candidates When a deceased organ donor is identified, a transplant coordinator from an organ ... transplant candidate, you are registered on the national organ transplant waiting list. A living donor may also be identified and evaluated for living ...

  19. « Congobéton Léopoldville. Congés payés du 1/1/57 au 31/12/57 »: Postwar Architecture, Construction Work and Local Labor in a Belgian Colony

    OpenAIRE

    Lagae, Johan; Craenenbroeck, Ludwine Van

    2016-01-01

    Ever since the first article on colonial architecture in the former Belgian Congo, the territory known today as the Democratic Republic of the Congo, appeared in 1986, a substantial amount of research has been conducted on the topic, scrutinizing late nineteenth-century prefabricated metal structures, the introduction of modernist ideas in design and planning since the 1920s, and the emergence of 1950s tropical modernism. More recently, the built production of the post-independence era has al...

  20. Organic spintronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review the emerging field of organic spintronics, where organic materials are applied as a medium to transport and control spin-polarized signals. The contacts for injecting and detecting spins are formed by ferromagnetic metals, oxides, or inorganic semiconductors. First, the basic concepts of spintronics and organic electronics are addressed, and phenomena which are in particular relevant for organic spintronics are highlighted. Experiments using different organic materials, including carbon nanotubes, organic thin films, self-assembled monolayers and single molecules are then reviewed. Observed magnetoresistance points toward successful spin injection and detection, but spurious magnetoresistance effects can easily be confused with spin accumulation. A few studies report long spin relaxation times and lengths, which forms a promising basis for further research. We conclude with discussing outstanding questions and problems. (topical review)

  1. Organic electroluminescence

    CERN Document Server

    Kafafi, Zakya H

    2005-01-01

    Organic light-emitting diode(OLED) technology has achieved significant penetration in the commercial market for small, low-voltage and inexpensive displays. Present and future novel technologies based on OLEDs involve rigid and flexible flat panel displays, solid-state lighting, and lasers. Display applications may range from hand-held devices to large flat panel screens that can be rolled up or hung flat on a wall or a ceiling. Organic Electroluminescence gives an overview of the on-going research in the field of organic light-emitting materials and devices, covering the principles of electroluminescence in organic thin films, as well as recent trends, current applications, and future potential uses. The book begins by giving a background of organic electroluminescence in terms of history and basic principles. It offers details on the mechanism(s) of electroluminescence in thin organic films. It presentsin-depth discussions of the parameters that control the external electroluminescence quantum efficien...

  2. Transnational Organizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lasse Folke; Seabrooke, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    An ongoing question for institutional theory is how organizing occurs transnationally, where institution building occurs in a highly ambiguous environment. This article suggests that at the core of transnational organizing is competition and coordination within professional and organizational...... networks over who controls issues. Transnational issues are commonly organized through professional battles over how issues are treated and what tasks are involved. These professional struggles are often more important than what organization has a formal mandate over an issue. We highlight how ‘issue...... should be treated and governed by organizations. Using network and career sequences methods, we provide a case of transnational organizing through professionals who attempt issue control and network management on transnational environmental sustainability certification. The article questions how...

  3. Organic salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankamah Yeboah, Isaac; Nielsen, Max; Nielsen, Rasmus

    The year 2016 is groundbreaking for organic aquaculture producers in EU, as it represents the deadline for implementing a full organic life cycle in the aquaculture production. Such a shift induces production costs for farmers and if it should be profitable, they must receive higher prices. This...... study identifies the price premium on organic salmon in the Danish retail sale sector using consumer panel scanner data for households by applying the hedonic price model while permitting unobserved heterogeneity between households. A premium of 20% for organic salmon is found. Since this premium is...... closer to organic labeled agriculture products than to ecolabelled capture fisheries products, it indicates that consumers value organic salmon as an agriculture product more than fisheries product....

  4. Validity and Reproducibility of a Self-Administered Semi-Quantitative Food-Frequency Questionnaire for Estimating Usual Daily Fat, Fibre, Alcohol, Caffeine and Theobromine Intakes among Belgian Post-Menopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selin Bolca

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ was developed and validated to assess the usual daily fat, saturated, mono-unsaturated and poly-unsaturated fatty acid, fibre, alcohol, caffeine, and theobromine intakes among Belgian post-menopausal women participating in dietary intervention trials with phyto-oestrogens. The relative validity of the FFQ was estimated by comparison with 7 day (d estimated diet records (EDR, n 64 and its reproducibility was evaluated by repeated administrations 6 weeks apart (n 79. Although the questionnaire underestimated significantly all intakes compared to the 7 d EDR, it had a good ranking ability (r 0.47-0.94; weighted κ 0.25-0.66 and it could reliably distinguish extreme intakes for all the estimated nutrients, except for saturated fatty acids. Furthermore, the correlation between repeated administrations was high (r 0.71-0.87 with a maximal misclassification of 7% (weighted κ 0.33-0.80. In conclusion, these results compare favourably with those reported by others and indicate that the FFQ is a satisfactorily reliable and valid instrument for ranking individuals within this study population.

  5. Organic optoelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Wenping; Gong, Xiong; Zhan, Xiaowei; Fu, Hongbing; Bjornholm, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Written by internationally recognized experts in the field with academic as well as industrial experience, this book concisely yet systematically covers all aspects of the topic.The monograph focuses on the optoelectronic behavior of organic solids and their application in new optoelectronic devices. It covers organic electroluminescent materials and devices, organic photonics, materials and devices, as well as organic solids in photo absorption and energy conversion. Much emphasis is laid on the preparation of functional materials and the fabrication of devices, from materials synthesis a

  6. Organic synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1988 progress report of the Organic Synthesis Chemistry laboratory (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The laboratory activities are centered on the chemistry of natural products, which have a biological activity and on the development of new reactions, useful in the organic synthesis. The research works involve the following domains: the natural products chemistry which are applied in pharmacology, the plants and insects chemistry, the organic synthesis, the radical chemistry new reactions and the bio-organic physicochemistry. The published papers, the congress communications and the thesis are listed

  7. Organ Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... must be just and fair. Value judgments and economic considerations affect who is admitted to waiting lists and who gets available organs, calling into question the justice and fairness of the allocation system. It is essential to increase the supply of donated organs; one ...

  8. Organic Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Romea, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Organic Synthesis is a one-semester course of the fourth year of the Chemistry Degree at the Universitat de Barcelona. This course covers the most important transformations in Organic Chemistry, including a short introduction to the Retrosynthetic Analysis. The aim is to provide a solid knowledge of the main reactions and their mechanism, which could later be improved during Master studies.

  9. Organ Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in certain types of transplants. Discover data and statistics for each center. Visit the OPTN's Organ DataSource now > I am looking for >> About organ allocation About UNOS Being a living donor Calculator - CPRA Calculator - KDPI Calculator - LAS Calculator - MELD ...

  10. Organ Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... organs that can be transplanted include Heart Intestine Kidney Liver Lung Pancreas You often have to wait a long time for an organ transplant. Doctors must match donors to recipients to reduce the risk of transplant rejection. Rejection happens when your immune system attacks the ...

  11. Organic aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organic aerosols scatter solar radiation. They may also either enhance or decrease concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei. This paper summarizes observed concentrations of aerosols in remote continental and marine locations and provides estimates for the sources of organic aerosol matter. The anthropogenic sources of organic aerosols may be as large as the anthropogenic sources of sulfate aerosols, implying a similar magnitude of direct forcing of climate. The source estimates are highly uncertain and subject to revision in the future. A slow secondary source of organic aerosols of unknown origin may contribute to the observed oceanic concentrations. The role of organic aerosols acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) is described and it is concluded that they may either enhance or decrease the ability of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols to act as CCN

  12. Multicultural organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob; Selmer, Jan

    2011-01-01

    In recent years the attention towards demographic diversity has increased among academics and practitioners dealing with organization management. Finding a possible connection between diversity and group performance has been the objective of much extant research. Still, however, results are...

  13. Colloidal organization

    CERN Document Server

    Okubo, Tsuneo

    2015-01-01

    Colloidal Organization presents a chemical and physical study on colloidal organization phenomena including equilibrium systems such as colloidal crystallization, drying patterns as an example of a dissipative system and similar sized aggregation. This book outlines the fundamental science behind colloid and surface chemistry and the findings from the author's own laboratory. The text goes on to discuss in-depth colloidal crystallization, gel crystallization, drying dissipative structures of solutions, suspensions and gels, and similar-sized aggregates from nanosized particles. Special emphas

  14. Organic superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The history of superconductivity is traced and the recent discovery of the property in organic materials is discussed. It has been shown that in those organic chemicals in which flat molecules are stacked like tiles, conditions are created in which electrons can flow unhindered. It is reasonable to believe that superconductivity at 20k is now a feasible goal though the dream of resistance-less conduction at room temperature still appears a remote dream. (UK)

  15. Organic Conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jan Rud; Jacobsen, Claus S.; Rindorf, Grethe;

    1975-01-01

    2,3,6,7-Tetramethyl-1,4,5,8-tetraselenafulvalene reacts with 2,5-dimethyl-7,7′,8,8′-tetracyano-p-quinodi-methane to give a highly conducting organic solid.......2,3,6,7-Tetramethyl-1,4,5,8-tetraselenafulvalene reacts with 2,5-dimethyl-7,7′,8,8′-tetracyano-p-quinodi-methane to give a highly conducting organic solid....

  16. Organization Design

    OpenAIRE

    Milton Harris; Artur Raviv

    2002-01-01

    This paper attempts to explain organization structure based on optimal coordination of interactions among activities. The main idea is that each manager is capable of detecting and coordinating interactions only within his limited area of expertise. Only the CEO can coordinate company wide interactions. The optimal design of the organization trades off the costs and benefits of various configurations of managers. Our results consist of classifying the characteristics of activities and manager...

  17. Virtual Organizations: Beyond Network Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Gabriel CRETU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most used buzz-words in (e-business literature of the last decade is virtual organization. The term "virtual" can be identified in all sorts of combinations regarding the business world. From virtual products to virtual processes or virtual teams, everything that is “touched” by the computer’s processing power instantly becomes virtual. Moreover, most of the literature treats virtual and network organizations as being synonyms. This paper aims to draw a much more distinctive line between the two concepts. Providing a more coherent description of what virtual organization might be is also one of our intentions.

  18. Organ culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alm, Rikard; Edvinsson, Lars; Malmsjö, Malin

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endothelium dysfunction is believed to play a role in the development of cardiovascular disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the suitability of organ culture as a model for endothelium dysfunction. METHODS: The isometric tension was recorded in isolated segments of the...... rat mesenteric artery branch, before and after organ culture for 20 h. Vasodilatation was expressed as % of preconstriction with U46619. The acetylcholine (ACh) induced nitric oxide (NO) mediated dilatation was studied in the presence of 10 microM indomethacin, 50 nM charybdotoxin and 1 microM apamin....... Endothelium-derived hyperpolarising factor (EDHF) was studied in the presence of 0.1 mM L-NOARG and indomethacin. Prostaglandins were studied in the presence of L-NOARG, charybdotoxin and apamin. RESULTS: The ACh-induced NO and prostaglandin-mediated dilatations decreased significantly during organ culture...

  19. Organic Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Würtz, Rolf P

    2008-01-01

    Organic Computing is a research field emerging around the conviction that problems of organization in complex systems in computer science, telecommunications, neurobiology, molecular biology, ethology, and possibly even sociology can be tackled scientifically in a unified way. From the computer science point of view, the apparent ease in which living systems solve computationally difficult problems makes it inevitable to adopt strategies observed in nature for creating information processing machinery. In this book, the major ideas behind Organic Computing are delineated, together with a sparse sample of computational projects undertaken in this new field. Biological metaphors include evolution, neural networks, gene-regulatory networks, networks of brain modules, hormone system, insect swarms, and ant colonies. Applications are as diverse as system design, optimization, artificial growth, task allocation, clustering, routing, face recognition, and sign language understanding.

  20. Safety organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a rapid definition of a nuclear basis installation, the national organization of nuclear safety in France is presented, as also the main organizations concerned and their functions. This report shows how the licensing procedure leading to the construction and exploitation of such installations is applied in the case of nuclear laboratories of research and development: examinations of nuclear safety problems are carried out at different levels: - centralized to define the frame out of which the installation has not to operate, - decentralized to follow in a more detailed manner its evolution

  1. Organizing Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Bojesen, Anders

    This paper invites to discuss the processes of individualization and organizing being carried out under what we might see as an emerging regime of change. The underlying argumentation is that in certain processes of change, competence becomes questionable at all times. The hazy characteristics of...

  2. Designing Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DESIGNING ORGANIZATIONS: 21st Century Approaches er en vigtig publikation inden for organisationsdesign. Fokus ligger på nye udviklinger inden for organisationsdesign og bogen hjælper med at skabe mere reflekterende forskining og stærkere empiriske analyser inden for dette vigtige felt inden for...

  3. Organic Nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balzer, Frank; Schiek, Manuela; Al-Shamery, Katharina;

    Single crystalline nanowires from fluorescing organic molecules like para-phenylenes or thiophenes are supposed to become key elements in future integrated optoelectronic devices [1]. For a sophisticated design of devices based on nanowires the basic principles of the nanowire formation have to be...

  4. Entangling Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Anete Mikkala Camille

    2016-01-01

    The chapter accounts for the process of becoming of a changed practice within the area of disability care in the Municipality of Aalborg in Denmark. Across a period of a few months in the fall of 2015 a group of employees across the organization and an action researcher from Aalborg University (the...... author) met and formed a research- practice group and across this period a revised model for cooperation emerged that – upon realization – would reconfigure the intra-play of all relevant areas of the organization involved in disability care. The model included the grasping of disability as dis/ability...... and thereby the model opened the possibility for reworking the binary of ability/disability to the benefit of restorying the citizen’s ability in the practices of changing the disability care....

  5. Entangled Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Anete Mikkala Camille

    The paper accounts for the process of becoming of a changed practice within the area of disability care in the Municipality of Aalborg in Denmark. Across a period of a few months in the fall of 2015 a group of employees across the organization and an action researcher from Aalborg University (the...... author) met and formed a research group and across this period a revised model for cooperation emerged that – upon realization – would reconfigure the intra-play of all relevant areas of the organization involved in disability care. The model included the grasping of disability as dis/ability and thereby...... of dis/ability care were developed over the course of the project and as a result a renewed material-discursive practice emerged as the recommended ‘modus operandi’ of dis/ability care. A recommendation entailing a ‘village-based-community of practice’ which would extend the organizational borders...

  6. Organizing Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Smita; Greif, Avner; Bates, Robert

    2002-01-01

    In stateless societies, coercion is privately provided; violence is employed to engage in, and to defend against, predation. At best, violence results in mere redistribution; being destructive, it more often results in a loss of social welfare. When organized, however, violence can be socially productive; it can be employed to defend property rights, thereby strengthening the incentives to engage in productive activity. To explore how violence can be rendered a source of welfare, the authors ...

  7. LEARNING ORGANIZATIONS: PREREQUISITE FOR SUCCESSFUL TOURISM ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasa Kraleva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, each and every organization, including the tourism organizations should be learning organizations. The globalization and the competition affect the process of working of tourism organizations, where only the organizations which have knowledge, and are learning organizations can succeed. In a time of constant change, tourism organizations can have a competitive advantage only if they can do something or offer something different than their competitors. Many organizations in order to enable the learning process, should firstly undertake changes in the organization design, the organizational culture and the leadership style. The paper discusses the relevance of implementing the process of learning organizations as a concept for successful tourism organizations.

  8. LEARNING ORGANIZATIONS: PREREQUISITE FOR SUCCESSFUL TOURISM ORGANIZATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Natasa Kraleva

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, each and every organization, including the tourism organizations should be learning organizations. The globalization and the competition affect the process of working of tourism organizations, where only the organizations which have knowledge, and are learning organizations can succeed. In a time of constant change, tourism organizations can have a competitive advantage only if they can do something or offer something different than their competitors. Many organizations in order to ...

  9. Scintigraphic examinations during pregnancy and in breast-feeding women: a survey of Belgian nuclear medicine physician's attitudes; Examens scintigraphiques durant la grossesse et chez les femmes en periode d'allaitement: enquete a propos des attitudes pratiques des nuclearistes belges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tondeur, M.; Ham, H. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Saint Pierre, Bruxellex (Belgium); Sand, A. [CEDRI, Vilvoorde (Belgium)

    2003-05-01

    Radiation protection is of major importance in pregnant and breast feeding women. This work was undertaken to assess the practices of Belgian nuclear medicine physicians towards performing diagnostic tests during pregnancy and in breast feeding women. A questionnaire was sent to 201 Belgian nuclear medicine physicians; 82 answers (41 %) were received. 51 % of the responding physicians agree to perform lung perfusion scan during pregnancy provided a reduced dose is administered, 33% refuse to perform it during first three months and 24% refuse to perform it for pregnancies older than three months. For the Tc-99m ventilation scan 79% and 66% refuse to perform it before and after first three months. Better agreement was observed for other Tc-99m scintigraphies or tests using other radionuclides. In breast feeding women 89% agree to perform Tc-99m tests provided a breast feeding break; however, the duration of this break appears variable. The need for obtaining a written informed consent appears controversial. Given the variability of the attitudes of nuclear medicine physicians, official guidelines for nuclear medicine diagnostic tests during pregnancy is needed. (authors)

  10. Organic photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna; Krebs, Frederik C.; Chen, Hongzheng

    2013-12-01

    Energy inflation, the constant encouragement to economize on energy consumption and the huge investments in developing alternative energy resources might seem to suggest that there is a global shortage of energy. Far from it, the energy the Sun beams on the Earth each hour is equivalent to a year's supply, even at our increasingly ravenous rate of global energy consumption [1]. But it's not what you have got it's what you do with it. Hence the intense focus on photovoltaic research to find more efficient ways to harness energy from the Sun. Recently much of this research has centred on organic solar cells since they offer simple, low-cost, light-weight and large-area flexible photovoltaic structures. This issue with guest editors Frederik C Krebs and Hongzheng Chen focuses on some of the developments at the frontier of organic photovoltaic technology. Improving the power conversion efficiency of organic photovoltaic systems, while maintaining the inherent material, economic and fabrication benefits, has absorbed a great deal of research attention in recent years. Here significant progress has been made with reports now of organic photovoltaic devices with efficiencies of around 10%. Yet operating effectively across the electromagnetic spectrum remains a challenge. 'The trend is towards engineering low bandgap polymers with a wide optical absorption range and efficient hole/electron transport materials, so that light harvesting in the red and infrared region is enhanced and as much light of the solar spectrum as possible can be converted into an electrical current', explains Mukundan Thelakkat and colleagues in Germany, the US and UK. In this special issue they report on how charge carrier mobility and morphology of the active blend layer in thin film organic solar cells correlate with device parameters [2]. The work contributes to a better understanding of the solar-cell characteristics of polymer:fullerene blends, which form the material basis for some of the most

  11. OBJECT-ORIENTED IN ORGANIZATION MANAGEMENT: ORGANIC ORGANIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    AmrBadr-El-Din

    2014-01-01

    In a time when virtual organizations are fast becoming a phenomenon, this paper aims to explore how IT-based approaches—and in specific the object-oriented (organic) approach—can be used to structure and facilitate the management of such virtual organizations. As with traditional organizations, a virtual organization needs a structure that is fast, reliable, adaptable and deterministic. In addition, such organizations need a time and cost-efficient structure to a...

  12. The electrochemical oxidation of organic waste and activated graphite by Ag2+ in nitric acid: a literature study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organic wastes and activated moderator graphite can be processed by means of combustion, but the incineration of organic waste poses emission problems. The Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN has experience with the treatment of organic wastes. Moreover, the treatment of radioactive graphite will be required since the BR-1 reactor is moderated with 492 tons of graphite. The strong oxidising properties of Ag2+ are already used in the chemical and nuclear industry to destroy organic waste. We aim to apply the process on radioactive graphite, organic resins and effluents. The reaction mechanisms will be studied, taking into account the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of the different reactions involved. As a first step, this document gives a literature study of the electrochemical oxidation using Ag2+. This document presents a thorough literature study, and shows that the oxidative properties of the Ag2+ ion, which can easily be formed in nitric acid by means of electrolysis, make it an ideal candidate to oxidize organic molecules into carbon dioxide and water on a perfectly well controlled manner. The process has already been used to destroy explosives and toxic organic waste in the nuclear and chemical industry. Chemical, thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of some of the reactions involved are already known and described, other reaction mechanisms are still unknown. On the basis of the information collected so far, the Research and Development group of the Radioactive Waste and Cleanup unit has proposed to start a research programme to define, test, demonstrate and finally apply a safe process for the treatment of radioactive organic material and graphite by electrochemical oxidation using Ag2+. Available data confirm that the oxidation of organic material can be carried out safely, leading to the formation of water and carbon dioxide

  13. History of deceased organ donation, transplantation, and organ procurement organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Richard J; Cornell, Danielle L; Cochran, Larry

    2012-03-01

    The historical development of deceased organ donation, transplantation, and organ procurement organizations is reviewed. The concept of transplantation, taking parts from one animal or person and putting them into another animal or person, is ancient. The development of organ transplantation brought on the need for a source of organs. Although many early kidney transplants used kidneys from living donors, these donors could not satisfy the ever-growing need for organs, and extrarenal organs were recovered only from deceased donors. This need for organs to satisfy the great demand led to specialized organizations to identify deceased donors, manage them until recovery occurred, and to notify transplant centers that organs were available for their patients. The functions of these organ procurement organizations expanded to include other required functions such as education, accounting, and compliance with state and federal requirements. Because of the shortage of organs relative to the demand, lack of a unified organ allocation system, the perception that organs are a national resource and should be governed by national regulations, and to improve results of organ procurement organizations and transplant centers, the federal government has regulated virtually all phases of organ procurement and transplantation. PMID:22489438

  14. Organic photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna; Krebs, Frederik C.; Chen, Hongzheng

    2013-12-01

    Energy inflation, the constant encouragement to economize on energy consumption and the huge investments in developing alternative energy resources might seem to suggest that there is a global shortage of energy. Far from it, the energy the Sun beams on the Earth each hour is equivalent to a year's supply, even at our increasingly ravenous rate of global energy consumption [1]. But it's not what you have got it's what you do with it. Hence the intense focus on photovoltaic research to find more efficient ways to harness energy from the Sun. Recently much of this research has centred on organic solar cells since they offer simple, low-cost, light-weight and large-area flexible photovoltaic structures. This issue with guest editors Frederik C Krebs and Hongzheng Chen focuses on some of the developments at the frontier of organic photovoltaic technology. Improving the power conversion efficiency of organic photovoltaic systems, while maintaining the inherent material, economic and fabrication benefits, has absorbed a great deal of research attention in recent years. Here significant progress has been made with reports now of organic photovoltaic devices with efficiencies of around 10%. Yet operating effectively across the electromagnetic spectrum remains a challenge. 'The trend is towards engineering low bandgap polymers with a wide optical absorption range and efficient hole/electron transport materials, so that light harvesting in the red and infrared region is enhanced and as much light of the solar spectrum as possible can be converted into an electrical current', explains Mukundan Thelakkat and colleagues in Germany, the US and UK. In this special issue they report on how charge carrier mobility and morphology of the active blend layer in thin film organic solar cells correlate with device parameters [2]. The work contributes to a better understanding of the solar-cell characteristics of polymer:fullerene blends, which form the material basis for some of the most

  15. Economic system optimization of air-cooled organic Rankine cycles powered by low-temperature geothermal heat sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, an economic system optimization of an air-cooled organic Rankine cycle, powered by geothermal heat, is performed. The goal is to find the configuration of the ORC (organic Rankine cycle) which gives the highest possible net present value for the project. The cycle parameters, heat exchanger geometry and air-cooled condenser geometry are optimized together. The developed method is applied to a case study, based on a Belgian geothermal project, after which the most important parameters are varied. It is shown that the air-cooled condenser is a crucial component from both a thermodynamic and economic point of view. The discount rate, electricity price, brine inlet temperature and annual electricity price evolution have a strong influence on the configuration and efficiency of the ORC and on the economics of the project. - Highlights: • System optimization of organic Rankine cycles powered by low-temperature geothermal heat. • Models of shell-and-tube heat exchangers, air-cooled condensers and axial turbines are included. • Maximization of the net present value. • Combined optimization of cycle, configuration of heat exchangers and air-cooled condensers

  16. Hierarchical organization versus self-organization

    OpenAIRE

    Busseniers, Evo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we try to define the difference between hierarchical organization and self-organization. Organization is defined as a structure with a function. So we can define the difference between hierarchical organization and self-organization both on the structure as on the function. In the next two chapters these two definitions are given. For the structure we will use some existing definitions in graph theory, for the function we will use existing theory on (self-)organization. In the t...

  17. Questions and Answers on the Belgian Model of Integral End-of-Life Care:Experiment Prototype%临终关怀与安乐死的整合:比利时模式的实验与回答

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jan L. Bernheim; Wim Distelmans; Arsène Mullie; Michael A. Ashby; 于磊(译)

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzed the Belgian model of integral end‐of‐life care by way of answering to a series of questions posed by Journal of Bioethical Inquiry consulting editor Michael Ashby to the Belgian authors .The complementary and synergistic relationship between palliative care and euthanasia in Belgium were discussed .In what has become known as the Belgian model of integral end‐of‐life care ,euthanasia is an available option ,also at the end of a palliative care pathway .The legal regulation of euthanasia in 2002 was preceded and followed by a considerable expansion of palliative care services .It is argued that this synergistic development was made possible by public confidence in the health care system and widespread progressive social attitudes that gave rise to a high level of community support for both palliative care and euthanasia .It still exhibits several imperfections ,for which some solutions are being developed .%通过《生命伦理学探究杂志》顾问编辑Michael Ashby提出的一系列问题对比利时临终照护模式的构成进行分析。分析了关于比利时姑息治疗与安乐死之间互补及协同关系。在比利时模式的整合临终护理中,安乐死是姑息治疗途径的终点。安乐死合法化制定于2002年,而后,众多姑息治疗服务兴起。随着公众对卫生保健机构信心的提升和社会态度的广泛进步,对姑息治疗和安乐死的支持水平明显提高,这将使二者的协同发展成为可能。虽然目前比利时模式仍表现出一些缺陷,但一些解决方案正在制定过程中。

  18. Questions and Answers on the Belgian Model of Integral End-of-Life Care:Experiment Prototype%临终关怀与安乐死的整合:比利时模式的实验与回答

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jan L. Bernheim; Wim Distelmans; Arsène Mullie; Michael A. Ashby; 于磊(译)

    2014-01-01

    通过《生命伦理学探究杂志》顾问编辑Michael Ashby提出的一系列问题对比利时临终照护模式的构成进行分析。分析了关于比利时姑息治疗与安乐死之间互补及协同关系。在比利时模式的整合临终护理中,安乐死是姑息治疗途径的终点。安乐死合法化制定于2002年,而后,众多姑息治疗服务兴起。随着公众对卫生保健机构信心的提升和社会态度的广泛进步,对姑息治疗和安乐死的支持水平明显提高,这将使二者的协同发展成为可能。虽然目前比利时模式仍表现出一些缺陷,但一些解决方案正在制定过程中。%This article analyzed the Belgian model of integral end‐of‐life care by way of answering to a series of questions posed by Journal of Bioethical Inquiry consulting editor Michael Ashby to the Belgian authors .The complementary and synergistic relationship between palliative care and euthanasia in Belgium were discussed .In what has become known as the Belgian model of integral end‐of‐life care ,euthanasia is an available option ,also at the end of a palliative care pathway .The legal regulation of euthanasia in 2002 was preceded and followed by a considerable expansion of palliative care services .It is argued that this synergistic development was made possible by public confidence in the health care system and widespread progressive social attitudes that gave rise to a high level of community support for both palliative care and euthanasia .It still exhibits several imperfections ,for which some solutions are being developed .

  19. Visit of the King of the Belgians

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2009-01-01

    19 février 2009 - Sa Majesté Albert II, Roi des Belges et le Ministre du Climat et de l’Energie P. Magnette visitent le site experimental de CMS au Point 5 du LHC avec le Directeur de la Recherche et de l’Informatique S. Bertolucci et le Porte-parole de la Collaboration CMS T. Virdee. Tirage 02 à 08: Sa Majesté Albert II, Roi des Belges signe le livre d'or dans le SDX5 en présence du Directeur des accélérateurs et de la technologie S. Myers et du Directeur de la recherche et de l’informatique S. Bertolucci; Tirage 09 à 22: Sa Majesté Albert II, Roi des Belges et le Ministre du Climat et de l’Energie P. Magnette visitent le tunnel du LHC avec le Chef du Projet sLHC L. Evans et K. Cornelis. Tirage 23 à 35: Sa Majesté Albert II, Roi des Belges et le Ministre du Climat et de l’Energie P. Magnette visitent la cerne expérimentale de CMS avec W. Van Doninck (VUB), D. Favart (UCL) et le Porte-parole de la Collaboration T. Virdee. Tirage 36 à 50: Welcome line au Point 5 du LHC: Accueil en t...

  20. Belgian Sisters’ Lifelong Love for China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuo; Fengqiang

    2014-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the CPAFFC,Ms.Carolina Tengrootenhuysen,Vice President of the Belgium-China Association(BCA),and her younger sister Anna Tengrootenhuysen paid a visit to China from May 11 to 16.In Beijing,they attended the China International Friendship Conference in Commemoration of the 60th Anniversary of the Founding of the CPAFFC and the recording of a special program 60 Years Unforgettable at CCTV.They also visited Hunan Province.Carolina Tengrootenhuysen said Chinese President Xi Jinping’s speech

  1. Visit of Belgian firms at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Caroline Laignel - FI

    2006-01-01

    3 - 4 APRIL 2006 9.00 a.m. to 5.00 p.m. Monday 3 April 9.00 a.m. to 5.00 p.m. Tuesday 4 April Individual interviews will take place in technicians' offices. The firms will contact relevant users/technicians but any user wishing to make contact with a particular firm is welcome to use the contact details which are available from each departmental secretariat or from the Purchasing web pages at the following URL http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm List of Companies: Alcatel Alenia Space Etca ALM ATS Vanwers Cegelec SA Cherokee Europe Cincom Systems International SA DB Engineering BVBA FOS & S BVBA GDM Electronics NV Gemaco SA LMS International NV Management Centre Europe MD Technology Mecasoft SA N.E.T. Research Polmans SA Resarm Engineering Plastics SA Sogeti Belux Syreg SA Tein Telecom SA Groupe Vincott For further information please contact Mrs C. Laignel FI-DI 73722.

  2. Visit of Belgian firms to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    25 – 26 MAY 2009 09.00 to 17.00 Monday 25 May 09.00 to 17.00 Tuesday 26 May Individual interviews will take place in technicians’ offices. The firms will contact relevant users/technicians but any user wishing to make contact with a particular firm is welcome to use the contact details which are available from each departmental secretariat or from the GS Department web pages. List of Companies: Automation Services and Consulting BVBA Burrick NV, (PLC) Cissoid DB Engineering Design, Drafting & Services BVBA Entelec Control Systems GILLAM-Fei S.A. HPC ICSENSE IWT – Enterprise Europe Flanders Jema SA Mecasoft SA SA Polmans Rapid-Torc Resarm Engineering Plastics SA Sentera Europa NV SLC BVBA Stocker Industrie SA Technord Tecnubel Winlock BVBA For further information please contact Caroline Laignel (GS-DI 73722) or Karine Robert (GS-SEM-LS 74407).

  3. Visit of Belgian Firms at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    FP Department

    2009-01-01

    25 – 26 MAY 2009 09h00 to 17h00 Monday 25 May 09h00 to 17h00 Tuesday 26 May Individual interviews will take place in technicians’ offices. The firms will contact relevant users/technicians but any user wishing to make contact with a particular firm is welcome to use the contact details which are available from each secretariat of department or from the GS Department web pages at the following URL: http://gs-dep.web.cern.ch/gs-dep/groups/sem/ls/Industrial_Exhibitions.htm List of Companies: 1. Automation Services and Consulting BVBA 2. Burrick NV, (PLC) 3. Cissoid 4. DB Engineering 5. Design, Drafting & Services BVBA 6. Entelec Control Systems 7. GILLAM-Fei S.A. 8. HPC 9. ICSENSE 10. IWT – Enterprise Europe Flanders 11. Jema SA 12. Mecasoft SA 13. SA Polmans 14. Rapid-Torc 15. Resarm Engineering Plastics SA 16. Sentera Europa NV 17. SLC BVBA 18. Stocker Industrie SA 19. Technord 20. Tecnubel 21. Winlock BVBA For further information please contact Caroline Laignel GS-DI 737...

  4. Belgian experience with radiation technologies for sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belgium pioneered in non energetic applications of nuclear science. In 1970, the National Institute for Radioisotopes (IRE) was founded on the ground of the experience acquired at the CEN/SCK, for developing nuclear techniques oriented to the well-being of population. In 1978 IRE started operation of 2 γ-irradiation units with a 2.25 million Ci Co60, source having a capacity for sterilization of more than 100 m3 of product per day. this installation is currently operated by Griffith-Mediris (Group Griffith Micro Science) and has accumulated 20 years of experience for irradiation of foodstuffs, medical appliances and pharmaceuticals. In 1986, IRE was producing radioisotopes from accelerators and joined UCL for founding Ion Beam Applications (IBA) company which shortly became the world leader for design and delivery of cyclotrons. More recently, on the basis of French CEA patent, IBA developed the Rhodotron, an e-beam accelerator, with an X-ray option, which is now facing commercial success i area of ionization of food and medical appliances. IRE developed also expertise for the back-end of these activities i.e. final disposal of radioactive sealed source and dismantling of the installations. (author)

  5. VISIT OF BELGIAN FIRMS AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    2 - 3 APRIL 2001 14h00 to 17h30 Monday 2nd 09h00 to 17h30 Tuesday 3rd The firms will be in the Main Building - Pas Perdus and Mezzanine List of Companies: Alcatel ETCA Amos S.A. Asco Industries N.V. Barco N.V. Belgatom Capaul S.A. Comelec S.A. Groupe Hamon HTMS (High Tech Metal Seals) N.V. Kelatron S.A. Mécanique de Précision pour Equipements Mecasoft S.A. Pauwels International N.V. Penders & Vanherle Elektrotechniek N.V. Resarm Engineering Plastics S.A. Simonis Plastic S.A. Techspace Aero S.A. Verhaert Design & Development N.V. Detailed information on the companies is also available on the Web: http://spl-purchasing.web.cern.ch/spl-purchasing/exhibitions_visits.htm For further information please contact Mrs C.L. Jullien-Woringer (tel. 73722-76360)

  6. Belgian research on fusion beryllium waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Future fusion power plants will generate important quantities of neutron irradiated beryllium. Although recycling is the preferred management option for this waste, this may not be technically feasible for all of the beryllium, because of its radiological characteristics. Therefore, at SCK·CEN, we initiated a research programme aimed at studying aspects of the disposal of fusion beryllium, including waste characterisation, waste acceptance criteria, conditioning methods, and performance assessment. One of the main issues to be resolved is the development of fusion-specific waste acceptance criteria for surface or deep geological disposal, in particular with regard to the tritium content. In case disposal is the only solution, critical nuclides can be immobilised by conditioning the waste. As a first approach to immobilising beryllium waste, we investigated the vitrification of beryllium. Corrosion tests were performed on both metallic and vitrified beryllium to provide source data for performance assessment. Finally, a first step in performance assessment was undertaken. (author)

  7. Recent historical changes on the Belgian Meuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When a nuclear power station was installed on the Meuse in central Belgium, the impact of thermal, radioactive, and chemical waste on the water of the Neuse and on its biocenoses was studied. Three successive periods of development of the channel bed and the flood plain in Belgium have occurred, and their hydrological, physicochemical, and ecological consequences have been examined. Since the last century, the ecosystem of the Meuse has undergone, due to the increasing activity of man, modifications of increasing importance: marked reduction of the water flow, a drastic increase in the suspended material being transported, a degree of eutrophication of the water, and the disturbance of the original floral and faunal communities. The causes of this evolution of the Meuse can be itemized as different types of human interference in descending order of importance: (1) occupation of the catchment area; (2) encroachment on the flood plain; (3) encroachment on the channel bed; (4) destruction of habitats; (5) water pollution; (6) overexploitation of fish-breeding stocks; and (7) introduction of foreign species. Thought should be given to restoring damaged sectors by recreating shallow riverside zones suitable for aquatic macrophytes, for the macroinvertebrates which are linked to them, and for the reproduction of many species of fish. The example of human interference on the Meuse. 47 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs

  8. 公司交通政策的最佳实践——以比利时为例%On the Mobility Policies of Companies: What are the Good Practices? The Belgian Case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laurent Van Malderen; Bart Jourquin; Isabelle Thomas; Thomas Vanoutrive; Ann Verhetsel; Frank Witlox; 张宇

    2012-01-01

    公司是通勤交通的主要创造者,在与交通相关的讨论中,公司扮演着重要角色.近几年,公司提出了多种政策措施,以改善员工的出行条件,但其愿景与行动通常被研究文献所忽视.为了讨论比利时公司在交通政策方面的最佳实践,分析了现有研究成果和比利时的两次大规模通勤交通调查.首先,对公司进行分类,以便确定在推广替代交通方式方面受员工欢迎的公司.然后,通过量化分析确定交通政策的最佳实践.结果显示,最佳替代交通方式取决于公司特征;自行车交通最适合小型工作场所,大型工作场所和位于建筑密集区或市中心的公司则更适合推广公共交通;在公司交通管理中,财务激励、设施提供、信息传播和停车管理均起重要作用.%Companies play an important role in the mobility debate as they can be considered as the primary 'creators' of commuting traffic. In recent years, companies have developed a variety of initiatives to improve the mobility of their employees, although their visions and actions are often neglected in the research literature. This paper aims at identifying the good practice in mobility policies of workplaces located in Belgium. To achieve this objective, existing research and two large-scale Belgian surveys of commuting are analysed. First, workplaces are clustered in order to identify those where the alternative modes of transport which are promoted by the policy are popular among employees. Then, quantitative analyses are performed to find out what are the good practices of mobility policies. The results show that the best way of promoting an alternative mode of transport depends on company' s characteristics. The promotion of bicycles is most appropriate for small workplaces, while larger workplaces and those located in built-up areas or city centres are more suitable for the promotion of public transport. Financial incentives, provision of facilities

  9. Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Procedures Implants and Prosthetics Urogynecologic Surgical Mesh Implants Pelvic Organ Prolapse (POP) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Treatment Options for Pelvic Organ Prolapse? What is Pelvic Organ Prolapse? Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) occurs when the tissue ...

  10. Organic plant breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfe, Martin S.

    2002-01-01

    This report was presented at the UK Organic Research 2002 Conference. To a major extent, organic farming depends currently on plant and animal varieties that have been bred for non-organic farming and that are often not suited to organic production. This position is inconsistent with a holistic approach to organic agriculture. Organically-bred plant varieties are needed to develop both the potential of organic agriculture and its integrity. A first attempt at developing a concept for organic ...

  11. Ordered organic-organic multilayer growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrest, Stephen R.; Lunt, Richard R.

    2016-04-05

    An ordered multilayer crystalline organic thin film structure is formed by depositing at least two layers of thin film crystalline organic materials successively wherein the at least two thin film layers are selected to have their surface energies within .+-.50% of each other, and preferably within .+-.15% of each other, whereby every thin film layer within the multilayer crystalline organic thin film structure exhibit a quasi-epitaxial relationship with the adjacent crystalline organic thin film.

  12. Soil organic matter studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of isotopes in soil organic matter studies is reviewed. Such studies include measuring the input of organic carbon into soils, the decomposition of isotope-labelled materials such as organic compounds and microbial and plant material in soils, the characterization of soil organic matter and the availability of nutrients released from organic residues. (U.K.)

  13. Organic waste treatment with organically modified clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of organically modified clays in hazardous waste management applications offers a significant new and untapped potential. These clays may be used in the stabilization of organic wastes and organically contaminated soils, for waste water treatment, for oil spill control, for liner systems beneath fuel oil storage tanks, and as a component within liner systems of hazardous waste storage treatment and disposal facilities. Organically modified clays (organophilic clays) may be employed in each of these systems to adsorb organic waste constituents, enhancing the performance of the applications

  14. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Organic Compounds' Impact on Indoor Air Quality Volatile Organic Compounds' Impact on Indoor Air Quality On this page: ... Exposure Standards or Guidelines Additional Resources Introduction Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted as gases from certain solids ...

  15. Ashes for organic farming

    OpenAIRE

    Kousa, T.; Heinonen, M; Suoniitty, T.; Peltonen, K

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays only eight percent of the cultivated field area is used for organic farming. The Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry has published the guidelines for the program of organic farming to diversify the supply and the consumption of organic food. The aim is to increase organically arable land to 20% by the year 2020.The demand of organic fertilizer products is strongly increasing. Interest in forestry by-products (ash, bark, zero fiber, etc.) for use in organic production has recently be...

  16. Organic Viticulture in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Willer, Helga; Häseli, Andreas; Levite, Dominique; Tamm, Lucius

    2002-01-01

    Introduction Organic agriculture is a thriving sector in Europe, and in some countries 10 % of the agricultural area is organic. Not so, however, for organic viticulture: the percentage of organic viticulture land compared to all vineyards is lower than for organic agriculture. This is due to several constraints in the sector of production techniques, in marketing, legislation and state support. Material and Methods So far no official data on the current status of organic viticultur...

  17. Development of analytical strategies using U-HPLC-MS/MS and LC-ToF-MS for the quantification of micropollutants in marine organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille, Klaas; Kiebooms, Julie A L; Claessens, Michiel; Rappé, Karen; Vanden Bussche, Julie; Noppe, Herlinde; Van Praet, Nander; De Wulf, Eric; Van Caeter, Peter; Janssen, Colin R; De Brabander, Hubert F; Vanhaecke, Lynn

    2011-05-01

    Organic micropollutants such as pharmaceuticals, perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), and pesticides, are important environmental contaminants. To obtain more information regarding their presence in marine organisms, an increasing demand exists for reliable analytical methods for quantification of these micropollutants in biotic matrices. Therefore, we developed extraction procedures and new analytical methods for the quantification of 14 pesticides, 10 PFCs, and 11 pharmaceuticals in tissue of marine organisms, namely blue mussels (Mytilus edulis). This paper presents these optimized analytical procedures and their application to M. edulis, deployed at five stations in the Belgian coastal zone. The methods consisted of a pressurized liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry for pharmaceuticals and pesticides, and of a liquid extraction using acetonitrile and SPE, followed by liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry for PFCs. The limits of quantification of the three newly optimized analytical procedures in M. edulis tissue varied between 0.1 and 10 ng g(-1), and satisfactory linearities (≥0.98) and recoveries (90-106%) were obtained. Application of these methods to M. edulis revealed the presence of five pharmaceuticals, two PFCs, and seven pesticides at levels up to 490, 5, and 60 ng g(-1), respectively. The most prevalent micropollutants were salicylic acid, paracetamol, perfluorooctane sulfonate, chloridazon, and dichlorvos. PMID:21442366

  18. Organic brain syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    OBS; Organic mental disorder (OMS); Chronic organic brain syndrome ... Listed below are disorders associated with OBS. Brain injury caused by ... the brain ( subarachnoid hemorrhage ) Blood clot inside the ...

  19. Progress in organic spintronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent progress in organic spintronics is given an informative overview, covering spin injection, detection, and transport in organic spin valve devices, and the magnetic field effect in organic semiconductors (OSCs). In particular, we focus on our own recent work in spin injection and the organic magnetic field effect (OMFE). (topical review - magnetism, magnetic materials, and interdisciplinary research)

  20. Regional scale characterization of the topographic control on soil organic carbon spatial distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, François; Bogaert, Patrick; van Wesemael, Bas

    2013-04-01

    The influence of geomorphology on the spatial distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) has been studied for a large range of scales and conditions. The larger SOC stocks found in dry valleys and concave footslopes of the Belgian loam belt have been explained jointly by the transfer of sediments along the slope and the reduced decomposition rate of buried organic matter. While erosion effect on SOC has been simulated at the hillslope scale, it is generally not considered in SOC inventories and prediction models at regional scale. However, more precise large scales inventories are demanded by the carbon modelling community. The goal of this paper is to characterize the relative importance of geomorphology on the SOC horizontal and vertical variability across whole agricultural region. The large historic dataset of soil horizons Aardewerk together with 147 recently sampled profiles was exploited for cost efficiency reasons. Mean profiles for different soil properties classes were compared. Various topographic indices were computed from a digital elevation model, and their potential to predict SOC content at different depth was quantified using multiple regression and terrain morphologic classification. Both dataset were able to show differences in mean SOC profile among soil properties classes, but only the new profiles dataset shows a clear relationship between SOC content and topographic indices. The various errors in then historic data set (e.g., positioning errors) may explain these limitations. This study thus brings in evidence the major control of topography on SOC vertical distribution in a region where observed heterogeneities for other commonly involved factors are limited. However, the large amount of unexplained variability still limits the usefulness of SOC content spatial prediction and should be addressed by alternative spatial methods.

  1. Deceased Organ Donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israni, A K; Zaun, D; Bolch, C; Rosendale, J D; Snyder, J J; Kasiske, B L

    2016-01-01

    SRTR uses data collected by OPTN to calculate metrics such as donation/conversion rate, organ yield, and rate of organs recovered for transplant but not transplanted. In 2014, 9252 eligible deaths were reported by organ procurement organizations, a slight increase from 8944 in 2012, and the donation/conversation rate was 73.4 eligible donors per 100 eligible deaths, a slight increase from 71.3 in 2013. Some metrics show variation across organ procurement organizations, suggesting that sharing best practices could lead to gains in efficiency and organ retrieval. PMID:26755269

  2. The committed organic consumer

    OpenAIRE

    Geen, Natalie; Firth, Chris

    2006-01-01

    Abstract - UK committed organic consumers are reported to be about 23 per cent of consumers and account for 84 per cent of organic sales. This paper compares the committed organic consumer who is also a member of the UK’s national charity for organic growing (HDRA), to committed organic consumers in the wider UK population. Broad parallels were found between these two groups of consumers although there were differences in purchasing drivers as environmental issues were relatively more impor...

  3. On Structure and Organization: An Organizing Principle

    OpenAIRE

    Baas, Nils A.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the nature of structure and organization, and the process of making new Things. Hyperstructures are introduced as binding and organizing principles, and we show how they can transfer from one situation to another. A guiding example is the hyperstructure of higher order Brunnian rings and similarly structured many-body systems.

  4. Soil organic matter studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 77 papers were presented and discussed during this symposium, 37 are included in this Volume II. The topics covered in this volume include: biochemical transformation of organic matter in soils; bitumens in soil organic matter; characterization of humic acids; carbon dating of organic matter in soils; use of modern techniques in soil organic matter research; use of municipal sludge with special reference to heavy metals constituents, soil nitrogen, and physical and chemical properties of soils; relationship of soil organic matter and plant metabolism; interaction between agrochemicals and organic matter; and peat. Separate entries have been prepared for those 20 papers which discuss the use of nuclear techniques in these studies

  5. Entrepreneurship and Organizations' Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧

    2013-01-01

    In modern society, the competition has become increasingly fierce. Organizations pay close attention to their manage-ment in order to gain the priority. Under this context, entrepreneurship has been attached great importance to. Entrepreneurship has played an indispensable role in organizations. Compare to those short-lived companies, powerful organizations, such as Google, IBM and P&G has gain great progress in the last decades. Therefore, it is essential to study how the powerful organiza-tion could always be innovative. This paper aims to study the role that entrepreneurship plays in the organizations and take Google as an example. It provides some previous lessons that Chinese organizations could draw from.

  6. The Visual Dimension in Organizing, Organization, and Organization Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Renate E.; Höllerer, Markus A.; Jancsary, Dennis;

    2013-01-01

    With the unprecedented rise in the use of visuals, and its undeniable omnipresence in organizational contexts, as well as in the individual's everyday life, organization and management science has recently started to pay closer attention to the to date under-theorized “visual mode” of discourse and...... meaning construction. Building primarily on insights from the phenomenological tradition in organization theory and from social semiotics, this article sets out to consolidate previous scholarly efforts and to sketch a fertile future research agenda. After briefly exploring the workings of visuals, we...... introduce the methodological and theoretical “roots” of visual studies in a number of disciplines that have a long-standing tradition of incorporating the visual. We then continue by extensively reviewing work in the field of organization and management studies: More specifically, we present five distinct...

  7. Understanding Identity and Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Thøger

    2013-01-01

    The article reviews the book "Understanding Identity and Organizations," by Kate Kenny, Andrea Whitle, and Hugh Wilmott.......The article reviews the book "Understanding Identity and Organizations," by Kate Kenny, Andrea Whitle, and Hugh Wilmott....

  8. Organization of Financial Accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Шпак, Валентин Аркадійович

    2016-01-01

    Organization of financial accounting that is grounded on principles of financial reporting has been considered. The relation between accounting objects and accounts has been researched. Approaches towards solving problems of organization of financial accounting have been described.

  9. Soil Organic Carbon Stock

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Soil organic carbon (SOC) is the carbon held within soil organic constituents (i.e., products produced as dead plants and animals decompose and the soil microbial...

  10. Organic Pesticide Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Control a pest Integrated Pest Management What are pesticides? Herbicides Disinfectants Fungicides Insecticides Natural and Biological Pesticides ... Other types of pesticides Disponible en español Organic Pesticide Ingredients Organic foods are not necessarily pesticide-free. ...

  11. Organizing design work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, John Damm

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of the kind of understanding of organizing that is implied by design theories for project managers' understanding and organizing of design work. Five theories and their organizing consequences for project managers organizing of design work are...... analyzed. The paper contributes to design research and organization studies by putting the organizing of design projects on the research agenda. It also contributes by demonstrating the importance of being aware of the ontological and epistemological assumptions and organizing consequences of different...... design theories. The selected theories of design thus represent different views on what design is, address different design areas and are based on different ontological and epistemological assumptions that influence their views on how design processes should be organized....

  12. Organic Solvent Tropical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides the basis for closing the organic solvent safety issue. Sufficient information is presented to conclude that risk posed by an unmitigated organic solvent fire is within risk evaluation guidelines

  13. Organ Donation: The Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Search Register with your state as an Organ Donor Home Why Donate Becoming a Donor About Donation & ... Plan Your Finances After Your Transplant Contact Your Donor Family Organ Donation: The Process Enrolling as a Donor : The ...

  14. Organics in radwaste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seventeen papers, each processed separately cover the types of organic materials in radioactive wastes, their effect on repository performance and destruction of organics, including incineration, peroxide and wet oxidation and acid and biological digestion. (U.K.)

  15. Organization theory. Analyzing health care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cors, W K

    1997-02-01

    Organization theory (OT) is a tool that can be applied to analyze and understand health care organizations. Transaction cost theory is used to explain, in a unifying fashion, the myriad changes being undertaken by different groups of constituencies in health care. Agency theory is applied to aligning economic incentives needed to ensure Integrated Delivery System (IDS) success. By using tools such as OT, a clearer understanding of organizational changes is possible. PMID:10164970

  16. The Matrix Organization Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gattiker, Urs E.; Ulhøi, John Parm

    1999-01-01

    This paper gives a short overview of matrix structure and technology management. It outlines some of the characteristics and also points out that many organizations may actualy be hybrids (i.e. mix several ways of organizing to allocate resorces effectively).......This paper gives a short overview of matrix structure and technology management. It outlines some of the characteristics and also points out that many organizations may actualy be hybrids (i.e. mix several ways of organizing to allocate resorces effectively)....

  17. PELVIC ORGAN PROLAPES

    OpenAIRE

    Ketut Yoga Mira Pratiwi; I Gede Mega Putra

    2013-01-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is defined as a decrease in abnormal or herniation of the pelvic organs out of place attached to its normal position or in the pelvic cavity. As for the anatomy of the pelvic organs consists of bones, muscles, and nerves. The presence of damage to the pelvic connective tissue and visceral attachment pelvic organs the cause occurs. The symptoms that appear in patients POP not specific to distinguish prolapse of some compartments but can reflect the degree of prolaps...

  18. Deconstructing the organic movement

    OpenAIRE

    Frost, David

    2002-01-01

    This report was presented at the UK Organic Research 2002 Conference. Organic agriculture has sought to establish its scientific validity and its origins. Conford (2001) claims that these can be traced to the 1920s, and that Anglican Christianity is pivotal to its history. However, organic agriculture takes many forms and the role of religion in society has changed. In the UK, a new incarnation of organic farming occurred in the late twentieth century as part of a wider response to environmen...

  19. Organic for the future

    OpenAIRE

    Rebsdorf, Simon Olling

    2011-01-01

    Organic research and innovation moves the organic food sector from a niche to a general reference model for sustainable agriculture. Europe faces major challenges to conserve biodiversity, secure soil, and promote animal welfare and there is an urgent need to ensure global food security. Organic food and farming paves the way to meet these challenges; but to succeed a further development of organic food and farming is key.

  20. Transparency in Organizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albu, Oana Brindusa

    This dissertation provides a critical analysis of transparency in the context of organizing. The empirical material is based on qualitative studies of international cooperative organizations. The dissertation seeks to contribute to transparency and organizing scholarship by adopting a communication...... being a solution for efficiency and democratic organizing, is a communicatively contested process which may lead to unintended consequences. The dissertation shows that transparency is performative: it can impact authority by de/legitimating action, shape the processes of organizational identity co...

  1. Behaviour in an Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Klímová, Kateřina

    2009-01-01

    Diploma thesis "The behavior in the organization" at a practical level, integrates the knowledge of psychology, sociology and management. It explains bahavior of people in the organization, which seeks to use this knowledge for the benefit of the organizaton and its management. It focuses on individual differences among people in the organization, organizational culture, relationships between people in workplace, organizational structure, communication within the organization, motivation, dev...

  2. Organization/Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, Ellen Earle

    Patterns that emerged from reviewing 26 syllabi for courses on organization and administration in higher education are discussed, and six sample syllabi are presented. The syllabi focused more on organization than administration. Of the 26 syllabi, 19 dealt with organization and administration generally; 5 with administration in a specific…

  3. Multiple organ procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Milivoje

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Liver transplantation is the most demanding of all solid organ transplantations. It requires perfect organization and motivation of health care professionals, patients and their families. This article deals with the procedure for multiple organ procurement, reviews criteria for organ donation and describes the surgical technique for multiple organ procurement. Discussion. Adequate selection and evaluation of cadaveric donors and of organs for transplantation should include early identification of potential donors, and early diagnosis of brain death. The procurement of the highest number of viable organs for transplantation requires excellence in each of the phases. Early and aggressive physiologic support in the maintenance of potential donors can reduce organ donor loss due to irreversible asystole or multiorgan failure (it is almost always possible to maintain organ perfusion pressure and increase the number of organs without increasing post-transplant morbidity or mortality. The ideal donor is a young, previously healthy, brain dead, victim of an accident. Conclusion. The surgical procedure for multiple organ procurement from brain death donors must be performed without intraopertive organ damage. .

  4. Organic herbicide update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed research is the top research priority among organic producers. Very few chemical weed control options are approved for organic use (corn gluten meal, vinegar, clove oil, and most recently ammonium pelargonate ), but additional compounds are under investigation and pursuing organic approval. C...

  5. Organic chemistry in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    Organic cosmochemistry, organic materials in space exploration, and biochemistry of man in space are briefly surveyed. A model of Jupiter's atmosphere is considered, and the search for organic molecules in the solar system and in interstellar space is discussed. Materials and analytical techniques relevant to space exploration are indicated, and the blood and urine analyses performed on Skylab are described.

  6. Values in Organic Farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgård, Bente; Pedersen, Kirsten Bransholm; Land, Birgit

    The study focuses on the recent debate about what is, or what constitutes, organic farming and what is the right path for organic farming in the future. The study is based on a critical discourse analysis of the controversy about suspending the private standard for organic farming adopted by the ...

  7. Theology and Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier Sørensen, Bent; Spoelstra, Sverre; Höpfl, Heather;

    2012-01-01

    This Introduction argues for the importance of theology for the study of organization. It also draws the contours of a possible ‘theology of organization’. Theology of organization, as we use it here, does not refer to a study of organization that is rooted in faith, nor does it refer to a study ...

  8. Organ mass measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The term, anatomical measurements, in the context of this Co-ordinated Research Programme refers to measurements of masses of internal organs, although the human body is composed of internal organs and tissues such as skeleton, muscle, skin and adipose. The mass of an organ containing a radionuclide (source organ), and the mass of a target organ which absorbs energy of the radiation, are essential parameters in the ICRP dosimetric model derived from the MIRD method. Twelve specific organs of interest were proposed at the Coordinated Research Programme Project Formulation Meeting (PFM) in 1988. A slightly different set of thirteen organs with potential significance for radiation protection were selected for study at the Research Co-ordination Meeting held at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre in 1991. The dimensions of the organs could also be useful information, but were considered unimportant for internal dose assessment. Due to the strong concern about the unified method for collecting organ mass data at the PFM, a guide-line was established stressing the need for organ data from subjects that were healthy and normal, at least until shortly before death, or from sudden death cases, following the Japanese experience. In this report, masses of nine to thirteen organs are presented from seven participating countries. Three participants have also reported the organ masses as fractions of the total body mass

  9. LEADERSHIP IN VIRTUAL ORGANIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Marian NÃSTASE; Alexandru ROJA

    2013-01-01

    Current economic circumstances, very dynamic and characterized by uncertainty, require organizations to identify new sources of competitive advantage to remain competitive. Collaboration between organizations in collaborative networks are forms and environments in which organizations can use their distinctive potential. Capitalization of organizational potential in isolated manner, will not generate competitive advantage.Also important, the globalization and relocation of business, and integr...

  10. Nanostructured Organic Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radziwon, Michal Jędrzej; Rubahn, Horst-Günter; Madsen, Morten

    Recent forecasts for alternative energy generation predict emerging importance of supporting state of art photovoltaic solar cells with their organic equivalents. Despite their significantly lower efficiency, number of application niches are suitable for organic solar cells. This work reveals...... the principles of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells fabrication as well as summarises major differences in physics of their operation....

  11. Organ Harvesting and Transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskette, Kimberly G.; Ritz, John M.

    2010-01-01

    Humans and animals need healthy organs to live. Due to medical conditions and accidents, some organs fail to function properly. For these reasons, the medical community has experimented and can now perform successful organ transplants, allowing patients to continue to live their lives. Many countries have medical programs where individuals can…

  12. Organic production in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Wibe, Atle

    2005-01-01

    Present status of the Norwegian organic sector: -Official target of 10% organic production in 2010. -Organic production receives public subsidies -Marketing and production of plant products successful and growing -Marketing of livestock products successful and growing -Large portion of ecological products are sold unmarked together with other products

  13. The Visual Dimension in Organizing, Organization and Organization Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Theo; Meyer, Renate; Hollerer, Markus;

    2013-01-01

    With the unprecedented rise in the use of visuals, and its undeniable omnipresence in organizational contexts, as well as in the individual's everyday life, organization and management science has recently started to pay closer attention to the to date under-theorized "visual mode" of discourse...

  14. Feed and organic matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang

    2011-01-01

    Organic waste from fish production is conventionally measured as BOD5 (biological oxygen demand measured during 5 days) and COD (chemical oxygen demand (includes BOD5)). Organic waste is of particular concern for several reasons. The easily degradable part (BOD5) may have an immediate, negative...... was opposite for BOD5. A BOD5/COD ratio of 0.5 was derived, indicating that unsedimented organic waste is characterized by easily degradable organic matter. In comparison, a solid BOD5/COD ratio of 0.2 indicated that this waste fraction contains high amounts of hard-to-degrade organic matter. The...

  15. Soil organic matter studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dependence of plant production and humus formation, the interaction of soil organic matter with the mineral part of soil for plant nutrition and some physical and chemical properties of soil were discussed, as were the significance of climatic and hydrological data in that context. Isotope techniques (14C and 15N) were utilized in various studies. Papers were presented on the turnover of plant residues, mineralization of organic compounds, nitrogen economy, biodegradation and biochemical transformations of soil organic matter, contributions to the formation of humic substances, soil organic matter and plant metabolism, and the interaction between agrochemicals and organic matter. The use of municipal sludge on agricultural land was also considered

  16. Challenges in organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyar, Rafael

    2011-04-01

    Organ transplantation has progressed tremendously with improvements in surgical methods, organ preservation, and pharmaco-immunologic therapies and has become a critical pathway in the management of severe organ failure worldwide. The major sources of organs are deceased donors after brain death; however, a substantial number of organs come from live donations, and a significant number can also be obtained from non-heart-beating donors. Yet, despite progress in medical, pharmacologic, and surgical techniques, the shortage of organs is a worldwide problem that needs to be addressed internationally at the highest possible levels. This particular field involves medical ethics, religion, and society behavior and beliefs. Some of the critical ethical issues that require aggressive interference are organ trafficking, payments for organs, and the delicate balance in live donations between the benefit to the recipient and the possible harm to the donor and others. A major issue in organ transplantation is the definition of death and particularly brain death. Another major critical factor is the internal tendency of a specific society to donate organs. In the review below, we will discuss the various challenges that face organ donation worldwide, and particularly in Israel, and some proposed mechanisms to overcome this difficulty. PMID:23908807

  17. Challenges in Organ Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Beyar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Organ transplantation has progressed tremendously with improvements in surgical methods, organ preservation, and pharmaco-immunologic therapies and has become a critical pathway in the management of severe organ failure worldwide. The major sources of organs are deceased donors after brain death; however, a substantial number of organs come from live donations, and a significant number can also be obtained from non-heart-beating donors. Yet, despite progress in medical, pharmacologic, and surgical techniques, the shortage of organs is a worldwide problem that needs to be addressed internationally at the highest possible levels. This particular field involves medical ethics, religion, and society behavior and beliefs. Some of the critical ethical issues that require aggressive interference are organ trafficking, payments for organs, and the delicate balance in live donations between the benefit to the recipient and the possible harm to the donor and others. A major issue in organ transplantation is the definition of death and particularly brain death. Another major critical factor is the internal tendency of a specific society to donate organs. In the review below, we will discuss the various challenges that face organ donation worldwide, and particularly in Israel, and some proposed mechanisms to overcome this difficulty.

  18. Organic 'Plastic' Optoelectronic Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent developments on conjugated polymer based photovoltaic diodes and photoactive organic field effect transistors (photOFETs) are discussed. The photophysics of such devices is based on the photoinduced charge transfer from donor type semiconducting conjugated polymers onto acceptor type conjugated polymers or acceptor molecules such as Buckminsterfullerene, C60. Potentially interesting applications include sensitization of the photoconductivity and photovoltaic phenomena as well as photoresponsive organic field effect transistors (photOFETs). Furthermore, organic polymeric/inorganic nanoparticle based 'hybrid' solar cells will be discussed. This talk gives an overview of materials' aspect, charge-transport, and device physics of organic diodes and field-effect transistors. Furthermore, due to the compatibility of carbon/hydrogen based organic semiconductors with organic biomolecules and living cells there can be a great opportunity to integrate such organic semiconductor devices (biOFETs) with the living organisms. In general the largely independent bio/lifesciences and information technology of today, can be thus bridged in an advanced cybernetic approach using organic semiconductor devices embedded in bio-lifesciences. This field of bio-organic electronic devices is proposed to be an important mission of organic semiconductor devices

  19. Immunity of international organizations

    CERN Document Server

    Schrijver, Nico

    2015-01-01

    Immunity rules are part and parcel of the law of international organizations. It has long been accepted that international organizations and their staff need to enjoy immunity from the jurisdiction of national courts. However, it is the application of these rules in practice that increasingly causes controversy. Claims against international organizations are brought before national courts by those who allegedly suffer from their activities. These can be both natural and legal persons such as companies. National courts, in particular lower courts, have often been less willing to recognize the immunity of the organization concerned than the organization s founding fathers. Likewise, public opinion and legal writings frequently criticize international organizations for invoking their immunity and for the lack of adequate means of redress for claimants. It is against this background that an international conference was organized at Leiden University in June 2013. A number of highly qualified academics and practit...

  20. Feed and organic matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang

    2011-01-01

    distribution between particulate and unsedimented (suspended and dissolved) organic waste. Quantifying aquaculture waste, including organic matter, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), into different waste fractions (particulate and unsedimented) is essential for optimising the design of different treatment setups...... was opposite for BOD5. A BOD5/COD ratio of 0.5 was derived, indicating that unsedimented organic waste is characterized by easily degradable organic matter. In comparison, a solid BOD5/COD ratio of 0.2 indicated that this waste fraction contains high amounts of hard-to-degrade organic matter. The......Organic waste from fish production is conventionally measured as BOD5 (biological oxygen demand measured during 5 days) and COD (chemical oxygen demand (includes BOD5)). Organic waste is of particular concern for several reasons. The easily degradable part (BOD5) may have an immediate, negative...

  1. Do Education Organizations Show Learning Organizations Charecterics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Yumusak,

    Full Text Available Learning, an important element in terms of affecting the change of individual, organizational and social structures, will occur more effectively when the institutions in social structure turn into learning organizations. Senge (1993 concept of learning organization, constantly changing, evolving and renewing itself described as a dynamic structure. This concept has an important place in all institutions is also a separate meaning for educational institutions. In this context, schools training the human resources, appropriate for the aim of being information society, as individuals have taken continuous learning as their principles, teachers providing educational and supporting services and their perceptions of learning organization are of the great importance. In Balıkesir, the study was conducted virtue of this importance has been serving the state and private institutions serving 848 elementary teachers, perceptions of the learning organization and organizational barriers that prevent it is to be determined through a comparative analysis. As a result of the survey, in the framework of the bases in literature, it has been found out that the state primary schools don’t have the features of learning organization, contrary to the private primary schools.

  2. Focus on Organic Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Uji, Takehiko Mori and Toshihiro Takahashi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic materials are usually thought of as electrical insulators. Progress in chemical synthesis, however, has brought us a rich variety of conducting organic materials, which can be classified into conducting polymers and molecular crystals. Researchers can realize highly conducting molecular crystals in charge-transfer complexes, where suitable combinations of organic electron donor or acceptor molecules with counter ions or other organic molecules provide charge carriers. By means of a kind of chemical doping, the charge-transfer complexes exhibit high electrical conductivity and, thanks to their highly crystalline nature, even superconductivity has been observed. This focus issue of Science and Technology of Advanced Materials is devoted to the research into such 'organic conductors'The first organic metal was (TTF(TCNQ, which was found in 1973 to have high conductivity at room temperature and a metal–insulator transition at low temperatures. The first organic superconductor was (TMTSF2PF6, whose superconductivity under high pressures was reported by J´erome in 1980. After these findings, the research on organic conductors exploded. Hundreds of organic conductors have been reported, among which more than one hundred exhibit superconductivity. Recently, a single-component organic conductor has been found with metallic conductivity down to low temperatures.In these organic conductors, in spite of their simple electronic structures, much new physics has arisen from the low dimensionality. Examples are charge and spin density waves, characteristic metal–insulator transitions, charge order, unconventional superconductivity, superconductor–insulator transitions, and zero-gap conductors with Dirac cones. The discovery of this new physics is undoubtedly derived from the development of many intriguing novel organic conductors. High quality single crystals are indispensable to the precise measurement of electronic states.This focus issue

  3. Nonlinear organic plasmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Fainberg, B D

    2015-01-01

    Purely organic materials with negative and near-zero dielectric permittivity can be easily fabricated. Here we develop a theory of nonlinear non-steady-state organic plasmonics with strong laser pulses. The bistability response of the electron-vibrational model of organic materials in the condensed phase has been demonstrated. Non-steady-state organic plasmonics enable us to obtain near-zero dielectric permittivity during a short time. We have proposed to use non-steady-state organic plasmonics for the enhancement of intersite dipolar energy-transfer interaction in the quantum dot wire that influences on electron transport through nanojunctions. Such interactions can compensate Coulomb repulsions for particular conditions. We propose the exciton control of Coulomb blocking in the quantum dot wire based on the non-steady-state near-zero dielectric permittivity of the organic host medium.

  4. Organic photosensitive devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peumans, Peter; Forrest, Stephen R.

    2013-01-22

    A photoactive device is provided. The device includes a first electrode, a second electrode, and a photoactive region disposed between and electrically connected to the first and second electrodes. The photoactive region further includes an organic donor layer and an organic acceptor layer that form a donor-acceptor heterojunction. The mobility of holes in the organic donor region and the mobility of electrons in the organic acceptor region are different by a factor of at least 100, and more preferably a factor of at least 1000. At least one of the mobility of holes in the organic donor region and the mobility of electrons in the organic acceptor region is greater than 0.001 cm.sup.2/V-sec, and more preferably greater than 1 cm.sup.2/V-sec. The heterojunction may be of various types, including a planar heterojunction, a bulk heterojunction, a mixed heterojunction, and a hybrid planar-mixed heterojunction.

  5. Evolving Procurement Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Laiho, Aki; Laine, Jari

    Procurement has to find further levers and advance its contribution to corporate goals continuously. This places pressure on its organization in order to facilitate its performance. Therefore, Procurement organizations constantly have to evolve in order to match these demands. A conceptual model is...... presented and results of a first case study discussed. The findings highlight the importance of taking a contingency perspective on Procurement organization, understanding the internal and internal contingency factors. From a theoretical perspective, it opens up insights that can be furthermore leveraged in...... future studies in the fields of hybrid procurement organizations, global sourcing organizations as well as international procurement offices (IPOs). From a practical standpoint, an assessment of external and internal contingencies provides the opportunity to consciously match organization to its...

  6. Organic food processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahl, Johannes; Alborzi, Farnaz; Beck, Alexander;

    2014-01-01

    In 2007 EU Regulation (EC) 834/2007 introduced principles and criteria for organic food processing. These regulations have been analysed and discussed in several scientific publications and research project reports. Recently, organic food quality was described by principles, aspects and criteria...... product identity as the underlying paradigm and a holistic quality view connected to naturalness as consumers' perception of organic food quality. In a European study, the quality concept was applied to the organic food chain, resulting in a problem, namely that clear principles and related criteria were...... food as well as on organic processing. The proposed definition connects organic processing to related systems such as minimal, sustainable and careful, gentle processing, and describes clear principles and related criteria. Based on food examples, such as milk with different heat treatments, the...

  7. Public Sector Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Renate; Leixnering, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    and private sectors as well as the boundaries of single organizations. In addition, the complexity of the interlocking arrangements and relationships in this public organizational landscape has resulted in considerable governance problems with serious implications for coordination and policy coherence.......New public management-inspired reforms created numerous autonomous units with many different faces and labels. This variety of organizations and organizational forms precludes a straightforward definition of what constitutes a public sector organization and blurs the boundaries between the public...

  8. Organic Molecular Solids

    CERN Document Server

    Schwoerer, Marcus

    2007-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive textbook on the physical aspects of organic solids. All phenomena which are necessary in order to understand modern technical applications are being dealt with in a way which makes the concepts of the topics accessible for students. The chapters - from the basics, production and characterization of organic solids and layers to organic semiconductors, superconductors and opto-electronical applications - have been arranged in a logical and well thought-out order.

  9. Attribute coordination in organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Yingyi Qian; Gerard Roland; Chenggang Xu

    2001-01-01

    We study coordination in organizations with a variety of organizational forms. Coordination in organization is modeled as the adjustment of attributes and capacities of tasks when facing external shocks. An M-form (U-form) organization groups complementary (substitutable) tasks together in one unit. In the presence of only attribute shocks, particularly when gains from specialization are small, communication is poor, or shocks are more likely, the expected payoff of the decentralized M-form i...

  10. Fostering values in organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Argandoña, Antonio

    2002-01-01

    Today, values hold a prominent place both in business ethics and in organization theory. However, there persists considerable confusion about what these values are and what role they play in these theories and, therefore, how they can be developed both within the individual and within the organization. Therefore, this paper seeks to define a conception of values based on a theory of human action that can provide a basis for an organization theory, and to propose a series of ideas about how pe...

  11. Stress Management in Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Roxana Capotescu

    2008-01-01

    Employee stress has increasingly become a concern for many organizations. Although it is not possible to eliminate stress entirely, people can learn to manage it. Many organizations have adopted occupational stress management programs to try and reduce the stress levels of their workforce. The high cost of work stress related problems highlights the need to spend more time evaluating work stress interventions and publishing the findings so that other organizations can gain insight into progra...

  12. Organizations and Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.; Linder, Stefan

    Austrian economics focuses on markets, but has much to say about organizations. In particular, Austrian insights on the structure of production, the heterogeneity and subjectivity of resources, the nature of uncertainty, the role of monetary calculation, and the function of the entrepreneur provide...... solid foundations for a distinctly Austrian theory of organizations. We review these insights, discuss recent literature on Austrian economics and the theory of the firm, and suggest new directions for developing and extending an Austrian approach to organizations....

  13. Organ Donation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maya; Reid

    2011-01-01

    CHINA’S first voluntary organ donation system is in the midst of its trial run. The program is being tested in 11 pilot regions around the country, having harvested organs from more than 100 donors in this inaugural year. Overseen by the Red Cross Society of China and the country’s Ministry of Health, the system follows cardiac death standards in organ donation

  14. The organization of thanatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doka, Kenneth J; Heflin-Wells, E Neil; Martin, Terry L; Redmond, Lula M; Schachter, Sherry R

    2011-01-01

    This article explores, using Wilensky's Model of Professionalization, the emergence of professional organizations within the thanatology. The authors review the history of four organizations--The Foundation of Thanatology, Ars Moriendi, The Forum for Death Education and Counseling (now the Association for Death Education and Counseling: A Thanatology Organization [ADEC]), and The International Work Group on Death, Dying, and Bereavement (IWG). The authors speculate on some of the reasons that the first two failed while IWG and ADEC remain viable-while noting challenges that these remaining thanatological organizations will experience as they seek to continue to stay relevant. PMID:21842661

  15. Organizing marginalized workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, A K

    1999-01-01

    Figures from the U.S. Department of Labor show that low-wage or marginalized workers are more likely to be injured on the job and suffer more work-related medical conditions than better-paid workers. Despite an increasingly hostile organizing climate, market globalization, and corporate downsizing, significant progress has been made in organizing marginalized workers. A multifaceted, comprehensive organizing strategy, incorporating union-building strategies that include (but are not limited to) safety and health, must be used by unions to successfully organize marginalized workers and obtain the first contract. PMID:10378982

  16. Management of information organizations

    CERN Document Server

    Afzal, Waseem

    2012-01-01

    This book is a significant step towards developing a body of management knowledge pertinent to the context of Library Information Science (LIS) and provides a succinct but deep account of management and information organizations. Management of Information Organizations presents a broad view of the information organizations and the nature of management in these organizations, and how information professionals are affected by such management systems. The book equips the reader with the knowledge that will enable them to develop a strong intellectual foundation relating to management and its mani

  17. Organic food and farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kledal, Paul Rye

    The paper is based on research conducted for DARCOF II (Danish Research Centre for Organic Farming, www.darcof.dk). The aim of the research project is to analyze the future development of the Danish organic food sector through focusing on two agro-commodities: vegetables and pork. Emphasis is...... placed on identification of economic forces within the supply chains. The main conclusions of the paper – being the results from the organic vegetable chain – are that the rules and regulations, and the development of alternative transaction processes in organic food and farming have so far been founded...

  18. Physics of Organic Semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Brütting, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    Filling the gap in the literature currently available, this book presents an overview of our knowledge of the physics behind organic semiconductor devices. Contributions from 18 international research groups cover various aspects of this field, ranging from the growth of organic layers and crystals, their electronic properties at interfaces, their photophysics and electrical transport properties to the application of these materials in such different devices as organic field-effect transistors, photovoltaic cells and organic light-emitting diodes. From the contents:. * Excitation Dynamics in O

  19. Titan's organic chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, C.; Thompson, W. R.; Khare, B. N.

    1985-01-01

    Voyager discovered nine simple organic molecules in the atmosphere of Titan. Complex organic solids, called tholins, produced by irradiation of the simulated Titanian atmosphere, are consistent with measured properties of Titan from ultraviolet to microwave frequencies and are the likely main constituents of the observed red aerosols. The tholins contain many of the organic building blocks central to life on earth. At least 100-m, and possibly kms thicknesses of complex organics have been produced on Titan during the age of the solar system, and may exist today as submarine deposits beneath an extensive ocean of simple hydrocarbons.

  20. The MDT Barrel Organ

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni de Oliveira

    Have you ever looked for an interesting use for the spare detector parts once the construction phase was finished? Henk Tiecke, with the help of Oscar van Petten and Marco Kraan, all from NIKHEF, came up with a great idea for leftover MDT tubes. They simply built a pipe organ! See the MDT Barrel Organ in action, as recorded during a party thrown on the occasion of the first shipment of MDT chambers from NIKHEF to CERN. Want to know more about the organ? Please contact Henk Tiecke. Henk Tiecke playing the MDT Barrel Organ.

  1. Organizations in Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book brings together leading organization scholars and business historians to examine the opportunities and challenges of incorporating historical research into the study of firms and markets. It examines the reasons for the growing interest in historically grounded research in management...... section, Sources and Methods, the contributors explicate historical methodologies within the context of other approaches to studying organizations and provide concrete suggestions for researchers in the field. The introduction places these issues within the broader context of developments in the fields of...... business history and organization studies, and orients readers to the ‘future of the past in management and organization studies.’...

  2. Organic Molecules in Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Zita

    2015-08-01

    Carbonaceous meteorites are primitive samples from the asteroid belt, containing 3-5wt% organic carbon. The exogenous delivery of organic matter by carbonaceous meteorites may have contributed to the organic inventory of the early Earth. The majority (>70%) of the meteoritic organic material consist of insoluble organic matter (IOM) [1]. The remaining meteoritic organic material (Haber-Bosch type gas-grain reactions after the meteorite parent body cooled to lower temperatures [13, 14].The analysis of the abundances and distribution of the organic molecules present in meteorites helps to determine the physical and chemical conditions of the early solar system, and the prebiotic organic compounds available on the early Earth.[1] Cody and Alexander (2005) GCA 69, 1085. [2] Cronin and Chang (1993) in: The Chemistry of Life’s Origin. pp. 209-258. [3] Martins and Sephton (2009) in: Amino acids, peptides and proteins in organic chemistry. pp. 1-42. [4] Martins (2011) Elements 7, 35. [5] Botta et al. (2007) MAPS 42, 81. [6] Martins et al. (2015) MAPS, in press. [7] Cooper and Cronin (1995) GCA 59, 1003. [8] Glavin et al. (2006) MAPS. 41, 889. [9] Glavin et al. (2011) MAPS 45, 1948. [10] Elsila et al. (2005) GCA 5, 1349. [11] Glavin and Dworkin (2009) PNAS 106, 5487. [12] Pizzarello et al. (2003) GCA 67, 1589. [13] Chan et al. (2012) MAPS. 47, 1502. [14] Burton et al. (2011) MAPS 46, 1703.

  3. Innovative Mechanism of Rural Organization Based on Self-Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xing jin; Gao, Bing

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyzes the basic situation for the formation of innovative rural organizations with the form of self-organization; revels the features of self-organization, including the four aspects of openness of rural organization, innovation of rural organization is far away from equilibrium, the non-linear response mechanism of rural organization innovation and the random rise and fall of rural organization innovation. The evolution mechanism of rural organization innovation is reveled accor...

  4. Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Organ Procurement Organizations and Organ Transplant Programs Locator tool is designed to help users find information about the Organ Procurement and...

  5. Organ Type and Waiting Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for an organ due to the shortage of donor organs. Because each candidate's situation is unique, waiting times ... distance between donor and recipient size of the donor organ in relation to the recipient type of organ ...

  6. SLUDGE ORGANICS BIOAVAILABILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concern over the bioavailability of toxic organics that can occur in municipal sludges threatens routine land application of sludge. vailable data, however, show that concentrations of priority organics in normal sludges are low. ludges applied at agronomic rates yield chemical c...

  7. Are Learning Organizations Pragmatic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaleri, Steven A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the future prospects of the popular concept known as the learning organization; to trace the influence of philosophical pragmatism on the learning organization and to consider its potential impact on the future; and to emphasize how pragmatic theories have shaped the development of Deming's total…

  8. Sustainable Learning Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Luis E.; Esquer, Javier; Munguia, Nora E.; Moure-Eraso, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to debate how companies may better become a sustainable learning organization by offering the most used and insightful concepts of sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: Through literature review, learning organization and sustainability perspectives are explored and compared. Findings: Learning…

  9. Mintzberg on organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Ph.D. Sorin-George Toma

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Henry Mintzberg is considered as one of the most representative writers in management.Until now,he has written more than 140 monographs and articles, and 13 books,mostly in the management field. On the basis of his research findings, Mintzberg proposed a typology of organizations. Taking into account their structure, he discovered seven major types of organizations

  10. High reliability organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallis, R.; Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    High Reliability Organizations (HRO’s) are organizations that constantly face serious and complex (safety) risks yet succeed in realising an excellent safety performance. In such situations acceptable levels of safety cannot be achieved by traditional safety management only. HRO’s manage safety risk

  11. Sugarcane Pernicious Organisms Hunan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ There are more than 2000 species of sugarcane pernicious organisms in the world, and over 400species axe in China. In order to make sure the sugarcane pernicious organisms in Hunan, we had a detailed investiga tion in several main sugarcane - producing regions during 1996- 1998.

  12. Organ Facts: Pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in certain types of transplants. Discover data and statistics for each center. Visit the OPTN's Organ DataSource now > I am looking for >> About organ allocation About UNOS Being a living donor Calculator - CPRA Calculator - KDPI Calculator - LAS Calculator - MELD ...

  13. Organ Facts: Kidney / Pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in certain types of transplants. Discover data and statistics for each center. Visit the OPTN's Organ DataSource now > I am looking for >> About organ allocation About UNOS Being a living donor Calculator - CPRA Calculator - KDPI Calculator - LAS Calculator - MELD ...

  14. Neurology and international organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Mateen, Farrah J.

    2013-01-01

    A growing number of international stakeholders are engaged with neurologic diseases. This article provides a brief overview of important international stakeholders in the practice of neurology, including global disease-specific programs, United Nations agencies, governmental agencies with international influence, nongovernmental organizations, international professional organizations, large private donors, private–public partnerships, commercial interests, armed forces, and universities and c...

  15. The Expressive Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This text challenges beliefs about organizational identity, reputation, and branding. It contains a wealth of new ideas for finding the elusive answers to questions troubling contemporary organizations. How does an organization create a strong reputation? What are the implications of corporate...... postgraduate students of management, business strategy, accounting, marketing, and communication studies; MBA students; Managers and consultants....

  16. Organic Agriculture in Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Vogl, C. R.; Darnhofer, I.

    2004-01-01

    Organic farming has a long history in Austria, not least due to the fact that Rudolf Steiner, the founder of the bio-dynamic farming movement, was an Austrian. Currently approximately 10% of Austrian farms are certified organic, the highest percentage in the EU.

  17. Organic chemistry of astatine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper surveys the investigations on the chemical behaviour of astatine in organic systems and deals with the preparation and identification of its organic compounds. A discussion is given on some of the physico-chemical properties of these compounds determined by extrapolation techniques as well as by direct measurement. The biomedical importance of 211At-labelled compounds is briefly referred to. (authors)

  18. Organizing Core Tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    has remained much the same within the last 10 years. However, how the core task has been organized has changed considerable under the influence of various “organizing devices”. The paper focusses on how organizing devices such as risk assessment, output-focus, effect orientation, and treatment...... projects influence the organization of core tasks within the tax administration. The paper shows that the organizational transformations based on the use of these devices have had consequences both for the overall collection of revenue and for the employees’ feeling of “making a difference”. All in all......, the paper is an investigation into how various (mundane) organizing devices interact with, influence, and shape particular organizational practices which are assumed to perform the well-functioning welfare state....

  19. Stability of Organic Nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balzer, F.; Schiek, M.; Wallmann, I.;

    2011-01-01

    The morphological stability of organic nanowires over time and under thermal load is of major importance for their use in any device. In this study the growth and stability of organic nanowires from a naphthyl end-capped thiophene grown by organic molecular beam deposition is investigated via...... atomic force microscopy (AFM). Aging experiments under ambient conditions already show substantial morphological changes. Nanoscopic organic clusters, which initially coexist with the nanowires, vanish within hours. Thermal annealing of nanowire samples leads to even more pronounced morphology changes......, such as a strong decrease in nanowire number density, a strong increase in nanowire height, and the formation of new types of crystallites. This happens even before sublimation of organic material starts. These experiments also shine new light on the formation process of the nanowires....

  20. Organ donations after death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernarda Logar

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses public opinion on post-mortem organ donation, especially the difference between high support of public opinion to transplant activity, its general readiness to donate organs and the low number of signed organ donor cards. Through different approaches the article tries to point out possible factors relevant to the decision to donate organs. Early studies showed demographic variables and information as significant factors when deciding to donate organs after death. As there was not enough evidence that long-term effect through these factors is significant, the need for new investigation has grown. Social cognition theories helped understanding the difference mentioned above. It seems that the use of this approach might contribute to the understanding the problem and to delimit most useful factors when working with public.